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Sample records for e2f-3a key regulators

  1. Oct3/4 directly regulates expression of E2F3a in mouse embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kanai, Dai; Ueda, Atsushi; Akagi, Tadayuki; Yokota, Takashi; Koide, Hiroshi

    2015-04-10

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells, derived from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, have a characteristic cell cycle with truncated G1 and G2 phases. Recent findings that suppression of Oct3/4 expression results in a reduced proliferation rate of ES cells suggest the involvement of Oct3/4 in the regulation of ES cell growth, although the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we identified E2F3a as a direct target gene of Oct3/4 in ES cells. Oct3/4 directly bound to the promoter region of the E2F3a gene and positively regulated expression of E2F3a in mouse ES cells. Suppression of E2F3a activity by E2F6 overexpression led to the reduced proliferation in ES cells, which was relieved by co-expression of E2F3a. Furthermore, cell growth retardation caused by loss of Oct3/4 was rescued by E2F3a expression. These results suggest that Oct3/4 upregulates E2F3a expression to promote ES cell growth. - Highlights: • Oct3/4 positively regulates E2F3a expression in ES cells. • Oct3/4 binds to the promoter region of the E2F3a gene. • Overexpression of E2F6, an inhibitor of E2F3a, reduces ES cell growth. • E2F3a recovers growth retardation of ES cells caused by Oct3/4 reduction.

  2. 76 FR 68314 - Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ..., Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing special local regulations on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located southwest of..., November 13, 2011. These special local regulations are necessary to provide for the safety of life...

  3. Ethylene, a key factor in the regulation of seed dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Corbineau, Françoise; Xia, Qiong; Bailly, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Ethylene is an important component of the gaseous environment, and regulates numerous plant developmental processes including seed germination and seedling establishment. Dormancy, the inability to germinate in apparently favorable conditions, has been demonstrated to be regulated by the hormonal balance between abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs). Ethylene plays a key role in dormancy release in numerous species, the effective concentrations allowing the germination of dormant seeds ranging between 0.1 and 200 μL L-1. Studies using inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis or of ethylene action and analysis of mutant lines altered in genes involved in the ethylene signaling pathway (etr1, ein2, ain1, etr1, and erf1) demonstrate the involvement of ethylene in the regulation of germination and dormancy. Ethylene counteracts ABA effects through a regulation of ABA metabolism and signaling pathways. Moreover, ethylene insensitive mutants in Arabidopsis are more sensitive to ABA and the seeds are more dormant. Numerous data also show an interaction between ABA, GAs and ethylene metabolism and signaling pathways. It has been increasingly demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may play a significant role in the regulation of seed germination interacting with hormonal signaling pathways. In the present review the responsiveness of seeds to ethylene will be described, and the key role of ethylene in the regulation of seed dormancy via a crosstalk between hormones and other signals will be discussed. PMID:25346747

  4. Copper as a key regulator of cell signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Grubman, Alexandra; White, Anthony R

    2014-05-22

    Copper is an essential element in many biological processes. The critical functions associated with copper have resulted from evolutionary harnessing of its potent redox activity. This same property also places copper in a unique role as a key modulator of cell signal transduction pathways. These pathways are the complex sequence of molecular interactions that drive all cellular mechanisms and are often associated with the interplay of key enzymes including kinases and phosphatases but also including intracellular changes in pools of smaller molecules. A growing body of evidence is beginning to delineate the how, when and where of copper-mediated control over cell signal transduction. This has been driven by research demonstrating critical changes to copper homeostasis in many disorders including cancer and neurodegeneration and therapeutic potential through control of disease-associated cell signalling changes by modulation of copper-protein interactions. This timely review brings together for the first time the diverse actions of copper as a key regulator of cell signalling pathways and discusses the potential strategies for controlling disease-associated signalling processes using copper modulators. It is hoped that this review will provide a valuable insight into copper as a key signal regulator and stimulate further research to promote our understanding of copper in disease and therapy.

  5. 78 FR 33221 - Special Local Regulation; Annual Swim Around Key West, Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico; Key...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Annual Swim Around Key West... and the Gulf of Mexico surrounding the island of Key West, Florida during the Annual Swim around Key... Beach and swim one full circle clockwise around the island of Key West, Florida. The special local...

  6. Sirtuin 1 deacetylase: a key regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Jongsook Kim; Choi, Sung-E; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a serious medical problem worldwide and disruption of metabolic/energy homeostasis plays a pivotal role in this global epidemic. In obese people, fatty liver (steatosis) develops, which increases the risk for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and even, liver cancer. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a NAD+-dependent deacetylase that functions as a key metabolic/energy sensor and mediates homeostatic responses to nutrient availability. Accumulating evidence indicates that SIRT1 is a master regulator of the transcriptional networks that control hepatic lipid metabolism. During energy-deprived conditions, SIRT1 deacetylates and alters the expression and activities of key transcriptional regulators involved in hepatic lipogenesis, fatty acid β-oxidation, and cholesterol/bile acid metabolism. This review will discuss the latest advances in this field, focusing on beneficial roles of SIRT1 in hepatic lipid metabolism including its potential as a therapeutic target for treatment of steatosis and other obesity-related metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mesp1: a key regulator of cardiovascular lineage commitment.

    PubMed

    Bondue, Antoine; Blanpain, Cédric

    2010-12-10

    In mammals, the heart arises from the differentiation of 2 sources of multipotent cardiovascular progenitors (MCPs). Different studies indicated that an evolutionary conserved transcriptional regulatory network controls cardiovascular development from flies to humans. Whereas in Drosophila, Tinman acts as a master regulator of cardiac development, the identification of such a master regulator in mammals remained elusive for a long time. In this review, we discuss the recent findings suggesting that Mesp1 acts as a key regulator of cardiovascular progenitors in vertebrates. Lineage tracing in mice demonstrated that Mesp1 represents the earliest marker of cardiovascular progenitors, tracing almost all the cells of the heart including derivatives of the primary and second heart fields. The inactivation of Mesp1/2 indicated that Mesp genes are essential for early cardiac mesoderm formation and MCP migration. Several recent studies have demonstrated that Mesp1 massively promotes cardiovascular differentiation during embryonic development and pluripotent stem cell differentiation and indicated that Mesp1 resides at the top of the cellular and transcriptional hierarchy that orchestrates MCP specification. In primitive chordates, Mesp also controls early cardiac progenitor specification and migration, suggesting that Mesp arises during chordate evolution to regulate the earliest step of cardiovascular development. Defining how Mesp1 regulates the earliest step of MCP specification and controls their migration is essential to understand the root of cardiovascular development and how the deregulation of these processes can lead to congenital heart diseases. In addition, these findings will be very useful to boost the production of cardiovascular cells for cellular therapy, drug and toxicity screening.

  8. RegulatorTrail: a web service for the identification of key transcriptional regulators.

    PubMed

    Kehl, Tim; Schneider, Lara; Schmidt, Florian; Stöckel, Daniel; Gerstner, Nico; Backes, Christina; Meese, Eckart; Keller, Andreas; Schulz, Marcel H; Lenhof, Hans-Peter

    2017-05-02

    Transcriptional regulators such as transcription factors and chromatin modifiers play a central role in most biological processes. Alterations in their activities have been observed in many diseases, e.g. cancer. Hence, it is of utmost importance to evaluate and assess the effects of transcriptional regulators on natural and pathogenic processes. Here, we present RegulatorTrail, a web service that provides rich functionality for the identification and prioritization of key transcriptional regulators that have a strong impact on, e.g. pathological processes. RegulatorTrail offers eight methods that use regulator binding information in combination with transcriptomic or epigenomic data to infer the most influential regulators. Our web service not only provides an intuitive web interface, but also a well-documented RESTful API that allows for a straightforward integration into third-party workflows. The presented case studies highlight the capabilities of our web service and demonstrate its potential for the identification of influential regulators: we successfully identified regulators that might explain the increased malignancy in metastatic melanoma compared to primary tumors, as well as important regulators in macrophages. RegulatorTrail is freely accessible at: https://regulatortrail.bioinf.uni-sb.de/. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Key-genes regulating the liposecretion process of mature adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Maurizi, Giulia; Petäistö, Tiina; Maurizi, Angela; Guardia, Lucio Della

    2017-09-19

    White mature adipocytes (MAs) are plastic cells able to reversibly transdifferentiate toward fibroblast-like cells maintaining stem cell gene signatures. The main morphologic aspect of this transdifferentiation process, called liposecretion, is the secretion of large lipid droplets and the development of organelles necessary for exocrine secretion. There is a considerable interest in the adipocyte plastic properties involving liposecretion process, but the molecular details are incompletely explored. This review analyzes the gene expression of MAs isolated from human subcutaneous fat tissue with respect to bone marrow (BM)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) focusing on gene regulatory pathways involved into cellular morphology changes, cellular proliferation and transports of molecules through the membrane, suggesting potential ways to guide liposecretion. In particular, Wnt, MAPK/ERK and AKT pathways were accurately described, studying up- and down-stream molecules involved. Moreover, adipogenic extra- and intra-cellular interactions were analyzed studying the role of CDH2, CDH11, ITGA5, E-Syt1, PAI-1, IGF1 and INHBB genes. Additionally, PLIN1 and PLIN2 could be key-genes of liposecretion process regulating molecules transport through the membrane. All together data demonstrated that liposecretion is regulated through a complex molecular networks that are able to respond to microenvironment signals, cytokines and growth factors. Autocrine as well as external signaling molecules might activate liposecretion affecting adipocytes physiology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Spermidine/spermine-N(1)-acetyltransferase: a key metabolic regulator.

    PubMed

    Pegg, Anthony E

    2008-06-01

    Spermidine/spermine-N(1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT) regulates cellular polyamine content. Its acetylated products are either excreted from the cell or oxidized by acetylpolyamine oxidase. Since polyamines play critical roles in normal and neoplastic growth and in ion channel regulation, SSAT is a key enzyme in these processes. SSAT is very highly regulated. Its content is adjusted in response to alterations in polyamine content to maintain polyamine homeostasis. Certain polyamine analogs can mimic the induction of SSAT and cause a loss of normal polyamines. This may have utility in cancer chemotherapy. SSAT activity is also induced via a variety of other stimuli, including toxins, hormones, cytokines, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, natural products, and stress pathways, and by ischemia-reperfusion injury. These increases are initiated by alterations in Sat1 gene transcription reinforced by alterations at the other regulatory steps, including protein turnover, mRNA processing, and translation. Transgenic manipulation of SSAT activity has revealed that SSAT activity links polyamine metabolism to lipid and carbohydrate metabolism by means of alterations in the content of acetyl-CoA and ATP. A high level of SSAT stimulates flux through the polyamine biosynthetic pathway, since biosynthetic enzymes are induced in response to the fall in polyamines. This sets up a futile cycle in which ATP is used to generate S-adenosylmethionine for polyamine biosynthesis and acetyl-CoA is consumed in the acetylation reaction. A variety of other effects of increased SSAT activity include death of pancreatic cells, blockage of regenerative tissue growth, behavioral changes, keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans, and hair loss. These are very likely due to changes in polyamine and putrescine levels, although increased oxidative stress via the oxidation of acetylated polyamines may also contribute. Recently, it was found that the SSAT protein and/or a related protein, thialysine

  11. Functional Imaging of Autonomic Regulation: Methods and Key Findings

    PubMed Central

    Macey, Paul M.; Ogren, Jennifer A.; Kumar, Rajesh; Harper, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    Central nervous system processing of autonomic function involves a network of regions throughout the brain which can be visualized and measured with neuroimaging techniques, notably functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The development of fMRI procedures has both confirmed and extended earlier findings from animal models, and human stroke and lesion studies. Assessments with fMRI can elucidate interactions between different central sites in regulating normal autonomic patterning, and demonstrate how disturbed systems can interact to produce aberrant regulation during autonomic challenges. Understanding autonomic dysfunction in various illnesses reveals mechanisms that potentially lead to interventions in the impairments. The objectives here are to: (1) describe the fMRI neuroimaging methodology for assessment of autonomic neural control, (2) outline the widespread, lateralized distribution of function in autonomic sites in the normal brain which includes structures from the neocortex through the medulla and cerebellum, (3) illustrate the importance of the time course of neural changes when coordinating responses, and how those patterns are impacted in conditions of sleep-disordered breathing, and (4) highlight opportunities for future research studies with emerging methodologies. Methodological considerations specific to autonomic testing include timing of challenges relative to the underlying fMRI signal, spatial resolution sufficient to identify autonomic brainstem nuclei, blood pressure, and blood oxygenation influences on the fMRI signal, and the sustained timing, often measured in minutes of challenge periods and recovery. Key findings include the lateralized nature of autonomic organization, which is reminiscent of asymmetric motor, sensory, and language pathways. Testing brain function during autonomic challenges demonstrate closely-integrated timing of responses in connected brain areas during autonomic challenges, and the involvement with brain

  12. Rho-GTPases as key regulators of T lymphocyte biology.

    PubMed

    Saoudi, Abdelhadi; Kassem, Sahar; Dejean, Anne; Gaud, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Rho-GTPases belong to the Ras superfamily and are crucial signal transducing proteins downstream of many receptors. In general, the Rho-GTPases function as molecular switches, cycling between inactive (GDP-bound) and active (GTP-bound) states. The activated GTP bound Rho-GTPases interact with a broad spectrum of effectors to regulate a plethora of biological pathways including cytoskeletal dynamics, motility, cytokinesis, cell growth, apoptosis, transcriptional activity and nuclear signaling. Recently, gene targeting in mice allowed the selective inactivation of different Rho-GTPases and has advanced our understanding of the physiological role of these proteins, particularly in the immune system. Particularly, these proteins are key signaling molecules in T lymphocytes, which are generated in the thymus and are major players in the immune system. The scope of this review is to discuss recent data obtained in Rho-GTPases deficient mice by focusing on the role-played by Rho-GTPases in T-lymphocyte development, migration, activation and differentiation.

  13. Developmental regulation of key gluconeogenic molecules in nonhuman primates

    PubMed Central

    McGill‐Vargas, Lisa L.; Johnson‐Pais, Teresa; Johnson, Marney C.; Blanco, Cynthia L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aberrant glucose regulation is common in preterm and full‐term neonates leading to short and long‐term morbidity/mortality; however, glucose metabolism in this population is understudied. The aim of this study was to investigate developmental differences in hepatic gluconeogenic pathways in fetal/newborn baboons. Fifteen fetal baboons were delivered at 125 day (d) gestational age (GA), 140d GA, and 175d GA (term = 185d GA) via cesarean section and sacrificed at birth. Term and healthy adult baboons were used as controls. Protein content and gene expression of key hepatic gluconeogenic molecules were measured: cytosolic and mitochondrial phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK‐C and PEPCK‐M), glucose‐6‐phosphatase‐alpha (G6Pase‐α), G6Pase‐β, fructose‐1,6‐bisphosphatase (FBPase), and forkhead box‐O1 (FOXO1). Protein content of PEPCK‐M increased with advancing gestation in fetal baboons (9.6 fold increase from 125d GA to 175d GA, P < 0.001). PEPCK‐C gene expression was consistent with these developmental differences. Phosphorylation of FOXO1 was significantly lower in preterm fetal baboons compared to adults, and gene expression of FOXO1 was lower in all neonates when compared to adults (10% and 62% of adults respectively, P < 0.05). The FOXO1 target gene G6Pase expression was higher in preterm animals compared to term animals. No significant differences were found in G6Pase‐α, G6Pase‐β, FOXO1, and FBPase during fetal development. In conclusion, significant developmental differences are found in hepatic gluconeogenic molecules in fetal and neonatal baboons, which may impact the responses to insulin during the neonatal period. Further studies under insulin‐stimulated conditions are required to understand the physiologic impact of these maturational differences. PMID:25524279

  14. Key Odorants Regulate Food Attraction in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Giang, Thomas; He, Jianzheng; Belaidi, Safaa; Scholz, Henrike

    2017-01-01

    In insects, the search for food is highly dependent on olfactory sensory input. Here, we investigated whether a single key odorant within an odor blend or the complexity of the odor blend influences the attraction of Drosophila melanogaster to a food source. A key odorant is defined as an odorant that elicits a difference in the behavioral response when two similar complex odor blends are offered. To validate that the observed behavioral responses were elicited by olfactory stimuli, we used olfactory co-receptor Orco mutants. We show that within a food odor blend, ethanol functions as a key odorant. In addition to ethanol other odorants might serve as key odorants at specific concentrations. However, not all odorants are key odorants. The intensity of the odor background influences the attractiveness of the key odorants. Increased complexity is only more attractive in a concentration-dependent range for single compounds in a blend. Orco is necessary to discriminate between two similarly attractive odorants when offered as single odorants and in food odor blends, supporting the importance of single odorant recognition in odor blends. These data strongly indicate that flies use more than one strategy to navigate to a food odor source, depending on the availability of key odorants in the odor blend and the alternative odor offered.

  15. Key Odorants Regulate Food Attraction in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Giang, Thomas; He, Jianzheng; Belaidi, Safaa; Scholz, Henrike

    2017-01-01

    In insects, the search for food is highly dependent on olfactory sensory input. Here, we investigated whether a single key odorant within an odor blend or the complexity of the odor blend influences the attraction of Drosophila melanogaster to a food source. A key odorant is defined as an odorant that elicits a difference in the behavioral response when two similar complex odor blends are offered. To validate that the observed behavioral responses were elicited by olfactory stimuli, we used olfactory co-receptor Orco mutants. We show that within a food odor blend, ethanol functions as a key odorant. In addition to ethanol other odorants might serve as key odorants at specific concentrations. However, not all odorants are key odorants. The intensity of the odor background influences the attractiveness of the key odorants. Increased complexity is only more attractive in a concentration-dependent range for single compounds in a blend. Orco is necessary to discriminate between two similarly attractive odorants when offered as single odorants and in food odor blends, supporting the importance of single odorant recognition in odor blends. These data strongly indicate that flies use more than one strategy to navigate to a food odor source, depending on the availability of key odorants in the odor blend and the alternative odor offered. PMID:28928642

  16. Key Federal Regulations Affecting the Handicapped 1975-1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Coordinators of State Programs for the Mentally Retarded, Arlington, VA.

    Summarized are major federal regulations affecting the handicapped issued during 1976. Regulations are organized according to the following categories: health (such as long term care and home health services, health planning, and facilities construction); education (such as handicapped education grants to the states, early childhood education, and…

  17. MicroRNAs: key regulators of stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gangaraju, Vamsi K; Lin, Haifan

    2009-02-01

    The hallmark of a stem cell is its ability to self-renew and to produce numerous differentiated cells. This unique property is controlled by dynamic interplays between extrinsic signalling, epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations. Recent research indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) have an important role in regulating stem cell self-renewal and differentiation by repressing the translation of selected mRNAs in stem cells and differentiating daughter cells. Such a role has been shown in embryonic stem cells, germline stem cells and various somatic tissue stem cells. These findings reveal a new dimension of gene regulation in controlling stem cell fate and behaviour.

  18. Rab proteins: The key regulators of intracellular vesicle transport

    SciTech Connect

    Bhuin, Tanmay; Roy, Jagat Kumar

    2014-10-15

    Vesicular/membrane trafficking essentially regulates the compartmentalization and abundance of proteins within the cells and contributes in many signalling pathways. This membrane transport in eukaryotic cells is a complex process regulated by a large and diverse array of proteins. A large group of monomeric small GTPases; the Rabs are essential components of this membrane trafficking route. Most of the Rabs are ubiquitously expressed proteins and have been implicated in vesicle formation, vesicle motility/delivery along cytoskeleton elements and docking/fusion at target membranes through the recruitment of effectors. Functional impairments of Rabs affecting transport pathways manifest different diseases. Rab functions are accompanied by cyclical activation and inactivation of GTP-bound and GDP-bound forms between the cytosol and membranes which is regulated by upstream regulators. Rab proteins are characterized by their distinct sub-cellular localization and regulate a wide variety of endocytic, transcytic and exocytic transport pathways. Mutations of Rabs affect cell growth, motility and other biological processes. - Highlights: • Rab proteins regulate different signalling pathways. • Deregulation of Rabs is the fundamental causes of a variety of human diseases. • This paper gives potential directions in developing therapeutic targets. • This paper also gives ample directions for modulating pathways central to normal physiology. • These are the huge challenges for drug discovery and delivery in near future.

  19. Regulating Subcellular Metal Homeostasis: The Key to Crop Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Khurram; Rasheed, Sultana; Kobayashi, Takanori; Seki, Motoaki; Nishizawa, Naoko K.

    2016-01-01

    Iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), and copper (Cu) are essential micronutrient mineral elements for living organisms, as they regulate essential cellular processes, such as chlorophyll synthesis and photosynthesis (Fe, Cu, and Mn), respiration (Fe and Cu), and transcription (Zn). The storage and distribution of these minerals in various cellular organelles is strictly regulated to ensure optimal metabolic rates. Alteration of the balance in uptake, distribution, and/or storage of these minerals severely impairs cellular metabolism and significantly affects plant growth and development. Thus, any change in the metal profile of a cellular compartment significantly affects metabolism. Different subcellular compartments are suggested to be linked through complex retrograde signaling networks to regulate cellular metal homeostasis. Various genes regulating cellular and subcellular metal distribution have been identified and characterized. Understanding the role of these transporters is extremely important to elaborate the signaling between various subcellular compartments. Moreover, modulation of the proteins involved in cellular metal homeostasis may help in the regulation of metabolism, adaptability to a diverse range of environmental conditions, and biofortification. Here, we review progress in the understanding of different subcellular metal transport components in plants and discuss the prospects of regulating cellular metabolism and strategies to develop biofortified crop plants. PMID:27547212

  20. Rab proteins: the key regulators of intracellular vesicle transport.

    PubMed

    Bhuin, Tanmay; Roy, Jagat Kumar

    2014-10-15

    Vesicular/membrane trafficking essentially regulates the compartmentalization and abundance of proteins within the cells and contributes in many signalling pathways. This membrane transport in eukaryotic cells is a complex process regulated by a large and diverse array of proteins. A large group of monomeric small GTPases; the Rabs are essential components of this membrane trafficking route. Most of the Rabs are ubiquitously expressed proteins and have been implicated in vesicle formation, vesicle motility/delivery along cytoskeleton elements and docking/fusion at target membranes through the recruitment of effectors. Functional impairments of Rabs affecting transport pathways manifest different diseases. Rab functions are accompanied by cyclical activation and inactivation of GTP-bound and GDP-bound forms between the cytosol and membranes which is regulated by upstream regulators. Rab proteins are characterized by their distinct sub-cellular localization and regulate a wide variety of endocytic, transcytic and exocytic transport pathways. Mutations of Rabs affect cell growth, motility and other biological processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. DC-STAMP: A Key Regulator in Osteoclast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    CHIU, YA-HUI; RITCHLIN, CHRISTOPHER T.

    2016-01-01

    Osteoimmunology research is a new emerging research field that investigates the links between the bone and immune responses. Results from osteoimmunology studies suggest that bone is not only an essential component of the musculoskeletal system, but is also actively involved in immune regulation. Many important factors involved in immune regulation also participate in bone homeostasis. Bone homeostasis is achieved by a coordinated action between bone synthesizing osteoblasts and bone degrading osteoclasts. An imbalanced action between osteoblasts and osteoclasts often results in pathological bone diseases: osteoporosis is caused by an excessive osteoclast activity, whereas osteopetrosis results from an increased osteoblast activity. This review focuses on dendritic cell specific transmembrane protein (DC STAMP), an important protein currently considered as a master regulator of osteoclastogenesis. Of clinical relevance, the frequency of circulating DC STAMPþ cells is elevated during the pathogenesis of psoriatic diseases. Intriguingly, recent results suggest that DC STAMP also plays an imperative role in bone homeostasis by regulating the differentiation of both osteoclasts and osteoblasts. This article summarizes our current knowledge on DC STAMP by focusing on its interacting proteins, its regulation on osteoclastogenesis related genes, its possible involvement in immunoreceptor tyrosine based inhibitory motif (ITIM) mediated signaling cascade, and its potential of developing therapeutics for clinical applications. PMID:27018136

  2. Nonsense-mediated decay regulates key components of homologous recombination

    PubMed Central

    Janke, Ryan; Kong, Jeremy; Braberg, Hannes; Cantin, Greg; Yates, John R.; Krogan, Nevan J.; Heyer, Wolf-Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    Cells frequently experience DNA damage that requires repair by homologous recombination (HR). Proteins involved in HR are carefully coordinated to ensure proper and efficient repair without interfering with normal cellular processes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rad55 functions in the early steps of HR and is regulated in response to DNA damage through phosphorylation by the Mec1 and Rad53 kinases of the DNA damage response. To further identify regulatory processes that target HR, we performed a high-throughput genetic interaction screen with RAD55 phosphorylation site mutants. Genes involved in the mRNA quality control process, nonsense-mediated decay (NMD), were found to genetically interact with rad55 phospho-site mutants. Further characterization revealed that RAD55 transcript and protein levels are regulated by NMD. Regulation of HR by NMD extends to multiple targets beyond RAD55, including RAD51, RAD54 and RAD57. Finally, we demonstrate that loss of NMD results in an increase in recombination rates and resistance to the DNA damaging agent methyl methanesulfonate, suggesting this pathway negatively regulates HR under normal growth conditions. PMID:27001511

  3. Moesin as a key cytoskeleton regulator in corneal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong-Yuan; Yeo, Sia-Wey; Ng, Jennifer; Htoon, Hla Myint; Beuerman, R W

    2013-04-01

    : Corneal fibrosis is the third leading cause of blindness worldwide. α-Smooth muscle actin (SMA), a marker of fibrosis, is closely regulated through an intermediate group of submembrane molecules - cytoskeleton regulators. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of specific cytoskeleton regulators in a mouse model of corneal fibrosis. : A mouse model of corneal fibrosis was developed using anterior keratectomy (AK) and the topical application of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 (1 μg/ml). The RT² Profiler™ PCR Array for cytoskeleton regulators was used to assay changes in levels of specific members of this class of proteins. Moesin siRNA was delivered into the corneal stroma by iontophoresis in vivo. Transformation of the corneal keratocyte-to-myofibroblast in corneal fibrosis, as defined by the expression of α-SMA, was determined by Western blot. : After AK and topical application of TGF-β1, moesin was the most highly upregulated gene among 84 cytoskeleton regulator genes; iontophoresing moesin siRNA into the corneal stroma reduced the expression of α-SMA to 0.22-, 0.52-, and 0.31-fold of control at postoperative (PO) day 1, 3, and 5, respectively; also, upregulation of phospho-Smad 2 induced by TGF-β1 was reduced by moesin siRNA to 0.59-, 0.56-, and 0.31-fold of control and expression of phospho-Smad 3 was reduced to 0.58-, 0.53-, and 0.47-fold of control at the same PO days. : Moesin may be a potential drug target for inhibiting corneal fibrosis, and the details of moesin-related signaling pathways would be critical for understanding corneal fibrosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The liver: Key in regulating appetite and body weight.

