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Sample records for e2f transcription factor

  1. E2F1 transcription factor and its impact on growth factor and cytokine signaling.

    PubMed

    Ertosun, Mustafa Gokhan; Hapil, Fatma Zehra; Osman Nidai, Ozes

    2016-10-01

    E2F1 is a transcription factor involved in cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. The transactivation capacity of E2F1 is regulated by pRb. In its hypophosphorylated form, pRb binds and inactivates DNA binding and transactivating functions of E2F1. The growth factor stimulation of cells leads to activation of CDKs (cyclin dependent kinases), which in turn phosphorylate Rb and hyperphosphorylated Rb is released from E2F1 or E2F1/DP complex, and free E2F1 can induce transcription of several genes involved in cell cycle entry, induction or inhibition of apoptosis. Thus, growth factors and cytokines generally utilize E2F1 to direct cells to either fate. Furthermore, E2F1 regulates expressions of various cytokines and growth factor receptors, establishing positive or negative feedback mechanisms. This review focuses on the relationship between E2F1 transcription factor and cytokines (IL-1, IL-2, IL-3, IL-6, TGF-beta, G-CSF, LIF), growth factors (EGF, KGF, VEGF, IGF, FGF, PDGF, HGF, NGF), and interferons (IFN-α, IFN-β and IFN-γ). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Functional synergy between DP-1 and E2F-1 in the cell cycle-regulating transcription factor DRTF1/E2F.

    PubMed Central

    Bandara, L R; Buck, V M; Zamanian, M; Johnston, L H; La Thangue, N B

    1993-01-01

    It is widely believed that the cellular transcription factor DRTF1/E2F integrates cell cycle events with the transcription apparatus because during cell cycle progression in mammalian cells it interacts with molecules that are important regulators of cellular proliferation, such as the retinoblastoma tumour suppressor gene product (pRb), p107, cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases. Thus, pRb, which negatively regulates early cell cycle progression and is frequently mutated in tumour cells, and the Rb-related protein p107, bind to and repress the transcriptional activity of DRTF1/E2F. Viral oncoproteins, such as adenovirus E1a and SV40 large T antigen, overcome such repression by sequestering pRb and p107 and in so doing are likely to activate genes regulated by DRTF1/E2F, such as cdc2, c-myc and DHFR. Two sequence-specific DNA binding proteins, E2F-1 and DP-1, which bind to the E2F site, contain a small region of similarity. The functional relationship between them has, however, been unclear. We report here that DP-1 and E2F-1 exist in a DNA binding complex in vivo and that they bind efficiently and preferentially as a heterodimer to the E2F site. Moreover, studies in yeast and Drosophila cells indicate that DP-1 and E2F-1 interact synergistically in E2F site-dependent transcriptional activation. Images PMID:8223441

  3. Novel functions for the transcription factor E2F4 in development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Sage, Julien

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The E2F family of transcription factors is a key determinant of cell proliferation in response to extra- and intra-cellular signals. Within this family, E2F4 is a transcriptional repressor whose activity is critical to engage and maintain cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 in conjunction with members of the retinoblastoma (RB) family. However, recent observations challenge this paradigm and indicate that E2F4 has a multitude of functions in cells besides this cell cycle regulatory role, including in embryonic and adult stem cells, during regenerative processes, and in cancer. Some of these new functions are independent of the RB family and involve direct activation of target genes. Here we review the canonical functions of E2F4 and discuss recent evidence expanding the role of this transcription factor, with a focus on cell fate decisions in tissue homeostasis and regeneration. PMID:27753528

  4. E2F transcription factors and digestive system malignancies: how much do we know?

    PubMed

    Xanthoulis, Athanasios; Tiniakos, Dina G

    2013-06-07

    E2F family of transcription factors regulates various cellular functions related to cell cycle and apoptosis. Its individual members have traditionally been classified into activators and repressors, based on in vitro studies. However their contribution in human cancer is more complicated and difficult to predict. We review current knowledge on the expression of E2Fs in digestive system malignancies and its clinical implications for patient prognosis and treatment. E2F1, the most extensively studied member and the only one with prognostic value, exhibits a tumor-suppressing activity in esophageal, gastric and colorectal adenocarcinoma, and in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), whereas in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma may function as a tumor-promoter. In the latter malignancies, E2F1 immunohistochemical expression has been correlated with higher tumor grade and worse patient survival, whereas in esophageal, gastric and colorectal adenocarcinomas is a marker of increased patient survival. E2F2 has only been studied in colorectal cancer, where its role is not considered significant. E2F4's role in colorectal, gastric and hepatic carcinogenesis is tumor-promoting. E2F8 is strongly upregulated in human HCC, thus possibly contributing to hepatocarcinogenesis. Adenoviral transfer of E2F as gene therapy to sensitize pancreatic cancer cells for chemotherapeutic agents has been used in experimental studies. Other therapeutic strategies are yet to be developed, but it appears that targeted approaches using E2F-agonists or antagonists should take into account the tissue-dependent function of each E2F member. Further understanding of E2Fs' contribution in cellular functions in vivo would help clarify their role in carcinogenesis.

  5. E2F transcription factors and digestive system malignancies: how much do we know?

    PubMed

    Evangelou, Konstantinos; Havaki, Sophia; Kotsinas, Athanassios

    2014-08-07

    The E2F proteins comprise a family of 8 members that function as transcription factors. They are key targets of the retinoblastoma protein (RB) and were initially divided into groups of activators and repressors. Accumulating data suggest that there is no specific role for each individual E2F member. Instead, each E2F can exert a variety of cellular effects, some of which represent opposing ones. For instance, specific E2Fs can activate transcription and repression, promote or hamper cell proliferation, augment or inhibit apoptosis, all being dependent on the cellular context. This complexity reflects the importance that these transcription factors have on a cell's fate. Thus, delineating the specific role for each E2F member in specific malignancies, although not easy, is a challenging and continuously pursued task, especially in view of potential E2F targeted therapies. Therefore, several reviews are continuously trying to evaluate available data on E2F status in various malignancies. Such reviews have attempted to reach a consensus, often in the simplistic form of oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes for the E2Fs. However they frequently miss spatial and temporal alterations of these factors during tumor development, which should also be considered in conjunction with the status of the regulatory networks that these factors participate in. In the current ''Letter to the Editor'', we comment on the flaws, misinterpretations and omissions in one such review article published recently in the World Journal of Gastroenterology regarding the role of E2Fs in digestive system malignancies.

  6. Genomic structure, expression pattern, and functional characterization of transcription factor E2F-2 from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chao; Qiu, Lihua

    2017-01-01

    Transcription factor E2F-2 is a regulator of cell cycle. Researchers identified E2F-2 genes from yeasts to humans, but few reports investigated E2F-2 gene from black tiger shrimp. In the present study, we cloned E2F-2 gene from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). Full-length PmE2F-2 complementary DNA sequence measures 3,189 bp with an open reading frame of 1,371 bp. Complete PmE2F-2 genomic sequence (17,305 bp) of P. monodon contains nine exons, which are separated by eight introns. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that PmE2F-2 is highly expressed in hepatopancreas and ovaries of P. monodon. Highest PmE2F-2 expression levels were observed in stage III ovarian development of P. monodon. PmE2F-2 expression levels were significantly augmented in ovaries of P. monodon after 5-hydroxytryptamine injection and eyestalk ablation. RNA interference experiments were conducted to examine PmE2F-2, PmCDK2, and PmCyclin E expression profiles. PmE2F-2 was successfully knocked down in ovaries and hepatopancreas via double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)–E2F-2 injection. In the same organs, PmE2F-2 expression localization and level were investigated through in situ hybridization, which revealed consistent results with those of qRT-PCR. After dsRNA—E2F-2 injection, gonadosomatic index of shrimp was significantly lower than those following dsRNA—GFP and phosphate-buffered solution injections. Therefore, PmE2F-2 may be involved in ovarian maturation in P. monodon. PMID:28558060

  7. Functional interaction of CCAAT/enhancer-binding-protein-α basic region mutants with E2F transcription factors and DNA.

    PubMed

    Kowenz-Leutz, Elisabeth; Schuetz, Anja; Liu, Qingbin; Knoblich, Maria; Heinemann, Udo; Leutz, Achim

    2016-07-01

    The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) regulates cell cycle arrest and terminal differentiation of neutrophils and adipocytes. Mutations in the basic leucine zipper domain (bZip) of C/EBPα are associated with acute myeloid leukemia. A widely used murine transforming C/EBPα basic region mutant (BRM2) entails two bZip point mutations (I294A/R297A). BRM2 has been discordantly described as defective for DNA binding or defective for interaction with E2F. We have separated the two BRM2 mutations to shed light on the intertwined reciprocity between C/EBPα-E2F-DNA interactions. Both, C/EBPα I294A and R297A retain transactivation capacity and interaction with E2F-DP. The C/EBPα R297A mutation destabilized DNA binding, whereas the C/EBPα I294A mutation enhanced binding to DNA. The C/EBPα R297A mutant, like BRM2, displayed enhanced interaction with E2F-DP but failed to repress E2F-dependent transactivation although both mutants were readily suppressed by E2F1 for transcription through C/EBP cis-regulatory sites. In contrast, the DNA binding enhanced C/EBPα I294A mutant displayed increased repression of E2F-DP mediated transactivation and resisted E2F-DP mediated repression. Thus, the efficient repression of E2F dependent S-phase genes and the activation of differentiation genes reside in the balanced DNA binding capacity of C/EBPα. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Transcription factors ETF, E2F, and SP-1 are involved in cytokine-independent proliferation of murine hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Zellmer, Sebastian; Schmidt-Heck, Wolfgang; Godoy, Patricio; Weng, Honglei; Meyer, Christoph; Lehmann, Thomas; Sparna, Titus; Schormann, Wiebke; Hammad, Seddik; Kreutz, Clemens; Timmer, Jens; von Weizsäcker, Fritz; Thürmann, Petra A; Merfort, Irmgard; Guthke, Reinhard; Dooley, Steven; Hengstler, Jan G; Gebhardt, Rolf

    2010-12-01

    The cellular basis of liver regeneration has been intensely investigated for many years. However, the mechanisms initiating hepatocyte "plasticity" and priming for proliferation are not yet fully clear. We investigated alterations in gene expression patterns during the first 72 hours of C57BL/6N mouse hepatocyte culture on collagen monolayers (CM), which display a high basal frequency of proliferation in the absence of cytokines. Although many metabolic genes were down-regulated, genes related to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling and cell cycle were up-regulated. The latter genes showed an overrepresentation of transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) for ETF (TEA domain family member 2), E2F1 (E2F transcription factor 1), and SP-1 (Sp1 transcription factor) (P < 0.001), all depending on MAPK signaling. Time-dependent increase of ERK1/2 phosphorylation occurred during the first 48 hours (and beyond) in the absence of cytokines, accompanied by an enhanced bromodeoxyuridine labeling index of 20%. The MEK inhibitor PD98059 blunted these effects indicating MAPK signaling as major trigger for this cytokine-independent proliferative response. In line with these in vitro findings, liver tissue of mice challenged with CCl(4) displayed hepatocytes with intense p-ERK1/2 staining and nuclear SP-1 and E2F1 expression. Furthermore, differentially expressed genes in mice after partial hepatectomy contained overrepresented TFBS for ETF, E2F1, and SP-1 and displayed increased expression of E2F1. Cultivation of murine hepatocytes on CM primes cells for proliferation through cytokine-independent activation of MAPK signaling. The transcription factors ETF, E2F1, and SP-1 seem to play a pronounced role in mediating proliferation-dependent differential gene expression. Similar events, but on a shorter time-scale, occur very early after liver damage in vivo. Copyright © 2010 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  9. Involvement of atypical transcription factor E2F8 in the polyploidization during mouse and human decidualization.

    PubMed

    Qi, Qian-Rong; Zhao, Xu-Yu; Zuo, Ru-Juan; Wang, Tong-Song; Gu, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Ji-Long; Yang, Zeng-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Polyploid decidual cells are specifically differentiated cells during mouse uterine decidualization. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanism and physiological significance of polyploidization in pregnancy. Here we report a novel role of E2F8 in the polyploidization of decidual cells in mice. E2F8 is highly expressed in decidual cells and regulated by progesterone through HB-EGF/EGFR/ERK/STAT3 signaling pathway. E2F8 transcriptionally suppresses CDK1, thus triggering the polyploidization of decidual cells. E2F8-mediated polyploidization is a response to stresses which are accompanied by decidualization. Interestingly, polyploidization is not detected during human decidualization with the down-regulation of E2F8, indicating differential expression of E2F8 may lead to the difference of decidual cell polyploidization between mice and humans.

  10. Involvement of atypical transcription factor E2F8 in the polyploidization during mouse and human decidualization

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Qian-Rong; Zhao, Xu-Yu; Zuo, Ru-Juan; Wang, Tong-Song; Gu, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Ji-Long; Yang, Zeng-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Polyploid decidual cells are specifically differentiated cells during mouse uterine decidualization. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanism and physiological significance of polyploidization in pregnancy. Here we report a novel role of E2F8 in the polyploidization of decidual cells in mice. E2F8 is highly expressed in decidual cells and regulated by progesterone through HB-EGF/EGFR/ERK/STAT3 signaling pathway. E2F8 transcriptionally suppresses CDK1, thus triggering the polyploidization of decidual cells. E2F8-mediated polyploidization is a response to stresses which are accompanied by decidualization. Interestingly, polyploidization is not detected during human decidualization with the down-regulation of E2F8, indicating differential expression of E2F8 may lead to the difference of decidual cell polyploidization between mice and humans. PMID:25892397

  11. Analysis of E2F factors during epidermal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wing Y; Dagnino, Lina

    2005-01-01

    The multigene E2F family of transcription factors is central in the control of cell cycle progression. The expression and activity of E2F proteins is tightly regulated transcriptionally and posttranslationally as a function of the proliferation and differentiation status of the cell. In this chapter, we review protocols designed to determine E2F mRNA abundance in tissues by in situ hybridization techniques. The ability to culture primary epidermal keratinocytes and maintain them as either undifferentiated or terminally differentiated cells allows the biochemical and molecular characterization of changes in E2F expression and activity. Thus, we also discuss in detail methods to analyze E2F protein abundance by immunoblot and their ability to bind DNA in cultured cells using electrophoretic mobility shift assays.

  12. E2F transcription factor 2 variants as predictive biomarkers for recurrence risk in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuncheng; Sturgis, Erich M; Zhu, Lijun; Cao, Xiaoli; Wei, Qingyi; Zhang, Hua; Li, Guojun

    2017-04-01

    Because E2F transcription factor 2 (E2F2) promoter polymorphisms have been implicated in carcinogenesis and prognosis, we investigated associations between genetic variants in five E2F2 promoter polymorphisms and recurrence risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx (SCCOP) in 1 008 patients. A log-rank test and multivariable Cox models were used to assess the associations. Compared with patients with variant genotypes of E2F2-rs2742976 and E2F2-rs3218123, patients with common homozygous genotypes had better disease-free survival (both log-rank, P < 0.001) and lower SCCOP recurrence risk (HR, 0.4, 95% CI, 0.3-0.6 and HR, 0.3, 95% CI, 0.2-0.5, respectively) after multivariable adjustment. Furthermore, among patients with HPV16-positive tumors, those with common homozygous genotypes of E2F2-rs2742976 and E2F2-rs3218123 had better disease-free survival rates (both log-rank, P < 0.001) and lower recurrence risk (HR, 0.1, 95% CI, 0.1-0.4 and HR, 0.1, 95% CI, 0.0-0.2, respectively) than patients with variant genotypes. However, no significant differences were found for the other three polymorphisms. After combining the risk genotypes of the five polymorphisms and using the high-risk group (2-5 risk genotypes) as the reference group, we found that the low-risk groups (0 or 1 risk genotype) had significantly lower recurrence risk among all patients (HR, 0.4, 95% CI, 0.3-0.6) and among HPV16-positive patients (HR, 0.2, 95% CI, 0.1-0.5). Our findings suggest that E2F2 polymorphisms may individually or jointly modify SCCOP recurrence risk, particularly for SCCOP patients with HPV16-positive tumors. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Downregulation of Homologous Recombination DNA Repair Genes by HDAC Inhibition in Prostate Cancer Is Mediated through the E2F1 Transcription Factor

    PubMed Central

    Kachhap, Sushant K.; Rosmus, Nadine; Collis, Spencer J.; Kortenhorst, Madeleine S. Q.; Wissing, Michel D.; Hedayati, Mohammad; Shabbeer, Shabana; Mendonca, Janet; Deangelis, Justin; Marchionni, Luigi; Lin, Jianqing; Höti, Naseruddin; Nortier, Johan W. R.; DeWeese, Theodore L.; Hammers, Hans; Carducci, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) re-express silenced tumor suppressor genes and are currently undergoing clinical trials. Although HDACis have been known to induce gene expression, an equal number of genes are downregulated upon HDAC inhibition. The mechanism behind this downregulation remains unclear. Here we provide evidence that several DNA repair genes are downregulated by HDAC inhibition and provide a mechanism involving the E2F1 transcription factor in the process. Methodology/Principal Findings Applying Analysis of Functional Annotation (AFA) on microarray data of prostate cancer cells treated with HDACis, we found a number of genes of the DNA damage response and repair pathways are downregulated by HDACis. AFA revealed enrichment of homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair genes of the BRCA1 pathway, as well as genes regulated by the E2F1 transcription factor. Prostate cancer cells demonstrated a decreased DNA repair capacity and an increased sensitization to chemical- and radio-DNA damaging agents upon HDAC inhibition. Recruitment of key HR repair proteins to the site of DNA damage, as well as HR repair capacity was compromised upon HDACi treatment. Based on our AFA data, we hypothesized that the E2F transcription factors may play a role in the downregulation of key repair genes upon HDAC inhibition in prostate cancer cells. ChIP analysis and luciferase assays reveal that the downregulation of key repair genes is mediated through decreased recruitment of the E2F1 transcription factor and not through active repression by repressive E2Fs. Conclusions/Significance Our study indicates that several genes in the DNA repair pathway are affected upon HDAC inhibition. Downregulation of the repair genes is on account of a decrease in amount and promoter recruitment of the E2F1 transcription factor. Since HDAC inhibition affects several pathways that could potentially have an impact on DNA repair, compromised DNA repair upon HDAC inhibition could

  14. E2F1 transcription is induced by genotoxic stress through ATM/ATR activation.

    PubMed

    Carcagno, Abel L; Ogara, María F; Sonzogni, Silvina V; Marazita, Mariela C; Sirkin, Pablo F; Ceruti, Julieta M; Cánepa, Eduardo T

    2009-05-01

    E2F1, a member of the E2F family of transcription factors, plays a critical role in controlling both cell cycle progression and apoptotic cell death in response to DNA damage and oncogene activation. Following genotoxic stresses, E2F1 protein is stabilized by phosphorylation and acetylation driven to its accumulation. The aim of the present work was to examine whether the increase in E2F1 protein levels observed after DNA damage is only a reflection of an increase in E2F1 protein stability or is also the consequence of enhanced transcription of the E2F1 gene. The data presented here demonstrates that UV light and other genotoxics induce the transcription of E2F1 gene in an ATM/ATR dependent manner, which results in increasing E2F1 mRNA and protein levels. After genotoxic stress, transcription of cyclin E, an E2F1 target gene, was significantly induced. This induction was the result of two well-differentiated effects, one of them dependent on de novo protein synthesis and the other on the protein stabilization. Our results strongly support a transcriptional effect of DNA damaging agents on E2F1 expression. The results presented herein uncover a new mechanism involving E2F1 in response to genotoxic stress.

  15. Transcription factor FBI-1 acts as a dual regulator in adipogenesis by coordinated regulation of cyclin-A and E2F-4.

    PubMed

    Laudes, Matthias; Bilkovski, Roman; Oberhauser, Frank; Droste, Andrea; Gomolka, Matthias; Leeser, Uschi; Udelhoven, Michael; Krone, Wilhelm

    2008-05-01

    Generation of new adipocytes plays a major role in the development of obesity. We previously have shown that transcriptional repressor factor that binds to IST (FBI)-1 exerts a dual effect in the process of adipogenesis by inhibiting proliferation and promoting differentiation of preadipocytes. The aim of the present study was to identify FBI-1 regulated molecular effectors that could account for these effects. Overexpressing FBI-1 in preadipocytes resulted in reduced expression of the cell cycle regulator cyclin A, which may explain FBI-1 induced inhibition of proliferation. Interestingly, FBI-1 repressed cyclin A promoter activity through an indirect mechanisms that did not involve direct binding of FBI-1 to the promoter sequence, but rather FBI-1 inhibition of transcriptional activator Sp1 binding to a regulatory element at -452 to -443. We also show that FBI-1 promotes terminal preadipocyte differentiation through a mechanism involving decreased levels of expression of the PPARgamma inhibitor E2F-4. FBI-1 significantly reduced E2F-4 promoter activity. Contrary to cyclin A, we found FBI-1-induced repression of E2F-4 is mediated by a direct mechanism via a FBI-1 regulatory element at -11 to -5. As function of transcriptional repressors normally depends on the presence of regulatory co-factors we also performed expression profiling of potential FBI-1 co-repressors throughout adipogenesis. In these experiments Sin3A and histon deacetylase (HDAC)-1 showed a similar expression pattern compared to FBI-1. Strikingly, co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed that FBI-1 binds Sin3A and HDAC-1 to form a repressor complex. Furthermore, by mutational analysis the amino terminal Poxvirus (POZ) domain of FBI-1 was found to be important for Sin3A and HDAC-1 binding. Taken together, FBI-1 is the first transcriptional repressor shown to act as a dual regulator in adipogenesis exerting repressor activities on target genes by both, direct and indirect mechanisms.

  16. Bioinformatic detection of E47, E2F1 and SREBP1 transcription factors as potential regulators of genes associated to acquisition of endometrial receptivity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The endometrium is a dynamic tissue whose changes are driven by the ovarian steroidal hormones. Its main function is to provide an adequate substrate for embryo implantation. Using microarray technology, several reports have provided the gene expression patterns of human endometrial tissue during the window of implantation. However it is required that biological connections be made across these genomic datasets to take full advantage of them. The objective of this work was to perform a research synthesis of available gene expression profiles related to acquisition of endometrial receptivity for embryo implantation, in order to gain insights into its molecular basis and regulation. Methods Gene expression datasets were intersected to determine a consensus endometrial receptivity transcript list (CERTL). For this cluster of genes we determined their functional annotations using available web-based databases. In addition, promoter sequences were analyzed to identify putative transcription factor binding sites using bioinformatics tools and determined over-represented features. Results We found 40 up- and 21 down-regulated transcripts in the CERTL. Those more consistently increased were C4BPA, SPP1, APOD, CD55, CFD, CLDN4, DKK1, ID4, IL15 and MAP3K5 whereas the more consistently decreased were OLFM1, CCNB1, CRABP2, EDN3, FGFR1, MSX1 and MSX2. Functional annotation of CERTL showed it was enriched with transcripts related to the immune response, complement activation and cell cycle regulation. Promoter sequence analysis of genes revealed that DNA binding sites for E47, E2F1 and SREBP1 transcription factors were the most consistently over-represented and in both up- and down-regulated genes during the window of implantation. Conclusions Our research synthesis allowed organizing and mining high throughput data to explore endometrial receptivity and focus future research efforts on specific genes and pathways. The discovery of possible new transcription factors

  17. Bim, a Proapoptotic Protein, Up-regulated via Transcription Factor E2F1-dependent Mechanism, Functions as a Prosurvival Molecule in Cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Gogada, Raghu; Yadav, Neelu; Liu, Junwei; Tang, Shaohua; Zhang, Dianmu; Schneider, Andrea; Seshadri, Athul; Sun, Leimin; Aldaz, C. Marcelo; Tang, Dean G.; Chandra, Dhyan

    2013-01-01

    Proapoptotic Bcl-2 homology 3-only protein Bim plays an important role in Bax/Bak-mediated cytochrome c release and apoptosis. Here, we provide evidence for a novel prosurvival function of Bim in cancer cells. Bim was constitutively overexpressed in multiple prostate and breast cancer cells as well as in primary tumor cells. Quantitative real time PCR analysis showed that Bim was transcriptionally up-regulated. We have identified eight endogenous E2F1-binding sites on the Bim promoter using in silico analysis. Luciferase assay demonstrated that Bim expression was E2F1-dependent as mutation of the E2F1-binding sites on the Bim promoter inhibited luciferase activities. In support, E2F1 silencing led to the loss of Bim expression in cancer cells. Bim primarily localized to mitochondrial and cytoskeleton-associated fractions. Bim silencing or microinjection of anti-Bim antibodies into the cell cytoplasm resulted in cell rounding, detachment, and subsequent apoptosis. We observed up-regulation of prosurvival proteins Bcl-xL and Mcl-1, which sequester Bim in cancer cells. In addition, a phosphorylated form of Bim was also elevated in cancer cells. These findings suggest that the constitutively overexpressed Bim may function as a prosurvival molecule in epithelial cancer cells, and phosphorylation and association with Bcl-xL/Mcl-1 block its proapoptotic functions. PMID:23152504

  18. Repression of transcriptional activity of C/EBPalpha by E2F-dimerization partner complexes.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza, Katrin; Bégay, Valérie; Schuetz, Anja; Heinemann, Udo; Leutz, Achim

    2010-05-01

    The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha) coordinates proliferation arrest and the differentiation of myeloid progenitors, adipocytes, hepatocytes, keratinocytes, and cells of the lung and placenta. C/EBPalpha transactivates lineage-specific differentiation genes and inhibits proliferation by repressing E2F-regulated genes. The myeloproliferative C/EBPalpha BRM2 mutant serves as a paradigm for recurrent human C-terminal bZIP C/EBPalpha mutations that are involved in acute myeloid leukemogenesis. BRM2 fails to repress E2F and to induce adipogenesis and granulopoiesis. The data presented here show that, independently of pocket proteins, C/EBPalpha interacts with the dimerization partner (DP) of E2F and that C/EBPalpha-E2F/DP interaction prevents both binding of C/EBPalpha to its cognate sites on DNA and transactivation of C/EBP target genes. The BRM2 mutant, in addition, exhibits enhanced interaction with E2F-DP and reduced affinity toward DNA and yet retains transactivation potential and differentiation competence that becomes exposed when E2F/DP levels are low. Our data suggest a tripartite balance between C/EBPalpha, E2F/DP, and pocket proteins in the control of proliferation, differentiation, and tumorigenesis.

  19. E2F transcription factor-1 deficiency reduces pathophysiology in the mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy through increased muscle oxidative metabolism.

    PubMed

    Blanchet, Emilie; Annicotte, Jean-Sébastien; Pradelli, Ludivine A; Hugon, Gérald; Matecki, Stéfan; Mornet, Dominique; Rivier, François; Fajas, Lluis

    2012-09-01

    E2F1 deletion leads to increased mitochondrial number and function, increased body temperature in response to cold and increased resistance to fatigue with exercise. Since E2f1-/- mice show increased muscle performance, we examined the effect of E2f1 genetic inactivation in the mdx background, a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). E2f1-/-;mdx mice demonstrated a strong reduction of physiopathological signs of DMD, including preservation of muscle structure, decreased inflammatory profile, increased utrophin expression, resulting in better endurance and muscle contractile parameters, comparable to normal mdx mice. E2f1 deficiency in the mdx genetic background increased the oxidative metabolic gene program, mitochondrial activity and improved muscle functions. Interestingly, we observed increased E2F1 protein levels in DMD patients, suggesting that E2F1 might represent a promising target for the treatment of DMD.

  20. AMP-activated protein kinase α2 and E2F1 transcription factor mediate doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity by forming a positive signal loop in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and non-carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wookyeom; Park, In-Ja; Yun, Hee; Im, Dong-Uk; Ock, Sangmi; Kim, Jaetaek; Seo, Seon-Mi; Shin, Ha-Yeon; Viollet, Benoit; Kang, Insug; Choe, Wonchae; Kim, Sung-Soo; Ha, Joohun

    2014-02-21

    Doxorubicin is one of the most widely used anti-cancer drugs, but its clinical application is compromised by severe adverse effects in different organs including cardiotoxicity. In the present study we explored mechanisms of doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity by revealing a novel role for the AMP-activated protein kinase α2 (AMPKα2) in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Doxorubicin robustly induced the expression of AMPKα2 in MEFs but slightly reduced AMPKα1 expression. Our data support the previous notion that AMPKα1 harbors survival properties under doxorubicin treatment. In contrast, analyses of Ampkα2(-/-) MEFs, gene knockdown of AMPKα2 by shRNA, and inhibition of AMPKα2 activity with an AMPK inhibitor indicated that AMPKα2 functions as a pro-apoptotic molecule under doxorubicin treatment. Doxorubicin induced AMPKα2 at the transcription level via E2F1, a transcription factor that regulates apoptosis in response to DNA damage. E2F1 directly transactivated the Ampkα2 gene promoter. In turn, AMPKα2 significantly contributed to stabilization and activation of E2F1 by doxorubicin, forming a positive signal amplification loop. AMPKα2 directly interacted with and phosphorylated E2F1. This signal loop was also detected in H9c2, C2C12, and ECV (human epithelial cells) cells as well as mouse liver under doxorubicin treatment. Resveratrol, which has been suggested to attenuate doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity, significantly blocked induction of AMPKα2 and E2F1 by doxorubicin, leading to protection of these cells. This signal loop appears to be non-carcinoma-specific because AMPKα2 was not induced by doxorubicin in five different tested cancer cell lines. These results suggest that AMPKα2 may serve as a novel target for alleviating the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin.

  1. Copy number variations of E2F1: a new genetic risk factor for testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Rocca, Maria Santa; Di Nisio, Andrea; Marchiori, Arianna; Ghezzi, Marco; Opocher, Giuseppe; Foresta, Carlo; Ferlin, Alberto

    2017-03-01

    Testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) is one of the most heritable forms of cancer. In last years, many evidence suggested that constitutional genetic factors, mainly single nucleotide polymorphisms, can increase its risk. However, the possible contribution of copy number variations (CNVs) in TGCT susceptibility has not been substantially addressed. Indeed, an increasing number of studies have focused on the effect of CNVs on gene expression and on the role of these structural genetic variations as risk factors for different forms of cancer. E2F1 is a transcription factor that plays an important role in regulating cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis and response to DNA damage. Therefore, deficiency or overexpression of this protein might significantly influence fundamental biological processes involved in cancer development and progression, including TGCT. We analyzed E2F1 CNVs in 261 cases with TGCT and 165 controls. We found no CNVs in controls, but 17/261 (6.5%) cases showed duplications in E2F1 Blot analysis demonstrated higher E2F1 expression in testicular samples of TGCT cases with three copies of the gene. Furthermore, we observed higher phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR in samples with E2F1 duplication. Interestingly, normal, non-tumoral testicular tissue in patient with E2F1 duplication showed lower expression of E2F1 and lower AKT/mTOR phosphorylation with respect to adjacent tumor tissue. Furthermore, increased expression of E2F1 obtained in vitro in NTERA-2 testicular cell line induced increased AKT/mTOR phosphorylation. This study suggests for the first time an involvement of E2F1 CNVs in TGCT susceptibility and supports previous preliminary data on the importance of AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in this cancer. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  2. Nicotine, IFN-γ and retinoic acid mediated induction of MUC4 in pancreatic cancer requires E2F1 and STAT-1 transcription factors and utilize different signaling cascades.

    PubMed

    Kunigal, Sateesh; Ponnusamy, Moorthy P; Momi, Navneet; Batra, Surinder K; Chellappan, Srikumar P

    2012-04-26

    The membrane-bound mucins are thought to play an important biological role in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, in cell signaling and in modulating biological properties of cancer cell. MUC4, a transmembrane mucin is overexpressed in pancreatic tumors, while remaining undetectable in the normal pancreas, thus indicating a potential role in pancreatic cancer pathogenesis. The molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of MUC4 gene are not yet fully understood. Smoking is strongly correlated with pancreatic cancer and in the present study; we elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which nicotine as well as agents like retinoic acid (RA) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) induce the expression of MUC4 in pancreatic cancer cell lines CD18, CAPAN2, AsPC1 and BxPC3. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays and real-time PCR showed that transcription factors E2F1 and STAT1 can positively regulate MUC4 expression at the transcriptional level. IFN-γ and RA could collaborate with nicotine in elevating the expression of MUC4, utilizing E2F1 and STAT1 transcription factors. Depletion of STAT1 or E2F1 abrogated the induction of MUC4; nicotine-mediated induction of MUC4 appeared to require α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit. Further, Src and ERK family kinases also mediated the induction of MUC4, since inhibiting these signaling molecules prevented the induction of MUC4. MUC4 was also found to be necessary for the nicotine-mediated invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, suggesting that induction of MUC4 by nicotine and other agents might contribute to the genesis and progression of pancreatic cancer. Our studies show that agents that can promote the growth and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells induce the MUC4 gene through multiple pathways and this induction requires the transcriptional activity of E2F1 and STAT1. Further, the Src as well as ERK signaling pathways appear to be involved in the induction of this gene. It appears that targeting these signaling pathways

  3. Nicotine, IFN-γ and retinoic acid mediated induction of MUC4 in pancreatic cancer requires E2F1 and STAT-1 transcription factors and utilize different signaling cascades

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The membrane-bound mucins are thought to play an important biological role in cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions, in cell signaling and in modulating biological properties of cancer cell. MUC4, a transmembrane mucin is overexpressed in pancreatic tumors, while remaining undetectable in the normal pancreas, thus indicating a potential role in pancreatic cancer pathogenesis. The molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of MUC4 gene are not yet fully understood. Smoking is strongly correlated with pancreatic cancer and in the present study; we elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which nicotine as well as agents like retinoic acid (RA) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) induce the expression of MUC4 in pancreatic cancer cell lines CD18, CAPAN2, AsPC1 and BxPC3. Results Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays and real-time PCR showed that transcription factors E2F1 and STAT1 can positively regulate MUC4 expression at the transcriptional level. IFN-γ and RA could collaborate with nicotine in elevating the expression of MUC4, utilizing E2F1 and STAT1 transcription factors. Depletion of STAT1 or E2F1 abrogated the induction of MUC4; nicotine-mediated induction of MUC4 appeared to require α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit. Further, Src and ERK family kinases also mediated the induction of MUC4, since inhibiting these signaling molecules prevented the induction of MUC4. MUC4 was also found to be necessary for the nicotine-mediated invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, suggesting that induction of MUC4 by nicotine and other agents might contribute to the genesis and progression of pancreatic cancer. Conclusions Our studies show that agents that can promote the growth and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells induce the MUC4 gene through multiple pathways and this induction requires the transcriptional activity of E2F1 and STAT1. Further, the Src as well as ERK signaling pathways appear to be involved in the induction of this gene. It appears that

  4. Synergistic cooperation of MDM2 and E2F1 contributes to TAp73 transcriptional activity

    SciT

    Kasim, Vivi, E-mail: vivikasim78@gmail.com; Huang, Can; Zhang, Jing

    2014-07-04

    Highlights: • MDM2 is a novel positive regulator of TAp73 transcriptional activity. • MDM2 colocalizes together and physically interacts with E2F1. • Synergistic cooperation of MDM2 and E2F1 is crucial for TAp73 transcription. • MDM2 regulates TAp73 transcriptional activity in a p53-independent manner. - Abstract: TAp73, a structural homologue of p53, plays an important role in tumorigenesis. E2F1 had been reported as a transcriptional regulator of TAp73, however, the detailed mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here we reported that MDM2-silencing reduced the activities of the TAp73 promoters and the endogenous TAp73 expression level significantly; while MDM2 overexpression upregulated them. Wemore » further revealed that the regulation of TAp73 transcriptional activity occurs as a synergistic effect of MDM2 and E2F1, most probably through their physical interaction in the nuclei. Furthermore, we also suggested that MDM2 might be involved in DNA damage-induced TAp73 transcriptional activity. Finally, we elucidated that MDM2-silencing reduced the proliferation rate of colon carcinoma cells regardless of the p53 status. Our data show a synergistic effect of MDM2 and E2F1 on TAp73 transcriptional activity, suggesting a novel regulation pathway of TAp73.« less

  5. Aberrant Retinoblastoma (RB)-E2F Transcriptional Regulation Defines Molecular Phenotypes of Osteosarcoma*

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Milcah C.; Sarver, Aaron L.; Tomiyasu, Hirotaka; Cornax, Ingrid; Van Etten, Jamie; Varshney, Jyotika; O'Sullivan, M. Gerard; Subramanian, Subbaya; Modiano, Jaime F.

    2015-01-01

    We previously identified two distinct molecular subtypes of osteosarcoma through gene expression profiling. These subtypes are associated with distinct tumor behavior and clinical outcomes. Here, we describe mechanisms that give rise to these molecular subtypes. Using bioinformatic analyses, we identified a significant association between deregulation of the retinoblastoma (RB)-E2F pathway and the molecular subtype with worse clinical outcomes. Xenotransplantation models recapitulated the corresponding behavior for each osteosarcoma subtype; thus, we used cell lines to validate the role of the RB-E2F pathway in regulating the prognostic gene signature. Ectopic RB resets the patterns of E2F regulated gene expression in cells derived from tumors with worse clinical outcomes (molecular phenotype 2) to those comparable with those observed in cells derived from tumors with less aggressive outcomes (molecular phenotype 1), providing a functional association between RB-E2F dysfunction and altered gene expression in osteosarcoma. DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylase inhibitors similarly reset the transcriptional state of the molecular phenotype 2 cells from a state associated with RB deficiency to one seen with RB sufficiency. Our data indicate that deregulation of RB-E2F pathway alters the epigenetic landscape and biological behavior of osteosarcoma. PMID:26378234

  6. EBP1 is a novel E2F target gene regulated by transforming growth factor-β.

    PubMed

    Judah, David; Chang, Wing Y; Dagnino, Lina

    2010-11-10

    Regulation of gene expression requires transcription factor binding to specific DNA elements, and a large body of work has focused on the identification of such sequences. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that eukaryotic transcription factors can exhibit widespread, nonfunctional binding to genomic DNA sites. Conversely, some of these proteins, such as E2F, can also modulate gene expression by binding to non-consensus elements. E2F comprises a family of transcription factors that play key roles in a wide variety of cellular functions, including survival, differentiation, activation during tissue regeneration, metabolism, and proliferation. E2F factors bind to the Erb3-binding protein 1 (EBP1) promoter in live cells. We now show that E2F binding to the EBP1 promoter occurs through two tandem DNA elements that do not conform to typical consensus E2F motifs. Exogenously expressed E2F1 activates EBP1 reporters lacking one, but not both sites, suggesting a degree of redundancy under certain conditions. E2F1 increases the levels of endogenous EBP1 mRNA in breast carcinoma and other transformed cell lines. In contrast, in non-transformed primary epidermal keratinocytes, E2F, together with the retinoblastoma family of proteins, appears to be involved in decreasing EBP1 mRNA abundance in response to growth inhibition by transforming growth factor-β1. Thus, E2F is likely a central coordinator of multiple responses that culminate in regulation of EBP1 gene expression, and which may vary depending on cell type and context.

  7. The association of GSK3 beta with E2F1 facilitates nerve growth factor-induced neural cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fangfang; Zhang, Long; Wang, Aijun; Song, Bo; Gong, Kai; Zhang, Lihai; Hu, Min; Zhang, Xiufang; Zhao, Nanming; Gong, Yandao

    2008-05-23

    It is widely acknowledged that E2F1 and GSK3beta are both involved in the process of cell differentiation. However, the relationship between E2F1 and GSK3beta in cell differentiation has yet to be discovered. Here, we provide evidence that in the differentiation of PC12 cells induced by nerve growth factor (NGF), GSK3beta was increased at both the mRNA and protein levels, whereas E2F1 at these two levels was decreased. Both wild-type GSK3beta and its kinase-defective mutant GSK3beta KM can inhibit E2F1 by promoting its ubiquitination through physical interaction. In addition, the colocalization of GSK3beta and E2F1 and their subcellular distribution, regulated by NGF, were observed in the process of PC12 differentiation. At the tissue level, GSK3beta colocalized and interacted with E2F1 in mouse hippocampus. Furthermore, GSK3beta facilitated neurite outgrowth by rescuing the promoter activities of Cdk inhibitors p21 and p15 from the inhibition caused by E2F1. To summarize, our findings suggest that GSK3beta can promote the ubiquitination of E2F1 via physical interaction and thus inhibit its transcription activity in a kinase activity independent manner, which plays an important role in the NGF-induced PC12 differentiation.

  8. MiR-205-5p and miR-342-3p cooperate in the repression of the E2F1 transcription factor in the context of anticancer chemotherapy resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Xin; Gupta, Shailendra K; Schmitz, Ulf; Marquardt, Stephan; Knoll, Susanne; Spitschak, Alf; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Pützer, Brigitte M; Vera, Julio

    2018-01-01

    High rates of lethal outcome in tumour metastasis are associated with the acquisition of invasiveness and chemoresistance. Several clinical studies indicate that E2F1 overexpression across high-grade tumours culminates in unfavourable prognosis and chemoresistance in patients. Thus, fine-tuning the expression of E2F1 could be a promising approach for treating patients showing chemoresistance. Methods: We integrated bioinformatics, structural and kinetic modelling, and experiments to study cooperative regulation of E2F1 by microRNA (miRNA) pairs in the context of anticancer chemotherapy resistance. Results: We showed that an enhanced E2F1 repression efficiency can be achieved in chemoresistant tumour cells through two cooperating miRNAs. Sequence and structural information were used to identify potential miRNA pairs that can form tertiary structures with E2F1 mRNA. We then employed molecular dynamics simulations to show that among the identified triplexes, miR-205-5p and miR-342-3p can form the most stable triplex with E2F1 mRNA. A mathematical model simulating the E2F1 regulation by the cooperative miRNAs predicted enhanced E2F1 repression, a feature that was verified by in vitro experiments. Finally, we integrated this cooperative miRNA regulation into a more comprehensive network to account for E2F1-related chemoresistance in tumour cells. The network model simulations and experimental data indicate the ability of enhanced expression of both miR-205-5p and miR-342-3p to decrease tumour chemoresistance by cooperatively repressing E2F1. Conclusions: Our results suggest that pairs of cooperating miRNAs could be used as potential RNA therapeutics to reduce E2F1-related chemoresistance. PMID:29464002

  9. Triptolide abrogates growth of colon cancer and induces cell cycle arrest by inhibiting transcriptional activation of E2F.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Amanda; Beyer, Georg; Chugh, Rohit; Skube, Steven J; Majumder, Kaustav; Banerjee, Sulagna; Sangwan, Veena; Li, Lihua; Dawra, Rajinder; Subramanian, Subbaya; Saluja, Ashok; Dudeja, Vikas

    2015-06-01

    Despite significant progress in diagnostics and therapeutics, over 50 thousand patients die from colorectal cancer annually. Hence, there is urgent need for new lines of treatment. Triptolide, a natural compound isolated from the Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii, is effective against multiple cancers. We have synthesized a water soluble analog of triptolide, named Minnelide, which is currently in phase I trial against pancreatic cancer. The aims of the current study were to evaluate whether triptolide/Minnelide is effective against colorectal cancer and to elucidate the mechanism by which triptolide induces cell death in colorectal cancer. Efficacy of Minnelide was evaluated in subcutaneous xenograft and liver metastasis model of colorectal cancer. For mechanistic studies, colon cancer cell lines HCT116 and HT29 were treated with triptolide and the effect on viability, caspase activation, annexin positivity, lactate dehydrogenase release, and cell cycle progression was evaluated. Effect of triptolide on E2F transcriptional activity, mRNA levels of E2F-dependent genes, E2F1- retinoblastoma protein (Rb) binding, and proteins levels of regulator of G1-S transition was also measured. DNA binding of E2F1 was evaluated by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Triptolide decreased colon cancer cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Minnelide markedly inhibited the growth of colon cancer in the xenograft and liver metastasis model of colon cancer and more than doubles the median survival of animals with liver metastases from colon cancer. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that at low concentrations triptolide induces apoptotic cell death but at higher concentrations it induces cell cycle arrest. Our data suggest that triptolide is able to induce G1 cell cycle arrest by inhibiting transcriptional activation of E2F1. Our data also show that triptolide downregulates E2F activity by potentially modulating events downstream of DNA binding. Therefore, we conclude

  10. HBV core promoter mutations promote cellular proliferation through E2F1-mediated upregulation of S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 transcription.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuehua; Tai, Andrew W; Tong, Shuping; Lok, Anna S F

    2013-06-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) core promoter (CP) mutations have been associated with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in clinical studies. We previously reported that a combination of CP mutations seen in HCC patients, expressed in HBx gene, increased SKP2 (S-phase kinase-associated protein 2) expression, thereby promoting cellular proliferation. Here, we investigate the possible mechanisms by which CP mutations upregulate SKP2. We used immunoblotting and ATPlite assay to validate the effect of CP mutations in full-length HBV genome on cell cycle regulator levels and cell proliferation. Activation of SKP2 mRNA was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR in primary human hepatocytes (PHH) and HCC cell lines. Effect of CP mutations on SKP2 promoter activity was determined by luciferase assay. Target regulation of E2F1 on SKP2 was analyzed by siRNAs. CP mutations in full-length HBV genome upregulated SKP2 expression, thereby downregulating cell cycle inhibitors and accelerating cellular proliferation. CP mutations enhanced SKP2 promoter activity but had no effect on SKP2 protein stability. Mapping of the SKP2 promoter identified a region necessary for activation by CP mutations that contains an E2F1 response element. Knocking down E2F1 reduced the effects of CP mutations on SKP2 and cellular proliferation. The effect of CP mutations on E2F1 might be mediated through hyperphosphorylation of RB. HBV CP mutations enhance SKP2 transcription by activating the E2F1 transcription factor and in turn downregulate cell cycle inhibitors, thus providing a potential mechanism for an association between CP mutations and HCC. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Diabetes and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in E2F1/E2F2 double-mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Ainhoa; Murga, Matilde; Laresgoiti, Usua; Skoudy, Anouchka; Bernales, Irantzu; Fullaondo, Asier; Moreno, Bernardino; Lloreta, José; Field, Seth J; Real, Francisco X; Zubiaga, Ana M

    2004-05-01

    E2F transcription factors are thought to be key regulators of cell growth control. Here we use mutant mouse strains to investigate the function of E2F1 and E2F2 in vivo. E2F1/E2F2 compound-mutant mice develop nonautoimmune insulin-deficient diabetes and exocrine pancreatic dysfunction characterized by endocrine and exocrine cell dysplasia, a reduction in the number and size of acini and islets, and their replacement by ductal structures and adipose tissue. Mutant pancreatic cells exhibit increased rates of DNA replication but also of apoptosis, resulting in severe pancreatic atrophy. The expression of genes involved in DNA replication and cell cycle control was upregulated in the E2F1/E2F2 compound-mutant pancreas, suggesting that their expression is repressed by E2F1/E2F2 activities and that the inappropriate cell cycle found in the mutant pancreas is likely the result of the deregulated expression of these genes. Interestingly, the expression of ductal cell and adipocyte differentiation marker genes was also upregulated, whereas expression of pancreatic cell marker genes were downregulated. These results suggest that E2F1/E2F2 activity negatively controls growth of mature pancreatic cells and is necessary for the maintenance of differentiated pancreatic phenotypes in the adult.

  12. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α regulates autophagy via the p27-E2F1 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pan; Long, Meijing; Zhang, Shijie; Cheng, Zhenyun; Zhao, Xin; He, Fucheng; Liu, Hongchun; Ming, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved process by which the cell contents are delivered to lysosomes for degradation, or are used to provide macromolecules for energy generation under conditions of nutritional starvation. It has previously been demonstrated that cancer cells in hypoxic regions, with an oxygen concentration below the normal physiological level, express hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α, in order to adapt and survive. HIF-1α is important in the regulation of oxygen homeostasis and the transcription of hundreds of genes in response to conditions of hypoxia, hence maintaining energy and redox homeostasis. To determine if HIF-1α modulates autophagy and the underlying molecular mechanisms regulating this process, the human esophageal cancer EC109 and IMR90 human diploid fibroblast cell lines were exposed to normoxic or hypoxic conditions and the expression levels of various proteins subsequently examined. Small interfering RNA was used to silence p27, in order to investigate its role in the process of HIF-1α regulated autophagy. Hypoxia induced autophagy in IMR90 cells and it was revealed that immature IMR90 cells demonstrated an increased rate of autophagy compared with mature cells. HIF-1α promoted EC109 cell autophagy via positively modulating p27, whereas silencing of p27 abolished the autophagy induced by hypoxia. The present study identified the primary components of the p27-E2F1 signaling pathway by which HIF-1α regulates autophagy. A previously unidentified mechanism is here presented, via which cancer cells may generate energy, or obtain macromolecules for survival. PMID:28627618

  13. E2F1 and E2F2 prevent replicative stress and subsequent p53-dependent organ involution.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Ara, A; Zenarruzabeitia, O; Buelta, L; Merino, J; Zubiaga, A M

    2015-10-01

    Tissue homeostasis requires tight regulation of cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. E2F1 and E2F2 transcription factors share a critical role in tissue homeostasis, since their combined inactivation results in overall organ involution, specially affecting the pancreatic gland, which subsequently triggers diabetes. We have examined the mechanism by which these E2Fs regulate tissue homeostasis. We show that pancreas atrophy in E2F1/E2F2 double-knockout (DKO) mice is associated with mitochondrial apoptosis and activation of the p53 pathway in young animals, before the development of diabetes. A deregulated expression of E2F target genes was detected in pancreatic cells of young DKO animals, along with unscheduled DNA replication and activation of a DNA damage response. Importantly, suppression of DNA replication in vivo with aphidicolin led to a significant inhibition of the p53 pathway in DKO pancreas, implying a causal link between DNA replication stress and p53 activation in this model. We further show that activation of the p53 pathway has a key role in the aberrant phenotype of DKO mice, since targeted inactivation of p53 gene abrogated cellular apoptosis and prevented organ involution and insulin-dependent diabetes in mice lacking E2F1/E2F2. Unexpectedly, p53 inactivation unmasked oncogenic features of E2F1/E2F2-depleted cells, as evidenced by an accelerated tumor development in triple-knockout mice compared with p53(-/-) mice. Collectively, our data reveal a role for E2F1 and E2F2 as suppressors of replicative stress in differentiating cells, and uncover the existence of a robust E2F-p53 regulatory axis to enable tissue homeostasis and prevent tumorigenesis. These findings have implications in the design of approaches targeting E2F for cancer therapy.

  14. E2F1 and E2F2 prevent replicative stress and subsequent p53-dependent organ involution

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias-Ara, A; Zenarruzabeitia, O; Buelta, L; Merino, J; Zubiaga, A M

    2015-01-01

    Tissue homeostasis requires tight regulation of cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. E2F1 and E2F2 transcription factors share a critical role in tissue homeostasis, since their combined inactivation results in overall organ involution, specially affecting the pancreatic gland, which subsequently triggers diabetes. We have examined the mechanism by which these E2Fs regulate tissue homeostasis. We show that pancreas atrophy in E2F1/E2F2 double-knockout (DKO) mice is associated with mitochondrial apoptosis and activation of the p53 pathway in young animals, before the development of diabetes. A deregulated expression of E2F target genes was detected in pancreatic cells of young DKO animals, along with unscheduled DNA replication and activation of a DNA damage response. Importantly, suppression of DNA replication in vivo with aphidicolin led to a significant inhibition of the p53 pathway in DKO pancreas, implying a causal link between DNA replication stress and p53 activation in this model. We further show that activation of the p53 pathway has a key role in the aberrant phenotype of DKO mice, since targeted inactivation of p53 gene abrogated cellular apoptosis and prevented organ involution and insulin-dependent diabetes in mice lacking E2F1/E2F2. Unexpectedly, p53 inactivation unmasked oncogenic features of E2F1/E2F2-depleted cells, as evidenced by an accelerated tumor development in triple-knockout mice compared with p53−/− mice. Collectively, our data reveal a role for E2F1 and E2F2 as suppressors of replicative stress in differentiating cells, and uncover the existence of a robust E2F-p53 regulatory axis to enable tissue homeostasis and prevent tumorigenesis. These findings have implications in the design of approaches targeting E2F for cancer therapy. PMID:25656653

  15. E2F1 and E2F2 induction in response to DNA damage preserves genomic stability in neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Daniela S; Campalans, Anna; Belluscio, Laura M; Carcagno, Abel L; Radicella, J Pablo; Cánepa, Eduardo T; Pregi, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    E2F transcription factors regulate a wide range of biological processes, including the cellular response to DNA damage. In the present study, we examined whether E2F family members are transcriptionally induced following treatment with several genotoxic agents, and have a role on the cell DNA damage response. We show a novel mechanism, conserved among diverse species, in which E2F1 and E2F2, the latter specifically in neuronal cells, are transcriptionally induced after DNA damage. This upregulation leads to increased E2F1 and E2F2 protein levels as a consequence of de novo protein synthesis. Ectopic expression of these E2Fs in neuronal cells reduces the level of DNA damage following genotoxic treatment, while ablation of E2F1 and E2F2 leads to the accumulation of DNA lesions and increased apoptotic response. Cell viability and DNA repair capability in response to DNA damage induction are also reduced by the E2F1 and E2F2 deficiencies. Finally, E2F1 and E2F2 accumulate at sites of oxidative and UV-induced DNA damage, and interact with γH2AX DNA repair factor. As previously reported for E2F1, E2F2 promotes Rad51 foci formation, interacts with GCN5 acetyltransferase and induces histone acetylation following genotoxic insult. The results presented here unveil a new mechanism involving E2F1 and E2F2 in the maintenance of genomic stability in response to DNA damage in neuronal cells.

  16. E2F1 and E2F2 induction in response to DNA damage preserves genomic stability in neuronal cells

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Daniela S; Campalans, Anna; Belluscio, Laura M; Carcagno, Abel L; Radicella, J Pablo; Cánepa, Eduardo T; Pregi, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    E2F transcription factors regulate a wide range of biological processes, including the cellular response to DNA damage. In the present study, we examined whether E2F family members are transcriptionally induced following treatment with several genotoxic agents, and have a role on the cell DNA damage response. We show a novel mechanism, conserved among diverse species, in which E2F1 and E2F2, the latter specifically in neuronal cells, are transcriptionally induced after DNA damage. This upregulation leads to increased E2F1 and E2F2 protein levels as a consequence of de novo protein synthesis. Ectopic expression of these E2Fs in neuronal cells reduces the level of DNA damage following genotoxic treatment, while ablation of E2F1 and E2F2 leads to the accumulation of DNA lesions and increased apoptotic response. Cell viability and DNA repair capability in response to DNA damage induction are also reduced by the E2F1 and E2F2 deficiencies. Finally, E2F1 and E2F2 accumulate at sites of oxidative and UV-induced DNA damage, and interact with γH2AX DNA repair factor. As previously reported for E2F1, E2F2 promotes Rad51 foci formation, interacts with GCN5 acetyltransferase and induces histone acetylation following genotoxic insult. The results presented here unveil a new mechanism involving E2F1 and E2F2 in the maintenance of genomic stability in response to DNA damage in neuronal cells. PMID:25892555

  17. The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Binds to E2F1 and Inhibits E2F1-induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Marlowe, Jennifer L.; Fan, Yunxia; Chang, Xiaoqing; Peng, Li; Knudsen, Erik S.; Xia, Ying

    2008-01-01

    Cellular stress by DNA damage induces checkpoint kinase-2 (CHK2)-mediated phosphorylation and stabilization of the E2F1 transcription factor, leading to induction of apoptosis by activation of a subset of proapoptotic E2F1 target genes, including Apaf1 and p73. This report characterizes an interaction between the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor (AHR), a ligand-activated transcription factor, and E2F1 that results in the attenuation of E2F1-mediated apoptosis. In Ahr−/− fibroblasts stably transfected with a doxycycline-regulated AHR expression vector, inhibition of AHR expression causes a significant elevation of oxidative stress, γH2A.X histone phosphorylation, and E2F1-dependent apoptosis, which can be blocked by small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of E2F1 expression. In contrast, ligand-dependent AHR activation protects these cells from etoposide-induced cell death. In cells expressing both proteins, AHR and E2F1 interact independently of the retinoblastoma protein (RB), because AHR and E2F1 coimmunoprecipitate from extracts of RB-negative cells. Additionally, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicate that AHR and E2F1 bind to the Apaf1 promoter at a region containing a consensus E2F1 binding site but no AHR binding sites. AHR activation represses Apaf1 and TAp73 mRNA induction by a constitutively active CHK2 expression vector. Furthermore, AHR overexpression blocks the transcriptional induction of Apaf1 and p73 and the accumulation of sub-G0/G1 cells resulting from ectopic overexpression of E2F1. These results point to a proproliferative, antiapoptotic function of the Ah receptor that likely plays a role in tumor progression. PMID:18524851

  18. HTLV-1 bZIP factor protein targets the Rb/E2F-1 pathway to promote proliferation and apoptosis of primary CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Kawatsuki, A; Yasunaga, J-i; Mitobe, Y; Green, PL; Matsuoka, M

    2016-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is an oncogenic retrovirus that induces a fatal T-cell malignancy, adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). Among several regulatory/accessory genes in HTLV-1, HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ) is the only viral gene constitutively expressed in infected cells. Our previous study showed that HBZ functions in two different molecular forms, HBZ protein and HBZ RNA. In this study, we show that HBZ protein targets retinoblastoma protein (Rb), which is a critical tumor suppressor in many types of cancers. HBZ protein interacts with the Rb/E2F-1 complex and activates the transcription of E2F-target genes associated with cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Mouse primary CD4+ T cells transduced with HBZ show accelerated G1/S transition and apoptosis, and importantly, T cells from HBZ transgenic (HBZ-Tg) mice also demonstrate enhanced cell proliferation and apoptosis. To evaluate the functions of HBZ protein alone in vivo, we generated a new transgenic mouse strain that expresses HBZ mRNA altered by silent mutations but encoding intact protein. In these mice, the numbers of effector/memory and Foxp3+ T cells were increased, and genes associated with proliferation and apoptosis were upregulated. This study shows that HBZ protein promotes cell proliferation and apoptosis in primary CD4+ T cells through activation of the Rb/E2F pathway, and that HBZ protein also confers onto CD4+ T-cell immunophenotype similar to those of ATL cells, suggesting that HBZ protein has important roles in dysregulation of CD4+ T cells infected with HTLV-1. PMID:26804169

  19. Atypical E2f functions are critical for pancreas polyploidization

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Eva; Toussaint, Mathilda J. M.; Tooten, Peter C. J.; van Essen, Saskia C.; van Liere, Elsbeth A.; Youssef, Sameh A.; Bongiovanni, Laura; de Bruin, Alain

    2018-01-01

    The presence of polyploid cells in the endocrine and exocrine pancreas has been reported for four decades. In rodents, pancreatic polyploidization is initiated after weaning and the number of polyploid cells increases with age. Surprisingly the molecular regulators and biological functions of polyploidization in the pancreas are still unknown. We discovered that atypical E2f activity is essential for polyploidization in the pancreas, using an inducible Cre/LoxP approach in new-born mice to delete ubiquitously the atypical E2f transcription factors, E2f7 and E2f8. In contrast to its critical role in embryonic survival, conditional deletion of both of both atypical E2fs in newborn mice had no impact on postnatal survival and mice lived until old age. However, deficiency of E2f7 or E2f8 alone was sufficient to suppress polyploidization in the pancreas and associated with only a minor decrease in blood serum levels of glucose, insulin, amylase and lipase under 4 hours starvation condition compared to wildtype littermates. In mice with fewer pancreatic polyploid cells that were fed ad libitum, no major impact on hormones or enzymes levels was observed. In summary, we identified atypical E2fs to be essential for polyploidization in the pancreas and discovered that postnatal induced loss of both atypical E2fs in many organs is compatible with life until old age. PMID:29329320

  20. Atypical E2f functions are critical for pancreas polyploidization.

    PubMed

    Matondo, Ramadhan B; Moreno, Eva; Toussaint, Mathilda J M; Tooten, Peter C J; van Essen, Saskia C; van Liere, Elsbeth A; Youssef, Sameh A; Bongiovanni, Laura; de Bruin, Alain

    2018-01-01

    The presence of polyploid cells in the endocrine and exocrine pancreas has been reported for four decades. In rodents, pancreatic polyploidization is initiated after weaning and the number of polyploid cells increases with age. Surprisingly the molecular regulators and biological functions of polyploidization in the pancreas are still unknown. We discovered that atypical E2f activity is essential for polyploidization in the pancreas, using an inducible Cre/LoxP approach in new-born mice to delete ubiquitously the atypical E2f transcription factors, E2f7 and E2f8. In contrast to its critical role in embryonic survival, conditional deletion of both of both atypical E2fs in newborn mice had no impact on postnatal survival and mice lived until old age. However, deficiency of E2f7 or E2f8 alone was sufficient to suppress polyploidization in the pancreas and associated with only a minor decrease in blood serum levels of glucose, insulin, amylase and lipase under 4 hours starvation condition compared to wildtype littermates. In mice with fewer pancreatic polyploid cells that were fed ad libitum, no major impact on hormones or enzymes levels was observed. In summary, we identified atypical E2fs to be essential for polyploidization in the pancreas and discovered that postnatal induced loss of both atypical E2fs in many organs is compatible with life until old age.

  1. Atypical E2F transcriptional repressor DEL1 acts at the intersection of plant growth and immunity by controlling the hormone salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Divya; Rickert, Joshua; Huang, Yingxiang; Steinwand, Michael A; Marr, Sharon K; Wildermuth, Mary C

    2014-04-09

    In plants, the activation of immunity is often inversely correlated with growth. Mechanisms that control plant growth in the context of pathogen challenge and immunity are unclear. Investigating Arabidopsis infection with the powdery mildew fungus, we find that the Arabidopsis atypical E2F DEL1, a transcriptional repressor known to promote cell proliferation, represses accumulation of the hormone salicylic acid (SA), an established regulator of plant immunity. DEL1-deficient plants are more resistant to pathogens and slightly smaller than wild-type. The resistance and size phenotypes of DEL1-deficient plants are due to the induction of SA and activation of immunity in the absence of pathogen challenge. Moreover, Enhanced Disease Susceptibility 5 (EDS5), a SA transporter required for elevated SA and immunity, is a direct repressed target of DEL1. Together, these findings indicate that DEL1 control of SA levels contributes to regulating the balance between growth and immunity in developing leaves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. E2F function in muscle growth is necessary and sufficient for viability in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zappia, Maria Paula; Frolov, Maxim V.

    2016-01-01

    The E2F transcription factor is a key cell cycle regulator. However, the inactivation of the entire E2F family in Drosophila is permissive throughout most of animal development until pupation when lethality occurs. Here we show that E2F function in the adult skeletal muscle is essential for animal viability since providing E2F function in muscles rescues the lethality of the whole-body E2F-deficient animals. Muscle-specific loss of E2F results in a significant reduction in muscle mass and thinner myofibrils. We demonstrate that E2F is dispensable for proliferation of muscle progenitor cells, but is required during late myogenesis to directly control the expression of a set of muscle-specific genes. Interestingly, E2f1 provides a major contribution to the regulation of myogenic function, while E2f2 appears to be less important. These findings identify a key function of E2F in skeletal muscle required for animal viability, and illustrate how the cell cycle regulator is repurposed in post-mitotic cells. PMID:26823289

  3. CDH1 regulates E2F1 degradation in response to differentiation signals in keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Randeep K.; Dagnino, Lina

    2017-01-01

    The E2F1 transcription factor plays key roles in skin homeostasis. In the epidermis, E2F1 expression is essential for normal proliferation of undifferentiated keratinocytes, regeneration after injury and DNA repair following UV radiation-induced photodamage. Abnormal E2F1 expression promotes nonmelanoma skin carcinoma. In addition, E2F1 must be downregulated for proper keratinocyte differentiation, but the relevant mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. We show that differentiation signals induce a series of post-translational modifications in E2F1 that are jointly required for its downregulation. Analysis of the structural determinants that govern these processes revealed a central role for S403 and T433. In particular, substitution of these two amino acid residues with non-phosphorylatable alanine (E2F1 ST/A) interferes with E2F1 nuclear export, K11- and K48-linked polyubiquitylation and degradation in differentiated keratinocytes. In contrast, replacement of S403 and T433 with phosphomimetic aspartic acid to generate a pseudophosphorylated E2F1 mutant protein (E2F1 ST/D) generates a protein that is regulated in a manner indistinguishable from that of wild type E2F1. Cdh1 is an activating cofactor that interacts with the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) ubiquitin E3 ligase, promoting proteasomal degradation of various substrates. We found that Cdh1 associates with E2F1 in keratinocytes. Inhibition or RNAi-mediated silencing of Cdh1 prevents E2F1 degradation in response to differentiation signals. Our results reveal novel regulatory mechanisms that jointly modulate post-translational modifications and downregulation of E2F1, which are necessary for proper epidermal keratinocyte differentiation. PMID:27903963

  4. CDH1 regulates E2F1 degradation in response to differentiation signals in keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Randeep K; Dagnino, Lina

    2017-01-17

    The E2F1 transcription factor plays key roles in skin homeostasis. In the epidermis, E2F1 expression is essential for normal proliferation of undifferentiated keratinocytes, regeneration after injury and DNA repair following UV radiation-induced photodamage. Abnormal E2F1 expression promotes nonmelanoma skin carcinoma. In addition, E2F1 must be downregulated for proper keratinocyte differentiation, but the relevant mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. We show that differentiation signals induce a series of post-translational modifications in E2F1 that are jointly required for its downregulation. Analysis of the structural determinants that govern these processes revealed a central role for S403 and T433. In particular, substitution of these two amino acid residues with non-phosphorylatable alanine (E2F1 ST/A) interferes with E2F1 nuclear export, K11- and K48-linked polyubiquitylation and degradation in differentiated keratinocytes. In contrast, replacement of S403 and T433 with phosphomimetic aspartic acid to generate a pseudophosphorylated E2F1 mutant protein (E2F1 ST/D) generates a protein that is regulated in a manner indistinguishable from that of wild type E2F1. Cdh1 is an activating cofactor that interacts with the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) ubiquitin E3 ligase, promoting proteasomal degradation of various substrates. We found that Cdh1 associates with E2F1 in keratinocytes. Inhibition or RNAi-mediated silencing of Cdh1 prevents E2F1 degradation in response to differentiation signals. Our results reveal novel regulatory mechanisms that jointly modulate post-translational modifications and downregulation of E2F1, which are necessary for proper epidermal keratinocyte differentiation.

  5. Sibling rivalry in the E2F family.

    PubMed

    Trimarchi, Jeffrey M; Lees, Jacqueline A

    2002-01-01

    The E2F transcription factor family determines whether or not a cell will divide by controlling the expression of key cell-cycle regulators. The individual E2Fs can be divided into distinct subgroups that act in direct opposition to one another to promote either cellular proliferation or cell-cycle exit and terminal differentiation. What is the underlying molecular basis of this 'push-me-pull-you' regulation, and what are its biological consequences?

