Science.gov

Sample records for e2 pge2 release

  1. Estradiol-17beta, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and the PGE2 receptor are involved in PGE2 positive feedback loop in the porcine endometrium.

    PubMed

    Waclawik, Agnieszka; Jabbour, Henry N; Blitek, Agnieszka; Ziecik, Adam J

    2009-08-01

    Before implantation, the porcine endometrium and trophoblast synthesize elevated amounts of luteoprotective prostaglandin estradiol-17beta (E(2)) (PGE(2)). We hypothesized that embryo signal, E(2), and PGE(2) modulate expression of key enzymes in PG synthesis: PG-endoperoxide synthase-2 (PTGS2), microsomal PGE synthase (mPGES-1), PGF synthase (PGFS), and PG 9-ketoreductase (CBR1) as well as PGE(2) receptor (PTGER2 and -4) expression and signaling within the endometrium. We determined the site of action of PGE(2) in endometrium during the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Endometrial tissue explants obtained from gilts (n = 6) on d 11-12 of the estrous cycle were treated with vehicle (control), PGE(2) (100 nM), E(2) (1-100 nm), or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (100 nm, positive control). E(2) increased PGE(2) secretion through elevating expression of mPGES-1 mRNA and PTGS2 and mPGES-1 protein in endometrial explants. By contrast, E(2) decreased PGFS and CBR1 protein expression. E(2) also stimulated PTGER2 but not PTGER4 protein content. PGE(2) enhanced mPGES-1 and PTGER2 mRNA as well as PTGS2, mPGES-1, and PTGER2 protein expression. PGE(2) had no effect on PGFS, CBR1, and PTGER4 expression and PGF(2alpha) release. Treatment of endometrial tissue with PGE(2) increased cAMP production. Cotreatment with PTGER2 antagonist (AH6809) but not PTGER4 antagonist (GW 627368X) inhibited significantly PGE(2)-mediated cAMP production. PTGER2 protein was localized in luminal and glandular epithelium and blood vessels of endometrium and was significantly up-regulated on d 11-12 of pregnancy. Our results suggest that E(2) prevents luteolysis through enzymatic modification of PG synthesis and that E(2), PGE(2), and endometrial PTGER2 are involved in a PGE(2) positive feedback loop in porcine endometrium.

  2. Estradiol-17β, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the prostaglandin E2 receptor are involved in PGE2 positive feedback loop in the porcine endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Waclawik, Agnieszka; Jabbour, Henry N.; Blitek, Agnieszka; Ziecik, Adam J.

    2009-01-01

    Before implantation, the porcine endometrium and trophoblast synthesize elevated amounts of luteoprotective prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). We hypothesized that embryo signal, estradiol-17β (E2) and PGE2 modulate expression of key enzymes in PG synthesis: prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2 (PTGS2), PGE synthase (mPGES-1), PGF synthase (PGFS), and prostaglandin 9-ketoreductase (CBR1); as well as PGE2 receptor (PTGER2 and 4) expression and signaling within the endometrium. We determinated the site of action of PGE2 in endometrium during the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Endometrial tissue explants obtained from gilts (n=6) on days 11-12 of the estrous cycle were treated with vehicle (control), PGE2 (100 nM), E2 (1-100 nM) or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (100 nM, positive control). E2 increased PGE2 secretion through elevating expression of mPGES-1 mRNA and PTGS2 and mPGES-1 protein in endometrial explants. By contrast, E2 decreased PGFS and CBR1 protein expression. E2 also stimulated PTGER2 but not PTGER4 protein content. PGE2 enhanced mPGES-1 and PTGER2 mRNA as well as PTGS2, mPGES-1 and PTGER2 protein expression. PGE2 had no effect on PGFS, CBR1 and PTGER4 expression and PGF2α release. Treatment of endometrial tissue with PGE2 increased cAMP production. Co-treatment with PTGER2 antagonist (AH6809) but not PTGER4 antagonist (GW 627368X) inhibited significantly PGE2-mediated cAMP production. PTGER2 protein was localized in luminal and glandular epithelium and blood vessels of endometrium, and was significantly up-regulated on days 11-12 of pregnancy. Our results suggest that E2, prevents luteolysis through enzymatic modification of PG synthesis and that E2, PGE2 and endometrial PTGER2 are involved in PGE2 positive feedback loop in porcine endometrium. PMID:19359378

  3. PGE2/EP3/SRC signaling induces EGFR nuclear translocation and growth through EGFR ligands release in lung adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Bazzani, Lorenzo; Donnini, Sandra; Finetti, Federica; Christofori, Gerhard; Ziche, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) interacts with tyrosine kinases receptor signaling in both tumor and stromal cells supporting tumor progression. Here we demonstrate that in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells, A549 and GLC82, PGE2 promotes nuclear translocation of epidermal growth factor receptor (nEGFR), affects gene expression and induces cell growth. Indeed, cyclin D1, COX-2, iNOS and c-Myc mRNA levels are upregulated following PGE2 treatment. The nuclear localization sequence (NLS) of EGFR as well as its tyrosine kinase activity are required for the effect of PGE2 on nEGFR and downstream signaling activities. PGE2 binds its bona fide receptor EP3 which by activating SRC family kinases, induces ADAMs activation which, in turn, releases EGFR-ligands from the cell membrane and promotes nEGFR. Amphiregulin (AREG) and Epiregulin (EREG) appear to be involved in nEGFR promoted by the PGE2/EP3-SRC axis. Pharmacological inhibition or silencing of the PGE2/EP3/SRC-ADAMs signaling axis or EGFR ligands i.e. AREG and EREG expression abolishes nEGFR induced by PGE2. In conclusion, PGE2 induces NSCLC cell proliferation by EP3 receptor, SRC-ADAMs activation, EGFR ligands shedding and finally, phosphorylation and nEGFR. Since nuclear EGFR is a hallmark of cancer aggressiveness, our findings reveal a novel mechanism for the contribution of PGE2 to tumor progression. PMID:28415726

  4. Regulation of PGE(2) and PGI(2) release from human umbilical vein endothelial cells by actin cytoskeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, S. J.; Norvell, S. M.; Ponik, S. M.; Pavalko, F. M.

    2001-01-01

    Disruption of microfilaments in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with cytochalasin D (cytD) or latrunculin A (latA) resulted in a 3.3- to 5.7-fold increase in total synthesis of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and a 3.4- to 6.5-fold increase in prostacyclin (PGI(2)) compared with control cells. Disruption of the microtubule network with nocodazole or colchicine increased synthesis of PGE(2) 1.7- to 1.9-fold and PGI(2) 1.9- to 2.0-fold compared with control cells. Interestingly, however, increased release of PGE(2) and PGI(2) from HUVEC into the media occurred only when microfilaments were disrupted. CytD treatment resulted in 6.7-fold more PGE(2) and 3.8-fold more PGI(2) released from HUVEC compared with control cells; latA treatment resulted in 17.7-fold more PGE(2) and 11.2-fold more PGI(2) released compared with control cells. Both increased synthesis and release of prostaglandins in response to all drug treatments were completely inhibited by NS-398, a specific inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Disruption of either microfilaments using cytD or latA or of microtubules using nocodazole or colchicine resulted in a significant increase in COX-2 protein levels, suggesting that the increased synthesis of prostaglandins in response to drug treatments may result from increased activity of COX-2. These results, together with studies demonstrating a vasoprotective role for prostaglandins, suggest that the cytoskeleton plays an important role in maintenance of endothelial barrier function by regulating prostaglandin synthesis and release from HUVEC.

  5. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and risedronate was superior to PGE2 alone in maintaining newly added bone in the cortical bone site after withdrawal in older intact rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Y. F.; Lin, B. Y.; Jee, W. S.; Lin, C. H.; Chen, Y. Y.; Ke, H. Z.; Li, X. J.

    1997-01-01

    The objects of this study were (1) to determine the effects of risedronate (Ris) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) alone and in combination, on tibial diaphyses of older intact female rats; and (2) to observe the fate of any extra bone if formed after withdrawal of the treatment. Nine-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 6 mg of PGE2/kg/day, 1 or 5 micrograms of Ris/kg twice a week, or 6 mg of PGE2/kg/day plus 1 or 5 micrograms of Ris/kg twice a week for the first 60 days and followed by vehicle injections for another 60 days. Cross-sections of double fluorescent labeled, undecalcified tibial diaphyses proximal to the tibiofibular junction were processed for histomorphometry. We found that: (1) neither the 1 microgram nor the 5 micrograms of Ris treatment in the 60-day on/60-day off group showed any histomorphometric differences from age-related controls; (2) while the 60 days of PGE2 treatment added extra cortical bone (6%) on the tibial shaft (due to stimulation of periosteal, endocortical, and marrow trabecular bone formation), the new endocortical and most of the new marrow trabecular bone were lost when treatment was withdrawn; however, the new periosteal bone remained; (3) PGE2 with Ris added the same amount of new bone to tibial diaphysis as did PGE2 alone and upon withdrawal, new marrow trabecular bone was lost but new periosteal and endocortical bones were preserved in PGE2 + 1 microgram of Ris on/off group. In contrast, all the new bone was maintained in the PGE2 + 5 micrograms of Ris on/off group; (4) PGE2 + Ris cotreatment failed to block the increase in cortical bone porosity induced by PGE2; and (5) in the PGE2 alone and PGE2 + 1 microgram of Ris on/off groups bone turnover was higher than that in the PGE2 + 5 micrograms of Ris on/off group. These results indicate that on/off treatment with PGE2 and Ris is superior to PGE2 alone in that it forms the same amount of new bone during treatment, but preserves more cortical bone during

  6. CO2-evoked release of PGE2 modulates sighs and inspiration as demonstrated in brainstem organotypic culture

    PubMed Central

    Forsberg, David; Horn, Zachi; Tserga, Evangelia; Smedler, Erik; Silberberg, Gilad; Shvarev, Yuri; Kaila, Kai; Uhlén, Per; Herlenius, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation-induced release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) changes breathing patterns and the response to CO2 levels. This may have fatal consequences in newborn babies and result in sudden infant death. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we present a novel breathing brainstem organotypic culture that generates rhythmic neural network and motor activity for 3 weeks. We show that increased CO2 elicits a gap junction-dependent release of PGE2. This alters neural network activity in the preBötzinger rhythm-generating complex and in the chemosensitive brainstem respiratory regions, thereby increasing sigh frequency and the depth of inspiration. We used mice lacking eicosanoid prostanoid 3 receptors (EP3R), breathing brainstem organotypic slices and optogenetic inhibition of EP3R+/+ cells to demonstrate that the EP3R is important for the ventilatory response to hypercapnia. Our study identifies a novel pathway linking the inflammatory and respiratory systems, with implications for inspiration and sighs throughout life, and the ability to autoresuscitate when breathing fails. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14170.001 PMID:27377173

  7. IL-1β Stimulates COX-2 Dependent PGE2 Synthesis and CGRP Release in Rat Trigeminal Ganglia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Neeb, Lars; Hellen, Peter; Boehnke, Carsten; Hoffmann, Jan; Schuh-Hofer, Sigrid; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Reuter, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    Objective Pro-inflammatory cytokines like Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of migraine and inflammatory pain. The trigeminal ganglion and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) are crucial components in the pathophysiology of primary headaches. 5-HT1B/D receptor agonists, which reduce CGRP release, and cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors can abort trigeminally mediated pain. However, the cellular source of COX and the interplay between COX and CGRP within the trigeminal ganglion have not been clearly identified. Methods and Results 1. We used primary cultured rat trigeminal ganglia cells to assess whether IL-1β can induce the expression of COX-2 and which cells express COX-2. Stimulation with IL-1β caused a dose and time dependent induction of COX-2 but not COX-1 mRNA. Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of COX-2 protein in neuronal and glial cells. 2. Functional significance was demonstrated by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release 4 hours after stimulation with IL-1β, which could be aborted by a selective COX-2 (parecoxib) and a non-selective COX-inhibitor (indomethacin). 3. Induction of CGRP release, indicating functional neuronal activation, was seen 1 hour after PGE2 and 24 hours after IL-1β stimulation. Immunohistochemistry showed trigeminal neurons as the source of CGRP. IL-1β induced CGRP release was blocked by parecoxib and indomethacin, but the 5-HT1B/D receptor agonist sumatriptan had no effect. Conclusion We identified a COX-2 dependent pathway of cytokine induced CGRP release in trigeminal ganglia neurons that is not affected by 5-HT1B/D receptor activation. Activation of neuronal and glial cells in the trigeminal ganglion by IL-β leads to an elevated expression of COX-2 in these cells. Newly synthesized PGE2 (by COX-2) in turn activates trigeminal neurons to release CGRP. These findings support a glia-neuron interaction in the trigeminal ganglion and demonstrate a sequential link between COX-2 and CGRP. The

  8. P2X7 receptor-stimulation causes fever via PGE2 and IL-1β release.

    PubMed

    Barberà-Cremades, Maria; Baroja-Mazo, Alberto; Gomez, Ana I; Machado, Francisco; Di Virgilio, Francesco; Pelegrín, Pablo

    2012-07-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) are important lipid mediators involved in the development of inflammatory associated pain and fever. PGE2 is a well-established endogenous pyrogen activated by proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β. P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs) expressed by inflammatory cells are stimulated by the danger signal extracellular ATP to activate the inflammasome and release IL-1β. Here we show that P2X7R activation is required for the release of PGE2 and other autacoids independent of inflammasome activation, with an ATP EC(50) for PGE2 and IL-1β release of 1.58 and 1.23 mM, respectively. Furthermore, lack of P2X7R or specific antagonism of P2X7R decreased the febrile response in mice triggered after intraperitoneal LPS or IL-1β inoculation. Accordingly, LPS inoculation caused intraperitoneal ATP accumulation. Therefore, P2X7R antagonists emerge as novel therapeutics for the treatment for acute inflammation, pain and fever, with wider anti-inflammatory activity than currently used cyclooxygenase inhibitors.-Barberà-Cremades, M., Baroja-Mazo, A., Gomez, A. I., Machado, F., Di Virgilio, F., Pelegrín, P. P2X7 receptor-stimulation causes fever via PGE2 and IL-1β release.

  9. [HTRF-based high-throughput PGE2 release prohibition model and application in discovering traditional Chinese medicine active ingredients].

    PubMed

    Bai, Zhi-Ru; Fei, Hong-Qiang; Li, Na; Cao, Liang; Zhang, Chen-Feng; Wang, Tuan-Jie; Ding, Gang; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Xiao, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) E2 is an active substance in pathological and physiological mechanisms, such as inflammation and pain. The in vitro high-throughput assay for screening the inhibitors of reducing PEG2 production is a useful method for finding out antiphlogistic and analgesic candidates. The assay was based on LPS-induced PGE2 production model using a homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence(HTRF) PGE2 testing kit combined with liquid handling automation and detection instruments. The critical steps, including the cell density optimization and IC50 values determination of a positive compound, were taken to verify the stability and sensibility of the assay. Low intra-plate, inter-plate and day-to-day variability were observed in this 384-well, high-throughput format assay. Totally 5 121 samples were selected from the company's traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) material base library and used to screen PGE2 inhibitors. In this model, the cell plating density was 2 000 cells for each well; the average IC₅₀ value for positive compounds was (7.3±0.1) μmol; the Z' factor for test plates was more than 0.5 and averaged at 0.7. Among the 5 121 samples, 228 components exhibited a PGE2 production prohibition rate of more than 50%, and 23 components exhibited more than 80%. This model reached the expected standards in data stability and accuracy, indicating the reliability and authenticity of the screening results. The automated screening system was introduced to make the model fast and efficient, with a average daily screening amount exceeding 14 000 data points and provide a new model for discovering new anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug and quickly screening effective constituents of TCM in the early stage. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  10. ERK1/2/COX-2/PGE2 signaling pathway mediates GPR91-dependent VEGF release in streptozotocin-induced diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tingting; Hu, Jianyan; Du, Shanshan; Chen, Yongdong; Wang, Shuai

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Retinal vascular dysfunction caused by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the major pathological change that occurs in diabetic retinopathy (DR). It has recently been demonstrated that G protein-coupled receptor 91 (GPR91) plays a major role in both vasculature development and retinal angiogenesis. In this study, we examined the signaling pathways involved in GPR91-dependent VEGF release during the early stages of retinal vascular change in streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Methods Diabetic rats were assigned randomly to receive intravitreal injections of shRNA lentiviral particles targeting GPR91 (LV.shGPR91) or control particles (LV.shScrambled). Accumulation of succinate was assessed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). At 14 weeks, the ultrastructure and function of the retinal vessels of diabetic retinas with or without shRNA treatment were assessed using hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Evans blue dye permeability. The expression of GPR91, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were measured using immunofluorescence and western blotting. COX-2 and VEGF mRNA were determined by quantitative RT–PCR. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and VEGF secretion were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Succinate exhibited abundant accumulation in diabetic rat retinas. The retinal telangiectatic vessels, basement membrane thickness, and Evans blue dye permeability were attenuated by treatment with GPR91 shRNA. In diabetic rats, knockdown of GPR91 inhibited the activities of ERK1/2 and COX-2 as well as the expression of PGE2 and VEGF. Meanwhile, COX-2, PGE2, and VEGF expression was inhibited by ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 and COX-2 inhibitor NS-398. Conclusions Our data suggest that hyperglycemia causes succinate accumulation and GPR91 activity in retinal ganglion cells, which mediate VEGF-induced retinal vascular change via the ERK1/2/COX-2

  11. PGE2 released by primary sensory neurons modulates Toll-like receptor 4 activities through an EP4 receptor-dependent process.

    PubMed

    Tse, Kai-Hei; Chow, Kevin B S; Wise, Helen

    2016-04-15

    Exogenous prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) displays mixed regulatory properties with regard to inflammatory gene expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells. We show here that endogenously-produced nanomolar concentrations of PGE2, such as that generated in response to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) stimulation, inhibits both cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) mRNA expression in DRG cells in an EP4 receptor-dependent manner. DRG neurons appear to be the major source of PGE2 in the DRG and likely serve as both an autocrine and paracrine system for limiting over-activation of both DRG neurons and glial cells in response to TLR4 stimulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Anti-M(3) muscarinic cholinergic autoantibodies from patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome trigger production of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) from the submandibular glands.

    PubMed

    Reina, Silvia; Sterin-Borda, Leonor; Passafaro, Daniela; Borda, Enri

    2011-05-01

    We demonstrated that serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) from patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS), interacting with the second extracellular loop of human glandular M(3) muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (M(3) mAChR), trigger the production of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were performed in the presence of M(3) mAChR synthetic peptide as antigen to detect in serum the autoantibodies. Further, MMP-3 and PGE(2) production were determined in the presence of anti-M(3) mAChR autoantibodies. An association was observed between serum and anti-M(3) mAChR autoantibodies and serum levels of MMP-3 and PGE(2) in pSS patients. Thus, we established that serum anti-M(3) mAChR autoantibodies, MMP-3 and PGE(2) may be considered to be early markers of pSS associated with inflammation. Affinity-purified anti-M(3) mAChR peptide IgG from pSS patients, whilst stimulating salivary-gland M(3) mAChR, causes an increase in the level of MMP-3 and PGE(2) as a result of the activation of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) (but not COX-1). These results provide a novel insight into the role that cholinoceptor antibodies play in the development of glandular inflammation. This is the first report showing that an antibody interacting with glandular mAChR can induce the production of pro-inflammatory mediators (MMP-3/PGE(2)). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Des-aspartate-angiotensin I causes specific release of PGE2 and PGI2 in HUVEC via the angiotensin AT1 receptor and biased agonism.

    PubMed

    Wen, Qiang; Lee, Kok-Onn; Sim, Sai-Zhen; Xu, Xiao-Guang; Sim, Meng-Kwoon

    2015-12-05

    DAA-I (des-aspartate-angiotensin I), an endogenous angiotensin, had been shown earlier to ameliorate animal models of cardiovascular diseases via the angiotensin AT1 receptor and prostaglandins. The present study investigated further the action of DAA-I on the release of PGE2, PGI2, PGF2α and TXA2 in HUVEC. 10(-11)-10(-8)M DAA-I and 15min incubation specifically released PGE2 and PGI2. The release was inhibited by losartan and indomethacin but not by PD123319 and NS398 indicating that the angiotensin AT1 receptor and COX-1 mediate the release. At concentrations higher than 10(-7)M, DAA-I mimics the action of angiotensin II by releasing TXA2 but had no effect on the production of PGF2α. At similar concentrations and 4h incubation, DAA-I increased the release of the 4 prostaglandins via the angiotensin AT1 receptor and COX-2, again mimicking the action of angiotensin II. HUVEC that were preincubated with DAA-I or angiotensin II, released similar profiles of prostaglandins when incubated with arachidonic acid after the angiotensin had been washed off. We postulate that the internalized DAA-I/receptor complex remains active and mediates the conversion of arachidonic acid to the respective prostaglandins. The release of PGE2 and PGI2 via the angiotensin AT1 receptor and COX-1 is a novel specific action of DAA-I and is likely responsible for its beneficial effects seen in earlier studies. This specific action is definable as a biased agonism of the angiotensin AT1 receptor, which identifies DAA-I as a novel biased agonist and potential therapeutic that is able to produce specific prostaglandins at nanomolar concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Induction of labor using prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) vaginal gel in triacetin base. An efficacy study comparing two dosage regimens.

    PubMed

    Seeras, R C; Olatunbosun, O A; Pierson, R A; Turnell, R W

    1995-01-01

    To compare two dosage regimens for the administration of vaginal prostaglandin gel in triacetin base for induction of labor. Seventy subjects planned for elective induction of labor at term were randomized to treatment with PGE2 vaginal gel every 6 or 12 hours. The 6-hourly group received an initial dose of 1 mg, followed by 2 mg at 6 hour intervals for a maximum of two additional doses if not in active labor. The 12-hourly group had an initial dose of 2 mg followed by two additional doses at 12 hour intervals if not in active labor. Successful induction rate was higher in the 12-hourly as compared to 6-hourly gel regimen (100% vs. 91%, P > 0.05). Twelve hours after the initial dose, delivery occurred in 34% delivery had occurred in 57% and 37% respectively (P < 0.01). We found no difference in the induction-active labor interval (P > 0.05), and the induction-delivery interval (P > 0.05) between the two groups. Active labor followed a single dose of gel in 66% of the 12-hourly group compared to 40% of the 6-hourly group (P < 0.01). Syntocinon augmentation was needed in 6% of subjects in the 12-hourly group as compared to 26% in the 6-hourly group (P < 0.01). The cesarean section rate was similar in both groups. Uterine hyperstimulation occurred less frequently in the 12-hourly group (P < 0.05). The perinatal outcome was similar in both groups. The 12-hourly regimen was more effective than the 6-hourly regimen in initiating labor. The majority of the subjects in the 12 hourly group achieved labor following a single dose of gel. Induction delivery interval, however, was similar in both groups.

  15. PGE2 is a UVR-inducible autocrine factor for human melanocytes that stimulates tyrosinase activation

    PubMed Central

    Starner, Renny J.; McClelland, Lindy; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa; Fricke, Alex; Scott, Glynis

    2013-01-01

    Melanocyte proliferation, dendrite formation, and pigmentation are controlled by paracrine factors, particularly following exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Little is known about autocrine factors for melanocytes. Prostaglandins activate signaling pathways involved in growth, differentiation and apoptosis. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is the most abundant prostaglandin released by keratinocytes following UVR, and stimulates the formation of dendrites in melanocytes. Synthesis of PGE2 is controlled by cPLA2, which releases arachidonic acid from membranes, and COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 synthases (PGES), which convert arachidonic acid to PGH2 and PGH2 to PGE2, respectively. In this report we show that multiple irradiations of human melanocytes with UVR stimulates tyrosinase activity, independent of expression of a functional melanocortin 1 receptor, suggesting the presence of a non-melanocortin autocrine factor. Irradiation of melanocytes activated cPLA2, the rate-limiting step in eicosanoid synthesis, and stimulated PGE2 secretion. PGE2 increased cAMP production, tyrosinase activity and proliferation in melanocytes. PGE2 binds to four distinct G-protein coupled receptors (EP1–4). We show that EP4 receptor signaling stimulates cAMP production in melanocytes. Conversely, stimulation of the EP3 receptor lowered basal cAMP levels. These data suggest that relative levels or activity of these receptors controls effects of PGE2 on cAMP in melanocytes. The data are the first to identify PGE2 as an UVR-inducible autocrine factor for melanocytes that stimulates tyrosinase activity and proliferation, and to show that EP3 and EP4 receptor signaling have opposing effects on cAMP production, a critical signaling pathway that regulates proliferation and melanogenesis in melanocytes. PMID:20500768

  16. Prostaglandin E2 Stimulates EP2, Adenylate Cyclase, Phospholipase C, and Intracellular Calcium Release to Mediate Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Production in Dental Pulp Cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Chi; Lin, Szu-I; Lin, Li-Deh; Chan, Chiu-Po; Lee, Ming-Shu; Wang, Tong-Mei; Jeng, Po-Yuan; Yeung, Sin-Yuet; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2016-04-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) plays a crucial role in pulpal inflammation and repair. However, its induction of signal transduction pathways is not clear but is crucial for future control of pulpal inflammation. Primary dental pulp cells were exposed to PGE2 and 19R-OH PGE2 (EP2 agonist) or sulprostone (EP1/EP3 agonist) for 5 to 40 minutes. Cellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In some experiments, cells were pretreated with SQ22536 (adenylate cyclase inhibitor), H89 (protein kinase A inhibitor), dorsomorphin (adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase inhibitor), U73122 (phospholipase C inhibitor), thapsigargin (inhibitor of intracellular calcium release), W7 (calmodulin antagonist), verapamil (L-type calcium channel blocker), and EGTA (extracellular calcium chelator) for 20 minutes before the addition of PGE2. PGE2 and 19R-OH PGE2 (EP2 agonist) stimulated cAMP production, whereas sulprostone (EP1/EP3 agonist) shows little effect. PGE2-induced cAMP production was attenuated by SQ22536 and U73122 but not H89 and dorsomorphin. Intriguingly, thapsigargin and W7 prevented PGE2-induced cAMP production, but verapamil and EGTA showed little effect. These results indicate that PGE2-induced cAMP production is associated with EP2 receptor and adenylate cyclase activation. These events are mediated by phospholipase C, intracellular calcium release, and calcium-calmodulin signaling. These results are helpful for understanding the role of PGE2 in pulpal inflammation and repair and possible future drug intervention. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of prostaglandin E2 on cytotoxic activity and granzyme A protease release by murine adherent IL-2 activated killer cells.

    PubMed

    Vaillier, D; Daculsi, R; Gualde, N

    1994-04-01

    The effects of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) have been studied on a highly purified population of murine IL-2 activated killer cells obtained by selecting plastic-adherent splenocytes (AK cells) after incubation with high doses of recombinant IL-2. AK cells were highly cytotoxic for YAC-1 target cells. The cytotoxic activity was detectable at one hour after initiation of the cytotoxic assay and then increased with time. Cytotoxic activity of AK cells was inhibited by the addition of PGE2 or forskolin during the cytotoxic assay. When AK cells were generated in the presence of PGE2, the yielding cytotoxic activity was lower than the one expressed by "regular" AK cells but were insensitive to the inhibitory effect of PGE2 even if their lytic capability was still suppressed by forskolin. The presence of PGE2 during the AK cell culture had no effect on the cellular proliferation. Moreover, using tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay which reflects the cellular activation, it was observed that AK cells cultured in presence of PGE2 had an increased capacity to cleave the tetrazolium salt to formazan. Since the cytotoxic activity of killer cells is related to expression of serine esterase enzymes we evaluated the effects of PGE2 on serine esterase (Granzyme A) release after one hour of incubation of AK cells either alone or in presence of PGE2, YAC-1 cells or both. We observed that (i) AK cells spontaneously release granzyme A, (ii) the level of granzyme A was significantly increased when AK cells were incubated either with YAC-1 cells or PGE2 but did not change when YAC-1 cells and PGE2 were both associated with AK cells.

  18. Differential effect of ethanol and hydrogen peroxide on barrier function and prostaglandin E2 release in differentiated Caco-2 cells: selective prevention by growth factors.

    PubMed

    Catalioto, Rose-Marie; Festa, Carla; Triolo, Antonio; Altamura, Maria; Maggi, Carlo Alberto; Giuliani, Sandro

    2009-02-01

    The present study investigates the effects of ethanol and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) on the barrier function and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) release in differentiated Caco-2 cells. Epithelial barrier integrity was estimated by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), the transport of reference compounds and lactate dehydrogenase leakage, the PGE(2) release by enzyme immunoassay. Ethanol and H(2)O(2) decreased TEER and increased the transport of lucifer yellow without affecting that of propranolol and phenylalanine. Only the effects of ethanol were accompanied by PGE(2) production and were reversible without causing long-term cytotoxicity. The cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, NS-398, prevented the effect of ethanol on both PGE(2) release and TEER, while inhibition of both cyclooxygenase-2 and tyrosine kinase drastically compromised cell viability and TEER recovery. Hepatocyte growth factor, keratinocyte growth factor or insulin prevented the effect of ethanol on cell permeability, but not on PGE(2) release. Their combination prevented the effect of H(2)O(2). In conclusion, ethanol and H(2)O(2) increased paracellular permeability in differentiated Caco-2 cells without affecting transcellular and active transport. Cyclooxygenase-2 stimulated PGE(2) release mediated the reversible effect of ethanol on tight junctions and, meanwhile, contributed to cell survival. Growth factors, normally present in the intestine, exerted a selective protective effect toward paracellular permeability increase induced by irritants.

  19. Influence of increased mechanical loading by hypergravity on the microtubule cytoskeleton and prostaglandin E2 release in primary osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Searby, Nancy D.; Steele, Charles R.; Globus, Ruth K.

    2005-01-01

    Cells respond to a wide range of mechanical stimuli such as fluid shear and strain, although the contribution of gravity to cell structure and function is not understood. We hypothesized that bone-forming osteoblasts are sensitive to increased mechanical loading by hypergravity. A centrifuge suitable for cell culture was developed and validated, and then primary cultures of fetal rat calvarial osteoblasts at various stages of differentiation were mechanically loaded using hypergravity. We measured microtubule network morphology as well as release of the paracrine factor prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). In immature osteoblasts, a stimulus of 10x gravity (10 g) for 3 h increased PGE2 2.5-fold and decreased microtubule network height 1.12-fold without affecting cell viability. Hypergravity (3 h) caused dose-dependent (5-50 g) increases in PGE2 (5.3-fold at 50 g) and decreases (1.26-fold at 50 g) in microtubule network height. PGE2 release depended on duration but not orientation of the hypergravity load. As osteoblasts differentiated, sensitivity to hypergravity declined. We conclude that primary osteoblasts demonstrate dose- and duration-dependent sensitivity to gravitational loading, which appears to be blunted in mature osteoblasts.

  20. The release of spinal prostaglandin E2 and the effect of nitric oxide synthetase inhibition during strychnine-induced allodynia.

    PubMed

    Milne, B; Hall, S R; Sullivan, M E; Loomis, C

    2001-09-01

    The removal of spinal glycinergic inhibition by intrathecal strychnine produces an allodynia-like state in rodents. Our objective was to measure spinal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release during strychnine-allodynia and examine the effects of Nomega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase. Under halothane, rats were fitted with intrathecal and spinal microdialysis catheters, and microelectrodes implanted into the locus coeruleus for measurement of catechol oxidation current (CAOC) using voltammetry. Animals were then administered urethane and treated as follows: 1) baseline control 10 min, intrathecal strychnine (40 microg) 10 min, 10 min of hair deflection, and 2) 10-min control followed by intrathecal strychnine (40 microg) with hair deflection for 60 min. Spinal dialysate samples were collected for PGE2 levels determined by using immunoassay. In separate experiments, the effect of intrathecal strychnine (40 microg) followed by hair deflection was studied in rats pretreated with intrathecal l-NOARG (50 nmol). After intrathecal strychnine, hair deflection significantly increased spinal PGE2 release (619% +/- 143%), locus coeruleus CAOC (181% +/- 6%), and mean arterial pressure (123% +/- 2%) P < 0.05. Pretreatment with intrathecal l-NOARG significantly inhibited strychnine-allodynia. In this model, hair deflection evokes spinal PGE2 release, locus coeruleus activation, and an increase in mean arterial pressure. L-NOARG pretreatment attenuated the locus coeruleus CAOC, a biochemical index of strychnine-allodynia, suggesting a mediator role of nitric oxide. A mediator role of nitric oxide is also implicated, helping to explain the pathophysiology of this allodynic pain.

  1. Interaction between head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells and fibroblasts in the biosynthesis of PGE2

    PubMed Central

    Alcolea, Sonia; Antón, Rosa; Camacho, Mercedes; Soler, Marta; Alfranca, Arantzazu; Avilés-Jurado, Francesc-Xavier; Redondo, Juan-Miguel; Quer, Miquel; León, Xavier; Vila, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Prostaglandin (PG)E2 is relevant in tumor biology, and interactions between tumor and stroma cells dramatically influence tumor progression. We tested the hypothesis that cross-talk between head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells and fibroblasts could substantially enhance PGE2 biosynthesis. We observed an enhanced production of PGE2 in cocultures of HNSCC cell lines and fibroblasts, which was consistent with an upregulation of COX-2 and microsomal PGE-synthase-1 (mPGES-1) in fibroblasts. In cultured endothelial cells, medium from fibroblasts treated with tumor cell-conditioned medium induced in vitro angiogenesis, and in tumor cell induced migration and proliferation, these effects were sensitive to PGs inhibition. Proteomic analysis shows that tumor cells released IL-1, and tumor cell-induced COX-2 and mPGES-1 were suppressed by the IL-1-receptor antagonist. IL-1α levels were higher than those of IL-1β in the tumor cell-conditioning medium and in the secretion from samples obtained from 20 patients with HNSCC. Fractionation of tumor cell-conditioning media indicated that tumor cells secreted mature and unprocessed forms of IL-1. Our results support the concept that tumor-associated fibroblasts are a relevant source of PGE2 in the tumor mass. Because mPGES-1 seems to be essential for a substantial biosynthesis of PGE2, these findings also strengthen the concept that mPGES-1 may be \\a target for therapeutic intervention in patients with HNSCC. PMID:22308510

  2. Regulation by PGE2 of IL-2, IL-3 and IFN production by cortico-resistant thymocytes.

    PubMed

    Daculsi, R; Vaillier, D; Gualde, N

    1993-11-01

    We have investigated the role of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the regulation of cytokine release (IL-2, IL-3 and IFN) by cortico-resistant thymocytes (CRT) stimulated or not through the T-cell antigen receptor by an anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb). CRT were found to spontaneously produce IL-2 and IL-3 on day 4 of culture, but not IFN. After activation with an anti-CD3 mAb, the maximal levels for IL-2 and IFN were observed on day 1 and for IL-3 on day 4. Addition of PGE2 inhibits IL-2 production and has no effect on IFN production. Indomethacin, an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase pathway, enhanced both IL-2 and IFN production. In contrast, IL-3 secretion by anti-CD3 activated CRT was up-regulated by PGE2, and its level was decreased in the presence of indomethacin in both stimulated or unstimulated cells. As has been observed with PGE2, forskolin which activates adenylate cyclase increases the IL-3 level. Thus PGE2 may interfere in the process of thymocyte proliferation and/or differentiation by regulating differentially the interleukin production.

  3. Growth and adherence of Staphylococcus aureus were enhanced through the PGE2 produced by the activated COX-2/PGE2 pathway of infected oral epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuxia; Ren, Biao; Zhou, Xuedong; Liu, Shiyu; Zhou, Yujie; Li, Bolei; Jiang, Yaling; Li, Mingyun; Feng, Mingye

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen of varieties of oral mucous infection. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a pro-inflammatory factor and Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) is a critical enzyme of PGE2 biosynthesis. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether Staphylococcus aureus can increase PGE2 production of oral epithelial cells and how PGE2 functions in the growth and adherence of Staphylococcus aureus. mRNA levels of COX-2, fnbpA and fnbpB were estimated by quantitative PCR. PGE2 production was measured by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The binding biomass of Staphylococcus aureus to human fibronectin was investigated by crystal violet staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy and the adherent force was measured by atomic force microscope (AFM). The COX-2 mRNA level and PGE2 production were increased by Staphylococcus aureus. PGE2 promoted the growth and biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus, enhanced the attachment of Staphylococcus aureus to the human fibronectin as well as to the HOK cells. The transcription of fnbpB was up-regulated by PGE2 in both early and middle exponential phase but not fnbpA. These results suggest that the activation of COX-2/PGE2 pathway in oral epithelial cell by Staphylococcus aureus can in turn facilitate the growth and the ability to adhere of the pathogen. These findings uncover a new function of PGE2 and may lead to the potential of COX-2/PGE2 targeting in the therapy of inflammation and cancer in both which the COX-2/PGE2 pathway were observed activated. PMID:28472126

  4. Growth and adherence of Staphylococcus aureus were enhanced through the PGE2 produced by the activated COX-2/PGE2 pathway of infected oral epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuxia; Ren, Biao; Zhou, Xuedong; Liu, Shiyu; Zhou, Yujie; Li, Bolei; Jiang, Yaling; Li, Mingyun; Feng, Mingye; Cheng, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen of varieties of oral mucous infection. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a pro-inflammatory factor and Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) is a critical enzyme of PGE2 biosynthesis. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether Staphylococcus aureus can increase PGE2 production of oral epithelial cells and how PGE2 functions in the growth and adherence of Staphylococcus aureus. mRNA levels of COX-2, fnbpA and fnbpB were estimated by quantitative PCR. PGE2 production was measured by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The binding biomass of Staphylococcus aureus to human fibronectin was investigated by crystal violet staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy and the adherent force was measured by atomic force microscope (AFM). The COX-2 mRNA level and PGE2 production were increased by Staphylococcus aureus. PGE2 promoted the growth and biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus, enhanced the attachment of Staphylococcus aureus to the human fibronectin as well as to the HOK cells. The transcription of fnbpB was up-regulated by PGE2 in both early and middle exponential phase but not fnbpA. These results suggest that the activation of COX-2/PGE2 pathway in oral epithelial cell by Staphylococcus aureus can in turn facilitate the growth and the ability to adhere of the pathogen. These findings uncover a new function of PGE2 and may lead to the potential of COX-2/PGE2 targeting in the therapy of inflammation and cancer in both which the COX-2/PGE2 pathway were observed activated.

  5. Mycophenolate mofetil decreases endothelial prostaglandin E2 in response to allogeneic T cells or cytokines.

    PubMed

    Blaheta, R A; Nelson, K; Oppermann, E; Leckel, K; Harder, S; Cinatl, J; Weber, S; Shipkova, M; Encke, A; Markus, B H

    2000-05-15

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a powerful endogenous immune suppressant and interferes with various T-cell functions. However, it is not known in detail whether immunosuppressive drugs influence the PGE2-driven immune response in transplant patients. Therefore, we investigated the effect of several immunosuppressive compounds, in particular the novel drug mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), on endothelial PGE2 release. Endothelial cells (HUVEC) were activated by either allogeneic CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, or by the cytokines interleukin-1 or gamma-interferon. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we analyzed PGE2 release of the activated HWEC in the presence of MMF, cyclosporine, or tacrolimus. As verapamil and mibefradil also possess immunosuppressive properties, they were included in the study as well. Activation of HUVEC with interleukin-1 or T cells resulted in a drastic accumulation of PGE2 in the supernatant. Cyclosporine or tacrolimus had no effect on PGE2 release. However, Ca2+ channel blockers, when applied at higher dosages, caused a significant increase in PGE2. Interestingly, MMF strongly diminished the PGE2 level in the cell culture supernatant in a concentration-dependent manner. The results demonstrate an inhibitory effect of MMF on PGE2 production, which may lower the benefits of the PGE2-triggered immune response after organ transplantation.

  6. Misoprostol inhibits gastric mucosal release of endogenous prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane B2 in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Eskerod, O; Bukhave, K; Rask-Madsen, J

    1995-01-01

    Prostaglandin analogues of the E-series theoretically offer the ideal antiulcer drugs. Peptic ulcer healing with prostaglandin analogues is, however, no better than would be predicted from their ability to inhibit gastric acid secretion and they are less effective than histamine H2 receptor antagonists in preventing ulcer relapse. It could be that prostaglandin analogues inhibit gastric mucosal synthesis or release of endogenous eicosanoids, thereby abrogating their own effects. This study, therefore, examined how a single therapeutic dose (200 micrograms) of misoprostol, a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin E1, influences gastric mucosal release of endogenous prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), thromboxane B2 (TXB2), and chemotactic leukotriene B4 (LTB4) during basal conditions and in response to gastric luminal acidification (0.1 M HCl; 5 ml/min for 10 minutes). Nine healthy volunteers were studied in a single blind, cross over design. In each subject misoprostol or placebo was instilled in randomised order into the stomach, which was subsequently perfused with isotonic mannitol. Misoprostol significantly decreased basal as well as acid stimulated output of PGE2 and TXB2, without affecting output of LTB4. These data show that misoprostol inhibits gastric mucosal synthesis of prostanoids. Decreased concentrations, or even a changed profile, of native eicosanoids modulating the release of inflammatory mediators from immune cells might explain why prostaglandin analogues have a comparatively poor clinical performance in ulcer healing and prevention. PMID:7737555

  7. Vaginal prostaglandin (PGE2 and PGF2a) for induction of labour at term.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Anthony J; Malik, Sidra; Smith, Lee; Kavanagh, Josephine; Thomas, Jane

    2009-10-07

    Prostaglandins have been used for induction of labour since the 1960s. Initial work focused on prostaglandin F2a as prostaglandin E2 was considered unsuitable for a number of reasons. With the development of alternative routes of administration, comparisons were made between various formulations of vaginal prostaglandins. To determine the effects of vaginal prostaglandins E2 and F2a for third trimester cervical ripening or induction of labour in comparison with placebo/no treatment or other vaginal prostaglandins (except misoprostol). We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (May 2009) and bibliographies of relevant papers. Clinical trials comparing vaginal prostaglandins used for third trimester cervical ripening or labour induction with placebo/no treatment or other methods listed above it on a predefined list of labour induction methods. We assessed studies and extracted data independently. Sixty-three (10,441 women) have been included.Vaginal prostaglandin E2 compared with placebo or no treatment reduced the likelihood of vaginal delivery not being achieved within 24 hours (18.1% versus 98.9%, risk ratio (RR) 0.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14 to 0.25, two trials, 384 women). The risk of the cervix remaining unfavourable or unchanged was reduced (21.6% versus 40.3%, RR 0.46, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.62, five trials, 467 women); and the risk of oxytocin augmentation reduced (35.1% versus 43.8%, RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.94, 12 trials, 1321 women) when PGE2 was compared to placebo. There was no evidence of a difference between caesarean section rates, although the risk of uterine hyperstimulation with fetal heart rate changes was increased (4.4% versus 0.49%, RR 4.14, 95% CI 1.93 to 8.90, 14 trials, 1259 women).PGE2 tablet, gel and pessary appear to be as efficacious as each other and the use of sustained release PGE2 inserts appear to be associated with a reduction in instrumental vaginal delivery rates (9.9 % versus 19.5%, RR 0

  8. Release of colicin E2 from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pugsley, A P; Rosenbusch, J P

    1981-07-01

    Treatment of Escherichia coli K-12(ColE2.P9) with 500 ng of mitomycin C per ml resulted in rapid and almost synchronous colicin E2 production. Colicin accumulated outside the cytoplasmic membrane, most probably in the periplasmic space. Colicin release occurred during a period in which the turbidity of the culture declined markedly. Periplasmic alkaline phosphatase was released during the same period, but cytoplasmic beta-galactosidase release was delayed.

  9. Anti-inflammatory effects of PGE2 in the lung: role of the EP4 receptor subtype.

    PubMed

    Birrell, Mark A; Maher, Sarah A; Dekkak, Bilel; Jones, Victoria; Wong, Sissie; Brook, Peter; Belvisi, Maria G

    2015-08-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are chronic inflammatory diseases of the airway. Current treatment options (long acting β-adrenoceptor agonists and glucocorticosteroids) are not optimal as they are only effective in certain patient groups and safety concerns exist regarding both compound classes. Therefore, novel bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory strategies are being pursued. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is an arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoid produced by the lung which acts on four different G-protein coupled receptors (EP1-4) to cause an array of beneficial and deleterious effects. The aim of this study was to identify the EP receptor mediating the anti-inflammatory actions of PGE2 in the lung using a range of cell-based assays and in vivo models. It was demonstrated in three distinct model systems (innate stimulus, lipopolysaccharide (LPS); allergic response, ovalbumin (OVA); inhaled pollutant, cigarette smoke) that mice missing functional EP4 (Ptger4(-/-)) receptors had higher levels of airway inflammation, suggesting that endogenous PGE2 was suppressing inflammation via EP4 receptor activation. Cell-based assay systems (murine and human monocytes/alveolar macrophages) demonstrated that PGE2 inhibited cytokine release from LPS-stimulated cells and that this was mimicked by an EP4 (but not EP1-3) receptor agonist and inhibited by an EP4 receptor antagonist. The anti-inflammatory effect occurred at the transcriptional level and was via the adenylyl cyclase/cAMP/ cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) axis. This study demonstrates that EP4 receptor activation is responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of PGE2 in a range of disease relevant models and, as such, could represent a novel therapeutic target for chronic airway inflammatory conditions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. EP2 receptors mediate airway relaxation to substance P, ATP, and PGE2.

    PubMed

    Fortner, C N; Breyer, R M; Paul, R J

    2001-08-01

    Substance P (SP) and ATP evoke transient, epithelium-dependent relaxation of constricted mouse tracheal smooth muscle. Relaxation to either SP or ATP is blocked by indomethacin, but the specific eicosanoid(s) involved have not been definitively identified. SP and ATP are reported to release PGE2 from airway epithelium in other species, suggesting PGE2 as a likely mediator in epithelium-dependent airway relaxation. Using mice homozygous for a gene-targeted deletion of the EP2 receptor [EP2(-/-)], one of the PGE2 receptors, we tested the hypothesis that PGE2 is the primary mediator of relaxation to SP or ATP. Relaxation in response to SP or ATP was significantly reduced in tracheas from EP2(-/-) mice. There were no differences between EP2(-/-) and wild-type tracheas in their physical dimensions, contraction to ACh, or relaxation to isoproterenol, thus ruling out any general alterations of smooth muscle function. There were also no differences between EP2(-/-) and wild-type tracheas in basal or stimulated PGE2 production. Exogenous PGE2 produced significantly less relaxation in EP2(-/-) tracheas compared with the wild type. Taken together, this experimental evidence supports the following two conclusions: EP2 receptors are of primary importance in airway relaxation to PGE2 and relaxation to SP or ATP is mediated through PGE2 acting on EP2 receptors.

  11. Prostaglandin E2 releases ovine fetal ACTH from a site not perfused by the carotid vasculature.

    PubMed

    Cudd, T A; Wood, C E

    1992-07-01

    Placental prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is thought to influence the ovine fetal adrenocortical system to control the timing of parturition. We investigated whether physiological infusions of PGE2 increase fetal immunoreactive adrenocorticotropin (iACTH) at the fetal brain or pituitary or at a site not perfused by the carotid vasculature. PGE2 was infused into the carotid artery (ica) at 0 (n = 5), 10 (n = 5), or 100 ng/min (n = 4) or into the vena cava (ivc) at 10 (n = 5) or 100 ng/min (n = 5) for 30 min in fetuses between 119 and 130 days gestation. Blood gases, vasopressin, cortisol, and arterial and central venous pressure were unchanged. Heart rate increased only in the 100 ng/min ica group. iACTH increased only in the 100 ng/min ivc group from 59 +/- 26 to 180 +/- 73 pg/ml. We conclude that PGE2 infused to create physiological plasma concentrations similar to those at the end of gestation stimulates iACTH from a site other than the fetal brain or pituitary.

  12. The effects of increasing PGE2 on translocation of labeled albumin into rat brain.

    PubMed

    Messripour, M; Mesripour, A; Mashayekhie, F J

    2015-01-01

    Under pathophysiological conditions, infiltration of leukocyte plays a key role in the progression of the neuroinflammatory reaction in the CNS. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is known to accumulate at lesion sites of the post-ischemic brain. Although post-ischemic treatments with cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors reduce blood-brain barrier (BBB) leukocyte infiltration, the direct effect of PGE2 on BBB has not been fully implemented. Therefore, the direct effect of increasing PGE2 infusion on translocation of labeled albumin into the brain was assessed. Under anesthesia rats were drilled stereo-taxicaly a burr hole in the right forebrain and PGE2 was infused into the forebrain and the hole was occluded. The animals were then injected with fluorescent labeled albumin (FA), via internal right jugular vein and decapitated at different infusion time points. The forebrain was removed and each forebrain hemisphere was homogenized and fluorescence intensities were measured in the supernatant. The fluorescence intensities measured in the right and left forebrain hemispheres of the control group (0.0 μg PGE2) were almost identical. Four hours after infusion of PGE2 at doses higher than 250 μg, fluorescence intensity increased in the right forebrain supernatant, even if it was not statistically significant. The fluorescence intensity was detectable in the brain supernatant 4 h after infusion of PGE2 in doses higher than 250 μg PGE2. The highest fluorescence intensity was 16 h after infusion of 500 μg PGE2, which returned to near control values after 48 h. Increased fluorescence intensity in the brain following PGE2 infusion is concluded to be associated with disruption of the BBB.

  13. PGE2 /EP4 Signaling Controls the Transfer of the Mammary Stem Cell State by Lipid Rafts in Extracellular Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meng-Chieh; Chen, Shih-Yin; Tsai, Ho-Min; He, Pei-Lin; Lin, Yen-Chun; Herschman, Harvey; Li, Hua-Jung

    2017-02-01

    Prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 )-initiated signaling contributes to stem cell homeostasis and regeneration. However, it is unclear how PGE 2 signaling controls cell stemness. This study identifies a previously unknown mechanism by which PGE 2 /prostaglandin E receptor 4 (EP 4 ) signaling regulates multiple signaling pathways (e.g., PI3K/Akt signaling, TGFβ signaling, Wnt signaling, EGFR signaling) which maintain the basal mammary stem cell phenotype. A shift of basal mammary epithelial stem cells (MaSCs) from a mesenchymal/stem cell state to a non-basal-MaSC state occurs in response to prostaglandin E receptor 4 (EP 4 ) antagonism. EP 4 antagonists elicit release of signaling components, by controlling their trafficking into extracellular vesicles/exosomes in a lipid raft/caveolae-dependent manner. Consequently, EP 4 antagonism indirectly inactivates, through induced extracellular vesicle/exosome release, pathways required for mammary epithelial stem cell homeostasis, e.g. canonical/noncanonical Wnt, TGFβ and PI3K/Akt pathways. EP 4 antagonism causes signaling receptors and signaling components to shift from non-lipid raft fractions to lipid raft fractions, and to then be released in EP 4 antagonist-induced extracellular vesicles/exosomes, resulting in the loss of the stem cell state by mammary epithelial stem cells. In contrast, luminal mammary epithelial cells can acquire basal stem cell properties following ingestion of EP 4 antagonist-induced stem cell extracellular vesicles/exosomes, and can then form mammary glands. These findings demonstrate that PGE 2 /EP 4 signaling controls homeostasis of mammary epithelial stem cells through regulating extracellular vesicle/exosome release. Reprogramming of mammary epithelial cells can result from EP 4 -mediated stem cell property transfer by extracellular vesicles/exosomes containing caveolae-associated proteins, between mammary basal and luminal epithelial cells. Stem Cells 2017;35:425-444. © 2016 The Authors STEM CELLS

  14. PGE2 signaling through the EP4 receptor on fibroblasts upregulates RANKL and stimulates osteolysis.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Ryosuke; Xie, Chao; Wei, Xiaochao; Zhang, Minjie; Zhang, Xinping; Flick, Lisa M; Schwarz, Edward M; O'Keefe, Regis J

    2009-10-01

    Periprosthetic osteolysis is the most common cause of aseptic loosening in total joint arthroplasty. The role of inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and osteoclast promoting factors including RANKL in the pathogenesis of osteolysis has been well characterized. However, the PGE2 receptor (EP1, EP2, or EP4), and cell type in which it is expressed, which is responsible for PGE2 induction of RANKL during wear debris-induced osteolysis, has yet to be elucidated. To address this, we used mice genetically deficient in these EP receptors to assess PGE2 and wear debris responses in vitro and in vivo. Wear debris-induced osteolysis and RANKL expression were observed at similar levels in WT, EP1(-/-), and EP2(-/-) mice, indicating that these receptors do not mediate PGE2 signals in this process. A conditional knockout approach was used to eliminate EP4 expression in FSP1(+) fibroblasts that are the predominant source of RANKL. In the absence of EP4, fibroblasts do not express RANKL after stimulation with particles or PGE2, nor do they exhibit high levels of osteoclasts and osteolysis. These results show that periprosthetic fibroblasts are important mediators of osteolysis through the expression of RANKL, which is induced after PGE2 signaling through the EP4 receptor.

  15. Effect of PGE2 on thymocyte proliferation induced by Con A or IL-4 + PMA.

    PubMed

    Daculsi, R; Vaillier, D; Bezian, J H; Gualde, N

    1993-02-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is known to inhibit peripheral T-lymphocyte and thymocyte proliferation activated by antigens, mitogens or anti-CD3 antibodies. In this study, we have investigated, the effect of PGE2 on thymocyte proliferation induced by the combination of IL-4 plus PMA. PGE2 inhibits the proliferation of thymocytes activated by ConA, whatever the culture period; in contrast PGE2 shifts the kinetics of thymocyte proliferation after stimulation by IL-4 plus PMA, but does not sustain the proliferation beyond day 3. This effect depends upon cell density, IL-4 concentration and on the time that PGE2 is added to the culture. By use of the cAMP inducer, forskolin, or a cAMP analog, db-cAMP, we observed the same results, PGE2 increases the proliferation of CD8+ corticoresistant thymocytes (CRT) activated by IL-4 plus PMA, but inhibits that of CD4+ CRT. These results suggest that PGE2 can regulate thymocyte proliferation differently according to the activation pathway and the thymic subpopulations.

  16. In vivo intra-luteal implants of prostaglandin (PG) E(1) or E(2) (PGE(1), PGE(2)) prevent luteolysis in cows. I. Luteal weight, circulating progesterone, mRNA for luteal luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor, and occupied and unoccupied luteal receptors for LH.

    PubMed

    Weems, Yoshie S; Arreguin-Arevalo, J Alejandro; Nett, Torrance M; Vann, Rhonda C; Ford, Stephen P; Bridges, Phillip J; Welsh, Thomas H; Lewis, Andrew W; Neuendorff, Don A; Randel, Ronald D; Weems, Charles W

    2011-08-01

    Previously, it was reported that chronic intra-uterine infusion of PGE(1) or PGE(2) every four hours inhibited luteolysis in ewes. However, estradiol-17β or PGE(2) given intra-uterine every 8h did not inhibit luteolysis in heifers, but infusion of estradiol+PGE(2) inhibited luteolysis in heifers. The objective of this experiment was to determine whether and how intra-luteal implants containing PGE(1) or PGE(2) prevent luteolysis in Angus or Brahman cows. On day-13 post-estrus, Angus cows received no intra-luteal implant and corpora lutea were retrieved or Angus and Brahman cows received intra-luteal silastic implants containing Vehicle, PGE(1), or PGE(2) and corpora lutea were retrieved on day-19. Coccygeal blood was collected daily for analysis for progesterone. Breed did not influence the effect of PGE(1) or PGE(2) on luteal mRNA for LH receptors or unoccupied or occupied luteal LH receptors did not differ (P>0.05) so the data were pooled. Luteal weights of Vehicle-treated Angus or Brahman cows from days-13-19 were lower (P<0.05) than those treated with intra-luteal implants containing PGE(1) or PGE(2). Day-13 Angus luteal weights were heavier (P<0.05) than Vehicle-treated Angus cows on day-19 and luteal weights of day-13 corpora lutea were similar (P>0.05) to Angus cows on day-19 treated with intra-luteal implants containing PGE(1) or PGE(2). Profiles of circulating progesterone in Angus or Brahman cows treated with intra-luteal implants containing PGE(1) or PGE(2) differed (P<0.05) from controls, but profiles of progesterone did not differ (P>0.05) between breeds or between cows treated with intra-luteal implants containing PGE(1) or PGE(2). Intra-luteal implants containing PGE(1) or PGE(2) prevented (P<0.05) loss of luteal mRNA for LH receptors and unoccupied or occupied receptors for LH compared to controls. It is concluded that PGE(1) or PGE(2) alone delays luteolysis regardless of breed. We also conclude that either PGE(1) or PGE(2) prevented luteolysis in

  17. Evidence of substance P autocrine circuitry that involves TNF-α, IL-6, and PGE2 in endogenous pyrogen-induced fever.

    PubMed

    Brito, Haissa Oliveira; Barbosa, Felipe L; Reis, Renata Cristiane Dos; Fraga, Daniel; Borges, Beatriz S; Franco, Celia R C; Zampronio, Aleksander Roberto

    2016-04-15

    Substance P (SP) is involved in fever that is induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) but not by interleukin-1β or macrophage inflammatory protein-1α. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of the neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonist SR140333B in rats reduced fever that was induced by an i.c.v. injection of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), endothelin-1 (ET-1), and morphine (MOR). Furthermore, an i.c.v. injection of SP induced a febrile response that was inhibited by indomethacin concomitant with an increase in PGE2 levels in cerebrospinal fluid. Lipopolysaccharide and PGE2 caused higher expression and internalization of NK1 receptors in the hypothalamus which were prevented by SR140333B. These data suggest that SP is an important mediator of fever, in which it induces a prostaglandin-dependent response and is released after TNF-α, IL-6, PGE2, CRF, endogenous opioids, and ET-1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Norepinephrine enhances the LPS-induced expression of COX-2 and secretion of PGE2 in primary rat microglia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest an important role for neurotransmitters as modulators of inflammation. Neuroinflammatory mediators such as cytokines and molecules of the arachidonic acid pathway are generated and released by microglia. The monoamine norepinephrine reduces the production of cytokines by activated microglia in vitro. However, little is known about the effects of norepinephrine on prostanoid synthesis. In the present study, we investigate the role of norepinephrine on cyclooxygenase- (COX-)2 expression/synthesis and prostaglandin (PG)E2 production in rat primary microglia. Results Interestingly, norepinephrine increased COX-2 mRNA, but not protein expression. Norepinephrine strongly enhanced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This effect is likely to be mediated by β-adrenoreceptors, since β-, but not α-adrenoreceptor agonists produced similar results. Furthermore, β-adrenoreceptor antagonists blocked the enhancement of COX-2 levels induced by norepinephrine and β-adrenoreceptor agonists. Conclusions Considering that PGE2 displays different roles in neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders, norepinephrine may play an important function in the modulation of these processes in pathophysiological conditions. PMID:20064241

  19. Mapping PTGERs to the Ovulatory Follicle: Regional Responses to the Ovulatory PGE2 Signal1

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soon Ok; Duffy, Diane M.

    2016-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a key intrafollicular mediator of ovulation in many, if not all, mammalian species. PGE2 acts at follicular cells via four distinct PGE2 receptors (PTGERs). Within the ovulatory follicle, each cell type (e.g., oocyte, cumulus granulosa cell, mural granulosa cell, theca cell, endothelial cell) expresses a different subset of the four PTGERs. Expression of a subset of PTGERs has consequences for the generation of intracellular signals and ultimately the unique functions of follicular cells that respond to PGE2. Just as the ovulatory LH surge regulates PGE2 synthesis, the LH surge also regulates expression of the four PTGERs. The pattern of expression of the four PTGERs among follicular cells before and after the LH surge forms a spatial and temporal map of PGE2 responses. Differential PTGER expression, coupled with activation of cell-specific intracellular signals, may explain how a single paracrine mediator can have pleotropic actions within the ovulatory follicle. Understanding the role of each PTGER in ovulation may point to previously unappreciated opportunities to both promote and prevent fertility. PMID:27307073

  20. Airway remodeling in murine asthma correlates with a defect in PGE2 synthesis by lung fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Stumm, Camila Leindecker; Wettlaufer, Scott H.; Jancar, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic lung disease characterized by local inflammation that can result in structural alterations termed airway remodeling. One component of airway remodeling involves fibroblast accumulation and activation, resulting in deposition of collagen I around small bronchi. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is the main eicosanoid lipid mediator produced by lung fibroblasts, and it exerts diverse anti-fibrotic actions. Dysregulation of the PGE2 synthesis/response axis has been identified in human pulmonary fibrotic diseases and implicated in the pathogenesis of animal models of lung parenchymal fibrosis. Here we investigated the relationship between the fibroblast PGE2 axis and airway fibrosis in an animal model of chronic allergic asthma. Airway fibrosis increased progressively as the number of airway challenges with antigen increased from 3 to 7 to 12. Compared with cells from control lungs, fibroblasts grown from the lungs of asthmatic animals, regardless of challenge number, exhibited no defect in the ability of PGE2 or its analogs to inhibit cellular proliferation and collagen I expression. This correlated with intact expression of the EP2 receptor, which is pivotal for PGE2 responsiveness. However, cytokine-induced upregulation of PGE2 biosynthesis as well as expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and microsomal PGE synthase-1 declined with increasing numbers of antigen challenges. In addition, treatment with the COX-2-selective inhibitor nimesulide potentiated the degree of airway fibrosis following repeated allergen challenge. Because endogenous COX-2-derived PGE2 acts as a brake on airway fibrosis, the inability of fibroblasts to upregulate PGE2 generation in the inflammatory milieu presented by repeated allergen exposure could contribute to the airway remodeling and fibrosis observed in chronic asthma. PMID:21873451

  1. Novel contraceptive targets to inhibit ovulation: the prostaglandin E2 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Diane M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is an essential intrafollicular regulator of ovulation. In contrast with the one-gene, one-protein concept for synthesis of peptide signaling molecules, production and metabolism of bioactive PGE2 requires controlled expression of many proteins, correct subcellular localization of enzymes, coordinated PGE2 synthesis and metabolism, and prostaglandin transport in and out of cells to facilitate PGE2 action and degradation. Elevated intrafollicular PGE2 is required for successful ovulation, so disruption of PGE2 synthesis, metabolism or transport may yield effective contraceptive strategies. METHODS This review summarizes case reports and studies on ovulation inhibition in women and macaques treated with cyclooxygenase inhibitors published from 1987 to 2014. These findings are discussed in the context of studies describing levels of mRNA, protein, and activity of prostaglandin synthesis and metabolic enzymes as well as prostaglandin transporters in ovarian cells. RESULTS The ovulatory surge of LH regulates the expression of each component of the PGE2 synthesis-metabolism-transport pathway within the ovulatory follicle. Data from primary ovarian cells and cancer cell lines suggest that enzymes and transporters can cooperate to optimize bioactive PGE2 levels. Elevated intrafollicular PGE2 mediates key ovulatory events including cumulus expansion, follicle rupture and oocyte release. Inhibitors of the prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) enzyme (also known as cyclooxygenase-2 or COX2) reduce ovulation rates in women. Studies in macaques show that PTGS2 inhibitors can reduce the rates of cumulus expansion, oocyte release, follicle rupture, oocyte nuclear maturation and fertilization. A PTGS2 inhibitor reduced pregnancy rates in breeding macaques when administered to simulate emergency contraception. However, PTGS2 inhibition did not prevent pregnancy in monkeys when administered to simulate monthly contraceptive use. CONCLUSION

  2. Antigenicity of primary endodontic infection against macrophages by the levels of PGE(2) production.

    PubMed

    Martinho, Frederico C; Chiesa, Wanderson Miguel Maia; Leite, Fabio R M; Cirelli, Joni A; Gomes, Brenda P F A

    2011-05-01

    Root canal contents are potent stimuli for proinflammatory cytokines involved in apical periodontitis. This study investigated target gram-negative bacterial species and endotoxins in primary endodontic infection with apical periodontitis, determined their antigenicity against macrophages through the levels of PGE(2), and evaluated their relationship with clinical findings. Samples were taken from 21 root canals with primary infection and apical periodontitis by using paper points. Polymerase chain reaction (16S rDNA) was used for bacterial detection and limulus amebocyte lysate assay for endotoxin measurement. Levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Duoset Kit; R&D, Minneapolis, MN). Prevotella nigrescens (13/21), Fusobacterium nucleatum (6/21), and Porphyromonas endodontalis (6/21) were the most frequently observed species. A positive association was found between F. nucleatum and P. endodontalis (P < .05). A correlation was found between the number of gram-negative bacterial species and the levels of endotoxins, such as PGE(2) (P < .05). Higher levels of endotoxin were detected in teeth with exudation, whereas elevated levels of PGE(2) were found in teeth with tenderness to percussion and pain on palpation. Our findings imply an additive effect between the number of gram-negative bacterial species involved in endodontic infection regarding the induction of proinflammatory cytokine by macrophage cells. Moreover, teeth with clinical symptomatology were related to higher levels of endotoxins and PGE(2) secretion. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of maternal dexamethasone on coronary PGE2 production and prostaglandin-dependent coronary reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Volk, Kenneth A.; Lamb, Fred S.; Segar, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with increased fetal glucocorticoid exposure and an increased risk of adult coronary artery disease. Coronary arteries from sheep exposed to early gestation dexamethasone (Dex) have increased constriction to angiotensin II (ANG II). Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) helps maintain coronary dilation, but PGE2 production is acutely decreased by Dex administration. We hypothesized early gestation Dex exposure impairs adult coronary PGE2 production with subsequent increases in coronary reactivity. Dex was administered to ewes at 27–28 days gestation (term 145 days). Coronary reactivity was assessed by wire myography in offspring at 4 mo of age (N = 5 to 7). Coronary smooth muscle cells were cultured and prostaglandin production was measured after 90 min incubation with radiolabeled arachidonate. Coronary myocytes from Dex-exposed lambs had a significant decrease in PGE2 production that was reversed with ANG II incubation. Dex-exposed coronary arteries had increased constriction to ANG II and attenuated dilatation to arachidonic acid, with the greatest difference seen after the endothelium was inactivated by rubbing. Preincubation with the cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor indomethacin altered control responses and recapitulated the heightened coronary tone seen following Dex exposure. We conclude that impaired coronary smooth muscle COX-mediated PGE2 production contributes to the coronary dysfunction elicited by early gestation Dex. Programmed inhibition of vasodilatory prostanoid production may link an adverse intrauterine environment with adult coronary artery disease. PMID:22832534

  4. PGE2 maintains self-renewal of human adult stem cells via EP2-mediated autocrine signaling and its production is regulated by cell-to-cell contact.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Chul; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Shin, Tae-Hoon; Kang, Insung; Lee, Jin Young; Kim, Jae-Jun; Kang, Hyun Kyoung; Seo, Yoojin; Lee, Seunghee; Yu, Kyung-Rok; Choi, Soon Won; Kang, Kyung-Sun

    2016-05-27

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess unique immunomodulatory abilities. Many studies have elucidated the clinical efficacy and underlying mechanisms of MSCs in immune disorders. Although immunoregulatory factors, such as Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and their mechanisms of action on immune cells have been revealed, their effects on MSCs and regulation of their production by the culture environment are less clear. Therefore, we investigated the autocrine effect of PGE2 on human adult stem cells from cord blood or adipose tissue, and the regulation of its production by cell-to-cell contact, followed by the determination of its immunomodulatory properties. MSCs were treated with specific inhibitors to suppress PGE2 secretion, and proliferation was assessed. PGE2 exerted an autocrine regulatory function in MSCs by triggering E-Prostanoid (EP) 2 receptor. Inhibiting PGE2 production led to growth arrest, whereas addition of MSC-derived PGE2 restored proliferation. The level of PGE2 production from an equivalent number of MSCs was down-regulated via gap junctional intercellular communication. This cell contact-mediated decrease in PGE2 secretion down-regulated the suppressive effect of MSCs on immune cells. In conclusion, PGE2 produced by MSCs contributes to maintenance of self-renewal capacity through EP2 in an autocrine manner, and PGE2 secretion is down-regulated by cell-to-cell contact, attenuating its immunomodulatory potency.

  5. Prostaglandin PGE2: a possible mechanism for bone destruction in calcinosis circumscripta.

    PubMed

    Caniggia, A; Gennari, C; Vattimo, A; Runci, F; Bombardieri, S

    1978-02-28

    A patient showed evident osteolysis in phalanges and heavy periarticular calcium deposits of the fingers, wrists and toes which avidly took up 47Ca. The dense, white, tooth-paste like fluid contained in the periarticular calcium deposits has been studied by two different X-ray diffraction methods, by Ubatuba's bioassay for prostaglandin, by thin layer chromatography and by mass spectrometry. The calcium deposits were hydroxyapatite and prostaglandin PGE2 was detected in them. The bone resorption stimulating activity of PGE2 would be expected to result in increased bone destruction with release of calcium salts and this could be a working hypothesis of the pathogenesis of calcinosis circumscripta.

  6. Cox-2-derived PGE2 induces Id1-dependent radiation resistance and self-renewal in experimental glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Cook, Peter J; Thomas, Rozario; Kingsley, Philip J; Shimizu, Fumiko; Montrose, David C; Marnett, Lawrence J; Tabar, Viviane S; Dannenberg, Andrew J; Benezra, Robert

    2016-10-01

    In glioblastoma (GBM), Id1 serves as a functional marker for self-renewing cancer stem-like cells. We investigated the mechanism by which cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2)-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induces Id1 and increases GBM self-renewal and radiation resistance. Mouse and human GBM cells were stimulated with dimethyl-PGE2 (dmPGE2), a stabilized form of PGE2, to test for Id1 induction. To elucidate the signal transduction pathway governing the increase in Id1, a combination of short interfering RNA knockdown and small molecule inhibitors and activators of PGE2 signaling were used. Western blotting, quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were employed. Sphere formation and radiation resistance were measured in cultured primary cells. Immunohistochemical analyses were carried out to evaluate the Cox-2-Id1 axis in experimental GBM. In GBM cells, dmPGE2 stimulates the EP4 receptor leading to activation of ERK1/2 MAPK. This leads, in turn, to upregulation of the early growth response1 (Egr1) transcription factor and enhanced Id1 expression. Activation of this pathway increases self-renewal capacity and resistance to radiation-induced DNA damage, which are dependent on Id1. In GBM, Cox-2-derived PGE2 induces Id1 via EP4-dependent activation of MAPK signaling and the Egr1 transcription factor. PGE2-mediated induction of Id1 is required for optimal tumor cell self-renewal and radiation resistance. Collectively, these findings identify Id1 as a key mediator of PGE2-dependent modulation of radiation response and lend insight into the mechanisms underlying radiation resistance in GBM patients. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Inhibition by prostaglandin E(2) of anaphylatoxin C5a- but not zymosan-induced prostanoid release from rat Kupffer cells.

    PubMed

    Pestel, Sabine; Jungermann, Kurt; Götze, Otto; Schieferdecker, Henrike L

    2002-04-01

    The proinflammatory anaphylatoxin C5a induces the release of prostanoids, ie, prostaglandins (PG) and thromboxane (TX), from the resident liver macrophages (Kupffer cells [KC]). Because KC themselves express prostanoid receptors, prostanoids--besides having paracrine functions--might regulate their own release in an autocrine loop. So far, such a possible feedback regulation has not been investigated systematically, probably because of methodological difficulties to measure newly synthesized prostanoids in the presence of added prostanoids. Here, after prelabeling of phospholipids with [(14)C]arachidonate, cellularly formed [(14)C]prostanoids were determined in the presence of added unlabelled prostanoids by thin layer chromatography. In cultured KC, recombinant rat C5a (rrC5a) rapidly increased PGD(2), PGE(2), and TXA(2) release, which was strongly reduced by PGE(2), but neither by PGD(2) nor by the TXA(2) analog U46619. The inhibitory effect of PGE(2) was mimicked by cAMP, indicating that the G(s)-coupled PGE(2) receptors type 2 or 4 were involved. Zymosan also enhanced prostanoid release from KC, but with slightly slower kinetics; this action was neither inhibited by PGE(2) nor by cAMP. Also in perfused rat livers, rrC5a enhanced prostanoid release from KC as shown by prostanoid overflow and thereby indirectly increased glucose output from hepatocytes. Again, PGE(2), but not PGD(2), inhibited rrC5a-elicited prostanoid overflow. This resulted in a complete inhibition of rrC5a-induced, prostanoid-mediated glucose output. Thus, PGE(2) can inhibit specifically the C5a-induced prostanoid release from KC via a feedback mechanism and thereby limit prostanoid-mediated hepatocellular defense reactions, eg, glucose release.

  8. Prostaglandin E2 stimulates a Ca2+-dependent K+ channel in human erythrocytes and alters cell volume and filterability.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Jungmann, V; Kiyatkin, A; Low, P S

    1996-08-02

    To understand the mechanism by which human red blood cells (RBCs) contribute to hemostasis and thrombosis, we have examined the effects of metabolites released by activated platelets on intact RBCs. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a signal molecule produced by activated platelets, was observed to lower the filterability of human erythrocytes by approximately 30% at 10(-10) M. PGE2 also caused a reduction in mean cell volume of approximately 10%. The shrinkage of red cells after PGE2 treatment was confirmed by documenting a decrease in osmotic fragility and an increase in cell density following exposure to the hormone. Careful analysis, however, revealed that only approximately 15% of the erythrocytes responded to stimulation with PGE2. Examination of the cause of cell shrinkage showed that induction of a PGE2-stimulated K+ efflux pathway leading to rapid loss of cellular K+ was responsible. The PGE2-stimulated K+ loss was also observed to be Ca2+-dependent, suggesting the possible involvement of the Gardos channel. Gardos channel participation was supported by the observation that two Gardos channel inhibitors, charybdotoxin and clotrimazole, independently blocked the PGE2-stimulated K+ efflux. Further evidence for Gardos channel activation came from experiments aimed at characterizing the efflux pathway followed by the obligatory counterion. Thus, K+ efflux was readily stimulated even when NO3- was substituted for Cl-, suggesting that neither KCl cotransport nor Na/K/2Cl cotransport plays a prominent role in the PGE2-induced cell shrinkage. Further, the anion transporter band 3 was implicated as the counterion efflux route, since DIDS inhibited the PGE2-stimulated cell volume change without blocking the change in membrane potential. Taken together, we propose that release of PGE2 by activated platelets constitutes part of a mechanism by which activated platelets may recruit adjacent erythrocytes to assist in clot formation.

  9. Prostaglandin E2 Inhibits Histamine-Evoked Ca2+ Release in Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells through Hyperactive cAMP Signaling Junctions and Protein Kinase A

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Emily J. A.; Pantazaka, Evangelia; Shelley, Kathryn L.