    PubMed

    Fam, Barbara C; Joannides, Christos N; Andrikopoulos, Sofianos

    2012-10-01

    Liver fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) is a regulatory enzyme in gluconeogenesis that is elevated by obesity and dietary fat intake. Whether FBPase functions only in glucose metabolism or has other metabolic roles is currently unclear. In our recently published study, we examined the importance of liver FBPase in body weight regulation by performing a series of comprehensive physiological and biochemical assessments of energy balance and specific intervention studies in our transgenic mouse line that overexpresses FBPase specifically in the liver. Compared with negative littermates, these FBPase transgenic mice weighed 10% less, had 50% less adiposity, ate 15% less food but did not have altered energy expenditure. Increased circulating leptin and cholecystokinin levels, elevated fatty acid oxidation and reduced appetite stimulating neuropeptides, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AGRP), underpinned this phenotype. Blocking the action of FBPase returned food intake and body weight to those of the negative littermates. Our study is the first to identify liver FBPase as a previously unknown regulator of appetite and adiposity. Importantly, this work recognizes the liver as an important organ in appetite and body weight regulation. This commentary will provide further insight and expand on this novel concept that the liver does in fact play an important role in adiposity.

  5. Mineral Availability as a Key Regulator of Soil Carbon Storage.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guanghui; Xiao, Jian; Hu, Shuijin; Polizzotto, Matthew L; Zhao, Fangjie; McGrath, Steve P; Li, Huan; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong

    2017-05-02

    Mineral binding is a major mechanism for soil carbon (C) stabilization, and mineral availability for C binding critically affects C storage. Yet, the mechanisms regulating mineral availability are poorly understood. Here, we showed that organic amendments in three long-term (23, 154, and 170 yrs, respectively) field experiments significantly increased mineral availability, particularly of short-range-ordered (SRO) phases. Two microcosm studies demonstrated that the presence of roots significantly increased mineral availability and promoted the formation of SRO phases. Mineral transformation experiments and isotopic labeling experiments provided direct evidence that citric acid, a major component of root exudates, promoted the formation of SRO minerals, and that SRO minerals acted as "nuclei" for C retention. Together, these findings indicate that soil organic amendments initialize a positive feedback loop by increasing mineral availability and promoting the formation of SRO minerals for further C binding, thereby possibly serving as a management tool for enhancing carbon storage in soils.

  6. The gut microbiota: a key regulator of metabolic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jin-Young; Kweon, Mi-Na

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, two closely linked metabolic disorders, is increasing worldwide. Over the past decade, the connection between these disorders and the microbiota of the gut has become a major focus of biomedical research, with recent studies demonstrating the fundamental role of intestinal microbiota in the regulation and pathogenesis of metabolic disorders. Because of the complexity of the microbiota community, however, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which the gut microbiota is associated with metabolic disorders remain poorly understood. In this review, we summarize recent studies that investigate the role of the microbiota in both human subjects and animal models of disease and discuss relevant therapeutic targets for future research. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(10): 536-541] PMID:27530685

  7. The gut microbiota: a key regulator of metabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-Young; Kweon, Mi-Na

    2016-10-01

    The prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, two closely linked metabolic disorders, is increasing worldwide. Over the past decade, the connection between these disorders and the microbiota of the gut has become a major focus of biomedical research, with recent studies demonstrating the fundamental role of intestinal microbiota in the regulation and pathogenesis of metabolic disorders. Because of the complexity of the microbiota community, however, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which the gut microbiota is associated with metabolic disorders remain poorly understood. In this review, we summarize recent studies that investigate the role of the microbiota in both human subjects and animal models of disease and discuss relevant therapeutic targets for future research. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(10): 536-541].

  8. Germline transcription: a key regulator of accessibility and recombination.

    PubMed

    Abarrategui, Iratxe; Krangel, Michael S

    2009-01-01

    The developmental control of V(D)J recombination is imposed at the level of chromatin accessibility of recombination signal sequences (RSSs) to the recombinase machinery. Cis-acting transcriptional regulatory elements such as promoters and enhancers play a central role in the control of accessibility in vivo. However, the molecular mechanisms by which these elements influence accessibility are still under investigation. Although accessibility for V(D)J recombination is usually accompanied by germline transcription at antigen receptor loci, the functional significance of this transcription in directing RSS accessibility has been elusive. In this chapter, we review past studies outlining the complex relationship between V(D)J recombination and transcription as well as our current understanding on how chromatin structure is regulated during gene expression. We then summarize recent work that directly addresses the functional role of transcription in V(D)J recombination.

  9. Hypoxia-inducible factors as key regulators of tumor inflammation.

    PubMed

    Mamlouk, Soulafa; Wielockx, Ben

    2013-06-15

    Low levels of oxygen or hypoxia is often an obstacle in health, particularly in pathological disorders like cancer. The main family of transcription factors responsible for cell survival and adaptation under strenuous conditions of hypoxia are the "hypoxia-inducible factors" (HIFs). Together with prolyl hydroxylase domain enzymes (PHDs), HIFs regulates tumor angiogenesis, proliferation, invasion, metastasis, in addition to resistance to radiation and chemotherapy. Additionally, the entire HIF transcription cascade is involved in the "seventh" hallmark of cancer; inflammation. Studies have shown that hypoxia can influence tumor associated immune cells toward assisting in tumor proliferation, differentiation, vessel growth, distant metastasis and suppression of the immune response via cytokine expression alterations. These changes are not necessarily analogous to HIF's role in non-cancer immune responses, where hypoxia often encourages a strong inflammatory response.

  10. The osteocyte: key player in regulating bone turnover

    PubMed Central

    Goldring, Steven R

    2015-01-01

    Osteocytes are the most abundant cell type in bone and are distributed throughout the mineralised bone matrix forming an interconnected network that ideally positions them to sense and to respond to local biomechanical and systemic stimuli to regulate bone remodelling and adaptation. The adaptive process is dependent on the coordinated activity of osteoclasts and osteoblasts that form a so called bone multicellular unit that remodels cortical and trabecular bone through a process of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, followed by a phase of bone formation mediated by osteoblasts. Osteocytes mediate their effects on bone remodelling via both cell–cell interactions with osteoclasts and osteoblasts, but also via signaling through the release of soluble mediators. The remodelling process provides a mechanism for adapting the skeleton to local biomechanical factors and systemic hormonal influences and for replacing bone that has undergone damage from repetitive mechanical loading. PMID:26557372

  11. Hypothalamic Lipids: Key Regulators of Whole Body Energy Balance.

    PubMed

    González-García, Ismael; Fernø, Johan; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; López, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Hypothalamic lipid metabolism plays a major role in the physiological regulation of energy balance. Modulation of several enzymatic activities that control lipid biosynthesis, such as fatty acid synthase and AMP-activated protein kinase, impacts both feeding and energy expenditure. However, lipids can also cause pathological alterations in the hypothalamus. Lipotoxicity is promoted by excess lipids in tissues not suitable for their storage. A large amount of evidence has demonstrated that lipotoxicity is a pathophysiological mechanism leading to metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance, cardiomyopathy, atherosclerosis, and steatohepatitis. Current data have reported that, similar to what is observed in peripheral tissues, complex lipids such as ceramides and sphingolipids act as lipotoxic species at the hypothalamic level to impact metabolism. Here, we will review what is currently known about hypothalamic lipid metabolism and the modulation of energy homeostasis. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Fibrinogen as a key regulator of inflammation in disease.

    PubMed

    Davalos, Dimitrios; Akassoglou, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of coagulation factors with the perivascular environment affects the development of disease in ways that extend beyond their traditional roles in the acute hemostatic cascade. Key molecular players of the coagulation cascade like tissue factor, thrombin, and fibrinogen are epidemiologically and mechanistically linked with diseases with an inflammatory component. Moreover, the identification of novel molecular mechanisms linking coagulation and inflammation has highlighted factors of the coagulation cascade as new targets for therapeutic intervention in a wide range of inflammatory human diseases. In particular, a proinflammatory role for fibrinogen has been reported in vascular wall disease, stroke, spinal cord injury, brain trauma, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, bacterial infection, colitis, lung and kidney fibrosis, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and several types of cancer. Genetic and pharmacologic studies have unraveled pivotal roles for fibrinogen in determining the extent of local or systemic inflammation. As cellular and molecular mechanisms for fibrinogen functions in tissues are identified, the role of fibrinogen is evolving from a marker of vascular rapture to a multi-faceted signaling molecule with a wide spectrum of functions that can tip the balance between hemostasis and thrombosis, coagulation and fibrosis, protection from infection and extensive inflammation, and eventually life and death. This review will discuss some of the main molecular links between coagulation and inflammation and will focus on the role of fibrinogen in inflammatory disease highlighting its unique structural properties, cellular targets, and signal transduction pathways that make it a potent proinflammatory mediator and a potential therapeutic target.

  13. Calpain 3: a key regulator of the sarcomere?

    PubMed

    Duguez, Stéphanie; Bartoli, Marc; Richard, Isabelle

    2006-08-01

    Calpain 3 is a 94-kDa calcium-dependent cysteine protease mainly expressed in skeletal muscle. In this tissue, it localizes at several regions of the sarcomere through binding to the giant protein, titin. Loss-of-function mutations in the calpain 3 gene have been associated with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A), a common form of muscular dystrophy found world wide. Recently, significant progress has been made in understanding the mode of regulation and the possible function of calpain 3 in muscle. It is now well accepted that it has an unusual zymogenic activation and that cytoskeletal proteins are one class of its substrates. Through the absence of cleavage of these substrates, calpain 3 deficiency leads to abnormal sarcomeres, impairment of muscle contractile capacity, and death of the muscle fibers. These data indicate a role for calpain 3 as a chef d'orchestre in sarcomere remodeling and suggest a new category of LGMD2 pathological mechanisms.

  14. Phosphatidate Phosphatase, a Key Regulator of Lipid Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, Florencia; Carman, George M.

    2012-01-01

    Yeast Pah1p phosphatidate phosphatase (PAP) catalyzes the penultimate step in the synthesis of triacylglycerol. PAP plays a crucial role in lipid homeostasis by controlling the relative proportions of its substrate phosphatidate and its product diacylglycerol. The cellular amounts of these lipid intermediates influence the synthesis of triacylglycerol and the pathways by which membrane phospholipids are synthesized. Physiological functions affected by PAP activity include phospholipid synthesis gene expression, nuclear/endoplasmic reticulum membrane growth, lipid droplet formation, and vacuole homeostasis and fusion. Yeast lacking Pah1p PAP activity are acutely sensitive to fatty acid-induced toxicity and exhibit respiratory deficiency. PAP is distinguished in its cellular location, catalytic mechanism, and physiological functions from Dpp1p and Lpp1p lipid phosphate phosphatases that utilize a variety of substrates that include phosphatidate. Phosphorylation/dephosphorylation is a major mechanism by which Pah1p PAP activity is regulated. Pah1p is phosphorylated by cytosolic-associated Pho85p-Pho80p, Cdc28p-cyclin B, and protein kinase A and is dephosphorylated by the endoplasmic reticulum-associated Nem1p-Spo7p phosphatase. The dephosphorylation of Pah1p stimulates PAP activity and facilitates the association with the membrane/phosphatidate allowing for its reaction and triacylglycerol synthesis. PMID:22910056

  15. Gut microbiota regulates key modulators of social behavior.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Arun; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2016-01-01

    Social behavior plays a pivotal role in the mental well-being of an individual. Continuous efforts in the past have led to advancements in the area of how the brain regulates emotion and cognition, while the understanding of human social behavior still remains eluded. A major breakthrough in understanding the etiology of neurological disorders is the recent insight on the role of the gut microbiota (GM). Human GM also referred to as the "forgotten organ" is home to 10(13-14) microorganisms, which is 10 times the number of cells present in the human body. In addition, the gut microbiome (total genome of GM) is 150 times greater as compared to the human genome. An emerging concept gaining worldwide focus and acceptance is that, this much big genome can potentially control human behavior and other biological functions. Herein we hypothesize on the basis of GM's ability to modify brain and behavior and that it can directly or indirectly control social behavior. This review focuses on the association of GM with various domains of social behavior like stress, cognition and anxiety.

  16. Flg22-Triggered Immunity Negatively Regulates Key BR Biosynthetic Genes.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Góngora, Tamara; Kim, Seong-Ki; Lozano-Durán, Rosa; Zipfel, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    In plants, activation of growth and activation of immunity are opposing processes that define a trade-off. In the past few years, the growth-promoting hormones brassinosteroids (BR) have emerged as negative regulators of pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI), promoting growth at the expense of defense. The crosstalk between BR and PTI signaling was described as negative and unidirectional, since activation of PTI does not affect several analyzed steps in the BR signaling pathway. In this work, we describe that activation of PTI by the bacterial PAMP flg22 results in the reduced expression of BR biosynthetic genes. This effect does not require BR perception or signaling, and occurs within 15 min of flg22 treatment. Since the described PTI-induced repression of gene expression may result in a reduction in BR biosynthesis, the crosstalk between PTI and BR could actually be negative and bidirectional, a possibility that should be taken into account when considering the interaction between these two pathways.

  17. Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Key Regulator of Cutaneous Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Granstein, Richard D.; Wagner, John A.; Stohl, Lori L.; Ding, Wanhong

    2014-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has been viewed as a neuropeptide and vasodilator. However, CGRP is more appropriately thought of as a pleiotropic signaling molecule. Indeed, CGRP has key regulatory functions on immune and inflammatory processes within the skin. CGRP-containing nerves are intimately associated with epidermal LCs and CGRP has profound regulatory effects on Langerhans cell antigen-presenting capability. When LCs are exposed to CGRP in vitro, their ability to present antigen for in vivo priming of naïve mice or elicitation of delayed-type hypersensitivity is inhibited in at least some situations. Administration of CGRP intradermally inhibits acquisition of immunity to Th1-dominant haptens applied to the injected site while augmenting immunity to Th2-dominant haptens, although the cellular targets of activity in these experiments remains unclear. Although CGRP can be a pro-inflammatory agent, several studies have demonstrated that administration of CGRP can inhibit the elicitation of inflammation by inflammatory stimuli in vivo. In this regard, CGRP inhibits the release of certain chemokines by stimulated endothelial cells. This is likely to be physiologically relevant since cutaneous blood vessels are innervated by sensory nerves. Exciting new studies suggest a significant role for CGRP in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and, most strikingly, that CGRP inhibit the ability of LCs to transmit the human immunodeficiency virus 1 to T lymphocytes. A more complete understanding of the role of CGRP in the skin immune system may lead to new and novel approaches for the therapy of immune mediated skin disorders. PMID:25534428

  18. Regulation of sucrose metabolism in higher plants: localization and regulation of activity of key enzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, H.; Huber, S. C.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Sucrose (Suc) plays a central role in plant growth and development. It is a major end product of photosynthesis and functions as a primary transport sugar and in some cases as a direct or indirect regulator of gene expression. Research during the last 2 decades has identified the pathways involved and which enzymes contribute to the control of flux. Availability of metabolites for Suc synthesis and 'demand' for products of sucrose degradation are important factors, but this review specifically focuses on the biosynthetic enzyme sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS), and the degradative enzymes, sucrose synthase (SuSy), and the invertases. Recent progress has included the cloning of genes encoding these enzymes and the elucidation of posttranslational regulatory mechanisms. Protein phosphorylation is emerging as an important mechanism controlling SPS activity in response to various environmental and endogenous signals. In terms of Suc degradation, invertase-catalyzed hydrolysis generally has been associated with cell expansion, whereas SuSy-catalyzed metabolism has been linked with biosynthetic processes (e.g., cell wall or storage products). Recent results indicate that SuSy may be localized in multiple cellular compartments: (1) as a soluble enzyme in the cytosol (as traditionally assumed); (2) associated with the plasma membrane; and (3) associated with the actin cytoskeleton. Phosphorylation of SuSy has been shown to occur and may be one of the factors controlling localization of the enzyme. The purpose of this review is to summarize some of the recent developments relating to regulation of activity and localization of key enzymes involved in sucrose metabolism in plants.

  19. Regulation of sucrose metabolism in higher plants: localization and regulation of activity of key enzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, H.; Huber, S. C.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Sucrose (Suc) plays a central role in plant growth and development. It is a major end product of photosynthesis and functions as a primary transport sugar and in some cases as a direct or indirect regulator of gene expression. Research during the last 2 decades has identified the pathways involved and which enzymes contribute to the control of flux. Availability of metabolites for Suc synthesis and 'demand' for products of sucrose degradation are important factors, but this review specifically focuses on the biosynthetic enzyme sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS), and the degradative enzymes, sucrose synthase (SuSy), and the invertases. Recent progress has included the cloning of genes encoding these enzymes and the elucidation of posttranslational regulatory mechanisms. Protein phosphorylation is emerging as an important mechanism controlling SPS activity in response to various environmental and endogenous signals. In terms of Suc degradation, invertase-catalyzed hydrolysis generally has been associated with cell expansion, whereas SuSy-catalyzed metabolism has been linked with biosynthetic processes (e.g., cell wall or storage products). Recent results indicate that SuSy may be localized in multiple cellular compartments: (1) as a soluble enzyme in the cytosol (as traditionally assumed); (2) associated with the plasma membrane; and (3) associated with the actin cytoskeleton. Phosphorylation of SuSy has been shown to occur and may be one of the factors controlling localization of the enzyme. The purpose of this review is to summarize some of the recent developments relating to regulation of activity and localization of key enzymes involved in sucrose metabolism in plants.

  20. CGI-58, a key regulator of lipid homeostasis and signaling in plants, also regulates polyamine metabolism

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58) is an alpha/beta hydrolase-type protein that regulates lipid homeostasis and signaling in eukaryotes by interacting with and stimulating the activity of several different types of proteins, including a lipase in mammalian cells and a peroxisomal ABC transp...

  1. Snail as a key regulator of PRL-3 gene in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ping; Meng, Hui-Min; Gao, Wei-Zhe; Chen, Lin; Liu, Xun-Hua; Xiao, Zheng-Quan; Liu, Yong-Xia; Sui, Hong-Mei; Zhou, Jun; Liu, Yu-Hong; Li, Jian-Ming

    2011-10-15

    The regulators of a key metastasis gene PRL-3 in colorectal cancer (CRC) are still largely unknown. We found three potential binding sites of Snail, a key transcriptional factor involved in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), in the region of PRL-3 promoter (located at -642 to -383). Moreover, our results showed that one of the Snail binding sites (located at -624 to -619) was the key element to maintain promoter activity of human PRL-3 gene. The transcriptional activity of PRL-3 promoter was abolished after the Snail binding site (located at -624 to -619) was mutated. Both promoter activity and protein expression of PRL-3 in CRC cell lines could be regulated by Snail. In clinical samples of CRC and metastatic lymph node of CRC, expression of PRL-3 protein was correlated with expression of Snail protein. Functional studies using gene over-expression and knockdown methods indicated that Snail promoted proliferation, cell adhesion and migration of human CRC cells. In SW480 cells with PRL-3 stable knockdown, cell proliferation increased after Snail was up-regulated. Our data first reveal transcriptional factor Snail as a key regulator of PRL-3 in CRC. The link between Snail and PRL-3 suggests a new potential mechanism of Snail contributing to progression and metastasis of CRC.

  2. Identification of key regulators of pancreatic cancer progression through multidimensional systems-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Rajamani, Deepa; Bhasin, Manoj K

    2016-05-03

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive cancer with dismal prognosis, urgently necessitating better biomarkers to improve therapeutic options and early diagnosis. Traditional approaches of biomarker detection that consider only one aspect of the biological continuum like gene expression alone are limited in their scope and lack robustness in identifying the key regulators of the disease. We have adopted a multidimensional approach involving the cross-talk between the omics spaces to identify key regulators of disease progression. Multidimensional domain-specific disease signatures were obtained using rank-based meta-analysis of individual omics profiles (mRNA, miRNA, DNA methylation) related to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). These domain-specific PDAC signatures were integrated to identify genes that were affected across multiple dimensions of omics space in PDAC (genes under multiple regulatory controls, GMCs). To further pin down the regulators of PDAC pathophysiology, a systems-level network was generated from knowledge-based interaction information applied to the above identified GMCs. Key regulators were identified from the GMC network based on network statistics and their functional importance was validated using gene set enrichment analysis and survival analysis. Rank-based meta-analysis identified 5391 genes, 109 miRNAs and 2081 methylation-sites significantly differentially expressed in PDAC (false discovery rate ≤ 0.05). Bimodal integration of meta-analysis signatures revealed 1150 and 715 genes regulated by miRNAs and methylation, respectively. Further analysis identified 189 altered genes that are commonly regulated by miRNA and methylation, hence considered GMCs. Systems-level analysis of the scale-free GMCs network identified eight potential key regulator hubs, namely E2F3, HMGA2, RASA1, IRS1, NUAK1, ACTN1, SKI and DLL1, associated with important pathways driving cancer progression. Survival analysis on individual key regulators revealed

  3. Hepatotoxicity of piperazine designer drugs: up-regulation of key enzymes of cholesterol and lipid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Arbo, Marcelo Dutra; Melega, Simone; Stöber, Regina; Schug, Markus; Rempel, Eugen; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Godoy, Patricio; Reif, Raymond; Cadenas, Cristina; de Lourdes Bastos, Maria; Carmo, Helena; Hengstler, Jan G

    2016-12-01

    The piperazine derivatives most frequently consumed for recreational purposes are 1-benzylpiperazine, 1-(3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl) piperazine, 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl) piperazine and 1-(4-methoxyphenyl) piperazine. Generally, they are consumed as capsules, tablets or pills but also in powder or liquid forms. Currently, the precise mechanism by which piperazine designer drugs induce hepatotoxicity and whether they act by a common pathway is unclear. To answer this question, we performed a gene array study with rat hepatocytes incubated with the four designer drugs. Non-cytotoxic concentrations were chosen that neither induce a decrease in reduced glutathione or ATP depletion. Analysis of the gene array data showed a large overlap of gene expression alterations induced by the four drugs. This 'piperazine designer drug consensus signature' included 101 up-regulated and 309 down-regulated probe sets (p < 0.05; FDR adjusted). In the up-regulated genes, GO groups of cholesterol biosynthesis represented a dominant overrepresented motif. Key enzymes of cholesterol biosynthesis up-regulated by all four piperazine drugs include sterol C4-methyloxidase, isopentyl-diphosphate-Δ-isomerase, Cyp51A1, squalene epoxidase and farnesyl diphosphate synthase. Additionally, glycoprotein transmembrane nmb, which participates in cell adhesion processes, and fatty acid desaturase 1, an enzyme that regulates unsaturation of fatty acids, were also up-regulated by the four piperazine designer drugs. Regarding the down-regulated probe sets, only one gene was common to all four piperazine derivatives, the betaine-homocysteine-S-methyltransferase 2. Analysis of transcription factor binding sites of the 'piperazine designer drug consensus signature' identified the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP-1) as strongly overrepresented in the up-regulated genes. SREBP transcription factors are known to regulate multiple genes of cholesterol metabolism. In conclusion, the present

  4. Key regulators control distinct transcriptional programmes in blood progenitor and mast cells

    PubMed Central

    Calero-Nieto, Fernando J; Ng, Felicia S; Wilson, Nicola K; Hannah, Rebecca; Moignard, Victoria; Leal-Cervantes, Ana I; Jimenez-Madrid, Isabel; Diamanti, Evangelia; Wernisch, Lorenz; Göttgens, Berthold

    2014-01-01

    Despite major advances in the generation of genome-wide binding maps, the mechanisms by which transcription factors (TFs) regulate cell type identity have remained largely obscure. Through comparative analysis of 10 key haematopoietic TFs in both mast cells and blood progenitors, we demonstrate that the largely cell type-specific binding profiles are not opportunistic, but instead contribute to cell type-specific transcriptional control, because (i) mathematical modelling of differential binding of shared TFs can explain differential gene expression, (ii) consensus binding sites are important for cell type-specific binding and (iii) knock-down of blood stem cell regulators in mast cells reveals mast cell-specific genes as direct targets. Finally, we show that the known mast cell regulators Mitf and c-fos likely contribute to the global reorganisation of TF binding profiles. Taken together therefore, our study elucidates how key regulatory TFs contribute to transcriptional programmes in several distinct mammalian cell types. PMID:24760698

  5. A cryptographic key management solution for HIPAA privacy/security regulations.

    PubMed

    Lee, W-B; Lee, C-D

    2008-01-01

    The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) privacy and security regulations are two crucial provisions in the protection of healthcare privacy. Privacy regulations create a principle to assure that patients have more control over their health information and set limits on the use and disclosure of health information. The security regulations stipulate the provisions implemented to guard data integrity, confidentiality, and availability. Undoubtedly, the cryptographic mechanisms are well defined to provide suitable solutions. In this paper, to comply with the HIPAA regulations, a flexible cryptographic key management solution is proposed to facilitate interoperations among the applied cryptographic mechanisms. In addition, case of consent exceptions intended to facilitate emergency applications and other possible exceptions can also be handled easily.

  6. CREB is a key negative regulator of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9) in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanqiao; Cheng, Zhenguo; Liu, Funan; Zhang, Hongyan; Li, Jiabin; Li, Feng

    2015-07-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX(CA9)is a member of the carbonic anhydrase family that catalyzes the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide, and plays a key role in the regulation of pH. Although a large number of studies have shown that CA9 is strongly up-regulated by HIF1-α, little is known about the negative regulation mechanism of CA9 in cancer cells. Here we find that CREB is a key negative regulator of CA9 in gastric cancer. Over-expression of CREB can significantly repress the expression of CA9. Treating with anisomycin (ANS), an activator of p38, the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of CREB are both promoted, while the transcription of CA9 is repressed. Besides, our results firstly identify that CREB can recruit SIRT1 (class III HDACS) by adaptor protein p300, then repress the expression of CA9. These findings may contribute to understand the negative regulation mechanisms of CA9 in gastric cancer.