  6. E2F1 promote the aggressiveness of human colorectal cancer by activating the ribonucleotide reductase small subunit M2

    SciT

    Fang, Zejun; Gong, Chaoju; Liu, Hong

    2015-08-21

    As the ribonucleotide reductase small subunit, the high expression of ribonucleotide reductase small subunit M2 (RRM2) induces cancer and contributes to tumor growth and invasion. In several colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines, we found that the expression levels of RRM2 were closely related to the transcription factor E2F1. Mechanistic studies were conducted to determine the molecular basis. Ectopic overexpression of E2F1 promoted RRM2 transactivation while knockdown of E2F1 reduced the levels of RRM2 mRNA and protein. To further investigate the roles of RRM2 which was activated by E2F1 in CRC, CCK-8 assay and EdU incorporation assay were performed. Overexpression ofmore » E2F1 promoted cell proliferation in CRC cells, which was blocked by RRM2 knockdown attenuation. In the migration and invasion tests, overexpression of E2F1 enhanced the migration and invasion of CRC cells which was abrogated by silencing RRM2. Besides, overexpression of RRM2 reversed the effects of E2F1 knockdown partially in CRC cells. Examination of clinical CRC specimens demonstrated that both RRM2 and E2F1 were elevated in most cancer tissues compared to the paired normal tissues. Further analysis showed that the protein expression levels of E2F1 and RRM2 were parallel with each other and positively correlated with lymph node metastasis (LNM), TNM stage and distant metastasis. Consistently, the patients with low E2F1 and RRM2 levels have a better prognosis than those with high levels. Therefore, we suggest that E2F1 can promote CRC proliferation, migration, invasion and metastasis by regulating RRM2 transactivation. Understanding the role of E2F1 in activating RRM2 transcription will help to explain the relationship between E2F1 and RRM2 in CRC and provide a novel predictive marker for diagnosis and prognosis of the disease. - Highlights: • E2F1 promotes RRM2 transactivation in CRC cells. • E2F1 promotes the proliferation of CRC cells by activating RRM2. • E2F1 promotes the migration

  7. Geraniol suppresses prostate cancer growth through down-regulation of E2F8.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sanghoon; Park, Yu Rang; Kim, Su-Hwa; Park, Eun-Jung; Kang, Min Ji; So, Insuk; Chun, Jung Nyeo; Jeon, Ju-Hong

    2016-10-01

    Geraniol, an acyclic dietary monoterpene, has been found to suppress cancer survival and growth. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the antitumor action of geraniol has not been investigated at the genome-wide level. In this study, we analyzed the microarray data obtained from geraniol-treated prostate cancer cells. Geraniol potently altered a gene expression profile and primarily down-regulated cell cycle-related gene signatures, compared to linalool, another structurally similar monoterpene that induces no apparent phenotypic changes. Master regulator analysis using the prostate cancer-specific regulatory interactome identified that the transcription factor E2F8 as a specific target molecule regulates geraniol-specific cell cycle signatures. Subsequent experiments confirmed that geraniol down-regulated E2F8 expression and the knockdown of E2F8 was sufficient to suppress cell growth by inducing G 2 /M arrest. Epidemiological analysis showed that E2F8 is up-regulated in metastatic prostate cancer and associated with poor prognosis. These results indicate that E2F8 is a crucial transcription regulator controlling cell cycle and survival in prostate cancer cells. Therefore, our study provides insight into the role of E2F8 in prostate cancer biology and therapeutics. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Cytoplasmic E2f4 forms organizing centres for initiation of centriole amplification during multiciliogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Munemasa; Hazan, Renin; Danielian, Paul S.; Mahoney, John E.; Li, Huijun; Lu, Jining; Miller, Emily S.; Zhu, Xueliang; Lees, Jacqueline A.; Cardoso, Wellington V.

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal development of multiciliated cells is a hallmark of a variety of human conditions associated with chronic airway diseases, hydrocephalus and infertility. Multiciliogenesis requires both activation of a specialized transcriptional program and assembly of cytoplasmic structures for large-scale centriole amplification that generates basal bodies. It remains unclear, however, what mechanism initiates formation of these multiprotein complexes in epithelial progenitors. Here we show that this is triggered by nucleocytoplasmic translocation of the transcription factor E2f4. After inducing a transcriptional program of centriole biogenesis, E2f4 forms apical cytoplasmic organizing centres for assembly and nucleation of deuterosomes. Using genetically altered mice and E2F4 mutant proteins we demonstrate that centriole amplification is crucially dependent on these organizing centres and that, without cytoplasmic E2f4, deuterosomes are not assembled, halting multiciliogenesis. Thus, E2f4 integrates nuclear and previously unsuspected cytoplasmic events of centriole amplification, providing new perspectives for the understanding of normal ciliogenesis, ciliopathies and cancer. PMID:28675157

  9. A novel mechanism of E2F1 regulation via nucleocytoplasmic shuttling: determinants of nuclear import and export.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Iordanka A; Vespa, Alisa; Dagnino, Lina

    2007-09-01

    E2F1 is a transcription factor central for cell survival, proliferation, and repair following genomic insult. Depending on the cell type and conditions, E2F1 can induce apoptosis in transformed cells, behaving as a tumour suppressor, or impart growth advantages favouring tumour formation. The pleiotropic functions of E2F1 are a likely consequence of its ability to transcriptionally control a wide variety of target genes, and require tight regulation of its activity at multiple levels. Although sequestration of proteins to particular cellular compartments is a well-established regulatory mechanism, virtually nothing is known about its contribution to modulation of E2F1 target gene expression. We have examined the subcellular trafficking of E2F1 and, contrary to the widely held notion that this factor is constitutively nuclear, we now demonstrate that it is subjected to continuous nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. We have also defined two nuclear localization domains and a nuclear export region, which mediates CRM1-dependent transit out of the nucleus. The predominant subcellular location of E2F1 is likely determined by the balance between the activity of nuclear import and export domains, and can be modulated by differentiation stimuli in epidermal cells. Thus, we have identified a hitherto unrecognized mechanism to control E2F1 function through modulation of its subcellular localization.

  10. Differentiation and injury-repair signals modulate the interaction of E2F and pRB proteins with novel target genes in keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wing Y; Andrews, Joseph; Carter, David E; Dagnino, Lina

    2006-08-01

    E2F transcription factors are central to epidermal morphogenesis and regeneration after injury. The precise nature of E2F target genes involved in epidermal formation and repair has yet to be determined. Identification of these genes is essential to understand how E2F proteins regulate fundamental aspects of epidermal homeostasis and transformation. We have conducted a genome-wide screen using CpG island microarray analysis to identify novel promoters bound by E2F3 and E2F5 in human keratinocytes. We further characterized several of these genes, and determined that multiple E2F and retinoblastoma (pRb) family proteins associate with them in exponentially proliferating cells. We also assessed the effect on E2F and pRb binding to those genes in response to differentiation induced by bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6), or to activation of repair mechanisms induced by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). These studies demonstrate promoter- and cytokine-specific changes in binding profiles of E2F and/or pRb family proteins. For example, E2F1, 3, 4 and p107 were recruited to the N-myc promoter in cells treated with BMP-6, whereas E2F1, 3, 4, 5, p107 and p130 were bound to this promoter in the presence of TGF-beta. Functionally, these different interactions resulted in transcriptional repression by BMP-6 and TGF-beta of the N-myc gene, via mechanisms that involved E2F binding to the promoter and association with pRb-family proteins. Thus, multiple combinations of E2F and pRb family proteins may associate with and transcriptionally regulate a given target promoter in response to differentiation and injury-repair stimuli in epidermal keratinocytes.

  11. The E2F3—Oncomir 1 axis is activated in Wilms Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Kort, Eric J.; Farber, Leslie; Tretiakova, Maria; Petillo, David; Furge, Kyle A.; Yang, Ximing J.; Cornelius, Albert; Teh, Bin T.

    2008-01-01

    Oncomir-1 is an oncogenic cluster of microRNAs located on chromosome 13. Previous in vitro studies demonstrated that it is transcriptionally regulated by the transcription factor E2F3. In this report we combine expression profiling of both messenger RNA (mRNA) and micro RNAs (miRNA) in Wilms tumor (WT) samples to provide the first evidence that the E2F3—Oncomir 1 axis, previously identified in cell culture, is deregulated in primary human tumors. Analysis of RNA expression signatures demonstrated that an E2F3 gene signature was activated in all Wilms tumor samples analyzed, in contrast to other kidney tumors. This finding was validated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) on the protein level. Expression of E2F3 was lowest in early stage tumors, and highest in metastatic tissue. Expression profiling of miRNAs in WT showed that expression of each measured member of the Oncomir-1 family was highest in WT relative to other kidney tumor subtypes. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed that these microRNAs were overexpressed in Wilms tumor relative to normal kidney tissue. These results suggest that the E2F3—Oncomir-1 axis is activated in Wilms tumor. Our study also demonstrates the utility of integrated genomics combining gene signature analysis with miRNA expression profiling to identify protein-miRNA interactions that are perturbed in disease states. PMID:18519660

  12. E2F1 interactions with hHR23A inhibit its degradation and promote DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Singh, Randeep K; Dagnino, Lina

    2016-05-03

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a major mechanism for removal of DNA lesions induced by exposure to UV radiation in the epidermis. Recognition of damaged DNA sites is the initial step in their repair, and requires multiprotein complexes that contain XPC and hHR23 proteins, or their orthologues. A variety of transcription factors are also involved in NER, including E2F1. In epidermal keratinocytes, UV exposure induces E2F1 phosphorylation, which allows it to recruit various NER factors to sites of DNA damage. However, the relationship between E2F1 and hHR23 proteins vis-à-vis NER has remained unexplored. We now show that E2F1 and hHR23 proteins can interact, and this interaction stabilizes E2F1, inhibiting its proteasomal degradation. Reciprocally, E2F1 regulates hHR23A subcellular localization, recruiting it to sites of DNA photodamage. As a result, E2F1 and hHR23A enhance DNA repair following exposure to UV radiation, contributing to genomic stability in the epidermis.

  13. E2F1 interactions with hHR23A inhibit its degradation and promote DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Randeep K.; Dagnino, Lina

    2016-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a major mechanism for removal of DNA lesions induced by exposure to UV radiation in the epidermis. Recognition of damaged DNA sites is the initial step in their repair, and requires multiprotein complexes that contain XPC and hHR23 proteins, or their orthologues. A variety of transcription factors are also involved in NER, including E2F1. In epidermal keratinocytes, UV exposure induces E2F1 phosphorylation, which allows it to recruit various NER factors to sites of DNA damage. However, the relationship between E2F1 and hHR23 proteins vis-à-vis NER has remained unexplored. We now show that E2F1 and hHR23 proteins can interact, and this interaction stabilizes E2F1, inhibiting its proteasomal degradation. Reciprocally, E2F1 regulates hHR23A subcellular localization, recruiting it to sites of DNA photodamage. As a result, E2F1 and hHR23A enhance DNA repair following exposure to UV radiation, contributing to genomic stability in the epidermis. PMID:27028861

  14. YB-1, the E2F Pathway, and Regulation of Tumor Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Weini; Cao, Helen; Patel, Rachna; Mehta, Reena; Stern, J. Lewis; Reid, Glen; Woolley, Adele G.; Miller, Lance D.; Black, Michael A; Shelling, Andrew N.; Print, Cristin G.; Braithwaite, Antony W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Y-box binding factor 1 (YB-1) has been associated with prognosis in many tumor types. Reduced YB-1 expression inhibits tumor cell growth, but the mechanism is unclear. Methods YB-1 mRNA levels were compared with tumor grade and histology using microarray data from 771 breast cancer patients and with disease-free survival and distant metastasis–free survival using data from 375 of those patients who did not receive adjuvant therapy. Microarrays were further searched for genes that had correlated expression with YB-1 mRNA. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to study the effects of reduced YB-1 expression on growth of three tumor cell lines (MCF-7 breast, HCT116 colon, and A549 lung cancer cells), on tumorigenesis by A549 cells in nude mice, and on global transcription in the three cancer cell lines. Reporter gene assays were used to determine whether YB-1 siRNAs affected the expression of E2F1, and chromatin immunoprecipitation was used to determine whether YB-1 bound to various E2F promoters as well as E2F1-regulated promoters. All P values were from two-sided tests. Results YB-1 levels were elevated in more aggressive tumors and were strongly associated with poor disease-free survival and distant metastasis–free survival. YB-1 expression was often associated with the expression of genes with E2F sites in their promoters. Cells expressing YB-1 siRNA grew substantially more slowly than control cells and formed tumors less readily in nude mice. Transcripts that were altered in cancer cell lines with YB-1 siRNA included 32 genes that are components of prognostic gene expression signatures. YB-1 regulated expression of an E2F1 promoter–reporter construct in A549 cells (eg, relative E2F1 promoter activity with control siRNA = 4.04; with YB-1 siRNA = 1.40, difference= −2.64, 95% confidence interval = −3.57 to −1.71, P < .001) and bound to the promoters of several well-defined E2F1 target genes. Conclusion YB-1 expression is associated with the

  15. E2F mediates enhanced alternative polyadenylation in proliferation.

    PubMed

    Elkon, Ran; Drost, Jarno; van Haaften, Gijs; Jenal, Mathias; Schrier, Mariette; Oude Vrielink, Joachim A F; Agami, Reuven

    2012-07-02

    The majority of mammalian genes contain multiple poly(A) sites in their 3' UTRs. Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation are emerging as an important layer of gene regulation as they generate transcript isoforms that differ in their 3' UTRs, thereby modulating genes' response to 3' UTR-mediated regulation. Enhanced cleavage at 3' UTR proximal poly(A) sites resulting in global 3' UTR shortening was recently linked to proliferation and cancer. However, mechanisms that regulate this enhanced alternative polyadenylation are unknown. Here, we explored, on a transcriptome-wide scale, alternative polyadenylation events associated with cellular proliferation and neoplastic transformation. We applied a deep-sequencing technique for identification and quantification of poly(A) sites to two human cellular models, each examined under proliferative, arrested and transformed states. In both cell systems we observed global 3' UTR shortening associated with proliferation, a link that was markedly stronger than the association with transformation. Furthermore, we found that proliferation is also associated with enhanced cleavage at intronic poly(A) sites. Last, we found that the expression level of the set of genes that encode for 3'-end processing proteins is globally elevated in proliferation, and that E2F transcription factors contribute to this regulation. Our results comprehensively identify alternative polyadenylation events associated with cellular proliferation and transformation, and demonstrate that the enhanced alternative polyadenylation in proliferative conditions results not only in global 3' UTR shortening but also in enhanced premature cleavage in introns. Our results also indicate that E2F-mediated co-transcriptional regulation of 3'-end processing genes is one of the mechanisms that links enhanced alternative polyadenylation to proliferation.

  16. E2F mediates enhanced alternative polyadenylation in proliferation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The majority of mammalian genes contain multiple poly(A) sites in their 3' UTRs. Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation are emerging as an important layer of gene regulation as they generate transcript isoforms that differ in their 3' UTRs, thereby modulating genes' response to 3' UTR-mediated regulation. Enhanced cleavage at 3' UTR proximal poly(A) sites resulting in global 3' UTR shortening was recently linked to proliferation and cancer. However, mechanisms that regulate this enhanced alternative polyadenylation are unknown. Results Here, we explored, on a transcriptome-wide scale, alternative polyadenylation events associated with cellular proliferation and neoplastic transformation. We applied a deep-sequencing technique for identification and quantification of poly(A) sites to two human cellular models, each examined under proliferative, arrested and transformed states. In both cell systems we observed global 3' UTR shortening associated with proliferation, a link that was markedly stronger than the association with transformation. Furthermore, we found that proliferation is also associated with enhanced cleavage at intronic poly(A) sites. Last, we found that the expression level of the set of genes that encode for 3'-end processing proteins is globally elevated in proliferation, and that E2F transcription factors contribute to this regulation. Conclusions Our results comprehensively identify alternative polyadenylation events associated with cellular proliferation and transformation, and demonstrate that the enhanced alternative polyadenylation in proliferative conditions results not only in global 3' UTR shortening but also in enhanced premature cleavage in introns. Our results also indicate that E2F-mediated co-transcriptional regulation of 3'-end processing genes is one of the mechanisms that links enhanced alternative polyadenylation to proliferation. PMID:22747694

  17. ATM-dependent E2F1 accumulation in the nucleolus is an indicator of ribosomal stress in early response to DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Ya-Qiong; An, Guo-Shun; Ni, Ju-Hua; Li, Shu-Yan; Jia, Hong-Ti

    2014-01-01

    The nucleolus plays a major role in ribosome biogenesis. Most genotoxic agents disrupt nucleolar structure and function, which results in the stabilization/activation of p53, inducing cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Likewise, transcription factor E2F1 as a DNA damage responsive protein also plays roles in cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, or apoptosis in response to DNA damage through transcriptional response and protein–protein interaction. Furthermore, E2F1 is known to be involved in regulating rRNA transcription. However, how E2F1 displays in coordinating DNA damage and nucleolar stress is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that ATM-dependent E2F1 accumulation in the nucleolus is a characteristic feature of nucleolar stress in early response to DNA damage. We found that at the early stage of DNA damage, E2F1 accumulation in the nucleolus was an ATM-dependent and a common event in p53-suficient and -deficient cells. Increased nucleolar E2F1 was sequestered by the nucleolar protein p14ARF, which repressed E2F1-dependent rRNA transcription initiation, and was coupled with S phase. Our data indicate that early accumulation of E2F1 in the nucleolus is an indicator for nucleolar stress and a component of ATM pathway, which presumably buffers elevation of E2F1 in the nucleoplasm and coordinates the diversifying mechanisms of E2F1 acts in cell cycle progression and apoptosis in early response to DNA damage. PMID:24675884

  18. ATM-dependent E2F1 accumulation in the nucleolus is an indicator of ribosomal stress in early response to DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ya-Qiong; An, Guo-Shun; Ni, Ju-Hua; Li, Shu-Yan; Jia, Hong-Ti

    2014-01-01

    The nucleolus plays a major role in ribosome biogenesis. Most genotoxic agents disrupt nucleolar structure and function, which results in the stabilization/activation of p53, inducing cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Likewise, transcription factor E2F1 as a DNA damage responsive protein also plays roles in cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, or apoptosis in response to DNA damage through transcriptional response and protein-protein interaction. Furthermore, E2F1 is known to be involved in regulating rRNA transcription. However, how E2F1 displays in coordinating DNA damage and nucleolar stress is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that ATM-dependent E2F1 accumulation in the nucleolus is a characteristic feature of nucleolar stress in early response to DNA damage. We found that at the early stage of DNA damage, E2F1 accumulation in the nucleolus was an ATM-dependent and a common event in p53-suficient and -deficient cells. Increased nucleolar E2F1 was sequestered by the nucleolar protein p14ARF, which repressed E2F1-dependent rRNA transcription initiation, and was coupled with S phase. Our data indicate that early accumulation of E2F1 in the nucleolus is an indicator for nucleolar stress and a component of ATM pathway, which presumably buffers elevation of E2F1 in the nucleoplasm and coordinates the diversifying mechanisms of E2F1 acts in cell cycle progression and apoptosis in early response to DNA damage.

  19. E2F8 as a Novel Therapeutic Target for Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sin-Aye; Platt, James; Lee, Jong Woo; López-Giráldez, Francesc; Herbst, Roy S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The E2F members have been divided into transcription activators (E2F1-E2F3) and repressors (E2F4-E2F8). E2F8 with E2F7 has been known to play an important physiologic role in embryonic development and cell cycle regulation by repressing E2F1. However, the function of E2F8 in cancer cells is unknown. Methods: E2F8 expression was assessed by immunoblotting or immunofluorescence staining in human lung cancer (LC) cells and tissues from LC patients (n = 45). Cell proliferation, colony formation, and invasion analysis were performed to evaluate the role of E2F8 in LC. Microarray analysis was used to determine the target genes of E2F8. The regulation of E2F8 on the expression of ubiquitin-like PHD and RING domain-containing 1 (UHRF1), one of E2F8 target genes, was determined using chromatin immunoprecipitation and promoter activity assays. Human LC xenograft models were used to determine the effects of inhibiting E2F8 by siRNAs (n = 7 per group) or antisense morpholino (n = 8 per group) on tumor growth. Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and group differences by the Student’s t test. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: LC tumors overexpressed E2F8 compared with normal lung tissues. Depletion of E2F8 inhibited cell proliferation and tumor growth. E2F8 knockdown statistically significantly reduced the expression of UHRF1 (~60%-70%, P < .001), and the direct binding of E2F8 on the promoter of UHRF1 was identified. Kaplan-Meier analysis with a public database showed prognostic significance of aberrant E2F8 expression in LC (HR = 1.91 95% CI = 1.21 to 3.01 in chemo-naïve patients, P = .0047). Conclusions: We demonstrated that E2F8 is overexpressed in LC and is required for the growth of LC cells. These findings implicate E2F8 as a novel therapeutic target for LC treatment. PMID:26089541

  20. E2F8 as a Novel Therapeutic Target for Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, Sin-Aye; Platt, James; Lee, Jong Woo; López-Giráldez, Francesc; Herbst, Roy S; Koo, Ja Seok

    2015-09-01

    The E2F members have been divided into transcription activators (E2F1-E2F3) and repressors (E2F4-E2F8). E2F8 with E2F7 has been known to play an important physiologic role in embryonic development and cell cycle regulation by repressing E2F1. However, the function of E2F8 in cancer cells is unknown. E2F8 expression was assessed by immunoblotting or immunofluorescence staining in human lung cancer (LC) cells and tissues from LC patients (n = 45). Cell proliferation, colony formation, and invasion analysis were performed to evaluate the role of E2F8 in LC. Microarray analysis was used to determine the target genes of E2F8. The regulation of E2F8 on the expression of ubiquitin-like PHD and RING domain-containing 1 (UHRF1), one of E2F8 target genes, was determined using chromatin immunoprecipitation and promoter activity assays. Human LC xenograft models were used to determine the effects of inhibiting E2F8 by siRNAs (n = 7 per group) or antisense morpholino (n = 8 per group) on tumor growth. Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and group differences by the Student's t test. All statistical tests were two-sided. LC tumors overexpressed E2F8 compared with normal lung tissues. Depletion of E2F8 inhibited cell proliferation and tumor growth. E2F8 knockdown statistically significantly reduced the expression of UHRF1 (~60%-70%, P < .001), and the direct binding of E2F8 on the promoter of UHRF1 was identified. Kaplan-Meier analysis with a public database showed prognostic significance of aberrant E2F8 expression in LC (HR = 1.91 95% CI = 1.21 to 3.01 in chemo-naïve patients, P = .0047). We demonstrated that E2F8 is overexpressed in LC and is required for the growth of LC cells. These findings implicate E2F8 as a novel therapeutic target for LC treatment. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The evaluation of anoxia responsive E2F DNA binding activity in the red eared slider turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans.

    PubMed

    Biggar, Kyle K; Storey, Kenneth B

    2018-01-01

    In many cases, the DNA-binding activity of a transcription factor does not change, while its transcriptional activity is greatly influenced by the make-up of bound proteins. In this study, we assessed the protein composition and DNA-binding ability of the E2F transcription factor complex to provide insight into cell cycle control in an anoxia tolerant turtle through the use of a modified ELISA protocol. This modification also permits the use of custom DNA probes that are tailored to a specific DNA binding region, introducing the ability to design capture probes for non-model organisms. Through the use of EMSA and ELISA DNA binding assays, we have successfully determined the in vitro DNA binding activity and complex dynamics of the Rb/E2F cell cycle regulatory mechanisms in an anoxic turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans . Repressive cell cycle proteins (E2F4, Rb, HDAC4 and Suv39H1) were found to significantly increase at E2F DNA-binding sites upon anoxic exposure in anoxic turtle liver. The lack of p130 involvement in the E2F DNA-bound complex indicates that anoxic turtle liver may maintain G 1 arrest for the duration of stress survival.

  2. The evaluation of anoxia responsive E2F DNA binding activity in the red eared slider turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans

    PubMed Central

    Biggar, Kyle K.

    2018-01-01

    In many cases, the DNA-binding activity of a transcription factor does not change, while its transcriptional activity is greatly influenced by the make-up of bound proteins. In this study, we assessed the protein composition and DNA-binding ability of the E2F transcription factor complex to provide insight into cell cycle control in an anoxia tolerant turtle through the use of a modified ELISA protocol. This modification also permits the use of custom DNA probes that are tailored to a specific DNA binding region, introducing the ability to design capture probes for non-model organisms. Through the use of EMSA and ELISA DNA binding assays, we have successfully determined the in vitro DNA binding activity and complex dynamics of the Rb/E2F cell cycle regulatory mechanisms in an anoxic turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans. Repressive cell cycle proteins (E2F4, Rb, HDAC4 and Suv39H1) were found to significantly increase at E2F DNA-binding sites upon anoxic exposure in anoxic turtle liver. The lack of p130 involvement in the E2F DNA-bound complex indicates that anoxic turtle liver may maintain G1 arrest for the duration of stress survival. PMID:29770276

  3. Inhibition of E2F1 activity and cell cycle progression by arsenic via retinoblastoma protein.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Lynn A

    2017-01-01

    The regulation of cell cycle progression by steroid hormones and growth factors is important for maintaining normal cellular processes including development and cell proliferation. Deregulated progression through the G1/S and G2/M cell cycle transitions can lead to uncontrolled cell proliferation and cancer. The transcription factor E2F1, a key cell cycle regulator, targets genes encoding proteins that regulate cell cycle progression through the G1/S transition as well as proteins important in DNA repair and apoptosis. E2F1 expression and activity is inhibited by inorganic arsenic (iAs) that has a dual role as a cancer therapeutic and as a toxin that leads to diseases including cancer. An understanding of what underlies this dichotomy will contribute to understanding how to use iAs as a more effective therapeutic and also how to treat cancers that iAs promotes. Here, we show that quiescent breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells treated with 17-β estradiol (E2) progress through the cell cycle, but few cells treated with E2 + iAs progress from G1 into S-phase due to a block in cell cycle progression. Our data support a model in which iAs inhibits the dissociation of E2F1 from the tumor suppressor, retinoblastoma protein (pRB) due to changes in pRB phosphorylation which leads to decreased E2F1 transcriptional activity. These findings present an explanation for how iAs can disrupt cell cycle progression through E2F1-pRB and has implications for how iAs acts as a cancer therapeutic as well as how it may promote tumorigenesis through decreased DNA repair.

  4. Silencing of E2F3 suppresses tumor growth of Her2+ breast cancer cells by restricting mitosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Miyoung; Oprea-Ilies, Gabriela; Saavedra, Harold I

    2015-11-10

    The E2F transcriptional activators E2F1, E2F2 and E2F3a regulate many important cellular processes, including DNA replication, apoptosis and centrosome duplication. Previously, we demonstrated that silencing E2F1 or E2F3 suppresses centrosome amplification (CA) and chromosome instability (CIN) in Her2+ breast cancer cells without markedly altering proliferation. However, it is unknown whether and how silencing a single E2F activator, E2F3, affects malignancy of human breast cancer cells. Thus, we injected HCC1954 Her2+ breast cancer cells silenced for E2F3 into mammary fat pads of immunodeficient mice and demonstrated that loss of E2F3 retards tumor growth. Surprisingly, silencing of E2F3 led to significant reductions in mitotic indices relative to vector controls, while the percentage of cells undergoing S phase were not affected. Nek2 is a mitotic kinase commonly upregulated in breast cancers and a critical regulator of Cdk4- or E2F-mediated CA. In this report, we found that Nek2 overexpression rescued back the CA caused by silencing of shE2F3. However, the effects of Nek2 overexpression in affecting tumor growth rates of shE2F3 and shE2F3; GFP cells were inconclusive. Taken together, our results indicate that E2F3 silencing decreases mammary tumor growth by reducing percentage of cells undergoing mitosis.

  5. E2f1–3 Are Critical for Myeloid Development*

    PubMed Central

    Trikha, Prashant; Sharma, Nidhi; Opavsky, Rene; Reyes, Andres; Pena, Clarissa; Ostrowski, Michael C.; Roussel, Martine F.; Leone, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    Hematopoietic development involves the coordinated activity of differentiation and cell cycle regulators. In current models of mammalian cell cycle control, E2f activators (E2f1, E2f2, and E2f3) are portrayed as the ultimate transcriptional effectors that commit cells to enter and progress through S phase. Using conditional gene knock-out strategies, we show that E2f1–3 are not required for the proliferation of early myeloid progenitors. Rather, these E2fs are critical for cell survival and proliferation at two distinct steps of myeloid development. First, E2f1–3 are required as transcriptional repressors for the survival of CD11b+ myeloid progenitors, and then they are required as activators for the proliferation of CD11b+ macrophages. In bone marrow macrophages, we show that E2f1–3 respond to CSF1-Myc mitogenic signals and serve to activate E2f target genes and promote their proliferation. Together, these findings expose dual functions for E2f1–3 at distinct stages of myeloid development in vivo, first as repressors in cell survival and then as activators in cell proliferation. In summary, this work places E2f1–3 in a specific signaling cascade that is critical for myeloid development in vivo. PMID:21115501

  6. THE ROLE OF THE RETINOBLASTOMA/E2F1 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PATHWAY IN THE LESION RECOGNITION STEP OF NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Patrick S.; McPherson, Lisa A.; Chen, Aubrey Y.; Sage, Julien; Ford, James M.

    2009-01-01

    The retinoblastoma Rb/E2F tumor suppressor pathway plays a major role in the regulation of mammalian cell cycle progression. The pRb protein, along with closely related proteins p107 and p130, exerts its anti-proliferative effects by binding to the E2F family of transcription factors known to regulate essential genes throughout the cell cycle. We sought to investigate the role of the Rb/E2F1 pathway in the lesion recognition step of nucleotide excision repair (NER) in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Rb−/−;p107−/−;p130−/− MEFs repaired both cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) and 6-4 photoproducts (6-4PPs) at higher efficiency than did wildtype cells following UV-C irradiation. The expression of damaged DNA binding gene DDB2 involved in the DNA lesion recognition step was elevated in the Rb family-deficient MEFs. To determine if the enhanced DNA repair in the absence of the Rb gene family is due to the derepression of E2F1, we assayed the ability of E2F1-deficient cells to repair damaged DNA and demonstrated that E2F1−/− MEFs are impaired for the removal of both CPDs and 6-4PPs. Furthermore, wildtype cells induced a higher expression of DDB2 and xeroderma pigmentosum gene XPC transcript levels than did E2F1−/− cells following UV-C irradiation. Using an E2F SiteScan algorithm, we uncovered a putative E2F-responsive element in the XPC promoter upstream of the transcription start site. We showed with chromatin immunoprecipitation assays the binding of E2F1 to the XPC promoter in a UV-dependent manner, suggesting that E2F1 is a transcriptional regulator of XPC. Our study identifies a novel E2F1 gene target and further supports the growing body of evidence that the Rb/E2F1 tumor suppressor pathway is involved in the regulation of the DNA lesion recognition step of nucleotide excision repair. PMID:19376752

  7. Elevated autophagy gene expression in adipose tissue of obese humans: A potential non-cell-cycle-dependent function of E2F1

    PubMed Central

    Haim, Yulia; Blüher, Matthias; Slutsky, Noa; Goldstein, Nir; Klöting, Nora; Harman-Boehm, Ilana; Kirshtein, Boris; Ginsberg, Doron; Gericke, Martin; Guiu Jurado, Esther; Kovsan, Julia; Tarnovscki, Tanya; Kachko, Leonid; Bashan, Nava; Gepner, Yiftach; Shai, Iris; Rudich, Assaf

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy genes' expression is upregulated in visceral fat in human obesity, associating with obesity-related cardio-metabolic risk. E2F1 (E2F transcription factor 1) was shown in cancer cells to transcriptionally regulate autophagy. We hypothesize that E2F1 regulates adipocyte autophagy in obesity, associating with endocrine/metabolic dysfunction, thereby, representing non-cell-cycle function of this transcription factor. E2F1 protein (N=69) and mRNA (N=437) were elevated in visceral fat of obese humans, correlating with increased expression of ATG5 (autophagy-related 5), MAP1LC3B/LC3B (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 β), but not with proliferation/cell-cycle markers. Elevated E2F1 mainly characterized the adipocyte fraction, whereas MKI67 (marker of proliferation Ki-67) was elevated in the stromal-vascular fraction of adipose tissue. In human visceral fat explants, chromatin-immunoprecipitation revealed body mass index (BMI)-correlated increase in E2F1 binding to the promoter of MAP1LC3B, but not to the classical cell cycle E2F1 target, CCND1 (cyclin D1). Clinically, omental fat E2F1 expression correlated with insulin resistance, circulating free-fatty-acids (FFA), and with decreased circulating ADIPOQ/adiponectin, associations attenuated by adjustment for autophagy genes. Overexpression of E2F1 in HEK293 cells enhanced promoter activity of several autophagy genes and autophagic flux, and sensitized to further activation of autophagy by TNF. Conversely, mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF)-derived adipocytes from e2f1 knockout mice (e2f1−/−) exhibited lower autophagy gene expression and flux, were more insulin sensitive, and secreted more ADIPOQ. Furthermore, e2f1−/− MEF-derived adipocytes, and autophagy-deficient (by Atg7 siRNA) adipocytes were resistant to cytokines-induced decrease in ADIPOQ secretion. Jointly, upregulated E2F1 sensitizes adipose tissue autophagy to inflammatory stimuli, linking visceral obesity to adipose and systemic

  8. Overexpression of E2F3 promotes proliferation of functional human β cells without induction of apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Rady, Brian; Chen, Yanmei; Vaca, Pilar; Wang, Qian; Wang, Yong; Salmon, Patrick; Oberholzer, José

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms that control proliferation, or lack thereof, in adult human β cells are poorly understood. Controlled induction of proliferation could dramatically expand the clinical application of islet cell transplantation and represents an important component of regenerative approaches to a functional cure of diabetes. Adult human β cells are particularly resistant to common proliferative targets and often dedifferentiate during proliferation. Here we show that expression of the transcription factor E2F3 has a role in regulating β-cell quiescence and proliferation. We found human islets have virtually no expression of the pro-proliferative G1/S transcription factors E2F1–3, but an abundance of inhibitory E2Fs 4–6. In proliferative human insulinomas, inhibitory E2Fs were absent, while E2F3 is expressed. Using this pattern as a “roadmap” for proliferation, we demonstrated that ectopic expression of nuclear E2F3 induced significant expansion of insulin-positive cells in both rat and human islets. These cells did not undergo apoptosis and retained their glucose-responsive insulin secretion, showing the ability to reverse diabetes in mice. Our results suggest that E2F4–6 may help maintain quiescence in human β cells and identify E2F3 as a novel target to induce proliferation of functional β cells. Refinement of this approach may increase the islets available for cell-based therapies and research and could provide important cues for understanding in vivo proliferation of β cells. PMID:23907129

  9. miR-132 targeting E2F5 suppresses cell proliferation, invasion, migration in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hang; Hou, Lei; Xiong, Yu-Mei; Huang, Jun-Xiang; Zhang, Wen-Hua; Pan, Yong-Ying; Song, Xing-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence showed that microRNA-132 (miR-132) are involved in development and progression of several types of cancers, however, the function and underlying molecular mechanism of miR-132 in ovarian cancer remains unclear. In this study we investigated the biological roles and molecular mechanism of miR-132 in ovarian cancer. Here, we found that that the expression levels of miR-132 were dramatically decreased in ovarian cancer cell lines and clinical ovarian cancer tissue samples. Then, we found that introduction of miR-132 significantly suppressed the proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells. Mechanism investigation revealed that miR-132 inhibited the expression of transcription factor E2F5 by specifically targeting its mRNA 3'UTR. Moreover, the expression level of E2F5 was significantly increased in ovarian cancer tissues than in the adjacent normal tissues, and its expression was inversely correlated with miR-132 expression in clinical ovarian cancer tissues. Additionally, silencing E2F5 was able to inhibit the proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells, parallel to the effect of miR-132 overexpression on the ovarian cancer cells. Meanwhile, overexpression of E2F5 reversed the inhibition effect mediated by miR-132 overexpression. These results indicate that miR-132 suppresses the cell proliferation, invasion, migration in ovarian cancer cells by targeting E2F5.

  10. Interrupted E2F1-miR-34c-SCF negative feedback loop by hyper-methylation promotes colorectal cancer cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shu; Wu, Bo; Sun, Haimei; Ji, Fengqing; Sun, Tingyi; Zhao, Yan; Zhou, Deshan

    2015-01-01

    Tumour suppressor miR-34c deficiency resulted from hyper-methylation in its promoter is believed to be one of the main causes of colorectal cancer (CRC). Till date, miR-34c has been validated as a direct target of p53; but previous evidence suggested other transcription factor(s) must be involved in miR-34c transcription. In the present study, we in the first place identified a core promoter region (−1118 to −883 bp) of pre-miR-34c which was embedded within a hyper-methylated CpG island. Secondly, E2F1 promoted miR-34c transcription by physical interaction with the miR-34c promoter at site −897 to −889 bp. The transcriptional activating effect of E2F1 on miR-34c was in a p53 independent manner but profoundly promoted in the presence of p53 with exposure to 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (DAC). Thirdly, stem cell factor (SCF), a miR-34c target, was specifically reduced upon an introduction of E2F1 which lead to suppression of CRC cell proliferation. The E2F1-suppressed cell proliferation was partially abrogated by additional miR-34c inhibitor, indicating that the anti-proliferation effect of E2F1 was probably through activating miR-34c-SCF axis. Finally, SCF/KIT signalling increased E2F1 production by reducing its proteosomal degradation dependent on PI3K/Akt-GSK3β pathway. In conclusion, our results suggested the existence of E2F1-miR-34c-SCF negative feedback loop which was interrupted by the hyper-methylation of miR-34c promoter in CRC cells and increased cell proliferation. PMID:26704889

  11. Identification of novel posttranscriptional targets of the BCR/ABL oncoprotein by ribonomics: requirement of E2F3 for BCR/ABL leukemogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Eiring, Anna M.; Neviani, Paolo; Santhanam, Ramasamy; Oaks, Joshua J.; Chang, Ji Suk; Notari, Mario; Willis, William; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo; Volinia, Stefano; Marcucci, Guido; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Leone, Gustavo W.

    2008-01-01

    Several RNA binding proteins (RBPs) have been implicated in the progression of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) from the indolent chronic phase to the aggressively fatal blast crisis. In the latter phase, expression and function of specific RBPs are aberrantly regulated at transcriptional or posttranslational levels by the constitutive kinase activity of the BCR/ABL oncoprotein. As a result, altered expression/function of RBPs leads to increased resistance to apoptotic stimuli, enhanced survival, growth advantage, and differentiation arrest of CD34+ progenitors from patients in CML blast crisis. Here, we identify the mRNAs bound to the hnRNP-A1, hnRNP-E2, hnRNP-K, and La/SSB RBPs in BCR/ABLtransformed myeloid cells. Interestingly, we found that the mRNA encoding the transcription factor E2F3 associates to hnRNP-A1 through a conserved binding site located in the E2F3 3′ untranslated region (UTR). E2F3 levels were up-regulated in CML-BCCD34+ in a BCR/ABL kinase– and hnRNP-A1 shuttling–dependent manner. Moreover, by using shRNA-mediated E2F3 knock-down and BCR/ABL-transduced lineage-negative bone marrow cells from E2F3+/+ and E2F3−/− mice, we show that E2F3 expression is important for BCR/ABL clonogenic activity and in vivo leukemogenic potential. Thus, the complexity of the mRNA/RBP network, together with the discovery of E2F3 as an hnRNP-A1–regulated factor, outlines the relevant role played by RBPs in posttranscriptional regulation of CML development and progression. PMID:17925491

  12. E2F8 is essential for polyploidization in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Shusil K; Westendorp, Bart; Nantasanti, Sathidpak; van Liere, Elsbeth; Tooten, Peter C J; Cornelissen, Peter W A; Toussaint, Mathilda J M; Lamers, Wouter H; de Bruin, Alain

    2012-11-01

    Polyploidization is observed in all mammalian species and is a characteristic feature of hepatocytes, but its molecular mechanism and biological significance are unknown. Hepatocyte polyploidization in rodents occurs through incomplete cytokinesis, starts after weaning and increases with age. Here, we show in mice that atypical E2F8 is induced after weaning and required for hepatocyte binucleation and polyploidization. A deficiency in E2f8 led to an increase in the expression level of E2F target genes promoting cytokinesis and thereby preventing polyploidization. In contrast, loss of E2f1 enhanced polyploidization and suppressed the polyploidization defect of hepatocytes deficient for atypical E2Fs. In addition, E2F8 and E2F1 were found on the same subset of target promoters. Contrary to the long-standing hypothesis that polyploidization indicates terminal differentiation and senescence, we show that prevention of polyploidization through inactivation of atypical E2Fs has, surprisingly, no impact on liver differentiation, zonation, metabolism and regeneration. Together, these results identify E2F8 as a repressor and E2F1 as an activator of a transcriptional network controlling polyploidization in mammalian cells.

  13. Signalling in the epidermis: the E2F cell cycle regulatory pathway in epidermal morphogenesis, regeneration and transformation.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Iordanka A; D'Souza, Sudhir J A; Dagnino, Lina

    2005-01-01

    The epidermis is the outermost layer in the skin, and it is the first line of defence against the environment. The epidermis also provides a barrier against loss of fluids and electrolytes, which is crucial for life. Essential in the maintenance of this tissue is its ability to continually self-renew and regenerate after injury. These two characteristics are critically dependent on the ability of the principal epidermal cell type, the keratinocyte, to proliferate and to respond to differentiation cues. Indeed, the epidermis is a multilayered tissue composed of keratinocyte stem cells and their differentiated progeny. Central for the control of cell proliferation is the E2F transcription factor regulatory network. This signaling network also includes cyclins, cdk, cdk inhibitors and the retinoblastoma (pRb) family of proteins. The biological importance of the E2F/pRb pathway is emphasized by the fact that a majority of human tumours exhibit alterations that disrupt the ability of pRb proteins to inhibit E2F, leading to permanent activation of the latter. Further, E2F is essential for normal epidermal regeneration after injury. Other member of the E2F signaling pathway are also involved in epidermal development and pathophysiology. Thus, whereas the pRb family of proteins is essential for epidermal morphogenesis, abnormal regulation of cyclins and E2F proteins results in tumorgenesis in this tissue. In this review, we discuss the role of each member of this important growth regulatory network in epidermal formation, homeostasis and carcinogenesis.

  14. Signalling In The Epidermis: The E2f Cell Cycle Regulatory Pathway In Epidermal Morphogenesis, Regeneration And Transformation

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The epidermis is the outermost layer in the skin, and it is the first line of defence against the environment. The epidermis also provides a barrier against loss of fluids and electrolytes, which is crucial for life. Essential in the maintenance of this tissue is its ability to continually self-renew and regenerate after injury. These two characteristics are critically dependent on the ability of the principal epidermal cell type, the keratinocyte, to proliferate and to respond to differentiation cues. Indeed, the epidermis is a multilayered tissue composed of keratinocyte stem cells and their differentiated progeny. Central for the control of cell proliferation is the E2F transcription factor regulatory network. This signaling network also includes cyclins, cdk, cdk inhibitors and the retinoblastoma (pRb) family of proteins. The biological importance of the E2F/pRb pathway is emphasized by the fact that a majority of human tumours exhibit alterations that disrupt the ability of pRb proteins to inhibit E2F, leading to permanent activation of the latter. Further, E2F is essential for normal epidermal regeneration after injury. Other member of the E2F signaling pathway are also involved in epidermal development and pathophysiology. Thus, whereas the pRb family of proteins is essential for epidermal morphogenesis, abnormal regulation of cyclins and E2F proteins results in tumorgenesis in this tissue. In this review, we discuss the role of each member of this important growth regulatory network in epidermal formation, homeostasis and carcinogenesis. PMID:15951853

  15. E2F1-mediated human POMC expression in ectopic Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Araki, Takako; Liu, Ning-Ai; Tone, Yukiko; Cuevas-Ramos, Daniel; Heltsley, Roy; Tone, Masahide; Melmed, Shlomo

    2016-11-01

    Cushing's syndrome is caused by excessive adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion derived from pituitary corticotroph tumors (Cushing disease) or from non-pituitary tumors (ectopic Cushing's syndrome). Hypercortisolemic features of ectopic Cushing's syndrome are severe, and no definitive treatment for paraneoplastic ACTH excess is available. We aimed to identify subcellular therapeutic targets by elucidating transcriptional regulation of the human ACTH precursor POMC (proopiomelanocortin) and ACTH production in non-pituitary tumor cells and in cell lines derived from patients with ectopic Cushing's syndrome. We show that ectopic hPOMC transcription proceeds independently of pituitary-specific Tpit/Pitx1 and demonstrate a novel E2F1-mediated transcriptional mechanism regulating hPOMC We identify an E2F1 cluster binding to the proximal hPOMC promoter region (-42 to +68), with DNA-binding activity determined by the phosphorylation at Ser-337. hPOMC mRNA expression in cancer cells was upregulated (up to 40-fold) by the co-expression of E2F1 and its heterodimer partner DP1. Direct and indirect inhibitors of E2F1 activity suppressed hPOMC gene expression and ACTH by modifying E2F1 DNA-binding activity in ectopic Cushing's cell lines and primary tumor cells, and also suppressed paraneoplastic ACTH and cortisol levels in xenografted mice. E2F1-mediated hPOMC transcription is a potential target for suppressing ACTH production in ectopic Cushing's syndrome. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  16. SNHG16 contributes to breast cancer cell migration by competitively binding miR-98 with E2F5.

    PubMed

    Cai, Chang; Huo, Qiang; Wang, Xiaolong; Chen, Bing; Yang, Qifeng

    2017-04-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been proved to play important roles in cellular processes of cancer, including the development, proliferation, and migration of cancer cells. In the present study, we demonstrated small nucleolar RNA host gene 16 (SNHG16) as an oncogene on cell migration in breast cancer. Expression levels of SNHG16 were found to be frequently higher in breast cancer tissues than in the paired noncancerous tissues. Gain- and loss-of-function studies proved that SNHG16 significantly promoted breast cancer cell migration. We predicted SNHG16 as a competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) of E2F transcription factor 5 protein (E2F5) via competition for the shared miR-98 through bioinformatics analysis, and proved this regulation using relative quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), western blot, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assay and luciferase reporter assay. In addition, we identified a positive correlation between SNHG16 and E2F5 in breast cancer tissues. Furthermore, we demonstrated that forced expression of miR-98 could partially abrogate SNHG16-mediated increase of breast cancer cells migration, suggesting that SNHG16 promoted cell migration in a miR-98 dependent manner. Taken together, our findings indicated that SNHG16 induces breast cancer cell migration by competitively binding miR-98 with E2F5, and SNHG16 can serve as a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The NAMPT/E2F2/SIRT1 axis promotes proliferation and inhibits p53-dependent apoptosis in human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hailong; Tang, Weiwei; Chen, Xiaowen; Wang, Siyu; Wang, Xianyan; Xu, Haiyan; Li, Lijuan

    2017-11-04

    Melanoma is the most common primary malignant neoplasm in adults, causing more deaths than any other skin cancer, necessitating the development of new target-based approaches. Current evidence suggests SIRT1, the mammalian nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + )-dependent protein deacetylase, and nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), the rate-limiting NAD + biosynthetic enzyme, together comprise a novel systemic regulatory network to play a pivotal role in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Nevertheless, how the regulation of this cofactor interfaces with signal transduction network remains poorly understood in melanoma. Here, we report NAMPT is highly expressed in melanomaassociated with poor overall survival in patients. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of NAMPT decreased NAD + levels and melanoma cell proliferation capacity, and NAMPT knockdown induced apoptosis through the activity of the tumor suppressor p53. Next, we demonstrate NAMPT regulates the transcription factor E2F family member 2 (E2F2) in the apoptosis process. Downstream, E2F2 control the mRNA and protein levels of SIRT1. Finally, we find NAMPT mediates the apoptosis resistance of melanoma cells through NAMPT-E2F2-SIRT1 axis, more than NAD + -driven transcriptional program. Accordingly, our results demonstrated that NAMPT is a prognostic marker in melanoma, and the identificationofNAMPT-E2F2-SIRT1 pathway establishes another link between NAMPT and apoptosis events in melanoma, with therapeutic implications for this deadly cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. miR-132 targeting E2F5 suppresses cell proliferation, invasion, migration in ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Hang; Hou, Lei; Xiong, Yu-Mei; Huang, Jun-Xiang; Zhang, Wen-Hua; Pan, Yong-Ying; Song, Xing-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence showed that microRNA-132 (miR-132) are involved in development and progression of several types of cancers, however, the function and underlying molecular mechanism of miR-132 in ovarian cancer remains unclear. In this study we investigated the biological roles and molecular mechanism of miR-132 in ovarian cancer. Here, we found that that the expression levels of miR-132 were dramatically decreased in ovarian cancer cell lines and clinical ovarian cancer tissue samples. Then, we found that introduction of miR-132 significantly suppressed the proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells. Mechanism investigation revealed that miR-132 inhibited the expression of transcription factor E2F5 by specifically targeting its mRNA 3’UTR. Moreover, the expression level of E2F5 was significantly increased in ovarian cancer tissues than in the adjacent normal tissues, and its expression was inversely correlated with miR-132 expression in clinical ovarian cancer tissues. Additionally, silencing E2F5 was able to inhibit the proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells, parallel to the effect of miR-132 overexpression on the ovarian cancer cells. Meanwhile, overexpression of E2F5 reversed the inhibition effect mediated by miR-132 overexpression. These results indicate that miR-132 suppresses the cell proliferation, invasion, migration in ovarian cancer cells by targeting E2F5. PMID:27186275

  19. E2F1 and NF-κB: Key Mediators of Inflammation-associated Cancers and Potential Therapeutic Targets.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yulin; Chen, Rui; Zhou, Jianwei

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is the fundamental protective response; however disordered immuno-response can cause chronic human disease, including cancer. Inflammatory cells and mediators are essential to the tumor microenvironment and dissection of this complex molecular and cellular milieu may elucidate a connection between cancer and inflammation and help to identify potential novel therapeutic targets. Thus, focusing on transcription factor NF-κB and E2F1 in inflammation-associated cancer is urgent. NF-κB activation is prevalent in carcinomas, mainly driven by inflammatory cytokines in the tumor microenvironment. E2F1 is also involved in regulating immune responses. Understanding the crosstalk between the two pathways may contribute to the development of novel anti-cancer drugs.

  20. E2fl1 is a meiosis-specific transcription factor in the protist Tetrahymena thermophila

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Tian, Miao; Miao, Wei

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Members of the E2F family of transcription factors have been reported to regulate the expression of genes involved in cell cycle control, DNA replication, and DNA repair in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, E2FL1, a meiosis-specific E2F transcription factor gene, was identified in the model ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. Loss of this gene resulted in meiotic arrest prior to anaphase I. The cytological experiments revealed that the meiotic homologous pairing was not affected in the absence of E2FL1, but the paired homologous chromosomes did not separate and assumed a peculiar tandem arrangement. This is the first time that an E2F family member has been shown to regulate meiotic events. Moreover, BrdU incorporation showed that DSB processing during meiosis was abnormal upon the deletion of E2FL1. Transcriptome sequencing analysis revealed that E2FL1 knockout decreased the expression of genes involved in DNA replication and DNA repair in T. thermophila, suggesting that the function of E2F is highly conserved in eukaryotes. In addition, E2FL1 deletion inhibited the expression of related homologous chromosome segregation genes in T. thermophila. The result may explain the meiotic arrest phenotype at anaphase I. Finally, by searching for E2F DNA-binding motifs in the entire T. thermophila genome, we identified 714 genes containing at least one E2F DNA-binding motif; of these, 235 downregulated represent putative E2FL1 target genes. PMID:27892792

  1. Epigenetic involvement of Alien/ESET complex in thyroid hormone-mediated repression of E2F1 gene expression and cell proliferation

    SciT

    Hong, Wei, E-mail: hongwei@tijmu.edu.cn; College of Basic Medicine, Tianjin Medical University, 300070 Tianjin; Li, Jinru

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Corepressor Alien interacts with histone methyltransferase ESET in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alien/ESET complex is recruited to nTRE of T3-responsive gene by liganded TR{beta}1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ESET-mediated H3K9 methylation is required for liganded TR{beta}1-repressed transcription. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ESET is involved in T3-repressed G1/S phase transition and proliferation. -- Abstract: The ligand-bound thyroid hormone receptor (TR) is known to repress via a negative TRE (nTRE) the expression of E2F1, a key transcription factor that controls the G1/S phase transition. Alien has been identified as a novel interacting factor of E2F1 and acts as a corepressor of E2F1. The detailed molecular mechanism by whichmore » Alien inhibits E2F1 gene expression remains unclear. Here, we report that the histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methyltransferase (HMT) ESET is an integral component of the corepressor Alien complex and the Alien/ESET complex is recruited to both sites, the E2F1 and the nTRE site of the E2F1 gene while the recruitment to the negative thyroid hormone response element (nTRE) is induced by the ligand-bound TR{beta}1 within the E2F1 gene promoter. We show that, overexpression of ESET promotes, whereas knockdown of ESET releases, the inhibition of TR{beta}1-regulated gene transcription upon T3 stimulation; and H3K9 methylation is required for TR{beta}1-repressed transcription. Furthermore, depletion of ESET impairs thyroid hormone-repressed proliferation as well as the G1/S transition of the cell cycle. Taken together, our data indicate that ESET is involved in TR{beta}1-mediated transcription repression and provide a molecular basis of thyroid hormone-induced repression of proliferation.« less

  2. [miR-503-5p inhibits the proliferation of T24 and EJ bladder cancer cells by interfering with the Rb/E2F signaling pathway].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohui; Han, Xingtao; Yang, Jinhui; Sun, Jiantao; Wei, Pengtao

    2017-10-01

    Objective To observe the effect of microRNA-503-5p (miR-503-5p) on the growth of T24 and EJ bladder cancer cells, and explore the possible molecular mechanism. Methods The miR-504-5p mimics or miR-NC was transfected into T24 and EJ cells. The target gene of miR-503-5p was predicted by bioinformatics. The expressions of E2F transcription factor 3 (E2F3) mRNA and Rb/E2F signaling pathway mRNA were detected by the real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The expressions of Rb/E2F signal pathway proteins E2F3, cyclin E, CDK2, Rb and p-Rb were detected by Western blotting. The cell cycle of bladder cancer cell lines was determined by flow cytometry. MTT assay and plate cloning assay were performed to observe the proliferation ability of bladder cancer cells. Results After miR-503-5p mimics transfection, the expression of miR-503-5p in bladder cancer cells significantly increased. The increased expression of miR-503-5p significantly reduced the expressions of E2F3 mRNA and Rb/E2F signaling pathway mRNA in bladder cancer cells. What's more, the expressions of Rb/E2F signal pathway proteins were down-regulated. The bladder cancer cells were arrested in G0/G1 phase, and their growth was significantly inhibited by miR-503-5p. Conclusion The miR-503-5p over-expression can inhibit the growth of bladder cancer cell lines T24 and EJ by down-regulating the expression of the Rb/E2F signaling pathway.

  3. A potent transrepression domain in the retinoblastoma protein induces a cell cycle arrest when bound to E2F sites.

    PubMed Central

    Sellers, W R; Rodgers, J W; Kaelin, W G

    1995-01-01

    An intact T/E1A-binding domain (the pocket) is necessary, but not sufficient, for the retinoblastoma protein (RB) to bind to DNA-protein complexes containing E2F and for RB to induce a G1/S block. Indirect evidence suggests that the binding of RB to E2F may, in addition to inhibiting E2F transactivation function, generate a complex capable of functioning as a transrepressor. Here we show that a chimera in which the E2F1 transactivation domain was replaced with the RB pocket could, in a DNA-binding and pocket-dependent manner, mimic the ability of RB to repress transcription and induce a cell cycle arrest. In contrast, a transdominant negative E2F1 mutant that is capable of blocking E2F-dependent transactivation did not. Fusion of the RB pocket to a heterologous DNA-binding domain unrelated to E2F likewise generated a transrepressor protein when scored against a suitable reporter. These results suggest that growth suppression by RB is due, at least in part, to transrepression mediated by the pocket domain bound to certain promoters via E2F. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8524800

  4. WRKY transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Paul J; Somssich, Imre E; Ringler, Patricia; Shen, Qingxi J

    2010-05-01

    WRKY transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators in plants and form integral parts of signalling webs that modulate many plant processes. Here, we review recent significant progress in WRKY transcription factor research. New findings illustrate that WRKY proteins often act as repressors as well as activators, and that members of the family play roles in both the repression and de-repression of important plant processes. Furthermore, it is becoming clear that a single WRKY transcription factor might be involved in regulating several seemingly disparate processes. Mechanisms of signalling and transcriptional regulation are being dissected, uncovering WRKY protein functions via interactions with a diverse array of protein partners, including MAP kinases, MAP kinase kinases, 14-3-3 proteins, calmodulin, histone deacetylases, resistance proteins and other WRKY transcription factors. WRKY genes exhibit extensive autoregulation and cross-regulation that facilitates transcriptional reprogramming in a dynamic web with built-in redundancy. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The TERT promoter SNP rs2853669 decreases E2F1 transcription factor binding and increases mortality and recurrence risks in liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Ko, Eunkyong; Seo, Hyun-Wook; Jung, Eun Sun; Kim, Baek-hui; Jung, Guhung

    2016-01-05

    A common single-nucleotide polymorphism in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter, rs2853669 influences patient survival rates and the risk of developing cancer. Recently, several lines of evidence suggest that the rs2853669 suppresses TERT promoter mutation-mediated TERT expression levels and cancer mortality as well as recurrence rates. However, no reports are available on the impact of rs2853669 on TERT expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its association with patient survival. Here, we found that HCC-related overall and recurrence-free survival rates were not associated with TERT promoter mutation individually, but rs2853669 and the TERT promoter mutation in combination were associated with poor survival rates. TERT mRNA expression and telomere fluorescence levels were greater in patients with HCC who had both the combination. The combination caused TERT promoter methylation through regulating the binding of DNA methyltransferase 1 and histone deacetylase 1 to the TERT promoter in HCC cell lines. The TERT expression level was significantly higher in HCC tumor with a methylated promoter than in that with an unmethylated promoter. In conclusion, we demonstrate a substantial role for the rs2853669 in HCC with TERT promoter mutation, which suggests that the combination of the rs2853669 and the mutation indicate poor prognoses in liver cancer.

  6. E2F4 is required for early eye patterning.

    PubMed

    Ruzhynsky, Vladimir A; Furimsky, Marosh; Park, David S; Wallace, Valerie A; Slack, Ruth S

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly, studies reveal novel functions for cell cycle proteins during development. Here, we investigated the role of E2F4 in eye development. E2F4-deficient mouse embryos exhibit severe early eye patterning defects, which are evident from embryonic day 11.5 and characterized by aberrant shape of the optic cup, coloboma as well as abnormal eye pigmentation. Loss of E2F4 is associated with proximal-distal patterning defects in the optic vesicle. These defects are characterized by the expansion of optic stalk marker gene expression to the optic cup and reduced expression of ventral optic cup markers. These defects are associated with a split of Shh expression domain at the ventral midline of the forebrain and expansion of the Shh activity into the ventral optic cup. Despite these patterning defects, early neuronal differentiation and Shh expression in the retina are not affected by E2F4 deletion. Overall, the results of our studies show a novel role of E2F4 in the early eye development. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. WRKY transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Bakshi, Madhunita; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators found exclusively in plants. They have diverse biological functions in plant disease resistance, abiotic stress responses, nutrient deprivation, senescence, seed and trichome development, embryogenesis, as well as additional developmental and hormone-controlled processes. WRKYs can act as transcriptional activators or repressors, in various homo- and heterodimer combinations. Here we review recent progress on the function of WRKY transcription factors in Arabidopsis and other plant species such as rice, potato, and parsley, with a special focus on abiotic, developmental, and hormone-regulated processes. PMID:24492469

  8. Capsaicin Displays Anti-Proliferative Activity against Human Small Cell Lung Cancer in Cell Culture and Nude Mice Models via the E2F Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hardman, W. Elaine; Luo, Haitao; Chen, Yi C.; Carpenter, A. Betts; Lau, Jamie K.; Dasgupta, Piyali

    2010-01-01

    Background Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is characterized by rapid progression and low survival rates. Therefore, novel therapeutic agents are urgently needed for this disease. Capsaicin, the active ingredient of chilli peppers, displays anti-proliferative activity in prostate and epidermoid cancer in vitro. However, the anti-proliferative activity of capsaicin has not been studied in human SCLCs. The present manuscript fills this void of knowledge and explores the anti-proliferative effect of capsaicin in SCLC in vitro and in vivo. Methodology/Principal Findings BrdU assays and PCNA ELISAs showed that capsaicin displays robust anti-proliferative activity in four human SCLC cell lines. Furthermore, capsaicin potently suppressed the growth of H69 human SCLC tumors in vivo as ascertained by CAM assays and nude mice models. The second part of our study attempted to provide insight into molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-proliferative activity of capsaicin. We found that the anti-proliferative activity of capsaicin is correlated with a decrease in the expression of E2F-responsive proliferative genes like cyclin E, thymidylate synthase, cdc25A and cdc6, both at mRNA and protein levels. The transcription factor E2F4 mediated the anti-proliferative activity of capsaicin. Ablation of E2F4 levels by siRNA methodology suppressed capsaicin-induced G1 arrest. ChIP assays demonstrated that capsaicin caused the recruitment of E2F4 and p130 on E2F-responsive proliferative promoters, thereby inhibiting cell proliferation. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest that the anti-proliferative effects of capsaicin could be useful in the therapy of human SCLCs. PMID:20421925

  9. ROS Production Is Essential for the Apoptotic Function of E2F1 in Pheochromocytoma and Neuroblastoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Espada, Lilia; Meo-Evoli, Nathalie; Sancho, Patricia; Real, Sebastian; Fabregat, Isabel; Ambrosio, Santiago; Tauler, Albert

    2012-01-01

    In this study we demonstrate that accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is essential for E2F1 mediated apoptosis in ER-E2F1 PC12 pheochromocytoma, and SH-SY5Y and SK-N-JD neuroblastoma stable cell lines. In these cells, the ER-E2F1 fusion protein is expressed in the cytosol; the addition of 4-hydroxytamoxifen (OHT) induces its translocation to the nucleus and activation of E2F1target genes. Previously we demonstrated that, in ER-E2F1 PC12 cells, OHT treatment induced apoptosis through activation of caspase-3. Here we show that caspase-8 activity did not change upon treatment with OHT. Moreover, over-expression of Bcl-xL arrested OHT-induced apoptosis; by contrast, over-expression of c-FLIP, did not have any effect on OHT-induced apoptosis. OHT addition induces BimL expression, its translocation to mitochondria and activation of Bax, which is paralleled by diminished mitochondrial enrichment of Bcl-xL. Treatment with a Bax-inhibitory peptide reduced OHT-induced apoptosis. These results point out the essential role of mitochondria on the apoptotic process driven by E2F1. ROS accumulation followed E2F1 induction and treatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine, inhibited E2F1-induced Bax translocation to mitochondria and subsequent apoptosis. The role of ROS in mediating OHT-induced apoptosis was also studied in two neuroblastoma cell lines, SH-SY5Y and SK-N-JD. In SH-SY5Y cells, activation of E2F1 by the addition of OHT induced ROS production and apoptosis, whereas over-expression of E2F1 in SK-N-JD cells failed to induce either response. Transcriptional profiling revealed that many of the genes responsible for scavenging ROS were down-regulated following E2F1-induction in SH-SY5Y, but not in SK-N-JD cells. Finally, inhibition of GSK3β blocked ROS production, Bax activation and the down regulation of ROS scavenging genes. These findings provide an explanation for the apparent contradictory role of E2F1 as an apoptotic agent versus a cell cycle activator

  10. The Transcription Factor Encyclopedia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Here we present the Transcription Factor Encyclopedia (TFe), a new web-based compendium of mini review articles on transcription factors (TFs) that is founded on the principles of open access and collaboration. Our consortium of over 100 researchers has collectively contributed over 130 mini review articles on pertinent human, mouse and rat TFs. Notable features of the TFe website include a high-quality PDF generator and web API for programmatic data retrieval. TFe aims to rapidly educate scientists about the TFs they encounter through the delivery of succinct summaries written and vetted by experts in the field. TFe is available at http://www.cisreg.ca/tfe. PMID:22458515

  11. The transcription factor encyclopedia.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Dimas; Butland, Stefanie L; Swanson, Magdalena I; Bolotin, Eugene; Ticoll, Amy; Cheung, Warren A; Zhang, Xiao Yu Cindy; Dickman, Christopher T D; Fulton, Debra L; Lim, Jonathan S; Schnabl, Jake M; Ramos, Oscar H P; Vasseur-Cognet, Mireille; de Leeuw, Charles N; Simpson, Elizabeth M; Ryffel, Gerhart U; Lam, Eric W-F; Kist, Ralf; Wilson, Miranda S C; Marco-Ferreres, Raquel; Brosens, Jan J; Beccari, Leonardo L; Bovolenta, Paola; Benayoun, Bérénice A; Monteiro, Lara J; Schwenen, Helma D C; Grontved, Lars; Wederell, Elizabeth; Mandrup, Susanne; Veitia, Reiner A; Chakravarthy, Harini; Hoodless, Pamela A; Mancarelli, M Michela; Torbett, Bruce E; Banham, Alison H; Reddy, Sekhar P; Cullum, Rebecca L; Liedtke, Michaela; Tschan, Mario P; Vaz, Michelle; Rizzino, Angie; Zannini, Mariastella; Frietze, Seth; Farnham, Peggy J; Eijkelenboom, Astrid; Brown, Philip J; Laperrière, David; Leprince, Dominique; de Cristofaro, Tiziana; Prince, Kelly L; Putker, Marrit; del Peso, Luis; Camenisch, Gieri; Wenger, Roland H; Mikula, Michal; Rozendaal, Marieke; Mader, Sylvie; Ostrowski, Jerzy; Rhodes, Simon J; Van Rechem, Capucine; Boulay, Gaylor; Olechnowicz, Sam W Z; Breslin, Mary B; Lan, Michael S; Nanan, Kyster K; Wegner, Michael; Hou, Juan; Mullen, Rachel D; Colvin, Stephanie C; Noy, Peter John; Webb, Carol F; Witek, Matthew E; Ferrell, Scott; Daniel, Juliet M; Park, Jason; Waldman, Scott A; Peet, Daniel J; Taggart, Michael; Jayaraman, Padma-Sheela; Karrich, Julien J; Blom, Bianca; Vesuna, Farhad; O'Geen, Henriette; Sun, Yunfu; Gronostajski, Richard M; Woodcroft, Mark W; Hough, Margaret R; Chen, Edwin; Europe-Finner, G Nicholas; Karolczak-Bayatti, Magdalena; Bailey, Jarrod; Hankinson, Oliver; Raman, Venu; LeBrun, David P; Biswal, Shyam; Harvey, Christopher J; DeBruyne, Jason P; Hogenesch, John B; Hevner, Robert F; Héligon, Christophe; Luo, Xin M; Blank, Marissa Cathleen; Millen, Kathleen Joyce; Sharlin, David S; Forrest, Douglas; Dahlman-Wright, Karin; Zhao, Chunyan; Mishima, Yuriko; Sinha, Satrajit; Chakrabarti, Rumela; Portales-Casamar, Elodie; Sladek, Frances M; Bradley, Philip H; Wasserman, Wyeth W

    2012-01-01

    Here we present the Transcription Factor Encyclopedia (TFe), a new web-based compendium of mini review articles on transcription factors (TFs) that is founded on the principles of open access and collaboration. Our consortium of over 100 researchers has collectively contributed over 130 mini review articles on pertinent human, mouse and rat TFs. Notable features of the TFe website include a high-quality PDF generator and web API for programmatic data retrieval. TFe aims to rapidly educate scientists about the TFs they encounter through the delivery of succinct summaries written and vetted by experts in the field. TFe is available at http://www.cisreg.ca/tfe.

  12. GTSE1: a novel TEAD4-E2F1 target gene involved in cell protrusions formation in triple-negative breast cancer cell models

    PubMed Central

    Stelitano, Debora; Leticia, Yamila Peche; Dalla, Emiliano; Monte, Martin; Piazza, Silvano; Schneider, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    GTSE1 over-expression has been reported as a potential marker for metastasis in various types of malignancies, including breast cancer. Despite this, the transcriptional regulation of this protein and the causes of its misregulation in tumors remain largely unknown. The aims of this work were to elucidate how GTSE1 is regulated at the transcriptional level and to clarify the mechanism underlying GTSE1-dependent cell functions in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Here, we identified GTSE1 as a novel target gene of the TEAD4 transcription factor, highlighting a role for the YAP and TAZ coactivators in the transcriptional regulation of GTSE1. Moreover, we found that TEAD4 controls the formation of cell protrusions required for cell migration through GTSE1, unveiling a relevant effector role for this protein in the TEAD-dependent cellular functions and confirming TEAD4 role in promoting invasion and metastasis in breast cancer. Finally, we highlighted a role for the pRb-E2F1 pathway in the control of GTSE1 transcription and observed that treatment with drugs targeting the pRb-E2F1 or YAP/TAZ-TEAD pathways dramatically downregulated the expression levels of GTSE1 and of other genes involved in the formation of metastasis, suggesting their potential use in the treatment of TNBC. PMID:28978043

  13. E2F1/TS Immunophenotype and Survival of Patients with Colorectal Cancer Treated with 5FU-Based Adjuvant Therapy.

    PubMed

    Sulzyc-Bielicka, Violetta; Domagala, Pawel; Bielicki, Dariusz; Safranow, Krzysztof; Rogowski, Wojciech; Domagala, Wenancjusz

    2016-07-01

    The predictive value of thymidylate synthase (TS) expression alone for 5FU-based treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been clinically confirmed. Little is known on the association of expression of E2F1, which controls the transcription of genes encoding proteins engaged in DNA synthesis including TS, and survival of patients with CRC. The purpose of this study is to assess the correlation between expression of both E2F1 and TS in CRCs and survival of patients administered adjuvant 5FU-based chemotherapy, in order to find a better predictor of treatment outcome than expression of TS or E2F1 alone. Nuclear TS and E2F1 were detected by immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays from 190 CRCs (Astler-Coller stage B2 or C). Multivariate analysis identified significant association of the combined E2F1+TS+ immunophenotype with worse OS (HR = 3,78, P = 0,009) and DFS (HR = 2,30, P = 0,03) of patients with colon cancer. There were significant differences between E2F1+TS+ and E2F1-TS- Kaplan-Meier survival curves in relation to DFS (P = 0.008) and OS (P = 0.01). About 37 and 31 % difference in 3-year DFS and OS respectively were seen between patients with E2F1+TS+ vs. E2F1-TS- colon cancer immunophenotype. The E2F1+TS+ immunophenotype may be a marker of poor prognosis (the worst DFS and OS) of patients with colon cancer treated with 5FU-based adjuvant therapy. A subgroup of patients with this immunophenotype may require different and perhaps more aggressive treatment than 5FU-based chemotherapy. Thus, the combined E2F1/TS immunophenotype could be a potential indicator of colon cancer sensitivity to 5FU.