    2017-01-01

    In human aortic smooth muscle cells, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) stimulates adenylyl cyclase (AC) and attenuates the increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration evoked by activation of histamine H1 receptors. The mechanisms are not resolved. We show that cAMP mediates inhibition of histamine-evoked Ca2+ signals by PGE2. Exchange proteins activated by cAMP were not required, but the effects were attenuated by inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). PGE2 had no effect on the Ca2+ signals evoked by protease-activated receptors, heterologously expressed muscarinic M3 receptors, or by direct activation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors by photolysis of caged IP3. The rate of Ca2+ removal from the cytosol was unaffected by PGE2, but PGE2 attenuated histamine-evoked IP3 accumulation. Substantial inhibition of AC had no effect on the concentration-dependent inhibition of Ca2+ signals by PGE2 or butaprost (to activate EP2 receptors selectively), but it modestly attenuated responses to EP4 receptors, activation of which generated less cAMP than EP2 receptors. We conclude that inhibition of histamine-evoked Ca2+ signals by PGE2 occurs through “hyperactive signaling junctions,” wherein cAMP is locally delivered to PKA at supersaturating concentrations to cause uncoupling of H1 receptors from phospholipase C. This sequence allows digital signaling from PGE2 receptors, through cAMP and PKA, to histamine-evoked Ca2+ signals. PMID:28877931

  10. Effect of oxybenzone on PGE2-production in vitro and on plaque and gingivitis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jannesson, Lillemor; Birkhed, Dowen; Scherl, Dale; Gaffar, Abdul; Renvert, Stefan

    2004-02-01

    To study the effect of oxybenzone on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in cell culture and to evaluate the effect of an oxybenzone-containing dentifrice on plaque and gingivitis in a 6-week clinical trial. Human embryo palatal mesenchyme (HEPM) cells were used for testing the inhibition of IL-1beta-stimulated PGE2-production in vitro by different concentrations of oxybenzone. For the in vivo study, a total of 66 individuals with a Quigley & Hein plaque index of at least 1.5 and an Ainamo & Bay gingival index of at least 0.2 were included in a double-blind clinical trial with two cells and a parallel design. Two compositions of fluoride dentifrice were used, one with the addition of 0.5% oxybenzone, and one without. Plaque and gingival index were obtained at three time points: (1) at baseline, (2) after 3 weeks, and (3) after 6 weeks. A dose-dependent inhibition of PGE2-production was found in the HEPM cell culture following oxybenzone exposure. In the clinical trial, a 25% reduction of gingival index was observed in the oxybenzone group (p<0.001) after 6 weeks as compared with 2% for the placebo group. These findings indicate that PGE2-production is reduced by oxybenzone in vitro and that the use of oxybenzone in a dentifrice reduces gingivitis in vivo. Copyright Blackwell Munksgaard, 2004.

  11. Injured nerve-derived COX2/PGE2 contributes to the maintenance of neuropathic pain in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Weiya; Chabot, Jean-Guy; Vercauteren, Freya; Quirion, Remi

    2010-07-01

    Neuropathic pain (NeP) is a debilitating disease afflicting mostly the aged population. Inflammatory responses in injured nerves play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of NeP. Injured nerve derived cyclooxygenase 2/prostaglandin E2 (COX2/PGE2) contributes to the genesis of NeP at the early stage in young rats. Here we show that COX2/PGE2 is involved in the maintenance of NeP at a chronic stage in aged rats. Eighteen months after partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL), NeP remained prominent in aged rats. COX2 expressing macrophages and PGE2 levels were increased in injured nerves. PGE2 receptors (EP1 and EP4) and pain-related ion channel transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) were increased in the ipsilateral dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons of aged PSNL rats. Perineural injection of a selective COX2 inhibitor NS-398 relieved NeP, reversed PSNL increased expression of EP1, EP4 and TRPV1 and suppressed the levels of pain-related peptide substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide in DRG neurons. These data suggest that injured nerve-derived PGE2 contributes to the maintenance of NeP at the chronic stage in aged rats. Chronically facilitating the synthesis of pain-related molecules in nociceptive DRG neurons is a novel mechanism underpinning the contribution of PGE2. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) in benign and malignant ovarian tissue and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH2)D3) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) serum level in ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Thill, Marc; Fischer, Dorothea; Kelling, Katharina; Hoellen, Friederike; Dittmer, Christine; Hornemann, Amadeus; Salehin, Darius; Diedrich, Klaus; Friedrich, Michael; Becker, Steffi

    2010-07-01

    Ovarian carcinomas are associated with increased inflammation which is based upon an up-regulation of inducible cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Moreover, based on our previous published data, the extra-renal vitamin D metabolism seems to be dysregulated in comparison to healthy tissue. In order to gain further insight into the prostaglandin (PG)- and vitamin D-metabolism in ovarian carcinomas, the study aimed to evaluate the expression of the PG metabolising enzymes COX-2 and 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) compared to the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in benign and malignant ovarian tissues. Additionally, we determined the 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH2)D3) serum levels. Expression of VDR, COX-2 and 15-PGDH was determined by Western blot analysis. Serum levels of 25(OH2)D3 and PGE2 were measured by chemiluminescence-based and colorimetric immunoassay. We detected significantly higher expressions of the PG metabolising enzymes 15-PGDH and COX-2 in malignant tissue and PGE2 serum levels were 2-fold higher in tumour patients. Furthermore, we found an inverse correlation to the VDR-expression which was 62.1% lower in malignant tissues compared to that in benign tissues. Surprisingly, we could not detect any differences between the 25(OH2)D3 serum levels in either group (n=20). These data suggest a correlation between PG- and vitamin D-metabolism in ovarian carcinomas. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis interferes on dendritic cells maturation by inhibiting PGE2 production.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Reginaldo K; Bachiega, Tatiana F; Rodrigues, Daniela R; Golim, Marjorie de A; Dias-Melicio, Luciane A; Balderramas, Helanderson de A; Kaneno, Ramon; Soares, Ângela M V C

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis, endemic in most Latin American countries, especially in Brazil, whose etiologic agent is the thermodimorphic fungus of the genus Paracoccidioides, comprising cryptic species of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, S1, PS2, PS3 and Paracoccidioides lutzii. The mechanisms involved in the initial interaction of the fungus with cells of the innate immune response, as dendritic cells (DCs), deserve to be studied. Prostaglandins (PGs) are eicosanoids that play an important role in modulating functions of immune cells including DCs. Here we found that human immature DCs derived from the differentiation of monocytes cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 release substantial concentrations of PGE2, which, however, were significantly inhibited after challenge with P. brasiliensis. In vitro blocking of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) by monoclonal antibodies showed the involvement of mannose receptor (MR) in PGE2 inhibition by the fungus. In addition, phenotyping assays showed that after challenge with the fungus, DCs do not change their phenotype of immature cells to mature ones, as well as do not produce IL-12 p70 or adequate concentrations of TNF-α. Assays using exogenous PGE2 confirmed an association between PGE2 inhibition and failure of cells to phenotypically mature in response to P. brasiliensis. We conclude that a P. brasiliensis evasion mechanism exists associated to a dysregulation on DC maturation. These findings may provide novel information for the understanding of the complex interplay between the host and this fungus.

  14. Reactive astrocyte COX2-PGE2 production inhibits oligodendrocyte maturation in neonatal white matter injury.

    PubMed

    Shiow, Lawrence R; Favrais, Geraldine; Schirmer, Lucas; Schang, Anne-Laure; Cipriani, Sara; Andres, Christian; Wright, Jaclyn N; Nobuta, Hiroko; Fleiss, Bobbi; Gressens, Pierre; Rowitch, David H

    2017-12-01

    Inflammation is a major risk factor for neonatal white matter injury (NWMI), which is associated with later development of cerebral palsy. Although recent studies have demonstrated maturation arrest of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in NWMI, the identity of inflammatory mediators with direct effects on OPCs has been unclear. Here, we investigated downstream effects of pro-inflammatory IL-1β to induce cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in white matter. First, we assessed COX2 expression in human fetal brain and term neonatal brain affected by hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). In the developing human brain, COX2 was expressed in radial glia, microglia, and endothelial cells. In human term neonatal HIE cases with subcortical WMI, COX2 was strongly induced in reactive astrocytes with "A2" reactivity. Next, we show that OPCs express the EP1 receptor for PGE2, and PGE2 acts directly on OPCs to block maturation in vitro. Pharmacologic blockade with EP1-specific inhibitors (ONO-8711, SC-51089), or genetic deficiency of EP1 attenuated effects of PGE2. In an IL-1β-induced model of NWMI, astrocytes also exhibit "A2" reactivity and induce COX2. Furthermore, in vivo inhibition of COX2 with Nimesulide rescues hypomyelination and behavioral impairment. These findings suggest that neonatal white matter astrocytes can develop "A2" reactivity that contributes to OPC maturation arrest in NWMI through induction of COX2-PGE2 signaling, a pathway that can be targeted for neonatal neuroprotection. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Rebamipide retards CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats: Possible role for PGE2.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Sherin; El-Sisi, Alaa

    2016-07-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a potent physiological suppressor of liver fibrosis. Because the anti-ulcer drug rebamipide can induce the formation of endogenous PGE2, this study investigated the potential effects of rebamipide on development of a hepatic fibrosis that was inducible by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Groups of Wistar rats received intraperitoneal (IP) injections of CCl4 (0.45 ml/kg [0.72 g CCl4/kg]) over the course of for 4 weeks. Sub-sets of CCl4-treated rats were also treated concurrently with rebamipide at 60 or 100 mg/kg. At 24 h after the final treatments, liver function and oxidative stress were indirectly assessed. The extent of hepatic fibrosis was evaluated using two fibrotic markers, hyaluronic acid (HA) and pro-collagen-III (Procol-III); isolated liver tissues underwent histology and were evaluated for interleukin (IL)-10 and PGE2 content. The results indicated that treatment with rebamipide significantly inhibited CCl4-induced increases in serum ALT and AST and also reduced oxidative stress induced by CCl4. Fibrotic marker assays revealed that either dose of rebamipide decreased the host levels of Procol-III and HA that had become elevated due to the CCl4. At the higher dose tested, rebamipide appeared to be able to permit the hosts to have a normal liver histology and to minimize any CCl4-induced collagen precipitation in the liver. Lastly, the use of rebamipide was seen to be associated with significant increases in liver levels of both PGE2 and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Based on these findings, it is concluded that rebamipide can retard hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl4 and that this effect may, in part, be mediated by an induction of PGE2 and IL-10 in the liver itself.

  16. Dendritic cells issued in vitro from bone marrow produce PGE(2) that contributes to the immunomodulation induced by antigen-presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Harizi, H; Juzan, M; Grosset, C; Rashedi, M; Gualde, N

    2001-04-10

    Given that preliminary work has indicated that prostaglandins can play a role in modulating dendritic cell (DC) functions, we addressed the prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) biosynthetic capacity of mouse DC produced in vitro from bone marrow cells. We observed production of significant amounts of PGE(2), which was reduced by at least 80% when cells were incubated in the presence of indomethacin, a COX-1 preferential inhibitor. Indeed, when tested by Western blot analysis with specific COX-1 and COX-2 antibodies, only COX-1 expression could be detected in the bone marrow (BM)-DC. For lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated BM-DC, inhibition of PGE(2) production by indomethacin or by NS-398 (a COX-2-selective inhibitor) used alone was less potent. After LPS treatment of BM-DC, COX-1 and COX-2 expression was potent, and inhibition of PGE(2) synthesis needed the presence of both indomethacin and NS-398. We also observed that exogenous PGE(2) diminished the expression of MHC class II molecules by BM-DC and that prostaglandin and indomethacin had antagonistic effects on cell proliferation during the mixed lymphocyte reaction using BM-DC as stimulatory cells. This assessment of PGE(2) suggests that endogenous PGE(2) produced by DC might play a role as an immunomodulating factor during the immune response. This hypothesis is sustained by the fact that IL-12 production by BM-DC is modulated by exogenous PGE(2) as well as endogenous prostaglandin, since either the addition of exogenous PGE(2) or the presence of LPS (which increases endogenous PGE(2) synthesis) decreases IL-12 production, while NS-398 (which decreases LPS-induced PGE(2) synthesis) increases IL-12 synthesis. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  17. Lactobacillus fermentum ZYL0401 Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Hepatic TNF-α Expression and Liver Injury via an IL-10- and PGE2-EP4-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Longxian; Yang, Jianzhuan; Lu, Haifeng; Li, Lanjuan

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has essential role in the pathogenesis of D-galactosamine-sensitized animal models and alcoholic liver diseases of humans, by stimulating release of pro-inflammatory mediators that cause hepatic damage and intestinal barrier impairment. Oral pretreatment of probiotics has been shown to attenuate LPS-induced hepatic injury, but it is unclear whether the effect is direct or due to improvement in the intestinal barrier. The present study tested the hypothesis that pretreatment with probiotics enables the liver to withstand directly LPS-induced hepatic injury and inflammation. In a mouse model of LPS-induced hepatic injury, the levels of hepatic tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of mice with depleted intestinal commensal bacteria were not significantly different from that of the control models. Pre-feeding mice for 10 days with Lactobacillus fermentum ZYL0401 (LF41), significantly alleviated LPS-induced hepatic TNF-α expression and liver damage. After LF41 pretreatment, mice had dramatically more L.fermentum-specific DNA in the ileum, significantly higher levels of ileal cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and interleukin 10 (IL-10) and hepatic prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). However, hepatic COX-1, COX-2, and IL-10 protein levels were not changed after the pretreatment. There were also higher hepatic IL-10 protein levels after LPS challenge in LF41-pretreaed mice than in the control mice. Attenuation of hepatic TNF-α was mediated via the PGE2/E prostanoid 4 (EP4) pathway, and serum ALT levels were attenuated in an IL-10-dependent manner. A COX-2 blockade abolished the increase in hepatic PGE2 and IL-10 associated with LF41. In LF41-pretreated mice, a blockade of IL-10 caused COX-2-dependent promotion of hepatic PGE2, without affecting hepatic COX-2levels. In LF41-pretreated mice, COX2 prevented enhancing TNF-α expression in both hepatic mononuclear cells and the ileum, and averted TNF-α-mediated increase in

  18. Aspirin provocation increases 8-iso-PGE2 in exhaled breath condensate of aspirin-hypersensitive asthmatics.

    PubMed

    Mastalerz, Lucyna; Januszek, Rafał; Kaszuba, Marek; Wójcik, Krzysztof; Celejewska-Wójcik, Natalia; Gielicz, Anna; Plutecka, Hanna; Oleś, Krzysztof; Stręk, Paweł; Sanak, Marek

    2015-09-01

    Isoprostanes are bioactive compounds formed by non-enzymatic oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, mostly arachidonic, and markers of free radical generation during inflammation. In aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), asthmatic symptoms are precipitated by ingestion of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs capable for pharmacologic inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 isoenzyme. We investigated whether aspirin-provoked bronchoconstriction is accompanied by changes of isoprostanes in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). EBC was collected from 28 AERD subjects and 25 aspirin-tolerant asthmatics before and after inhalatory aspirin challenge. Concentrations of 8-iso-PGF2α, 8-iso-PGE2, and prostaglandin E2 were measured using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Leukotriene E4 was measured by immunoassay in urine samples collected before and after the challenge. Before the challenge, exhaled 8-iso-PGF2α, 8-iso-PGE2, and PGE2 levels did not differ between the study groups. 8-iso-PGE2 level increased in AERD group only (p=0.014) as a result of the aspirin challenge. Urinary LTE4 was elevated in AERD, both in baseline and post-challenge samples. Post-challenge airways 8-iso-PGE2 correlated positively with urinary LTE4 level (p=0.046), whereas it correlated negatively with the provocative dose of aspirin (p=0.027). A significant increase of exhaled 8-iso-PGE2 after inhalatory challenge with aspirin was selective and not present for the other isoprostane measured. This is a novel finding in AERD, suggesting that inhibition of cyclooxygenase may elicit 8-iso-PGE2 production in a specific mechanism, contributing to bronchoconstriction and systemic overproduction of cysteinyl leukotrienes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. PGE2 contributes to TGF-β induced T regulatory cell function in human non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Baratelli, Felicita; Lee, Jay M; Hazra, Saswati; Lin, Ying; Walser, Tonya C; Schaue, Dorthe; Pak, Peter S; Elashoff, David; Reckamp, Karen; Zhang, Ling; Fishbein, Michael C; Sharma, Sherven; Dubinett, Steven M

    2010-01-01

    CD4+CD25bright regulatory T cells (Treg) play an important role in cancer-mediated immunosuppression. We and others have previously shown that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) induce CD4+CD25brightFOXP3+Treg. Based on these studies, we investigated the requirement for PGE2 in Treg induction by TGF-β. TGF-β stimulation of human CD4+ T cells induced COX-2-dependent production of PGE2. PGE2-neutralizing antibody treatment significantly reduced the suppressive function of TGF-β-induced Treg (TGF-β-Treg) in vitro. TGF-β concentration measured in the plasma of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients directly correlated with the frequency of circulating CD4+CD25brightFOXP3+T cells. Flow cytometry analysis showed increased FOXP3 expression in circulating CD4+CD25+HLA-DR- cells of lung cancer patients compared to control subjects. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed co-expression of TGF-β, COX-2, and FOXP3 in serial sections from resected lung tumor tissues. All together these observations suggest interplay between TGF-β and COX-2 in the induction of Treg activities. Interrupting TGF-β and PGE2 signaling may be important in therapeutic interventions that aim to limit Tregfunction in lung cancer. PMID:20733946

  20. Gut Microbiota Promotes Obesity-Associated Liver Cancer through PGE2-Mediated Suppression of Antitumor Immunity.

    PubMed

    Loo, Tze Mun; Kamachi, Fumitaka; Watanabe, Yoshihiro; Yoshimoto, Shin; Kanda, Hiroaki; Arai, Yuriko; Nakajima-Takagi, Yaeko; Iwama, Atsushi; Koga, Tomoaki; Sugimoto, Yukihiko; Ozawa, Takayuki; Nakamura, Masaru; Kumagai, Miho; Watashi, Koichi; Taketo, Makoto M; Aoki, Tomohiro; Narumiya, Shuh; Oshima, Masanobu; Arita, Makoto; Hara, Eiji; Ohtani, Naoko

    2017-05-01

    Obesity increases the risk of cancers, including hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). However, the precise molecular mechanisms through which obesity promotes HCC development are still unclear. Recent studies have shown that gut microbiota may influence liver diseases by transferring its metabolites and components. Here, we show that the hepatic translocation of obesity-induced lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a Gram-positive gut microbial component, promotes HCC development by creating a tumor-promoting microenvironment. LTA enhances the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) collaboratively with an obesity-induced gut microbial metabolite, deoxycholic acid, to upregulate the expression of SASP factors and COX2 through Toll-like receptor 2. Interestingly, COX2-mediated prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) production suppresses the antitumor immunity through a PTGER4 receptor, thereby contributing to HCC progression. Moreover, COX2 overexpression and excess PGE 2 production were detected in HSCs in human HCCs with noncirrhotic, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), indicating that a similar mechanism could function in humans. Significance: We showed the importance of the gut-liver axis in obesity-associated HCC. The gut microbiota-driven COX2 pathway produced the lipid mediator PGE 2 in senescent HSCs in the tumor microenvironment, which plays a pivotal role in suppressing antitumor immunity, suggesting that PGE 2 and its receptor may be novel therapeutic targets for noncirrhotic NASH-associated HCC. Cancer Discov; 7(5); 522-38. ©2017 AACR. This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 443 . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Silymarin suppresses the PGE2 -induced cell migration through inhibition of EP2 activation; G protein-dependent PKA-CREB and G protein-independent Src-STAT3 signal pathways.

    PubMed

    Woo, Seon Min; Min, Kyoung-Jin; Chae, In Gyeong; Chun, Kyung-Soo; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2015-03-01

    Silymarin has been known as a chemopreventive agent, and possesses multiple anti-cancer activities including induction of apoptosis, inhibition of proliferation and growth, and blockade of migration and invasion. However, whether silymarin could inhibit prostaglandin (PG) E2 -induced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) migration and what are the underlying mechanisms are not well elucidated. Here, we found that silymarin markedly inhibited PGE2 -stimulated migration. PGE2 induced G protein-dependent CREB phosphorylation via protein kinase A (PKA) signaling, and PKA inhibitor (H89) inhibited PGE2 -mediated migration. Silymarin reduced PGE2 -induced CREB phosphorylation and CRE-promoter activity. PGE2 also activated G protien-independent signaling pathways (Src and STAT3) and silymarin reduced PGE2 -induced phosphorylation of Src and STAT3. Inhibitor of Src (Saracatinib) markedly reduced PGE2 -mediated migration. We found that EP2, a PGE2 receptor, is involved in PGE2 -mediated cell migration. Down regulation of EP2 by EP2 siRNA and EP2 antagonist (AH6809) reduced PGE2 -inudced migration. In contrast, EP2 agonist (Butaprost) increased cell migration and silymarin effectively reduced butaprost-mediated cell migration. Moreover, PGE2 increased EP2 expression through activation of positive feedback mechanism, and PGE2 -induced EP2 expression, as well as basal EP2 levels, were reduced in silymarin-treated cells. Taken together, our study demonstrates that silymarin inhibited PGE2 -induced cell migration through inhibition of EP2 signaling pathways (G protein dependent PKA-CREB and G protein-independent Src-STAT3). © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Decursinol angelate inhibits PGE2-induced survival of the human leukemia HL-60 cell line via regulation of the EP2 receptor and NFκB pathway.

    PubMed

    Shehzad, Adeeb; Islam, Salman Ul; Ahn, Eun-Mi; Lee, You Mie; Lee, Young Sup

    2016-09-01

    Decursinol angelate (DA), an active pyranocoumarin compound from the roots of Angelica gigas, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. In a previous study, we demonstrated that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) plays a survival role in HL-60 cells by protecting them from the induction of apoptosis via oxidative stress. Flow cytometry and Hoechst staining revealed that PGE2 suppresses menadione-induced apoptosis, cell shrinkage, and chromatin condensation, by blocking the generation of reactive oxygen species. Treatment of DA was found to reverse the survival effect of PGE2 as well as restoring the menadione-mediated cleavage of caspase-3, lamin B, and PARP. DA blocked PGE2-induced activation of the EP2 receptor signaling pathway, including the activation of PKA and the phosphorylation of CREB. DA also inhibited PGE2-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and the activation of the Ras/Raf/ Erk pathway, which activates downstream targets for cell survival. Finally, DA greatly reduced the PGE2-induced activation of NF-κB p50 and p65 subunits. These results elucidate a novel mechanism for the regulation of cell survival and apoptosis, and open a gateway for further development and combinatory treatments that can inhibit PGE2 in cancer cells.

  3. Decursinol angelate inhibits PGE2-induced survival of the human leukemia HL-60 cell line via regulation of the EP2 receptor and NFκB pathway

    PubMed Central

    Shehzad, Adeeb; Islam, Salman Ul; Ahn, Eun-Mi; Lee, You Mie; Lee, Young Sup

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Decursinol angelate (DA), an active pyranocoumarin compound from the roots of Angelica gigas, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. In a previous study, we demonstrated that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) plays a survival role in HL-60 cells by protecting them from the induction of apoptosis via oxidative stress. Flow cytometry and Hoechst staining revealed that PGE2 suppresses menadione-induced apoptosis, cell shrinkage, and chromatin condensation, by blocking the generation of reactive oxygen species. Treatment of DA was found to reverse the survival effect of PGE2 as well as restoring the menadione-mediated cleavage of caspase-3, lamin B, and PARP. DA blocked PGE2-induced activation of the EP2 receptor signaling pathway, including the activation of PKA and the phosphorylation of CREB. DA also inhibited PGE2-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and the activation of the Ras/Raf/ Erk pathway, which activates downstream targets for cell survival. Finally, DA greatly reduced the PGE2-induced activation of NF-κB p50 and p65 subunits. These results elucidate a novel mechanism for the regulation of cell survival and apoptosis, and open a gateway for further development and combinatory treatments that can inhibit PGE2 in cancer cells. PMID:27414656

  4. PGE2 suppresses intestinal T cell function in thermal injury: a cause of enhanced bacterial translocation.

    PubMed

    Choudhry, M A; Fazal, N; Namak, S Y; Haque, F; Ravindranath, T; Sayeed, M M

    2001-09-01

    Increased gut bacterial translocation in burn and trauma patients has been demonstrated in a number of previous studies, however, the mechanism for such an increased gut bacterial translocation in injured patients remains poorly understood. Utilizing a rat model of burn injury, in the present study we examined the role of intestinal immune defense by analyzing the T cell functions. We investigated if intestinal T cells dysfunction contributes to bacterial translocation after burn injury. Also our study determined if burn-mediated alterations in intestinal T cell functions are related to enhanced release of PGE2. Finally, we examined whether or not burn-related alterations in intestinal T cell function are due to inappropriate activation of signaling molecule P59fyn, which is required for T cell activation and proliferation. The results presented here showed an increase in gut bacterial accumulation in mesenteric lymph nodes after thermal injury. This was accompanied by a decrease in the intestinal T cell proliferative responses. Furthermore, the treatments of burn-injured animals with PGE2 synthesis blocker (indomethacin or NS398) prevented both the decrease in intestinal T cell proliferation and enhanced bacterial translocation. Finally, our data suggested that the inhibition of intestinal T cell proliferation could result via PGE2-mediated down-regulation of the T cell activation-signaling molecule P59fyn. These findings support a role of T cell-mediated immune defense against bacterial translocation in burn injury.

  5. Canine mesenchymal stem cells treated with TNF-α and IFN-γ enhance anti-inflammatory effects through the COX-2/PGE2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hye-Mi; Song, Woo-Jin; Li, Qiang; Kim, Su-Yeon; Kim, Hyeon-Jin; Ryu, Min-Ok; Ahn, Jin-Ok; Youn, Hwa-Young

    2018-05-14

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used in studies on treatment of various diseases, and their application to immune-mediated diseases has garnered interest. Various methods for enhancing the immunomodulation effect of human MSCs have been used; however, similar approaches for canine MSCs are relatively unexplored. Accordingly, we evaluated immunomodulatory effects and mechanisms in canine MSCs treated with TNF-α and IFN-γ. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were incubated with the conditioned media (CM) from canine MSCs for 48 h. Expression of RNA was assessed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), and protein levels were assessed by western blot. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), IL-6 and IL-1β was significantly (one-way ANOVA) decreased in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells incubated with CM from canine MSCs compared to that in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells alone. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory effects of TNF-α- and IFN-γ-primed canine MSCs were significantly increased compared with those of naïve canine MSCs. Expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) were likewise significantly increased in primed canine MSCs. The level of iNOS protein in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells incubated with CM from the primed canine MSCs was decreased, but it increased when the cells were treated with NS-398(PGE 2 inhibitor). In conclusion, compared with naïve canine MSCs, cells primed with TNF-α and IFN-γ cause a greater reduction in release of anti-inflammatory cytokines from LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells; the mechanism is upregulation of the COX-2/PGE 2 pathway. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. PGE(2) inhibition of TGF-beta1-induced myofibroblast differentiation is Smad-independent but involves cell shape and adhesion-dependent signaling.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Peedikayil E; Peters-Golden, Marc; White, Eric S; Thannickal, Victor J; Moore, Bethany B

    2007-08-01

    Myofibroblasts are pathogenic in pulmonary fibrotic disease due to their exuberant production of matrix rich in collagen that interferes with gas exchange and the ability of these cells to contract and distort the alveolar space. Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) is a well-known inducer of myofibroblast differentiation. TGF-beta1-induced transformation of fibroblasts to apoptosis-resistant myofibroblasts is adhesion-dependent and focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-mediated. Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) inhibits this differentiation via E prostanoid receptor 2 (EP2) signaling and cAMP elevation, but whether PGE(2) does so by interfering with TGF-beta1 signaling is unknown. Thus we examined the effects of PGE(2) in the presence and absence of TGF-beta1 stimulation on candidate signaling pathways in human lung fibroblasts. We now demonstrate that PGE(2) does not interfere with TGF-beta1-induced Smad phosphorylation or its translocation to the nucleus. Rather, PGE(2) has dramatic effects on cell shape and cytoskeletal architecture and disrupts the formation of appropriate focal adhesions. PGE(2) treatment diminishes TGF-beta1-induced phosphorylation of paxillin, STAT-3, and FAK and, in turn, limits activation of the protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) pathway. These alterations do not, however, result in increased apoptosis within the first 24 h of treatment. Interestingly, the effects of PGE(2) stimulation alone do not always mirror the effects of PGE(2) in the presence of TGF-beta1, indicating that the context for EP2 signaling is different in the presence of TGF-beta1. Taken together, our results demonstrate that PGE(2) has the potential to limit TGF-beta1-induced myofibroblast differentiation via adhesion-dependent, but Smad-independent, pathways.

  7. Prostaglandin E(2) stimulates glutamate receptor-dependent astrocyte neuromodulation in cultured hippocampal cells.

    PubMed

    Sanzgiri, R P; Araque, A; Haydon, P G

    1999-11-05

    Recent Ca(2+) imaging studies in cell culture and in situ have shown that Ca(2+) elevations in astrocytes stimulate glutamate release and increase neuronal Ca(2+) levels, and that this astrocyte-neuron signaling can be stimulated by prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). We investigated the electrophysiological consequences of the PGE(2)-mediated astrocyte-neuron signaling using whole-cell recordings on cultured rat hippocampal cells. Focal application of PGE(2) to astrocytes evoked a Ca(2+) elevation in the stimulated cell by mobilizing internal Ca(2+) stores, which further propagated as a Ca(2+) wave to neighboring astrocytes. Whole-cell recordings from neurons revealed that PGE(2) evoked a slow inward current in neurons adjacent to astrocytes. This neuronal response required the presence of an astrocyte Ca(2+) wave and was mediated through both N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA glutamate receptors. Taken together with previous studies, these data demonstrate that PGE(2)-evoked Ca(2+) elevations in astrocyte cause the release of glutamate which activates neuronal ionotropic receptors. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. mPGES-1-derived PGE2 mediates dehydration natriuresis

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Zhanjun; Liu, Gang; Sun, Ying; Kakizoe, Yutaka; Guan, Guangju; Zhang, Aihua; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2013-01-01

    PGE2 is a natriuretic factor whose production is elevated after water deprivation (WD) but its role in dehydration natriuresis is not well-defined. The goal of the present study was to investigate the role of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) in dehydration natriuresis. After 24-h WD, wild-type (WT) mice exhibited a significant increase in 24-h urinary Na+ excretion accompanied with normal plasma Na+ concentration and osmolality. In contrast, WD-induced elevation of urinary Na+ excretion was completely abolished in mPGES-1 knockout (KO) mice in parallel with increased plasma Na+ concentration and a trend increase in plasma osmolality. WD induced a 1.8-fold increase in urinary PGE2 output and a 1.6-fold increase in PGE2 content in the renal medulla of WT mice, both of which were completely abolished by mPGES-1 deletion. Similar patterns of changes were observed for urinary nitrate/nitrite and cGMP. The natriuresis in dehydrated WT mice was associated with a significant downregulation of renal medullary epithelial Na channel-α mRNA and protein, contrasting to unaltered expressions in dehydrated KO mice. By quantitative RT-PCR, WD increased the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible NOS, and neuronal NOS expressions in the renal medulla of WT mice by 3.9-, 1.48-, and 2.6-fold, respectively, all of which were significantly blocked in mPGES-1 KO mice. The regulation of eNOS expression was further confirmed by immunoblotting. Taken together, our results suggest that mPGES-1-derived PGE2 contributes to dehydration natriuresis likely via NO/cGMP. PMID:23171554

  9. Re-establishment of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) between human endometrial carcinomas by prostaglandin E(2).

    PubMed

    Schlemmer, Scott R; Kaufman, David G

    2012-12-01

    Reduced intercellular communication via gap junctions is correlated with carcinogenesis. Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), between normal human endometrial epithelial cells is enhanced when endometrial stromal cells were present in culture. This enhancement of GJIC between normal epithelial cells also occurs when they are cultured in medium conditioned by stromal cells. This observation indicated that a soluble compound (or compounds) produced and secreted by stromal cells mediates GJIC in epithelial cells. Previous studies have shown that endometrial stromal cells release prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and prostaglandin F(2α) (PGF(2α)) under physiological conditions. When we evaluated the response of normal endometrial epithelial cells to various concentrations of PGE(2,) we found enhanced GJIC with 1nM PGE(2). This is a smaller increase in GJIC than that induced by medium conditioned by stromal cells. When the extracellular concentration of PGE(2) was measured after incubation with stromal cells, it was found to be similar to the concentrations showing maximal GJIC between the normal epithelial cells. When indomethacin was used to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis by stromal cells, GJIC was reduced but not eliminated between normal endometrial epithelial cells. These observations suggest that although PGE(2) secreted by stromal cells is an important mediator of GJIC between the epithelial cells, it is not the sole mediator. Transformed endometrial epithelial cells did not demonstrate GJIC even in the presence of stromal cells. However, we were able to re-establish GJIC in transformed epithelial cells when we added PGE(2) to the cells. Our findings show that PGE(2) may serve as an intercellular mediator between stromal and epithelial cells that regulates GJIC in normal and malignant epithelial cells. This suggests that maintenance of GJIC by preserving or replacing PGE(2) secretion by endometrial stromal cells may have the potential to suppress

  10. Pirfenidone attenuates IL-1β-induced COX-2 and PGE2 production in orbital fibroblasts through suppression of NF-κB activity.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youn-Hee; Back, Keum Ok; Kim, Hee Ja; Lee, Sang Yeul; Kook, Koung Hoon

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pirfenidone on interleukin (IL)-1β-induced cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and prostaglandin (PG)E2 expression in orbital fibroblasts from patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). Primary cultures of orbital fibroblasts from patients with TAO (n = 4) and non-TAO subjects (n = 4) were prepared. The level of PGE2 in orbital fibroblasts treated with IL-1β in the presence or absence of pirfenidone was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The effect of pirfenidone on IL-1β-induced COX-2 expression in orbital fibroblasts from patients with TAO was evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR analyses, and verified by Western blot. Activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was evaluated by immunoblotting for inhibitor of κB (IκB)α and phosphorylated IκBα, and DNA-binding activity of p50/p65 NF-κB was analyzed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. In addition, IL-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1R1) expression was assessed by RT-PCR in IL-1β-treated cells with or without pirfenidone. Pirfenidone significantly attenuated IL-1β-induced PGE2 release in both TAO and non-TAO cells. IL-1β-induced COX-2 mRNA and protein expression decreased significantly following co-treatment with pirfenidone. IL-1β-induced IκBα phosphorylation and degradation decreased in the presence of pirfenidone and led to decreased nuclear translocation and DNA binding of the active NF-κB complex. In our system, neither IL-1β nor pirfenidone co-treatment influenced IL-1R1 expression. Our results suggest that pirfenidone attenuates the IL-1β-induced PGE2/COX-2 production in TAO orbital fibroblasts, which is related with suppression of the NF-κB activation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. PGE2 pulsing of murine bone marrow cells reduces migration of daughter monocytes/macrophages in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    McGonigle, Terence A.; Dwyer, Amy R.; Greenland, Eloise L.; Scott, Naomi M.; Keane, Kevin N.; Newsholme, Philip; Goodridge, Helen S.; Zon, Leonard I.; Pixley, Fiona J.; Hart, Prue H.

    2018-01-01

    Monocytes/macrophages differentiating from bone marrow (BM) cells pulsed for 2 hours at 37°C with a stabilized derivative of prostaglandin E2, 16,16-dimethyl PGE2 (dmPGE2), migrated less efficiently toward a chemoattractant than monocytes/macrophages differentiated from BM cells pulsed with vehicle. To confirm that the effect on BM cells was long lasting and to replicate human BM transplantation, chimeric mice were established with donor BM cells pulsed for 2 hours with dmPGE2 before injection into marrow-ablated congenic recipient mice. After 12 weeks, when high levels (90%) of engraftment were obtained, regenerated BM-derived monocytes/macrophages differentiating in vitro or in vivo migrated inefficiently toward the chemokines colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) or thioglycollate, respectively. Our results reveal long-lasting changes to progenitor cells of monocytes/macrophages by a 2-hour dmPGE2 pulse that, in turn, limits the migration of their daughter cells to chemoattractants and inflammatory mediators. PMID:28822771

  12. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells hUC-MSCs exert immunosuppressive activities through a PGE2-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke; Wang, Ding; Du, Wei Ting; Han, Zhi-Bo; Ren, He; Chi, Ying; Yang, Shao Guang; Zhu, Delin; Bayard, Francis; Han, Zhong Chao

    2010-06-01

    Human umbilical-cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) constitute an attractive alternative to bone-marrow-derived MSCs for potential clinical applications because of easy preparation and lower risk of viral contamination. In this study, both proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) and their IFN-gamma production in response to mitogenic or allogeneic stimulus were effectively inhibited by hUC-MSCs. Co-culture experiments in transwell systems indicated that the suppression was largely mediated by soluble factor(s). Blocking experiments identified prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) as the major factor, because inhibition of PGE(2) synthesis almost completely mitigated the immunosuppressive effects, whereas neutralization of TGF-beta, IDO, and NO activities had little effects. Moreover, the inflammatory cytokines, IFN-gamma and IL-1beta, produced by hPBMCs upon activation notably upregulated the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and the production of PGE(2) by hUC-MSCs. In conclusion, our data have demonstrated for the first time the PGE(2)-mediated mechanism by which hUC-MSCs exert their immunomodulatory effects. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. PGE2 mediates EGFR internalization and nuclear translocation via caveolin endocytosis promoting its transcriptional activity and proliferation in human NSCLC cells

    PubMed Central

    Bazzani, Lorenzo; Donnini, Sandra; Giachetti, Antonio; Christofori, Gerhard; Ziche, Marina

    2018-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) contributes to tumor progression by promoting cancer cell growth, invasion and by creating a favorable pro-tumor microenvironment. PGE2 has been reported to transactivate and internalize into the nucleus receptor tyrosine kinases such as Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), thereby supporting tumor progression. Here we demonstrate that in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells, PGE2 induces EGFR nuclear translocation via different dynamin-dependent endocytic pathways, promotes the formation of an EGFR-STAT3 complex, affects nuclear EGFR target gene expression and mediates tumor cell proliferation. Indeed, we find that PGE2 induces EGFR internalization and consequent nuclear import through Clathrin- and Caveolin-mediated endocytosis and through the interaction of EGFR with Importin β1. Within the nucleus, EGFR forms a complex with STAT3, an event blocked by ablation of Clathrin Heavy Chain or Caveolin-1. The combination of EGF and PGE2 prolongs nuclear EGFR transcriptional activity manifested by the upregulation of CCND1, PTGS2, MYC and NOS2 mRNA levels and potentiates nuclear EGFR-induced NSCLC cell proliferation. Additionally, NSCLC patients with high expression of a nuclear EGFR gene signature display shorter survival times than those with low expression, thus showing a putative correlation between nuclear EGFR and poor prognosis in NSCLC. Together, our findings indicate a complex mechanism underlying PGE2-induced EGF/EGFR signaling and transcriptional control, which plays a key role in cancer progression. PMID:29599917

  14. JP-8 jet fuel exposure rapidly induces high levels of IL-10 and PGE2 secretion and is correlated with loss of immune function.

    PubMed

    Harris, David T; Sakiestewa, Debbie; Titone, Dominic; Witten, Mark

    2007-05-01

    The US Air Force has implemented the widespread use of JP-8 jet fuel in its operations, although a thorough understanding of its potential effects upon exposed personnel is unclear. Previous work has demonstrated that JP-8 exposure is immunosuppressive. In the present study, the potential mechanisms for the effects of JP-8 exposure on the immune system were investigated. Exposure of mice to JP-8 for 1 h/day resulted in immediate secretion of two immunosuppressive agents; namely, interleukin-10 (IL-10) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). JP-8 exposure rapidly induced a persistently high level of serum IL-10 and PGE2 at an exposure concentration of 1000 mg/m3. IL-10 levels peaked at 2 h post-JP-8 exposure and then stabilized at significantly elevated serum levels, while PGE2 levels peaked after 2-3 days of exposure and then stabilized. Elevated IL-10 and PGE2 levels may at least partially explain the effects of JP-8 exposure on immune function. Elevated IL-10 and PGE2 levels, however, cannot explain all of the effects due to JP-8 exposure (e.g., decreased organ weights and decreased viable immune cells), as treatment with a PGE2 inhibitor did not completely reverse the immunosuppressive effects of jet fuel exposure. Thus, low concentration JP-8 jet fuel exposures have significant effects on the immune system, which can be partially explained by the secretion of immunosuppressive modulators, which are cumulative over time.

  15. PGE2 mediates EGFR internalization and nuclear translocation via caveolin endocytosis promoting its transcriptional activity and proliferation in human NSCLC cells.

    PubMed

    Bazzani, Lorenzo; Donnini, Sandra; Giachetti, Antonio; Christofori, Gerhard; Ziche, Marina

    2018-03-13

    Prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) contributes to tumor progression by promoting cancer cell growth, invasion and by creating a favorable pro-tumor microenvironment. PGE 2 has been reported to transactivate and internalize into the nucleus receptor tyrosine kinases such as Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), thereby supporting tumor progression. Here we demonstrate that in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells, PGE 2 induces EGFR nuclear translocation via different dynamin-dependent endocytic pathways, promotes the formation of an EGFR-STAT3 complex, affects nuclear EGFR target gene expression and mediates tumor cell proliferation. Indeed, we find that PGE 2 induces EGFR internalization and consequent nuclear import through Clathrin- and Caveolin-mediated endocytosis and through the interaction of EGFR with Importin β1. Within the nucleus, EGFR forms a complex with STAT3, an event blocked by ablation of Clathrin Heavy Chain or Caveolin-1. The combination of EGF and PGE 2 prolongs nuclear EGFR transcriptional activity manifested by the upregulation of CCND1 , PTGS2 , MYC and NOS2 mRNA levels and potentiates nuclear EGFR-induced NSCLC cell proliferation. Additionally, NSCLC patients with high expression of a nuclear EGFR gene signature display shorter survival times than those with low expression, thus showing a putative correlation between nuclear EGFR and poor prognosis in NSCLC. Together, our findings indicate a complex mechanism underlying PGE 2 -induced EGF/EGFR signaling and transcriptional control, which plays a key role in cancer progression.

  16. A positive feedback loop between progesterone and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1-mediated PGE2 promotes production of both in mouse granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Kazuhiro; Naraba, Hiroaki; Hara, Takahiko; Nakamura, Kota; Yoshie, Mikihiro; Kogo, Hiroshi; Tachikawa, Eiichi

    2016-03-01

    Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) is primarily expressed in granulosa cells (GCs) in the preovulatory follicle. Both prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and progesterone (P4) are implicated in various reproductive functions. Here, we demonstrate that mPges-1 may be a direct downstream target gene of the P4 receptor and P4-stimulated PGE2 secretion can stimulate P4 production in a newly generated mouse GC line (GtsT). Treatment of GtsT cells with a P4 receptor agonist, norgestrel, markedly increased mPGES-1 expression detected by RT-PCR analysis. PGE2 secretion measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was enhanced by P4 treatment. Luciferase assays revealed that the proximal promoter region of the mPges-1 gene was responsible for the effects of P4 treatment. Conversely, PGE2 treatment stimulated P4 secretion, which coordinated with mRNA expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein. Taken together, P4 may regulate mPGES-1 expression to increase PGE2 secretion and in turn P4 production. An autocrine loop between P4 and PGE2 might function to maintain the increased levels of both in GCs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Accurate quantification of PGE2 in the polyposis in rat colon (Pirc) model by surrogate analyte-based UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Yun, Changhong; Dashwood, Wan-Mohaiza; Kwong, Lawrence N; Gao, Song; Yin, Taijun; Ling, Qinglan; Singh, Rashim; Dashwood, Roderick H; Hu, Ming

    2018-01-30

    An accurate and reliable UPLC-MS/MS method is reported for the quantification of endogenous Prostaglandin E2 (PGE 2 ) in rat colonic mucosa and polyps. This method adopted the "surrogate analyte plus authentic bio-matrix" approach, using two different stable isotopic labeled analogs - PGE 2 -d9 as the surrogate analyte and PGE 2 -d4 as the internal standard. A quantitative standard curve was constructed with the surrogate analyte in colonic mucosa homogenate, and the method was successfully validated with the authentic bio-matrix. Concentrations of endogenous PGE 2 in both normal and inflammatory tissue homogenates were back-calculated based on the regression equation. Because of no endogenous interference on the surrogate analyte determination, the specificity was particularly good. By using authentic bio-matrix for validation, the matrix effect and exaction recovery are identically same for the quantitative standard curve and actual samples - this notably increased the assay accuracy. The method is easy, fast, robust and reliable for colon PGE 2 determination. This "surrogate analyte" approach was applied to measure the Pirc (an Apc-mutant rat kindred that models human FAP) mucosa and polyps PGE 2 , one of the strong biomarkers of colorectal cancer. A similar concept could be applied to endogenous biomarkers in other tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. PGE(2) activation of apical membrane Cl(-) channels in A6 epithelia: impedance analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Păunescu, T G; Helman, S I

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of transepithelial electrical impedance of continuously short-circuited A6 epithelia were made at audio frequencies (0.244 Hz to 10.45 kHz) to investigate the time course and extent to which prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) modulates Cl(-) transport and apical membrane capacitance in this cell-cultured model epithelium. Apical and basolateral membrane resistances were determined by nonlinear curve-fitting of the impedance vectors at relatively low frequencies (<50 Hz) to equations (Păunescu, T. G., and S. I. Helman. 2001. Biophys. J. 81:838--851) where depressed Nyquist impedance semicircles were characteristic of the membrane impedances under control Na(+)-transporting and amiloride-inhibited conditions. In all tissues (control, amiloride-blocked, and amiloride-blocked and furosemide-pretreated), PGE(2) caused relatively small (< approximately 3 microA/cm(2)) and rapid (<60 s) maximal increase of chloride current due to activation of a rather large increase of apical membrane conductance that preceded significant activation of Na(+) transport through amiloride-sensitive epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaCs). Apical membrane capacitance was frequency-dependent with a Cole-Cole dielectric dispersion whose relaxation frequency was near 150 Hz. Analysis of the time-dependent changes of the complex frequency-dependent equivalent capacitance of the cells at frequencies >1.5 kHz revealed that the mean 9.8% increase of capacitance caused by PGE(2) was not correlated in time with activation of chloride conductance, but rather correlated with activation of apical membrane Na(+) transport. PMID:11463630

  19. Role of carbonic anhydrase in bone resorption induced by prostaglandin E2 in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, G. E.; Kenny, A. D.

    1985-01-01

    The possible role of carbonic anhydrase in bone resorption induced by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was studied using an in vitro neonatal mouse calvarial culture system. PGE2 (10 to the -6th M) was effective in stimulating resorption, as assessed by calcium release into culture media. This enhanced resorption was accompanied by significant increases in calvarial carbonic anhydrase activity over control values at 48 and 96 h. At 48 h, bones treated with PGE2 had 20 percent more carbonic anhydrase activity than controls. By 96 h, treated bones contained 79 percent more carbonic anhydrase activity than controls. PGE2-induced bone resorption was inhibited by the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide in a dose-dependent fashion from 10 to the -5th to 10 to the -4th M with 77 percent inhibition observed at 10 to the -4th M. The acetazolamide analogue CL 13,850 (N-t-butylacetazolamide), which does not inhibit carbonic anhydrase, failed to inhibit PGE2-induced resorption. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that carbonic anhydrase is a necessary component of the osteoclastic bone resorptive mechanism.

  20. Trimethyltin-activated cyclooxygenase stimulates tumor necrosis factor-alpha release from glial cells through reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Viviani, B; Corsini, E; Pesenti, M; Galli, C L; Marinovich, M

    2001-04-15

    Exposure of a primary culture of glial cells to the classical neurotoxicant trimethyltin (TMT) results in the release of prostaglandin (PG)E(2) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. Prior treatment of glial cells with either the nonspecific inhibitor of cyclooxygenase and lypoxygenase eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA) or the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin completely prevented TMT-induced PGE(2) production and TNF-alpha release, suggesting a role for cyclooxygenase metabolites in TMT-induced TNF-alpha release. Exposure of glial cells to increasing concentrations of PGE(2) or other prostanoids did not increase TNF-alpha synthesis, while the presence of exogenous PGE(2) during treatment of glial cells with TMT actually suppressed TNF-alpha release. The activation of arachidonic acid metabolism produces reactive oxygen species (ROS). Scavenging of ROS by means of the antioxidant trolox prevented the TMT-induced release of TNF-alpha from glial cells, while indomethacin was found to suppress ROS formation induced by 1 microM TMT in glial cells. These results suggest that activation of arachidonic acid metabolism causes TNF-alpha release through the production of ROS rather than PGE(2). Indeed, PGE(2) may exert negative feedback on the release of TNF-alpha. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  1. Release of deuterated (E)-2-nonenal during beer aging from labeled precursors synthesized before boiling.

    PubMed

    Liégeois, Catherine; Meurens, Nicolas; Badot, Camille; Collin, Sonia

    2002-12-18

    Although lipid autoxidation in the boiling kettle is a key determinant of the cardboard flavor of aged beers, recent results show that mashing is another significant source of wort nonenal potential, the well-known indicator of how a beer will release (E)-2-nonenal during storage. Although unstable, deuterated (E)-2-nonenal nitrogen adducts created during mashing can in some cases partially persist in the pitching wort, to release deuterated (E)-2-nonenal during beer aging. In the experiment described here, the relative contributions of mashing and boiling were estimated at 30 and 70%, respectively. The presence of oxygen during mashing and, to a lesser extent, high lipoxygenase activity can intensify the stale cardboard flavor.

  2. Inhibition of microsomal prostaglandin E-synthase-1 (mPGES-1) selectively suppresses PGE2 in an in vitro equine inflammation model.

    PubMed

    Martin, Emily M; Jones, Samuel L

    2017-10-01

    Inhibition of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) production effectively limits inflammation in horses, however nonspecific prostaglandin blockade via cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition elicits deleterious gastrointestinal side effects in equine patients. Thus, more selective PGE 2 targeting therapeutics are needed to treat inflammatory disease in horses. One potential target is microsomal prostaglandin E-synthase-1 (mPGES-1), which is the terminal enzyme downstream of COX-2 in the inducible PGE 2 synthesis cascade. This enzyme has yet to be studied in equine leukocytes, which play a pivotal role in equine inflammatory disease. The objective of this study was to determine if mPGES-1 is a PGE 2 -selective anti-inflammatory target in equine leukocytes. To evaluate this objective, leukocyte-rich plasma (LRP) was isolated from equine whole blood collected via jugular venipuncture of six healthy adult horses of mixed breeds and genders. LRP was primed with granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence or absence of an mPGES-1 inhibitor (MF63), a COX-2 inhibitor (NS-398), or a nonselective COX inhibitor (indomethacin). Following treatment, mPGES-1 and COX-2 mRNA and protein levels were measured via qPCR and western blot, respectively, and PGE 2 , thromboxane (TXA 2 ) and prostacyclin (PGI 2 ) levels were measured in cellular supernatants via ELISA. This study revealed that LPS significantly increased mPGES-1 mRNA, but not protein levels in equine LRP as measured by qPCR and western blot, respectively. In contrast, COX-2 mRNA and protein were coordinately induced by LPS. Importantly, treatment of LPS-stimulated leukocytes with indomethacin and NS-398 significantly reduced extracellular concentrations of multiple prostanoids (PGE 2 , TXA 2 and PGI 2 ), while the mPGES-1 inhibitor MF63 selectively inhibited PGE 2 production only. mPGES-1 inhibition also preserved higher basal levels of PGE 2 production when compared

  3. RANTES release by human airway smooth muscle: effects of prostaglandin E(2) and fenoterol.

    PubMed

    Lazzeri, N; Belvisi, M G; Patel, H J; Chung, K F; Yacoub, M H; Mitchell, J A

    2001-12-21

    In human airway smooth muscle cells, the levels of RANTES were increased upon stimulation with interleukin-1beta together with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) (10 ng ml(-1) for each). In this study, we have assessed the effects of prostaglandin E(2) and the beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonist, fenoterol on RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) release by these cells. The levels of RANTES released by human airway smooth muscle cells were measured after 24 h of treatment. Prostaglandin E(2) and fenoterol, only in presence of a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (10(-6) M), provoked a concentration-dependent reduction in RANTES release. These data suggest that, in settings where cyclo-oxygenase activity is low, both drugs may relieve the symptoms of airway diseases by reducing RANTES production.

  4. The importance of brain PGE2 inhibition versus paw PGE2 inhibition as a mechanism for the separation of analgesic and antipyretic effects of lornoxicam in rats with paw inflammation.

    PubMed

    Futaki, Nobuko; Harada, Masahiro; Sugimoto, Masanori; Hashimoto, Yuki; Honma, Yusuke; Arai, Iwao; Nakaike, Shiro; Hoshi, Keiko

    2009-05-01

    Lornoxicam is a non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor that exhibits strong analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects but a weak antipyretic effect in rat models. Our aim was to investigate the mechanism of separation of potencies or analgesic and antipyretic effects of lornoxicam in relation to its effect on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in the inflammatory paw and the brain. A model of acute or chronic paw inflammation was induced by Freund's complete adjuvant injection into the rat paw. Lornoxicam (0.01-1 mg/kg), celecoxib (0.3-30 mg/kg) or loxoprofen (0.3-30 mg/kg) was administered orally to the rats and the analgesic and antipyretic effects were compared. The paw hyperalgesia was assessed using the Randall-Selitto test or the flexion test. Dorsal subcutaneous body temperature was measured as indicator of pyresis. After the measurement of activities, the rats were sacrificed and the PGE2 content in the paw exudate, cerebrospinal fluid or brain hypothalamus was measured by enzyme-immunoassay. In a chronic model of arthritis, lornoxicam, celecoxib and loxoprofen reduced hyperalgesia with an effective dose that provides 50% inhibition (ED50) of 0.083, 3.9 and 4.3 mg/kg respectively, whereas the effective dose of these drugs in pyresis was 0.58, 0.31 and 0.71 mg/kg respectively. These drugs significantly reduced the PGE2 level in paw exudate and the cerebrospinal fluid. In acute oedematous rats, lornoxicam 0.16 mg/kg, celecoxib 4 mg/kg and loxoprofen 2.4 mg/kg significantly reduced hyperalgesia to a similar extent. On the other hand, lornoxicam did not affect the elevated body temperature, whereas celecoxib and loxoprofen significantly reduced the pyrexia to almost the normal level. These drugs significantly reduced the PGE2 level in inflamed paw exudate lo almost the normal level. On the other hand, lornoxicam did not change PGE2 level in the brain hypothalamus, whereas celecoxib and loxoprofen strongly decreased it. Lornoxicam exhibits strong analgesic but

  5. Compressive force induces osteoclast differentiation via prostaglandin E(2) production in MC3T3-E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Sanuki, Rina; Shionome, Chieko; Kuwabara, Akiko; Mitsui, Narihiro; Koyama, Yuki; Suzuki, Naoto; Zhang, Fan; Shimizu, Noriyoshi; Maeno, Masao

    2010-04-01

    In orthodontic tooth movement, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) released from osteoblasts can alter the normal process of bone remodeling. We previously showed that compressive force (CF) controls bone formation by stimulating the production of PGE(2) and Ep2 and/or Ep4 receptors in osteoblasts. The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of CF on the production of PGE(2), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) using osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and to examine the indirect effect of CF on osteoclast differentiation using RAW264.7 cells as osteoclast precursors. MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured with or without continuous CF (1.0 or 3.0 g/cm(2)) for 24 hr, and PGE(2) production was determined using ELISA. The expression of COX-2, M-CSF, RANKL, and OPG genes and proteins was determined using real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. Osteoclast differentiation was estimated using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining of RAW 264.7 cells cultured for 10 days with conditioned medium from CF-treated MC3T3-E1 cells and soluble RANKL. As CF increased, PGE(2) production and the expression of COX-2, M-CSF, and RANKL increased, whereas OPG expression decreased. The number of TRAP-positive cells increased as CF increased. Celecoxib, a specific inhibitor of COX-2, blocked the stimulatory effect of CF on TRAP staining and the production of PGE(2), M-CSF, RANKL, and OPG. These results suggest that CF induces osteoclast differentiation by increasing M-CSF production and decreasing OPG production via PGE(2) in osteoblasts.

  6. Indomethacin Inhibits Circulating PGE2 and Reverses Postexercise Suppression of Natural Killer Cell Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    after the oral administration of a placebo, the PG inhibitor indomethacin (75 mg/day for 5 days), or naltrexone (reported elsewhere). Circulating...which blocks PGE2 biosynthe- sis via inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity (57). Maxi- mal suppression of PG production occurs with doses between 50...and 150 mg (1). In addition to the indepen- dent effects of PGE2 on NKCA, low circulating levels of PGE2 can synergize with endogenous glucocorticoids

  7. Intestinal myofibroblast-specific Tpl2-Cox-2-PGE2 pathway links innate sensing to epithelial homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Roulis, Manolis; Nikolaou, Christoforos; Kotsaki, Elena; Kaffe, Eleanna; Karagianni, Niki; Koliaraki, Vasiliki; Salpea, Klelia; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Aidinis, Vassilis; Martini, Eva; Becker, Christoph; Herschman, Harvey R.; Vetrano, Stefania; Danese, Silvio; Kollias, George

    2014-01-01

    Tumor progression locus-2 (Tpl2) kinase is a major inflammatory mediator in immune cell types recently found to be genetically associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Here we show that Tpl2 may exert a dominant homeostatic rather than inflammatory function in the intestine mediated specifically by subepithelial intestinal myofibroblasts (IMFs). Mice with complete or IMF-specific Tpl2 ablation are highly susceptible to epithelial injury-induced colitis showing impaired compensatory proliferation in crypts and extensive ulcerations without significant changes in inflammatory responses. Following epithelial injury, IMFs sense innate or inflammatory signals and activate, via Tpl2, the cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2)-prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) pathway, which we show here to be essential for the epithelial homeostatic response. Exogenous PGE2 administration rescues mice with complete or IMF-specific Tpl2 ablation from defects in crypt function and susceptibility to colitis. We also show that Tpl2 expression is decreased in IMFs isolated from the inflamed ileum of IBD patients indicating that Tpl2 function in IMFs may be highly relevant to human disease. The IMF-mediated mechanism we propose also involves the IBD-associated genes IL1R1, MAPK1, and the PGE2 receptor-encoding PTGER4. Our results establish a previously unidentified myofibroblast-specific innate pathway that regulates intestinal homeostasis and may underlie IBD susceptibility in humans. PMID:25316791

  8. Effect of bradykinin antagonists on bradykinin-induced plasma extravasation, venoconstriction, prostaglandin E2 release, nociceptor stimulation and contraction of the iris sphincter muscle in the rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Griesbacher, T.; Lembeck, F.

    1987-01-01

    1 The inhibition of the bradykinin-induced plasma extravasation by six bradykinin (Bk) antagonists was tested on rabbit skin. All of them showed inhibitory effects without an agonistic action in the does used. B4310 (Lys-Lys-3-Hyp-5,8-Thi-7-DPhe-Bk) was the most active antagonist and was therefore used in the subsequent experiments. 2 B4310 (5-500 nM) antagonized the bradykinin-induced reduction of the venous outflow from the rabbit isolated ear in dose-dependent manner without affecting the arterial vasoconstriction induced by angiotensin II. 3 The bradykinin-induced release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) from the perfused rabbit ear was reduced by 63% when B4310 (800 nM) was infused before, during and after the bradykinin injection. 4 Bradykinin was injected into the ear artery of anaesthetized rabbits and the reflex hypotensive response was used as indicator of the nociception. The response was antagonized by a local infusion of B4310 (50 and 500 nM). The antagonism was dose-dependent and reversible. The parallel shift of the dose-response curve to bradykinin suggests a competitive inhibition. However, B4310 did not antagonize acetylcholine-induced nociceptor stimulation. 5 B4310 inhibited bradykinin-induced stimulation of the trigeminal nerve which results in a substance P-mediated contraction of the iris sphincter muscle. A pA2 of 7.59 was calculated. B4310 did not inhibit capsaicin-induced contractions. 6 It is concluded that B4310 inhibits specifically five different actions of bradykinin which are related to its possible pathophysiological role. PMID:3479223

  9. Effect of PGE2 on the cell surface molecule expression in PMA treated thymocytes.

    PubMed

    Daculsi, R; Vaillier, D; Carron, J C; Gualde, N

    1998-02-01

    PGE2 is produced by cells of the thymic microenvironment. The effects of PGE2 are mediated by cAMP through binding to its intracellular receptor protein kinase A (PKA). Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) is known to modulate CD molecule expression on thymocytes, probably through activation of protein kinase C (PKC). We have hypothesized that cross-talk between these two signalling pathways may affect modulation of the CD molecules on the cell surface of thymocytes. For this purpose, we compare the effects of PMA alone or combined with PGE2 on CD3, CD4 and CD8 expression on mouse thymocytes by flow-cytometric analysis. PMA treatment almost completely abolished CD4 expression and slightly decreased CD3 and CD8 expression. PGE2 alone did not change the CD3, CD4 and CD8 molecule expression. Combined with PMA, PGE2 can overcome the decrease induced by PMA of the CD3 expression and partially reduced the disappearance of the CD4 molecule. On the other hand PGE2 accelerated the loss of CD8 molecule expression. These events occurred only in CD4+ CD8+ immature thymocytes. An analogue of cAMP (dibutyryl cAMP) mimics the effect of PGE2, but not Br-cGMP. This differential regulation by PGE2 of the CD molecule expression on immature thymocytes may provide additional evidence on the role of PGE2 during the process of thymic differentiation.

  10. Effect of LTB4 on the inhibition of natural cytotoxic activity by PGE2.

    PubMed

    Vaillier, D; Daculsi, R; Gualde, N; Bezian, J H

    1992-01-01

    NK activity is regulated by arachidonic acid metabolites. More precisely PGE2 and LTB4 decreases and increases respectively non-MHC-restricted cytotoxicity in humans. We have observed similar data in mice since NK activity was inhibited by PGE2 (10(-6) to 10(-8) M) and enhanced by LTB4 (10(-8) to 10(-12) M). On the other hand when PGE2 and LTB4 were combined during the same assay the lysis percentage was smaller than the one which was induced by PGE2 alone. Because PGE2 increases intracellular cyclic AMP and that LTB4 augments cyclic GMP we used a cAMP inducer (forskolin) and a cGMP analogue (8 Br-cGMP) instead of eicosanoids and we observed similar data (i.e., a decrease of natural killing) as when PGE2 was combined with LTB4. When splenocytes are cultured for 1-4 days alone, cytotoxic activity decreases unless they are cultured in the presence of indomethacin. Cytotoxic activity of spleen cells cultured in the presence of PGE2 or LTB4 is respectively decreased or increased. However, splenocytes that were cultured alone for at least 24 hr were no longer sensitive to inhibition by PGE2 but were still PGE2-sensitive when cultured in the presence of LTB4.

  11. Creatine supplementation reduces plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and PGE2 after a half-ironman competition.

    PubMed

    Bassit, R A; Curi, R; Costa Rosa, L F B P

    2008-08-01

    The effect of creatine supplementation upon plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines: Interleukin (IL) 1 beta and IL-6, Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFalpha), and Interferon alpha (INF alpha) and Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) after a half-ironman competition were investigated. Eleven triathletes, each with at least three years experience of participation in this sport were randomly divided between the control and experimental groups. During 5 days prior to competition, the control group (n = 6) was supplemented with carbohydrate (20 g x d(-1)) whereas the experimental group (n = 5) received creatine (20 g x d(-1)) in a double-blind trial. Blood samples were collected 48 h before and 24 and 48 h after competition and were used for the measurement of cytokines and PGE(2). Forty-eight hours prior to competition there was no difference between groups in the plasma concentrations (pg x ml(-1), mean +/- SEM) of IL-6 (7.08 +/- 0.63), TNFalpha (76.50 +/- 5.60), INF alpha (18.32 +/- 1.20), IL-1 beta (23.42 +/- 5.52), and PGE(2) (39.71 +/- 3.8). Twenty-four and 48 h after competition plasma levels of TNFalpha, INF alpha, IL-1 beta and PGE(2) were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in both groups. However, the increases in these were markedly reduced following creatine supplementation. An increase in plasma IL-6 was observed only after 24 h and, in this case, there was no difference between the two groups. Creatine supplementation before a long distance triathlon competition may reduce the inflammatory response induced by this form of strenuous of exercise.

  12. MicroRNA-144 is regulated by CP2 and decreases COX-2 expression and PGE2 production in mouse ovarian granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiawei; Lei, Bin; Li, Huanan; Zhu, Lihua; Wang, Lei; Tao, Hu; Mei, Shuqi; Li, Fenge

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian folliculogenesis is a complex process in which primordial follicles develop into pre-ovulatory follicles, followed by ovulation to release mature oocytes. In this study, we explored the role of miR-144 in ovulation. miR-144 was one of the differentially expressed microRNAs, which showed 5.59-fold changes, in pre-ovulatory ovarian follicles between Large White and Chinese Taihu sows detected by Solexa deep sequencing. We demonstrated that overexpression of miR-144 significantly decreased the luciferase reporter activity under the control of the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) or mothers against decapentaplegic homologue 4 (Smad4) 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) and suppressed COX-2 and Smad4 expression. In contrast, a miR-144 inhibitor increased COX-2 and Smad4 expression in mouse granulosa cells (mGCs). Meanwhile, Smad4 upregulated COX-2 expression, but this effect was abolished when the mGCs were treated with the transforming growth factor beta signalling pathway inhibitor SB431542. Moreover, luciferase reporter, chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assay results showed that the transcription factor CP2 upregulated miR-144 expression, which partially contributed to the suppression of COX-2 in mGCs. Both CP2 and miR-144 alter prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by regulating COX-2 expression. In addition, miR-144 regulated mGC apoptosis and affected follicular atresia, but these activities did not appear to be through COX-2 and Smad4. Taken together, we revealed an important CP2/miR-144/COX-2/PGE2/ovulation pathway in mGCs. PMID:28182010

  13. COX2/mPGES1/PGE2 pathway regulates PD-L1 expression in tumor-associated macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells

    PubMed Central

    Prima, Victor; Kaliberova, Lyudmila N.; Kaliberov, Sergey; Curiel, David T.; Kusmartsev, Sergei

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, it has been established that programmed cell death protein ligand 1 (PD-L1)–mediated inhibition of activated PD-1+ T lymphocytes plays a major role in tumor escape from immune system during cancer progression. Lately, the anti–PD-L1 and –PD-1 immune therapies have become an important tool for treatment of advanced human cancers, including bladder cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms of PD-L1 expression in cancer are not fully understood. We found that coculture of murine bone marrow cells with bladder tumor cells promoted strong expression of PD-L1 in bone marrow–derived myeloid cells. Tumor-induced expression of PD-L1 was limited to F4/80+ macrophages and Ly-6C+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells. These PD-L1–expressing cells were immunosuppressive and were capable of eliminating CD8 T cells in vitro. Tumor-infiltrating PD-L1+ cells isolated from tumor-bearing mice also exerted morphology of tumor-associated macrophages and expressed high levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-forming enzymes microsomal PGE2 synthase 1 (mPGES1) and COX2. Inhibition of PGE2 formation, using pharmacologic mPGES1 and COX2 inhibitors or genetic overexpression of PGE2-degrading enzyme 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), resulted in reduced PD-L1 expression. Together, our study demonstrates that the COX2/mPGES1/PGE2 pathway involved in the regulation of PD-L1 expression in tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells and, therefore, reprogramming of PGE2 metabolism in tumor microenvironment provides an opportunity to reduce immune suppression in tumor host. PMID:28096371

  14. [Effect of M8046 on expression of COX-2/PGE2 in spinal cord and DRG in rats with neuropathic pain].

    PubMed

    Ou, Guo-Kun; Wang, Rui-Xian; Li, Jia-Jia; Cao, Hong; Lian, Qing-Quan; Li, Jun

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the effects of glucocorticoid receptor antagonist-M8046 on the behavior and the cyclooxygenase-2/prostaglandin E2( COX-2/PGE2) expression in spinal cord dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in chronic constrictive injury (CCI) rats. One hundred and forty-four male SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, 36 rats in each group: Sham operation group (Sham), chronic constrictive group (CCI), M8046 treated group (M8046) and solvent controlled group (Sc). M8046 3 mg/(kg x d) intraperitoneal injection was given after operation in group M8046. Paw thennal withdrawal (PTWL) and paw mechanical withdrawal threshold (PMWT) of rats were measured on 2 pre-operative and 1, 3, 7, 10, 14 post-operative days. The spinal cord and L15 DRG of the operated side was removed at 3, 7, 14 days after surgery. The change of COX-2 and PGE2 expression was determined by immunohistochemical staining and ELISA separately. PTWL and PMWT in CCI group were significantly lower than those in Sham group on every post-operative day (P < 0.05). PTWL and PMWT in M8046 group were significantly higher than those in CCI group on 7, 10, 14 post-operative day (P < 0.05). In spinal dorsal horn, the level of COX-2 and PGE2 expression in CCI group was significantly higher than that in Sham group (P < 0.05). M8046 could significantly attenuate the activation of COX-2 and PGE2 induced by CCI (P < 0.05). The expression of COX-2 and PGE2 in DRG was similar to that in spinal dorsal horn. The effects of M8046 ameliorate the CCI-induced neuropathic pain may be related to attenuate the expression of COX-2 and PGE2 in spinal cord and DRG.

  15. Prostaglandin E2 activates channel-mediated calcium entry in human erythrocytes: an indication for a blood clot formation supporting process.

    PubMed

    Kaestner, Lars; Tabellion, Wiebke; Lipp, Peter; Bernhardt, Ingolf

    2004-12-01

    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) is released from platelets when they are activated. Using fluorescence imaging and the patch-clamp technique, we provide evidence that PGE(2) at physiological concentrations (10(-10) M) activates calcium rises mediated by calcium influx through a non-selective cation-channel in human red blood cells. The extent of calcium increase varied between cells with a total of 45% of the cells responding. It is well known that calcium increases elicited the calcium-activated potassium channel (Gardos channel) in the red cell membrane. Previously, it was shown that the Gardos channel activation results in potassium efflux and shrinkage of the cells. Therefore, we conclude that the PGE(2) responses of red blood cells described here reveal a direct and active participation of erythrocytes in blood clot formation.

  16. PGE2, Kidney Disease, and Cardiovascular Risk: Beyond Hypertension and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Nasrallah, Rania; Hassouneh, Ramzi

    2016-01-01

    An important measure of cardiovascular health is obtained by evaluating the global cardiovascular risk, which comprises a number of factors, including hypertension and type 2 diabetes, the leading causes of illness and death in the world, as well as the metabolic syndrome. Altered immunity, inflammation, and oxidative stress underlie many of the changes associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome, and recent efforts have begun to elucidate the contribution of PGE2 in these events. This review summarizes the role of PGE2 in kidney disease outcomes that accelerate cardiovascular disease, highlights the role of cyclooxygenase-2/microsomal PGE synthase 1/PGE2 signaling in hypertension and diabetes, and outlines the contribution of PGE2 to other aspects of the metabolic syndrome, particularly abdominal adiposity, dyslipidemia, and atherogenesis. A clearer understanding of the role of PGE2 could lead to new avenues to improve therapeutic options and disease management strategies. PMID:26319242

  17. Somatostatin, prostaglandin E2 and atropine inhibition of the gastric actions of bombesin in the dog.

    PubMed

    Hirschowitz, B I; Molina, E

    1984-01-01

    Bombesin, acetylcholine, prostaglandins and somatostatin are all thought to be involved in the regulation of gastrin release and gastric secretion. We have studied the effects of low doses of atropine, 16-16(Me)2-prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and somatostatin-14 on bombesin-stimulated gastrin release and gastric acid and pepsin secretion in conscious fistula dogs. For reference, synthetic gastrin G-17 was studied with and without somatostatin. Bombesin, in a dose-related manner, increased serum gastrin, which in turn stimulated gastric acid and pepsin secretion in a serum gastrin, concentration-dependent manner. Somatostatin inhibited gastrin release by bombesin as well as the secretory stimulation by G-17; the combination of sequential effects resulted in a marked inhibition of bombesin-stimulated gastric acid and pepsin secretion. PGE2 also strongly inhibited gastrin release and acid and pepsin secretion. Atropine had no significant effect on gastrin release, but greatly inhibited gastric secretion. Thus somatostatin and PGE2 inhibited at two sites, gastrin release and gastrin effects, while atropine affected only the latter.

  18. The antipyretic effect of dipyrone is unrelated to inhibition of PGE2 synthesis in the hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    do C Malvar, David; Soares, Denis M; Fabrício, Aline SC; Kanashiro, Alexandre; Machado, Renes R; Figueiredo, Maria J; Rae, Giles A; de Souza, Glória EP

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces fever through two parallel pathways; one, prostaglandin (PG)-dependent and the other, PG-independent and involving endothelin-1 (ET-1). For a better understanding of the mechanisms by which dipyrone exerts antipyresis, we have investigated its effects on fever and changes in PGE2 content in plasma, CSF and hypothalamus induced by either LPS or ET-1. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Rats were given (i.p.) dipyrone (120 mg·kg−1) or indomethacin (2 mg·kg−1) 30 min before injection of LPS (5 µg·kg−1, i.v.) or ET-1 (1 pmol, i.c.v.). Rectal temperature was measured by tele-thermometry. PGE2 levels were determined in the plasma, CSF and hypothalamus by elisa. KEY RESULTS LPS or ET-1 induced fever and increased CSF and hypothalamic PGE2 levels. Two hours after LPS, indomethacin reduced CSF and hypothalamic PGE2 but did not inhibit fever, while at 3 h it reduced all three parameters. Three hours after ET-1, indomethacin inhibited the increase in CSF and hypothalamic PGE2 levels but did not affect fever. Dipyrone abolished both the fever and the increased CSF PGE2 levels induced by LPS or ET-1 but did not affect the increased hypothalamic PGE2 levels. Dipyrone also reduced the increase in the venous plasma PGE2 concentration induced by LPS. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These findings confirm that PGE2 does not play a relevant role in ET-1-induced fever. They also demonstrate for the first time that the antipyretic effect of dipyrone was not mechanistically linked to the inhibition of hypothalamic PGE2 synthesis. PMID:21133897

  19. Intracrine prostaglandin E2 pro-tumoral actions in prostate epithelial cells originate from non-canonical pathways.

    PubMed

    Madrigal-Martínez, Antonio; Fernández-Martínez, Ana B; Lucio Cazaña, Francisco J

    2018-04-01

    Prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) increases cell proliferation and stimulates migratory and angiogenic abilities in prostate cancer cells. However, the effects of PGE 2 on non-transformed prostate epithelial cells are unknown, despite the fact that PGE 2 overproduction has been found in benign hyperplastic prostates. In the present work we studied the effects of PGE 2 in immortalized, non-malignant prostate epithelial RWPE-1 cells and found that PGE 2 increased cell proliferation, cell migration, and production of vascular endothelial growth factor-A, and activated in vitro angiogenesis. These actions involved a non-canonic intracrine mechanism in which the actual effector was intracellular PGE 2 (iPGE 2 ) instead of extracellular PGE 2 : inhibition of the prostaglandin uptake transporter (PGT) or antagonism of EP receptors prevented the effects of PGE 2 , which indicated that PGE 2 activity depended on its carrier-mediated translocation from the outside to the inside of cells and that EP receptors located intracellularly (iEP) mediated the effects of PGE 2 . iPGE 2 acted through transactivation of epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGFR) by iEP, leading to increased expression and activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). Interestingly, iPGE 2 also mediates the effects of PGE 2 on prostate cancer PC3 cells through the axis iPGE 2 -iEP receptors-EGFR-HIF-1α. Thus, this axis might be responsible for the growth-stimulating effects of PGE 2 on prostate epithelial cells, thereby contributing to prostate proliferative diseases associated with chronic inflammation. Since this PGT-dependent non-canonic intracrine mechanism of PGE 2 action operates in both benign and malignant prostate epithelial cells, PGT inhibitors should be tested as a novel therapeutic modality to treat prostate proliferative disease. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Antagonistic effects of acetylshikonin on LPS-induced NO and PGE2 production in BV2 microglial cells via inhibition of ROS/PI3K/Akt-mediated NF-κB signaling and activation of Nrf2-dependent HO-1.