  7. Brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 is a key regulator of myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Somik; Nam, Deokhwa; Guo, Bingyan; Kim, Ji M.; Winnier, Glen E.; Lee, Jeongkyung; Berdeaux, Rebecca; Yechoor, Vijay K.; Ma, Ke

    2013-01-01

    Summary The circadian clock network is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that imparts temporal regulation to diverse biological processes. Brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 (Bmal1), an essential transcriptional activator of the clock, is highly expressed in skeletal muscle. However, whether this key clock component impacts myogenesis, a temporally regulated event that requires the sequential activation of myogenic regulatory factors, is not known. Here we report a novel function of Bmal1 in controlling myogenic differentiation through direct transcriptional activation of components of the canonical Wnt signaling cascade, a major inductive signal for embryonic and postnatal muscle growth. Genetic loss of Bmal1 in mice leads to reduced total muscle mass and Bmal1-deficient primary myoblasts exhibit significantly impaired myogenic differentiation accompanied by markedly blunted expression of key myogenic regulatory factors. Conversely, forced expression of Bmal1 enhances differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts. This cell-autonomous effect of Bmal1 is mediated by Wnt signaling as both expression and activity of Wnt components are markedly attenuated by inhibition of Bmal1, and activation of the Wnt pathway partially rescues the myogenic defect in Bmal1-deficient myoblasts. We further reveal direct association of Bmal1 with promoters of canonical Wnt pathway genes, and as a result of this transcriptional regulation, Wnt signaling components exhibit intrinsic circadian oscillation. Collectively, our study demonstrates that the core clock gene, Bmal1, is a positive regulator of myogenesis, which may represent a temporal regulatory mechanism to fine-tune myocyte differentiation. PMID:23525013

  8. MicroRNAs: Key Regulators in the Central Nervous System and Their Implication in Neurological Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dan-Dan; Li, Lu; Chan, Wai-Yee

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, well-conserved noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. They have been demonstrated to regulate a lot of biological pathways and cellular functions. Many miRNAs are dynamically regulated during central nervous system (CNS) development and are spatially expressed in adult brain indicating their essential roles in neural development and function. In addition, accumulating evidence strongly suggests that dysfunction of miRNAs contributes to neurological diseases. These observations, together with their gene regulation property, implicated miRNAs to be the key regulators in the complex genetic network of the CNS. In this review, we first focus on the ways through which miRNAs exert the regulatory function and how miRNAs are regulated in the CNS. We then summarize recent findings that highlight the versatile roles of miRNAs in normal CNS physiology and their association with several types of neurological diseases. Subsequently we discuss the limitations of miRNAs research based on current studies as well as the potential therapeutic applications and challenges of miRNAs in neurological disorders. We endeavor to provide an updated description of the regulatory roles of miRNAs in normal CNS functions and pathogenesis of neurological diseases. PMID:27240359

  9. From mindful attention to social connection: The key role of emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Quaglia, Jordan T; Goodman, Robert J; Brown, Kirk Warren

    2015-01-01

    Effective emotion regulation is important for high-quality social functioning. Recent laboratory-based evidence suggests that mindfulness may enhance emotion regulation in socioemotional contexts; however, little is known about mindful emotion regulation during in vivo social interactions. In a study of romantic couples, we assessed each partner's mindfulness and top-down attentional efficiency (with an Emotional Go/No-Go task) prior to sampling emotions and perceived connection with others during day-to-day social interactions. Analyses revealed that mindfulness-related differences in top-down attentional efficiency on the Emotional Go/No-Go predicted positive emotion during daily social interactions. In turn, positive emotion and two additional indices of social emotion regulation each mediated the relation between actor mindfulness and perceived social connection. In corresponding analyses, neither trait reappraisal nor suppression use predicted the outcomes, and all mindfulness relations held controlling for these strategies. Findings support a framework for investigating mindfulness and higher-quality social functioning, for which mindful emotion regulation may be key.

  10. Detecting Key Genes Regulated by miRNAs in Dysfunctional Crosstalk Pathway of Myasthenia Gravis

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yuze; Wang, Jianjian; Zhang, Huixue; Tian, Qinghua; Chen, Lixia; Ning, Shangwei; Liu, Peifang; Sun, Xuesong; Lu, Xiaoyu; Song, Chang; Zhang, Shuai; Xiao, Bo; Wang, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a neuromuscular autoimmune disorder resulting from autoantibodies attacking components of the neuromuscular junction. Recent studies have implicated the aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the pathogenesis of MG; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. This study aimed to identify key genes regulated by miRNAs in MG. Six dysregulated pathways were identified through differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs in MG, and significant crosstalk was detected between five of these. Notably, crosstalk between the “synaptic long-term potentiation” pathway and four others was mediated by five genes involved in the MAPK signaling pathway. Furthermore, 14 key genes regulated by miRNAs were detected, of which six—MAPK1, RAF1, PGF, PDGFRA, EP300, and PPP1CC—mediated interactions between the dysregulated pathways. MAPK1 and RAF1 were responsible for most of this crosstalk (80%), likely reflecting their central roles in MG pathogenesis. In addition, most key genes were enriched in immune-related local areas that were strongly disordered in MG. These results provide new insight into the pathogenesis of MG and offer new potential targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25705681

  11. Detecting key genes regulated by miRNAs in dysfunctional crosstalk pathway of myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yuze; Wang, Jianjian; Zhang, Huixue; Tian, Qinghua; Chen, Lixia; Ning, Shangwei; Liu, Peifang; Sun, Xuesong; Lu, Xiaoyu; Song, Chang; Zhang, Shuai; Xiao, Bo; Wang, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a neuromuscular autoimmune disorder resulting from autoantibodies attacking components of the neuromuscular junction. Recent studies have implicated the aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the pathogenesis of MG; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. This study aimed to identify key genes regulated by miRNAs in MG. Six dysregulated pathways were identified through differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs in MG, and significant crosstalk was detected between five of these. Notably, crosstalk between the "synaptic long-term potentiation" pathway and four others was mediated by five genes involved in the MAPK signaling pathway. Furthermore, 14 key genes regulated by miRNAs were detected, of which six-MAPK1, RAF1, PGF, PDGFRA, EP300, and PPP1CC-mediated interactions between the dysregulated pathways. MAPK1 and RAF1 were responsible for most of this crosstalk (80%), likely reflecting their central roles in MG pathogenesis. In addition, most key genes were enriched in immune-related local areas that were strongly disordered in MG. These results provide new insight into the pathogenesis of MG and offer new potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

  12. Regulation of translesion DNA synthesis: Posttranslational modification of lysine residues in key proteins.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Justyna; Woodgate, Roger

    2015-05-01

    Posttranslational modification of proteins often controls various aspects of their cellular function. Indeed, over the past decade or so, it has been discovered that posttranslational modification of lysine residues plays a major role in regulating translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) and perhaps the most appreciated lysine modification is that of ubiquitination. Much of the recent interest in ubiquitination stems from the fact that proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was previously shown to be specifically ubiquitinated at K164 and that such ubiquitination plays a key role in regulating TLS. In addition, TLS polymerases themselves are now known to be ubiquitinated. In the case of human polymerase η, ubiquitination at four lysine residues in its C-terminus appears to regulate its ability to interact with PCNA and modulate TLS. Within the past few years, advances in global proteomic research have revealed that many proteins involved in TLS are, in fact, subject to a previously underappreciated number of lysine modifications. In this review, we will summarize the known lysine modifications of several key proteins involved in TLS; PCNA and Y-family polymerases η, ι, κ and Rev1 and we will discuss the potential regulatory effects of such modification in controlling TLS in vivo.

  13. Plant microRNAs: key regulators of root architecture and biotic interactions.

    PubMed

    Couzigou, Jean-Malo; Combier, Jean-Philippe

    2016-10-01

    Contents 22 I. 22 II. 24 III. 25 IV. 27 V. 29 VI. 10 31 References 32 SUMMARY: Plants have evolved a remarkable faculty of adaptation to deal with various and changing environmental conditions. In this context, the roots have taken over nutritional aspects and the root system architecture can be modulated in response to nutrient availability or biotic interactions with soil microorganisms. This adaptability requires a fine tuning of gene expression. Indeed, root specification and development are highly complex processes requiring gene regulatory networks involved in hormonal regulations and cell identity. Among the different molecular partners governing root development, microRNAs (miRNAs) are key players for the fast regulation of gene expression. miRNAs are small RNAs involved in most developmental processes and are required for the normal growth of organisms, by the negative regulation of key genes, such as transcription factors and hormone receptors. Here, we review the known roles of miRNAs in root specification and development, from the embryonic roots to the establishment of root symbioses, highlighting the major roles of miRNAs in these processes.

  14. eIF2B: recent structural and functional insights into a key regulator of translation.

    PubMed

    Wortham, Noel C; Proud, Christopher G

    2015-12-01

    The eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) eIF2B is a key regulator of mRNA translation, being the guanine nt exchange factor (GEF) responsible for the recycling of the heterotrimeric G-protein, eIF2, which is required to allow translation initiation to occur. Unusually for a GEF, eIF2B is a multi-subunit protein, comprising five different subunits termed α through ε in order of increasing size. eIF2B is subject to tight regulation in the cell and may also serve additional functions. Here we review recent insights into the subunit organization of the mammalian eIF2B complex, gained both from structural studies of the complex and from studies of mutations of eIF2B that result in the neurological disorder leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter (VWM). We will also discuss recent data from yeast demonstrating a novel function of the eIF2B complex key for translational regulation.

  15. The EU Clinical Trials Regulation: key priorities, purposes and aims and the implications for public health.

    PubMed

    Flear, Mark L

    2016-03-01

    The replacement of the European Union (EU) Clinical Trials Directive by the new Clinical Trials Regulation (CTR), which entered into force on 16 June 2014 but will not apply before 28 May 2016, provides an opportunity to review the legal and political context within which this important aspect of research law and policy sits and to reflect on the implications for public health. My aim in this article is to relate the context to the key purposes and aims of EU law and policy on clinical trials in order to explain and clarify its orientation. On that basis, I argue that the CTR and the changes it introduces to the law on clinical trials are part of the EU's continued focus on market optimisation. It is this focus that orients and directs the wider pharmaceutical development pipeline, but that undermines the achievement of key public health objectives.

  16. Cargo Sorting in the Endocytic Pathway: A Key Regulator of Cell Polarity and Tissue Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Suzanne; Martin-Belmonte, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The establishment and maintenance of polarized plasma membrane domains is essential for cellular function and proper development of organisms. Epithelial cells polarize along two fundamental axes, the apicobasal and the planar, both depending on finely regulated protein trafficking mechanisms. Newly synthesized proteins destined for either surface domain are processed along the biosynthetic pathway and segregated into distinct subsets of transport carriers emanating from the trans-Golgi network or endosomes. This exocytic trafficking has been identified as essential for proper epithelial polarization. Accumulating evidence now reveals that endocytosis and endocytic recycling play an equally important role in epithelial polarization and the appropriate localization of key polarity proteins. Here, we review recent work in metazoan systems illuminating the connections between endocytosis, postendocytic trafficking, and cell polarity, both apicobasal and planar, in the formation of differentiated epithelial cells, and how these processes regulate tissue dynamics. PMID:25125399

  17. Eosinophils are key regulators of perivascular adipose tissue and vascular functionality

    PubMed Central

    Withers, Sarah B.; Forman, Ruth; Meza-Perez, Selene; Sorobetea, Daniel; Sitnik, Kasia; Hopwood, Thomas; Lawrence, Catherine B.; Agace, William W.; Else, Kathryn J.; Heagerty, Anthony M.; Svensson-Frej, Marcus; Cruickshank, Sheena M.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity impairs the relaxant capacity of adipose tissue surrounding the vasculature (PVAT) and has been implicated in resultant obesity-related hypertension and impaired glucose intolerance. Resident immune cells are thought to regulate adipocyte activity. We investigated the role of eosinophils in mediating normal PVAT function. Healthy PVAT elicits an anti-contractile effect, which was lost in mice deficient in eosinophils, mimicking the obese phenotype, and was restored upon eosinophil reconstitution. Ex vivo studies demonstrated that the loss of PVAT function was due to reduced bioavailability of adiponectin and adipocyte-derived nitric oxide, which was restored after eosinophil reconstitution. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that adiponectin and nitric oxide are released after activation of adipocyte-expressed β3 adrenoceptors by catecholamines, and identified eosinophils as a novel source of these mediators. We conclude that adipose tissue eosinophils play a key role in the regulation of normal PVAT anti-contractile function. PMID:28303919

  18. A novel "complement-metabolism-inflammasome axis" as a key regulator of immune cell effector function.

    PubMed

    Arbore, Giuseppina; Kemper, Claudia

    2016-07-01

    The inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes that induce and regulate the generation of the key pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 in response to infectious microbes and cellular stress. The activation of inflammasomes involves several upstream signals including classic pattern or danger recognition systems such as the TLRs. Recently, however, the activation of complement receptors, such as the anaphylatoxin C3a and C5a receptors and the complement regulator CD46, in conjunction with the sensing of cell metabolic changes, for instance increased amino acid influx and glycolysis (via mTORC1), have emerged as additional critical activators of the inflammasome. This review summarizes recent advances in our knowledge about complement-mediated inflammasome activation, with a specific focus on a novel "complement - metabolism - NLRP3 inflammasome axis."

  19. Partition of some key regulating services in terrestrial ecosystems: Meta-analysis and review.

    PubMed

    Viglizzo, E F; Jobbágy, E G; Ricard, M F; Paruelo, J M

    2016-08-15

    Our knowledge about the functional foundations of ecosystem service (ES) provision is still limited and more research is needed to elucidate key functional mechanisms. Using a simplified eco-hydrological scheme, in this work we analyzed how land-use decisions modify the partition of some essential regulatory ES by altering basic relationships between biomass stocks and water flows. A comprehensive meta-analysis and review was conducted based on global, regional and local data from peer-reviewed publications. We analyzed five datasets comprising 1348 studies and 3948 records on precipitation (PPT), aboveground biomass (AGB), AGB change, evapotranspiration (ET), water yield (WY), WY change, runoff (R) and infiltration (I). The conceptual framework was focused on ES that are associated with the ecological functions (e.g., intermediate ES) of ET, WY, R and I. ES included soil protection, carbon sequestration, local climate regulation, water-flow regulation and water recharge. To address the problem of data normality, the analysis included both parametric and non-parametric regression analysis. Results demonstrate that PPT is a first-order biophysical factor that controls ES release at the broader scales. At decreasing scales, ES are partitioned as result of PPT interactions with other biophysical and anthropogenic factors. At intermediate scales, land-use change interacts with PPT modifying ES partition as it the case of afforestation in dry regions, where ET and climate regulation may be enhanced at the expense of R and water-flow regulation. At smaller scales, site-specific conditions such as topography interact with PPT and AGB displaying different ES partition formats. The probable implications of future land-use and climate change on some key ES production and partition are discussed.

  20. Adaptive Control Model Reveals Systematic Feedback and Key Molecules in Metabolic Pathway Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Richard A.; Merrill, Alfred H.; Wang, May D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Robust behavior in metabolic pathways resembles stabilized performance in systems under autonomous control. This suggests we can apply control theory to study existing regulation in these cellular networks. Here, we use model-reference adaptive control (MRAC) to investigate the dynamics of de novo sphingolipid synthesis regulation in a combined theoretical and experimental case study. The effects of serine palmitoyltransferase over-expression on this pathway are studied in vitro using human embryonic kidney cells. We report two key results from comparing numerical simulations with observed data. First, MRAC simulations of pathway dynamics are comparable to simulations from a standard model using mass action kinetics. The root-sum-square (RSS) between data and simulations in both cases differ by less than 5%. Second, MRAC simulations suggest systematic pathway regulation in terms of adaptive feedback from individual molecules. In response to increased metabolite levels available for de novo sphingolipid synthesis, feedback from molecules along the main artery of the pathway is regulated more frequently and with greater amplitude than from other molecules along the branches. These biological insights are consistent with current knowledge while being new that they may guide future research in sphingolipid biology. In summary, we report a novel approach to study regulation in cellular networks by applying control theory in the context of robust metabolic pathways. We do this to uncover potential insight into the dynamics of regulation and the reverse engineering of cellular networks for systems biology. This new modeling approach and the implementation routines designed for this case study may be extended to other systems. Supplementary Material is available at www.liebertonline.com/cmb. PMID:21314456

  1. Identification of Key Residues in the NisK Sensor Region for Nisin Biosynthesis Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xiaoxuan; Teng, Kunling; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Fangyuan; Zhang, Jie; Zhong, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Histidine kinase (HK) NisK is well known to sense lantibiotic nisin for regulating the biosynthesis of nisin. NisK possesses two trans-membrane segments and a large extracellular region and nisin contains 34 amino acids with five lanthionine rings. Unlike most peptide sensing HK with multi trans-membrane segments, NisK is a representative of a group of rarely reported HK that sense peptide as ligand. To reveal how NisK senses nisin molecule to regulate nisin biosynthesis, we constructed a reporter Lactococcus lactis strain with nisRK constitutively expressed and a reporter gene lacZ expressed under the control of promoter PnisA. We showed that the extracellular region of NisK was involved in recognizing nisin. Conserved residues in this group of HK were found in the extracellular region of NisK and mutagenesis of these residues in the reporter strain revealed that several hydrophobic residues including two aromatic residues are crucial for NisK sensing nisin and regulating nisin biosynthesis. Substitutions of hydrophobic regions in NisK extracellular domain showed that the first strand that was rich of hydrophobic amino acids was involved in regulating nisin biosynthesis. A negatively charged residue in the first βstrand also contributed to nisin biosynthesis. Protein binding analyses demonstrated that nisin could not interact with key NisK mutants, indicating these site in the extracellular region of NisK was involved in recognizing nisin. PMID:28184221

  2. Dynamics of the Transcriptome during Human Spermatogenesis: Predicting the Potential Key Genes Regulating Male Gametes Generation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zijue; Li, Chong; Yang, Shi; Tian, Ruhui; Wang, Junlong; Yuan, Qingqing; Dong, Hui; He, Zuping; Wang, Shengyue; Li, Zheng

    2016-01-12

    Many infertile men are the victims of spermatogenesis disorder. However, conventional clinical test could not provide efficient information on the causes of spermatogenesis disorder and guide the doctor how to treat it. More effective diagnosis and treating methods could be developed if the key genes that regulate spermatogenesis were determined. Many works have been done on animal models, while there are few works on human beings due to the limited sample resources. In current work, testis tissues were obtained from 27 patients with obstructive azoospermia via surgery. The combination of Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting and Magnetic Activated Cell Sorting was chosen as the efficient method to sort typical germ cells during spermatogenesis. RNA Sequencing was carried out to screen the change of transcriptomic profile of the germ cells during spermatogenesis. Differential expressed genes were clustered according to their expression patterns. Gene Ontology annotation, pathway analysis, and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis were carried out on genes with specific expression patterns and the potential key genes such as HOXs, JUN, SP1, and TCF3 which were involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis, with the potential value serve as molecular tools for clinical purpose, were predicted.

  3. Vitamin B12 could be a "master key" in the regulation of multiple pathological processes.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Ilia; Press, Yan; Rudoy, Inna

    2006-04-01

    Multifunctional systems must maintain homeostasis. Man is an ideal example of a system that constantly aspires to attain optimal regulation, even under the stress of severe disease. We assume that there are universal, interchangeable (as required) biologically active substances that regulate the system and try to keep it in balance. We propose that one of these substances is vitamin B12. Why vitamin B12? The list of organs and body systems in which vitamin B12 plays a functional role is constantly being added to. Vitamin B12 affects the normal growth of children, the peripheral and central nervous systems, bone marrow, skin, mucous membranes, bones, and vessels. It is possible that even when the serum cobalamin level is normal, treatment with vitamin B12 could correct defects caused by other biologically active substances. We call this phenomenon the "Master Key" effect. We suggest that this "Master Key" concept can be tested by treating diseases, such as recurrent stomatitis, various forms of hyperpigmentation, trophic ulcers, and burns, with vitamin B12, even if the B12 serum level is normal.

  4. Dopamine is a key regulator in the signalling pathway underlying predator-induced defences in Daphnia.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Linda C; Leese, Florian; Laforsch, Christian; Tollrian, Ralph

    2015-10-07

    The waterflea Daphnia is a model to investigate the genetic basis of phenotypic plasticity resulting from one differentially expressed genome. Daphnia develops adaptive phenotypes (e.g. morphological defences) thwarting predators, based on chemical predator cue perception. To understand the genomic basis of phenotypic plasticity, the description of the precedent cellular and neuronal mechanisms is fundamental. However, key regulators remain unknown. All neuronal and endocrine stimulants were able to modulate but not induce defences, indicating a pathway of interlinked steps. A candidate able to link neuronal with endocrine responses is the multi-functional amine dopamine. We here tested its involvement in trait formation in Daphnia pulex and Daphnia longicephala using an induction assay composed of predator cues combined with dopaminergic and cholinergic stimulants. The mere application of both stimulants was sufficient to induce morphological defences. We determined dopamine localization in cells found in close association with the defensive trait. These cells serve as centres controlling divergent morphologies. As a mitogen and sclerotization agent, we anticipate that dopamine is involved in proliferation and structural formation of morphological defences. Furthermore, dopamine pathways appear to be interconnected with endocrine pathways, and control juvenile hormone and ecdysone levels. In conclusion, dopamine is suggested as a key regulator of phenotypic plasticity. © 2015 The Author(s).

  5. Dopamine is a key regulator in the signalling pathway underlying predator-induced defences in Daphnia

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Linda C.; Leese, Florian; Laforsch, Christian; Tollrian, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The waterflea Daphnia is a model to investigate the genetic basis of phenotypic plasticity resulting from one differentially expressed genome. Daphnia develops adaptive phenotypes (e.g. morphological defences) thwarting predators, based on chemical predator cue perception. To understand the genomic basis of phenotypic plasticity, the description of the precedent cellular and neuronal mechanisms is fundamental. However, key regulators remain unknown. All neuronal and endocrine stimulants were able to modulate but not induce defences, indicating a pathway of interlinked steps. A candidate able to link neuronal with endocrine responses is the multi-functional amine dopamine. We here tested its involvement in trait formation in Daphnia pulex and Daphnia longicephala using an induction assay composed of predator cues combined with dopaminergic and cholinergic stimulants. The mere application of both stimulants was sufficient to induce morphological defences. We determined dopamine localization in cells found in close association with the defensive trait. These cells serve as centres controlling divergent morphologies. As a mitogen and sclerotization agent, we anticipate that dopamine is involved in proliferation and structural formation of morphological defences. Furthermore, dopamine pathways appear to be interconnected with endocrine pathways, and control juvenile hormone and ecdysone levels. In conclusion, dopamine is suggested as a key regulator of phenotypic plasticity. PMID:26423840

  6. Role of key regulators of the cell cycle in maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Akinobu; Nakayama, Keiichi I

    2013-02-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are characterized by pluripotentiality and self-renewal ability. To maintain a supply of mature blood cells and to avoid HSC exhaustion during the life span of an organism, most HSCs remain quiescent, with only a limited number entering the cell cycle. The molecular mechanisms by which quiescence is maintained in HSCs are addressed, with recent genetic studies having provided important insight into the relation between the cell cycle activity and stemness of HSCs. The cell cycle is tightly regulated in HSCs by complex factors. Key regulators of the cell cycle in other cell types-including cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), the retinoblastoma protein family, the transcription factor E2F, and CDK inhibitors-also contribute to such regulation in HSCs. Most, but not all, of these regulators are necessary for maintenance of HSCs, with abnormal activation or suppression of the cell cycle resulting in HSC exhaustion. The cell cycle in HSCs is also regulated by external factors such as cytokines produced by niche cells as well as by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Studies of the cell cycle in HSCs may shed light on the pathogenesis of hematopoietic disorders, serve as a basis for the development of new therapeutic strategies for such disorders, prove useful for the expansion of HSCs in vitro as a possible replacement for blood transfusion, and provide insight into stem cell biology in general. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biochemistry of Stem Cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Neuroplastin adhesion molecules: key regulators of neuronal plasticity and synaptic function.

    PubMed

    Beesley, Philip W; Herrera-Molina, Rodrigo; Smalla, Karl-Heinz; Seidenbecher, Constanze

    2014-11-01

    The Neuroplastins Np65 and Np55 are neuronal and synapse-enriched immunoglobulin superfamily molecules that play important roles in a number of key neuronal and synaptic functions including, for Np65, cell adhesion. In this review we focus on the physiological roles of the Neuroplastins in promoting neurite outgrowth, regulating the structure and function of both inhibitory and excitatory synapses in brain, and in neuronal and synaptic plasticity. We discuss the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms by which the Neuroplastins exert their physiological effects and how these are dependent upon the structural features of Np65 and Np55, which enable them to bind to a diverse range of protein partners. In turn this enables the Neuroplastins to interact with a number of key neuronal signalling cascades. These include: binding to and activation of the fibroblast growth factor receptor; Np65 trans-homophilic binding leading to activation of p38 MAPK and internalization of glutamate (GluR1) receptor subunits; acting as accessory proteins for monocarboxylate transporters, thus affecting neuronal energy supply, and binding to GABAA α1, 2 and 5 subunits, thus regulating the composition and localization of GABAA receptors. An emerging theme is the role of the Neuroplastins in regulating the trafficking and subcellular localization of specific binding partners. We also discuss the involvement of Neuroplastins in a number of pathophysiological conditions, including ischaemia, schizophrenia and breast cancer and the role of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the human Neuroplastin (NPTN) gene locus in impairment of cortical development and cognitive functions. Neuroplastins are neuronal cell adhesion molecules, which induce neurite outgrowth and play important roles in synaptic maturation and plasticity. This review summarizes the functional implications of Neuroplastins for correct synaptic membrane protein localization, neuronal energy supply, expression of LTP and LTD

  8. Comparison of VOC regulations in the United States and key European countries

    SciTech Connect

    Woodside, K.R.

    1997-12-31

    The reduction of VOC emissions from developed countries is a matter of global concern, since it is a well documented phenomena that the compounds, when present at ground level, serve as a precursor to the formation of ozone. The presence of ozone is detrimental and a matter of concern to human, animal and plant life. The comprehensive goal of international governmental environmental agencies is to lower the net mass of volatile organic compounds released into the atmosphere, avoiding the ozone forming potential. The methodology of regulating VOC emissions in the United States is well known and understood. Over the past twenty years, the European Community (EC) has devised and adopted a substantial body of environmental legislation which encompasses regulating VOC emissions, applying many approaches to the problem, as well as an emerging overall set of complex standards from the European member states. Determining the equilibrium in protection of human and environmental concerns with the balance of business competition in light of financial liabilities for regulating new and existing facilities has been politically controversial. The regulatory approaches of several key European countries are succinctly synposized and compared to each other and to the familiar regulatory protocol that has been applied in the United States.

  9. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma gene: a key regulator of adipocyte differentiation in chickens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Mu, Y; Li, H; Ding, N; Wang, Q; Wang, Y; Wang, S; Wang, N

    2008-02-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma is regarded as a "master regulator" of adipocyte differentiation in mammals. The current study was designed to investigate the function and regulatory mechanism of PPARgamma in chicken adipogenesis by RNA interference. Preadipocytes were isolated from the abdominal fat tissue of 12-d-old chickens and cultured. Small-interference PPARgamma RNA (siPPARgamma) was synthesized by in vitro transcription and transfected into chicken preadipocytes by using liposomes. The suppressive effect of siPPARgamma was detected by real-time reverse-transcription PCR and reverse-transcription PCR. The results showed that transient transfection with siPPARgamma significantly inhibited differentiation and enhanced proliferation of chicken preadipocytes (P < 0.05). The adipogenesis-associated adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein gene was down-regulated when PPARgamma was silenced. The current work indicates that PPARgamma is a key regulator of chicken preadipocyte differentiation.