  14. The DP-1 transcription factor is required for keratinocyte growth and epidermal stratification.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wing Y; Bryce, Dawn M; D'Souza, Sudhir J A; Dagnino, Lina

    2004-12-03

    The epidermis is a stratified epithelium constantly replenished through the ability of keratinocytes in its basal layer to proliferate and self-renew. The epidermis arises from a single-cell layer ectoderm during embryogenesis. Large proliferative capacity is central to ectodermal cell and basal keratinocyte function. DP-1, a heterodimeric partner of E2F transcription factors, is highly expressed in the ectoderm and all epidermal layers during embryogenesis. To investigate the role of DP-1 in epidermal morphogenesis, we inhibited DP-1 activity through exogenous expression of a dominant-negative mutant (dnDP-1). Expression of the dnDP-1 mutant interferes with binding of E2F/DP-1 heterodimers to DNA and inhibits DNA replication, as well as cyclin A mRNA and protein expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that the cyclin A promoter is predominantly bound in proliferating keratinocytes by complexes containing E2F-3 and E2F-4. Thus, the mechanisms of decreased expression of cyclin A in the presence of dnDP-1 seem to involve inactivation of DP-1 complexes containing E2F-3 and E2F-4. To assess the consequences on epidermal morphogenesis of inhibiting DP-1 activity, we expressed dnDP-1 in rat epithelial keratinocytes in organotypic culture and observed that DP-1 inhibition negatively affected stratification of these cells. Likewise, expression of dnDP-1 in embryonic ectoderm explants produced extensive disorganization of subsequently formed epidermal basal and suprabasal layers, interfering with normal epidermal formation. We conclude that DP-1 activity is required for normal epidermal morphogenesis and ectoderm-to-epidermis transition.

  15. p53-repressed miRNAs are involved with E2F in a feed-forward loop promoting proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Brosh, Ran; Shalgi, Reut; Liran, Atar; Landan, Gilad; Korotayev, Katya; Nguyen, Giang Huong; Enerly, Espen; Johnsen, Hilde; Buganim, Yosef; Solomon, Hilla; Goldstein, Ido; Madar, Shalom; Goldfinger, Naomi; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Ginsberg, Doron; Harris, Curtis C; Pilpel, Yitzhak; Oren, Moshe; Rotter, Varda

    2008-01-01

    Normal cell growth is governed by a complicated biological system, featuring multiple levels of control, often deregulated in cancers. The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the control of gene expression is now increasingly appreciated, yet their involvement in controlling cell proliferation is still not well understood. Here we investigated the mammalian cell proliferation control network consisting of transcriptional regulators, E2F and p53, their targets and a family of 15 miRNAs. Indicative of their significance, expression of these miRNAs is downregulated in senescent cells and in breast cancers harboring wild-type p53. These miRNAs are repressed by p53 in an E2F1-mediated manner. Furthermore, we show that these miRNAs silence antiproliferative genes, which themselves are E2F1 targets. Thus, miRNAs and transcriptional regulators appear to cooperate in the framework of a multi-gene transcriptional and post-transcriptional feed-forward loop. Finally, we show that, similarly to p53 inactivation, overexpression of representative miRNAs promotes proliferation and delays senescence, manifesting the detrimental phenotypic consequence of perturbations in this circuit. Taken together, these findings position miRNAs as novel key players in the mammalian cellular proliferation network. PMID:19034270

  16. E2f1 mediates high glucose-induced neuronal death in cultured mouse retinal explants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yujiao; Zhou, Yi; Xiao, Lirong; Zheng, Shijie; Yan, Naihong; Chen, Danian

    2017-10-02

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common complication of diabetes and remains one of the major causes of blindness in the world; infants born to diabetic mothers have higher risk of developing retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). While hyperglycemia is a major risk factor, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying DR and diabetic ROP are poorly understood. To explore the consequences of retinal cells under high glucose, we cultured wild type or E2f1 -/- mouse retinal explants from postnatal day 8 with normal glucose, high osmotic or high glucose media. Explants were also incubated with cobalt chloride (CoCl 2 ) to mimic the hypoxic condition. We showed that, at 7 days post exposure to high glucose, retinal explants displayed elevated cell death, ectopic cell division and intact retinal vascular plexus. Cell death mainly occurred in excitatory neurons, such as ganglion and bipolar cells, which were also ectopically dividing. Many Müller glial cells reentered the cell cycle; some had irregular morphology or migrated to other layers. High glucose inhibited the hyperoxia-induced blood vessel regression of retinal explants. Moreover, inactivation of E2f1 rescued high glucose-induced ectopic division and cell death of retinal neurons, but not ectopic cell division of Müller glial cells and vascular phenotypes. This suggests that high glucose has direct but distinct effects on retinal neurons, glial cells and blood vessels, and that E2f1 mediates its effects on retinal neurons. These findings shed new light onto mechanisms of DR and the fetal retinal abnormalities associated with maternal diabetes, and suggest possible new therapeutic strategies.

  17. The prohibitin-repressive interaction with E2F1 is rapidly inhibited by androgen signalling in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Koushyar, S; Economides, G; Zaat, S; Jiang, W; Bevan, C L; Dart, D A

    2017-01-01

    Prohibitin (PHB) is a tumour suppressor molecule with pleiotropic activities across several cellular compartments including mitochondria, cell membrane and the nucleus. PHB and the steroid-activated androgen receptor (AR) have an interplay where AR downregulates PHB, and PHB represses AR. Additionally, their cellular locations and chromatin interactions are in dynamic opposition. We investigated the mechanisms of cell cycle inhibition by PHB and how this is modulated by AR in prostate cancer. Using a prostate cancer cell line overexpressing PHB, we analysed the gene expression changes associated with PHB-mediated cell cycle arrest. Over 1000 gene expression changes were found to be significant and gene ontology analysis confirmed PHB-mediated repression of genes essential for DNA replication and synthesis, for example, MCMs and TK1, via an E2F1 regulated pathway—agreeing with its G1/S cell cycle arrest activity. PHB is known to inhibit E2F1-mediated transcription, and the PHB:E2F1 interaction was seen in LNCaP nuclear extracts, which was then reduced by androgen treatment. Upon two-dimensional western blot analysis, the PHB protein itself showed androgen-mediated charge differentiation (only in AR-positive cells), indicating a potential dephosphorylation event. Kinexus phosphoprotein array analysis indicated that Src kinase was the main interacting intracellular signalling hub in androgen-treated LNCaP cells, and that Src inhibition could reduce this AR-mediated charge differentiation. PHB charge change may be associated with rapid dissociation from chromatin and E2F1, allowing the cell cycle to proceed. The AR and androgens may deactivate the repressive functions of PHB upon E2F1 leading to cell cycle progression, and indicates a role for AR in DNA replication licensing. PMID:28504694

  18. Micro-RNA-128 (miRNA-128) down-regulation in glioblastoma targets ARP5 (ANGPTL6), Bmi-1 and E2F-3a, key regulators of brain cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Cui, J G; Zhao, Y; Sethi, P; Li, Y Y; Mahta, A; Culicchia, F; Lukiw, W J

    2010-07-01

    High density micro-RNA (miRNA) arrays, fluorescent-reporter miRNA assay and Northern miRNA dot-blot analysis show that a brain-enriched miRNA-128 is significantly down-regulated in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and in GBM cell lines when compared to age-matched controls. The down-regulation of miRNA-128 was found to inversely correlate with WHO tumor grade. Three bioinformatics-verified miRNA-128 targets, angiopoietin-related growth factor protein 5 (ARP5; ANGPTL6), a transcription suppressor that promotes stem cell renewal and inhibits the expression of known tumor suppressor genes involved in senescence and differentiation, Bmi-1, and a transcription factor critical for the control of cell-cycle progression, E2F-3a, were found to be up-regulated. Addition of exogenous miRNA-128 to CRL-1690 and CRL-2610 GBM cell lines (a) restored 'homeostatic' ARP5 (ANGPTL6), Bmi-1 and E2F-3a expression, and (b) significantly decreased the proliferation of CRL-1690 and CRL-2610 cell lines. Our data suggests that down-regulation of miRNA-128 may contribute to glioma and GBM, in part, by coordinately up-regulating ARP5 (ANGPTL6), Bmi-1 and E2F-3a, resulting in the proliferation of undifferentiated GBM cells.

  19. TFDP3 was expressed in coordination with E2F1 to inhibit E2F1-mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yueyun; Xin, Yijuan; Li, Rui; Wang, Zhe; Yue, Qiaohong; Xiao, Fengjing; Hao, Xiaoke

    2014-03-10

    TFDP3 has been previously identified as an inhibitor of E2F molecules. It has been shown to suppress E2F1-induced apoptosis dependent P53 and to play a potential role in carcinogenesis. However, whether it indeed helps cancer cells tolerate apoptosis stress in cancer tissues remains unknown. TFDP3 expression was assessed by RT-PCR, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry in normal human tissues, cancer tissues and prostate cancer tissues. The association between TFDP3 and E2F1 in prostate cancer development was analyzed in various stages. Apoptosis was evaluated with annexin-V and propidium iodide staining and flow-cytometry. The results show that, in 96 samples of normal human tissues, TFDP3 could be detected in the cerebrum, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, bronchus, breast, ovary, uterus, and skin, but seldom in the lung, muscles, prostate, and liver. In addition, TFDP3 was highly expressed in numerous cancer tissues, such as brain-keratinous, lung squamous cell carcinoma, testicular seminoma, cervical carcinoma, skin squamous cell carcinoma, gastric adenocarcinoma, liver cancer, and prostate cancer. Moreover, TFDP3 was positive in 23 (62.2%) of 37 prostate cancer samples regardless of stage. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry results show that TFDP3 was always expressed in coordination with E2F1 at equivalent expression levels in prostate cancer tissues, and was highly expressed particularly in samples of high stage. When E2F1 was extrogenously expressed in LNCap cells, TFDP3 could be induced, and the apoptosis induced by E2F1 was significantly decreased. It was demonstrated that TFDP3 was a broadly expressed protein corresponding to E2F1 in human tissues, and suggested that TFDP3 is involved in prostate cancer cell survival by suppressing apoptosis induced by E2F1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. MGA, L3MBTL2 and E2F6 determine genomic binding of the non-canonical Polycomb repressive complex PRC1.6

    PubMed Central

    Stielow, Bastian; Finkernagel, Florian; Stiewe, Thorsten

    2018-01-01

    Diverse Polycomb repressive complexes 1 (PRC1) play essential roles in gene regulation, differentiation and development. Six major groups of PRC1 complexes that differ in their subunit composition have been identified in mammals. How the different PRC1 complexes are recruited to specific genomic sites is poorly understood. The Polycomb Ring finger protein PCGF6, the transcription factors MGA and E2F6, and the histone-binding protein L3MBTL2 are specific components of the non-canonical PRC1.6 complex. In this study, we have investigated their role in genomic targeting of PRC1.6. ChIP-seq analysis revealed colocalization of MGA, L3MBTL2, E2F6 and PCGF6 genome-wide. Ablation of MGA in a human cell line by CRISPR/Cas resulted in complete loss of PRC1.6 binding. Rescue experiments revealed that MGA recruits PRC1.6 to specific loci both by DNA binding-dependent and by DNA binding-independent mechanisms. Depletion of L3MBTL2 and E2F6 but not of PCGF6 resulted in differential, locus-specific loss of PRC1.6 binding illustrating that different subunits mediate PRC1.6 loading to distinct sets of promoters. Mga, L3mbtl2 and Pcgf6 colocalize also in mouse embryonic stem cells, where PRC1.6 has been linked to repression of germ cell-related genes. Our findings unveil strikingly different genomic recruitment mechanisms of the non-canonical PRC1.6 complex, which specify its cell type- and context-specific regulatory functions. PMID:29381691

  1. The Cdk4-E2f1 pathway regulates early pancreas development by targeting Pdx1+ progenitors and Ngn3+ endocrine precursors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Yoon; Rane, Sushil G.

    2011-01-01

    Cell division and cell differentiation are intricately regulated processes vital to organ development. Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) are master regulators of the cell cycle that orchestrate the cell division and differentiation programs. Cdk1 is essential to drive cell division and is required for the first embryonic divisions, whereas Cdks 2, 4 and 6 are dispensable for organogenesis but vital for tissue-specific cell development. Here, we illustrate an important role for Cdk4 in regulating early pancreas development. Pancreatic development involves extensive morphogenesis, proliferation and differentiation of the epithelium to give rise to the distinct cell lineages of the adult pancreas. The cell cycle molecules that specify lineage commitment within the early pancreas are unknown. We show that Cdk4 and its downstream transcription factor E2f1 regulate mouse pancreas development prior to and during the secondary transition. Cdk4 deficiency reduces embryonic pancreas size owing to impaired mesenchyme development and fewer Pdx1+ pancreatic progenitor cells. Expression of activated Cdk4R24C kinase leads to increased Nkx2.2+ and Nkx6.1+ cells and a rise in the number and proliferation of Ngn3+ endocrine precursors, resulting in expansion of the β cell lineage. We show that E2f1 binds and activates the Ngn3 promoter to modulate Ngn3 expression levels in the embryonic pancreas in a Cdk4-dependent manner. These results suggest that Cdk4 promotes β cell development by directing E2f1-mediated activation of Ngn3 and increasing the pool of endocrine precursors, and identify Cdk4 as an important regulator of early pancreas development that modulates the proliferation potential of pancreatic progenitors and endocrine precursors. PMID:21490060

  2. Cdc6 is regulated by E2F and is essential for DNA replication in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Z; DeGregori, J; Shohet, R; Leone, G; Stillman, B; Nevins, J R; Williams, R S

    1998-03-31

    Cdc6 has a critical regulatory role in the initiation of DNA replication in yeasts, but its function in mammalian cells has not been characterized. We show here that Cdc6 is expressed selectively in proliferating but not quiescent mammalian cells, both in culture and within tissues of intact animals. During the transition from a growth-arrested to a proliferative state, transcription of mammalian Cdc6 is regulated by E2F proteins, as revealed by a functional analysis of the human Cdc6 promoter and by the ability of exogenously expressed E2F proteins to stimulate the endogenous Cdc6 gene. Immunodepletion of Cdc6 by microinjection of anti-Cdc6 antibody blocks initiation of DNA replication in a human tumor cell line. We conclude that expression of human Cdc6 is regulated in response to mitogenic signals though transcriptional control mechanisms involving E2F proteins, and that Cdc6 is required for initiation of DNA replication in mammalian cells.

  3. The adenovirus oncoprotein E1a stimulates binding of transcription factor ETF to transcriptionally activate the p53 gene.

    PubMed

    Hale, T K; Braithwaite, A W

    1999-08-20

    Expression of the tumor suppressor protein p53 plays an important role in regulating the cellular response to DNA damage. During adenovirus infection, levels of p53 protein also increase. It has been shown that this increase is due not only to increased stability of the p53 protein but to the transcriptional activation of the p53 gene during infection. We demonstrate here that the E1a proteins of adenovirus are responsible for activating the mouse p53 gene and that both major E1a proteins, 243R and 289R, are required for complete activation. E1a brings about the binding of two cellular transcription factors to the mouse p53 promoter. One of these, ETF, binds to three upstream sites in the p53 promoter and one downstream site, whereas E2F binds to one upstream site in the presence of E1a. Our studies indicate that E2F binding is not essential for activation of the p53 promoter but that ETF is. Our data indicate the ETF site located downstream of the start site of transcription is the key site in conferring E1a responsiveness on the p53 promoter.

  4. Arginine methylation-dependent reader-writer interplay governs growth control by E2F-1

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shunsheng; Moehlenbrink, Jutta; Lu, Yi-Chien; Zalmas, Lykourgos-Panagiotis; Sagum, Cari A.; Carr, Simon; McGouran, Joanna F.; Alexander, Leila; Fedorov, Oleg; Munro, Shonagh; Kessler, Benedikt; Bedford, Mark T.; Yu, Qiang; La Thangue, Nicholas B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The mechanisms that underlie and dictate the different biological outcomes of E2F-1 activity have yet to be elucidated. We describe the residue-specific methylation of E2F-1 by the asymmetric dimethylating protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) 1 and symmetric dimethylating PRMT5, and relate the marks to different functional consequences of E2F-1 activity. Methylation by PRMT1 hinders methylation by PRMT5, which augments E2F-1-dependent apoptosis, whereas PRMT5-dependent methylation favours proliferation by antagonising methylation by PRMT1. The ability of E2F-1 to prompt apoptosis in DNA damaged cells coincides with enhanced PRMT1 methylation. In contrast, cyclin A binding to E2F-1 impedes PRMT1 methylation and augments PRMT5 methylation, thus ensuring that E2F-1 is locked into its cell cycle progression mode. The Tudor domain protein p100-TSN reads the symmetric methylation mark, and binding of p100-TSN down-regulates E2F-1 apoptotic activity. Our results define an exquisite level of precision in the reader-writer interplay that governs the biological outcome of E2F-1 activity. PMID:24076217

  5. E2F Activators Signal and Maintain Centrosome Amplification in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Young; Moreno, Carlos S.

    2014-01-01

    Centrosomes ensure accurate chromosome segregation by directing spindle bipolarity. Loss of centrosome regulation results in centrosome amplification, multipolar mitosis and aneuploidy. Since centrosome amplification is common in premalignant lesions and breast tumors, it is proposed to play a central role in breast tumorigenesis, a hypothesis that remains to be tested. The coordination between the cell and centrosome cycles is of paramount importance to maintain normal centrosome numbers, and the E2Fs may be responsible for regulating these cycles. However, the role of E2F activators in centrosome amplification is unclear. Because E2Fs are deregulated in Her2+ cells displaying centrosome amplification, we addressed whether they signal this abnormal process. Knockdown of E2F1 or E2F3 in Her2+ cells decreased centrosome amplification without significantly affecting cell cycle progression, whereas the overexpression of E2F1, E2F2, or E2F3 increased centrosome amplification in MCF10A mammary epithelial cells. Our results revealed that E2Fs affect the expression of proteins, including Nek2 and Plk4, known to influence the cell/centrosome cycles and mitosis. Downregulation of E2F3 resulted in cell death and delays/blocks in cytokinesis, which was reversed by Nek2 overexpression. Nek2 overexpression enhanced centrosome amplification in Her2+ breast cancer cells silenced for E2F3, revealing a role for the E2F activators in maintaining centrosome amplification in part through Nek2. PMID:24797070

  6. E2F activators signal and maintain centrosome amplification in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Young; Moreno, Carlos S; Saavedra, Harold I

    2014-07-01

    Centrosomes ensure accurate chromosome segregation by directing spindle bipolarity. Loss of centrosome regulation results in centrosome amplification, multipolar mitosis and aneuploidy. Since centrosome amplification is common in premalignant lesions and breast tumors, it is proposed to play a central role in breast tumorigenesis, a hypothesis that remains to be tested. The coordination between the cell and centrosome cycles is of paramount importance to maintain normal centrosome numbers, and the E2Fs may be responsible for regulating these cycles. However, the role of E2F activators in centrosome amplification is unclear. Because E2Fs are deregulated in Her2(+) cells displaying centrosome amplification, we addressed whether they signal this abnormal process. Knockdown of E2F1 or E2F3 in Her2(+) cells decreased centrosome amplification without significantly affecting cell cycle progression, whereas the overexpression of E2F1, E2F2, or E2F3 increased centrosome amplification in MCF10A mammary epithelial cells. Our results revealed that E2Fs affect the expression of proteins, including Nek2 and Plk4, known to influence the cell/centrosome cycles and mitosis. Downregulation of E2F3 resulted in cell death and delays/blocks in cytokinesis, which was reversed by Nek2 overexpression. Nek2 overexpression enhanced centrosome amplification in Her2(+) breast cancer cells silenced for E2F3, revealing a role for the E2F activators in maintaining centrosome amplification in part through Nek2.

  7. KDM4A Coactivates E2F1 to Regulate the PDK-Dependent Metabolic Switch between Mitochondrial Oxidation and Glycolysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling-Yu; Hung, Chiu-Lien; Chen, Yun-Ru; Yang, Joy C; Wang, Junjian; Campbell, Mel; Izumiya, Yoshihiro; Chen, Hong-Wu; Wang, Wen-Ching; Ann, David K; Kung, Hsing-Jien

    2016-09-13

    The histone lysine demethylase KDM4A/JMJD2A has been implicated in prostate carcinogenesis through its role in transcriptional regulation. Here, we describe KDM4A as a E2F1 coactivator and demonstrate a functional role for the E2F1-KDM4A complex in the control of tumor metabolism. KDM4A associates with E2F1 on target gene promoters and enhances E2F1 chromatin binding and transcriptional activity, thereby modulating the transcriptional profile essential for cancer cell proliferation and survival. The pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDKs) PDK1 and PDK3 are direct targets of KDM4A and E2F1 and modulate the switch between glycolytic metabolism and mitochondrial oxidation. Downregulation of KDM4A leads to elevated activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase and mitochondrial oxidation, resulting in excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species. The altered metabolic phenotypes can be partially rescued by ectopic expression of PDK1 and PDK3, indicating a KDM4A-dependent tumor metabolic regulation via PDK. Our results suggest that KDM4A is a key regulator of tumor metabolism and a potential therapeutic target for prostate cancer. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Differentiation-associated microRNAs antagonize the Rb–E2F pathway to restrict proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Marzi, Matteo J.; Puggioni, Eleonora M. R.; Dall'Olio, Valentina; Bucci, Gabriele; Bernard, Loris; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Crescenzi, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The cancer-associated loss of microRNA (miRNA) expression leads to a proliferative advantage and aggressive behavior through largely unknown mechanisms. Here, we exploit a model system that recapitulates physiological terminal differentiation and its reversal upon oncogene expression to analyze coordinated mRNA/miRNA responses. The cell cycle reentry of myotubes, forced by the E1A oncogene, was associated with a pattern of mRNA/miRNA modulation that was largely reciprocal to that induced during the differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes. The E1A-induced mRNA response was preponderantly Retinoblastoma protein (Rb)-dependent. Conversely, the miRNA response was mostly Rb-independent and exerted through tissue-specific factors and Myc. A subset of these miRNAs (miR-1, miR-34, miR-22, miR-365, miR-29, miR-145, and Let-7) was shown to coordinately target Rb-dependent cell cycle and DNA replication mRNAs. Thus, a dual level of regulation—transcriptional regulation via Rb–E2F and posttranscriptional regulation via miRNAs—confers robustness to cell cycle control and provides a molecular basis to understand the role of miRNA subversion in cancer. PMID:23027903

  9. Methylated DNMT1 and E2F1 are targeted for proteolysis by L3MBTL3 and CRL4DCAF5 ubiquitin ligase.

    PubMed

    Leng, Feng; Yu, Jiekai; Zhang, Chunxiao; Alejo, Salvador; Hoang, Nam; Sun, Hong; Lu, Fei; Zhang, Hui

    2018-04-24

    Many non-histone proteins are lysine methylated and a novel function of this modification is to trigger the proteolysis of methylated proteins. Here, we report that the methylated lysine 142 of DNMT1, a major DNA methyltransferase that preserves epigenetic inheritance of DNA methylation patterns during DNA replication, is demethylated by LSD1. A novel methyl-binding protein, L3MBTL3, binds the K142-methylated DNMT1 and recruits a novel CRL4 DCAF5 ubiquitin ligase to degrade DNMT1. Both LSD1 and PHF20L1 act primarily in S phase to prevent DNMT1 degradation by L3MBTL3-CRL4 DCAF5 . Mouse L3MBTL3/MBT-1 deletion causes accumulation of DNMT1 protein, increased genomic DNA methylation, and late embryonic lethality. DNMT1 contains a consensus methylation motif shared by many non-histone proteins including E2F1, a key transcription factor for S phase. We show that the methylation-dependent E2F1 degradation is also controlled by L3MBTL3-CRL4 DCAF5 . Our studies elucidate for the first time a novel mechanism by which the stability of many methylated non-histone proteins are regulated.

  10. INHIBITION OF ERN1 SIGNALING ENZYME AFFECTS HYPOXIC REGULATION OF THE EXPRESSION OF E2F8, EPAS1, HOXC6, ATF3, TBX3 AND FOXF1 GENES IN U87 GLIOMA CELLS.

    PubMed

    Minchenko, O H; Tsymbal, D O; Minchenko, D O; Kovalevska, O V; Karbovskyi, L L; Bikfalvi, A

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia as well as the endoplasmic reticulum stress are important factors of malignant tumor growth and control of the expression of genes, which regulate numerous metabolic processes and cell proliferation. Furthermore, blockade of ERN1 (endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus 1) suppresses cell proliferation and tumor growth. We studied the effect of hypoxia on the expression of genes encoding the transcription factors such as E2F8 (E2F transcription factor 8), EPAS1 (endothelial PAS domain protein 1), TBX3 (T-box 3), ATF3 (activating transcription factor 3), FOXF1 (forkhead box F), and HOXC6 (homeobox C6) in U87 glioma cells with and without ERN1 signaling enzyme function. We have established that hypoxia enhances the expression of HOXC6, E2F8, ATF3, and EPAS1 genes but does not change TBX3 and FOXF1 gene expression in glioma cells with ERNI function. At the same time, the expression level of all studied genes is strongly decreased, except for TBX3 gene, in glioma cells without ERN1 function. Moreover, the inhibition of ERN1 signaling enzyme function significantly modifies the effect of hypoxia on the expression of these transcription factor genes. removes or introduces this regulation as well as changes a direction or magnitude of hypoxic regulation. Present study demonstrates that fine-tuning of the expression of proliferation related genes depends upon hypoxia and ERN1-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling and correlates with slower proliferation rate of glioma cells without ERN1 function.

  11. Pumilio and nanos RNA-binding proteins counterbalance the transcriptional consequences of RB1 inactivation.

    PubMed

    Miles, Wayne O; Dyson, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    The ability of the retinoblastoma protein (RB) tumor suppressor to repress transcription stimulated by the E2 promoter binding factors (E2F) is integral to its biological functions. Our recent report described a conserved feedback mechanism mediated by the RNA-binding proteins Pumilio and Nanos that increases in importance following RB loss and helps cells to tolerate deregulated E2F.

  12. DEPDC1 promotes cell proliferation and tumor growth via activation of E2F signaling in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lin; Chen, Keng; Cai, Zhao-Peng; Chen, Fu-Chao; Shen, Hui-Yong; Zhao, Wei-Hua; Yang, Song-Jie; Chen, Xu-Biao; Tang, Guo-Xue; Lin, Xi

    2017-08-26

    DEP domain containing 1 (DEPDC1) is recently reported to be overexpressed in several types of human cancer; however the role of DEPDC1 in prostate cancer remains to be investigated. Herein, we identified that the DEPDC1 mRNA and protein expression levels were dramatically increased in prostate cancer tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of DEPDC1 promoted, but depletion of DEPDC1 inhibited cell proliferation by regulating the G1-S phase cell cycle transition. Importantly, we found that DEPDC1 was essential for the tumor growth and formation of bone metastases of prostate cancer cells in vivo. Finally, we demonstrated that DEPDC1 interacted with E2F1 and increased its transcriptional activity, leading to hyper-activation of E2F signaling in prostate cancer cells. Our findings reveal an oncogenic role of DEPDC1 in prostate cancer progression via activation of E2F signaling, and suggest DEPDC1 might be a potential therapeutic target against the disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. HER2 signaling drives DNA anabolism and proliferation through SRC-3 phosphorylation and E2F1-regulated genes

    PubMed Central

    Nikolai, Bryan C.; Lanz, Rainer B.; York, Brian; Dasgupta, Subhamoy; Mitsiades, Nicholas; Creighton, Chad J.; Tsimelzon, Anna; Hilsenbeck, Susan G.; Lonard, David M.; Smith, Carolyn L.; O’Malley, Bert W.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 20% of early-stage breast cancers display amplification or overexpression of the ErbB2/HER2 oncogene, conferring poor prognosis and resistance to endocrine therapy. Targeting HER2+ tumors with trastuzumab or the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor lapatinib significantly improves survival, yet tumor resistance and progression of metastatic disease still develop over time. While the mechanisms of cytosolic HER2 signaling are well studied, nuclear signaling components and gene regulatory networks that bestow therapeutic resistance and limitless proliferative potential are incompletely understood. Here, we use biochemical and bioinformatic approaches to identify effectors and targets of HER2 transcriptional signaling in human breast cancer. Phosphorylation and activity of the Steroid Receptor Coactivator-3 (SRC-3) is reduced upon HER2 inhibition, and recruitment of SRC-3 to regulatory elements of endogenous genes is impaired. Transcripts regulated by HER2 signaling are highly enriched with E2F1 binding sites and define a gene signature associated with proliferative breast tumor subtypes, cell cycle progression, and DNA replication. We show that HER2 signaling promotes breast cancer cell proliferation through regulation of E2F1-driven DNA metabolism and replication genes together with phosphorylation and activity of the transcriptional coactivator SRC-3. Furthermore, our analyses identified a cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) signaling node that, when targeted using the CDK4/6 inhibitor Palbociclib, defines overlap and divergence of adjuvant pharmacological targeting. Importantly, lapatinib and palbociclib strictly block de novo synthesis of DNA, mostly through disruption of E2F1 and its target genes. These results have implications for rational discovery of pharmacological combinations in pre-clinical models of adjuvant treatment and therapeutic resistance. PMID:26833126

  14. Transcriptional regulation of cellular ageing by the CCAAT box-binding factor CBF/NF-Y.

    PubMed

    Matuoka, Koozi; Chen, Kuang Yu

    2002-09-01

    Cellular ageing is a systematic process affecting the entirety of cell structure and function. Since changes in gene expression are extensive and global during ageing, involvement of general transcription regulators in the phenomenon is likely. Here, we focus on NF-Y, the major CCAAT box-binding factor, which exerts differential regulation on a wide variety of genes through its interaction with the CCAAT box present in as many as 25% of the eukaryotic genes. When a cell ages, senescing signals arise, typically through DNA damage due to oxidative stress or telomere shortening, and are transduced to proteins such as p53, retinoblastoma protein, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Among them, activated p53 family proteins suppress the function of NF-Y and thereby downregulate a set of cell cycle-related genes, including E2F1, which further leads to downregulation of E2F-regulated genes and cell cycle arrest. The p53 family also induces other ageing phenotypes such as morphological alterations and senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-gal) presumably by upregulation of some genes through NF-Y suppression. In fact, the activities of NF-Y and E2F decrease during ageing and a dominant negative NF-YA induces SA-gal. Based on these observations, NF-Y appears to play an important role in the process of cellular ageing.

  15. A lentiviral vector with expression controlled by E2F-1: A potential tool for the study and treatment of proliferative diseases

    SciT

    Strauss, Bryan E.; Patricio, Juliana Rotelli; Program in Biotechnology, University of Sao Paulo

    2006-10-06

    We have constructed a lentiviral vector with expression limited to cells presenting active E2F-1 protein, a potential advantage for gene therapy of proliferative diseases. For the FE2FLW vector, the promoter region of the human E2F-1 gene was utilized to drive expression of luciferase cDNA, included as a reporter of viral expression. Primary, immortalized, and transformed cells were transduced with the FE2FLW vector and cell cycle alterations were induced with serum starvation/replacement, contact inhibition or drug treatment, revealing cell cycle-dependent changes in reporter activity. Forced E2F-1 expression, but not E2F-2 or E2F-3, increased reporter activity, indicating a major role for thismore » factor in controlling expression from the FE2FLW virus. We show the utility of this vector as a reporter of E2F-1 and proliferation-dependent cellular alterations upon cytotoxic/cytostatic treatment, such as the introduction of tumor suppressor genes. We propose that the FE2FLW vector may be a starting point for the development of gene therapy strategies for proliferative diseases, such as cancer or restinosis.« less

  16. Transcription factor-based biosensor

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, Jeffrey A; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-10-08

    The present invention provides for a system comprising a BmoR transcription factor, a .sigma..sup.54-RNA polymerase, and a pBMO promoter operatively linked to a reporter gene, wherein the pBMO promoter is capable of expression of the reporter gene with an activated form of the BmoR and the .sigma..sup.54-RNA polymerase.

  17. Cell cycle regulator E2F4 is essential for the development of the ventral telencephalon.

    PubMed

    Ruzhynsky, Vladimir A; McClellan, Kelly A; Vanderluit, Jacqueline L; Jeong, Yongsu; Furimsky, Marosh; Park, David S; Epstein, Douglas J; Wallace, Valerie A; Slack, Ruth S

    2007-05-30

    Early forebrain development is characterized by extensive proliferation of neural precursors coupled with complex structural transformations; however, little is known regarding the mechanisms by which these processes are integrated. Here, we show that deficiency of the cell cycle regulatory protein, E2F4, results in the loss of ventral telencephalic structures and impaired self-renewal of neural precursor cells. The mechanism underlying aberrant ventral patterning lies in a dramatic loss of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) expression specifically in this region. The E2F4-deficient phenotype can be recapitulated by interbreeding mice heterozygous for E2F4 with those lacking one allele of Shh, suggesting a genetic interaction between these pathways. Treatment of E2F4-deficient cells with a Hh agonist rescues stem cell self-renewal and cells expressing the homeodomain proteins that specify the ventral telencephalic structures. Finally, we show that E2F4 deficiency results in impaired activity of Shh forebrain-specific enhancers. In conclusion, these studies establish a novel requirement for the cell cycle regulatory protein, E2F4, in the development of the ventral telencephalon.

  18. A new strategy in the treatment of chemoresistant lung adenocarcinoma via specific siRNA transfection of SRF, E2F1, Survivin, HIF and STAT3.

    PubMed

    Stoleriu, Mircea Gabriel; Steger, Volker; Mustafi, Migdat; Michaelis, Martin; Cinatl, Jindrich; Schneider, Wilke; Nolte, Andrea; Kurz, Julia; Wendel, Hans Peter; Schlensak, Christian; Walker, Tobias

    2014-11-01

    According to the actual treatment strategies of lung cancer, the current therapeutic regimen is an individualized, multidisciplinary concept. The development of chemoresistance in the last decade represents the most important obstacle to an effective treatment. In our study, we examined a new therapeutic alternative in the treatment of multiresistant lung adenocarcinoma via siRNA-specific transfection of six crucial molecules involved in lung carcinogenesis [serum response factor(SFR), E2F1, Survivin, hypoxia inducible factor1 (HIF1), HIF2 and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3)]. Three chemoresistant A549 adenocarcinoma cells were cultured under standard conditions at 37°C and 5% CO2. The chemoresistance against Vinflunine, Vinorelbine and Methotrexate was induced artificially. The A549 cells were transfected for 2 h at 37°C with specific siRNA targeting SRF, E2F1, Survivin, HIF1, HIF2 and STAT3 in a non-viral manner. The efficiency of siRNA silencing was evaluated via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, whereas the surviving cells after siRNA transfection as predictor factor for tumoural growth were analysed with a CASY cell counter 3 days after transfection. The response of the chemotherapeutic resistant adenocarcinoma cells after siRNA transfection was concentration-dependent at both 25 and 100 nM. The CASY analysis showed a very effective suppression of adenocarcinoma cells in Vinorelbine, Vinflunine and Methotrexate groups, with significantly better results in comparison with the control group. In our study, we emphasized that siRNA interference might represent a productive platform for further research in order to investigate whether a new regimen in the treatment of multiresistant non-small-cell lung cancer could be established in vivo in the context of a multimodal cancer therapy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights

  19. E2F3a gene expression has prognostic significance in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-Ling; Mei, Yan-Yan; Cui, Lei; Zhao, Xiao-Xi; Li, Wei-Jing; Gao, Chao; Liu, Shu-Guang; Jiao, Ying; Liu, Fei-Fei; Wu, Min-Yuan; Ding, Wei; Li, Zhi-Gang

    2014-10-01

    To study E2F3a expression and its clinical significance in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We quantified E2F3a expression at diagnosis in 148 children with ALL by real-time PCR. In the test cohort (n = 48), receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to find the best cut-off point to divide the patients into E2F3a low- and high-expression groups. The prognostic significance of E2F3a expression was investigated in the test cohort and confirmed in the validation cohort (n = 100). The correlations of E2F3a expression with the clinical features and treatment outcome of these patients were analyzed. ROC curve analysis indicated that the best cut-off point of E2F3a expression was 0.3780. In the test cohort, leukemia-free survival (LFS) and event-free survival (EFS) of the low-expression group were lower than those of the high-expression group (log rank: P = 0.026 for both). This finding was verified in the validation cohort. LFS, EFS, and overall survival were also lower in the low-expression group than in the high-expression group (log rank, P = 0.015, 0.008, and 0.002 respectively). E2F3a low expression was correlated with the existence of BCR-ABL fusion. An algorithm composed of E2F3a expression and minimal residual disease (MRD) could predict relapse or induction failure more precisely than current risk stratification. These results were still significant in the ALL patients without BCR-ABL fusion. Low expression of E2F3a was associated with inferior prognosis in childhood ALL. An algorithm composed of E2F3a expression and MRD could predict relapse or induction failure more precisely than that of the current risk stratification. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Stochastic E2F activation and reconciliation of phenomenological cell-cycle models.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae J; Yao, Guang; Bennett, Dorothy C; Nevins, Joseph R; You, Lingchong

    2010-09-21

    The transition of the mammalian cell from quiescence to proliferation is a highly variable process. Over the last four decades, two lines of apparently contradictory, phenomenological models have been proposed to account for such temporal variability. These include various forms of the transition probability (TP) model and the growth control (GC) model, which lack mechanistic details. The GC model was further proposed as an alternative explanation for the concept of the restriction point, which we recently demonstrated as being controlled by a bistable Rb-E2F switch. Here, through a combination of modeling and experiments, we show that these different lines of models in essence reflect different aspects of stochastic dynamics in cell cycle entry. In particular, we show that the variable activation of E2F can be described by stochastic activation of the bistable Rb-E2F switch, which in turn may account for the temporal variability in cell cycle entry. Moreover, we show that temporal dynamics of E2F activation can be recast into the frameworks of both the TP model and the GC model via parameter mapping. This mapping suggests that the two lines of phenomenological models can be reconciled through the stochastic dynamics of the Rb-E2F switch. It also suggests a potential utility of the TP or GC models in defining concise, quantitative phenotypes of cell physiology. This may have implications in classifying cell types or states.

  1. ERBB2 Deficiency Alters an E2F-1-Dependent Adaptive Stress Response and Leads to Cardiac Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Marie-Claude; Dufour, Catherine R.; Eichner, Lillian J.; Tsang, David W. K.; Deblois, Geneviève; Muller, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The tyrosine kinase receptor ERBB2 is required for normal development of the heart and is a potent oncogene in breast epithelium. Trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting ERBB2, improves the survival of breast cancer patients, but cardiac dysfunction is a major side effect of the drug. The molecular mechanisms underlying how ERBB2 regulates cardiac function and why trastuzumab is cardiotoxic remain poorly understood. We show here that ERBB2 hypomorphic mice develop cardiac dysfunction that mimics the side effects observed in patients treated with trastuzumab. We demonstrate that this phenotype is related to the critical role played by ERBB2 in cardiac homeostasis and physiological hypertrophy. Importantly, genetic and therapeutic reduction of ERBB2 activity in mice, as well as ablation of ERBB2 signaling by trastuzumab or siRNAs in human cardiomyocytes, led to the identification of an impaired E2F-1-dependent genetic program critical for the cardiac adaptive stress response. These findings demonstrate the existence of a previously unknown mechanistic link between ERBB2 and E2F-1 transcriptional activity in heart physiology and trastuzumab-induced cardiac dysfunction. PMID:25246633

  2. Tandem E2F Binding Sites in the Promoter of the p107 Cell Cycle Regulator Control p107 Expression and Its Cellular Functions

    PubMed Central

    Burkhart, Deborah L.; Wirt, Stacey E.; Zmoos, Anne-Flore; Kareta, Michael S.; Sage, Julien

    2010-01-01

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (Rb) is a potent and ubiquitously expressed cell cycle regulator, but patients with a germline Rb mutation develop a very specific tumor spectrum. This surprising observation raises the possibility that mechanisms that compensate for loss of Rb function are present or activated in many cell types. In particular, p107, a protein related to Rb, has been shown to functionally overlap for loss of Rb in several cellular contexts. To investigate the mechanisms underlying this functional redundancy between Rb and p107 in vivo, we used gene targeting in embryonic stem cells to engineer point mutations in two consensus E2F binding sites in the endogenous p107 promoter. Analysis of normal and mutant cells by gene expression and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that members of the Rb and E2F families directly bound these two sites. Furthermore, we found that these two E2F sites controlled both the repression of p107 in quiescent cells and also its activation in cycling cells, as well as in Rb mutant cells. Cell cycle assays further indicated that activation of p107 transcription during S phase through the two E2F binding sites was critical for controlled cell cycle progression, uncovering a specific role for p107 to slow proliferation in mammalian cells. Direct transcriptional repression of p107 by Rb and E2F family members provides a molecular mechanism for a critical negative feedback loop during cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis. These experiments also suggest novel therapeutic strategies to increase the p107 levels in tumor cells. PMID:20585628

  3. E2F1-mediated upregulation of p19INK4d determines its periodic expression during cell cycle and regulates cellular proliferation.

    PubMed

    Carcagno, Abel L; Marazita, Mariela C; Ogara, María F; Ceruti, Julieta M; Sonzogni, Silvina V; Scassa, María E; Giono, Luciana E; Cánepa, Eduardo T

    2011-01-01

    A central aspect of development and disease is the control of cell proliferation through regulation of the mitotic cycle. Cell cycle progression and directionality requires an appropriate balance of positive and negative regulators whose expression must fluctuate in a coordinated manner. p19INK4d, a member of the INK4 family of CDK inhibitors, has a unique feature that distinguishes it from the remaining INK4 and makes it a likely candidate for contributing to the directionality of the cell cycle. p19INK4d mRNA and protein levels accumulate periodically during the cell cycle under normal conditions, a feature reminiscent of cyclins. In this paper, we demonstrate that p19INK4d is transcriptionally regulated by E2F1 through two response elements present in the p19INK4d promoter. Ablation of this regulation reduced p19 levels and restricted its expression during the cell cycle, reflecting the contribution of a transcriptional effect of E2F1 on p19 periodicity. The induction of p19INK4d is delayed during the cell cycle compared to that of cyclin E, temporally separating the induction of these proliferative and antiproliferative target genes. Specific inhibition of the E2F1-p19INK4d pathway using triplex-forming oligonucleotides that block E2F1 binding on p19 promoter, stimulated cell proliferation and increased the fraction of cells in S phase. The results described here support a model of normal cell cycle progression in which, following phosphorylation of pRb, free E2F induces cyclin E, among other target genes. Once cyclinE/CDK2 takes over as the cell cycle driving kinase activity, the induction of p19 mediated by E2F1 leads to inhibition of the CDK4,6-containing complexes, bringing the G1 phase to an end. This regulatory mechanism constitutes a new negative feedback loop that terminates the G1 phase proliferative signal, contributing to the proper coordination of the cell cycle and provides an additional mechanism to limit E2F activity.

  4. E2F1-Mediated Upregulation of p19INK4d Determines Its Periodic Expression during Cell Cycle and Regulates Cellular Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Carcagno, Abel L.; Marazita, Mariela C.; Ogara, María F.; Ceruti, Julieta M.; Sonzogni, Silvina V.; Scassa, María E.; Giono, Luciana E.; Cánepa, Eduardo T.

    2011-01-01

    Background A central aspect of development and disease is the control of cell proliferation through regulation of the mitotic cycle. Cell cycle progression and directionality requires an appropriate balance of positive and negative regulators whose expression must fluctuate in a coordinated manner. p19INK4d, a member of the INK4 family of CDK inhibitors, has a unique feature that distinguishes it from the remaining INK4 and makes it a likely candidate for contributing to the directionality of the cell cycle. p19INK4d mRNA and protein levels accumulate periodically during the cell cycle under normal conditions, a feature reminiscent of cyclins. Methodology/Principal Findings In this paper, we demonstrate that p19INK4d is transcriptionally regulated by E2F1 through two response elements present in the p19INK4d promoter. Ablation of this regulation reduced p19 levels and restricted its expression during the cell cycle, reflecting the contribution of a transcriptional effect of E2F1 on p19 periodicity. The induction of p19INK4d is delayed during the cell cycle compared to that of cyclin E, temporally separating the induction of these proliferative and antiproliferative target genes. Specific inhibition of the E2F1-p19INK4d pathway using triplex-forming oligonucleotides that block E2F1 binding on p19 promoter, stimulated cell proliferation and increased the fraction of cells in S phase. Conclusions/Significance The results described here support a model of normal cell cycle progression in which, following phosphorylation of pRb, free E2F induces cyclin E, among other target genes. Once cyclinE/CDK2 takes over as the cell cycle driving kinase activity, the induction of p19 mediated by E2F1 leads to inhibition of the CDK4,6-containing complexes, bringing the G1 phase to an end. This regulatory mechanism constitutes a new negative feedback loop that terminates the G1 phase proliferative signal, contributing to the proper coordination of the cell cycle and provides an

  5. The Role of a Novel Nucleolar Protein in Regulation of E2F1 in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    publication and successful defense of a PhD. 8 References 1. Paik JC, Wang B, Liu K, Lue J , Lin WC. Regulation of E2F1-induced apoptosis by...the nucleolar protein RRP1B. J Biol Chem. 2009 Dec 29. [E-pub ahead of print] 2. Hsieh SM, Look MP, Sieuwerts AM, Foekens JA, Hunter KW. Distinct...factor. J Biol Chem. 2009 Oct 16;284(42):28660-73. 4. Crawford NP, Walker RC, Lukes L, Officewala JS, Williams RW, Hunter KW. The Diasporin Pathway: a

  6. Single Cell Analysis to locate the Restriction Point with respect to E2F Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimienta, R.; Johnson, A.

    2011-12-01

    The restriction point is a G1-phase checkpoint that regulates passage through the cell cycle and is misregulated in all known types of cancer. The Rb-E2F switch is thought to be one of the most relevant molecular mechanisms which regulate the restriction point in mammalian cells. However, recent experiments have brought the timing of the restriction point into question. In previous studies, cells were analyzed as populations and this prevented an accurate determination of the restriction point. By creating and analyzing an E2F-GFP reporter in single cells, we can pinpoint the timing of E2F activation and determine whether it coincides with the restriction point. Using calcium phosphate and Fugene,we transfected human embryonic kidney (293T) cells with a CMV-GFP plasmid and an E2F-GFP reporter. Based on our results, it appears that calcium phosphate is more effective than Fugene at transfecting mammalian cells. The calcium phosphate transfection had 9.59% more fluorescent cells than Fugene. However, this result only occurred with the CMV-GFP plasmid and not the E2F-GFP reporter, which was not properly expressed in human embryonic kidney (293T) cells. We will continue troubleshooting to fix this reporter as we proceed with our research. Once the reporter is properly cloned, we will transfect it into retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE1-hTERT) cells using the calcium phosphate method. RPE1-hTERT cells are an immortalized with telomerase and are more close to normal cells than tumor-derived cell lines. Through this research we will better comprehend commitment to the mammalian cell cycle.

  7. Identification of potential target genes and related regulatory transcription factors in spontaneous hairline fracture induced by hypervitaminosis A.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chuangang; Yang, Qi; Wei, Bo; Liu, Yong; Li, Yuxiang; Gu, Dawei; Yin, Guochao; Wang, Bo; Xu, Dehui; Zhang, Xuebing; Kong, Daliang

    2017-07-01

    The aim was to research the molecular changes of bone cells induced by excessive dose of vitamin A, and analyze molecular mechanism underlying spontaneous fracture. The gene expression profile of GSE29859, including 4 cortical bone marrow samples with excessive doses of Vitamin A and 4 control cortical bone marrow samples, was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Differentially expressed genes (DGEs) between cortical bone marrow samples and control samples were screened out and pathway enrichment analysis was undertaken. Based on the MSigDB database, the potential regulatory transcription factors (TFs) were identified. A total of 373 DEGs including 342 up- and 31 down-regulated genes were identified. These DEGs were significantly enriched in pathways of protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, ubiquitin mediated proteolysis and glycerophospholipid metabolism. Finally, the most significant regulatory TFs were obtained, including E2F Transcription Factor 1 (E2F1), GA Binding Protein Transcription Factor (GABP), Nuclear Factor, Erythroid 2-Like 2 (NRF2) and ELK1, Member of ETS Oncogene Family (ELK1). Key TFs including E2F1, GABP, NRF2 and ELK1 and their targets genes such as Ube2d3, Uba1, Phb2 and Tomm22 may play potential key roles in spontaneous fracture induced by hypervitaminosis A. The pathways of protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, ubiquitin mediated proteolysis and glycerophospholipid metabolism may be key mechanisms involved in spontaneous fracture induced by hypervitaminosis A. Our findings will provide new insights for the target selection in clinical application to prevent spontaneous fracture induced by hypervitaminosis A. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fox transcription factors: from development to disease.

    PubMed

    Golson, Maria L; Kaestner, Klaus H

    2016-12-15

    Forkhead box (Fox) transcription factors are evolutionarily conserved in organisms ranging from yeast to humans. They regulate diverse biological processes both during development and throughout adult life. Mutations in many Fox genes are associated with human disease and, as such, various animal models have been generated to study the function of these transcription factors in mechanistic detail. In many cases, the absence of even a single Fox transcription factor is lethal. In this Primer, we provide an overview of the Fox family, highlighting several key Fox transcription factor families that are important for mammalian development. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. E2F4 Promotes Neuronal Regeneration and Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Sasagawa, Shota; Nishimura, Yuhei; Hayakawa, Yuka; Murakami, Soichiro; Ashikawa, Yoshifumi; Yuge, Mizuki; Okabe, Shiko; Kawaguchi, Koki; Kawase, Reiko; Tanaka, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Mammals exhibit poor recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI), whereas non-mammalian vertebrates exhibit significant spontaneous recovery after SCI. The mechanisms underlying this difference have not been fully elucidated; therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate these mechanisms. Using comparative transcriptome analysis, we demonstrated that genes related to cell cycle were significantly enriched in the genes specifically dysregulated in zebrafish SCI. Most of the cell cycle-related genes dysregulated in zebrafish SCI were down-regulated, possibly through activation of e2f4. Using a larval zebrafish model of SCI, we demonstrated that the recovery of locomotive function and neuronal regeneration after SCI were significantly inhibited in zebrafish treated with an E2F4 inhibitor. These results suggest that activation of e2f4 after SCI may be responsible, at least in part, for the significant recovery in zebrafish. This provides novel insight into the lack of recovery after SCI in mammals and informs potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:27242526

  10. Prunus transcription factors: breeding perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Valmor J.; Rubio, Manuel; Trainotti, Livio; Verde, Ignazio; Bonghi, Claudio; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Many plant processes depend on differential gene expression, which is generally controlled by complex proteins called transcription factors (TFs). In peach, 1533 TFs have been identified, accounting for about 5.5% of the 27,852 protein-coding genes. These TFs are the reference for the rest of the Prunus species. TF studies in Prunus have been performed on the gene expression analysis of different agronomic traits, including control of the flowering process, fruit quality, and biotic and abiotic stress resistance. These studies, using quantitative RT-PCR, have mainly been performed in peach, and to a lesser extent in other species, including almond, apricot, black cherry, Fuji cherry, Japanese apricot, plum, and sour and sweet cherry. Other tools have also been used in TF studies, including cDNA-AFLP, LC-ESI-MS, RNA, and DNA blotting or mapping. More recently, new tools assayed include microarray and high-throughput DNA sequencing (DNA-Seq) and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). New functional genomics opportunities include genome resequencing and the well-known synteny among Prunus genomes and transcriptomes. These new functional studies should be applied in breeding programs in the development of molecular markers. With the genome sequences available, some strategies that have been used in model systems (such as SNP genotyping assays and genotyping-by-sequencing) may be applicable in the functional analysis of Prunus TFs as well. In addition, the knowledge of the gene functions and position in the peach reference genome of the TFs represents an additional advantage. These facts could greatly facilitate the isolation of genes via QTL (quantitative trait loci) map-based cloning in the different Prunus species, following the association of these TFs with the identified QTLs using the peach reference genome. PMID:26124770

  11. Deregulated E2F5/p38/SMAD3 Circuitry Reinforces the Pro-Tumorigenic Switch of TGFβ Signaling in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Subhadipa; Bhowal, Ankur; Basu, Sanmitra; Mukherjee, Pritha; Chatterji, Urmi; Sengupta, Sanghamitra

    2016-11-01

    Transforming growth factor-β signaling exerts divergent effects on normal and cancer cells, although mechanism underlying this differential behavior remains unclear. In this study, expression of 94 genes pertaining to the TGF-β signaling pathway was compared between tumor and benign tissue samples from the human prostate gland to identify major discriminators driving prostate carcinogenesis. E2F5 was identified as one of the most deregulated genes in prostate cancer tissues, predominantly in samples with Gleason-score 6. Expression of other deregulated components of TGF-β signaling was examined by qRT-PCR, Western blot, and immune-staining. Function of E2F5 and p38 in prostate cancer was investigated using siRNA-treatment of PC3 cell-line followed by analyses of associated components and cell cycle. Observations revealed that E2F5 overexpression was accompanied by significantly higher phosphorylation of SMAD3 at Ser-208 in the linker region (pSMAD3L) and p38 in tumor tissue. A striking difference in SMAD3 phosphorylation, marked by preponderance of pSMAD3L and pSMAD3C (Ser-423 and 425) in tumor and benign tissues, respectively was noted. Co-localization of E2F5 with pSMAD3L in the nuclei of tumor and PC3 cells indicated a functional interface between the proteins. Downregulation of E2F5 and p38 in PC3 cells resulted in marked reduction of phosphorylation of SMAD3 and perturbation of cell cycle with an arrest of cells in G1 . Our findings unearthed that E2F5/p38 axis played a cardinal role in uncontrolled cellular proliferation in prostate cancer through pSMAD3L activation. It also underscores a strong potential for E2F5 to be incorporated as a tool in early detection of prostate cancer. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2482-2492, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. MiR-34a Inhibits Viability and Invasion of Human Papillomavirus-Positive Cervical Cancer Cells by Targeting E2F3 and Regulating Survivin.

    PubMed

    Geng, Dianzhong; Song, Xiaohua; Ning, Fangling; Song, Qianhua; Yin, Honghua

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies confirmed that high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection is a risk factor of cervical cancer, and the infection was associated with significantly reduced miR-34a expression during carcinogenesis. However, the downstream targets of miR-34a and their roles are still not well understood. This study explored the regulative role of miR-34a on E2F3 and survivin expression and the viability and invasion of HPV-positive cervical cancer cells. MiR-34a and survivin expression in 56 cases of HR-HPV-positive patients, 28 cases of HR-HPV-negative patients, and 28 normal cases without HR-HPV infections were measured. Human papillomavirus-18-positive HeLa cervical cancer cells and HPV-16-positive SiHa cells were used to explore the effect of miR-34a on cell viability and invasion. The molecular target of miR-34a was also explored in cervical cancer cells. The results showed that miR-34a overexpression could inhibit HPV-positive cancer cell viability, whereas its downregulation promoted cell viability. E2F3 is a direct target of miR-34a in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells. By targeting E2F3, miR-34a could regulate the expression of survivin. Thus, through regulating E2F3 and survivin, miR-34a could reduce the viability and invasion of HPV-positive cervical cancer cells. This study confirmed a novel miR-34a-E2F3-survivin axis in the tumor suppressor role of miR-34a in cervical cancer.

  13. E2F1 induces p19INK4d, a protein involved in the DNA damage response, following UV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Carcagno, Abel L; Giono, Luciana E; Marazita, Mariela C; Castillo, Daniela S; Pregi, Nicolás; Cánepa, Eduardo T

    2012-07-01

    Central to the maintenance of genomic integrity is the cellular DNA damage response. Depending on the type of genotoxic stress and through the activation of multiple signaling cascades, it can lead to cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, senescence, and apoptosis. p19INK4d, a member of the INK4 family of CDK inhibitors, plays a dual role in the DNA damage response, inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting DNA repair. Consistently, p19INK4d has been reported to become upregulated in response to UV irradiation and a great variety of genotoxic agents. Here, this induction is shown to result from a transcriptional stimulatory mechanism that can occur at every phase of the cell cycle except during mitosis. Moreover, evidence is presented that demonstrates that E2F1 is involved in the induction of p19INK4d following UV treatment, as it is prevented by E2F1 protein ablation and DNA-binding inhibition. Specific inhibition of this regulation using triplex-forming oligonucleotides that target the E2F response elements present in the p19INK4d promoter also block p19INK4d upregulation and sensitize cells to DNA damage. These results constitute the first description of a mechanism for the induction of p19INK4d in response to UV irradiation and demonstrate the physiological relevance of this regulation following DNA damage.

  14. E2F mediates induction of the Sp1-controlled promoter of the human DNA polymerase ɛ B-subunit gene POLE2

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Deqi; Jokela, Maarit; Tuusa, Jussi; Skog, Sven; Poikonen, Kari; Syväoja, Juhani E.

    2001-01-01

    The B-subunits of replicative DNA polymerases from Archaea to humans belong to the same protein family, suggesting that they share a common fundamental function. We report here the gene structure for the B-subunit of human DNA polymerase ɛ (POLE2), whose expression and transcriptional regulation is typical for replication proteins with some unique features. The 75 bp core promoter region, located within exon 1, contains an Sp1 element that is a critical determinant of promoter activity as shown by the luciferase reporter, electrophoretic mobility shift and DNase I footprinting assays. Two overlapping E2F elements adjacent to the Sp1 element are essential for full promoter activity and serum response. Binding sites for E2F1 and NF-1 reside immediately downstream from the core promoter region. Our results suggest that human POLE2 is regulated by two E2F–pocket protein complexes, one associated with Sp1 and the other with NF-1. So far, only one replicative DNA polymerase B-subunit gene promoter, POLA2 encoding the B-subunit of DNA polymerase α, has been characterized. Mitogenic activation of the POLE2 promoter by an E2F-mediated mechanism resembles that of POLA2, but the regulation of basal promoter activity is different between these two genes. PMID:11433027

  15. lncRNA-HIT promotes cell proliferation of non-small cell lung cancer by association with E2F1.

    PubMed

    Yu, L; Fang, F; Lu, S; Li, X; Yang, Y; Wang, Z

    2017-05-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death around the world. Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) has pivotal roles in cancer occurrence and development. However, only a few lncRNAs have been functionally characterized. In the present study, we investigated the effects of lncRNA-HIT (HOXA transcript induced by TGFβ) expression on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell phenotype with the gain-of-function and loss-of-function assays. We found that ectopic expression or knockdown of lncRNA-HIT markedly increased or decreased NSCLC cell proliferation, respectively. Moreover, we also showed that lncRNA-HIT interacted with E2F1 to regulate its target genes, such as Survivin, FOXM1, SKP2, NELL2 and DOK1. Collectively, our findings indicated that lncRNA-HIT affected the proliferation of NSCLC cells at least in part via regulating the occupancy of E2F1 in the promoter regions of its target genes. The lncRNA-HIT-E2F1 complex may be a potential target for NSCLC treatment.

  16. Pumilio and nanos RNA-binding proteins counterbalance the transcriptional consequences of RB1 inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Wayne O; Dyson, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    The ability of the retinoblastoma protein (RB) tumor suppressor to repress transcription stimulated by the E2 promoter binding factors (E2F) is integral to its biological functions. Our recent report described a conserved feedback mechanism mediated by the RNA-binding proteins Pumilio and Nanos that increases in importance following RB loss and helps cells to tolerate deregulated E2F. PMID:27308363

  17. A specific, nonproliferative role for E2F-5 in choroid plexus function revealed by gene targeting

    PubMed Central

    Lindeman, Geoffrey J.; Dagnino, Lina; Gaubatz, Stefan; Xu, Yuhui; Bronson, Roderick T.; Warren, Henry B.; Livingston, David M.

    1998-01-01

    Homozygous E2F-5 knockout embryos and mice have been generated. Although embryonic development appeared normal, newborn mice developed nonobstructive hydrocephalus, suggesting excessive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production. Although the CSF-producing choroid plexus displayed normal cellular organization, it contained abundant electron-lucent epithelial cells, consistent with excessive CSF secretory activity. Moreover, E2F-5 CNS expression in normal animals was largely confined to the choroid plexus. Cell cycle kinetics were not perturbed in homozygous knockout embryo fibroblasts. Thus, E2F-5 is not essential for cell proliferation. Rather, it affects the secretory behavior of a differentiated neural tissue. PMID:9553039

  18. Dynamic analysis of the combinatorial regulation involving transcription factors and microRNAs in cell fate decisions.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fang; Liu, Haihong; Liu, Zengrong

    2014-01-01

    P53 and E2F1 are critical transcription factors involved in the choices between different cell fates including cell differentiation, cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Recent experiments have shown that two families of microRNAs (miRNAs), p53-responsive miR34 (miRNA-34 a, b and c) and E2F1-inducible miR449 (miRNA-449 a, b and c) are potent inducers of these different fates and might have an important role in sensitizing cancer cells to drug treatment and tumor suppression. Identifying the mechanisms responsible for the combinatorial regulatory roles of these two transcription factors and two miRNAs is an important and challenging problem. Here, based in part on the model proposed in Tongli Zhang et al. (2007), we developed a mathematical model of the decision process and explored the combinatorial regulation between these two transcription factors and two miRNAs in response to DNA damage. By analyzing nonlinear dynamic behaviors of the model, we found that p53 exhibits pulsatile behavior. Moreover, a comparison is given to reveal the subtle differences of the cell fate decision process between regulation and deregulation of miR34 on E2F1. It predicts that miR34 plays a critical role in promoting cell cycle arrest. In addition, a computer simulation result also predicts that the miR449 is necessary for apoptosis in response to sustained DNA damage. In agreement with experimental observations, our model can account for the intricate regulatory relationship between these two transcription factors and two miRNAs in the cell fate decision process after DNA damage. These theoretical results indicate that miR34 and miR449 are effective tumor suppressors and play critical roles in cell fate decisions. The work provides a dynamic mechanism that shows how cell fate decisions are coordinated by two transcription factors and two miRNAs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Computational Proteomics, Systems Biology and Clinical Implications. Guest Editor: Yudong Cai

  19. Repression of miR-17-5p with elevated expression of E2F-1 and c-MYC in non-metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma and enhancement of cell growth upon reversing this expression pattern

    SciT

    El Tayebi, H.M.; Omar, K.; Hegy, S.

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •The oncogenic miR-17-5p is downregulated in non-metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma patients. •E2F-1 and c-MYC transcripts are upregulated in non-metastatic HCC patients. •miR-17-5p forced overexpression inhibited E2F-1 and c-MYC expression in HuH-7 cells. •miR-17-5p mimicking increased HuH-7 cell growth, proliferation, migration and colony formation. •miR-17-5p is responsible for HCC progression among the c-MYC/E2F-1/miR-17-5p triad members. -- Abstract: E2F-1, c-MYC, and miR-17-5p is a triad of two regulatory loops: a negative and a positive loop, where c-MYC induces the expression of E2F-1 that induces the expression of miR-17-5p which in turn reverses the expression of E2F-1 to close the loop. In thismore » study, we investigated this triad for the first time in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), where miR-17-5p showed a significant down-regulation in 23 non-metastatic HCC biopsies compared to 10 healthy tissues; however, E2F-1 and c-MYC transcripts were markedly elevated. Forced over-expression of miR-17-5p in HuH-7 cells resulted in enhanced cell proliferation, growth, migration and clonogenicity with concomitant inhibition of E2F-1 and c-MYC transcripts expressions, while antagomirs of miR-17-5p reversed these events. In conclusion, this study revealed a unique pattern of expression for miR-17-5p in non-metastatic HCC patients in contrast to metastatic HCC patients. In addition we show that miR-17-5p is the key player among the triad that tumor growth and spread.« less

  20. C3 exoenzyme impairs cell proliferation and apoptosis by altering the activity of transcription factors.

    PubMed

    von Elsner, Leonie; Hagemann, Sandra; Just, Ingo; Rohrbeck, Astrid

    2016-09-01

    C3 exoenzyme from C. botulinum is an ADP-ribosyltransferase that inactivates selectively RhoA, B, and C by coupling an ADP-ribose moiety. Rho-GTPases are involved in various cellular processes, such as regulation of actin cytoskeleton, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Previous studies of our group with the murine hippocampal cell line HT22 revealed a C3-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation after 48 h and a prevention of serum-starved cells from apoptosis. For both effects, alterations of various signaling pathways are already known, including also changes on the transcriptional level. Investigations on the transcriptional activity in HT22 cells treated with C3 for 48 h identified five out of 48 transcription factors namely Sp1, ATF2, E2F-1, CBF, and Stat6 with a significantly regulated activity. For validation of identified transcription factors, studies on the protein level of certain target genes were performed. Western blot analyses exhibited an enhanced abundance of Sp1 target genes p21 and COX-2 as well as an increase in phosphorylation of c-Jun. In contrast, the level of p53 and apoptosis-inducing GADD153, a target gene of ATF2, was decreased. Our results reveal that C3 regulates the transcriptional activity of Sp1 and ATF2 resulting downstream in an altered protein abundance of various target genes. As the affected proteins are involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis, thus the C3-mediated anti-proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects are consequences of the Rho-dependent alterations of the activity of certain transcriptional factors.

  1. An Integrated Bioinformatics Approach Identifies Elevated Cyclin E2 Expression and E2F Activity as Distinct Features of Tamoxifen Resistant Breast Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lei; Zhao, Shuangping; Frasor, Jonna M.; Dai, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Approximately half of estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast tumors will fail to respond to endocrine therapy. Here we used an integrative bioinformatics approach to analyze three gene expression profiling data sets from breast tumors in an attempt to uncover underlying mechanisms contributing to the development of resistance and potential therapeutic strategies to counteract these mechanisms. Genes that are differentially expressed in tamoxifen resistant vs. sensitive breast tumors were identified from three different publically available microarray datasets. These differentially expressed (DE) genes were analyzed using gene function and gene set enrichment and examined in intrinsic subtypes of breast tumors. The Connectivity Map analysis was utilized to link gene expression profiles of tamoxifen resistant tumors to small molecules and validation studies were carried out in a tamoxifen resistant cell line. Despite little overlap in genes that are differentially expressed in tamoxifen resistant vs. sensitive tumors, a high degree of functional similarity was observed among the three datasets. Tamoxifen resistant tumors displayed enriched expression of genes related to cell cycle and proliferation, as well as elevated activity of E2F transcription factors, and were highly correlated with a Luminal intrinsic subtype. A number of small molecules, including phenothiazines, were found that induced a gene signature in breast cancer cell lines opposite to that found in tamoxifen resistant vs. sensitive tumors and the ability of phenothiazines to down-regulate cyclin E2 and inhibit proliferation of tamoxifen resistant breast cancer cells was validated. Our findings demonstrate that an integrated bioinformatics approach to analyze gene expression profiles from multiple breast tumor datasets can identify important biological pathways and potentially novel therapeutic options for tamoxifen-resistant breast cancers. PMID:21789246

  2. Augmentation of the therapeutic efficacy of WEE1 kinase inhibitor AZD1775 by inhibiting the YAP-E2F1-DNA damage response pathway axis.