    PubMed

    Jayasooriya, Rajapaksha Gedara Prasad Tharanga; Lee, Kyoung-Tae; Choi, Yung Hyun; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Kim, Wun-Jae; Kim, Gi-Young

    2015-10-01

    Although acetylshikonin (ACS) is known to have antioxidant and antitumor activities, whether ACS regulates the expression of proinflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglial cells remains unclear. In this study, it was found that ACS isolated from Lithospermum erythrorhizon inhibits LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in BV2 microglial cells. Furthermore, ACS reduced the LPS-induced DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and subsequently suppressed iNOS and COX-2 expression. Consistent with these data, ACS attenuated the phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt and suppressed the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB by inducing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in LPS-stimulated cells. In addition, ACS enhanced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression via nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation. Zinc protoporphyrin, a specific HO-1 inhibitor, partially attenuated the antagonistic effects of ACS on LPS-induced NO and PGE2 production. By contrast, the presence of cobalt protoporphyrin, a specific HO-1 inducer, potently suppressed LPS-induced NO and PGE2 production. These data indicate that ACS downregulates proinflammatory mediators such as NO and PGE2 by suppressing PI3K/Akt-dependent NF-κB activity induced by ROS as well as inducing Nrf2-dependent HO-1 activity. Taken together, ACS might be a good candidate to regulate LPS-mediated inflammatory diseases.

  1. Sulforaphane inhibits IL-1β-induced proliferation of rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts and the production of MMPs, COX-2, and PGE2.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun Jung; Lee, Won-Seok; Lee, Eun-Gyeong; Sung, Myung-Soon; Yoo, Wan-Hee

    2014-10-01

    This study was performed to define the effects of sulforaphane on interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-induced proliferation of rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASFs), the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cyclooxygenase (COX), and the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by RASFs. The proliferation of RASFs was evaluated with CCK-8 reagent in the presence of IL-1β with/without sulforaphane. The expression of MMPs, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, COXs, intracellular mitogen-activated protein kinase signalings, including p-ERK, p-p38, p-JNK, and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kB), and the production of PGE2 were examined by Western blotting or semi-quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA. Sulforaphane inhibits unstimulated and IL-1β-induced proliferation of RASFs; the expression of MMP-1, MMP-3, and COX-2 mRNA and protein; and the PGE2 production induced by IL-1β. Sulforaphane also inhibits the phosphorylation of ERK-1/2, p-38, and JNK and activation of NF-kB by IL-1β. These results indicate that sulforaphane inhibits the proliferation of synovial fibroblasts, the expression of MMPs and COX-2, and the production of PGE2, which are involved in synovitis and destruction of RA, and suggest that sulforaphane might be a new therapeutic agent for RA.

  2. Dipyrone metabolite 4-MAA induces hypothermia and inhibits PGE2-dependent and -independent fever while 4-AA only blocks PGE2-dependent fever

    PubMed Central

    Malvar, David do C; Aguiar, Fernando A; Vaz, Artur de L L; Assis, Débora C R; de Melo, Miriam C C; Jabor, Valquíria A P; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Ferreira, Sérgio H; Clososki, Giuliano C; de Souza, Glória E P

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The antipyretic and hypothermic prodrug dipyrone prevents PGE2-dependent and -independent fever induced by LPS from Escherichia coli and Tityus serrulatus venom (Tsv) respectively. We aimed to identify the dipyrone metabolites responsible for the antipyretic and hypothermic effects. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Male Wistar rats were treated i.p. with indomethacin (2 mg·kg−1), dipyrone, 4-methylaminoantipyrine (4-MAA), 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AA) (60–360 mg·kg−1), 4-formylaminoantipyrine, 4-acethylaminoantipyrine (120–360 mg·kg−1) or vehicle 30 min before i.p. injection of LPS (50 μg·kg−1), Tsv (150 μg·kg−1) or saline. Rectal temperatures were measured by tele-thermometry and dipyrone metabolite concentrations determined in the plasma, CSF and hypothalamus by LC-MS/MS. PGE2 concentrations were determined in the CSF and hypothalamus by elisa. KEY RESULTS In contrast to LPS, Tsv-induced fever was not followed by increased PGE2 in the CSF or hypothalamus. The antipyretic time-course of 4-MAA and 4-AA on LPS-induced fever overlapped with the period of the highest concentrations of 4-MAA and 4-AA in the hypothalamus, CSF and plasma. These metabolites reduced LPS-induced fever and the PGE2 increase in the plasma, CSF and hypothalamus. Only 4-MAA inhibited Tsv-induced fever. The higher doses of dipyrone and 4-MAA also induced hypothermia. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The presence of 4-MAA and 4-AA in the CSF and hypothalamus was associated with PGE2 synthesis inhibition and a decrease in LPS-induced fever. 4-MAA was also shown to be an antipyretic metabolite for PGE2-independent fever induced by Tsv suggesting that it is responsible for the additional antipyretic mechanism of dipyrone. Moreover, 4-MAA is the hypothermic metabolite of dipyrone. PMID:24712707

  3. Dipyrone metabolite 4-MAA induces hypothermia and inhibits PGE2 -dependent and -independent fever while 4-AA only blocks PGE2 -dependent fever.

    PubMed

    Malvar, David do C; Aguiar, Fernando A; Vaz, Artur de L L; Assis, Débora C R; de Melo, Miriam C C; Jabor, Valquíria A P; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Ferreira, Sérgio H; Clososki, Giuliano C; de Souza, Glória E P

    2014-08-01

    The antipyretic and hypothermic prodrug dipyrone prevents PGE2 -dependent and -independent fever induced by LPS from Escherichia coli and Tityus serrulatus venom (Tsv) respectively. We aimed to identify the dipyrone metabolites responsible for the antipyretic and hypothermic effects. Male Wistar rats were treated i.p. with indomethacin (2 mg·kg(-1) ), dipyrone, 4-methylaminoantipyrine (4-MAA), 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AA) (60-360 mg·kg(-1) ), 4-formylaminoantipyrine, 4-acethylaminoantipyrine (120-360 mg·kg(-1) ) or vehicle 30 min before i.p. injection of LPS (50 μg·kg(-1) ), Tsv (150 μg·kg(-1) ) or saline. Rectal temperatures were measured by tele-thermometry and dipyrone metabolite concentrations determined in the plasma, CSF and hypothalamus by LC-MS/MS. PGE2 concentrations were determined in the CSF and hypothalamus by elisa. In contrast to LPS, Tsv-induced fever was not followed by increased PGE2 in the CSF or hypothalamus. The antipyretic time-course of 4-MAA and 4-AA on LPS-induced fever overlapped with the period of the highest concentrations of 4-MAA and 4-AA in the hypothalamus, CSF and plasma. These metabolites reduced LPS-induced fever and the PGE2 increase in the plasma, CSF and hypothalamus. Only 4-MAA inhibited Tsv-induced fever. The higher doses of dipyrone and 4-MAA also induced hypothermia. The presence of 4-MAA and 4-AA in the CSF and hypothalamus was associated with PGE2 synthesis inhibition and a decrease in LPS-induced fever. 4-MAA was also shown to be an antipyretic metabolite for PGE2 -independent fever induced by Tsv suggesting that it is responsible for the additional antipyretic mechanism of dipyrone. Moreover, 4-MAA is the hypothermic metabolite of dipyrone. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. Prostaglandin E2 Prevents Hyperosmolar-Induced Human Mast Cell Activation through Prostanoid Receptors EP2 and EP4

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Atencio, Ivonne; Ainsua-Enrich, Erola; de Mora, Fernando; Picado, César; Martín, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Background Mast cells play a critical role in allergic and inflammatory diseases, including exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in asthma. The mechanism underlying EIB is probably related to increased airway fluid osmolarity that activates mast cells to the release inflammatory mediators. These mediators then act on bronchial smooth muscle to cause bronchoconstriction. In parallel, protective substances such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) are probably also released and could explain the refractory period observed in patients with EIB. Objective This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of PGE2 on osmotically activated mast cells, as a model of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Methods We used LAD2, HMC-1, CD34-positive, and human lung mast cell lines. Cells underwent a mannitol challenge, and the effects of PGE2 and prostanoid receptor (EP) antagonists for EP1–4 were assayed on the activated mast cells. Beta-hexosaminidase release, protein phosphorylation, and calcium mobilization were assessed. Results Mannitol both induced mast cell degranulation and activated phosphatidyl inositide 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, thereby causing de novo eicosanoid and cytokine synthesis. The addition of PGE2 significantly reduced mannitol-induced degranulation through EP2 and EP4 receptors, as measured by beta-hexosaminidase release, and consequently calcium influx. Extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 phosphorylation were diminished when compared with mannitol activation alone. Conclusions Our data show a protective role for the PGE2 receptors EP2 and EP4 following osmotic changes, through the reduction of human mast cell activity caused by calcium influx impairment and MAP kinase inhibition. PMID:25329458

  5. Stretch independent regulation of prostaglandin E(2) production within the isolated guinea-pig lamina propria.

    PubMed

    Nile, Christopher J; de Vente, Jan; Gillespie, James I

    2010-02-01

    To use an isolated preparation of the guinea-pig bladder lamina propria (LP) to investigate the effects of adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) and nitric oxide (NO) on the release of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). The bladders of female guinea-pigs (200-400 g) were isolated and opened to expose the urothelial surface. The LP was dissected free of the underlying detrusor muscle and cut into strips from the dome to base. Strips were then incubated in Krebs buffer at 37 degrees C. Each tissue piece was then exposed to the stable ATP analogue, BzATP, and a NO donor, diethylamine-NONOate (DEANO), and the effect on PGE(2) output into the supernatant determined using the Parameter(TM) PGE(2) enzyme immunoassay kit (R & D Systems, Abingdon, UK). Experiments were repeated in the presence of purinergic receptor and cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, COX I and COX II, antagonists. The cellular location of COX I, COX II and neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) within the bladder LP was also determined by immunohistochemistry. PGE(2) production was significantly increased by BzATP. Antagonist studies showed the purinergic stimulation involved both P(2)X and P(2)Y receptors. The BzATP response was inhibited by the COX inhibitor indomethacin (COX I >COX II) but not by DUP 697 (COX II >COX I). Thus, BzATP stimulation occurs because of COX I stimulation. NO had no effect on PGE(2) production over the initial 10 min of an exposure. However, PGE(2) output was increased 100 min after exposure to the NO donor. In the presence of NO, the BzATP stimulation was abolished. Immunohistochemistry was used to confirm the location of COX I to the basal and inner intermediate urothelial layers and to cells within the diffuse layer of LP interstitial cells. In addition, nNOS was also located in the basal urothelial layers whilst COX II was found in the interstitial cell layers. There is complex interaction between ATP and NO to modulate PGE(2) release from the bladder LP in the un-stretched preparation. Such

  6. Pivotal role of PGE2 and IL-10 in the cross-regulation of dendritic cell-derived inflammatory mediators.

    PubMed

    Harizi, Hedi; Gualde, Norbert

    2006-08-01

    Exposure to pathogens induces antigen-presenting cells (APC) such as macrophages and dendritic cells (DC) to produce various endogenous mediators, including arachidonic acid (AA)-derived eicosanoids, cytokines, and nitric oxide (NO). Many secreted products of activated APC can act by themselves in an autocrine manner and modulate their function. Moreover, the cross-interaction between endogenous bioactive molecules regulates the function of professional APC with important consequences for their ability to activate and sustain immune and inflammatory responses, and to regulate immune homeostasis. Although neglected for many years when compared to their role in cardiovascular homeostasis, cancer and inflammation, the importance of eicosanoids in immunology is becoming more defined. The role of prostaglandin (PG) E2 (PGE2), one of the best known and most well studied eicosanoids, is of particular interest. It modulates the activities of professional DC by acting on their differentiation, maturation and their ability to secrete cytokines. Uniquely among haematopoietic cytokines, interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic molecule that displays both immunostimulatory and immunoregulatory activities. IL-10 has attached much attention because of its anti-inflammatory properties. It modulates expression of cytokines, soluble mediators and cell surface molecules by cells of myeloid origin, particularly macrophages and DC. We previously reported that PGE2 is a potent inducer of IL-10 in bone marrow-derived DC (BM-DC), and PGE2-induced IL-10 is a key regulator of the BM-DC pro-inflammatory phenotype. BM-DC may be considered as an important model to study complex interactions between endogenous mediators, and autocrine IL-10 plays a pivotal role in the crossregulation of AA-derived lipid mediators, cytokines, and NO, with critical effects on immune and inflammatory responses.

  7. Dectin-1/2–induced autocrine PGE2 signaling licenses dendritic cells to prime Th2 responses

    PubMed Central

    Kaisar, Maria M. M.; Jónasdóttir, Hulda S.; van der Ham, Alwin J.; Pelgrom, Leonard R.; Schramm, Gabriele; Layland, Laura E.; Sancho, David; Prazeres da Costa, Clarissa; Giera, Martin; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria

    2018-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms through which dendritic cells (DCs) prime T helper 2 (Th2) responses, including those elicited by parasitic helminths, remain incompletely understood. Here, we report that soluble egg antigen (SEA) from Schistosoma mansoni, which is well known to drive potent Th2 responses, triggers DCs to produce prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which subsequently—in an autocrine manner—induces OX40 ligand (OX40L) expression to license these DCs to drive Th2 responses. Mechanistically, SEA was found to promote PGE2 synthesis through Dectin-1 and Dectin-2, and via a downstream signaling cascade involving spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), and cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 (COX-1 and COX-2). In addition, this pathway was activated independently of the actions of omega-1 (ω-1), a previously described Th2-priming glycoprotein present in SEA. These findings were supported by in vivo murine data showing that ω-1–independent Th2 priming by SEA was mediated by Dectin-2 and Syk signaling in DCs. Finally, we found that Dectin-2−/−, and to a lesser extent Dectin-1−/− mice, displayed impaired Th2 responses and reduced egg-driven granuloma formation following S. mansoni infection, highlighting the physiological importance of this pathway in Th2 polarization during a helminth infection. In summary, we identified a novel pathway in DCs involving Dectin-1/2-Syk-PGE2-OX40L through which Th2 immune responses are induced. PMID:29668708

  8. Celecoxib can suppress expression of genes associated with PGE2 pathway in chondrocytes under inflammatory conditions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tian-Wen; Wu, Zhi-Hong; Weng, Xi-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor (celecoxib) on the expression of arachidonate-associated inflammatory genes in cultured human normal chondrocytes. Normal chondrocytes were obtained from the cartilage of three different amputated patients without osteoarthritis (OA). Affymetrix Human microarray was used to assess the alterations in gene expression in three groups of cells: untreated cells (negative control group), cells treated with interleukin-1β (IL-1β) (positive control group), and cells treated with IL-1β and celecoxib. The patterns of up-regulation and down-regulation of gene expression were further validated by real-time PCR. A total of 1091 up-regulated genes and 1252 down-regulated genes were identified in the positive control group compared with the negative control group. Among them, PTGS2, ADAMTS5, PTGER2, mPTGES and PTGER4 are known to be involved in chondrocyte inflammation, while VEGFA, BCL2, TRAF1, CYR61, BMP6, DAPK1, DUSP7, IL1RN, MMP13 and TNFSF10 were reported being associated with cytokine and chemokine signaling. 189 up-regulated genes and 177 down-regulated genes were identified in the positive control group compared with intervention group. PTGS1, PTGS2, ADAMTS5, PTGER2, mPTGES and PTGER4 were among the genes down-regulated upon the treatment with celecoxib. Our results demonstrated that the OA chondrocytes are the site of active eicosanoid production. IL-1β can activate inflammation in chondrocytes and trigger the production of various proteins involved in cyclooxygenase pathway. The expression of genes corresponding to these proteins can be down-regulated by celecoxib. The findings indicate that the therapy with prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-blocking agents may decrease the PGE2 production not only by direct inhibition of COX-2 activity, but also by down-regulating the expression of genes encoding for COX-2, microsomal prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 (mPGES-1) and prostaglandin

  9. Fibroblast growth factor-23 increases mouse PGE2 production in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Syal, Ashu; Schiavi, Susan; Chakravarty, Sumana; Dwarakanath, Vangipuram; Quigley, Raymond; Baum, Michel

    2006-02-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) has been implicated in the renal phosphate wasting in X-linked hypophosphatemia, tumor-induced osteomalacia, and autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets. Recently, we demonstrated that Hyp mice have greater urinary PGE2 levels compared with C57/B6 mice and that indomethacin administration in vivo and in vitro ameliorates the phosphate transport defect in Hyp mice. To determine further whether altered prostaglandin metabolism plays a role in the renal phosphate transport defect in Hyp mice, we incubated renal proximal tubules with arachidonic acid. We find that PGE2 production was higher in Hyp mice than in C57/B6 mice. Incubation of C57/B6 mouse renal proximal tubules with FGF-23R176Q, an active mutant form of FGR23, increased tubular PGE2 production, an effect that was inhibited by 50 microM PD-98059 and 10 microM SB-203580, inhibitors of the MAP kinase pathway. C57/B6 mice injected with FGF-23R176Q had a approximately 10-fold increase in PGE2 excretion 24 h after intraperitoneal injection of FGF-23R176Q compared with vehicle-treated controls. Finally, we show that PGE2 inhibited both phosphate and volume absorption in mouse proximal convoluted tubules perfused in vitro and reduced brush-border membrane vesicle NaPi-2a protein abundance from renal cortex incubated in vitro with PGE2. In conclusion, FGF-23 increases urinary and renal tubular PGE2 production via the MAP kinase pathway and PGE2 inhibits proximal tubule phosphate transport.

  10. Fibroblast growth factor-23 increases mouse PGE2 production in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Syal, Ashu; Schiavi, Susan; Chakravarty, Sumana; Dwarakanath, Vangipuram; Quigley, Raymond; Baum, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) has been implicated in the renal phosphate wasting in X-linked hypophosphatemia, tumor-induced osteomalacia, and autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets. Recently, we demonstrated that Hyp mice have greater urinary PGE2 levels compared with C57/B6 mice and that indomethacin administration in vivo and in vitro ameliorates the phosphate transport defect in Hyp mice. To determine further whether altered prostaglandin metabolism plays a role in the renal phosphate transport defect in Hyp mice, we incubated renal proximal tubules with arachidonic acid. We find that PGE2 production was higher in Hyp mice than in C57/B6 mice. Incubation of C57/B6 mouse renal proximal tubules with FGF-23R176Q, an active mutant form of FGR23, increased tubular PGE2 production, an effect that was inhibited by 50 μM PD-98059 and 10 μM SB-203580, inhibitors of the MAP kinase pathway. C57/B6 mice injected with FGF-23R176Q had a ~10-fold increase in PGE2 excretion 24 h after intraperitoneal injection of FGF-23R176Q compared with vehicle-treated controls. Finally, we show that PGE2 inhibited both phosphate and volume absorption in mouse proximal convoluted tubules perfused in vitro and reduced brush-border membrane vesicle NaPi-2a protein abundance from renal cortex incubated in vitro with PGE2. In conclusion, FGF-23 increases urinary and renal tubular PGE2 production via the MAP kinase pathway and PGE2 inhibits proximal tubule phosphate transport. PMID:16144964

  11. TLR9 Ligands Induce S100A8 in Macrophages via a STAT3-Dependent Pathway which Requires IL-10 and PGE2

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Kenneth; Chung, Yuen Ming; Endoh, Yasumi; Geczy, Carolyn L.

    2014-01-01

    S100A8 and S100A9 are highly-expressed calcium-binding proteins in neutrophils and monocytes, and in subsets of macrophages in inflammatory lesions. Unmethylated CpG motifs found in bacterial and viral DNA are potent activators of innate immunity via Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). S100A8, but not S100A9, mRNA and protein was directly induced by CpG-DNA in murine and human macrophages. Induction in murine macrophages peaked at 16 h. CpG-DNA-induced S100A8 required de novo protein synthesis; IL-10 and Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synergistically enhanced expression and promoted earlier gene induction. Inhibitors of endogenous IL-10, PGE2, and the E prostanoid (EP) 4 receptor strongly suppressed S100A8 expression, particularly when combined. Thus, S100A8 induction by E. coli DNA required both IL-10 and PGE2/EP4 signaling. The MAPKs, PI3K and JAK pathways were essential, whereas ERK1/2 appeared to play a direct role. S100A8 induction by CpG-DNA was controlled at the transcriptional level. The promoter region responsible for activation, either directly, or indirectly via IL-10 and PGE2, was located within a −178 to −34-bp region and required STAT3 binding. Because of the robust links connecting IL-10 and PGE2 with an anti-inflammatory macrophage phenotype, the induction profile of S100A8 strongly indicates a role for this protein in resolution of inflammation. PMID:25098409

  12. TLR9 ligands induce S100A8 in macrophages via a STAT3-dependent pathway which requires IL-10 and PGE2.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Kenneth; Chung, Yuen Ming; Endoh, Yasumi; Geczy, Carolyn L

    2014-01-01

    S100A8 and S100A9 are highly-expressed calcium-binding proteins in neutrophils and monocytes, and in subsets of macrophages in inflammatory lesions. Unmethylated CpG motifs found in bacterial and viral DNA are potent activators of innate immunity via Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). S100A8, but not S100A9, mRNA and protein was directly induced by CpG-DNA in murine and human macrophages. Induction in murine macrophages peaked at 16 h. CpG-DNA-induced S100A8 required de novo protein synthesis; IL-10 and Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synergistically enhanced expression and promoted earlier gene induction. Inhibitors of endogenous IL-10, PGE2, and the E prostanoid (EP) 4 receptor strongly suppressed S100A8 expression, particularly when combined. Thus, S100A8 induction by E. coli DNA required both IL-10 and PGE2/EP4 signaling. The MAPKs, PI3K and JAK pathways were essential, whereas ERK1/2 appeared to play a direct role. S100A8 induction by CpG-DNA was controlled at the transcriptional level. The promoter region responsible for activation, either directly, or indirectly via IL-10 and PGE2, was located within a -178 to -34-bp region and required STAT3 binding. Because of the robust links connecting IL-10 and PGE2 with an anti-inflammatory macrophage phenotype, the induction profile of S100A8 strongly indicates a role for this protein in resolution of inflammation.

  13. Interaction of prostanoid EP3 and TP receptors in guinea-pig isolated aorta: contractile self-synergism of 11-deoxy-16,16-dimethyl PGE2

    PubMed Central

    Jones, RL; Woodward, DF

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Surprisingly high contractile activity was reported for 11-deoxy-16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2 (DX-DM PGE2) on pig cerebral artery when used as a selective EP3 receptor agonist. This study investigated the selectivity profile of DX-DM PGE2, focusing on the interaction between its EP3 and TP (thromboxane A2-like) agonist activities. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Contraction of guinea-pig trachea (EP1 system) and aorta (EP3 and TP systems) was measured in conventional organ baths. KEY RESULTS Strong contraction of guinea-pig aorta to sulprostone and 17-phenyl PGE2 (EP3 agonists) was only seen under priming with a second contractile agent such as phenylephrine, histamine or U-46619 (TP agonist). In contrast, DX-DM PGE2 induced strong contraction, which on the basis of treatment with (DG)-3ap (EP3 antagonist) and/or BMS-180291 (TP antagonist) was attributed to self-synergism arising from co-activation of EP3 and TP receptors. EP3/TP self-synergism also accounted for contraction induced by PGF2α and its analogues (+)-cloprostenol and latanoprost-FA. DX-DM PGE2 also showed significant EP1 agonism on guinea-pig trachea as defined by the EP1 antagonists SC-51322, (ONO)-5-methyl-1 and AH-6809, although AH-6809 exhibited poor specificity at concentrations ≥3 µM. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS EP3/TP self-synergism, as seen with PGE/PGF analogues in this study, may confound EP3 agonist potency comparisons and the characterization of prostanoid receptor systems. The competitive profile of a TP antagonist may be distorted by variation in the silent/overt contraction profile of the EP3 system in different studies. The relevance of self-synergism to in vivo actions of natural prostanoid receptor agonists is discussed. PMID:20955363

  14. CYP2S1 depletion enhances colorectal cell proliferation is associated with PGE2-mediated activation of β-catenin signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chao; College of Life Science, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000, Anhui; Li, Changyuan

    2015-02-15

    Colorectal epithelial cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world and its 5-year survival rate is still relatively low. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in epithelial cells lining the alimentary tract play an important role in the oxidative metabolism of a wide range of xenobiotics, including (pro-)carcinogens and endogenous compounds. Although CYP2S1, a member of CYP family, strongly expressed in many extrahepatic tissues, the role of CYP2S1 in cancer remains unclear. To investigate whether CYP2S1 involves in colorectal carcinogenesis, cell proliferation was analyzed in HCT116 cells depleted of CYP2S1 using small hairpin interfering RNA. Our data show thatmore » CYP2S1 knockdown promotes cell proliferation through increasing the level of endogenous prostaglandin E2(PGE2). PGE2, in turn, reduces phosphorylation of β-catenin and activates β-catenin signaling, which contributes to the cell proliferation. Furthermore, CYP2S1 knockdown increase tumor growth in xenograft mouse model. In brief, these results demonstrate that CYP2S1 regulates colorectal cancer growth through associated with PGE2-mediated activation of β-catenin signaling. - Highlights: • Knockdown of CYP2S1 expression improve HCT116 cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. • Elevate PGE2 production in CYP2S1 knockdown cell is associated with its proliferation. • Elevate PGE2 level in CYP2S1 knockdown cells enhance β-catenin accumulation. • β-catenin activate TCF/LEF and target gene expression thus promote cell proliferation.« less

  15. Vaginal prostaglandin (PGE2 and PGF2a) for induction of labour at term.

    PubMed

    Kelly, A J; Kavanagh, J; Thomas, J

    2003-01-01

    augmentation reduced (53.9% versus 89.1%, RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.84, 11 trials, 1265 women) with the use of vaginal PGF2a. There were insufficient data to make meaningful conclusions for the comparison of vaginal PGE2 and PGF2a.PGE2 tablet, gel and pessary appear to be as efficacious as each other. Lower dose regimens, as defined in the review, appear as efficacious as higher dose regimens. The primary aim of this review was to examine the efficacy of vaginal prostaglandin E2 and F2a. This is reflected by an increase in successful vaginal delivery rates in 24 hours, no increase in operative delivery rates and significant improvements in cervical favourability within 24 to 48 hours. Further research is needed to quantify the cost-analysis of induction of labour with vaginal prostaglandins, with special attention to different methods of administration.

  16. Effects of Prostaglandin E2 and Risedronate Administration on Cancellous Bone in Older Female Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, B. Y.; Jee, W. S. S.; Ma, Y. F.; Ke, H. Z.; Kimmel, D. B.; Li, X. J.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and Risedronate (Ris) both separately and in combination (PGE2 + Ris) were studied on the intact aged female rat skeleton to determine whether the combination of PGE2 with an antiresorptive agent is more effective anabolically than PGE2 alone. Nine month-old Sprague-Dawley rats were injected subcutaneously either with vehicle, 6 mg PGE2/kg per day, 1 or 5 microgram Ris/kg twice a week, or 6 mg PGE2/kg per day plus 1 or 5 microgram Ris/kg twice a week (PGE2 + 1 Ris or PGE2 + 5 Ris) for 60 days. After the treatment, we determined the longitudinal bone growth rate, the qualitative appearance of the primary spongiosa (PS), and the static and dynamic bone histomorphometry of the secondary spongiosa (SS) of the proximal tibial metaphysis (PTM) by examining undecalcified longitudinal sections after double fluorescent labeling. The relative effects of these treatments on longitudinal bone growth were ranked as follows: PGE2 + 5 Ris greater than PGE2 + 1 Ris = basal greater than PGE2 greater than 1 microgram Ris = 5 microgram Ris = aging. The density of the PS was ranked as follows: PGE2 + 5 Ris greater than PGE2 + 1 Ris = PGE2 = 5 microgram Ris = 1 microgram Ris greater than basal = aging. The increase in density of the PS was the result of stimulated longitudinal growth and the action of bisphosphonate. Bone mass in the SS was ranked as follows: PGE2 + 5 Ris = PGE2 + 1 Ris = PGE2 greater than 5 microgram Ris = 1 microgram Ris = aging = basal. However, PGE2 alone and its cotreatment with Ris accumulated bone by different tissue mechanisms. PGE2 alone created new bone by increasing activation frequency 8.3-fold and the formation to resorption ratio 1.3-fold from the controls. The combination of PGE2 and Ris depressed activation frequency (-54% to -74%), and bone formation rate (tissue-based -31%, and bone-based -42%) and eroded surface (-79% to -81%), so as to increase the formation to resorption ratio (three- to four-fold) over PGE2

  17. CYP2S1 depletion enhances colorectal cell proliferation is associated with PGE2-mediated activation of β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao; Li, Changyuan; Li, Minle; Tong, Xuemei; Hu, Xiaowen; Yang, Xuhan; Yan, Xiaomei; He, Lin; Wan, Chunling

    2015-02-15

    Colorectal epithelial cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world and its 5-year survival rate is still relatively low. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in epithelial cells lining the alimentary tract play an important role in the oxidative metabolism of a wide range of xenobiotics, including (pro-)carcinogens and endogenous compounds. Although CYP2S1, a member of CYP family, strongly expressed in many extrahepatic tissues, the role of CYP2S1 in cancer remains unclear. To investigate whether CYP2S1 involves in colorectal carcinogenesis, cell proliferation was analyzed in HCT116 cells depleted of CYP2S1 using small hairpin interfering RNA. Our data show that CYP2S1 knockdown promotes cell proliferation through increasing the level of endogenous prostaglandin E2(PGE2). PGE2, in turn, reduces phosphorylation of β-catenin and activates β-catenin signaling, which contributes to the cell proliferation. Furthermore, CYP2S1 knockdown increase tumor growth in xenograft mouse model. In brief, these results demonstrate that CYP2S1 regulates colorectal cancer growth through associated with PGE2-mediated activation of β-catenin signaling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. PGE2 through the EP4 receptor controls smooth muscle gene expression patterns in the ductus arteriosus critical for remodeling at birth

    PubMed Central

    Gruzdev, Artiom; Nguyen, MyTrang; Kovarova, Martina; Koller, Beverly H.

    2012-01-01

    The ductus arteriosus (DA) is a fetal shunt that directs right ventricular outflow away from pulmonary circulation and into the aorta. Critical roles for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the EP4 receptor (EP4) have been established in maintaining both the patency of the vessel in utero and in its closure at birth. Here we have generated mice in which loss of EP4 expression is limited to either the smooth muscle (SMC) or endothelial cells and demonstrated that SMC, but not endothelial cell expression of EP4 is required for DA closure. The genome wide expression analysis of full term wild type and EP4−/− DA indicates that PGE2/EP4 signaling modulates expression of a number of unique pathways, including those involved in SMC proliferation, cell migration, and vascular tone. Together this supports a mechanism by which maturation and increased contractility of the vessel is coupled to the potent smooth muscle dilatory actions of PGE2. PMID:22342504

  19. Contribution of reactive oxygen species to migration/invasion of human glioblastoma cells U87 via ERK-dependent COX-2/PGE(2) activation.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Wen-Ta; Shen, Shing-Chuan; Chow, Jyh-Ming; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Shia, Ling-Tin; Chen, Yen-Chou

    2010-01-01

    In the presence of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) stimulation, an increase in the migration/invasion of U87 glioblastoma cells was detected by a wound healing assay, transwell analysis, and spheroid formation assay by inducing matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) enzyme activity via a gelatin zymographic analysis. A dose- and time-dependent increase in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression with elevated prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production was identified in TPA- but not in 4alpha-TPA (a respective inactive compound)-treated U87 cells TPA-induced migration/invasion was significantly blocked by adding the COX-2-specific inhibitor, NS398, through a reduction in PGE(2) production. Data from the pharmacological studies using specific chemical inhibitors showed that activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) was involved in TPA-induced migration/invasion, COX-2 protein expression, and MMP-9 activation. Stimulation of intracellular peroxide production by TPA was detected by a DCHF-DA assay, and the addition of superoxide dismutase (SOD) or tempol significantly inhibited TPA-induced migration/invasion and COX-2 protein expression accompanied by a decrease in peroxide production. An increase in NADPH oxidase activity by TPA was examined, and TPA-induced migration/invasion was blocked by adding DPI, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor. Additionally, the natural flavonoids quercetin (QE), baicalein (BE), and myricetin (ME) effectively blocked TPA-induced migration/invasion while simultaneously inhibiting COX-2/PGE(2) production, MMP-9 enzyme activity, and peroxide production in U87 cells. The contribution of ROS production to the migration/invasion of U87 glioblastoma cells via ERK-activated COX-2/PGE(2) and MMP-9 induction was first investigated here, and agents such as QE, BE, and ME with the ability to block these events possess the potential to be developed for use against migration/invasion by glioblastomas.

  20. Coculture with endothelial cells enhances osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells via cyclooxygenase-2/prostaglandin E2/vascular endothelial growth factor signaling under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lixing; Wu, Yeke; Tan, Lijun; Xu, Zhenrui; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Zhihe; Li, Xiaoyu; Li, Yu; Yang, Pu; Tang, Tian

    2013-12-01

    During periodontitis and orthodontic tooth movement, periodontal vasculature is severely impaired, leading to a hypoxic microenvironment of periodontal cells. However, the impact of hypoxia on periodontal cells is poorly defined. The present study investigates responses of cocultured endothelial cells (ECs) and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) to hypoxia. Osteogenic differentiation, molecular characterization, and various behaviors of PDLSCs and human umbilical venous ECs under hypoxia were assessed by quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, the effect of ECs on PDLSC osteogenic differentiation was tested using NS398 (cyclooxygenase 2 blocker), SU5416 (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF] receptor inhibitor), AH6809, L-798106, and L-161982 (EP1/2/3/4 antagonists). First, hypoxia promoted osteogenic differentiation in PDLSCs and enhanced EC migration, whereas PD98059 (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase [ERK] inhibitor) blocked, and cocultured ECs further enhanced, hypoxia-induced osteogenic differentiation. Second, NS398 impaired EC migration and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)/VEGF release, whereas cocultured PDLSCs and exogenous PGE2 partially reversed it. Third, NS398 (pretreated ECs) decreased PGE2/VEGF concentrations. NS398-treated ECs and AH6809/SU5416-treated PDLSCs impaired cocultured EC-induced enhancement of PDLSC osteogenic differentiation. Hypoxia enhances ERK-mediated osteogenic differentiation in PDLSCs. Coculture with EC further augments PDLSC osteogenic differentiation via cyclooxygenase-2/PGE2/VEGF signaling.

  1. Microsomal PGE2 synthase-1 regulates melanoma cell survival and associates with melanoma disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Hee; Hashimoto, Yuuri; Cho, Sung-Nam; Roszik, Jason; Milton, Denái R.; Dal, Fulya; Kim, Sangwon F.; Menter, David G.; Yang, Peiying; Ekmekcioglu, Suhendan; Grimm, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary COX-2 and its product PGE2 enhance carcinogenesis and tumor progression, which has been previously reported in melanoma. As most COX inhibitors cause much toxicity, the downstream microsomal PGE2 synthase-1 (mPGES1) is a consideration for targeting. Human melanoma TMAs were employed for testing mPGES1 protein staining intensity and percentage levels and both increased with clinical stage; employing a different Stage III TMA, mPGES1 intensity (not percentage) associated with reduced patient survival. Our results further show that iNOS was also highly expressed in melanoma tissues with high mPGES1 levels, and iNOS-mediated NO promoted mPGES1 expression and PGE2 production. An mPGES1specific inhibitor (CAY10526) as well as siRNA attenuated cell survival and increased apoptosis. CAY10526 significantly suppressed tumor growth and increased apoptosis in melanoma xenografts. Our findings support the value of a prognostic and predictive role for mPGES1, and suggest targeting this molecule in the PGE2 pathway as another avenue toward improving melanoma therapy. PMID:26801201

  2. Microsomal PGE2 synthase-1 regulates melanoma cell survival and associates with melanoma disease progression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Hee; Hashimoto, Yuuri; Cho, Sung-Nam; Roszik, Jason; Milton, Denái R; Dal, Fulya; Kim, Sangwon F; Menter, David G; Yang, Peiying; Ekmekcioglu, Suhendan; Grimm, Elizabeth A

    2016-05-01

    COX-2 and its product PGE2 enhance carcinogenesis and tumor progression, which has been previously reported in melanoma. As most COX inhibitors cause much toxicity, the downstream microsomal PGE2 synthase-1 (mPGES1) is a consideration for targeting. Human melanoma TMAs were employed for testing mPGES1 protein staining intensity and percentage levels, and both increased with clinical stage; employing a different Stage III TMA, mPGES1 intensity (not percentage) associated with reduced patient survival. Our results further show that iNOS was also highly expressed in melanoma tissues with high mPGES1 levels, and iNOS-mediated NO promoted mPGES1 expression and PGE2 production. An mPGES1-specific inhibitor (CAY10526) as well as siRNA attenuated cell survival and increased apoptosis. CAY10526 significantly suppressed tumor growth and increased apoptosis in melanoma xenografts. Our findings support the value of a prognostic and predictive role for mPGES1, and suggest targeting this molecule in the PGE2 pathway as another avenue toward improving melanoma therapy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Prevotella intermedia induces prostaglandin E2 via multiple signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Guan, S-M; Fu, S-M; He, J-J; Zhang, M

    2011-01-01

    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) plays important roles in the bone resorption of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis via specific prostaglandin receptors (i.e., EP1-EP4). In this study, the authors examined whether Prevotella intermedia regulates PGE(2) production and EP expression in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLs); they also explored the potential signaling pathways involved in PGE(2) production. P. intermedia induced PGE(2) production and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Indomethacin and NS-398 completely abrogated the P. intermedia-induced PGE(2) production without modulating COX-2 expression. Specific inhibitors of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and protein kinase C--but not c-AMP and protein kinase A--significantly attenuated the P. intermedia-induced COX-2 and PGE(2) expression. P. intermedia reduced EP1 expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The results indicate that the COX-2-dependent induction of PGE(2) by P. intermedia in hPDLs is mediated by multiple signaling pathways.

  4. Interleukin-6 and soluble interleukin-6 receptor suppress osteoclastic differentiation by inducing PGE(2) production in chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Honda, Kazuhiro

    2011-03-01

    This study examined how interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6r) influence osteoclastic differentiation through the function of chondrocytes. Chondrocytes were cultured with or without IL-6 and/or sIL-6r in the presence or absence of NS398, a specific inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, for up to 28 days. Chondrocytes were also cultured with or without IL-6 and sIL-6r for 28 days, and the conditioned medium from cells cultured without IL-6 and sIL-6r was used to induce differentiation of RAW264.7 cells into osteoclast precursors. Osteoclastic differentiation was assessed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. Expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), COX-2, and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) increased in cells exposed to IL-6 and sIL-6r, whereas expression of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and bone resorption-related enzymes decreased. NS398 blocked the stimulatory/suppressive effects of IL-6 and sIL-6r on the expression of OPG, RANKL, and M-CSF. Fewer TRAP-positive multinucleated cells were detected after treatment with conditioned medium from IL-6- and sIL-6r-treated chondrocytes than after treatment with conditioned medium from untreated chondrocytes. These results suggest that IL-6 and sIL-6r interfere with osteoclast function through the involvement of chondrocytes. Specifically, they appear to suppress the differentiation of osteoclast precursors into osteoclasts by inducing chondrocytic PGE(2) production, which, in turn, increases OPG secretion and decreases M-CSF secretion by chondrocytes.

  5. Relaxant effect of ghrelin on guinea pig isolated tracheal smooth muscle: role of epithelial NO and PGE2.

    PubMed

    Al-Ayed, Mohammed Saeed Zayed

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed at investigating the potential ghrelin relaxing effect on guinea pig isolated tracheal smooth muscle (TSM). Using an in vitro experimental approach, the physiological role of the airway epithelium on smooth muscle relaxation has been investigated by analyzing the dose-response curves for carbachol- or histamine-induced contractions on epithelium intact versus denuded tracheal tissue. The relaxant effect of ghrelin (5-200 μmol/L) then investigated on carbachol-contracted, non-sensitized, and ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized guinea pig TSM with an intact or denuded epithelium. The isolated TSMs from identical guinea pigs were incubated in Krebs solution aerated with 95% O 2 and 5% CO 2 through an automated tissue organ bath system (n = 6 for each group). The ghrelin relaxation mechanism was assessed by adding L-NAME, indomethacin, and YIL-781 for GHS-R1 into the tissue chamber. The spasmogens carbachol and histamine have shown a significantly higher contracting effect on epithelium-denuded than in epithelium-intact TSM confirmed by the significantly higher mean pEC50 of both agonists on the epithelium-denuded trachea (p < 0.05). Ghrelin has shown a concentration-dependent relaxing effect on carbachol-contracted TSM (r = 0.96, p = 0.00). The effect was more evident in the intact non-sensitized than in epithelium-denuded or OVA-sensitized groups (p < 0.05). Preincubation with nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) inhibitors has significantly reduced the ghrelin-induced relaxation on epithelium-intact TSM suggesting an epithelium-dependant mechanism. However, GHS-R1a antagonist has also succeeded to reduce ghrelin relaxant effect, which needs further clarification. Ghrelin proved to have a potential TSM relaxant effect possibly through epithelium-dependant mechanisms involving NO and PGE 2 .

  6. Changes in PGE2 signaling after submandibulectomy alter post-tooth extraction socket healing.

    PubMed

    Mohn, Claudia Ester; Troncoso, Gastón Rodolfo; Bozzini, Clarisa; Conti, María Inés; Fernandez Solari, Javier; Elverdin, Juan Carlos

    2018-03-10

    Saliva is very important to oral health, and a salivary deficit has been shown to bring serious problems to oral health. There is scant information about the mechanisms through which salivary glands participate in post-tooth extraction socket healing. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of submandibulectomy (SMx), consisting of the ablation of submandibular and sublingual glands (SMG and SLG, respectively), on PGE 2 signaling and other bone regulatory molecules, such as OPG and RANKL, involved in tooth extraction socket healing. Male Wistar rats, 70 g body weight, were assigned to an experimental (subjected to SMx) or a control group (sham operated). One week later, the animals in both groups underwent bilateral extraction of the first mandibular molars. The effect of SMx on different stages of socket healing after tooth extraction (7, 14, and 30 days) was studied by evaluating some parameters of inflammation, including PGE 2 and its receptors, and of bone metabolism, as well as by performing bone biomechanical studies. SMx increased TNFα and PGE 2 content as well as cyclooxygenase-II (COX-II) expression in tooth socket tissue at almost all the studied time points. SMx also had an effect on mRNA expression of PGE 2 receptors at the different time points, but did not significantly alter osteoprotegerin (OPG) and RANKL mRNA expression at any of the studied time points. In addition, an increase in bone mass density was observed in SMx rats compared with matched controls, and the structural and mechanical bone properties of the mandibular socket bone were also affected by SMx. Our results suggest that the SMG/SLG complex regulates cellular activation and differentiation by modulating the production of molecules intervening in tooth extraction socket repair, including the PGE 2 signaling system, which would therefore account for the higher density and resistance of the newly formed bone in SMx rat. © 2018 by the Wound Healing Society.

  7. Effects of endogenous pyrogen and prostaglandin E2 on hypothalamic neurons in rat brain slices.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T; Morimoto, A; Murakami, N

    1987-06-01

    We investigated the effects of endogenous pyrogen and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on the preoptic and anterior hypothalamic (POAH) neurons using brain slice preparations from the rat. Partially purified endogenous pyrogen did not change the activities of most of the neurons in the POAH region when applied locally through a micropipette attached to the recording electrode in proximity to the neurons. This indicates that partially purified endogenous pyrogen does not act directly on the neuronal activity in the POAH region. The partially purified endogenous pyrogen, applied into a culture chamber containing a brain slice, facilitated the activities in 24% of the total neurons tested, regardless of the thermal specificity of the neurons. Moreover, PGE2 added to the culture chamber facilitated 48% of the warm-responsive, 33% of the cold-responsive, and 29% of the thermally insensitive neurons. The direction of change in neuronal activity induced by partially purified endogenous pyrogen appears to be almost the same as that induced by PGE2 when these substances were applied by perfusion to the same neuron in the culture chamber. These results suggest that partially purified pyrogen applied to the perfusate of the culture chamber stimulates some constituents of brain tissue to synthesize and release prostaglandin, which in turn affects the neuronal activity of the POAH region.

  8. Proteinase-activated receptor-2 stimulates prostaglandin production in keratinocytes: analysis of prostaglandin receptors on human melanocytes and effects of PGE2 and PGF2alpha on melanocyte dendricity.

    PubMed

    Scott, Glynis; Leopardi, Sonya; Printup, Stacey; Malhi, Namrita; Seiberg, Miri; Lapoint, Randi

    2004-05-01

    Prostaglandins (PG) are key mediators of diverse functions in the skin and several reports suggest that PG mediate post-inflammatory pigmentary changes through modulation of melanocyte dendricity and melanin synthesis. The proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) is important for skin pigmentation because activation of keratinocyte PAR-2 stimulates uptake of melanosomes through phagocytosis in a Rho-dependent manner. In this report, we show that activation of keratinocyte PAR-2 stimulates release of PGE(2) and PGF(2alpha) and that PGE(2) and PGF(2alpha) act as paracrine factors that stimulate melanocyte dendricity. We characterized the expression of the EP and FP receptors in human melanocytes and show that human melanocytes express EP1 and EP3, and the FP receptor, but not EP2 and EP4. Treatment of melanocytes with EP1 and EP3 receptor agonists resulted in increased melanocyte dendricity, indicating that both EP1 and EP3 receptor signaling contribute to PGE(2)-mediated melanocyte dendricity. Certain EP3 receptor subtypes have been shown to increase adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) through coupling to Gs, whereas EP1 is known to couple to Gq to activate phospholipase C with elevation in Ca(2+). The cAMP/protein kinase A system is known to modulate melanocyte dendrite formation through modulation of Rac and Rho activity. Neither PGF(2alpha) or PGE(2) elevated cAMP in human melanocytes showing that dendricity observed in response to PGE(2) and PGF(2alpha) is cAMP-independent. Our data suggest that PAR-2 mediates cutaneous pigmentation both through increased uptake of melanosomes by keratinocytes, as well as by release of PGE(2) and PGF(2alpha) that stimulate melanocyte dendricity through EP1, EP3, and FP receptors.

  9. Acetylsalicylic Acid Daily vs Acetylsalicylic Acid Every 3 Days in Healthy Volunteers: Effect on Platelet Aggregation, Gastric Mucosa, and Prostaglandin E2 Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Plinio Minghin Freitas; Gagliano-Jucá, Thiago; Zaminelli, Tiago; Sampaio, Marinalva Ferreira; Blackler, Rory Willian; Trevisan, Miriam da Silva; Novaes Magalhães, Antônio Frederico; De Nucci, Gilberto

    2016-07-01

    Substantial platelet inhibition was observed 3 days after a single administration of acetylsalicylic acid 81 mg to healthy volunteers. Here we investigate prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) antrum concentrations and gastrointestinal symptoms in two treatment groups: one receiving losartan and acetylsalicylic acid every day and the other receiving losartan every day and acetylsalicylic acid every 3 days. Twenty-eight healthy volunteers from both sexes received either 50 mg losartan and acetylsalicylic acid 81 mg daily or 50 mg losartan and acetylsalicylic acid 81 every 3 days with placebo on the other days. Therapy was delivered for 30 days for both groups. Gastric endoscopy was performed before and after treatment period. Biopsies were collected for PGE2 quantification. Platelet function tests were carried out before and during treatment and TXB2 release on platelet rich plasma was measured. The every 3 day low-dose acetylsalicylic acid regimen produced complete inhibition of platelet aggregation compared to the daily treatment. Thromboxane B2 release was substantially abolished for both groups during treatment. There was no significant difference on the endoscopic score of both treatment groups after the 30-day treatment (P = .215). There was over 50% suppression of antrum PGE2 content on volunteers receiving acetylsalicylic acid daily (P = .0016), while for the every 3 day dose regimen there was no significant difference between pre and post-treatment antrum PGE2 dosages (P = .4193). Since PGE2 is involved in gastric healing, we understand that this new approach could be safer and as efficient as the standard daily therapy on a long-term basis. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  10. MDMA Increases Excitability in the Dentate Gyrus: Role of 5HT2A Receptor Induced PGE2 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Stuart A.; Huff, Courtney; Chiaia, Nicolas; Gudelsky, Gary A.; Yamamoto, Bryan K.

    2015-01-01

    MDMA is a widely abused psychostimulant which causes release of serotonin in various forebrain regions. Recently, we reported that MDMA increases extracellular glutamate concentrations in the dentate gyrus, via activation of 5HT2A receptors. We examined the role of prostaglandin signaling in mediating the effects of 5HT2A receptor activation on the increases in extracellular glutamate and the subsequent long-term loss of parvalbumin interneurons in the dentate gyrus caused by MDMA. Administration of MDMA into the dentate gyrus of rats increased PGE2 concentrations which was prevented by coadministration of MDL100907, a 5HT2A receptor antagonist. MDMA-induced increases in extracellular glutamate were inhibited by local administration of SC-51089, an inhibitor of the EP1 prostaglandin receptor. Systemic administration of SC-51089 during injections of MDMA prevented the decreases in parvalbumin interneurons observed 10 days later. The loss of parvalbumin immunoreactivity after MDMA exposure coincided with a decrease in paired-pulse inhibition and afterdischarge threshold in the dentate gyrus. These changes were prevented by inhibition of EP1 and 5HT2A receptors during MDMA. Additional experiments revealed an increased susceptibility to kainic acid-induced seizures in MDMA treated rats which could be prevented with SC51089 treatments during MDMA exposure. Overall, these findings suggest that 5HT2A receptors mediate MDMA-induced PGE2 signaling and subsequent increases in glutamate. This signaling mediates parvalbumin cell losses as well as physiologic changes in the dentate gyrus, suggesting that the lack of the inhibition provided by these neurons increases the excitability within the dentate gyrus of MDMA treated rats. PMID:26670377

  11. Granulocyte elastase activity and PGE2 levels in gingival crevicular fluid in relation to the presence of subgingival periodontopathogens in subjects with untreated adult periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Jin, L J; Söder, P O; Leung, W K; Corbet, E F; Samaranayake, L P; Söder, B; Davies, W I

    1999-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the association between the levels of granulocyte elastase and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in GCE and the concomitant presence of periodontopathogens in untreated adult periodontitis (AP). GCF and subgingival plaque were sampled by paper strips and paper points respectively, from various periodontal sites in 16 AP subjects. Granulocyte elastase activity in GCF was analyzed with a low molecular weight substrate specific for granulocyte elastase, pGluProVal-pNA, and the maximal rate of elastase activity (MR-EA, mAbs/min/site) was calculated. PGE2 levels in GCF were determined by radioimmunoassay. 5 species-specific DNA probes were used to detect the presence of A. actinomyceterncomitans (A.a., ATCC 43718), B. forsythus (B.f, ATCC 43037), P. gingivalis (P.g., ATCC 33277), P. intermedia (P.i., ATCC 33563), and T. denticola (T.d., ATCC 35405), with a sensitivity of 10(3) cells/paper point. No A.a. was detectable from all sites sampled. The predominant combination of species detected was B.f., P.g., P.i. & T.d. and it was significantly higher at periodontitis sites (68%) than at healthy (7%) or gingivitis sites (29%) (p<0.05). Overall, MR-EA values were strongly correlated with PGE2 levels (r=0.655, p<0.001), especially at these periodontitis sites co-infected by B.f., P.g., P.i. & T.d. (r=0.722, p<0.001). The periodontitis sites co-infected by the 4 species were observable from 15 subjects. These sites were sub-grouped into 8 subjects with a high MR-EA and 7 subjects with a low MR-EA. The PGE2 levels in the high MR-EA group were significantly higher than in the low MR-EA group (p<0.05). No significant differences in clinical or bacterial data were found between the two groups. While within the high MR-EA group, similar results were found between the paired periodontitis sites in each subject with highest and lowest MR-EA values. This study shows that the local host response to bacterial challenge in untreated periodontal pockets is diverse in

  12. Effects of balneotherapy on serum IL-1, PGE2 and LTB4 levels in fibromyalgia patients.

    PubMed

    Ardiç, Füsum; Ozgen, Merih; Aybek, Hülya; Rota, Simin; Cubukçu, Duygu; Gökgöz, Ali

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical effects of balneotherapy in the treatment of Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS) and to determine if balneotherapy influences serum levels of inflammation markers, IL-1, PGE2 and LTB4. 24 primary fibromyalgia female patients diagnosed according to American College of Rheumatology criteria were included to the study. Their ages ranged between 33 and 55 years. FMS patients were randomly assigned in two groups as, group 1 (n = 12) and group 2 (n = 12). Group 1 received 20-min bathing, once in a day for five days per week. Patients participated in the study for 3 weeks (total of 15 sessions) in Denizli. Group 2 did not receive balneotherapy. FMS patients were evaluated by tenderness measurements (tender point count and algometry), Visual Analogue Scale, Beck's Depression Index, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire. Ten healthy women recruited group three as the controls. Serum PGE2, LTB4 and IL1-alpha levels were measured in all three groups. The biochemical measurements and clinical assessments were performed before and at the end of general period of therapy. Statistically significant alterations in algometric score, Visual Analogue score, Beck's Depression Index and PGE2 levels (P < 0.001), numbers of tender points (P < 0.01) and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire score (P < 0.05) were found after the balneotherapy between group 1 and 2. Mean PGE2 level of FMS patients were higher compared to healthy control group (P < 0.0001) and decreased after the treatment period, only in group 1 (P < 0.05). As in the group 2 and 3, detectable IL-1 and LTB4 measurements were insufficient, statistical analysis was performed, only in group 1. After balneotherapy IL-1 and LTB4 significantly decreased in group 1 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, balneotherapy is an effective choice of treatment in patients with FMS relieving the clinical symptoms, and possibly influencing the inflammatory mediators.

  13. Characterization of biosynthesis and modes of action of prostaglandin E2 and prostacyclin in guinea pig mesenteric lymphatic vessels.

    PubMed

    Rehal, Sonia; Blanckaert, Pauline; Roizes, Simon; von der Weid, Pierre-Yves

    2009-12-01

    Rhythmical transient constrictions of the lymphatic vessels provide the means for efficient lymph drainage and interstitial tissue fluid balance. This activity is critical during inflammation, to avoid or limit oedema resulting from increased vascular permeability, mediated by the release of various inflammatory mediators. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and prostacyclin modulate lymphatic contractility in isolated guinea pig mesenteric lymphatic vessels. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to assess the expression of mRNA for enzymes and receptors involved in the production and action of PGE(2) and prostacyclin in mesenteric collecting lymphatic vessels. Frequency and amplitude of lymphatic vessel constriction were measured in the presence of these prostaglandins and the role of their respective EP and IP receptors assessed. Prostaglandin E(2) and prostacyclin decreased concentration-dependently the frequency, without affecting the amplitude, of lymphatic constriction. Data obtained in the presence of the EP(4) receptor antagonists, GW627368x (1 microM) and AH23848B (30 microM) and the IP receptor antagonist CAY10441 (0.1 microM) suggest that PGE(2) predominantly activates EP(4), whereas prostacyclin mainly stimulates IP receptors. Inhibition of responses to either prostaglandin with H89 (10 microM) or glibenclamide (1 microM) suggested a role for the activation of protein kinase A and ATP-sensitive K(+) channels. Our findings characterized the inhibition of lymphatic pumping induced by PGE(2) or prostacyclin in guinea pig mesenteric lymphatics. This action is likely to impair oedema resolution and to contribute to the pro-inflammatory actions of these prostaglandins.

  14. Vaginal Lactoferrin Modulates PGE2, MMP-9, MMP-2, and TIMP-1 Amniotic Fluid Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Maritati, Martina; Gonelli, Arianna; Greco, Pantaleo

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation plays an important role in pregnancy, and cytokine and matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) imbalance has been associated with premature rupture of membranes and increased risk of preterm delivery. Previous studies have demonstrated that lactoferrin (LF), an iron-binding protein with anti-inflammatory properties, is able to decrease amniotic fluid (AF) levels of IL-6. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of vaginal LF administration on amniotic fluid PGE2 level and MMP-TIMP system in women undergoing genetic amniocentesis. One hundred and eleven women were randomly divided into controls (n = 57) or treated with LF 4 hours before amniocentesis (n = 54). Amniotic fluid PGE2, active MMP-9 and MMP-2, and TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 concentrations were determined by commercially available assays and the values were normalized by AF creatinine concentration. PGE2, active MMP-9, and its inhibitor TIMP-1 were lower in LF-treated group than in controls (p < 0.01, p < 0.005, and p < 0.001, resp.). Conversely, active MMP-2 (p < 0.0001) and MMP-2/TIMP-2 molar ratio (p < 0.001) were increased, whilst TIMP-2 was unchanged. Our data suggest that LF administration is able to modulate the inflammatory response following amniocentesis, which may counteract cytokine and prostanoid imbalance that leads to abortion. This trial is registered with Clinical Trial number NCT02695563. PMID:27872513

  15. Misoprostol, an anti-ulcer agent and PGE2 receptor agonist, protects against cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Liang, Xibin; Wang, Qian; Breyer, Richard M; McCullough, Louise; Andreasson, Katrin

    2008-06-20

    Induction of COX-2 activity in cerebral ischemia results in increased neuronal injury and infarct size. Recent studies investigating neurotoxic mechanisms of COX-2 demonstrate both toxic and paradoxically protective effects of downstream prostaglandin receptor signaling pathways. We tested whether misoprostol, a PGE(2) receptor agonist that is utilized clinically as an anti-ulcer agent and signals through the protective PGE(2) EP2, EP3, and EP4 receptors, would reduce brain injury in the murine middle cerebral artery occlusion-reperfusion (MCAO-RP) model. Administration of misoprostol, at the time of MCAO or 2h after MCAO, resulted in significant rescue of infarct volume at 24 and 72h. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated dynamic regulation of the EP2 and EP4 receptors during reperfusion in neurons and endothelial cells of cerebral cortex and striatum, with limited expression of EP3 receptor. EP3-/- mice had no significant changes in infarct volume compared to control littermates. Moreover, administration of misoprostol to EP3+/+ and EP3-/- mice showed similar levels of infarct rescue, indicating that misoprostol protection was not mediated through the EP3 receptor. Taken together, these findings suggest a novel function for misoprostol as a protective agent in cerebral ischemia acting via the PGE(2) EP2 and/or EP4 receptors.

  16. Restoration of prostaglandin E2-producing splenic macrophages in sup 89 Sr-treated mice with bone marrow from Corynebacterium parvum primed donors

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, Y.

    1989-05-01

    Administration of Corynebacterium parvum (CP), 56 mg/kg ip to CBA/J mice effected the induction of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) producing macrophages (M phi) in the bone marrow and the spleen. Maximal release of PGE2 from M phi cultured in vitro with calcium ionophore A23187 for 2 h was reached by marrow M phi removed on 5 days after CP (450 ng/mg cell protein), and by splenic M phi 9 days after CP (400 ng/mg). Neither M phi population, however, yielded more than 6.0 ng/mg leukotriene C4. To assess ontogenic relationships mice were depleted of bone marrow and blood monocytes by ivmore » injection of the bone-seeking isotope, 89Sr. CP was given at several points before or after bone marrow cell depletion. PGE2 production by splenic M phi harvested on day 9 after CP was profoundly impaired when CP was administered either concurrently with or 3 days after 89Sr. When CP was administered 1, 3, 5, and 7 days before 89Sr, however, the induction of PGE2-producing M phi in the spleen was unaffected. To determine whether bone marrow cells from CP-injected donors can restore PGE2-producing splenic M phi (PGSM) in 89Sr-mice, recipient mice which had and had not received CP 3 days after 89Sr were transfused with 5 x 10(6) syngeneic bone marrow cells from donor mice prepared at varying intervals after CP administration. The results clearly indicate the capacity of bone marrow cells harvested on either day 1 or 2 following CP to restore PGSM in CP-primed, but not unprimed, recipients.« less

  17. Effect of resveratrol, tyrosol and beta-sitosterol on oxidised low-density lipoprotein-stimulated oxidative stress, arachidonic acid release and prostaglandin E2 synthesis by RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Vivancos, Marta; Moreno, Juan J

    2008-06-01

    Oxidation of LDL is hypothesised as an early and critical event in atherogenesis. Oxidised LDL (oxLDL) favour the transformation of macrophages into foam cells, an important cell involved in atherosclerosis. Furthermore, oxLDL cause multiple changes in macrophage functions. Thus, oxLDL induces certain genes, suppresses others and alters cell lipid metabolism. Consumption of a Mediterranean diet is associated with a low incidence of atherosclerotic disease, but data about the specific dietary constituents involved and mechanisms conferring cardioprotection are still sparse. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of representative minor components of wine and olive oil on reactive oxygen species and eicosanoid synthesis induced by oxLDL-stimulated macrophages. We observed that exposure to non-toxic oxLDL concentrations leads to the production of H2O2 by RAW 264.7 macrophages and this effect was reverted by apocynin, a NADPH oxidase inhibitor. Moreover, oxLDL induced arachidonic acid (AA) release, cyclo-oxygenase-2 overexpression and subsequent PGE2 release. We observed that resveratrol and tyrosol revert H2O2 production induced by oxLDL as well as AA release and PGE2 synthesis and that these effects were not as a consequence of these compounds interfering with the oxLDL binding to their receptors. Interestingly, beta-sitosterol presence enhances these polyphenol actions. Thus, we found a synergistic action of polyphenols of olive oil and wine and beta-sitosterol of olive oil led to the modulation of the effects of oxLDL on oxidative stress and PGE2 synthesis.

  18. The anti-inflammatory effects of PGE2 on human lung macrophages are mediated by the EP4 receptor.

    PubMed

    Gill, Sharonjit K; Yao, Yiwen; Kay, Linda J; Bewley, Martin A; Marriott, Helen M; Peachell, Peter T

    2016-11-01

    PGE 2 inhibits cytokine generation from human lung macrophages. However, the EP receptor that mediates this beneficial anti-inflammatory effect of PGE 2 has not been defined. The aim of this study was to identify the EP receptor by which PGE 2 inhibits cytokine generation from human lung macrophages. This was determined by using recently developed EP receptor ligands. The effects of PGE 2 and EP-selective agonists on LPS-induced generation of TNF-α and IL-6 from macrophages were evaluated. The effects of EP 2 -selective (PF-04852946, PF-04418948) and EP 4 -selective (L-161,982, CJ-042794) receptor antagonists on PGE 2 responses were studied. The expression of EP receptor subtypes by human lung macrophages was determined by RT-PCR. PGE 2 inhibited LPS-induced and Streptococcus pneumoniae-induced cytokine generation from human lung macrophages. Analysis of mRNA levels indicated that macrophages expressed EP 2 and EP 4 receptors. L-902,688 (EP 4 receptor-selective agonist) was considerably more potent than butaprost (EP 2 receptor-selective agonist) as an inhibitor of TNF-α generation from macrophages. EP 2 receptor-selective antagonists had marginal effects on the PGE 2 inhibition of TNF-α generation, whereas EP 4 receptor-selective antagonists caused rightward shifts in the PGE 2 concentration-response curves. These studies demonstrate that the EP 4 receptor is the principal receptor that mediates the anti-inflammatory effects of PGE 2 on human lung macrophages. This suggests that EP 4 receptor agonists could be effective anti-inflammatory agents in human lung disease. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  19. Up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 by product-prostaglandin E2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tjandrawinata, R. R.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    1997-01-01

    The development of prostate cancer has been linked to high level of dietary fat intake. Our laboratory investigates the connection between cancer cell growth and fatty acid products. Studying human prostatic carcinoma PC-3 cells, we found that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) increased cell growth and up-regulated the gene expression of its own synthesizing enzyme, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). PGE2 increased COX-2 mRNA expression dose-dependently with the highest levels of stimulation seen at the 3-hour period following PGE2 addition. The NSAID flurbiprofen (5 microM), in the presence of exogenous PGE2, inhibited the up-regulation of COX-2 mRNA and cell growth. These data suggest that the levels of local intracellular PGE2 play a major role in the growth of prostate cancer cells through an activation of COX-2 gene expression.

  20. Renoprotective effect of berberine via regulating the PGE2 -EP1-Gαq-Ca(2+) signalling pathway in glomerular mesangial cells of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ni, Wei-Jian; Tang, Li-Qin; Zhou, Hong; Ding, Hai-Hua; Qiu, Yuan-Ye

    2016-08-01

    G-protein coupled receptor-mediated pathogenesis is of great importance in the development of diabetic complications, but the detailed mechanisms have not yet been clarified. Therefore, we aimed to explore the roles of the prostaglandin E2 receptor 1 (EP1)-mediated signalling pathway and develop a corresponding treatment for diabetic nephropathy (DN). To create the DN model, rats fed a high-fat and high-glucose diet were injected with a single dose of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg, i.p.). Then, rats were either treated or not with berberine (100 mg/kg per day, i.g., 8 weeks). Cells were isolated from the renal cortex and cultured in high-sugar medium with 20% foetal bovine serum. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) levels were determined by ELISA, and cells were identified by fluorescence immunoassay. We measured the biochemical characteristics and observed morphological changes by periodic-acid-Schiff staining. The expression of the EP1 receptor and the roles of GRK2 and β-arrestin2 were identified using western blotting and flow cytometry. Downstream proteins were detected by western blot, while molecular changes were assessed by ELISA and laser confocal scanning microscopy. Berberine not only improved the majority of biochemical and renal functional parameters but also improved the histopathological alterations. A significant increase in PGE2 level, EP1 membrane expression and Gαq expression, and concentration of Ca(2+) were observed, accompanied by increased GRK2 and β-arrestin2 levels soon afterwards. Berberine decreased the abnormal concentration of Ca(2+) , the increased levels of PGE2 , the high expression of EP1 and Gαq and suppressed the proliferation of mesangial cells. The EP1 receptor, a critical therapeutic target of the signalling pathway, contributed to mesangial cell abnormalities, which are linked to renal injury in DN. The observed renoprotective effects of berberine via regulating the PGE2 -EP1-Gαq-Ca(2+) signalling pathway indicating that berberine

  1. Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 expression by prostaglandin E2 stimulation of the prostanoid EP4 receptor via coupling to Gαi and transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor in HCA-7 human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kenji; Fujino, Hiromichi; Otake, Sho; Seira, Naofumi; Regan, John W; Murayama, Toshihiko

    2013-10-15

    Increased expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and its downstream metabolite, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), are well documented events in the development of colorectal cancer. Interestingly, PGE2 itself can induce the expression of COX-2 thereby creating the potential for positive feedback. Although evidence for such a positive feedback has been previously described, the specific E-type prostanoid (EP) receptor subtype that mediates this response, as well as the relevant signaling pathways, remain unclear. We now report that the PGE2 stimulated induction of COX-2 expression in human colon cancer HCA-7 cells is mediated by activation of the prostanoid EP4 receptor subtype and is followed by coupling of the receptor to Gαi and the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Subsequent activation of metalloproteinases releases membrane bound heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor resulting in the transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors and the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases and induction of COX-2 expression. This induction of COX-2 expression by PGE2 stimulation of the prostanoid EP4 receptor may underlie the upregulation of COX-2 during colorectal cancer and appears to be an early event in the process of tumorigenesis. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Prostaglandin E2 Regulates Liver versus Pancreas Cell Fate Decisions and Endodermal Outgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Nissim, Sahar; Sherwood, Richard I.; Wucherpfennig, Julia; Saunders, Diane; Harris, James M.; Esain, Virginie; Carroll, Kelli J.; Frechette, Gregory M.; Kim, Andrew J.; Hwang, Katie L.; Cutting, Claire C.; Elledge, Susanna; North, Trista E.; Goessling, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The liver and pancreas arise from common endodermal progenitors. How these distinct cell fates are specified is poorly understood. Here, we describe prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) as a regulator of endodermal fate specification during development. Modulating PGE2 activity has opposing effects on liver-versus-pancreas specification in zebrafish embryos as well as mouse endodermal progenitors. The PGE2 synthetic enzyme cox2a and receptor ep2a are patterned such that cells closest to PGE2 synthesis acquire a liver fate whereas more distant cells acquire a pancreas fate. PGE2 interacts with the bmp2b pathway to regulate fate specification. At later stages of development, PGE2 acting via the ep4a receptor promotes outgrowth of both the liver and pancreas. PGE2 remains important for adult organ growth, as it modulates liver regeneration. This work provides in vivo evidence that PGE2 may act as a morphogen to regulate cell fate decisions and outgrowth of the embryonic endodermal anlagen. PMID:24530296

  3. Prostaglandin E2 increases hematopoietic stem cell survival and accelerates hematopoietic recovery after radiation injury

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Rebecca L.; Georger, Mary; Bromberg, Olga; McGrath, Kathleen E.; Frisch, Benjamin J.; Becker, Michael W.; Calvi, Laura M.

    2013-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), which continuously maintain all mature blood cells, are regulated within the marrow microenvironment. We previously reported that pharmacologic treatment of naïve mice with prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) expands HSPCs. However, the cellular mechanisms mediating this expansion remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that PGE2 treatment in naïve mice inhibits apoptosis of HSPCs without changing their proliferation rate. In a murine model of sub-lethal total body irradiation (TBI), in which HSPCs are rapidly lost, treatment with a long-acting PGE2 analogue (dmPGE2) reversed the apoptotic program initiated by TBI. dmPGE2 treatment in vivo decreased the loss of functional HSPCs following radiation injury, as demonstrated both phenotypically and by their increased reconstitution capacity. The antiapoptotic effect of dmPGE2 on HSPCs did not impair their ability to differentiate in vivo, resulting instead in improved hematopoietic recovery after TBI. dmPGE2 also increased microenvironmental cyclooxygenase-2 expression and expanded the α-SMA+ subset of marrow macrophages, thus enhancing the bone marrow microenvironmental response to TBI. Therefore, in vivo treatment with PGE2 analogues may be particularly beneficial to HSPCs in the setting of injury by targeting them both directly and also through their niche. The current data provide rationale for in vivo manipulation of the HSPC pool as a strategy to improve recovery after myelosuppression. PMID:23169593

  4. Abnormal TNF-alpha production in diabetes-prone BB rats: enhanced TNF-alpha expression and defective PGE2 feedback inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Rothe, H; Ongören, C; Martin, S; Rösen, P; Kolb, H

    1994-01-01

    Upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peritoneal macrophages from diabetes-prone Bio-Breeding (BB) rats secrete more tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) than macrophages from diabetes-resistant BB or normal Wistar rats. Enhanced transcription was demonstrated by Northern blot analysis and at the single cell level by mRNA: RNA hybridization. Cytofluorometry analysis showed 2-4 times more plasma membrane and total cell-associated TNF-alpha in macrophages of diabetes-prone BB rats. The analysis of fluorescence intensity showed a single peak, and TNF-alpha mRNA was found in > 90% of macrophages. These findings exclude TNF hypersecretion as being due to an abnormal subfraction of cells. TNF-alpha gene hyperexpression in diabetes-prone BB rats was not due to mutations in the regulatory regions of the promoter, which could be shown by cloning and sequencing of the TNF-alpha promoter in the three rat strains. When searching for other regulatory defects we found the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in response to LPS to be up to 10 times lower in macrophages from diabetes-prone BB rats than from Wistar rats. Furthermore, BB rats macrophages required significantly higher concentrations of PGE2 for suppression of TNF-alpha secretion. We conclude that abnormal TNF-alpha production in macrophages from diabetes-prone BB rats is due to enhanced gene transcription and translation and that this is associated with defective PGE2 feedback inhibition. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8206514

  5. Areca nut components stimulate ADAM17, IL-1α, PGE2 and 8-isoprostane production in oral keratinocyte: role of reactive oxygen species, EGF and JAK signaling.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Chi; Chan, Chiu-Po; Chen, Yi-Jane; Hsien, Hsiang-Chi; Chang, Ya-Ching; Yeung, Sin-Yuet; Jeng, Po-Yuan; Cheng, Ru-Hsiu; Hahn, Liang-Jiunn; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2016-03-29

    Betel quid (BQ) chewing is an etiologic factor of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and oral cancer. There are 600 million BQ chewers worldwide. The mechanisms for the toxic and inflammatory responses of BQ are unclear. In this study, both areca nut (AN) extract (ANE) and arecoline stimulated epidermal growth factor (EGF) and interleukin-1α (IL-1α) production of gingival keratinocytes (GKs), whereas only ANE can stimulate a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and 8-isoprostane production. ANE-induced EGF production was inhibited by catalase. Addition of anti-EGF neutralizing antibody attenuated ANE-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), mature ADAM9 expression and PGE2 and 8-isoprostane production. ANE-induced IL-1α production was inhibited by catalase, anti-EGF antibody, PD153035 (EGF receptor antagonist) and U0126 (MEK inhibitor) but not by α-naphthoflavone (cytochrome p450-1A1 inhibitor). ANE-induced ADAM17 production was inhibited by pp2 (Src inhibitor), U0126, α-naphthoflavone and aspirin. AG490 (JAK inhibitor) prevented ANE-stimulated ADAM17, IL-1α, PGE2 production, COX-2 expression, ADAM9 maturation, and the ANE-induced decline in keratin 5 and 14, but showed little effect on cdc2 expression and EGF production. Moreover, ANE-induced 8-isoprostane production by GKs was inhibited by catalase, anti-EGF antibody, AG490, pp2, U0126, α-naphthoflavone, Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) and aspirin. These results indicate that AN components may involve in BQ-induced oral cancer by induction of reactive oxygen species, EGF/EGFR, IL-1α, ADAMs, JAK, Src, MEK/ERK, CYP1A1, and COX signaling pathways, and the aberration of cell cycle and differentiation. Various blockers against ROS, EGF, IL-1α, ADAM, JAK, Src, MEK, CYP1A1, and COX can be used for prevention or treatment of BQ chewing-related diseases.

  6. Molecular and preclinical basis to inhibit PGE2 receptors EP2 and EP4 as a novel nonsteroidal therapy for endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Arosh, Joe A.; Lee, JeHoon; Balasubbramanian, Dakshnapriya; Stanley, Jone A.; Long, Charles R.; Meagher, Mary W.; Osteen, Kevin G.; Bruner-Tran, Kaylon L.; Burghardt, Robert C.; Starzinski-Powitz, Anna; Banu, Sakhila K.