  10. The Histone Acetyltransferase MOF is a Key Regulator of the Embryonic Stem Cell Core Transcriptional Network

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiangzhi; Li, Li; Pandey, Ruchi; Byun, Jung S.; Gardner, Kevin; Qin, Zhaohui; Dou, Yali

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) maintain self-renewal and the potential for rapid response to differentiation cues. Both ESC features are subject to epigenetic regulation. Here we show that histone acetyltransferase Mof plays an essential role in the maintenance of ESC self-renewal and pluripotency. ESCs with Mof deletion lose characteristic morphology, alkaline phosphatase (AP) staining and differentiation potential. They also have aberrant expression of core transcription factors Nanog, Oct4 and Sox2. Importantly, the phenotypes of Mof null ESCs can be partially suppressed by Nanog overexpression, supporting that Mof functions as an upstream regulator of Nanog in ESCs. Genome-wide ChIP sequencing and transcriptome analyses further demonstrate that Mof is an integral component of ESC core transcription network and Mof primes genes for diverse developmental programs. Mof is also required for Wdr5 recruitment and H3 K4 methylation at key regulatory loci, highlighting complexity and interconnectivity of various chromatin regulators in ESCs. PMID:22862943

  11. Key differences between apoC-III regulation and expression in intestine and liver.

    PubMed

    West, Gabrielle; Rodia, Cayla; Li, Diana; Johnson, Zania; Dong, Hongli; Kohan, Alison B

    2017-09-23

    ApoC-III is a critical cardiovascular risk factor, and humans expressing null mutations in apoC-III are robustly protected from cardiovascular disease. Because of its critical role in elevating plasma lipids and CVD risk, hepatic apoC-III regulation has been studied at length. Considerably less is known about the factors that regulate intestinal apoC-III. In this work, we use primary murine enteroids, Caco-2 cells, and dietary studies in wild-type mice to show that intestinal apoC-III expression does not change in response to fatty acids, glucose, or insulin administration, in contrast to hepatic apoC-III. Intestinal apoC-III is not sensitive to changes in FoxO1 expression (which is itself very low in the intestine, as is FoxO1 target IGFBP-1), nor is intestinal apoC-III responsive to western diet, a significant contrast to hepatic apoC-III stimulation during western diet. These data strongly suggest that intestinal apoC-III is not a FoxO1 target and support the idea that apoC-III is not regulated coordinately with hepatic apoC-III, and establishes another key aspect of apoC-III that is unique in the intestine from the liver. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Key genetic elements and regulation systems in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Hao, Haihong; Dai, Menghong; Wang, Yulian; Huang, Lingli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2012-11-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), popularly known as a type of superbug, has been a serious challenge for animal and human health. S. aureus has developed methicillin resistance mainly by expression of β-lactamase and PBP2a, which is regulated by the blaZ-blaI-blaR1 and mecA-mecI-mecRI systems. Other genetic elements, including murE and femA, also participate in expression of methicillin resistance, but the mechanism remains unclear. The evolution of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec determines the epidemiological risk of MRSA. The plasmid-located gene cfr might contribute to multiresistance and transmission of MRSA. Some virulence factors, including Panton-Valentine leukocidin, phenol-soluble modulin, arginine catabolic mobile element and other toxin elements enhance the pathogenesis and fitness of MRSA. Two-component regulation systems (agr, saeRS and vraRS) are closely associated with pathogenesis and drug resistance of MRSA. The systematic exploration of key genetic elements and regulation systems involved in multidrug resistance/pathogenesis/transmission of MRSA is conclusively integrated into this review, providing fundamental information for the development of new antimicrobial agents and the establishment of reasonable antibiotic stewardship to reduce the risk of this superbug.

  13. MicroRNAs as key regulators of xenobiotic biotransformation and drug response.

    PubMed

    Bolleyn, Jennifer; De Kock, Joery; Rodrigues, Robim Marcelino; Vinken, Mathieu; Rogiers, Vera; Vanhaecke, Tamara

    2015-09-01

    In the last decade, microRNAs have emerged as key factors that negatively regulate mRNA expression. It has been estimated that more than 50% of protein-coding genes are under microRNA control and each microRNA is predicted to repress several mRNA targets. In this respect, it is recognized that microRNAs play a vital role in various cellular and molecular processes and that, depending on the biological pathways in which they intervene, distorted expression of microRNAs can have serious consequences. It has recently been shown that specific microRNA species are also correlated with toxic responses induced by xenobiotics. Since the latter are primarily linked to the extent of detoxification in the liver by phase I and phase II biotransformation enzymes and influx and efflux drug transporters, the regulation of the mRNA levels of this particular set of genes through microRNAs is of great importance for the overall toxicological outcome. Consequently, in this paper, an overview of the current knowledge with respect to the complex interplay between microRNAs and the expression of biotransformation enzymes and drug transporters in the liver is provided. Nuclear receptors and transcription factors, known to be involved in the transcriptional regulation of these genes, are also discussed.

  14. The histone acetyltransferase MOF is a key regulator of the embryonic stem cell core transcriptional network.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangzhi; Li, Li; Pandey, Ruchi; Byun, Jung S; Gardner, Kevin; Qin, Zhaohui; Dou, Yali

    2012-08-03

    Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) maintain self-renewal and the potential for rapid response to differentiation cues. Both ESC features are subject to epigenetic regulation. Here we show that the histone acetyltransferase Mof plays an essential role in the maintenance of ESC self-renewal and pluripotency. ESCs with Mof deletion lose characteristic morphology, alkaline phosphatase (AP) staining, and differentiation potential. They also have aberrant expression of the core transcription factors Nanog, Oct4, and Sox2. Importantly, the phenotypes of Mof null ESCs can be partially suppressed by Nanog overexpression, supporting the idea that Mof functions as an upstream regulator of Nanog in ESCs. Genome-wide ChIP-sequencing and transcriptome analyses further demonstrate that Mof is an integral component of the ESC core transcriptional network and that Mof primes genes for diverse developmental programs. Mof is also required for Wdr5 recruitment and H3K4 methylation at key regulatory loci, highlighting the complexity and interconnectivity of various chromatin regulators in ESCs.

  15. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA): a key factor in DNA replication and cell cycle regulation.

    PubMed

    Strzalka, Wojciech; Ziemienowicz, Alicja

    2011-05-01

    PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) has been found in the nuclei of yeast, plant and animal cells that undergo cell division, suggesting a function in cell cycle regulation and/or DNA replication. It subsequently became clear that PCNA also played a role in other processes involving the cell genome. This review discusses eukaryotic PCNA, with an emphasis on plant PCNA, in terms of the protein structure and its biochemical properties as well as gene structure, organization, expression and function. PCNA exerts a tripartite function by operating as (1) a sliding clamp during DNA synthesis, (2) a polymerase switch factor and (3) a recruitment factor. Most of its functions are mediated by its interactions with various proteins involved in DNA synthesis, repair and recombination as well as in regulation of the cell cycle and chromatid cohesion. Moreover, post-translational modifications of PCNA play a key role in regulation of its functions. Finally, a phylogenetic comparison of PCNA genes suggests that the multi-functionality observed in most species is a product of evolution. Most plant PCNAs exhibit features similar to those found for PCNAs of other eukaryotes. Similarities include: (1) a trimeric ring structure of the PCNA sliding clamp, (2) the involvement of PCNA in DNA replication and repair, (3) the ability to stimulate the activity of DNA polymerase δ and (4) the ability to interact with p21, a regulator of the cell cycle. However, many plant genomes seem to contain the second, probably functional, copy of the PCNA gene, in contrast to PCNA pseudogenes that are found in mammalian genomes.

  16. Computational Identification of Key Regulators in Two Different Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Wlochowitz, Darius; Haubrock, Martin; Arackal, Jetcy; Bleckmann, Annalen; Wolff, Alexander; Beißbarth, Tim; Wingender, Edgar; Gültas, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are gene regulatory proteins that are essential for an effective regulation of the transcriptional machinery. Today, it is known that their expression plays an important role in several types of cancer. Computational identification of key players in specific cancer cell lines is still an open challenge in cancer research. In this study, we present a systematic approach which combines colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines, namely 1638N-T1 and CMT-93, and well-established computational methods in order to compare these cell lines on the level of transcriptional regulation as well as on a pathway level, i.e., the cancer cell-intrinsic pathway repertoire. For this purpose, we firstly applied the Trinity platform to detect signature genes, and then applied analyses of the geneXplain platform to these for detection of upstream transcriptional regulators and their regulatory networks. We created a CRC-specific position weight matrix (PWM) library based on the TRANSFAC database (release 2014.1) to minimize the rate of false predictions in the promoter analyses. Using our proposed workflow, we specifically focused on revealing the similarities and differences in transcriptional regulation between the two CRC cell lines, and report a number of well-known, cancer-associated TFs with significantly enriched binding sites in the promoter regions of the signature genes. We show that, although the signature genes of both cell lines show no overlap, they may still be regulated by common TFs in CRC. Based on our findings, we suggest that canonical Wnt signaling is activated in 1638N-T1, but inhibited in CMT-93 through cross-talks of Wnt signaling with the VDR signaling pathway and/or LXR-related pathways. Furthermore, our findings provide indication of several master regulators being present such as MLK3 and Mapk1 (ERK2) which might be important in cell proliferation, migration, and invasion of 1638N-T1 and CMT-93, respectively. Taken together, we provide

  17. Piwi Is a Key Regulator of Both Somatic and Germline Stem Cells in the Drosophila Testis.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Jacob; Qi, Hongying; Liu, Na; Lin, Haifan

    2015-07-07

    The Piwi-piRNA pathway is well known for its germline function, yet its somatic role remains elusive. We show here that Piwi is required autonomously not only for germline stem cell (GSC) but also for somatic cyst stem cell (CySC) maintenance in the Drosophila testis. Reducing Piwi activity in the testis caused defects in CySC differentiation. Accompanying this, GSC daughters expanded beyond the vicinity of the hub but failed to differentiate further. Moreover, Piwi deficient in nuclear localization caused similar defects in somatic and germ cell differentiation, which was rescued by somatic Piwi expression. To explore the underlying molecular mechanism, we identified Piwi-bound piRNAs that uniquely map to a gene key for gonadal development, Fasciclin 3, and demonstrate that Piwi regulates its expression in somatic cyst cells. Our work reveals the cell-autonomous function of Piwi in both somatic and germline stem cell types, with somatic function possibly via its epigenetic mechanism.

  18. A novel key management solution for reinforcing compliance with HIPAA privacy/security regulations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chien-Ding; Ho, Kevin I-J; Lee, Wei-Bin

    2011-07-01

    Digitizing medical records facilitates the healthcare process. However, it can also cause serious security and privacy problems, which are the major concern in the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). While various conventional encryption mechanisms can solve some aspects of these problems, they cannot address the illegal distribution of decrypted medical images, which violates the regulations defined in the HIPAA. To protect decrypted medical images from being illegally distributed by an authorized staff member, the model proposed in this paper provides a way to integrate several cryptographic mechanisms. In this model, the malicious staff member can be tracked by a watermarked clue. By combining several well-designed cryptographic mechanisms and developing a key management scheme to facilitate the interoperation among these mechanisms, the risk of illegal distribution can be reduced.

  19. Filamin acts as a key regulator in epithelial defence against transformed cells.

    PubMed

    Kajita, Mihoko; Sugimura, Kaoru; Ohoka, Atsuko; Burden, Jemima; Suganuma, Hitomi; Ikegawa, Masaya; Shimada, Takashi; Kitamura, Tetsuya; Shindoh, Masanobu; Ishikawa, Susumu; Yamamoto, Sayaka; Saitoh, Sayaka; Yako, Yuta; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Okajima, Takaharu; Kikuta, Junichi; Maijima, Yumiko; Ishii, Masaru; Tada, Masazumi; Fujita, Yasuyuki

    2014-07-31

    Recent studies have shown that certain types of transformed cells are extruded from an epithelial monolayer. However, it is not known whether and how neighbouring normal cells play an active role in this process. In this study, we demonstrate that filamin A and vimentin accumulate in normal cells specifically at the interface with Src- or RasV12-transformed cells. Knockdown of filamin A or vimentin in normal cells profoundly suppresses apical extrusion of the neighbouring transformed cells. In addition, we show in zebrafish embryos that filamin plays a positive role in the elimination of the transformed cells. Furthermore, the Rho/Rho kinase pathway regulates filamin accumulation and filamin acts upstream of vimentin in the apical extrusion. This is the first report demonstrating that normal epithelial cells recognize and actively eliminate neighbouring transformed cells and that filamin is a key mediator in the interaction between normal and transformed epithelial cells.

  20. Epidermal Development in Mammals: Key Regulators, Signals from Beneath, and Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuang; Zhang, Huishan; Duan, Enkui

    2013-01-01

    Epidermis is one of the best-studied tissues in mammals that contain types of stem cells. Outstanding works in recent years have shed great light on behaviors of different epidermal stem cell populations in the homeostasis and regeneration of the epidermis as well as hair follicles. Also, the molecular mechanisms governing these stem cells are being elucidated, from genetic to epigenetic levels. Compared with the explicit knowledge about adult skin, embryonic development of the epidermis, especially the early period, still needs exploration. Furthermore, stem cells in the embryonic epidermis are largely unstudied or ambiguously depicted. In this review, we will summarize and discuss the process of embryonic epidermal development, with focuses on some key molecular regulators and the role of the sub-epidermal mesenchyme. We will also try to trace adult epidermal stem cell populations back to embryonic development. In addition, we will comment on in vitro derivation of epidermal lineages from ES cells and iPS cells. PMID:23708093

  1. Growth differentiation factor 5 is a key physiological regulator of dendrite growth during development.

    PubMed

    Osório, Catarina; Chacón, Pedro J; Kisiswa, Lilian; White, Matthew; Wyatt, Sean; Rodríguez-Tébar, Alfredo; Davies, Alun M

    2013-12-01

    Dendrite size and morphology are key determinants of the functional properties of neurons. Here, we show that growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF5), a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) subclass of the transforming growth factor β superfamily with a well-characterised role in limb morphogenesis, is a key regulator of the growth and elaboration of pyramidal cell dendrites in the developing hippocampus. Pyramidal cells co-express GDF5 and its preferred receptors, BMP receptor 1B and BMP receptor 2, during development. In culture, GDF5 substantially increased dendrite, but not axon, elongation from these neurons by a mechanism that depends on activation of SMADs 1/5/8 and upregulation of the transcription factor HES5. In vivo, the apical and basal dendritic arbours of pyramidal cells throughout the hippocampus were markedly stunted in both homozygous and heterozygous Gdf5 null mutants, indicating that dendrite size and complexity are exquisitely sensitive to the level of endogenous GDF5 synthesis.

  2. Key regulators in prostate cancer identified by co-expression module analysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Junfeng; Jia, Peilin; Zhao, Zhongming; Shen, Bairong

    2014-11-24

    Prostate cancer (PrCa) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men in the world. Despite the fact that a large number of its genes have been investigated, its etiology remains poorly understood. Furthermore, most PrCa candidate genes have not been rigorously replicated, and the methods by which they biologically function in PrCa remain largely unknown. Aiming to identify key players in the complex prostate cancer system, we reconstructed PrCa co-expressed modules within functional gene sets defined by the Gene Ontology (GO) annotation (biological process, GO_BP). We primarily identified 118 GO_BP terms that were well-preserved between two independent gene expression datasets and a consequent 55 conserved co-expression modules within them. Five modules were then found to be significantly enriched with PrCa candidate genes collected from expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL), somatic copy number alteration (SCNA), somatic mutation data, or prognostic analyses. Specifically, two transcription factors (TFs) (NFAT and SP1) and three microRNAs (hsa-miR-19a, hsa-miR-15a, and hsa-miR-200b) regulating these five candidate modules were found to be critical to the development of PrCa. Collectively, our results indicated that genes with similar functions may play important roles in disease through co-expression, and modules with different functions could be regulated by similar genetic components, such as TFs and microRNAs, in a synergistic manner.

  3. Remodelling of lace plant leaves: antioxidants and ROS are key regulators of programmed cell death.

    PubMed

    Dauphinee, Adrian N; Fletcher, Jacob I; Denbigh, Georgia L; Lacroix, Christian R; Gunawardena, Arunika H L A N

    2017-07-01

    Antioxidants and reactive oxygen species are integral for programmed cell death signaling during perforation formation in the lace plant ( Aponogeton madagascariensis ). The lace plant is an excellent model system for studying developmentally regulated programmed cell death (PCD). During early lace plant leaf development, PCD systematically deletes cells resulting in a perforated leaf morphology that is unique in planta. A distinct feature in young lace plant leaves is an abundance of anthocyanins, which have antioxidant properties. The first sign of PCD induction is the loss of anthocyanin pigmentation in cells that are targeted for destruction, which results in a visible gradient of cell death. The cellular dynamics and time course of lace plant PCD are well documented; however, the signals involved in the pathway remain elusive. This study investigates the roles of antioxidants and ROS in developmental PCD signaling during lace plant perforation formation. The involvement of antioxidants and ROS in the pathway was determined using a variety of techniques including pharmacological whole plant experimentation, long-term live cell imaging, the 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid anti-radical activity assay, and western blot analysis. Results indicate that antioxidants and ROS are key regulators of PCD during the remodelling of lace plant leaves.

  4. Phosphatidylethanolamine Is a Key Regulator of Membrane Fluidity in Eukaryotic Cells.

    PubMed

    Dawaliby, Rosie; Trubbia, Cataldo; Delporte, Cédric; Noyon, Caroline; Ruysschaert, Jean-Marie; Van Antwerpen, Pierre; Govaerts, Cédric

    2016-02-12

    Adequate membrane fluidity is required for a variety of key cellular processes and in particular for proper function of membrane proteins. In most eukaryotic cells, membrane fluidity is known to be regulated by fatty acid desaturation and cholesterol, although some cells, such as insect cells, are almost devoid of sterol synthesis. We show here that insect and mammalian cells present similar microviscosity at their respective physiological temperature. To investigate how both sterols and phospholipids control fluidity homeostasis, we quantified the lipidic composition of insect SF9 and mammalian HEK 293T cells under normal or sterol-modified condition. As expected, insect cells show minimal sterols compared with mammalian cells. A major difference is also observed in phospholipid content as the ratio of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) to phosphatidylcholine (PC) is inverted (4 times higher in SF9 cells). In vitro studies in liposomes confirm that both cholesterol and PE can increase rigidity of the bilayer, suggesting that both can be used by cells to maintain membrane fluidity. We then show that exogenously increasing the cholesterol amount in SF9 membranes leads to a significant decrease in PE:PC ratio whereas decreasing cholesterol in HEK 293T cells using statin treatment leads to an increase in the PE:PC ratio. In all cases, the membrane fluidity is maintained, indicating that both cell types combine regulation by sterols and phospholipids to control proper membrane fluidity. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Evolution of plant conducting cells: perspectives from key regulators of vascular cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Misato; Akiyoshi, Nobuhiro; Takenaka, Yuto; Sano, Ryosuke; Demura, Taku

    2017-01-01

    One crucial problem that plants faced during their evolution, particularly during the transition to growth on land, was how to transport water, nutrients, metabolites, and small signaling molecules within a large, multicellular body. As a solution to this problem, land plants developed specific tissues for conducting molecules, called water-conducting cells (WCCs) and food-conducting cells (FCCs). The well-developed WCCs and FCCs in extant plants are the tracheary elements and sieve elements, respectively, which are found in vascular plants. Recent molecular genetic studies revealed that transcriptional networks regulate the differentiation of tracheary and sieve elements, and that the networks governing WCC differentiation are largely conserved among land plant species. In this review, we discuss the molecular evolution of plant conducting cells. By focusing on the evolution of the key transcription factors that regulate vascular cell differentiation, the NAC transcription factor VASCULAR-RELATED NAC-DOMAIN for WCCs and the MYB-coiled-coil (CC)-type transcription factor ALTERED PHLOEM DEVELOPMENT for sieve elements, we describe how land plants evolved molecular systems to produce the specialized cells that function as WCCs and FCCs.

  6. Identification and Characterization of Multiple Intermediate Alleles of the Key Genes Regulating Brassinosteroid Biosynthesis Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Du, Junbo; Zhao, Baolin; Sun, Xin; Sun, Mengyuan; Zhang, Dongzhi; Zhang, Shasha; Yang, Wenyu

    2017-01-01

    Most of the early identified brassinosteroid signaling and biosynthetic mutants are null mutants, exhibiting extremely dwarfed phenotypes and male sterility. These null mutants are usually unable to be directly transformed via a routinely used Agrobacterium-mediated gene transformation system and therefore are less useful for genetic characterization of the brassinosteroid (BR)-related pathways. Identification of intermediate signaling mutants such as bri1–5 and bri1–9 has contributed drastically to the elucidation of BR signaling pathway using both genetic and biochemical approaches. However, intermediate mutants of key genes regulating BR biosynthesis have seldom been reported. Here we report identification of several intermediate BR biosynthesis mutants mainly resulted from leaky transcriptions due to the insertions of T-DNAs in the introns. These mutants are semi-dwarfed and fertile and capable to be transformed. These intermediate mutants could be useful tools for future discovery and analyses of novel components regulating BR biosynthesis and catabolism via genetic modifier screen. PMID:28138331

  7. Type 2C Protein Phosphatase Is a Key Regulator of Antiviral Extreme Resistance Limiting Virus Spread

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jang-Kyun; Kwon, Sun-Jung; Cho, Won Kyong; Choi, Hong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Effector-triggered immunity (ETI) is an active immune response triggered by interactions between host resistance proteins and their cognate effectors. Although ETI is often associated with the hypersensitive response (HR), various R genes mediate an HR-independent process known as extreme resistance (ER). In the soybean-Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) pathosystem, the strain-specific CI protein of SMV functions as an effector of Rsv3-mediated ER. In this study, we used the soybean (Rsv3)-SMV (CI) pathosystem to gain insight into the molecular signaling pathway involved in ER. We used genome-wide transcriptome analysis to identify a subset of the type 2C protein phophatase (PP2C) genes that are specifically up-regulated in Rsv3-mediated ER. Gain-of-function analysis of the most significantly expressed soybean PP2C gene, GmPP2C3a, showed that ABA-induced GmPP2C3a functions as a key regulator of Rsv3-mediated ER. Our results further suggest that the primary mechanism of ER against viruses is the inhibition of viral cell-to-cell movement by callose deposition in an ABA signaling-dependent manner. PMID:25082428

  8. Transcription Factor RFX2 Is a Key Regulator of Mouse Spermiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yujian; Hu, Xiangjing; Li, Zhen; Wang, Min; Li, Sisi; Wang, Xiuxia; Lin, Xiwen; Liao, Shangying; Zhang, Zhuqiang; Feng, Xue; Wang, Si; Cui, Xiuhong; Wang, Yanling; Gao, Fei; Hess, Rex A.; Han, Chunsheng

    2016-01-01

    The regulatory factor X (RFX) family of transcription factors is crucial for ciliogenesis throughout evolution. In mice, Rfx1-4 are highly expressed in the testis where flagellated sperm are produced, but the functions of these factors in spermatogenesis remain unknown. Here, we report the production and characterization of the Rfx2 knockout mice. The male knockout mice were sterile due to the arrest of spermatogenesis at an early round spermatid step. The Rfx2-null round spermatids detached from the seminiferous tubules, forming large multinucleated giant cells that underwent apoptosis. In the mutants, formation of the flagellum was inhibited at its earliest stage. RNA-seq analysis identified a large number of cilia-related genes and testis-specific genes that were regulated by RFX2. Many of these genes were direct targets of RFX2, as revealed by chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR assays. These findings indicate that RFX2 is a key regulator of the post-meiotic development of mouse spermatogenic cells. PMID:26853561

  9. Caudal, a key developmental regulator, is a DPE-specific transcriptional factor.

    PubMed

    Juven-Gershon, Tamar; Hsu, Jer-Yuan; Kadonaga, James T

    2008-10-15

    The regulation of gene transcription is critical for the proper development and growth of an organism. The transcription of protein-coding genes initiates at the RNA polymerase II core promoter, which is a diverse module that can be controlled by many different elements such as the TATA box and downstream core promoter element (DPE). To understand the basis for core promoter diversity, we explored potential biological functions of the DPE. We found that nearly all of the Drosophila homeotic (Hox) gene promoters, which lack TATA-box elements, contain functionally important DPE motifs that are conserved from Drosophila melanogaster to Drosophila virilis. We then discovered that Caudal, a sequence-specific transcription factor and key regulator of the Hox gene network, activates transcription with a distinct preference for the DPE relative to the TATA box. The specificity of Caudal activation for the DPE is particularly striking when a BRE(u) core promoter motif is associated with the TATA box. These findings show that Caudal is a DPE-specific activator and exemplify how core promoter diversity can be used to establish complex regulatory networks.

  10. Regulations of the key mediators in inflammation and atherosclerosis by aspirin in human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Lu, Li; Liu, Hong; Peng, Jiahe; Gan, Lin; Shen, Lili; Zhang, Qian; Li, Liangpeng; Zhang, Li; Su, Chang; Jiang, Yu

    2010-02-06

    Although its role to prevent secondary cardiovascular complications has been well established, how acetyl salicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) regulates certain key molecules in the atherogenesis is still not known. Considering the role of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) to destabilize the atherosclerotic plaques, the roles of the scavenger receptor class BI (SR-BI) and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) to promote cholesterol efflux in the foam cells at the plaques, and the role of NF-kappaB in the overall inflammation related to the atherosclerosis, we addressed whether these molecules are all related to a common mechanism that may be regulated by acetyl salicylic acid. We investigated the effect of ASA to regulate the expressions and activities of these molecules in THP-1 macrophages. Our results showed that ASA inhibited MMP-9 mRNA expression, and caused the decrease in the MMP-9 activities from the cell culture supernatants. In addition, it inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB p65 subunit, thus the activity of this inflammatory molecule. On the contrary, acetyl salicylic acid induced the expressions of ABCA1 and SR-BI, two molecules known to reduce the progression of atherosclerosis, at both mRNA and protein levels. It also stimulated the cholesterol efflux out of macrophages. These data suggest that acetyl salicylic acid may alleviate symptoms of atherosclerosis by two potential mechanisms: maintaining the plaque stability via inhibiting activities of inflammatory molecules MMP-9 and NF-kappaB, and increasing the cholesterol efflux through inducing expressions of ABCA1 and SR-BI.