    PubMed

    Oku, Yusuke; Nishiya, Naoyuki; Tazawa, Takaaki; Kobayashi, Takaya; Umezawa, Nanami; Sugawara, Yasuyo; Uehara, Yoshimasa

    2018-06-01

    The main reasons for failure of cancer chemotherapy are intrinsic and acquired drug resistance. The Hippo pathway effector Yes-associated protein (YAP) is associated with resistance to both cytotoxic and molecular targeted drugs. Several lines of evidence indicate that YAP activates transcriptional programmes to promote cell cycle progression and DNA damage responses. Therefore, we hypothesised that YAP is involved in the sensitivity of cancer cells to small-molecule agents targeting cell cycle-related proteins. Here, we report that the inactivation of YAP sensitises the OVCAR-8 ovarian cancer cell line to AZD1775, a small-molecule WEE1 kinase inhibitor. The accumulation of DNA damage and mitotic failures induced by AZD1775-based therapy were further enhanced by YAP depletion. YAP depletion reduced the expression of the Fanconi anaemia (FA) pathway components required for DNA repair and their transcriptional regulator E2F1. These results suggest that YAP activates the DNA damage response pathway, exemplified by the FA pathway and E2F1. Furthermore, we aimed to apply this finding to combination chemotherapy against ovarian cancers. The regimen containing dasatinib, which inhibits the nuclear localisation of YAP, improved the response to AZD1775-based therapy in the OVCAR-8 ovarian cancer cell line. We propose that dasatinib acts as a chemosensitiser for a subset of molecular targeted drugs, including AZD1775, by targeting YAP.

  3. MicroRNA-424/E2F6 feedback loop modulates cell invasion, migration and EMT in endometrial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zheng; Nian, Zhou; Jingjing, Zhang; Tao, Luo; Quan, Li

    2017-01-01

    Our previous study explored the roles of microRNA-424 (miR-424) in the development of endometrial carcinoma (EC) and analyzed the miR-424/E2F7 axis in EC cell growth. In this study, we investigated the status of miR-424 in human endometrial cancer tissues, which were collected from a cohort of Zunyi patients. We found that the expression level of miR-424 was associated with clinical tumor stage, cell differentiation, lymph node metastasis and cell migration ability. Cell function experiments demonstrated that miR-424 overexpression suppressed the invasion and migration abilities of endometrial carcinoma cells in vitro. Bioinformatic predictions and dual-luciferase reporter assays suggested E2F6 as a possible target of miR-424. RT-PCR and western blot assays demonstrated that miR-424 transfection reduced the expression level of E2F6, while inhibiting miR-424 with ASO-miR-424 (antisense oligonucleotides of miR-424) increased the expression level of E2F6. Cell function experiments indicated that E2F6 transfection rescued the EC cell phenotype induced by miR-424. In addition, we also found that E2F6 negatively regulated miR-424 expression in EC cells. In summary, our results demonstrated that the miR-424/E2F6 feedback loop modulates cell invasion, migration and EMT in EC and that the miR-424/E2Fs regulation network may serve as a new and potentially important therapeutic target in EC. PMID:29371986

  4. Polyphenol Compound as a Transcription Factor Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Park, Seyeon

    2015-10-30

    A target-based approach has been used to develop novel drugs in many therapeutic fields. In the final stage of intracellular signaling, transcription factor-DNA interactions are central to most biological processes and therefore represent a large and important class of targets for human therapeutics. Thus, we focused on the idea that the disruption of protein dimers and cognate DNA complexes could impair the transcriptional activation and cell transformation regulated by these proteins. Historically, natural products have been regarded as providing the primary leading compounds capable of modulating protein-protein or protein-DNA interactions. Although their mechanism of action is not fully defined, polyphenols including flavonoids were found to act mostly as site-directed small molecule inhibitors on signaling. There are many reports in the literature of screening initiatives suggesting improved drugs that can modulate the transcription factor interactions responsible for disease. In this review, we focus on polyphenol compound inhibitors against dimeric forms of transcription factor components of intracellular signaling pathways (for instance, c-jun/c-fos (Activator Protein-1; AP-1), c-myc/max, Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and β-catenin/T cell factor (Tcf)).

  5. Hey bHLH transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Weber, David; Wiese, Cornelia; Gessler, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Hey bHLH transcription factors are direct targets of canonical Notch signaling. The three mammalian Hey proteins are closely related to Hes proteins and they primarily repress target genes by either directly binding to core promoters or by inhibiting other transcriptional activators. Individual candidate gene approaches and systematic screens identified a number of Hey target genes, which often encode other transcription factors involved in various developmental processes. Here, we review data on interaction partners and target genes and conclude with a model for Hey target gene regulation. Furthermore, we discuss how expression of Hey proteins affects processes like cell fate decisions and differentiation, e.g., in cardiovascular, skeletal, and neural development or oncogenesis and how this relates to the observed developmental defects and phenotypes observed in various knockout mice. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Snail1 transcription factor controls telomere transcription and integrity

    PubMed Central

    Mazzolini, Rocco; Gonzàlez, Núria; Garcia-Garijo, Andrea; Millanes-Romero, Alba; Peiró, Sandra; Smith, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Besides controlling epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell invasion, the Snail1 transcriptional factor also provides cells with cancer stem cell features. Since telomere maintenance is essential for stemness, we have examined the control of telomere integrity by Snail1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis indicates that Snail1-depleted mouse mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have both a dramatic increase of telomere alterations and shorter telomeres. Remarkably, Snail1-deficient MSC present higher levels of both telomerase activity and the long non-coding RNA called telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), an RNA that controls telomere integrity. Accordingly, Snail1 expression downregulates expression of the telomerase gene (TERT) as well as of TERRA 2q, 11q and 18q. TERRA and TERT are transiently downregulated during TGFβ-induced EMT in NMuMG cells, correlating with Snail1 expression. Global transcriptome analysis indicates that ectopic expression of TERRA affects the transcription of some genes induced during EMT, such as fibronectin, whereas that of TERT does not modify those genes. We propose that Snail1 repression of TERRA is required not only for telomere maintenance but also for the expression of a subset of mesenchymal genes. PMID:29059385

  7. Snail1 transcription factor controls telomere transcription and integrity.

    PubMed

    Mazzolini, Rocco; Gonzàlez, Núria; Garcia-Garijo, Andrea; Millanes-Romero, Alba; Peiró, Sandra; Smith, Susan; García de Herreros, Antonio; Canudas, Sílvia

    2018-01-09

    Besides controlling epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell invasion, the Snail1 transcriptional factor also provides cells with cancer stem cell features. Since telomere maintenance is essential for stemness, we have examined the control of telomere integrity by Snail1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis indicates that Snail1-depleted mouse mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have both a dramatic increase of telomere alterations and shorter telomeres. Remarkably, Snail1-deficient MSC present higher levels of both telomerase activity and the long non-coding RNA called telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), an RNA that controls telomere integrity. Accordingly, Snail1 expression downregulates expression of the telomerase gene (TERT) as well as of TERRA 2q, 11q and 18q. TERRA and TERT are transiently downregulated during TGFβ-induced EMT in NMuMG cells, correlating with Snail1 expression. Global transcriptome analysis indicates that ectopic expression of TERRA affects the transcription of some genes induced during EMT, such as fibronectin, whereas that of TERT does not modify those genes. We propose that Snail1 repression of TERRA is required not only for telomere maintenance but also for the expression of a subset of mesenchymal genes. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. Competition between histone and transcription factor binding regulates the onset of transcription in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Shai R; Pálfy, Máté; Hilbert, Lennart; Kumar, Mukesh; Karschau, Jens; Zaburdaev, Vasily; Shevchenko, Andrej; Vastenhouw, Nadine L

    2017-04-20

    Upon fertilization, the genome of animal embryos remains transcriptionally inactive until the maternal-to-zygotic transition. At this time, the embryo takes control of its development and transcription begins. How the onset of zygotic transcription is regulated remains unclear. Here, we show that a dynamic competition for DNA binding between nucleosome-forming histones and transcription factors regulates zebrafish genome activation. Taking a quantitative approach, we found that the concentration of non-DNA-bound core histones sets the time for the onset of transcription. The reduction in nuclear histone concentration that coincides with genome activation does not affect nucleosome density on DNA, but allows transcription factors to compete successfully for DNA binding. In agreement with this, transcription factor binding is sensitive to histone levels and the concentration of transcription factors also affects the time of transcription. Our results demonstrate that the relative levels of histones and transcription factors regulate the onset of transcription in the embryo.

  9. E2F1 somatic mutation within miRNA target site impairs gene regulation in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lopes-Ramos, Camila M; Barros, Bruna P; Koyama, Fernanda C; Carpinetti, Paola A; Pezuk, Julia; Doimo, Nayara T S; Habr-Gama, Angelita; Perez, Rodrigo O; Parmigiani, Raphael B

    2017-01-01

    Genetic studies have largely concentrated on the impact of somatic mutations found in coding regions, and have neglected mutations outside of these. However, 3' untranslated regions (3' UTR) mutations can also disrupt or create miRNA target sites, and trigger oncogene activation or tumor suppressor inactivation. We used next-generation sequencing to widely screen for genetic alterations within predicted miRNA target sites of oncogenes associated with colorectal cancer, and evaluated the functional impact of a new somatic mutation. Target sequencing of 47 genes was performed for 29 primary colorectal tumor samples. For 71 independent samples, Sanger methodology was used to screen for E2F1 mutations in miRNA predicted target sites, and the functional impact of these mutations was evaluated by luciferase reporter assays. We identified germline and somatic alterations in E2F1. Of the 100 samples evaluated, 3 had germline alterations at the MIR205-5p target site, while one had a somatic mutation at MIR136-5p target site. E2F1 gene expression was similar between normal and tumor tissues bearing the germline alteration; however, expression was increased 4-fold in tumor tissue that harbored a somatic mutation compared to that in normal tissue. Luciferase reporter assays revealed both germline and somatic alterations increased E2F1 activity relative to wild-type E2F1. We demonstrated that somatic mutation within E2F1:MIR136-5p target site impairs miRNA-mediated regulation and leads to increased gene activity. We conclude that somatic mutations that disrupt miRNA target sites have the potential to impact gene regulation, highlighting an important mechanism of oncogene activation.

  10. Directing traffic on DNA-How transcription factors relieve or induce transcriptional interference.

    PubMed

    Hao, Nan; Palmer, Adam C; Dodd, Ian B; Shearwin, Keith E

    2017-03-15

    Transcriptional interference (TI) is increasingly recognized as a widespread mechanism of gene control, particularly given the pervasive nature of transcription, both sense and antisense, across all kingdoms of life. Here, we discuss how transcription factor binding kinetics strongly influence the ability of a transcription factor to relieve or induce TI.

  11. Nucleoprotein of influenza A virus negatively impacts antiapoptotic protein API5 to enhance E2F1-dependent apoptosis and virus replication.

    PubMed

    Mayank, A K; Sharma, S; Nailwal, H; Lal, S K

    2015-12-17

    Apoptosis of host cells profoundly influences virus propagation and dissemination, events that are integral to influenza A virus (IAV) pathogenesis. The trigger for activation of apoptosis is regulated by an intricate interplay between cellular and viral proteins, with a strong bearing on IAV replication. Though the knowledge of viral proteins and mechanisms employed by IAV to induce apoptosis has advanced considerably of late, we know relatively little about the repertoire of host factors targeted by viral proteins. Thus, identification of cellular proteins that are hijacked by the virus will help us not only to understand the molecular underpinnings of IAV-induced apoptosis, but also to design future antiviral therapies. Here we show that the nucleoprotein (NP) of IAV directly interacts with and suppresses the expression of API5, a host antiapoptotic protein that antagonizes E2F1-dependent apoptosis. siRNA-mediated depletion of API5, in NP-overexpressed as well as IAV-infected cells, leads to upregulation of apoptotic protease activating factor 1 (APAF1), a downstream modulator of E2F1-mediated apoptosis, and cleavage of caspases 9 and 3, although a reciprocal pattern of these events was observed on ectopic overexpression of API5. In concordance with these observations, annexin V and 7AAD staining assays exhibit downregulation of early and late apoptosis in IAV-infected or NP-transfected cells on overexpression of API5. Most significantly, while overexpression of API5 decreases viral titers, cellular NP protein as well as mRNA levels in IAV-infected A549 cells, silencing of API5 expression causes a steep rise in the same parameters. From the data reported in this manuscript, we propose a proapoptotic role for NP in IAV pathogenesis, whereby it suppresses expression of antiapoptotic factor API5, thus potentiating the E2F1-dependent apoptotic pathway and ensuring viral replication.

  12. DPL-1 DP, LIN-35 Rb and EFL-1 E2F act with the MCD-1 zinc-finger protein to promote programmed cell death in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Reddien, Peter W; Andersen, Erik C; Huang, Michael C; Horvitz, H Robert

    2007-04-01

    The genes egl-1, ced-9, ced-4, and ced-3 play major roles in programmed cell death in Caenorhabditis elegans. To identify genes that have more subtle activities, we sought mutations that confer strong cell-death defects in a genetically sensitized mutant background. Specifically, we screened for mutations that enhance the cell-death defects caused by a partial loss-of-function allele of the ced-3 caspase gene. We identified mutations in two genes not previously known to affect cell death, dpl-1 and mcd-1 (modifier of cell death). dpl-1 encodes the C. elegans homolog of DP, the human E2F-heterodimerization partner. By testing genes known to interact with dpl-1, we identified roles in cell death for four additional genes: efl-1 E2F, lin-35 Rb, lin-37 Mip40, and lin-52 dLin52. mcd-1 encodes a novel protein that contains one zinc finger and that is synthetically required with lin-35 Rb for animal viability. dpl-1 and mcd-1 act with efl-1 E2F and lin-35 Rb to promote programmed cell death and do so by regulating the killing process rather than by affecting the decision between survival and death. We propose that the DPL-1 DP, MCD-1 zinc finger, EFL-1 E2F, LIN-35 Rb, LIN-37 Mip40, and LIN-52 dLin52 proteins act together in transcriptional regulation to promote programmed cell death.

  13. Modulation of E2F activity in primary mouse B cells following stimulation via surface IgM and CD40 receptors.

    PubMed

    Lam, E W; Glassford, J; van der Sman, J; Banerji, L; Pizzey, A R; Shaun, N; Thomas, B; Klaus, G G

    1999-10-01

    Since signals via CD40 and the B cell receptor are known to synergize to induce B cell activation, we have analyzed the pocket protein/E2F complexes in mouse B lymphocytes following stimulation by anti-IgM, anti-CD40, alone or together. We find that E2F4 and DP1 form the predominant E2F heterodimers in the G0 and G1 phases of the cell cycle, complexed with hypophosphorylated p130. During late G1 and S phase this complex is replaced by at least three different E2F complexes, one of which is an E2F complex containing p107 or pRB as well as two "free" E2F complexes consisting of E2F4/DP1 and E2F1-3/DP1. These effects were mirrored by the levels and phosphorylation status of the three pocket proteins. We also observed an increase in electrophoretic mobility of DP1 and E2F4 as B cells progressed from G0 into early G1, resulting from their dephosphorylation. This is known to correlate with a decrease in DNA binding capacity of these proteins and could also be important for derepression of genes negatively regulated through E2F sites in their promoters. These results therefore indicate that the pRB/E2F pathway integrates proliferative signals emanating from the sIgM and CD40 receptors.

  14. Transcription factors in pancreatic development. Animal models.

    PubMed

    Martin, Merce; Hauer, Viviane; Messmer, Mélanie; Orvain, Christophe; Gradwohl, Gérard

    2007-01-01

    Through the analysis of genetically modified mice a hierarchy of transcription factors regulating pancreas specification, endocrine destiny as well as endocrine subtype specification and differentiation has been established. In addition to conventional approaches such as transgenic technologies and gene targeting, recombinase fate mapping in mice has been key in establishing the lineage relationship between progenitor cells and their progeny in understanding pancreas formation. Moreover, the design of specific mouse models to conditionally express transcription factors in different populations of progenitor cells has revealed to what extent transcription factors required for islet cell development are also sufficient to induce endocrine differentiation and the importance of the competence of progenitor cells to respond to the genetic program implemented by these factors. Taking advantage of this basic science knowledge acquired in rodents, immature insulin-producing cells have recently been differentiated in vitro from human embryonic stem cells. Taken together these major advances emphasize the need to gain further in-depth knowledge of the molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling beta-cell differentiation in mice to generate functional beta-cells in the future that could be used for cell therapy in diabetes.

  15. Modulation of transcription factors by curcumin.

    PubMed

    Shishodia, Shishir; Singh, Tulika; Chaturvedi, Madan M

    2007-01-01

    Curcumin is the active ingredient of turmeric that has been consumed as a dietary spice for ages. Turmeric is widely used in traditional Indian medicine to cure biliary disorders, anorexia, cough, diabetic wounds, hepatic disorders, rheumatism, and sinusitis. Extensive investigation over the last five decades has indicated that curcumin reduces blood cholesterol, prevents low-density lipoprotein oxidation, inhibits platelet aggregation, suppresses thrombosis and myocardial infarction, suppresses symptoms associated with type II diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease, inhibits HIV replication, enhances wound healing, protects from liver injury, increases bile secretion, protects from cataract formation, and protects from pulmonary toxicity and fibrosis. Evidence indicates that the divergent effects of curcumin are dependent on its pleiotropic molecular effects. These include the regulation of signal transduction pathways and direct modulation of several enzymatic activities. Most of these signaling cascades lead to the activation of transcription factors. Curcumin has been found to modulate the activity of several key transcription factors and, in turn, the cellular expression profiles. Curcumin has been shown to elicit vital cellular responses such as cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and differentiation by activating a cascade of molecular events. In this chapter, we briefly review the effects of curcumin on transcription factors NF-KB, AP-1, Egr-1, STATs, PPAR-gamma, beta-catenin, nrf2, EpRE, p53, CBP, and androgen receptor (AR) and AR-related cofactors giving major emphasis to the molecular mechanisms of its action.

  16. Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Deficiency Prevents Neointima Formation Through Chromatin Silencing of E2F1 Target Genes.

    PubMed

    Endorf, Elizabeth B; Qing, Hua; Aono, Jun; Terami, Naoto; Doyon, Geneviève; Hyzny, Eric; Jones, Karrie L; Findeisen, Hannes M; Bruemmer, Dennis

    2017-02-01

    Aberrant proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMC) in response to injury induces pathological vascular remodeling during atherosclerosis and neointima formation. Telomerase is rate limiting for tissue renewal and cell replication; however, the physiological role of telomerase in vascular diseases remains to be determined. The goal of the present study was to determine whether telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) affects proliferative vascular remodeling and to define the molecular mechanism by which TERT supports SMC proliferation. We first demonstrate high levels of TERT expression in replicating SMC of atherosclerotic and neointimal lesions. Using a model of guidewire-induced arterial injury, we demonstrate decreased neointima formation in TERT-deficient mice. Studies in SMC isolated from TERT-deficient and TERT overexpressing mice with normal telomere length established that TERT is necessary and sufficient for cell proliferation. TERT deficiency did not induce a senescent phenotype but resulted in G1 arrest albeit hyperphosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein. This proliferative arrest was associated with stable silencing of the E2F1-dependent S-phase gene expression program and not reversed by ectopic overexpression of E2F1. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation and accessibility assays revealed that TERT is recruited to E2F1 target sites and promotes chromatin accessibility for E2F1 by facilitating the acquisition of permissive histone modifications. These data indicate a previously unrecognized role for TERT in neointima formation through epigenetic regulation of proliferative gene expression in SMC. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Intestinal Master Transcription Factor CDX2 Controls Chromatin Access for Partner Transcription Factor Binding

    PubMed Central

    Verzi, Michael P.; Shin, Hyunjin; San Roman, Adrianna K.

    2013-01-01

    Tissue-specific gene expression requires modulation of nucleosomes, allowing transcription factors to occupy cis elements that are accessible only in selected tissues. Master transcription factors control cell-specific genes and define cellular identities, but it is unclear if they possess special abilities to regulate cell-specific chromatin and if such abilities might underlie lineage determination and maintenance. One prevailing view is that several transcription factors enable chromatin access in combination. The homeodomain protein CDX2 specifies the embryonic intestinal epithelium, through unknown mechanisms, and partners with transcription factors such as HNF4A in the adult intestine. We examined enhancer chromatin and gene expression following Cdx2 or Hnf4a excision in mouse intestines. HNF4A loss did not affect CDX2 binding or chromatin, whereas CDX2 depletion modified chromatin significantly at CDX2-bound enhancers, disrupted HNF4A occupancy, and abrogated expression of neighboring genes. Thus, CDX2 maintains transcription-permissive chromatin, illustrating a powerful and dominant effect on enhancer configuration in an adult tissue. Similar, hierarchical control of cell-specific chromatin states is probably a general property of master transcription factors. PMID:23129810

  18. The significance of alternative transcripts for Caenorhabditis elegans transcription factor genes, based on expression pattern analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins, with their paramount importance in the regulation of expression of the genetic material, are encoded by approximately 5% of the genes in an animal’s genome. But it is unclear to what extent alternative transcripts from these genes may further increase the complexity of the transcription factor complement. Results Of the 938 potential C. elegans transcription factor genes, 197 were annotated in WormBase as encoding at least two distinct isoforms. Evaluation of prior evidence identified, with different levels of confidence, 50 genes with alternative transcript starts, 23 with alternative transcript ends, 35 with alternative splicing and 34 with alternative transcripts generated by a combination of mechanisms, leaving 55 that were discounted. Expression patterns were determined for transcripts for a sample of 29 transcription factor genes, concentrating on those with alternative transcript starts for which the evidence was strongest. Seamless fosmid recombineering was used to generate reporter gene fusions with minimal modification to assay expression of specific transcripts while maintaining the broad genomic DNA context and alternative transcript production. Alternative transcription factor gene transcripts were typically expressed with identical or substantially overlapping distributions rather than in distinct domains. Conclusions Increasingly sensitive sequencing technologies will reveal rare transcripts but many of these are clearly non-productive. The majority of the transcription factor gene alternative transcripts that are productive may represent tolerable noise rather than encoding functionally distinct isoforms. PMID:23586691

  19. Dynamic NF-κB and E2F interactions control the priority and timing of inflammatory signalling and cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Ankers, John M; Awais, Raheela; Jones, Nicholas A; Boyd, James; Ryan, Sheila; Adamson, Antony D; Harper, Claire V; Bridge, Lloyd; Spiller, David G; Jackson, Dean A; Paszek, Pawel; Sée, Violaine; White, Michael RH

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic cellular systems reprogram gene expression to ensure appropriate cellular fate responses to specific extracellular cues. Here we demonstrate that the dynamics of Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-κB) signalling and the cell cycle are prioritised differently depending on the timing of an inflammatory signal. Using iterative experimental and computational analyses, we show physical and functional interactions between NF-κB and the E2 Factor 1 (E2F-1) and E2 Factor 4 (E2F-4) cell cycle regulators. These interactions modulate the NF-κB response. In S-phase, the NF-κB response was delayed or repressed, while cell cycle progression was unimpeded. By contrast, activation of NF-κB at the G1/S boundary resulted in a longer cell cycle and more synchronous initial NF-κB responses between cells. These data identify new mechanisms by which the cellular response to stress is differentially controlled at different stages of the cell cycle. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10473.001 PMID:27185527

  20. Loss of GCN5 leads to increased neuronal apoptosis by upregulating E2F1- and Egr-1-dependent BH3-only protein Bim.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanna; Ma, Shanshan; Xia, Yong; Lu, Yangpeng; Xiao, Shiyin; Cao, Yali; Zhuang, Sidian; Tan, Xiangpeng; Fu, Qiang; Xie, Longchang; Li, Zhiming; Yuan, Zhongmin

    2017-01-26

    Cellular acetylation homeostasis is a kinetic balance precisely controlled by histone acetyl-transferase (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) activities. The loss of the counterbalancing function of basal HAT activity alters the precious HAT:HDAC balance towards enhanced histone deacetylation, resulting in a loss of acetylation homeostasis, which is closely associated with neuronal apoptosis. However, the critical HAT member whose activity loss contributes to neuronal apoptosis remains to be identified. In this study, we found that inactivation of GCN5 by either pharmacological inhibitors, such as CPTH2 and MB-3, or by inactivation with siRNAs leads to a typical apoptosis in cultured cerebellar granule neurons. Mechanistically, the BH3-only protein Bim is transcriptionally upregulated by activated Egr-1 and E2F1 and mediates apoptosis following GCN5 inhibition. Furthermore, in the activity withdrawal- or glutamate-evoked neuronal apoptosis models, GCN5 loses its activity, in contrast to Bim induction. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of GCN5 suppresses Bim induction and apoptosis. Interestingly, the loss of GCN5 activity and the induction of Egr-1, E2F1 and Bim are involved in the early brain injury (EBI) following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) in rats. HDAC inhibition not only significantly rescues Bim expression and apoptosis induced by either potassium deprivation or GCN5 inactivation but also ameliorates these events and EBI in SAH rats. Taken together, our results highlight a new mechanism by which the loss of GCN5 activity promotes neuronal apoptosis through the transcriptional upregulation of Bim, which is probably a critical event in triggering neuronal death when cellular acetylation homeostasis is impaired.

  1. The AP-1 transcription factor FOSL1 causes melanocyte reprogramming and transformation.

    PubMed

    Maurus, K; Hufnagel, A; Geiger, F; Graf, S; Berking, C; Heinemann, A; Paschen, A; Kneitz, S; Stigloher, C; Geissinger, E; Otto, C; Bosserhoff, A; Schartl, M; Meierjohann, S

    2017-09-07

    The MAPK pathway is activated in the majority of melanomas and is the target of therapeutic approaches. Under normal conditions, it initiates the so-called immediate early response, which encompasses the transient transcription of several genes belonging to the AP-1 transcription factor family. Under pathological conditions, such as continuous MAPK pathway overactivation due to oncogenic alterations occurring in melanoma, these genes are constitutively expressed. The consequences of a permanent expression of these genes are largely unknown. Here, we show that FOSL1 is the main immediate early AP-1 member induced by melanoma oncogenes. We first examined its role in established melanoma cells. We found that FOSL1 is involved in melanoma cell migration as well as cell proliferation and anoikis-independent growth, which is mediated by the gene product of its target gene HMGA1, encoding a multipotent chromatin modifier. As FOSL1 expression is increased in patient melanoma samples compared to nevi, we investigated the effect of enhanced FOSL1 expression on melanocytes. Intriguingly, we found that FOSL1 acts oncogenic and transforms melanocytes, enabling subcutaneous tumor growth in vivo. During the process of transformation, FOSL1 reprogrammed the melanocytes and downregulated MITF in a HMGA1-dependent manner. At the same time, AXL was upregulated, leading to a shift in the MITF/AXL balance. Furthermore, FOSL1 re-enforced pro-tumorigenic transcription factors MYC, E2F3 and AP-1. Together, this led to the enhancement of several growth-promoting processes, such as ribosome biogenesis, cellular detachment and pyrimidine metabolism. Overall, we demonstrate that FOSL1 is a novel reprogramming factor for melanocytes with potent tumor transformation potential.

  2. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta inhibits proliferation in monocytic cells by affecting the retinoblastoma protein/E2F/cyclin E pathway but is not directly required for macrophage morphology.

    PubMed

    Gutsch, Romina; Kandemir, Judith D; Pietsch, Daniel; Cappello, Christian; Meyer, Johann; Simanowski, Kathrin; Huber, René; Brand, Korbinian

    2011-07-01

    Monocytic differentiation is orchestrated by complex networks that are not fully understood. This study further elucidates the involvement of transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ). Initially, we demonstrated a marked increase in nuclear C/EBPβ-liver-enriched activating protein* (LAP*)/liver-enriched activating protein (LAP) levels and LAP/liver-enriched inhibiting protein (LIP) ratios in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-treated differentiating THP-1 premonocytic cells accompanied by reduced proliferation. To directly study C/EBPβ effects on monocytic cells, we generated novel THP-1-derived (low endogenous C/EBPβ) cell lines stably overexpressing C/EBPβ isoforms. Most importantly, cells predominantly overexpressing LAP* (C/EBPβ-long), but not those overexpressing LIP (C/EBPβ-short), exhibited a reduced proliferation, with no effect on morphology. PMA-induced inhibition of proliferation was attenuated in C/EBPβ-short cells. In C/EBPβ(WT) macrophage-like cells (high endogenous C/EBPβ), we measured a reduced proliferation/cycling index compared with C/EBPβ(KO). The typical macrophage morphology was only observed in C/EBPβ(WT), whereas C/EBPβ(KO) stayed round. C/EBPα did not compensate for C/EBPβ effects on proliferation/morphology. Serum reduction, an independent approach known to inhibit proliferation, induced macrophage morphology in C/EBPβ(KO) macrophage-like cells but not THP-1. In PMA-treated THP-1 and C/EBPβ-long cells, a reduced phosphorylation of cell cycle repressor retinoblastoma was found. In addition, C/EBPβ-long cells showed reduced c-Myc expression accompanied by increased CDK inhibitor p27 and reduced cyclin D1 levels. Finally, C/EBPβ-long and C/EBPβ(WT) cells exhibited low E2F1 and cyclin E levels, and C/EBPβ overexpression was found to inhibit cyclin E1 promoter-dependent transcription. Our results suggest that C/EBPβ reduces monocytic proliferation by affecting the retinoblastoma/E2F/cyclin E

  3. Transcription Factor Map Alignment of Promoter Regions

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Enrique; Messeguer, Xavier; Smith, Temple F; Guigó, Roderic

    2006-01-01

    We address the problem of comparing and characterizing the promoter regions of genes with similar expression patterns. This remains a challenging problem in sequence analysis, because often the promoter regions of co-expressed genes do not show discernible sequence conservation. In our approach, thus, we have not directly compared the nucleotide sequence of promoters. Instead, we have obtained predictions of transcription factor binding sites, annotated the predicted sites with the labels of the corresponding binding factors, and aligned the resulting sequences of labels—to which we refer here as transcription factor maps (TF-maps). To obtain the global pairwise alignment of two TF-maps, we have adapted an algorithm initially developed to align restriction enzyme maps. We have optimized the parameters of the algorithm in a small, but well-curated, collection of human–mouse orthologous gene pairs. Results in this dataset, as well as in an independent much larger dataset from the CISRED database, indicate that TF-map alignments are able to uncover conserved regulatory elements, which cannot be detected by the typical sequence alignments. PMID:16733547

  4. The evolution of WRKY transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Rinerson, Charles I; Rabara, Roel C; Tripathi, Prateek; Shen, Qingxi J; Rushton, Paul J

    2015-02-27

    The availability of increasing numbers of sequenced genomes has necessitated a re-evaluation of the evolution of the WRKY transcription factor family. Modern day plants descended from a charophyte green alga that colonized the land between 430 and 470 million years ago. The first charophyte genome sequence from Klebsormidium flaccidum filled a gap in the available genome sequences in the plant kingdom between unicellular green algae that typically have 1-3 WRKY genes and mosses that contain 30-40. WRKY genes have been previously found in non-plant species but their occurrence has been difficult to explain. Only two WRKY genes are present in the Klebsormidium flaccidum genome and the presence of a Group IIb gene was unexpected because it had previously been thought that Group IIb WRKY genes first appeared in mosses. We found WRKY transcription factor genes outside of the plant lineage in some diplomonads, social amoebae, fungi incertae sedis, and amoebozoa. This patchy distribution suggests that lateral gene transfer is responsible. These lateral gene transfer events appear to pre-date the formation of the WRKY groups in flowering plants. Flowering plants contain proteins with domains typical for both resistance (R) proteins and WRKY transcription factors. R protein-WRKY genes have evolved numerous times in flowering plants, each type being restricted to specific flowering plant lineages. These chimeric proteins contain not only novel combinations of protein domains but also novel combinations and numbers of WRKY domains. Once formed, R protein WRKY genes may combine different components of signalling pathways that may either create new diversity in signalling or accelerate signalling by short circuiting signalling pathways. We propose that the evolution of WRKY transcription factors includes early lateral gene transfers to non-plant organisms and the occurrence of algal WRKY genes that have no counterparts in flowering plants. We propose two alternative hypotheses

  5. Pea3 transcription factor promotes neurite outgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Kandemir, Basak; Caglayan, Berrak; Hausott, Barbara; Erdogan, Burcu; Dag, Ugur; Demir, Ozlem; Sogut, Melis S.; Klimaschewski, Lars; Kurnaz, Isil A.

    2014-01-01

    Pea3 subfamily of E–twenty six transcription factors consist of three major -exhibit branching morphogenesis, the function of Pea3 family in nervous system development and regeneration is only beginning to unfold. In this study, we provide evidence that Pea3 can directs neurite extension and axonal outgrowth in different model systems, and that Serine 90 is important for this function. We have also identified neurofilament-L and neurofilament-M as two putative novel targets for Pea3. PMID:25018694

  6. HIF Transcription Factors, Inflammation, and Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Palazon, Asis; Goldrath, Ananda; Nizet, Victor

    2015-01-01

    The hypoxic response in cells and tissues is mediated by the family of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) transcription factors that play an integral role in the metabolic changes that drive cellular adaptation to low oxygen availability. HIF expression and stabilization in immune cells can be triggered by hypoxia, but also by other factors associated with pathological stress: e.g., inflammation, infectious microorganisms, and cancer. HIF induces a number of aspects of host immune function, from boosting phagocyte microbicidal capacity to driving T cell differentiation and cytotoxic activity. Cellular metabolism is emerging as a key regulator of immunity, and it constitutes another layer of fine-tuned immune control by HIF that can dictate myeloid cell and lymphocyte development, fate, and function. Here we discuss how oxygen sensing in the immune microenvironment shapes immunological response and examine how HIF and the hypoxia pathway control innate and adaptive immunity. PMID:25367569

  7. HIF transcription factors, inflammation, and immunity.

    PubMed

    Palazon, Asis; Goldrath, Ananda W; Nizet, Victor; Johnson, Randall S

    2014-10-16

    The hypoxic response in cells and tissues is mediated by the family of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) transcription factors; these play an integral role in the metabolic changes that drive cellular adaptation to low oxygen availability. HIF expression and stabilization in immune cells can be triggered by hypoxia, but also by other factors associated with pathological stress: e.g., inflammation, infectious microorganisms, and cancer. HIF induces a number of aspects of host immune function, from boosting phagocyte microbicidal capacity to driving T cell differentiation and cytotoxic activity. Cellular metabolism is emerging as a key regulator of immunity, and it constitutes another layer of fine-tuned immune control by HIF that can dictate myeloid cell and lymphocyte development, fate, and function. Here we discuss how oxygen sensing in the immune microenvironment shapes immunological response and examine how HIF and the hypoxia pathway control innate and adaptive immunity.

  8. Fatty Acid–Regulated Transcription Factors in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Jump, Donald B.; Tripathy, Sasmita; Depner, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acid regulation of hepatic gene transcription was first reported in the early 1990s. Several transcription factors have been identified as targets of fatty acid regulation. This regulation is achieved by direct fatty acid binding to the transcription factor or by indirect mechanisms where fatty acids regulate signaling pathways controlling the expression of transcription factors or the phosphorylation, ubiquitination, or proteolytic cleavage of the transcription factor. Although dietary fatty acids are well-established regulators of hepatic transcription factors, emerging evidence indicates that endogenously generated fatty acids are equally important in controlling transcription factors in the context of glucose and lipid homeostasis. Our first goal in this review is to provide an up-to-date examination of the molecular and metabolic bases of fatty acid regulation of key transcription factors controlling hepatic metabolism. Our second goal is to link these mechanisms to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a growing health concern in the obese population. PMID:23528177

  9. A human transcription factor in search mode.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Kevin; Essuman, Bernard; He, Yiqing; Coutsias, Evangelos; Garcia-Diaz, Miguel; Simmerling, Carlos

    2016-01-08

    Transcription factors (TF) can change shape to bind and recognize DNA, shifting the energy landscape from a weak binding, rapid search mode to a higher affinity recognition mode. However, the mechanism(s) driving this conformational change remains unresolved and in most cases high-resolution structures of the non-specific complexes are unavailable. Here, we investigate the conformational switch of the human mitochondrial transcription termination factor MTERF1, which has a modular, superhelical topology complementary to DNA. Our goal was to characterize the details of the non-specific search mode to complement the crystal structure of the specific binding complex, providing a basis for understanding the recognition mechanism. In the specific complex, MTERF1 binds a significantly distorted and unwound DNA structure, exhibiting a protein conformation incompatible with binding to B-form DNA. In contrast, our simulations of apo MTERF1 revealed significant flexibility, sampling structures with superhelical pitch and radius complementary to the major groove of B-DNA. Docking these structures to B-DNA followed by unrestrained MD simulations led to a stable complex in which MTERF1 was observed to undergo spontaneous diffusion on the DNA. Overall, the data support an MTERF1-DNA binding and recognition mechanism driven by intrinsic dynamics of the MTERF1 superhelical topology. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Environmental Baseline Survey Parcel E2, F, and I, Military Housing Areas Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada. Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    SEP 2011 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Final Phase I Environmental Baseline Survey Parcel E2, F, and I...lead-based paint LUST leaking underground storage tank M.D.M. Mount Diablo Meridian MFH military family housing MHPI Military Housing...northwest OWS oil/water separator PADS PCB Activity Database PCB polychorinated biphenyl PCR Physical Condition Report PDF portable

  11. Phase 1 Environmental Baseline Survey Parcels E2, F, and I, Military Housing Areas, Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    21 SEP 2011 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Final Phase I Environmental Baseline Survey Parcels E2, F, and I...leaking underground storage tank M.D.M. Mount Diablo Meridian MFH military family housing MHPI Military Housing Privatization Initiative MSL...water separator PADS PCB Activity Database PCB polychorinated biphenyl PCR Physical Condition Report PDF portable document format PPV

  12. Transcription Factor Information System (TFIS): A Tool for Detection of Transcription Factor Binding Sites.

    PubMed

    Narad, Priyanka; Kumar, Abhishek; Chakraborty, Amlan; Patni, Pranav; Sengupta, Abhishek; Wadhwa, Gulshan; Upadhyaya, K C

    2017-09-01

    Transcription factors are trans-acting proteins that interact with specific nucleotide sequences known as transcription factor binding site (TFBS), and these interactions are implicated in regulation of the gene expression. Regulation of transcriptional activation of a gene often involves multiple interactions of transcription factors with various sequence elements. Identification of these sequence elements is the first step in understanding the underlying molecular mechanism(s) that regulate the gene expression. For in silico identification of these sequence elements, we have developed an online computational tool named transcription factor information system (TFIS) for detecting TFBS for the first time using a collection of JAVA programs and is mainly based on TFBS detection using position weight matrix (PWM). The database used for obtaining position frequency matrices (PFM) is JASPAR and HOCOMOCO, which is an open-access database of transcription factor binding profiles. Pseudo-counts are used while converting PFM to PWM, and TFBS detection is carried out on the basis of percent score taken as threshold value. TFIS is equipped with advanced features such as direct sequence retrieving from NCBI database using gene identification number and accession number, detecting binding site for common TF in a batch of gene sequences, and TFBS detection after generating PWM from known raw binding sequences in addition to general detection methods. TFIS can detect the presence of potential TFBSs in both the directions at the same time. This feature increases its efficiency. And the results for this dual detection are presented in different colors specific to the orientation of the binding site. Results obtained by the TFIS are more detailed and specific to the detected TFs as integration of more informative links from various related web servers are added in the result pages like Gene Ontology, PAZAR database and Transcription Factor Encyclopedia in addition to NCBI and Uni

  13. Sensing new chemicals with bacterial transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Libis, Vincent; Delépine, Baudoin; Faulon, Jean-Loup

    2016-10-01

    Bacteria rely on allosteric transcription factors (aTFs) to sense a wide range of chemicals. The variety of effectors has contributed in making aTFs the most used input system in synthetic biological circuits. Considering their enabling role in biotechnology, an important question concerns the size of the chemical space that can potentially be detected by these biosensors. From digging into the ever changing repertoire of natural regulatory circuits, to advances in aTF engineering, we review here different strategies that are pushing the boundaries of this chemical space. We also review natural and synthetic cases of indirect sensing, where aTFs work in combination with metabolism to enable detection of new molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Competition between histone and transcription factor binding regulates the onset of transcription in zebrafish embryos

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Shai R; Pálfy, Máté; Hilbert, Lennart; Kumar, Mukesh; Karschau, Jens; Zaburdaev, Vasily; Shevchenko, Andrej; Vastenhouw, Nadine L

    2017-01-01

    Upon fertilization, the genome of animal embryos remains transcriptionally inactive until the maternal-to-zygotic transition. At this time, the embryo takes control of its development and transcription begins. How the onset of zygotic transcription is regulated remains unclear. Here, we show that a dynamic competition for DNA binding between nucleosome-forming histones and transcription factors regulates zebrafish genome activation. Taking a quantitative approach, we found that the concentration of non-DNA-bound core histones sets the time for the onset of transcription. The reduction in nuclear histone concentration that coincides with genome activation does not affect nucleosome density on DNA, but allows transcription factors to compete successfully for DNA binding. In agreement with this, transcription factor binding is sensitive to histone levels and the concentration of transcription factors also affects the time of transcription. Our results demonstrate that the relative levels of histones and transcription factors regulate the onset of transcription in the embryo. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23326.001 PMID:28425915

  15. DNA residence time is a regulatory factor of transcription repression

    PubMed Central

    Clauß, Karen; Popp, Achim P.; Schulze, Lena; Hettich, Johannes; Reisser, Matthias; Escoter Torres, Laura; Uhlenhaut, N. Henriette

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Transcription comprises a highly regulated sequence of intrinsically stochastic processes, resulting in bursts of transcription intermitted by quiescence. In transcription activation or repression, a transcription factor binds dynamically to DNA, with a residence time unique to each factor. Whether the DNA residence time is important in the transcription process is unclear. Here, we designed a series of transcription repressors differing in their DNA residence time by utilizing the modular DNA binding domain of transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) and varying the number of nucleotide-recognizing repeat domains. We characterized the DNA residence times of our repressors in living cells using single molecule tracking. The residence times depended non-linearly on the number of repeat domains and differed by more than a factor of six. The factors provoked a residence time-dependent decrease in transcript level of the glucocorticoid receptor-activated gene SGK1. Down regulation of transcription was due to a lower burst frequency in the presence of long binding repressors and is in accordance with a model of competitive inhibition of endogenous activator binding. Our single molecule experiments reveal transcription factor DNA residence time as a regulatory factor controlling transcription repression and establish TALE-DNA binding domains as tools for the temporal dissection of transcription regulation. PMID:28977492

  16. WRKY Transcription Factors: Key Components in Abscisic Acid Signaling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Review article WRKY transcription factors : key components in abscisic acid signalling Deena L. Rushton1, Prateek Tripathi1, Roel C. Rabara1, Jun Lin1...May 2011. *Correspondence (Tel +605 688 5749; fax +605 688 5624; email paul.rushton@sdstate.edu) Keywords: abscisic acid, WRKY transcription factor ...seed germination, drought, abiotic stress. Summary WRKY transcription factors (TFs) are key regulators of many plant processes, including the responses

  17. Mitochondrial ribosomal protein S18-2 is highly expressed in endometrial cancers along with free E2F1

    PubMed Central

    Iurchenko, Natalia; Kovalevska, Larysa; Stip, Maria C; Budnikova, Daria; Andersson, Sonia; Polischuk, Ludmila; Buchynska, Lubov; Kashuba, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial cancer (EC) is one of the most frequent causes of cancer death among women in developed countries. Histopathological diagnosis and imaging techniques for EC are limited, thus new prognostic markers are needed to offer patients the best treatment and follow-up. In the present paper we showed that the level of mitochondrial ribosomal protein MRPS18-2 (S18-2) increased in EC compared with the normal endometrium and hyperplasia, based on a study of 42 patient biopsies. Importantly, high expression of free E2F1 in EC correlates well with high S18-2 expression. The EC cell line HEC-1-A, which overexpresses S18-2 constitutively, showed an increased proliferation capacity in vitro and in vivo (in SCID mice). Moreover, pan-keratin, beta-catenin and E-cadherin signals are diminished in these cells, compared to the parental HEC-1-A line, in contrast to vimentin signal that is increased. This may be associated with epithelial-mesenchymal cell transition (EMT). We conclude that high expression of S18-2 and free E2F1, and low pan-keratin, beta-catenin, and E-cadherin signals might be a good set of prognostic markers for EC. PMID:26959119

  18. The WRKY transcription factor family in Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Prateek; Rabara, Roel C; Langum, Tanner J; Boken, Ashley K; Rushton, Deena L; Boomsma, Darius D; Rinerson, Charles I; Rabara, Jennifer; Reese, R Neil; Chen, Xianfeng; Rohila, Jai S; Rushton, Paul J

    2012-06-22

    A complete assembled genome sequence of wheat is not yet available. Therefore, model plant systems for wheat are very valuable. Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) is such a system. The WRKY family of transcription factors is one of the most important families of plant transcriptional regulators with members regulating important agronomic traits. Studies of WRKY transcription factors in Brachypodium and wheat therefore promise to lead to new strategies for wheat improvement. We have identified and manually curated the WRKY transcription factor family from Brachypodium using a pipeline designed to identify all potential WRKY genes. 86 WRKY transcription factors were found, a total higher than all other current databases. We therefore propose that our numbering system (BdWRKY1-BdWRKY86) becomes the standard nomenclature. In the JGI v1.0 assembly of Brachypodium with the MIPS/JGI v1.0 annotation, nine of the transcription factors have no gene model and eleven gene models are probably incorrectly predicted. In total, twenty WRKY transcription factors (23.3%) do not appear to have accurate gene models. To facilitate use of our data, we have produced The Database of Brachypodium distachyon WRKY Transcription Factors. Each WRKY transcription factor has a gene page that includes predicted protein domains from MEME analyses. These conserved protein domains reflect possible input and output domains in signaling. The database also contains a BLAST search function where a large dataset of WRKY transcription factors, published genes, and an extensive set of wheat ESTs can be searched. We also produced a phylogram containing the WRKY transcription factor families from Brachypodium, rice, Arabidopsis, soybean, and Physcomitrella patens, together with published WRKY transcription factors from wheat. This phylogenetic tree provides evidence for orthologues, co-orthologues, and paralogues of Brachypodium WRKY transcription factors. The description of the WRKY transcription factor

  19. The WRKY transcription factor family in Brachypodium distachyon

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A complete assembled genome sequence of wheat is not yet available. Therefore, model plant systems for wheat are very valuable. Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) is such a system. The WRKY family of transcription factors is one of the most important families of plant transcriptional regulators with members regulating important agronomic traits. Studies of WRKY transcription factors in Brachypodium and wheat therefore promise to lead to new strategies for wheat improvement. Results We have identified and manually curated the WRKY transcription factor family from Brachypodium using a pipeline designed to identify all potential WRKY genes. 86 WRKY transcription factors were found, a total higher than all other current databases. We therefore propose that our numbering system (BdWRKY1-BdWRKY86) becomes the standard nomenclature. In the JGI v1.0 assembly of Brachypodium with the MIPS/JGI v1.0 annotation, nine of the transcription factors have no gene model and eleven gene models are probably incorrectly predicted. In total, twenty WRKY transcription factors (23.3%) do not appear to have accurate gene models. To facilitate use of our data, we have produced The Database of Brachypodium distachyon WRKY Transcription Factors. Each WRKY transcription factor has a gene page that includes predicted protein domains from MEME analyses. These conserved protein domains reflect possible input and output domains in signaling. The database also contains a BLAST search function where a large dataset of WRKY transcription factors, published genes, and an extensive set of wheat ESTs can be searched. We also produced a phylogram containing the WRKY transcription factor families from Brachypodium, rice, Arabidopsis, soybean, and Physcomitrella patens, together with published WRKY transcription factors from wheat. This phylogenetic tree provides evidence for orthologues, co-orthologues, and paralogues of Brachypodium WRKY transcription factors. Conclusions The description

  20. Repression of Meiotic Genes by Antisense Transcription and by Fkh2 Transcription Factor in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huei-Mei; Rosebrock, Adam P.; Khan, Sohail R.; Futcher, Bruce; Leatherwood, Janet K.

    2012-01-01

    In S. pombe, about 5% of genes are meiosis-specific and accumulate little or no mRNA during vegetative growth. Here we use Affymetrix tiling arrays to characterize transcripts in vegetative and meiotic cells. In vegetative cells, many meiotic genes, especially those induced in mid-meiosis, have abundant antisense transcripts. Disruption of the antisense transcription of three of these mid-meiotic genes allowed vegetative sense transcription. These results suggest that antisense transcription represses sense transcription of meiotic genes in vegetative cells. Although the mechanism(s) of antisense mediated transcription repression need to be further explored, our data indicates that RNAi machinery is not required for repression. Previously, we and others used non-strand specific methods to study splicing regulation of meiotic genes and concluded that 28 mid-meiotic genes are spliced only in meiosis. We now demonstrate that the “unspliced” signal in vegetative cells comes from the antisense RNA, not from unspliced sense RNA, and we argue against the idea that splicing regulates these mid-meiotic genes. Most of these mid-meiotic genes are induced in mid-meiosis by the forkhead transcription factor Mei4. Interestingly, deletion of a different forkhead transcription factor, Fkh2, allows low levels of sense expression of some mid-meiotic genes in vegetative cells. We propose that vegetative expression of mid-meiotic genes is repressed at least two independent ways: antisense transcription and Fkh2 repression. PMID:22238674

  1. An NAD+-dependent transcriptional program governs self-renewal and radiation resistance in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Gujar, Amit D; Le, Son; Mao, Diane D; Dadey, David Y A; Turski, Alice; Sasaki, Yo; Aum, Diane; Luo, Jingqin; Dahiya, Sonika; Yuan, Liya; Rich, Keith M; Milbrandt, Jeffrey; Hallahan, Dennis E; Yano, Hiroko; Tran, David D; Kim, Albert H

    2016-12-20

    Accumulating evidence suggests cancer cells exhibit a dependency on metabolic pathways regulated by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ). Nevertheless, how the regulation of this metabolic cofactor interfaces with signal transduction networks remains poorly understood in glioblastoma. Here, we report nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), the rate-limiting step in NAD + synthesis, is highly expressed in glioblastoma tumors and patient-derived glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs). High NAMPT expression in tumors correlates with decreased patient survival. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of NAMPT decreased NAD + levels and GSC self-renewal capacity, and NAMPT knockdown inhibited the in vivo tumorigenicity of GSCs. Regulatory network analysis of RNA sequencing data using GSCs treated with NAMPT inhibitor identified transcription factor E2F2 as the center of a transcriptional hub in the NAD + -dependent network. Accordingly, we demonstrate E2F2 is required for GSC self-renewal. Downstream, E2F2 drives the transcription of members of the inhibitor of differentiation (ID) helix-loop-helix gene family. Finally, we find NAMPT mediates GSC radiation resistance. The identification of a NAMPT-E2F2-ID axis establishes a link between NAD + metabolism and a self-renewal transcriptional program in glioblastoma, with therapeutic implications for this formidable cancer.

  2. Transcriptional control of stem cell fate by E2Fs and pocket proteins

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Lisa M.; Blais, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    E2F transcription factors and their regulatory partners, the pocket proteins (PPs), have emerged as essential regulators of stem cell fate control in a number of lineages. In mammals, this role extends from both pluripotent stem cells to those encompassing all embryonic germ layers, as well as extra-embryonic lineages. E2F/PP-mediated regulation of stem cell decisions is highly evolutionarily conserved, and is likely a pivotal biological mechanism underlying stem cell homeostasis. This has immense implications for organismal development, tissue maintenance, and regeneration. In this article, we discuss the roles of E2F factors and PPs in stem cell populations, focusing on mammalian systems. We discuss emerging findings that position the E2F and PP families as widespread and dynamic epigenetic regulators of cell fate decisions. Additionally, we focus on the ever expanding landscape of E2F/PP target genes, and explore the possibility that E2Fs are not simply regulators of general ‘multi-purpose’ cell fate genes but can execute tissue- and cell type-specific gene regulatory programs. PMID:25972892

  3. Transcription termination factor Rho and microbial phenotypic heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Bidnenko, Elena; Bidnenko, Vladimir

    2018-06-01

    Populations of genetically identical microorganisms exhibit high degree of cell-to-cell phenotypic diversity even when grown in uniform environmental conditions. Heterogeneity is a genetically determined trait, which ensures bacterial adaptation and survival in the ever changing environmental conditions. Fluctuations in gene expression (noise) at the level of transcription initiation largely contribute to cell-to-cell variability within population. Not surprisingly, the analyses of the mechanisms driving phenotypic heterogeneity are mainly focused on the activity of promoters and transcriptional factors. Less attention is currently given to a role of intrinsic and factor-dependent transcription terminators. Here, we discuss recent advances in understanding the regulatory role of the multi-functional transcription termination factor Rho, the major inhibitor of pervasive transcription in bacteria and the emerging global regulator of gene expression. We propose that termination activity of Rho might be among the mechanisms by which cells manage the intensity of transcriptional noise, thus affecting population heterogeneity.

  4. The physical size of transcription factors is key to transcriptional regulation in chromatin domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeshima, Kazuhiro; Kaizu, Kazunari; Tamura, Sachiko; Nozaki, Tadasu; Kokubo, Tetsuro; Takahashi, Koichi

    2015-02-01

    Genetic information, which is stored in the long strand of genomic DNA as chromatin, must be scanned and read out by various transcription factors. First, gene-specific transcription factors, which are relatively small (˜50 kDa), scan the genome and bind regulatory elements. Such factors then recruit general transcription factors, Mediators, RNA polymerases, nucleosome remodellers, and histone modifiers, most of which are large protein complexes of 1-3 MDa in size. Here, we propose a new model for the functional significance of the size of transcription factors (or complexes) for gene regulation of chromatin domains. Recent findings suggest that chromatin consists of irregularly folded nucleosome fibres (10 nm fibres) and forms numerous condensed domains (e.g., topologically associating domains). Although the flexibility and dynamics of chromatin allow repositioning of genes within the condensed domains, the size exclusion effect of the domain may limit accessibility of DNA sequences by transcription factors. We used Monte Carlo computer simulations to determine the physical size limit of transcription factors that can enter condensed chromatin domains. Small gene-specific transcription factors can penetrate into the chromatin domains and search their target sequences, whereas large transcription complexes cannot enter the domain. Due to this property, once a large complex binds its target site via gene-specific factors it can act as a ‘buoy’ to keep the target region on the surface of the condensed domain and maintain transcriptional competency. This size-dependent specialization of target-scanning and surface-tethering functions could provide novel insight into the mechanisms of various DNA transactions, such as DNA replication and repair/recombination.

  5. Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Riechmann, J L; Heard, J; Martin, G; Reuber, L; Jiang, C; Keddie, J; Adam, L; Pineda, O; Ratcliffe, O J; Samaha, R R; Creelman, R; Pilgrim, M; Broun, P; Zhang, J Z; Ghandehari, D; Sherman, B K; Yu, G

    2000-12-15

    The completion of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence allows a comparative analysis of transcriptional regulators across the three eukaryotic kingdoms. Arabidopsis dedicates over 5% of its genome to code for more than 1500 transcription factors, about 45% of which are from families specific to plants. Arabidopsis transcription factors that belong to families common to all eukaryotes do not share significant similarity with those of the other kingdoms beyond the conserved DNA binding domains, many of which have been arranged in combinations specific to each lineage. The genome-wide comparison reveals the evolutionary generation of diversity in the regulation of transcription.

  6. A new paradigm for transcription factor TFIIB functionality

    PubMed Central

    Gelev, Vladimir; Zabolotny, Janice M.; Lange, Martin; Hiromura, Makoto; Yoo, Sang Wook; Orlando, Joseph S.; Kushnir, Anna; Horikoshi, Nobuo; Paquet, Eric; Bachvarov, Dimcho; Schaffer, Priscilla A.; Usheva, Anny

    2014-01-01

    Experimental and bioinformatic studies of transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II (RNAP2) have revealed a mechanism of RNAP2 transcription initiation less uniform across gene promoters than initially thought. However, the general transcription factor TFIIB is presumed to be universally required for RNAP2 transcription initiation. Based on bioinformatic analysis of data and effects of TFIIB knockdown in primary and transformed cell lines on cellular functionality and global gene expression, we report that TFIIB is dispensable for transcription of many human promoters, but is essential for herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) gene transcription and replication. We report a novel cell cycle TFIIB regulation and localization of the acetylated TFIIB variant on the transcriptionally silent mitotic chromatids. Taken together, these results establish a new paradigm for TFIIB functionality in human gene expression, which when downregulated has potent anti-viral effects. PMID:24441171

  7. First somatic mutation of E2F1 in a critical DNA binding residue discovered in well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma of the peritoneum

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Well differentiated papillary mesothelioma of the peritoneum (WDPMP) is a rare variant of epithelial mesothelioma of low malignancy potential, usually found in women with no history of asbestos exposure. In this study, we perform the first exome sequencing of WDPMP. Results WDPMP exome sequencing reveals the first somatic mutation of E2F1, R166H, to be identified in human cancer. The location is in the evolutionarily conserved DNA binding domain and computationally predicted to be mutated in the critical contact point between E2F1 and its DNA target. We show that the R166H mutation abrogates E2F1's DNA binding ability and is associated with reduced activation of E2F1 downstream target genes. Mutant E2F1 proteins are also observed in higher quantities when compared with wild-type E2F1 protein levels and the mutant protein's resistance to degradation was found to be the cause of its accumulation within mutant over-expressing cells. Cells over-expressing wild-type E2F1 show decreased proliferation compared to mutant over-expressing cells, but cell proliferation rates of mutant over-expressing cells were comparable to cells over-expressing the empty vector. Conclusions The R166H mutation in E2F1 is shown to have a deleterious effect on its DNA binding ability as well as increasing its stability and subsequent accumulation in R166H mutant cells. Based on the results, two compatible theories can be formed: R166H mutation appears to allow for protein over-expression while minimizing the apoptotic consequence and the R166H mutation may behave similarly to SV40 large T antigen, inhibiting tumor suppressive functions of retinoblastoma protein 1. PMID:21955916

  8. Transcription Factors as Therapeutic Targets in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Hishikawa, Akihito; Hayashi, Kaori; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2018-05-09

    The growing number of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is recognized as an emerging problem worldwide. Recent studies have indicated that deregulation of transcription factors is associated with the onset or progression of kidney disease. Several clinical trials indicated that regression of CKD may be feasible via activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2), which suggests that transcription factors may be potential drug targets for CKD. Agents stabilizing hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), which may be beneficial for renal anemia and renal protection, are also now under clinical trial. Recently, we have reported that the transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) regulates the glomerular podocyte epigenome, and that the antiproteinuric effect of the renin⁻angiotensin system blockade may be partially mediated by KLF4. KLF4 is one of the Yamanaka factors that induces iPS cells and is reported to be involved in epigenetic remodeling. In this article, we summarize the transcription factors associated with CKD and particularly focus on the possibility of transcription factors being novel drug targets for CKD through epigenetic modulation.

  9. An extensive requirement for transcription factor IID-specific TAF-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans embryonic transcription.

    PubMed

    Walker, Amy K; Shi, Yang; Blackwell, T Keith

    2004-04-09

    The general transcription factor TFIID sets the mRNA start site and consists of TATA-binding protein and associated factors (TAF(II)s), some of which are also present in SPT-ADA-GCN5 (SAGA)-related complexes. In yeast, results of multiple studies indicate that TFIID-specific TAF(II)s are not required for the transcription of most genes, implying that intact TFIID may have a surprisingly specialized role in transcription. Relatively little is known about how TAF(II)s contribute to metazoan transcription in vivo, especially at developmental and tissue-specific genes. Previously, we investigated functions of four shared TFIID/SAGA TAF(II)s in Caenorhabditis elegans. Whereas TAF-4 was required for essentially all embryonic transcription, TAF-5, TAF-9, and TAF-10 were dispensable at multiple developmental and other metazoan-specific promoters. Here we show evidence that in C. elegans embryos transcription of most genes requires TFIID-specific TAF-1. TAF-1 is not as universally required as TAF-4, but it is essential for a greater proportion of transcription than TAF-5, -9, or -10 and is important for transcription of many developmental and other metazoan-specific genes. TAF-2, which binds core promoters with TAF-1, appears to be required for a similarly substantial proportion of transcription. C. elegans TAF-1 overlaps functionally with the coactivator p300/CBP (CBP-1), and at some genes it is required along with the TBP-like protein TLF(TRF2). We conclude that during C. elegans embryogenesis TAF-1 and TFIID have broad roles in transcription and development and that TFIID and TLF may act together at certain promoters. Our findings imply that in metazoans TFIID may be of widespread importance for transcription and for expression of tissue-specific genes.

  10. Gene amplification of the transcription factor DP1 and CTNND1 in human lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Sandra D; Angulo, Barbara; Suarez-Gauthier, Ana; Melchor, Lorenzo; Medina, Pedro P; Sanchez-Verde, Lydia; Torres-Lanzas, Juan; Pita, Guillermo; Benitez, Javier; Sanchez-Cespedes, Montse

    2010-09-01

    The search for novel oncogenes is important because they could be the target of future specific anticancer therapies. In the present paper we report the identification of novel amplified genes in lung cancer by means of global gene expression analysis. To screen for amplicons, we aligned the gene expression data according to the position of transcripts in the human genome and searched for clusters of over-expressed genes. We found several clusters with gene over-expression, suggesting an underlying genomic amplification. FISH and microarray analysis for DNA copy number in two clusters, at chromosomes 11q12 and 13q34, confirmed the presence of amplifications spanning about 0.4 and 1 Mb for 11q12 and 13q34, respectively. Amplification at these regions each occurred at a frequency of 3%. Moreover, quantitative RT-PCR of each individual transcript within the amplicons allowed us to verify the increased in gene expression of several genes. The p120ctn and DP1 proteins, encoded by two candidate oncogenes, CTNND1 and TFDP1, at 11q12 and 13q amplicons, respectively, showed very strong immunostaining in lung tumours with gene amplification. We then focused on the 13q34 amplicon and in the TFDP1 candidate oncogene. To further determine the oncogenic properties of DP1, we searched for lung cancer cell lines carrying TFDP1 amplification. Depletion of TFDP1 expression by small interference RNA in a lung cancer cell line (HCC33) with TFDP1 amplification and protein over-expression reduced cell viability by 50%. In conclusion, we report the identification of two novel amplicons, at 13q34 and 11q12, each occurring at a frequency of 3% of non-small cell lung cancers. TFDP1, which encodes the E2F-associated transcription factor DP1 is a candidate oncogene at 13q34. The data discussed in this publication have been deposited in NCBIs Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/) and are accessible through GEO Series Accession No. GSE21168.

  11. Transcription coactivator SAYP combines chromatin remodeler Brahma and transcription initiation factor TFIID into a single supercomplex

    PubMed Central

    Vorobyeva, Nadezhda E.; Soshnikova, Nataliya V.; Nikolenko, Julia V.; Kuzmina, Julia L.; Nabirochkina, Elena N.; Georgieva, Sofia G.; Shidlovskii, Yulii V.

    2009-01-01

    Transcription activation by RNA polymerase II is a complicated process driven by combined, precisely coordinated action of a wide array of coactivator complexes, which carry out chromatin-directed activities and nucleate the assembly of the preinitiation complex on the promoter. Using various techniques, we have shown the existence of a stable coactivator supercomplex consisting of the chromatin-remodeling factor Brahma (SWI/SNF) and the transcription initiation factor TFIID, named BTFly (Brahma and TFIID in one assembly). The coupling of Brahma and TFIID is mediated by the SAYP factor, whose evolutionarily conserved activation domain SAY can directly bind to both BAP170 subunit of Brahma and TAF5 subunit of TFIID. The integrity of BTFly is crucial for its ability to activate transcription. BTFly is distributed genome-wide and appears to be a means of effective transcription activation. PMID:19541607

  12. Regulatory coding of lymphoid lineage choice by hematopoietic transcription factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Luigi A.; Rothenberg, Ellen V.

    2003-01-01

    During lymphopoiesis, precursor cells negotiate a complex regulatory space, defined by the levels of several competing and cross-regulating transcription factors, before arriving at stable states of commitment to the B-, T- and NK-specific developmental programs. Recent perturbation experiments provide evidence that this space has three major axes, corresponding to the PU.1 versus GATA-1 balance, the intensity of Notch signaling through the CSL pathway, and the ratio of E-box transcription factors to their Id protein antagonists.

  13. TrSDB: a proteome database of transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Hermoso, Antoni; Aguilar, Daniel; Aviles, Francesc X.; Querol, Enrique

    2004-01-01

    TrSDB—TranScout Database—(http://ibb.uab.es/trsdb) is a proteome database of eukaryotic transcription factors based upon predicted motifs by TranScout and data sources such as InterPro and Gene Ontology Annotation. Nine eukaryotic proteomes are included in the current version. Extensive and diverse information for each database entry, different analyses considering TranScout classification and similarity relationships are offered for research on transcription factors or gene expression. PMID:14681387

  14. Factor requirements for transcription in the Archaeon Sulfolobus shibatae.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, S A; Bell, S D; Jackson, S P

    1997-05-15

    Archaea (archaebacteria) constitute a domain of life that is distinct from Bacteria (eubacteria) and Eucarya (eukaryotes). Although archaeal cells share many morphological features with eubacteria, their transcriptional apparatus is more akin to eukaryotic RNA polymerases I, II and III than it is to eubacterial transcription systems. Thus, in addition to possessing a 10 subunit RNA polymerase and a homologue of the TATA-binding protein (TBP), Archaea possess a polypeptide termed TFB that is homologous to eukaryotic TFIIB. Here, we investigate the factor requirements for transcription of several promoters of the archaeon Sulfolobus shibatae and its associated virus SSV. Through in vitro transcription and immunodepletion, we demonstrate that S. shibatae TBP, TFB and RNA polymerase are not complexed tightly with one another and that each is required for efficient transcription of all promoters tested. Furthermore, full transcription is restored by supplementing respective depleted extracts with recombinant TBP or TFB, indicating that TBP-associated factors or TFB-associated factors are not required. Indeed, gel-filtration suggests that Sulfolobus TBP and TFB are not associated stably with other proteins. Finally, all promoters analysed are transcribed accurately and efficiently in an in vitro system comprising recombinant TBP and TFB, together with essentially homogeneous preparation of RNA polymerase. Transcription in Archaea is therefore fundamentally homologous to that in eukaryotes, although factor requirements appear to be much less complex.