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is a debilitating, estrogen-dependent, progesterone-resistant, inflammatory gynecological disease of reproductive age women. Two major clinical symptoms of endometriosis are chronic intolerable pelvic pain and subfertility or infertility, which profoundly affect the quality of life in women. Current hormonal therapies to induce a hypoestrogenic state are unsuccessful because of undesirable side effects, reproductive health concerns, and failure to prevent recurrence of disease. There is a fundamental need to identify nonestrogen or nonsteroidal targets for the treatment of endometriosis. Peritoneal fluid concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) are higher in women with endometriosis, and this increased PGE2 plays important role in survival and growth of endometriosis lesions. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of pharmacological inhibition of PGE2 receptors, EP2 and EP4, on molecular and cellular aspects of the pathogenesis of endometriosis and associated clinical symptoms. Using human fluorescent endometriotic cell lines and chimeric mouse model as preclinical testing platform, our results, to our knowledge for the first time, indicate that selective inhibition of EP2/EP4: (i) decreases growth and survival of endometriosis lesions; (ii) decreases angiogenesis and innervation of endometriosis lesions; (iii) suppresses proinflammatory state of dorsal root ganglia neurons to decrease pelvic pain; (iv) decreases proinflammatory, estrogen-dominant, and progesterone-resistant molecular environment of the endometrium and endometriosis lesions; and (v) restores endometrial functional receptivity through multiple mechanisms. Our novel findings provide a molecular and preclinical basis to formulate long-term nonestrogen or nonsteroidal therapy for endometriosis. PMID:26199416

  7. Prostaglandin E2 regulates Th17 cell differentiation and function through cyclic AMP and EP2/EP4 receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Boniface, Katia; Bak-Jensen, Kristian S.; Li, Ying; Blumenschein, Wendy M.; McGeachy, Mandy J.; McClanahan, Terrill K.; McKenzie, Brent S.; Kastelein, Robert A.; de Waal Malefyt, René

    2009-01-01

    Prostaglandins, particularly prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), play an important role during inflammation. This is exemplified by the clinical use of cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors, which interfere with PGE2 synthesis, as effective antiinflammatory drugs. Here, we show that PGE2 directly promotes differentiation and proinflammatory functions of human and murine IL-17–producing T helper (Th17) cells. In human purified naive T cells, PGE2 acts via prostaglandin receptor EP2- and EP4-mediated signaling and cyclic AMP pathways to up-regulate IL-23 and IL-1 receptor expression. Furthermore, PGE2 synergizes with IL-1β and IL-23 to drive retinoic acid receptor–related orphan receptor (ROR)-γt, IL-17, IL-17F, CCL20, and CCR6 expression, which is consistent with the reported Th17 phenotype. While enhancing Th17 cytokine expression mainly through EP2, PGE2 differentially regulates interferon (IFN)-γ production and inhibits production of the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10 in Th17 cells predominantly through EP4. Furthermore, PGE2 is required for IL-17 production in the presence of antigen-presenting cells. Hence, the combination of inflammatory cytokines and noncytokine immunomodulators, such as PGE2, during differentiation and activation determines the ultimate phenotype of Th17 cells. These findings, together with the altered IL-12/IL-23 balance induced by PGE2 in dendritic cells, further highlight the crucial role of the inflammatory microenvironment in Th17 cell development and regulation. PMID:19273625

  8. Piracy of PGE2/EP receptor mediated signaling by Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpes virus (KSHV/HHV-8) for latency gene expression: Strategy of a successful pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Arun George; Sharma-Walia, Neelam; Kerur, Nagaraj; White, Carl; Chandran, Bala

    2010-01-01

    KSHV is implicated in the pathogenesis of KS, a chronic inflammation associated malignancy. COX-2 and its metabolite PGE2, two pivotal proinflammatory/oncogeneic molecules, are proposed to play roles in the expression of major KSHV latency associated nuclear antigen-1 (LANA-1). Microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase (mPGES), PGE2 and its receptors (EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4) were detected in KS lesions with the distinct staining of EP2/EP4 in KS lesions. In latently infected endothelial TIVE-LTC cells, EP receptor antagonists down-regulated LANA-1 expression as well as Ca2+, p-Src, p-PI3K, p-PKCζ/λ, and p-NF-κB, which are also some of the signal molecules proposed to be important in KS pathogenesis. Exogenous PGE2 and EP receptor agonists induced the LANA-1 promoter in 293 cells, and YY1, Sp1, Oct-1, Oct-6, C/EBP and c-Jun transcription factors appear to be involved in this induction. PGE2/EP receptor induced LANA-1 promoter activity was down-regulated significantly by the inhibition of Ca2+, p-Src, p-PI3K, p-PKCζ/λ, and p-NF-κB. These findings implicate the inflammatory PGE2/EP receptors and the associated signal molecules in herpes virus latency and uncover a novel paradigm that demonstrates the evolution of KSHV genome plasticity to utilize inflammatory response for its survival advantage of maintaining latent gene expression. This data also suggests that potential use of anti-COX-2 and anti-EP receptor therapy may not only ameliorate the chronic inflammation associated with KS but could also lead to elimination of the KSHV latent infection and the associated KS lesions. PMID:20388794

  9. [Labor induction with extra-amnial administration of PGE2 vaginal tablets].

    PubMed

    Roztocil, A; Koudelka, M; Jelínek, J; Miklica, J; Pilka, L

    1996-08-01

    During the period between Jan. 1 1992 and Dec. 31, 1995 at the Second Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Brno labour was induced in 1159 patients by extraamnial fractionated administration of PGE2 vaginal tablets. After assessment of the indication and the baseline examination (NST, amnioscopy, US biometry and cervical score) according to the CS to the patient the first dose of PGE2 was administered into the extraamnial space beyond the inner os uteri (CS 5-8:1.0 mg PGE2, CS > 8 : 0.5 mg PGE2). After two hours the patient was examined again and if regular uterine contractions had started or the finding on the os uteri was larger than 2 cm, the amniotic sac was disrupted. If not, another dose was administered. After two hours the patient was re-examined and if the os was larger than 2 cm, and there were regular uterine contractions, the amniotic sac was disrupted. If the changes did not take place, the induction was considered a failure. there were 1007 successful inductions (95.5%), the mean period from the onset of induction to the onset of uterine contractions was < 120 mins-269 (24.6%), 120-180 mins.: 501 (45.9%) and > 180 mins.: 322 (29.5%). The mean period of the first stage of labour was 228 mins., stage II 10 mins., stage III 8 mins. Five times uterine hypertonus was recorded and a blood loss greater than 500 ml occurred in four patients. Forty-nine Caesarean sections were made (4.2%) and 51 (4.4%) forceps deliveries. The rate of epidural analgesia was 27 (2.3%). Revision of the uterine cavity was made in 39 patients (3.4%) and manual lysis of the placenta in 30 (2.6%). The Apgar score was inferior to 6 in 10 neonates (0.9%). The protocol of induction of labour described by the authors is effective and associated with a minimum of side-effects, safe for the mother and foetus, well tolerated by patients and cost-effective.

  10. Antioxidant Biomarkers from Vanda coerulea Stems Reduce Irradiated HaCaT PGE-2 Production as a Result of COX-2 Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Simmler, Charlotte; Antheaume, Cyril; Lobstein, Annelise

    2010-01-01

    Background In our investigations towards the isolation of potentially biologically active constituents from Orchidaceae, we carried out phytochemical and biological analyses of Vanda species. A preliminary biological screening revealed that Vanda coerulea (Griff. ex. Lindl) crude hydro-alcoholic stem extract displayed the best DPPH /•OH radical scavenging activity and in vitro inhibition of type 2 prostaglandin (PGE-2) release from UVB (60 mJ/cm2) irradiated HaCaT keratinocytes. Principal Findings Bio-guided fractionation and phytochemical analysis led to the isolation of five stilbenoids: imbricatin (1) methoxycoelonin (2) gigantol (3) flavidin (4) and coelonin (5). Stilbenoids (1–3) were the most concentrated in crude hydro-alcoholic stem extract and were considered as Vanda coerulea stem biomarkers. Dihydro-phenanthropyran (1) and dihydro-phenanthrene (2) displayed the best DPPH/•OH radical scavenging activities as well as HaCaT intracellular antioxidant properties (using DCFH-DA probe: IC50 8.8 µM and 9.4 µM, respectively) compared to bibenzyle (3) (IC50 20.6 µM). In turn, the latter showed a constant inhibition of PGE-2 production, stronger than stilbenoids (1) and (2) (IC50 12.2 µM and 19.3 µM, respectively). Western blot analysis revealed that stilbenoids (1–3) inhibited COX-2 expression at 23 µM. Interestingly, stilbenoids (1) and (2) but not (3) were able to inhibit human recombinant COX-2 activity. Conclusions Major antioxidant stilbenoids (1–3) from Vanda coerulea stems displayed an inhibition of UVB-induced COX-2 expression. Imbricatin (1) and methoxycoelonin (2) were also able to inhibit COX-2 activity in a concentration-dependent manner thereby reducing PGE-2 production from irradiated HaCaT cells. Our studies suggest that stilbenoids (1–3) could be potentially used for skin protection against the damage caused by UVB exposure. PMID:21060890

  11. PGE2 suppresses NK activity in vivo directly and through adrenal hormones: Effects that cannot be reflected by ex-vivo assessment of NK cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Meron, G.; Tishler, Y.; Shaashua, L.; Rosenne, E.; Levi, B.; Melamed, R.; Gotlieb, N.; Matzner, P.; Sorski, L.; Ben-Eliyahu, S.

    2013-01-01

    Surgery can suppress in vivo levels of NK cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) through various mechanisms, including catecholamine-, glucocorticoid (CORT)-, and prostaglandin (PG)-mediated responses. However, PGs are synthesized locally following tissue damage, driving proinflammatory and CORT responses, while their systemic levels are often unaffected. Thus, we herein studied the role of adrenal factors in mediating in vivo effects of PGs on NKCC, using adrenalectomized and sham-operated F344 rats subjected to surgery or PGE2 administration. In vivo and ex-vivo approaches were employed, based on intravenous administration of the NK-sensitive MADB106 tumor line, and based on ex-vivo assessment of YAC-1 and MADB106 target-line lysis. Additionally, in vitro studies assessed the kinetics of the impact of epinephrine, CORT, and PGE2 on NKCC. The results indicated that suppression of NKCC by epinephrine and PGE2 are short lasting, and cannot be evident when these compounds are removed from the in vitro assay milieu, or in the context of ex-vivo assessment of NKCC. In contrast, the effects of CORT are long-lasting and are reflected in both conditions even after its removal. Marginating-pulmonary NKCC was less susceptible to suppression than circulating NKCC, when tested against the xenogeneic YAC-1 target line, but not against the syngeneic MADB106 line, which seems to involve different cytotoxicity mechanisms. Overall, these findings indicate that elevated systemic PG levels can directly suppress NKCC in vivo, but following laparotomy adrenal hormones mediate most of the effects of endogenously-released PGs. Additionally, the ex-vivo approach seems limited in reflecting the short-lasting NK-suppressive effects of catecholamines and PGs. PMID:23153554

  12. PGE2 suppresses NK activity in vivo directly and through adrenal hormones: effects that cannot be reflected by ex vivo assessment of NK cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Meron, G; Tishler, Y; Shaashua, L; Rosenne, E; Levi, B; Melamed, R; Gotlieb, N; Matzner, P; Sorski, L; Ben-Eliyahu, S

    2013-02-01

    Surgery can suppress in vivo levels of NK cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) through various mechanisms, including catecholamine-, glucocorticoid (CORT)-, and prostaglandin (PG)-mediated responses. However, PGs are synthesized locally following tissue damage, driving proinflammatory and CORT responses, while their systemic levels are often unaffected. Thus, we herein studied the role of adrenal factors in mediating in vivo effects of PGs on NKCC, using adrenalectomized and sham-operated F344 rats subjected to surgery or PGE(2) administration. In vivo and ex vivo approaches were employed, based on intravenous administration of the NK-sensitive MADB106 tumor line, and based on ex vivo assessment of YAC-1 and MADB106 target-line lysis. Additionally, in vitro studies assessed the kinetics of the impact of epinephrine, CORT, and PGE(2) on NKCC. The results indicated that suppression of NKCC by epinephrine and PGE(2) are short lasting, and cannot be evident when these compounds are removed from the in vitro assay milieu, or in the context of ex vivo assessment of NKCC. In contrast, the effects of CORT are long-lasting and are reflected in both conditions even after its removal. Marginating-pulmonary NKCC was less susceptible to suppression than circulating NKCC, when tested against the xenogeneic YAC-1 target line, but not against the syngeneic MADB106 line, which seems to involve different cytotoxicity mechanisms. Overall, these findings indicate that elevated systemic PG levels can directly suppress NKCC in vivo, but following laparotomy adrenal hormones mediate most of the effects of endogenously-released PGs. Additionally, the ex vivo approach seems limited in reflecting the short-lasting NK-suppressive effects of catecholamines and PGs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Intravenous anesthetic propofol suppresses prostaglandin E2 production in murine dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Inada, Takefumi; Kubo, Kozue; Ueshima, Hironobu; Shingu, Koh

    2011-01-01

    Propofol is an intravenous anesthetic that is widely used for anesthesia and sedation. Dendritic cells (DC) are one of the crucial immune cells that bridge innate and adaptive immunity, in which DC process antigens during innate immune responses to present them to naïve T-cells, leading to an establishment of adaptive immunity. Prostaglandin (PG)-E(2) may be secreted by DC into the microenvironment, considerably influencing DC phenotype and function, and thus determining the fate of adaptive immunity. Since propofol suppresses PGE(2) production in murine macrophages, the primary purpose of the present study was to determine whether propofol also suppresses PGE(2) production in DC. Assuming a positive finding of such suppression, we tested whether this also leads to alterations of interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-10 production and DC surface marker expression, both of which can be modulated by PGE(2). In bone marrow-derived DC, propofol significantly suppressed the PGE(2) production after lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Cyclo-oxygenase (COX) protein expression and arachidonic acid release were unaffected, while COX enzyme activity was significantly inhibited by propofol. The propofol-induced COX inhibition did not lead to the increased production of cysteinyl leukotrienes and leukotriene-B(4). Endogenous COX inhibition with propofol, as well as with the selective COX-2 inhibitor, NS-398, did not affect IL-12 and IL-10 production from DC. The surface expression of I-A(b) and CD40 on DC was not changed, while that of CD86 slightly increased, with both propofol and NS-398; expression of CD80 was not affected with propofol, but increased slightly with NS-398. Finally, endogenous COX inhibition with either propofol or NS-398 did not significantly affect the ability of DC to induce allogeneic T-cell proliferation. It is concluded that the intravenous anesthetic propofol suppresses COX enzyme activity in DC, with no consequences with respect to IL-12/IL-10 production and

  14. Inhibition of COX-2 and PGE2 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells by lonimacranthoide VI, a chlorogenic acid ester saponin

    PubMed Central

    GUAN, FUQIN; WANG, HAITING; SHAN, YU; CHEN, YU; WANG, MING; WANG, QIZHI; YIN, MIN; ZHAO, YOUYI; FENG, XU; ZHANG, JIANHUA

    2014-01-01

    Lonimacranthoide VI, first isolated from the flower buds of Lonicera macranthoides in our previous study, is a rare chlorogenic acid ester acylated at C-23 of hederagenin. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effects of lonimacranthoide VI were studied. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induced an inflammatory response through the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and these levels were reduced when lonimacranthoide VI was pre-administered. Additionally, the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effects of lonimacranthoide VI was investigated by measuring cyclooxygenase (COX) activity and mRNA expression. The results showed that lonimacranthoide VI inhibited mRNA expression and in vitro activity of COX-2 in a dose-dependent manner, whereas only the higher lonimacranthoide VI concentration possibly reduced COX-1 expression and in vitro activity. Taken together, these results indicate that lonimacranthoide VI is an important anti-inflammatory constituent of Lonicera macranthoides and that the anti-inflammatory effect is attributed to the inhibition of PGE2 production through COX activity and mRNA expression. PMID:25054024

  15. Withaferin A down-regulates lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression and PGE2 production through the inhibition of STAT1/3 activation in microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyoung-Jin; Choi, Kyounghwa; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2011-08-01

    Microglia are the major immune effector cells in the brain, and microglia activated by injury and infection can produce inflammatory mediators. A number of studies have reported that withaferin A has anti-inflammatory functions. However, the effects of withaferin A on the microglial inflammatory response have not been investigated. Our results show that withaferin A inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 mRNA and protein expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)) production in BV2 murine microglial cells. Withaferin A had no effect on LPS-induced Akt and ERK phosphorylation, but phosphorylation of p38 and JNK was slightly decreased by withaferin A. Withaferin A significantly inhibited LPS-induced STAT1 and STAT3 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, withaferin A inhibited nuclear translocation of STAT1 and interferon-gamma activated sequence (GAS)-promoter activity. Taken together, these results suggest that withaferin A inhibits LPS-induced PGE(2) production and COX-2 expression, at least in part, by blocking STAT1 and STAT3 activation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Modulation of NF-κB activation by resveratrol in LPS treated human intestinal cells results in downregulation of PGE2 production and COX-2 expression.

    PubMed

    Cianciulli, Antonia; Calvello, Rosa; Cavallo, Pasqua; Dragone, Teresa; Carofiglio, Vito; Panaro, Maria Antonietta

    2012-10-01

    Resveratrol is a natural phytoalexin present in a variety of plant species, such as grapes and red wine, that is well known for its anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, a cancer chemotherapeutic activity of resveratrol has been described. Here we evaluated the effect of resveratrol on COX-2 and prostaglandin E(2) production in human intestinal cells Caco-2 cells treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Resveratrol concentration-dependently inhibited the expression of COX-2 mRNA in the LPS-treated cells, as well as protein expression, resulting in a decreased production of PGE(2). In order to investigate the mechanisms through which resveratrol exhibited these anti-inflammatory effects, we examined the activation of IκB in LPS-stimulated intestinal cells. Results demonstrated that resveratrol inhibited the translocation of NF-κB p65 subunits from the cytosol to the nucleus, which correlated with its inhibitory effects on IκBα phosphorylation and degradation. These results suggest that the down-regulation of COX-2 and PGE(2) by resveratrol may be related to NF-κB inhibition through the negative regulation of IKK phosphorylation in intestinal cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. IL-10 administration reduces PGE-2 levels and promotes CR3-mediated clearance of Escherichia coli K1 by phagocytes in meningitis.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Rahul; Gonzalez-Gomez, Ignacio; Panigrahy, Ashok; Goth, Kerstin; Bonnet, Richard; Prasadarao, Nemani V

    2010-06-07

    Ineffectiveness of antibiotics in treating neonatal Escherichia coli K1 meningitis and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains evidently warrants new prevention strategies. We observed that administration of interleukin (IL)-10 during high-grade bacteremia clears antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant E. coli from blood of infected mice. Micro-CT studies of brains from infected animals displayed gross morphological changes similar to those observed in infected human neonates. In mice, IL-10, but not antibiotic or anti-TNF antibody treatment prevented brain damage caused by E. coli. IL-10 administration elevated CR3 expression in neutrophils and macrophages of infected mice, whereas infected and untreated mice displayed increased expression of FcgammaRI and TLR2. Neutrophils or macrophages pretreated with IL-10 ex vivo exhibited a significantly greater microbicidal activity against E. coli compared with cells isolated from wild-type or IL-10-/- mice. The protective effect of IL-10 was abrogated when CR3 was knocked-down in vivo by siRNA. The increased expression of CR3 in phagocytes was caused by inhibition of prostaglandin E-2 (PGE-2) levels, which were significantly increased in neutrophils and macrophages upon E. coli infection. These findings describe a novel modality of IL-10-mediated E. coli clearance by diverting the entry of bacteria via CR3 and preventing PGE-2 formation in neonatal meningitis.

  18. Ca(2+)-mediated prostaglandin E2 induction reduces haematoporphyrin-derivative-induced cytotoxicity of T24 human bladder transitional carcinoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Penning, L C; Keirse, M J; VanSteveninck, J; Dubbelman, T M

    1993-01-01

    The effects of haematoporphyrin-derivative-mediated photodynamic treatment on arachidonic acid metabolism and its relation to clonogenicity have been studied in human bladder-tumour cells. Photodynamic treatment resulted in a transient release of arachidonic acid-derived compounds; prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) especially were strongly increased. This release was reduced by chelation of intracellular Ca2+ with Quin-2 or by lowering the extracellular Ca2+ concentration in the medium with EGTA, presumably resulting in inhibition of phospholipase A2. A similar reduction was obtained when indomethacin, an inhibitor of the cyclo-oxygenase pathway, was added prior to light exposure. These three treatments enhanced the photosensitivity, as revealed by the clonogenicity assay. Incubation with PGE2 prior to light exposure, but not with TXB2, protected against reproductive-cell death. The results of these experiments suggest that Ca(2+)-mediated activation of cyclo-oxygenase, resulting in increased levels of PGE2, participates in a cellular-defence mechanism against photodynamic cell killing. PMID:8503851

  19. Identification of Francisella novicida mutants that fail to induce prostaglandin E2 synthesis by infected macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Woolard, Matthew D.; Barrigan, Lydia M.; Fuller, James R.; Buntzman, Adam S.; Bryan, Joshua; Manoil, Colin; Kawula, Thomas H.; Frelinger, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia. We have previously shown that infection with F. tularensis Live Vaccine Strain (LVS) induces macrophages to synthesize prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Synthesis of PGE2 by F. tularensis infected macrophages results in decreased T cell proliferation in vitro and increased bacterial survival in vivo. Although we understand some of the biological consequences of F. tularensis induced PGE2 synthesis by macrophages, we do not understand the cellular pathways (neither host nor bacterial) that result in up-regulation of the PGE2 biosynthetic pathway in F. tularensis infected macrophages. We took a genetic approach to begin to understand the molecular mechanisms of bacterial induction of PGE2 synthesis from infected macrophages. To identify F. tularensis genes necessary for the induction of PGE2 in primary macrophages, we infected cells with individual mutants from the closely related strain F. tularensis subspecies novicida U112 (U112) two allele mutant library. Twenty genes were identified that when disrupted resulted in U112 mutant strains unable to induce the synthesis of PGE2 by infected macrophages. Fourteen of the genes identified are located within the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI). Genes in the FPI are required for F. tularensis to escape from the phagosome and replicate in the cytosol, which might account for the failure of U112 with transposon insertions within the FPI to induce PGE2. This implies that U112 mutant strains that do not grow intracellularly would also not induce PGE2. We found that U112 clpB::Tn grows within macrophages yet fails to induce PGE2, while U112 pdpA::Tn does not grow yet does induce PGE2. We also found that U112 iglC::Tn neither grows nor induces PGE2. These findings indicate that there is dissociation between intracellular growth and the ability of F. tularensis to induce PGE2 synthesis. These mutants provide a critical entrée into the pathways used in the host for PGE2

  20. Hyaluronan inhibits prostaglandin E2 production via CD44 in U937 human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Tadashi

    2010-03-01

    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) is one of the key mediators of inflammation in affected joints of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Intra-articular injection of high molecular weight hyaluronan (HA) into RA knee joints relieves arthritic pain. Although HA has been shown to inhibit PGE(2) production in cytokine-stimulated synovial fibroblasts, it remains unclear how HA suppresses PGE(2) production in activated cells. Furthermore, HA effect on macrophages has rarely been investigated in spite of their contribution to RA joint pathology. This study was aimed to investigate the inhibitory mechanism of HA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated PGE(2) production in U937 human macrophages. Stimulation of U937 macrophages with LPS enhanced PGE(2) production in association with increased protein levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Pretreatment with HA of 2,700 kDa resulted in suppression of the LPS-mediated induction of COX-2, leading to a decrease in PGE(2) production. Likewise, the LPS-stimulated PGE(2) production was inhibited by the pretreatment with a specific COX2 inhibitor, NS-398, or a specific inhibitor of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, BAY11-7085. HA also decreased the degree of phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB enhanced by LPS. Fluorescence cytochemistry demonstrated that HA bound to CD44, the principal HA receptor, on U937 macrophages. Anti-CD44 antibody reversed the inhibitory effects of HA on the LPS-mediated increase in PGE(2) production, COX-2 induction, and activation of NF-kappaB. These results indicate that HA suppresses the LPS-stimulated PGE(2) production via CD44 through down-regulation of NF-kappaB. Administration of HA into RA joints may decrease PGE(2) production by activated macrophages, which could result in improvement of arthritic pain.

  1. Prostaglandin E2 enhances long-term repopulation but does not permanently alter inherent stem cell competitiveness.

    PubMed

    Hoggatt, Jonathan; Mohammad, Khalid S; Singh, Pratibha; Pelus, Louis M

    2013-10-24

    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation is a lifesaving therapy for malignant and nonmalignant hematologic diseases and metabolic disorders. Although successful, hematopoietic transplantation can be hindered by inadequate stem cell number or poor engrafting efficiency. To overcome these deficits, we and others have previously reported the HSC-enhancing ability of a short-term exposure of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2); this strategy has now progressed to phase 1 clinical trials in double cord blood transplantation. To further analyze the short- and long-term effects of HSC exposure to PGE2, we followed the repopulation kinetics of PGE2-treated hematopoietic grafts through 5 serial transplantations and compared inherent long-term competitiveness in a HSC head-to-head secondary transplantation model. Treatment with PGE2 did not result in a long-term increase in HSC competitiveness, lineage bias, or enhanced proliferative potential, demonstrating that pulse exposure to PGE2 results in transient increases in HSC homing and engraftment potential.

  2. Bromelain treatment leads to maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells but cannot replace PGE2 in a cocktail of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and PGE2.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, M; Hovden, A-O; Vogelsang, P; Tysnes, B B; Appel, S

    2011-08-01

    Immunotherapy using dendritic cells (DC) has shown promising results. However, the use of an appropriate DC population is critical for the outcome of this treatment, and the search for an optimal DC subset is still ongoing. The DC used in immunotherapy today are usually matured with a cytokine cocktail consisting of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and PGE(2). These cells have deficits in their cytokine production, particularly IL-12p70, mainly because of the presence of PGE(2). Bromelain is a pineapple stem extract containing a mixture of proteases that has been used clinically in adjuvant cancer treatment. In this study, we analysed the effect of bromelain on human monocyte-derived DC. We added bromelain to the cytokine cocktail and modified cytokine cocktails with either no PGE(2) or reduced amounts of PGE(2), respectively. Combining bromelain with the cytokine cocktails containing PGE(2) resulted in an increased surface expression of CD83, CD80 and CD86. The chemokine receptor CCR7 was also considerably upregulated in these DC populations compared with DC treated with the cytokine cocktail alone. Removal or reduction of PGE(2) from the cytokine cocktail did not increase the IL-12p70 secretion from stimulated DC, and addition of bromelain to the different cytokine cocktails resulted in only a minor increase in IL-12p70 production. Moreover, combining bromelain with the cytokine cocktails did not improve the T cell stimulatory capacity of the generated DC populations. In conclusion, bromelain treatment of monocyte-derived DC does not improve the functional quality compared with the standard cytokine cocktail. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Effect of PGE2 and LTB4 on vicia villosa binding lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Gualde, N; Cook, J M; Guibert, F

    1988-06-01

    Since there is a good deal of evidence that vicia villosa lectin (VVA) binds to contrasuppressor cells, mouse splenocytes and thymocytes were sorted by binding to VVA-coated Petri dishes. It was observed that vicia villosa adherent cells (VVA(+)) did not proliferate when mitogens were added to cultures, but they did enhance the thymidine uptake of PHA or ConA stimulated vicia villosa non-adherent (VVA(-)) splenocytes. PGE2 treatment of VVA(+) splenocytes or VVA(+) immature thymocytes did not very much affect the VVA(+) cell behavior. On the other hand, LTB4 increased the enhancing capability of VVA(+) splenocytes. Therefore, investigations dealing with the effects of LTB4 on lymphocyte subsets which may include VVA(+) cells should take into consideration the possible presence of contrasuppressor cells.

  4. ER stress upregulated PGE2/IFNγ-induced IL-6 expression and down-regulated iNOS expression in glial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoi, Toru; Honda, Miya; Oba, Tatsuya; Ozawa, Koichiro

    2013-12-01

    The disruption of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function can lead to neurodegenerative disorders, in which inflammation has also been implicated. We investigated the possible correlation between ER stress and immune function using glial cells. We demonstrated that ER stress synergistically enhanced prostaglandin (PG) E2 + interferon (IFN) γ-induced interleukin (IL)-6 production. This effect was mediated through cAMP. Immune-activated glial cells produced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Interestingly, ER stress inhibited PGE2 + IFNγ-induced iNOS expression. Similar results were obtained when cells were treated with dbcAMP + IFNγ. Thus, cAMP has a dual effect on immune reactions; cAMP up-regulated IL-6 expression, but down-regulated iNOS expression under ER stress. Therefore, our results suggest a link between ER stress and immune reactions in neurodegenerative diseases.

  5. The role of PGE2 receptor EP4 in pathologic ocular angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yanni, Susan E; Barnett, Joshua M; Clark, Monika L; Penn, John S

    2009-11-01

    PGE(2) binds to PGE(2) receptors (EP(1-4)). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of the EP(4) receptor in angiogenic cell behaviors of retinal Müller cells and retinal microvascular endothelial cells (RMECs) and to assess the efficacy of an EP(4) antagonist in rat models of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) and laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (LCNV). Müller cells derived from COX-2-null mice were treated with increasing concentrations of the EP(4) agonist PGE(1)-OH, and wild-type Müller cells were treated with increasing concentrations of the EP(4) antagonist L-161982; VEGF production was assessed. Human RMECs (HRMECs) were treated with increasing concentrations of L-161982, and cell proliferation and tube formation were assessed. Rats subjected to OIR or LCNV were administered L-161982, and the neovascular area was measured. COX-2-null mouse Müller cells treated with increasing concentrations of PGE(1)-OH demonstrated a significant increase in VEGF production (P < or = 0.0165). Wild-type mouse Müller cells treated with increasing concentrations of L-161982 demonstrated a significant decrease in VEGF production (P < or = 0.0291). HRMECs treated with increasing concentrations of L-161982 demonstrated a significant reduction in VEGF-induced cell proliferation (P < or = 0.0033) and tube formation (P < 0.0344). L-161982 treatment significantly reduced pathologic neovascularization in OIR (P < 0.0069) and LCNV (P < or = 0.0329). Preliminary investigation has demonstrated that EP(4) activation or inhibition influences the behaviors of two retinal cell types known to play roles in pathologic ocular angiogenesis. These findings suggest that the EP(4) receptor may be a valuable therapeutic target in neovascular eye disease.

  6. 16,16-Dimethyl prostaglandin E2 increases survival in mice following irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Walden, T.L. Jr.; Patchen, M.; Snyder, S.L.

    1987-03-01

    16,16-Dimethyl prostaglandin E2 (DiPGE2), a stable analog of PGE2, increases the LD50/30 survival in CD2F1 male mice when given prior to ionizing radiation. Subcutaneous administration of 40 micrograms of DiPGE2 30 min prior to /sup 60/Co gamma irradiation extends the LD50/30 from 9.39 Gy in the control animals to 16.14 Gy in DiPGE2 treated, with a dose reduction factor of 1.72 (95% confidence limits: 1.62, 1.82). The degree of protection is dependent on both the time of administration and the dose of the prostaglandin. Ten micrograms administered 5 min prior to receiving a lethal dose of 10 Gy provides 90%more » survival but only 10% survival if administered 30 min prior to irradiation. Experiments to determine the in vivo concentration of DiPGE2 in organs postinjection show increased levels over time, but these are not correlated with protection. At 30 min after injection, as much as 80% of the DiPGE2 present in the spleen and plasma is unmetabolized. These results suggest that the protection results from the physiologic action of DiPGE2 rather than direct in vivo detoxification of radicals.« less

  7. Prostaglandin E2 suppresses beta1-integrin expression via E-prostanoid receptor in human monocytes/macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Shunji; Ichiyama, Takashi; Kohno, Fumitaka; Korenaga, Yuno; Ohsaki, Ayami; Hirano, Reiji; Haneda, Yasuhiro; Fukano, Reiji; Furukawa, Susumu

    2010-01-01

    Beta1-integrins mediate cell attachment to different extracellular matrix proteins, intracellular proteins, and intercellular adhesions. Recently, it has been reported that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has anti-inflammatory properties such as inhibition of the expression of adhesion molecules or production of chemokines. However, the effect of PGE2 on the expression of beta1-integrin remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of PGE2 on the expression of beta1-integrin in the human monocytic cell line THP-1 and in CD14+ monocytes/macrophages in human peripheral blood. For this, we examined the role of four subtypes of PGE2 receptors and E-prostanoid (EP) receptors on PGE2-mediated inhibition. We found that PGE2 significantly inhibited the expression of beta1-integrin, mainly through EP4 receptors in THP-1 cells and CD14+ monocytes/macrophages in human peripheral blood. We suggest that PGE2 has anti-inflammatory effects, leading to the inhibited expression of beta1-integrin in human monocytes/macrophages, and that the EP4 receptor may play an important role in PGE2-mediated inhibition. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Gram-negative, but not Gram-positive, bacteria elicit strong PGE2 production in human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Hessle, Christina C; Andersson, Bengt; Wold, Agnes E

    2003-12-01

    Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria induce different cytokine patterns in human mononuclear cells. We have seen that Gram-positives preferentially induce IL-12 and TNF-alpha, whereas Gram-negatives induce more IL-10, IL-6, and IL-8. In this study, we compared the capacity of these two groups of bacteria to induce PGE2. Monocytes stimulated with Gram-negative bacterial species induced much more PGE2 than did Gram-positive bacteria (5600 +/- 330 vs. 1700 +/- 670 pg/mL, p < 0.001). Blocking of COX-2 by NS398 abolished PGE2 production, but did not alter the cytokine patterns induced by Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We suggest that Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria may stimulate different innate effector functions; Gram-positive bacteria promoting cell-mediated effector functions whereas Gram-negative bacteria inducing mediators inhibiting the same.

  9. Tumor-secreted PGE2 inhibits CCL5 production in activated macrophages through cAMP/PKA signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xuesong; Zhang, Jidong; Liu, Jianguo

    2011-01-21

    One of the major characteristics of tumors is their ability to evade immunosurveillance through altering the properties and functions of host stromal and/or immune cells. CCL5 has been shown to play important roles in T cell proliferation, IFN-γ, and IL-2 production, which promotes the differentiation and proliferation of Th1 cells important for immune defense against intracellular infection. In this study we found that tumor-bearing mice were more susceptible to bacterial infection and showed reduced CCL5 levels in serum during endotoxic shock. Our data further demonstrated that the soluble factors secreted by mammary gland tumor cells but not normal mammary gland epithelial cells inhibited CCL5 expression in macrophages in response to LPS, but not to TNF-α stimulation. The inhibitory effect of tumor-secreted molecules on LPS-induced CCL5 expression was regulated at the post-transcriptional level. Blocking PGE(2) synthesis by NS398 or through the use of PGE(2) receptor antagonists AH-6809 (EP2 antagonist) and AH-23848 (EP4 antagonist) completely reversed the inhibitory effect of tumor-conditioned medium (TCM) on LPS-induced CCL5 expression. Moreover, PGE(2) and the cAMP analog forskolin could mimic tumor-mediated CCL5 inhibition, and the inhibitory effects of TCM, PGE(2), and cAMP analog on LPS-induced CCL5 expression could be completely reversed by the PKA inhibitor H89. Furthermore, blocking PGE(2) synthesis in vivo led to partial recovery of CCL5 production during endotoxic shock. Taken together, our data indicate that PGE(2) secreted from breast cancer cells suppresses CCL5 secretion in LPS-activated macrophages through a cAMP/PKA signaling pathway, which may result in suppression of host immune responses against subsequent bacterial infection.

  10. Prostaglandin E2 Regulation of Chondrocyte Proliferation and Differentiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    lipopolysaccharide- and TNF-induced cartilage breakdown in bovine nasal cartilage(121’. The use of medications that modulate PGE2 production may have an adverse...Levine, P. Goldhaber. 1972. Evidence that the bone resorption stimulating factor produced by mouse fibrosarcoma cells is prostaglandin E2. J. Exp. Med

  11. In vitro effects of prostaglandin E2 on leucocytes from sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) infected and not infected with the cestode Schistocephalus solidus.

    PubMed

    Kutyrev, Ivan A; Franke, Frederik; Büscher, Janine; Kurtz, Joachim; Scharsack, Jörn P

    2014-12-01

    Many helminth parasites have evolved strategies to evade the immune response of their hosts, which includes immunomodulation. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is one of the best-described immunomodulators in mammalian helminth parasite infections. We hypothesized that also in teleost fish anti-helminthic immune responses are regulated via PGE2. We used a model system consisting of the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus and its host, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), to investigate in vitro effects of PGE2 on head kidney leucocytes (HKL) derived from sticklebacks that were experimentally infected with S. solidus. PGE2 was tested alone or in combination with either S. solidus antigens or bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). After in vitro culture, cell viability and changes in leucocyte subpopulations (granulocytes to lymphocytes ratios) were monitored by flow cytometry and HKL were tested for their capacity to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) with a chemiluminescence assay. In short term (2 h) HKL cultures PGE2 did not change the total numbers of live HKL, but the production of ROS decreased significantly with high (0.1 μmol L(-1)) PGE2 concentrations. In long-term (96 h) cultures high PGE2 concentrations induced a sharp decrease of leucocytes viability, while low (0.1 pmol L(-1)) and intermediate (0.1 nmol L(-1)) concentrations of PGE2 caused elevated leucocyte viability compared to controls. This coincided with reduced ROS production in cultures with high PGE2 and elevated ROS production in cultures with low PGE2. Granulocyte to lymphocyte ratios increased with high PGE2 concentrations alone and in combination with S. solidus antigens and LPS, most prominently with HKL from S. solidus infected sticklebacks. The present study supports the hypothesis that PGE2 might be an immunomodulator in tapeworm-fish parasite-host interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prostaglandin E2 promotes proliferation of skeletal muscle myoblasts via EP4 receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Mo, Chenglin; Zhao, Ruonan; Vallejo, Julian; Igwe, Orisa; Bonewald, Lynda; Wetmore, Lori; Brotto, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that conditioned media (CM) from osteocytes enhances myogenic differentiation of myoblasts, suggesting that signaling from bone may be important for skeletal muscle myogenesis. The effect of CM was closely mimicked by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a bioactive lipid mediator in various physiological or pathological conditions. PGE2 is secreted at high levels by osteocytes and such secretion is further enhanced under loading conditions. Although four types of receptors, EP1 to EP4, mediate PGE2 signaling, it is unknown whether these receptors play a role in myogenesis. Therefore, in this study, the expression of EPs in mouse primary myoblasts was characterized, followed by examination of their roles in myoblast proliferation by treating myoblasts with PGE2 or specific agonists. All four PGE2 receptor mRNAs were detectable by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), but only PGE2 and EP4 agonist CAY 10598 significantly enhance myoblast proliferation. EP1/EP3 agonist 17-phenyl trinor PGE2 (17-PT PGE2) and EP2 agonist butaprost did not have any significant effects. Moreover, treatment with EP4 antagonist L161,982 dose-dependently inhibited myoblast proliferation. These results were confirmed by cell cycle analysis and the gene expression of cell cycle regulators. Concomitant with the inhibition of myoblast proliferation, treatment with L161,982 significantly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Cotreatment with antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or sodium ascorbate (SA) successfully reversed the inhibition of myoblast proliferation and ROS overproduction caused by L161,982. Therefore, PGE2 signaling via the EP4 receptor regulates myogenesis by promoting myoblast proliferation and blocking this receptor results in increased ROS production in myoblasts.

  13. Prostaglandin E2 promotes proliferation of skeletal muscle myoblasts via EP4 receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Chenglin; Zhao, Ruonan; Vallejo, Julian; Igwe, Orisa; Bonewald, Lynda; Wetmore, Lori; Brotto, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that conditioned media (CM) from osteocytes enhances myogenic differentiation of myoblasts, suggesting that signaling from bone may be important for skeletal muscle myogenesis. The effect of CM was closely mimicked by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a bioactive lipid mediator in various physiological or pathological conditions. PGE2 is secreted at high levels by osteocytes and such secretion is further enhanced under loading conditions. Although four types of receptors, EP1 to EP4, mediate PGE2 signaling, it is unknown whether these receptors play a role in myogenesis. Therefore, in this study, the expression of EPs in mouse primary myoblasts was characterized, followed by examination of their roles in myoblast proliferation by treating myoblasts with PGE2 or specific agonists. All four PGE2 receptor mRNAs were detectable by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), but only PGE2 and EP4 agonist CAY 10598 significantly enhance myoblast proliferation. EP1/EP3 agonist 17-phenyl trinor PGE2 (17-PT PGE2) and EP2 agonist butaprost did not have any significant effects. Moreover, treatment with EP4 antagonist L161,982 dose-dependently inhibited myoblast proliferation. These results were confirmed by cell cycle analysis and the gene expression of cell cycle regulators. Concomitant with the inhibition of myoblast proliferation, treatment with L161,982 significantly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Cotreatment with antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or sodium ascorbate (SA) successfully reversed the inhibition of myoblast proliferation and ROS overproduction caused by L161,982. Therefore, PGE2 signaling via the EP4 receptor regulates myogenesis by promoting myoblast proliferation and blocking this receptor results in increased ROS production in myoblasts. PMID:25785867

  14. Effect of an intraosseous injection of depo-medrol on pulpal concentrations of PGE2 and IL-8 in untreated irreversible pulpitis.

    PubMed

    Isett, James; Reader, Al; Gallatin, Eric; Beck, Mike; Padgett, David

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to evaluate the pulpal concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in untreated teeth with irreversible pulpitis after the administration of an intraosseous injection of Depo-Medrol. Forty emergency patients with a clinical diagnosis of irreversible pulpitis experiencing moderate to severe pain participated. After receiving local anesthesia, patients randomly received, in a double-blind manner, an intraosseous injection of either 1 ml of Depo-Medrol (40 mg) (20 patients) or 1 ml of sterile saline placebo (control) (20 patients). No endodontic treatment was initiated. At 1 or 3 days after the intraosseous injection, the teeth were extracted and the pulpal tissue harvested. Prostaglandin E2 and interleukin-8 concentrations were determined by enzyme immunoassay. Results demonstrated a significantly (p < 0.05) lower concentration of prostaglandin E2 compared to the saline group at day 1. There were no significant (p > 0.05) differences between the two groups at day 3. The pulpal concentrations of prostaglandin E2 were reduced at 1 day after the intraosseous injection of Depo-Medrol.

  15. Sulfonamide derivatives of styrylheterocycles as a potent inhibitor of COX-2-mediated prostaglandin E2 production.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chaemin; Lee, Minhee; Park, Eun-Jung; Cho, Ran; Park, Hyen-Joo; Lee, Seong Jin; Cho, Heeyeong; Lee, Sang Kook; Kim, Sanghee

    2010-12-01

    The overproduction of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) plays an important role in a variety of pathophysiological processes including inflammation and carcinogenesis. Therefore, the modulation of PGE(2) production is a promising target in the design of chemotherapeutic agents. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of a series of styrylheterocycles having either a p-SO(2)NH(2) or p-SO(2)Me group on the production of cyclooxygenase-2-mediated PGE(2) were evaluated in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 murine macrophages. Among the series of styrylheterocycle derivatives, (E)-4-(2-(thiophen-3-yl)vinyl)benzenesulfonamide exhibited a potent inhibitory activity, with an IC(50) value of 0.013 μM. The inhibitory activity against the overproduction of PGE(2) by the active compound was found to be due in part to the suppression of COX-2 mRNA expression. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Long-Term Nitric Oxide Release and Elevated Temperature Stability with S-Nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP)-Doped Elast-eon E2As Polymer

    PubMed Central

    Brisbois, Elizabeth J.; Handa, Hitesh; Major, Terry C.; Bartlett, Robert H.; Meyerhoff, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is known to be a potent inhibitor of platelet activation and adhesion. Healthy endothelial cells that line the inner walls of all blood vessels exhibit a NO flux of 0.5~4×10−10 mol cm−2 min−1 that helps prevent thrombosis. Materials with a NO flux that is equivalent to this level are expected to exhibit similar anti-thrombotic properties. In this study, five biomedical grade polymers doped with S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) were investigated for their potential to control the release of NO from the SNAP within the polymers, and further control the release of SNAP itself. SNAP in the Elast-eon E2As polymer creates an inexpensive, homogeneous coating that can locally deliver NO (via thermal and photochemical reactions) as well slowly release SNAP. Furthermore, SNAP is surprisingly stable in the E2As polymer, retaining 82% of the initial SNAP after 2 months storage at 37°C. The E2As polymer containing SNAP was coated on the walls of extracorporeal circuits (ECC) and exposed to 4 h blood flow in a rabbit model of extracorporeal circulation to examine the effects on platelet count, platelet function, clot area, and fibrinogen adsorption. After 4 h, platelet count was preserved at 100±7% of baseline for the SNAP/E2As coated loops, compared to 60±6% for E2As control circuits (n=4). The SNAP/E2As coating also reduced the thrombus area when compared to the control (2.3±0.6 and 3.4±1.1 pixels/cm2, respectively). The results suggest that the new SNAP/E2As coating has potential to improve the thromboresistance of intravascular catheters, grafts, and other blood contacting medical devices, and exhibits excellent storage stability compared to previously reported NO release polymeric materials. PMID:23777908

  17. Induction of cyclo-oxygenase-2 mRNA by prostaglandin E2 in human prostatic carcinoma cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tjandrawinata, R. R.; Dahiya, R.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    1997-01-01

    Prostaglandins are synthesized from arachidonic acid by the enzyme cyclo-oxygenase. There are two isoforms of cyclooxygenases: COX-1 (a constitutive form) and COX-2 (an inducible form). COX-2 has recently been categorized as an immediate-early gene and is associated with cellular growth and differentiation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exogenous dimethylprostaglandin E2 (dmPGE2) on prostate cancer cell growth. Results of these experiments demonstrate that administration of dmPGE2 to growing PC-3 cells significantly increased cellular proliferation (as measured by the cell number), total DNA content and endogenous PGE2 concentration. DmPGE2 also increased the steady-state mRNA levels of its own inducible synthesizing enzyme, COX-2, as well as cellular growth to levels similar to those seen with fetal calf serum and phorbol ester. The same results were observed in other human cancer cell types, such as the androgen-dependent LNCaP cells, breast cancer MDA-MB-134 cells and human colorectal carcinoma DiFi cells. In PC-3 cells, the dmPGE2 regulation of the COX-2 mRNA levels was both time dependent, with maximum stimulation seen 2 h after addition, and dose dependent on dmPGE2 concentration, with maximum stimulation seen at 5 microg ml(-1). The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug flurbiprofen (5 microM), in the presence of exogenous dmPGE2, inhibited the up-regulation of COX-2 mRNA and PC-3 cell growth. Taken together, these data suggest that PGE2 has a specific role in the maintenance of human cancer cell growth and that the activation of COX-2 expression depends primarily upon newly synthesized PGE2, perhaps resulting from changes in local cellular PGE2 concentrations.

  18. Prostaglandin E2 is essential for efficacious skeletal muscle stem-cell function, augmenting regeneration and strength.

    PubMed

    Ho, Andrew T V; Palla, Adelaida R; Blake, Matthew R; Yucel, Nora D; Wang, Yu Xin; Magnusson, Klas E G; Holbrook, Colin A; Kraft, Peggy E; Delp, Scott L; Blau, Helen M

    2017-06-27

    Skeletal muscles harbor quiescent muscle-specific stem cells (MuSCs) capable of tissue regeneration throughout life. Muscle injury precipitates a complex inflammatory response in which a multiplicity of cell types, cytokines, and growth factors participate. Here we show that Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is an inflammatory cytokine that directly targets MuSCs via the EP4 receptor, leading to MuSC expansion. An acute treatment with PGE2 suffices to robustly augment muscle regeneration by either endogenous or transplanted MuSCs. Loss of PGE2 signaling by specific genetic ablation of the EP4 receptor in MuSCs impairs regeneration, leading to decreased muscle force. Inhibition of PGE2 production through nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) administration just after injury similarly hinders regeneration and compromises muscle strength. Mechanistically, the PGE2 EP4 interaction causes MuSC expansion by triggering a cAMP/phosphoCREB pathway that activates the proliferation-inducing transcription factor, Nurr1 Our findings reveal that loss of PGE2 signaling to MuSCs during recovery from injury impedes muscle repair and strength. Through such gain- or loss-of-function experiments, we found that PGE2 signaling acts as a rheostat for muscle stem-cell function. Decreased PGE2 signaling due to NSAIDs or increased PGE2 due to exogenous delivery dictates MuSC function, which determines the outcome of regeneration. The markedly enhanced and accelerated repair of damaged muscles following intramuscular delivery of PGE2 suggests a previously unrecognized indication for this therapeutic agent.

  19. Prostaglandin E2 alters Wnt-dependent migration and proliferation in neuroectodermal stem cells: implications for autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a natural lipid-derived molecule that is involved in important physiological functions. Abnormal PGE2 signalling has been associated with pathologies of the nervous system. Previous studies provide evidence for the interaction of PGE2 and canonical Wnt signalling pathways in non-neuronal cells. Since the Wnt pathway is crucial in the development and organization of the brain, the main goal of this study is to determine whether collaboration between these pathways exists in neuronal cell types. We report that PGE2 interacts with canonical Wnt signalling through PKA and PI-3K in neuroectodermal (NE-4C) stem cells. We used time-lapse microscopy to determine that PGE2 increases the final distance from origin, path length travelled, and the average speed of migration in Wnt-activated cells. Furthermore, PGE2 alters distinct cellular phenotypes that are characteristic of Wnt-induced NE-4C cells, which corresponds to the modified splitting behaviour of the cells. We also found that in Wnt-induced cells the level of β-catenin protein was increased and the expression levels of Wnt-target genes (Ctnnb1, Ptgs2, Ccnd1, Mmp9) was significantly upregulated in response to PGE2 treatment. This confirms that PGE2 activated the canonical Wnt signalling pathway. Furthermore, the upregulated genes have been previously associated with ASD. Our findings show, for the first time, evidence for cross-talk between PGE2 and Wnt signalling in neuronal cells, where PKA and PI-3K might act as mediators between the two pathways. Given the importance of PGE2 and Wnt signalling in prenatal development of the nervous system, our study provides insight into how interaction between these two pathways may influence neurodevelopment. PMID:24656144

  20. Prostaglandin E2 alters Wnt-dependent migration and proliferation in neuroectodermal stem cells: implications for autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Wong, Christine T; Ahmad, Eizaaz; Li, Hongyan; Crawford, Dorota A

    2014-03-23

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a natural lipid-derived molecule that is involved in important physiological functions. Abnormal PGE2 signalling has been associated with pathologies of the nervous system. Previous studies provide evidence for the interaction of PGE2 and canonical Wnt signalling pathways in non-neuronal cells. Since the Wnt pathway is crucial in the development and organization of the brain, the main goal of this study is to determine whether collaboration between these pathways exists in neuronal cell types. We report that PGE2 interacts with canonical Wnt signalling through PKA and PI-3K in neuroectodermal (NE-4C) stem cells. We used time-lapse microscopy to determine that PGE2 increases the final distance from origin, path length travelled, and the average speed of migration in Wnt-activated cells. Furthermore, PGE2 alters distinct cellular phenotypes that are characteristic of Wnt-induced NE-4C cells, which corresponds to the modified splitting behaviour of the cells. We also found that in Wnt-induced cells the level of β-catenin protein was increased and the expression levels of Wnt-target genes (Ctnnb1, Ptgs2, Ccnd1, Mmp9) was significantly upregulated in response to PGE2 treatment. This confirms that PGE2 activated the canonical Wnt signalling pathway. Furthermore, the upregulated genes have been previously associated with ASD. Our findings show, for the first time, evidence for cross-talk between PGE2 and Wnt signalling in neuronal cells, where PKA and PI-3K might act as mediators between the two pathways. Given the importance of PGE2 and Wnt signalling in prenatal development of the nervous system, our study provides insight into how interaction between these two pathways may influence neurodevelopment.

  1. PGE2 receptor EP3 inhibits water reabsorption and contributes to polyuria and kidney injury in a streptozotocin-induced mouse model of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hassouneh, Ramzi; Nasrallah, Rania; Zimpelmann, Joe; Gutsol, Alex; Eckert, David; Ghossein, Jamie; Burns, Kevin D; Hébert, Richard L

    2016-06-01

    The first clinical manifestation of diabetes is polyuria. The prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor EP3 antagonises arginine vasopressin (AVP)-mediated water reabsorption and its expression is increased in the diabetic kidney. The purpose of this work was to study the contribution of EP3 to diabetic polyuria and renal injury. Male Ep 3 (-/-) (also known as Ptger3 (-/-)) mice were treated with streptozotocin (STZ) to generate a mouse model of diabetes and renal function was evaluated after 12 weeks. Isolated collecting ducts (CDs) were microperfused to study the contribution of EP3 to AVP-mediated fluid reabsorption. Ep 3 (-/-)-STZ mice exhibited attenuated polyuria and increased urine osmolality compared with wild-type STZ (WT-STZ) mice, suggesting enhanced water reabsorption. Compared with WT-STZ mice, Ep 3 (-/-)-STZ mice also had increased protein expression of aquaporin-1, aquaporin-2, and urea transporter A1, and reduced urinary AVP excretion, but increased medullary V2 receptors. In vitro microperfusion studies indicated that Ep 3 (-/-) and WT-STZ CDs responded to AVP stimulation similarly to those of wild-type mice, with a 60% increase in fluid reabsorption. In WT non-injected and WT-STZ mice, EP3 activation with sulprostone (PGE2 analogue) abrogated AVP-mediated water reabsorption; this effect was absent in mice lacking EP3. A major finding of this work is that Ep 3 (-/-)-STZ mice showed blunted renal cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression, reduced renal hypertrophy, reduced hyperfiltration and reduced albuminuria, as well as diminished tubular dilation and nuclear cysts. Taken together, the data suggest that EP3 contributes to diabetic polyuria by inhibiting expression of aquaporins and that it promotes renal injury during diabetes. EP3 may prove to be a promising target for more selective management of diabetic kidney disease.

  2. PGE2-EP2 signalling in endothelium is activated by haemodynamic stress and induces cerebral aneurysm through an amplifying loop via NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, T; Nishimura, M; Matsuoka, T; Yamamoto, K; Furuyashiki, T; Kataoka, H; Kitaoka, S; Ishibashi, R; Ishibazawa, A; Miyamoto, S; Morishita, R; Ando, J; Hashimoto, N; Nozaki, K; Narumiya, S

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Cerebral aneurysm is a frequent cerebrovascular event and a major cause of fatal subarachnoid haemorrhage, but there is no medical treatment for this condition. Haemodynamic stress and, recently, chronic inflammation have been proposed as major causes of cerebral aneurysm. Nevertheless, links between haemodynamic stress and chronic inflammation remain ill-defined, and to clarify such links, we evaluated the effects of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a mediator of inflammation, on the formation of cerebral aneurysms. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Expression of COX and prostaglandin E synthase (PGES) and PGE receptors were examined in human and rodent cerebral aneurysm. The incidence, size and inflammation of cerebral aneurysms were evaluated in rats treated with COX-2 inhibitors and mice lacking each prostaglandin receptor. Effects of shear stress and PGE receptor signalling on expression of pro-inflammatory molecules were studied in primary cultures of human endothelial cells (ECs). KEY RESULTS COX-2, microsomal PGES-1 and prostaglandin E receptor 2 (EP2) were induced in ECs in the walls of cerebral aneurysms. Shear stress applied to primary ECs induced COX-2 and EP2. Inhibition or loss of COX-2 or EP2in vivo attenuated each other's expression, suppressed nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)-mediated chronic inflammation and reduced incidence of cerebral aneurysm. EP2 stimulation in primary ECs induced NF-κB activation and expression of the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, essential for cerebral aneurysm. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results suggest that shear stress activated PGE2-EP2 pathway in ECs and amplified chronic inflammation via NF-κB. We propose EP2 as a therapeutic target in cerebral aneurysm. PMID:21426319

  3. COX-2/mPGES-1/PGE2 cascade activation mediates uric acid-induced mesangial cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuzhen; Sun, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Yue; Ruan, Yuan; Chen, Qiuxia; Gong, Wei; Yu, Jing; Xia, Weiwei; He, John Ci-Jiang; Huang, Songming; Zhang, Aihua; Ding, Guixia; Jia, Zhanjun

    2017-02-07

    Hyperuricemia is not only the main feature of gout but also a cause of gout-related organ injuries including glomerular hypertrophy and sclerosis. Uric acid (UA) has been proven to directly cause mesangial cell (MC) proliferation with elusive mechanisms. The present study was undertaken to examined the role of inflammatory cascade of COX-2/mPGES-1/PGE2 in UA-induced MC proliferation. In the dose- and time-dependent experiments, UA increased cell proliferation shown by the increased total cell number, DNA synthesis rate, and the number of cells in S and G2 phases in parallel with the upregulation of cyclin A2 and cyclin D1. Interestingly, UA-induced cell proliferation was accompanied with the upregulation of COX-2 and mPGES-1 at both mRNA and protein levels. Strikingly, inhibition of COX-2 via a specific COX-2 inhibitor NS-398 markedly blocked UA-induced MC proliferation. Meanwhile, UA-induced PGE2 production was almost entirely abolished. Furthermore, inhibiting mPGES-1 by a siRNA approach in MCs also ameliorated UA-induced MC proliferation in line with a significant blockade of PGE2 secretion. More importantly, in gout patients, we observed a significant elevation of urinary PGE2 excretion compared with healthy controls, indicating a translational potential of this study to the clinic. In conclusion, our findings indicated that COX-2/mPGES-1/PGE2 cascade activation mediated UA-induced MC proliferation. This study offered new insights into the understanding and the intervention of UA-related glomerular injury.

  4. Intraluteal prostaglandin biosynthesis and signaling are selectively directed towards PGF2alpha during luteolysis but towards PGE2 during the establishment of pregnancy in sheep.

    PubMed

    Lee, JeHoon; McCracken, John A; Stanley, Jone A; Nithy, Thamizh K; Banu, Sakhila K; Arosh, Joe A

    2012-10-01

    In ruminants, endometrial prostalgandin (PG) F(2alpha) causes functional luteolysis, whereas luteal synthesis of PGF(2alpha) is required for structural luteolysis. PGE(2) is considered to be a luteoprotective mediator. Molecular aspects of luteal PGF(2alpha) and PGE(2) biosynthesis and signaling during the estrous cycle and establishment of pregnancy are largely unknown. The objectives of the present study were 1) to determine the regulation of proteins involved in PGF(2alpha) and PGE(2) biosynthesis, catabolism, transport and signaling in the corpus luteum (CL); 2) to investigate the transport of interferon tau (IFNT), PGF(2alpha), and PGE(2) from the uterus to the ovary through the vascular utero-ovarian plexus (UOP); and 3) to compare the intraluteal production of PGF(2alpha) and PGE(2) on Days 12, 14, and 16 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy in sheep. Our results indicate that luteal PG biosynthesis is selectively directed towards PGF(2alpha) at the time of luteolysis and towards PGE(2) during the establishment of pregnancy. Moreover, the ability of the CL of early pregnancy to resist luteolysis is due to increased intraluteal biosynthesis of PGE(2) and PGE(2) receptor (PTGER) 2 (also known as EP2)- and PTGER4 (also known as EP4)-mediated signaling. We also found that IFNT protein is not transported through the UOP from the uterus to the ovary; in contrast, a large proportion of endometrial PGE(2) is transported from the uterus to the ovary through the UOP. These results indicate that endometrial PGE(2) stimulated by pregnancy is transported locally to the ovary, which increases luteal PGE(2) biosynthesis and hence activates luteal PTGER2 and PTGER4 signaling, thus protecting the CL during the establishment of pregnancy in sheep.

  5. Prostaglandin E2 induces chloride secretion through crosstalk between cAMP and calcium signaling in mouse inner medullary collecting duct cells

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopal, Madhumitha; Thomas, Sheela V.; Kathpalia, Paru P.; Chen, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Under conditions of high dietary salt intake, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production is increased in the collecting duct and promotes urinary sodium chloride (NaCl) excretion; however, the molecular mechanisms by which PGE2 increases NaCl excretion in this context have not been clearly defined. We used the mouse inner medullary collecting duct (mIMCD)-K2 cell line to characterize mechanisms underlying PGE2-regulated NaCl transport. When epithelial Na+ channels were inhibited, PGE2 exclusively stimulated basolateral EP4 receptors to increase short-circuit current (IscPGE2). We found that IscPGE2 was sensitive to inhibition by H-89 and CFTR-172, indicating that EP4 receptors signal through protein kinase A to induce Cl− secretion via cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Unexpectedly, we also found that IscPGE2 was sensitive to inhibition by BAPTA-AM (Ca2+ chelator), 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) (inositol triphosphate receptor blocker), and flufenamic acid (FFA) [Ca2+-activated Cl− channel (CACC) inhibitor], suggesting that EP4 receptors also signal through Ca2+ to induce Cl− secretion via CACC. Additionally, we observed that PGE2 stimulated an increase in Isc through crosstalk between cAMP and Ca2+ signaling; BAPTA-AM or 2-APB inhibited a component of IscPGE2 that was sensitive to CFTR-172 inhibition; H-89 inhibited a component of IscPGE2 that was sensitive to FFA inhibition. Together, our findings indicate that PGE2 activates basolateral EP4 receptors and signals through both cAMP and Ca2+ to stimulate Cl− secretion in IMCD-K2 cells. We propose that these signaling pathways, and the crosstalk between them, may provide a concerted mechanism for enhancing urinary NaCl excretion under conditions of high dietary NaCl intake. PMID:24284792

  6. Prostaglandin E2 stimulates normal bronchial epithelial cell growth through induction of c-Jun and PDK1, a kinase implicated in oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yu; Wang, Ye; Wang, Ke

    2015-12-18

    Cyclooxygenase-2-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a bioactive eicosanoid, has been implicated in many biological processes including reproduction, inflammation and tumor growth. We previously showed that PGE2 stimulated lung cancer cell growth and progression through PGE2 receptor EP2/EP4-mediated kinase signaling pathways. However, the role of PGE2 in controlling lung airway epithelial cell phenotype remains unknown. We evaluated the effects of c-Jun and 3-phosphoinositede dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) in mediating epithelial cell hyperplasia induced by PGE2. The bronchial epithelial cell lines BEAS-2B and HBEc14-KT were cultured and then treated with PGE2. PDK1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) and a PDK1 inhibitor, an antagonist of the PGE2 receptor subtype EP4 and EP4 siRNA, c-Jun siRNA, and overexpressions of c-Jun and PDK1 have been used to evaluate the effects on cell proliferation. We demonstrated that PGE2 increased normal bronchial epithelial cell proliferation through induction of PDK1, an ankyrin repeat-containing Ser/Thr kinase implicated in the induction of apoptosis and the suppression of tumor growth. PDK1 siRNA and a PDK1 inhibitor blocked the effects of PGE2 on normal cell growth. The PGE2-induced PDK1 expression was blocked by an antagonist of the PGE2 receptor subtype EP4 and by EP4 siRNA. In addition, we showed that induction of PDK1 by PGE2 was associated with induction of the transcription factor, c-Jun protein. Silencing of c-Jun using siRNA and point mutations of c-Jun sites in the PDK1 gene promoter resulted in blockade of PDK1 expression and promoter activity induced by PGE2. In contrast, overexpression of c-Jun induced PDK1 gene promoter activity and expression followed increased cell proliferation. PGE2 increases normal bronchial epithelial cell proliferation through increased PDK1 gene expression that is dependent on EP4 and induction of c-Jun. Therewith, our data suggest a new role of c-Jun and PDK1 in mediating epithelial cell

  7. Targeted prostaglandin E2 inhibition enhances antiviral immunity through induction of type I interferon and apoptosis in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Coulombe, François; Jaworska, Joanna; Verway, Mark; Tzelepis, Fanny; Massoud, Amir; Gillard, Joshua; Wong, Gary; Kobinger, Gary; Xing, Zhou; Couture, Christian; Joubert, Philippe; Fritz, Jörg H; Powell, William S; Divangahi, Maziar

    2014-04-17

    Aspirin gained tremendous popularity during the 1918 Spanish Influenza virus pandemic, 50 years prior to the demonstration of their inhibitory action on prostaglandins. Here, we show that during influenza A virus (IAV) infection, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was upregulated, which led to the inhibition of type I interferon (IFN) production and apoptosis in macrophages, thereby causing an increase in virus replication. This inhibitory role of PGE2 was not limited to innate immunity, because both antigen presentation and T cell mediated immunity were also suppressed. Targeted PGE2 suppression via genetic ablation of microsomal prostaglandin E-synthase 1 (mPGES-1) or by the pharmacological inhibition of PGE2 receptors EP2 and EP4 substantially improved survival against lethal IAV infection whereas PGE2 administration reversed this phenotype. These data demonstrate that the mPGES-1-PGE2 pathway is targeted by IAV to evade host type I IFN-dependent antiviral immunity. We propose that specific inhibition of PGE2 signaling might serve as a treatment for IAV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prostaglandin E2 and the protein kinase A pathway mediate arachidonic acid induction of c-fos in human prostate cancer cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    2000-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is the precursor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis and increases growth of prostate cancer cells. To further elucidate the mechanisms involved in AA-induced prostate cell growth, induction of c-fos expression by AA was investigated in a human prostate cancer cell line, PC-3. c-fos mRNA was induced shortly after addition of AA, along with a remarkable increase in PGE2 production. c-fos expression and PGE2 production induced by AA was blocked by a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, flurbiprofen, suggesting that PGE2 mediated c-fos induction. Protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H-89 abolished induction of c-fos expression by AA, and partially inhibited PGE2 production. Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF109203X had no significant effect on c-fos expression or PGE2 production. Expression of prostaglandin (EP) receptors, which mediate signal transduction from PGE2 to the cells, was examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in several human prostate cell lines. EP4 and EP2, which are coupled to the PKA signalling pathway, were expressed in all cells tested. Expression of EP1, which activates the PKC pathway, was not detected. The current study showed that induction of the immediate early gene c-fos by AA is mediated by PGE2, which activates the PKA pathway via the EP2/4 receptor in the PC-3 cells.

  9. Characterization of prostaglandin E2 generation through the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 pathway in human neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    St-Onge, Mireille; Flamand, Nicolas; Biarc, Jordane; Picard, Serge; Bouchard, Line; Dussault, Andrée-Anne; Laflamme, Cynthia; James, Michael J.; Caughey, Gillian E.; Cleland, Leslie G.; Borgeat, Pierre; Pouliot, Marc

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we characterized the generation of prostaglandin (PG)E2 in human neutrophils. We found that the Ca2+-dependent type IV cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) was pivotally involved in the COX-2-mediated generation of PGE2 in response to a calcium ionophore, as determined by the use of selected PLA2 inhibitors. PGE2 biosynthesis elicited by bacterial-derived peptides or by phagocytic stimuli acting on cell surface receptors also showed to be dependent on cPLA2 activity. We then assessed metabolism of unesterified arachidonic acid (AA), and observed that PGE2 production becomes favored over that of LTB4 with higher AA concentrations. Withdrawal of calcium prevented the generation of PGE2 in response to a calcium ionophore but did not affect the up-regulation of COX-2 or its capacity to convert AA, thus limiting its implication at the level of cPLA2 activation. Of the main eicosanoids produced by neutrophils, only LTB4 was able to up-regulate COX-2 expression. Finally, the only PGE synthase isoform found in neutrophils is microsomal PGE synthase-1; it co-localized with COX-2 and its expression appeared mainly constitutive. These results highlight key differences in regulatory processes of the 5-LO and COX pathways, and enhance our knowledge at several levels in the PGE2 biosynthesis in neutrophils. PMID:17643350

  10. Prostaglandin E(2) mediates acid-induced heartburn in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Takashi; Oshima, Tadayuki; Tomita, Toshihiko; Fukui, Hirokazu; Watari, Jiro; Okada, Hiroki; Kikuchi, Shojiro; Sasako, Mitsuru; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Knowles, Charles H; Miwa, Hiroto

    2013-03-15

    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) plays a major role in pain processing and hypersensitivity. This study investigated whether PGE(2) levels are increased in the esophageal mucosa after acid infusion and whether increases in PGE(2) are associated with heartburn. Furthermore, expression of the PGE(2) receptor EP1 was investigated in human esophageal mucosa. Fourteen healthy male volunteers were randomized to 30-min lower esophageal acid (1% HCl) or saline perfusion. Before and after acid perfusion, endoscopic biopsies were taken from the distal esophagus. PGE(2) concentration (pg/mg protein) and EP1 mRNA and protein in biopsy samples were measured by ELISA, RT-PCR, and Western blotting. Symptom status of heartburn was evaluated with a validated categorical rating scale with a higher values corresponding to increasing intensity. PGE(2) levels in the esophageal mucosa significantly increased after acid infusion (before vs. after acid infusion: 23.2 ± 8.6 vs. 68.6 ± 18.3, P < 0.05), but not after saline infusion (before vs. after saline infusion: 9.3 ± 2.5 vs. 9.0 ± 3.2, NS). Time to first sensation (min) after acid infusion was less than after saline (saline vs. acid infusion: 22.1 ± 4.1 vs. 5.4 ± 1.5, P < 0.05). Intensity of heartburn in the acid-infusion group was also significantly greater compared with saline (saline vs. acid infusion: 54.3 ± 13.1 vs. 178.5 ± 22.8, P < 0.01). Changes in PGE(2) levels in the esophagus correlated with symptom intensity score (r = 0.80, P = 0.029). EP1 mRNA and protein expression were observed in the normal human esophageal mucosa. Esophageal PGE(2) expression is associated with mucosal acid exposure and heartburn.

  11. Prostaglandin E2 inhibits Tr1 cell differentiation through suppression of c-Maf

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Kirsten Mary; Kong, Weimin

    2017-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a major lipid mediator abundant at inflammatory sites, acts as a proinflammatory agent in models of inflammatory/autoimmune diseases by promoting CD4 Th1/Th17 differentiation. Regulatory T cells, including the IL-10 producing Tr1 cells counterbalance the proinflammatory activity of effector Th1/Th17 cells. Tr1 cell differentiation and function are induced by IL-27, and depend primarily on sustained expression of c-Maf in addition to AhR and Blimp-1. In agreement with the in vivo proinflammatory role of PGE2, here we report for the first time that PGE2 inhibits IL-27-induced differentiation and IL-10 production of murine CD4+CD49b+LAG-3+Foxp3- Tr1 cells. The inhibitory effect of PGE2 was mediated through EP4 receptors and induction of cAMP, leading to a significant reduction in c-Maf expression. Although PGE2 reduced IL-21 production in differentiating Tr1 cells, its inhibitory effect on Tr1 differentiation and c-Maf expression also occurred independent of IL-21 signaling. PGE2 did not affect STAT1/3 activation, AhR expression and only marginally reduced Egr-2/Blimp-1 expression. The effect of PGE2 on CD4+CD49b+LAG-3+ Tr1 differentiation was not associated with either induction of Foxp3 or IL-17 production, suggesting a lack of transdifferentiation into Foxp3+ Treg or effector Th17 cells. We recently reported that PGE2 inhibits the expression and production of IL-27 from activated conventional dendritic cells (cDC) in vivo and in vitro. The present study indicates that PGE2 also reduces murine Tr1 differentiation and function directly by acting on IL-27-differentiating Tr1 cells. Together, the ability of PGE2 to inhibit IL-27 production by cDC, and the direct inhibitory effect on Tr1 differentiation mediated through reduction in c-Maf expression, represent a new mechanistic perspective for the proinflammatory activity of PGE2. PMID:28604806

  12. Prostaglandin E2 mediates growth arrest in NFS-60 cells by down-regulating interleukin-6 receptor expression.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Kumudika I; Daud, Asif N; Deng, JiangPing; Jones, Stephen B; Gamelli, Richard L; Shankar, Ravi

    2003-02-15

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a potent myeloid mitogen, and the immunosuppressive prostanoid prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) are elevated following thermal injury and sepsis. We have previously demonstrated that bone marrow myeloid commitment shifts toward monocytopoiesis and away from granulocytopoiesis during thermal injury and sepsis and that PGE2 plays a central role in this alteration. Here we investigated whether PGE2 can modulate IL-6-stimulated growth in the promyelocytic cell line, NFS-60, by down-regulating IL-6 receptor (IL-6r) expression. Exposure of NFS-60 cells to PGE2 suppressed IL-6-stimulated proliferation as well as IL-6r expression. Receptor down-regulation is functionally significant since IL-6-induced signal transduction through activators of transcription (STAT)-3 is also decreased. Down-regulation of IL-6r correlated with the ability of PGE2 to arrest cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. PGE2 appears to signal through EP2 receptors. Butaprost (EP2 agonist) but not sulprostone (EP3 agonist) inhibited IL-6-stimulated proliferation. In addition, an EP2 antagonist (AH6809) alleviated the anti-proliferative effects of PGE2. NFS-60 cells express predominantly EP2 and EP4 receptors. While PGE2 down-regulated both the IL-6r protein and mRNA expression, it had no influence on EP2 or EP4 mRNA expression. The present study demonstrates that PGE2 is a potent down-regulator of IL-6r expression and thus may provide a mechanistic explanation for the granulocytopenia seen in thermal injury and sepsis.

  13. Elevated interleukin 6 is induced by prostaglandin E2 in a murine model of inflammation: possible role of cyclooxygenase-2.

    PubMed Central

    Hinson, R M; Williams, J A; Shacter, E

    1996-01-01

    Injection of mineral oils such as pristane into the peritoneal cavities of BALB/c mice results in a chronic peritonitis associated with high tissue levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6). Here we show that increased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis causes induction of IL-6 and that expression of an inducible cyclooxygenase, Cox-2, may mediate this process. Levels of both PGE2 and IL-6 are elevated in inflammatory exudates from pristane-treated mice compared with lavage samples from untreated mice. The Cox-2 gene is induced in the peritoneal macrophage fraction isolated from the mice. A cause and effect relationship between increased macrophage PGE2 and IL-6 production is shown in vitro. When peritoneal macrophages are activated with an inflammatory stimulus (polymerized albumin), the Cox-2 gene is induced and secretion of PGE2 and IL-6 increases, with elevated PGE2 appearing before IL-6. Cotreatment with 1 microM indomethacin inhibits PGE2 production by the cells and reduces the induction of IL-6 mRNA but has no effect on Cox-2 mRNA, consistent with the fact that the drug inhibits catalytic activity of the cyclooxygenase but does not affect expression of the gene. Addition of exogenous PGE2 to macrophages induces IL-6 protein and mRNA synthesis, indicating that the eicosanoid stimulates IL-6 production at the level of gene expression. PGE2-stimulated IL-6 production is unaffected by addition of indomethacin. Taken together with the earlier finding that indomethacin diminishes the elevation of IL-6 in pristane-treated mice, the results show that PGE2 can induce IL-6 production in vivo and implicate expression of the Cox-2 gene in the regulation of this cytokine. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 PMID:8643498

  14. Selective inhibition of prostaglandin E2 receptors EP2 and EP4 induces apoptosis of human endometriotic cells through suppression of ERK1/2, AKT, NFkappaB, and beta-catenin pathways and activation of intrinsic apoptotic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Banu, Sakhila K; Lee, JeHoon; Speights, V O; Starzinski-Powitz, Anna; Arosh, Joe A

    2009-08-01

    Endometriosis is a benign chronic gynecological disease of reproductive-age women characterized by the presence of functional endometrial tissues outside the uterine cavity. It is an estrogen-dependent disease. Current treatment modalities to inhibit biosynthesis and actions of estrogen compromise menstruation, pregnancy, and the reproductive health of women and fail to prevent reoccurrence of disease. There is a critical need to identify new specific signaling modules for non-estrogen-targeted therapies for endometriosis. In our previous study, we reported that selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 prevented survival, migration, and invasion of human endometriotic epithelial and stromal cells, which was due to decreased prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production. In this study, we determined mechanisms through which PGE(2) promoted survival of human endometriotic cells. Results of the present study indicate that 1) PGE(2) promotes survival of human endometriotic cells through EP2 and EP4 receptors by activating ERK1/2, AKT, nuclear factor-kappaB, and beta-catenin signaling pathways; 2) selective inhibition of EP2 and EP4 suppresses these cell survival pathways and augments interactions between proapoptotic proteins (Bax and Bad) and antiapoptotic proteins (Bcl-2/Bcl-XL), facilitates the release of cytochrome c, and thus activates caspase-3/poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-mediated intrinsic apoptotic pathways; and 3) these PGE(2) signaling components are more abundantly expressed in ectopic endometriosis tissues compared with eutopic endometrial tissues during the menstrual cycle in women. These novel findings may provide an important molecular framework for further evaluation of selective inhibition of EP2 and EP4 as potential therapy, including nonestrogen target, to expand the spectrum of currently available treatment options for endometriosis in women.