  11. Liver X receptor is a key regulator of cytokine release in human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Myhre, Anders E; Agren, Joanna; Dahle, Maria K; Tamburstuen, Margareth V; Lyngstadaas, Ståle P; Collins, A Jon L; Foster, Simon J; Thiemermann, Christoph; Aasen, Ansgar O; Wang, Jacob E

    2008-04-01

    Aberrant regulation of innate immune responses and uncontrolled cytokine bursts are hallmarks of sepsis and endotoxemia. Activation of the nuclear liver X receptor (LXR) was recently demonstrated to suppress inflammatory genes. Our aim was to investigate the expression of LXR in human monocytes under normal and endotoxemic conditions and to study the influence of LXR activation on endotoxin-induced cytokine synthesis and release. Adherent human monocytes or whole blood were pretreated with a synthetic LXR agonist (3-{3-[(2-chloro-3-trifluoromethyl-benzyl)-(2,2-diphenyl-ethyl)-amino]-propoxy}-phenyl)-acetic acid) and subsequently challenged with LPS (from Escherichia coli) or peptidoglycan (from Staphylococcus aureus). Cytokine release was assessed by a Multiplex antibody bead kit, and cytokine mRNA levels were measured by real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. We found that LXRalpha mRNA was up-regulated in CD14+ monocytes in LPS-challenged blood, whereas LXRbeta mRNA was not altered. Addition of 3-{3-[(2-chloro-3-trifluoromethyl-benzyl)-(2,2-diphenyl-ethyl)-amino]-propoxy}-phenyl)-acetic acid to monocytes suppressed the LPS-induced release of IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p40, TMF-alpha, macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha, macrophage inflammatory protein 1beta, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in a concentration-dependent manner. Surprisingly, an accompanying decrease in cytokine mRNA accumulation was not observed. The suppressed cytokine release could not be explained by a diminished transport of mRNA out of the nucleus or a decreased secretion of cytokines. We propose that LXR is a key regulator of cytokine release in LPS-challenged human monocytes, possibly by interfering with translational events.

  12. Characterization of Key Helicobacter pylori Regulators Identifies a Role for ArsRS in Biofilm Formation.

    PubMed

    Servetas, Stephanie L; Carpenter, Beth M; Haley, Kathryn P; Gilbreath, Jeremy J; Gaddy, Jennifer A; Merrell, D Scott

    2016-09-15

    Helicobacter pylori must be able to rapidly respond to fluctuating conditions within the stomach. Despite this need for constant adaptation, H. pylori encodes few regulatory proteins. Of the identified regulators, the ferric uptake regulator (Fur), the nickel response regulator (NikR), and the two-component acid response system (ArsRS) are each paramount to the success of this pathogen. While numerous studies have individually examined these regulatory proteins, little is known about their combined effect. Therefore, we constructed a series of isogenic mutant strains that contained all possible single, double, and triple regulatory mutations in Fur, NikR, and ArsS. A growth curve analysis revealed minor variation in growth kinetics across the strains; these were most pronounced in the triple mutant and in strains lacking ArsS. Visual analysis showed that strains lacking ArsS formed large aggregates and a biofilm-like matrix at the air-liquid interface. Biofilm quantification using crystal violet assays and visualization via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that all strains lacking ArsS or containing a nonphosphorylatable form of ArsR (ArsR-D52N mutant) formed significantly more biofilm than the wild-type strain. Molecular characterization of biofilm formation showed that strains containing mutations in the ArsRS pathway displayed increased levels of cell aggregation and adherence, both of which are key to biofilm development. Furthermore, SEM analysis revealed prevalent coccoid cells and extracellular matrix formation in the ArsR-D52N, ΔnikR ΔarsS, and Δfur ΔnikR ΔarsS mutant strains, suggesting that these strains may have an exacerbated stress response that further contributes to biofilm formation. Thus, H. pylori ArsRS has a previously unrecognized role in biofilm formation. Despite a paucity of regulatory proteins, adaptation is key to the survival of H. pylori within the stomach. While prior studies have focused on individual regulatory proteins

  13. Characterization of Key Helicobacter pylori Regulators Identifies a Role for ArsRS in Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Servetas, Stephanie L.; Carpenter, Beth M.; Haley, Kathryn P.; Gilbreath, Jeremy J.; Gaddy, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Helicobacter pylori must be able to rapidly respond to fluctuating conditions within the stomach. Despite this need for constant adaptation, H. pylori encodes few regulatory proteins. Of the identified regulators, the ferric uptake regulator (Fur), the nickel response regulator (NikR), and the two-component acid response system (ArsRS) are each paramount to the success of this pathogen. While numerous studies have individually examined these regulatory proteins, little is known about their combined effect. Therefore, we constructed a series of isogenic mutant strains that contained all possible single, double, and triple regulatory mutations in Fur, NikR, and ArsS. A growth curve analysis revealed minor variation in growth kinetics across the strains; these were most pronounced in the triple mutant and in strains lacking ArsS. Visual analysis showed that strains lacking ArsS formed large aggregates and a biofilm-like matrix at the air-liquid interface. Biofilm quantification using crystal violet assays and visualization via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that all strains lacking ArsS or containing a nonphosphorylatable form of ArsR (ArsR-D52N mutant) formed significantly more biofilm than the wild-type strain. Molecular characterization of biofilm formation showed that strains containing mutations in the ArsRS pathway displayed increased levels of cell aggregation and adherence, both of which are key to biofilm development. Furthermore, SEM analysis revealed prevalent coccoid cells and extracellular matrix formation in the ArsR-D52N, ΔnikR ΔarsS, and Δfur ΔnikR ΔarsS mutant strains, suggesting that these strains may have an exacerbated stress response that further contributes to biofilm formation. Thus, H. pylori ArsRS has a previously unrecognized role in biofilm formation. IMPORTANCE Despite a paucity of regulatory proteins, adaptation is key to the survival of H. pylori within the stomach. While prior studies have focused on individual

  14. Sounds of silence: synonymous nucleotides as a key to biological regulation and complexity

    PubMed Central

    Shabalina, Svetlana A.; Spiridonov, Nikolay A.; Kashina, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Messenger RNA is a key component of an intricate regulatory network of its own. It accommodates numerous nucleotide signals that overlap protein coding sequences and are responsible for multiple levels of regulation and generation of biological complexity. A wealth of structural and regulatory information, which mRNA carries in addition to the encoded amino acid sequence, raises the question of how these signals and overlapping codes are delineated along non-synonymous and synonymous positions in protein coding regions, especially in eukaryotes. Silent or synonymous codon positions, which do not determine amino acid sequences of the encoded proteins, define mRNA secondary structure and stability and affect the rate of translation, folding and post-translational modifications of nascent polypeptides. The RNA level selection is acting on synonymous sites in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes and is more common than previously thought. Selection pressure on the coding gene regions follows three-nucleotide periodic pattern of nucleotide base-pairing in mRNA, which is imposed by the genetic code. Synonymous positions of the coding regions have a higher level of hybridization potential relative to non-synonymous positions, and are multifunctional in their regulatory and structural roles. Recent experimental evidence and analysis of mRNA structure and interspecies conservation suggest that there is an evolutionary tradeoff between selective pressure acting at the RNA and protein levels. Here we provide a comprehensive overview of the studies that define the role of silent positions in regulating RNA structure and processing that exert downstream effects on proteins and their functions. PMID:23293005

  15. Human-specific hypomethylation of CENPJ, a key brain size regulator.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Lin, Qiang; Su, Bing

    2014-03-01

    Both the enlarged brain and concurrent highly developed cognitive skills are often seen as distinctive characteristics that set humans apart from other primates. Despite this obvious differentiation, the genetic mechanisms that underlie such human-specific traits are not clearly understood. In particular, whether epigenetic regulations may play a key role in human brain evolution remain elusive. In this study, we used bisulfite sequencing to compare the methylation patterns of four known genes that regulate brain size (ASPM, CDK5RAP2, CENPJ, and MCPH1) in the prefrontal cortex among several primate species spanning the major lineages of primates (i.e., humans, great apes, lesser apes, and Old World monkeys). The results showed a human-specific hypomethylation in the 5' UTR of CENPJ in the brain, where methylation levels among humans are only about one-third of those found among nonhuman primates. Similar methylation patterns were also detected in liver, kidney, and heart tissues, although the between-species differences were much less pronounced than those in the brain. Further in vitro methylation assays indicated that the methylation status of the CENPJ promoter could influence its expression. We also detected a large difference in CENPJ expression in the human and nonhuman primate brains of both adult individuals and throughout the major stages of fetal brain development. The hypomethylation and comparatively high expression of CENPJ in the central nervous system of humans suggest that a human-specific--and likely heritable--epigenetic modification likely occurred during human evolution, potentially leading to a much larger neural progenitor pool during human brain development, which may have eventually contributed to the dramatically enlarged brain and highly developed cognitive abilities associated with humans.

  16. sox9b Is a Key Regulator of Pancreaticobiliary Ductal System Development

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Donghun; Ninov, Nikolay; Debrito Carten, Juliana; Pan, Luyuan; Ma, Taylur P.; Farber, Steven A.; Moens, Cecilia B.; Stainier, Didier Y. R.

    2012-01-01

    The pancreaticobiliary ductal system connects the liver and pancreas to the intestine. It is composed of the hepatopancreatic ductal (HPD) system as well as the intrahepatic biliary ducts and the intrapancreatic ducts. Despite its physiological importance, the development of the pancreaticobiliary ductal system remains poorly understood. The SRY-related transcription factor SOX9 is expressed in the mammalian pancreaticobiliary ductal system, but the perinatal lethality of Sox9 heterozygous mice makes loss-of-function analyses challenging. We turned to the zebrafish to assess the role of SOX9 in pancreaticobiliary ductal system development. We first show that zebrafish sox9b recapitulates the expression pattern of mouse Sox9 in the pancreaticobiliary ductal system and use a nonsense allele of sox9b, sox9bfh313, to dissect its function in the morphogenesis of this structure. Strikingly, sox9bfh313 homozygous mutants survive to adulthood and exhibit cholestasis associated with hepatic and pancreatic duct proliferation, cyst formation, and fibrosis. Analysis of sox9bfh313 mutant embryos and larvae reveals that the HPD cells appear to mis-differentiate towards hepatic and/or pancreatic fates, resulting in a dysmorphic structure. The intrahepatic biliary cells are specified but fail to assemble into a functional network. Similarly, intrapancreatic duct formation is severely impaired in sox9bfh313 mutants, while the embryonic endocrine and acinar compartments appear unaffected. The defects in the intrahepatic and intrapancreatic ducts of sox9bfh313 mutants worsen during larval and juvenile stages, prompting the adult phenotype. We further show that Sox9b interacts with Notch signaling to regulate intrahepatic biliary network formation: sox9b expression is positively regulated by Notch signaling, while Sox9b function is required to maintain Notch signaling in the intrahepatic biliary cells. Together, these data reveal key roles for SOX9 in the morphogenesis of the

  17. C/EBPβ is a transcriptional key regulator of IL-36α in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Nerlich, Andreas; Ruangkiattikul, Nanthapon; Laarmann, Kristin; Janze, Nina; Dittrich-Breiholz, Oliver; Kracht, Michael; Goethe, Ralph

    2015-08-01

    Interleukin (IL)-36α - one of the novel members of the IL-1 family of cytokines - is a potent regulator of dendritic and T cells and plays an important role in inflammatory processes like experimental skin inflammation in mice and in mouse models for human psoriasis. Here, we demonstrate that C/EBPβ, a transcription factor required for the selective expression of inflammatory genes, is a key activator of the Il36A gene in murine macrophages. RNAi-mediated suppression of C/EBPβ expression in macrophages (C/EBPβ(low) cells) significantly impaired Il36A gene induction following challenge with LPS. Despite the presence of five predicted C/EBP binding sites, luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that C/EBPβ confers responsiveness to LPS primarily through a half-CRE•C/EBP element in the proximal Il36A promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that C/EBPβ but not CREB proteins interact with this critical half-CRE•C/EBP element. In addition, overexpression of C/EBPβ in C/EBPβ(low) cells enhanced the expression of Il36A whereas CREB-1 had no effect. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed that C/EBPβ but neither CREB-1, ATF-2 nor ATF4 is directly recruited to the proximal promoter region of the Il36A gene. Together, these findings demonstrate an essential role of C/EBPβ in the regulation of the Il36A gene via the proximal half-CRE•C/EBP element in response to inflammatory stimuli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Heparanase is a key player in renal fibrosis by regulating TGF-β expression and activity.

    PubMed

    Masola, Valentina; Zaza, Gianluigi; Secchi, Maria Francesca; Gambaro, Giovanni; Lupo, Antonio; Onisto, Maurizio

    2014-09-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of tubular cells is one of the mechanisms which contribute to renal fibrosis and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is one of the main triggers. Heparanase (HPSE) is an endo-β-D-glucuronidase that cleaves heparan-sulfate thus regulating the bioavailability of growth factors (FGF-2, TGF-β). HPSE controls FGF-2-induced EMT in tubular cells and is necessary for the development of diabetic nephropathy in mice. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HPSE can modulate the expression and the effects of TGF-β in tubular cells. First we proved that the lack of HPSE or its inhibition prevents the increased synthesis of TGF-β by tubular cells in response to pro-fibrotic stimuli such as FGF-2, advanced glycosylation end products (AGE) and albumin overload. Second, since TGF-β may derive from sources different from tubular cells, we investigated whether HPSE modulates tubular cell response to exogenous TGF-β. HPSE does not prevent EMT induced by TGF-β although it slows its onset; indeed in HPSE-silenced cells the acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype does not develop as quickly as in wt cells. Additionally, TGF-β induces an autocrine loop to sustain its signal, whereas the lack of HPSE partially interferes with this autocrine loop. Overall these data confirm that HPSE is a key player in renal fibrosis since it interacts with the regulation and the effects of TGF-β. HPSE is needed for pathological TGF-β overexpression in response to pro-fibrotic factors. Furthermore, HPSE modulates TGF-β-induced EMT: the lack of HPSE delays tubular cell transdifferentiation, and impairs the TGF-β autocrine loop. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Gut instincts: microbiota as a key regulator of brain development, ageing and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2017-01-15

    There is a growing realisation that the gut-brain axis and its regulation by the microbiota may play a key role in the biological and physiological basis of neurodevelopmental, age-related and neurodegenerative disorders. The routes of communication between the microbiota and brain are being unravelled and include the vagus nerve, gut hormone signalling, the immune system, tryptophan metabolism or by way of microbial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids. The importance of early life gut microbiota in shaping future health outcomes is also emerging. Disturbances of this composition by way of antibiotic exposure, lack of breastfeeding, infection, stress and the environmental influences coupled with the influence of host genetics can result in long-term effects on physiology and behaviour, at least in animal models. It is also worth noting that mode of delivery at birth influences microbiota composition with those born by Caesarean section having a distinctly different microbiota in early life to those born per vaginum. At the other extreme of life, ageing is associated with a narrowing in microbial diversity and healthy ageing correlates with a diverse microbiome. Recently, the gut microbiota has been implicated in a variety of conditions including depression, autism, schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. There is still considerable debate as to whether or not the gut microbiota changes are core to the pathophysiology of such conditions or are merely epiphenomenal. It is plausible that such neuropsychiatric disorders might be treated in the future by targeting the microbiota either by microbiota transplantation, antibiotics or psychobiotics.

  20. PS Integrins and Laminins: Key Regulators of Cell Migration during Drosophila Embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Urbano, Jose M.; Domínguez-Giménez, Paloma; Estrada, Beatriz; Martín-Bermudo, María D.

    2011-01-01

    During embryonic development, there are numerous cases where organ or tissue formation depends upon the migration of primordial cells. In the Drosophila embryo, the visceral mesoderm (vm) acts as a substrate for the migration of several cell populations of epithelial origin, including the endoderm, the trachea and the salivary glands. These migratory processes require both integrins and laminins. The current model is that αPS1βPS (PS1) and/or αPS3βPS (PS3) integrins are required in migrating cells, whereas αPS2βPS (PS2) integrin is required in the vm, where it performs an as yet unidentified function. Here, we show that PS1 integrins are also required for the migration over the vm of cells of mesodermal origin, the caudal visceral mesoderm (CVM). These results support a model in which PS1 might have evolved to acquire the migratory function of integrins, irrespective of the origin of the tissue. This integrin function is highly specific and its specificity resides mainly in the extracellular domain. In addition, we have identified the Laminin α1,2 trimer, as the key extracellular matrix (ECM) component regulating CVM migration. Furthermore, we show that, as it is the case in vertebrates, integrins, and specifically PS2, contributes to CVM movement by participating in the correct assembly of the ECM that serves as tracks for migration. PMID:21949686

  1. Tectonic 1 Is a Key Regulator of Cell Proliferation in Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shiyong; Chen, Xuedong; Wan, Ming; Jiang, Xingming; Li, Chunlong; Cui, Yunfu; Kang, Pengcheng

    2016-02-01

    Pancreatic cancer is notoriously becoming one of the most devastating human cancers leading to death. However, clinical challenges still remain in diagnosis and treatment of this ticklish cancer. In the present study, the authors identified a new gene, Tectonic 1 (TCTN1), as a key regulator of cell proliferation in pancreatic cancer. Lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) was employed to knock down endogenous TCTN1 expression in PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells. Knockdown of TCTN1 expression potently inhibited cell viability and proliferation, as determined by MTT and colony formation assays. Western blotting analysis also showed that knockdown of TCTN1 suppressed the expression of cdc2, while it induced that of p21 and p27. Flow cytometry analysis showed that depletion of TCTN1 in PANC-1 cells led to cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase as well as apoptosis. Besides, depletion of TCTN1 led to the increase of Bax and cleavage of PARP-1, but the decrease of bcl2 by western blotting. The data indicate that TCTN1 is indispensable for pancreatic cancer cell proliferation, which provides a novel alternative to targeted therapy of pancreatic cancer and deserves further investigation.

  2. PP2C family members play key roles in regulation of cell survival and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Shinri; Toriumi, Shinnosuke; Saito, Jun-Ichi; Awano, Kenjiro; Kudo, Tada-Aki; Kobayashi, Takayasu

    2006-07-01

    Although unlimited proliferation of cancer cells is supported by multiple signaling pathways involved in the regulation of proliferation, survival, and apoptosis, the molecular mechanisms coordinating these different pathways to promote the proliferation and survival of cancer cells have remained unclear. SAPK and integrin-ILK signaling pathways play key roles in the promotion of apoptosis and cell proliferation/survival, respectively. Studies of TNFalpha- and H2O2-induced apoptosis revealed that ASK1, a component of the SAPK system, mediates the TNFalpha and H2O2 signaling of apoptosis. ASK1 is activated by autophosphorylation of a specific threonine residue (T845) following TNFalpha stimulation. Our recent studies indicate that PP2Cepsilon, a member of the PP2C family, associates with and inactivates ASK1 by dephosphorylating T845. In contrast, PP2Cdelta/ILKAP, a second PP2C family member, activates ASK1 by enhancing cellular phosphorylation of T845. PP2Cdelta/ILKAP also forms a complex with ILK1 to inhibit the GSK3beta-mediated integrin-ILK1 signaling in vivo, inhibiting cell cycle progression. These observations raise the possibility that PP2Cdelta/ILKAP acts to control the cross-talk between integrin-induced and TNFalpha-induced signaling pathways, inhibiting the former and stimulating the latter, thereby inhibiting proliferation and survival and promoting the apoptosis of cancer cells.

  3. The plant RWP-RK transcription factors: key regulators of nitrogen responses and of gametophyte development.

    PubMed

    Chardin, Camille; Girin, Thomas; Roudier, François; Meyer, Christian; Krapp, Anne

    2014-10-01

    The plant specific RWP-RK family of transcription factors, initially identified in legumes and Chlamydomonas, are found in all vascular plants, green algae, and slime molds. These proteins possess a characteristic RWP-RK motif, which mediates DNA binding. Based on phylogenetic and domain analyses, we classified the RWP-RK proteins of six different species in two subfamilies: the NIN-like proteins (NLPs), which carry an additional PB1 domain at their C-terminus, and the RWP-RK domain proteins (RKDs), which are divided into three subgroups. Although, the functional analysis of this family is still in its infancy, several RWP-RK proteins have a key role in regulating responses to nitrogen availability. The nodulation-specific NIN proteins are involved in nodule organogenesis and rhizobial infection under nitrogen starvation conditions. Arabidopsis NLP7 in particular is a major player in the primary nitrate response. Several RKDs act as transcription factors involved in egg cell specification and differentiation or gametogenesis in algae, the latter modulated by nitrogen availability. Further studies are required to extend the general picture of the functional role of these exciting transcription factors.

  4. The CD10 enzyme is a key player to identify and regulate human mammary stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bachelard-Cascales, Elodie; Chapellier, Marion; Delay, Emmanuel; Pochon, Gaetan; Voeltzel, Thibault; Puisieux, Alain; Caron de Fromentel, Claude; Maguer-Satta, Véronique

    2010-06-01

    The major components of the mammary ductal tree are an inner layer of luminal cells, an outer layer of myoepithelial cells, and a basement membrane that separates the ducts from the underlying stroma. Cells in the outer layer express CD10, a zinc-dependent metalloprotease that regulates the growth of the ductal tree during mammary gland development. To define the steps in the human mammary lineage at which CD10 acts, we have developed an in vitro assay for human mammary lineage progression. We show that sorting for CD10 and EpCAM cleanly separates progenitors from differentiated luminal cells and that the CD10-high EpCAM-low population is enriched for early common progenitor and mammosphere-forming cells. We also show that sorting for CD10 enriches sphere-forming cells from other tissue types, suggesting that it may provide a simple tool to identify stem or progenitor populations in tissues for which lineage studies are not currently possible. We demonstrate that the protease activity of CD10 and the adhesion function of beta1-integrin are required to prevent differentiation of mammary progenitors. Taken together, our data suggest that integrin-mediated contact with the basement membrane and cleavage of signaling factors by CD10 are key elements in the niche that maintains the progenitor and stem cell pools in the mammary lineage.

  5. Anandamide and decidual remodelling: COX-2 oxidative metabolism as a key regulator.

    PubMed

    Almada, M; Piscitelli, F; Fonseca, B M; Di Marzo, V; Correia-da-Silva, G; Teixeira, N

    2015-11-01

    Recently, endocannabinoids have emerged as signalling mediators in reproduction. It is widely accepted that anandamide (AEA) levels must be tightly regulated, and that a disturbance in AEA levels may impact decidual stability and regression. We have previously characterized the endocannabinoid machinery in rat decidual tissue and reported the pro-apoptotic action of AEA on rat decidual cells. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an inducible enzyme that plays a crucial role in early pregnancy, and is also a key modulator in the crosstalk between endocannabinoids and prostaglandins. On the other hand, AEA-oxidative metabolism by COX-2 is not merely a mean to inactivate its action, but it yields the formation of a new class of mediators, named prostaglandin-ethanolamides, or prostamides. In this study we found that AEA-induced apoptosis in decidual cells involves COX-2 metabolic pathway. AEA induced COX-2 expression through p38 MAPK, resulting in the formation of prostamide E2 (PME2). Our findings also suggest that AEA-induced effect is associated with NF-kB activation. Finally, we describe the involvement of PME2 in the induction of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in rat decidual cells. Altogether, our findings highlight the role of COX-2 as a gatekeeper in the uterine environment and clarify the impact of the deregulation of AEA levels on the decidual remodelling process.

  6. PS integrins and laminins: key regulators of cell migration during Drosophila embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Urbano, Jose M; Domínguez-Giménez, Paloma; Estrada, Beatriz; Martín-Bermudo, María D

    2011-01-01

    During embryonic development, there are numerous cases where organ or tissue formation depends upon the migration of primordial cells. In the Drosophila embryo, the visceral mesoderm (vm) acts as a substrate for the migration of several cell populations of epithelial origin, including the endoderm, the trachea and the salivary glands. These migratory processes require both integrins and laminins. The current model is that αPS1βPS (PS1) and/or αPS3βPS (PS3) integrins are required in migrating cells, whereas αPS2βPS (PS2) integrin is required in the vm, where it performs an as yet unidentified function. Here, we show that PS1 integrins are also required for the migration over the vm of cells of mesodermal origin, the caudal visceral mesoderm (CVM). These results support a model in which PS1 might have evolved to acquire the migratory function of integrins, irrespective of the origin of the tissue. This integrin function is highly specific and its specificity resides mainly in the extracellular domain. In addition, we have identified the Laminin α1,2 trimer, as the key extracellular matrix (ECM) component regulating CVM migration. Furthermore, we show that, as it is the case in vertebrates, integrins, and specifically PS2, contributes to CVM movement by participating in the correct assembly of the ECM that serves as tracks for migration.

  7. Small molecule modulators of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α kinases, the key regulators of protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Manali; Kulkarni, Abhijeet; Pal, Jayanta K

    2013-11-01

    Eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha kinases (eIF-2α kinases) are key mediators of stress response in cells. In mammalian cells, there are four eIF-2α kinases, namely HRI (Heme-Regulated Inhibitor), PKR (RNA-dependent Protein Kinase), PERK (PKR-like ER Kinase) and GCN2 (General Control Non-derepressible 2). These kinases get activated during diverse cytoplasmic stress conditions and phosphorylate the alpha-subunit of eIF2, leading to global protein synthesis inhibition. Therefore, eIF-2α kinases play a vital role in various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and cell signaling. Deregulation of eIF-2α kinases and protein synthesis has been linked to numerous pathological conditions such as certain cancers, anemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Thus, modulation of these kinases by small molecules holds a great therapeutic promise. In this review we have compiled the available information on inhibitors and activators of these four eIF-2α kinases. The review concludes with a note on the selectivity issue of currently available modulators and future perspectives for the design of specific small molecule probes.

  8. Quantitative transcription dynamic analysis reveals candidate genes and key regulators for ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ma, Menggen; Liu, Lewis Z

    2010-06-10

    associated with heat shock proteins, trehalose-glycolysis-pentose phosphate pathways and PDR gene family are accountable for the tolerant yeast to withstand the ethanol stress, maintain active metabolisms, and complete ethanol fermentation under the ethanol stress. Transcription factor Msn4p appeared to be a key regulator of gene interactions for ethanol-tolerance in the tolerant yeast Y-50316.