  15. Fine-scale mapping of the FGFR2 breast cancer risk locus: putative functional variants differentially bind FOXA1 and E2F1.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Kerstin B; O'Reilly, Martin; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Carlebur, Saskia; Edwards, Stacey L; French, Juliet D; Prathalingham, Radhika; Dennis, Joe; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; de Santiago, Ines; Hopper, John L; Tsimiklis, Helen; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Van 't Veer, Laura J; Hogervorst, Frans B; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Fasching, Peter A; Lux, Michael P; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Peto, Julian; Dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Sawyer, Elinor J; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Miller, Nicola; Marme, Federick; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Burwinkel, Barbara; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Menegaux, Florence; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Flyger, Henrik; Milne, Roger L; Zamora, M Pilar; Arias, Jose I; Benitez, Javier; Neuhausen, Susan; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Dur, Christina C; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K; Engel, Christoph; Ditsch, Nina; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Yatabe, Yasushi; Dörk, Thilo; Helbig, Sonja; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Wu, Anna H; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O; Lambrechts, Diether; Thienpont, Bernard; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Smeets, Ann; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Bonanni, Bernardo; Bernard, Loris; Couch, Fergus J; Olson, Janet E; Wang, Xianshu; Purrington, Kristen; Giles, Graham G; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; McLean, Catriona; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Yip, Cheng-Har; Phuah, Sze-Yee; Kristensen, Vessela; Grenaker Alnæs, Grethe; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zheng, Wei; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kauppila, Saila; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline M; García-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Chanock, Stephen J; Lissowska, Jolanta; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hartef; Eriksson, Kimael; Hooning, Maartje J; Martens, John W M; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; van Deurzen, Carolien H M; Hall, Per; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Jianjun; Humphreys, Keith; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Cox, Angela; Reed, Malcolm W R; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa B; Cai, Qiuyin; Pharoah, Paul D P; Ghoussaini, Maya; Harrington, Patricia; Tyrer, Jonathan; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Park, Sue K; Noh, Dong-Young; Hartman, Mikael; Hui, Miao; Lim, Wei-Yen; Buhari, Shaik A; Hamann, Ute; Försti, Asta; Rüdiger, Thomas; Ulmer, Hans-Ulrich; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Vachon, Celine; Slager, Susan; Fostira, Florentia; Pilarski, Robert; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Hou, Ming-Feng; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Ponder, Bruce A J; Dunning, Alison M; Easton, Douglas F

    2013-12-05

    The 10q26 locus in the second intron of FGFR2 is the locus most strongly associated with estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer in genome-wide association studies. We conducted fine-scale mapping in case-control studies genotyped with a custom chip (iCOGS), comprising 41 studies (n = 89,050) of European ancestry, 9 Asian ancestry studies (n = 13,983), and 2 African ancestry studies (n = 2,028) from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We identified three statistically independent risk signals within the locus. Within risk signals 1 and 3, genetic analysis identified five and two variants, respectively, highly correlated with the most strongly associated SNPs. By using a combination of genetic fine mapping, data on DNase hypersensitivity, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays to study protein-DNA binding, we identified rs35054928, rs2981578, and rs45631563 as putative functional SNPs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that FOXA1 preferentially bound to the risk-associated allele (C) of rs2981578 and was able to recruit ERα to this site in an allele-specific manner, whereas E2F1 preferentially bound the risk variant of rs35054928. The risk alleles were preferentially found in open chromatin and bound by Ser5 phosphorylated RNA polymerase II, suggesting that the risk alleles are associated with changes in transcription. Chromatin conformation capture demonstrated that the risk region was able to interact with the promoter of FGFR2, the likely target gene of this risk region. A role for FOXA1 in mediating breast cancer susceptibility at this locus is consistent with the finding that the FGFR2 risk locus primarily predisposes to estrogen-receptor-positive disease. Copyright © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fine-Scale Mapping of the FGFR2 Breast Cancer Risk Locus: Putative Functional Variants Differentially Bind FOXA1 and E2F1

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Kerstin B.; O’Reilly, Martin; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Carlebur, Saskia; Edwards, Stacey L.; French, Juliet D.; Prathalingham, Radhika; Dennis, Joe; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; de Santiago, Ines; Hopper, John L.; Tsimiklis, Helen; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Van ’t Veer, Laura J.; Hogervorst, Frans B.; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Fasching, Peter A.; Lux, Michael P.; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J.; Miller, Nicola; Marme, Federick; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Burwinkel, Barbara; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Menegaux, Florence; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Flyger, Henrik; Milne, Roger L.; Zamora, M. Pilar; Arias, Jose I.; Benitez, Javier; Neuhausen, Susan; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Dur, Christina C.; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Engel, Christoph; Ditsch, Nina; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Yatabe, Yasushi; Dörk, Thilo; Helbig, Sonja; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Wu, Anna H.; Tseng, Chiu-chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O.; Lambrechts, Diether; Thienpont, Bernard; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Smeets, Ann; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Bonanni, Bernardo; Bernard, Loris; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Wang, Xianshu; Purrington, Kristen; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; McLean, Catriona; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S.; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Yip, Cheng-Har; Phuah, Sze-Yee; Kristensen, Vessela; Grenaker Alnæs, Grethe; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zheng, Wei; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kauppila, Saila; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A.E.M.; Seynaeve, Caroline M.; García-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hartef; Eriksson, Kimael; Hooning, Maartje J.; Martens, John W.M.; van den Ouweland, Ans M.W.; van Deurzen, Carolien H.M.; Hall, Per; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Jianjun; Humphreys, Keith; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Cox, Angela; Reed, Malcolm W.R.; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa B.; Cai, Qiuyin; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Ghoussaini, Maya; Harrington, Patricia; Tyrer, Jonathan; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Park, Sue K.; Noh, Dong-Young; Hartman, Mikael; Hui, Miao; Lim, Wei-Yen; Buhari, Shaik A.; Hamann, Ute; Försti, Asta; Rüdiger, Thomas; Ulmer, Hans-Ulrich; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Vachon, Celine; Slager, Susan; Fostira, Florentia; Pilarski, Robert; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Hou, Ming-Feng; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Ponder, Bruce A.J.; Dunning, Alison M.; Easton, Douglas F.

    2013-01-01

    The 10q26 locus in the second intron of FGFR2 is the locus most strongly associated with estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer in genome-wide association studies. We conducted fine-scale mapping in case-control studies genotyped with a custom chip (iCOGS), comprising 41 studies (n = 89,050) of European ancestry, 9 Asian ancestry studies (n = 13,983), and 2 African ancestry studies (n = 2,028) from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We identified three statistically independent risk signals within the locus. Within risk signals 1 and 3, genetic analysis identified five and two variants, respectively, highly correlated with the most strongly associated SNPs. By using a combination of genetic fine mapping, data on DNase hypersensitivity, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays to study protein-DNA binding, we identified rs35054928, rs2981578, and rs45631563 as putative functional SNPs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that FOXA1 preferentially bound to the risk-associated allele (C) of rs2981578 and was able to recruit ERα to this site in an allele-specific manner, whereas E2F1 preferentially bound the risk variant of rs35054928. The risk alleles were preferentially found in open chromatin and bound by Ser5 phosphorylated RNA polymerase II, suggesting that the risk alleles are associated with changes in transcription. Chromatin conformation capture demonstrated that the risk region was able to interact with the promoter of FGFR2, the likely target gene of this risk region. A role for FOXA1 in mediating breast cancer susceptibility at this locus is consistent with the finding that the FGFR2 risk locus primarily predisposes to estrogen-receptor-positive disease. PMID:24290378

  17. Id2 leaves the chromatin of the E2F4–p130-controlled c-myc promoter during hepatocyte priming for liver regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, José L.; Sandoval, Juan; Serviddio, Gaetano; Sastre, Juan; Morante, María; Perrelli, Maria-Giulia; Martínez-Chantar, María L.; Viña, José; Viña, Juan R.; Mato, José M.; Ávila, Matías A.; Franco, Luis; López-Rodas, Gerardo; Torres, Luis

    2006-01-01

    The Id (inhibitor of DNA binding or inhibitor of differentiation) helix–loop–helix proteins are involved in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation and cancer. The fact that the molecular mechanisms of liver regeneration are not completely understood prompted us to study the fate of Id2 in proliferating liver. Id2 increases in liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy, following the early induction of its gene. Co-immunoprecipitation shows that Id2 forms a complex with E2F4, p130 and mSin3A in quiescent liver and all these components are present at the c-myc promoter as shown using ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation). Activation of c-myc during hepatocyte priming (G0–G1 transition) correlates with the dissociation of Id2 and HDAC (histone deacetylase), albeit p130 remains bound at least until 6 h. Moreover, as the G0–G1 transition progresses, Id2 and HDAC again bind the c-myc promoter concomitantly with the repression of this gene. The time course of c-myc binding to the Id2 promoter, as determined by ChIP assays is compatible with a role of the oncoprotein as a transcriptional inducer of Id2 in liver regeneration. Immunohistochemical analysis shows that Id2 also increases in proliferating hepatocytes after bile duct ligation. In this case, the pattern of Id2 presence in the c-myc promoter parallels that found in regenerating liver. Our results may suggest a control role for Id2 in hepatocyte priming, through a p130 dissociation-independent regulation of c-myc. PMID:16776654

  18. Modulation of DNA binding by gene-specific transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Schleif, Robert F

    2013-10-01

    The transcription of many genes, particularly in prokaryotes, is controlled by transcription factors whose activity can be modulated by controlling their DNA binding affinity. Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which DNA binding affinity is regulated is important, but because forming definitive conclusions usually requires detailed structural information in combination with data from extensive biophysical, biochemical, and sometimes genetic experiments, little is truly understood about this topic. This review describes the biological requirements placed upon DNA binding transcription factors and their consequent properties, particularly the ways that DNA binding affinity can be modulated and methods for its study. What is known and not known about the mechanisms modulating the DNA binding affinity of a number of prokaryotic transcription factors, including CAP and lac repressor, is provided.

  19. DNA binding by the ribosomal DNA transcription factor rrn3 is essential for ribosomal DNA transcription.

    PubMed

    Stepanchick, Ann; Zhi, Huijun; Cavanaugh, Alice H; Rothblum, Katrina; Schneider, David A; Rothblum, Lawrence I

    2013-03-29

    The human homologue of yeast Rrn3 is an RNA polymerase I-associated transcription factor that is essential for ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription. The generally accepted model is that Rrn3 functions as a bridge between RNA polymerase I and the transcription factors bound to the committed template. In this model Rrn3 would mediate an interaction between the mammalian Rrn3-polymerase I complex and SL1, the rDNA transcription factor that binds to the core promoter element of the rDNA. In the course of studying the role of Rrn3 in recruitment, we found that Rrn3 was in fact a DNA-binding protein. Analysis of the sequence of Rrn3 identified a domain with sequence similarity to the DNA binding domain of heat shock transcription factor 2. Randomization, or deletion, of the amino acids in this region in Rrn3, amino acids 382-400, abrogated its ability to bind DNA, indicating that this domain was an important contributor to DNA binding by Rrn3. Control experiments demonstrated that these mutant Rrn3 constructs were capable of interacting with both rpa43 and SL1, two other activities demonstrated to be essential for Rrn3 function. However, neither of these Rrn3 mutants was capable of functioning in transcription in vitro. Moreover, although wild-type human Rrn3 complemented a yeast rrn3-ts mutant, the DNA-binding site mutant did not. These results demonstrate that DNA binding by Rrn3 is essential for transcription by RNA polymerase I.

  20. DNA Binding by the Ribosomal DNA Transcription Factor Rrn3 Is Essential for Ribosomal DNA Transcription*

    PubMed Central

    Stepanchick, Ann; Zhi, Huijun; Cavanaugh, Alice H.; Rothblum, Katrina; Schneider, David A.; Rothblum, Lawrence I.

    2013-01-01

    The human homologue of yeast Rrn3 is an RNA polymerase I-associated transcription factor that is essential for ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription. The generally accepted model is that Rrn3 functions as a bridge between RNA polymerase I and the transcription factors bound to the committed template. In this model Rrn3 would mediate an interaction between the mammalian Rrn3-polymerase I complex and SL1, the rDNA transcription factor that binds to the core promoter element of the rDNA. In the course of studying the role of Rrn3 in recruitment, we found that Rrn3 was in fact a DNA-binding protein. Analysis of the sequence of Rrn3 identified a domain with sequence similarity to the DNA binding domain of heat shock transcription factor 2. Randomization, or deletion, of the amino acids in this region in Rrn3, amino acids 382–400, abrogated its ability to bind DNA, indicating that this domain was an important contributor to DNA binding by Rrn3. Control experiments demonstrated that these mutant Rrn3 constructs were capable of interacting with both rpa43 and SL1, two other activities demonstrated to be essential for Rrn3 function. However, neither of these Rrn3 mutants was capable of functioning in transcription in vitro. Moreover, although wild-type human Rrn3 complemented a yeast rrn3-ts mutant, the DNA-binding site mutant did not. These results demonstrate that DNA binding by Rrn3 is essential for transcription by RNA polymerase I. PMID:23393135

  1. SUMOylation of DRIL1 Directs Its Transcriptional Activity Towards Leukocyte Lineage-Specific Genes

    PubMed Central

    van Lohuizen, Maarten; Peeper, Daniel S.

    2009-01-01

    DRIL1 is an ARID family transcription factor that can immortalize primary mouse fibroblasts, bypass RASV12-induced cellular senescence and collaborate with RASV12 or MYC in mediating oncogenic transformation. It also activates immunoglobulin heavy chain transcription and engages in heterodimer formation with E2F to stimulate E2F-dependent transcription. Little, however, is known about the regulation of DRIL1 activity. Recently, DRIL1 was found to interact with the SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9, but the functional relevance of this association has not been assessed. Here, we show that DRIL1 is sumoylated both in vitro and in vivo at lysine 398. Moreover, we provide evidence that PIASy functions as a specific SUMO E3-ligase for DRIL1 and promotes its sumoylation both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, consistent with the subnuclear localization of PIASy in the Matrix-Associated Region (MAR), SUMO-modified DRIL1 species are found exclusively in the MAR fraction. This post-translational modification interferes neither with the subcellular localization nor the DNA-binding activity of the protein. In contrast, DRIL1 sumoylation impairs its interaction with E2F1 in vitro and modifies its transcriptional activity in vivo, driving transcription of subset of genes regulating leukocyte fate. Taken together, these results identify sumoylation as a novel post-translational modification of DRIL1 that represents an important mechanism for targeting and modulating DRIL1 transcriptional activity. PMID:19436740

  2. Intergenic Transcriptional Interference Is Blocked by RNA Polymerase III Transcription Factor TFIIIB in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Korde, Asawari; Rosselot, Jessica M.; Donze, David

    2014-01-01

    The major function of eukaryotic RNA polymerase III is to transcribe transfer RNA, 5S ribosomal RNA, and other small non-protein-coding RNA molecules. Assembly of the RNA polymerase III complex on chromosomal DNA requires the sequential binding of transcription factor complexes TFIIIC and TFIIIB. Recent evidence has suggested that in addition to producing RNA transcripts, chromatin-assembled RNA polymerase III complexes may mediate additional nuclear functions that include chromatin boundary, nucleosome phasing, and general genome organization activities. This study provides evidence of another such “extratranscriptional” activity of assembled RNA polymerase III complexes, which is the ability to block progression of intergenic RNA polymerase II transcription. We demonstrate that the RNA polymerase III complex bound to the tRNA gene upstream of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATG31 gene protects the ATG31 promoter against readthrough transcriptional interference from the upstream noncoding intergenic SUT467 transcription unit. This protection is predominately mediated by binding of the TFIIIB complex. When TFIIIB binding to this tRNA gene is weakened, an extended SUT467–ATG31 readthrough transcript is produced, resulting in compromised ATG31 translation. Since the ATG31 gene product is required for autophagy, strains expressing the readthrough transcript exhibit defective autophagy induction and reduced fitness under autophagy-inducing nitrogen starvation conditions. Given the recent discovery of widespread pervasive transcription in all forms of life, protection of neighboring genes from intergenic transcriptional interference may be a key extratranscriptional function of assembled RNA polymerase III complexes and possibly other DNA binding proteins. PMID:24336746

  3. Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF) as a Regulator of Lactogenic Differentiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-09

    1 1.62 Myeloid leukemia factor 1, Mlf1 1.57 ADAMTS-l4 1.55 E2F transcription factor, E2F2 1.44 Tensin 4 -1.5 BCL2/adenovirus E1B interacting... Mlf1 1.57 ADAMTS-l4 1.55 Ras homolog gene family, member B, RhoB 1.48 Cell Differentiation-associated Wingless-type MMTV integration site family...B, relB 1.92 Myeloid leukemia factor 1, Mlf1 1.57 Growth Factor, Catalytic Activity-associated Dual specificity protein phosphatase 8, Dusp8

  4. Searching for transcription factor binding sites in vector spaces

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Computational approaches to transcription factor binding site identification have been actively researched in the past decade. Learning from known binding sites, new binding sites of a transcription factor in unannotated sequences can be identified. A number of search methods have been introduced over the years. However, one can rarely find one single method that performs the best on all the transcription factors. Instead, to identify the best method for a particular transcription factor, one usually has to compare a handful of methods. Hence, it is highly desirable for a method to perform automatic optimization for individual transcription factors. Results We proposed to search for transcription factor binding sites in vector spaces. This framework allows us to identify the best method for each individual transcription factor. We further introduced two novel methods, the negative-to-positive vector (NPV) and optimal discriminating vector (ODV) methods, to construct query vectors to search for binding sites in vector spaces. Extensive cross-validation experiments showed that the proposed methods significantly outperformed the ungapped likelihood under positional background method, a state-of-the-art method, and the widely-used position-specific scoring matrix method. We further demonstrated that motif subtypes of a TF can be readily identified in this framework and two variants called the k NPV and k ODV methods benefited significantly from motif subtype identification. Finally, independent validation on ChIP-seq data showed that the ODV and NPV methods significantly outperformed the other compared methods. Conclusions We conclude that the proposed framework is highly flexible. It enables the two novel methods to automatically identify a TF-specific subspace to search for binding sites. Implementations are available as source code at: http://biogrid.engr.uconn.edu/tfbs_search/. PMID:23244338

  5. Transcription Factors in Long-Term Memory and Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Alberini, Cristina M.

    2013-01-01

    Transcription is a molecular requisite for long-term synaptic plasticity and long-term memory formation. Thus, in the last several years, one main interest of molecular neuroscience has been the identification of families of transcription factors that are involved in both of these processes. Transcription is a highly regulated process that involves the combined interaction and function of chromatin and many other proteins, some of which are essential for the basal process of transcription, while others control the selective activation or repression of specific genes. These regulated interactions ultimately allow a sophisticated response to multiple environmental conditions, as well as control of spatial and temporal differences in gene expression. Evidence based on correlative changes in expression, genetic mutations, and targeted molecular inhibition of gene expression have shed light on the function of transcription in both synaptic plasticity and memory formation. This review provides a brief overview of experimental work showing that several families of transcription factors, including CREB, C/EBP, Egr, AP-1, and Rel have essential functions in both processes. The results of this work suggest that patterns of transcription regulation represent the molecular signatures of long-term synaptic changes and memory formation. PMID:19126756

  6. Activation of the Rb/E2F1 pathway by the nonproliferative p38 MAPK during Fas (APO1/CD95)-mediated neuronal apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Hou, Sheng T; Xie, Xiaoqi; Baggley, Anne; Park, David S; Chen, Gao; Walker, Teena

    2002-12-13

    Aberrant activation of the Rb/E2F1 pathway in cycling cells, in response to mitogenic or nonmitogenic stress signals, leads to apoptosis through hyperphosphorylation of Rb. To test whether in postmitotic neurons the Rb/E2F1 pathway can be activated by the nonmitogenic stress signaling, we examined the role of the p38 stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) in regulating Rb phosphorylation in response to Fas (CD95/APO1)-mediated apoptosis of cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Anti-Fas antibody induced a dramatic and early activation of p38. Activated p38 was correlated with the induction of hyperphosphorylation of both endogenous and exogenous Rb. The p38-selective inhibitor, SB203580, attenuated such an increase in pRb phosphorylation and significantly protected CGNs from Fas-induced apoptosis. The cyclin-dependent kinase-mediated Rb phosphorylation played a lesser role in this neuronal death paradigm, since cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, such as olomoucine, roscovitine, and flavopiridol, did not significantly prevent anti-Fas antibody-evoked neuronal apoptosis. Hyperphosphorylation of Rb by p38 SAPK resulted in the release of Rb-bound E2F1. Increased E2F1 modulated neuronal apoptosis, since E2F1-/- CGNs were significantly less susceptible to Fas-mediated apoptosis in comparison with the wild-type CGNs. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that neuronal Rb/E2F1 is modulated by the nonproliferative p38 SAPK in Fas-mediated neuronal apoptosis.

  7. Selective Activation of Transcription by a Novel CCAAT Binding Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, Sankar N.; Golumbek, Paul T.; Karsenty, Gerard; de Crombrugghe, Benoit

    1988-07-01

    A novel CCAAT binding factor (CBF) composed of two different subunits has been extensively purified from rat liver. Both subunits are needed for specific binding to DNA. Addition of this purified protein to nuclear extracts of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts stimulates transcription from several promoters including the α 2(I) collagen, the α 1(I) collagen, the Rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat (RSV-LTR), and the adenovirus major late promoter. Point mutations in the CCAAT motif that show either no binding or a decreased binding of CBF likewise abolish or reduce activation of transcription by CBF. Activation of transcription requires, therefore, the specific binding of CBF to its recognition sites.

  8. Transcription Factors of Lotus: Regulation of Isoflavonoid Biosynthesis Requires Coordinated Changes in Transcription Factor Activity1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Dale; Stranne, Maria; Mikkelsen, Lisbeth; Pakseresht, Nima; Welham, Tracey; Hiraka, Hideki; Tabata, Satoshi; Sato, Shusei; Paquette, Suzanne; Wang, Trevor L.; Martin, Cathie; Bailey, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Isoflavonoids are a class of phenylpropanoids made by legumes, and consumption of dietary isoflavonoids confers benefits to human health. Our aim is to understand the regulation of isoflavonoid biosynthesis. Many studies have shown the importance of transcription factors in regulating the transcription of one or more genes encoding enzymes in phenylpropanoid metabolism. In this study, we coupled bioinformatics and coexpression analysis to identify candidate genes encoding transcription factors involved in regulating isoflavonoid biosynthesis in Lotus (Lotus japonicus). Genes encoding proteins belonging to 39 of the main transcription factor families were examined by microarray analysis of RNA from leaf tissue that had been elicited with glutathione. Phylogenetic analyses of each transcription factor family were used to identify subgroups of proteins that were specific to L. japonicus or closely related to known regulators of the phenylpropanoid pathway in other species. R2R3MYB subgroup 2 genes showed increased expression after treatment with glutathione. One member of this subgroup, LjMYB14, was constitutively overexpressed in L. japonicus and induced the expression of at least 12 genes that encoded enzymes in the general phenylpropanoid and isoflavonoid pathways. A distinct set of six R2R3MYB subgroup 2-like genes was identified. We suggest that these subgroup 2 sister group proteins and those belonging to the main subgroup 2 have roles in inducing isoflavonoid biosynthesis. The induction of isoflavonoid production in L. japonicus also involves the coordinated down-regulation of competing biosynthetic pathways by changing the expression of other transcription factors. PMID:22529285

  9. Key Transcription Factors in the Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Almalki, Sami G.; Agrawal, Devendra K.

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that represent a promising source for regenerative medicine. MSCs are capable of osteogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic and myogenic differentiation. Efficacy of differentiated MSCs to regenerate cells in the injured tissues requires the ability to maintain the differentiation toward the desired cell fate. Since MSCs represent an attractive source for autologous transplantation, cellular and molecular signaling pathways and micro-environmental changes have been studied in order to understand the role of cytokines, chemokines, and transcription factors on the differentiation of MSCs. The differentiation of MSC into a mesenchymal lineage is genetically manipulated and promoted by specific transcription factors associated with a particular cell lineage. Recent studies have explored the integration of transcription factors, including Runx2, Sox9, PPARγ, MyoD, GATA4, and GATA6 in the differentiation of MSCs. Therefore, the overexpression of a single transcription factor in MSCs may promote trans-differentiation into specific cell lineage, which can be used for treatment of some diseases. In this review, we critically discussed and evaluated the role of transcription factors and related signaling pathways that affect the differentiation of MSCs toward adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteocytes, skeletal muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, and smooth muscle cells. PMID:27012163

  10. Resetting the transcription factor network reverses terminal chronic hepatic failure

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Taichiro; Bell, Aaron; Brooks, Jenna M.; Setoyama, Kentaro; Melis, Marta; Han, Bing; Fukumitsu, Ken; Handa, Kan; Tian, Jianmin; Kaestner, Klaus H.; Vodovotz, Yoram; Locker, Joseph; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Fox, Ira J.

    2015-01-01

    The cause of organ failure is enigmatic for many degenerative diseases, including end-stage liver disease. Here, using a CCl4-induced rat model of irreversible and fatal hepatic failure, which also exhibits terminal changes in the extracellular matrix, we demonstrated that chronic injury stably reprograms the critical balance of transcription factors and that diseased and dedifferentiated cells can be returned to normal function by re-expression of critical transcription factors, a process similar to the type of reprogramming that induces somatic cells to become pluripotent or to change their cell lineage. Forced re-expression of the transcription factor HNF4α induced expression of the other hepatocyte-expressed transcription factors; restored functionality in terminally diseased hepatocytes isolated from CCl4-treated rats; and rapidly reversed fatal liver failure in CCl4-treated animals by restoring diseased hepatocytes rather than replacing them with new hepatocytes or stem cells. Together, the results of our study indicate that disruption of the transcription factor network and cellular dedifferentiation likely mediate terminal liver failure and suggest reinstatement of this network has therapeutic potential for correcting organ failure without cell replacement. PMID:25774505

  11. Transcriptional regulation of drought response: a tortuous network of transcriptional factors

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Dhriti; Laxmi, Ashverya

    2015-01-01

    Drought is one of the leading factors responsible for the reduction in crop yield worldwide. Due to climate change, in future, more areas are going to be affected by drought and for prolonged periods. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying the drought response is one of the major scientific concerns for improving crop yield. Plants deploy diverse strategies and mechanisms to respond and tolerate drought stress. Expression of numerous genes is modulated in different plants under drought stress that help them to optimize their growth and development. Plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a major role in plant response and tolerance by regulating the expression of many genes under drought stress. Transcription factors being the major regulator of gene expression play a crucial role in stress response. ABA regulates the expression of most of the target genes through ABA-responsive element (ABRE) binding protein/ABRE binding factor (AREB/ABF) transcription factors. Genes regulated by AREB/ABFs constitute a regulon termed as AREB/ABF regulon. In addition to this, drought responsive genes are also regulated by ABA-independent mechanisms. In ABA-independent regulation, dehydration-responsive element binding protein (DREB), NAM, ATAF, and CUC regulons play an important role by regulating many drought-responsive genes. Apart from these major regulons, MYB/MYC, WRKY, and nuclear factor-Y (NF-Y) transcription factors are also involved in drought response and tolerance. Our understanding about transcriptional regulation of drought is still evolving. Recent reports have suggested the existence of crosstalk between different transcription factors operating under drought stress. In this article, we have reviewed various regulons working under drought stress and their crosstalk with each other. PMID:26579147

  12. Multivalency regulates activity in an intrinsically disordered transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Sarah; Myers, Janette B; King, Ashleigh; Fiala, Radovan; Novacek, Jiri; Pearce, Grant; Heierhorst, Jörg; Reichow, Steve L

    2018-01-01

    The transcription factor ASCIZ (ATMIN, ZNF822) has an unusually high number of recognition motifs for the product of its main target gene, the hub protein LC8 (DYNLL1). Using a combination of biophysical methods, structural analysis by NMR and electron microscopy, and cellular transcription assays, we developed a model that proposes a concerted role of intrinsic disorder and multiple LC8 binding events in regulating LC8 transcription. We demonstrate that the long intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain of ASCIZ binds LC8 to form a dynamic ensemble of complexes with a gradient of transcriptional activity that is inversely proportional to LC8 occupancy. The preference for low occupancy complexes at saturating LC8 concentrations with both human and Drosophila ASCIZ indicates that negative cooperativity is an important feature of ASCIZ-LC8 interactions. The prevalence of intrinsic disorder and multivalency among transcription factors suggests that formation of heterogeneous, dynamic complexes is a widespread mechanism for tuning transcriptional regulation. PMID:29714690

  13. Transcription Factors Involved in Plant Resistance to Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Lidiane L B; da Fonseca Dos Santos, Romulo; Neto, Joao Pacífico Bezerra; Guida-Santos, Mauro; Crovella, Sergio; Benko-Iseppon, Ana Maria

    2017-01-01

    Phytopathogenic microorganisms have a significant influence on survival and productivity of several crop plants. Transcription factors (TFs) are important players in the response to biotic stresses, as insect attack and pathogen infection. In face of such adversities many TFs families have been previously reported as differentially expressed in plants as a reaction to bacterial, fungal and viral infection. This review highlights recent progresses in understanding the structure, function, signal regulation and interaction of transcription factors with other proteins in response to pathogens. Hence, we focus on three families of transcription factors: ERF, bZIP and WRKY, due to their abundance, importance and the availability of functionally well-characterized members in response to pathogen attack. Their roles and the possibilities related to the use of this knowledge for engineering pathogen resistance in crop plants are also discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Transcription factor trapping by RNA in gene regulatory elements.

    PubMed

    Sigova, Alla A; Abraham, Brian J; Ji, Xiong; Molinie, Benoit; Hannett, Nancy M; Guo, Yang Eric; Jangi, Mohini; Giallourakis, Cosmas C; Sharp, Phillip A; Young, Richard A

    2015-11-20

    Transcription factors (TFs) bind specific sequences in promoter-proximal and -distal DNA elements to regulate gene transcription. RNA is transcribed from both of these DNA elements, and some DNA binding TFs bind RNA. Hence, RNA transcribed from regulatory elements may contribute to stable TF occupancy at these sites. We show that the ubiquitously expressed TF Yin-Yang 1 (YY1) binds to both gene regulatory elements and their associated RNA species across the entire genome. Reduced transcription of regulatory elements diminishes YY1 occupancy, whereas artificial tethering of RNA enhances YY1 occupancy at these elements. We propose that RNA makes a modest but important contribution to the maintenance of certain TFs at gene regulatory elements and suggest that transcription of regulatory elements produces a positive-feedback loop that contributes to the stability of gene expression programs. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Regulation of the Hippo Pathway Transcription Factor TEAD.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kimberly C; Park, Hyun Woo; Guan, Kun-Liang

    2017-11-01

    The TEAD transcription factor family is best known for transcriptional output of the Hippo signaling pathway and has been implicated in processes such as development, cell growth and proliferation, tissue homeostasis, and regeneration. Our understanding of the functional importance of TEADs has increased dramatically since its initial discovery three decades ago. The majority of our knowledge of TEADs is in the context of Hippo signaling as nuclear DNA-binding proteins passively activated by Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional activator with PDZ-binding domain (TAZ), transcription coactivators downstream of the Hippo pathway. However, recent studies suggest that TEAD itself is actively regulated. Here, we highlight evidence demonstrating Hippo-independent regulation of TEADs and the potential impacts these studies may have on new cancer therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. FOXO Transcriptional Factors and Long-Term Living

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Rehana; Muneer, Saiqa; Hasan, Syed Muhammad Farid

    2017-01-01

    Several pathologies such as neurodegeneration and cancer are associated with aging, which is affected by many genetic and environmental factors. Healthy aging conceives human longevity, possibly due to carrying the defensive genes. For instance, FOXO (forkhead box O) genes determine human longevity. FOXO transcription factors are involved in the regulation of longevity phenomenon via insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling. Only one FOXO gene (FOXO DAF-16) exists in invertebrates, while four FOXO genes, that is, FOXO1, FOXO3, FOXO4, and FOXO6 are found in mammals. These four transcription factors are involved in the multiple cellular pathways, which regulate growth, stress resistance, metabolism, cellular differentiation, and apoptosis in mammals. However, the accurate mode of longevity by FOXO factors is unclear until now. This article describes briefly the existing knowledge that is related to the role of FOXO factors in human longevity. PMID:28894507

  17. Resveratrol regulates gene transcription via activation of stimulus-responsive transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Gerald; Rössler, Oliver G

    2017-03-01

    Resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene), a polyphenolic phytoalexin of grapes and other fruits and plants, is a common constituent of our diet and of dietary supplements. Many health-promoting benefits have been connected with resveratrol in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, inflammation, neurodegeneration, and diseases connected with aging. To explain the pleiotropic effects of resveratrol, the molecular targets of this compound have to be identified on the cellular level. Resveratrol induces intracellular signal transduction pathways which ultimately lead to changes in the gene expression pattern of the cells. Here, we review the effect of resveratrol on the activation of the stimulus-responsive transcription factors CREB, AP-1, Egr-1, Elk-1, and Nrf2. Following activation, these transcription factors induce transcription of delayed response genes. The gene products of these delayed response genes are ultimately responsible for the changes in the biochemistry and physiology of resveratrol-treated cells. The activation of stimulus-responsive transcription factors may explain many of the intracellular activities of resveratrol. However, results obtained in vitro may not easily be transferred to in vivo systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Suppression of Factor-Dependent Transcription Termination by Antiterminator RNA

    PubMed Central

    King, Rodney A.; Weisberg, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    Nascent transcripts of the phage HK022 put sites modify the transcription elongation complex so that it terminates less efficiently at intrinsic transcription terminators and accelerates through pause sites. We show here that the modification also suppresses termination in vivo at two factor-dependent terminators, one that depends on the bacterial Rho protein and a second that depends on the HK022-encoded Nun protein. Suppression was efficient when the termination factors were present at physiological levels, but an increase in the intracellular concentration of Nun increased termination both in the presence and absence of put. put-mediated antitermination thus shows no apparent terminator specificity, suggesting that put inhibits a step that is common to termination at the different types of terminator. PMID:14645267

  19. In vivo phosphorylation of WRKY transcription factor by MAPK.

    PubMed

    Ishihama, Nobuaki; Adachi, Hiroaki; Yoshioka, Miki; Yoshioka, Hirofumi

    2014-01-01

    Plants activate signaling networks in response to diverse pathogen-derived signals, facilitating transcriptional reprogramming through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. Identification of phosphorylation targets of MAPK and in vivo detection of the phosphorylated substrates are important processes to elucidate the signaling pathway in plant immune responses. We have identified a WRKY transcription factor, which is phosphorylated by defense-related MAPKs, SIPK and WIPK. Recent evidence demonstrated that some group I WRKY transcription factors, which contain a conserved motif in the N-terminal region, are activated by MAPK-dependent phosphorylation. In this chapter, we describe protocols for preparation of anti-phosphopeptide antibodies, detection of activated MAPKs using anti-phospho-MAPK antibody, and activated WRKY using anti-phospho-WRKY antibody, respectively.

  20. Human Mitochondrial Transcription Factor B2 Is Required for Promoter Melting during Initiation of Transcription.

    PubMed

    Posse, Viktor; Gustafsson, Claes M

    2017-02-17

    The mitochondrial transcription initiation machinery in humans consists of three proteins: the RNA polymerase (POLRMT) and two accessory factors, transcription factors A and B2 (TFAM and TFB2M, respectively). This machinery is required for the expression of mitochondrial DNA and the biogenesis of the oxidative phosphorylation system. Previous experiments suggested that TFB2M is required for promoter melting, but conclusive experimental proof for this effect has not been presented. Moreover, the role of TFB2M in promoter unwinding has not been discriminated from that of TFAM. Here we used potassium permanganate footprinting, DNase I footprinting, and in vitro transcription from the mitochondrial light-strand promoter to study the role of TFB2M in transcription initiation. We demonstrate that a complex composed of TFAM and POLRMT was readily formed at the promoter but alone was insufficient for promoter melting, which only occurred when TFB2M joined the complex. We also show that mismatch bubble templates could circumvent the requirement of TFB2M, but TFAM was still required for efficient initiation. Our findings support a model in which TFAM first recruits POLRMT to the promoter, followed by TFB2M binding and induction of promoter melting. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Repression of chimeric transcripts emanating from endogenous retrotransposons by a sequence-specific transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Retroviral elements are pervasively transcribed and dynamically regulated during development. While multiple histone- and DNA-modifying enzymes have broadly been associated with their global silencing, little is known about how the many diverse retroviral families are each selectively recognized. Results Here we show that the zinc finger protein Krüppel-like Factor 3 (KLF3) specifically silences transcription from the ORR1A0 long terminal repeat in murine fetal and adult erythroid cells. In the absence of KLF3, we detect widespread transcription from ORR1A0 elements driven by the master erythroid regulator KLF1. In several instances these aberrant transcripts are spliced to downstream genic exons. One such chimeric transcript produces a novel, dominant negative isoform of PU.1 that can induce erythroid differentiation. Conclusions We propose that KLF3 ensures the integrity of the murine erythroid transcriptome through the selective repression of a particular retroelement and is likely one of multiple sequence-specific factors that cooperate to achieve global silencing. PMID:24946810

  2. USF-related transcription factor, HIV-TF1, stimulates transcription of human immunodeficiency virus-1.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, T; Sudo, T; Kurimoto, M; Ishii, S

    1991-09-11

    The transcription factor HIV-TF1, which binds to a region about 60 bp upstream from the enhancer of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), was purified from human B cells. HIV-TF1 had a molecular weight of 39,000. Binding of HIV-TF1 to the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR) activated transcription from the HIV promoter in vitro. The HIV-TF1-binding site in HIV LTR was similar to the site recognized by upstream stimulatory factor (USF) in the adenovirus major late promoter. DNA-binding properties of HIV-TF1 suggested that HIV-TF1 might be identical or related to USF. Interestingly, treatment of purified HIV-TF1 by phosphatase greatly reduced its DNA-binding activity, suggesting that phosphorylation of HIV-TF1 was essential for DNA binding. The disruption of HIV-TF1-binding site induced a 60% decrease in the level of transcription from the HIV promoter in vivo. These results suggest that HIV-TF1 is involved in transcriptional regulation of HIV-1.

  3. The WRKY transcription factor family and senescence in switchgrass

    Background: Early aerial senescence in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) can significantly limit biomass yields. WRKY transcription factors that can regulate senescence could be used to reprogram senescence and enhance biomass yields. Methods: All potential WRKY genes present in the version 1.0 of the...

  4. A Recommendation for Naming Transcription Factor Proteins in the Grasses

    Transcription factors are central for the exquisite temporal and spatial expression patterns of many genes. These proteins are characterized by their ability to be tethered to particular regulatory sequences in the genes that they control. While many other proteins participate in the regulation of g...

  5. Control of cellulose biosynthesis by overexpression of a transcription factor

    DOEpatents

    Han, Kyung-Hwan; Ko, Jae-Heung; Kim, Won-Chan; Kim; , Joo-Yeol

    2017-05-16

    The invention relates to the over-expression of a transcription factor selected from the group consisting of MYB46, HAM1, HAM2, MYB112, WRKY11, ERF6, and any combination thereof in a plant, which can modulate and thereby modulating the cellulose content of the plant.

  6. Purification and characterization of human mitochondrial transcription factor 1.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, R P; Clayton, D A

    1988-01-01

    We purified to near homogeneity a transcription factor from human KB cell mitochondria. This factor, designated mitochondrial transcription factor 1 (mtTF1), is required for the in vitro recognition of both major promoters of human mitochondrial DNA by the homologous mitochondrial RNA polymerase. Furthermore, it has been shown to bind upstream regulatory elements of the two major promoters. After separation from RNA polymerase by phosphocellulose chromatography, mtTF1 was chromatographed on a MonoQ anion-exchange fast-performance liquid chromatography column. Analysis of mtTF1-containing fractions by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a single major polypeptide with an Mr of approximately 25,000. Centrifugation in analytical glycerol gradients indicated a sedimentation coefficient of approximately 2.5 S, consistent with a monomeric 25-kilodalton protein. Finally, when the 25-kilodalton polypeptide was excised from a stained sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel and allowed to renature, it regained DNA-binding and transcriptional stimulatory activities at both promoters. Although mtTF1 is the only mitochondrial DNA-binding transcription factor to be purified and characterized, its properties, such as a high affinity for random DNA and a weak specificity for one of its target sequences, may typify this class of regulatory proteins. Images PMID:3211148

  7. Identification of the Transformational Properties and Transcriptional Targets of the Oncogenic SRY Transcription Factor SOX4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    oncogenic properties of the transcription factor SOX4 and to determine its role in murine prostate development. Our lab has previously shown SOX4...mRNA and protein to be overexpressed in prostate cancer, and this expression is correlated with increasing Gleason score. Other labs have shown SOX4...D. Lieb, Genome Biol 6, R97 (2005). 2. M. van Beest et al., J Biol Chem 275, 27266 (Sep 1, 2000). 3. M. van de Wetering, M. Oosterwegel, K. van

  8. Identification of the Transformational Properties and Transcriptional Targets of the Oncogenic SRY Transcription Factor SOX4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    has also been implicated in tumorigenesis of multiple tumor types and has been shown by our lab to be upregulated in prostate cancer. However, the...mobility group (HMG) DNA-binding domain (DBD) related to the TCF/LEF family of transcription factors. Our lab has previously shown SOX4 mRNA and...protein to be overexpressed in prostate cancer, and this expression is correlated with increasing Gleason score. Other labs have shown SOX4 mRNA to be

  9. Transcription factor interplay in T helper cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    The differentiation of CD4 helper T cells into specialized effector lineages has provided a powerful model for understanding immune cell differentiation. Distinct lineages have been defined by differential expression of signature cytokines and the lineage-specifying transcription factors necessary and sufficient for their production. The traditional paradigm of differentiation towards Th1 and Th2 subtypes driven by T-bet and GATA3, respectively, has been extended to incorporate additional T cell lineages and transcriptional regulators. Technological advances have expanded our view of these lineage-specifying transcription factors to the whole genome and revealed unexpected interplay between them. From these data, it is becoming clear that lineage specification is more complex and plastic than previous models might have suggested. Here, we present an overview of the different forms of transcription factor interplay that have been identified and how T cell phenotypes arise as a product of this interplay within complex regulatory networks. We also suggest experimental strategies that will provide further insight into the mechanisms that underlie T cell lineage specification and plasticity. PMID:23878131

  10. Transcription factor interplay in T helper cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Evans, Catherine M; Jenner, Richard G

    2013-11-01

    The differentiation of CD4 helper T cells into specialized effector lineages has provided a powerful model for understanding immune cell differentiation. Distinct lineages have been defined by differential expression of signature cytokines and the lineage-specifying transcription factors necessary and sufficient for their production. The traditional paradigm of differentiation towards Th1 and Th2 subtypes driven by T-bet and GATA3, respectively, has been extended to incorporate additional T cell lineages and transcriptional regulators. Technological advances have expanded our view of these lineage-specifying transcription factors to the whole genome and revealed unexpected interplay between them. From these data, it is becoming clear that lineage specification is more complex and plastic than previous models might have suggested. Here, we present an overview of the different forms of transcription factor interplay that have been identified and how T cell phenotypes arise as a product of this interplay within complex regulatory networks. We also suggest experimental strategies that will provide further insight into the mechanisms that underlie T cell lineage specification and plasticity.

  11. MYB89 Transcription Factor Represses Seed Oil Accumulation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dong; Jin, Changyu; Duan, Shaowei; Zhu, Yana; Qi, Shuanghui; Liu, Kaige; Gao, Chenhao; Ma, Haoli; Liao, Yuncheng

    2017-01-01

    In many higher plants, seed oil accumulation is precisely controlled by intricate multilevel regulatory networks, among which transcriptional regulation mainly influences oil biosynthesis. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the master positive transcription factors, WRINKLED1 (WRI1) and LEAFY COTYLEDON1-LIKE (L1L), are important for seed oil accumulation. We found that an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, MYB89, was expressed predominantly in developing seeds during maturation. Oil and major fatty acid biosynthesis in seeds was significantly promoted by myb89-1 mutation and MYB89 knockdown; thus, MYB89 was an important repressor during seed oil accumulation. RNA sequencing revealed remarkable up-regulation of numerous genes involved in seed oil accumulation in myb89 seeds at 12 d after pollination. Posttranslational activation of a MYB89-glucocorticoid receptor fusion protein and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that MYB89 inhibited seed oil accumulation by directly repressing WRI1 and five key genes and by indirectly suppressing L1L and 11 key genes involved in oil biosynthesis during seed maturation. These results help us to understand the novel function of MYB89 and provide new insights into the regulatory network of transcriptional factors controlling seed oil accumulation in Arabidopsis. PMID:27932421

  12. Identifying transcription factor functions and targets by phenotypic activation

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Gordon; Morris, Quaid D.; Sopko, Richelle; Robinson, Mark D.; Ryan, Owen; Chan, Esther T.; Frey, Brendan J.; Andrews, Brenda J.; Boone, Charles; Hughes, Timothy R.

    2006-01-01

    Mapping transcriptional regulatory networks is difficult because many transcription factors (TFs) are activated only under specific conditions. We describe a generic strategy for identifying genes and pathways induced by individual TFs that does not require knowledge of their normal activation cues. Microarray analysis of 55 yeast TFs that caused a growth phenotype when overexpressed showed that the majority caused increased transcript levels of genes in specific physiological categories, suggesting a mechanism for growth inhibition. Induced genes typically included established targets and genes with consensus promoter motifs, if known, indicating that these data are useful for identifying potential new target genes and binding sites. We identified the sequence 5′-TCACGCAA as a binding sequence for Hms1p, a TF that positively regulates pseudohyphal growth and previously had no known motif. The general strategy outlined here presents a straightforward approach to discovery of TF activities and mapping targets that could be adapted to any organism with transgenic technology. PMID:16880382

  13. The transcription factor titration effect dictates level of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Brewster, Robert C; Weinert, Franz M; Garcia, Hernan G; Song, Dan; Rydenfelt, Mattias; Phillips, Rob

    2014-03-13

    Models of transcription are often built around a picture of RNA polymerase and transcription factors (TFs) acting on a single copy of a promoter. However, most TFs are shared between multiple genes with varying binding affinities. Beyond that, genes often exist at high copy number-in multiple identical copies on the chromosome or on plasmids or viral vectors with copy numbers in the hundreds. Using a thermodynamic model, we characterize the interplay between TF copy number and the demand for that TF. We demonstrate the parameter-free predictive power of this model as a function of the copy number of the TF and the number and affinities of the available specific binding sites; such predictive control is important for the understanding of transcription and the desire to quantitatively design the output of genetic circuits. Finally, we use these experiments to dynamically measure plasmid copy number through the cell cycle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A dynamic mode of mitotic bookmarking by transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Teves, Sheila S; An, Luye; Hansen, Anders S; Xie, Liangqi; Darzacq, Xavier; Tjian, Robert

    2016-01-01

    During mitosis, transcription is shut off, chromatin condenses, and most transcription factors (TFs) are reported to be excluded from chromosomes. How do daughter cells re-establish the original transcription program? Recent discoveries that a select set of TFs remain bound on mitotic chromosomes suggest a potential mechanism for maintaining transcriptional programs through the cell cycle termed mitotic bookmarking. Here we report instead that many TFs remain associated with chromosomes in mouse embryonic stem cells, and that the exclusion previously described is largely a fixation artifact. In particular, most TFs we tested are significantly enriched on mitotic chromosomes. Studies with Sox2 reveal that this mitotic interaction is more dynamic than in interphase and is facilitated by both DNA binding and nuclear import. Furthermore, this dynamic mode results from lack of transcriptional activation rather than decreased accessibility of underlying DNA sequences in mitosis. The nature of the cross-linking artifact prompts careful re-examination of the role of TFs in mitotic bookmarking. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22280.001 PMID:27855781

  15. Effects of cytosine methylation on transcription factor binding sites

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background DNA methylation in promoters is closely linked to downstream gene repression. However, whether DNA methylation is a cause or a consequence of gene repression remains an open question. If it is a cause, then DNA methylation may affect the affinity of transcription factors (TFs) for their binding sites (TFBSs). If it is a consequence, then gene repression caused by chromatin modification may be stabilized by DNA methylation. Until now, these two possibilities have been supported only by non-systematic evidence and they have not been tested on a wide range of TFs. An average promoter methylation is usually used in studies, whereas recent results suggested that methylation of individual cytosines can also be important. Results We found that the methylation profiles of 16.6% of cytosines and the expression profiles of neighboring transcriptional start sites (TSSs) were significantly negatively correlated. We called the CpGs corresponding to such cytosines “traffic lights”. We observed a strong selection against CpG “traffic lights” within TFBSs. The negative selection was stronger for transcriptional repressors as compared with transcriptional activators or multifunctional TFs as well as for core TFBS positions as compared with flanking TFBS positions. Conclusions Our results indicate that direct and selective methylation of certain TFBS that prevents TF binding is restricted to special cases and cannot be considered as a general regulatory mechanism of transcription. PMID:24669864

  16. Transcription Factor Activities Enhance Markers of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Alonso, Luz; Iorio, Francesco; Matchan, Angela; Fonseca, Nuno; Jaaks, Patricia; Peat, Gareth; Pignatelli, Miguel; Falcone, Fiammetta; Benes, Cyril H; Dunham, Ian; Bignell, Graham; McDade, Simon S; Garnett, Mathew J; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio

    2018-02-01

    Transcriptional dysregulation induced by aberrant transcription factors (TF) is a key feature of cancer, but its global influence on drug sensitivity has not been examined. Here, we infer the transcriptional activity of 127 TFs through analysis of RNA-seq gene expression data newly generated for 448 cancer cell lines, combined with publicly available datasets to survey a total of 1,056 cancer cell lines and 9,250 primary tumors. Predicted TF activities are supported by their agreement with independent shRNA essentiality profiles and homozygous gene deletions, and recapitulate mutant-specific mechanisms of transcriptional dysregulation in cancer. By analyzing cell line responses to 265 compounds, we uncovered numerous TFs whose activity interacts with anticancer drugs. Importantly, combining existing pharmacogenomic markers with TF activities often improves the stratification of cell lines in response to drug treatment. Our results, which can be queried freely at dorothea.opentargets.io, offer a broad foundation for discovering opportunities to refine personalized cancer therapies. Significance: Systematic analysis of transcriptional dysregulation in cancer cell lines and patient tumor specimens offers a publicly searchable foundation to discover new opportunities to refine personalized cancer therapies. Cancer Res; 78(3); 769-80. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Transcription factor clusters regulate genes in eukaryotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Hedlund, Erik G; Friemann, Rosmarie; Hohmann, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Transcription is regulated through binding factors to gene promoters to activate or repress expression, however, the mechanisms by which factors find targets remain unclear. Using single-molecule fluorescence microscopy, we determined in vivo stoichiometry and spatiotemporal dynamics of a GFP tagged repressor, Mig1, from a paradigm signaling pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We find the repressor operates in clusters, which upon extracellular signal detection, translocate from the cytoplasm, bind to nuclear targets and turnover. Simulations of Mig1 configuration within a 3D yeast genome model combined with a promoter-specific, fluorescent translation reporter confirmed clusters are the functional unit of gene regulation. In vitro and structural analysis on reconstituted Mig1 suggests that clusters are stabilized by depletion forces between intrinsically disordered sequences. We observed similar clusters of a co-regulatory activator from a different pathway, supporting a generalized cluster model for transcription factors that reduces promoter search times through intersegment transfer while stabilizing gene expression. PMID:28841133

  18. Transcription elongation factors represent in vivo cancer dependencies in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Tyler E.; Liau, Brian B.; Wallace, Lisa C.; Morton, Andrew R.; Xie, Qi; Dixit, Deobrat; Factor, Daniel C.; Kim, Leo J. Y.; Morrow, James J.; Wu, Qiulian; Mack, Stephen C.; Hubert, Christopher G.; Gillespie, Shawn M.; Flavahan, William A.; Hoffmann, Thomas; Thummalapalli, Rohit; Hemann, Michael T.; Paddison, Patrick J.; Horbinski, Craig M.; Zuber, Johannes; Scacheri, Peter C.; Bernstein, Bradley E.; Tesar, Paul J.; Rich, Jeremy N.

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma is a universally lethal cancer with a median survival of approximately 15 months1. Despite substantial efforts to define druggable targets, there are no therapeutic options that meaningfully extend glioblastoma patient lifespan. While previous work has largely focused on in vitro cellular models, here we demonstrate a more physiologically relevant approach to target discovery in glioblastoma. We adapted pooled RNA interference (RNAi) screening technology2–4 for use in orthotopic patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models, creating a high-throughput negative selection screening platform in a functional in vivo tumour microenvironment. Using this approach, we performed parallel in vivo and in vitro screens and discovered that the chromatin and transcriptional regulators necessary for cell survival in vivo are non-overlapping with those required in vitro. We identified transcription pause-release and elongation factors as one set of in vivo-specific cancer dependencies and determined that these factors are necessary for enhancer-mediated transcriptional adaptations that enable cells to survive the tumour microenvironment. Our lead hit, JMJD6, mediates the upregulation of in vivo stress and stimulus response pathways through enhancer-mediated transcriptional pause-release, promoting cell survival specifically in vivo. Targeting JMJD6 or other identified elongation factors extends survival in orthotopic xenograft mouse models, supporting targeting the transcription elongation machinery as a therapeutic strategy for glioblastoma. More broadly, this study demonstrates the power of in vivo phenotypic screening to identify new classes of ‘cancer dependencies’ not identified by previous in vitro approaches, which could supply untapped opportunities for therapeutic intervention. PMID:28678782

  19. Transactivation of micrornA-320 by microRNA-383 regulates granulosa cell functions by targeting E2F1 and SF-1 proteins.

    PubMed

    Yin, Mianmian; Wang, Xiaorong; Yao, Guidong; Lü, Mingrong; Liang, Meng; Sun, Yingpu; Sun, Fei

    2014-06-27

    Our previous studies have shown that microRNA-320 (miR-320) is one of the most down-regulated microRNAs (miRNA) in mouse ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) after TGF-β1 treatment. However, the underlying mechanisms of miR-320 involved in GC function during follicular development remain unknown. In this study, we found that pregnant mare serum gonadotropin treatment resulted in the suppression of miR-320 expression in a time-dependent manner. miR-320 was mainly expressed in GCs and oocytes of mouse ovarian follicles in follicular development. Overexpression of miR-320 inhibited estradiol synthesis and proliferation of GCs through targeting E2F1 and SF-1. E2F1/SF-1 mediated miR-320-induced suppression of GC proliferation and of GC steroidogenesis. FSH down-regulated the expression of miR-320 and regulated the function of miR-320 in mouse GCs. miR-383 promoted the expression of miR-320 and enhanced miR-320-mediated suppression of GC proliferation. Injection of miR-320 into the ovaries of mice partially promoted the production of testosterone and progesterone but inhibited estradiol release in vivo. Moreover, the expression of miR-320 and miR-383 was up-regulated in the follicular fluid of polycystic ovarian syndrome patients, although the expression of E2F1 and SF-1 was down-regulated in GCs. These data demonstrated that miR-320 regulates the proliferation and steroid production by targeting E2F1 and SF-1 in the follicular development. Understanding the regulation of miRNA biogenesis and function in the follicular development will potentiate the usefulness of miRNA in the treatment of reproduction and some steroid-related disorders. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Transcriptional Regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Transcription Factor Regulation and Function, Mechanisms of Initiation, and Roles of Activators and Coactivators

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Steven; Young, Elton T.

    2011-01-01

    Here we review recent advances in understanding the regulation of mRNA synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Many fundamental gene regulatory mechanisms have been conserved in all eukaryotes, and budding yeast has been at the forefront in the discovery and dissection of these conserved mechanisms. Topics covered include upstream activation sequence and promoter structure, transcription factor classification, and examples of regulated transcription factor activity. We also examine advances in understanding the RNA polymerase II transcription machinery, conserved coactivator complexes, transcription activation domains, and the cooperation of these factors in gene regulatory mechanisms. PMID:22084422

  1. Identification and Transcript Analysis of the TCP Transcription Factors in the Diploid Woodland Strawberry Fragaria vesca

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Hu, Yang; Cui, Meng-Yuan; Han, Yong-Tao; Gao, Kuan; Feng, Jia-Yue

    2016-01-01

    Plant-specific TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1, CYCLOIDEA, and PROLIFERATING CELL FACTORS (TCP) transcription factors play versatile functions in multiple processes of plant growth and development. However, no systematic study has been performed in strawberry. In this study, 19 FvTCP genes were identified in the diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) accession Heilongjiang-3. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the FvTCP genes were classified into two main classes, with the second class further divided into two subclasses, which was supported by the exon-intron organizations and the conserved motif structures. Promoter analysis revealed various cis-acting elements related to growth and development, hormone and/or stress responses. We analyzed FvTCP gene transcript accumulation patterns in different tissues and fruit developmental stages. Among them, 12 FvTCP genes exhibited distinct tissue-specific transcript accumulation patterns. Eleven FvTCP genes were down-regulated in different fruit developmental stages, while five FvTCP genes were up-regulated. Transcripts of FvTCP genes also varied with different subcultural propagation periods and were induced by hormone treatments and biotic and abiotic stresses. Subcellular localization analysis showed that six FvTCP-GFP fusion proteins showed distinct localizations in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts. Notably, transient over-expression of FvTCP9 in strawberry fruits dramatically affected the expression of a series of genes implicated in fruit development and ripening. Taken together, the present study may provide the basis for functional studies to reveal the role of this gene family in strawberry growth and development. PMID:28066489

  2. A Noncanonical Role for the CKI-RB-E2F Cell Cycle Signaling Pathway in Plant Effector-Triggered Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shui; Gu, Yangnan; Zebell, Sophia G.; Anderson, Lisa K.; Wang, Wei; Mohan, Rajinikanth; Dong, Xinnian

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Effector-triggered immunity (ETI), the major host defense mechanism in plants, is often associated with programmed cell death (PCD). Plants lack close homologs of caspases, the key mediators of PCD in animals. So although the NB-LRR receptors involved in ETI are well studied, how they activate PCD and confer disease resistance remains elusive. We show that the Arabidopsis nuclear envelope protein, CPR5, negatively regulates ETI and the associated PCD through a physical interaction with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORs (CKIs). Upon ETI induction, CKIs are released from CPR5 to cause over-activation of another core cell cycle regulator, E2F. In cki and e2f mutants, ETI responses induced by both TIR-NB-LRR and CC-NB-LRR classes of immune receptors are compromised. We further show that E2F is deregulated during ETI probably through CKI-mediated hyperphosphorylation of RETINOBLASTOMA-RELATED 1 (RBR1). This study demonstrates that canonical cell cycle regulators also play important noncanonical roles in plant immunity. PMID:25455564

  3. Circular RNA hsa_circ_0008039 promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and migration by regulating miR-432-5p/E2F3 axis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanhua; Lu, Cuntao; Zhou, Yizhou; Zhang, Zhihong; Sun, Li

    2018-07-20

    As the development of sequencing technology, more and more circular RNAs (circRNAs) are identified in human cancer tissues. Increasing evidences imply circRNAs are important regulators in tumor progression. Nevertheless, how circRNAs participate in breast cancer development and progression is not well understood. In the present study, we identified a novel circRNA hsa_circ_0008039 with upregulated expression level in breast cancer tissues. By functional experiments, we found that hsa_circ_0008039 depletion significantly suppressed the proliferation, arrested cell-cycle progression and reduced migration in breast cancer. Mechanistic investigations suggested that hsa_circ_0008039 served as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) of miR-432-5p. Subsequently, E2F3 was identified as the functional target of miR-432-5p and overexpression of hsa_circ_0008039 elevated E2F3 expression in breast cancer. On the whole, our study indicated that hsa_circ_0008039 exerted oncogenic roles in breast cancer and suggested the hsa_circ_0008039/miR-432-5p/E2F3 axis might be a potential therapeutic target. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Transcription factors as readers and effectors of DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Heng; Wang, Guohua; Qian, Jiang

    2016-08-01

    Recent technological advances have made it possible to decode DNA methylomes at single-base-pair resolution under various physiological conditions. Many aberrant or differentially methylated sites have been discovered, but the mechanisms by which changes in DNA methylation lead to observed phenotypes, such as cancer, remain elusive. The classical view of methylation-mediated protein-DNA interactions is that only proteins with a methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) can interact with methylated DNA. However, evidence is emerging to suggest that transcription factors lacking a MBD can also interact with methylated DNA. The identification of these proteins and the elucidation of their characteristics and the biological consequences of methylation-dependent transcription factor-DNA interactions are important stepping stones towards a mechanistic understanding of methylation-mediated biological processes, which have crucial implications for human development and disease.

  5. Transcription factors as readers and effectors of DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Heng; Wang, Guohua; Qian, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Recent technological advances have made it possible to decode DNA methylomes at single-base-pair resolution under various physiological conditions. Many aberrant or differentially methylated sites have been discovered, but the mechanisms by which changes in DNA methylation lead to observed phenotypes, such as cancer, remain elusive. The classical view of methylation-mediated protein-DNA interactions is that only proteins with a methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) can interact with methylated DNA. However, evidence is emerging to suggest that transcription factors lacking a MBD can also interact with methylated DNA. The identification of these proteins and the elucidation of their characteristics and the biological consequences of methylation-dependent transcription factor-DNA interactions are important stepping stones towards a mechanistic understanding of methylation-mediated biological processes, which have crucial implications for human development and disease. PMID:27479905

  6. Inhibition of host cell RNA polymerase III-mediated transcription by poliovirus: Inactivation of specific transcription factors

    SciT

    Fradkin, L.G.; Yoshinaga, S.K.; Berk, A.J.

    1987-11-01

    The inhibition of transcription by RNA polymerase III in poliovirus-infected cells was studied. Experiments utilizing two different cell lines showed that the initiation step of transcription by RNA polymerase III was impaired by infection of these cells with the virus. The observed inhibition of transcription was not due to shut-off of host cell protein synthesis by poliovirus. Among four distinct components required for accurate transcription in vitro from cloned DNA templates, activities of RNA polymerase III and transcription factor TFIIIA were not significantly affected by virus infection. The activity of transcription factor TFIIIC, the limiting component required for transcription ofmore » RNA polymerase III genes, was severely inhibited in infected cells, whereas that of transcription factor TFIIIB was inhibited to a lesser extent. The sequence-specific DNA-binding of TFIIIC to the adenovirus VA1 gene internal promoted, however, was not altered by infection of cells with the virus. The authors conclude that (i) at least two transcription factors, TFIIIB and TFIIIC, are inhibited by infection of cells with poliovirtus, (ii) inactivation of TFIIIC does not involve destruction of its DNA-binding domain, and (iii) sequence-specific DNA binding by TFIIIC may be necessary but is not sufficient for the formation of productive transcription complexes.« less

  7. Transcription factors for modification of lignin content in plants

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Huanzhong; Chen, Fang; Dixon, Richard A.

    2015-06-02

    The invention provides methods for modifying lignin, cellulose, xylan, and hemicellulose content in plants, and for achieving ectopic lignification and, for instance, secondary cell wall synthesis in pith cells, by altered regulation of a WRKY transcription factor. Nucleic acid constructs for altered WRKY-TF expression are described. Transgenic plants are provided that comprise modified pith cell walls, and lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose content. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved biofuel feedstock and as highly digestible forage crops.

  8. Specification of jaw identity by the Hand2 transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Funato, Noriko; Kokubo, Hiroki; Nakamura, Masataka; Yanagisawa, Hiromi; Saga, Yumiko

    2016-01-01

    Acquisition of the lower jaw (mandible) was evolutionarily important for jawed vertebrates. In humans, syndromic craniofacial malformations often accompany jaw anomalies. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Hand2, which is conserved among jawed vertebrates, is expressed in the neural crest in the mandibular process but not in the maxillary process of the first branchial arch. Here, we provide evidence that Hand2 is sufficient for upper jaw (maxilla)-to-mandible transformation by regulating the expression of homeobox transcription factors in mice. Altered Hand2 expression in the neural crest transformed the maxillae into mandibles with duplicated Meckel’s cartilage, which resulted in an absence of the secondary palate. In Hand2-overexpressing mutants, non-Hox homeobox transcription factors were dysregulated. These results suggest that Hand2 regulates mandibular development through downstream genes of Hand2 and is therefore a major determinant of jaw identity. Hand2 may have influenced the evolutionary acquisition of the mandible and secondary palate. PMID:27329940

  9. PlantTFDB: a comprehensive plant transcription factor database

    PubMed Central

    Guo, An-Yuan; Chen, Xin; Gao, Ge; Zhang, He; Zhu, Qi-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Chuan; Zhong, Ying-Fu; Gu, Xiaocheng; He, Kun; Luo, Jingchu

    2008-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) play key roles in controlling gene expression. Systematic identification and annotation of TFs, followed by construction of TF databases may serve as useful resources for studying the function and evolution of transcription factors. We developed a comprehensive plant transcription factor database PlantTFDB (http://planttfdb.cbi.pku.edu.cn), which contains 26 402 TFs predicted from 22 species, including five model organisms with available whole genome sequence and 17 plants with available EST sequences. To provide comprehensive information for those putative TFs, we made extensive annotation at both family and gene levels. A brief introduction and key references were presented for each family. Functional domain information and cross-references to various well-known public databases were available for each identified TF. In addition, we predicted putative orthologs of those TFs among the 22 species. PlantTFDB has a simple interface to allow users to search the database by IDs or free texts, to make sequence similarity search against TFs of all or individual species, and to download TF sequences for local analysis. PMID:17933783

  10. Transcription factors network in root endosymbiosis establishment and development.

    PubMed

    Diédhiou, Issa; Diouf, Diaga

    2018-02-15

    Root endosymbioses are mutualistic interactions between plants and the soil microorganisms (Fungus, Frankia or Rhizobium) that lead to the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules and/or arbuscular mycorrhiza. These interactions enable many species to survive in different marginal lands to overcome the nitrogen-and/or phosphorus deficient environment and can potentially reduce the chemical fertilizers used in agriculture which gives them an economic, social and environmental importance. The formation and the development of these structures require the mediation of specific gene products among which the transcription factors play a key role. Three of these transcription factors, viz., CYCLOPS, NSP1 and NSP2 are well conserved between actinorhizal, legume, non-legume and mycorrhizal symbioses. They interact with DELLA proteins to induce the expression of NIN in nitrogen fixing symbiosis or RAM1 in mycorrhizal symbiosis. Recently, the small non coding RNA including micro RNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as major regulators of root endosymbioses. Among them, miRNA171 targets NSP2, a TF conserved in actinorhizal, legume, non-legume and mycorrhizal symbioses. This review will also focus on the recent advances carried out on the biological function of others transcription factors during the root pre-infection/pre-contact, infection or colonization. Their role in nodule formation and AM development will also be described.

  11. Plant MYB Transcription Factors: Their Role in Drought Response Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Baldoni, Elena; Genga, Annamaria; Cominelli, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    Water scarcity is one of the major causes of poor plant performance and limited crop yields worldwide and it is the single most common cause of severe food shortage in developing countries. Several molecular networks involved in stress perception, signal transduction and stress responses in plants have been elucidated so far. Transcription factors are major players in water stress signaling. In recent years, different MYB transcription factors, mainly in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. but also in some crops, have been characterized for their involvement in drought response. For some of them there is evidence supporting a specific role in response to water stress, such as the regulation of stomatal movement, the control of suberin and cuticular waxes synthesis and the regulation of flower development. Moreover, some of these genes have also been characterized for their involvement in other abiotic or biotic stresses, an important feature considering that in nature, plants are often simultaneously subjected to multiple rather than single environmental perturbations. This review summarizes recent studies highlighting the role of the MYB family of transcription factors in the adaptive responses to drought stress. The practical application value of MYBs in crop improvement, such as stress tolerance engineering, is also discussed. PMID:26184177

  12. Plant MYB Transcription Factors: Their Role in Drought Response Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Baldoni, Elena; Genga, Annamaria; Cominelli, Eleonora

    2015-07-13

    Water scarcity is one of the major causes of poor plant performance and limited crop yields worldwide and it is the single most common cause of severe food shortage in developing countries. Several molecular networks involved in stress perception, signal transduction and stress responses in plants have been elucidated so far. Transcription factors are major players in water stress signaling. In recent years, different MYB transcription factors, mainly in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. but also in some crops, have been characterized for their involvement in drought response. For some of them there is evidence supporting a specific role in response to water stress, such as the regulation of stomatal movement, the control of suberin and cuticular waxes synthesis and the regulation of flower development. Moreover, some of these genes have also been characterized for their involvement in other abiotic or biotic stresses, an important feature considering that in nature, plants are often simultaneously subjected to multiple rather than single environmental perturbations. This review summarizes recent studies highlighting the role of the MYB family of transcription factors in the adaptive responses to drought stress. The practical application value of MYBs in crop improvement, such as stress tolerance engineering, is also discussed.

  13. Function and specificity of synthetic Hox transcription factors in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Dimitrios K.; Vukojević, Vladana; Adachi, Yoshitsugu; Terenius, Lars; Rigler, Rudolf; Gehring, Walter J.

    2010-01-01

    Homeotic (Hox) genes encode transcription factors that confer segmental identity along the anteroposterior axis of the embryo. However the molecular mechanisms underlying Hox-mediated transcription and the differential requirements for specificity in the regulation of the vast number of Hox-target genes remain ill-defined. Here we show that synthetic Sex combs reduced (Scr) genes that encode the Scr C terminus containing the homedomain (HD) and YPWM motif (Scr-HD) are functional in vivo. Synthetic Scr-HD peptides can induce ectopic salivary glands in the embryo and homeotic transformations in the adult fly, act as transcriptional activators and repressors during development, and participate in protein-protein interactions. Their transformation capacity was found to be enhanced over their full-length counterpart and mutations known to transform the full-length protein into constitutively active or inactive variants behaved accordingly in the synthetic peptides. Our results show that synthetic Scr-HD genes are sufficient for homeotic function in Drosophila and suggest that the N terminus of Scr has a role in transcriptional potency, rather than specificity. We also demonstrate that synthetic peptides behave largely in a predictable way, by exhibiting Scr-specific phenotypes throughout development, which makes them an important tool for synthetic biology. PMID:20147626

  14. Combinatorial influence of environmental parameters on transcription factor activity.

    PubMed

    Knijnenburg, T A; Wessels, L F A; Reinders, M J T

    2008-07-01

    Cells receive a wide variety of environmental signals, which are often processed combinatorially to generate specific genetic responses. Changes in transcript levels, as observed across different environmental conditions, can, to a large extent, be attributed to changes in the activity of transcription factors (TFs). However, in unraveling these transcription regulation networks, the actual environmental signals are often not incorporated into the model, simply because they have not been measured. The unquantified heterogeneity of the environmental parameters across microarray experiments frustrates regulatory network inference. We propose an inference algorithm that models the influence of environmental parameters on gene expression. The approach is based on a yeast microarray compendium of chemostat steady-state experiments. Chemostat cultivation enables the accurate control and measurement of many of the key cultivation parameters, such as nutrient concentrations, growth rate and temperature. The observed transcript levels are explained by inferring the activity of TFs in response to combinations of cultivation parameters. The interplay between activated enhancers and repressors that bind a gene promoter determine the possible up- or downregulation of the gene. The model is translated into a linear integer optimization problem. The resulting regulatory network identifies the combinatorial effects of environmental parameters on TF activity and gene expression. The Matlab code is available from the authors upon request. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  15. Combinatorial influence of environmental parameters on transcription factor activity

    PubMed Central

    Knijnenburg, T.A.; Wessels, L.F.A.; Reinders, M.J.T.