  15. The whipworm (Trichuris suis) secretes prostaglandin E2 to suppress proinflammatory properties in human dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Laan, Lisa C; Williams, Andrew R; Stavenhagen, Kathrin; Giera, Martin; Kooij, Gijs; Vlasakov, Iliyan; Kalay, Hakan; Kringel, Helene; Nejsum, Peter; Thamsborg, Stig M; Wuhrer, Manfred; Dijkstra, Christine D; Cummings, Richard D; van Die, Irma

    2017-02-01

    Clinical trials have shown that administration of the nematode Trichuris suis can be beneficial in treating various immune disorders. To provide insight into the mechanisms by which this worm suppresses inflammatory responses, an active component was purified from T. suis soluble products (TsSPs) that suppress---- TNF and IL-12 secretion from LPS-activated human dendritic cells (DCs). Analysis by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry identified this compound as prostaglandin (PG)E2. The purified compound showed similar properties compared with TsSPs and commercial PGE2 in modulating LPS-induced expression of many cytokines and chemokines and in modulating Rab7B and P2RX7 expression in human DCs. Furthermore, the TsSP-induced reduction of TNF secretion from DCs is reversed by receptor antagonists for EP2 and EP4, indicating PGE2 action. T. suis secretes extremely high amounts of PGE2 (45-90 ng/mg protein) within their excretory/secretory products but few related lipid mediators as established by metabololipidomic analysis. Culture of T. suis with several cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors that inhibit mammalian prostaglandin synthesis affected the worm's motility but did not inhibit PGE2 secretion, suggesting that the worms can synthesize PGE2 via a COX-independent pathway. We conclude that T. suis secretes PGE2 to suppress proinflammatory responses in human DCs, thereby modulating the host's immune response.-Laan, L. C., Williams, A. R., Stavenhagen, K., Giera, M., Kooij, G., Vlasakov, I., Kalay, H., Kringel, H., Nejsum, P., Thamsborg, S. M., Wuhrer, M., Dijkstra, C. D., Cummings, R. D., van Die, I. The whipworm (Trichuris suis) secretes prostaglandin E2 to suppress proinflammatory properties in human dendritic cells. © FASEB.

  16. Estrogen Receptor-Related Receptor α Mediates Up-Regulation of Aromatase Expression by Prostaglandin E2 in Prostate Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Lin; Shi, Jiandang; Wang, Chun-Yu; Zhu, Yan; Du, Xiaoling; Jiao, Hongli; Mo, Zengnan; Klocker, Helmut; Lee, Chung; Zhang, Ju

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen receptor-related receptor α (ERRα) is an orphan member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors. ERRα is highly expressed in the prostate, especially in prostate stromal cells. However, little is known about the regulation and function of ERRα, which may contribute to the progression of prostatic diseases. We previously found that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) up-regulated the expression of aromatase in prostate stromal cells. Here we show that PGE2 also up-regulates the expression of ERRα, which, as a transcription factor, further mediates the regulatory effects of PGE2 on the expression of aromatase. ERRα expression was up-regulated by PGE2 in prostate stromal cell line WPMY-1, which was mediated mainly through the protein kinase A signaling pathway by PGE2 receptor EP2. Suppression of ERRα activity by chlordane (an antagonist of ERRα) or small interfering RNA knockdown of ERRα blocked the increase of expression and promoter activity of aromatase induced by PGE2. Overexpression of ERRα significantly increased aromatase expression and promoter activity, which were further augmented by PGE2. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that ERRα directly bound to the aromatase promoter in vivo, and PGE2 enhanced the recruitment of ERRα and promoted transcriptional regulatory effects on aromatase expression in WPMY-1. 17β-Estradiol concentration in WPMY-1 medium was up-regulated by ERRα expression, and that was further increased by PGE2. Our results provided evidence that ERRα contributed to local estrogen production by up-regulating aromatase expression in response to PGE2 and provided further insights into the potential role of ERRα in estrogen-related prostatic diseases. PMID:20351196

  17. Aromatase expression in a human osteoblastic cell line increases in response to prostaglandin E(2) in a dexamethasone-dependent fashion.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, M; Noda, M; Nakajin, S

    2007-09-01

    Recent progress supports the importance of local estrogen secretion in human bone tissue to increase and maintain bone-mineral density. In a previous report, we found that forskolin (FSK) synergistically induces aromatase (CYP19: a rate-limiting enzyme for estrogen synthesis) expression in dexamethasone (Dex) dependent manner in a human osteoblastic cell line, SV-HFO [Watanabe M, Ohno S, Nakajin S. Forskolin and dexamethasone synergistically induce aromatase (CYP19) expression in the human osteoblastic cell line SV-HFO. Eur J Endocrinol 2005;152:619-24]. In this report, we investigated whether prostaglandin (PG) E(2) induces estrogen production, in other words, if PGE(2) exerts the same effect as FSK because PGE(2) is the major prostanoid in the bone and is one of the key molecules in the osteoblast. We found PGE(2) up-regulates aromatase activity synergistically, but this up-regulation depends on Dex. CYP19 gene expression was also increased synergistically by Dex and PGE(2). Promoter I.4 was activated synergistically by PGE(2) and Dex. PGE(2) receptor, EP(1), EP(2) and EP(4) were involved in the up-regulation of aromatase activity in response to PGE(2) in a Dex-dependent manner. The cAMP-PKA pathway and Ca(2+) signaling pathway were involved in the up-regulation of aromatase activity in response to PGE(2). Furthermore, glucocorticoid response element on promoter I.4 sequence was an essential minimum requirement for its activity and synergism of PGE(2) and Dex. These findings are the first report on osteoblastic cell line which uses predominantly promoter I.4 to drive aromatase expression. These findings also suggest that endogenous PGE(2) produced in bone mainly may synergistically support local estrogen production in osteoblastic cells in the presence of glucocorticoid.

  18. The anti-fibrotic effects of mesenchymal stem cells on irradiated lungs via stimulating endogenous secretion of HGF and PGE2

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Li-Hua; Jiang, Yi-Yao; Liu, Yong-Jun; Cui, Shuang; Xia, Cheng-Cheng; Qu, Chao; Jiang, Xin; Qu, Ya-Qin; Chang, Peng-Yu; Liu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis is a common disease and has a poor prognosis owing to the progressive breakdown of gas exchange regions in the lung. Recently, a novel strategy of administering mesenchymal stem cells for pulmonary fibrosis has achieved high therapeutic efficacy. In the present study, we attempted to use human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells to prevent disease in Sprague-Dawley rats that received semi-thoracic irradiation (15 Gy). To investigate the specific roles of mesenchymal stem cells in ameliorating radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis, we treated control groups of irradiated rats with human skin fibroblasts or phosphate-buffered saline. After mesenchymal stem cells were infused, host secretions of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were elevated compared with those of the controls. In contrast, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) levels were decreased after infusion of mesenchymal stem cells. Consequently, the architecture of the irradiated lungs was preserved without marked activation of fibroblasts or collagen deposition within the injured sites. Moreover, mesenchymal stem cells were able to prevent the irradiated type II alveolar epithelial cells from undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Collectively, these data confirmed that mesenchymal stem cells have the potential to limit pulmonary fibrosis after exposure to ionising irradiation. PMID:25736907

  19. Inhibition of cartilage degradation and suppression of PGE2 and MMPs expression by pomegranate fruit extract in a model of posttraumatic osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Nahid; Khan, Nazir M; Ashruf, Omer S; Haqqi, Tariq M

    2017-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by cartilage degradation in the affected joints. Pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) inhibits cartilage degradation in vitro. The aim of this study was to determine whether oral consumption of PFE inhibits disease progression in rabbits with surgically induced OA. OA was surgically induced in the tibiofemoral joints of adult New Zealand White rabbits. In one group, animals were fed PFE in water for 8 wk postsurgery. In the second group, animals were fed PFE for 2 wk before surgery and for 8 wk postsurgery. Histologic assessment and scoring of the cartilage was per Osteoarthritis Research Society International guidelines. Gene expression and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) activity were determined using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and fluorometric assay, respectively. Interleukin (IL)-1 β, MMP-13, IL-6, prostaglandin (PG)E 2 , and type II collagen (COL2A1) levels in synovial fluid/plasma/culture media were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of active caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase p85 was determined by immunohistochemistry. Effect of PFE and inhibitors of MMP-13, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB was studied in IL-1 β-stimulated rabbit articular chondrocytes. Safranin-O-staining and chondrocyte cluster formation was significantly reduced in the anterior cruciate ligament transaction plus PFE fed groups. Expression of MMP-3, MMP-9, and MMP-13 mRNA was higher in the cartilage of rabbits given water alone but was significantly lower in the animals fed PFE. PFE-fed rabbits had lower IL-6, MMP-13, and PGE 2 levels in the synovial fluid and plasma, respectively, and showed higher expression of aggrecan and COL2A1 mRNA. Significantly higher numbers of chondrocytes were positive for markers of apoptosis in the joints of rabbits with OA given water only compared with those in the PFE-fed groups. PFE pretreatment significantly

  20. PGE2 maintains the tone of the guinea pig trachea through a balance between activation of contractile EP1 receptors and relaxant EP2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Säfholm, J; Dahlén, S-E; Delin, I; Maxey, K; Stark, K; Cardell, L-O; Adner, M

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The guinea pig trachea (GPT) is commonly used in airway pharmacology. The aim of this study was to define the expression and function of EP receptors for PGE2 in GPT as there has been ambiguity concerning their role. Experimental Approach Expression of mRNA for EP receptors and key enzymes in the PGE2 pathway were assessed by real-time PCR using species-specific primers. Functional studies of GPT were performed in tissue organ baths. Key Results Expression of mRNA for the four EP receptors was found in airway smooth muscle. PGE2 displayed a bell-shaped concentration–response curve, where the initial contraction was inhibited by the EP1 receptor antagonist ONO-8130 and the subsequent relaxation by the EP2 receptor antagonist PF-04418948. Neither EP3 (ONO-AE5-599) nor EP4 (ONO-AE3-208) selective receptor antagonists affected the response to PGE2. Expression of COX-2 was greater than COX-1 in GPT, and the spontaneous tone was most effectively abolished by selective COX-2 inhibitors. Furthermore, ONO-8130 and a specific PGE2 antibody eliminated the spontaneous tone, whereas the EP2 antagonist PF-04418948 increased it. Antagonists of other prostanoid receptors had no effect on basal tension. The relaxant EP2 response to PGE2 was maintained after long-term culture, whereas the contractile EP1 response showed homologous desensitization to PGE2, which was prevented by COX-inhibitors. Conclusions and Implications Endogenous PGE2, synthesized predominantly by COX-2, maintains the spontaneous tone of GPT by a balance between contractile EP1 receptors and relaxant EP2 receptors. The model may be used to study interactions between EP receptors. PMID:22934927

  1. Effect of a single intra-articular injection of bupivacaine on synovial fluid prostaglandin E2 concentrations in normal canine stifles.

    PubMed

    Giangarra, Jenna E; Barry, Sabrina L; Dahlgren, Linda A; Lanz, Otto I; Benitez, Marian E; Werre, Stephen R

    2018-04-25

    To identify if synovial fluid prostaglandin E 2 increases in response to a single intra-articular dose of bupivacaine in the normal canine stifle. There were no significant differences in synovial fluid prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) concentrations between treatment groups or over time within bupivacaine or saline groups. Samples requiring ≥ 3 arthrocentesis attempts had significantly higher PGE 2 concentrations compared to samples requiring 1 or 2 attempts. Following correction for number of arthrocentesis attempts, PGE 2 concentrations were significantly higher than baseline at 24 and 48 h in the bupivacaine group; however there were no significant differences between the bupivacaine and saline groups. In normal dogs, a single bupivacaine injection did not cause significant synovial inflammation, as measured by PGE 2 concentrations, compared to saline controls. Future research should minimize aspiration attempts and include evaluation of the synovial response to bupivacaine in clinical cases with joint disease.

  2. THE INVESTIGATION OF EFFECT OF FLURBIPROFEN AXETIL ON THE TISSUE GROWTH AND THE CONTENT OF PGE2 IN CERVICAL CANCER.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Wang, Shenggang; Chen, Guiying; Sun, Xiaofeng; Li, Kezhong

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether flurbiprofen axetil can inhibit the tissue growth and the content of PGE2 in cervical cancer or not. Fifty female BALB/c nude mice were randomly divided into control group (C), tumor + saline group (T), tumor + flurbiprofen axetil 10 mg/kg (Cfl0) group, tumor + flurbiprofen axetil 25 mg/kg (Cf25) group, tumor + flurbiprofen axetil tumor 50 mg/kg (Cf50), so that each group had 10 animals. Then, the animal model of human cervical carcinoma was established, and the relative tumor volume (RTV), relative tumor proliferation rate (T/C) and tumor inhibition rate were measured. The content of PGE2 in tumor tissue was determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. There was no tumor formation in group C, and the time of tumor growth in other groups was non-statistically different. The RVT in Cf50 group was lower than in other groups. It was evident from the curve of tumor growth that the tumor weight in T group was evidently higher than that of administration groups (p < 0.01). The tumor inhibition rates of Cf10, Cf25 and Cf50 groups were 16.8, 19.6 and 36%, respectively, and the relative tumor proliferation rate were 85, 91 and 72%, respectively. The PGE, level of Cf50 was statistically (p < 0.01) lower than that of Cfl0 and Cf25 groups. Flurbiprofen axetil can inhibit the growth of cervical cancer transplanted tumor in nude mice and this inhibitory effect was maximal in Cf50 group. Flurbiprofen axetil can inhibit the production of PGE2 in tumor tissue of cervical carcinoma in nude mice.

  3. Prostaglandin E2 Regulates Its Own Inactivating Enzyme, 15-PGDH, by EP2 Receptor-Mediated Cervical Cell-Specific Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, A. Hari; Owens, David

    2014-01-01

    Context: Prostaglandins play important roles in parturition and have been used to induce cervical ripening and labor. Prior to cervical ripening at term, 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) is highly expressed in the cervix and metabolizes cyclooxygenase-2-mediated increases in active prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) to inactive 15-keto PGE2. At term, 15-PGDH gene expression decreases and PGE2 accumulates, leading to cervical ripening and labor. Previously, we found that the cervical isoform of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MiTF-CX) serves as a progestational transcription factor that represses IL-8 and hypoxia-mediated increases in cyclooxygenase-2. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that PGE2 regulates its own inactivation through MiTF-CX. Design: We used human cervical stromal cells to investigate the regulation of 15-PGDH. Setting: This was a laboratory-based study using cells from clinical tissue samples. Main Outcome Measures: We evaluated the mechanisms by which PGE2 regulates 15-PGDH in human cervical stromal cells. Results: PGE2 repressed MiTF-CX and 15-PGDH, whereas ectopic overexpression of MiTF-CX induced 15-PGDH expression levels. Stabilization of HIF-1α by deferoxamine resulted in concomitant down-regulation of MiTF-CX and 15-PGDH. Ectopic overexpression of MiTF-CX abrogated PGE2- and deferoxamine-mediated loss of MiTF-CX and 15-PGDH. PGE2-induced loss of MiTF-CX and 15-PGDH was mediated through prostaglandin E2 receptor (EP2) receptors (PTGER2), but not cAMP. Conclusions: The 15-PGDH gene is a MiTF-CX target gene in cervical stromal cells and is down-regulated by PGE2 through EP2 receptors. The findings suggest that EP2 receptor-specific antagonists may be used as an adjunct to present clinical management for the prevention of preterm cervical ripening and preterm labor. PMID:24471568

  4. [IL-1beta and PGE2 production in whole blood and gingival fluid in women with periodontitis and preterm low birth weight].

    PubMed

    Konopka, Tomasz; Rutkowska, Monika; Hirnle, Lidia; Kopeć, Wacław

    2004-05-01

    The aim of the investigation was to evaluate of IL-1beta and PGE2 concentrations in gingival fluid, whole blood as well as IL-1beta, PGE2 production after Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide stimulation in whole blood in women with preterm low birth weight (PLBW), as compared to the control group. A case-control study of 88 postpartum women aged 17 to 39 was performed. The case group consisted of 52 women with PLBW and the control group consisted of 36 women giving birth in time. Concentration of inflammatory mediators in gingival fluid, blood serum and IL-1beta, PGE2 production in whole blood after bacterial lipopolysaccharide stimulation were determined by means of immunoenzymatic method. The levels of IL-1beta and PGE2 in gingival fluid were significantly higher in all PLBW mothers (also PLBW primiparous) than in the control group. In addition in the primiparous with PLBW group significantly higher PGE2 concentration in blood serum was found compared to the primiparous controls. There were no significant differences between women with PLBW and the controls together with a significantly higher production of IL-1beta and PGE2 in whole blood after LPS stimulation in women with periodontitis and gingivitis compared to subjects with healthy periodontium. Such findings suggest that inflammatory mediator synthesis is mainly result of specific cells exposition to bacterial products. Therefore it seems that more frequent occurrence of the phenotype of hyperactive cells that synthesise these mediators is not responsible for PLBW.

  5. COX-2/PGE2: molecular ambassadors of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus oncoprotein-v-FLIP

    PubMed Central

    Sharma-Walia, N; Patel, K; Chandran, K; Marginean, A; Bottero, V; Kerur, N; Paul, A G

    2012-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) latent oncoprotein viral FLICE (FADD-like interferon converting enzyme)-like inhibitory protein (v-FLIP) or K13, a potent activator of NF-κB, has well-established roles in KSHV latency and oncogenesis. KSHV-induced COX-2 represents a novel strategy employed by KSHV to promote latency and inflammation/angiogenesis/invasion. Here, we demonstrate that v-FLIP/K13 promotes tumorigenic effects via the induction of host protein COX-2 and its inflammatory metabolite PGE2 in an NF-κB-dependent manner. In addition to our previous studies demonstrating COX-2/PGE2's role in transcriptional regulation of KSHV latency promoter and latent gene expression, the current study adds to the complexity that though LANA-1 (latency associated nuclear antigen) is utilizing COX-2/PGE2 as critical factors for its transcriptional regulation, it is the v-FLIP/K13 gene in the KSHV latency cluster that maintains continuous COX-2/PGE2 levels in the infected cells. We demonstrate that COX-2 inhibition, via its chemical inhibitors (NS-398 or celecoxib), reduced v-FLIP/K13-mediated NF-κB induction, and extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction-mediated signaling, mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) levels, and subsequently downregulated detachment-induced apoptosis (anoikis) resistance. vFLIP expression mediated the secretion of cytokines, and spindle cell differentiation activated the phosphorylation of p38, RSK, FAK, Src, Akt and Rac1-GTPase. The COX-2 inhibition in v-FLIP/K13-HMVECs reduced inflammation and invasion/metastasis-related genes, along with reduced anchorage-independent colony formation via modulating ‘extrinsic' as well as ‘intrinsic' cell death pathways. COX-2 blockade in v-FLIP/K13-HMVEC cells drastically augmented cell death induced by removal of essential growth/survival factors secreted in the microenvironment. Transformed cells obtained from anchorage-independent colonies of COX-2 inhibitor-treated v

  6. Argon laser irradiation of rabbits' eyes-changes in prostaglandin E2 levels

    SciTech Connect

    Naveh, N.; Peer, J.; Bartov, E.

    1991-02-01

    Laser irradiation of the eye is a widely used therapeutic measure in various ocular disorders. We investigated in laser-treated rabbits' eyes the changes in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels of the tissue affected by the laser (the retina/choroid) and of its adjacent vitreous over a two-week period. The parameters studied were; PGE2 in vitro production by the retina/choroid, as well as PGE2 and protein levels in the vitreous, the latter indicative of a break in the blood retinal barrier (BRB). The effect of noncoherent light exposure used for illumination, and that of the mechanical manipulation involved (sham exposure) were also studied.more » Following laser exposure vitreal PGE2 levels were increased two-fold above baseline (days three and 14), whereas light exposure resulted in a single peak. PGE2 in vitro production by the retina/choroid in the laser-exposed group was elevated throughout the observation period, peaking twice (days 3 and 14), in the light-exposed group the enhanced production was evident during a shorter period, whereas in the sham group it remained unchanged from baseline. An elevation in vitreal protein levels to above baseline levels occurred in both the laser- and, to a lesser degree, in the noncoherent light-exposed groups, but not in the sham group. Our study demonstrated an enhanced PGE2 in vitro production by retina/choroid of laser-exposed eyes, which might be attributable to the additive effect of the laser induced trauma, and the noncoherent light photochemical changes; the clinical significance of the recurrent increase in vitreal PGE2 levels in laser-treated eyes might be related to its anti-inflammatory properties.« less

  7. Prostaglandin E(2) and insulin-like growth factor I interact to enhance proliferation of theca externa cells from chicken prehierarchical follicles.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yudong; Lin, Jinxing; Mi, Yuling; Zhang, Caiqiao

    2013-10-01

    The interactive effect of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on the proliferation of theca externa cells (TECs) was investigated in the prehierarchical small yellow follicles of laying hens. IGF-I manifested a proliferating effect like PGE2 on TECs, but this stimulating effect was restrained by AG1024 (IGF-IR inhibitor), KP372-1 (PKB/AKT inhibitor) or NS398 (COX-2 inhibitor). AG1024, KP372-1 or NS398 abolished IGF-I-stimulated COX-2 expression and PGE2 production. Meanwhile, KP372-1, NS398 or AG1024 depressed the PGE2-stimulated expression of COX-2 and IGF-IR mRNA. Therefore, the IGF-I receptor pathway up-regulates COX-2 expression and PGE2 synthesis via PKB signaling cascade, and then PGE2 stimulates IGF-IR mRNA expression to promote TEC proliferation in an autocrine pattern. Overall, the reciprocal stimulation of intracellular PGE2 and IGF-I may enhance TEC proliferation and facilitate the development of chicken prehierarchical follicles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Regulation of PGE2 signaling pathways and TNF-alpha signaling pathways on the function of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and the effects of CP-25.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Sheng, Kangliang; Chen, Jingyu; Wu, Yujing; Zhang, Feng; Chang, Yan; Wu, Huaxun; Fu, Jingjing; Zhang, Lingling; Wei, Wei

    2015-12-15

    This study was to investigate PGE2 and TNF-alpha signaling pathway involving in the maturation and activation of bone marrow dendritic cells (DCs) and the effect of CP-25. Bone marrow DCs were isolated and stimulated by PGE2 and TNF-alpha respectively. The markers of maturation and activation expressed on DCs, such as CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86, MHC-II, and the ability of antigen uptake of DCs were analyzed by flow cytometry. The proliferation of T cells co-cultured with DCs, the signaling pathways of PGE2-EP4-cAMP and TNF-alpha-TRADD-TRAF2-NF-κB in DCs were analyzed. The results showed that both PGE2 and TNF-alpha up-regulated the expressions of CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86, and MHC-II, decreased the antigen uptake of DCs, and DCs stimulated by PGE2 or TNF-alpha could increase T cell proliferation. CP-25 (10(-5), 10(-6), and 10(-7)mol/l) decreased significantly the expressions of CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86 and MHC-II, increased the antigen uptake of DCs, and suppressed T cell proliferation induced by DCs. PGE2 increased the expressions of EP4, NF-κB and down-regulated cAMP level of DCs. TNF-alpha could also up-regulate TNFR1, TRADD, TRAF2, and NF-κB expression of DCs. CP-25 (10(-5), 10(-6), and 10(-7)mol/l) decreased the expressions of EP4 and NF-κB, increased cAMP level in DCs stimulated by PGE2. CP-25 (10(-5), 10(-6), and 10(-7)mol/l) also could down-regulate significantly TNFR1, TRADD, TRAF2, and NF-κB expression in DCs stimulated by TNF-alpha. These results demonstrate that PGE2 and TNF-alpha could enhance DCs functions by mediating PGE2-EP4-cAMP pathway, TNF-alpha-TNFR1-TRADD-TRAF2-NF-κB pathway respectively. CP-25 might inhibit the function of DCs through regulating PGE2-EP4-cAMP and TNF-alpha-TNFR1-TRADD-TRAF2-NF-κB pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Laparoscopic application of PGE2 to re-establish oviducal patency and fertility in infertile mares: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Allen, W R; Wilsher, S; Morris, L; Crowhurst, J S; Hillyer, M H; Neal, H N

    2006-09-01

    Mares are occasionally encountered that consistently fail to conceive when inseminated, naturally or artificially, with fertile stallion semen in the absence of any identifiable pathology of either the structure or function of their reproductive tract. Temporary blockage of the oviducts by accumulations of naturally occurring oviducal masses may be preventing oviducal transport of the embryo to the uterus. Mares, with known reproductive histories, that had exhibited inexplicable failure of conception were treated by laparoscopically guided administration of PGE2-laced triacetin gel directly onto the surface of their oviducts. Fifteen mares age 10-21 years that had exhibited inexplicable failure of conception during 1-4 years were treated, of which 14 (93%) conceived within the same or subsequent breeding season. The high success rate of this treatment supports the tentative diagnosis of oviducal obstruction in these mares and indicates that blockage of the mare's oviducts may occur in the form of a moveable accumulation of debris rather than from permanent fibrous adhesions resulting from salpingitis. This laparoscopic application of PGE2 to the oviducts constitutes a sound and practical method of restoring fertility in mares suffering oviducal obstruction and further studies involving the procedure are warranted.

  10. The effects of prostaglandin E2 in growing rats - Increased metaphyseal hard tissue and cortico-endosteal bone formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jee, W. S. S.; Ueno, K.; Deng, Y. P.; Woodbury, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    The role of in vivo prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in bone formation is investigated. Twenty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing between 223-267 g were injected subcutaneously with 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 mg of PGE2-kg daily for 21 days. The processing of the tibiae for observation is described. Radiographs and histomorphometric analyses are also utilized to study bone formation. Body weight, weights of soft tissues and bones morphometry are evaluated. It is observed that PGE2 depressed longitudinal bone growth, increased growth cartilage thickness, decreased degenerative cartilage cell size and cartilage cell production, and significantly increased proximal tibial metaphyseal hard tissue mass. The data reveal that periosteal bone formation is slowed down at higher doses of PGE2 and endosteal bone formation is slightly depressed less than 10 days post injection; however, here is a late increase (10 days after post injection) in endosteal bone formation and in the formation of trabecular bone in the marrow cavity of the tibial shaft. It is noted that the effects of PGE2 on bone formation are similar to the responses of weaning rats to PGE2.

  11. Long-term anabolic effects of prostaglandin-E2 on tibial diaphyseal bone in male rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jee, Webster S. S.; Ke, Hua Zhu; Li, Xiao Jian

    1991-01-01

    The effects of long-term prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on tibial diaphyseal bone were studied in 7-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats given daily subcutaneous injections of 0, 1, 3 and 6 mg PGE2/kg/day for 60, 120 and 180 days. The tibial shaft was measured by single photon absorptiometry and dynamic histomorphometric analyses were performed on double-fluorescent labeled undecalcified tibial diaphyseal bone samples. Exogenous PGE2 administration produced the following transient changes in a dose-response manner between zero and 60 days: (1) increased bone width and mineral density; (2) increased total tissue and total bone areas; (3) decreased marrow area; (4) increased periosteal and corticoendosteal lamellar bone formation; (5) activated corticoendosteal lamellar and woven trabecular bone formation; and (6) activated intracortical bone remodeling. A new steady-state of increased tibial diaphyseal bone mass and elevated bone activities were observed from day 60 onward. The elevated bone mass level attained after 60 days of PGE2 treatment was maintained at 120 and 180 days. These observations indicate that the powerful anabolic effects of PGE2 will increase both periosteal and corticoendosteal bone mass and sustain the transient increase in bone mass with continuous daily administration of PGE2.

  12. Prostaglandin E2 Prevents Bone Loss and Adds Extra Bone to Immobilized Distal Femoral Metaphysis in Female Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akamine, T.; Jee, W. S. S.; Ke, H. Z.; Li, X. J.; Lin, B. Y.

    1992-01-01

    The object of this study was to determine whether prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) can prevent disuse (underloading)-induced cancellous bone loss. Thirteen-month-old retired female Sprague-Dawley breeders served as controls or were subjected to right hindlimb immobilization by bandaging and simultaneously treated subcutaneously daily with 0, 1, 3, or 6 mg PGE2/kg/d for two and six weeks. Histomorphometric analyses were performed on the cancellous bone using double-fluorescent labeled, 20 micron thick, undecalcified distal femoral metaphysis sections. We found that PGE2 administration not only prevented disuse-induced bone loss, but also added extra bone to disuse cancellous bone in a dose-response manner. PGE2 prevented the disuse-induced osteopenia by stimulating more bone formation than and shortening the period of bone remodeling. It activated woven bone formation, stimulated lamellar bone formation, and increased the eroded bone surface above that caused by disuse alone. While underloading increased the remodeling period (sigma), PGE2 treatment of underloaded bone shortened the time for osteoclastic bone resorption and bone remodeling, and thus reduced the remodeling space. The study shows that PGE2 is a powerful anabolic agent that prevents disuse-induced osteopenia and adds extra bone to these same bones.

  13. Kinetics of prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane A2 synthesis and suppression of PHA-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear leucocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Awara, W; Hillier, K; Jones, D

    1986-01-01

    The immunomodulatory effects of thromboxane A2 and prostaglandin E2 on peripheral blood mononuclear leucocytes stimulated with PHA in vitro, and the relationship of this to the time-course of their synthesis in culture, were investigated using prostaglandin E2, a thromboxane A2 synthesis inhibitor (UK37248), a thromboxane A2 mimic (U46619) and a thromboxane A2 receptor blocker (EP045). The inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2 on PHA-induced human peripheral blood mononuclear leucocyte proliferation diminishes if the addition of PGE2 is delayed. If added 4 hr after a maximum concentration of PHA (5 micrograms/ml), the effect of PGE2 was reduced by 60%. If a submaximal concentration of PHA (1 microgram/ml) was used, the effect of PGE2 was not reduced if added 4 hr later but fell by about 60% after 16 hr. UK37248 moderately inhibited PHA-induced activation while substantially inhibiting thromboxane A2 synthesis and simultaneously enhancing PGE2 synthesis. The enhanced accumulation of PGE2 occurs while sensitivity to PGE2 is dropping. U46619, exogenously applied as a thromboxane A2 mimic, inhibited PHA-induced activation at concentrations that did not significantly alter PGE2 synthesis. EP045, which may modulate the effects of endogenous thromboxane A2 by blocking receptors, did not alter PHA-induced activation. We conclude that thromboxane A2 may have a role in inhibiting PHA-induced activation on the basis of the effect of U46619. However, this study highlights difficulties in utilizing prostaglandin and thromboxane receptor and synthesis inhibitors to examine their endogenous role in the modulation of mitogen-induced activation in vitro. If sensitivity to the purported endogenous substance is limited to the early stages of culture and if only low levels are synthesized at this early stage, then blocking drugs would have little effect. PMID:3468061

  14. Effects of Daily Administration of Prostaglandin E2 and Its Withdrawal on the Lumbar Vertebral Bodies in Male Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ke, Hua Zhu; Jee, Webster S. S.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of daily prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) treatment (on) and PGE2 treatment followed by withdrawal (on-off) on cancellous bone in lumbar vertebral bodies were studied in 7 month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. The first groups of rats were given daily subcutaneous injections of 0, 1, 3, and 6 mg PGE2/kg/d for 60,120, and 180 days, and the second group of rats were given PGE2 for 60 days followed by withdrawal for 60 and 120 days. Histomorphometric analyses were performed on double-fluorescent labeled undecalcified sections of fourth lumbar vertebral bodies. Systemic PGE2 treatment elevated cancerous bone mass of lumbar vertebral bodies 26-60%, above control levels within 60 days and continued treatment maintained it for another 120 days, but the excess bone was lost after the treatment was witndrawn. PGE2 treatment for 60 days increased trabecular bone area, trabecular width, and bone formation parameters, and shortened remodeling periods in a dose-response manner. These changes were sustained at the levels achieved by 60-day treatment in the rats treated for 120 and 180 days. The eroded perimeter increased at day 60 and further at day 120 and then plateaued. In the on-off treated rats, the cancenous bone area, bone formation, and resorption parameters returned to near age-related controls by 60 days after withdrawal and were maintained there after 120 days of withdrawal. Therefore, we conclude that the continuous treatment is needed in order to maintain the PGE2-induced bone gain. When these findings were compared to those previously reported for the proximal tibial metaphyses, we found that the proximal tibial spongiosa was much more responsive to PGE2 treatment than the fourth lumbar vertebral body.

  15. Prostaglandin E2 modulates dendritic cell function via EP2 and EP4 receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Harizi, Hedi; Grosset, Christophe; Gualde, Norbert

    2003-06-01

    We have reported previously that PGE(2) inhibits dendritic cells (DC) functions. Because E prostanoid receptor (EPR) subtypes involved in this action are unknown, expression and functions of these receptors were examined in DC. Western blot and flow cytometry analyses showed that all EPRs were coexpressed in DC. In a dose-dependent manner, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) enhanced EP(2)R/EP(4)R but not EP(1)R/EP(3)R expressions. NS-398, a cyclooxygenase (COX)-2-selective inhibitor, suppressed LPS-enhanced EP(2)R/EP(4)R expression, suggesting that COX-2-issued prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) modulates DC function through stimulation of specific EPR subtypes. Using selective agonists, we found that butaprost, an EP(2)R agonist, and PGE(1) alcohol, an EP(2)R and EP(2)R/EP(4)R agonist, inhibited major histocompatibility complex class II expression and enhanced interleukin-10 production from DC. However, no effect was observed with sulprostone and 17-phenyl-omega-trinor-PGE(2), selective agonists for EP(1)R and EP(1)R/EP(3)R, respectively. Treatment of DC with dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), an analog of cAMP, mimics PGE(2)-induced, inhibitory effects. Taken together, our data demonstrate that EP(2)R/EP(4)R are efficient for mediating PGE(2)-induced modulation of DC functions.

  16. Production of New Trabecular Bone in Osteopenic Ovariectomized Rats by Prostaglandin E2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mori, S.; Jee, W. S. S.; Li, X. J.

    1992-01-01

    Serum chemistry and bone morphometry of the proximal tibial metaphysis were performed in 3 month-old double fluorescent-labeled, female Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to bilateral ovariectomy or sham surgery for 4 months prior to treatment with 0, 0.3, 1,3, or 6 mg of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)/kg/day subcutaneously for 30 days. The 4 month postovariectomized rats possessed an osteopenic proximal tibial metaphysis with 7% trabecular area compared with controls (19%). PGE2 treatment elevated osteocalcin levels and augmented proximal tibial metaphyseal bone area in ovariectomized and sham-operated rats. Osteopenic, ovariectomized rats treated with 6 mg (PGE2)/kg/day for 30 days restored bone area to levels of agematched sham-operated rats. Morphometric analyses showed increased woven and lamellar bone area, fluorescent-labeled perimeter (osteoblastic recruitment), mineral apposition rate (osteoblastic activity), bone formation rate (BFR/BV), and longitudinal bone growth. These dramatic bone changes were all significantly increased at the doseresponse manner. This study showed that in vivo PGE2 is a powerful activator of bone remodeling, it increases both bone resorption and bone formation, and produces an anabolic effect by shifting bone balance to the positive direction. Furthermore, PGE2-induced augmentation of metaphyseal bone area in ovariectomized rats was at least two times greater than in sham-operated rats.

  17. Tromboxane B2 inhibits the pulmonary inactivation of prostaglandin E2 in the dog.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, T. M.; Friedman, L. S.; Kot, P. A.; Ramwell, P. W.

    1980-01-01

    1 The systemic vasodepressor response to intravenously administered prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 micrograms/kg) is potentiated during intravenous infusion of thromboxane B2 (TXB2, 1.0 micrograms kg-1 min-1) in the anaesthetized dog. 2 The augmented haemodynamic response returns toward control values following cessation of the TXB2 infusion. 3 The systemic haemodynamic responses to intra-arterially administered PGE2, PGF2 alpha and PGI2 as well as intravenously administered PGF2 alpha and PGI2 are not altered by TXB2 infusion. 4. This study suggests that TXB2 inhibits the pulmonary inactivation of PGE2. 5 Arachidonic acid metabolites may interact, producing haemodynamic responses differing from their individual effects. PMID:7000216

  18. Prostaglandin E2 Induces IL-6 and IL-8 Production by the EP Receptors/Akt/NF-κB Pathways in Nasal Polyp-Derived Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jung-Sun; Han, In-Hye; Lee, Hye Rim; Lee, Heung-Man

    2014-09-01

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-8 participate in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, and their levels are increased by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in different cell types. The purposes of this study were to determine whether PGE2 has any effect on the increase in the levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in nasal polyp-derived fibroblasts (NPDFs) and subsequently investigate the possible mechanism of this effect. Different concentrations of PGE2 were used to stimulate NPDFs at different time intervals. NPDFs were treated with agonists and antagonists of E prostanoid (EP) receptors. To determine the signaling pathway for the expression of PGE2-induced IL-6 and IL-8, PGE2 was treated with Akt and NF-κB inhibitors in NPDFs. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for IL-6 and IL-8 mRNAs was performed. IL-6 and IL-8 levels were measured byenzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The activation of Akt and NF-κB was evaluated by western blot analysis. PGE2 significantly increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in NPDFs. The EP2 and EP4 agonists and antagonists induced and inhibited IL-6 expression. However, the EP4 agonist and antagonist were only observed to induce and inhibit IL-8 expression level. The Akt and NF-κB inhibitors significantly blocked PGE2-induced expression of IL-6 and IL-8. PGE2 increases IL-6 expression via EP2 and EP4 receptors, and IL-8 expression via the EP4 receptor in NPDFs. It also activates the Akt and NF-κB signal pathways for the production of IL-6 and IL-8 in NPDFs. These results suggest that signaling pathway for IL-6 and IL-8 expression induced by PGE2 might be a useful therapeutic target for the treatment of nasal polyposis.

  19. FE2O3 PARTICLE-INDUCED PROSTAGLANDIN E2 (PGE2) SYNTHESIS IN ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES (AM) DETERMINES PARTICULATE INFLAMMATORY POTENTIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    As shown by epidemiologic studies, acute exposure to ambient particles is associated with exacerbation of pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. Metals associated with particles are able to mediate lung injury via oxidant-catalyzed reactions. However, the underlying mechanism i...

  20. Hyperforin, an Anti-Inflammatory Constituent from St. John's Wort, Inhibits Microsomal Prostaglandin E2 Synthase-1 and Suppresses Prostaglandin E2 Formation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Koeberle, Andreas; Rossi, Antonietta; Bauer, Julia; Dehm, Friederike; Verotta, Luisella; Northoff, Hinnak; Sautebin, Lidia; Werz, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The acylphloroglucinol hyperforin (Hyp) from St. John's wort possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties which were ascribed among others to the inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase. Here, we investigated whether Hyp also interferes with prostanoid generation in biological systems, particularly with key enzymes participating in prostaglandin (PG)E2 biosynthesis, i.e., cyclooxygenases (COX)-1/2 and microsomal PGE2 synthase (mPGES)-1 which play key roles in inflammation and tumorigenesis. Similar to the mPGES-1 inhibitors MK-886 and MD-52, Hyp significantly suppressed PGE2 formation in whole blood assays starting at 0.03–1 μM, whereas the concomitant generation of COX-derived 12(S)-hydroxy-5-cis-8,10-trans-heptadecatrienoic acid, thromboxane B2, and 6-keto PGF1α was not significantly suppressed up to 30 μM. In cell-free assays, Hyp efficiently blocked the conversion of PGH2 to PGE2 mediated by mPGES-1 (IC50 = 1 μM), and isolated COX enzymes were not (COX-2) or hardly (COX-1) suppressed. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of Hyp (4 mg kg−1) to rats impaired exudate volume and leukocyte numbers in carrageenan-induced pleurisy associated with reduced PGE2 levels, and Hyp (given i.p.) inhibited carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema formation (ED50 = 1 mg kg−1) being superior over indomethacin (ED50 = 5 mg kg−1). We conclude that the suppression of PGE2 biosynthesis in vitro and in vivo by acting on mPGES-1 critically contributes to the anti-inflammatory efficiency of Hyp. PMID:21687502

  1. Anabolic Responses of an Adult Cancellous Bone Site to Prostaglandin E2 in the Rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Ke, Hua Zhu; Jee, Webster S. S.; Sakou, Takashi

    1993-01-01

    The objects of this study were to determine: (1) the response of a non-growing cancellous bone site to daily prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) administration; and (2) the differences in the effects of daily PGE2, administration in growing (proximal tibial metaphysis, PTM) and non-growing cancellous bone sites (distal tibial metaphysis, DTM). Seven-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were given daily subcutaneous injections of 0, 1, 3 and 6 mg PGE2/kg per day for 60, 120 and 180 days. The static and dynamic histomorphometric analyses were performed on double-fluorescent labeled undecalcified distal tibial metaphyses (DTM). No age-related changes were found in static and dynamic histomorphometry of DTM cancellous bone between 7 and 13 months of age. The DTM of 7-month-old (basal controls) rats consisted of a 24.5 +/- 7.61%-metaphyseal cancellous bone mass, and a thick trabeculae (92 +/- 12 micro-m). It also had a very low tissue-base bone formation rate (3.0 +/- 7.31%/year). Exogenous PGE2 administration produced the following transient changes in a dose-response manner between zero and 60 days: (1) increased trabecular bone mass and improved architecture (increased trabecular bone area, width and number, and decreased trabecular separation); (2) increased trabecular interconnections: (3) increased bone formation parameters; and (4) decreased eroded perimeter. A new steady state with more cancellous bone mass and higher bone turnover was observed from day 60 onward, The elevated bone mass induced by the first 60 days of PGE2 treatment was maintained by another 60 and 120 days with continuous daily PGE2 treatment. When these findings were compared to those previously reported for the PTM, we found that the DTM was much more responsive to PGE2 treatment than the PTM. Percent trabecular bone area and tissue based bone formation rate increased significantly more in DTM as compared to PTM after the 60 days of 6 mg PGE2 treatment. These observations indicate that a non

  2. Dual inhibition of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 production by polysubstituted 2-aminopyrimidines.

    PubMed

    Zídek, Zdeněk; Kverka, Miloslav; Dusilová, Adéla; Kmoníčková, Eva; Jansa, Petr

    2016-07-01

    The present in vitro experiments demonstrate inhibitory effects of polysubstituted 2-aminopyrimidines on high output production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) stimulated by interferon-γ and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in peritoneal macrophages of mouse and rat origin. PGE2 production was inhibited also in LPS-activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. A tight dependence of the suppressive activities on chemical structure of pyrimidines was observed. Derivatives containing hydroxyl groups at the C-4 and C-6 positions of pyrimidine ring were devoid of any influence on NO and PGE2. Remarkable inhibitory potential was acquired by the replacement of hydroxyl groups with chlorine, the 4,6-dichloro derivatives being more effective than the monochloro analogues. The effects were further intensified by modification of the amino group at the C-2 position, changing it to the (N,N-dimethylamino)methyleneamino or the formamido ones. There was no substantial difference in the expression of NO-inhibitory effects among derivatives containing distinct types of substituents at the C-5 position (hydrogen, methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, phenyl, and benzyl). In contrast to NO, larger substituents then methyl were required to inhibit PGE2 production. Overall, no significant correlation between the extent of NO and PGE2 suppression was observed. The IC50s of derivatives with the strongest effects on both NO and PGE2 were within the range of 2-10 μM. Their NO-inhibitory potential of pyrimidines was stronger than that of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) aspirin and indomethacin. The PGE2-inhibitory effectiveness of pyrimidines was about the same as that of aspirin, but weaker as compared to indomethacin. The NO- and PGE2-inhibitory activity of tested pyrimidines has been found associated with decreased expression of iNOS mRNA and COX-2 mRNA, respectively, and with post-translation interactions. Selected NO-/PGE2-inhibitory derivatives decreased

  3. Hypoxia and PGE2 Regulate MiTF-CX During Cervical Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Hari Kishore, Annavarapu; Li, Xiang-Hong

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms by which the cervix remains closed during the massive uterine expansion of pregnancy are unknown. IL-8 is important for recruitment of immune cells into the cervical stroma, matrix remodeling, and dilation of the cervix during labor. Previously, we have shown that several cytokine genes transcriptionally repressed in the cervix during gestation are activated during cervical ripening and dilation. IL-8 gene expression is repressed in cervical stromal cells during pregnancy by the transcription factor microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MiTF-CX). Here, we tested the hypothesis that hypoxia and the transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) may regulate MiTF-CX and cervical ripening. Using tissues from women during pregnancy before and after cervical ripening, we show that, during cervical ripening, HIF-1α was stabilized and relocalized to the nucleus. Further, we found that hypoxia and two hypoxia mimetics that stabilize HIF-1α activated the transcriptional repressor differentiated embryo chondrocyte-expressed gene 1, which bound to sites in the MiTF-CX promoter crucial for its positive autoregulation. Ectopic overexpression of MiTF-CX abrogated hypoxia-induced up-regulation of IL-8 gene expression. We also show that activation of HIF-1α induced cyclooxygenase-2 and that prostaglandin E2 repressed MiTF-CX. We conclude that hypoxia and stabilization of the transcription factor HIF-1α result in up-regulation of differentiated embryo chondrocyte-expressed gene 1, loss of MiTF, and absence of MiTF binding to the IL-8 promoter, which in turn leads to up-regulation of IL-8 gene expression. Hypoxia also up-regulated cyclooxygenase-2, leading to prostaglandin E2-mediated loss of MiTF in cervical stromal cells. The results support a pivotal role for hypoxia and HIF-1α in the cervical ripening process during pregnancy. PMID:23144021

  4. Overexpressed TRPV3 ion channels in skin keratinocytes modulate pain sensitivity via prostaglandin E2

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Susan M.; Lee, Hyosang; Chung, Man-Kyo; Park, Una; Yu, Yin Yin; Bradshaw, Heather B.; Coulombe, Pierre A.; Walker, J. Michael; Caterina, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to sense changes in the environment is essential for survival because it permits responses such as withdrawal from noxious stimuli and regulation of body temperature. Keratinocytes, which occupy much of the skin epidermis, are situated at the interface between the external environment and the body's internal milieu, and have long been appreciated for their barrier function against external insults. The recent discovery of temperature-sensitive TRPV ion channels in keratinocytes has raised the possibility that these cells also actively participate in acute temperature and pain sensation. To address this notion, we generated and characterized transgenic mice that overexpress TRPV3 in epidermal keratinocytes under the control of the keratin 14 promoter. Compared to wild-type controls, keratinocytes overexpressing TRPV3 exhibited larger currents as well as augmented prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release in response to two TRPV3 agonists, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2APB) and heat. Thermal selection behavior and heat-evoked withdrawal behavior of naïve mice overexpressing TRPV3 were not consistently altered. Upon selective pharmacological inhibition of TRPV1 with JNJ-7203212, however, the keratinocyte-specific TRPV3 transgenic mice showed increased escape responses to noxious heat relative to their wild-type littermates. Co-administration of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, ibuprofen, with the TRPV1 antagonist decreased inflammatory thermal hyperalgesia in transgenic but not wild-type animals. Our results reveal a previously undescribed mechanism for keratinocyte participation in thermal pain transduction through keratinocyte TRPV3 ion channels and the intercellular messenger PGE2. PMID:19091963

  5. Estrogen receptors regulate the estrous behavior induced by progestins, peptides, and prostaglandin E2.

    PubMed

    Lima-Hernández, F J; Gómora-Arrati, P; García-Juárez, M; Blaustein, J D; Etgen, A M; Beyer, C; González-Flores, O

    2014-07-01

    The role of classical estrogen receptors (ERs) in priming female reproductive behavior has been studied previously; however, the participation of this receptor during activation of estrous behavior has not been extensively studied. The purpose of this work was to test the possibility that the facilitation of lordosis behavior in estrogen-primed rats by progesterone (P) and its 5α- and 5β-reduced metabolites, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), leptin, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and vagino-cervical stimulation (VCS) involves interactions with classical ERs by using the selective ER modulator, tamoxifen. To further assess the role of ERs, we also explored the effects of the pure ER antagonist, ICI182780 (ICI), on estrous behavior induced by P and GnRH. Ovariectomized, estrogen-primed rats (5μg estradiol benzoate 40h earlier) were injected intraventricularly with the above-mentioned compounds, or they received VCS. All compounds and VCS effectively facilitated estrous behavior when tested at 60, 120 or 240min after infusion or application of VCS. Intraventricular infusion of tamoxifen (5μg), 30min before, significantly attenuated estrous behaviors induced in estradiol-primed rats by P, most of its 5α- and 5β-reduced metabolites, GnRH, and PGE2, but not by VCS. Although there was a trend for reduction, tamoxifen did not significantly decrease lordosis in females treated with 5β-pregnan-3,20-dione. ICI also inhibited lordosis behavior induced by P and GnRH at some testing intervals. These results suggest that activation of classical ERs participates in the triggering effects on estrous behavior induced by agents with different chemical structures that do not bind directly to ERs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ethyl caffeate suppresses NF-kappaB activation and its downstream inflammatory mediators, iNOS, COX-2, and PGE2 in vitro or in mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Yi-Ming; Lo, Chiu-Ping; Chen, Yi-Ping; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Yang, Ning-Sun; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Shyur, Lie-Fen

    2005-10-01

    Ethyl caffeate, a natural phenolic compound, was isolated from Bidens pilosa, a medicinal plant popularly used for treating certain inflammatory syndromes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the structural activity, and the anti-inflammatory functions and mechanism(s) of ethyl caffeate. Ethyl caffeate was found to markedly suppress the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production (IC(50) = 5.5 microg ml(-1)), mRNA and protein expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Transient gene expression assays using human cox-2 promoter construct revealed that ethyl caffeate exerted an inhibitory effect on cox-2 transcriptional activity in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-treated MCF-7 cells. Immunohistochemical studies of mouse skin demonstrated that TPA-induced COX-2 expression was significantly inhibited by ethyl caffeate with a superior effect to that of celecoxib, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitor kappaB (IkappaB) and the translocation of nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) into the nucleus, as well as the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) induced by LPS in macrophages, were not affected by ethyl caffeate. Ethyl caffeate, however, could inhibit NF-kappaB activation by impairing the binding of NF-kappaB to its cis-acting element. These results suggest that ethyl caffeate suppresses iNOS and COX-2 expressions partly through the inhibition of the NF-kappaB.DNA complex formation. Structure-activity relationship analyses suggested that the catechol moiety and alpha,beta-unsaturated ester group in ethyl caffeate are important and essential structural features for preventing NF-kappaB.DNA complex formation. This study provides an insight into the probable mechanism(s) underlying the anti-inflammatory and therapeutic properties of ethyl caffeate.

  7. Omeprazole increases the efficacy of a soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor in a PGE2 induced pain model

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Sumanta Kumar; Inceoglu, Bora; Yang, Jun; Wan, Debin; Kodani, Sean D.; da Silva, Carlos Antonio Trindade; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are potent endogenous analgesic metabolites produced from arachidonic acid by cytochrome P450s (P450s). Metabolism of EETs by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) reduces their activity, while their stabilization by sEH inhibition decreases both inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Here, we tested the complementary hypothesis that increasing the level of EETs through induction of P450s by omeprazole (OME), can influence pain related signaling by itself, and potentiate the anti-hyperalgesic effect of sEH inhibitor. Rats were treated with OME (100 mg/kg/day, p.o., 7 days), sEH inhibitor TPPU (3 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and OME (100 mg/kg/day, p.o., 7 days) + TPPU (3 mg/kg/day, p.o., last 3 days of OME dose) dissolved in vehicle PEG400, and their effect on hyperalgesia (increased sensitivity to pain) induced by PGE2 was monitored. While OME treatment by itself exhibited variable effects on PGE2 induced hyperalgesia, it strongly potentiated the effect of TPPU in the same assay. The significant decrease in pain with OME + TPPU treatment correlated with the increased levels of EETs in plasma and increased activities of P450 1A1 and P450 1A2 in liver microsomes. The results show that reducing catabolism of EETs with a sEH inhibitor yielded a stronger analgesic effect than increasing generation of EETs by OME, and combination of both yielded the strongest pain reducing effect under the condition of this study. PMID:26522832

  8. Nitrooleic acid protects against cisplatin nephropathy: role of COX-2/mPGES-1/PGE2 cascade.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiping; Jia, Zhanjun; Sun, Jing; Xu, Liang; Zhao, Bing; Yu, Kezhou; Yang, Meng; Yang, Tianxin; Wang, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Nitrooleic acid (OA-NO2) is an endogenous lipid product which has novel signaling properties, particularly the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. The current study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of OA-NO2 against cisplatin-induced kidney injury in mice. Mice were pretreated with OA-NO2 for 48 h before cisplatin administration, and the cisplatin-caused nephrotoxicity was evaluated. After the cisplatin treatment (72 h), the vehicle-treated mice displayed renal dysfunction, as evidenced by the elevated plasma urea and creatinine, which was consistent with the histological damage, such as tubular necrosis, dilation, protein cast, and desquamation of epithelial cells. In contrast, the severity of the renal dysfunction and histological change were reduced in the OA-NO2 pretreated mice. The renal COX-2 and mPGES-1 mRNAs and their respective proteins expression, together with the renal PGE2 amounts, were induced by the cisplatin treatment, but their initiation was reduced by OA-NO2. Moreover, the circulating TNF-α, renal TNF-α, IL-1β, MCP-1, ICAM-1, and VACAM-1 mRNA levels were higher in the cisplatin-treated mice, compared with the controls, but they were attenuated in the OA-NO2 pretreatment group. In summary, the pretreatment with OA-NO2 remarkably ameliorated the cisplatin-induced kidney injury in mice, possibly via the inhibition of the inflammatory response, associated with the COX-2/mPGES-1/PGE2 cascade.

  9. The effect of intra-articular botulinum toxin A on substance P, prostaglandin E2, and tumor necrosis factor alpha in the canine osteoarthritic joint.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Helka M; Hielm-Björkman, Anna K; Innes, John F; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi M

    2017-03-21

    Recently, intra-articular botulinum toxin A (IA BoNT A) has been shown to reduce joint pain in osteoarthritic dogs. Similar results have been reported in human patients with arthritis. However, the mechanism of the antinociceptive action of IA BoNT A is currently not known. The aim of this study was to explore this mechanism of action by investigating the effect of IA BoNT A on synovial fluid (SF) and serum substance P (SP), prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in osteoarthritic dogs. Additionally, the aim was to compare SF SP and PGE 2 between osteoarthritic and non-osteoarthritic joints, and investigate associations between SP, PGE 2 , osteoarthritic pain, and the signalment of dogs. Thirty-five dogs with chronic naturally occurring osteoarthritis and 13 non-osteoarthritic control dogs were included in the study. Osteoarthritic dogs received either IA BoNT A (n = 19) or IA placebo (n = 16). Serum and SF samples were collected and osteoarthritic pain was evaluated before (baseline) and 2 and 8 weeks after treatment. Osteoarthritic pain was assessed with force platform, Helsinki Chronic Pain Index, and joint palpation. Synovial fluid samples were obtained from control dogs after euthanasia. The change from baseline in SP and PGE 2 concentration was compared between the IA BoNT A and placebo groups. The synovial fluid SP and PGE 2 concentration was compared between osteoarthritic and control joints. Associations between SP, PGE 2 , osteoarthritic pain, and the signalment of dogs were evaluated. There was no significant change from baseline in SP or PGE 2 after IA BoNT A. Synovial fluid PGE 2 was significantly higher in osteoarthritic compared to control joints. Synovial fluid PGE 2 correlated with osteoarthritic pain. No associations were found between SP or PGE 2 and the signalment of dogs. The concentration of TNF-α remained under the detection limit of the assay in all samples. The results suggest that the antinociceptive

  10. A new role for bicarbonate secretion in cervico-uterine mucus release.

    PubMed

    Muchekehu, Ruth W; Quinton, Paul M

    2010-07-01

    Cervical mucus thinning and release during the female reproductive cycle is thought to rely mainly on fluid secretion. However, we now find that mucus released from the murine reproductive tract critically depends upon concurrent bicarbonate (HCO(3)(-)) secretion. Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2))- and carbachol-stimulated mucus release was severely inhibited in the absence of serosal HCO(3)(-), HCO(3)(-) transport, or functional cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). In contrast to mucus release, PGE(2)- and carbachol-stimulated fluid secretion was not dependent on bicarbonate or on CFTR, but was completely blocked by niflumic acid. We found stimulated mucus release was severely impaired in the cystic fibrosis F508 reproductive tract, even though stimulated fluid secretion was preserved. Thus, CFTR mutations and/or poor bicarbonate secretion may be associated with reduced female fertility associated with abnormal mucus and specifically, may account for the increased viscosity and lack of cyclical changes in cervical mucus long noted in women with cystic fibrosis.

  11. A new role for bicarbonate secretion in cervico-uterine mucus release

    PubMed Central

    Muchekehu, Ruth W; Quinton, Paul M

    2010-01-01

    Cervical mucus thinning and release during the female reproductive cycle is thought to rely mainly on fluid secretion. However, we now find that mucus released from the murine reproductive tract critically depends upon concurrent bicarbonate (HCO3−) secretion. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)- and carbachol-stimulated mucus release was severely inhibited in the absence of serosal HCO3−, HCO3− transport, or functional cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). In contrast to mucus release, PGE2- and carbachol-stimulated fluid secretion was not dependent on bicarbonate or on CFTR, but was completely blocked by niflumic acid. We found stimulated mucus release was severely impaired in the cystic fibrosis ΔF508 reproductive tract, even though stimulated fluid secretion was preserved. Thus, CFTR mutations and/or poor bicarbonate secretion may be associated with reduced female fertility associated with abnormal mucus and specifically, may account for the increased viscosity and lack of cyclical changes in cervical mucus long noted in women with cystic fibrosis. PMID:20478977

  12. Prenatal exposure to the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos enhances brain oxidative stress and prostaglandin E2 synthesis in a mouse model of idiopathic autism.

    PubMed

    De Felice, Alessia; Greco, Anita; Calamandrei, Gemma; Minghetti, Luisa

    2016-06-14

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are emerging as polygenic and multifactorial disorders in which complex interactions between defective genes and early exposure to environmental stressors impact on the correct neurodevelopment and brain processes. Organophosphate insecticides, among which chlorpyrifos (CPF), are widely diffused environmental toxicants associated with neurobehavioral deficits and increased risk of ASD occurrence in children. Oxidative stress and dysregulated immune responses are implicated in both organophosphate neurodevelopmental effects and ASD etiopathogenesis. BTBR T+tf/J mice, a well-studied model of idiopathic autism, show several behavioral and immunological alterations found in ASD children, and we recently showed that CPF gestational exposure strengthened some of these autistic-like traits. In the present study, we aimed at investigating whether the behavioral effects of gestational CPF administration are associated with brain increased oxidative stress and altered lipid mediator profile. Brain levels of F2-isoprostanes (15-F2t-IsoP), as index of in vivo oxidative stress, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a major arachidonic acid metabolite released by immune cells and by specific glutamatergic neuron populations mainly in cortex and hippocampus, were assessed by specific enzyme-immuno assays in brain homogenates from BTBR T+tf/J and C57Bl6/J mice, exposed during gestation to either vehicle or CPF. Measures were performed in mice of both sexes, at different postnatal stages (PNDs 1, 21, and 70). At birth, BTBR T+tf/J mice exhibited higher baseline 15-F2t-IsoP levels as compared to C57Bl6/J mice, suggestive of greater oxidative stress processes. Gestational treatment with CPF-enhanced 15-F2t-IsoP and PGE2 levels in strain- and age-dependent manner, with 15-F2t-IsoP increased in BTBR T+tf/J mice at PNDs 1 and 21, and PGE2 elevated in BTBR T+tf/J mice at PNDs 21 and 70. At PND 21, CPF effects were sex-dependent being the increase of the two

  13. Fluid shear stress stimulates prostaglandin and nitric oxide release in bone marrow-derived preosteoclast-like cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAllister, T. N.; Du, T.; Frangos, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    Bone is a porous tissue that is continuously perfused by interstitial fluid. Fluid flow, driven by both vascular pressure and mechanical loading, may generate significant shear stresses through the canaliculi as well as along the bone lining at the endosteal surface. Both osteoblasts and osteocytes produce signaling factors such as prostaglandins and nitric in response to fluid shear stress (FSS); however, these humoral agents appear to have more profound affects on osteoclast activity at the endosteal surface. We hypothesized that osteoclasts and preosteoclasts may also be mechanosensitive and that osteoclast-mediated autocrine signaling may be important in bone remodeling. In this study, we investigated the effect of FSS on nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and prostacyclin (PGI(2)) release by neonatal rat bone marrow-derived preosteoclast-like cells. These cells were tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) positive, weakly nonspecific esterase (NSE) positive, and capable of fusing into calcitonin-responsive, bone-resorbing, multinucleated cells. Bone marrow-derived preosteoclast-like cells exposed for 6 h to a well-defined FSS of 16 dynes/cm(2) produced NO at a rate of 7.5 nmol/mg protein/h, which was 10-fold that of static controls. This response was completely abolished by 100 microM N(G)-amino-L-arginine (L-NAA). Flow also stimulated PGE(2) production (3.9 microg/mg protein/h) and PGI(2) production (220 pg/mg protein/h). L-NAA attenuated flow-induced PGE(2) production by 30%, suggesting that NO may partially modulate PGE(2) production. This is the first report demonstrating that marrow derived cells are sensitive to FSS and that autocrine signaling in these cells may play an important role in load-induced remodeling and signal transduction in bone. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  14. Increased urinary prostaglandin E2 metabolite: A potential therapeutic target of Gitelman syndrome.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Lanping; Chen, Chen; Qin, Yan; Yuan, Tao; Wang, Ou; Xing, Xiaoping; Li, Xuemei; Nie, Min; Chen, Limeng

    2017-01-01

    Gitelman syndrome (GS), an inherited autosomal recessive salt-losing renal tubulopathy caused by mutations in SLC12A3 gene, has been associated with normal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels since 1995 by a study involving 11 clinically diagnosed patients. However, it is difficult to explain why cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) inhibitors, which pharmacologically reduce PGE2 synthesis, are helpful to patients with GS, and few studies performed in the last 20 years have measured PGE2 levels. The relationships between the clinical manifestations and PGE2 levels were never thoroughly analyzed. This study involved 39 GS patients diagnosed by SLC12A3 gene sequencing. Plasma and 24-h urine samples as well as the clinical data were collected at admission. PGE2 and PGEM levels were detected in plasma and urine samples by enzyme immunoassays. The in vivo function of the sodium-chloride co-transporter (NCC) in GS patients was evaluated using a modified thiazide test. The association among PGE2 levels, clinical manifestations and the function of NCC in GS patients were analyzed. Significantly higher levels of urinary and plasma PGEM were observed in GS patients than in the healthy volunteers. Higher urinary PGEM levels indicated more severe clinical manifestations and NCC dysfunction estimated by the increase of Cl- clearance. A higher PGEM level was found in male GS patients, who showed earlier onset age and more severe hypokalemia, hypochloremia and metabolic alkalosis than female GS patients. No relationship between renin angiotensin aldosterone system activation and PGEM level was observed. Higher urinary PGEM levels indicated more severe clinical manifestations and NCC dysfunction in GS patients. COX2 inhibition might be a potential therapeutic target in GS patients with elevated PGEM levels.

  15. Inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandin E2 by low dose aspirin: implications for adenocarcinoma metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Boutaud, Olivier; Sosa, I. Romina; Amin, Taneem; Oram, Denise; Adler, David; Hwang, Hyun S.; Crews, Brenda C.; Milne, Ginger; Harris, Bradford K.; Hoeksema, Megan; Knollmann, Bjorn C.; Lammers, Philip E.; Marnett, Lawrence J.; Massion, Pierre P.; Oates, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Meta-analyses have demonstrated that low dose aspirin reduces the risk of developing adenocarcinoma metastasis, and when colon cancer is detected during aspirin treatment, there is a remarkable 83% reduction in risk of metastasis. As platelets participate in the metastatic process, the anti-platelet action of low dose aspirin likely contributes to its anti-metastatic effect. Cycloxooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) also contributes to metastasis, and we addressed the hypothesis that low dose aspirin also inhibits PGE2 biosynthesis. We show that low dose aspirin inhibits systemic PGE2 biosynthesis by 45% in healthy volunteers (p <0.0001). Aspirin is found to be more potent in colon adenocarcinoma cells than in the platelet, and in lung adenocarcinoma cells its inhibition is equivalent to that in the platelet. Inhibition of COX by aspirin in colon cancer cells is in the context of the metastasis of colon cancer primarily to the liver, the organ exposed to the same high concentrations of aspirin as the platelet. We find that the interaction of activated platelets with lung adenocarcinoma cells up-regulates COX-2 expression and PGE2 biosynthesis, and inhibition of platelet COX-1 by aspirin inhibits PGE2 production by the platelet-tumor cell aggregates. In conclusion, low dose aspirin has a significant effect on extraplatelet cyclooxygenase, and potently inhibits COX-2 in lung and colon adenocarcinoma cells. This supports a hypothesis that the remarkable prevention of metastasis from adenocarcinomas, and particularly from colon adenocarcinomas, by low dose aspirin results from its effect on platelet COX-1 combined with inhibition of PGE2 biosynthesis in metastasizing tumor cells. PMID:27554763

  16. Prostaglandin E2-stimulated prostanoid EP4 receptors induce prolonged de novo prostaglandin E2 synthesis through biphasic phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases mediated by activation of protein kinase A in HCA-7 human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Hiromichi; Seira, Naofumi; Kurata, Naoki; Araki, Yumi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Regan, John W; Murayama, Toshihiko

    2015-12-05

    Approximately two decades have passed since E-type prostanoid 4 (EP4) receptors were cloned, and the signaling pathways mediated by these receptors have since been implicated in cancer development through the alliance of Gαi-protein/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) activation. Although prostanoid EP4 receptors were initially identified as Gαs-coupled receptors, the specific/distinctive role(s) of prostanoid EP4 receptor-induced cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) pathways in cancer development have not yet been elucidated in detail. We previously reported using HCA-7 human colon cancer cells that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-stimulated prostanoid EP4 receptors induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) as an initiating event in development of colon cancer. Moreover, this induction of COX-2 was mediated by transactivation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors. However, direct activation of EGF receptors by EGF also induced similar amounts of COX-2 in this cell line. Thus, the emergence of unique role(s) for prostanoid EP4 receptors is expected by clarifying the different signaling mechanisms between PGE2-stimulated prostanoid EP4 receptors and EGF-stimulated EGF receptors to induce COX-2 and produce PGE2. We here demonstrated that prostanoid EP4 receptor activation by PGE2 in HCA-7 cells led to PKA-dependent re-activation of ERKs, which resulted in prolonged de novo synthesis of PGE2. Although EGF-stimulated EGF receptors in cells also induced COX-2 and the de novo synthesis of PGE2, the activation of this pathway was transient and not mediated by PKA. Therefore, the novel mechanism underlying prolonged de novo synthesis of PGE2 has provided an insight into the importance of prostanoid EP4 receptor-mediated Gαs-protein/cAMP/PKA pathway in development of colon cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Prostaglandin E2: from clinical applications to its potential role in bone- muscle crosstalk and myogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Mo, Chenglin; Romero-Suarez, Sandra; Bonewald, Lynda; Johnson, Mark; Brotto, Marco

    2012-12-01

    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), a prostanoid synthesized from arachidonic acid via the cyclooxygenase pathway, is a modulator of physiological responses including inflammation, fever, and muscle regeneration. Several patents have been filed that are related to PGE(2), one of them being directly related to skeletal muscles. In this report, we first summarize the key patents describing inventions for the utilization of PGE(2) for either diagnostic or therapeutic purposes, including skeletal muscle. In the second part of our work we present new and exciting data that demonstrates that PGE(2) accelerates skeletal muscle myogenic differentiation. Our discovery resulted from our recent and novel concept of bone-muscle crosstalk. Bone and muscle are anatomically intimate endocrine organs and we aimed to determine whether this anatomical intimacy also translates into a biochemical communication from bone cells to muscle cells at the in vitro level. The effects of MLOY4 osteocyte-like cell conditioned medium (CM) and three osteocyte-secreted factors, PGE(2), sclerostin and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-3), on C2C12 myogenic differentiation were evaluated using morphological analyses, a customized 96-gene PCR array, and measurements of intracellular calcium levels. MLO-Y4 CM and PGE(2), but not sclerostin and MCP-3, induced acceleration of myogenesis of C2C12 myoblasts that was linked with significant modifications in intracellular calcium homeostasis. This finding should further stimulate the pursuit of new patents to explore the use of PGE(2) and the new concept of bone-muscle crosstalk for the development and application of inventions designed to treat muscle diseases characterized by enhanced muscle wasting, such as sarcopenia.

  18. Interleukin-6 as an endogenous pyrogen: induction of prostaglandin E2 in brain but not in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Dinarello, C A; Cannon, J G; Mancilla, J; Bishai, I; Lees, J; Coceani, F

    1991-10-25

    Fever induced by endogenous as well as exogenous pyrogens is often prevented by cyclooxygenase inhibitors; endogenous pyrogens stimulate prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in or near the thermoregulatory centers of the brain. The cytokines, interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), are two pyrogens which stimulate brain PGE2 formation during fever and also increase PGE2 synthesis in human mononuclear cells in vitro. In the present study, we examined whether interleukin-6 (IL-6) stimulates PGE2 formation in a manner similar to IL-1 and TNF. Both glycosylated and non-glycosylated forms of recombinant human IL-6 were tested. Following intravenous injection into rabbits, the glycosylated IL-6 was more pyrogenic than the non-glycosylated form and there was no evidence of synergy in the production of fever when IL-6 and IL-1 were given simultaneously. IL-6 fever was blocked by prior administration of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor ibuprofen. IL-6 was also pyrogenic in the cat by either the systemic or the intraventricular route. However, in both species, IL-6 was less effective than IL-1 beta. When given intraventricularly to cats, IL-6 produced an increase in PGE2 levels of the cerebrospinal fluid in parallel with the rise in body temperature. In the latter respect, IL-6 imitated IL-1 beta; however, IL-6 from 0.15-15 micrograms/ml did not increase mononuclear cell PGE2 production in vitro whereas IL-1 beta induced 20-30-fold increases in PGE2 at 100 ng/ml.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Prostaglandin E2 inhibition of IL-27 production in murine dendritic cells: a novel mechanism which involves IRF1

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Kirsten M; Yen, Jui-Hung; Kong, Weimin; Rahbari, Kate M; Kuo, Ping-Chang; Gamero, Ana M; Ganea, Doina

    2016-01-01

    IL-27, a multifunctional cytokine produced by antigen-presenting cells, antagonizes inflammation by affecting conventional dendritic cells (cDC), inducing IL-10, and promoting development of regulatory Tr1 cells. Although the mechanisms involved in IL-27 induction are well-studied, much less is known about the factors that negatively impact IL-27 expression. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a major immunomodulatory prostanoid, acts as a pro-inflammatory agent in several models of inflammatory/autoimmune diseases, promoting primarily Th17 development and function. In this study, we report on a novel mechanism which promotes the pro-inflammatory function of PGE2. We showed previously that PGE2 inhibits IL-27 production in murine bone marrow derived DCs. Here, we show that, in addition to BMDCs, PGE2 inhibits IL-27 production in macrophages and in splenic cDC and we identify a novel pathway consisting of signaling through EP2/EP4→induction of cAMP→downregulation of IRF1 expression and binding to the p28 ISRE site. The inhibitory effect of PGE2 on p28 and irf1 expression does not involve endogenous IFNβ, STAT1 or STAT2, and inhibition of IL-27 does not appear to be mediated through PKA, EPAC, PI3K, or MAPKs. We observed similar inhibition of il27p28 expression in vivo in splenic DC following administration of dimethyl PGE2 in conjunction with LPS. Based on the anti-inflammatory role of IL-27 in cDC and through the generation of Tr1 cells, we propose that the PGE2-induced inhibition of IL-27 in activated cDC represents an important additional mechanism for its in vivo pro-inflammatory functions. PMID:28062696

  20. Hit-to-lead optimization of phenylsulfonyl hydrazides for a potent suppressor of PGE2 production: Synthesis, biological activity, and molecular docking study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minju; Lee, Sunhoe; Park, Eun Beul; Kim, Kwang Jong; Lee, Hwi Ho; Shin, Ji-Sun; Fischer, Katrin; Koeberle, Andreas; Werz, Oliver; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Lee, Jae Yeol

    2016-01-01

    Preliminary hit-to-lead optimization of a novel series of phenylsulfonyl hydrazide derivatives, which were derived from the high throughput screening hit compound 1 (IC50=5700nM against PGE2 production), for a potent suppressor of PGE2 production is described. Subsequent optimization led to the identification of the potent lead compound 8n with IC50 values of 4.5 and 6.9nM, respectively, against LPS-induced PGE2 production and NO production in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. In addition, 8n was about 30- and >150-fold more potent against mPGES-1 enzyme in a cell-free assay (IC50=70nM) than MK-886 and hit compound 1, respectively. Molecular docking suggests that compound 8n could inhibit PGE2 production by blocking the PGH2 binding site of human mPGES-1 enzyme. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Netrin-1 regulates the inflammatory response of neutrophils and macrophages, and suppresses ischemic acute kidney injury by inhibiting COX-2 mediated PGE2 production

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Punithavathi Vilapakkam; Jayakumar, Calpurnia; Mohamed, Riyaz; Dong, Zheng; Ramesh, Ganesan

    2012-01-01

    Netrin-1 regulates inflammation but the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Here we explore the role of netrin-1 in regulating the production of the prostanoid metabolite PGE2 from neutrophils in in vitro and in vivo disease models. Ischemia reperfusion in wild-type and RAG-1 knockout mice induced severe kidney injury that was associated with a large increase in neutrophil infiltration and COX-2 expression in the infiltrating leukocytes. Administration of netrin-1 suppressed COX-2 expression, PGE2 and thromboxane production, and neutrophil infiltration into the kidney. This was associated with reduced apoptosis, inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression, and improved kidney function. Treatment with the PGE2 receptor EP4 agonist enhanced neutrophil infiltration and renal injury which was not inhibited by netrin-1. Consistent with in vivo data, both LPS and IFNγ-induced inflammatory cytokine production in macrophages and IL-17-induced IFNγ production in neutrophils were suppressed by netrin-1 in vitro by suppression of COX-2 expression. Moreover, netrin-1 regulates COX-2 expression at the transcriptional level through the regulation of NFκB activation. Thus, netrin-1 regulates the inflammatory response of neutrophils and macrophages through suppression of COX-2 mediated PGE2 production. This could be a potential drug for treating many inflammatory immune disorders. PMID:23447066

  2. Prostaglandin E2 mediates phosphorylation and down-regulation of the tuberous sclerosis-2 tumor suppressor (tuberin) in human endometrial adenocarcinoma cells via the Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Sales, Kurt J; Battersby, Sharon; Williams, Alistair R W; Anderson, Richard A; Jabbour, Henry N

    2004-12-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) E2 promotes tumor growth via interaction with its G protein-coupled receptors and activation of intracellular signaling. Tuberous sclerosis 2 (tuberin) is a tumor suppressor, which negatively regulates cell growth. Its phosphorylation results in its inactivation and targeted down- regulation, thus lifting the growth inhibition effects. This study investigated the expression and localization of tuberin in neoplastic and normal endometrium and the effect of PGE2 on phosphorylation of tuberin via the Akt pathway. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated reduced expression of tuberin in neoplastic tissue, compared with normal endometrial tissue. Tuberin expression was localized by immunohistochemistry to the glandular epithelial compartment in neoplastic and normal endometrium. We investigated the effect of PGE2 on phosphorylation of tuberin via the Akt pathway. Treatment of neoplastic and normal endometrium with 100 nm PGE2 enhanced phosphorylated tuberin immunoreactivity in the glandular epithelium. PGE2 also phosphorylated Akt and tuberin in Ishikawa endometrial adenocarcinoma cells, leading to a reduction in expression of total tuberin protein. Cotreatment of cells with wortmannin or LY294002 inhibited the PGE2-induced phosphorylation of Akt and tuberin. These data suggest that PGE2 signaling may promote endometrial tumorigenesis by inactivation of tuberin after its phosphorylation via the Akt signaling pathway.