  9. Quantitative transcription dynamic analysis reveals candidate genes and key regulators for ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    ethanol-tolerance genes associated with heat shock proteins, trehalose-glycolysis-pentose phosphate pathways and PDR gene family are accountable for the tolerant yeast to withstand the ethanol stress, maintain active metabolisms, and complete ethanol fermentation under the ethanol stress. Transcription factor Msn4p appeared to be a key regulator of gene interactions for ethanol-tolerance in the tolerant yeast Y-50316. PMID:20537179

  10. 6-gingerol protects against nutritional steatohepatitis by regulating key genes related to inflammation and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Chang, Chia Ju; Liu, I-Min

    2015-02-04

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), appears to be increasingly common worldwide. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of 6-gingerol ((S)-5-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-decanone), a bioactive ingredient of plants belonging to the Zingiberaceae family, on experimental models of NASH. In HepG2 cells, 6-gingerol (100 μmol/L) treatment inhibited free fatty acids mixture (0.33 mmol/L palmitate and 0.66 mmol/L oleate)-induced triglyceride and inflammatory marker accumulations. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed with a methionine and choline-deficient (MCD) diet to induce steatohepatitis. After four weeks of MCD diet feeding, the mice were dosed orally with 6-gingerol (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg/day) once daily for another four weeks. 6-Gingerol (100 mg/kg/day) attenuated liver steatosis and necro-inflammation in MCD diet-fed mice. The expressions of inflammatory cytokine genes, including those for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6, and nuclear transcription factor (NF-κB), which were increased in the livers of MCD diet-fed mice, were attenuated by 6-gingerol. 6-Gingerol possesses a repressive property on hepatic steatosis, which is associated with induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α. Our study demonstrated the protective role of 6-gingerol in ameliorating nutritional steatohepatitis. The effect was mediated through regulating key genes related to lipid metabolism and inflammation.

  11. Identification of the key regulating genes of diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) by network and gene ontology analysis.

    PubMed

    Pashaiasl, Maryam; Ebrahimi, Mansour; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

    2016-09-01

    Diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) is one of the reasons for infertility that not only affects both older and young women. Ovarian reserve assessment can be used as a new prognostic tool for infertility treatment decision making. Here, up- and down-regulated gene expression profiles of granulosa cells were analysed to generate a putative interaction map of the involved genes. In addition, gene ontology (GO) analysis was used to get insight intol the biological processes and molecular functions of involved proteins in DOR. Eleven up-regulated genes and nine down-regulated genes were identified and assessed by constructing interaction networks based on their biological processes. PTGS2, CTGF, LHCGR, CITED, SOCS2, STAR and FSTL3 were the key nodes in the up-regulated networks, while the IGF2, AMH, GREM, and FOXC1 proteins were key in the down-regulated networks. MIRN101-1, MIRN153-1 and MIRN194-1 inhibited the expression of SOCS2, while CSH1 and BMP2 positively regulated IGF1 and IGF2. Ossification, ovarian follicle development, vasculogenesis, sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity, and golgi apparatus are the major differential groups between up-regulated and down-regulated genes in DOR. Meta-analysis of publicly available transcriptomic data highlighted the high coexpression of CTGF, connective tissue growth factor, with the other key regulators of DOR. CTGF is involved in organ senescence and focal adhesion pathway according to GO analysis. These findings provide a comprehensive system biology based insight into the aetiology of DOR through network and gene ontology analyses.

  12. Integrative Analysis of DNA Methylation and Gene Expression Data Identifies EPAS1 as a Key Regulator of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Seungyeul; Takikawa, Sachiko; Geraghty, Patrick; Argmann, Carmen; Campbell, Joshua; Lin, Luan; Huang, Tao; Tu, Zhidong; Feronjy, Robert; Spira, Avrum; Schadt, Eric E.; Powell, Charles A.; Zhu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a complex disease. Genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors are known to contribute to COPD risk and disease progression. Therefore we developed a systematic approach to identify key regulators of COPD that integrates genome-wide DNA methylation, gene expression, and phenotype data in lung tissue from COPD and control samples. Our integrative analysis identified 126 key regulators of COPD. We identified EPAS1 as the only key regulator whose downstream genes significantly overlapped with multiple genes sets associated with COPD disease severity. EPAS1 is distinct in comparison with other key regulators in terms of methylation profile and downstream target genes. Genes predicted to be regulated by EPAS1 were enriched for biological processes including signaling, cell communications, and system development. We confirmed that EPAS1 protein levels are lower in human COPD lung tissue compared to non-disease controls and that Epas1 gene expression is reduced in mice chronically exposed to cigarette smoke. As EPAS1 downstream genes were significantly enriched for hypoxia responsive genes in endothelial cells, we tested EPAS1 function in human endothelial cells. EPAS1 knockdown by siRNA in endothelial cells impacted genes that significantly overlapped with EPAS1 downstream genes in lung tissue including hypoxia responsive genes, and genes associated with emphysema severity. Our first integrative analysis of genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression profiles illustrates that not only does DNA methylation play a ‘causal’ role in the molecular pathophysiology of COPD, but it can be leveraged to directly identify novel key mediators of this pathophysiology. PMID:25569234

  13. Integrative analysis of DNA methylation and gene expression data identifies EPAS1 as a key regulator of COPD.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seungyeul; Takikawa, Sachiko; Geraghty, Patrick; Argmann, Carmen; Campbell, Joshua; Lin, Luan; Huang, Tao; Tu, Zhidong; Foronjy, Robert F; Feronjy, Robert; Spira, Avrum; Schadt, Eric E; Powell, Charles A; Zhu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a complex disease. Genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors are known to contribute to COPD risk and disease progression. Therefore we developed a systematic approach to identify key regulators of COPD that integrates genome-wide DNA methylation, gene expression, and phenotype data in lung tissue from COPD and control samples. Our integrative analysis identified 126 key regulators of COPD. We identified EPAS1 as the only key regulator whose downstream genes significantly overlapped with multiple genes sets associated with COPD disease severity. EPAS1 is distinct in comparison with other key regulators in terms of methylation profile and downstream target genes. Genes predicted to be regulated by EPAS1 were enriched for biological processes including signaling, cell communications, and system development. We confirmed that EPAS1 protein levels are lower in human COPD lung tissue compared to non-disease controls and that Epas1 gene expression is reduced in mice chronically exposed to cigarette smoke. As EPAS1 downstream genes were significantly enriched for hypoxia responsive genes in endothelial cells, we tested EPAS1 function in human endothelial cells. EPAS1 knockdown by siRNA in endothelial cells impacted genes that significantly overlapped with EPAS1 downstream genes in lung tissue including hypoxia responsive genes, and genes associated with emphysema severity. Our first integrative analysis of genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression profiles illustrates that not only does DNA methylation play a 'causal' role in the molecular pathophysiology of COPD, but it can be leveraged to directly identify novel key mediators of this pathophysiology.

  14. E2f3b plays an essential role in myogenic differentiation through isoform-specific gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    Asp, Patrik; Acosta-Alvear, Diego; Tsikitis, Mary; van Oevelen, Chris; Dynlacht, Brian David

    2009-01-01

    Current models posit that E2F transcription factors can be divided into members that either activate or repress transcription, in part through collaboration with the retinoblastoma (pRb) tumor suppressor family. The E2f3 locus encodes E2f3a and E2f3b proteins, and available data suggest that they regulate cell cycle-dependent gene expression through opposing transcriptional activating and repressing activities in growing and quiescent cells, respectively. However, the role, if any, of E2F proteins, and in particular E2f3, in myogenic differentiation is not well understood. Here, we dissect the contributions of E2f3 isoforms and other activating and repressing E2Fs to cell cycle exit and differentiation by performing genome-wide identification of isoform-specific targets. We show that E2f3a and E2f3b target genes are involved in cell growth, lipid metabolism, and differentiation in an isoform-specific manner. Remarkably, using gene silencing, we show that E2f3b, but not E2f3a or other E2F family members, is required for myogenic differentiation, and that this requirement for E2f3b does not depend on pRb. Our functional studies indicate that E2f3b specifically attenuates expression of genes required to promote differentiation. These data suggest how diverse E2F isoforms encoded by a single locus can play opposing roles in cell cycle exit and differentiation. PMID:19136625

  15. E2f3b plays an essential role in myogenic differentiation through isoform-specific gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Asp, Patrik; Acosta-Alvear, Diego; Tsikitis, Mary; van Oevelen, Chris; Dynlacht, Brian David

    2009-01-01

    Current models posit that E2F transcription factors can be divided into members that either activate or repress transcription, in part through collaboration with the retinoblastoma (pRb) tumor suppressor family. The E2f3 locus encodes E2f3a and E2f3b proteins, and available data suggest that they regulate cell cycle-dependent gene expression through opposing transcriptional activating and repressing activities in growing and quiescent cells, respectively. However, the role, if any, of E2F proteins, and in particular E2f3, in myogenic differentiation is not well understood. Here, we dissect the contributions of E2f3 isoforms and other activating and repressing E2Fs to cell cycle exit and differentiation by performing genome-wide identification of isoform-specific targets. We show that E2f3a and E2f3b target genes are involved in cell growth, lipid metabolism, and differentiation in an isoform-specific manner. Remarkably, using gene silencing, we show that E2f3b, but not E2f3a or other E2F family members, is required for myogenic differentiation, and that this requirement for E2f3b does not depend on pRb. Our functional studies indicate that E2f3b specifically attenuates expression of genes required to promote differentiation. These data suggest how diverse E2F isoforms encoded by a single locus can play opposing roles in cell cycle exit and differentiation.

  16. 75 FR 952 - Draft Marine Sanitation Device Discharge Regulations for the Florida Keys National Marine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ... p.m. to 6:30 p.m. on the following dates and at the indicated locations: January 21, 2010: Marathon Garden Club, 5270 Overseas Hwy (Mile Marker 50), Marathon, FL 33050. January 25, 2010: Florida Keys Eco...

  17. Exploration of Up-regulated Key Proteins in Pseudomonas Aeruginosa for High-efficiency Petroleum Degradation by Proteomic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Di; Li, Xu-Xiang; Qu, Cheng-Tun

    2017-07-11

    In this work, proteomic analysis was used to identify the up-regulated key proteins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P6), a bacteria used in petroleum degradation, responsible for its high efficiency in degrading crude oil. Seventeen proteins were identified as up-regulated proteins by proteomic analysis and classified by bioinformatics analysis. The results indicated that most of the up-regulated proteins were responsible for P. aeruginosa (P6) survival under harsh environmental conditions and utilization crude oil as carbon source in a better way. The physiological processes, chemotaxis to carbon sources, terminal oxidation of carbons, carbon source uptake and nutrients transport, were associated with the up-regulated proteins in the study. The findings revealed the most influential proteins and set a clear direction for future research.

  18. Computational Analysis Reveals a Key Regulator of Cryptococcal Virulence and Determinant of Host Response

    PubMed Central

    Gish, Stacey R.; Maier, Ezekiel J.; Haynes, Brian C.; Santiago-Tirado, Felipe H.; Srikanta, Deepa L.; Ma, Cynthia Z.; Li, Lucy X.; Williams, Matthew; Crouch, Erika C.; Khader, Shabaana A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cryptococcus neoformans is a ubiquitous, opportunistic fungal pathogen that kills over 600,000 people annually. Here, we report integrated computational and experimental investigations of the role and mechanisms of transcriptional regulation in cryptococcal infection. Major cryptococcal virulence traits include melanin production and the development of a large polysaccharide capsule upon host entry; shed capsule polysaccharides also impair host defenses. We found that both transcription and translation are required for capsule growth and that Usv101 is a master regulator of pathogenesis, regulating melanin production, capsule growth, and capsule shedding. It does this by directly regulating genes encoding glycoactive enzymes and genes encoding three other transcription factors that are essential for capsule growth: GAT201, RIM101, and SP1. Murine infection with cryptococci lacking Usv101 significantly alters the kinetics and pathogenesis of disease, with extended survival and, unexpectedly, death by pneumonia rather than meningitis. Our approaches and findings will inform studies of other pathogenic microbes. PMID:27094327

  19. Structural biology of the IL-1 superfamily: Key cytokines in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    Krumm, Brian; Xiang, Yan; Deng, Junpeng

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-1 superfamily of cytokines (IL-1, IL-18, IL-33) play key roles in inflammation and regulating immunity. The mechanisms of agonism and antagonism in the IL-1 superfamily have been pursued by structural biologists for nearly 20 years. New insights into these mechanisms were recently provided by the crystal structures of the ternary complexes of IL-1β and its receptors. We will review here the structural biology related to receptor recognition by IL-1 superfamily cytokines and the regulation of its cytokine activities by antagonists. PMID:24677376

  20. Novel screening cascade identifies MKK4 as key kinase regulating Tau phosphorylation at Ser422.

    PubMed

    Grueninger, Fiona; Bohrmann, Bernd; Christensen, Klaus; Graf, Martin; Roth, Doris; Czech, Christian

    2011-11-01

    Phosphorylation of Tau at serine 422 promotes Tau aggregation. The kinase that is responsible for this key phosphorylation event has so far not been identified but could be a potential drug target for Alzheimer's disease. We describe here an assay strategy to identify this kinase. Using a combination of screening a library of 65'000 kinase inhibitors and in vitro inhibitor target profiling of the screening hits using the Ambit kinase platform, MKK4 was identified as playing a key role in Tau-S422 phosphorylation in human neuroblastoma cells.

  1. Muscle RANK is a key regulator of Ca2+ storage, SERCA activity, and function of fast-twitch skeletal muscles

    PubMed Central

    Dufresne, Sébastien S.; Dumont, Nicolas A.; Boulanger-Piette, Antoine; Fajardo, Val A.; Gamu, Daniel; Kake-Guena, Sandrine-Aurélie; David, Rares Ovidiu; Bouchard, Patrice; Lavergne, Éliane; Penninger, Josef M.; Pape, Paul C.; Tupling, A. Russell

    2016-01-01

    Receptor-activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK), its ligand RANKL, and the soluble decoy receptor osteoprotegerin are the key regulators of osteoclast differentiation and bone remodeling. Here we show that RANK is also expressed in fully differentiated myotubes and skeletal muscle. Muscle RANK deletion has inotropic effects in denervated, but not in sham, extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles preventing the loss of maximum specific force while promoting muscle atrophy, fatigability, and increased proportion of fast-twitch fibers. In denervated EDL muscles, RANK deletion markedly increased stromal interaction molecule 1 content, a Ca2+ sensor, and altered activity of the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) modulating Ca2+ storage. Muscle RANK deletion had no significant effects on the sham or denervated slow-twitch soleus muscles. These data identify a novel role for RANK as a key regulator of Ca2+ storage and SERCA activity, ultimately affecting denervated skeletal muscle function. PMID:26825123

  2. Muscle RANK is a key regulator of Ca2+ storage, SERCA activity, and function of fast-twitch skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Dufresne, Sébastien S; Dumont, Nicolas A; Boulanger-Piette, Antoine; Fajardo, Val A; Gamu, Daniel; Kake-Guena, Sandrine-Aurélie; David, Rares Ovidiu; Bouchard, Patrice; Lavergne, Éliane; Penninger, Josef M; Pape, Paul C; Tupling, A Russell; Frenette, Jérôme

    2016-04-15

    Receptor-activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK), its ligand RANKL, and the soluble decoy receptor osteoprotegerin are the key regulators of osteoclast differentiation and bone remodeling. Here we show that RANK is also expressed in fully differentiated myotubes and skeletal muscle. Muscle RANK deletion has inotropic effects in denervated, but not in sham, extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles preventing the loss of maximum specific force while promoting muscle atrophy, fatigability, and increased proportion of fast-twitch fibers. In denervated EDL muscles, RANK deletion markedly increased stromal interaction molecule 1 content, a Ca(2+)sensor, and altered activity of the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) modulating Ca(2+)storage. Muscle RANK deletion had no significant effects on the sham or denervated slow-twitch soleus muscles. These data identify a novel role for RANK as a key regulator of Ca(2+)storage and SERCA activity, ultimately affecting denervated skeletal muscle function.

  3. Neuropeptide W: a key player in the homeostatic regulation of feeding and energy metabolism?

    PubMed

    Takenoya, Fumiko; Kageyama, Haruaki; Shiba, Kanako; Date, Yukari; Nakazato, Masamitsu; Shioda, Seiji

    2010-07-01

    Neuropeptide W (NPW), recently isolated from porcine hypothalamus, has been identified as the endogenous ligand for both NPBWR1 (GPR7) and NPBWR2 (GPR8), which belong to the orphan G protein-coupled receptor family. NPW is thought to play an important role in the regulation of feeding and drinking behavior, and to be related to the stress response. NPW-containing neurons are localized in several regions of the brain, including the hypothalamus, hippocampus, limbic system, midbrain, and brain stem. Accumulated evidence suggests that hypothalamic neuropeptides, such as neuropeptide Y (NPY), orexin, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC), are involved in the regulation of feeding behavior and energy homeostasis via neuronal circuits in the hypothalamus. NPW also forms part of the feeding-regulating neuronal circuitry in conjunction with other feeding-regulating peptide-containing neurons within the hypothalamus. We summarize our current understanding of the distribution of NPW and of the neuronal interactions between NPW and the different feeding-regulating peptide-containing neurons. This review also discusses evidence for the dichotomous actions of NPW on energy balance and the potential mechanisms involved.

  4. The STARS signaling pathway: a key regulator of skeletal muscle function.

    PubMed

    Lamon, Séverine; Wallace, Marita A; Russell, Aaron P

    2014-09-01

    During the last decade, the striated muscle activator of Rho signaling (STARS), a muscle-specific protein, has been proposed to play an increasingly important role in skeletal muscle growth, metabolism, regeneration and stress adaptation. STARS influences actin dynamics and, as a consequence, regulates the myocardin-related transcription factor A/serum response factor (MRTF-A/SRF) transcriptional program, a well-known pathway controlling skeletal muscle development and function. Muscle-specific stress conditions, such as exercise, positively regulates, while disuse and degenerative muscle diseases are associated with a downregulation of STARS and its downstream partners, suggesting a pivotal role for STARS in skeletal muscle health. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the known role and regulation of STARS and the members of its signaling pathway, RhoA, MRTF-A and SRF, in skeletal muscle.

  5. Mechanisms of hormonal regulation of sertoli cell development and proliferation: a key process for spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Escott, Gustavo M; da Rosa, Luciana A; Loss, Eloisa da Silveira

    2014-01-01

    In adulthood, the main function of the testes is the production of male gametes. In this process, Sertoli cells are essential for sustained spermatogenesis, providing the developing germ cells with the physical and nutritional support required. The total number of Sertoli cells in adulthood determines the daily gamete production, since Sertoli cells can support only a limited number of developing germ cells. Considering that Sertoli cell proliferation only occurs during the immature period, proper development and proliferation of the Sertoli cells during the proliferative phase are crucial to male reproductive health in adulthood. The proliferation process of the Sertoli cells is finely regulated by an assortment of hormonal and paracrine/autocrine factors, which regulate the rate and extent of proliferation. In the present review, we discuss the most important hormonal and paracrine factors involved in the regulation of Sertoli cell proliferation, as well as the signaling mechanisms by which they exert their effects.

  6. LYRATE is a key regulator of leaflet initiation and lamina outgrowth in tomato.

    PubMed

    David-Schwartz, Rakefet; Koenig, Daniel; Sinha, Neelima R

    2009-10-01

    Development of the flattened laminar structure in plant leaves requires highly regulated cell division and expansion patterns. Although tight regulation of these processes is essential during leaf development, leaf shape is highly diverse across the plant kingdom, implying that patterning of growth must be amenable to evolutionary change. Here, we describe the molecular identification of the classical tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant lyrate, which is impaired in outgrowth of leaflet primodia and laminar tissues during compound leaf development. We found that the lyrate phenotype results from a loss-of-function mutation of the tomato JAGGED homolog, a well-described positive regulator of cell division in lateral organs. We demonstrate that LYRATE coordinates lateral outgrowth in the compound leaves of tomato by interacting with both the KNOX and auxin transcriptional networks and suggest that evolutionary changes in LYRATE expression may contribute to the fundamental difference between compound and simple leaves.

  7. Overexpression of a key regulator of lipid homeostasis, Scap, promotes respiration in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Anika Vinayak; Krycer, James Robert; Brown, Andrew John

    2013-04-02

    Prostate metabolism is unique, characterised by cholesterol accumulation and reduced respiration. Are these related? We modulated cholesterol levels and despite changes in mitochondrial cholesterol content, we saw no effects on lactate production or respiration. Instead, these features may be related via sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP-2), the master transcriptional regulator of cholesterol synthesis. SREBP-2 diverts acetyl-CoA into cholesterol synthesis and may thus reduce respiration. We examined LNCaP cells overexpressing the SREBP-2 regulator, Scap: although having higher SREBP-2 activity, these cells displayed higher respiration. This striking observation warrants further investigation. Given that SREBP-2 and Scap are regulated by factors driving prostate growth, exploring this observation further could shed light on prostate carcinogenesis.

  8. SILENCING GASTRIN-RELEASING PEPTIDE RECEPTOR SUPPRESSES KEY REGULATORS OF AEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS IN NEUROBLASTOMA CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Rellinger, Eric J.; Romain, Carmelle; Choi, SunPhil; Qiao, Jingbo; Chung, Dai H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Under normoxic conditions, cancer cells use aerobic glycolysis as opposed to glucose oxidation for energy production; this altered metabolism correlates with poor outcomes in neuroblastoma. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) regulate aerobic glycolysis, while pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase 2 (PDP2) promotes glucose oxidation. Here, we sought to determine whether gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R) signaling regulates glucose metabolism. Procedure Neuroblastoma cell lines, BE(2)-C and SK-N-AS, were used. PCR microararay for glucose metabolism was performed on GRP-R silenced cells. Target protein expression was validated using Western blotting and VEGF ELISA. Cobalt chloride (CoCl2) was used to induce chemical hypoxia. Efficacy of targeting PDK regulation in neuroblastoma was assessed using dichloroacetate (DCA) by conducting cell viability assays and Western blotting for apoptotic markers. Results Silencing GRP-R decreased HIF-1α expression and blocked VEGF expression and secretion in both normoxic and CoCl2 induced hypoxia. PCR array analysis identified that GRP-R silencing reduced PDK4 and increased PDP2 mRNA expression. These findings were validated by Western blotting. CoCl2 induced hypoxia increased VEGF secretion, HIF-1α, and PDK4 expression. PDK4 silencing decreased HIF-1α expression and VEGF expression and secretion. DCA treatment decreased BE(2)-C and SK-N-AS proliferation while promoting cell death. GRP-R silencing and DCA treatment synergistically halted BE(2)-C proliferation. Conclusions We report that GRP-R regulates glucose metabolism in neuroblastoma by modulating HIF-1α, PDK4 and PDP2. PDK4 regulates glucose metabolism, in part, via regulation of HIF-1α. Synergistic consequences of GRP-R inhibition and DCA treatment may suggest a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of aggressive neuroblastoma. PMID:25630799

  9. UHRF1: The key regulator of epigenetics and molecular target for cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Harsimran; Capalash, Neena

    2017-02-01

    UHRF1 is a master regulator of epigenome as it coordinates DNA methylation and histone modifications. Compelling evidence suggests a strong link between UHRF1 overexpression and tumorigenesis, substantiating its ability to act as a potential biomarker for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. UHRF1 also mediates repair of damaged DNA that makes cancer cells resistant toward cytocidal drugs. Hence, understanding the molecular mechanism of UHRF1 regulation would help in developing cancer therapeutics. Natural compounds have shown applicability to downregulate UHRF1 leading to growth arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells.

  10. NLRC5: a key regulator of MHC class I-dependent immune responses.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Koichi S; van den Elsen, Peter J

    2012-12-01

    The expression of MHC class I molecules is crucial for the initiation and regulation of adaptive immune responses against pathogens. NOD-, LRR- and CARD-containing 5 (NLRC5) was recently identified as a specific transactivator of MHC class I genes (CITA). NLRC5 and the master regulator for MHC class II genes, class II transactivator (CIITA), interact with similar MHC promoter-bound factors. Here, we provide a broad overview of the molecular mechanisms behind MHC class I transcription and the role of the class I transactivator NLRC5 in MHC class I-dependent immune responses.

  11. Self-Regulating Capacities as the Key to Boosting up English Metaphor Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halim, Abd.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the degree of metaphorical meaning acquisition reflected in the ratings of Mental Lexicon Organizations (MLOs) namely subordinate, compound and coordinate; and to explore the interaction effects of the self-regulating capacities and age on the ratings. The method is quantitative. 261 out of 1,278 students of English,…

  12. 77 FR 23425 - Revisions of Boundaries, Regulations and Zoning Scheme for Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 15 CFR Part 922 DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 1 Revisions of Boundaries, Regulations and Zoning Scheme for Florida...

  13. PfsR Is a Key Regulator of Iron Homeostasis in Synechocystis PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Dan; He, Qingfang

    2014-01-01

    Iron is an essential cofactor in numerous cellular processes. The iron deficiency in the oceans affects the primary productivity of phytoplankton including cyanobacteria. In this study, we examined the function of PfsR, a TetR family transcriptional regulator, in iron homeostasis of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803. Compared with the wild type, the pfsR deletion mutant displayed stronger tolerance to iron limitation and accumulated significantly more chlorophyll a, carotenoid, and phycocyanin under iron-limiting conditions. The mutant also maintained more photosystem I and photosystem II complexes than the wild type after iron deprivation. In addition, the activities of photosystem I and photosystem II were much higher in pfsR deletion mutant than in wild-type cells under iron-limiting conditions. The transcripts of pfsR were enhanced by iron limitation and inactivation of the gene affected pronouncedly expression of fut genes (encoding a ferric iron transporter), feoB (encoding a ferrous iron transporter), bfr genes (encoding bacterioferritins), ho genes (encoding heme oxygenases), isiA (encoding a chlorophyll-binding protein), and furA (encoding a ferric uptake regulator). The iron quota in pfsR deletion mutant cells was higher than in wild-type cells both before and after exposure to iron limitation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that PfsR bound to its own promoter and thereby auto-regulated its own expression. These data suggest that PfsR is a critical regulator of iron homeostasis. PMID:25010795

  14. A kinase interacting protein (AKIP1) is a key regulator of cardiac stress

    PubMed Central

    Sastri, Mira; Haushalter, Kristofer J.; Panneerselvam, Mathivadhani; Chang, Philip; Fridolfsson, Heidi; Finley, J. Cameron; Ng, Daniel; Schilling, Jan M.; Miyanohara, Atsushi; Day, Michele E.; Hakozaki, Hiro; Petrosyan, Susanna; Koller, Antonius; King, Charles C.; Darshi, Manjula; Blumenthal, Donald K.; Ali, Sameh Saad; Roth, David M.; Patel, Hemal H.; Taylor, Susan S.