    2008-01-01

    Motivation: Cells receive a wide variety of environmental signals, which are often processed combinatorially to generate specific genetic responses. Changes in transcript levels, as observed across different environmental conditions, can, to a large extent, be attributed to changes in the activity of transcription factors (TFs). However, in unraveling these transcription regulation networks, the actual environmental signals are often not incorporated into the model, simply because they have not been measured. The unquantified heterogeneity of the environmental parameters across microarray experiments frustrates regulatory network inference. Results: We propose an inference algorithm that models the influence of environmental parameters on gene expression. The approach is based on a yeast microarray compendium of chemostat steady-state experiments. Chemostat cultivation enables the accurate control and measurement of many of the key cultivation parameters, such as nutrient concentrations, growth rate and temperature. The observed transcript levels are explained by inferring the activity of TFs in response to combinations of cultivation parameters. The interplay between activated enhancers and repressors that bind a gene promoter determine the possible up- or downregulation of the gene. The model is translated into a linear integer optimization problem. The resulting regulatory network identifies the combinatorial effects of environmental parameters on TF activity and gene expression. Availability: The Matlab code is available from the authors upon request. Contact: t.a.knijnenburg@tudelft.nl Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:18586711

  16. The Mechanism of E2F/P130 Mediated Repression and Its Potential Tumor Suppressor Function in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    conserved PLDLS motif. JBC 273, 8549-8552 (1998). 4. Nibu, Y., Zhang, H., and Levine, M . Interaction of short-range repressors with Drosophila CtBP in...oncogenic transformation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92, 10467-10471 (1995). 11. Poortinga,G., Watanabe, M . & Parkhurst,S.M. Drosophila CtBP: A hairy...Levine, M . Groucho and dCtBP mediate separate pathways of transcriptional repression in the Drosophila embryo. Developmental Biology 96, 535-540 (1999). 13

  17. Statistical mechanical model of coupled transcription from multiple promoters due to transcription factor titration

    PubMed Central

    Rydenfelt, Mattias; Cox, Robert Sidney; Garcia, Hernan; Phillips, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) with regulatory action at multiple promoter targets is the rule rather than the exception, with examples ranging from the cAMP receptor protein (CRP) in E. coli that regulates hundreds of different genes simultaneously to situations involving multiple copies of the same gene, such as plasmids, retrotransposons, or highly replicated viral DNA. When the number of TFs heavily exceeds the number of binding sites, TF binding to each promoter can be regarded as independent. However, when the number of TF molecules is comparable to the number of binding sites, TF titration will result in correlation (“promoter entanglement”) between transcription of different genes. We develop a statistical mechanical model which takes the TF titration effect into account and use it to predict both the level of gene expression for a general set of promoters and the resulting correlation in transcription rates of different genes. Our results show that the TF titration effect could be important for understanding gene expression in many regulatory settings. PMID:24580252

  18. Transcription factor FOXA2-centered transcriptional regulation network in non-small cell lung cancer

    SciT

    Jang, Sang-Min; An, Joo-Hee; Kim, Chul-Hong

    2015-08-07

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-mediated death. Although various therapeutic approaches are used for lung cancer treatment, these mainly target the tumor suppressor p53 transcription factor, which is involved in apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. However, p53-targeted therapies have limited application in lung cancer, since p53 is found to be mutated in more than half of lung cancers. In this study, we propose tumor suppressor FOXA2 as an alternative target protein for therapies against lung cancer and reveal a possible FOXA2-centered transcriptional regulation network by identifying new target genes and binding partners of FOXA2 by using various screeningmore » techniques. The genes encoding Glu/Asp-rich carboxy-terminal domain 2 (CITED2), nuclear receptor subfamily 0, group B, member 2 (NR0B2), cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) and BCL2-associated X protein (BAX) were identified as putative target genes of FOXA2. Additionally, the proteins including highly similar to heat shock protein HSP 90-beta (HSP90A), heat shock 70 kDa protein 1A variant (HSPA1A), histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and HDAC3 were identified as novel interacting partners of FOXA2. Moreover, we showed that FOXA2-dependent promoter activation of BAX and p21 genes is significantly reduced via physical interactions between the identified binding partners and FOXA2. These results provide opportunities to understand the FOXA2-centered transcriptional regulation network and novel therapeutic targets to modulate this network in p53-deficient lung cancer. - Highlights: • Identification of new target genes of FOXA2. • Identifications of novel interaction proteins of FOXA2. • Construction of FOXA2-centered transcriptional regulatory network in non-small cell lung cancer.« less

  19. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition inducing transcription factors and metastatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Tania, Mousumi; Khan, Md Asaduzzaman; Fu, Junjiang

    2014-08-01

    The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important step for the developmental process. Recent evidences support that EMT allows the tumor cells to acquire invasive properties and to develop metastatic growth characteristics. Some of the transcription factors, which are actively involved in EMT process, have a significant role in the EMT-metastasis linkage. A number of studies have reported that EMT-inducing transcription factors (EMT-TFs), such as Twist, Snail, Slug, and Zeb, are directly or indirectly involved in cancer cell metastasis through a different signaling cascades, including the Akt, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Wnt pathways, with the ultimate consequence of the downregulation of E-cadherin and upregulation of metastatic proteins, such as N-cadherin, vimentin, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, etc. This review summarizes the update information on the association of EMT-TFs with cancer metastasis and the possible cancer therapeutics via targeting the EMT-TFs.

  20. Pirfenidone exerts antifibrotic effects through inhibition of GLI transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Didiasova, Miroslava; Singh, Rajeev; Wilhelm, Jochen; Kwapiszewska, Grazyna; Wujak, Lukasz; Zakrzewicz, Dariusz; Schaefer, Liliana; Markart, Philipp; Seeger, Werner; Lauth, Matthias; Wygrecka, Malgorzata

    2017-05-01

    Pirfenidone is an antifibrotic drug, recently approved for the treatment of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Although pirfenidone exhibits anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antifibrotic properties, the molecular mechanism underlying its protective effects remains unknown. Here, we link pirfenidone action with the regulation of the profibrotic hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway. We demonstrate that pirfenidone selectively destabilizes the glioma-associated oncogene homolog (GLI)2 protein, the primary activator of Hh-mediated gene transcription. Consequently, pirfenidone decreases overall Hh pathway activity in patients with IPF and in patient-derived primary lung fibroblasts and leads to diminished levels of Hh target genes, such as GLI1, Hh receptor Patched-1, α-smooth muscle actin, and fibronectin, and to reduced cell migration and proliferation. Interestingly, Hh-triggered TGF-β1 expression potentiated Hh responsiveness of primary lung fibroblasts by elevating the available pool of glioma-associated oncogene homolog (GLI)1/GLI2, thus creating a vicious cycle of amplifying fibrotic processes. Because GLI transcription factors are not only crucial for Hh-mediated changes but are also required as mediators of TGF-β signaling, our findings suggest that pirfenidone exerts its clinically beneficial effects through dual Hh/TGF-β inhibition by targeting the GLI2 protein.-Didiasova, M., Singh, R., Wilhelm, J., Kwapiszewska, G., Wujak, L., Zakrzewicz, D., Schaefer, L., Markart, P., Seeger, W., Lauth, M., Wygrecka, M. Pirfenidone exerts antifibrotic effects through inhibition of GLI transcription factors. © FASEB.

  1. Acetyl Coenzyme A Stimulates RNA Polymerase II Transcription and Promoter Binding by Transcription Factor IID in the Absence of Histones

    PubMed Central

    Galasinski, Shelly K.; Lively, Tricia N.; Grebe de Barron, Alexandra; Goodrich, James A.

    2000-01-01

    Protein acetylation has emerged as a means of controlling levels of mRNA synthesis in eukaryotic cells. Here we report that acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) stimulates RNA polymerase II transcription in vitro in the absence of histones. The effect of acetyl-CoA on basal and activated transcription was studied in a human RNA polymerase II transcription system reconstituted from recombinant and highly purified transcription factors. Both basal and activated transcription were stimulated by the addition of acetyl-CoA to transcription reaction mixtures. By varying the concentrations of general transcription factors in the reaction mixtures, we found that acetyl-CoA decreased the concentration of TFIID required to observe transcription. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNase I footprinting revealed that acetyl-CoA increased the affinity of the general transcription factor TFIID for promoter DNA in a TBP-associated factor (TAF)-dependent manner. Interestingly, acetyl-CoA also caused a conformational change in the TFIID-TFIIA-promoter complex as assessed by DNase I footprinting. These results show that acetyl-CoA alters the DNA binding activity of TFIID and indicate that this biologically important cofactor functions at multiple levels to control gene expression. PMID:10688640

  2. Acetyl coenzyme A stimulates RNA polymerase II transcription and promoter binding by transcription factor IID in the absence of histones.

    PubMed

    Galasinski, S K; Lively, T N; Grebe De Barron, A; Goodrich, J A

    2000-03-01

    Protein acetylation has emerged as a means of controlling levels of mRNA synthesis in eukaryotic cells. Here we report that acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) stimulates RNA polymerase II transcription in vitro in the absence of histones. The effect of acetyl-CoA on basal and activated transcription was studied in a human RNA polymerase II transcription system reconstituted from recombinant and highly purified transcription factors. Both basal and activated transcription were stimulated by the addition of acetyl-CoA to transcription reaction mixtures. By varying the concentrations of general transcription factors in the reaction mixtures, we found that acetyl-CoA decreased the concentration of TFIID required to observe transcription. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNase I footprinting revealed that acetyl-CoA increased the affinity of the general transcription factor TFIID for promoter DNA in a TBP-associated factor (TAF)-dependent manner. Interestingly, acetyl-CoA also caused a conformational change in the TFIID-TFIIA-promoter complex as assessed by DNase I footprinting. These results show that acetyl-CoA alters the DNA binding activity of TFIID and indicate that this biologically important cofactor functions at multiple levels to control gene expression.

  3. A transcription factor hierarchy defines an environmental stress response network.

    PubMed

    Song, Liang; Huang, Shao-Shan Carol; Wise, Aaron; Castanon, Rosa; Nery, Joseph R; Chen, Huaming; Watanabe, Marina; Thomas, Jerushah; Bar-Joseph, Ziv; Ecker, Joseph R

    2016-11-04

    Environmental stresses are universally encountered by microbes, plants, and animals. Yet systematic studies of stress-responsive transcription factor (TF) networks in multicellular organisms have been limited. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) influences the expression of thousands of genes, allowing us to characterize complex stress-responsive regulatory networks. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing, we identified genome-wide targets of 21 ABA-related TFs to construct a comprehensive regulatory network in Arabidopsis thaliana Determinants of dynamic TF binding and a hierarchy among TFs were defined, illuminating the relationship between differential gene expression patterns and ABA pathway feedback regulation. By extrapolating regulatory characteristics of observed canonical ABA pathway components, we identified a new family of transcriptional regulators modulating ABA and salt responsiveness and demonstrated their utility to modulate plant resilience to osmotic stress. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Transcription factor-mediated reprogramming toward hematopoietic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Ebina, Wataru; Rossi, Derrick J

    2015-01-01

    De novo generation of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from renewable cell types has been a long sought-after but elusive goal in regenerative medicine. Paralleling efforts to guide pluripotent stem cell differentiation by manipulating developmental cues, substantial progress has been made recently toward HSC generation via combinatorial transcription factor (TF)-mediated fate conversion, a paradigm established by Yamanaka's induction of pluripotency in somatic cells by mere four TFs. This review will integrate the recently reported strategies to directly convert a variety of starting cell types toward HSCs in the context of hematopoietic transcriptional regulation and discuss how these findings could be further developed toward the ultimate generation of therapeutic human HSCs. PMID:25712209

  5. Molecular Screening Tools to Study Arabidopsis Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Wehner, Nora; Weiste, Christoph; Dröge-Laser, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, more than 2000 genes are estimated to encode transcription factors (TFs), which clearly emphasizes the importance of transcriptional control. Although genomic approaches have generated large TF open reading frame (ORF) collections, only a limited number of these genes is functionally characterized, yet. This review evaluates strategies and methods to identify TF functions. In particular, we focus on two recently developed TF screening platforms, which make use of publically available GATEWAY®-compatible ORF collections. (1) The Arabidopsis thaliana TF ORF over-Expression (AtTORF-Ex) library provides pooled collections of transgenic lines over-expressing HA-tagged TF genes, which are suited for screening approaches to define TF functions in stress defense and development. (2) A high-throughput microtiter plate based protoplast trans activation (PTA) system has been established to screen for TFs which are regulating a given promoter:Luciferase construct in planta. PMID:22645547

  6. Global transcriptional regulatory network for Escherichia coli robustly connects gene expression to transcription factor activities

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xin; Sastry, Anand; Mih, Nathan; Kim, Donghyuk; Tan, Justin; Lloyd, Colton J.; Gao, Ye; Yang, Laurence; Palsson, Bernhard O.

    2017-01-01

    Transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) have been studied intensely for >25 y. Yet, even for the Escherichia coli TRN—probably the best characterized TRN—several questions remain. Here, we address three questions: (i) How complete is our knowledge of the E. coli TRN; (ii) how well can we predict gene expression using this TRN; and (iii) how robust is our understanding of the TRN? First, we reconstructed a high-confidence TRN (hiTRN) consisting of 147 transcription factors (TFs) regulating 1,538 transcription units (TUs) encoding 1,764 genes. The 3,797 high-confidence regulatory interactions were collected from published, validated chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) data and RegulonDB. For 21 different TF knockouts, up to 63% of the differentially expressed genes in the hiTRN were traced to the knocked-out TF through regulatory cascades. Second, we trained supervised machine learning algorithms to predict the expression of 1,364 TUs given TF activities using 441 samples. The algorithms accurately predicted condition-specific expression for 86% (1,174 of 1,364) of the TUs, while 193 TUs (14%) were predicted better than random TRNs. Third, we identified 10 regulatory modules whose definitions were robust against changes to the TRN or expression compendium. Using surrogate variable analysis, we also identified three unmodeled factors that systematically influenced gene expression. Our computational workflow comprehensively characterizes the predictive capabilities and systems-level functions of an organism’s TRN from disparate data types. PMID:28874552

  7. Engineering phenolics metabolism in the grasses using transcription factors

    SciT

    Grotewold, Erich

    2013-07-26

    The economical competitiveness of agriculture-derived biofuels can be significantly enhanced by increasing biomass/acre yields and by furnishing the desired carbon balance for facilitating liquid fuel production (e.g., ethanol) or for high-energy solid waste availability to be used as biopower (e.g., for electricity production). Biomass production and carbon balance are tightly linked to the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds, which are found in crops and in agricultural residues either as lignins, as part of the cell wall, or as soluble phenolics which play a variety of functions in the biology of plants. The grasses, in particular maize, provide the single major sourcemore » of agricultural biomass, offering significant opportunities for increasing renewable fuel production. Our laboratory has pioneered the use of transcription factors for manipulating plant metabolic pathways, an approach that will be applied here towards altering the composition of phenolic compounds in maize. Previously, we identified a small group of ten maize R2R3-MYB transcription factors with all the characteristics of regulators of different aspects of phenolic biosynthesis. Here, we propose to investigate the participation of these R2R3-MYB factors in the regulation of soluble and insoluble maize phenolics, using a combination of over-expression and down-regulation of these transcription factors in transgenic maize cultured cells and in maize plants. Maize cells and plants altered in the activity of these regulatory proteins will be analyzed for phenolic composition by targeted metabolic profiling. Specifically, we will I) Investigate the effect of gain- and loss-of-function of a select group of R2R3-MYB transcription factors on the phenolic composition of maize plants and II) Identify the biosynthetic genes regulated by each of the selected R2R3-MYB factors. While a likely outcome of these studies are transgenic maize plants with altered phenolic composition, this research will

  8. Transcription factor mutations in myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Thomas; Chase, Andrew; Zoi, Katerina; Waghorn, Katherine; Hidalgo-Curtis, Claire; Score, Joannah; Jones, Amy; Grand, Francis; Reiter, Andreas; Hochhaus, Andreas; Cross, Nicholas C.P.

    2010-01-01

    Background Aberrant activation of tyrosine kinases, caused by either mutation or gene fusion, is of major importance for the development of many hematologic malignancies, particularly myeloproliferative neoplasms. We hypothesized that hitherto unrecognized, cytogenetically cryptic tyrosine kinase fusions may be common in non-classical or atypical myeloproliferative neoplasms and related myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms. Design and Methods To detect genomic copy number changes associated with such fusions, we performed a systematic search in 68 patients using custom designed, targeted, high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization. Arrays contained 44,000 oligonucleotide probes that targeted 500 genes including all 90 tyrosine kinases plus downstream tyrosine kinase signaling components, other translocation targets, transcription factors, and other factors known to be important for myelopoiesis. Results No abnormalities involving tyrosine kinases were detected; however, nine cytogenetically cryptic copy number imbalances were detected in seven patients, including hemizygous deletions of RUNX1 or CEBPA in two cases with atypical chronic myeloid leukemia. Mutation analysis of the remaining alleles revealed non-mutated RUNX1 and a frameshift insertion within CEBPA. A further mutation screen of 187 patients with myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms identified RUNX1 mutations in 27 (14%) and CEBPA mutations in seven (4%) patients. Analysis of other transcription factors known to be frequently mutated in acute myeloid leukemia revealed NPM1 mutations in six (3%) and WT1 mutations in two (1%) patients with myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms. Univariate analysis indicated that patients with mutations had a shorter overall survival (28 versus 44 months, P=0.019) compared with patients without mutations, with the prognosis for cases with CEBPA, NPM1 or WT1 mutations being particularly poor. Conclusions We conclude that mutations of

  9. Distinct Contributions of Conserved Modules to Runt Transcription Factor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Walrad, Pegine B.; Hang, Saiyu; Joseph, Genevieve S.; Salas, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Runx proteins play vital roles in regulating transcription in numerous developmental pathways throughout the animal kingdom. Two Runx protein hallmarks are the DNA-binding Runt domain and a C-terminal VWRPY motif that mediates interaction with TLE/Gro corepressor proteins. A phylogenetic analysis of Runt, the founding Runx family member, identifies four distinct regions C-terminal to the Runt domain that are conserved in Drosophila and other insects. We used a series of previously described ectopic expression assays to investigate the functions of these different conserved regions in regulating gene expression during embryogenesis and in controlling axonal projections in the developing eye. The results indicate each conserved region is required for a different subset of activities and identify distinct regions that participate in the transcriptional activation and repression of the segmentation gene sloppy-paired-1 (slp1). Interestingly, the C-terminal VWRPY-containing region is not required for repression but instead plays a role in slp1 activation. Genetic experiments indicating that Groucho (Gro) does not participate in slp1 regulation further suggest that Runt's conserved C-terminus interacts with other factors to promote transcriptional activation. These results provide a foundation for further studies on the molecular interactions that contribute to the context-dependent properties of Runx proteins as developmental regulators. PMID:20462957

  10. Imaging transcription factors dynamics with advanced fluorescence microscopy methods.

    PubMed

    Verneri, Paula; Romero, Juan José; De Rossi, María Cecilia; Alvarez, Yanina; Oses, Camila; Guberman, Alejandra; Levi, Valeria

    2018-05-10

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are capable of self-renewing and producing all cell types derived from the three germ layers in response to developmental cues, constituting an important promise for regenerative medicine. Pluripotency depends on specific transcription factors (TFs) that induce genes required to preserve the undifferentiated state and repress other genes related to differentiation. The transcription machinery and regulatory components such as TFs are recruited dynamically on their target genes making it essential exploring their dynamics in living cells to understand the transcriptional output. Non-invasive and very sensitive fluorescence microscopy methods are making it possible visualizing the dynamics of TFs in living specimens, complementing the information extracted from studies in fixed specimens and bulk assays. In this work, we briefly describe the basis of these microscopy methods and review how they contributed to our knowledge of the function of TFs relevant to embryo development and cell differentiation in a variety of systems ranging from single cells to whole organisms. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Methylation of transcription factor YY2 regulates its transcriptional activity and cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao-nan; Shi, Tao-tao; He, Yao-hui; Wang, Fei-fei; Sang, Rui; Ding, Jian-cheng; Zhang, Wen-juan; Shu, Xing-yi; Shen, Hai-feng; Yi, Jia; Gao, Xiang; Liu, Wen

    2017-01-01

    Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a multifunctional DNA-binding transcription factor shown to be critical in a variety of biological processes, and its activity and function have been shown to be regulated by multitude of mechanisms, which include but are not limited to post-translational modifications (PTMs), its associated proteins and cellular localization. YY2, the paralog of YY1 in mouse and human, has been proposed to function redundantly or oppositely in a context-specific manner compared with YY1. Despite its functional importance, how YY2’s DNA-binding activity and function are regulated, particularly by PTMs, remains completely unknown. Here we report the first PTM with functional characterization on YY2, namely lysine 247 monomethylation (K247me1), which was found to be dynamically regulated by SET7/9 and LSD1 both in vitro and in cultured cells. Functional study revealed that SET7/9-mediated YY2 methylation regulated its DNA-binding activity in vitro and in association with chromatin examined by chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with sequencing (ChIP-seq) in cultured cells. Knockout of YY2, SET7/9 or LSD1 by CRISPR (clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats)/Cas9-mediated gene editing followed by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed that a subset of genes was positively regulated by YY2 and SET7/9, but negatively regulated by LSD1, which were enriched with genes involved in cell proliferation regulation. Importantly, YY2-regulated gene transcription, cell proliferation and tumor growth were dependent, at least partially, on YY2 K247 methylation. Finally, somatic mutations on YY2 found in cancer, which are in close proximity to K247, altered its methylation, DNA-binding activity and gene transcription it controls. Our findings revealed the first PTM with functional implications imposed on YY2 protein, and linked YY2 methylation with its biological functions. PMID:29098080

  12. Transcription Factors Responding to Pb Stress in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanling; Ge, Fei; Hou, Fengxia; Sun, Wenting; Zheng, Qi; Zhang, Xiaoxiang; Ma, Langlang; Fu, Jun; He, Xiujing; Peng, Huanwei; Pan, Guangtang; Shen, Yaou

    2017-01-01

    Pb can damage the physiological function of human organs by entering the human body via food-chain enrichment. Revealing the mechanisms of maize tolerance to Pb is critical for preventing this. In this study, a Pb-tolerant maize inbred line, 178, was used to analyse transcription factors (TFs) expressed under Pb stress based on RNA sequencing data. A total of 464 genes expressed in control check (CK) or Pb treatment samples were annotated as TFs. Among them, 262 differentially expressed transcription factors (DETs) were identified that responded to Pb treatment. Furthermore, the DETs were classified into 4 classes according to their expression patterns, and 17, 12 and 2 DETs were significantly annotated to plant hormone signal transduction, basal transcription factors and base excision repair, respectively. Seventeen DETs were found to participate in the plant hormone signal transduction pathway, where basic leucine zippers (bZIPs) were the most significantly enriched TFs, with 12 members involved. We further obtained 5 Arabidopsis transfer DNA (T-DNA) mutants for 6 of the maize bZIPs, among which the mutants atbzip20 and atbzip47, representing ZmbZIP54 and ZmbZIP107, showed obviously inhibited growth of roots and above-ground parts, compared with wild type. Five highly Pb-tolerant and 5 highly Pb-sensitive in maize lines were subjected to DNA polymorphism and expression level analysis of ZmbZIP54 and ZmbZIP107. The results suggested that differences in bZIPs expression partially accounted for the differences in Pb-tolerance among the maize lines. Our results contribute to the understanding of the molecular regulation mechanisms of TFs in maize under Pb stress. PMID:28927013

  13. Transcriptional regulation of the novel monoamine oxidase renalase: Crucial roles of transcription factors Sp1, STAT3, and ZBP89.

    PubMed

    Sonawane, Parshuram J; Gupta, Vinayak; Sasi, Binu K; Kalyani, Ananthamohan; Natarajan, Bhargavi; Khan, Abrar A; Sahu, Bhavani S; Mahapatra, Nitish R

    2014-11-11

    Renalase, a novel monoamine oxidase, is emerging as an important regulator of cardiovascular, metabolic, and renal diseases. However, the mechanism of transcriptional regulation of this enzyme remains largely unknown. We undertook a systematic analysis of the renalase gene to identify regulatory promoter elements and transcription factors. Computational analysis coupled with transfection of human renalase promoter/luciferase reporter plasmids (5'-promoter-deletion constructs) into various cell types (HEK-293, IMR32, and HepG2) identified two crucial promoter domains at base pairs -485 to -399 and -252 to -150. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using renalase promoter oligonucleotides with and without potential binding sites for transcription factors Sp1, STAT3, and ZBP89 displayed formation of specific complexes with HEK-293 nuclear proteins. Consistently, overexpression of Sp1, STAT3, and ZBP89 augmented renalase promoter activity; additionally, siRNA-mediated downregulation of Sp1, STAT3, and ZBP89 reduced the level of endogenous renalase transcription as well as the transfected renalase promoter activity. In addition, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed in vivo interactions of these transcription factors with renalase promoter. Interestingly, renalase promoter activity was augmented by nicotine and catecholamines; while Sp1 and STAT3 synergistically activated the nicotine-induced effect, Sp1 appeared to enhance epinephrine-evoked renalase transcription. Moreover, renalase transcript levels in mouse models of human essential hypertension were concomitantly associated with endogenous STAT3 and ZBP89 levels, suggesting crucial roles for these transcription factors in regulating renalase gene expression in cardiovascular pathological conditions.

  14. Structural characterization of human general transcription factor TFIIF in solution

    PubMed Central

    Akashi, Satoko; Nagakura, Shinjiro; Yamamoto, Seiji; Okuda, Masahiko; Ohkuma, Yoshiaki; Nishimura, Yoshifumi

    2008-01-01

    Human general transcription factor IIF (TFIIF), a component of the transcription pre-initiation complex (PIC) associated with RNA polymerase II (Pol II), was characterized by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and chemical cross-linking. Recombinant TFIIF, composed of an equimolar ratio of α and β subunits, was bacterially expressed, purified to homogeneity, and found to have a transcription activity similar to a natural one in the human in vitro transcription system. SEC of purified TFIIF, as previously reported, suggested that this protein has a size >200 kDa. In contrast, ESI-MS of the purified sample gave a molecular size of 87 kDa, indicating that TFIIF is an αβ heterodimer, which was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MS of the cross-linked TFIIF components. Recent electron microscopy (EM) and photo-cross-linking studies showed that the yeast TFIIF homolog containing Tfg1 and Tfg2, corresponding to the human α and β subunits, exists as a heterodimer in the PIC, so the human TFIIF is also likely to exist as a heterodimer even in the PIC. In the yeast PIC, EM and photo-cross-linking studies showed different results for the mutual location of TFIIE and TFIIF along DNA. We have examined the direct interaction between human TFIIF and TFIIE by ESI-MS, SEC, and chemical cross-linking; however, no direct interaction was observed, at least in solution. This is consistent with the previous photo-cross-linking observation that TFIIF and TFIIE flank DNA separately on both sides of the Pol II central cleft in the yeast PIC. PMID:18218714

  15. The Role of Multiple Transcription Factors In Archaeal Gene Expression

    SciT

    Charles J. Daniels

    2008-09-23

    Since the inception of this research program, the project has focused on two central questions: What is the relationship between the 'eukaryal-like' transcription machinery of archaeal cells and its counterparts in eukaryal cells? And, how does the archaeal cell control gene expression using its mosaic of eukaryal core transcription machinery and its bacterial-like transcription regulatory proteins? During the grant period we have addressed these questions using a variety of in vivo approaches and have sought to specifically define the roles of the multiple TATA binding protein (TBP) and TFIIB-like (TFB) proteins in controlling gene expression in Haloferax volcanii. H. volcaniimore » was initially chosen as a model for the Archaea based on the availability of suitable genetic tools; however, later studies showed that all haloarchaea possessed multiple tbp and tfb genes, which led to the proposal that multiple TBP and TFB proteins may function in a manner similar to alternative sigma factors in bacterial cells. In vivo transcription and promoter analysis established a clear relationship between the promoter requirements of haloarchaeal genes and those of the eukaryal RNA polymerase II promoter. Studies on heat shock gene promoters, and the demonstration that specific tfb genes were induced by heat shock, provided the first indication that TFB proteins may direct expression of specific gene families. The construction of strains lacking tbp or tfb genes, coupled with the finding that many of these genes are differentially expressed under varying growth conditions, provided further support for this model. Genetic tools were also developed that led to the construction of insertion and deletion mutants, and a novel gene expression scheme was designed that allowed the controlled expression of these genes in vivo. More recent studies have used a whole genome array to examine the expression of these genes and we have established a linkage between the expression of

  16. Demonstrating Interactions of Transcription Factors with DNA by Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay.

    PubMed

    Yousaf, Nasim; Gould, David

    2017-01-01

    Confirming the binding of a transcription factor with a particular DNA sequence may be important in characterizing interactions with a synthetic promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay is a powerful approach to demonstrate the specific DNA sequence that is bound by a transcription factor and also to confirm the specific transcription factor involved in the interaction. In this chapter we describe a method we have successfully used to demonstrate interactions of endogenous transcription factors with sequences derived from endogenous and synthetic promoters.

  17. Prevalence of transcription factors in ascomycete and basidiomycete fungi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gene regulation underlies fungal physiology and therefore is a major factor in fungal biodiversity. Analysis of genome sequences has revealed a large number of putative transcription factors in most fungal genomes. The presence of fungal orthologs for individual regulators has been analysed and appears to be highly variable with some regulators widely conserved and others showing narrow distribution. Although genome-scale transcription factor surveys have been performed before, no global study into the prevalence of specific regulators across the fungal kingdom has been presented. Results In this study we have analysed the number of members for 37 regulator classes in 77 ascomycete and 31 basidiomycete fungal genomes and revealed significant differences between ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. In addition, we determined the presence of 64 regulators characterised in ascomycetes across these 108 genomes. This demonstrated that overall the highest presence of orthologs is in the filamentous ascomycetes. A significant number of regulators lacked orthologs in the ascomycete yeasts and the basidiomycetes. Conversely, of seven basidiomycete regulators included in the study, only one had orthologs in ascomycetes. Conclusions This study demonstrates a significant difference in the regulatory repertoire of ascomycete and basidiomycete fungi, at the level of both regulator class and individual regulator. This suggests that the current regulatory systems of these fungi have been mainly developed after the two phyla diverged. Most regulators detected in both phyla are involved in central functions of fungal physiology and therefore were likely already present in the ancestor of the two phyla. PMID:24650355

  18. FOXN1 Transcription Factor in Epithelial Growth and Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Grabowska, Anna I; Wilanowski, Tomasz

    2017-09-01

    FOXN1 is a prodifferentiation transcription factor in the skin epithelium. Recently, it has also emerged as an important player in controlling the skin wound healing process, as it actively participates in reepithelialization and is thought to be responsible for scar formation. FOXN1 positivity is also a feature of pigmented keratinocytes, including nevi, and FOXN1 is an attribute of benign epithelial tumors. The lack of FOXN1 favors the skin regeneration process displayed by nude mice, pointing to FOXN1 as a switch between regeneration and reparative processes. The stem cell niche provides a functional source of cells after the loss of tissue following wounding. The involvement of prodifferentiation factors in the regulation of this pool of stem cells is suggested. However, the exact mechanism is still under question, and we speculate that the FOXN1 transcription factor is involved in this process. This review analyzes the pleiotropic effects of FOXN1 in the skin, its function in the tumorigenesis process, and its potential role in depletion of the stem cell niche after injury, as well as its suggested mechanistic role, acting in a cell-autonomous and a non-cell-autonomous manner during skin self-renewal. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. Transcription factor TBX4 regulates myofibroblast accumulation and lung fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Ting; Liang, Jiurong; Liu, Ningshan; Huan, Caijuan; Zhang, Yanli; Liu, Weijia; Kumar, Maya; Xiao, Rui; D’Armiento, Jeanine; Metzger, Daniel; Chambon, Pierre; Papaioannou, Virginia E.; Stripp, Barry R.; Jiang, Dianhua

    2016-01-01

    Progressive tissue fibrosis is a major cause of the morbidity and mortality associated with repeated epithelial injuries and accumulation of myofibroblasts. Successful treatment options are limited by an incomplete understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate myofibroblast accumulation. Here, we employed in vivo lineage tracing and real-time gene expression transgenic reporting methods to analyze the early embryonic transcription factor T-box gene 4 (TBX4), and determined that TBX4-lineage mesenchymal progenitors are the predominant source of myofibroblasts in injured adult lung. In a murine model, ablation of TBX4-expressing cells or disruption of TBX4 signaling attenuated lung fibrosis after bleomycin-induced injury. Furthermore, TBX4 regulated hyaluronan synthase 2 production to enable fibroblast invasion of matrix both in murine models and in fibroblasts from patients with severe pulmonary fibrosis. These data identify TBX4 as a mesenchymal transcription factor that drives accumulation of myofibroblasts and the development of lung fibrosis. Targeting TBX4 and downstream factors that regulate fibroblast invasiveness could lead to therapeutic approaches in lung fibrosis. PMID:27400124

  20. Adventitious root formation in tree species: involvement of transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Legué, Valérie; Rigal, Adeline; Bhalerao, Rishikesh P

    2014-06-01

    Adventitious rooting is an essential step in the vegetative propagation of economically important horticultural and woody species. Populus has emerged as an experimental model for studying processes that are important in tree growth and development. It is highly useful for molecular genetic analysis of adventitious roots in trees. In this short review, we will highlight the recent progress made in the identification of transcription factors involved in the control of adventitious rooting in woody species. Their regulation will be discussed. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  1. Signatures of DNA target selectivity by ETS transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Mi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ETS family of transcription factors is a functionally heterogeneous group of gene regulators that share a structurally conserved, eponymous DNA-binding domain. DNA target specificity derives from combinatorial interactions with other proteins as well as intrinsic heterogeneity among ETS domains. Emerging evidence suggests molecular hydration as a fundamental feature that defines the intrinsic heterogeneity in DNA target selection and susceptibility to epigenetic DNA modification. This perspective invokes novel hypotheses in the regulation of ETS proteins in physiologic osmotic stress, their pioneering potential in heterochromatin, and the effects of passive and pharmacologic DNA demethylation on ETS regulation. PMID:28301293

  2. Signatures of DNA target selectivity by ETS transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Poon, Gregory M K; Kim, Hye Mi

    2017-05-27

    The ETS family of transcription factors is a functionally heterogeneous group of gene regulators that share a structurally conserved, eponymous DNA-binding domain. DNA target specificity derives from combinatorial interactions with other proteins as well as intrinsic heterogeneity among ETS domains. Emerging evidence suggests molecular hydration as a fundamental feature that defines the intrinsic heterogeneity in DNA target selection and susceptibility to epigenetic DNA modification. This perspective invokes novel hypotheses in the regulation of ETS proteins in physiologic osmotic stress, their pioneering potential in heterochromatin, and the effects of passive and pharmacologic DNA demethylation on ETS regulation.

  3. Regulation of Specialized Metabolism by WRKY Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Schluttenhofer, Craig; Yuan, Ling

    2015-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors (TFs) are well known for regulating plant abiotic and biotic stress tolerance. However, much less is known about how WRKY TFs affect plant-specialized metabolism. Analysis of WRKY TFs regulating the production of specialized metabolites emphasizes the values of the family outside of traditionally accepted roles in stress tolerance. WRKYs with conserved roles across plant species seem to be essential in regulating specialized metabolism. Overall, the WRKY family plays an essential role in regulating the biosynthesis of important pharmaceutical, aromatherapy, biofuel, and industrial components, warranting considerable attention in the forthcoming years. PMID:25501946

  4. Classifying transcription factor targets and discovering relevant biological features

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Dustin T; Kon, Mark; DeLisi, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Background An important goal in post-genomic research is discovering the network of interactions between transcription factors (TFs) and the genes they regulate. We have previously reported the development of a supervised-learning approach to TF target identification, and used it to predict targets of 104 transcription factors in yeast. We now include a new sequence conservation measure, expand our predictions to include 59 new TFs, introduce a web-server, and implement an improved ranking method to reveal the biological features contributing to regulation. The classifiers combine 8 genomic datasets covering a broad range of measurements including sequence conservation, sequence overrepresentation, gene expression, and DNA structural properties. Principal Findings (1) Application of the method yields an amplification of information about yeast regulators. The ratio of total targets to previously known targets is greater than 2 for 11 TFs, with several having larger gains: Ash1(4), Ino2(2.6), Yaf1(2.4), and Yap6(2.4). (2) Many predicted targets for TFs match well with the known biology of their regulators. As a case study we discuss the regulator Swi6, presenting evidence that it may be important in the DNA damage response, and that the previously uncharacterized gene YMR279C plays a role in DNA damage response and perhaps in cell-cycle progression. (3) A procedure based on recursive-feature-elimination is able to uncover from the large initial data sets those features that best distinguish targets for any TF, providing clues relevant to its biology. An analysis of Swi6 suggests a possible role in lipid metabolism, and more specifically in metabolism of ceramide, a bioactive lipid currently being investigated for anti-cancer properties. (4) An analysis of global network properties highlights the transcriptional network hubs; the factors which control the most genes and the genes which are bound by the largest set of regulators. Cell-cycle and growth related

  5. RNA polymerase I transcription in a Brassica interspecific hybrid and its progenitors: Tests of transcription factor involvement in nucleolar dominance.

    PubMed Central

    Frieman, M; Chen, Z J; Saez-Vasquez, J; Shen, L A; Pikaard, C S

    1999-01-01

    In interspecific hybrids or allopolyploids, often one parental set of ribosomal RNA genes is transcribed and the other is silent, an epigenetic phenomenon known as nucleolar dominance. Silencing is enforced by cytosine methylation and histone deacetylation, but the initial discrimination mechanism is unknown. One hypothesis is that a species-specific transcription factor is inactivated, thereby silencing one set of rRNA genes. Another is that dominant rRNA genes have higher binding affinities for limiting transcription factors. A third suggests that selective methylation of underdominant rRNA genes blocks transcription factor binding. We tested these hypotheses using Brassica napus (canola), an allotetraploid derived from B. rapa and B. oleracea in which only B. rapa rRNA genes are transcribed. B. oleracea and B. rapa rRNA genes were active when transfected into protoplasts of the other species, which argues against the species-specific transcription factor model. B. oleracea and B. rapa rRNA genes also competed equally for the pol I transcription machinery in vitro and in vivo. Cytosine methylation had no effect on rRNA gene transcription in vitro, which suggests that transcription factor binding was unimpaired. These data are inconsistent with the prevailing models and point to discrimination mechanisms that are likely to act at a chromosomal level. PMID:10224274

  6. TEMPLE: analysing population genetic variation at transcription factor binding sites.

    PubMed

    Litovchenko, Maria; Laurent, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    Genetic variation occurring at the level of regulatory sequences can affect phenotypes and fitness in natural populations. This variation can be analysed in a population genetic framework to study how genetic drift and selection affect the evolution of these functional elements. However, doing this requires a good understanding of the location and nature of regulatory regions and has long been a major hurdle. The current proliferation of genomewide profiling experiments of transcription factor occupancies greatly improves our ability to identify genomic regions involved in specific DNA-protein interactions. Although software exists for predicting transcription factor binding sites (TFBS), and the effects of genetic variants on TFBS specificity, there are no tools currently available for inferring this information jointly with the genetic variation at TFBS in natural populations. We developed the software Transcription Elements Mapping at the Population LEvel (TEMPLE), which predicts TFBS, evaluates the effects of genetic variants on TFBS specificity and summarizes the genetic variation occurring at TFBS in intraspecific sequence alignments. We demonstrate that TEMPLE's TFBS prediction algorithms gives identical results to PATSER, a software distribution commonly used in the field. We also illustrate the unique features of TEMPLE by analysing TFBS diversity for the TF Senseless (SENS) in one ancestral and one cosmopolitan population of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. TEMPLE can be used to localize TFBS that are characterized by strong genetic differentiation across natural populations. This will be particularly useful for studies aiming to identify adaptive mutations. TEMPLE is a java-based cross-platform software that easily maps the genetic diversity at predicted TFBSs using a graphical interface, or from the Unix command line. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Epigenetic priors for identifying active transcription factor binding sites.

    PubMed

    Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Buske, Fabian A; McLeay, Robert C; Whitington, Tom; Noble, William Stafford; Bailey, Timothy L

    2012-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of the genome-wide binding of transcription factors in a particular cell type or under a particular condition is necessary for understanding transcriptional regulation. Using epigenetic data such as histone modification and DNase I, accessibility data has been shown to improve motif-based in silico methods for predicting such binding, but this approach has not yet been fully explored. We describe a probabilistic method for combining one or more tracks of epigenetic data with a standard DNA sequence motif model to improve our ability to identify active transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). We convert each data type into a position-specific probabilistic prior and combine these priors with a traditional probabilistic motif model to compute a log-posterior odds score. Our experiments, using histone modifications H3K4me1, H3K4me3, H3K9ac and H3K27ac, as well as DNase I sensitivity, show conclusively that the log-posterior odds score consistently outperforms a simple binary filter based on the same data. We also show that our approach performs competitively with a more complex method, CENTIPEDE, and suggest that the relative simplicity of the log-posterior odds scoring method makes it an appealing and very general method for identifying functional TFBSs on the basis of DNA and epigenetic evidence. FIMO, part of the MEME Suite software toolkit, now supports log-posterior odds scoring using position-specific priors for motif search. A web server and source code are available at http://meme.nbcr.net. Utilities for creating priors are at http://research.imb.uq.edu.au/t.bailey/SD/Cuellar2011. t.bailey@uq.edu.au Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  8. RNA binding specificity of Ebola virus transcription factor VP30.

    PubMed

    Schlereth, Julia; Grünweller, Arnold; Biedenkopf, Nadine; Becker, Stephan; Hartmann, Roland K

    2016-09-01

    The transcription factor VP30 of the non-segmented RNA negative strand Ebola virus balances viral transcription and replication. Here, we comprehensively studied RNA binding by VP30. Using a novel VP30:RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assay, we tested truncated variants of 2 potential natural RNA substrates of VP30 - the genomic Ebola viral 3'-leader region and its complementary antigenomic counterpart (each ∼155 nt in length) - and a series of other non-viral RNAs. Based on oligonucleotide interference, the major VP30 binding region on the genomic 3'-leader substrate was assigned to the internal expanded single-stranded region (∼ nt 125-80). Best binding to VP30 was obtained with ssRNAs of optimally ∼ 40 nt and mixed base composition; underrepresentation of purines or pyrimidines was tolerated, but homopolymeric sequences impaired binding. A stem-loop structure, particularly at the 3'-end or positioned internally, supports stable binding to VP30. In contrast, dsRNA or RNAs exposing large internal loops flanked by entirely helical arms on both sides are not bound. Introduction of a 5´-Cap(0) structure impaired VP30 binding. Also, ssDNAs bind substantially weaker than isosequential ssRNAs and heparin competes with RNA for binding to VP30, indicating that ribose 2'-hydroxyls and electrostatic contacts of the phosphate groups contribute to the formation of VP30:RNA complexes. Our results indicate a rather relaxed RNA binding specificity of filoviral VP30, which largely differs from that of the functionally related transcription factor of the Paramyxoviridae which binds to ssRNAs as short as 13 nt with a preference for oligo(A) sequences.

  9. Negative transcriptional regulation of mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) by nuclear TFAM

    SciT

    Lee, Eun Jin; Kang, Young Cheol; Park, Wook-Ha

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • TFAM localizes in nuclei and mitochondria of neuronal cells. • Nuclear TFAM does not bind the Tfam promoter. • Nuclear TFAM reduced the Tfam promoter activity via suppressing NRF-1 activity. • A novel self-negative feedback regulation of Tfam gene expression is explored. • FAM may play different roles depending on its subcellular localizations. - Abstract: The nuclear DNA-encoded mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is synthesized in cytoplasm and transported into mitochondria. TFAM enhances both transcription and replication of mitochondrial DNA. It is unclear, however, whether TFAM plays a role in regulating nuclear gene expression. Here, we demonstrated thatmore » TFAM was localized to the nucleus and mitochondria by immunostaining, subcellular fractionation, and TFAM-green fluorescent protein hybrid protein studies. In HT22 hippocampal neuronal cells, human TFAM (hTFAM) overexpression suppressed human Tfam promoter-mediated luciferase activity in a dose-dependent manner. The mitochondria targeting sequence-deficient hTFAM also repressed Tfam promoter activity to the same degree as hTFAM. It indicated that nuclear hTFAM suppressed Tfam expression without modulating mitochondrial activity. The repression required for nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), but hTFAM did not bind to the NRF-1 binding site of its promoter. TFAM was co-immunoprecipitated with NRF-1. Taken together, we suggest that nuclear TFAM down-regulate its own gene expression as a NRF-1 repressor, showing that TFAM may play different roles depending on its subcellular localizations.« less

  10. Activating transcription factor 6 derepression mediates neuroprotection in Huntington disease

    PubMed Central

    Naranjo, José R.; Zhang, Hongyu; Villar, Diego; González, Paz; Dopazo, Xose M.; Morón-Oset, Javier; Higueras, Elena; Oliveros, Juan C.; Arrabal, María D.; Prieto, Angela; Cercós, Pilar; González, Teresa; De la Cruz, Alicia; Casado-Vela, Juan; Rábano, Alberto; Valenzuela, Carmen; Gutierrez-Rodriguez, Marta; Li, Jia-Yi; Mellström, Britt

    2016-01-01

    Deregulated protein and Ca2+ homeostasis underlie synaptic dysfunction and neurodegeneration in Huntington disease (HD); however, the factors that disrupt homeostasis are not fully understood. Here, we determined that expression of downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM), a multifunctional Ca2+-binding protein, is reduced in murine in vivo and in vitro HD models and in HD patients. DREAM downregulation was observed early after birth and was associated with endogenous neuroprotection. In the R6/2 mouse HD model, induced DREAM haplodeficiency or blockade of DREAM activity by chronic administration of the drug repaglinide delayed onset of motor dysfunction, reduced striatal atrophy, and prolonged life span. DREAM-related neuroprotection was linked to an interaction between DREAM and the unfolded protein response (UPR) sensor activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). Repaglinide blocked this interaction and enhanced ATF6 processing and nuclear accumulation of transcriptionally active ATF6, improving prosurvival UPR function in striatal neurons. Together, our results identify a role for DREAM silencing in the activation of ATF6 signaling, which promotes early neuroprotection in HD. PMID:26752648

  11. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor β/δ Cross Talks with E2F and Attenuates Mitosis in HRAS-Expressing Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bokai; Khozoie, Combiz; Bility, Moses T.; Ferry, Christina H.; Blazanin, Nicholas; Glick, Adam B.; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    The role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) in Harvey sarcoma ras (Hras)-expressing cells was examined. Ligand activation of PPARβ/δ caused a negative selection with respect to cells expressing higher levels of the Hras oncogene by inducing a mitotic block. Mitosis-related genes that are predominantly regulated by E2F were induced to a higher level in HRAS-expressing Pparβ/δ-null keratinocytes compared to HRAS-expressing wild-type keratinocytes. Ligand-activated PPARβ/δ repressed expression of these genes by direct binding with p130/p107, facilitating nuclear translocation and increasing promoter recruitment of p130/p107. These results demonstrate a novel mechanism of PPARβ/δ cross talk with E2F signaling. Since cotreatment with a PPARβ/δ ligand and various mitosis inhibitors increases the efficacy of increasing G2/M arrest, targeting PPARβ/δ in conjunction with mitosis inhibitors could become a suitable option for development of new multitarget strategies for inhibiting RAS-dependent tumorigenesis. PMID:22473992

  12. Integrated genomic analyses identify KDM1A's role in cell proliferation via modulating E2F signaling activity and associate with poor clinical outcome in oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sathiya Pandi; Singh, Smriti; Gupta, Amit; Yadav, Sandhya; Singh, Shree Ram; Shukla, Sanjeev

    2015-10-28

    The histone demethylase KDM1A specifically demethylates lysine residues and its deregulation has been implicated in the initiation and progression of various cancers. However, KDM1A's molecular role and its pathological consequences, and prognostic significance in oral cancer remain less understood. In the present study, we sought to investigate the expression of KDM1A and its downstream role in oral cancer pathogenesis. By comparing mRNA expression profiles, we identified an elevated KDM1A expression in oral tumors when compared to normal oral tissues. In silico pathway prediction identified the association between KDM1A and E2F1 signaling in oral cancer. Pathway scanning, functional annotation analysis and In vitro assays showed the KDM1A's involvement in oral cancer cell proliferation and the cell cycle. Moreover, real time PCR and luciferase assays confirmed KDM1A's role in regulation of E2F1 signaling activity in oral cancer. Elevated KDM1A expression is associated with poor clinical outcome in oral cancer. Our data indicate that deregulated KDM1A expression is positively associated with proliferative phenotype of oral cancer and confers poor clinical outcome. These cumulative data suggest that KDM1A might be a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target for oral cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Accurate Prediction of Inducible Transcription Factor Binding Intensities In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Siepel, Adam; Lis, John T.

    2012-01-01

    DNA sequence and local chromatin landscape act jointly to determine transcription factor (TF) binding intensity profiles. To disentangle these influences, we developed an experimental approach, called protein/DNA binding followed by high-throughput sequencing (PB–seq), that allows the binding energy landscape to be characterized genome-wide in the absence of chromatin. We applied our methods to the Drosophila Heat Shock Factor (HSF), which inducibly binds a target DNA sequence element (HSE) following heat shock stress. PB–seq involves incubating sheared naked genomic DNA with recombinant HSF, partitioning the HSF–bound and HSF–free DNA, and then detecting HSF–bound DNA by high-throughput sequencing. We compared PB–seq binding profiles with ones observed in vivo by ChIP–seq and developed statistical models to predict the observed departures from idealized binding patterns based on covariates describing the local chromatin environment. We found that DNase I hypersensitivity and tetra-acetylation of H4 were the most influential covariates in predicting changes in HSF binding affinity. We also investigated the extent to which DNA accessibility, as measured by digital DNase I footprinting data, could be predicted from MNase–seq data and the ChIP–chip profiles for many histone modifications and TFs, and found GAGA element associated factor (GAF), tetra-acetylation of H4, and H4K16 acetylation to be the most predictive covariates. Lastly, we generated an unbiased model of HSF binding sequences, which revealed distinct biophysical properties of the HSF/HSE interaction and a previously unrecognized substructure within the HSE. These findings provide new insights into the interplay between the genomic sequence and the chromatin landscape in determining transcription factor binding intensity. PMID:22479205

  14. Forkhead Transcription Factors: Formulating a FOXO Target for Cognitive Loss.

    PubMed

    Maiese, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    With almost 47 million individuals worldwide suffering from some aspect of dementia, it is clear that cognitive loss impacts a significant proportion of the global population. Unfortunately, definitive treatments to resolve or prevent the onset of cognitive loss are limited. In most cases such care is currently non-existent prompting the need for novel treatment strategies. Mammalian forkhead transcription factors of the O class (FoxO) are one such avenue of investigation that offer an exciting potential to bring new treatments forward for disorders that involve cognitive loss. Here we examine the background, structure, expression, and function of FoxO transcription factors and their role in cognitive loss, programmed cell death in the nervous system with apoptosis and autophagy, and areas to target FoxOs for dementia and specific disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. FoxO proteins work in concert with a number of other cell survival pathways that involve growth factors, such as erythropoietin and neurotrophins, silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (SIRT1), Wnt1 inducible signaling pathway protein 1 (WISP1), Wnt signaling, and cancer-related pathways. FoxO transcription factors oversee proinflammatory pathways, affect nervous system amyloid (Aβ) production and toxicity, lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, foster neuronal apoptotic cell death, and accelerate the progression of degenerative disease. However, under some scenarios such as those involving autophagy, FoxOs also can offer protection in the nervous system and reduce toxic intracellular protein accumulations and potentially limit Aβ toxicity. Given the ability of FoxOs to not only promote apoptotic cell death in the nervous system, but also through the induction of autophagy offer protection against degenerative disease that can lead to dementia, a fine balance in the activity of FoxOs may be required to target cognitive loss in individuals. Future work should

  15. Human Lineage-Specific Transcriptional Regulation through GA-Binding Protein Transcription Factor Alpha (GABPa)

    PubMed Central

    Perdomo-Sabogal, Alvaro; Nowick, Katja; Piccini, Ilaria; Sudbrak, Ralf; Lehrach, Hans; Yaspo, Marie-Laure; Warnatz, Hans-Jörg; Querfurth, Robert

    2016-01-01

    A substantial fraction of phenotypic differences between closely related species are likely caused by differences in gene regulation. While this has already been postulated over 30 years ago, only few examples of evolutionary changes in gene regulation have been verified. Here, we identified and investigated binding sites of the transcription factor GA-binding protein alpha (GABPa) aiming to discover cis-regulatory adaptations on the human lineage. By performing chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing experiments in a human cell line, we found 11,619 putative GABPa binding sites. Through sequence comparisons of the human GABPa binding regions with orthologous sequences from 34 mammals, we identified substitutions that have resulted in 224 putative human-specific GABPa binding sites. To experimentally assess the transcriptional impact of those substitutions, we selected four promoters for promoter-reporter gene assays using human and African green monkey cells. We compared the activities of wild-type promoters to mutated forms, where we have introduced one or more substitutions to mimic the ancestral state devoid of the GABPa consensus binding sequence. Similarly, we introduced the human-specific substitutions into chimpanzee and macaque promoter backgrounds. Our results demonstrate that the identified substitutions are functional, both in human and nonhuman promoters. In addition, we performed GABPa knock-down experiments and found 1,215 genes as strong candidates for primary targets. Further analyses of our data sets link GABPa to cognitive disorders, diabetes, KRAB zinc finger (KRAB-ZNF), and human-specific genes. Thus, we propose that differences in GABPa binding sites played important roles in the evolution of human-specific phenotypes. PMID:26814189

  16. The forkhead transcription factor FoxY regulates Nanos

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jia L.; Wessel, Gary M.

    2012-01-01

    FoxY is a member of the forkhead transcription factor family that appeared enriched in the presumptive germ line of sea urchins (Ransick et al., 2002, Dev Biol 246:132). Here we test the hypothesis that FoxY is involved in germ line determination in this animal. We found two splice forms of FoxY that share the same DNA-binding domain but vary in the carboxy-terminal trans-activation/repression domain. Both forms of the FoxY protein are present in the ovary and in the early embryo, and their mRNAs accumulate to their highest levels in the small micromeres and adjacent non-skeletogenic mesoderm. Knockdown of FoxY resulted in a dramatic decrease in the Nanos mRNA and protein levels as well as a loss of coelomic pouches in the 2-week-old larvae. Our results indicate that FoxY positively regulates Nanos at the transcriptional level and is essential for reproductive potential in this organism. PMID:22777754

  17. The forkhead transcription factor FoxY regulates Nanos.

    PubMed

    Song, Jia L; Wessel, Gary M

    2012-10-01

    FoxY is a member of the forkhead transcription factor family that appeared enriched in the presumptive germ line of sea urchins (Ransick et al. Dev Biol 2002;246:132). Here, we test the hypothesis that FoxY is involved in germ line determination in this animal. We found two splice forms of FoxY that share the same DNA-binding domain, but vary in the carboxy-terminal trans-activation/repression domain. Both forms of the FoxY protein are present in the egg and in the early embryo, and their mRNAs accumulate to their highest levels in the small micromeres and adjacent non-skeletogenic mesoderm. Knockdown of FoxY resulted in a dramatic decrease in Nanos mRNA and protein levels as well as a loss of coelomic pouches in 2-week-old larvae. Our results indicate that FoxY positively regulates Nanos at the transcriptional level and is essential for reproductive potential in this organism. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The MYB107 Transcription Factor Positively Regulates Suberin Biosynthesis

    SciT

    Gou, Mingyue; Hou, Guichuan; Yang, Huijun

    Suberin, a lipophilic polymer deposited in the outer integument of the Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana) seed coat, represents an essential sealing component controlling water and solute movement and protecting seed from pathogenic infection. Although many genes responsible for suberin synthesis are identified, the regulatory components controlling its biosynthesis have not been definitively determined. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis MYB107 transcription factor acts as a positive regulator controlling suberin biosynthetic gene expression in the seed coat. MYB107 coexpresses with suberin biosynthetic genes in a temporal manner during seed development. Disrupting MYB107 particularly suppresses the expression of genes involved in suberinmore » but not cutin biosynthesis, lowers seed coat suberin accumulation, alters suberin lamellar structure, and consequently renders higher seed coat permeability and susceptibility to abiotic stresses. Furthermore, MYB107 directly binds to the promoters of suberin biosynthetic genes, verifying its primary role in regulating their expression. Identifying MYB107 as a positive regulator for seed coat suberin synthesis offers a basis for discovering the potential transcriptional network behind one of the most abundant lipid-based polymers in nature.« less

  19. Small-Molecule Inhibitors of the SOX18 Transcription Factor.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Frank; Overman, Jeroen; Moustaqil, Mehdi; Mamidyala, Sreeman; Salim, Angela; Narasimhan, Kamesh; Prokoph, Nina; Robertson, Avril A B; Lua, Linda; Alexandrov, Kirill; Koopman, Peter; Capon, Robert J; Sierecki, Emma; Gambin, Yann; Jauch, Ralf; Cooper, Matthew A; Zuegg, Johannes; Francois, Mathias

    2017-03-16

    Pharmacological modulation of transcription factors (TFs) has only met little success over the past four decades. This is mostly due to standard drug discovery approaches centered on blocking protein/DNA binding or interfering with post-translational modifications. Recent advances in the field of TF biology have revealed a central role of protein-protein interaction in their mode of action. In an attempt to modulate the activity of SOX18 TF, a known regulator of vascular growth in development and disease, we screened a marine extract library for potential small-molecule inhibitors. We identified two compounds, which inspired a series of synthetic SOX18 inhibitors, able to interfere with the SOX18 HMG DNA-binding domain, and to disrupt HMG-dependent protein-protein interaction with RBPJ. These compounds also perturbed SOX18 transcriptional activity in a cell-based reporter gene system. This approach may prove useful in developing a new class of anti-angiogenic compounds based on the inhibition of TF activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effects of cytosine methylation on general transcription factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jianshi; Lian, Tengfei; Gu, Chan; Yu, Kai; Gao, Yi Qin; Su, Xiao-Dong

    2016-07-01

    DNA methylation on CpG sites is the most common epigenetic modification. Recently, methylation in a non-CpG context was found to occur widely on genomic DNA. Moreover, methylation of non-CpG sites is a highly controlled process, and its level may vary during cellular development. To study non-CpG methylation effects on DNA/protein interactions, we have chosen three human transcription factors (TFs): glucocorticoid receptor (GR), brain and muscle ARNT-like 1 (BMAL1) - circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK) and estrogen receptor (ER) with methylated or unmethylated DNA binding sequences, using single-molecule and isothermal titration calorimetry assays. The results demonstrated that these TFs interact with methylated DNA with different effects compared with their cognate DNA sequences. The effects of non-CpG methylation on transcriptional regulation were validated by cell-based luciferase assay at protein level. The mechanisms of non-CpG methylation influencing DNA-protein interactions were investigated by crystallographic analyses and molecular dynamics simulation. With BisChIP-seq assays in HEK-293T cells, we found that GR can recognize highly methylated sites within chromatin in cells. Therefore, we conclude that non-CpG methylation of DNA can provide a mechanism for regulating gene expression through directly affecting the binding of TFs.

  1. A WRKY Transcription Factor Regulates Fe Translocation under Fe Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jing Ying; Li, Chun Xiao; Sun, Li; Ren, Jiang Yuan; Li, Gui Xin; Ding, Zhong Jie; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2016-07-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency affects plant growth and development, leading to reduction of crop yields and quality. Although the regulation of Fe uptake under Fe deficiency has been well studied in the past decade, the regulatory mechanism of Fe translocation inside the plants remains unknown. Here, we show that a WRKY transcription factor WRKY46 is involved in response to Fe deficiency. Lack of WRKY46 (wrky46-1 and wrky46-2 loss-of-function mutants) significantly affects Fe translocation from root to shoot and thus causes obvious chlorosis on the new leaves under Fe deficiency. Gene expression analysis reveals that expression of a nodulin-like gene (VACUOLAR IRON TRANSPORTER1-LIKE1 [VITL1]) is dramatically increased in wrky46-1 mutant. VITL1 expression is inhibited by Fe deficiency, while the expression of WRKY46 is induced in the root stele. Moreover, down-regulation of VITL1 expression can restore the chlorosis phenotype on wrky46-1 under Fe deficiency. Further yeast one-hybrid and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments indicate that WRKY46 is capable of binding to the specific W-boxes present in the VITL1 promoter. In summary, our results demonstrate that WRKY46 plays an important role in the control of root-to-shoot Fe translocation under Fe deficiency condition via direct regulation of VITL1 transcript levels. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  2. The MYB107 Transcription Factor Positively Regulates Suberin Biosynthesis

    DOE PAGES

    Gou, Mingyue; Hou, Guichuan; Yang, Huijun; ...

    2016-12-13

    Suberin, a lipophilic polymer deposited in the outer integument of the Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana) seed coat, represents an essential sealing component controlling water and solute movement and protecting seed from pathogenic infection. Although many genes responsible for suberin synthesis are identified, the regulatory components controlling its biosynthesis have not been definitively determined. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis MYB107 transcription factor acts as a positive regulator controlling suberin biosynthetic gene expression in the seed coat. MYB107 coexpresses with suberin biosynthetic genes in a temporal manner during seed development. Disrupting MYB107 particularly suppresses the expression of genes involved in suberinmore » but not cutin biosynthesis, lowers seed coat suberin accumulation, alters suberin lamellar structure, and consequently renders higher seed coat permeability and susceptibility to abiotic stresses. Furthermore, MYB107 directly binds to the promoters of suberin biosynthetic genes, verifying its primary role in regulating their expression. Identifying MYB107 as a positive regulator for seed coat suberin synthesis offers a basis for discovering the potential transcriptional network behind one of the most abundant lipid-based polymers in nature.« less

  3. Naturally occurring mutations in the human 5-lipoxygenase gene promoter that modify transcription factor binding and reporter gene transcription.

    PubMed Central

    In, K H; Asano, K; Beier, D; Grobholz, J; Finn, P W; Silverman, E K; Silverman, E S; Collins, T; Fischer, A R; Keith, T P; Serino, K; Kim, S W; De Sanctis, G T; Yandava, C; Pillari, A; Rubin, P; Kemp, J; Israel, E; Busse, W; Ledford, D; Murray, J J; Segal, A; Tinkleman, D; Drazen, J M

    1997-01-01

    Five lipoxygenase (5-LO) is the first committed enzyme in the metabolic pathway leading to the synthesis of the leukotrienes. We examined genomic DNA isolated from 25 normal subjects and 31 patients with asthma (6 of whom had aspirin-sensitive asthma) for mutations in the known transcription factor binding regions and the protein encoding region of the 5-LO gene. A family of mutations in the G + C-rich transcription factor binding region was identified consisting of the deletion of one, deletion of two, or addition of one zinc finger (Sp1/Egr-1) binding sites in the region 176 to 147 bp upstream from the ATG translation start site where there are normally 5 Sp1 binding motifs in tandem. Reporter gene activity directed by any of the mutant forms of the transcription factor binding region was significantly (P < 0.05) less effective than the activity driven by the wild type transcription factor binding region. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) demonstrated the capacity of wild type and mutant transcription factor binding regions to bind nuclear extracts from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). These data are consistent with a family of mutations in the 5-LO gene that can modify reporter gene transcription possibly through differences in Sp1 and Egr-1 transactivation. PMID:9062372

  4. Naturally occurring mutations in the human 5-lipoxygenase gene promoter that modify transcription factor binding and reporter gene transcription.

    PubMed

    In, K H; Asano, K; Beier, D; Grobholz, J; Finn, P W; Silverman, E K; Silverman, E S; Collins, T; Fischer, A R; Keith, T P; Serino, K; Kim, S W; De Sanctis, G T; Yandava, C; Pillari, A; Rubin, P; Kemp, J; Israel, E; Busse, W; Ledford, D; Murray, J J; Segal, A; Tinkleman, D; Drazen, J M

    1997-03-01

    Five lipoxygenase (5-LO) is the first committed enzyme in the metabolic pathway leading to the synthesis of the leukotrienes. We examined genomic DNA isolated from 25 normal subjects and 31 patients with asthma (6 of whom had aspirin-sensitive asthma) for mutations in the known transcription factor binding regions and the protein encoding region of the 5-LO gene. A family of mutations in the G + C-rich transcription factor binding region was identified consisting of the deletion of one, deletion of two, or addition of one zinc finger (Sp1/Egr-1) binding sites in the region 176 to 147 bp upstream from the ATG translation start site where there are normally 5 Sp1 binding motifs in tandem. Reporter gene activity directed by any of the mutant forms of the transcription factor binding region was significantly (P < 0.05) less effective than the activity driven by the wild type transcription factor binding region. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) demonstrated the capacity of wild type and mutant transcription factor binding regions to bind nuclear extracts from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). These data are consistent with a family of mutations in the 5-LO gene that can modify reporter gene transcription possibly through differences in Sp1 and Egr-1 transactivation.

  5. Water deficit-induced changes in transcription factor expression in maize seedlings

    Plants tolerate water deficits by regulating gene networks controlling cellular and physiological traits to modify growth and development. Transcription factor (TFs) directed regulation of transcription within these gene networks is key to eliciting appropriate responses. In this study, reverse tran...

  6. Jasmonate-responsive transcription factors regulating plant secondary metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Meiliang; Memelink, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce a large variety of secondary metabolites including alkaloids, glucosinolates, terpenoids and phenylpropanoids. These compounds play key roles in plant-environment interactions and many of them have pharmacological activity in humans. Jasmonates (JAs) are plant hormones which induce biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites. JAs-responsive transcription factors (TFs) that regulate the JAs-induced accumulation of secondary metabolites belong to different families including AP2/ERF, bHLH, MYB and WRKY. Here, we give an overview of the types and functions of TFs that have been identified in JAs-induced secondary metabolite biosynthesis, and highlight their similarities and differences in regulating various biosynthetic pathways. We review major recent developments regarding JAs-responsive TFs mediating secondary metabolite biosynthesis, and provide suggestions for further studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Post-translational control of transcription factors: methylation ranks highly.

    PubMed

    Carr, Simon M; Poppy Roworth, A; Chan, Cheryl; La Thangue, Nicholas B

    2015-12-01

    Methylation of lysine and arginine residues on histones has long been known to determine both chromatin structure and gene expression. In recent years, the methylation of non-histone proteins has emerged as a prevalent modification which impacts on diverse processes such as cell cycle control, DNA repair, senescence, differentiation, apoptosis and tumourigenesis. Many of these non-histone targets represent transcription factors, cell signalling molecules and tumour suppressor proteins. Evidence now suggests that the dysregulation of methyltransferases, demethylases and reader proteins is involved in the development of many diseases, including cancer, and several of these proteins represent potential therapeutic targets for small molecule compounds, fuelling a recent surge in chemical inhibitor design. Such molecules will greatly help us to understand the role of methylation in both health and disease. © 2015 FEBS.