  3. Caveolin-1–mediated Suppression of Cyclooxygenase-2 via a β-catenin-Tcf/Lef–dependent Transcriptional Mechanism Reduced Prostaglandin E2 Production and Survivin Expression

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Diego A.; Tapia, Julio C.; Fernandez, Jaime G.; Torres, Vicente A.; Muñoz, Nicolas; Galleguillos, Daniela; Leyton, Lisette

    2009-01-01

    Augmented expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and enhanced production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) are associated with increased tumor cell survival and malignancy. Caveolin-1 is a scaffold protein that has been proposed to function as a tumor suppressor in human cancer cells, although mechanisms underlying this ability remain controversial. Intriguingly, the possibility that caveolin-1 regulates the expression of COX-2 has not been explored. Here we show that augmented caveolin-1 expression in cells with low basal levels of this protein, such as human colon cancer (HT29, DLD-1), breast cancer (ZR75), and embryonic kidney (HEK293T) cells reduced COX-2 mRNA and protein levels and β-catenin-Tcf/Lef and COX-2 gene reporter activity, as well as the production of PGE2 and cell proliferation. Moreover, COX-2 overexpression or PGE2 supplementation increased levels of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein survivin by a transcriptional mechanism, as determined by PCR analysis, survivin gene reporter assays and Western blotting. Furthermore, addition of PGE2 to the medium prevented effects attributed to caveolin-1–mediated inhibition of β-catenin-Tcf/Lef–dependent transcription. Finally, PGE2 reduced the coimmunoprecipitation of caveolin-1 with β-catenin and their colocalization at the plasma membrane. Thus, by reducing COX-2 expression, caveolin-1 interrupts a feedback amplification loop involving PGE2-induced signaling events linked to β-catenin/Tcf/Lef–dependent transcription of tumor survival genes including cox-2 itself and survivin. PMID:19244345

  4. Anti-cancer Effects of a Novel Quinoline Derivative 83b1 on Human Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma through Down-Regulation of COX-2 mRNA and PGE2.

    PubMed

    Pun, Ivan Ho Yuen; Chan, Dessy; Chan, Sau Hing; Chung, Po Yee; Zhou, Yuan Yuan; Law, Simon; Lam, Alfred King Yin; Chui, Chung Hin; Chan, Albert Sun Chi; Lam, Kim Hung; Tang, Johnny Cheuk On

    2017-01-01

    83b1 is a novel quinoline derivative that has been shown to inhibit cancer growth in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). This study was conducted to comprehensively evaluate the cytotoxic effects of 83b1 on a series of ESCC cell lines and investigate the mechanisms by which 83b1 suppresses cancer growth based on molecular docking analysis. A series of ESCC and nontumor immortalized cell lines were exposed to 83b1 and cisplatin (CDDP) in a dose-dependent manner, and the cytotoxicity was examined by a MTS assay kit. Prediction of the molecular targets of 83b1 was conducted by molecular docking analysis. Expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) mRNA and COX-2-derived prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzymelinked immuno-sorbent assay, respectively. In vivo anti-tumor effect was determined using a nude mice xenografted model transplanted with an ESCC cell line, KYSE-450. 83b1 showed the significant anti-cancer effects on all ESCC cell lines compared to CDDP; however, 83b1 revealed much lower toxic effects on non-tumor cell lines than CDDP. The predicted molecular target of 83b1 is peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARδ), which is a widely known oncoprotein. Additionally the expression of COX-2 mRNA and COX-2-derived PGE 2 were down-regulated by 83b1 in a dose-dependent manner in ESCC cell lines. Furthermore, 83b1 was shown to significantly reduce the tumor size in nude mice xenograft. The results of this study suggest that the potential anti-cancer effects of 83b1 on human esophageal cancers occur through the possible oncotarget, PPARδ, and down-regulation of the cancer related genes and molecules.

  5. Prostaglandin E2 blocks menadione-induced apoptosis through the Ras/Raf/Erk signaling pathway in promonocytic leukemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Hyun-Seok; Shehzad, Adeeb; Lee, Young Sup

    2012-04-01

    Altered oxidative stress has long been observed in cancer cells, and this biochemical property of cancer cells represents a specific vulnerability that can be exploited for therapeutic benefit. The major role of an elevated oxidative stress for the efficacy of molecular targeted drugs is under investigation. Menadione is considered an attractive model for the study of oxidative stress, which can induce apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cell lines. Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) via its receptors not only promotes cell survival but also reverses apoptosis and promotes cancer progression. Here, we present evidence for the biological role of PGE(2) as a protective agent of oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in monocytic cells. Pretreatment of HL-60 cells with PGE(2) markedly ameliorated the menadione-induced apoptosis and inhibited the degradation of PARP and lamin B. The EP(2) receptor antagonist AH6809 abrogated the inhibitory effect of PGE(2), suggesting the role of the EP(2)/cAMP system. The PKA inhibitor H89 also reversed apoptosis and decreased the PKA activity that was elevated 10-fold by PGE(2). The treatment of HL-60 cells with NAC or zinc chloride showed a similar protective effect as with PGE(2) on menadione-treated cells. Furthermore, PGE(2) activated the Ras/Raf/MEK pathway, which in turn initiated ERK activation, and ultimately protected menadione-induced apoptosis. These results imply that PGE(2) via cell survival pathways may protect oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in monocytic cells. This study warrants further pre-clinical investigation as well as application towards leukemia clinics.

  6. Prostaglandin E2 Blocks Menadione-Induced Apoptosis through the Ras/Raf/Erk Signaling Pathway in Promonocytic Leukemia Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Hyun-Seok; Shehzad, Adeeb; Lee, Young Sup

    2012-01-01

    Altered oxidative stress has long been observed in cancer cells, and this biochemical property of cancer cells represents a specific vulnerability that can be exploited for therapeutic benefit. The major role of an elevated oxidative stress for the efficacy of molecular targeted drugs is under investigation. Menadione is considered an attractive model for the study of oxidative stress, which can induce apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cell lines. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) via its receptors not only promotes cell survival but also reverses apoptosis and promotes cancer progression. Here, we present evidence for the biological role of PGE2 as a protective agent of oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in monocytic cells. Pretreatment of HL-60 cells with PGE2 markedly ameliorated the menadione-induced apoptosis and inhibited the degradation of PARP and lamin B. The EP2 receptor antagonist AH6809 abrogated the inhibitory effect of PGE2, suggesting the role of the EP2/cAMP system. The PKA inhibitor H89 also reversed apoptosis and decreased the PKA activity that was elevated 10-fold by PGE2. The treatment of HL-60 cells with NAC or zinc chloride showed a similar protective effect as with PGE2 on menadione-treated cells. Furthermore, PGE2 activated the Ras/Raf/MEK pathway, which in turn initiated ERK activation, and ultimately protected menadione-induced apoptosis. These results imply that PGE2 via cell survival pathways may protect oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in monocytic cells. This study warrants further pre-clinical investigation as well as application towards leukemia clinics. PMID:22450688

  7. Direct Melanoma Cell Contact Induces Stromal Cell Autocrine Prostaglandin E2-EP4 Receptor Signaling That Drives Tumor Growth, Angiogenesis, and Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Inada, Masaki; Takita, Morichika; Yokoyama, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kenta; Tominari, Tsukasa; Matsumoto, Chiho; Hirata, Michiko; Maru, Yoshiro; Maruyama, Takayuki; Sugimoto, Yukihiko; Narumiya, Shuh; Uematsu, Satoshi; Akira, Shizuo; Murphy, Gillian; Nagase, Hideaki; Miyaura, Chisato

    2015-12-11

    The stromal cells associated with tumors such as melanoma are significant determinants of tumor growth and metastasis. Using membrane-bound prostaglandin E synthase 1 (mPges1(-/-)) mice, we show that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by host tissues is critical for B16 melanoma growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis to both bone and soft tissues. Concomitant studies in vitro showed that PGE2 production by fibroblasts is regulated by direct interaction with B16 cells. Autocrine activity of PGE2 further regulates the production of angiogenic factors by fibroblasts, which are key to the vascularization of both primary and metastatic tumor growth. Similarly, cell-cell interactions between B16 cells and host osteoblasts modulate mPGES-1 activity and PGE2 production by the osteoblasts. PGE2, in turn, acts to stimulate receptor activator of NF-κB ligand expression, leading to osteoclast differentiation and bone erosion. Using eicosanoid receptor antagonists, we show that PGE2 acts on osteoblasts and fibroblasts in the tumor microenvironment through the EP4 receptor. Metastatic tumor growth and vascularization in soft tissues was abrogated by an EP4 receptor antagonist. EP4-null Ptger4(-/-) mice do not support B16 melanoma growth. In vitro, an EP4 receptor antagonist modulated PGE2 effects on fibroblast production of angiogenic factors. Our data show that B16 melanoma cells directly influence host stromal cells to generate PGE2 signals governing neoangiogenesis and metastatic growth in bone via osteoclast erosive activity as well as angiogenesis in soft tissue tumors. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Direct Melanoma Cell Contact Induces Stromal Cell Autocrine Prostaglandin E2-EP4 Receptor Signaling That Drives Tumor Growth, Angiogenesis, and Metastasis*

    PubMed Central

    Inada, Masaki; Takita, Morichika; Yokoyama, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kenta; Tominari, Tsukasa; Matsumoto, Chiho; Hirata, Michiko; Maru, Yoshiro; Maruyama, Takayuki; Sugimoto, Yukihiko; Narumiya, Shuh; Uematsu, Satoshi; Akira, Shizuo; Murphy, Gillian; Nagase, Hideaki; Miyaura, Chisato

    2015-01-01

    The stromal cells associated with tumors such as melanoma are significant determinants of tumor growth and metastasis. Using membrane-bound prostaglandin E synthase 1 (mPges1−/−) mice, we show that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by host tissues is critical for B16 melanoma growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis to both bone and soft tissues. Concomitant studies in vitro showed that PGE2 production by fibroblasts is regulated by direct interaction with B16 cells. Autocrine activity of PGE2 further regulates the production of angiogenic factors by fibroblasts, which are key to the vascularization of both primary and metastatic tumor growth. Similarly, cell-cell interactions between B16 cells and host osteoblasts modulate mPGES-1 activity and PGE2 production by the osteoblasts. PGE2, in turn, acts to stimulate receptor activator of NF-κB ligand expression, leading to osteoclast differentiation and bone erosion. Using eicosanoid receptor antagonists, we show that PGE2 acts on osteoblasts and fibroblasts in the tumor microenvironment through the EP4 receptor. Metastatic tumor growth and vascularization in soft tissues was abrogated by an EP4 receptor antagonist. EP4-null Ptger4−/− mice do not support B16 melanoma growth. In vitro, an EP4 receptor antagonist modulated PGE2 effects on fibroblast production of angiogenic factors. Our data show that B16 melanoma cells directly influence host stromal cells to generate PGE2 signals governing neoangiogenesis and metastatic growth in bone via osteoclast erosive activity as well as angiogenesis in soft tissue tumors. PMID:26475855

  9. Genetic deletion of the P2Y2 receptor offers significant resistance to development of lithium-induced polyuria accompanied by alterations in PGE2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Pop, Ioana L; Carlson, Noel G; Kishore, Bellamkonda K

    2012-01-01

    Lithium (Li)-induced polyuria is due to resistance of the medullary collecting duct (mCD) to the action of arginine vasopressin (AVP), apparently mediated by increased production of PGE(2). We previously reported that the P2Y(2) receptor (P2Y(2)-R) antagonizes the action of AVP on the mCD and may play a role in Li-induced polyuria by enhancing the production of PGE(2) in mCD. Hence, we hypothesized that genetic deletion of P2Y(2)-R should ameliorate Li-induced polyuria. Wild-type (WT) or P2Y(2)-R knockout (KO) mice were fed normal or Li-added diets for 14 days and euthanized. Li-induced polyuria, and decreases in urine osmolality and AQP2 protein abundance in the renal medulla, were significantly less compared with WT mice despite the lack of differences in Li intake or terminal serum or inner medullary tissue Li levels. Li-induced increased urinary excretion of PGE(2) was not affected in KO mice. However, prostanoid EP(3) receptor (EP3-R) protein abundance in the renal medulla of KO mice was markedly lower vs. WT mice, irrespective of the dietary regimen. The protein abundances of other EP-Rs were not altered across the groups irrespective of the dietary regimen. Ex vivo stimulation of mCD with PGE(2) generated significantly more cAMP in Li-fed KO mice (130%) vs. Li-fed WT mice (100%). Taken together, these data suggest 1) genetic deletion of P2Y(2)-R offers significant resistance to the development of Li-induced polyuria; and 2) this resistance is apparently due to altered PGE(2) signaling mediated by a marked decrease in EP3-R protein abundance in the medulla, thus attenuating the EP3-mediated decrease in cAMP levels in mCD.

  10. A prostaglandin E2 receptor antagonist prevents pregnancies during a preclinical contraceptive trial with female macaques.

    PubMed

    Peluffo, M C; Stanley, J; Braeuer, N; Rotgeri, A; Fritzemeier, K-H; Fuhrmann, U; Buchmann, B; Adevai, T; Murphy, M J; Zelinski, M B; Lindenthal, B; Hennebold, J D; Stouffer, R L

    2014-07-01

    Can administration of a prostaglandin (PG) E2 receptor 2 (PTGER2) antagonist prevent pregnancy in adult female monkeys by blocking periovulatory events in the follicle without altering menstrual cyclicity or general health? This is the first study to demonstrate that a PTGER2 antagonist can serve as an effective non-hormonal contraceptive in primates. The requirement for PGE2 in ovulation and the release of an oocyte surrounded by expanded cumulus cells (cumulus-oocyte expansion; C-OE) was established through the generation of PTGS2 and PTGER2 null-mutant mice. A critical role for PGE2 in primate ovulation is supported by evidence that intrafollicular injection of indomethacin in rhesus monkeys suppressed follicle rupture, whereas co-injection of PGE2 with indomethacin resulted in ovulation. First, controlled ovulation protocols were performed in adult, female rhesus monkeys to analyze the mRNA levels for genes encoding PGE2 synthesis and signaling components in the naturally selected pre-ovulatory follicle at different times after the ovulatory hCG stimulus (0, 12, 24, 36 h pre-ovulation; 36 h post-ovulation, n = 3-4/time point). Second, controlled ovarian stimulation cycles were utilized to obtain multiple cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) from rhesus monkeys to evaluate the role of PGE2 in C-OE in vitro (n = 3-4 animals/treatment; ≥3 COCs/animal/treatment). Third, adult cycling female cynomolgus macaques were randomly assigned (n = 10/group) to vehicle (control) or PTGER2 antagonist (BAY06) groups to perform a contraceptive trial. After the first treatment cycle, a male of proven fertility was introduced into each group and they remained housed together for the duration of the 5-month contraceptive trial that was followed by a post-treatment reversibility trial. Quantitative real-time PCR, COC culture and expansion, immunofluorescence/confocal microscopy, enzyme immunoassay, contraceptive trial, ultrasonography, complete blood counts, serum biochemistry tests

  11. A prostaglandin E2 receptor antagonist prevents pregnancies during a preclinical contraceptive trial with female macaques

    PubMed Central

    Peluffo, M.C.; Stanley, J.; Braeuer, N.; Rotgeri, A.; Fritzemeier, K.-H.; Fuhrmann, U.; Buchmann, B.; Adevai, T.; Murphy, M.J.; Zelinski, M.B.; Lindenthal, B.; Hennebold, J.D.; Stouffer, R.L.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Can administration of a prostaglandin (PG) E2 receptor 2 (PTGER2) antagonist prevent pregnancy in adult female monkeys by blocking periovulatory events in the follicle without altering menstrual cyclicity or general health? SUMMARY ANSWER This is the first study to demonstrate that a PTGER2 antagonist can serve as an effective non-hormonal contraceptive in primates. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The requirement for PGE2 in ovulation and the release of an oocyte surrounded by expanded cumulus cells (cumulus–oocyte expansion; C-OE) was established through the generation of PTGS2 and PTGER2 null-mutant mice. A critical role for PGE2 in primate ovulation is supported by evidence that intrafollicular injection of indomethacin in rhesus monkeys suppressed follicle rupture, whereas co-injection of PGE2 with indomethacin resulted in ovulation. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION First, controlled ovulation protocols were performed in adult, female rhesus monkeys to analyze the mRNA levels for genes encoding PGE2 synthesis and signaling components in the naturally selected pre-ovulatory follicle at different times after the ovulatory hCG stimulus (0, 12, 24, 36 h pre-ovulation; 36 h post-ovulation, n = 3–4/time point). Second, controlled ovarian stimulation cycles were utilized to obtain multiple cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) from rhesus monkeys to evaluate the role of PGE2 in C-OE in vitro (n = 3–4 animals/treatment; ≥3 COCs/animal/treatment). Third, adult cycling female cynomolgus macaques were randomly assigned (n = 10/group) to vehicle (control) or PTGER2 antagonist (BAY06) groups to perform a contraceptive trial. After the first treatment cycle, a male of proven fertility was introduced into each group and they remained housed together for the duration of the 5-month contraceptive trial that was followed by a post-treatment reversibility trial. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Quantitative real-time PCR, COC culture and expansion, immunofluorescence

  12. Suppression of IL-7-dependent Effector T-cell Expansion by Multipotent Adult Progenitor Cells and PGE2

    PubMed Central

    Reading, James L; Vaes, Bart; Hull, Caroline; Sabbah, Shereen; Hayday, Thomas; Wang, Nancy S; DiPiero, Anthony; Lehman, Nicholas A; Taggart, Jen M; Carty, Fiona; English, Karen; Pinxteren, Jef; Deans, Robert; Ting, Anthony E; Tree, Timothy I M

    2015-01-01

    T-cell depletion therapy is used to prevent acute allograft rejection, treat autoimmunity and create space for bone marrow or hematopoietic cell transplantation. The evolved response to T-cell loss is a transient increase in IL-7 that drives compensatory homeostatic proliferation (HP) of mature T cells. Paradoxically, the exaggerated form of this process that occurs following lymphodepletion expands effector T-cells, often causing loss of immunological tolerance that results in rapid graft rejection, autoimmunity, and exacerbated graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). While standard immune suppression is unable to treat these pathologies, growing evidence suggests that manipulating the incipient process of HP increases allograft survival, prevents autoimmunity, and markedly reduces GVHD. Multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPC) are a clinical grade immunomodulatory cell therapy known to alter γ-chain cytokine responses in T-cells. Herein, we demonstrate that MAPC regulate HP of human T-cells, prevent the expansion of Th1, Th17, and Th22 effectors, and block the development of pathogenic allograft responses. This occurs via IL-1β-primed secretion of PGE2 and activates T-cell intrinsic regulatory mechanisms (SOCS2, GADD45A). These data provide proof-of-principle that HP of human T-cells can be targeted by cellular and molecular therapies and lays a basis for the development of novel strategies to prevent immunopathology in lymphodepleted patients. PMID:26216515

  13. Noradrenaline induces peripheral antinociception by endogenous opioid release.

    PubMed

    Romero, Thiago Roberto Lima; Soares Santos, Raquel Rodrigues; Castor, Marina Gomes Miranda E; Petrocchi, Júlia Alvarenga; Guzzo, Luciana Souza; Klein, Andre; Duarte, Igor Dimitri Gama

    2018-02-23

    The aim of this study was to investigate this involvement in not inflammatory model of pain and which opioid receptor subtype mediates noradrenaline-induced peripheral antinociception. NA is involved in the intrinsic control of pain-inducing pro-nociceptive effects in the primary afferent nociceptors. However, inflammation can induce various plastic changes in the central and peripheral noradrenergic system that, upon interaction with the immune system, may contribute, in part, to peripheral antinociception. Hyperalgesia was induced by intraplantar injection of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 , 2 μg) into the plantar surface of the right hind paw and the paw pressure test to evaluated the hyperalgesia was used. Noradrenaline (NA) was administered locally into right hind paw of Wistar rat (160-200 g) alone and after either agents, α 2 -adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine, α 1 -adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin, β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol, μ-opioid antagonist clocinnamox, δ-opioid antagonist naltrindole and κ-opioid antagonist nor-binaltorfimina. In addition, the enkephalinase inhibitor bestatin was administered prior to NA low dose. Intraplantar injection of NA induced peripheral antinociception against hyperalgesia induced by PGE 2 . This effect was reversed, in dose dependent manner, by intraplantar injection of yohimbine, prazosin, propranolol, clocinnamox and naltrindole. However, injection of nor-binaltorfimina did not alter antinociception of NA after PGE 2 hyperalgesia. Bestatin intensified the antinociceptive effects of low-dose of NA. Besides the α 2 -adrenoceptor, the present data provide evidence that, in absence of inflammation, NA activating α 1 and β-adrenoceptor induce endogenous opioid release to produce peripheral antinociceptive effect by μ and δ opioid receptors. Copyright © 2018 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Direct growth-inhibitory effects of prostaglandin E2 in pancreatic cancer cells in vitro through an EP4/PKA-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Andrea; Sinnett-Smith, James; Young, Steven; Chang, Hui-Hua; Hines, O Joe; Dawson, David W; Rozengurt, Enrique; Eibl, Guido

    2017-06-01

    There is strong evidence linking inflammation and the development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and COX-2-derived PGE 2 are overexpressed in human and murine pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Several studies have demonstrated an important role of COX-2-derived PGE 2 in tumor-stroma interactions; however, the direct growth effects of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) on pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells is less well defined. Our aim was to investigate the effects of PGE 2 on pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell growth and to characterize the underlying mechanisms. Human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell lines, Panc-1 and MIA PaCa-2, were treated with PGE 2 in varying doses (0-10 μM). Effects on the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 were evaluated by Western blot. Colony formation was observed for cells treated with PGE 2 for 11 days. DNA synthesis was determined by (3H)-thymidine incorporation assay. Gene expression of E-type prostaglandin (EP)2/EP4 receptors and their correlation with survival in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma were assessed using the RNA-Seq data set from The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network. PGE 2 decreased the size and number of colonies in Panc-1 but not MIA PaCa-2 cells. In the Panc-1 cells, PGE 2 activated PKA/CREB and decreased phosphorylation of ERK1/2, which was reversed by an EP4 receptor antagonist, while an EP2 receptor antagonist had no effect. In contrast, in MIA PaCa-2 cells, PGE 2 had no effect on ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Treatment of both Panc-1 and MIA PaCa-2 cells with forskolin/IBMX decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Finally, PGE 2 decreased DNA synthesis only in Panc-1 cells, which was reversed by an EP4 receptor antagonist. In human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, high EP2 and low EP4 gene expression was correlated to worse median overall survival (15.6 vs 20.8 months, log-rank P = .017). Our study provides evidence that PGE 2 can inhibit directly pancreatic ductal

  15. [Cervix ripening using drugs before oxytocin labor induction. Clinical study of a new prostaglandin E2 triacetin gel].

    PubMed

    Zahradnik, H P; Quaas, L; Kröner-Fehmel, E E; Kieback, D G; Lippert, T H

    1987-03-01

    In an open randomized clinical study, 50 of 100 gravidae with a low Bishop score (less than or equal to 5) at term were treated with prostaglandin E2 (0.5 mg PGE2 in 2.5 ml Triacetin gel. Prepidil, intracervically) 12 hours before the indicated i.v. oxytocin induction. In 50 patients labor was induced intravenously without any pretreatment. In 46 of 50 pretreated women (92%) there was an increase in the Bishop score of at least three points, and of only two points in the remaining four. In the control group no significant increase in the Bishop score was measurable. Sixteen patients delivered within the first 12 hours after PGE2 gel administration, before oxytocin induction. Three women in the untreated control group also delivered during this pre-observation period. In 14 (64%) of 22 women in whom cervical priming with PGE2 was performed and 26 (57%) of 47 patients in whom it was not the first intravenous oxytocin induction was successful. The frequency of cesarean sections was 10% (n = 5) in the PGE2 gel group and 12% (n = 6) in the oxytocin group. The oxytocin dose needed to induce labor was significantly lower after cervical priming. No severe side effects were observed during and after PGE2 treatment, in either the mothers or the children.

  16. Saliva, Serum Levels of Interleukin-21, -33 and Prostaglandin E2 in Patients with Generalised Aggressive or Chronic Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Gümüş, Pınar; Nizam, Nejat; Nalbantsoy, Ayşe; Özçaka, Özgün; Buduneli, Nurcan

    This cross-sectional study aims to evaluate saliva, serum levels of interleukin-21 (IL-21), IL-33, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in patients with generalised chronic periodontitis or aggressive periodontitis. Before initiation of any periodontal treatment, saliva and serum samples were collected and clinical periodontal measurements were recorded from 94 participants (25 aggressive periodontitis patients, 25 chronic periodontitis patients, 44 periodontally healthy individuals). IL-21, IL-33 and PGE2 levels in serum and saliva samples were determined by ELISA. Data were tested statistically using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U-, and Spearman-rho rank tests. Saliva IL-33 levels were statistically significantly higher in the chronic than the aggressive group (p < 0.05). Serum IL-33, saliva and serum IL-21 and PGE2 levels were similar in the two periodontitis groups. Saliva IL-33 levels correlated with age in the chronic periodontitis group (p < 0.05). Statistically significant positive correlations were found between serum, saliva PGE2 levels and plaque index (p < 0.05). IL-33 and IL-21 levels in serum samples positively correlated in the periodontitis groups (p < 0.05). IL-21 and PGE2 analysis did not exhibit discriminating data between generalised chronic and aggressive periodontitis, but the present findings support the role of these cytokines in periodontitis. Statistically significantly higher saliva IL-33 levels in the chronic periodontitis group warrant further research.

  17. Arginine vasopressin antagonizes the effects of prostaglandin E2 on the spontaneous activity of warm-sensitive and temperature-insensitive neurons in the medial preoptic area in rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian-Hui; Hou, Xiao-Yu; Tang, Yu; Luo, Rong; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Chang; Yang, Yong-Lu

    2018-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) plays an important role in thermoregulation and antipyresis. We have demonstrated that AVP could change the spontaneous activity of thermosensitive and temperature insensitive neurons in the preoptic area. However, whether AVP influences the effects of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) on the spontaneous activity of neurons in the medial preoptic area (MPO) remains unclear. Our experiment showed that PGE 2 decreased the spontaneous activity of warm-sensitive neurons, and increased that of low-slope temperature-insensitive neurons in the MPO. AVP attenuated the inhibitory effect of PGE 2 on warm-sensitive neurons, and reversed the excitatory effect of PGE 2 on low-slope temperature-insensitive neurons, demonstrating that AVP antagonized the effects of PGE 2 on the spontaneous activity of these neurons. The effect of AVP was suppressed by an AVP V 1a receptor antagonist, suggesting that V 1a receptor mediated the action of AVP. We also demonstrated that AVP attenuated the PGE 2 -induced decrease in the prepotential's rate of rise in warm-sensitive neurons and the PGE 2 -induced increase in that in low-slope temperature-insensitive neurons through the V 1a receptor. Together, these data indicated that AVP antagonized the PGE 2 -induced change in the spontaneous activity of warm-sensitive and low-slope temperature-insensitive neurons in the MPO partly by reducing the PGE 2 -induced change in the prepotential of these neurons in a V 1a receptor-dependent manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis and PGE(2) production inhibition of 1H-furan-2,5-dione and 1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione derivatives.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jong Taik; Jeon, Ji Young; Park, Hang Ah; Noh, Young-Soo; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Kim, Jungahn; Choo, Dong Joon; Lee, Jae Yeol

    2010-01-15

    3,4-Diphenyl-substituted 1H-furan-2,5-dione and 1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for the inhibitory activities on LPS-induced PGE(2) production in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Both 1H-furan-2,5-dione and 1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione rings as main scaffolds were easily obtained using one of three synthetic methods. Among the compounds investigated, 1H-3-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)-4-phenyl-pyrrole-2,5-dione (6l) showed a strong inhibitory activity (IC(50)=0.61microM) of PGE(2) production. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prostaglandin metabolising enzymes and PGE2 are inversely correlated with vitamin D receptor and 25(OH)2D3 in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Thill, Marc; Fischer, Dorothea; Hoellen, Friederike; Kelling, Katharina; Dittmer, Christine; Landt, Solveig; Salehin, Darius; Diedrich, Klaus; Friedrich, Michael; Becker, Steffi

    2010-05-01

    Breast cancer is associated with inflammatory processes based on an up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. The antiproliferative effects of calcitriol (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) mediated via the vitamin D receptor (VDR) render vitamin D a promising target in breast cancer therapy. First data suggest a correlation between vitamin D and prostaglandin metabolism. We determined the expression of VDR, COX-2, 15-PGDH and the prostaglandin receptors EP(2)/EP(4) in normal and malignant breast tissue by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, as well as 25(OH)(2)D(3) and PGE(2) plasma levels from healthy and breast cancer patients. Significantly higher COX-2, lower VDR and lower EP(2) and EP(4) receptor protein levels in the malignant tissue and a significantly lower 15-PGDH protein level in normal breast tissue were detected. Breast cancer patients older than 45 years, diagnosed and sampled in the winter time had significantly lower 25(OH)(2)D(3) and higher PGE(2) serum levels. The inverse correlation between VDR and both COX-2 and 15-PGDH, as well as between PGE(2) and 25(OH)(2)D(3) levels, suggests a possible link between VDR-associated target genes and prostaglandin metabolism.

  20. Dihydroartemisinin inhibits indoxyl sulfate (IS)-promoted cell cycle progression in mesangial cells by targeting COX-2/mPGES-1/PGE2 cascade.

    PubMed

    Mungun, Harr-Keshauve; Li, Shuzhen; Zhang, Yue; Huang, Songming; Jia, Zhanjun; Ding, Guixia; Zhang, Aihua

    2018-01-01

    Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) is a semisynthetic derivative of artemisinin and has been used as an antimalarial drug. Recently, roles of artemisinin and its derivatives in treating diseases besides antimalarial effect were documented. Thus, this study was undertaken to investigate the role of DHA in indoxyl sulfate (IS)-promoted cell cycle progression in glomerular mesangial cells, as well as the potential mechanisms. Under the basal condition, DHA significantly retarded the cell cycle progression as shown by decreased cell percentage in S phase and increased cell percentage in G1/G0 phases in line with reduced cell cycle proteins cyclin A2 and cyclin D1. Interestingly, DHA also inactivated the COX-2/mPGES-1/PGE 2 cascade which has been shown to play a critical role in promoting the mesangial cell cycle progression by our previous studies. Next, we investigated the role of DHA in IS-triggered cell cycle progression in this mesangial cell line. As expected, DHA treatment significantly retarded IS-induced cell cycle progression and inhibited the activation of COX-2/mPGES-1/PGE 2 cascade induced by IS. In summary, these data indicated that DHA inhibited the cell cycle progression in glomerular mesangial cells under normal condition or IS challenge possibly through the inhibition of COX-2/mPGES-1/PGE 2 cascade, suggesting a potential of DHA in treating glomerular diseases with mesangial cell proliferation.

  1. Pyridostigmine bromide modulates topical irritant-induced cytokine release from human epidermal keratinocytes and isolated perfused porcine skin.

    PubMed

    Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A; Baynes, Ronald E; Riviere, Jim E

    2003-02-01

    Gulf War personnel were given pyridostigmine bromide (PB) as a prophylactic treatment against organophosphate nerve agent exposure, and were exposed to the insecticide permethrin and the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of PB to modulate release of inflammatory biomarkers after topical chemical exposure to chemical mixtures containing permethrin and DEET applied in ethanol or water vehicles. Treatments were topically applied to isolated perfused porcine skin flaps (IPPSFs). Concentrations of interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) were assayed in perfusate to probe for potential inflammatory effects after complex mixture application. IPPSFs (n=4/treatment) were topically dosed with mixtures of permethrin, DEET, and permethrin/DEET, in ethanol. Each treatment was repeated with perfusate spiked with 50 ng/ml of PB. Perfusate was also spiked with 30 ng/ml diisopropylfluorophosphate to simulate low level organophosphate nerve agent exposure. Timed IPPSF venous effluent samples (0.5,1,2,4, and 8 h) were assayed by ELISA for IL-8 and TNF-alpha and by EIA for PGE(2). Overall, PB infusion caused a decrease or IL-8 and PGE(2) release. Effects on TNF-alpha were vehicle dependent. To probe the potential mechanism of this PB effect, human epidermal keratinocyte HEK cell cultures were exposed to permethrin DEET permethrin/DEET, with and without PB in DMSO. IL-8 was assayed at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h. PB suppressed IL-8 in permethrin and ethanol treatment from 4 to 24 h confirming the IPPSF results. In conclusion, these studies suggest that systemic exposure to PB suppressed IL-8 release at multiple time points in two skin model systems. This interaction merits further study.

  2. Eupafolin inhibits PGE2 production and COX2 expression in LPS-stimulated human dermal fibroblasts by blocking JNK/AP-1 and Nox2/p47{sup phox} pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Ming-Horng; Lin, Zih-Chan; Liang, Chan-Jung

    2014-09-01

    Eupafolin, a major active component found in the methanol extracts of Phyla nodiflora, has been used to treat inflammation of skin. We examined its effects on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in LPS-treated human dermal fibroblasts. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) significantly increased prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) production associated with increased COX-2 expression in Hs68 cells. This effect was blocked by eupafolin, TLR-4 antibody, antioxidants (APO and NAC), as well as inhibitors, including U0126 (ERK1/2), SB202190 (p38), SP600125 (JNK1/2), and Tanshinone IIA (AP-1). In gene regulation level, qPCR and promoter assays revealed that COX-2 expression was attenuated by eupafolin. In addition, eupafolin also ameliorated LPS-induced p47 phoxmore » activation and decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and NADPH oxidase (Nox) activity. Moreover, pretreatment with eupafolin and APO led to reduced LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK, and p38. Further, eupafolin attenuated LPS-induced increase in AP-1 transcription factor binding activity as well as the increase in the phosphorylation of c-Jun and c-Fos. In vivo studies have shown that in dermal fibroblasts of LPS treated mice, eupafolin exerted anti-inflammation effects by decreasing COX-2 protein levels. Our results reveal a novel mechanism for anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of eupafolin that involved inhibition of LPS-induced ROS generation, suppression of MAPK phosphorylation, diminished DNA binding activity of AP-1 and attenuated COX-2 expression leading to reduced production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Our results demonstrate that eupafolin may be used to treat inflammatory responses associated with dermatologic diseases. - Highlights: • LPS activates the Nox2/p47{sup phox}/JNK/AP-1 and induces COX2 expression in Hs68 cells. • Eupafolin inhibits LPS-induced COX-2 expression via Nox2/p47{sup phox} inhibition. • Eupafolin may be used in the treatment of skin diseases involving

  3. Effects of intraluteal implants of prostaglandin E1 or E2 on angiogenic growth factors in luteal tissue of Angus and Brahman cows.

    PubMed

    Weems, Yoshie S; Ma, Yan; Ford, Stephen P; Nett, Terry M; Vann, Rhonda C; Lewis, Andrew W; Neuendorff, Don A; Welsh, Thomas H; Randel, Ronald D; Weems, Charles W

    2014-12-01

    Previously, it was reported that intraluteal implants containing prostaglandin E1 or E2 (PGE1 and PGE2) in Angus or Brahman cows prevented luteolysis by preventing loss of mRNA expression for luteal LH receptors and luteal unoccupied and occupied LH receptors. In addition, intraluteal implants containing PGE1 or PGE2 upregulated mRNA expression for FP prostanoid receptors and downregulated mRNA expression for EP2 and EP4 prostanoid receptors. Luteal weight during the estrous cycle of Brahman cows was reported to be lesser than that of Angus cows but not during pregnancy. The objective of this experiment was to determine whether intraluteal implants containing PGE1 or PGE2 alter vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), angiopoietin-1 (ANG-1), and angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2) protein in Brahman or Angus cows. On Day 13 of the estrous cycle, Angus cows received no intraluteal implant and corpora lutea were retrieved, or Angus and Brahman cows received intraluteal silastic implants containing vehicle, PGE1, or PGE2 on Day 13 and corpora lutea were retrieved on Day 19. Corpora lutea slices were analyzed for VEGF, FGF-2, ANG-1, and ANG-2 angiogenic proteins via Western blot. Day-13 Angus cow luteal tissue served as preluteolytic controls. Data for VEGF were not affected (P > 0.05) by day, breed, or treatment. PGE1 or PGE2 increased (P < 0.05) FGF-2 in luteal tissue of Angus cows compared with Day-13 and Day-19 Angus controls but decreased (P < 0.05) FGF-2 in luteal tissue of Brahman cows when compared w Day-13 or Day-19 Angus controls. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of PGE1 or PGE2 on ANG-1 in Angus luteal tissue when compared with Day-13 or Day-19 controls, but ANG-1 was decreased (P < 0.05) by PGE1 or PGE2 in Brahman cows when compared with Day-19 Brahman controls. ANG-2 was increased (P < 0.05) on Day 19 in Angus Vehicle controls when compared with Day-13 Angus controls, which was prevented (P < 0.05) by PGE1 but not by PGE2 in Angus

  4. Prostaglandin E2 from Candida albicans Stimulates the Growth of Staphylococcus aureus in Mixed Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Jan; Geginat, Gernot; Tammer, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies showed that Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans interact synergistically in dual species biofilms resulting in enhanced mortality in animal models. Methodology/Principal Findings The aim of the current study was to test possible candidate molecules which might mediate this synergistic interaction in an in vitro model of mixed biofilms, such as farnesol, tyrosol and prostaglandin (PG) E2. In mono-microbial and dual biofilms of C.albicans wild type strains PGE2 levels between 25 and 250 pg/mL were measured. Similar concentrations of purified PGE2 significantly enhanced S.aureus biofilm formation in a mode comparable to that observed in dual species biofilms. Supernatants of the null mutant deficient in PGE2 production did not stimulate the proliferation of S.aureus and the addition of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin blocked the S.aureus biofilm formation in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, S. aureus biofilm formation was boosted by low and inhibited by high farnesol concentrations. Supernatants of the farnesol-deficient C. albicans ATCC10231 strain significantly enhanced the biofilm formation of S. aureus but at a lower level than the farnesol producer SC5314. However, C. albicans ATCC10231 also produced PGE2 but amounts were significantly lower compared to SC5314. Conclusion/Significance In conclision, we identified C. albicans PGE2 as a key molecule stimulating the growth and biofilm formation of S. aureus in dual S. aureus/C. albicans biofilms, although C. albicans derived farnesol, but not tyrosol, may also contribute to this effect but to a lesser extent. PMID:26262843

  5. Effect of inhibition of prostaglandin E2 production on pancreatic infection in experimental acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Ana Maria M.; Sampietre, Sandra; Patzina, Rosely; Jukemura, Jose; Cunha, Jose Eduardo M.; Machado, Marcel C.C.

    2007-01-01

    Objective. Acute pancreatitis is one the important causes of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). SIRS results in gut barrier dysfunction that allows bacterial translocation and pancreatic infection to occur. Indomethacin has been used to reduce inflammatory process and bacterial translocation in experimental models. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production on pancreatic infection. Materials and methods. An experimental model of severe acute pancreatitis (AP) was utilized. The animals were divided into three groups: sham (surgical procedure without AP induction); pancreatitis (AP induction); and indomethacin (AP induction plus administration of 3 mg/kg of indomethacin). Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10, PGE2, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured 2 h after the induction of AP. We analyzed the occurrence of pancreatic infection with bacterial cultures performed 24 h after the induction of AP. The occurrence of pancreatic infection (considered positive when the CFU/g was >105), pancreatic histologic analysis, and mortality rate were studied. Results. In spite of the reduction of IL-6, IL-10, and PGE2 levels in the indomethacin group, TNF-α level, bacterial translocation, and pancreatic infection were not influenced by administration of indomethacin. The inhibition of PGE2 production did not reduce pancreatic infection, histologic score, or mortality rate. Conclusion. The inhibition of PGE2 production was not able to reduce the occurrence of pancreatic infection and does not have any beneficial effect in this experimental model. Further investigations will be necessary to discover a specific inhibitor that would make it possible to develop an anti-inflammatory therapy. PMID:18345325

  6. Orexin neurons are indispensable for prostaglandin E2-induced fever and defence against environmental cooling in mice.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoshiko; Zhang, Wei; Sameshima, Kohei; Kuroki, Chiharu; Matsumoto, Ami; Sunanaga, Jinko; Kono, Yu; Sakurai, Takeshi; Kanmura, Yuichi; Kuwaki, Tomoyuki

    2013-11-15

    We recently showed using prepro-orexin knockout (ORX-KO) mice and orexin neuron-ablated (ORX-AB) mice that orexin neurons in the hypothalamus, but not orexin peptides per se, are indispensable for stress-induced thermogenesis. To examine whether orexin neurons are more generally involved in central thermoregulatory mechanisms, we applied other forms of thermogenic perturbations, including brain prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) injections which mimic inflammatory fever and environmental cold exposure, to ORX-KO mice, ORX-AB mice and their wild-type (WT) litter mates. ORX-AB mice, but not ORX-KO mice, exhibited a blunted PGE2-induced fever and intolerance to cold (5°C) exposure, and these findings were similar to the results previously obtained with stress-induced thermogenesis. PGE2-induced shivering was also attenuated in ORX-AB mice. Both mutants responded similarly to environmental heating (39°C). In WT and ORX-KO mice, the administration of PGE2 and cold exposure activated orexin neurons, as revealed by increased levels of expression of c-fos. Injection of retrograde tracer into the medullary raphe nucleus revealed direct and indirect projection from the orexin neurons, of which the latter seemed to be preserved in the ORX-AB mice. In addition, we found that glutamate receptor antagonists (D-(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid and 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione) but not orexin receptor antagonists (SB334867 and OX2 29) successfully inhibited PGE2-induced fever in WT mice. These results suggest that orexin neurons are important in general thermogenic processes, and their importance is not restricted to stress-induced thermogenesis. In addition, these results indicate the possible involvement of glutamate in orexin neurons implicated in PGE2-induced fever.

  7. Orexin neurons are indispensable for prostaglandin E2-induced fever and defence against environmental cooling in mice

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yoshiko; Zhang, Wei; Sameshima, Kohei; Kuroki, Chiharu; Matsumoto, Ami; Sunanaga, Jinko; Kono, Yu; Sakurai, Takeshi; Kanmura, Yuichi; Kuwaki, Tomoyuki

    2013-01-01

    We recently showed using prepro-orexin knockout (ORX-KO) mice and orexin neuron-ablated (ORX-AB) mice that orexin neurons in the hypothalamus, but not orexin peptides per se, are indispensable for stress-induced thermogenesis. To examine whether orexin neurons are more generally involved in central thermoregulatory mechanisms, we applied other forms of thermogenic perturbations, including brain prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) injections which mimic inflammatory fever and environmental cold exposure, to ORX-KO mice, ORX-AB mice and their wild-type (WT) litter mates. ORX-AB mice, but not ORX-KO mice, exhibited a blunted PGE2-induced fever and intolerance to cold (5°C) exposure, and these findings were similar to the results previously obtained with stress-induced thermogenesis. PGE2-induced shivering was also attenuated in ORX-AB mice. Both mutants responded similarly to environmental heating (39°C). In WT and ORX-KO mice, the administration of PGE2 and cold exposure activated orexin neurons, as revealed by increased levels of expression of c-fos. Injection of retrograde tracer into the medullary raphe nucleus revealed direct and indirect projection from the orexin neurons, of which the latter seemed to be preserved in the ORX-AB mice. In addition, we found that glutamate receptor antagonists (d-(–)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid and 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione) but not orexin receptor antagonists (SB334867 and OX2 29) successfully inhibited PGE2-induced fever in WT mice. These results suggest that orexin neurons are important in general thermogenic processes, and their importance is not restricted to stress-induced thermogenesis. In addition, these results indicate the possible involvement of glutamate in orexin neurons implicated in PGE2-induced fever. PMID:23959674

  8. Prostaglandin E2 Prevents Ovariectomy-Induced Cancellous Bone Loss in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ke, Hua Zhu; Li, Mei; Jee, Webster S. S.

    1992-01-01

    The object of this study was to determine whether prostaglandin E2, (PGE2) can prevent ovariectomy induced cancellous bone loss. Thirty-five 3-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups. The rats in the first group were ovariectomized (OVX) while the others received sham operation (sham-OVX). The OVX group was further divided into three treatment groups. The daily doses for the three groups were 0,1 and 6 mg PGE2/kg for 90 days. Bone histomorphometric analyses were performed on double-fluorescent-labeled undecalcified proximal tibial metaphysis (PTM). We confirmed that OVX induces massive cancellous bone loss (-80%) and a higher bone turnover (+143%). The new findings from the present study demonstrate that bone loss due to ovarian hormone deficiency can be prevented by a low-dose (1 mg) daily administration of PGE2. Furthermore, a higher-dose (6 mg) daily administration of PGE2 not only prevents bone loss but also adds extra bone to the proximal tibial metaphyses. PGE, at the 1-mg dose level significantly increased trabecular bone area, trabecular width, trabecular node density, density of node to node, ratio of node to free end, and thus significantly decreased trabecular separation from OVX controls. At this dose level, these same parameters did not differ significantly from sham-OVX controls. However, at the 6-mg dose level PGE2, there were significant increases in trabecular bone area, trabecular width, trabecular node density, density of node to node, and ratio of node to free end, while there was significant decrease in trabecular separation from both OVX and sham-operated controls. The changes in indices of trabecular bone microanatomical structure indicated that PGE2 prevented bone loss as well as the disconnection of existing trabeculae. In summary, PGE2, administration to OVX rats decreased bone turnover and increased bone formation parameters resulting in a positive bone balance that prevented bone loss (in both lower and higher

  9. Prostaglandin E2 Increased Rat Cortical Bone Mass When Administered Immediately Following Ovariectomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ke, Hua Zhu; Jee, Webster S.S.; Zeng, Qing Qiang; Li, Mei; Lin, Bai Yun

    1993-01-01

    To investigate the effects of ovariectomy and the simultaneous administration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on rat tibial shaft cortical bone histomorphometry, thirty-five 3 month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were either ovariectomized (OVX), or sham ovariectomy (sham-OVX). The OVX rats were divided into three groups and treated with 0, 1 and 6 mg PGE2/kg/day for 90 days. The double fluorescent labeled undecalcified tibial shaft cross sections (proximal to the tibiofibular junction) of all the subjects were used for histomorphometry analysis. No differences in cross-sectional area and cortical bone area were found between sham-OVX and OVX controls, but OVX increased marrow area, intracortical porosity area and endocortical eroded perimeter. Periosteal and endocortical bone formation rates decreased with aging yet OVX prevented these changes. These OVX-induced increases in marrow area and endocortical eroded perimeter were prevented by 1 mg PGE2/kg/day treatment and added bone to periosteal and endocortical surfaces and to the marrow cavity. At the 6 mg/kg/day dose level, PGE2-treated OVX rats increased total tissue area, cortical bone area, marrow trabmular bone area, minimal cortical width and intracortical porosity area, and decreased marrow area compared to basal, sham-OVX and OVX controls. In addition, periosteal bone formation was elevated in the 6 mg PGE2/kg/day-treated OVX rats compared to OVX controls. Endocortical eroded perimeter increased from basal and sham-OVX control levels, but decreased from OVX control levels in the 6 mg PGE2/kg/day-treated OVX rats. Our study confirmed that ovariectomy does not cause osteopenia in tibial shaft cortical bone in rats, but it does stimulate endocortical bone resorption and enlarges marrow area. The new findings from the present study demonstrate that PGE2 prevents the OVX-induced increases in endocortical bone resorption and marrow area and adds additional bone to periosteal and endocortical surfaces and to marrow

  10. Myeloid Cell Prostaglandin E2 Receptor EP4 Modulates Cytokine Production but Not Atherogenesis in a Mouse Model of Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Vallerie, Sara N; Kramer, Farah; Barnhart, Shelley; Kanter, Jenny E; Breyer, Richard M; Andreasson, Katrin I; Bornfeldt, Karin E

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is associated with cardiovascular complications induced by atherosclerosis. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is often raised in states of inflammation, including diabetes, and regulates inflammatory processes. In myeloid cells, a key cell type in atherosclerosis, PGE2 acts predominately through its Prostaglandin E Receptor 4 (EP4; Ptger4) to modulate inflammation. The effect of PGE2-mediated EP4 signaling specifically in myeloid cells on atherosclerosis in the presence and absence of diabetes is unknown. Because diabetes promotes atherosclerosis through increased arterial myeloid cell accumulation, we generated a myeloid cell-targeted EP4-deficient mouse model (EP4M-/-) of T1DM-accelerated atherogenesis to investigate the relationship between myeloid cell EP4, inflammatory phenotypes of myeloid cells, and atherogenesis. Diabetic mice exhibited elevated plasma PGE metabolite levels and elevated Ptger4 mRNA in macrophages, as compared with non-diabetic littermates. PGE2 increased Il6, Il1b, Il23 and Ccr7 mRNA while reducing Tnfa mRNA through EP4 in isolated myeloid cells. Consistently, the stimulatory effect of diabetes on peritoneal macrophage Il6 was mediated by PGE2-EP4, while PGE2-EP4 suppressed the effect of diabetes on Tnfa in these cells. In addition, diabetes exerted effects independent of myeloid cell EP4, including a reduction in macrophage Ccr7 levels and increased early atherogenesis characterized by relative lesional macrophage accumulation. These studies suggest that this mouse model of T1DM is associated with increased myeloid cell PGE2-EP4 signaling, which is required for the stimulatory effect of diabetes on IL-6, markedly blunts the effect of diabetes on TNF-α and does not modulate diabetes-accelerated atherogenesis.

  11. Myeloid Cell Prostaglandin E2 Receptor EP4 Modulates Cytokine Production but Not Atherogenesis in a Mouse Model of Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Vallerie, Sara N.; Kramer, Farah; Barnhart, Shelley; Kanter, Jenny E.; Breyer, Richard M.; Andreasson, Katrin I.; Bornfeldt, Karin E.

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is associated with cardiovascular complications induced by atherosclerosis. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is often raised in states of inflammation, including diabetes, and regulates inflammatory processes. In myeloid cells, a key cell type in atherosclerosis, PGE2 acts predominately through its Prostaglandin E Receptor 4 (EP4; Ptger4) to modulate inflammation. The effect of PGE2-mediated EP4 signaling specifically in myeloid cells on atherosclerosis in the presence and absence of diabetes is unknown. Because diabetes promotes atherosclerosis through increased arterial myeloid cell accumulation, we generated a myeloid cell-targeted EP4-deficient mouse model (EP4M-/-) of T1DM-accelerated atherogenesis to investigate the relationship between myeloid cell EP4, inflammatory phenotypes of myeloid cells, and atherogenesis. Diabetic mice exhibited elevated plasma PGE metabolite levels and elevated Ptger4 mRNA in macrophages, as compared with non-diabetic littermates. PGE2 increased Il6, Il1b, Il23 and Ccr7 mRNA while reducing Tnfa mRNA through EP4 in isolated myeloid cells. Consistently, the stimulatory effect of diabetes on peritoneal macrophage Il6 was mediated by PGE2-EP4, while PGE2-EP4 suppressed the effect of diabetes on Tnfa in these cells. In addition, diabetes exerted effects independent of myeloid cell EP4, including a reduction in macrophage Ccr7 levels and increased early atherogenesis characterized by relative lesional macrophage accumulation. These studies suggest that this mouse model of T1DM is associated with increased myeloid cell PGE2-EP4 signaling, which is required for the stimulatory effect of diabetes on IL-6, markedly blunts the effect of diabetes on TNF-α and does not modulate diabetes-accelerated atherogenesis. PMID:27351842

  12. Prostaglandin E(2) synthase inhibition as a therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Jitesh P; Srivastava, Punit K; Dev, Rishabh; Dastidar, Sunanda G; Ray, Abhijit

    2009-07-01

    Most NSAIDs function by inhibiting biosynthesis of PGE(2) by inhibition of COX-1 and/or COX-2. Since COX-1 has a protective function in the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT), non-selective inhibition of both cycloxy genases leads to moderate to severe gastro-intestinal intolerance. Attempts to identify selective inhibitors of COX-2, led to the identification of celecoxib and rofecoxib. However, long-term use of these drugs has serious adverse effects of sudden myocardial infarction and thrombosis. Drug-mediated imbalance in the levels of prostaglandin I(2) (PGI(2)) and thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) with a bias towards TXA(2) may be the primary reason for these events. This resulted in the drugs being withdrawn from the market, leaving a need for an effective and safe anti-inflammatory drug. Recently, the focus of research has shifted to enzymes downstream of COX in the prosta glandin biosynthetic pathway such as prostaglandin E(2) synthases. Microsomal prostaglandin E(2) synthase-1 (mPGES-1) specifically isomerizes PGH(2) to PGE(2), under inflammatory conditions. In this review, we examine the biology of mPGES-1 and its role in disease. Progress in designing molecules that can selectively inhibit mPGES-1 is reviewed. mPGES-1 has the potential to be a target for anti-inflammatory therapy, devoid of adverse GIT and cardiac effects and warrants further investigation.

  13. Oxytocin and tumor necrosis factor alpha stimulate expression of prostaglandin E2 synthase and secretion of prostaglandin E2 by luminal epithelial cells of the porcine endometrium during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Waclawik, Agnieszka; Blitek, Agnieszka; Ziecik, Adam J

    2010-10-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF) have been implicated in the control of luteolysis by stimulating endometrial secretion of luteolytic prostaglandin F(2α) (PGF(2α)). Nevertheless, OXT concentration in porcine uterine lumen increases markedly on days 11-12 of pregnancy, and TNF is expressed in endometrium during pregnancy. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of OXT and TNF on expression of the enzymes involved in PG synthesis: PG-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), PGE(2) synthase (mPGES-1) and PGF synthase, and PGE(2) receptor (PTGER2), as well as on PG secretion by endometrial luminal epithelial cells (LECs) on days 11-12 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. LECs isolated from gilts on days 11-12 of the estrous cycle (n=8) and pregnancy (n=7) were treated with OXT (100  nmol/l) and TNF (0.6  nmol/l) for 24  h. OXT increased PTGS2 mRNA and mPGES-1 protein contents, as well as PGE(2) secretion but only on days 11-12 of pregnancy. TNF stimulated PTGS2 and mPGES-1 mRNA, as well as mPGES-1 protein expression and PGE(2) release on days 11-12 of pregnancy and the estrous cycle. In addition, expressions of PTGER2 and PTGER4 were determined in corpus luteum (CL). Abundance of PTGER2 mRNA and PTGER4 protein in CL was upregulated on day 14 of pregnancy versus day 14 of the estrous cycle. This study indicates that TNF and OXT regulate PGE(2) synthesis in LECs during early pregnancy. PGE(2) secreted by LECs, after reaching ovaries, could have a luteoprotective effect through luteal PTGER2 and PTGER4, or may directly promote uterine function and conceptus development.

  14. Heterogeneity of murine adherent interleukin-2-activated killer cells. Differential effect of prostaglandin E2 and forskolin.

    PubMed

    Vaillier, D; Daculsi, R; Gualde, N

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the relationship between cytotoxic activity, size and granularity of murine interleukin-2-activated adherent killer cells issued from spleen cells cultured with high levels of IL-2. The effects of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and forskolin upon these cells were assessed. All adherent spleen cells obtained after 5 days of culture were large granular lymphocytes but presented a heterogeneity in size and granularity. After fractionation on a discontinuous-density Percoll gradient, four cellular subpopulations were isolated. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis showed that cells of the lightest fraction (F1) were the largest, while the cells found in the heaviest fraction (F4) were much more granular than the cells collected in the two intermediate fractions (F2 and F3). The serine esterases level was higher in F4 than in unfractionated cells and diminished to about 40% in cells of fractions F2 and F3, which expressed a cytotoxic activity against YAC-1 cells higher than that in unfractionated cells or in F1 or F4, which presented the lowest cytotoxic activity. When AK cells were cultured for 48 h in the presence of either PGE2 or forskolin, which induce an intracellular increase of cAMP, we observed that PGE2 (1 microM) inhibited the cytotoxic activity, but surprisingly forskolin (2 microM) exerted a stimulating effect on the induction of cytotoxic activity. After fractionation on a discontinuous Percoll gradient we observed the same cellular distribution among PGE2 or forskolin-treated or -untreated cells, but PGE2 induced an increase of size and granularity. This effect of PGE2 was more potent on the cells collected in F4. However this variation of granularity was not associated with any variation in the serine esterase level. The cytotoxic activity of PGE2- or forskolin-treated cells did not present any significant variation relative to the control for cells collected in F2 and F3; on the other hand, forskolin-treated cells collected in F4 showed

  15. Prostaglandin E2 acts via bone marrow macrophages to block PTH-stimulated osteoblast differentiation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Shilpa; Blackwell, Katherine; Voznesensky, Olga; Roy, Abhijit Deb; Pilbeam, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Intermittent PTH is the major anabolic therapy for osteoporosis while continuous PTH causes bone loss. PTH acts on the osteoblast (OB) lineage to regulate bone resorption and formation. PTH also induces cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), producing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) that can act on both OBs and osteoclasts (OCs). Because intermittent PTH is more anabolic in Cox-2 knockout (KO) than wild type (WT) mice, we hypothesized COX-2 might contribute to the effects of continuous PTH by suppressing PTH-stimulated differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into OBs. We compared effects of continuous PTH on bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and primary OBs (POBs) from Cox-2 KO mice, mice with deletion of PGE2 receptors (Ptger4 and Ptger2 KO mice), and WT controls. PTH increased OB differentiation in BMSCs only in the absence of COX-2 expression or activity. In the absence of COX-2, PTH stimulated differentiation if added during the first week of culture. In Cox-2 KO BMSCs, PTH-stimulated differentiation was prevented by adding PGE2 to cultures. Co-culture of POBs with M-CSF-expanded bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) showed that the inhibition of PTH-stimulated OB differentiation required not only COX-2 or PGE2 but also BMMs. Sufficient PGE2 to mediate the inhibitory effect was made by either WT POBs or WT BMMs. The inhibitory effect mediated by COX-2/PGE2 was transferred by conditioned media from RANKL-treated BMMs and could be blocked by osteoprotegerin, which interferes with RANKL binding to its receptor on OC lineage cells. Deletion of Ptger4, but not Ptger2, in BMMs prevented the inhibition of PTH-stimulated OB differentiation. As expected, PGE2 also stimulated OB differentiation, but when given in combination with PTH, the stimulatory effects of both were abrogated. These data suggest that PGE2, acting via EP4R on BMMs committed to the OC lineage, stimulated secretion of a factor or factors that acted to suppress PTH-stimulated OB differentiation. This suppression of OB

  16. Topical 0.1% Bromfenac Sodium for Intraoperative Miosis Prevention and Prostaglandin E2 Inhibition in Femtosecond Laser-Assisted Cataract Surgery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Lin, Haotian; Chen, Wan; Zhang, Bo; Xiang, Wu; Li, Jing; Chen, Weirong

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of topical 0.1% bromfenac sodium, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), on intraoperative pupil dilation maintenance and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) inhibition during femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery. Sixty patients (30 each in study and control groups) were included in this study. The patients received 0.1% bromfenac ophthalmic solution or control placebo twice a day for 3 days before surgery. Pupil size was measured at the initiation of femtosecond laser pretreatment and phacoemulsification. Aqueous humor was collected at the beginning of routine cataract surgery. PGE 2 levels were measured with an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Laser flare photometry was measured preoperatively and at 1 day postoperatively. Compared with untreated patients, the change in pupil size and postoperative day 1 aqueous flare were significantly reduced throughout the operation in the patients treated with 0.1% bromfenac (P < 0.001). Mean PGE 2 concentrations were also significantly decreased by treatment with 0.1% bromfenac (P < 0.001). The reduction of the pupil area and postoperative day 1 aqueous flare were significantly correlated with PGE 2 levels (P < 0.001). NSAID treatment, when administered before femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery, was effective in maintaining intraoperative pupil dilation, preventing miosis, and reducing PGE 2 levels.

  17. The role of prostaglandins E1 and E2, dinoprostone, and misoprostol in cervical ripening and the induction of labor: a mechanistic approach.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Ronan; Pierce, Stephanie; Myers, Dean

    2017-08-01

    Prostaglandins play a critical role in cervical ripening by increasing inflammatory mediators in the cervix and inducing cervical remodeling. Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) exert different effects on these processes and on myometrial contractility. These mechanistic differences may affect outcomes in women treated with dinoprostone, a formulation identical to endogenous PGE2, compared with misoprostol, a PGE1 analog. The objective of this review is to evaluate existing evidence regarding mechanistic differences between PGE1 and PGE2, and consider the clinical implications of these differences in patients requiring cervical ripening for labor induction. We conducted a critical narrative review of peer-reviewed articles identified using PubMed and other online databases. While both dinoprostone and misoprostol are effective in cervical ripening and labor induction, they differ in their clinical and pharmacological profiles. PGE2 has been shown to stimulate interleukin-8, an inflammatory cytokine that promotes the influx of neutrophils and induces remodeling of the cervical extracellular matrix, and to induce functional progesterone withdrawal. Misoprostol has been shown to elicit a dose-dependent effect on myometrial contractility, which may affect rates of uterine tachysystole in clinical practice. Differences in the mechanism of action between misoprostol and PGE2 may contribute to their variable effects in the cervix and myometrium, and should be considered to optimize outcomes.

  18. Prostaglandin E2 Adds Bone to a Cancellous Bone Site with a Closed Growth Plate and Low Bone Turnover in Ovariectomized Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Y. F.; Ke, H. Z.; Jee, W. S. S.

    1994-01-01

    The objects of this study were to determine the responses of a cancellous bone site with a closed growth plate (the distal tibial metaphysis, DTM) to ovariectomy (OVX) and OVX plus a prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) treatment, and compare the site's response to previous findings reported for another site (the proximal tibial metaphysis, PTM). Thirty-five 3-month old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: basal, sham-OVX, and OVX+0, +1, or +6 mg PGE2/kg/d injected subcutaneously for 3 months and given double fluorescent labels before sacrifice. Cancellous bone histomorphometric analyses were performed on 20-micron-thick undecalcified DTM sections. Similar to the PTM, the DTM showed age-related decreases in bone formation and increases in bone resorption, but it differed in that at 3 months post-OVX; there was neither bone loss nor changes in formation endpoints. Giving 1 mg PGE2/kg/d to OVX rats prevented most age-related changes and maintained the bone formation histomorphometry near basal levels. Treating OVX rats with 6 mg PGE2/kg/d prevented age-related bone changes, added extra bone, and improved microanatomical structure by stimulating bone formation without altering bone resorption. Furthermore, after PGE2 administration, the DTM, a cancellous bone site with a closed growth plate, inereased bone formation more than did the cancellous bone in the PTM.

  19. Prostaglandin E2 Levels of Aqueous and Vitreous Humor in Ketorolac 0.4% and Nepafenac 0.1% Administered Healthy Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Acar, Ugur; Acar, Damla Erginturk; Tanriverdi, Cafer; Acar, Mutlu; Ozdemir, Ozdemir; Erikci, Acelya; Ornek, Firdevs

    2017-06-01

    To compare the lowering effects of ketorolac 0.4% and nepafenac 0.1% on aqueous and vitreous humor prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) levels in rabbits. Ketorolac and nepafenac ophthalmic solutions were administered to the right eyes of 24 healthy rabbits after randomized division into two groups. The left eyes of these rabbits were considered as controls for the two groups. On the 4th day of the experiment, the samples were taken from the aqueous and vitreous humors of the rabbits bilaterally, and PGE 2 levels were measured by an enzyme immune assay kit. Ketorolac and nepafenac achieved a statistically significant decrease (p<0.001, for each) in PGE 2 levels in the aqueous (11.75 ± 6.15 and 14.75 ± 7.60 pg/mL, respectively) and the vitreous humor (6.58 ± 4.62 and 9.83 ± 4.55 pg/mL, respectively). Both ketorolac and nepafenac inhibited PGE 2 levels in both the aqueous and vitreous humors of rabbits. Although PGE 2 -lowering effects were similar in the aqueous humor, nepafenac seemed to be more potent than ketorolac in the vitreous humor.

  20. Effects of glucosamine-chondroitin combination on synovial fluid IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and PGE2 levels in internal derangements of temporomandibular joint

    PubMed Central

    Esen, Emin; Tatli, Ufuk

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of glucosamine-chondroitin sulphate combination on internal derangements of temporomandibular joint in clinical and biochemical manners. Material and Methods This randomized clinical study included 31 cases reporting joint tenderness, in which disc displacement was detected on MR imaging. In all patients, synovial fluid sampling was performed under local anesthesia. In the study group, the patients were prescribed a combination of 1500 mg glucosamine and 1200 mg chondroitin sulphate, while patients in the control group were only prescribed 50 mg tramadol HCl (twice daily) for pain control. After 8 weeks, synovial fluid sampling was repeated in the same manner. The levels of pain, maximum mouth opening (MMO), synovial fluid IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α and PGE2 measured before and after pharmacological intervention were compared. Results The reduction in pain levels was significant in both groups. There was no significant difference between two groups in terms of pain reduction. The improvement in MMO was significant in the study group but it was not in the control group. The MMO improvement was significantly higher in the study group compared to the control group. In the study group, significant decrease was observed in PGE2 level, while the decreases in IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α levels were not significant. In the control group, no significant decrease was observed in any of the inflammatory cytokines after 8 weeks, moreover IL-1ß and IL-6 levels were increased. Alterations of IL-1ß and IL-6 levels were significant in study group while TNF-α and PGE2 levels were not, compared to control group. Conclusions In conclusion, these results might suggest that glucosamine-chondroitin combination significantly increases the MMO and decreases the synovial fluid IL1β and IL6 levels in internal derangements of TMJ compared to tramadol. The modifications of synovial fluid TNF-α and PGE2 levels do not reach

  1. Evaluation of peri-implant crevicular fluid prostaglandin E2 levels in augmented extraction sockets by different biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Eylem Ayhan; Tüter, Gülay; Parlar, Ateş; Yücel, Ayşegül; Kurtiş, Bülent

    2016-10-01

    This study compares peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) levels, clinical parameters and implant stability quotient (ISQ) values around implants placed in augmented extraction sockets. The sockets (24 in total) were randomly augmented using either EMD or Bio-Oss Collagen. Implant placements were performed after three months of healing. ISQ readings were evaluated at three points: at the time of surgery, at the first month and at the third month. PICF was collected for PGE 2 evaluation after the first and the third months of implant surgery. After the first month, a higher level of PICF PGE 2 was observed in the EMD group than in the Bio-Oss Collagen group, and this increase was of statistical significance; however, at the third month there was no statistically significant difference in PICF PGE 2 levels between the two groups. For implants placed in EMD sites, ISQ values were statistically higher at the third month than at the first month, while no significant differences in ISQ value were detected between the first and third months in Bio-Oss Collagen sites. The results of this research suggest that both EMD and Bio-Oss Collagen are effective treatment modalities for stimulating the formation of new bone at extraction sites prior to implant surgery.

  2. Effects of Litchi chinensis fruit isolates on prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide production in J774 murine macrophage cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Litchi chinensis is regarded as one of the 'heating' fruits in China, which causes serious inflammation symptoms to people. Methods In the current study, the effects of isolates of litchi on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) production in J774 murine macrophage cells were investigated. Results The AcOEt extract (EAE) of litchi was found effective on stimulating PGE2 production, and three compounds, benzyl alcohol, hydrobenzoin and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfurolaldehyde (5-HMF), were isolated and identified from the EAE. Benzyl alcohol caused markedly increase in PGE2 and NO production, compared with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as positive control, and in a dose-dependent manner. Hydrobenzoin and 5-HMF were found in litchi for the first time, and both of them stimulated PGE2 and NO production moderately in a dose-dependent manner. Besides, regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression and NF-κB (p50) activation might be involved in mechanism of the stimulative process. Conclusion The study showed, some short molecular compounds in litchi play inflammatory effects on human. PMID:22380404

  3. Inhibition of anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody-induced T-cell proliferation and interleukin-2 secretion by physiologic combinations of dexamethasone and prostaglandin E2.

    PubMed

    Elliott, L; Brooks, W; Roszman, T

    1993-12-01

    1. The purpose of these studies was to characterize further previous observations from our laboratory indicating that physiologic concentrations of dexamethasone (DEX) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) added together result in synergistic inhibition of the proliferative response of T cells stimulated via the T-cell receptor CD3 signaling complex (TCR/CD3). 2. Various physiologic concentrations of DEX and PGE2 were added to T cells stimulated with immobilized anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) and cultured at optimal and suboptimal cell densities. The results demonstrate that the proliferative response of anti-CD3 mAb-stimulated T cells cultured at a suboptimal cell density is more suppressed than that of T cells cultured at optimal concentrations. 3. The proliferative response of CD4+ T cells to immobilized anti-CD3 mAb was also determined in the presence of PGE2 and DEX. The data indicate that the CD4+ subset of T cells is more sensitive to the synergistic antiproliferative effects of DEX and PGE2 compared to whole T-cell populations. 4. Various concentrations of DEX and/or PGE2 were added to T cells stimulated with anti-CD3 mAb and the secretion of interleukin-2 (IL-2) was determined. The results demonstrate that concentrations of DEX and PGE2 which individually do not significantly suppress IL-2 synthesis act together to inhibit the synthesis of IL-2 synergistically. 5. The addition of an exogenous source of recombinant IL-2 (rIL-2) to T cells stimulated in the presence of DEX and PGE2 completely reversed the synergistic antiproliferative effect of these two compounds. This reversal was even more pronounced with T cells cultured at a suboptimal cell density. Additionally, PGE2 and DEX did not affect expression of the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R), as measured by upregulation of the alpha chain, on anti-CD3 mAb stimulated T cells. 6. Collectively these data indicate that physiologic concentrations of PGE2 and DEX, which alone have no effect on anti-CD3 mAb-induced T

  4. [Association of CD(+)4 T lymphocyte count and gingival crevicular fluid prostaglandin E2 with periodontal parameters in HIV-positive periodontitis patients].

    PubMed

    Jia, Hongcheng; Wang, Xuan; Hua, Wenhao; Li, Xiaoguang; Hou, Wen; Fu, Qian

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the correlation of CD(+)4 T lymphocyte count and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) with periodontal status in HIV-positive patients with periodontitis. Twenty subjects were selected according to inclusion criteria. The plasmatic CD(+)4 T lymphocytes were counted. All the individuals were divided into three groups, group A (CD(+)4 T lymphocyte count < 200 cell/mm(3)), group B (200 cell/mm(3) ≤ CD(+)4 T lymphocyte count ≤ 500 cell/mm(3)) and group C (CD(+)4 T lymphocyte count > 500 cell/mm(3)). Periodontal indexes, including plaque index(PLI), bleeding index(BI), attachment level(AL) and probing depth(PD) were recorded.GCF samples were taken from 120 index teeth by means of sterile paper strips.GCF PGE2 levels were determined by radioimmunoassays. Mann-Whitney was used to compare the periodontal indexes and PGE2 levels among the three groups. Partial correlations and Spearman correlations were applied to analyze the correlation of CD(+)4 T lymphocytes count and PGE2 in gingival crevicular fluid with periodontal status. BI value, PGE2 concentration and total PGE2 were 3.00(2.00), 90.75(30.60) µg/L, 447.58 (243.08) pg in group B, which were higher than those in group A[2.00(1.25), 79.75(30.50) µg/L and 339.52 (200.97) pg respectively] and group C[2.00(1.00), 73.38 (14.83) µg/L and 299.18 (108.33) pg respectively] (P < 0.0167). But the differences of PD and AL among the three groups were not significantly different(P > 0.0167). The correlations were observed between CD(+)4 T lymphocyte count and BI for the subpopulations with CD(+)4 T lymphocyte count <200 cells/mm(3) (r = 0.657, P < 0.05) and between 200-500 cells/mm(3) (r = -0.369, P < 0.05). PGE2 concentration was negatively correlated with BI, PD and AL (P < 0.05), and total PGE2 was positively correlated with PD and AL(P < 0.05). There was an association between the periodontal status and CD(+)4 T lymphocyte count in HIV(+) patients.GCF PGE2 level was related to

  5. Promoter-dependent and -independent activation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 gene expression by prostaglandin E2 in primary rat osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, T. L.; Casinghino, S.; Mittanck, D. W.; Ji, C. H.; Centrella, M.; Rotwein, P.