    2013-01-01

    cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) regulates a myriad of functions in the heart, including cardiac contractility, myocardial metabolism, and gene expression. However, a molecular integrator of the PKA response in the heart is unknown. Here, we show that the PKA adaptor A-kinase interacting protein 1 (AKIP1) is up-regulated in cardiac myocytes in response to oxidant stress. Mice with cardiac gene transfer of AKIP1 have enhanced protection to ischemic stress. We hypothesized that this adaptation to stress was mitochondrial-dependent. AKIP1 interacted with the mitochondrial localized apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) under both normal and oxidant stress. When cardiac myocytes or whole hearts are exposed to oxidant and ischemic stress, levels of both AKIP1 and AIF were enhanced. AKIP1 is preferentially localized to interfibrillary mitochondria and up-regulated in this cardiac mitochondrial subpopulation on ischemic injury. Mitochondria isolated from AKIP1 gene-transferred hearts showed increased mitochondrial localization of AKIP1, decreased reactive oxygen species generation, enhanced calcium tolerance, decreased mitochondrial cytochrome C release, and enhance phosphorylation of mitochondrial PKA substrates on ischemic stress. These observations highlight AKIP1 as a critical molecular regulator and a therapeutic control point for stress adaptation in the heart. PMID:23319652

  15. PfsR is a key regulator of iron homeostasis in Synechocystis PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dan; He, Qingfang

    2014-01-01

    Iron is an essential cofactor in numerous cellular processes. The iron deficiency in the oceans affects the primary productivity of phytoplankton including cyanobacteria. In this study, we examined the function of PfsR, a TetR family transcriptional regulator, in iron homeostasis of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803. Compared with the wild type, the pfsR deletion mutant displayed stronger tolerance to iron limitation and accumulated significantly more chlorophyll a, carotenoid, and phycocyanin under iron-limiting conditions. The mutant also maintained more photosystem I and photosystem II complexes than the wild type after iron deprivation. In addition, the activities of photosystem I and photosystem II were much higher in pfsR deletion mutant than in wild-type cells under iron-limiting conditions. The transcripts of pfsR were enhanced by iron limitation and inactivation of the gene affected pronouncedly expression of fut genes (encoding a ferric iron transporter), feoB (encoding a ferrous iron transporter), bfr genes (encoding bacterioferritins), ho genes (encoding heme oxygenases), isiA (encoding a chlorophyll-binding protein), and furA (encoding a ferric uptake regulator). The iron quota in pfsR deletion mutant cells was higher than in wild-type cells both before and after exposure to iron limitation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that PfsR bound to its own promoter and thereby auto-regulated its own expression. These data suggest that PfsR is a critical regulator of iron homeostasis.

  16. FoxO1 deacetylation regulates thyroid hormone-induced transcription of key hepatic gluconeogenic genes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Brijesh Kumar; Sinha, Rohit Anthony; Zhou, Jin; Xie, Sherwin Ying; You, Seo-Hee; Gauthier, Karine; Yen, Paul Michael

    2013-10-18

    Hepatic gluconeogenesis is a concerted process that integrates transcriptional regulation with hormonal signals. A major regulator is thyroid hormone (TH), which acts through its nuclear receptor (TR) to induce the expression of the hepatic gluconeogenic genes, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC). Forkhead transcription factor FoxO1 also is an important regulator of these genes; however, its functional interactions with TR are not known. Here, we report that TR-mediated transcriptional activation of PCK1 and G6PC in human hepatic cells and mouse liver was FoxO1-dependent and furthermore required FoxO1 deacetylation by the NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, SirT1. siRNA knockdown of FoxO1 decreased, whereas overexpression of FoxO1 increased, TH-dependent transcriptional activation of PCK1 and G6PC in cultured hepatic cells. FoxO1 siRNA knockdown also decreased TH-mediated transcription in vivo. Additionally, TH was unable to induce FoxO1 deacetylation or hepatic PCK1 gene expression in TH receptor β-null (TRβ(-/-)) mice. Moreover, TH stimulated FoxO1 recruitment to the PCK1 and G6PC gene promoters in a SirT1-dependent manner. In summary, our results show that TH-dependent deacetylation of a second metabolically regulated transcription factor represents a novel mechanism for transcriptional integration of nuclear hormone action with cellular energy status.

  17. SF-1 in the ventral medial hypothalamic nucleus: A key regulator of homeostasis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ventral medial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) regulates food intake and body weight homeostasis. The nuclear receptor NR5A1 (steroidogenic factor 1; SF-1) is a transcription factor whose expression is highly restricted in the VMH and is required for the development of the nucleus. Neurons expressing...

  18. "Silent" Amino Acid Residues at Key Subunit Interfaces Regulate the Geometry of Protein Nanocages.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shengli; Zang, Jiachen; Zhang, Xiaorong; Chen, Hai; Mikami, Bunzo; Zhao, Guanghua

    2016-11-22

    Rendering the geometry of protein-based assemblies controllable remains challenging. Protein shell-like nanocages represent particularly interesting targets for designed assembly. Here, we introduce an engineering strategy-key subunit interface redesign (KSIR)-that alters a natural subunit-subunit interface by selective deletion of a small number of "silent" amino acid residues (no participation in interfacial interactions) into one that triggers the generation of a non-native protein cage. We have applied KSIR to construct a non-native 48-mer nanocage from its native 24-mer recombinant human H-chain ferritin (rHuHF). This protein is a heteropolymer composed of equal numbers of two different subunits which are derived from one polypeptide. This strategy has allowed the study of conversion between protein nanocages with different geometries by re-engineering key subunit interfaces and the demonstration of the important role of the above-mentioned specific residues in providing geometric specificity for protein assembly.

  19. The ORCA2 transcription factor plays a key role in regulation of the terpenoid indole alkaloid pathway

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The terpenoid indole alkaloid (TIA) pathway leads to the production of pharmaceutically important drugs, such as the anticancer compounds vinblastine and vincristine. Unfortunately, these drugs are produced in trace amounts, causing them to be very costly. To increase production of these drugs, an improved understanding of the TIA regulatory pathway is needed. Towards this end, transgenic Catharanthus roseus hairy roots that overexpress the ORCA2 TIA transcriptional activator were generated and characterized. Results Transcriptional profiling experiments revealed that overexpression of ORCA2 results in altered expression of key genes from the indole and terpenoid pathways, which produce precursors for the TIA pathway, and from the TIA pathway itself. In addition, metabolite-profiling experiments revealed that overexpression of ORCA2 significantly affects the levels of several TIA metabolites. ORCA2 overexpression also causes significant increases in transcript levels of several TIA regulators, including TIA transcriptional repressors. Conclusions Results presented here indicate that ORCA2 plays a critical role in regulation of TIA metabolism. ORCA2 regulates expression of key genes from both feeder pathways, as well as the genes (STR and SGD) encoding the enzymes that catalyze the first two steps in TIA biosynthesis. ORCA2 may play an especially important role in regulation of the downstream branches of the TIA pathway, as it regulates four out of five genes characterized from this part of the pathway. Regulation of TIA transcriptional repressors by ORCA2 may provide a mechanism whereby increases in TIA metabolite levels in response to external stimuli are transient and limited in magnitude. PMID:24099172

  20. TOR (target of rapamycin) is a key regulator of triacylglycerol accumulation in microalgae.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Sousuke; Kawase, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Ikki; Shimojima, Mie; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kan

    2016-01-01

    Most microalgae abundantly accumulate lipid droplets (LDs) containing triacylglycerols (TAGs) under several stress conditions, but the underlying molecular mechanism of this accumulation remains unclear. In a recent study, we found that inhibition of TOR (target of rapamycin), a highly conserved protein kinase of eukaryotes, by rapamycin resulted in TAG accumulation in microalgae, indicating that TOR negatively regulates TAG accumulation. Here, we show that formation of intracellular LDs and TAG accumulation were also induced in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii after exposure to Torin1 or AZD8055, which are novel TOR inhibitors that inhibit TOR activity in a manner different from rapamycin. These results supported quite well our previous conclusion that TOR is a central regulator of TAG accumulation in microalgae.

  1. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha (PPARα), a Key Regulator of Lipid Metabolism in Avians.

    PubMed

    Navidshad, Bahman; Royan, M

    2016-01-01

    Dietary fatty acids have various effects on cellular metabolism, and many of these effects are carried out through the alteration of the gene expression. Fatty acids upregulate or downregulate the expression of different genes by acting both as agonists or antagonists for nuclear hormone receptors. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. To date, three PPAR subtypes, α, β, and γ, have been recognized. PPARs regulate various target genes with a role in intracellular and extracellular lipid metabolism, mainly those involved in peroxisomal β-oxidation. PPAR controls several genes involved in lipid metabolism, including Δ-5, Δ-6, and Δ-9 desaturases, acyl-coenzyme A oxidase, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase. The activation of PPARα might thus decrease fat deposits indirectly by raising hepatic fatty acid β-oxidation. PPARα is likely part of the regulating system of energy metabolism in peripheral tissues such as adipose tissue and skeletal muscles.

  2. Identification of glucose-6-phosphate transporter as a key regulator functioning at the autophagy initiation step.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hye-Hyun; Oh, Yumin; Lee, Huikyong; Lee, WonJae; Chang, Jae-Woong; Pyo, Ha-Kyung; Nah, Do hyung; Jung, Yong-Keun

    2015-07-22

    Autophagy is a catabolic process involving autophagosome formation via lysosome. However, the initiation step of autophagy is largely unknown. We found an interaction between ULK1 and ATG9 in mammalian cells and utilized the interaction to identify novel regulators of autophagy upstream of ULK1. We established a cell-based screening assay employing bimolecular fluorescence complementation. By performing gain-of-function screening, we identified G6PT as an autophagy activator. G6PT enhanced the interaction between N-terminal Venus-tagged ULK1 and C-terminal Venus-tagged ATG9, and increased autophagic flux independent of its transport activity. G6PT negatively regulated mTORC1 activity, demonstrating that G6PT functions upstream of mTORC1 in stimulating autophagy.

  3. TOR (target of rapamycin) is a key regulator of triacylglycerol accumulation in microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Sousuke; Kawase, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Ikki; Shimojima, Mie; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most microalgae abundantly accumulate lipid droplets (LDs) containing triacylglycerols (TAGs) under several stress conditions, but the underlying molecular mechanism of this accumulation remains unclear. In a recent study, we found that inhibition of TOR (target of rapamycin), a highly conserved protein kinase of eukaryotes, by rapamycin resulted in TAG accumulation in microalgae, indicating that TOR negatively regulates TAG accumulation. Here, we show that formation of intracellular LDs and TAG accumulation were also induced in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii after exposure to Torin1 or AZD8055, which are novel TOR inhibitors that inhibit TOR activity in a manner different from rapamycin. These results supported quite well our previous conclusion that TOR is a central regulator of TAG accumulation in microalgae. PMID:26855321

  4. Under lock and key: spatiotemporal regulation of WASP family proteins coordinates separate dynamic cellular processes.

    PubMed

    Burianek, Lauren E; Soderling, Scott H

    2013-04-01

    WASP family proteins are nucleation promoting factors that bind to and activate the Arp2/3 complex in order to stimulate nucleation of branched actin filaments. The WASP family consists of WASP, N-WASP, WAVE1-3, WASH, and the novel family members WHAMM and JMY. Each of the family members contains a C-terminus responsible for their nucleation promoting activity and unique N-termini that allow for them to be regulated in a spatiotemporal manner. Upon activation they reorganize the cytoskeleton for different cellular functions depending on their subcellular localization and regulatory protein interactions. Emerging evidence indicates that WASH, WHAMM, and JMY have functions that require the coordination of both actin polymerization and microtubule dynamics. Here, we review the mechanisms of regulation for each family member and their associated in vivo functions including cell migration, vesicle trafficking, and neuronal development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Under lock and key: Spatiotemporal regulation of WASP family proteins coordinates separate dynamic cellular processes

    PubMed Central

    Burianek, Lauren E.; Soderling, Scott H.

    2013-01-01

    WASP family proteins are nucleation promoting factors that bind to and activate the Arp2/3 complex in order to stimulate nucleation of branched actin filaments. The WASP family consists of WASP, N-WASP, WAVE1-3, WASH, and the novel family members WHAMM and JMY. Each of the family members contains a C-terminus responsible for their nucleation promoting activity and unique N-termini that allow for them to be regulated in a spatiotemporal manner. Upon activation they reorganize the cytoskeleton for different cellular functions depending on their subcellular localization and regulatory protein interactions. Emerging evidence indicates that WASH, WHAMM, and JMY have functions that require the coordination of both actin polymerization and microtubule dynamics. Here, we review the mechanisms of regulation for each family member and their associated in vivo functions including cell migration, vesicle trafficking, and neuronal development. PMID:23291261

  6. Identification of key factors regulating self-renewal and differentiation in EML hematopoietic precursor cells by RNA-sequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Zong, Shan; Deng, Shuyun; Chen, Kenian; Wu, Jia Qian

    2014-11-11

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are used clinically for transplantation treatment to rebuild a patient's hematopoietic system in many diseases such as leukemia and lymphoma. Elucidating the mechanisms controlling HSCs self-renewal and differentiation is important for application of HSCs for research and clinical uses. However, it is not possible to obtain large quantity of HSCs due to their inability to proliferate in vitro. To overcome this hurdle, we used a mouse bone marrow derived cell line, the EML (Erythroid, Myeloid, and Lymphocytic) cell line, as a model system for this study. RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) has been increasingly used to replace microarray for gene expression studies. We report here a detailed method of using RNA-Seq technology to investigate the potential key factors in regulation of EML cell self-renewal and differentiation. The protocol provided in this paper is divided into three parts. The first part explains how to culture EML cells and separate Lin-CD34+ and Lin-CD34- cells. The second part of the protocol offers detailed procedures for total RNA preparation and the subsequent library construction for high-throughput sequencing. The last part describes the method for RNA-Seq data analysis and explains how to use the data to identify differentially expressed transcription factors between Lin-CD34+ and Lin-CD34- cells. The most significantly differentially expressed transcription factors were identified to be the potential key regulators controlling EML cell self-renewal and differentiation. In the discussion section of this paper, we highlight the key steps for successful performance of this experiment. In summary, this paper offers a method of using RNA-Seq technology to identify potential regulators of self-renewal and differentiation in EML cells. The key factors identified are subjected to downstream functional analysis in vitro and in vivo.

  7. STAT3 is a key transcriptional regulator of cancer stem cell marker CD133 in HCC

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshal, Sarani; Fuchs, Bryan C.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cell (CSC) marker CD133 was found to be upregulated in many cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the molecular mechanism of CD133 regulation in the liver tumor microenvironment has remained elusive. In this study Won and colleagues report that interleukin-6 (IL-6) mediated signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (STAT3) signaling and hypoxia enhance the expression of CD133 and promote the progression of HCC. PMID:27275460

  8. Gasotransmitter Regulation of Ion Channels: A Key Step in O2 Sensing By the Carotid Body

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakar, Nanduri R.

    2014-01-01

    Carotid bodies detect hypoxia in arterial blood, translating this stimulus into physiological responses via the CNS. It is long established that ion channels are critical to this process. More recent evidence indicates that gasotransmitters exert powerful influences on O2 sensing by the carotid body. Here, we review current understanding of hypoxia-dependent production of gasotransmitters, how they regulate ion channels in the carotid body, and how this impacts carotid body function. PMID:24382871

  9. Regulation of lovastatin on a key inflammation-related microRNA in myocardial cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Weizao; Liu, Huichen; Li, Lin; Yang, Man; Du, Aihua

    2014-01-01

    Advances in the understanding of cardiovascular pathogenesis have highlighted that inflammation plays a central role in atherosclerotic coronary heart disease. Therefore, exploring pharmacologically based anti-inflammatory treatments to be used in cardiovascular therapeutics is worthwhile to promote the discovery of novel ways of treating cardiovascular disorders. The myocardial cell line H9c2(2-1) was exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in culture and resulted in a cellular pro-inflammation status. miR-21 microRNA levels were detected using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR). The influence of lovastatin on miR-21 under normal and pro-inflammatory conditions was tested after being added to the cell culture mixture for 24 hours. Conditional gene function of two predicted cardiovascular system relevant downstream targets of miR-21, protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 3A (PPP1R3A) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), were analyzed with immunoblotting. Forty-eight hours of LPS treatment significantly increased the miR-21 to 170.71%± 34.32% of control levels (P = 0.002). Co-treatment with lovastatin for 24 hours before harvesting attenuated the up-regulation of miR-21 (P = 0.013). Twenty-four hours of lovastatin exposure up-regulated PPP1R3A to 143.85%± 21.89% of control levels in cardiomyocytes (P = 0.023). Lovastatin up-regulated the phosphorylation level of STAT3 compared to the background LPS pretreatment (P = 0.0077), this effect was significantly (P = 0.018) blunted when miR-21 was functionally inhibited. miR-21 plays a major role in the regulation of the cellular anti-inflammation effects of lovastatin.

  10. PPAR{alpha} is a key regulator of hepatic FGF21

    SciTech Connect

    Lundasen, Thomas; Hunt, Mary C.; Nilsson, Lisa-Mari; Sanyal, Sabyasachi; Angelin, Bo; Alexson, Stefan E.H.; Rudling, Mats . E-mail: mats.rudling@cnt.ki.se

    2007-08-24

    The metabolic regulator fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has antidiabetic properties in animal models of diabetes and obesity. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we here show that the hepatic gene expression of FGF21 is regulated by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR{alpha}). Fasting or treatment of mice with the PPAR{alpha} agonist Wy-14,643 induced FGF21 mRNA by 10-fold and 8-fold, respectively. In contrast, FGF21 mRNA was low in PPAR{alpha} deficient mice, and fasting or treatment with Wy-14,643 did not induce FGF21. Obese ob/ob mice, known to have increased PPAR{alpha} levels, displayed 12-fold increased hepatic FGF21 mRNA levels. The potential importance of PPAR{alpha} for FGF21 expression also in human liver was shown by Wy-14,643 induction of FGF21 mRNA in human primary hepatocytes, and PPAR{alpha} response elements were identified in both the human and mouse FGF21 promoters. Further studies on the mechanisms of regulation of FGF21 by PPAR{alpha} in humans will be of great interest.

  11. The Key Regulator for Language and Speech Development, FOXP2, is a Novel Substrate for SUMOylation.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Leslie J; Wang, Chiung-Min; Nascimento, Leticia; Liu, Runhua; Wang, Lizhong; Yang, Wei-Hsiung

    2016-02-01

    Transcription factor forkhead box protein P2 (FOXP2) plays an essential role in the development of language and speech. However, the transcriptional activity of FOXP2 regulated by the post-translational modifications remains unknown. Here, we demonstrated that FOXP2 is clearly defined as a SUMO target protein at the cellular levels as FOXP2 is covalently modified by both SUMO1 and SUMO3. Furthermore, SUMOylation of FOXP2 was significantly decreased by SENP2 (a specific SUMOylation protease). We further showed that FOXP2 is selectively SUMOylated in vivo on a phylogenetically conserved lysine 674 but the SUMOylation does not alter subcellular localization and stability of FOXP2. Interestingly, we observed that human etiological FOXP2 R553H mutation robustly reduces its SUMOylation potential as compared to wild-type FOXP2. In addition, the acidic residues downstream the core SUMO motif on FOXP2 are required for its full SUMOylation capacity. Finally, our functional analysis using reporter gene assays showed that SUMOylation may modulate transcriptional activity of FOXP2 in regulating downstream target genes (DISC1, SRPX2, and MiR200c). Altogether, we provide the first evidence that FOXP2 is a substrate for SUMOylation and SUMOylation of FOXP2 plays a functional role in regulating its transcriptional activity.

  12. PKC in rat dorsal raphe nucleus plays a key role in sleep-wake regulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-Jie; Cui, Su-Ying; Zhang, Xue-Qiong; Yu, Bin; Sheng, Zhao-Fu; Huang, Yuan-Li; Cao, Qing; Xu, Ya-Ping; Lin, Zhi-Ge; Yang, Guang; Cui, Xiang-Yu; Zhang, Yong-He

    2015-12-03

    Studies suggest a tight relationship between protein kinase C (PKC) and circadian clock. However, the role of PKC in sleep-wake regulation remains unclear. The present study was conducted to investigate the role of PKC signaling in sleep-wake regulation in the rat. Our results showed that the phosphorylation level of PKC in dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) was decreased after 6h sleep deprivation, while no alterations were found in ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) or locus coeruleus (LC). Microinjection of a pan-PKC inhibitor, chelerythrine chloride (CHEL, 5 or 10nmol), into DRN of freely moving rats promoted non rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) without influences on rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). Especially, CHEL application at 5nmol increased light sleep (LS) time while CHEL application at 10nmol increased slow wave sleep (SWS) time and percentage. On the other hand, microinjection of CaCl2 into DRN not only increased the phosphorylation level of PKC, but also reduced NREMS time, especially SWS time and percentage. While CHEL abolished the inhibitory effect of CaCl2 on NREMS and SWS. These data provide the first direct evidence that inhibition of intracellular PKC signaling in DRN could increase NREMS time including SWS time and percentage, while activation of PKC could suppress NREMS and reduce SWS time and percentage. These novel findings further our understanding of the basic cellular and molecular mechanisms of sleep-wake regulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Group A PP2Cs evolved in land plants as key regulators of intrinsic desiccation tolerance.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Kenji; Suzuki, Norihiro; Kuwamura, Mayuri; Nishikawa, Yuri; Nakatani, Mao; Ohtawa, Hitomi; Takezawa, Daisuke; Seki, Motoaki; Tanaka, Maho; Taji, Teruaki; Hayashi, Takahisa; Sakata, Yoichi

    2013-01-01

    Vegetative desiccation tolerance is common in bryophytes, although this character has been lost in most vascular plants. The moss Physcomitrella patens survives complete desiccation if treated with abscisic acid (ABA). Group A protein phosphatases type 2C (PP2C) are negative regulators of abscisic acid signalling. Here we show that the elimination of Group A PP2C is sufficient to ensure P. patens survival to full desiccation, without ABA treatment, although its growth is severely hindered. Microarray analysis shows that the Group A PP2C-regulated genes exclusively overlap with genes exhibiting a high level of ABA induction. Group A PP2C disruption weakly affects ABA-activated kinase activity, indicating Group A PP2C action downstream of these kinases in the moss. We propose that Group A PP2C emerged in land plants to repress desiccation tolerance mechanisms, possibly facilitating plants propagation on land, whereas ABA releases the intrinsic desiccation tolerance from Group A PP2C regulation.

  14. Group A PP2Cs evolved in land plants as key regulators of intrinsic desiccation tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Kenji; Suzuki, Norihiro; Kuwamura, Mayuri; Nishikawa, Yuri; Nakatani, Mao; Ohtawa, Hitomi; Takezawa, Daisuke; Seki, Motoaki; Tanaka, Maho; Taji, Teruaki; Hayashi, Takahisa; Sakata, Yoichi

    2013-01-01

    Vegetative desiccation tolerance is common in bryophytes, although this character has been lost in most vascular plants. The moss Physcomitrella patens survives complete desiccation if treated with abscisic acid (ABA). Group A protein phosphatases type 2C (PP2C) are negative regulators of abscisic acid signalling. Here we show that the elimination of Group A PP2C is sufficient to ensure P. patens survival to full desiccation, without ABA treatment, although its growth is severely hindered. Microarray analysis shows that the Group A PP2C-regulated genes exclusively overlap with genes exhibiting a high level of ABA induction. Group A PP2C disruption weakly affects ABA-activated kinase activity, indicating Group A PP2C action downstream of these kinases in the moss. We propose that Group A PP2C emerged in land plants to repress desiccation tolerance mechanisms, possibly facilitating plants propagation on land, whereas ABA releases the intrinsic desiccation tolerance from Group A PP2C regulation. PMID:23900426

  15. Orphan nuclear receptor ERRγ is a key regulator of human fibrinogen gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yaochen; Kim, Don-Kyu; Lu, Yan; Jung, Yoon Seok; Lee, Ji-min; Kim, Young-Hoon; Lee, Yong Soo; Kim, Jina; Dewidar, Bedair; Jeong, Won-IL; Lee, In-Kyu; Cho, Sung Jin; Dooley, Steven; Lee, Chul-Ho; Li, Xiaoying

    2017-01-01

    Fibrinogen, 1 of 13 coagulation factors responsible for normal blood clotting, is synthesized by hepatocytes. Detailed roles of the orphan nuclear receptors regulating fibrinogen gene expression have not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we identified estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERRγ) as a novel transcriptional regulator of human fibrinogen gene expression. Overexpression of ERRγ specially increased fibrinogen expression in human hepatoma cell line. Cannabinoid receptor types 1(CB1R) agonist arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA) up-regulated transcription of fibrinogen via induction of ERRγ, whereas knockdown of ERRγ attenuated fibrinogen expression. Deletion analyses of the fibrinogen γ (FGG) gene promoter and ChIP assays revealed binding sites of ERRγ on human fibrinogen γ gene promoter. Moreover, overexpression of ERRγ was sufficient to increase fibrinogen gene expression, whereas treatment with GSK5182, a selective inverse agonist of ERRγ led to its attenuation in cell culture. Finally, fibrinogen and ERRγ gene expression were elevated in liver tissue of obese patients suggesting a conservation of this mechanism. Overall, this study elucidates a molecular mechanism linking CB1R signaling, ERRγ expression and fibrinogen gene transcription. GSK5182 may have therapeutic potential to treat hyperfibrinogenemia. PMID:28750085

  16. [A Betasatellite-Encoded Protein Regulates Key Components of Gene Silencing System in Plants].

    PubMed

    Eini, O

    2017-01-01

    Small circular single-stranded DNA satellites, called betasatellites, have been found in association with some monopartite begomovirus infections. The Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMuB) is known to influence symptom induction in cotton leaf curl disease. CLCuMuB contains a single gene, βC1, whose product is a pathogenicity determinant and a suppressor of RNA silencing. Although induction of RNA silencing by RNA and DNA viruses has been well documented in plants, the interactions between betasatellites and the host's silencing machinery remain poorly understood. In this study, the transgenic expression of βC1 from CLCuMuB in Arabidopsis thaliana plants produced severe developmental abnormalities, which resembled those produced by mutations in the key genes of the gene silencing pathway. Analysis of transgenic plants expressing CLCuMuB βC1 using real-time PCR showed that the expression levels of both AGO1 and DCL1 genes were significantly increased. In contrast, the expression of HEN1 gene in the βC1-expressing leaf tissues was similar to that of wild-type plants. The CLCuMuB βC1 protein was found to physically interact with the AGO1 protein in a yeast two-hybrid system. It is possible that specific targeting of the gene silencing key components by the CLCuMuB βC1 inhibits the RNA silencing-based host defence.

  17. Polypyrimidine tract binding protein homologs from Arabidopsis are key regulators of alternative splicing with implications in fundamental developmental processes.

    PubMed

    Rühl, Christina; Stauffer, Eva; Kahles, André; Wagner, Gabriele; Drechsel, Gabriele; Rätsch, Gunnar; Wachter, Andreas

    2012-11-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) generates transcript variants by variable exon/intron definition and massively expands transcriptome diversity. Changes in AS patterns have been found to be linked to manifold biological processes, yet fundamental aspects, such as the regulation of AS and its functional implications, largely remain to be addressed. In this work, widespread AS regulation by Arabidopsis thaliana Polypyrimidine tract binding protein homologs (PTBs) was revealed. In total, 452 AS events derived from 307 distinct genes were found to be responsive to the levels of the splicing factors PTB1 and PTB2, which predominantly triggered splicing of regulated introns, inclusion of cassette exons, and usage of upstream 5' splice sites. By contrast, no major AS regulatory function of the distantly related PTB3 was found. Dependent on their position within the mRNA, PTB-regulated events can both modify the untranslated regions and give rise to alternative protein products. We find that PTB-mediated AS events are connected to diverse biological processes, and the functional implications of selected instances were further elucidated. Specifically, PTB misexpression changes AS of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR6, coinciding with altered rates of abscisic acid-dependent seed germination. Furthermore, AS patterns as well as the expression of key flowering regulators were massively changed in a PTB1/2 level-dependent manner.