  8. Engineering an allosteric transcription factor to respond to new ligands.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Noah D; Garruss, Alexander S; Moretti, Rocco; Chan, Sum; Arbing, Mark A; Cascio, Duilio; Rogers, Jameson K; Isaacs, Farren J; Kosuri, Sriram; Baker, David; Fields, Stanley; Church, George M; Raman, Srivatsan

    2016-02-01

    Genetic regulatory proteins inducible by small molecules are useful synthetic biology tools as sensors and switches. Bacterial allosteric transcription factors (aTFs) are a major class of regulatory proteins, but few aTFs have been redesigned to respond to new effectors beyond natural aTF-inducer pairs. Altering inducer specificity in these proteins is difficult because substitutions that affect inducer binding may also disrupt allostery. We engineered an aTF, the Escherichia coli lac repressor, LacI, to respond to one of four new inducer molecules: fucose, gentiobiose, lactitol and sucralose. Using computational protein design, single-residue saturation mutagenesis or random mutagenesis, along with multiplex assembly, we identified new variants comparable in specificity and induction to wild-type LacI with its inducer, isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). The ability to create designer aTFs will enable applications including dynamic control of cell metabolism, cell biology and synthetic gene circuits.

  9. Engineering an allosteric transcription factor to respond to new ligands

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Noah D; Garruss, Alexander S; Moretti, Rocco; Chan, Sum; Arbing, Mark A; Cascio, Duilio; Rogers, Jameson K; Isaacs, Farren J; Kosuri, Sriram; Baker, David; Fields, Stanley; Church, George M; Raman, Srivatsan

    2016-01-01

    Genetic regulatory proteins inducible by small molecules are useful synthetic biology tools as sensors and switches. Bacterial allosteric transcription factors (aTFs) are a major class of regulatory proteins, but few aTFs have been redesigned to respond to new effectors beyond natural aTF-inducer pairs. Altering inducer specificity in these proteins is difficult because substitutions that affect inducer binding may also disrupt allostery. We engineered an aTF, the Escherichia coli lac repressor, LacI, to respond to one of four new inducer molecules: fucose, gentiobiose, lactitol or sucralose. Using computational protein design, single-residue saturation mutagenesis or random mutagenesis, along with multiplex assembly, we identified new variants comparable in specificity and induction to wild-type LacI with its inducer, isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). The ability to create designer aTFs will enable applications including dynamic control of cell metabolism, cell biology and synthetic gene circuits. PMID:26689263

  10. Fundamental Design Principles for Transcription-Factor-Based Metabolite Biosensors.

    PubMed

    Mannan, Ahmad A; Liu, Di; Zhang, Fuzhong; Oyarzún, Diego A

    2017-10-20

    Metabolite biosensors are central to current efforts toward precision engineering of metabolism. Although most research has focused on building new biosensors, their tunability remains poorly understood and is fundamental for their broad applicability. Here we asked how genetic modifications shape the dose-response curve of biosensors based on metabolite-responsive transcription factors. Using the lac system in Escherichia coli as a model system, we built promoter libraries with variable operator sites that reveal interdependencies between biosensor dynamic range and response threshold. We developed a phenomenological theory to quantify such design constraints in biosensors with various architectures and tunable parameters. Our theory reveals a maximal achievable dynamic range and exposes tunable parameters for orthogonal control of dynamic range and response threshold. Our work sheds light on fundamental limits of synthetic biology designs and provides quantitative guidelines for biosensor design in applications such as dynamic pathway control, strain optimization, and real-time monitoring of metabolism.

  11. Molecular mechanisms of OLIG2 transcription factor in brain cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Nathan; Kesari, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    Oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 (OLIG2) plays a pivotal role in glioma development. Here we conducted a comprehensive study of the critical gene regulatory networks involving OLIG2. These include the networks responsible for OLIG2 expression, its translocation to nucleus, cell cycle, epigenetic regulation, and Rho-pathway interactions. We described positive feedback loops including OLIG2: loops of epigenetic regulation and loops involving receptor tyrosine kinases. These loops may be responsible for the prolonged oncogenic activity of OLIG2. The proposed schemes for epigenetic regulation of the gene networks involving OLIG2 are confirmed by patient survival (Kaplan–Meier) curves based on the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) datasets. Finally, we elucidate the Coherent-Gene Modules (CGMs) networks—framework of OLIG2 involvement in cancer. We showed that genes interacting with OLIG2 formed eight CGMs having a set of intermodular connections. We showed also that among the genes involved in these modules the most connected hub is EGFR, then, on lower level, HSP90 and CALM1, followed by three lower levels including epigenetic genes KDM1A and NCOR1. The genes on the six upper levels of the hierarchy are involved in interconnections of all eight CGMs and organize functionally defined gene-signaling subnetworks having specific functions. For example, CGM1 is involved in epigenetic control. CGM2 is significantly related to cell proliferation and differentiation. CGM3 includes a number of interconnected helix–loop–helix transcription factors (bHLH) including OLIG2. Many of these TFs are partially controlled by OLIG2. The CGM4 is involved in PDGF-related: angiogenesis, tumor cell proliferation and differentiation. These analyses provide testable hypotheses and approaches to inhibit OLIG2 pathway and relevant feed-forward and feedback loops to be interrogated. This broad approach can be applied to other TFs. PMID:27447975

  12. Comprehensive Behavioral Analysis of Activating Transcription Factor 5-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Umemura, Mariko; Ogura, Tae; Matsuzaki, Ayako; Nakano, Haruo; Takao, Keizo; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Yuji

    2017-01-01

    Activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) is a member of the CREB/ATF family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors. We previously reported that ATF5-deficient (ATF5-/-) mice demonstrated abnormal olfactory bulb development due to impaired interneuron supply. Furthermore, ATF5-/- mice were less aggressive than ATF5+/+ mice. Although ATF5 is widely expressed in the brain, and involved in the regulation of proliferation and development of neurons, the physiological role of ATF5 in the higher brain remains unknown. Our objective was to investigate the physiological role of ATF5 in the higher brain. We performed a comprehensive behavioral analysis using ATF5-/- mice and wild type littermates. ATF5-/- mice exhibited abnormal locomotor activity in the open field test. They also exhibited abnormal anxiety-like behavior in the light/dark transition test and open field test. Furthermore, ATF5-/- mice displayed reduced social interaction in the Crawley’s social interaction test and increased pain sensitivity in the hot plate test compared with wild type. Finally, behavioral flexibility was reduced in the T-maze test in ATF5-/- mice compared with wild type. In addition, we demonstrated that ATF5-/- mice display disturbances of monoamine neurotransmitter levels in several brain regions. These results indicate that ATF5 deficiency elicits abnormal behaviors and the disturbance of monoamine neurotransmitter levels in the brain. The behavioral abnormalities of ATF5-/- mice may be due to the disturbance of monoamine levels. Taken together, these findings suggest that ATF5-/- mice may be a unique animal model of some psychiatric disorders. PMID:28744205

  13. ROBNCA: robust network component analysis for recovering transcription factor activities.

    PubMed

    Noor, Amina; Ahmad, Aitzaz; Serpedin, Erchin; Nounou, Mohamed; Nounou, Hazem

    2013-10-01

    Network component analysis (NCA) is an efficient method of reconstructing the transcription factor activity (TFA), which makes use of the gene expression data and prior information available about transcription factor (TF)-gene regulations. Most of the contemporary algorithms either exhibit the drawback of inconsistency and poor reliability, or suffer from prohibitive computational complexity. In addition, the existing algorithms do not possess the ability to counteract the presence of outliers in the microarray data. Hence, robust and computationally efficient algorithms are needed to enable practical applications. We propose ROBust Network Component Analysis (ROBNCA), a novel iterative algorithm that explicitly models the possible outliers in the microarray data. An attractive feature of the ROBNCA algorithm is the derivation of a closed form solution for estimating the connectivity matrix, which was not available in prior contributions. The ROBNCA algorithm is compared with FastNCA and the non-iterative NCA (NI-NCA). ROBNCA estimates the TF activity profiles as well as the TF-gene control strength matrix with a much higher degree of accuracy than FastNCA and NI-NCA, irrespective of varying noise, correlation and/or amount of outliers in case of synthetic data. The ROBNCA algorithm is also tested on Saccharomyces cerevisiae data and Escherichia coli data, and it is observed to outperform the existing algorithms. The run time of the ROBNCA algorithm is comparable with that of FastNCA, and is hundreds of times faster than NI-NCA. The ROBNCA software is available at http://people.tamu.edu/∼amina/ROBNCA

  14. Transcription Factor Arabidopsis Activating Factor1 Integrates Carbon Starvation Responses with Trehalose Metabolism1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Garapati, Prashanth; Feil, Regina; Lunn, John Edward; Van Dijck, Patrick; Balazadeh, Salma; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Plants respond to low carbon supply by massive reprogramming of the transcriptome and metabolome. We show here that the carbon starvation-induced NAC (for NO APICAL MERISTEM/ARABIDOPSIS TRANSCRIPTION ACTIVATION FACTOR/CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON) transcription factor Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Transcription Activation Factor1 (ATAF1) plays an important role in this physiological process. We identified TREHALASE1, the only trehalase-encoding gene in Arabidopsis, as a direct downstream target of ATAF1. Overexpression of ATAF1 activates TREHALASE1 expression and leads to reduced trehalose-6-phosphate levels and a sugar starvation metabolome. In accordance with changes in expression of starch biosynthesis- and breakdown-related genes, starch levels are generally reduced in ATAF1 overexpressors but elevated in ataf1 knockout plants. At the global transcriptome level, genes affected by ATAF1 are broadly associated with energy and carbon starvation responses. Furthermore, transcriptional responses triggered by ATAF1 largely overlap with expression patterns observed in plants starved for carbon or energy supply. Collectively, our data highlight the existence of a positively acting feedforward loop between ATAF1 expression, which is induced by carbon starvation, and the depletion of cellular carbon/energy pools that is triggered by the transcriptional regulation of downstream gene regulatory networks by ATAF1. PMID:26149570

  15. Beyond Transcription Factors: The Role of Chromatin Modifying Enzymes in Regulating Transcription Required for Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Ruth M.; Wood, Marcelo A.

    2008-01-01

    One of the alluring aspects of examining chromatin modifications in the role of modulating transcription required for long-term memory processes is that these modifications may provide transient and potentially stable epigenetic marks in the service of activating and/or maintaining transcriptional processes. These, in turn, may ultimately…

  16. Understanding Transcription Factor Regulation by Integrating Gene Expression and DNase I Hypersensitive Sites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guohua; Wang, Fang; Huang, Qian; Li, Yu; Liu, Yunlong; Wang, Yadong

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors are proteins that bind to DNA sequences to regulate gene transcription. The transcription factor binding sites are short DNA sequences (5-20 bp long) specifically bound by one or more transcription factors. The identification of transcription factor binding sites and prediction of their function continue to be challenging problems in computational biology. In this study, by integrating the DNase I hypersensitive sites with known position weight matrices in the TRANSFAC database, the transcription factor binding sites in gene regulatory region are identified. Based on the global gene expression patterns in cervical cancer HeLaS3 cell and HelaS3-ifnα4h cell (interferon treatment on HeLaS3 cell for 4 hours), we present a model-based computational approach to predict a set of transcription factors that potentially cause such differential gene expression. Significantly, 6 out 10 predicted functional factors, including IRF, IRF-2, IRF-9, IRF-1 and IRF-3, ICSBP, belong to interferon regulatory factor family and upregulate the gene expression levels responding to the interferon treatment. Another factor, ISGF-3, is also a transcriptional activator induced by interferon alpha. Using the different transcription factor binding sites selected criteria, the prediction result of our model is consistent. Our model demonstrated the potential to computationally identify the functional transcription factors in gene regulation.

  17. Regulation of Memory Formation by the Transcription Factor XBP1.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Gabriela; Vidal, René L; Mardones, Pablo; Serrano, Felipe G; Ardiles, Alvaro O; Wirth, Craig; Valdés, Pamela; Thielen, Peter; Schneider, Bernard L; Kerr, Bredford; Valdés, Jose L; Palacios, Adrian G; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C; Glimcher, Laurie H; Hetz, Claudio

    2016-02-16

    Contextual memory formation relies on the induction of new genes in the hippocampus. A polymorphism in the promoter of the transcription factor XBP1 was identified as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and bipolar disorders. XBP1 is a major regulator of the unfolded protein response (UPR), mediating adaptation to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Using a phenotypic screen, we uncovered an unexpected function of XBP1 in cognition and behavior. Mice lacking XBP1 in the nervous system showed specific impairment of contextual memory formation and long-term potentiation (LTP), whereas neuronal XBP1s overexpression improved performance in memory tasks. Gene expression analysis revealed that XBP1 regulates a group of memory-related genes, highlighting brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a key component in memory consolidation. Overexpression of BDNF in the hippocampus reversed the XBP1-deficient phenotype. Our study revealed an unanticipated function of XBP1 in cognitive processes that is apparently unrelated to its role in ER stress. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Induction of DREB2A pathway with repression of E2F, jasmonic acid biosynthetic and photosynthesis pathways in cold acclimation-specific freeze-resistant wheat crown.

    PubMed

    Karki, Amrit; Horvath, David P; Sutton, Fedora

    2013-03-01

    Winter wheat lines can achieve cold acclimation (development of tolerance to freezing temperatures) and vernalization (delay in transition from vegetative to reproductive phase) in response to low non-freezing temperatures. To describe cold-acclimation-specific processes and pathways, we utilized cold acclimation transcriptomic data from two lines varying in freeze survival but not vernalization. These lines, designated freeze-resistant (FR) and freeze-susceptible (FS), were the source of crown tissue RNA. Well-annotated differentially expressed genes (p ≤ 0.005 and fold change ≥ 2 in response to 4 weeks cold acclimation) were used for gene ontology and pathway analysis. "Abiotic stimuli" was identified as the most enriched and unique for FR. Unique to FS was "cytoplasmic components." Pathway analysis revealed the "triacylglycerol degradation" pathway as significantly downregulated and common to both FR and FS. The most enriched of FR pathways was "neighbors of DREB2A," with the highest positive median fold change. The "13-LOX and 13-HPL" and the "E2F" pathways were enriched in FR only with a negative median fold change. The "jasmonic acid biosynthesis" pathway and four "photosynthetic-associated" pathways were enriched in both FR and FS but with a more negative median fold change in FR than in FS. A pathway unique to FS was "binding partners of LHCA1," which was enriched only in FS with a significant negative median fold change. We propose that the DREB2A, E2F, jasmonic acid biosynthesis, and photosynthetic pathways are critical for discrimination between cold-acclimated lines varying in freeze survival.

  19. Transcriptional Regulatory Network Analysis of MYB Transcription Factor Family Genes in Rice.

    PubMed

    Smita, Shuchi; Katiyar, Amit; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Pandey, Dev M; Bansal, Kailash C

    2015-01-01

    MYB transcription factor (TF) is one of the largest TF families and regulates defense responses to various stresses, hormone signaling as well as many metabolic and developmental processes in plants. Understanding these regulatory hierarchies of gene expression networks in response to developmental and environmental cues is a major challenge due to the complex interactions between the genetic elements. Correlation analyses are useful to unravel co-regulated gene pairs governing biological process as well as identification of new candidate hub genes in response to these complex processes. High throughput expression profiling data are highly useful for construction of co-expression networks. In the present study, we utilized transcriptome data for comprehensive regulatory network studies of MYB TFs by "top-down" and "guide-gene" approaches. More than 50% of OsMYBs were strongly correlated under 50 experimental conditions with 51 hub genes via "top-down" approach. Further, clusters were identified using Markov Clustering (MCL). To maximize the clustering performance, parameter evaluation of the MCL inflation score (I) was performed in terms of enriched GO categories by measuring F-score. Comparison of co-expressed cluster and clads analyzed from phylogenetic analysis signifies their evolutionarily conserved co-regulatory role. We utilized compendium of known interaction and biological role with Gene Ontology enrichment analysis to hypothesize function of coexpressed OsMYBs. In the other part, the transcriptional regulatory network analysis by "guide-gene" approach revealed 40 putative targets of 26 OsMYB TF hubs with high correlation value utilizing 815 microarray data. The putative targets with MYB-binding cis-elements enrichment in their promoter region, functional co-occurrence as well as nuclear localization supports our finding. Specially, enrichment of MYB binding regions involved in drought-inducibility implying their regulatory role in drought response in rice

  20. The Transcription Factor p53 Influences Microglial Activation Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Jayadev, Suman; Nesser, Nicole K.; Hopkins, Stephanie; Myers, Scott J.; Case, Amanda; Lee, Rona J.; Seaburg, Luke A.; Uo, Takuma; Murphy, Sean P.; Morrison, Richard S.; Garden, Gwenn A.

    2011-01-01

    Several neurodegenerative diseases are influenced by the innate immune response in the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia, have pro-inflammatory and subsequently neurotoxic actions as well as anti-inflammatory functions that promote recovery and repair. Very little is known about the transcriptional control of these specific microglial behaviors. We have previously shown that in HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), the transcription factor p53 accumulates in microglia and that microglial p53 expression is required for the in vitro neurotoxicity of the HIV coat glycoprotein gp120. These findings suggested a novel function for p53 in regulating microglial activation. Here we report that in the absence of p53, microglia demonstrate a blunted response to interferon-γ, failing to increase expression of genes associated with classical macrophage activation or secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines. Microarray analysis of global gene expression profiles revealed increased expression of genes associated with anti-inflammatory functions, phagocytosis and tissue repair in p53 knockout (p53−/−) microglia compared with those cultured from strain matched p53 expressing (p53+/+) mice. We further observed that p53−/− microglia demonstrate increased phagocytic activity in vitro and expression of markers for alternative macrophage activation both in vitro and in vivo. In HAND brain tissue, the alternative activation marker CD163 was expressed in a separate subset of microglia than those demonstrating p53 accumulation. These data suggest that p53 influences microglial behavior, supporting the adoption of a pro-inflammatory phenotype, while p53 deficiency promotes phagocytosis and gene expression associated with alternative activation and anti-inflammatory functions. PMID:21598312

  1. Myeloid Leukemia Factor Acts in a Chaperone Complex to Regulate Transcription Factor Stability and Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Jamie O; Dutta, Arnob; Gogol, Madelaine; Weake, Vikki M; Dialynas, George; Wu, Xilan; Seidel, Christopher; Zhang, Ying; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P; Abmayr, Susan M; Workman, Jerry L

    2017-06-30

    Mutations that affect myelodysplasia/myeloid leukemia factor (MLF) proteins are associated with leukemia and several other cancers. However, with no strong homology to other proteins of known function, the role of MLF proteins in the cell has remained elusive. Here, we describe a proteomics approach that identifies MLF as a member of a nuclear chaperone complex containing a DnaJ protein, BCL2-associated anthanogene 2, and Hsc70. This complex associates with chromatin and regulates the expression of target genes. The MLF complex is bound to sites of nucleosome depletion and sites containing active chromatin marks (e.g., H3K4me3 and H3K4me1). Hence, MLF binding is enriched at promoters and enhancers. Additionally, the MLF-chaperone complex functions to regulate transcription factor stability, including the RUNX transcription factor involved in hematopoiesis. Although Hsc70 and other co-chaperones have been shown to play a role in nuclear translocation of a variety of proteins including transcription factors, our findings suggest that MLF and the associated co-chaperones play a direct role in modulating gene transcription. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Wood reinforcement of poplar by rice NAC transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Shingo; Takata, Naoki; Oshima, Yoshimi; Yoshida, Kouki; Taniguchi, Toru; Mitsuda, Nobutaka

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulose, composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, in the secondary cell wall constitutes wood and is the most abundant form of biomass on Earth. Enhancement of wood accumulation may be an effective strategy to increase biomass as well as wood strength, but currently only limited research has been undertaken. Here, we demonstrated that OsSWN1, the orthologue of the rice NAC Secondary-wall Thickening factor (NST) transcription factor, effectively enhanced secondary cell wall formation in the Arabidopsis inflorescence stem and poplar (Populus tremula×Populus tremuloides) stem when expressed by the Arabidopsis NST3 promoter. Interestingly, in transgenic Arabidopsis and poplar, ectopic secondary cell wall deposition in the pith area was observed in addition to densification of the secondary cell wall in fiber cells. The cell wall content or density of the stem increased on average by up to 38% and 39% in Arabidopsis and poplar, respectively, without causing growth inhibition. As a result, physical strength of the stem increased by up to 57% in poplar. Collectively, these data suggest that the reinforcement of wood by NST3pro:OsSWN1 is a promising strategy to enhance wood-biomass production in dicotyledonous plant species. PMID:26812961

  3. Transcription factor NFAT5 promotes macrophage survival in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Susanna; Choi, Soo Youn; Kwon, H. Moo; Hwang, Daehee; Park, Yune-Jung; Cho, Chul-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Defective apoptotic death of activated macrophages has been implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the molecular signatures defining apoptotic resistance of RA macrophages are not fully understood. Here, global transcriptome profiling of RA macrophages revealed that the osmoprotective transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5) critically regulates diverse pathologic processes in synovial macrophages including the cell cycle, apoptosis, and proliferation. Transcriptomic analysis of NFAT5-deficient macrophages revealed the molecular networks defining cell survival and proliferation. Proinflammatory M1-polarizing stimuli and hypoxic conditions were responsible for enhanced NFAT5 expression in RA macrophages. An in vitro functional study demonstrated that NFAT5-deficient macrophages were more susceptible to apoptotic death. Specifically, CCL2 secretion in an NFAT5-dependent fashion bestowed apoptotic resistance to RA macrophages in vitro. Injection of recombinant CCL2 into one of the affected joints of Nfat5+/– mice increased joint destruction and macrophage infiltration, demonstrating the essential role of the NFAT5/CCL2 axis in arthritis progression in vivo. Moreover, after intra-articular injection, NFAT5-deficient macrophages were more susceptible to apoptosis and less efficient at promoting joint destruction than were NFAT5-sufficient macrophages. Thus, NFAT5 regulates macrophage survival by inducing CCL2 secretion. Our results provide evidence that NFAT5 expression in macrophages enhances chronic arthritis by conferring apoptotic resistance to activated macrophages. PMID:28192374

  4. Complex Interdependence Regulates Heterotypic Transcription Factor Distribution and Coordinates Cardiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Luna-Zurita, Luis; Stirnimann, Christian U; Glatt, Sebastian; Kaynak, Bogac L; Thomas, Sean; Baudin, Florence; Samee, Md Abul Hassan; He, Daniel; Small, Eric M; Mileikovsky, Maria; Nagy, Andras; Holloway, Alisha K; Pollard, Katherine S; Müller, Christoph W; Bruneau, Benoit G

    2016-02-25

    Transcription factors (TFs) are thought to function with partners to achieve specificity and precise quantitative outputs. In the developing heart, heterotypic TF interactions, such as between the T-box TF TBX5 and the homeodomain TF NKX2-5, have been proposed as a mechanism for human congenital heart defects. We report extensive and complex interdependent genomic occupancy of TBX5, NKX2-5, and the zinc finger TF GATA4 coordinately controlling cardiac gene expression, differentiation, and morphogenesis. Interdependent binding serves not only to co-regulate gene expression but also to prevent TFs from distributing to ectopic loci and activate lineage-inappropriate genes. We define preferential motif arrangements for TBX5 and NKX2-5 cooperative binding sites, supported at the atomic level by their co-crystal structure bound to DNA, revealing a direct interaction between the two factors and induced DNA bending. Complex interdependent binding mechanisms reveal tightly regulated TF genomic distribution and define a combinatorial logic for heterotypic TF regulation of differentiation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of Nrf2 transcription factor in viral infection.

    PubMed

    Ramezani, Ali; Nahad, Mehdi Parsa; Faghihloo, Ebrahim

    2018-05-08

    The nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a major regulator of intracellular inducible defense systems against harmful endogenous and exogenous substances in the body. Under normal conditions Nrf2 is mainly binds to keap1 and located in the cytoplasm. However, in response to oxidative and electrophile stress, Nrf2 translocated to the nucleus and link to anti-oxidant response elements to induce the transcription of cytoprotective genes. Most viruses cause oxidative stress and increase the activity of radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS), subsequently, the cellular protection system activates the Nrf2 and increases the expression of cytoprotective genes. However, in some cases, the activation of Nrf2 is not ROS-dependent, and is carried out directly via the ROS-independent pathway. Many viruses cause the activation of Nrf2, which is involved in the pathogenesis and the progression of the virus infection and even in its chronic form. However, some viruses inhibit the activation of Nrf2, in which case the virus also benefits of this mechanism to maintain the homeostasis of the cell. However, the challenge between the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway of and viral infections is unknown in some cases, and in order to know more details in this regard, a more detailed seems necessary. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Transcriptional regulation of metabolism in disease: From transcription factors to epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Every cell in an individual has largely the same genomic sequence and yet cells in different tissues can present widely different phenotypes. This variation arises because each cell expresses a specific subset of genomic instructions. Control over which instructions, or genes, are expressed is largely controlled by transcriptional regulatory pathways. Each cell must assimilate a huge amount of environmental input, and thus it is of no surprise that transcription is regulated by many intertwining mechanisms. This large regulatory landscape means there are ample possibilities for problems to arise, which in a medical context means the development of disease states. Metabolism within the cell, and more broadly, affects and is affected by transcriptional regulation. Metabolism can therefore contribute to improper transcriptional programming, or pathogenic metabolism can be the result of transcriptional dysregulation. Here, we discuss the established and emerging mechanisms for controling transcription and how they affect metabolism in the context of pathogenesis. Cis- and trans-regulatory elements, microRNA and epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA and histone methylation, all have input into what genes are transcribed. Each has also been implicated in diseases such as metabolic syndrome, various forms of diabetes, and cancer. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of these areas and highlight some natural models that may inspire future therapeutics. PMID:29922517

  7. Problem-Solving Test: The Mechanism of Transcription Termination by the Rho Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2012-01-01

    Transcription termination comes in two forms in "E. coli" cells. Rho-dependent termination requires the binding of a termination protein called Rho factor to the transcriptional machinery at the terminator region, whereas Rho-independent termination is achieved by conformational changes in the transcript itself. This article presents a test…

  8. Nuclear Transcription Factors in the Mitochondria: A New Paradigm in Fine-Tuning Mitochondrial Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sepuri, Naresh Babu V; Tammineni, Prasad; Mohammed, Fareed; Paripati, Arunkumar

    2017-01-01

    Noncanonical functions of several nuclear transcription factors in the mitochondria have been gaining exceptional traction over the years. These transcription factors include nuclear hormone receptors like estrogen, glucocorticoid, and thyroid hormone receptors: p53, IRF3, STAT3, STAT5, CREB, NF-kB, and MEF-2D. Mitochondria-localized nuclear transcription factors regulate mitochondrial processes like apoptosis, respiration and mitochondrial transcription albeit being nuclear in origin and having nuclear functions. Hence, the cell permits these multi-stationed transcription factors to orchestrate and fine-tune cellular metabolism at various levels of operation. Despite their ubiquitous distribution in different subcompartments of mitochondria, their targeting mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we review the current status of mitochondria-localized transcription factors and discuss the possible targeting mechanism besides the functional interplay between these factors.

  9. Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-associated Factor 6 Is an Intranuclear Transcriptional Coactivator in Osteoclasts*

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Shuting; Zha, Jikun; Zhao, Haibo; Ross, F. Patrick; Teitelbaum, Steven L.

    2008-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) associates with the cytoplasmic domain of receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) and is an essential component of the signaling complex mediating osteoclastogenesis. However, the osteoclastic activity of TRAF6 is blunted by its association with four and half LIM domain 2 (FHL2), which functions as an adaptor protein in the cytoplasm and transcriptional regulator in the nucleus. We find that TRAF6 also localizes in the nuclei of osteoclasts but not their bone marrow macrophage precursors and that osteoclast intranuclear abundance is specifically increased by RANK ligand (RANKL). TRAF6 nuclear localization requires FHL2 and is diminished in fhl2-/- osteoclasts. Suggesting transcriptional activity, TRAF6 interacts with the transcription factor RUNX1 in the osteoclast nucleus. FHL2 also associates with RUNX1 but does so only in the presence of TRAF6. Importantly, TRAF6 recognizes FHL2 and RUNX1 in osteoclast nuclei, and the three molecules form a DNA-binding complex that recognizes and transactivates the RUNX1 response element in the fhl2 promoter. Finally, TRAF6 and its proximal activator, RANKL, polyubiquitinate FHL2, prompting its proteasomal degradation. These observations suggest a feedback mechanism whereby TRAF6 negatively regulates osteoclast formation by intracytoplasmic sequestration of FHL2 to blunt RANK activation and as a component of a transcription complex promoting FHL2 expression. PMID:18768464

  10. Genome-wide investigation of transcription factors provides insights into transcriptional regulation in Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian; Ma, Dongna; Huang, Yuping; He, Weiyi; Li, Yiying; Vasseur, Liette; You, Minsheng

    2018-04-01

    Transcription factors (TFs), which play a vital role in regulating gene expression, are prevalent in all organisms and characterization of them may provide important clues for understanding regulation in vivo. The present study reports a genome-wide investigation of TFs in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), a worldwide pest of crucifers. A total of 940 TFs distributed among 133 families were identified. Phylogenetic analysis of insect species showed that some of these families were found to have expanded during the evolution of P. xylostella or Lepidoptera. RNA-seq analysis showed that some of the TF families, such as zinc fingers, homeobox, bZIP, bHLH, and MADF_DNA_bdg genes, were highly expressed in certain tissues including midgut, salivary glands, fat body, and hemocytes, with an obvious sex-biased expression pattern. In addition, a number of TFs showed significant differences in expression between insecticide susceptible and resistant strains, suggesting that these TFs play a role in regulating genes related to insecticide resistance. Finally, we identified an expansion of the HOX cluster in Lepidoptera, which might be related to Lepidoptera-specific evolution. Knockout of this cluster using CRISPR/Cas9 showed that the egg cannot hatch, indicating that this cluster may be related to egg development and maturation. This is the first comprehensive study on identifying and characterizing TFs in P. xylostella. Our results suggest that some TF families are expanded in the P. xylostella genome, and these TFs may have important biological roles in growth, development, sexual dimorphism, and resistance to insecticides. The present work provides a solid foundation for understanding regulation via TFs in P. xylostella and insights into the evolution of the P. xylostella genome.

  11. Transcription factor HBP1 is a direct anti-cancer target of transcription factor FOXO1 in invasive oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chien-Yi; Huang, Shih-Yi; Sheu, Jim Jinn-Chyuan; Roth, Mendel M; Chou, I-Tai; Lien, Chia-Hsien; Lee, Ming-Fen; Huang, Chun-Yin

    2017-02-28

    Either FOXO1 or HBP1 transcription factor is a downstream effector of the PI3K/Akt pathway and associated with tumorigenesis. However, the relationship between FOXO1 and HBP1 in oral cancer remains unclear. Analysis of 30 oral tumor specimens revealed that mean mRNA levels of both FOXO1 and HBP1 in non-invasive and invasive oral tumors were found to be significantly lower than that of the control tissues, and the status of low FOXO1 and HBP1 (< 0.3 fold of the control) was associated with invasiveness of oral tumors. To investigate if HBP1 is a direct transcription target of FOXO1, we searched potential FOXO1 binding sites in the HBP1 promoter using the MAPPER Search Engine, and two putative FOXO1 binding sites located in the HBP1 promoter -132 to -125 bp and -343 to -336 bp were predicted. These binding sites were then confirmed by both reporter gene assays and the in cellulo ChIP assay. In addition, Akt activity manipulated by PI3K inhibitor LY294002 or Akt mutants was shown to negatively affect FOXO1-mediated HBP1 promoter activation and gene expression. Last, the biological significance of the FOXO1-HBP1 axis in oral cancer malignancy was evaluated in cell growth, colony formation, and invasiveness. The results indicated that HBP1 knockdown potently promoted malignant phenotypes of oral cancer and the suppressive effect of FOXO1 on cell growth, colony formation, and invasion was alleviated upon HBP1 knockdown in invasive oral cancer cells. Taken together, our data provide evidence for HBP1 as a direct downstream target of FOXO1 in oral cancer malignancy.

  12. Hacking an Algal Transcription Factor for Lipid Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiulai; Hu, Guipeng; Liu, Liming

    2018-03-01

    Transcriptional engineering is a viable means for engineering microalgae to produce lipid, but it often results in a trade-off between production and growth. A recent study shows that engineering a single transcriptional regulator enables efficient carbon partitioning to lipid biosynthesis with high biomass productivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Transcriptional activation of human mu-opioid receptor gene by insulin-like growth factor-I in neuronal cells is modulated by the transcription factor REST.

    PubMed

    Bedini, Andrea; Baiula, Monica; Spampinato, Santi

    2008-06-01

    The human mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) promoter contains a DNA sequence binding the repressor element 1 silencing transcription factor (REST) that is implicated in transcriptional repression. We investigated whether insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), which affects various aspects of neuronal induction and maturation, regulates OPRM1 transcription in neuronal cells in the context of the potential influence of REST. A series of OPRM1-luciferase promoter/reporter constructs were transfected into two neuronal cell models, neuroblastoma-derived SH-SY5Y cells and PC12 cells. In the former, endogenous levels of human mu-opioid receptor (hMOPr) mRNA were evaluated by real-time PCR. IGF-I up-regulated OPRM1 transcription in: PC12 cells lacking REST, in SH-SY5Y cells transfected with constructs deficient in the REST DNA binding element, or when REST was down-regulated in retinoic acid-differentiated cells. IGF-I activates the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 signaling pathway and this transcription factor, binding to the signal transducer and activator of transcription-1/3 DNA element located in the promoter, increases OPRM1 transcription. We propose that a reduction in REST is a critical switch enabling IGF-I to up-regulate hMOPr. These findings help clarify how hMOPr expression is regulated in neuronal cells.

  14. Minireview: roles of the forkhead transcription factor FOXL2 in granulosa cell biology and pathology.

    PubMed

    Pisarska, Margareta D; Barlow, Gillian; Kuo, Fang-Ting

    2011-04-01

    The forkhead transcription factor (FOXL2) is an essential transcription factor in the ovary. It is important in ovarian development and a key factor in female sex determination. In addition, FOXL2 plays a significant role in the postnatal ovary and follicle maintenance. The diverse transcriptional activities of FOXL2 are likely attributable to posttranslational modifications and binding to other key proteins involved in granulosa cell function. Mutations of FOXL2 lead to disorders of ovarian function ranging from premature follicle depletion and ovarian failure to unregulated granulosa cell proliferation leading to tumor formation. Thus, FOXL2 is a key regulator of granulosa cell function and a master transcription factor in these cells.

  15. Building gene expression signatures indicative of transcription factor activation to predict AOP modulation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Building gene expression signatures indicative of transcription factor activation to predict AOP modulation Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are a framework for predicting quantitative relationships between molecular initiatin...

  16. Transcription Regulation of HYPK by Heat Shock Factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Das, Srijit; Bhattacharyya, Nitai Pada

    2014-01-01

    HYPK (Huntingtin Yeast Partner K) was originally identified by yeast two-hybrid assay as an interactor of Huntingtin, the protein mutated in Huntington's disease. HYPK was characterized earlier as an intrinsically unstructured protein having chaperone-like activity in vitro and in vivo. HYPK has the ability of reducing rate of aggregate formation and subsequent toxicity caused by mutant Huntingtin. Further investigation revealed that HYPK is involved in diverse cellular processes and required for normal functioning of cells. In this study we observed that hyperthermia increases HYPK expression in human and mouse cells in culture. Expression of exogenous Heat Shock Factor 1 (HSF1), upon heat treatment could induce HYPK expression, whereas HSF1 knockdown reduced endogenous as well as heat-induced HYPK expression. Putative HSF1-binding site present in the promoter of human HYPK gene was identified and validated by reporter assay. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed in vivo interaction of HSF1 and RNA polymerase II with HYPK promoter sequence. Additionally, acetylation of histone H4, a known epigenetic marker of inducible HSF1 binding, was observed in response to heat shock in HYPK gene promoter. Overexpression of HYPK inhibited cells from lethal heat-induced death whereas knockdown of HYPK made the cells susceptible to lethal heat shock-induced death. Apart from elevated temperature, HYPK was also upregulated by hypoxia and proteasome inhibition, two other forms of cellular stress. We concluded that chaperone-like protein HYPK is induced by cellular stress and under transcriptional regulation of HSF1. PMID:24465598

  17. Embryonic transcription factor SOX9 drives breast cancer endocrine resistance.

    PubMed

    Jeselsohn, Rinath; Cornwell, MacIntosh; Pun, Matthew; Buchwalter, Gilles; Nguyen, Mai; Bango, Clyde; Huang, Ying; Kuang, Yanan; Paweletz, Cloud; Fu, Xiaoyong; Nardone, Agostina; De Angelis, Carmine; Detre, Simone; Dodson, Andrew; Mohammed, Hisham; Carroll, Jason S; Bowden, Michaela; Rao, Prakash; Long, Henry W; Li, Fugen; Dowsett, Mitchell; Schiff, Rachel; Brown, Myles

    2017-05-30

    The estrogen receptor (ER) drives the growth of most luminal breast cancers and is the primary target of endocrine therapy. Although ER blockade with drugs such as tamoxifen is very effective, a major clinical limitation is the development of endocrine resistance especially in the setting of metastatic disease. Preclinical and clinical observations suggest that even following the development of endocrine resistance, ER signaling continues to exert a pivotal role in tumor progression in the majority of cases. Through the analysis of the ER cistrome in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells, we have uncovered a role for an RUNX2-ER complex that stimulates the transcription of a set of genes, including most notably the stem cell factor SOX9, that promote proliferation and a metastatic phenotype. We show that up-regulation of SOX9 is sufficient to cause relative endocrine resistance. The gain of SOX9 as an ER-regulated gene associated with tamoxifen resistance was validated in a unique set of clinical samples supporting the need for the development of improved ER antagonists.

  18. Embryonic transcription factor SOX9 drives breast cancer endocrine resistance

    PubMed Central

    Jeselsohn, Rinath; Cornwell, MacIntosh; Pun, Matthew; Buchwalter, Gilles; Nguyen, Mai; Bango, Clyde; Huang, Ying; Kuang, Yanan; Paweletz, Cloud; Fu, Xiaoyong; Nardone, Agostina; De Angelis, Carmine; Detre, Simone; Dodson, Andrew; Mohammed, Hisham; Carroll, Jason S.; Bowden, Michaela; Rao, Prakash; Long, Henry W.; Li, Fugen; Dowsett, Mitchell; Schiff, Rachel; Brown, Myles

    2017-01-01

    The estrogen receptor (ER) drives the growth of most luminal breast cancers and is the primary target of endocrine therapy. Although ER blockade with drugs such as tamoxifen is very effective, a major clinical limitation is the development of endocrine resistance especially in the setting of metastatic disease. Preclinical and clinical observations suggest that even following the development of endocrine resistance, ER signaling continues to exert a pivotal role in tumor progression in the majority of cases. Through the analysis of the ER cistrome in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells, we have uncovered a role for an RUNX2–ER complex that stimulates the transcription of a set of genes, including most notably the stem cell factor SOX9, that promote proliferation and a metastatic phenotype. We show that up-regulation of SOX9 is sufficient to cause relative endocrine resistance. The gain of SOX9 as an ER-regulated gene associated with tamoxifen resistance was validated in a unique set of clinical samples supporting the need for the development of improved ER antagonists. PMID:28507152

  19. Engineering an allosteric transcription factor to respond to new ligands

    SciT

    Taylor, Noah D.; Garruss, Alexander S.; Moretti, Rocco

    Genetic regulatory proteins inducible by small molecules are useful synthetic biology tools as sensors and switches. Bacterial allosteric transcription factors (aTFs) are a major class of regulatory proteins, but few aTFs have been redesigned to respond to new effectors beyond natural aTF-inducer pairs. Altering inducer specificity in these proteins is difficult because substitutions that affect inducer binding may also disrupt allostery. In this paper, we engineered an aTF, the Escherichia coli lac repressor, LacI, to respond to one of four new inducer molecules: fucose, gentiobiose, lactitol and sucralose. Using computational protein design, single-residue saturation mutagenesis or random mutagenesis, along withmore » multiplex assembly, we identified new variants comparable in specificity and induction to wild-type LacI with its inducer, isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). Finally, the ability to create designer aTFs will enable applications including dynamic control of cell metabolism, cell biology and synthetic gene circuits.« less

  20. Nanopore sensing of individual transcription factors bound to DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squires, Allison; Atas, Evrim; Meller, Amit

    2015-06-01

    Transcription factor (TF)-DNA interactions are the primary control point in regulation of gene expression. Characterization of these interactions is essential for understanding genetic regulation of biological systems and developing novel therapies to treat cellular malfunctions. Solid-state nanopores are a highly versatile class of single-molecule sensors that can provide rich information about local properties of long charged biopolymers using the current blockage patterns generated during analyte translocation, and provide a novel platform for characterization of TF-DNA interactions. The DNA-binding domain of the TF Early Growth Response Protein 1 (EGR1), a prototypical zinc finger protein known as zif268, is used as a model system for this study. zif268 adopts two distinct bound conformations corresponding to specific and nonspecific binding, according to the local DNA sequence. Here we implement a solid-state nanopore platform for direct, label- and tether-free single-molecule detection of zif268 bound to DNA. We demonstrate detection of single zif268 TFs bound to DNA according to current blockage sublevels and duration of translocation through the nanopore. We further show that the nanopore can detect and discriminate both specific and nonspecific binding conformations of zif268 on DNA via the distinct current blockage patterns corresponding to each of these two known binding modes.

  1. Sugarcane transgenics expressing MYB transcription factors show improved glucose release

    SciT

    Poovaiah, Charleson R.; Bewg, William P.; Lan, Wu

    In this study, sugarcane, a tropical C4 perennial crop, is capable of producing 30-100 tons or more of biomass per hectare annually. The lignocellulosic residue remaining after sugar extraction is currently underutilized and can provide a significant source of biomass for the production of second-generation bioethanol. As a result, MYB31 and MYB42 were cloned from maize and expressed in sugarcane with and without the UTR sequences. The cloned sequences were 98 and 99 % identical to the published nucleotide sequences. The inclusion of the UTR sequences did not affect any of the parameters tested. There was little difference in plantmore » height and the number of internodes of the MYB-overexpressing sugarcane plants when compared with controls. MYB transgene expression determined by qPCR exhibited continued expression in young and maturing internodes. MYB31 downregulated more genes within the lignin biosynthetic pathway than MYB42. MYB31 and MYB42 expression resulted in decreased lignin content in some lines. All MYB42 plants further analyzed showed significant increases in glucose release by enzymatic hydrolysis in 72 h, whereas only two MYB31 plants released more glucose than control plants. This correlated directly with a significant decrease in acid-insoluble lignin. Soluble sucrose content of the MYB42 transgenic plants did not vary compared to control plants. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the use of MYB transcription factors to improve the production of bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse remaining after sugar extraction.« less

  2. Single molecule transcription factor dynamics in the syncytial Drosophila embryo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darzacq, Xavier

    During early development in the Drosophila embryo, cell fates are determined over the course of just 2 hours with exquisite spatio-temoral precision. One of the key regulators of this process is the transcription factor Bicoid which forms a concentration gradient across the long axis of the embryo. Although Bicoids' primary role is activation at the anterior, where concentrations are highest, it is also known to play a role in the posterior where there are only 100s of molecules per nucleus. Understanding how Bicoid can find its target at such low concentrations has remained intractable, largely due to the inability to perform single molecule imaging in the context of the developing embryo. Here we use lattice light sheet microscopy to overcome the technical barriers of sample thickness and auto-fluorescence to characterize the single molecule dynamics of Bicoid. We find that off-rates do not vary across the embryo and that instead the on-rates are modulated through the formation of clusters that enrich local concentration. This data is contrary to the current concentration dependent model of Bicoid function since local concentration within the nucleus is now a regulated parameter and suggests a previously unknown mechanism for regulation at extremely low concentrations.

  3. Transcriptional activation of Mina by Sp1/3 factors.

    PubMed

    Lian, Shangli; Potula, Hari Hara S K; Pillai, Meenu R; Van Stry, Melanie; Koyanagi, Madoka; Chung, Linda; Watanabe, Makiko; Bix, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Mina is an epigenetic gene regulatory protein known to function in multiple physiological and pathological contexts, including pulmonary inflammation, cell proliferation, cancer and immunity. We showed previously that the level of Mina gene expression is subject to natural genetic variation linked to 21 SNPs occurring in the Mina 5' region. In order to explore the mechanisms regulating Mina gene expression, we set out to molecularly characterize the Mina promoter in the region encompassing these SNPs. We used three kinds of assays--reporter, gel shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation--to analyze a 2 kb genomic fragment spanning the upstream and intron 1 regions flanking exon 1. Here we discovered a pair of Mina promoters (P1 and P2) and a P1-specific enhancer element (E1). Pharmacologic inhibition and siRNA knockdown experiments suggested that Sp1/3 transcription factors trigger Mina expression through additive activity targeted to a cluster of four Sp1/3 binding sites forming the P1 promoter. These results set the stage for comprehensive analysis of Mina gene regulation from the context of tissue specificity, the impact of inherited genetic variation and the nature of upstream signaling pathways.

  4. Transcriptional Activation of Mina by Sp1/3 Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Shangli; Potula, Hari Hara S. K.; Pillai, Meenu R.; Van Stry, Melanie; Koyanagi, Madoka; Chung, Linda; Watanabe, Makiko; Bix, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Mina is an epigenetic gene regulatory protein known to function in multiple physiological and pathological contexts, including pulmonary inflammation, cell proliferation, cancer and immunity. We showed previously that the level of Mina gene expression is subject to natural genetic variation linked to 21 SNPs occurring in the Mina 5′ region [1]. In order to explore the mechanisms regulating Mina gene expression, we set out to molecularly characterize the Mina promoter in the region encompassing these SNPs. We used three kinds of assays – reporter, gel shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation – to analyze a 2 kb genomic fragment spanning the upstream and intron 1 regions flanking exon 1. Here we discovered a pair of Mina promoters (P1 and P2) and a P1-specific enhancer element (E1). Pharmacologic inhibition and siRNA knockdown experiments suggested that Sp1/3 transcription factors trigger Mina expression through additive activity targeted to a cluster of four Sp1/3 binding sites forming the P1 promoter. These results set the stage for comprehensive analysis of Mina gene regulation from the context of tissue specificity, the impact of inherited genetic variation and the nature of upstream signaling pathways. PMID:24324617

  5. Erythro-megakaryocytic transcription factors associated with hereditary anemia

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Mitchell J.

    2014-01-01

    Most heritable anemias are caused by mutations in genes encoding globins, red blood cell (RBC) membrane proteins, or enzymes in the glycolytic and hexose monophosphate shunt pathways. A less common class of genetic anemia is caused by mutations that alter the functions of erythroid transcription factors (TFs). Many TF mutations associated with heritable anemia cause truncations or amino acid substitutions, resulting in the production of functionally altered proteins. Characterization of these mutant proteins has provided insights into mechanisms of gene expression, hematopoietic development, and human disease. Mutations within promoter or enhancer regions that disrupt TF binding to essential erythroid genes also cause anemia and heritable variations in RBC traits, such as fetal hemoglobin content. Defining the latter may have important clinical implications for de-repressing fetal hemoglobin synthesis to treat sickle cell anemia and β thalassemia. Functionally important alterations in genes encoding TFs or their cognate cis elements are likely to occur more frequently than currently appreciated, a hypothesis that will soon be tested through ongoing genome-wide association studies and the rapidly expanding use of global genome sequencing for human diagnostics. Findings obtained through such studies of RBCs and associated diseases are likely generalizable to many human diseases and quantitative traits. PMID:24652993

  6. WRKY transcription factor genes in wild rice Oryza nivara.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hengjian; Watanabe, Kenneth A; Zhang, Liyuan; Shen, Qingxi J

    2016-08-01

    The WRKY transcription factor family is one of the largest gene families involved in plant development and stress response. Although many WRKY genes have been studied in cultivated rice (Oryza sativa), the WRKY genes in the wild rice species Oryza nivara, the direct progenitor of O. sativa, have not been studied. O. nivara shows abundant genetic diversity and elite drought and disease resistance features. Herein, a total of 97 O. nivara WRKY (OnWRKY) genes were identified. RNA-sequencing demonstrates that OnWRKY genes were generally expressed at higher levels in the roots of 30-day-old plants. Bioinformatic analyses suggest that most of OnWRKY genes could be induced by salicylic acid, abscisic acid, and drought. Abundant potential MAPK phosphorylation sites in OnWRKYs suggest that activities of most OnWRKYs can be regulated by phosphorylation. Phylogenetic analyses of OnWRKYs support a novel hypothesis that ancient group IIc OnWRKYs were the original ancestors of only some group IIc and group III WRKYs. The analyses also offer strong support that group IIc OnWRKYs containing the HVE sequence in their zinc finger motifs were derived from group Ia WRKYs. This study provides a solid foundation for the study of the evolution and functions of WRKY genes in O. nivara. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  7. The WRKY Transcription Factor Genes in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Song, Hui; Wang, Pengfei; Nan, Zhibiao; Wang, Xingjun

    2014-01-01

    WRKY transcription factor genes play critical roles in plant growth and development, as well as stress responses. WRKY genes have been examined in various higher plants, but they have not been characterized in Lotus japonicus. The recent release of the L. japonicus whole genome sequence provides an opportunity for a genome wide analysis of WRKY genes in this species. In this study, we identified 61 WRKY genes in the L. japonicus genome. Based on the WRKY protein structure, L. japonicus WRKY (LjWRKY) genes can be classified into three groups (I-III). Investigations of gene copy number and gene clusters indicate that only one gene duplication event occurred on chromosome 4 and no clustered genes were detected on chromosomes 3 or 6. Researchers previously believed that group II and III WRKY domains were derived from the C-terminal WRKY domain of group I. Our results suggest that some WRKY genes in group II originated from the N-terminal domain of group I WRKY genes. Additional evidence to support this hypothesis was obtained by Medicago truncatula WRKY (MtWRKY) protein motif analysis. We found that LjWRKY and MtWRKY group III genes are under purifying selection, suggesting that WRKY genes will become increasingly structured and functionally conserved.

  8. WRKY transcription factor genes in wild rice Oryza nivara

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hengjian; Watanabe, Kenneth A.; Zhang, Liyuan; Shen, Qingxi J.

    2016-01-01

    The WRKY transcription factor family is one of the largest gene families involved in plant development and stress response. Although many WRKY genes have been studied in cultivated rice (Oryza sativa), the WRKY genes in the wild rice species Oryza nivara, the direct progenitor of O. sativa, have not been studied. O. nivara shows abundant genetic diversity and elite drought and disease resistance features. Herein, a total of 97 O. nivara WRKY (OnWRKY) genes were identified. RNA-sequencing demonstrates that OnWRKY genes were generally expressed at higher levels in the roots of 30-day-old plants. Bioinformatic analyses suggest that most of OnWRKY genes could be induced by salicylic acid, abscisic acid, and drought. Abundant potential MAPK phosphorylation sites in OnWRKYs suggest that activities of most OnWRKYs can be regulated by phosphorylation. Phylogenetic analyses of OnWRKYs support a novel hypothesis that ancient group IIc OnWRKYs were the original ancestors of only some group IIc and group III WRKYs. The analyses also offer strong support that group IIc OnWRKYs containing the HVE sequence in their zinc finger motifs were derived from group Ia WRKYs. This study provides a solid foundation for the study of the evolution and functions of WRKY genes in O. nivara. PMID:27345721

  9. The WRKY Transcription Factor Genes in Lotus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Xingjun

    2014-01-01

    WRKY transcription factor genes play critical roles in plant growth and development, as well as stress responses. WRKY genes have been examined in various higher plants, but they have not been characterized in Lotus japonicus. The recent release of the L. japonicus whole genome sequence provides an opportunity for a genome wide analysis of WRKY genes in this species. In this study, we identified 61 WRKY genes in the L. japonicus genome. Based on the WRKY protein structure, L. japonicus WRKY (LjWRKY) genes can be classified into three groups (I–III). Investigations of gene copy number and gene clusters indicate that only one gene duplication event occurred on chromosome 4 and no clustered genes were detected on chromosomes 3 or 6. Researchers previously believed that group II and III WRKY domains were derived from the C-terminal WRKY domain of group I. Our results suggest that some WRKY genes in group II originated from the N-terminal domain of group I WRKY genes. Additional evidence to support this hypothesis was obtained by Medicago truncatula WRKY (MtWRKY) protein motif analysis. We found that LjWRKY and MtWRKY group III genes are under purifying selection, suggesting that WRKY genes will become increasingly structured and functionally conserved. PMID:24745006

  10. Nanopore sensing of individual transcription factors bound to DNA

    PubMed Central

    Squires, Allison; Atas, Evrim; Meller, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factor (TF)-DNA interactions are the primary control point in regulation of gene expression. Characterization of these interactions is essential for understanding genetic regulation of biological systems and developing novel therapies to treat cellular malfunctions. Solid-state nanopores are a highly versatile class of single-molecule sensors that can provide rich information about local properties of long charged biopolymers using the current blockage patterns generated during analyte translocation, and provide a novel platform for characterization of TF-DNA interactions. The DNA-binding domain of the TF Early Growth Response Protein 1 (EGR1), a prototypical zinc finger protein known as zif268, is used as a model system for this study. zif268 adopts two distinct bound conformations corresponding to specific and nonspecific binding, according to the local DNA sequence. Here we implement a solid-state nanopore platform for direct, label- and tether-free single-molecule detection of zif268 bound to DNA. We demonstrate detection of single zif268 TFs bound to DNA according to current blockage sublevels and duration of translocation through the nanopore. We further show that the nanopore can detect and discriminate both specific and nonspecific binding conformations of zif268 on DNA via the distinct current blockage patterns corresponding to each of these two known binding modes. PMID:26109509

  11. Mammalian transcription factor LSF is a target of ERK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Pagon, Zrinka; Volker, Janet; Cooper, Geoffrey M.; Hansen, Ulla

    2012-01-01

    LSF is a mammalian transcription factor that is rapidly and quantitatively phosphorylated upon growth induction of resting, peripheral human T cells, as assayed by a reduction in its electrophoretic mobility. The DNA-binding activity of LSF in primary T cells is greatly increased after this phosphorylation event [Volker et al., 1997]. We demonstrate here that LSF is also rapidly and quantitatively phosphorylated upon growth induction in NIH 3T3 cells, although its DNA-binding activity is not significantly altered. Three lines of experimentation established that ERK is responsible for phosphorylating LSF upon growth induction in both cell types. First, phosphorylation of LSF by ERK is sufficient to cause the reduced electrophoretic mobility of LSF. Second, the amount of ERK activity correlates with the extent of LSF phosphorylation in both primary human T cells and NIH 3T3 cells. Finally, specific inhibitors of the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway inhibit LSF modification in vivo. This phosphorylation by ERK is not sufficient for activation of LSF DNA-binding activity, as evidenced both in vitro and in mouse fibroblasts. Nonetheless, activation of ERK is a prerequisite for the substantial increase in LSF DNA-binding activity upon activation of resting T cells, indicating that ERK phosphorylation is necessary but not sufficient for activation of LSF in this cell type. PMID:12858339

  12. Mapping and analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans transcription factor sequence specificities

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Kamesh; Lambert, Samuel A; Yang, Ally WH; Riddell, Jeremy; Mnaimneh, Sanie; Zheng, Hong; Albu, Mihai; Najafabadi, Hamed S; Reece-Hoyes, John S; Fuxman Bass, Juan I; Walhout, Albertha JM; Weirauch, Matthew T; Hughes, Timothy R

    2015-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful model for studying gene regulation, as it has a compact genome and a wealth of genomic tools. However, identification of regulatory elements has been limited, as DNA-binding motifs are known for only 71 of the estimated 763 sequence-specific transcription factors (TFs). To address this problem, we performed protein binding microarray experiments on representatives of canonical TF families in C. elegans, obtaining motifs for 129 TFs. Additionally, we predict motifs for many TFs that have DNA-binding domains similar to those already characterized, increasing coverage of binding specificities to 292 C. elegans TFs (∼40%). These data highlight the diversification of binding motifs for the nuclear hormone receptor and C2H2 zinc finger families and reveal unexpected diversity of motifs for T-box and DM families. Motif enrichment in promoters of functionally related genes is consistent with known biology and also identifies putative regulatory roles for unstudied TFs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06967.001 PMID:25905672

  13. Transcription factor-based biosensors enlightened by the analyte

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-López, Raul; Ruiz, Raul; de la Cruz, Fernando; Moncalián, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Whole cell biosensors (WCBs) have multiple applications for environmental monitoring, detecting a wide range of pollutants. WCBs depend critically on the sensitivity and specificity of the transcription factor (TF) used to detect the analyte. We describe the mechanism of regulation and the structural and biochemical properties of TF families that are used, or could be used, for the development of environmental WCBs. Focusing on the chemical nature of the analyte, we review TFs that respond to aromatic compounds (XylS-AraC, XylR-NtrC, and LysR), metal ions (MerR, ArsR, DtxR, Fur, and NikR) or antibiotics (TetR and MarR). Analyzing the structural domains involved in DNA recognition, we highlight the similitudes in the DNA binding domains (DBDs) of these TF families. Opposite to DBDs, the wide range of analytes detected by TFs results in a diversity of structures at the effector binding domain. The modular architecture of TFs opens the possibility of engineering TFs with hybrid DNA and effector specificities. Yet, the lack of a crisp correlation between structural domains and specific functions makes this a challenging task. PMID:26191047

  14. WRKY transcription factors in plant responses to stresses.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jingjing; Ma, Shenghui; Ye, Nenghui; Jiang, Ming; Cao, Jiashu; Zhang, Jianhua

    2017-02-01

    The WRKY gene family is among the largest families of transcription factors (TFs) in higher plants. By regulating the plant hormone signal transduction pathway, these TFs play critical roles in some plant processes in response to biotic and abiotic stress. Various bodies of research have demonstrated the important biological functions of WRKY TFs in plant response to different kinds of biotic and abiotic stresses and working mechanisms. However, very little summarization has been done to review their research progress. Not just important TFs function in plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses, WRKY also participates in carbohydrate synthesis, senescence, development, and secondary metabolites synthesis. WRKY proteins can bind to W-box (TGACC (A/T)) in the promoter of its target genes and activate or repress the expression of downstream genes to regulate their stress response. Moreover, WRKY proteins can interact with other TFs to regulate plant defensive responses. In the present review, we focus on the structural characteristics of WRKY TFs and the research progress on their functions in plant responses to a variety of stresses. © 2016 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. Sugarcane transgenics expressing MYB transcription factors show improved glucose release

    DOE PAGES

    Poovaiah, Charleson R.; Bewg, William P.; Lan, Wu; ...

    2016-07-15

    In this study, sugarcane, a tropical C4 perennial crop, is capable of producing 30-100 tons or more of biomass per hectare annually. The lignocellulosic residue remaining after sugar extraction is currently underutilized and can provide a significant source of biomass for the production of second-generation bioethanol. As a result, MYB31 and MYB42 were cloned from maize and expressed in sugarcane with and without the UTR sequences. The cloned sequences were 98 and 99 % identical to the published nucleotide sequences. The inclusion of the UTR sequences did not affect any of the parameters tested. There was little difference in plantmore » height and the number of internodes of the MYB-overexpressing sugarcane plants when compared with controls. MYB transgene expression determined by qPCR exhibited continued expression in young and maturing internodes. MYB31 downregulated more genes within the lignin biosynthetic pathway than MYB42. MYB31 and MYB42 expression resulted in decreased lignin content in some lines. All MYB42 plants further analyzed showed significant increases in glucose release by enzymatic hydrolysis in 72 h, whereas only two MYB31 plants released more glucose than control plants. This correlated directly with a significant decrease in acid-insoluble lignin. Soluble sucrose content of the MYB42 transgenic plants did not vary compared to control plants. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the use of MYB transcription factors to improve the production of bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse remaining after sugar extraction.« less

  16. Activating transcription factor 4 regulates stearate-induced vascular calcification.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Masashi; Ting, Tabitha C; Levi, Moshe; Saunders, Sommer J; Miyazaki-Anzai, Shinobu; Miyazaki, Makoto

    2012-08-01

    Previously, we reported that stearate, a saturated fatty acid, promotes osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). In this study, we examined the molecular mechanisms by which stearate promotes vascular calcification. ATF4 is a pivotal transcription factor in osteoblastogenesis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Increased stearate by either supplementation of exogenous stearic acid or inhibition of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) by CAY10566 induced ATF4 mRNA, phosphorylated ATF4 protein, and total ATF4 protein. Induction occurred through activation of the PERK-eIF2α pathway, along with increased osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization of VSMCs. Either stearate or the SCD inhibitor but not oleate or other fatty acid treatments also increased ER stress as determined by the expression of p-eIF2α, CHOP, and the spliced form of XBP-1, which were directly correlated with ER stearate levels. ATF4 knockdown by lentiviral ATF4 shRNA blocked osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization induced by stearate and SCD inhibition. Conversely, treatment of VSMCs with an adenovirus containing ATF4 induced vascular calcification. Our results demonstrated that activation of ATF4 mediates vascular calcification induced by stearate.

  17. Activating transcription factor 4 regulates stearate-induced vascular calcification

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Masashi; Ting, Tabitha C.; Levi, Moshe; Saunders, Sommer J.; Miyazaki-Anzai, Shinobu; Miyazaki, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we reported that stearate, a saturated fatty acid, promotes osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). In this study, we examined the molecular mechanisms by which stearate promotes vascular calcification. ATF4 is a pivotal transcription factor in osteoblastogenesis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Increased stearate by either supplementation of exogenous stearic acid or inhibition of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) by CAY10566 induced ATF4 mRNA, phosphorylated ATF4 protein, and total ATF4 protein. Induction occurred through activation of the PERK-eIF2α pathway, along with increased osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization of VSMCs. Either stearate or the SCD inhibitor but not oleate or other fatty acid treatments also increased ER stress as determined by the expression of p-eIF2α, CHOP, and the spliced form of XBP-1, which were directly correlated with ER stearate levels. ATF4 knockdown by lentiviral ATF4 shRNA blocked osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization induced by stearate and SCD inhibition. Conversely, treatment of VSMCs with an adenovirus containing ATF4 induced vascular calcification. Our results demonstrated that activation of ATF4 mediates vascular calcification induced by stearate. PMID:22628618

  18. Transcription factor-based biosensors enlightened by the analyte.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-López, Raul; Ruiz, Raul; de la Cruz, Fernando; Moncalián, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Whole cell biosensors (WCBs) have multiple applications for environmental monitoring, detecting a wide range of pollutants. WCBs depend critically on the sensitivity and specificity of the transcription factor (TF) used to detect the analyte. We describe the mechanism of regulation and the structural and biochemical properties of TF families that are used, or could be used, for the development of environmental WCBs. Focusing on the chemical nature of the analyte, we review TFs that respond to aromatic compounds (XylS-AraC, XylR-NtrC, and LysR), metal ions (MerR, ArsR, DtxR, Fur, and NikR) or antibiotics (TetR and MarR). Analyzing the structural domains involved in DNA recognition, we highlight the similitudes in the DNA binding domains (DBDs) of these TF families. Opposite to DBDs, the wide range of analytes detected by TFs results in a diversity of structures at the effector binding domain. The modular architecture of TFs opens the possibility of engineering TFs with hybrid DNA and effector specificities. Yet, the lack of a crisp correlation between structural domains and specific functions makes this a challenging task.

  19. Activating Transcription Factor 3 Regulates Immune and Metabolic Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Rynes, Jan; Donohoe, Colin D.; Frommolt, Peter; Brodesser, Susanne; Jindra, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Integration of metabolic and immune responses during animal development ensures energy balance, permitting both growth and defense. Disturbed homeostasis causes organ failure, growth retardation, and metabolic disorders. Here, we show that the Drosophila melanogaster activating transcription factor 3 (Atf3) safeguards metabolic and immune system homeostasis. Loss of Atf3 results in chronic inflammation and starvation responses mounted primarily by the larval gut epithelium, while the fat body suffers lipid overload, causing energy imbalance and death. Hyperactive proinflammatory and stress signaling through NF-κB/Relish, Jun N-terminal kinase, and FOXO in atf3 mutants deregulates genes important for immune defense, digestion, and lipid metabolism. Reducing the dose of either FOXO or Relish normalizes both lipid metabolism and gene expression in atf3 mutants. The function of Atf3 is conserved, as human ATF3 averts some of the Drosophila mutant phenotypes, improving their survival. The single Drosophila Atf3 may incorporate the diversified roles of two related mammalian proteins. PMID:22851689

  20. Stochastic model of transcription factor-regulated gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Rajesh; Bose, Indrani

    2006-09-01

    We consider a stochastic model of transcription factor (TF)-regulated gene expression. The model describes two genes, gene A and gene B, which synthesize the TFs and the target gene proteins, respectively. We show through analytic calculations that the TF fluctuations have a significant effect on the distribution of the target gene protein levels when the mean TF level falls in the highest sensitive region of the dose-response curve. We further study the effect of reducing the copy number of gene A from two to one. The enhanced TF fluctuations yield results different from those in the deterministic case. The probability that the target gene protein level exceeds a threshold value is calculated with the knowledge of the probability density functions associated with the TF and target gene protein levels. Numerical simulation results for a more detailed stochastic model are shown to be in agreement with those obtained through analytic calculations. The relevance of these results in the context of the genetic disorder haploinsufficiency is pointed out. Some experimental observations on the haploinsufficiency of the tumour suppressor gene, Nkx 3.1, are explained with the help of the stochastic model of TF-regulated gene expression.

  1. Engineering an allosteric transcription factor to respond to new ligands

    DOE PAGES

    Taylor, Noah D.; Garruss, Alexander S.; Moretti, Rocco; ...

    2015-12-21

    Genetic regulatory proteins inducible by small molecules are useful synthetic biology tools as sensors and switches. Bacterial allosteric transcription factors (aTFs) are a major class of regulatory proteins, but few aTFs have been redesigned to respond to new effectors beyond natural aTF-inducer pairs. Altering inducer specificity in these proteins is difficult because substitutions that affect inducer binding may also disrupt allostery. In this paper, we engineered an aTF, the Escherichia coli lac repressor, LacI, to respond to one of four new inducer molecules: fucose, gentiobiose, lactitol and sucralose. Using computational protein design, single-residue saturation mutagenesis or random mutagenesis, along withmore » multiplex assembly, we identified new variants comparable in specificity and induction to wild-type LacI with its inducer, isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). Finally, the ability to create designer aTFs will enable applications including dynamic control of cell metabolism, cell biology and synthetic gene circuits.« less

  2. Foxo Transcription Factors Blunt Cardiac Hypertrophy by Inhibiting Calcineurin Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Yan G.; Berenji, Kambeez; Wang, Na; Oh, Misook; Sachan, Nita; Dey, Asim; Cheng, Jun; Lu, Guangrong; Morris, David J.; Castrillon, Diego H.; Gerard, Robert D.; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Hill, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cellular hypertrophy requires coordinated regulation of progrowth and antigrowth mechanisms. In cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes, Foxo transcription factors trigger an atrophy-related gene program that counters hypertrophic growth. However, downstream molecular events are not yet well defined. Methods and Results Here, we report that expression of either Foxo1 or Foxo3 in cardiomyocytes attenuates calcineurin phosphatase activity and inhibits agonist-induced hypertrophic growth. Consistent with these results, Foxo proteins decrease calcineurin phosphatase activity and repress both basal and hypertrophic agonist-induced expression of MCIP1.4, a direct downstream target of the calcineurin/NFAT pathway. Furthermore, hearts from Foxo3-null mice exhibit increased MCIP1.4 abundance and a hypertrophic phenotype with normal systolic function at baseline. Together, these results suggest that Foxo proteins repress cardiac growth at least in part through inhibition of the calcineurin/NFAT pathway. Given that hypertrophic growth of the heart occurs in multiple contexts, our findings also suggest that certain hypertrophic signals are capable of overriding the antigrowth program induced by Foxo. Consistent with this, multiple hypertrophic agonists triggered inactivation of Foxo proteins in cardiomyocytes through a mechanism requiring the PI3K/Akt pathway. In addition, both Foxo1 and Foxo3 are phosphorylated and consequently inactivated in hearts undergoing hypertrophic growth induced by hemodynamic stress. Conclusions This study suggests that inhibition of the calcineurin/NFAT signaling cascade by Foxo and release of this repressive action by the PI3K/Akt pathway are important mechanisms whereby Foxo factors govern cell growth in the heart. PMID:16952979

  3. Foxo transcription factors blunt cardiac hypertrophy by inhibiting calcineurin signaling.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yan G; Berenji, Kambeez; Wang, Na; Oh, Misook; Sachan, Nita; Dey, Asim; Cheng, Jun; Lu, Guangrong; Morris, David J; Castrillon, Diego H; Gerard, Robert D; Rothermel, Beverly A; Hill, Joseph A

    2006-09-12

    Cellular hypertrophy requires coordinated regulation of progrowth and antigrowth mechanisms. In cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes, Foxo transcription factors trigger an atrophy-related gene program that counters hypertrophic growth. However, downstream molecular events are not yet well defined. Here, we report that expression of either Foxo1 or Foxo3 in cardiomyocytes attenuates calcineurin phosphatase activity and inhibits agonist-induced hypertrophic growth. Consistent with these results, Foxo proteins decrease calcineurin phosphatase activity and repress both basal and hypertrophic agonist-induced expression of MCIP1.4, a direct downstream target of the calcineurin/NFAT pathway. Furthermore, hearts from Foxo3-null mice exhibit increased MCIP1.4 abundance and a hypertrophic phenotype with normal systolic function at baseline. Together, these results suggest that Foxo proteins repress cardiac growth at least in part through inhibition of the calcineurin/NFAT pathway. Given that hypertrophic growth of the heart occurs in multiple contexts, our findings also suggest that certain hypertrophic signals are capable of overriding the antigrowth program induced by Foxo. Consistent with this, multiple hypertrophic agonists triggered inactivation of Foxo proteins in cardiomyocytes through a mechanism requiring the PI3K/Akt pathway. In addition, both Foxo1 and Foxo3 are phosphorylated and consequently inactivated in hearts undergoing hypertrophic growth induced by hemodynamic stress. This study suggests that inhibition of the calcineurin/NFAT signaling cascade by Foxo and release of this repressive action by the PI3K/Akt pathway are important mechanisms whereby Foxo factors govern cell growth in the heart.