    1996-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) action is mediated by high affinity cell surface IGF receptors and modulated by a family of secreted IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs). IGFBP-5, the most conserved of six IGFBPs characterized to date, uniquely potentiates the anabolic actions of IGF-I for skeletal cells. In osteoblasts, IGFBP-5 production is stimulated by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a local factor that mediates certain effects induced by parathyroid hormone, cytokines such as interleukin-1 and transforming growth factor-beta, and mechanical strain. In this study, we show that transcriptional and post-transcriptional events initiated by PGE2 collaborate to enhance IGFBP-5 gene expression in primary fetal rat osteoblast cultures. PGE2 treatment stimulated up to a 7-fold rise in steady-state levels of IGFBP-5 mRNA throughout 32 h of incubation. Analysis of nascent IGFBP-5 mRNA suggested that PGE2 had only a modest stimulatory effect on IGFBP-5 gene transcription, and transient transfection studies with IGFBP-5 promoter-reporter genes confirmed that PGE2 enhanced promoter activity by approximately 2-fold. Similar stimulatory effects were seen with forskolin. A DNA fragment with only 51 base pairs of the 5'-flanking sequence retained hormonal responsiveness, which may be mediated by a binding site for transcription factor AP-2 located at positions -44 to -36 in the proximal IGFBP-5 promoter. Incubation of osteoblasts with the mRNA transcriptional inhibitor 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole demonstrated that PGE2 enhanced IGFBP-5 mRNA stability by 2-fold, increasing the t1/2 from 9 to 18 h. The effects of PGE2 on steady-state IGFBP-5 transcripts were abrogated by preincubating cells with cycloheximide, indicating that the effects of PGE2 on both gene transcription and mRNA stability required ongoing protein synthesis. Therefore, both promoter-dependent and -independent pathways converge to enhance IGFBP-5 gene expression in response to PGE2 in osteoblasts.

  6. PGE2 induces oenocytoid cell lysis via a G protein-coupled receptor in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eicosanoids mediate cellular and humoral immune responses in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, including activation of prophenoloxidase (PPO). PPO activation begins with release of its inactive zymogen, PPO, from oenocytoids in response to prostaglandins (PGs). Based on the biomedical literatur...

  7. Apigenin inhibits COX-2, PGE2, and EP1 and also initiates terminal differentiation in the epidermis of tumor bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Kiraly, Alex J; Soliman, Eman; Jenkins, Audrey; Van Dross, Rukiyah T

    2016-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most prevalent cancer in the United States. NMSC overexpresses cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). COX-2 synthesizes prostaglandins such as PGE2 which promote proliferation and tumorigenesis by engaging G-protein-coupled prostaglandin E receptors (EP). Apigenin is a bioflavonoid that blocks mouse skin tumorigenesis induced by the chemical carcinogens, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). However, the effect of apigenin on the COX-2 pathway has not been examined in the DMBA/TPA skin tumor model. In the present study, apigenin decreased tumor multiplicity and incidence in DMBA/TPA-treated SKH-1 mice. Analysis of the non-tumor epidermis revealed that apigenin reduced COX-2, PGE2, EP1, and EP2 synthesis and also increased terminal differentiation. In contrast, apigenin did not inhibit the COX-2 pathway or promote terminal differentiation in the tumors. Since fewer tumors developed in apigenin-treated animals which contained reduced epidermal COX-2 levels, our data suggest that apigenin may avert skin tumor development by blocking COX-2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Resiniferatoxin lowers TNF-α, NO and PGE2 in the intestinal phase and the parasite burden in the muscular phase of Trichinella spiralis infection.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Carrillo, J L; Muñoz-Escobedo, J J; Maldonado-Tapia, C H; Chávez-Ruvalcaba, F; Moreno-García, M A

    2017-01-01

    During the course of infection with Trichinella spiralis, an inflammatory response is triggered at the intestinal level in the host, playing a crucial role in the expulsion and elimination of the parasite. However, several studies have demonstrated that this inflammatory response is harmful to the host; hence, the importance of studying molecules with therapeutic potential like resiniferatoxin, which is known to have an anti-inflammatory effect both in vitro and in vivo. In this article, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of resiniferatoxin during the intestinal phase of T. spiralis infection by quantitatively determining the levels of TNF-α, NO and PGE 2 as well as the percentage of eosinophils in the blood and intestinal pathology. In addition, parasite burden was determined during the muscle infection. Our results show that resiniferatoxin lowered the serum levels of TNF-α, NO and PGE 2 , as well as the percentage of eosinophils in the blood and intestinal pathology during the intestinal infection. Moreover, resiniferatoxin also lowered the parasite burden in muscle, resulting in a reduction of the humoral response (IgG) associated to treatment with resiniferatoxin. These findings suggest a potential therapeutic use of the anti-inflammatory effect of resiniferatoxin, which also contributes to host defence against the challenge of T. spiralis infection. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Roles of prostaglandin E2 in the cochlea.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Takayuki

    2011-06-01

    Prostaglandins are one of the major groups of chemical mediators in the mammalian body. Among prostaglandins, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is the most abundant prostanoid in humans and involved in regulating many different fundamental biological functions. PGE2 signaling is mediated by four distinct E-prostanoid receptors (EPs) namely EP1-4. Recently, accumulating evidence indicates critical, but complex roles of EP signaling in the pathogenesis of neuronal diseases depending on the context of neuronal injury. Four distinct EPs are expressed in the stria vascularis, spiral ligament, spiral ganglion and organ of Corti, indicating an involvement of EP signaling in the cochlear function. Activation of EP4 in cochleae significantly attenuates noise-induced damage in cochleae, and activation of EP2 or EP4 induces the formation of vascular endothelial growth factor in cochleae. These findings strongly suggest that individual EP signaling may be involved in the maintenance of the cochlear sensory system similarly to the central nervous system. This review highlights recent findings on EP signaling in the central nervous system, and presents its possible roles in regulation of blood flow, protection of sensory cells and immune responses in cochleae. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of prostaglandin E2 on parturition in cattle.

    PubMed

    Hirsbrunner, G; Zanolari, P; Althaus, H; Hüsler, J; Steiner, A

    2007-09-22

    A double-blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled field study of the influence of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on cattle at parturition was carried out. The extent of cervical opening and the intensity of labour were scored before administration of the compound and 10 minutes later; routine birth assistance was then continued by the veterinarian. Successful birth occurred more quickly in the cows treated with PGE2. The extent of cervical opening before the administration of the drug had a significant effect on the time to delivery, but the intensity of labour and a concomitant infusion of calcium did not have significant effects on this period. The less open the cervix before administration of the drug, the more the duration of parturition differed between the two groups, with the placebo group taking longer. A telephone follow-up inquiry found no significant differences between the cows postpartum; there were cases of mastitis and hypocalcaemia in both groups. The incidence of retained fetal membranes and the mortality of the calves were higher in the placebo group, but in neither case was the difference significant.

  11. Lactoferrin from Camelus dromedarius Inhibits Nuclear Transcription Factor-kappa B Activation, Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression and Prostaglandin E2 Production in Stimulated Human Chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Naila; Alghasham, Abdullah; Rasheed, Zafar

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive joint disorder, which remains the leading cause of chronic disability in aged people. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF)-κB is a major cellular event in OA and its activation by interleukin-1β (IL-1β) plays a critical role in cartilage breakdown in these patients. In this study, we examined the effect of lactoferrin on NF-κB activation, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in stimulated human articular chondrocytes. Human chondrocytes were derived from OA articular cartilage and treated with camel lactoferrin and then stimulated with IL-1β. Gene expression was determined by TaqMan assays and protein expression was studied by Western immunoblotting. NF-κB activity and PGE2 levels were determined by ELISA based assays. NF-κB activity was also determined by treatment of chondrocytes with NF-κB specific inhibitor Bay 11-7082. Lactoferrin inhibited IL-1β-induced activation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 in human OA chondrocytes. Lactoferrin also inhibited mRNA/protein expression of COX-2 and production of PGE2. Moreover, Bay 11-7082 also inhibited IL-1β-induced expression of COX-2 and production of PGE2. The inhibitory effect of lactoferrin on the IL-1β induced expression of COX-2 or production of PGE2 was mediated at least in part via suppression of NF-κB activation. Our data determine camel lactoferrin as a novel inhibitor of IL-1β-induced activation of NF-κB signaling events and production of cartilage-degrading molecule PGE2 via inhibition of COX-2 expressions. These results may have important implications for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the prevention/treatment of OA and other degenerative/inflammatory diseases. Lactoferrin shows anti-arthritic activity in IL-1β stimulated primary human chondrocytes.Lactoferrin inhibits IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation.Lactoferrin inhibits production of cartilage degrading PGE2 via inhibition of COX-2 expression

  12. Lactoferrin from Camelus dromedarius Inhibits Nuclear Transcription Factor-kappa B Activation, Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression and Prostaglandin E2 Production in Stimulated Human Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rasheed, Naila; Alghasham, Abdullah; Rasheed, Zafar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive joint disorder, which remains the leading cause of chronic disability in aged people. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF)-κB is a major cellular event in OA and its activation by interleukin-1β (IL-1β) plays a critical role in cartilage breakdown in these patients. Objective: In this study, we examined the effect of lactoferrin on NF-κB activation, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in stimulated human articular chondrocytes. Materials and Methods: Human chondrocytes were derived from OA articular cartilage and treated with camel lactoferrin and then stimulated with IL-1β. Gene expression was determined by TaqMan assays and protein expression was studied by Western immunoblotting. NF-κB activity and PGE2 levels were determined by ELISA based assays. NF-κB activity was also determined by treatment of chondrocytes with NF-κB specific inhibitor Bay 11–7082. Results: Lactoferrin inhibited IL-1β-induced activation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 in human OA chondrocytes. Lactoferrin also inhibited mRNA/protein expression of COX-2 and production of PGE2. Moreover, Bay 11–7082 also inhibited IL-1β-induced expression of COX-2 and production of PGE2. The inhibitory effect of lactoferrin on the IL-1β induced expression of COX-2 or production of PGE2 was mediated at least in part via suppression of NF-κB activation. Conclusions: Our data determine camel lactoferrin as a novel inhibitor of IL-1β-induced activation of NF-κB signaling events and production of cartilage-degrading molecule PGE2 via inhibition of COX-2 expressions. These results may have important implications for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the prevention/treatment of OA and other degenerative/inflammatory diseases. SUMMARY Lactoferrin shows anti-arthritic activity in IL-1β stimulated primary human chondrocytes.Lactoferrin inhibits IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation.Lactoferrin inhibits

  13. Tilmicosin reduces lipopolysaccharide-stimulated bovine alveolar macrophage prostaglandin E(2) production via a mechanism involving phospholipases.

    PubMed

    Lakritz, Jeffrey; Tyler, Jeff W; Marsh, Antoinette E; Romesburg-Cockrell, Mary; Smith, Kathy; Holle, Julie M

    2002-01-01

    Tilmicosin is a potent antimicrobial with broad-spectrum activity against the bacterial agents involved in the bovine respiratory disease complex. Recent studies indicate that in addition to being bactericidal, tilmicosin is capable of modulating inflammation in the lung. A series of experiments were designed to determine whether tilmicosin alters alveolar macrophage-prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production induced by Escherichia coli (O55:B5) lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Twenty-two healthy Holstein bull calves were used to study the effects of LPS-induced PGE(2) production of alveolar macrophages after in vivo or in vitro treatment with tilmicosin. In Experiment 1, tilmicosin was given by subcutaneous injection (15 mg/kg) twice, 48 hours apart, to four calves; four control calves received no treatment. Twenty-four hours after the second treatment, alveolar macrophages were stimulated with LPS in vitro. In Experiment 2, alveolar macrophages from five untreated calves were harvested and treated in vitro with tilmicosin, followed by LPS stimulation. In Experiment 3, the ability of in vitro tilmicosin treatment to alter the expression of LPS-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA was evaluated. In Experiments 4 and 5, secretory phospholipase A(2) activity was examined in untreated calves. Treatment of calves with tilmicosin resulted in reduced LPS-induced alveolar macrophage PGE(2) production. Similar reductions in PGE(2) by LPS-stimulated alveolar macrophages after in vitro tilmicosin treatment were noted. This in vitro tilmicosin treatment was not associated with reduction of the expression of LPS-induced COX-2. Alveolar macrophage phospholipase A(2) activity induced by LPS was significantly reduced by prior tilmicosin treatment in vitro. Tilmicosin (in vivo and in vitro) appears to reduce the PGE(2) eicosanoid response of LPS-stimulated alveolar macrophages by reducing the in vitro substrate availability without altering in vitro COX-2 mRNA expression.

  14. Involvement of the anion exchanger SLC26A6 in prostaglandin E2- but not forskolin-stimulated duodenal HCO3- secretion.

    PubMed

    Tuo, Biguang; Riederer, Brigitte; Wang, Zhaohui; Colledge, William H; Soleimani, Manoocher; Seidler, Ursula

    2006-02-01

    SLC26A6 is a recently identified apical Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger with strong expression in murine duodenum. The present study was designed to examine the role of SLC26A6 in prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2))-, forskolin-, and carbachol-induced duodenal HCO(3)(-) secretion. Murine duodenal mucosal HCO(3)(-) secretion was examined in vitro in Ussing chambers and mucosal SLC26A6 expression levels were analyzed by semiquantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Basal HCO(3)(-) secretion was diminished by 20%, PGE(2)-stimulated HCO(3)(-) secretory response by 59%, and carbachol-stimulated response was reduced by 35% in SLC26A6-/- compared with +/+ duodenal mucosa, whereas the forskolin-stimulated HCO(3)(-) secretory response was not different. In Cl(-)-free solutions, PGE(2)- and carbachol-stimulated HCO(3)(-) secretion was reduced by 81% and 44%, respectively, whereas forskolin-stimulated HCO(3)(-) secretion was not altered significantly. PGE(2) and carbachol, but not forskolin, were able to elicit a Cl(-)-dependent HCO(3)(-) secretory response in the absence of short-circuit current changes in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator knockout mice. In murine duodenum, PGE(2)-mediated HCO(3)(-) secretion is strongly SLC26A6 dependent and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator independent, whereas forskolin-stimulated HCO(3)(-) secretion is completely SLC26A6 independent and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator dependent. Carbachol-induced secretion is less pronounced, but occurs via both transport pathways. This suggests that PGE(2) and forskolin activate distinct HCO(3)(-) transport pathways in the murine duodenum.

  15. Synergistic suppression of early phase of adipogenesis by microsomal PGE synthase-1 (PTGES1)-produced PGE2 and aldo-keto reductase 1B3-produced PGF2α.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Ko; Yano, Mutsumi; Ueno, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    We recently reported that aldo-keto reductase 1B3-produced prostaglandin (PG) F(2α) suppressed the early phase of adipogenesis. PGE(2) is also known to suppress adipogenesis. In this study, we found that microsomal PGE(2) synthase (PGES)-1 (mPGES-1; PTGES1) acted as the PGES in adipocytes and that PGE(2) and PGF(2α) synergistically suppressed the early phase of adipogenesis. PGE(2) production was detected in preadipocytes and transiently enhanced at 3 h after the initiation of adipogenesis of mouse adipocytic 3T3-L1 cells, followed by a quick decrease; and its production profile was similar to the expression of the cyclooxygenase-2 (PTGS2) gene. When 3T3-L1 cells were transfected with siRNAs for any one of the three major PTGESs, i.e., PTGES1, PTGES2 (mPGES-2), and PTGES3 (cytosolic PGES), only PTGES1 siRNA suppressed PGE(2) production and enhanced the expression of adipogenic genes. AE1-329, a PTGER4 (EP4) receptor agonist, increased the expression of the Ptgs2 gene with a peak at 1 h after the initiation of adipogenesis. PGE(2)-mediated enhancement of the PTGS2 expression was suppressed by the co-treatment with L-161982, a PTGER4 receptor antagonist. Moreover, AE1-329 enhanced the expression of the Ptgs2 gene by binding of the cyclic AMP response element (CRE)-binding protein to the CRE of the Ptgs2 promoter; and its binding was suppressed by co-treatment with L-161982, which was demonstrated by promoter luciferase and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Furthermore, when 3T3-L1 cells were caused to differentiate into adipocytes in medium containing both PGE(2) and PGF(2α), the expression of the adipogenic genes and the intracellular triglyceride level were decreased to a greater extent than in medium containing either of them, revealing that PGE(2) and PGF(2α) independently suppressed adipogenesis. These results indicate that PGE(2) was synthesized by PTGES1 in adipocytes and synergistically suppressed the early phase of adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells in

  16. Synergistic Suppression of Early Phase of Adipogenesis by Microsomal PGE Synthase-1 (PTGES1)-Produced PGE2 and Aldo-Keto Reductase 1B3-Produced PGF2α

    PubMed Central

    Fujimori, Ko; Yano, Mutsumi; Ueno, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    We recently reported that aldo-keto reductase 1B3-produced prostaglandin (PG) F2α suppressed the early phase of adipogenesis. PGE2 is also known to suppress adipogenesis. In this study, we found that microsomal PGE2 synthase (PGES)-1 (mPGES-1; PTGES1) acted as the PGES in adipocytes and that PGE2 and PGF2α synergistically suppressed the early phase of adipogenesis. PGE2 production was detected in preadipocytes and transiently enhanced at 3 h after the initiation of adipogenesis of mouse adipocytic 3T3-L1 cells, followed by a quick decrease; and its production profile was similar to the expression of the cyclooxygenase-2 (PTGS2) gene. When 3T3-L1 cells were transfected with siRNAs for any one of the three major PTGESs, i.e., PTGES1, PTGES2 (mPGES-2), and PTGES3 (cytosolic PGES), only PTGES1 siRNA suppressed PGE2 production and enhanced the expression of adipogenic genes. AE1-329, a PTGER4 (EP4) receptor agonist, increased the expression of the Ptgs2 gene with a peak at 1 h after the initiation of adipogenesis. PGE2-mediated enhancement of the PTGS2 expression was suppressed by the co-treatment with L-161982, a PTGER4 receptor antagonist. Moreover, AE1-329 enhanced the expression of the Ptgs2 gene by binding of the cyclic AMP response element (CRE)-binding protein to the CRE of the Ptgs2 promoter; and its binding was suppressed by co-treatment with L-161982, which was demonstrated by promoter luciferase and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Furthermore, when 3T3-L1 cells were caused to differentiate into adipocytes in medium containing both PGE2 and PGF2α, the expression of the adipogenic genes and the intracellular triglyceride level were decreased to a greater extent than in medium containing either of them, revealing that PGE2 and PGF2α independently suppressed adipogenesis. These results indicate that PGE2 was synthesized by PTGES1 in adipocytes and synergistically suppressed the early phase of adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells in cooperation with PGF2

  17. Inhibition of cartilage degradation and suppression of PGE2 and MMPs expression by Pomegranate Fruit Extract in a model of Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Nahid; Khan, Nazir M.; Ashruf, Omer; Haqqi, Tariq M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by cartilage degradation in the affected joints. Pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) inhibits cartilage degradation in vitro. Here we determined whether oral consumption of PFE inhibits disease progression in rabbits with surgically-induced OA. Methods OA was surgically induced in the tibiofemoral joints of adult NZW rabbits. In one group animals were fed PFE in water for 8 weeks post-surgery. In the second group, animals were fed PFE for 2 weeks before surgery andfor 8 weeks post-surgery.Histological assessment and scoring of the cartilage was per OARSI guidelines. Gene expression and MMPs activity were determined using qRT-PCR and fluorometric assay, respectively. IL-1β, MMP-13, IL-6, PGE2 and COL2A1 levels in synovial fluid/plasma/culture mediawere quantified using ELISA. Expression of active Caspase-3 and PARP p85 was determined by immunohistochemistry. Effect of PFE and inhibitors of MMP-13, MAPK and NF-κB was studied in IL-1β-stimulated rabbit articular chondrocytes. Results Safranin-O-staining and chondrocyte cluster formation was significantly reduced in the ACLT+PFE fed groups. Expression of MMP-3, MMP-9 and MMP-13 mRNAwas higher in the cartilage of rabbits given water alone but was significantly lower in the animals fed PFE. PFE-fed rabbits had lowerIL-6, MMP-13 and PGE2 levels in the synovial fluid and plasma respectively and showed higher expression of ACAN and COL2A1 mRNA. Significantly higher numbers of chondrocytes were positive for markers of apoptosisin the joints of rabbits with OA given water only compared to rabbits in the PFE-fed groups. PFE pretreatment significantly reduced IL-1β induced IL-6 and MMPs expression in rabbit articular chondrocytes. These effects were also mimicked using MMP-13, MAPK and NF-κB inhibitors in IL-1β-stimulated rabbit chondrocytes. In an in vitro activity assay, PFE blocked the activity of MMP-13.Like MAPK and NF-κB inhibitors, PFE was also effective in inhibiting IL

  18. The involvement of sympathetic nerves in plasma extravasation induced by prostaglandin E2 and substance P.

    PubMed

    Mathison, R; Davison, J S

    1994-05-02

    The effects of intravenous injection of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), substance P (SP) and a metabolically stable SP analogue, [pGlu5,Me-Phe8,Sar9]-SP (5-11) on plasma extravasation of albumin in the rat after blockade of prostaglandin synthesis with indomethacin or chemical sympathectomy with guanethidine were studied. Blood pressure was decreased by all agonists, but only the hypotensive effects of SP were enhanced by pretreatment with indomethacin and guanethidine. The increase in plasma extravasation induced by PGE2 in the tongue, skin and lungs was blocked by both guanethidine and indomethacin. Pretreatment of the rats with guanethidine or indomethacin increased extravasation induced by SP in the tongue-tip, dorsal skin and foot, but decreased the enhanced permeability in the pinna, and did not alter the actions of the peptide in other tissues. In contrast, both guanethidine and indomethacin pretreatment increased vascular permeability responses to [pGlu5,Me-Phe8,Sar9]-SP (5-11) administration in 9 and 14 of 16 tissues examined, respectively. Thus, intact sympathetic nerves and functional cycloxygenase activity exert inhibitory constraints on the vascular permeability effects of intravenously administered SP or its analogue. On the other hand the integrity of the sympathetic nerves and prostaglandin synthesis are required for PGE2-induced increases in vascular leak.

  19. Prostaglandin E2 regulates B cell proliferation through a candidate tumor suppressor, Ptger4.

    PubMed

    Murn, Jernej; Alibert, Olivier; Wu, Ning; Tendil, Simon; Gidrol, Xavier

    2008-12-22

    B cell receptor (BCR) signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of B cell malignancies, and most B cell lymphomas depend on BCR signals for survival. Identification of genes that restrain BCR-mediated proliferation is therefore an important goal toward improving the therapy of B cell lymphoma. Here, we identify Ptger4 as a negative feedback regulator of proliferation in response to BCR signals and show that its encoded EP4 receptor is a principal molecule conveying the growth-suppressive effect of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Stable knockdown of Ptger4 in B cell lymphoma markedly accelerated tumor spread in mice, whereas Ptger4 overexpression yielded significant protection. Mechanistically, we show that the intrinsic activity of Ptger4 and PGE2-EP4 signaling target a similar set of activating genes, and find Ptger4 to be significantly down-regulated in human B cell lymphoma. We postulate that Ptger4 functions in B cells as a candidate tumor suppressor whose activity is regulated by PGE2 in the microenvironment. These findings suggest that targeting EP4 receptor for prostaglandin may present a novel strategy for treatment of B cell malignancies.

  20. Prostaglandin E2 promotes intestinal repair through an adaptive cellular response of the epithelium.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; VanDussen, Kelli L; Malvin, Nicole P; Ryu, Stacy H; Wang, Yi; Sonnek, Naomi M; Lai, Chin-Wen; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S

    2017-01-04

    Adaptive cellular responses are often required during wound repair. Following disruption of the intestinal epithelium, wound-associated epithelial (WAE) cells form the initial barrier over the wound. Our goal was to determine the critical factor that promotes WAE cell differentiation. Using an adaptation of our in vitro primary epithelial cell culture system, we found that prostaglandin E2 (PGE 2 ) signaling through one of its receptors, Ptger4, was sufficient to drive a differentiation state morphologically and transcriptionally similar to in vivo WAE cells. WAE cell differentiation was a permanent state and dominant over enterocyte differentiation in plasticity experiments. WAE cell differentiation was triggered by nuclear β-catenin signaling independent of canonical Wnt signaling. Creation of WAE cells via the PGE 2 -Ptger4 pathway was required in vivo, as mice with loss of Ptger4 in the intestinal epithelium did not produce WAE cells and exhibited impaired wound repair. Our results demonstrate a mechanism by which WAE cells are formed by PGE 2 and suggest a process of adaptive cellular reprogramming of the intestinal epithelium that occurs to ensure proper repair to injury. © 2016 The Authors.

  1. Prostaglandin E2 and SOCS1 have a role in intestinal immune tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Chinen, Takatoshi; Komai, Kyoko; Muto, Go; Morita, Rimpei; Inoue, Naoko; Yoshida, Hideyuki; Sekiya, Takashi; Yoshida, Ryoko; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Yoshimura, Akihiko

    2011-01-01

    Interleukin 10 (IL-10) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) maintain tolerance to intestinal microorganisms. However, Il10−/−Rag2−/− mice, which lack IL-10 and Tregs, remain healthy, suggesting the existence of other mechanisms of tolerance. Here, we identify suppressor of cytokine signalling 1 (SOCS1) as an essential mediator of immune tolerance in the intestine. Socs1−/−Rag2−/− mice develop severe colitis, which can be prevented by the reduction of microbiota and the transfer of IL-10-sufficient Tregs. Additionally, we find an essential role for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the maintenance of tolerance within the intestine in the absence of Tregs. Socs1−/− dendritic cells are resistant to PGE2-mediated immunosuppression because of dysregulated cytokine signalling. Thus, we propose that SOCS1 and PGE2, potentially interacting together, act as an alternative intestinal tolerance mechanism distinct from IL-10 and Tregs. PMID:21304519

  2. Prostaglandin E2 regulates B cell proliferation through a candidate tumor suppressor, Ptger4

    PubMed Central

    Murn, Jernej; Alibert, Olivier; Wu, Ning; Tendil, Simon; Gidrol, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    B cell receptor (BCR) signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of B cell malignancies, and most B cell lymphomas depend on BCR signals for survival. Identification of genes that restrain BCR-mediated proliferation is therefore an important goal toward improving the therapy of B cell lymphoma. Here, we identify Ptger4 as a negative feedback regulator of proliferation in response to BCR signals and show that its encoded EP4 receptor is a principal molecule conveying the growth-suppressive effect of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Stable knockdown of Ptger4 in B cell lymphoma markedly accelerated tumor spread in mice, whereas Ptger4 overexpression yielded significant protection. Mechanistically, we show that the intrinsic activity of Ptger4 and PGE2–EP4 signaling target a similar set of activating genes, and find Ptger4 to be significantly down-regulated in human B cell lymphoma. We postulate that Ptger4 functions in B cells as a candidate tumor suppressor whose activity is regulated by PGE2 in the microenvironment. These findings suggest that targeting EP4 receptor for prostaglandin may present a novel strategy for treatment of B cell malignancies. PMID:19075289

  3. Correlation of prostaglandin E2 concentrations in synovial fluid with ground reaction forces and clinical variables for pain or inflammation in dogs with osteoarthritis induced by transection of the cranial cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Trumble, Troy N; Billinghurst, R Clark; McIlwraith, C Wayne

    2004-09-01

    To evaluate the temporal pattern of prostaglandin (PG) E2 concentrations in synovial fluid after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) in dogs and to correlate PGE2 concentrations with ground reaction forces and subjective clinical variables for lameness or pain. 19 purpose-bred adult male Walker Hounds. Force plate measurements, subjective clinical analysis of pain or lameness, and samples of synovial fluid were obtained before (baseline) and at various time points after arthroscopic transection of the right CCL. Concentrations of PGE2 were measured in synovial fluid samples, and the PGE2 concentrations were correlated with ground reaction forces and clinical variables. The PGE2 concentration increased significantly above the baseline value throughout the entire study, peaking 14 days after transection. Peak vertical force and vertical impulse significantly decreased by day 14 after transection, followed by an increase over time without returning to baseline values. All clinical variables (eg, lameness, degree of weight bearing, joint extension, cumulative pain score, effusion score, and total protein content of synovial fluid, except for WBC count in synovial fluid) increased significantly above baseline values. Significant negative correlations were detected between PGE2 concentrations and peak vertical force (r, -0.5720) and vertical impulse (r, -0.4618), and significant positive correlations were detected between PGE2 concentrations and the subjective lameness score (r, 0.5016) and effusion score (r, 0.6817). Assessment of the acute inflammatory process by measurement of PGE2 concentrations in synovial fluid may be correlated with the amount of pain or lameness in dogs.

  4. Comparison of the effects of IV administration of meloxicam, carprofen, and flunixin meglumine on prostaglandin E(2) concentration in aqueous humor of dogs with aqueocentesis-induced anterior uveitis.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, Margi A; Payton, Mark E

    2012-05-01

    To compare the effects of meloxicam, carprofen, and flunixin meglumine administered IV on the concentration of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in the aqueous humor of dogs with aqueocentesis-induced anterior uveitis. 15 adult dogs with ophthalmically normal eyes. Each dog was assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups. Treatment groups were saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (1 mL, IV), meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg, IV), carprofen (4.4 mg/kg, IV), and flunixin meglumine (0.5 mg/kg, IV). Each dog was anesthetized, treatment was administered, and aqueocentesis was performed on each eye at 30 and 60 minutes after treatment. Aqueous humor samples were frozen at -80°C until assayed for PGE(2) concentration with an enzyme immunoassay kit. For all 4 treatment groups, PGE(2) concentration was significantly higher in samples obtained 60 minutes after treatment, compared with that in samples obtained 30 minutes after treatment, which indicated aqueocentesis-induced PGE(2) synthesis. For aqueous humor samples obtained 60 minutes after treatment, PGE(2) concentration did not differ significantly among groups treated with saline solution, meloxicam, and carprofen; however, the PGE(2) concentration for the group treated with flunixin meglumine was significantly lower than that for each of the other 3 treatment groups. Flunixin meglumine was more effective than meloxicam or carprofen for minimizing the PGE(2) concentration in the aqueous humor of dogs with experimentally induced uveitis. Flunixin meglumine may be an appropriate pre-medication for use prior to intraocular surgery in dogs.

  5. Gelam Honey Inhibits the Production of Proinflammatory, Mediators NO, PGE2, TNF-α, and IL-6 in Carrageenan-Induced Acute Paw Edema in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Saba Zuhair; Mohd Yusoff, Kamaruddin; Makpol, Suzana; Mohd Yusof, Yasmin Anum

    2012-01-01

    Natural honey is well known for its therapeutic value and has been used in traditional medicine of different cultures throughout the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of Malaysian Gelam honey in inflammation-induced rats. Paw edema was induced by a subplantar injection of 1% carrageenan into the rat right hind paw. Rats were treated with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) Indomethacin (10 mg/kg, p.o.) or Gelam honey at different doses (1 or 2 g/kg, p.o.). The increase in footpad thickness was considered to be edema, which was measured using a dial caliper. Plasma and paw tissue were collected to analyze the production of inflammatory mediators, such as NO, PGE2, TNF-α, and IL-6, as well as iNOS and COX-2. The results showed that Gelam honey could reduce edema in a dose-dependent fashion in inflamed rat paws, decrease the production of NO, PGE2, TNF-α, and IL-6 in plasma, and suppress the expression of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 in paw tissue. Oral pretreatment of Gelam honey at 2 g/kg of body weight at two time points (1 and 7 days) showed a significantly decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines, which was similar to the effect of the anti-inflammatory drug Indomethacin (NSAID), both in plasma and tissue. Thus, our results suggest that Gelam honey has anti-inflammatory effects by reducing the rat paw edema size and inhibiting the production of proinflammatory mediators. Gelam honey is potentially useful for treating inflammatory conditions. PMID:22919407

  6. Loss of diacylglycerol kinase epsilon in mice causes endothelial distress and impairs glomerular Cox-2 and PGE2 production

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jili; Chaki, Moumita; Lu, Dongmei; Ren, Chongyu; Wang, Shan-Shan; Rauhauser, Alysha; Li, Binghua; Zimmerman, Susan; Jun, Bokkyoo; Du, Yong; Vadnagara, Komal; Wang, Hanquin; Elhadi, Sarah; Quigg, Richard J.; Topham, Matthew K.; Mohan, Chandra; Ozaltin, Fatih; Zhou, Xin J.; Marciano, Denise K.; Bazan, Nicolas G.

    2016-01-01

    Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a disorder characterized by microvascular occlusion that can lead to thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, and glomerular damage. Complement activation is the central event in most cases of TMA. Primary forms of TMA are caused by mutations in genes encoding components of the complement or regulators of the complement cascade. Recently, we and others have described a genetic form of TMA caused by mutations in the gene diacylglycerol kinase-ε (DGKE) that encodes the lipid kinase DGKε (Lemaire M, Fremeaux-Bacchi V, Schaefer F, Choi MR, Tang WH, Le Quintrec M, Fakhouri F, Taque S, Nobili F, Martinez F, Ji WZ, Overton JD, Mane SM, Nurnberg G, Altmuller J, Thiele H, Morin D, Deschenes G, Baudouin V, Llanas B, Collard L, Majid MA, Simkova E, Nurnberg P, Rioux-Leclerc N, Moeckel GW, Gubler MC, Hwa J, Loirat C, Lifton RP. Nat Genet 45: 531–536, 2013; Ozaltin F, Li BH, Rauhauser A, An SW, Soylemezoglu O, Gonul II, Taskiran EZ, Ibsirlioglu T, Korkmaz E, Bilginer Y, Duzova A, Ozen S, Topaloglu R, Besbas N, Ashraf S, Du Y, Liang CY, Chen P, Lu DM, Vadnagara K, Arbuckle S, Lewis D, Wakeland B, Quigg RJ, Ransom RF, Wakeland EK, Topham MK, Bazan NG, Mohan C, Hildebrandt F, Bakkaloglu A, Huang CL, Attanasio M. J Am Soc Nephrol 24: 377–384, 2013). DGKε is unrelated to the complement pathway, which suggests that unidentified pathogenic mechanisms independent of complement dysregulation may result in TMA. Studying Dgke knockout mice may help to understand the pathogenesis of this disease, but no glomerular phenotype has been described in these animals so far. Here we report that Dgke null mice present subclinical microscopic anomalies of the glomerular endothelium and basal membrane that worsen with age and develop glomerular capillary occlusion when exposed to nephrotoxic serum. We found that induction of cyclooxygenase-2 and of the proangiogenic prostaglandin E2 are impaired in Dgke null kidneys and are associated with reduced expression of

  7. Loss of diacylglycerol kinase epsilon in mice causes endothelial distress and impairs glomerular Cox-2 and PGE2 production.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jili; Chaki, Moumita; Lu, Dongmei; Ren, Chongyu; Wang, Shan-Shan; Rauhauser, Alysha; Li, Binghua; Zimmerman, Susan; Jun, Bokkyoo; Du, Yong; Vadnagara, Komal; Wang, Hanquin; Elhadi, Sarah; Quigg, Richard J; Topham, Matthew K; Mohan, Chandra; Ozaltin, Fatih; Zhou, Xin J; Marciano, Denise K; Bazan, Nicolas G; Attanasio, Massimo

    2016-05-01

    Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a disorder characterized by microvascular occlusion that can lead to thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, and glomerular damage. Complement activation is the central event in most cases of TMA. Primary forms of TMA are caused by mutations in genes encoding components of the complement or regulators of the complement cascade. Recently, we and others have described a genetic form of TMA caused by mutations in the gene diacylglycerol kinase-ε (DGKE) that encodes the lipid kinase DGKε (Lemaire M, Fremeaux-Bacchi V, Schaefer F, Choi MR, Tang WH, Le Quintrec M, Fakhouri F, Taque S, Nobili F, Martinez F, Ji WZ, Overton JD, Mane SM, Nurnberg G, Altmuller J, Thiele H, Morin D, Deschenes G, Baudouin V, Llanas B, Collard L, Majid MA, Simkova E, Nurnberg P, Rioux-Leclerc N, Moeckel GW, Gubler MC, Hwa J, Loirat C, Lifton RP. Nat Genet 45: 531-536, 2013; Ozaltin F, Li BH, Rauhauser A, An SW, Soylemezoglu O, Gonul II, Taskiran EZ, Ibsirlioglu T, Korkmaz E, Bilginer Y, Duzova A, Ozen S, Topaloglu R, Besbas N, Ashraf S, Du Y, Liang CY, Chen P, Lu DM, Vadnagara K, Arbuckle S, Lewis D, Wakeland B, Quigg RJ, Ransom RF, Wakeland EK, Topham MK, Bazan NG, Mohan C, Hildebrandt F, Bakkaloglu A, Huang CL, Attanasio M. J Am Soc Nephrol 24: 377-384, 2013). DGKε is unrelated to the complement pathway, which suggests that unidentified pathogenic mechanisms independent of complement dysregulation may result in TMA. Studying Dgke knockout mice may help to understand the pathogenesis of this disease, but no glomerular phenotype has been described in these animals so far. Here we report that Dgke null mice present subclinical microscopic anomalies of the glomerular endothelium and basal membrane that worsen with age and develop glomerular capillary occlusion when exposed to nephrotoxic serum. We found that induction of cyclooxygenase-2 and of the proangiogenic prostaglandin E2 are impaired in Dgke null kidneys and are associated with reduced expression of the

  8. Identification of the cAMP response element that controls transcriptional activation of the insulin-like growth factor-I gene by prostaglandin E2 in osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, M. J.; Umayahara, Y.; Shu, H.; Centrella, M.; Rotwein, P.; McCarthy, T. L.

    1996-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), a multifunctional growth factor, plays a key role in skeletal growth and can enhance bone cell replication and differentiation. We previously showed that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and other agents that increase cAMP activated IGF-I gene transcription in primary rat osteoblast cultures through promoter 1 (P1), the major IGF-I promoter, and found that transcriptional induction was mediated by protein kinase A. We now have identified a short segment of P1 that is essential for full hormonal regulation and have characterized inducible DNA-protein interactions involving this site. Transient transfections of IGF-I P1 reporter genes into primary rat osteoblasts showed that the 328-base pair untranslated region of exon 1 was required for a full 5.3-fold response to PGE2; mutation in a previously footprinted site, HS3D (base pairs +193 to +215), reduced induction by 65%. PGE2 stimulated nuclear protein binding to HS3D. Binding, as determined by gel mobility shift assay, was not seen in nuclear extracts from untreated osteoblast cultures, was detected within 2 h of PGE2 treatment, and was maximal by 4 h. This DNA-protein interaction was not observed in cytoplasmic extracts from PGE2-treated cultures, indicating nuclear localization of the protein kinase A-activated factor(s). Activation of this factor was not blocked by cycloheximide (Chx), and Chx did not impair stimulation of IGF-I gene expression by PGE2. In contrast, binding to a consensus cAMP response element (CRE; 5'-TGACGTCA-3') from the rat somatostatin gene was not modulated by PGE2 or Chx. Competition gel mobility shift analysis using mutated DNA probes identified 5'-CGCAATCG-3' as the minimal sequence needed for inducible binding. All modified IGF-I P1 promoterreporter genes with mutations within this CRE sequence also showed a diminished functional response to PGE2. These results identify the CRE within the 5'-untranslated region of IGF-I exon 1 that is required for hormonal

  9. Inflammation in gastric cancer: Interplay of the COX-2/prostaglandin E2 and Toll-like receptor/MyD88 pathways.

    PubMed

    Echizen, Kanae; Hirose, Osamu; Maeda, Yusuke; Oshima, Masanobu

    2016-04-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and its downstream product prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) play a key role in generation of the inflammatory microenvironment in tumor tissues. Gastric cancer is closely associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, which stimulates innate immune responses through Toll-like receptors (TLRs), inducing COX-2/PGE2 pathway through nuclear factor-κB activation. A pathway analysis of human gastric cancer shows that both the COX-2 pathway and Wnt/β-catenin signaling are significantly activated in tubular-type gastric cancer, and basal levels of these pathways are also increased in other types of gastric cancer. Expression of interleukin-11, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1), CXCL2, and CXCL5, which play tumor-promoting roles through a variety of mechanisms, is induced in a COX-2/PGE2 pathway-dependent manner in both human and mouse gastric tumors. Moreover, the COX-2/PGE2 pathway plays an important role in the maintenance of stemness with expression of stem cell markers, including CD44, Prom1, and Sox9, which are induced in both gastritis and gastric tumors through a COX-2/PGE2 -dependent mechanism. In contrast, disruption of Myd88 results in suppression of the inflammatory microenvironment in gastric tumors even when the COX-2/PGE2 pathway is activated, indicating that the interplay of the COX-2/PGE2 and TLR/MyD88 pathways is needed for inflammatory response in tumor tissues. Furthermore, TLR2/MyD88 signaling plays a role in maintenance of stemness in normal stem cells as well as gastric tumor cells. Accordingly, these results suggest that targeting the COX-2/PGE2 pathway together with TLR/MyD88 signaling, which would suppress the inflammatory microenvironment and maintenance of stemness, could be an effective preventive or therapeutic strategy for gastric cancer. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  10. [Induced abortion using prostaglandin E2 and F2alpha gel].

    PubMed

    Lippert, T H; Modly, T

    1974-01-01

    In this study of 20 patients in the 13th-17th week of pregnancy abortion was induced with intrauterine, extraamniotic application of prostaglandins (PG) E2 or F2 in gel form. The gel composition was as follows: 4% tylose MH 300, 2% glycerine, 1% chlorhexidine digluconate, 83% sterile distilled water and 10% PG stock solution. Both PGE2 and PGF2 gels were used. Final concentration was 2.5 mg E2 or 2.5 mg F2 per g of gel. Gel was applied via transcervical, extraamniotic polyethylene catheter every 2-3 hours. Results: PGE2-gel was used in 14 cases. After 3-4 applications both fetus and placenta were expelled. Average dose used was 4.6 mg E2/patient. First contractions started in 30 minutes; induction to expulsion time was 11 hours 35 minutes. F2-gel given to 6 patients resulted in expulsion of the fetus in all cases but placenta needed removal by curettage in 4 patients. Average dose per patient was 17.7 mg of F2; first contractions in 30 minutes, average expulsion time 17 hours 38 minutes. With both PGs there were painful contractions which were controlled with a combination of pentazocine and Valium. PGE2 caused vomiting in 5 patients. No increased bleeding or postabortion infection occurred. Follow-up curettage was done in all patients to ensure removal of all tissues. Overall evaluation of the PG-gels was considered good. PG stability in gel form is good; during 8 months of preservation in sterile aluminum tubes at -25 degrees Celsius no decline in clinical effectiveness was noted. The gel application is less expensive than the slow-injection pump method.

  11. Prostaglandin E2 Adds Bone to a Cancellous Bone Site with a Closed Growth Plate and Low Bone Turnover in Ovariectomized Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Y. F.; Ke, H. Z.; Jee, W. S. S.

    1994-01-01

    The objects of this study were to determine the responses of a cancellous bone site with a closed growth plate, (the distal tibial metaphysis (DTM), to ovariectomy (OVX) and OVX plus a prostaglandin E(2) treatment, and compare the site's response to previous findings reported for another site, the proximal tibial metaphysis (PTM). Thirty five 3-month old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups; basal, sham OVX, and OVX+0, +1, or +6 mg PGE(2)/kg/d injected subcutaneously for 3 months and given double fluorescent labels before sacrifice. Cancellous bone histomorphometric analyses were performed on 20 micrometer thick undecalcified DTM sections. Similar to the PTM, the DTM showed age-related decreases in bone formation and increases in bone resorption, but it differed in that at 3 months POST OVX there was neither bone loss nor changes in formation endpoints. Giving 1 mg PGE(2)/kg/d to OVX rats prevented most age-related changes and maintained the bone formation histomorphometry near basal levels. Treating OVX rats with 6 mg PGE(2)/kd/d prevented age-related bone changes, added extra bone, and improved microanatomical structure by stimulating bone formation, without altering bone resportion. Futhermore, After PGE(2) admimnistration, the DTM, a cancellous bone site with a closed growth plate, increased bone formation more than did the cancellous bone in the PTM.

  12. The effects of a cytokine suppressive anti-inflammatory drug on the output of prostaglandin E(2) and interleukin-1 beta from human fetal membranes.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, M H F; Alvi, S A; Brown, N L; Elder, M G; Bennett, P R

    2002-03-01

    Fetal membranes are a primary source of prostaglandins and pro-inflammatory cytokines implicated in human parturition, so the inhibition of inflammatory pathways may be of benefit in pregnancies complicated by premature labour. We have therefore investigated the effects of a cytokine-suppressant anti-inflammatory drug (CSAID) on the output of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and interleukin (IL)-1 beta from human fetal membranes in vitro. Bacterial endotoxin increased the expression of mRNA for IL-1 beta and type-2 cyclo-oxygenase (COX-2), and there were corresponding increases in the output of IL-1 beta protein and PGE(2). The CSAID decreased IL-1 beta protein, COX-2 expression and PGE(2) output, but not mRNA for IL-1 beta, indicating a post-translational effect on the production of IL-1 beta and a transcriptional affect on COX-2, with an overall reduction in PGE(2). These findings are consistent with the effects of CSAIDs in other systems, and indicate that they are of possible use in premature labour.

  13. Enhancement of antineoplastic effect and attenuation of sister chromatid exchanges by prostaglandin E2 in Ehrlich ascites tumour cells treated with cyclophosphamide in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mourelatos, D; Kritsi, Z; Mioglou, E; Dozi-Vassiliades, J

    1993-09-01

    Reduced sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) frequency in response to cyclophosphamide (CP) was observed when Ehrlich ascites tumour (EAT) cells were exposed in vivo to 2 micrograms/g body weight of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). 1 h before i.p. injection of 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) adsorbed to activated charcoal, EAT-bearing mice treated i.p. with CP appeared to have increased SCE rates and cell division delays. PGE2 had no effect on survival and in inhibiting tumour growth. CP had only a slight non-significant effect on survival and in inhibiting tumour growth. In mice treated with the combined CP (5 micrograms/g bd wt) plus PGE2 (2 micrograms/g bd wt) a significant enhancement (P < 0.01) of survival time was accompanied by inhibition of tumour growth (P < 0.01) in comparison with the untreated controls. These data imply that SCEs might result from errors in a repair process which might involve a PGE2 sensitive step.

  14. Colonic Saturated Fatty Acid Concentrations and Expression of COX-1, but not Diet, Predict Prostaglandin E2 in Normal Human Colon Tissue.

    PubMed

    Sidahmed, ElKhansa; Sen, Ananda; Ren, Jianwei; Patel, Arsh; Turgeon, D Kim; Ruffin, Mack T; Brenner, Dean E; Djuric, Zora

    2016-10-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the colon is a pro-inflammatory mediator that is associated with increased risk of colon cancer. In this study, expression of genes in the PGE2 pathway were quantified in colon biopsies from a trial of a Mediterranean versus a Healthy Eating diet in 113 individuals at high risk for colon cancer. Colon biopsies were obtained before and after 6 months of intervention. Quantitative, real-time PCR was used to measure mRNA expression of prostaglandin H synthases (PTGS1 and 2), prostaglandin E synthases (PTGES1 and 3), prostaglandin dehydrogenase (HPGD), and PGE2 receptors (PTGER2, PTGER4). The most highly expressed genes were HPGD and PTGS1. In multivariate linear regression models of baseline data, both colon saturated fatty acid concentrations and PTGS1 expression were significant, positive predictors of colon PGE2 concentrations after controlling for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, gender, age, and smoking status. The effects of dietary intervention on gene expression were minimal with small increases in expression noted for PTGES3 in both arms and in PTGER4 in the Mediterranean arm. These results indicate that short-term dietary change had little effect on enzymes in the prostaglandin pathway in the colon and other factors, such as differences in fatty acid metabolism, might be more influential.

  15. Genetic variability of prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype EP4 gene in aspirin-intolerant chronic urticaria.

    PubMed

    Palikhe, Nami Shrestha; Sin, Hye Jung; Kim, Seung Hyun; Sin, Hyun Jung; Hwang, Eui Kyung; Ye, Young Min; Park, Hae-Sim

    2012-08-01

    Prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype EP4 (PTGER4) is one of the four subtypes of receptors for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Overproduction of cysteinyl leukotriene in mast cells may be related with suppression of PGE2 in patients with aspirin hypersensitivity. Considering the association of PTGER4 in mast cells, urticaria- and aspirin-related disease, we hypothesized the genetic variability of PTGER4 may be associated with aspirin-intolerant chronic urticaria (AICU). The case-control study was performed in 141 with AICU, 153 with aspirin-tolerant chronic urticaria (ATCU) and 174 with normal controls (NCs). PTGER4 promoter single-nucleotide polymorphism was genotyped using a primer extension method with the SNAPshot ddNTP primer extension kit. The functional variability of PTGER4 promoter polymorphism was carried out by dual-luciferase system and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) in human mast cells (HMC-1). Furthermore, the effect of aspirin was performed for PTGER4 mRNA expression using real-time PCR, and PGE2 production was checked in HMC-1 cells using ELISA. AICU patients carrying GG genotype at -1254 G>A showed significantly higher frequency compared with NC (P=0.032). Similarly, the minor allele frequency, G allele was significantly higher in AICU compared with NC (P=0.031). In vitro functional study demonstrated that the -1254 G allele had lower luciferase activity (P<0.001) in HMC-1 cells. EMSA finding showed that PTGER4 -1254 G produced a specific band. Significantly decreased PTGER4 expression (P=0.008) and PGE2 production by aspirin exposure was confirmed in in vitro HMC cell line model (P=0.001). The PTGER4 -1254 G allele demonstrated a higher frequency in AICU patients and lower promoter activity with decreased expression of PTGER4 and contributes to the development of AICU.

  16. Vaginal delivery among women who underwent labor induction with vaginal dinoprostone (PGE2) insert: a retrospective study of 1656 women in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Lin, Ying; Jiang, Ting-Ting; Wang, Ling; Li, Min; Wang, Ying; Sun, Guo-Qiang; Xiao, Mei

    2017-12-21

    This study aimed to qualify relevant factors for vaginal delivery among women who underwent labor induction with vaginal dinoprostone (PGE2) insert in a Chinese tertiary maternity hospital. A retrospective study was conducted in Hubei Maternal and Child Health Hospital. A total of 1656 pregnancies that underwent labor induction with vaginal dinoprostone insert between January and August 2016 were finally included in this study. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariable regression modeling. Of 1656 women with PGE2-induced labor at term, 396 (23.91%) gave birth by cesarean section, 1260 (76.09%) had a vaginal delivery among which 921 (55.61%) delivered vaginally within 24 h. Multivariable regression analysis showed that maternal age (p < .001, OR = 0.89, 95%CI 0.85-0.93), parity (multiparous versus nulliparous, p < .001, OR = 8.74, 95%CI 4.36-17.50), baseline fetal heart rate (p = .009, OR = 0.98, 95%CI 0.96-0.99), and birth weight (p < .001, OR = 0.37, 95%CI 0.28-0.51) were significantly correlated with vaginal delivery. Moreover, body mass index (p < .001, OR = 1.11, 95%CI 1.05-1.19), parity (multiparous versus nulliparous, p < .001, OR = 6.57, 95%CI 2.37-18.23), baseline fetal heart rate (p = .004, OR = 0.96, 95%CI 0.94-0.99), and birth weight (p < .001, OR = 0.34, 95%CI 0.21-0.54) were independent predictors of vaginal delivery within 24-h. Our findings suggested a vaginal delivery rate of 76.09% when dinoprostone vaginal insert was used for labor induction, which was markedly higher than the overall annual vaginal delivery rate of 65.1% in China during 2014. Maternal age, parity, baseline fetal heart rate, and birth weight were significant factors for vaginal delivery. This study enables us to better understand the efficiency of dinoprostone and the potential predictors of vaginal delivery in dinoprostone-induced labor, which may be helpful to guide the clinical use of dinoprostone and therefore provide better

  17. Pharmacological characterisation of CR6086, a potent prostaglandin E2 receptor 4 antagonist, as a new potential disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug.

    PubMed

    Caselli, Gianfranco; Bonazzi, Albino; Lanza, Marco; Ferrari, Flora; Maggioni, Daniele; Ferioli, Cristian; Giambelli, Roberto; Comi, Eleonora; Zerbi, Silvia; Perrella, Marco; Letari, Ornella; Di Luccio, Elena; Colovic, Milena; Persiani, Stefano; Zanelli, Tiziano; Mennuni, Laura; Piepoli, Tiziana; Rovati, Lucio Claudio

    2018-03-01

    Prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) acts via its EP4 receptor as a cytokine amplifier (e.g., interleukin [IL]-6) and induces the differentiation and expansion of inflammatory T-helper (Th) lymphocytes. These mechanisms play a key role in the onset and progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We present the pharmacological characterisation of CR6086, a novel EP4 receptor antagonist, and provide evidence for its potential as a disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD). CR6086 affinity and pharmacodynamics were studied in EP4-expressing HEK293 cells by radioligand binding and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production, respectively. In immune cells, IL-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression were analysed by RT-PCR, and IL-23 and IL-17 release were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) models, rats or mice were immunised with bovine collagen type II. Drugs were administered orally (etanercept and methotrexate intraperitoneally) starting at disease onset. Arthritis progression was evaluated by oedema, clinical score and histopathology. Anti-collagen II immunoglobulin G antibodies were measured by ELISA. CR6086 showed selectivity and high affinity for the human EP4 receptor (K i = 16.6 nM) and functioned as a pure antagonist (half-maximal inhibitory concentration, 22 nM) on PGE 2 -stimulated cAMP production. In models of human immune cells in culture, CR6086 reduced key cytokine players of RA (IL-6 and VEGF expression in macrophages, IL-23 release from dendritic cells, IL-17 release from Th17 cells). In the CIA model of RA in rats and mice, CR6086 significantly improved all features of arthritis: severity, histology, inflammation and pain. In rats, CR6086 was better than the selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor rofecoxib and at least as effective as the Janus kinase inhibitor tofacitinib. In mice, CR6086 and the biologic DMARD etanercept were highly effective, whereas the non-steroidal anti

  18. Protection of mice against mixed fission neutron-gamma (n: gamma = 1:1) irradiation by WR-2721, 16,16-dimethyl PGE2, and the combination of both agents

    SciTech Connect

    Steel, L.K.; Walden, T.L. Jr.; Hughes, H.N.

    1988-09-01

    The survival of mice after whole-body exposure to a modified fission neutron-gamma field (n: gamma = 1:1) was used to examine radiation protection by WR-2721, 16,16-dimethyl PGE2(DiPGE2), and the combination of both agents. Administration of WR-2721 (453 mg/kg) increased the LD50/30 from 5.24 to 7.17 Gy (DMF = 1.37), whereas pretreatment with DiPGE2 (1.6 mg/kg) increased the LD50/30 to 5.77 Gy (dose modification factor (DMF) = 1.10). The combination of 453 mg/kg WR-2721 and 0.4 mg/kg DiPGE2 resulted in an LD50/30 of 7.33 Gy, yielding a DMF of 1.39. However, no significant difference in protection was obtained with the combinationmore » of the two agents compared to that seen with WR-2721 alone.« less

  19. Prostaglandin release from in vitro guinea-pig gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Booker, M L; LaMorte, W W

    1983-02-01

    In order to study prostaglandin release from guinea pig gallbladder, full thickness tissue sections were incubated for one hour in Krebs solution. Extraction and two dimensional chromatography of incubation media obtained in the presence of radio-labelled arachidonic acid demonstrated the presence of PGE2, PGF2 alpha, 6-keto-PGF1 alpha and thromboxane B2. These results were supported by radioimmunoassay of incubations conducted in the absence of exogenous arachidonate and in the presence of varying concentrations of unlabelled exogenous arachidonate. The previously reported predominance of PGE2 was only seen at high concentrations of exogenous arachidonate.

  20. A selective EP4 PGE2 receptor agonist alleviates disease in a new mouse model of X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian Hua; Chou, Chung-Lin; Li, Bo; Gavrilova, Oksana; Eisner, Christoph; Schnermann, Jürgen; Anderson, Stasia A.; Deng, Chu-Xia; Knepper, Mark A.; Wess, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (XNDI) is a severe kidney disease caused by inactivating mutations in the V2 vasopressin receptor (V2R) gene that result in the loss of renal urine-concentrating ability. At present, no specific pharmacological therapy has been developed for XNDI, primarily due to the lack of suitable animal models. To develop what we believe to be the first viable animal model of XNDI, we generated mice in which the V2R gene could be conditionally deleted during adulthood by administration of 4-OH-tamoxifen. Radioligand-binding studies confirmed the lack of V2R-binding sites in kidneys following 4-OH-tamoxifen treatment, and further analysis indicated that upon V2R deletion, adult mice displayed all characteristic symptoms of XNDI, including polyuria, polydipsia, and resistance to the antidiuretic actions of vasopressin. Gene expression analysis suggested that activation of renal EP4 PGE2 receptors might compensate for the lack of renal V2R activity in XNDI mice. Strikingly, both acute and chronic treatment of the mutant mice with a selective EP4 receptor agonist greatly reduced all major manifestations of XNDI, including changes in renal morphology. These physiological improvements were most likely due to a direct action on EP4 receptors expressed on collecting duct cells. These findings illustrate the usefulness of the newly generated V2R mutant mice for elucidating and testing new strategies for the potential treatment of humans with XNDI. PMID:19729836

  1. Comparative study of labour induced by oral prostaglandin E2 and intravenous syntocinon.

    PubMed

    Murray, C P; Clinch, J

    1975-03-22

    The use of prostaglandin E2 for the induction of labor with intact membranes is described and its effectiveness is compared to intravenous syntocinon. 40 primigravida and 60 multigravid patients with previous medical and obstetrical histories were studied. The patients were numbered as they entered the trial, with the odd numbers in each group being given oral prostaglandin and the even numbers intravenous syntocinon. In no case was the pregnancy less than 38 weeks maturity. No patient was in labor prior to being given either drug. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was supplied in ampoules containing 5 milligrams in 0.5 milliliter of ethanol. This was added to 49.5 milliliters of sterile water to produce a concentration of the drug of 0.1 milligrams per ml. The syntocinon infusion was prepared by putting 20 units of syntocinon into 1 liter of 5% dextrose in water to produce a solution concentration of 20 mu/ml. The accepted criteria for diagnosing established labor for both groups of patients was the presence of uterine contractions occurring once every 3 minutes, associated with progressive dilatation of the cervix. For both groups of patients it was decided that cervical dilatation should be at least 6 cm within 18 hours of the infusion starting. Using this criterion there was only 1 failure, occurring in the 1st primigravid patient given PGE2, the labor in this instance being completed with intravenous syntocinon. A further 8 patients failed to complete the trial as they had to be delivered by cesarian section. Syntocin was considerably more efficient than PGE2 in inducing labor in the remaining 91 patients particularly in primigravida. This was the case whether judged by the length of labor or by the induction delivery interval. Toco-dynamometric studies showed that the contractions produced by prostaglandin more closely resembled those of normal labor and were less painful.

  2. Methylmercury promotes prostacyclin release from cultured human brain microvascular endothelial cells via induction of cyclooxygenase-2 through activation of the EGFR-p38 MAPK pathway by inhibiting protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B activity.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Eiko; Kurita, Masaru; Eto, Komyo; Kumagai, Yoshito; Kaji, Toshiyuki

    2017-12-01

    Methylmercury is an environmental pollutant that exhibits neurotoxicity when ingested, primarily in the form of neuropathological lesions that localize along deep sulci and fissures, in addition to edematous and inflammatory changes in patient cerebrums. These conditions been known to give rise to a variety of ailments that have come to be collectively termed Minamata disease. Since prostaglandins I 2 and E 2 (PGI 2 and PGE 2 ) increase vascular permeability and contribute to the progression of inflammatory changes, we hypothesize that methylmercury induces the synthesis of these prostaglandins in brain microvascular endothelial cells and pericytes. To test this theory, human brain microvascular endothelial cells and pericytes were cultured and treated with methylmercury, after which the PGI 2 and PGE 2 released from endothelial cells and/or pericytes were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay while protein and mRNA expressions in endothelial cells were analyzed by western blot analysis and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Experimental results indicate that methylmercury inhibits the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, which in turn activates the epidermal growth factor receptor-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway that induces cyclooxygenase-2 expression. It was also found that the cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate pathway, which can be activated by PGI 2 and PGE 2 , is involved in methylmercury-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression. Since it appears that protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 B serves as a sensor protein for methylmercury in these mechanisms, it is our belief that the results of the present study may provide additional insights into the molecular mechanisms responsible for edematous and inflammatory changes in the cerebrum of patients with Minamata disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhibition of microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 as a molecular basis for the anti-inflammatory actions of boswellic acids from frankincense

    PubMed Central

    Siemoneit, U; Koeberle, A; Rossi, A; Dehm, F; Verhoff, M; Reckel, S; Maier, TJ; Jauch, J; Northoff, H; Bernhard, F; Doetsch, V; Sautebin, L; Werz, O

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Frankincense, the gum resin derived from Boswellia species, showed anti-inflammatory efficacy in animal models and in pilot clinical studies. Boswellic acids (BAs) are assumed to be responsible for these effects but their anti-inflammatory efficacy in vivo and their molecular modes of action are incompletely understood. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH A protein fishing approach using immobilized BA and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy were used to reveal microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 (mPGES1) as a BA-interacting protein. Cell-free and cell-based assays were applied to confirm the functional interference of BAs with mPGES1. Carrageenan-induced mouse paw oedema and rat pleurisy models were utilized to demonstrate the efficacy of defined BAs in vivo. KEY RESULTS Human mPGES1 from A549 cells or in vitro-translated human enzyme selectively bound to BA affinity matrices and SPR spectroscopy confirmed these interactions. BAs reversibly suppressed the transformation of prostaglandin (PG)H2 to PGE2 mediated by mPGES1 (IC50 = 3–10 µM). Also, in intact A549 cells, BAs selectively inhibited PGE2 generation and, in human whole blood, β-BA reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced PGE2 biosynthesis without affecting formation of the COX-derived metabolites 6-keto PGF1α and thromboxane B2. Intraperitoneal or oral administration of β-BA (1 mg·kg−1) suppressed rat pleurisy, accompanied by impaired levels of PGE2 and β-BA (1 mg·kg−1, given i.p.) also reduced mouse paw oedema, both induced by carrageenan. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Suppression of PGE2 formation by BAs via interference with mPGES1 contribute to the anti-inflammatory effectiveness of BAs and of frankincense, and may constitute a biochemical basis for their anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:20840544

  4. Prostaglandin E2 produced by Entamoeba histolytica binds to EP4 receptors and stimulates interleukin-8 production in human colonic cells.

    PubMed

    Dey, Indranil; Chadee, Kris

    2008-11-01

    Entamoeba histolytica pathogenesis in the colon occurs in a stepwise fashion. It begins with colonization of the mucin layer, which is followed by stimulation of a proinflammatory response that causes nonspecific tissue damage that may facilitate parasite invasion of the underlying colonic mucosa. Unfortunately, the parasite and/or host factors that stimulate a proinflammatory response in the gut are poorly understood. In this study, we found that live E. histolytica or secretory or proteins (SP) and soluble ameba components (SAP) can markedly increase interleukin-8 (IL-8) mRNA expression and protein production in colonic epithelial cells. The IL-8-stimulating molecule produced by live amebae was identified as prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) as trophozoites treated with cyclooxygenase inhibitors inhibited the biosynthesis of PGE(2) and eliminated IL-8 production induced by live parasites or ameba components. Moreover, using specific prostaglandin EP2 and EP4 receptor agonists and antagonists, we found that PGE(2) binds exclusively through EP4 receptors in colonic epithelial cells to stimulate IL-8 production. Silencing of EP4 receptors with EP4 small interfering RNA completely eliminated SP- and SAP-induced IL-8 production. These studies identified bioactive PGE(2) as a one of the major virulence factors produced by E. histolytica that can stimulate the potent neutrophil chemokine and activator IL-8, which can trigger an acute host inflammatory response. Thus, the induction of IL-8 production in response to E. histolytica-derived PGE(2) may be a mechanism that explains the initiation and amplification of acute inflammation associated with intestinal amebiasis.

  5. A novel antagonist of the prostaglandin E(2) EP(4) receptor inhibits Th1 differentiation and Th17 expansion and is orally active in arthritis models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Q; Muramoto, K; Masaaki, N; Ding, Y; Yang, H; Mackey, M; Li, W; Inoue, Y; Ackermann, K; Shirota, H; Matsumoto, I; Spyvee, M; Schiller, S; Sumida, T; Gusovsky, F; Lamphier, M

    2010-05-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder involving subsets of activated T cells, in particular T helper (Th) 1 and Th17 cells, which infiltrate and damage tissues and induce inflammation. Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) enhances the Th17 response, exacerbates collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and promotes inflammatory pain. The current study investigated whether selective antagonism of the PGE(2) EP(4) receptor would suppress Th1/Th17 cell development and inflammatory arthritis in animal models of RA. Effects of PGE(2) and a novel EP(4) receptor antagonist ER-819762 on Th1 differentiation, interleukin-23 (IL-23) production by dendritic cells (DCs), and Th17 development were assessed in vitro. The effect of ER-819762 was evaluated in CIA and glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI)-induced arthritis models. In addition, the effects of ER-819762 on pain were evaluated in a model of chronic inflammatory pain induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in the rat. Stimulation of the EP(4) receptor enhanced Th1 differentiation via phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase signalling, selectively promoted Th17 cell expansion, and induced IL-23 secretion by activated DCs, effects suppressed by ER-819762 or anti-PGE(2) antibody. Oral administration of ER-19762 suppressed Th1 and Th17 cytokine production, suppressed disease in collagen- and GPI-induced arthritis in mice, and suppressed CFA-induced inflammatory pain in rats. PGE(2) stimulates EP(4) receptors to promote Th1 differentiation and Th17 expansion and is critically involved in development of arthritis in two animal models. Selective suppression of EP(4) receptor signalling may have therapeutic value in RA both by modifying inflammatory arthritis and by relieving pain.

  6. Inhibition of microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 as a molecular basis for the anti-inflammatory actions of boswellic acids from frankincense.

    PubMed

    Siemoneit, U; Koeberle, A; Rossi, A; Dehm, F; Verhoff, M; Reckel, S; Maier, T J; Jauch, J; Northoff, H; Bernhard, F; Doetsch, V; Sautebin, L; Werz, O

    2011-01-01

    Frankincense, the gum resin derived from Boswellia species, showed anti-inflammatory efficacy in animal models and in pilot clinical studies. Boswellic acids (BAs) are assumed to be responsible for these effects but their anti-inflammatory efficacy in vivo and their molecular modes of action are incompletely understood. A protein fishing approach using immobilized BA and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy were used to reveal microsomal prostaglandin E(2) synthase-1 (mPGES1) as a BA-interacting protein. Cell-free and cell-based assays were applied to confirm the functional interference of BAs with mPGES1. Carrageenan-induced mouse paw oedema and rat pleurisy models were utilized to demonstrate the efficacy of defined BAs in vivo. Human mPGES1 from A549 cells or in vitro-translated human enzyme selectively bound to BA affinity matrices and SPR spectroscopy confirmed these interactions. BAs reversibly suppressed the transformation of prostaglandin (PG)H(2) to PGE(2) mediated by mPGES1 (IC(50) = 3-10 µM). Also, in intact A549 cells, BAs selectively inhibited PGE(2) generation and, in human whole blood, β-BA reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced PGE(2) biosynthesis without affecting formation of the COX-derived metabolites 6-keto PGF(1α) and thromboxane B(2) . Intraperitoneal or oral administration of β-BA (1 mg·kg(-1) ) suppressed rat pleurisy, accompanied by impaired levels of PGE(2) and β-BA (1 mg·kg(-1) , given i.p.) also reduced mouse paw oedema, both induced by carrageenan. Suppression of PGE(2) formation by BAs via interference with mPGES1 contribute to the anti-inflammatory effectiveness of BAs and of frankincense, and may constitute a biochemical basis for their anti-inflammatory properties. © 2010 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2010 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. Immunolocalization of adipocytes and prostaglandin E2 and its four receptor proteins EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4 in the caprine cervix during spontaneous term labor.

    PubMed

    Gu, Guosheng; Gao, Qian; Yuan, Xuejun; Huang, Libo; Ge, Lijiang

    2012-05-01

    The mechanisms of cervical ripening and dilation in mammals remain obscure. Information is lacking about the localization of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2))-producing cells and PGE(2) receptors (EP) in intrapartum cervix and whether cervical dilation at parturition is an active process. To reveal these mechanisms, immunolocalization of EP1-EP4 (official gene symbols PTGER1-PTGER4) and PGE(2)-producing cells in caprine cervix during nonpregnancy, pregnancy, and parturition was assayed by immunohistochemistry (IHC); the mRNA expression levels of PTGS2, PTGER2 (EP2), and PTGER4 (EP4) were determined using quantitative PCR; and the existence of adipocytes in the cervix at various stages was demonstrated with Oil Red O staining and IHC of perilipin A. The results suggested that in intrapartum caprine cervix staining of the PGE(2) was observed in the overall tissues, for example, blood vessels, canal or glandular epithelia, serosa, circular and longitudinal muscles, and stroma in addition to adipocytes; EP2 was detectable in all the tissues other than glandular epithelia; EP4 was strongly expressed in all the tissues other than serosa; EP1 was detected mainly in arterioles and canal or glandular epithelia; and EP3 was poorly expressed only in stroma, canal epithelia, and circular muscles. Little or no expression of EP2, EP3, and EP4 as well as PGE(2) in all cervical tissues was observed during nonpregnancy and pregnancy except for the strong expression of EP1 in canal or glandular epithelia during pregnancy. The mRNA expression levels of PTGS2, PTGER2, and PTGER4 were significantly higher in intrapartum than nonpregnant and midpregnant cervices (P < 0.01). Adipocytes appear only in the intrapartum cervix. These results support the concept that PGE(2) modulates specific functions in various anatomical structures of the caprine cervix at labor and the appearance of adipocytes at labor is likely related to caprine cervical dilation.

  8. Clinical evaluation of endocervical prostaglandin E2-triacetin-gel for preinduction cervical softening in pregnant women at term.

    PubMed

    Kieback, D G; Zahradnik, H P; Quaas, L; Kröner-Fehmel, E E; Lippert, T H

    1986-07-01

    In an open randomized clinical trial 100 pregnant women with low Bishop Scores at term were treated either with intracervical Prostaglandin (PG) E2 (0.5 mg in 2.5 ml triacetin-gel) 12 hours before labor induction with intravenous oxytocin or with oxytocin infusion alone. In 46 of the 50 pretreated patients (92%) the Bishop Score progressed at least 3 points, in four cases only 2 points. The mean Bishop score in the untreated patients increased insignificantly. After PGE2-gel administration 16 patients delivered during the 12 hour interval compared to 3 in the group without pretreatment. The first induction attempt was successful in 14 (64%) of the 22 patients that were left to be induced after cervical softening and in 26 (57%) of the 47 women without cervical priming. The Cesarean section rate was 10% (n = 5) in the PGE2-gel group and 12% (n = 6) in the control group. Dosage of oxytocin required for labor induction was significantly lower after cervical softening. No serious fetal or maternal side effects were observed after PGE2 pretreatment.

  9. Biomechanical forces promote blood development through prostaglandin E2 and the cAMP–PKA signaling axis

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Miguel F.; Li, Nan; Lee, Hyun Jung; Adamo, Luigi; Evans, Siobahn M.; Willey, Hannah E.; Arora, Natasha; Torisawa, Yu-suke; Vickers, Dwayne A.; Morris, Samantha A.; Naveiras, Olaia; Murthy, Shashi K.; Ingber, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    Blood flow promotes emergence of definitive hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the developing embryo, yet the signals generated by hemodynamic forces that influence hematopoietic potential remain poorly defined. Here we show that fluid shear stress endows long-term multilineage engraftment potential upon early hematopoietic tissues at embryonic day 9.5, an embryonic stage not previously described to harbor HSCs. Effects on hematopoiesis are mediated in part by a cascade downstream of wall shear stress that involves calcium efflux and stimulation of the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)–cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)–protein kinase A (PKA) signaling axis. Blockade of the PGE2–cAMP–PKA pathway in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) abolished enhancement in hematopoietic activity. Furthermore, Ncx1 heartbeat mutants, as well as static cultures of AGM, exhibit lower levels of expression of prostaglandin synthases and reduced phosphorylation of the cAMP response element–binding protein (CREB). Similar to flow-exposed cultures, transient treatment of AGM with the synthetic analogue 16,16-dimethyl-PGE2 stimulates more robust engraftment of adult recipients and greater lymphoid reconstitution. These data provide one mechanism by which biomechanical forces induced by blood flow modulate hematopoietic potential. PMID:25870199

  10. Thymoquinone suppresses migration of LoVo human colon cancer cells by reducing prostaglandin E2 induced COX-2 activation.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsi-Hsien; Chen, Ming-Cheng; Day, Cecilia Hsuan; Lin, Yueh-Min; Li, Shin-Yi; Tu, Chuan-Chou; Padma, Viswanadha Vijaya; Shih, Hui-Nung; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2017-02-21

    To identify potential anti-cancer constituents in natural extracts that inhibit cancer cell growth and migration. Our experiments used high dose thymoquinone (TQ) as an inhibitor to arrest LoVo (a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line) cancer cell growth, which was detected by cell proliferation assay and immunoblotting assay. Low dose TQ did not significantly reduce LoVo cancer cell growth. Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) is an enzyme that is involved in the conversion of arachidonic acid into prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in humans. PGE2 can promote COX-2 protein expression and tumor cell proliferation and was used as a control. Our results showed that 20 μmol/L TQ significantly reduced human LoVo colon cancer cell proliferation. TQ treatment reduced the levels of p-PI3K, p-Akt, p-GSK3β, and β-catenin and thereby inhibited the downstream COX-2 expression. Results also showed that the reduction in COX-2 expression resulted in a reduction in PGE2 levels and the suppression of EP2 and EP4 activation. Further analysis showed that TG treatment inhibited the nuclear translocation of β-catenin in LoVo cancer cells. The levels of the cofactors LEF-1 and TCF-4 were also decreased in the nucleus following TQ treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with low dose TQ inhibited the COX-2 expression at the transcriptional level and the regulation of COX-2 expression efficiently reduced LoVo cell migration. The results were further verified in vivo by confirming the effects of TQ and/or PGE2 using tumor xenografts in nude mice. TQ inhibits LoVo cancer cell growth and migration, and this result highlights the therapeutic advantage of using TQ in combination therapy against colorectal cancer.

  11. Mevastatin ameliorates sphingosine 1‐phosphate‐induced COX‐2/PGE2‐dependent cell migration via FoxO1 and CREB phosphorylation and translocation

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chih‐Kai; Lin, Chih‐Chung; Hsiao, Li‐Der

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Sphingosine 1‐phosphate (S1P), an important inflammatory mediator, has been shown to regulate COX‐2 production and promote various cellular responses such as cell migration. Mevastatin, an inhibitor of 3‐hydroxy‐3‐methylglutaryl‐CoA reductase (HMG‐CoA), effectively inhibits inflammatory responses. However, the mechanisms underlying S1P‐evoked COX‐2‐dependent cell migration, which is modulated by mevastatin in human tracheal smooth muscle cells (HTSMCs) remain unclear. Experimental Approach The expression of COX‐2 was determined by Western blotting, real time‐PCR and promoter analyses. The signalling molecules were investigated by pretreatment with respective pharmacological inhibitors or transfection with siRNAs. The interaction between COX‐2 promoter and transcription factors was determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Finally, the effect of mevastatin on HTSMC migration and leukocyte counts in BAL fluid and COX‐2 expression induced by S1P was determined by a cell migration assay, cell counting and Western blot. Key Results S1P stimulated mTOR activation through the Nox2/ROS and PI3K/Akt pathways, which can further stimulate FoxO1 phosphorylation and translocation to the cytosol. We also found that S1P induced CREB activation and translocation via an mTOR‐independent signalling pathway. Finally, we showed that pretreatment with mevastatin markedly reduced S1P‐induced cell migration and COX‐2/PGE2 production via a PPARγ‐dependent signalling pathway. Conclusions and Implications Mevastatin attenuates the S1P‐induced increased expression of COX‐2 and cell migration via the regulation of FoxO1 and CREB phosphorylation and translocation by PPARγ in HTSMCs. Mevastatin could be beneficial for prevention of airway inflammation in the future. PMID:26359950

  12. Prostaglandin E2 Activates YAP and a Positive-Signaling Loop to Promote Colon Regeneration After Colitis but Also Carcinogenesis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han-Byul; Kim, Minchul; Park, Young-Soo; Park, Intae; Kim, Tackhoon; Yang, Sung-Yeun; Cho, Charles J; Hwang, DaeHee; Jung, Jin-Hak; Markowitz, Sanford D; Hwang, Sung Wook; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Lim, Dae-Sik; Myung, Seung-Jae

    2017-02-01

    Prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) is mediator of inflammation that regulates tissue regeneration, but its continual activation has been associated with carcinogenesis. Little is known about factors in the PGE 2 signaling pathway that contribute to tumor formation. We investigated whether yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1), a transcriptional co-activator in the Hippo signaling pathway, mediates PGE 2 function. DLD-1 and SW480 colon cancer cell lines were transfected with vectors expressing transgenes or small hairpin RNAs and incubated with recombinant PGE 2 , with or without pharmacologic inhibitors of signaling proteins, and analyzed by immunoblot, immunofluorescence, quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, transcriptional reporter, and proliferation assays. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) was given to induce colitis in C57/BL6 (control) mice, as well as in mice with disruption of the hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase 15 gene (15-PGDH-knockout mice), Yap1 gene (YAP-knockout mice), and double-knockout mice. Some mice also were given indomethacin to block PGE 2 synthesis. 15-PGDH knockout mice were crossed with mice with intestine-specific disruption of the salvador family WW domain containing 1 gene (Sav1), which encodes an activator of Hippo signaling. We performed immunohistochemical analyses of colon biopsy samples from 26 patients with colitis-associated cancer and 51 age-and sex-matched patients with colorectal cancer (without colitis). Incubation of colon cancer cell lines with PGE 2 led to phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive element binding protein 1 and increased levels of YAP1 messenger RNA, protein, and YAP1 transcriptional activity. This led to increased transcription of the prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 gene (PTGS2 or cyclooxygenase 2) and prostaglandin E-receptor 4 gene (PTGER4 or EP4). Incubation with PGE 2 promoted proliferation of colon cancer cell lines, but not cells with knockdown of YAP1. Control mice

  13. Prostaglandin E2 regulates melanocyte dendrite formation through activation of PKCζ

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Glynis; Fricke, Alex; Fender, Anne; McClelland, Lindy; Jacobs, Stacey

    2007-01-01

    Prostaglandins are lipid signaling intermediates released by keratinocytes in response to ultraviolet irradiation (UVR) in the skin. The main prostaglandin released following UVR is PGE2, a ligand for 4 related G-protein coupled receptors (EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4). Our previous work established that PGE2 stimulates melanocyte dendrite formation through activation of the EP1 and EP3 receptors. The purpose of the present report is to define the signaling intermediates involved in EP1 and EP3-dependent dendrite formation in human melanocytes. We recently showed that activation of the atypical PKCζ isoform stimulates melanocyte dendricity in response to treatment with lysophosphatidylcholine. We therefore examined the potential contribution of PKCζ activation on EP1 and EP3-dependent dendrite formation in melanocytes. Stimulation of the EP1 and EP3 receptors by selective agonists activated PKCζ, and inhibition of PKCζ activation abrogated EP1 and EP3-receptor mediated melanocyte dendricity. Because of the importance of Rho-GTP binding proteins in the regulation of melanocyte dendricity, we also examined the effect of EP1 and EP3 receptor activation on Rac and Rho activity. Neither Rac nor Rho was activated upon treatment with EP1,3-receptor agonists. We show that melanocytes express only the EP3A1 isoform, but not the EP3B receptor isoform, previously associated with Rho activation, consistent with a lack of Rho stimulation by EP3 agonists. Our data suggest that PKCζ activation plays a predominant role in regulation of PGE2-dependent melanocyte dendricity. PMID:17850789

  14. Pathophysiological role of prostaglandin E2-induced up-regulation of the EP2 receptor in motor neuron-like NSC-34 cells and lumbar motor neurons in ALS model mice.

    PubMed

    Kosuge, Yasuhiro; Miyagishi, Hiroko; Yoneoka, Yuki; Yoneda, Keiko; Nango, Hiroshi; Ishige, Kumiko; Ito, Yoshihisa

    2017-07-04

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by selective degeneration of motor neurons. The primary triggers for motor neuronal death are still unknown, but inflammation is considered to be an important factor contributing to the pathophysiology of ALS both clinically and in ALS models. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and its corresponding four E-prostanoid receptors play a pivotal role in the degeneration of motor neurons in human and transgenic models of ALS. It has also been shown that PGE2-EP2 signaling in glial cells (astrocytes or microglia) promotes motor neuronal death in G93A mice. The present study was designed to investigate the levels of expression of EP receptors in the spinal motor neurons of ALS model mice and to examine whether PGE2 alters the expression of EP receptors in differentiated NSC-34 cells, a motor neuron-like cell line. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that EP2 and EP3 immunoreactivity was localized in NeuN-positive large cells showing the typical morphology of motor neurons in mice. Semi-quantitative analysis showed that the immunoreactivity of EP2 in motor neurons was significantly increased in the early symptomatic stage in ALS model mice. In contrast, the level of EP3 expression remained constant, irrespective of age. In differentiated NSC-34 cells, bath application of PGE2 resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease of MTT reduction. Although PGE2 had no effect on cell survival at concentrations of less than 10 μM, pretreatment with 10 μM PGE2 significantly up-regulated EP2 and concomitantly potentiated cell death induced by 30 μM PGE2. These results suggest that PGE2 is an important effector for induction of the EP2 subtype in differentiated NSC-34 cells, and that not only EP2 up-regulation in glial cells but also EP2 up-regulation in motor neurons plays a pivotal role in the vulnerability of motor neurons in ALS model mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  15. Dynamic compaction of human mesenchymal stem/precursor cells (MSC) into spheres self-activates caspase-dependent IL1 signaling to enhance secretion of modulators of inflammation and immunity (PGE2, TSG6 and STC1)

    PubMed Central

    Bazhanov, Nikolay; Kuhlman, Jessica; Prockop, Darwin J.

    2013-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem/precursor cells (MSC) are similar to some other stem/progenitor cells in that they compact into spheres when cultured in hanging drops or on non-adherent surfaces. Assembly of MSC into spheres alters many of their properties, including enhanced secretion of factors that mediate inflammatory and immune responses. Here we demonstrated that MSC spontaneously aggregated into sphere-like structures after injection into a subcutaneous air pouch or the peritoneum of mice. The structures were similar to MSC spheres formed in cultures demonstrated by the increased expression of genes for inflammation-modulating factors TSG6, STC1, and COX2, a key enzyme in production of PGE2. To identify the signaling pathways involved, hanging drop cultures were used to follow the time-dependent changes in the cells as they compacted into spheres. Among the genes up-regulated were genes for the stress-activated signaling pathway for IL1α/β, and the contact-dependent signaling pathway for Notch. An inhibitor of caspases reduced the up-regulation of IL1A/B expression, and inhibitors of IL1 signaling decreased production of PGE2, TSG6 and STC1. Also, inhibition of IL1A/B expression and secretion of PGE2 negated the anti-inflammatory effects of MSC spheres on stimulated macrophages. Experiments with γ-secretase inhibitors suggested that Notch signaling was also required for production of PGE2 but not TSG6 or STC1. The results indicated that assembly of MSC into spheres triggers caspase-dependent IL1 signaling and the secretion of modulators of inflammation and immunity. Similar aggregation in vivo may account for some of the effects observed with administration of the cells in animal models. PMID:23922312

  16. Sequence analysis and identification of new isoform of EP4 receptors in different atlantic salmon tissues (Salmo salar L.) and its role in PGE2 induced immunomodulation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tz Chun; Gamil, Amr Ahmed Abdelrahim; Koenig, Melanie; Evensen, Øystein

    2015-01-01

    PGE2 plays an important role in a broad spectrum of physiological and pathological processes mediated through a membrane-bound G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) called EP receptor. In mammals, four subtypes of EP receptor (EP 1-4) are identified and each of them functions through different signal transduction pathways. Orthologous EP receptors have also been identified in other non-mammalian species, such as chicken and zebrafish. EP4 is the only identified PGE2 receptor to date in Atlantic salmon but its tissue distribution and function have not been studied in any detail. In this study, we first sequenced EP4 receptor in different tissues and found that the presence of the 3nt deletion in the 5' untranslated region was accompanied by silent mutation at nt 668. While attempting to amplify the same sequence in TO cells (an Atlantic salmon macrophage-like cell line), we failed to obtain the full-length product. Further investigation revealed different isoform of EP4 receptor in TO cells and we subsequently documented its presence in different Atlantic salmon tissues. These two isoforms of EP4 receptor share high homology in their first half of sequence but differ in the second half part with several deletion segments though the final length of coding sequence is the same for two isoforms. We further studied the immunomodulation effect of PGE2 in TO cells and found that PGE2 inhibited the induction of CXCL-10, CCL-4, IL-8 and IL-1β genes expression in a time dependent manner and without cAMP upregulation.

  17. Cigarette smoke condensate inhibits collagen gel contraction and prostaglandin E2 production in human gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Romero, A; Cáceres, M; Arancibia, R; Silva, D; Couve, E; Martínez, C; Martínez, J; Smith, P C

    2015-06-01

    Granulation tissue remodeling and myofibroblastic differentiation are critically important events during wound healing. Tobacco smoking has a detrimental effect in gingival tissue repair. However, studies evaluating the effects of cigarette smoke on these events are lacking. We used gingival fibroblasts cultured within free-floating and restrained collagen gels to simulate the initial and final steps of the granulation tissue phase during tissue repair. Collagen gel contraction was stimulated with serum or transforming growth factor-β1. Cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) was used to evaluate the effects of tobacco smoke on gel contraction. Protein levels of alpha-smooth muscle actin, β1 integrin, matrix metalloproteinase-3 and connective tissue growth factor were evaluated through Western blot. Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) levels were determined through ELISA. Actin organization was evaluated through confocal microscopy. CSC reduced collagen gel contraction induced by serum and transforming growth factor-β1 in restrained collagen gels. CSC also altered the development of actin stress fibers in fibroblasts cultured within restrained collagen gels. PGE(2) levels were strongly diminished by CSC in three-dimensional cell cultures. However, other proteins involved in granulation tissue remodeling and myofibroblastic differentiation such as alpha-smooth muscle actin, β1 integrin, matrix metalloproteinase-3 and connective tissue growth factor, were unmodified by CSC. CSC may alter the capacity of gingival fibroblasts to remodel and contract a collagen matrix. Inhibition of PGE(2) production and alterations of actin stress fibers in these cells may impair proper tissue maturation during wound healing in smokers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Expanded adipose-derived stem cells suppress mixed lymphocyte reaction by secretion of prostaglandin E2.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lei; Yin, Shuo; Liu, Wei; Li, Ningli; Zhang, Wenjie; Cao, Yilin

    2007-06-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in adult tissue are known to be less immunogenic and immunosuppressive. Previous study showed that primary cultures of human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) shared their immunomodulatory properties with other MSCs. However, whether passaged human ADSCs can retain their immunomodulatory effect after in vitro expansion remains unknown. In addition, the mechanism of ADSC-mediated immunomodulatory effect remains to be elucidated. This study aimed to investigate these issues by using passaged human ADSCs as an in vitro study model. Flow cytometry showed that passaged ADSCs expressed human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I but not class II molecules, which could be induced to express to a high level with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) treatment. The study found that passaged ADSCs could not elicit lymphocyte proliferation after co-culturing with them, even after IFN-gamma treatment. In addition, either IFN-gamma-treated or non-treated ADSCs could inhibit phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation. Moreover, passaged ADSCs could serve as the third-party cells to inhibited two-way mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). Further study using a transwell system also showed that this type of immunosuppressive effect was not cell-cell contact dependent. In defining possible soluble factors, we found that passaged ADSCs significantly increased their secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), but not transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), when they were co-cultured with MLR. Furthermore, the result demonstrated that only PGE2 production inhibitor indomethacine, but not TGF-beta- and HGF-neutralizing antibodies, could significantly counteract ADSC-mediated suppression on allogeneic lymphocyte proliferation. These results indicated that in vitro expanded ADSCs retain low immunogenicity and immunosuppressive effect, and PGE2 might be the major soluble factor involved in the in vitro inhibition of

  19. Microsomal Prostaglandin E2 Synthase-1 Modulates the Response to Vascular Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Miao; Ihida-Stansbury, Kaori; Kothapalli, Devashish; Tamby, Mathieu C.; Yu, Zhou; Chen, Lihong; Grant, Gregory; Cheng, Yan; Lawson, John A.; Assoian, Richard K.; Jones, Peter L.; FitzGerald, Garret A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Microsomal (m) prostaglandin (PG) E2 synthase (S)-1 catalyzes the formation of PGE2 from PGH2, a cyclooxygenase (COX) product that is derived from arachidonic acid. Previous studies in mice suggest that targeting mPGES-1 may be less likely to cause hypertension or thrombosis than COX-2 selective inhibition or deletion in vivo. Indeed, deletion of mPGES-1 retards atherogenesis and angiotensin II-induced aortic aneurysm formation. The role of mPGES-1 in the response to vascular injury is unknown. Methods and Results Mice were subjected to wire injury of the femoral artery. Both neointimal area and vascular stenosis were reduced significantly four weeks after injury in mPGES-1 knock out (KO) mice compared to wild type (WT) controls (65.6±5.7 vs 37.7±5.1×103 pixel area and 70.5±13.4% vs 47.7±17.4%, respectively; p < 0.01). Induction of tenascin C (TN-C) after injury, a pro-proliferative and promigratory extracellular matrix protein, was attenuated in the KOs. Consistent with in vivo rediversion of PG biosynthesis, mPGES-1 deleted vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) generated less PGE2, but more PGI2 and expressed reduced TN-C when compared with WT cells. Both suppression of PGE2 and augmentation of PGI2 attenuate TN-C expression, VSMC proliferation and migration in vitro. Conclusions Deletion of mPGES-1 in mice attenuates neointimal hyperplasia after vascular injury, in part by regulating TN-C expression. This raises for consideration the therapeutic potential of mPGES-1 inhibitors as adjuvant therapy for percutaneous coronary intervention. PMID:21282500

  20. Respiratory Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain infection induces Th17 cells and prostaglandin E2, which inhibits generation of gamma interferon-positive T cells.

    PubMed

    Woolard, Matthew D; Hensley, Lucinda L; Kawula, Thomas H; Frelinger, Jeffrey A

    2008-06-01

    Two key routes of Francisella tularensis infection are through the skin and airway. We wished to understand how the route of inoculation influenced the primary acute adaptive immune response. We show that an intranasal inoculation of the F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) with a 1,000-fold-smaller dose than an intradermal dose results in similar growth kinetics and peak bacterial burdens. In spite of similar bacterial burdens, we demonstrate a difference in the quality, magnitude, and kinetics of the primary acute T-cell response depending on the route of inoculation. Further, we show that prostaglandin E(2) secretion in the lung is responsible for the difference in the gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) response. Intradermal inoculation led to a large number of IFN-gamma(+) T cells 7 days after infection in both the spleen and the lung. In contrast, intranasal inoculation induced a lower number of IFN-gamma(+) T cells in the spleen and lung but an increased number of Th17 cells in the lung. Intranasal infection also led to a significant increase of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Inhibition of PGE(2) production with indomethacin treatment resulted in increased numbers of IFN-gamma(+) T cells and decreased bacteremia in the lungs of intranasally inoculated mice. This research illuminates critical differences in acute adaptive immune responses between inhalational and dermal infection with F. tularensis LVS mediated by the innate immune system and PGE(2).

  1. The low molecular weight fraction of human serum albumin upregulates COX2, prostaglandin E2, and prostaglandin D2 under inflammatory conditions in osteoarthritic knee synovial fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Elizabeth D; Hausburg, Melissa A; Thomas, Gregory W; Rael, Leonard T; Brody, Edward; Bar-Or, David

    2016-12-01

    The ability to decrease inflammation and promote healing is important in the intervention and management of a variety of disease states, including osteoarthritis of the knee (OAK). Even though cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) has an established pro-inflammatory role, evidence suggests it is also critical to the resolution that occurs after the initial activation phase of the immune response. In this study, we investigated the effects of the low molecular weight fraction of 5% human serum albumin (LMWF-5A), an agent that has proven to decrease pain and improve function in OAK patients after intra-articular injection, on the expression of COX2 and its downstream products, prostaglandins (PGs). Fibroblast-like synoviocytes from the synovial membrane of OAK patients were treated with LMWF-5A or saline as a control with or without the addition of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) or tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) to elicit an inflammatory response. Cells were harvested for RNA and protein at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h, and media was collected at 24 h for analysis of secreted products. COX2 mRNA expression was determined by qPCR, and COX2 protein expression was determined by western blot analysis. Levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) in the media were quantified by competitive ELISA. In the presence of either IL-1β or TNFα, LMWF-5A increased the expression of both COX2 mRNA and protein, and this increase was significant compared to that observed with IL-1β- or TNFα-stimulated, saline-treated cells. Downstream of COX2, the levels of PGE2 were increased only in TNFα-stimulated, LMWF-5A-treated cells; however, in both IL-1β- and TNFα-stimulated cells, LMWF-5A increased the release of the anti-inflammatory prostaglandin PGD2. LMWF-5A appears to trigger increased anti-inflammatory PG signaling, and this may be a primary component of its therapeutic mode of action in the treatment of OAK.

  2. Prostaglandin action on transmitter release of adrenergic neuroeffector junctions.

    PubMed

    Hedqvist, P

    1976-01-01

    The results presented here indicate that 1. The inhibitory action of the endoperoxides on NE release can be at least partly explained in terms of formation of degradation products, presumably mainly PGE2. 2. PGA2 is less active and the PG analogue 16,16-dimethyl-PGE2 more active than PGEs on transmitter release from adrenergic nerves. 3. PGF2alpha seems to enhance vascular responses to renal nerve activity solely by a postjunctional action. 4. PG synthesis inhibition augments NE turnover in a number of rat organs, thereby increasing the probability of PGs being involved in the control of adrenergic neurotransmission in vivo. 5. Prolongation of the duration of the impulse and action potential counteracts the effect of PGE on NE release, thereby strengthening the view that PGs operate on NE release from adrenergic nerve terminals by interfering with Ca2+ influx.

  3. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor counter-regulates dexamethasone-induced annexin 1 expression and influences the release of eicosanoids in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu; Wang, Yu; Li, Jia-Hui; Zhu, Shi-Hui; Tang, Hong-Tai; Xia, Zhao-Fan

    2013-10-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a pro-inflammatory cytokine and glucocorticoid (GC) counter-regulator, has emerged as an important modulator of inflammatory responses. However, the molecular mechanisms of MIF counter-regulation of GC still remain incomplete. In the present study, we investigated whether MIF mediated the counter-regulation of the anti-inflammatory effect of GC by affecting annexin 1 in RAW 264.7 macrophages. We found that stimulation of RAW 264.7 macrophages with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resulted in down-regulation of annexin 1, while GC dexamethasone (Dex) or Dex plus LPS led to significant up-regulation of annexin 1 expression. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of intracellular MIF increased annexin 1 expression with or without incubation of Dex, whereas Dex-induced annexin 1 expression was counter-regulated by the exogenous application of recombinant MIF. Moreover, recombinant MIF counter-regulated, in a dose-dependent manner, inhibition of cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) activation and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4 ) release by Dex in RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with LPS. Endogenous depletion of MIF enhanced the effects of Dex, reflected by further decease of cPLA2α expression and lower PGE2 and LTB4 release in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Based on these data, we suggest that MIF counter-regulates Dex-induced annexin 1 expression, further influencing the activation of cPLA2α and the release of eicosanoids. These findings will add new insights into the mechanisms of MIF counter-regulation of GC. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The E(2) particle

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Subir; Pal, Probir; Physics Department, Uluberia College, Uluberia, Howrah 711315

    2009-12-15

    Recently it has been advocated [A. G. Cohen and S. L. Glashow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 021601 (2006)] that for describing nature within the minimal symmetry requirement, certain subgroups of the Lorentz group may play a fundamental role. One such group is E(2) which induces a Lie algebraic noncommutative spacetime [M. M. Sheikh-Jabbari and A. Tureanu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 261601 (2008); arXiv:0811.3670] where translation invariance is not fully maintained. We have constructed a consistent structure of noncommutative phase space for this system, and furthermore we have studied an appropriate point particle action on it. Interestingly, the Einstein dispersion relationmore » p{sup 2}=m{sup 2} remains intact. The model is constructed by exploiting a dual canonical phase space following the scheme developed by us earlier [S. Ghosh and P. Pal, Phys. Rev. D 75, 105021 (2007)].« less

  5. Prostaglandin E2 to diagnose between reversible and irreversible pulpitis.

    PubMed

    Petrini, M; Ferrante, M; Ciavarelli, L; Brunetti, L; Vacca, M; Spoto, G

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to verify a correlation between the grade of inflammation and the concentration of PGE2 in human dental pulp. A total of 25 human dental pulps were examined by histological analysis and radioimmunologic dosage of PGE2. The pulps used in this experiment were from healthy and symptomatic teeth; the first ones were collected from teeth destined to be extracted for orthodontic reasons. An increase was observed of PGE2 in reversible pulpitis compared with healthy pulps and with the irreversible pulpitis and the clear decrease of these when NSAIDs are taken. This study demonstrates that PGE2 level is correlated to histological analysis thus allowing to distinguish symptomatic teeth in reversible and irreversible pulpitis.

  6. Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Induces Prostaglandin E2 Production through Cyclooxygenase 1, Which Is Dependent on the ERK1/2-p-C/EBP-β Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Yanmin; Guo, Xue-kun; Zhao, Haiyan; Gao, Li; Wang, Lianghai; Tang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Atypical porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) caused by highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) is characterized by high fever and high mortality. However, the mechanism underlying the fever induction is still unknown. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), synthesized by cyclooxygenase type 1/2 (COX-1/2) enzymes, is essential for inducing fever. In this study, we found that PGE2, together with COX-1, was significantly elevated by HP-PRRSV. We subsequently demonstrated that extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) were the key nodes to trigger COX-1 expression after HP-PRRSV infection. Furthermore, we proved the direct binding of p-C/EBP-β to the COX-1 promoter by luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. In addition, silencing of C/EBP-β remarkably impaired the enhancement of COX-1 production induced by HP-PRRSV infection. Taken together, our results indicate that HP-PPRSV elicits the expression of COX-1 through the ERK1/2-p-C/EBP-β signaling pathway, resulting in the increase of PGE2, which might be the cause of high fever in infected pigs. Our findings might provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of HP-PRRSV infection. IMPORTANCE The atypical PRRS caused by HP-PRRSV was characterized by high fever, high morbidity, and high mortality in pigs of all ages, yet how HP-PRRSV induces high fever in pigs remains unknown. In the present study, we found out that HP-PRRSV infection could increase PGE2 production by upregulation of COX-1, and we subsequently characterized the underlying mechanisms about how HP-PRRSV enhances COX-1 production. PGE2 plays a critical role in inducing high temperature in hosts during pathogen infections. Thus, our findings here could help us have a better understanding of HP-PRRSV pathogenesis. PMID:24352469

  7. Prostaglandin E2 activates the mTORC1 pathway through an EP4/cAMP/PKA- and EP1/Ca2+-mediated mechanism in the human pancreatic carcinoma cell line PANC-1.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hui-Hua; Young, Steven H; Sinnett-Smith, James; Chou, Caroline Ei Ne; Moro, Aune; Hertzer, Kathleen M; Hines, Oscar Joe; Rozengurt, Enrique; Eibl, Guido

    2015-11-15

    Obesity, a known risk factor for pancreatic cancer, is associated with inflammation and insulin resistance. Proinflammatory prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and elevated insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF-1), related to insulin resistance, are shown to play critical roles in pancreatic cancer progression. We aimed to explore a potential cross talk between PGE2 signaling and the IGF-1/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway in pancreatic cancer, which may be a key to unraveling the obesity-cancer link. In PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells, we showed that PGE2 stimulated mTORC1 activity independently of Akt, as evaluated by downstream signaling events. Subsequently, using pharmacological and genetic approaches, we demonstrated that PGE2-induced mTORC1 activation is mediated by the EP4/cAMP/PKA pathway, as well as an EP1/Ca(2+)-dependent pathway. The cooperative roles of the two pathways were supported by the maximal inhibition achieved with the combined pharmacological blockade, and the coexistence of highly expressed EP1 (mediating the Ca(2+) response) and EP2 or EP4 (mediating the cAMP/PKA pathway) in PANC-1 cells and in the prostate cancer line PC-3, which also robustly exhibited PGE2-induced mTORC1 activation, as identified from a screen in various cancer cell lines. Importantly, we showed a reinforcing interaction between PGE2 and IGF-1 on mTORC1 signaling, with an increase in IL-23 production as a cellular outcome. Our data reveal a previously unrecognized mechanism of PGE2-stimulated mTORC1 activation mediated by EP4/cAMP/PKA and EP1/Ca(2+) signaling, which may be of great importance in elucidating the promoting effects of obesity in pancreatic cancer. Ultimately, a precise understanding of these molecular links may provide novel targets for efficacious interventions devoid of adverse effects. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Novel celecoxib analogues inhibit glial production of prostaglandin E2, nitric oxide, and oxygen radicals reverting the neuroinflammatory responses induced by misfolded prion protein fragment 90-231 or lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Villa, Valentina; Thellung, Stefano; Bajetto, Adriana; Gatta, Elena; Robello, Mauro; Novelli, Federica; Tasso, Bruno; Tonelli, Michele; Florio, Tullio

    2016-11-01

    We tested the efficacy of novel cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitors in counteracting glia-driven neuroinflammation induced by the amyloidogenic prion protein fragment PrP90-231 or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In search for molecules with higher efficacy than celecoxib, we focused our study on its 2,3-diaryl-1,3-thiazolidin-4-one analogues. As experimental models, we used the immortalized microglial cell line N9, rat purified microglial primary cultures, and mixed cultures of astrocytes and microglia. Microglia activation in response to PrP90-231 or LPS was characterized by growth arrest, morphology changes and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover, PrP90-231 treatment caused the overexpression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and COX-2, with the consequent nitric oxide (NO), and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) accumulation. These effects were challenged by different celecoxib analogues, among which Q22 (3-[4-(sulfamoyl)phenyl]-2-(4-tolyl)thiazolidin-4-one) inhibited microglia activation more efficiently than celecoxib, lowering both iNOS and COX-2 activity and reducing ROS release. During neurodegenerative diseases, neuroinflammation induced by amyloidogenic peptides causes the activation of both astrocytes and microglia with these cell populations mutually regulating each other. Thus the effects of PrP90-231 and LPS were also studied on mixed glial cultures containing astrocytes and microglia. PrP90-231 treatment elicited different responses in the co-cultures induced astrocyte proliferation and microglia growth arrest, resulting in a differential ability to release proinflammatory molecules with the production of NO and ROS mainly attributable on microglia, while COX-2 expression was induced also in astrocytes. Q22 effects on both NO and PGE 2 secretion were more significant in the mixed glial cultures than in purified microglia, demonstrating Q22 ability to revert the functional interaction between astrocytes and microglia. These results

  9. Prostaglandin E2 and IL-23 interconnects STAT3 and RoRγ pathways to initiate Th17 CD4+ T-cell development during rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Janaiya S; Holland, Lauren; López, María; Meyers, Keya; Cumbie, William G; McClain, Anna; Ignatowicz, Aleksandra; Nelson, Daryllynn; Shashidharamurthy, Rangaiah

    2018-04-30

    The chronic inflammation associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) leads to focal and systemic bone erosion of the joints resulting in a crippling disability. Recent reports indicate an increase in the incidence of RA in the coming years, placing a significant burden on healthcare resources. The incidence of RA is observed to be increasing with age and a significant proportion of those new cases will be aggressively erosive. The altered physiology, due to immune disturbances, contributes towards RA pathogenesis. The imbalance of inflammatory cytokines and non-cytokine immune modulators such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and IL-23-induced pathogenic IL-17, plays a crucial role in persistent inflammation and bone degradation during RA. However, the molecular mechanism of IL-23, a key cytokine, and PGE2 in the development and perpetuation of IL-17 producing effector Th17 cells is poorly understood. This review focuses on research findings that provide insight into the contribution of PGE2 and IL-23 during the development of pathogenic Th17 cells. We also highlight the key transcriptional factors required for Th17 development and therapeutic strategies to disrupt the interaction between IL-23 and IL-17 to prevent the end-organ damage in RA.

  10. Constituents of PG201 (Layla(®)), a multi-component phytopharmaceutical, with inhibitory activity on LPS-induced nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 productions in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Ji; Kim, Hye Mi; Ryu, Byeol; Lee, Woo-Seok; Shin, Ji-Sun; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Jang, Dae Sik

    2016-02-01

    Fourteen compounds, coumarin (1), demethylsuberosin (2), xanthotoxin (3), psoralen (4), decursinol (5), decursin (6), decursinol angelate (7), chikusetsusaponin IVa (8), chikusetsusaponin IVa methyl ester (9), ethyl caffeate (10), syringaresinol (11), cnidilide (12), farnesol (13), and linoleic acid (14), were isolated from phytopharmaceutical PG201 (Layla(®)) by activity-guided fractionation utilizing inhibitory activity on nitric oxide (NO) production in vitro. The isolates 1-14 were evaluated for their inhibitory activity on LPS-induced NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) productions in RAW 264.7 cells. All the compounds except 14 displayed suppressive effects on LPS-induced NO and PGE2 production with IC50 values ranging from 8 to 60 μM. Among these, compound 10 showed the most potent inhibitory effect on NO production from RAW 264.7 cells with an IC50 value of 8.25 μM. Compounds 2, 9, and 10 exhibited high inhibitory effects on PGE2 production with the IC50 values of 9.42, 7.51, and 6.49 μM, respectively. These findings suggest that compounds 2, 9, and 10 are the potential anti-inflammatory active constituents of PG201 and further study may be needed to explain their mechanism of action.

  11. The effects of prostaglandin E2 on the firing rate activity of thermosensitive and temperature insensitive neurons in the ventromedial preoptic area of the rat hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Ranels, Heather J; Griffin, John D

    2003-02-21

    In response to an immune system challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), recent work has shown that Fos immunoreactivity is displayed by neurons in the ventromedial preoptic area of the hypothalamus (VMPO). In addition, neurons in this region show distinct axonal projections to the anterior perifornical area (APFx) and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). It has been hypothesized that neurons within the VMPO integrate their local responses to temperature with changes in firing activity that result from LPS induced production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). This may be an important mechanism by which the set-point regulation of thermoeffector neurons in the APFx and PVN is altered, resulting in hyperthermia. To characterize the firing rate activity of VMPO neurons, single-unit recordings were made of neuronal extracellular activity in rat hypothalamic tissue slices. Based on the slope of firing rate as a function of tissue temperature, neurons were classified as either warm sensitive or temperature insensitive. Neurons were then treated with PGE(2) (200 nM) while tissue temperature was held at a constant level ( approximately 36 degrees C). The majority of temperature insensitive neurons responded to PGE(2) with an increase in firing rate activity, while warm sensitive neurons showed a reduction in firing rate. This suggests that both warm sensitive and temperature insensitive neurons in the VMPO may play critical and contrasting roles in the production of a fever during an acute phase response to infection.

  12. Lepeophtheirus salmonis: characterization of prostaglandin E(2) in secretory products of the salmon louse by RP-HPLC and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fast, M D; Ross, N W; Craft, C A; Locke, S J; MacKinnon, S L; Johnson, S C

    2004-01-01

    Lepeophtheirus salmonis is an ectoparasitic copepod that causes serious disease outbreaks in both wild and farmed salmonids. As the relationship between L. salmonis and its hosts is not well understood, the current investigation was undertaken to investigate whether any immunomodulatory compounds could be identified from secretions of L. salmonis. By incubating live L. salmonis adults with the neurotransmitter dopamine in seawater, we were able to obtain secretions from the parasite. These were analyzed by RP-HPLC column, as well as LC-MS. L. salmonis secretions contained a compound with the same retention time and mass of PGE(2). The identity of this compound as PGE(2) was confirmed by MS-in source dissociation. The concentrations of PGE(2) in L. salmonis secretions ranged from 0.2 to 12.3 ng/individual and varied with incubation temperature and time kept off the host. Prostaglandin E(2) is a potent vasodilator and thought to aid in parasite evasion from host immune responses. This is the first reported evidence of prostaglandin production in parasitic copepod secretions and its implications for the host-parasite relationship are discussed.

  13. Oligonol supplementation attenuates body temperature and the circulating levels of prostaglandin E2 and cyclooxygenase-2 after heat stress in humans.

    PubMed

    Shin, Young Oh; Lee, Jeong Beom; Song, Young Ju; Min, Young Ki; Yang, Hun Mo

    2013-04-01

    Oligonol, a phenolic production from lychee, has been reported to exhibit anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. This study investigated the effect of Oligonol supplementation on circulating levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, as well as body temperature, after heat stress in 17 healthy human male volunteers (age, 21.6±2.1 years). All experiments were performed in an automated climate chamber (26.0°C±0.5°C, relative humidity 60%±3.0%, air velocity less than 1 m/sec) between 2 and 5 p.m. Subjects ingested an Oligonol (100 mg)-containing beverage or placebo beverage before half-body immersion into hot water (42°C±0.5°C for 30 min). Tympanic and skin temperatures were measured and mean body temperatures were calculated. Serum concentrations of PGE2 and COX-2 were analyzed before, immediately after, and 60 min after immersion. Oligonol intake significantly prevented elevation of tympanic (temperature difference: 0.17°C at Post, P<.05; 0.17°C at Re-60, P<.05) and mean body temperatures (temperature difference: 0.18°C at Post, P<.05; 0.15°C at Re-60, P<.05), and lowered concentrations of serum PGE2 (increased by 13.3% vs. 29.6% at Post, P<.05) and COX-2 (increased by 15.6% vs. 21.8% at Post, P<.05), compared to placebo beverage. Our result suggests that Oligonol has the potential to suppress increases in body temperature under heat stress, and this is associated with decreases in serum levels of PGE2 and COX-2.

  14. The prostaglandin E2 receptor PTGER2 and prostaglandin F2α receptor PTGFR mediate oviductal glycoprotein 1 expression in bovine oviductal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Mao, Wei; Zhang, Ying; Huang, Na; Liu, Bo; Gao, Long; Zhang, Shuangyi; Cao, Jinshan

    2018-04-13

    Oviductal glycoprotein 1 (OVGP1), an oviductin, is involved in the maintenance of sperm viability and motility and contributes to sperm capacitation in the oviduct. In this study, the regulatory effects exerted by prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) and F 2α (PGF 2α ) on OVGP1 expression via their corresponding receptors in bovine oviductal epithelial cells (BOECs) were investigated. BOECs were cultured in vitro, and their expression of receptors of PGE 2 (PTGER1, PTGER2, PTGER3, and PTGER4) and PGF 2α (PTGFR) was measured using RT-qPCR. Ca 2+ concentration was determined with a fluorescence-based method and cAMP was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to verify activation of PTGER2 and PTGFR by their corresponding agonists in these cells. OVGP1 mRNA and protein expression was measured using RT-qPCR and western blotting, respectively, following PTGER2 and PTGFR agonist-induced activation. PTGER1, PTGER2, PTGER4, and PTGFR were found to be present in BOECs; however, PTGER3 expression was not detected. OVGP1 expression was significantly promoted by 10 -6 M butaprost (a PTGER2 agonist) and decreased by 10 -6 M fluprostenol (a PTGFR agonist). In addition, 3 μM H-89 (a PKA inhibitor) and 3 μM U0126 (an ERK inhibitor) effectively inhibited PGE 2 -induced upregulation of OVGP1, and 5 μM chelerythrine chloride (a PKC inhibitor) and 3 μM U0126 negated OVGP1 downregulation by PGF 2α . In conclusion, this study demonstrates that OVGP1 expression in BOECs is enhanced by PGE 2 via PTGER2-cAMP-PKA signaling, and reduced by PGF 2α through the PTGFR-Ca 2+ -PKC pathway.

  15. The Papillomavirus E2 proteins

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, Alison A., E-mail: amcbride@nih.gov

    2013-10-15

    The papillomavirus E2 proteins are pivotal to the viral life cycle and have well characterized functions in transcriptional regulation, initiation of DNA replication and partitioning the viral genome. The E2 proteins also function in vegetative DNA replication, post-transcriptional processes and possibly packaging. This review describes structural and functional aspects of the E2 proteins and their binding sites on the viral genome. It is intended to be a reference guide to this viral protein. - Highlights: • Overview of E2 protein functions. • Structural domains of the papillomavirus E2 proteins. • Analysis of E2 binding sites in different genera of papillomaviruses.more » • Compilation of E2 associated proteins. • Comparison of key mutations in distinct E2 functions.« less

  16. Circadian and estral changes in the hypothalamic prostaglandin e content and [h]prostaglandin e binding in female rats.

    PubMed

    Bommelaer-Bayet, M C; Wisner, A; Renard, C A; Levi, F A; Dray, F

    1990-04-01

    Abstract Prostaglandin E(2), (PGE(2)) is involved in the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-stimulated luteinizing hormone surge in female rats and may act via specific membrane receptors. The following studies were performed to determine whether there were any changes in the hypothalamic PGE(2) binding and/or PGE(2) content which were specific to proestrus and not to the rest of the estrous cycle. Groups of female Wistar rats were sacrificed at 3-h intervals throughout the estrous cycle to determine both the circadian and circaestral changes in the hypothalamic PGE(2) content and [(3)H]PGE(2) binding. The hypothalamic PGE(2) content was maximal at 1700 h on each of the 4 consecutive days of the estrous cycle but was independent of the stage of the cycle. [(3)H]PGE(2) binding also displayed a circadian rhythm; the lowest binding occurred near the circadian peak of PGE(2), suggesting that the PGE(2) binding sites were occupied by endogenous PGE(2). Since such circadian rhythms were not observed in the hypothalamus of male rats, they may be under the control of ovarian steroids. Also, since PGE(2) binding and the PGE(2) content both exhibit a diurnal pattern independent of the day of the cycle, there may be changes in the PGE(2) receptor-mediated process coupled to an adenylyl cyclase which could explain the luteinizing hormone surge in proestrus.

  17. Src kinase signaling mediates estrous behavior induced by 5β-reduced progestins, GnRH, prostaglandin E2 and vaginocervical stimulation in estrogen-primed rats.

    PubMed

    Lima-Hernández, Francisco J; Beyer, Carlos; Gómora-Arrati, Porfirio; García-Juárez, Marcos; Encarnación-Sánchez, José L; Etgen, Anne M; González-Flores, Oscar

    2012-11-01

    The progesterone receptor (PR) is a dual function protein that acts in the nucleus as a transcriptional factor and at the cytoplasm as a scaffold for the Src-MAPK signaling pathway. Several agents lacking affinity for the PR, such as 5β-reduced progestins, GnRH or prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) facilitate estrous behavior in ovariectomized (ovx), estrogen-primed rats yet their action is blocked by the antiprogestin RU486. We hypothesize that these agents act by using the PR-Src-mitogen activated protein kinase alternative pathway. To test this hypothesis we used PP2, a specific inhibitor of the Src kinase family. Intraventricular infusion of 30 μg of PP2, 30 min before behavioral testing, significantly attenuated estrous behaviors induced in estradiol benzoate (E(2)B)-primed rats by 5β-dihydroprogesterone (5β-DHP), 5β-pregnan-3β-ol-20-one (5β,3β-Pgl), GnRH, PGE(2) and by manual flank/vaginocervical stimulation. These results suggest that the Src signaling system, by activating mitogen-activated protein kinases, participates in the facilitation of estrous behavior in E(2)B-primed rats induced by agents lacking affinity for the PR. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The expression of TRPV channels, prostaglandin E2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines during behavioural fever in fish.

    PubMed

    Boltana, Sebastian; Sanhueza, Nataly; Donoso, Andrea; Aguilar, Andrea; Crespo, Diego; Vergara, Daniela; Arriagada, Gabriel; Morales-Lange, Byron; Mercado, Luis; Rey, Sonia; Tort, Lluis; Mackenzie, Simon

    2018-03-21

    A fever, or increased body temperature, is a symptom of inflammation, which is a complex defence reaction of the organism to pathogenic infections. After pathogens enter the body, immune cells secrete a number of agents, the functions of which stimulate the body to develop a functional immune and fever response. In mammals it is known that PGE 2 is the principal mediator of fever. The extent to which PGE 2 and other pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, or IL-1β could be involved in the induction of behavioural fever in fish remains to be clarified. Several members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of ion channels have been implicated as transducers of thermal stimuli, including TRPV1 and TRPV2, which are activated by heat. Here we show that members of the TRP family, TRPV1 and TRPV4, may participate in the coordination of temperature sensing during the behavioural fever. To examine the behavioral fever mechanism in Salmo salar an infection with IPNV, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, was carried out by an immersion challenge with 10 × 10 5 PFU/mL -1 of IPNV. Behavioural fever impacted upon the expression levels of both TRPV1 and TRPV4 mRNAs after the viral challenge and revealed a juxtaposed regulation of TRPV channels. Our results suggest that an increase in the mRNA abundance of TRPV1 is tightly correlated with a significant elevation in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and PGE 2 ) in the Pre-Optic Area (POA) and cytokine release in plasma. Together, these data indicate that the reduction of TRPV4 expression during behavioural fever may contribute to the onset of behavioural fever influencing movement toward higher water temperatures. Our data also suggest an effect of TRPV channels in the regulation of behavioural fever through activation of EP3 receptors in the central nervous system by PGE 2 induced by plasma-borne cytokines. These results highlight for first time in mobile ectotherms the

  19. Prostaglandin E2 induces expression of P-selectin (CD62P) on cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells and enhances endothelial binding of CD4-T-cells.

    PubMed

    Hailer, N P; Oppermann, E; Leckel, K; Cinatl, J; Markus, B H; Blaheta, R A

    2000-07-15

    Interaction of endothelial P-selectin with sialyl Lewis(x)-glycoprotein or P-selectin glycoprotein ligand (PSGL)-1 on leukocytes represents an early step in leukocyte recruitment. Redistribution of P-selectin to the endothelial cell surface occurs rapidly after challenge with several proinflammatory agents, for example, histamine, leucopterins, or lipopolysaccharide. We present evidence that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is an efficient inductor of surface P-selectin on cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The increase in P-selectin-immunoreactivity coincided with redistribution of cytoplasmic P-selectin-reactive granulae to the endothelial cell surface, as visualized by confocal laser microscopic examination. CD4-T-cell adhesion to PGE2-stimulated HUVEC was also enhanced by a factor of 4, and blocking mAb directed against the binding site of P-selectin almost completely abrogated this increase in CD4-T-cell adhesion. In summary, our findings show that liberation of PGE2 is an important inductor of P-selectin surface expression on endothelial cells, resulting in enhanced recruitment of inflammatory cells.

  20. Expression of programmed cell death1 in T follicular helper cells is regulated by prostaglandin E2 secreted by HBV-infected HepG2.2.1.5 cells.

    PubMed

    Sui, Zhefeng; Shi, Ying; Gao, Zhiling; Yang, Deguang; Wang, Zhihao

    2017-06-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the distribution of T follicular helper (Tfh)-cell subsets in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and determine the underlying mechanism of HBV regulation of Tfh cells. The frequency of peripheral blood Tfh subsets was analyzed using flow cytometry. The expression level of programmed cell death‑1 (PD‑1) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was quantified using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. The PGE2 level in culture supernatant was detected using enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay. A Transwell chamber was used to co‑culture Tfh cells with HepG2 and HepG2.2.1.5. The percentage of inducible T‑cell costimulator (ICOS)+ and total Tfh cells was high at the immune activation (IA) group; however, it was reduced in the immune tolerance (IT), responders with HBsAg seroconversion (RP) and healthy control (HC) groups. The percentage of PD‑1+ Tfh cells was significantly higher in IA and IT compared with RP and HC. The ratio of PD‑1+/total Tfh cells was positively correlated with the load of HBV DNA; therefore, this ratio may act as an indicator for HBV replication. The expression level of PD‑1 in Tfh cells was higher in the HepG2.2.1.5 co‑cultured group compared with the HepG2 group, this may be due to the high PGE2 expression level in HBV‑infected HepG2.2.1.5 cells. The findings of the present study revealed an imbalanced distribution of PD‑1+ Tfh cells in patients with HBV at different immune phases. Additionally, HBV may upregulate the expression of PD‑1 in Tfh cells by promoting HepG2.2.1.5 to secret PGE2. Identifying the effect of HBV on Tfh‑cell subsets is crucial for improving immuno-based therapy for HBV.

  1. Oral gold compound auranofin triggers arachidonate release and cyclooxygenase metabolism in the alveolar macrophage

    SciTech Connect

    Peters-Golden, M.; Shelly, C.

    1988-12-01

    We examined the effect of in vitro incubation with the oral gold compound auranofin (AF) on arachidonic acid (AA) release and metabolism by rat alveolar macrophages (AMs). AF stimulated dose- and time-dependent release of /sup 14/C-AA from prelabeled AMs, which reached 4.7 +/- 0.3% (mean +/- SEM) of incorporated radioactivity at 10 micrograms/ml for 90 min, as compared to 0.5 +/- 0.1% release following control incubation for 90 min (p less than 0.001). Similar dose- and time-dependent synthesis of thromboxane (Tx) A2 (measured as TxB2) and prostaglandin (PG) E2 was demonstrated by radioimmunoassay of medium from unlabeled cultures, reaching 18-foldmore » and 9-fold, respectively, of the control values at 10 micrograms/ml AF for 90 min (p less than 0.001 for both). AF-induced TxB2 and PGE2 synthesis was inhibited by indomethacin as well as by pretreatment with methylprednisolone. No increase in the synthesis of immunoreactive leukotrienes (LT) B4 or C4 was noted at any dose or time of AF. High performance liquid chromatographic separation of /sup 14/C-eicosanoids synthesized by prelabeled AMs confirmed that AF induced the release of free AA and its metabolism to cyclooxygenase, but not 5-lipoxygenase, metabolites. The ability of AF to trigger macrophage AA metabolism may be relevant to the exacerbation of certain inflammatory processes which sometimes accompany gold therapy.« less

  2. E-2D Advanced Hawkeye Aircraft (E-2D AHE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    and Homeland Defense. As a part of the E-2D AHE radar modernization effort, the Navy also invested in integrating a full glass cockpit and full...Communication Navigation Surveillance/Air Traffic Management capability. The glass cockpit will also provide the capability for the pilot or co-pilot to...hours at a station distance of 200nm Flat Turn Service Ceiling =>25,000 feet above MSL at mission profile =>25,000 feet above MSL at mission

  3. Stromal Cells Positively and Negatively Modulate the Growth of Cancer Cells: Stimulation via the PGE2-TNFα-IL-6 Pathway and Inhibition via Secreted GAPDH-E-Cadherin Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Kawada, Manabu; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Ohba, Shun-ichi; Yoshida, Junjiro; Masuda, Tohru; Yamasaki, Manabu; Usami, Ihomi; Sakamoto, Shuichi; Abe, Hikaru; Watanabe, Takumi; Yamori, Takao; Shibasaki, Masakatsu; Nomoto, Akio

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast-like stromal cells modulate cancer cells through secreted factors and adhesion, but those factors are not fully understood. Here, we have identified critical stromal factors that modulate cancer growth positively and negatively. Using a cell co-culture system, we found that gastric stromal cells secreted IL-6 as a growth and survival factor for gastric cancer cells. Moreover, gastric cancer cells secreted PGE2 and TNFα that stimulated IL-6 secretion by the stromal cells. Furthermore, we found that stromal cells secreted glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Extracellular GAPDH, or its N-terminal domain, inhibited gastric cancer cell growth, a finding confirmed in other cell systems. GAPDH bound to E-cadherin and downregulated the mTOR-p70S6 kinase pathway. These results demonstrate that stromal cells could regulate cancer cell growth through the balance of these secreted factors. We propose that negative regulation of cancer growth using GAPDH could be a new anti-cancer strategy. PMID:25785838

  4. Effects of a cyclic NSAID regimen on levels of gingival crevicular fluid prostaglandin E2and Interleukin-1β: A 6-month randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Oduncuoglu, B F; Kayar, N A; Haliloglu, S; Serpek, B; Ataoglu, T; Alptekin, N O

    2018-05-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used for inflammation control and pain relief. However, while the adjunct use of NSAIDs is avoided for periodontal therapy because of related side effects, cyclic administration of NSAIDs may reduce or eliminate these effects. We evaluated the effect of a cyclic diclofenac potassium (DP) regimen on clinical parameters and levels of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of individuals with periodontitis. The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee (2000/071). Forty-one individuals with chronic periodontitis (33 men, 8 women) were divided into two groups (test and control) after initial periodontal therapy. During this 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, test (n = 28) and control (n = 13) groups were administered a cyclic regimen of DP (50 mg, twice daily) or placebo. Clinical measurements and GCF sample collections were made at baseline, 2, 4, and 6 months. GCF levels of PGE 2 and IL-1β were determined using enzyme immunoassay and enzyme-linked immunoassay kits, respectively. At baseline, no significant differences existed between groups for plaque indices, gingival indices, bleeding on probing, probing depth (PD), or attachment levels (P > 0.05). Compared with the control group, cyclic regimen in the test group suppressed increased levels of PGE 2 found in GCF at the end of the study (P < 0.05). Significant differences for PD and relative attachment gain were also noted in favor of the test group (P < 0.05). These results suggest that a cyclic regimen of DP may be efficacious in the management of chronic periodontitis in adults.

  5. Selective inhibition of prostaglandin E2 receptors EP2 and EP4 inhibits adhesion of human endometriotic epithelial and stromal cells through suppression of integrin-mediated mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Lee, JeHoon; Banu, Sakhila K; Burghardt, Robert C; Starzinski-Powitz, Anna; Arosh, Joe A

    2013-03-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic gynecological disease of reproductive age women characterized by the presence of functional endometrial tissues outside the uterine cavity. Interactions between the endometriotic cells and the peritoneal extracellular matrix proteins (ECM) are crucial mechanisms that allow adhesion of the endometriotic cells into peritoneal mesothelia. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. In previous studies, we have reported that selective inhibition of PGE2 receptors PTGER2 and PTGER4 decreases survival and invasion of human endometriotic epithelial and stromal cells through multiple mechanisms. Results of the present study indicates that selective inhibition of PTGER2- and PTGER4-mediated PGE2 signaling 1) decreases the expression and/or activity of specific integrin receptor subunits Itgb1 (beta1) and Itgb3 (beta3) but not Itgb5 (beta5), Itga1 (alpha1), Itga2 (alpha2), Itga5 (alpha5), and Itgav (alphav); 2) decreases integrin-signaling components focal adhesion kinase or protein kinase 2 (PTK2) and talin proteins; 3) inhibits interactions between Itgb1/Itgb3 subunits, PTK2, and talin and PTGER2/PTGER4 proteins through beta-arrestin-1 and Src kinase protein complex in human endometriotic epithelial cells 12Z and stromal cells 22B; and 4) decreases adhesion of 12Z and 22B cells to ECM collagen I, collagen IV, fibronectin, and vitronectin in a substrate-specific manner. These novel findings provide an important molecular framework for further evaluation of selective inhibition of PTGER2 and PTGER4 as potential nonsteroidal therapy to expand the spectrum of currently available treatment options for endometriosis in child-bearing age women.

  6. Prostaglandin E2 EP2 activation reduces memory decline in R6/1 mouse model of Huntington's disease by the induction of BDNF-dependent synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Anglada-Huguet, Marta; Vidal-Sancho, Laura; Giralt, Albert; García-Díaz Barriga, Gerardo; Xifró, Xavier; Alberch, Jordi

    2016-11-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) patients and mouse models show learning and memory impairment even before the onset of motor symptoms. Deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity have been involved in the HD memory impairment. Several studies show that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) EP2 receptor stimulates synaptic plasticity and memory formation. However, this role was not explored in neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we investigated the capacity of PGE2 EP2 receptor to promote synaptic plasticity and memory improvements in a model of HD, the R6/1 mice, by administration of the agonist misoprostol. We found that misoprostol increases dendritic branching in cultured hippocampal neurons in a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-dependent manner. Then, we implanted an osmotic mini-pump system to chronically administrate misoprostol to R6/1 mice from 14 to 18weeks of age. We observed that misoprostol treatment ameliorates the R6/1 long-term memory deficits as analyzed by the T-maze spontaneous alternation task and the novel object recognition test. Importantly, administration of misoprostol promoted the expression of hippocampal BDNF. Moreover, the treatment with misoprostol in R6/1 mice blocked the reduction in the number of PSD-95 and VGluT-1 positive particles observed in hippocampus of vehicle-R6/1 mice. In addition, we observed an increase of cAMP levels in the dentate ` of WT and R6/1 mice treated with misoprostol. Accordingly, we showed a reduction in the number of mutant huntingtin nuclear inclusions in the dentate gyrus of R6/1 mice. Altogether, these results suggest a putative therapeutic effect of PGE2 EP2 receptor in reducing cognitive deficits in HD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. THE PROSTAGLANDIN E2 RECEPTOR, EP2, IS UPREGULATED IN THE DRG AFTER PAINFUL CERVICAL FACET JOINT INJURY IN THE RAT

    PubMed Central

    Kras, Jeffrey V.; Dong, Ling; Winkelstein, Beth A.

    2012-01-01

    Study Design This study implemented immunohistochemistry to assay prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor EP2 expression in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of rats after painful cervical facet joint injury. Objective The objective of this study was to identify if inflammatory cascades are induced in association with cervical facet joint distraction-induced pain by investigating the time course of EP2 expression in the DRG. Summary of Background Data The cervical facet joint is a common source of neck pain and non-physiological stretch of the facet capsular ligament can initiate pain from the facet joint via mechanical injury. PGE2 levels are elevated in painful inflamed and arthritic joints, and PGE2 sensitizes joint afferents to mechanical stimulation. Although in vitro studies suggest the EP2 receptor subtype contributes to painful joint disease the EP2 response has not been investigated for any association with painful mechanical joint injury. Methods Separate groups of male Holtzman rats underwent either a painful cervical facet joint distraction injury or sham procedure. Bilateral forepaw mechanical allodynia was assessed, and immunohistochemical techniques were used to quantify EP2 expression in the DRG at days 1 and 7. Results Facet joint distraction induced mechanical allodynia that was significant (p<0.024) at all time points. Painful joint injury also significantly elevated total EP2 expression in the DRG at day 1 (p=0.009), which was maintained also at day 7 (p<0.001). Neuronal expression of EP2 in the DRG was only increased over sham levels at day 1 (p=0.013). Conclusions Painful cervical facet joint distraction induces an immediate and sustained increase of EP2 expression in the DRG, implicating peripheral inflammation in the initiation and maintenance of facet joint pain. The transient increase in neuronal EP2 suggests, as in other painful joint conditions, that after joint injury non-neuronal cells may migrate to the DRG, some of which likely express EP2

  8. Design and Development of Microsomal Prostaglandin E2 Synthase-1 Inhibitors: Challenges and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Koeberle, Andreas; Laufer, Stefan A; Werz, Oliver

    2016-07-14

    Microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase (mPGES)-1 is responsible for the massive prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) formation during inflammation. Increasing evidence reveals mPGES-1 inhibitors as a safe alternative to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The first selective mPGES-1 inhibitors recently entered clinical trials. Major challenges for drug development have been the high plasma protein binding of lead structures, interspecies discrepancies, nuisance inhibition, sophisticated enzyme assays, and limited structural information about the mPGES-1 inhibitor binding site. Since most of these drawbacks could be solved during the past few years, we are standing at the threshold of a new era of mPGES-1-targeting anti-inflammatory drugs. This perspective introduces mPGES-1 as a key player within the network of eicosanoid biosynthesis and summarizes our current understanding of its structure and mechanism. Moreover, we present high-throughput and in silico screening techniques and discuss the structure-activity relationship and pharmacological potential of major mPGES-1 inhibitor classes in light of recent insights from pharmacophore models and cocrystallization studies.

  9. [Role of central alpha-adrenoreceptors in the mechanism of the hyperthermic action of prostaglandin E2].

    PubMed

    Gurin, V N; Vismont, F I; Tsariuk, V V

    1984-01-01

    It has been demonstrated in rat experiments that the central action of PGE2 results in body temperature rise associated with a reduction in the functional activity of hypothalamic adrenergic systems. In contrast to PGE2 and the beta-adrenomimetic isoproterenol, the alpha-adrenomimetics noradrenaline, mezaton and clonidine were shown to lower body temperature. In the rabbit, clonidine and PGE2 were found to have opposing effects on the neuronal activity of the anterior hypothalamus.

  10. Statins Reduce Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Cytokine and Inflammatory Mediator Release in an In Vitro Model of Microglial-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, A. J.

    2017-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects of statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) within the cardiovascular system are well-established; however, their neuroinflammatory potential is unclear. It is currently unknown whether statins' neurological effects are lipid-dependent or due to pleiotropic mechanisms. Therefore, the assumption that all statin compounds will have the same effect within the central nervous system is potentially inappropriate, with no studies to date having compared all statins in a single model. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of the six statins (atorvastatin, fluvastatin, pitavastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, and simvastatin) within a single in vitro model of neuroinflammation. To achieve this, PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells were used as surrogate microglial cells, and LPS was used to induce inflammatory conditions. Here, we show that pretreatment with all statins was able to significantly reduce LPS-induced interleukin (IL)-1β and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α release, as well as decrease LPS-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Similarly, global reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production were decreased following pretreatment with all statins. Based on these findings, it is suggested that more complex cellular models should be considered to further compare individual statin compounds, including translation into in vivo models of acute and/or chronic neuroinflammation. PMID:28546657

  11. Evaluation of the gingival inflammation in pregnancy and postpartum via 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3, prostaglandin E2 and TNF-α levels in saliva.

    PubMed

    Gümüş, Pınar; Öztürk, V Özgen; Bozkurt, Emir; Emingil, Gülnur

    2016-03-01

    Physiological changes and immunological modifications occur during pregnancy. The clinical and biological features of periodontal infections are affected by pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate saliva levels of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and TNF-alpha (TNF-α) in pregnancy, postpartum and non-pregnant controls. Whole saliva samples together with full-mouth clinical periodontal recordings were obtained from 59 pregnant, 47 post partum and 70 systemically healthy non-pregnant women. Groups were also evaluated according to the periodontal health status. 25(OH)D3, PGE2 and TNF-α levels in the saliva samples were determined by enzyme-linked immunoassays. Data were statistically tested by nonparametrical tests. Saliva TNF-α and PGE2 levels were significantly lower and 25(OH)D3 levels were significantly higher in the pregnant group than postpartum group (p<0.0001). Saliva TNF-α and 25(OH)D3 levels were significantly higher and PGE2 levels were significantly lower in the control group than postpartum group (p<0.0001). In the pregnant healthy, gingivitis and periodontitis groups saliva TNF-α levels were significantly lower than postpartum and control counterparts (p<0.0001, p=0.032, p=0.003 and p=0.013; p=0.027; p=0.007, respectively). In control healthy, gingivitis and periodontitis groups saliva 25(OH)D3 levels were significantly higher than the postpartum counterparts (p<0.0001, p<0.0001, p=0.002, respectively). In the control healthy and gingivitis groups saliva 25(OH)D3 levels were significantly higher than pregnant healthy and gingivitis (p<0.0001). In conclusion, within the limits of the present study it seems that pregnancy have an effect on parameters in saliva in relation to the periodontal status of the women. Further studies are required for better understanding of the impact of periodontal diseases on pregnancy or otherwise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Intrauterine group A streptococcal infections are exacerbated by prostaglandin E2.

    PubMed

    Mason, Katie L; Rogers, Lisa M; Soares, Elyara M; Bani-Hashemi, Tara; Erb Downward, John; Agnew, Dalen; Peters-Golden, Marc; Weinberg, Jason B; Crofford, Leslie J; Aronoff, David M

    2013-09-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus; GAS) is a major cause of severe postpartum sepsis, a re-emerging cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Immunological alterations occur during pregnancy to promote maternofetal tolerance, which may increase the risk for puerperal infection. PGE2 is an immunomodulatory lipid that regulates maternofetal tolerance, parturition, and innate immunity. The extent to which PGE2 regulates host immune responses to GAS infections in the context of endometritis is unknown. To address this, both an in vivo mouse intrauterine (i.u.) GAS infection model and an in vitro human macrophage-GAS interaction model were used. In C57BL/6 mice, i.u. GAS inoculation resulted in local and systemic inflammatory responses and triggered extensive changes in the expression of eicosanoid pathway genes. The i.u. administration of PGE2 increased the mortality of infected mice, suppressed local IL-6 and IL-17A levels, enhanced neutrophilic inflammation, reduced uterine macrophage populations, and increased bacterial dissemination. A role for endogenous PGE2 in the modulation of antistreptococcal host defense was suggested, because mice lacking the genes encoding the microsomal PGE2 synthase-1 or the EP2 receptor were protected from death, as were mice treated with the EP4 receptor antagonist, GW627368X. PGE2 also regulated GAS-macrophage interactions. In GAS-infected human THP-1 (macrophage-like) cells, PGE2 inhibited the production of MCP-1 and TNF-α while augmenting IL-10 expression. PGE2 also impaired the phagocytic ability of human placental macrophages, THP-1 cells, and mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro. Exploring the targeted disruption of PGE2 synthesis and signaling to optimize existing antimicrobial therapies against GAS may be warranted.

  13. mPGES-1-derived prostaglandin E2 stimulates Stat3 to promote podocyte apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Wu, Yimei; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Wen; Xu, Man; Song, Jiayu; Fu, Yu; Cui, Yiyun; Gong, Wei; Li, Shuzhen; Xia, Weiwei; Huang, Songming; Zhang, Aihua; Jia, Zhanjun

    2017-11-01

    We previously reported that microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) contributed to adriamycin (Adr)-induced podocyte apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here we studied the role of mPGES-1/PGE2 cascade in activating Stat3 signaling and the contribution of Stat3 in PGE2- and Adr-induced podocyte apoptosis. In murine podocytes, PGE2 dose- and time-dependently increased the phosphorylation of Stat3 in line with the enhanced cell apoptosis and reduced podocyte protein podocin. In agreement with the increased Stat3 phosphorylation, Stat3-derived cytokines including IL-6, IL-17, MCP-1, and ICAM-1 were significantly upregulated following PGE2 treatment. By application of a specific Stat3 inhibitor S3I-201, PGE2-induced podocyte apoptosis was largely abolished in parallel with a blockade of podocin reduction. Next, we observed that Adr treatment also enhanced p-Stat3 and activated mPGES-1/PGE2 cascade. Blockade of Stat3 by S3I-201 significantly ameliorated Adr-induced cell apoptosis and podocin reduction. More interestingly, silencing mPGES-1 in podocytes by mPGES-1 siRNA blocked Adr-induced increments of Stat-3 phosphorylation, PGE2 production, and Stat3-derived inflammatory cytokines. Taken together, this study suggested that mPGES-1-derived PGE2 could activate Stat3 signaling to promote podocyte apoptosis. Targeting mPGES-1/PGE2/Stat3 signaling might be a potential strategy for the treatment of podocytopathy.

  14. Autocrine prostaglandin E2 signaling promotes promonocytic leukemia cell survival via COX-2 expression and MAPK pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaetae; Lee, Young Sup

    2015-01-01

    The COX-2/PGE2 pathway has been implicated in the occurrence and progression of cancer. The underlying mechanisms facilitating the production of COX-2 and its mediator, PGE2, in cancer survival remain unknown. Herein, we investigated PGE2-induced COX-2 expression and signaling in HL-60 cells following menadione treatment. Treatment with PGE2 activated anti-apoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL while reducing pro-apoptotic proteins, thereby enhancing cell survival. PGE2 not only induced COX-2 expression, but also prevented casapse-3, PARP, and lamin B cleavage. Silencing and inhibition of COX-2 with siRNA transfection or treatment with indomethacin led to a pronounced reduction of the extracellular levels of PGE2, and restored the menadione-induced cell death. In addition, pretreatment of cells with the MEK inhibitor PD98059 and the PKA inhibitor H89 abrogated the PGE2-induced expression of COX-2, suggesting involvement of the MAPK and PKA pathways. These results demonstrate that PGE2 signaling acts in an autocrine manner, and specific inhibition of PGE2 will provide a novel approach for the treatment of leukemia. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(2): 109-114] PMID:24965577

  15. Prostaglandin-E2 Mediated Increase in Calcium and Phosphate Excretion in a Mouse Model of Distal Nephron Salt Wasting

    PubMed Central

    Soleimani, Manoocher; Barone, Sharon; Xu, Jie; Alshahrani, Saeed; Brooks, Marybeth; McCormack, Francis X.; Smith, Roger D.; Zahedi, Kamyar

    2016-01-01

    Contribution of salt wasting and volume depletion to the pathogenesis of hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia is poorly understood. Pendrin/NCC double KO (pendrin/NCC-dKO) mice display severe salt wasting under basal conditions and develop profound volume depletion, prerenal renal failure, and metabolic alkalosis and are growth retarded. Microscopic examination of the kidneys of pendrin/NCC-dKO mice revealed the presence of calcium phosphate deposits in the medullary collecting ducts, along with increased urinary calcium and phosphate excretion. Confirmatory studies revealed decreases in the expression levels of sodium phosphate transporter-2 isoforms a and c, increases in the expression of cytochrome p450 family 4a isotypes 12 a and b, as well as prostaglandin E synthase 1, and cyclooxygenases 1 and 2. Pendrin/NCC-dKO animals also had a significant increase in urinary prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2) and renal content of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) levels. Pendrin/NCC-dKO animals exhibit reduced expression levels of the sodium/potassium/2chloride co-transporter 2 (NKCC2) in their medullary thick ascending limb. Further assessment of the renal expression of NKCC2 isoforms by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) reveled that compared to WT mice, the expression of NKCC2 isotype F was significantly reduced in pendrin/NCC-dKO mice. Provision of a high salt diet to rectify volume depletion or inhibition of PGE-2 synthesis by indomethacin, but not inhibition of 20-HETE generation by HET0016, significantly improved hypercalciuria and salt wasting in pendrin/NCC dKO mice. Both high salt diet and indomethacin treatment also corrected the alterations in NKCC2 isotype expression in pendrin/NCC-dKO mice. We propose that severe salt wasting and volume depletion, irrespective of the primary originating nephron segment, can secondarily impair the reabsorption of salt and calcium in the thick ascending limb of Henle and/or proximal tubule, and reabsorption of sodium and

  16. NO2 inhalation promotes Alzheimer’s disease-like progression: cyclooxygenase-2-derived prostaglandin E2 modulation and monoacylglycerol lipase inhibition-targeted medication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wei; Yun, Yang; Ku, Tingting; Li, Guangke; Sang, Nan

    2016-03-01

    Air pollution has been reported to be associated with increased risks of cognitive impairment and neurodegenerative diseases. Because NO2 is a typical primary air pollutant and an important contributor to secondary aerosols, NO2-induced neuronal functional abnormalities have attracted greater attention, but the available experimental evidence, modulating mechanisms, and targeting medications remain ambiguous. In this study, we exposed C57BL/6J and APP/PS1 mice to dynamic NO2 inhalation and found for the first time that NO2 inhalation caused deterioration of spatial learning and memory, aggravated amyloid β42 (Aβ42) accumulation, and promoted pathological abnormalities and cognitive defects related to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The microarray and bioinformation data showed that the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-mediated arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) played a key role in modulating this aggravation. Furthermore, increasing endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) by inhibiting monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) prevented PGE2 production, neuroinflammation-associated Aβ42 accumulation, and neurodegeneration, indicating a therapeutic target for relieving cognitive impairment caused by NO2 exposure.

  17. Suppression of inflammation with conditional deletion of the prostaglandin E2 EP2 receptor in macrophages and brain microglia.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Jenny U; Pradhan, Suraj; Lokteva, Ludmila A; Woodling, Nathaniel S; Ko, Novie; Brown, Holden D; Wang, Qian; Loh, Christina; Cekanaviciute, Egle; Buckwalter, Marion; Manning-Bog, Amy B; Andreasson, Katrin I

    2013-10-02

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a potent lipid signaling molecule, modulates inflammatory responses through activation of downstream G-protein coupled EP(1-4) receptors. Here, we investigated the cell-specific in vivo function of PGE2 signaling through its E-prostanoid 2 (EP2) receptor in murine innate immune responses systemically and in the CNS. In vivo, systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resulted in a broad induction of cytokines and chemokines in plasma that was significantly attenuated in EP2-deficient mice. Ex vivo stimulation of peritoneal macrophages with LPS elicited proinflammatory responses that were dependent on EP2 signaling and that overlapped with in vivo plasma findings, suggesting that myeloid-lineage EP2 signaling is a major effector of innate immune responses. Conditional deletion of the EP2 receptor in myeloid lineage cells in Cd11bCre;EP2(lox/lox) mice attenuated plasma inflammatory responses and transmission of systemic inflammation to the brain was inhibited, with decreased hippocampal inflammatory gene expression and cerebral cortical levels of IL-6. Conditional deletion of EP2 significantly blunted microglial and astrocytic inflammatory responses to the neurotoxin MPTP and reduced striatal dopamine turnover. Suppression of microglial EP2 signaling also increased numbers of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra independent of MPTP treatment, suggesting that microglial EP2 may influence development or survival of DA neurons. Unbiased microarray analysis of microglia isolated from adult Cd11bCre;EP2(lox/lox) and control mice demonstrated a broad downregulation of inflammatory pathways with ablation of microglial EP2 receptor. Together, these data identify a cell-specific proinflammatory role for macrophage/microglial EP2 signaling in innate immune responses systemically and in brain.

  18. Suppression of Inflammation with Conditional Deletion of the Prostaglandin E2 EP2 Receptor in Macrophages and Brain Microglia

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Jenny U.; Pradhan, Suraj; Lokteva, Ludmila A.; Woodling, Nathaniel S.; Ko, Novie; Brown, Holden D.; Wang, Qian; Loh, Christina; Cekanaviciute, Egle; Buckwalter, Marion; Manning-Boğ, Amy B.

    2013-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a potent lipid signaling molecule, modulates inflammatory responses through activation of downstream G-protein coupled EP1–4 receptors. Here, we investigated the cell-specific in vivo function of PGE2 signaling through its E-prostanoid 2 (EP2) receptor in murine innate immune responses systemically and in the CNS. In vivo, systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resulted in a broad induction of cytokines and chemokines in plasma that was significantly attenuated in EP2-deficient mice. Ex vivo stimulation of peritoneal macrophages with LPS elicited proinflammatory responses that were dependent on EP2 signaling and that overlapped with in vivo plasma findings, suggesting that myeloid-lineage EP2 signaling is a major effector of innate immune responses. Conditional deletion of the EP2 receptor in myeloid lineage cells in Cd11bCre;EP2lox/lox mice attenuated plasma inflammatory responses and transmission of systemic inflammation to the brain was inhibited, with decreased hippocampal inflammatory gene expression and cerebral cortical levels of IL-6. Conditional deletion of EP2 significantly blunted microglial and astrocytic inflammatory responses to the neurotoxin MPTP and reduced striatal dopamine turnover. Suppression of microglial EP2 signaling also increased numbers of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra independent of MPTP treatment, suggesting that microglial EP2 may influence development or survival of DA neurons. Unbiased microarray analysis of microglia isolated from adult Cd11bCre;EP2lox/lox and control mice demonstrated a broad downregulation of inflammatory pathways with ablation of microglial EP2 receptor. Together, these data identify a cell-specific proinflammatory role for macrophage/microglial EP2 signaling in innate immune responses systemically and in brain. PMID:24089506

  19. Cyclooxygenase-2-issued prostaglandin e(2) enhances the production of endogenous IL-10, which down-regulates dendritic cell functions.

    PubMed

    Harizi, Hedi; Juzan, Monique; Pitard, Vincent; Moreau, Jean-François; Gualde, Norbert

    2002-03-01

    PGE(2) is a well-known immunomodulator produced in the immune response by APCs, such as dendritic cells (DCs), the most potent APC of the immune system. We investigated the PGE(2) biosynthetic capacity of bone marrow-derived DC (BM-DC) and the effects of PG on the APC. We observed that BM-DC produce PGE(2) and other proinflammatory mediators, such as leukotriene B(4) and NO, after LPS exposure. Constitutively present in BM-DC, cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 did not contribute significantly to the total pool of PGE(2) compared with the LPS-induced COX-2-produced PGE(2). Treatment of BM-DC with exogenous PGE(2) induced the production of large amounts of IL-10 and less IL-12p70. In addition, selective inhibition of COX-2, but not COX-1, was followed by significant decrements in PGE(2) and IL-10, a concomitant restoration of IL-12 production, and an enhancement of DC stimulatory potential. In contrast, we found no demonstrable role for leukotriene B(4) or NO. In view of the potential of PGE(2) to stimulate IL-10, we examined the possibility that the suppressive effect of PGE(2) is mediated via IL-10. We found that exogenous IL-10 inhibits IL-12p70 production in the presence of NS-398, a COX-2 selective inhibitor, while the inhibitory effects of PGE(2) were totally reversed by anti-IL-10. We conclude that COX-2-mediated PGE(2) up-regulates IL-10, which down-regulates IL-12 production and the APC function of BM-DC.

  20. [Notch1 signaling participates in the release of inflammatory mediators in mouse RAW264.7 cells via activating NF-κB pathway].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongwei; Xu, Che Nan; Huang, Chao; Jiang, Jinzhi; Li, Liangchang

    2017-10-01

    Objective To study the effect of Notch1 signaling on the release of inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophages and the related mechanism. Methods The expressions of Notch1 and hairy and enhancer of split 1 (Hes1) mRNAs were investigated by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) in mouse RAW264.7 cells after stimulated with 100 ng/mL LPS for 8 hours. Prior to stimulation with LPS, mouse RAW264.7 cells were treated with DAPT (10 μmol/L), an inhibitor of Notch1 signaling, for 1 hour. The concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) in cell culture media were measured by ELISA. The mRNA levels of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were examined by RT-PCR. The protein levels of iNOS, COX-2, nuclear factor kappa Bp65 (NF-κBp65) and phosphorylated nuclear factor κB inhibitor α (p-IκBα) were detected by Western blotting. Results The expressions of Notch1 and Hes1 mRNAs significantly increased in mouse RAW264.7 cells after stimulated with LPS. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, NO and PGE