  4. The over expression of long non-coding RNA ANRIL promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition by activating the ATM-E2F1 signaling pathway in pancreatic cancer: An in vivo and in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shi; Zhang, Jia-Qiang; Chen, Jiang-Zhi; Chen, Hui-Xing; Qiu, Fu-Nan; Yan, Mao-Lin; Chen, Yan-Ling; Peng, Cheng-Hong; Tian, Yi-Feng; Wang, Yao-Dong

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to investigate the roles of lncRNA ANRIL in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by regulating the ATM-E2F1 signaling pathway in pancreatic cancer (PC). PC rat models were established and ANRIL overexpression and interference plasmids were transfected. The expression of ANRIL, EMT markers (E-cadherin, N-cadherin and Vimentin) and ATM-E2F1 signaling pathway-related proteins (ATM, E2F1, INK4A, INK4B and ARF) were detected. Small molecule drugs were applied to activate and inhibit the ATM-E2F1 signaling pathway. Transwell assay and the scratch test were adopted to detect cell invasion and migration abilities. ANRIL expression in the PC cells was higher than in normal pancreatic duct epithelial cells. In the PC rat models and PC cells, ANRIL interference promoted the expressions of INK4B, INK4A, ARF and E-cadherin, while reduced N-cadherin and Vimentin expression. Over-expressed ANRIL decreased the expression of INK4B, INK4A, ARF and E-cadherin, but raised N-cadherin and Vimentin expressions. By inhibiting the ATM-E2F1 signaling pathway in PC cells, E-cadherin expression increased but N-cadherin and Vimentin expressions decreased. After ANRIL was silenced or the ATM-E2F1 signaling pathway inhibited, PC cell migration and invasion abilities were decreased. In conclusion, over-expression of lncRNA ANRIL can promote EMT of PC cells by activating the ATM-E2F1 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Trypanosome RNA polymerases and transcription factors: sensible trypanocidal drug targets?

    PubMed

    Vanhamme, Luc

    2008-11-01

    Trypanosomes and Leishmaniae are the agents of several important parasitic diseases threatening hundreds of million human beings worldwide. As they diverged early in evolution, they display original molecular characteristics. These peculiarities are each defining putative specific targets for anti-parasitic drugs. Transcription displays its lot of unique characteristics in trypanosomes and will be taken as an example to uncover these targets. Unique features of transcription in trypanosomes include constitutive and poly-cistronic transcription by RNA polymerase II as well as transcription of protein-coding genes by RNA polymerase I. It is becoming clear that these unique mechanisms are performed by dedicated molecular players. The first of them have been recently characterized. They are reviewed and their suitability as drug targets is commented.

  6. A novel statistical approach for identification of the master regulator transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Sikdar, Sinjini; Datta, Susmita

    2017-02-02

    Transcription factors are known to play key roles in carcinogenesis and therefore, are gaining popularity as potential therapeutic targets in drug development. A 'master regulator' transcription factor often appears to control most of the regulatory activities of the other transcription factors and the associated genes. This 'master regulator' transcription factor is at the top of the hierarchy of the transcriptomic regulation. Therefore, it is important to identify and target the master regulator transcription factor for proper understanding of the associated disease process and identifying the best therapeutic option. We present a novel two-step computational approach for identification of master regulator transcription factor in a genome. At the first step of our method we test whether there exists any master regulator transcription factor in the system. We evaluate the concordance of two ranked lists of transcription factors using a statistical measure. In case the concordance measure is statistically significant, we conclude that there is a master regulator. At the second step, our method identifies the master regulator transcription factor, if there exists one. In the simulation scenario, our method performs reasonably well in validating the existence of a master regulator when the number of subjects in each treatment group is reasonably large. In application to two real datasets, our method ensures the existence of master regulators and identifies biologically meaningful master regulators. An R code for implementing our method in a sample test data can be found in http://www.somnathdatta.org/software . We have developed a screening method of identifying the 'master regulator' transcription factor just using only the gene expression data. Understanding the regulatory structure and finding the master regulator help narrowing the search space for identifying biomarkers for complex diseases such as cancer. In addition to identifying the master regulator our

  7. Comparative modeling and docking studies of p16ink4/cyclin D1/Rb pathway genes in lung cancer revealed functionally interactive residue of RB1 and its functional partner E2F1.

    PubMed

    Naqsh e Zahra, Syeda; Khattak, Naureen Aslam; Mir, Asif

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the major cause of mortality worldwide. Major signalling pathways that could play significant role in lung cancer therapy include (1) Growth promoting pathways (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor/Ras/ PhosphatidylInositol 3-Kinase) (2) Growth inhibitory pathways (p53/Rb/P14ARF, STK11) (3) Apoptotic pathways (Bcl-2/Bax/Fas/FasL). Insilico strategy was implemented to solve the mystery behind selected lung cancer pathway by applying comparative modeling and molecular docking studies. YASARA [v 12.4.1] was utilized to predict structural models of P16-INK4 and RB1 genes using template 4ELJ-A and 1MX6-B respectively. WHAT CHECK evaluation tool demonstrated overall quality of predicted P16-INK4 and RB1 with Z-score of -0.132 and -0.007 respectively which showed a strong indication of reliable structure prediction. Protein-protein interactions were explored by utilizing STRING server, illustrated that CDK4 and E2F1 showed strong interaction with P16-INK4 and RB1 based on confidence score of 0.999 and 0.999 respectively. In order to facilitate a comprehensive understanding of the complex interactions between candidate genes with their functional interactors, GRAMM-X server was used. Protein-protein docking investigation of P16-INK4 revealed four ionic bonds illustrating Arg47, Arg80,Cys72 and Met1 residues as actively participating in interactions with CDK4 while docking results of RB1 showed four hydrogen bonds involving Glu864, Ser567, Asp36 and Arg861 residues which interact strongly with its respective functional interactor E2F1. This research may provide a basis for understanding biological insights of P16-INK4 and RB1 proteins which will be helpful in future to design a suitable drug to inhibit the disease pathogenesis as we have determined the interacting amino acids which can be targeted in order to design a ligand in-vitro to propose a drug for clinical trials. Protein -protein docking of candidate genes and their important interacting residues likely

  8. Forkhead transcription factor foxe1 regulates chondrogenesis in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Chisako; Iida, Atsumi; Tabata, Yoko; Watanabe, Sumiko

    2009-12-15

    Forkhead transcription factor (Fox) e1 is a causative gene for Bamforth-Lazarus syndrome, which is characterized by hypothyroidism and cleft palate. Applying degenerate polymerase chain reaction using primers specific for the conserved forkhead domain, we identified zebrafish foxe1 (foxe1). Foxe1 is expressed in the thyroid, pharynx, and pharyngeal skeleton during development; strongly expressed in the gill and weakly expressed in the brain, eye, and heart in adult zebrafish. A loss of function of foxe1 by morpholino antisense oligo (MO) exhibited abnormal craniofacial development, shortening of Meckel's cartilage and the ceratohyals, and suppressed chondrycytic proliferation. However, at 27 hr post fertilization, the foxe1 MO-injected embryos showed normal dlx2, hoxa2, and hoxb2 expression, suggesting that the initial steps of pharyngeal skeletal development, including neural crest migration and specification of the pharyngeal arch occurred normally. In contrast, at 2 dpf, a severe reduction in the expression of sox9a, colIIaI, and runx2b, which play roles in chondrocytic proliferation and differentiation, was observed. Interestingly, fgfr2 was strongly upregulated in the branchial arches of the foxe1 MO-injected embryos. Unlike Foxe1-null mice, normal thyroid development in terms of morphology and thyroid-specific marker expression was observed in foxe1 MO-injected zebrafish embryos. Taken together, our results indicate that Foxe1 plays an important role in chondrogenesis during development of the pharyngeal skeleton in zebrafish, probably through regulation of fgfr2 expression. Furthermore, the roles reported for FOXE1 in mammalian thyroid development may have been acquired during evolution. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. The WRKY transcription factor family and senescence in switchgrass.

    PubMed

    Rinerson, Charles I; Scully, Erin D; Palmer, Nathan A; Donze-Reiner, Teresa; Rabara, Roel C; Tripathi, Prateek; Shen, Qingxi J; Sattler, Scott E; Rohila, Jai S; Sarath, Gautam; Rushton, Paul J

    2015-11-09

    Early aerial senescence in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) can significantly limit biomass yields. WRKY transcription factors that can regulate senescence could be used to reprogram senescence and enhance biomass yields. All potential WRKY genes present in the version 1.0 of the switchgrass genome were identified and curated using manual and bioinformatic methods. Expression profiles of WRKY genes in switchgrass flag leaf RNA-Seq datasets were analyzed using clustering and network analyses tools to identify both WRKY and WRKY-associated gene co-expression networks during leaf development and senescence onset. We identified 240 switchgrass WRKY genes including members of the RW5 and RW6 families of resistance proteins. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis of the flag leaf transcriptomes across development readily separated clusters of co-expressed genes into thirteen modules. A visualization highlighted separation of modules associated with the early and senescence-onset phases of flag leaf growth. The senescence-associated module contained 3000 genes including 23 WRKYs. Putative promoter regions of senescence-associated WRKY genes contained several cis-element-like sequences suggestive of responsiveness to both senescence and stress signaling pathways. A phylogenetic comparison of senescence-associated WRKY genes from switchgrass flag leaf with senescence-associated WRKY genes from other plants revealed notable hotspots in Group I, IIb, and IIe of the phylogenetic tree. We have identified and named 240 WRKY genes in the switchgrass genome. Twenty three of these genes show elevated mRNA levels during the onset of flag leaf senescence. Eleven of the WRKY genes were found in hotspots of related senescence-associated genes from multiple species and thus represent promising targets for future switchgrass genetic improvement. Overall, individual WRKY gene expression profiles could be readily linked to developmental stages of flag leaves.

  10. WRKY transcription factors: key components in abscisic acid signalling.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Deena L; Tripathi, Prateek; Rabara, Roel C; Lin, Jun; Ringler, Patricia; Boken, Ashley K; Langum, Tanner J; Smidt, Lucas; Boomsma, Darius D; Emme, Nicholas J; Chen, Xianfeng; Finer, John J; Shen, Qingxi J; Rushton, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors (TFs) are key regulators of many plant processes, including the responses to biotic and abiotic stresses, senescence, seed dormancy and seed germination. For over 15 years, limited evidence has been available suggesting that WRKY TFs may play roles in regulating plant responses to the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA), notably some WRKY TFs are ABA-inducible repressors of seed germination. However, the roles of WRKY TFs in other aspects of ABA signalling, and the mechanisms involved, have remained unclear. Recent significant progress in ABA research has now placed specific WRKY TFs firmly in ABA-responsive signalling pathways, where they act at multiple levels. In Arabidopsis, WRKY TFs appear to act downstream of at least two ABA receptors: the cytoplasmic PYR/PYL/RCAR-protein phosphatase 2C-ABA complex and the chloroplast envelope-located ABAR-ABA complex. In vivo and in vitro promoter-binding studies show that the target genes for WRKY TFs that are involved in ABA signalling include well-known ABA-responsive genes such as ABF2, ABF4, ABI4, ABI5, MYB2, DREB1a, DREB2a and RAB18. Additional well-characterized stress-inducible genes such as RD29A and COR47 are also found in signalling pathways downstream of WRKY TFs. These new insights also reveal that some WRKY TFs are positive regulators of ABA-mediated stomatal closure and hence drought responses. Conversely, many WRKY TFs are negative regulators of seed germination, and controlling seed germination appears a common function of a subset of WRKY TFs in flowering plants. Taken together, these new data demonstrate that WRKY TFs are key nodes in ABA-responsive signalling networks. © 2011 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2011 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Suppression and restoration of male fertility using a transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Li, Song Feng; Iacuone, Sylvana; Parish, Roger W

    2007-03-01

    The Arabidopsis AtMYB103 gene codes for an R2R3 MYB domain protein whose expression is restricted to the tapetum of developing anthers and to trichomes. Down-regulation of expression using anti-sense leads to abnormal tapetum and pollen development, although seed setting still occurs (Higginson, T., Li, S.F. and Parish, R.W. (2003) AtMYB103 regulates tapetum and trichome development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 35, 177-192). In this study, we show that blocking the function of the AtMYB103 gene, employing either an insertion mutant or an AtMYB103EAR chimeric repressor construct under the control of the AtMYB103 promoter, results in complete male sterility and failure to set seed. These plants exhibit similar abnormalities in tapetum and pollen development, with the tapetum becoming highly vacuolated at early stages and degenerating prematurely. No exine is deposited on to the pollen wall. The degeneration of pollen grains commences prior to pollen mitosis, the pollen collapsing and largely lacking cytoplasmic content. A restorer containing the AtMYB103 gene under the control of a stronger anther-specific promoter was introduced into pollen donor plants and crossed into the male sterile plants transgenic for the repressor. The male fertility of F1 plants was restored. The chimeric repressor and the restorer constitute a reversible male sterility system which could be adapted for hybrid seed production. This is the first reversible male sterility system targeting a transcription factor essential for pollen development. Strategies for generating inducible male sterility and maintainable male sterility for the production of hybrid crops are discussed.

  12. Facilitated dissociation of transcription factors from single DNA binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Kamar, Ramsey I.; Banigan, Edward J.; Erbas, Aykut; Giuntoli, Rebecca D.; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica; Johnson, Reid C.; Marko, John F.

    2017-01-01

    The binding of transcription factors (TFs) to DNA controls most aspects of cellular function, making the understanding of their binding kinetics imperative. The standard description of bimolecular interactions posits that TF off rates are independent of TF concentration in solution. However, recent observations have revealed that proteins in solution can accelerate the dissociation of DNA-bound proteins. To study the molecular basis of facilitated dissociation (FD), we have used single-molecule imaging to measure dissociation kinetics of Fis, a key Escherichia coli TF and major bacterial nucleoid protein, from single dsDNA binding sites. We observe a strong FD effect characterized by an exchange rate ∼1×104 M−1s−1, establishing that FD of Fis occurs at the single-binding site level, and we find that the off rate saturates at large Fis concentrations in solution. Although spontaneous (i.e., competitor-free) dissociation shows a strong salt dependence, we find that FD depends only weakly on salt. These results are quantitatively explained by a model in which partially dissociated bound proteins are susceptible to invasion by competitor proteins in solution. We also report FD of NHP6A, a yeast TF with structure that differs significantly from Fis. We further perform molecular dynamics simulations, which indicate that FD can occur for molecules that interact far more weakly than those that we have studied. Taken together, our results indicate that FD is a general mechanism assisting in the local removal of TFs from their binding sites and does not necessarily require cooperativity, clustering, or binding site overlap. PMID:28364020

  13. Biophysical Fitness Landscapes for Transcription Factor Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Haldane, Allan; Manhart, Michael; Morozov, Alexandre V.

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic states and evolutionary trajectories available to cell populations are ultimately dictated by complex interactions among DNA, RNA, proteins, and other molecular species. Here we study how evolution of gene regulation in a single-cell eukaryote S. cerevisiae is affected by interactions between transcription factors (TFs) and their cognate DNA sites. Our study is informed by a comprehensive collection of genomic binding sites and high-throughput in vitro measurements of TF-DNA binding interactions. Using an evolutionary model for monomorphic populations evolving on a fitness landscape, we infer fitness as a function of TF-DNA binding to show that the shape of the inferred fitness functions is in broad agreement with a simple functional form inspired by a thermodynamic model of two-state TF-DNA binding. However, the effective parameters of the model are not always consistent with physical values, indicating selection pressures beyond the biophysical constraints imposed by TF-DNA interactions. We find little statistical support for the fitness landscape in which each position in the binding site evolves independently, indicating that epistasis is common in the evolution of gene regulation. Finally, by correlating TF-DNA binding energies with biological properties of the sites or the genes they regulate, we are able to rule out several scenarios of site-specific selection, under which binding sites of the same TF would experience different selection pressures depending on their position in the genome. These findings support the existence of universal fitness landscapes which shape evolution of all sites for a given TF, and whose properties are determined in part by the physics of protein-DNA interactions. PMID:25010228

  14. Network based transcription factor analysis of regenerating axolotl limbs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies on amphibian limb regeneration began in the early 1700's but we still do not completely understand the cellular and molecular events of this unique process. Understanding a complex biological process such as limb regeneration is more complicated than the knowledge of the individual genes or proteins involved. Here we followed a systems biology approach in an effort to construct the networks and pathways of protein interactions involved in formation of the accumulation blastema in regenerating axolotl limbs. Results We used the human orthologs of proteins previously identified by our research team as bait to identify the transcription factor (TF) pathways and networks that regulate blastema formation in amputated axolotl limbs. The five most connected factors, c-Myc, SP1, HNF4A, ESR1 and p53 regulate ~50% of the proteins in our data. Among these, c-Myc and SP1 regulate 36.2% of the proteins. c-Myc was the most highly connected TF (71 targets). Network analysis showed that TGF-β1 and fibronectin (FN) lead to the activation of these TFs. We found that other TFs known to be involved in epigenetic reprogramming, such as Klf4, Oct4, and Lin28 are also connected to c-Myc and SP1. Conclusions Our study provides a systems biology approach to how different molecular entities inter-connect with each other during the formation of an accumulation blastema in regenerating axolotl limbs. This approach provides an in silico methodology to identify proteins that are not detected by experimental methods such as proteomics but are potentially important to blastema formation. We found that the TFs, c-Myc and SP1 and their target genes could potentially play a central role in limb regeneration. Systems biology has the potential to map out numerous other pathways that are crucial to blastema formation in regeneration-competent limbs, to compare these to the pathways that characterize regeneration-deficient limbs and finally, to identify stem cell markers in

  15. Incorporating evolution of transcription factor binding sites into annotated alignments.

    PubMed

    Bais, Abha S; Grossmann, Stefen; Vingron, Martin

    2007-08-01

    Identifying transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) is essential to elucidate putative regulatory mechanisms. A common strategy is to combine cross-species conservation with single sequence TFBS annotation to yield "conserved TFBSs". Most current methods in this field adopt a multi-step approach that segregates the two aspects. Again, it is widely accepted that the evolutionary dynamics of binding sites differ from those of the surrounding sequence. Hence, it is desirable to have an approach that explicitly takes this factor into account. Although a plethora of approaches have been proposed for the prediction of conserved TFBSs, very few explicitly model TFBS evolutionary properties, while additionally being multi-step. Recently, we introduced a novel approach to simultaneously align and annotate conserved TFBSs in a pair of sequences. Building upon the standard Smith-Waterman algorithm for local alignments, SimAnn introduces additional states for profiles to output extended alignments or annotated alignments. That is, alignments with parts annotated as gaplessly aligned TFBSs (pair-profile hits)are generated. Moreover,the pair- profile related parameters are derived in a sound statistical framework. In this article, we extend this approach to explicitly incorporate evolution of binding sites in the SimAnn framework. We demonstrate the extension in the theoretical derivations through two position-specific evolutionary models, previously used for modelling TFBS evolution. In a simulated setting, we provide a proof of concept that the approach works given the underlying assumptions,as compared to the original work. Finally, using a real dataset of experimentally verified binding sites in human-mouse sequence pairs,we compare the new approach (eSimAnn) to an existing multi-step tool that also considers TFBS evolution. Although it is widely accepted that binding sites evolve differently from the surrounding sequences, most comparative TFBS identification methods do

  16. The transcription factor Nfix is essential for normal brain development.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Christine E; Piper, Michael; Plachez, Céline; Yeh, Yu-Ting; Baizer, Joan S; Osinski, Jason M; Litwack, E David; Richards, Linda J; Gronostajski, Richard M

    2008-05-13

    The Nuclear Factor I (NFI) multi-gene family encodes site-specific transcription factors essential for the development of a number of organ systems. We showed previously that Nfia-deficient mice exhibit agenesis of the corpus callosum and other forebrain defects; Nfib-deficient mice have defects in lung maturation and show callosal agenesis and forebrain defects resembling those seen in Nfia-deficient animals, while Nfic-deficient mice have defects in tooth root formation. Recently the Nfix gene has been disrupted and these studies indicated that there were largely uncharacterized defects in brain and skeletal development in Nfix-deficient mice. Here we show that disruption of Nfix by Cre-recombinase mediated excision of the 2nd exon results in defects in brain development that differ from those seen in Nfia and Nfib KO mice. In particular, complete callosal agenesis is not seen in Nfix-/- mice but rather there appears to be an overabundance of aberrant Pax6- and doublecortin-positive cells in the lateral ventricles of Nfix-/- mice, increased brain weight, expansion of the cingulate cortex and entire brain along the dorsal ventral axis, and aberrant formation of the hippocampus. On standard lab chow Nfix-/- animals show a decreased growth rate from ~P8 to P14, lose weight from ~P14 to P22 and die at ~P22. If their food is supplemented with a soft dough chow from P10, Nfix-/- animals show a lag in weight gain from P8 to P20 but then increase their growth rate. A fraction of the animals survive to adulthood and are fertile. The weight loss correlates with delayed eye and ear canal opening and suggests a delay in the development of several epithelial structures in Nfix-/- animals. These data show that Nfix is essential for normal brain development and may be required for neural stem cell homeostasis. The delays seen in eye and ear opening and the brain morphology defects appear independent of the nutritional deprivation, as rescue of perinatal lethality with soft

  17. Transcription factor PU.1 is expressed in white adipose and inhibits adipocyte differentiation

    PU.1 transcription factor is a critical regulator of hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis. Because PU.1 interacts with transcription factors GATA-2 and C/EBPa, both of which are involved in the regulation of adipogenesis, we investigated whether PU.1 also plays a role in the regulation of adipocyte diff...

  18. Proteopedia: 3D Visualization and Annotation of Transcription Factor-DNA Readout Modes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dantas Machado, Ana Carolina; Saleebyan, Skyler B.; Holmes, Bailey T.; Karelina, Maria; Tam, Julia; Kim, Sharon Y.; Kim, Keziah H.; Dror, Iris; Hodis, Eran; Martz, Eric; Compeau, Patricia A.; Rohs, Remo

    2012-01-01

    3D visualization assists in identifying diverse mechanisms of protein-DNA recognition that can be observed for transcription factors and other DNA binding proteins. We used Proteopedia to illustrate transcription factor-DNA readout modes with a focus on DNA shape, which can be a function of either nucleotide sequence (Hox proteins) or base pairing…

  19. Cell Penetrating Bispecific Antibodies for Targeting Oncogenic Transcription Factors in Advanced Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    biochemical and biologic assay systems. The final specific aim was tol examine the ability of the bispecific antibody to perturb the growth of prostate ...designated by other documentation. TITLE: Cell-Penetrating Bispecific Antibodies for Targeting Oncogenic Transcription Factors in Advanced Prostate ...Bispecific Antibodies for Targeting Oncogenic Transcription Factors in Advanced Prostate Cancer Michael Lilly, MD Richard Weisbart, MD Medical

  20. Interaction between FMDV Lpro and transcription factor ADNP is required for viral replication

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) leader protease (Lpro) inhibits host translation and transcription affecting the expression of several factors involved in innate immunity. In this study, we have identified the host transcription factor ADNP (activity dependent neuroprotective protein) as an ...

  1. Interleukin 2 transcription factors as molecular targets of cAMP inhibition: delayed inhibition kinetics and combinatorial transcription roles

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Elevation of cAMP can cause gene-specific inhibition of interleukin 2 (IL-2) expression. To investigate the mechanism of this effect, we have combined electrophoretic mobility shift assays and in vivo genomic footprinting to assess both the availability of putative IL-2 transcription factors in forskolin-treated cells and the functional capacity of these factors to engage their sites in vivo. All observed effects of forskolin depended upon protein kinase A, for they were blocked by introduction of a dominant negative mutant subunit of protein kinase A. In the EL4.E1 cell line, we report specific inhibitory effects of cAMP elevation both on NF-kappa B/Rel family factors binding at -200 bp, and on a novel, biochemically distinct "TGGGC" factor binding at -225 bp with respect to the IL-2 transcriptional start site. Neither NF-AT nor AP-1 binding activities are detectably inhibited in gel mobility shift assays. Elevation of cAMP inhibits NF-kappa B activity with delayed kinetics in association with a delayed inhibition of IL-2 RNA accumulation. Activation of cells in the presence of forskolin prevents the maintenance of stable protein- DNA interactions in vivo, not only at the NF-kappa B and TGGGC sites of the IL-2 enhancer, but also at the NF-AT, AP-1, and other sites. This result, and similar results in cyclosporin A-treated cells, imply that individual IL-2 transcription factors cannot stably bind their target sequences in vivo without coengagement of all other distinct factors at neighboring sites. It is proposed that nonhierarchical, cooperative enhancement of binding is a structural basis of combinatorial transcription factor action at the IL-2 locus. PMID:8113685

  2. PTEN regulates p300-dependent hypoxia-inducible factor 1 transcriptional activity through Forkhead transcription factor 3a (FOXO3a)

    PubMed Central

    Emerling, Brooke M.; Weinberg, Frank; Liu, Juinn-Lin; Mak, Tak W.; Chandel, Navdeep S.

    2008-01-01

    The tumor suppressor PTEN is mutated or deleted in many tumors, causing the activation of the PI3K pathway. Here, we show that the loss of PTEN increases the transcriptional activity of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) through the inactivation of Forkhead transcription factors (FOXO) in PTEN-null cells. Reintroduction of PTEN into the nucleus, overexpression of a nonphosphorylatable FOXO3a, which accumulates in the nucleus, or inhibition of nuclear export of FOXO3a by leptomycin B represses HIF-1 transcriptional activity in PTEN-null cells. HIF-1 transcriptional activity increases in PTEN-positive cells depleted of FOXO3a with siRNA. PTEN and FOXO3a regulate the transactivation domain of HIF-1α. Chromatin immunoprecipitation indicates that FOXO3a complexes with HIF-1α and p300 on the Glut-1 promoter, a HIF-1 target gene. Overexpression of p300 reverses FOXO3a-mediated repression of HIF-1 transcriptional activity. Coimmunoprecipitation and GAL4-HIF-1α transactivation assays reveal that FOXO3a interferes with p300-dependent HIF-1 transcriptional activity. Thus, FOXO3a negatively regulates HIF-1 transcriptional activity. PMID:18268343

  3. The RNA Export Factor, Nxt1, Is Required for Tissue Specific Transcriptional Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jianqiao; White-Cooper, Helen

    2013-01-01

    The highly conserved, Nxf/Nxt (TAP/p15) RNA nuclear export pathway is important for export of most mRNAs from the nucleus, by interacting with mRNAs and promoting their passage through nuclear pores. Nxt1 is essential for viability; using a partial loss of function allele, we reveal a role for this gene in tissue specific transcription. We show that many Drosophila melanogaster testis-specific mRNAs require Nxt1 for their accumulation. The transcripts that require Nxt1 also depend on a testis-specific transcription complex, tMAC. We show that loss of Nxt1 leads to reduced transcription of tMAC targets. A reporter transcript from a tMAC-dependent promoter is under-expressed in Nxt1 mutants, however the same transcript accumulates in mutants if driven by a tMAC-independent promoter. Thus, in Drosophila primary spermatocytes, the transcription factor used to activate expression of a transcript, rather than the RNA sequence itself or the core transcription machinery, determines whether this expression requires Nxt1. We additionally find that transcripts from intron-less genes are more sensitive to loss of Nxt1 function than those from intron-containing genes and propose a mechanism in which transcript processing feeds back to increase activity of a tissue specific transcription complex. PMID:23754955

  4. Bioinformatics approaches to predict target genes from transcription factor binding data.

    PubMed

    Essebier, Alexandra; Lamprecht, Marnie; Piper, Michael; Bodén, Mikael

    2017-12-01

    Transcription factors regulate gene expression and play an essential role in development by maintaining proliferative states, driving cellular differentiation and determining cell fate. Transcription factors are capable of regulating multiple genes over potentially long distances making target gene identification challenging. Currently available experimental approaches to detect distal interactions have multiple weaknesses that have motivated the development of computational approaches. Although an improvement over experimental approaches, existing computational approaches are still limited in their application, with different weaknesses depending on the approach. Here, we review computational approaches with a focus on data dependency, cell type specificity and usability. With the aim of identifying transcription factor target genes, we apply available approaches to typical transcription factor experimental datasets. We show that approaches are not always capable of annotating all transcription factor binding sites; binding sites should be treated disparately; and a combination of approaches can increase the biological relevance of the set of genes identified as targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prediction of Pathway Activation by Xenobiotic-Responsive Transcription Factors in the Mouse Liver

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals activate xenobioticresponsive transcription factors (TF). Identification of target genes of these factors would be useful in predicting pathway activation in in vitro chemical screening. Starting with a large compendium of Affymet...

  6. Protein-protein interactions in the regulation of WRKY transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Chi, Yingjun; Yang, Yan; Zhou, Yuan; Zhou, Jie; Fan, Baofang; Yu, Jing-Quan; Chen, Zhixiang

    2013-03-01

    It has been almost 20 years since the first report of a WRKY transcription factor, SPF1, from sweet potato. Great progress has been made since then in establishing the diverse biological roles of WRKY transcription factors in plant growth, development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stress. Despite the functional diversity, almost all analyzed WRKY proteins recognize the TTGACC/T W-box sequences and, therefore, mechanisms other than mere recognition of the core W-box promoter elements are necessary to achieve the regulatory specificity of WRKY transcription factors. Research over the past several years has revealed that WRKY transcription factors physically interact with a wide range of proteins with roles in signaling, transcription, and chromatin remodeling. Studies of WRKY-interacting proteins have provided important insights into the regulation and mode of action of members of the important family of transcription factors. It has also emerged that the slightly varied WRKY domains and other protein motifs conserved within each of the seven WRKY subfamilies participate in protein-protein interactions and mediate complex functional interactions between WRKY proteins and between WRKY and other regulatory proteins in the modulation of important biological processes. In this review, we summarize studies of protein-protein interactions for WRKY transcription factors and discuss how the interacting partners contribute, at different levels, to the establishment of the complex regulatory and functional network of WRKY transcription factors.

  7. Developmental expression patterns of candidate co-factors for vertebrate Six family transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Neilson, Karen M.; Pignoni, Francesca; Yan, Bo; Moody, Sally A.

    2010-01-01

    Six family transcription factors play important roles in craniofacial development. Their transcriptional activity can be modified by co-factor proteins. Two Six genes and one co-factor gene (Eya1) are involved in the human Branchio-otic (BO) and Branchio-otic-renal (BOR) syndromes. However, mutations in Six and Eya genes only account for about half of these patients. To discover potential new causative genes, we searched the Xenopus genome for orthologues of Drosophila co-factor proteins that interact with the fly Six-related factor, SO. We identified 33 Xenopus genes with high sequence identity to 20 of the 25 fly SO-interacting proteins. We provide the developmental expression patterns of the Xenopus orthologues for 11 of the fly genes, and demonstrate that all are expressed in developing craniofacial tissues with at least partial overlap with Six1/Six2. We speculate that these genes may function as Six-interacting partners with important roles in vertebrate craniofacial development and perhaps congenital syndromes. PMID:21089078

  8. Exploring the utility of organo-polyoxometalate hybrids to inhibit SOX transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background SOX transcription factors constitute an attractive target class for intervention with small molecules as they play a prominent role in the field of regenerative biomedicine and cancer biology. However, rationally engineering specific inhibitors that interfere with transcription factor DNA interfaces continues to be a monumental challenge in the field of transcription factor chemical biology. Polyoxometalates (POMs) are inorganic compounds that were previously shown to target the high-mobility group (HMG) of SOX proteins at nanomolar concentrations. In continuation of this work, we carried out an assessment of the selectivity of a panel of newly synthesized organo-polyoxometalate hybrids in targeting different transcription factor families to enable the usage of polyoxometalates as specific SOX transcription factor drugs. Results The residual DNA-binding activities of 15 different transcription factors were measured after treatment with a panel of diverse polyoxometalates. Polyoxometalates belonging to the Dawson structural class were found to be more potent inhibitors than the Keggin class. Further, organically modified Dawson polyoxometalates were found to be the most potent in inhibiting transcription factor DNA binding activity. The size of the polyoxometalates and its derivitization were found to be the key determinants of their potency. Conclusion Polyoxometalates are highly potent, nanomolar range inhibitors of the DNA binding activity of the Sox-HMG family. However, binding assays involving a limited subset of structurally diverse polyoxometalates revealed a low selectivity profile against different transcription factor families. Further progress in achieving selectivity and deciphering structure-activity relationship of POMs require the identification of POM binding sites on transcription factors using elaborate approaches like X-ray crystallography and multidimensional NMR. In summary, our report reaffirms that transcription factors are

  9. The WRKY Transcription Factor WRKY71/EXB1 Controls Shoot Branching by Transcriptionally Regulating RAX Genes in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dongshu; Zhang, Jinzhe; Wang, Xinlei; Han, Xiang; Wei, Baoye; Yu, Hao; Huang, Qingpei

    2015-01-01

    Plant shoot branching is pivotal for developmental plasticity and crop yield. The formation of branch meristems is regulated by several key transcription factors including REGULATOR OF AXILLARY MERISTEMS1 (RAX1), RAX2, and RAX3. However, the regulatory network of shoot branching is still largely unknown. Here, we report the identification of EXCESSIVE BRANCHES1 (EXB1), which affects axillary meristem (AM) initiation and bud activity. Overexpression of EXB1 in the gain-of-function mutant exb1-D leads to severe bushy and dwarf phenotypes, which result from excessive AM initiation and elevated bud activities. EXB1 encodes the WRKY transcription factor WRKY71, which has demonstrated transactivation activities. Disruption of WRKY71/EXB1 by chimeric repressor silencing technology leads to fewer branches, indicating that EXB1 plays important roles in the control of shoot branching. We demonstrate that EXB1 controls AM initiation by positively regulating the transcription of RAX1, RAX2, and RAX3. Disruption of the RAX genes partially rescues the branching phenotype caused by EXB1 overexpression. We further show that EXB1 also regulates auxin homeostasis in control of shoot branching. Our data demonstrate that EXB1 plays pivotal roles in shoot branching by regulating both transcription of RAX genes and auxin pathways. PMID:26578700

  10. Functional analysis of a WRKY transcription factor involved in transcriptional activation of the DBAT gene in Taxus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Li, S; Zhang, P; Zhang, M; Fu, C; Yu, L

    2013-01-01

    Although the regulation of taxol biosynthesis at the transcriptional level remains unclear, 10-deacetylbaccatin III-10 β-O-acetyl transferase (DBAT) is a critical enzyme in the biosynthesis of taxol. The 1740 bp fragment 5'-flanking sequence of the dbat gene was cloned from Taxus chinensis cells. Important regulatory elements needed for activity of the dbat promoter were located by deletion analyses in T. chinensis cells. A novel WRKY transcription factor, TcWRKY1, was isolated with the yeast one-hybrid system from a T. chinensis cell cDNA library using the important regulatory elements as bait. The gene expression of TcWRKY1 in T. chinensis suspension cells was specifically induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Biochemical analysis indicated that TcWRKY1 protein specifically interacts with the two W-box (TGAC) cis-elements among the important regulatory elements. Overexpression of TcWRKY1 enhanced dbat expression in T. chinensis suspension cells, and RNA interference (RNAi) reduced the level of transcripts of dbat. These results suggest that TcWRKY1 participates in regulation of taxol biosynthesis in T. chinensis cells, and that dbat is a target gene of this transcription factor. This research also provides a potential candidate gene for engineering increased taxol accumulation in Taxus cell cultures. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  11. The WRKY Transcription Factor WRKY71/EXB1 Controls Shoot Branching by Transcriptionally Regulating RAX Genes in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dongshu; Zhang, Jinzhe; Wang, Xinlei; Han, Xiang; Wei, Baoye; Wang, Jianqiao; Li, Boxun; Yu, Hao; Huang, Qingpei; Gu, Hongya; Qu, Li-Jia; Qin, Genji

    2015-11-01

    Plant shoot branching is pivotal for developmental plasticity and crop yield. The formation of branch meristems is regulated by several key transcription factors including REGULATOR OF AXILLARY MERISTEMS1 (RAX1), RAX2, and RAX3. However, the regulatory network of shoot branching is still largely unknown. Here, we report the identification of EXCESSIVE BRANCHES1 (EXB1), which affects axillary meristem (AM) initiation and bud activity. Overexpression of EXB1 in the gain-of-function mutant exb1-D leads to severe bushy and dwarf phenotypes, which result from excessive AM initiation and elevated bud activities. EXB1 encodes the WRKY transcription factor WRKY71, which has demonstrated transactivation activities. Disruption of WRKY71/EXB1 by chimeric repressor silencing technology leads to fewer branches, indicating that EXB1 plays important roles in the control of shoot branching. We demonstrate that EXB1 controls AM initiation by positively regulating the transcription of RAX1, RAX2, and RAX3. Disruption of the RAX genes partially rescues the branching phenotype caused by EXB1 overexpression. We further show that EXB1 also regulates auxin homeostasis in control of shoot branching. Our data demonstrate that EXB1 plays pivotal roles in shoot branching by regulating both transcription of RAX genes and auxin pathways. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  12. High performance transcription factor-DNA docking with GPU computing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Protein-DNA docking is a very challenging problem in structural bioinformatics and has important implications in a number of applications, such as structure-based prediction of transcription factor binding sites and rational drug design. Protein-DNA docking is very computational demanding due to the high cost of energy calculation and the statistical nature of conformational sampling algorithms. More importantly, experiments show that the docking quality depends on the coverage of the conformational sampling space. It is therefore desirable to accelerate the computation of the docking algorithm, not only to reduce computing time, but also to improve docking quality. Methods In an attempt to accelerate the sampling process and to improve the docking performance, we developed a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based protein-DNA docking algorithm. The algorithm employs a potential-based energy function to describe the binding affinity of a protein-DNA pair, and integrates Monte-Carlo simulation and a simulated annealing method to search through the conformational space. Algorithmic techniques were developed to improve the computation efficiency and scalability on GPU-based high performance computing systems. Results The effectiveness of our approach is tested on a non-redundant set of 75 TF-DNA complexes and a newly developed TF-DNA docking benchmark. We demonstrated that the GPU-based docking algorithm can significantly accelerate the simulation process and thereby improving the chance of finding near-native TF-DNA complex structures. This study also suggests that further improvement in protein-DNA docking research would require efforts from two integral aspects: improvement in computation efficiency and energy function design. Conclusions We present a high performance computing approach for improving the prediction accuracy of protein-DNA docking. The GPU-based docking algorithm accelerates the search of the conformational space and thus increases the

  13. The regulation of trefoil factor 2 expression by the transcription factor Sp3.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingjing; Wang, Xu; Cai, Yiling; Zhou, Jingping; Guleng, Bayasi; Shi, Huaxiu; Ren, Jianlin

    2012-10-19

    Trefoil factor family 2 (TFF2) participates in mucus stabilization and repair, apoptosis, and inflammatory responses. Previously published reports have indicated that several growth factors and basal transcription factors are associated with the expression of TFF2. However, the detailed mechanisms that regulate TFF2 expression are not fully understood. The present study was designed to assess the essential role of the transcription factor SP3 with respect to TFF2 expression. We first demonstrated that there was a negative correlation between the expression levels of SP3 and TFF2. Thus, in the examined cells, the overexpression of SP3 decreased the expression level of TFF2, whereas the inhibition of SP3 increased the expression level of TFF2. Moreover, we discovered two GC boxes in the TFF2 promoter and confirmed the specific binding of SP3 to this promoter. On the whole, this study indicated that Sp3 was a major regulator of TFF2 expression. This knowledge should contribute to our understanding of the role that is played by SP3 in the regulation of TFF2 expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. iTAK: A program for genome-wide prediction and classification of plant transcription factors, transcriptional regulators and protein kinases

    Transcription factors (TFs) are proteins that regulate the expression of target genes by binding to specific elements in their regulatory regions. Transcriptional regulators (TRs) also regulate the expression of target genes; however, they operate indirectly via interaction with the basal transcript...

  15. Technical Advance: Transcription factor, promoter, and enhancer utilization in human myeloid cells.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Anagha; Pooley, Christopher; Freeman, Tom C; Lennartsson, Andreas; Babina, Magda; Schmidl, Christian; Geijtenbeek, Teunis; Michoel, Tom; Severin, Jessica; Itoh, Masayoshi; Lassmann, Timo; Kawaji, Hideya; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Carninci, Piero; Forrest, Alistair R R; Rehli, Michael; Hume, David A

    2015-05-01

    The generation of myeloid cells from their progenitors is regulated at the level of transcription by combinatorial control of key transcription factors influencing cell-fate choice. To unravel the global dynamics of this process at the transcript level, we generated transcription profiles for 91 human cell types of myeloid origin by use of CAGE profiling. The CAGE sequencing of these samples has allowed us to investigate diverse aspects of transcription control during myelopoiesis, such as identification of novel transcription factors, miRNAs, and noncoding RNAs specific to the myeloid lineage. We further reconstructed a transcription regulatory network by clustering coexpressed transcripts and associating them with enriched cis-regulatory motifs. With the use of the bidirectional expression as a proxy for enhancers, we predicted over 2000 novel enhancers, including an enhancer 38 kb downstream of IRF8 and an intronic enhancer in the KIT gene locus. Finally, we highlighted relevance of these data to dissect transcription dynamics during progressive maturation of granulocyte precursors. A multifaceted analysis of the myeloid transcriptome is made available (www.myeloidome.roslin.ed.ac.uk). This high-quality dataset provides a powerful resource to study transcriptional regulation during myelopoiesis and to infer the likely functions of unannotated genes in human innate immunity. © The Author(s).

  16. PU.1 is a major transcriptional activator of the tumour suppressor gene LIMD1

    PubMed Central

    Foxler, Daniel E.; James, Victoria; Shelton, Samuel J.; Vallim, Thomas Q. de A.; Shaw, Peter E.; Sharp, Tyson V.

    2011-01-01

    LIMD1 is a tumour suppressor gene (TSG) down regulated in ∼80% of lung cancers with loss also demonstrated in breast and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. LIMD1 is also a candidate TSG in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Mechanistically, LIMD1 interacts with pRB, repressing E2F-driven transcription as well as being a critical component of microRNA-mediated gene silencing. In this study we show a CpG island within the LIMD1 promoter contains a conserved binding motif for the transcription factor PU.1. Mutation of the PU.1 consensus reduced promoter driven transcription by 90%. ChIP and EMSA analysis demonstrated that PU.1 specifically binds to the LIMD1 promoter. siRNA depletion of PU.1 significantly reduced endogenous LIMD1 expression, demonstrating that PU.1 is a major transcriptional activator of LIMD1. PMID:21402070

  17. The transcription factor DREAM represses A20 and mediates inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Tiruppathi, Chinnaswamy; Soni, Dheeraj; Wang, Dong-Mei; Xue, Jiaping; Singh, Vandana; Thippegowda, Prabhakar B.; Cheppudira, Bopaiah P.; Mishra, Rakesh K.; DebRoy, Auditi; Qian, Zhijian; Bachmaier, Kurt; Zhao, Youyang; Christman, John W.; Vogel, Stephen M.; Ma, Averil; Malik, Asrar B.

    2014-01-01

    Here we show that the transcription-repressor DREAM binds to the A20 promoter to repress the expression of A20, the deubiquitinase suppressing inflammatory NF-κB signaling. DREAM-deficient (Dream−/−) mice displayed persistent and unchecked A20 expression in response to endotoxin. DREAM functioned by transcriptionally repressing A20 through binding to downstream regulatory elements (DREs). In contrast, USF1 binding to the DRE-associated E-box domain activated A20 expression in response to inflammatory stimuli. These studies define the critical opposing functions of DREAM and USF1 in inhibiting and inducing A20 expression, respectively, and thereby the strength of NF-κB signaling. Targeting of DREAM to induce USF1-mediated A20 expression is therefore a potential anti-inflammatory strategy in diseases such as acute lung injury associated with unconstrained NF-κB activity. PMID:24487321

  18. Drosophila mitochondrial transcription factor B1 modulates mitochondrial translation but not transcription or DNA copy number in Schneider cells.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Yuichi; Adán, Cristina; Garesse, Rafael; Kaguni, Laurie S

    2005-04-29

    We report the cloning and molecular analysis of Drosophila mitochondrial transcription factor (d-mtTF) B1. An RNA interference (RNAi) construct was designed that reduces expression of d-mtTFB1 to 5% of its normal level in Schneider cells. In striking contrast with our previous study on d-mtTFB2, we found that RNAi knock-down of d-mtTFB1 does not change the abundance of specific mitochondrial RNA transcripts, nor does it affect the copy number of mitochondrial DNA. In a corollary manner, overexpression of d-mtTFB1 did not increase either the abundance of mitochondrial RNA transcripts or mitochondrial DNA copy number. Our data suggest that, unlike d-mtTFB2, d-mtTFB1 does not have a critical role in either transcription or regulation of the copy number of mitochondrial DNA. Instead, because we found that RNAi knockdown of d-mtTFB1 reduces mitochondrial protein synthesis, we propose that it serves its primary role in modulating translation. Our work represents the first study to document the role of mtTFB1 in vivo and establishes clearly functional differences between mtTFB1 and mtTFB2.

  19. Post-translational regulation of WRKY transcription factors in plant immunity.

    PubMed

    Ishihama, Nobuaki; Yoshioka, Hirofumi

    2012-08-01

    Plants have evolved immune system to protect themselves against invading pathogens. Recent research has illustrated that signaling networks, after perception of diverse pathogen-derived signals, facilitate transcriptional reprogramming through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. WRKY proteins, which comprise a large family of plant transcription factors, are key players in plant immune responses. WRKY transcription factors participate in the control of defense-related genes either as positive or as negative regulators, and essentially are regulated at the transcriptional level. Emerging evidence emphasizes that group I WRKY transcription factors, which contain a conserved motif in the N-terminal region, are also activated by MAPK-dependent phosphorylation, underlining their importance in plant immunity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of candidate transcription factor binding sites in the cattle genome

    A resource that provides candidate transcription factor binding sites does not currently exist for cattle. Such data is necessary, as predicted sites may serve as excellent starting locations for future 'omics studies to develop transcriptional regulation hypotheses. In order to generate this resour...

  1. The yeast Hot1 transcription factor is critical for activating a single target gene, STL1

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Chen; Tesker, Masha; Engelberg, David

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors are commonly activated by signal transduction cascades and induce expression of many genes. They therefore play critical roles in determining the cell's fate. The yeast Hog1 MAP kinase pathway is believed to control the transcription of hundreds of genes via several transcription factors. To identify the bona fide target genes of Hog1, we inducibly expressed the spontaneously active variant Hog1D170A+F318L in cells lacking the Hog1 activator Pbs2. This system allowed monitoring the effects of Hog1 by itself. Expression of Hog1D170A+F318L in pbs2∆ cells imposed induction of just 105 and suppression of only 26 transcripts by at least twofold. We looked for the Hog1-responsive element within the promoter of the most highly induced gene, STL1 (88-fold). A novel Hog1 responsive element (HoRE) was identified and shown to be the direct target of the transcription factor Hot1. Unexpectedly, we could not find this HoRE in any other yeast promoter. In addition, the only gene whose expression was abolished in hot1∆ cells was STL1. Thus Hot1 is essential for transcription of just one gene, STL1. Hot1 may represent a class of transcription factors that are essential for transcription of a very few genes or even just one. PMID:25904326

  2. Membrane-bound transcription factors: regulated release by RIP or RUP.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, T; Rape, M; Jentsch, S

    2001-06-01

    Regulated nuclear transport of transcription factors from cytoplasmic pools is a major route by which eukaryotes control gene expression. Exquisite examples are transcription factors that are kept in a dormant state in the cytosol by membrane anchors; such proteins are released from membranes by proteolytic cleavage, which enables these transcription factors to enter the nucleus. Cleavage can be mediated either by regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) catalysed by specific membrane-bound proteases or by regulated ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent processing (RUP). In both cases processing can be controlled by cues that originate at or in the vicinity of the membrane.

  3. Bombyx mori Transcription Factors: Genome-Wide Identification, Expression Profiles and Response to Pathogens by Microarray Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lulin; Cheng, Tingcai; Xu, Pingzhen; Fang, Ting; Xia, Qingyou

    2012-01-01

    Transcription factors are present in all living organisms, and play vital roles in a wide range of biological processes. Studies of transcription factors will help reveal the complex regulation mechanism of organisms. So far, hundreds of domains have been identified that show transcription factor activity. Here, 281 reported transcription factor domains were used as seeds to search the transcription factors in genomes of Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) and four other model insects. Overall, 666 transcription factors including 36 basal factors and 630 other factors were identified in B. mori genome, which accounted for 4.56% of its genome. The silkworm transcription factors' expression profiles were investigated in relation to multiple tissues, developmental stages, sexual dimorphism, and responses to oral infection by pathogens and direct bacterial injection. These all provided rich clues for revealing the transcriptional regulation mechanism of silkworm organ differentiation, growth and development, sexual dimorphism, and response to pathogen infection. PMID:22943524

  4. Transcriptional regulation of defence genes and involvement of the WRKY transcription factor in arbuscular mycorrhizal potato root colonization.

    PubMed

    Gallou, Adrien; Declerck, Stéphane; Cranenbrouck, Sylvie

    2012-03-01

    The establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal associations causes major changes in plant roots and affects significantly the host in term of plant nutrition and resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses. As a consequence, major changes in root transcriptome, especially in plant genes related to biotic stresses, are expected. Potato microarray analysis, followed by real-time quantitative PCR, was performed to detect the wide transcriptome changes induced during the pre-, early and late stages of potato root colonization by Glomus sp. MUCL 41833. The microarray analysis revealed 526 up-regulated and 132 down-regulated genes during the pre-stage, 272 up-regulated and 109 down-regulated genes during the early stage and 734 up-regulated and 122 down-regulated genes during the late stage of root colonization. The most important class of regulated genes was associated to plant stress and in particular to the WRKY transcription factors genes during the pre-stage of root colonization. The expression profiling clearly demonstrated a wide transcriptional change during the pre-, early and late stages of root colonization. It further suggested that the WRKY transcription factor genes are involved in the mechanisms controlling the arbuscular mycorrhizal establishment by the regulation of plant defence genes.

  5. Interactome analysis of transcriptional coactivator multiprotein bridging factor 1 unveils a yeast AP-1-like transcription factor involved in oxidation tolerance of mycopathogen Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Chu, Xin-Ling; Dong, Wei-Xia; Ding, Jin-Li; Feng, Ming-Guang; Ying, Sheng-Hua

    2018-02-01

    Oxidation tolerance is an important determinant to predict the virulence and biocontrol potential of Beauveria bassiana, a well-known entomopathogenic fungus. As a transcriptional coactivator, multiprotein bridging factor 1 mediates the activity of transcription factor in diverse physiological processes, and its homolog in B. bassiana (BbMBF1) contributes to fungal oxidation tolerance. In this study, the BbMBF1-interactomes under oxidative stress and normal growth condition were deciphered by mass spectrometry integrated with the immunoprecipitation. BbMBF1p factor has a broad interaction with proteins that are involved in various cellular processes, and this interaction is dynamically regulated by oxidative stress. Importantly, a B. bassiana homolog of yeast AP-1-like transcription factor (BbAP-1) was specifically associated with the BbMBF1-interactome under oxidation and significantly contributed to fungal oxidation tolerance. In addition, qPCR analysis revealed that several antioxidant genes are jointly controlled by BbAP-1 and BbMBF1. Conclusively, it is proposed that BbMBF1p protein mediates BbAP-1p factor to transcribe the downstream antioxidant genes in B. bassiana under oxidative stress. This study demonstrates for the first time a proteomic view of the MBF1-interactome in fungi, and presents an initial framework to probe the transcriptional mechanism involved in fungal response to oxidation, which will provide a new strategy to improve the biocontrol efficacy of B. bassiana.

  6. Integrative Analysis of Transcription Factor Combinatorial Interactions Using a Bayesian Tensor Factorization Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yusen; Gao, Lin; Zhang, Shihua

    2017-01-01

    Transcription factors play a key role in transcriptional regulation of genes and determination of cellular identity through combinatorial interactions. However, current studies about combinatorial regulation is deficient due to lack of experimental data in the same cellular environment and extensive existence of data noise. Here, we adopt a Bayesian CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP) factorization approach (BCPF) to integrate multiple datasets in a network paradigm for determining precise TF interaction landscapes. In our first application, we apply BCPF to integrate three networks built based on diverse datasets of multiple cell lines from ENCODE respectively to predict a global and precise TF interaction network. This network gives 38 novel TF interactions with distinct biological functions. In our second application, we apply BCPF to seven types of cell type TF regulatory networks and predict seven cell lineage TF interaction networks, respectively. By further exploring the dynamics and modularity of them, we find cell lineage-specific hub TFs participate in cell type or lineage-specific regulation by interacting with non-specific TFs. Furthermore, we illustrate the biological function of hub TFs by taking those of cancer lineage and blood lineage as examples. Taken together, our integrative analysis can reveal more precise and extensive description about human TF combinatorial interactions. PMID:29033978

  7. Integrative Analysis of Transcription Factor Combinatorial Interactions Using a Bayesian Tensor Factorization Approach.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yusen; Gao, Lin; Zhang, Shihua

    2017-01-01

    Transcription factors play a key role in transcriptional regulation of genes and determination of cellular identity through combinatorial interactions. However, current studies about combinatorial regulation is deficient due to lack of experimental data in the same cellular environment and extensive existence of data noise. Here, we adopt a Bayesian CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP) factorization approach (BCPF) to integrate multiple datasets in a network paradigm for determining precise TF interaction landscapes. In our first application, we apply BCPF to integrate three networks built based on diverse datasets of multiple cell lines from ENCODE respectively to predict a global and precise TF interaction network. This network gives 38 novel TF interactions with distinct biological functions. In our second application, we apply BCPF to seven types of cell type TF regulatory networks and predict seven cell lineage TF interaction networks, respectively. By further exploring the dynamics and modularity of them, we find cell lineage-specific hub TFs participate in cell type or lineage-specific regulation by interacting with non-specific TFs. Furthermore, we illustrate the biological function of hub TFs by taking those of cancer lineage and blood lineage as examples. Taken together, our integrative analysis can reveal more precise and extensive description about human TF combinatorial interactions.

  8. Direct transcriptional activation of BT genes by NLP transcription factors is a key component of the nitrate response in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takeo; Maekawa, Shugo; Konishi, Mineko; Yoshioka, Nozomi; Sasaki, Yuki; Maeda, Haruna; Ishida, Tetsuya; Kato, Yuki; Yamaguchi, Junji; Yanagisawa, Shuichi

    2017-01-29

    Nitrate modulates growth and development, functioning as a nutrient signal in plants. Although many changes in physiological processes in response to nitrate have been well characterized as nitrate responses, the molecular mechanisms underlying the nitrate response are not yet fully understood. Here, we show that NLP transcription factors, which are key regulators of the nitrate response, directly activate the nitrate-inducible expression of BT1 and BT2 encoding putative scaffold proteins with a plant-specific domain structure in Arabidopsis. Interestingly, the 35S promoter-driven expression of BT2 partially rescued growth inhibition caused by reductions in NLP activity in Arabidopsis. Furthermore, simultaneous disruption of BT1 and BT2 affected nitrate-dependent lateral root development. These results suggest that direct activation of BT1 and BT2 by NLP transcriptional activators is a key component of the molecular mechanism underlying the nitrate response in Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Coordinating Regulation of Gene Expression in Cardiovascular Disease: Interactions between Chromatin Modifiers and Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Ashley J.; Martin, Kathleen A.

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death with increasing economic burden. The pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases is complex, but can arise from genetic and/or environmental risk factors. This can lead to dysregulated gene expression in numerous cell types including cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and inflammatory cells. While initial studies addressed transcriptional control of gene expression, epigenetics has been increasingly appreciated to also play an important role in this process through alterations in chromatin structure and gene accessibility. Chromatin-modifying proteins including enzymes that modulate DNA methylation, histone methylation, and histone acetylation can influence gene expression in numerous ways. These chromatin modifiers and their marks can promote or prevent transcription factor recruitment to regulatory regions of genes through modifications to DNA, histones, or the transcription factors themselves. This review will focus on the emerging question of how epigenetic modifiers and transcription factors interact to coordinately regulate gene expression in cardiovascular disease. While most studies have addressed the roles of either epigenetic or transcriptional control, our understanding of the integration of these processes is only just beginning. Interrogating these interactions is challenging, and improved technical approaches will be needed to fully dissect the temporal and spatial relationships between transcription factors, chromatin modifiers, and gene expression in cardiovascular disease. We summarize the current state of the field and provide perspectives on limitations and future directions. Through studies of epigenetic and transcriptional interactions, we can advance our understanding of the basic mechanisms of cardiovascular disease pathogenesis to develop novel therapeutics. PMID:28428957

  10. Enhancer Activation Requires Trans-Recruitment of a Mega Transcription Factor Complex

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhijie; Merkurjev, Daria; Yang, Feng; Li, Wenbo; Oh, Soohwan; Friedman, Meyer J.; Song, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Feng; Ma, Qi; Ohgi, Kenneth; Krones, Anna; Rosenfeld, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Enhancers provide critical information directing cell-type specific transcriptional programs, regulated by binding of signal-dependent transcription factors and their associated cofactors. Here we report that the most strongly activated estrogen (E2)-responsive enhancers are characterized by trans-recruitment and in situ assembly of a large 1-2 MDa complex of diverse DNA-binding transcription factors by ERα at ERE-containing enhancers. We refer to enhancers recruiting these factors as mega transcription factor-bound in trans (MegaTrans) enhancers. The MegaTrans complex is a signature of the most potent functional enhancers and is required for activation of enhancer RNA transcription and recruitment of coactivators, including p300 and Med1. The MegaTrans complex functions, in part, by recruiting specific enzymatic machinery, exemplified by DNA-dependent protein kinase. Thus, MegaTrans-containing enhancers represent a cohort of functional enhancers that mediate a broad and important transcriptional program and provide a molecular explanation for transcription factor clustering and hotspots noted in the genome. PMID:25303530

  11. Up-Regulation of Bcl-xl by Hepatocyte Growth Factor in Human Mesothelioma Cells Involves ETS Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xiaobo; Littlejohn, James; Rodarte, Charles; Zhang, Lidong; Martino, Benjamin; Rascoe, Philip; Hamid, Kamran; Jupiter, Daniel; Smythe, W. Roy

    2009-01-01

    Bcl-xl and the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor c-Met are both highly expressed in mesotheliomas, where they protect cells from apoptosis and can confer resistance to conventional therapeutic agents. In our current study, we investigate a model for the transcriptional control of Bcl-xl that involves ETS transcription factors and the HGF/Met axis. In addition, the effects of activated c-Met on the phosphorylation of the ETS family transcriptional factors were examined. The transient expression of ETS-2 and PU.1 cDNAs in mesothelioma cell lines resulted in an increase in the promoter activity of Bcl-xl and consequently in its mRNA and protein expression levels, whereas the transcriptional repressor Tel suppressed Bcl-xl transcription. The activation of the HGF/Met axis led to rapid phosphorylation of ETS family transcription factors in mesothelioma cells through the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and via nuclear accumulation of ETS-2 and PU.1. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay further demonstrated that the activation of c-Met enhanced the binding of ETS transcriptional factors to the Bcl-x promoter. Finally, we determined the Bcl-xl and phosphorylated c-Met expression levels in mesothelioma patient samples; these data suggest a strong correlation between Bcl-xl and phosphorylated c-Met levels. Taken together, these findings support a role for c-Met as an inhibitor of apoptosis and an activator of Bcl-xl. PMID:19834061

  12. Role of the GRAS transcription factor ATA/RAM1 in the transcriptional reprogramming of arbuscular mycorrhiza in Petunia hybrida.

    PubMed

    Rich, Mélanie K; Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel; Roux, Christophe; Reinhardt, Didier

    2017-08-08

    Development of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) requires a fundamental reprogramming of root cells for symbiosis. This involves the induction of hundreds of genes in the host. A recently identified GRAS-type transcription factor in Petunia hybrida, ATA/RAM1, is required for the induction of host genes during AM, and for morphogenesis of the fungal endosymbiont. To better understand the role of RAM1 in symbiosis, we set out to identify all genes that depend on activation by RAM1 in mycorrhizal roots. We have carried out a transcript profiling experiment by RNAseq of mycorrhizal plants vs. non-mycorrhizal controls in wild type and ram1 mutants. The results show that the expression of early genes required for AM, such as the strigolactone biosynthetic genes and the common symbiosis signalling genes, is independent of RAM1. In contrast, genes that are involved at later stages of symbiosis, for example for nutrient exchange in cortex cells, require RAM1 for induction. RAM1 itself is highly induced in mycorrhizal roots together with many other transcription factors, in particular GRAS proteins. Since RAM1 has previously been shown to be directly activated by the common symbiosis signalling pathway through CYCLOPS, we conclude that it acts as an early transcriptional switch that induces many AM-related genes, among them genes that are essential for the development of arbuscules, such as STR, STR2, RAM2, and PT4, besides hundreds of additional RAM1-dependent genes the role of which in symbiosis remains to be explored. Taken together, these results indicate that the defect in the morphogenesis of the fungal arbuscules in ram1 mutants may be an indirect consequence of functional defects in the host, which interfere with nutrient exchange and possibly other functions on which the fungus depends.

  13. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) transcription factor regulates megakaryocytic polyploidization

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Stephan; T. Papoutsakis, Eleftherios

    2012-01-01

    Summary We propose that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a novel transcriptional regulator of megakaryopoietic polyploidization. Functional evidence was obtained that AHR impacts in vivo megakaryocytic differentiation and maturation; compared to wild-type mice, AHR-null mice had lower platelet counts, fewer numbers of newly synthesized platelets, increased bleeding times and lower-ploidy megakaryocytes (Mks). AHR mRNA increased 3·6-fold during ex vivo megakaryocytic differentiation, but reduced or remained constant during parallel isogenic granulocytic or erythroid differentiation. We interrogated the role of AHR in megakaryopoiesis using a validated Mk model of megakaryopoiesis, the human megakaryoblastic leukaemia CHRF cell line. Upon CHRF Mk differentiation, AHR mRNA and protein levels increased, AHR protein shifted from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and AHR binding to its consensus DNA binding sequence increased. Protein and mRNA levels of the AHR transcriptional target HES1 also increased. Mk differentiation of CHRF cells where AHR or HES1 was knocked-down using RNAi resulted in lower ploidy distributions and cells that were incapable of reaching ploidy classes ≥16n. AHR knockdown also resulted in increased DNA synthesis of lower ploidy cells, without impacting apoptosis. Together, these data support a role for AHR in Mk polyploidization and in vivo platelet function, and warrant further detailed investigations. PMID:21226706

  14. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) transcription factor regulates megakaryocytic polyploidization.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Stephan; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T

    2011-02-01

    We propose that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a novel transcriptional regulator of megakaryopoietic polyploidization. Functional evidence was obtained that AHR impacts in vivo megakaryocytic differentiation and maturation; compared to wild-type mice, AHR-null mice had lower platelet counts, fewer numbers of newly synthesized platelets, increased bleeding times and lower-ploidy megakaryocytes (Mks). AHR mRNA increased 3·6-fold during ex vivo megakaryocytic differentiation, but reduced or remained constant during parallel isogenic granulocytic or erythroid differentiation. We interrogated the role of AHR in megakaryopoiesis using a validated Mk model of megakaryopoiesis, the human megakaryoblastic leukaemia CHRF cell line. Upon CHRF Mk differentiation, AHR mRNA and protein levels increased, AHR protein shifted from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and AHR binding to its consensus DNA binding sequence increased. Protein and mRNA levels of the AHR transcriptional target HES1 also increased. Mk differentiation of CHRF cells where AHR or HES1 was knocked-down using RNAi resulted in lower ploidy distributions and cells that were incapable of reaching ploidy classes ≥16n. AHR knockdown also resulted in increased DNA synthesis of lower ploidy cells, without impacting apoptosis. Together, these data support a role for AHR in Mk polyploidization and in vivo platelet function, and warrant further detailed investigations. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Temporal Control of Plant Organ Growth by TCP Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tengbo; Irish, Vivian F

    2015-06-29

    The Arabidopsis petal is a simple laminar organ whose development is largely impervious to environmental effects, making it an excellent model for dissecting the regulation of cell-cycle progression and post-mitotic cell expansion that together sculpt organ form. Arabidopsis petals grow via basipetal waves of cell division, followed by a phase of cell expansion. RABBIT EARS (RBE) encodes a C2H2 zinc finger transcriptional repressor and is required for petal development. During the early phase of petal initiation, RBE regulates a microRNA164-dependent pathway that controls cell proliferation at the petal primordium boundaries. The effects of rbe mutations on petal lamina growth suggest that RBE is also required to regulate later developmental events during petal organogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that, early in petal development, RBE represses the transcription of a suite of CIN-TCP genes that in turn act to inhibit the number and duration of cell divisions; the temporal alleviation of that repression results in the transition from cell division to post-mitotic cell expansion and concomitant petal maturation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Induction of Epstein-Barr Virus Oncoprotein LMP1 by Transcription Factors AP-2 and Early B Cell Factor

    PubMed Central

    Noda, Chieko; Narita, Yohei; Watanabe, Takahiro; Yoshida, Masahiro; Ashio, Keiji; Sato, Yoshitaka; Goshima, Fumi; Kanda, Teru; Yoshiyama, Hironori; Tsurumi, Tatsuya; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is a major oncogene essential for primary B cell transformation by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Previous studies suggested that some transcription factors, such as PU.1, RBP-Jκ, NF-κB, and STAT, are involved in this expression, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, we identified binding sites for PAX5, AP-2, and EBF in the proximal LMP1 promoter (ED-L1p). We first confirmed the significance of PU.1 and POU domain transcription factor binding for activation of the promoter in latency III. We then focused on the transcription factors AP-2 and early B cell factor (EBF). Interestingly, among the three AP-2-binding sites in the LMP1 promoter, two motifs were also bound by EBF. Overexpression, knockdown, and mutagenesis in the context of the viral genome indicated that AP-2 plays an important role in LMP1 expression in latency II in epithelial cells. In latency III B cells, on the other hand, the B cell-specific transcription factor EBF binds to the ED-L1p and activates LMP1 transcription from the promoter. IMPORTANCE Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is crucial for B cell transformation and oncogenesis of other EBV-related malignancies, such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma and T/NK lymphoma. Its expression is largely dependent on the cell type or condition, and some transcription factors have been implicated in its regulation. However, these previous reports evaluated the significance of specific factors mostly by reporter assay. In this study, we prepared point-mutated EBV at the binding sites of such transcription factors and confirmed the importance of AP-2, EBF, PU.1, and POU domain factors. Our results will provide insight into the transcriptional regulation of the major oncogene LMP1. PMID:26819314