  18. SIRT1 is a novel regulator of key pathways of human labor.

    PubMed

    Lappas, Martha; Mitton, Amberlee; Lim, Ratana; Barker, Gillian; Riley, Clyde; Permezel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Human sirtuin (SIRT) 1 and SIRT2, which possess nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent deacetylase activity, exhibit anti-inflammatory actions. However, there are no data available on SIRT1 and SIRT2 expression and regulation in human intrauterine tissues. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize the localization and expression of SIRT1 and SIRT2 in 1) placenta and fetal membranes before and after term spontaneous labor onset, 2) prelabor fetal membranes from the supracervical site (SCS) and a distal site (DS), and 3) in response to proinflammatory stimuli. Further, the effect of SIRT activation using resveratrol and SRT1720 on prolabor mediators was also assessed. SIRT1 and SIRT2 were localized in the syncytiotrophoblast layer and the cytotrophoblasts of the placenta, amnion epithelium, trophoblast layer of the chorion, and decidual cells. Additionally, SIRT2 was found within the endothelial walls of placental vessels. SIRT2, but not SIRT1, staining was significantly lower in amnion and chorion obtained from the SCS compared to a DS. On the other hand, SIRT1, but not SIRT2, gene and/or protein expression was significantly lower in placenta, amnion, and chorion obtained after labor compared to prelabor. SIRT1 expression, but not SIRT2, was down-regulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and proinflammatory cytokines TNF and IL1B. The SIRT1 activators resveratrol and SRT1720 significantly decreased LPS-induced TNF, IL6, and IL8 gene expression and release and PTGS2 mRNA expression and resultant prostaglandin (PG) E(2) and PGF(2α) release from human gestational tissues. In conclusion, SIRT1 possesses anti-inflammatory actions and thus may play a role in regulating pregnancy and parturition.

  19. Probing Molecular Mechanisms of the Hsp90 Chaperone: Biophysical Modeling Identifies Key Regulators of Functional Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Anshuman; Verkhivker, Gennady M.

    2012-01-01

    Deciphering functional mechanisms of the Hsp90 chaperone machinery is an important objective in cancer biology aiming to facilitate discovery of targeted anti-cancer therapies. Despite significant advances in understanding structure and function of molecular chaperones, organizing molecular principles that control the relationship between conformational diversity and functional mechanisms of the Hsp90 activity lack a sufficient quantitative characterization. We combined molecular dynamics simulations, principal component analysis, the energy landscape model and structure-functional analysis of Hsp90 regulatory interactions to systematically investigate functional dynamics of the molecular chaperone. This approach has identified a network of conserved regions common to the Hsp90 chaperones that could play a universal role in coordinating functional dynamics, principal collective motions and allosteric signaling of Hsp90. We have found that these functional motifs may be utilized by the molecular chaperone machinery to act collectively as central regulators of Hsp90 dynamics and activity, including the inter-domain communications, control of ATP hydrolysis, and protein client binding. These findings have provided support to a long-standing assertion that allosteric regulation and catalysis may have emerged via common evolutionary routes. The interaction networks regulating functional motions of Hsp90 may be determined by the inherent structural architecture of the molecular chaperone. At the same time, the thermodynamics-based “conformational selection” of functional states is likely to be activated based on the nature of the binding partner. This mechanistic model of Hsp90 dynamics and function is consistent with the notion that allosteric networks orchestrating cooperative protein motions can be formed by evolutionary conserved and sparsely connected residue clusters. Hence, allosteric signaling through a small network of distantly connected residue clusters

  20. MicroRNA Key to Angiogenesis Regulation: miRNA Biology and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Ankit; Mukherjee, Bratati; Dixit, Manjusha

    2017-06-30

    Angiogenesis is involved in maintaining normal physiological processes like embryonic development, wound healing, inflammation and reproduction. Pathogenesis of various diseases like diabetic retinopathy, rheumatoid arthritis and cancer are associated with imbalanced angiogenesis. Angiogenic stimulators and inhibitors act together for keeping angiogenic switch in balance. Recently miRNAs have been found to regulate various stages of angiogenesis. miRNAs are 21-23 nucleotides long, single stranded, noncoding RNA molecules generated endogenously. miRNA's ability to target multiple genes within a signaling pathway makes them promising target for the development of second generation anti-angiogenesis drugs. This review was conceived with the notion of availability of specific and comprehensive knowledge about AngiomiRs at one place. This will facilitate the research in basic understanding and in the development of new drugs. In this review, we have summarized the biology and therapeutic potential of the miRNAs, which are involved in controlling angiogenesis process. In miRNA biology, we have provided the updated summary of miRNAs in the regulation of endothelial cells, showed role of miRNAs in the signaling pathways of angiogenesis and, discussed the gaps in complete knowledge of mechanism. We have also provided exclusive insights regarding therapeutic potential of these miRNAs, in angiogenesis related disorders. Additionally, we have discussed the challenges in miRNA based drug delivery and updated the current efforts in the development of miRNA delivery methods. Though much research is needed to discover the complete miRNA network regulating angiogenesis but once it is done, targeting miRNA may be considered as a potential candidate for therapeutic invention against angiogenesis related disorders. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Ets-1 regulates intracellular glutathione levels: key target for resistant ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Verschoor, Meghan L; Singh, Gurmit

    2013-11-15

    Ovarian cancer is characterized by high rates of metastasis and therapeutic resistance. Many chemotherapeutic agents rely on the induction of oxidative stress to cause cancer cell death, thus targeting redox regulation is a promising strategy to overcome drug resistance. We have used a tetracycline-inducible Ets-1 overexpression model derived from 2008 ovarian cancer cells in the present study. To examine the role of Ets-1 in glutathione regulation we have measured intracellular reactive oxygen species and glutathione levels, as well as glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity. Glutathione synthesis was limited using transsulfuration or Sx(c)- pathway blocking agents, and glutamate release was measured to confirm Sx(c)- blockade. Cell viability following drug treatment was assessed via crystal violet assay. Oxidative stress was induced through glucose oxidase treatment, which produces hydrogen peroxide by glucose oxidation. The protein expressions of redox-related factors were measured through western blotting. Overexpression of Ets-1 was associated with decreased intracellular ROS, concomitantly with increased intracellular GSH, GPX antioxidant activity, and Sx(c)- transporter activity. Under basal conditions, inhibition of the transsulfuration pathway resulted in decreased GSH levels and GPX activity in all cell lines, whereas inhibition of Sx(c)- by sulfasalazine decreased GPX activity in Ets-1-expressing cells only. However, under oxidative stress the intracellular GSH levels decreased significantly in correlation with increased Ets-1 expression following sulfasalazine treatment. In this study we have identified a role for proto-oncogene Ets-1 in the regulation of intracellular glutathione levels, and examined the effects of the anti-inflammatory drug sulfasalazine on glutathione depletion using an ovarian cancer cell model. The findings from this study show that Ets-1 mediates enhanced Sx(c)- activity to increase glutathione levels under oxidative stress

  2. Network-Based Identification and Prioritization of Key Regulators of Coronary Artery Disease Loci

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuqi; Chen, Jing; Freudenberg, Johannes M.; Meng, Qingying; Rajpal, Deepak K.; Yang, Xia

    2017-01-01

    Objective Recent genome-wide association studies of coronary artery disease (CAD) have revealed 58 genome-wide significant and 148 suggestive genetic loci. However, the molecular mechanisms through which they contribute to CAD and the clinical implications of these findings remain largely unknown. We aim to retrieve gene subnetworks of the 206 CAD loci and identify and prioritize candidate regulators to better understand the biological mechanisms underlying the genetic associations. Approach and Results We devised a new integrative genomics approach that incorporated (1) candidate genes from the top CAD loci, (2) the complete genetic association results from the 1000 genomes-based CAD genome-wide association studies from the Coronary Artery Disease Genome Wide Replication and Meta-Analysis Plus the Coronary Artery Disease consortium, (3) tissue-specific gene regulatory networks that depict the potential relationship and interactions between genes, and (4) tissue-specific gene expression patterns between CAD patients and controls. The networks and top-ranked regulators according to these data-driven criteria were further queried against literature, experimental evidence, and drug information to evaluate their disease relevance and potential as drug targets. Our analysis uncovered several potential novel regulators of CAD such as LUM and STAT3, which possess properties suitable as drug targets. We also revealed molecular relations and potential mechanisms through which the top CAD loci operate. Furthermore, we found that multiple CAD-relevant biological processes such as extracellular matrix, inflammatory and immune pathways, complement and coagulation cascades, and lipid metabolism interact in the CAD networks. Conclusions Our data-driven integrative genomics framework unraveled tissue-specific relations among the candidate genes of the CAD genome-wide association studies loci and prioritized novel network regulatory genes orchestrating biological processes relevant

  3. A novel microfluidic assay reveals a key role for protein kinase C δ in regulating human neutrophil-endothelium interaction.

    PubMed

    Soroush, Fariborz; Zhang, Ting; King, Devon J; Tang, Yuan; Deosarkar, Sudhir; Prabhakarpandian, Balabhaskar; Kilpatrick, Laurie E; Kiani, Mohammad F

    2016-11-01

    A key step in neutrophil-mediated tissue damage is the migration of activated neutrophils across the vascular endothelium. Previously, we identified protein kinase C δ as a critical regulator of neutrophil migration in sepsis but did not identify specific steps in migration. In this study, we used our novel biomimetic microfluidic assay to delineate systematically the mechanism by which protein kinase C δ regulates individual steps in human neutrophil-endothelial interaction during inflammation. The biomimetic microfluidic assay includes a network of vascular channels, produced from in vivo images connected to a tissue compartment through a porous barrier. HUVECs cultured in vascular channels formed a complete lumen under physiologic shear flow. HUVECs were pretreated with TNF-α ± a protein kinase C δ inhibitor, and the tissue compartment was filled with a chemoattractant (fMLP or IL-8). Under physiologic shear flow, the role of protein kinase C δ on spatial and temporal neutrophil adherence/migration was quantified. Protein kinase C δ inhibition significantly reduced neutrophil adhesion in response to fMLP and IL-8 only under low shear rate and near bifurcations. Protein kinase C δ inhibition also decreased adherence to nonactivated HUVECs in response to fMLP or IL-8. Protein kinase C δ inhibition reduced neutrophil migration into the tissue compartment in response to fMLP and to a lesser degree, to IL-8. Antibody-coated microparticles demonstrated that protein kinase C δ inhibition down-regulated E-selectin and ICAM-1 but not VCAM-1 expression. With the use of a physiologically relevant in vitro model system, we demonstrate that protein kinase C δ plays an important role in the regulation of neutrophil adherence/migration during inflammation and identifies key steps regulated by protein kinase C δ in neutrophil-endothelial interactions.

  4. Glucocorticoid signaling drives epigenetic and transcription factors to induce key regulators of human parturition.

    PubMed

    Zannas, Anthony S; Chrousos, George P

    2015-10-27

    Glucocorticoids are thought to play an important role in parturition. Two recent articles by Di Stefano et al. in the Archives and Wang et al. in this issue of Science Signaling reveal novel mechanisms by which glucocorticoid signaling can drive the epigenetic and transcriptional machinery to induce molecules involved in parturition, including the neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and the autacoid hormone prostaglandin E2. These findings contribute to our understanding of how glucocorticoids may regulate human parturition. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Schwann cells and their transcriptional network: Evolution of key regulators of peripheral myelination.

    PubMed

    Stolt, C Claus; Wegner, Michael

    2016-06-15

    As derivatives of the neural crest, Schwann cells represent a vertebrate invention. Their development and differentiation is under control of a newly constructed, vertebrate-specific regulatory network that contains Sox10, Oct6 and Krox20 as cornerstones and central regulators of peripheral myelination. In this review, we discuss the function and relationship of these transcription factors among each other and in the context of their regulatory network, and present ideas of how neofunctionalization may have helped to recruit them to their novel task in Schwann cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Myelin Evolution.

  6. Regulation and Function of Cdt1; A Key Factor in Cell Proliferation and Genome Stability

    PubMed Central

    Pozo, Pedro N.; Cook, Jeanette Gowen

    2016-01-01

    Successful cell proliferation requires efficient and precise genome duplication followed by accurate chromosome segregation. The Cdc10-dependent transcript 1 protein (Cdt1) is required for the first step in DNA replication, and in human cells Cdt1 is also required during mitosis. Tight cell cycle controls over Cdt1 abundance and activity are critical to normal development and genome stability. We review here recent advances in elucidating Cdt1 molecular functions in both origin licensing and kinetochore–microtubule attachment, and we describe the current understanding of human Cdt1 regulation. PMID:28025526

  7. Gene expression of key regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis is sex dependent in mice with growth hormone receptor deletion in liver

    PubMed Central

    Zawada, Ilona; Masternak, Michal M.; List, Edward O.; Stout, Michael B.; Berryman, Darlene E.; Lewinski, Andrzej; Kopchick, John J.; Bartke, Andrzej; Karbownik-Lewinska, Malgorzata; Gesing, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial biogenesis is an essential process for cell viability. Mice with disruption of the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene (Ghr gene) in the liver (LiGHRKO), in contrast to long-lived mice with global deletion of the Ghr gene (GHRKO), are characterized by lack of improved insulin sensitivity and severe hepatic steatosis. Tissue-specific disruption of the GHR in liver results in a mouse model with dramatically altered GH/IGF1 axis. We have previously shown increased levels of key regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis in insulin-sensitive GHRKO mice. The aim of the present study is to assess, using real-time PCR, the gene expression of key regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis (Pgc1α, Ampk, Sirt1, Nrf2 and Mfn2) and a marker of mitochondrial activity (CoxIV) in brains, kidneys and livers of male and female LiGHRKO and wild-type (WT) mice. There were significant differences between males and females. In the brain, expression of Pgc1α, Ampk, Sirt1, Nrf2 and Mfn2 was lower in pooled females compared to pooled males. In the kidneys, expression of Ampk and Sirt1 was also lower in female mice. In the liver, no differences between males and females were observed. Sexual dimorphism may play an important role in regulating the biogenesis of mitochondria. PMID:25855408

  8. Gene expression of key regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis is sex dependent in mice with growth hormone receptor deletion in liver.

    PubMed

    Zawada, Ilona; Masternak, Michal M; List, Edward O; Stout, Michael B; Berryman, Darlene E; Lewinski, Andrzej; Kopchick, John J; Bartke, Andrzej; Karbownik-Lewinska, Malgorzata; Gesing, Adam

    2015-03-01

    Mitochondrial biogenesis is an essential process for cell viability. Mice with disruption of the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene (Ghr gene) in the liver (LiGHRKO), in contrast to long-lived mice with global deletion of the Ghr gene (GHRKO), are characterized by lack of improved insulin sensitivity and severe hepatic steatosis. Tissue-specific disruption of the GHR in liver results in a mouse model with dramatically altered GH/IGF1 axis. We have previously shown increased levels of key regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis in insulin-sensitive GHRKO mice. The aim of the present study is to assess, using real-time PCR, the gene expression of key regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis (Pgc1α, Ampk, Sirt1, Nrf2 and Mfn2) and a marker of mitochondrial activity (CoxIV) in brains, kidneys and livers of male and female LiGHRKO and wild-type (WT) mice. There were significant differences between males and females. In the brain, expression of Pgc1α, Ampk, Sirt1, Nrf2 and Mfn2 was lower in pooled females compared to pooled males. In the kidneys, expression of Ampk and Sirt1 was also lower in female mice. In the liver, no differences between males and females were observed. Sexual dimorphism may play an important role in regulating the biogenesis of mitochondria.

  9. Revisiting Human Cholesterol Synthesis and Absorption: The Reciprocity Paradigm and its Key Regulators.

    PubMed

    Alphonse, Peter A S; Jones, Peter J H

    2016-05-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Cholesterol homeostasis in the body is governed by the interplay between absorption, synthesis, and excretion or conversion of cholesterol into bile acids. A reciprocal relationship between cholesterol synthesis and absorption is known to regulate circulating cholesterol in response to dietary or therapeutic interventions. However, the degree to which these factors affect synthesis and absorption and the extent to which one vector shifts in response to the other are not thoroughly understood. Also, huge inter-individual variability exists in the manner in which the two systems act in response to any cholesterol-lowering treatment. Various factors are known to account for this variability and in light of recent experimental advances new players such as gene-gene interactions, gene-environmental effects, and gut microbiome hold immense potential in offering an explanation to the complex traits of inter-individual variability in human cholesterol metabolism. In this context, the objective of the present review is to provide an overview on cholesterol metabolism and discuss the role of potential factors such as genetics, epigenetics, epistasis, and gut microbiome, as well as other regulators in modulating cholesterol metabolism, especially emphasizing the reciprocal relationship between cholesterol synthesis and absorption. Furthermore, an evaluation of the implications of this push-pull mechanism on cholesterol-lowering strategies is presented.

  10. 14-3-3 proteins: key regulators of cell division, signalling and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    van Hemert, M J; Steensma, H Y; van Heusden, G P

    2001-10-01

    The 14-3-3 proteins constitute a family of conserved proteins present in all eukaryotic organisms so far investigated. These proteins have attracted interest because they are involved in important cellular processes such as signal transduction, cell-cycle control, apoptosis, stress response and malignant transformation and because at least 100 different binding partners for the 14-3-3 proteins have been reported. Although the exact function of 14-3-3 proteins is still unknown, they are known to (1) act as adaptor molecules stimulating protein-protein interactions, (2) regulate the subcellular localisation of proteins and (3) activate or inhibit enzymes. In this review, we discuss the role of the 14-3-3 proteins in three cellular processes: cell cycle control, signal transduction and apoptosis. These processes are regulated by the 14-3-3 proteins at multiple steps. The 14-3-3 proteins have an overall inhibitory effect on cell cycle progression and apoptosis, whereas in signal transduction they may act as stimulatory or inhibitory factors. This article contains supplementary material which may be viewed at the BioEssays website at http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0265-9247/Suppmat/23/v23_10.936.

  11. NO homeostasis is a key regulator of early nitrate perception and root elongation in maize*

    PubMed Central

    Quaggiotti, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Crop plant development is strongly dependent on nitrogen availability in the soil and on the efficiency of its recruitment by roots. For this reason, the understanding of the molecular events underlying root adaptation to nitrogen fluctuations is a primary goal to develop biotechnological tools for sustainable agriculture. However, knowledge about molecular responses to nitrogen availability is derived mainly from the study of model species. Nitric oxide (NO) has been recently proposed to be implicated in plant responses to environmental stresses, but its exact role in the response of plants to nutritional stress is still under evaluation. In this work, the role of NO production by maize roots after nitrate perception was investigated by focusing on the regulation of transcription of genes involved in NO homeostasis and by measuring NO production in roots. Moreover, its involvement in the root growth response to nitrate was also investigated. The results provide evidence that NO is produced by nitrate reductase as an early response to nitrate supply and that the coordinated induction of non-symbiotic haemoglobins (nsHbs) could finely regulate the NO steady state. This mechanism seems to be implicated on the modulation of the root elongation in response to nitrate perception. Moreover, an improved agar-plate system for growing maize seedlings was developed. This system, which allows localized treatments to be performed on specific root portions, gave the opportunity to discern between localized and systemic effects of nitrate supply to roots. PMID:24220653

  12. Ln is a key regulator of leaflet shape and number of seeds per pod in soybean.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Namhee; Suh, Su Jeoung; Kim, Min-Hee; Lee, Seukki; Moon, Jung-Kyung; Kim, Hong Sig; Jeong, Soon-Chun

    2012-12-01

    Narrow leaflet soybean (Glycine max) varieties tend to have more seeds per pod than broad leaflet varieties. Narrow leaflet in soybean is conferred by a single recessive gene, ln. Here, we show that the transition from broad (Ln) to narrow leaflet (ln) is associated with an amino acid substitution in the EAR motif encoded by a gene (designated Gm-JAGGED1) homologous to Arabidopsis JAGGED (JAG) that regulates lateral organ development and the variant exerts a pleiotropic effect on fruit patterning. The genomic region that regulates both the traits was mapped to a 12.6-kb region containing only one gene, Gm-JAG1. Introducing the Gm-JAG1 allele into a loss-of-function Arabidopsis jagged mutant partially restored the wild-type JAG phenotypes, including leaf shape, flower opening, and fruit shape, but the Gm-jag1 (ln) and EAR-deleted Gm-JAG1 alleles in the jagged mutant did not result in an apparent phenotypic change. These observations indicate that despite some degree of functional change of Gm-JAG1 due to the divergence from Arabidopsis JAG, Gm-JAG1 complemented the functions of JAG in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the Gm-JAG1 homoeolog, Gm-JAG2, appears to be sub- or neofunctionalized, as revealed by the differential expression of the two genes in multiple plant tissues, a complementation test, and an allelic analysis at both loci.

  13. Delineation of the Key Aspects in the Regulation of Epithelial Monolayer Formation

    PubMed Central

    Aschauer, Lydia; Gruber, Leonhard N.; Pfaller, Walter; Limonciel, Alice; Athersuch, Toby J.; Cavill, Rachel; Khan, Abdulhameed; Gstraunthaler, Gerhard; Grillari, Johannes; Grillari, Regina; Hewitt, Philip; Leonard, Martin O.; Wilmes, Anja

    2013-01-01

    The formation, maintenance, and repair of epithelial barriers are of critical importance for whole-body homeostasis. However, the molecular events involved in epithelial tissue maturation are not fully established. To this end, we investigated the molecular processes involved in renal epithelial proximal-tubule monolayer maturation utilizing transcriptomic, metabolomic, and functional parameters. We uncovered profound dynamic alterations in transcriptional regulation, energy metabolism, and nutrient utilization over the maturation process. Proliferating cells exhibited high glycolytic rates and high transcript levels for fatty acid synthesis genes (FASN), whereas matured cells had low glycolytic rates, increased oxidative capacity, and preferentially expressed genes for beta oxidation. There were dynamic alterations in the expression and localization of several adherens (CDH1, -4, and -16) and tight junction (TJP3 and CLDN2 and -10) proteins. Genes involved in differentiated proximal-tubule function, cilium biogenesis (BBS1), and transport (ATP1A1 and ATP1B1) exhibited increased expression during epithelial maturation. Using TransAM transcription factor activity assays, we could demonstrate that p53 and FOXO1 were highly active in matured cells, whereas HIF1A and c-MYC were highly active in proliferating cells. The data presented here will be invaluable in the further delineation of the complex dynamic cellular processes involved in epithelial cell regulation. PMID:23608536

  14. Ppd-1 is a key regulator of inflorescence architecture and paired spikelet development in wheat.

    PubMed

    Boden, Scott A; Cavanagh, Colin; Cullis, Brian R; Ramm, Kerrie; Greenwood, Julian; Jean Finnegan, E; Trevaskis, Ben; Swain, Steve M

    2015-01-26

    The domestication of cereal crops such as wheat, maize, rice and barley has included the modification of inflorescence architecture to improve grain yield and ease harvesting(1). Yield increases have often been achieved through modifying the number and arrangement of spikelets, which are specialized reproductive branches that form part of the inflorescence. Multiple genes that control spikelet development have been identified in maize, rice and barley(2-5). However, little is known about the genetic underpinnings of this process in wheat. Here, we describe a modified spikelet arrangement in wheat, termed paired spikelets. Combining comprehensive QTL and mutant analyses, we show that Photoperiod-1 (Ppd-1), a pseudo-response regulator gene that controls photoperiod-dependent floral induction, has a major inhibitory effect on paired spikelet formation by regulating the expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)(6,7). These findings show that modulated expression of the two important flowering genes, Ppd-1 and FT, can be used to form a wheat inflorescence with a more elaborate arrangement and increased number of grain producing spikelets.

  15. The histone demethylase enzyme KDM3A is a key estrogen receptor regulator in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Mark A.; Jones, Dominic; Wilson, Laura; Stockley, Jacqueline; Coffey, Kelly; Robson, Craig N.; Gaughan, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine therapy has successfully been used to treat estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer, but this invariably fails with cancers becoming refractory to treatment. Emerging evidence has suggested that fluctuations in ER co-regulatory protein expression may facilitate resistance to therapy and be involved in breast cancer progression. To date, a small number of enzymes that control methylation status of histones have been identified as co-regulators of ER signalling. We have identified the histone H3 lysine 9 mono- and di-methyl demethylase enzyme KDM3A as a positive regulator of ER activity. Here, we demonstrate that depletion of KDM3A by RNAi abrogates the recruitment of the ER to cis-regulatory elements within target gene promoters, thereby inhibiting estrogen-induced gene expression changes. Global gene expression analysis of KDM3A-depleted cells identified gene clusters associated with cell growth. Consistent with this, we show that knockdown of KDM3A reduces ER-positive cell proliferation and demonstrate that KDM3A is required for growth in a model of endocrine therapy-resistant disease. Crucially, we show that KDM3A catalytic activity is required for both ER-target gene expression and cell growth, demonstrating that developing compounds which target demethylase enzymatic activity may be efficacious in treating both ER-positive and endocrine therapy-resistant disease. PMID:25488809

  16. The histone demethylase enzyme KDM3A is a key estrogen receptor regulator in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wade, Mark A; Jones, Dominic; Wilson, Laura; Stockley, Jacqueline; Coffey, Kelly; Robson, Craig N; Gaughan, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine therapy has successfully been used to treat estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer, but this invariably fails with cancers becoming refractory to treatment. Emerging evidence has suggested that fluctuations in ER co-regulatory protein expression may facilitate resistance to therapy and be involved in breast cancer progression. To date, a small number of enzymes that control methylation status of histones have been identified as co-regulators of ER signalling. We have identified the histone H3 lysine 9 mono- and di-methyl demethylase enzyme KDM3A as a positive regulator of ER activity. Here, we demonstrate that depletion of KDM3A by RNAi abrogates the recruitment of the ER to cis-regulatory elements within target gene promoters, thereby inhibiting estrogen-induced gene expression changes. Global gene expression analysis of KDM3A-depleted cells identified gene clusters associated with cell growth. Consistent with this, we show that knockdown of KDM3A reduces ER-positive cell proliferation and demonstrate that KDM3A is required for growth in a model of endocrine therapy-resistant disease. Crucially, we show that KDM3A catalytic activity is required for both ER-target gene expression and cell growth, demonstrating that developing compounds which target demethylase enzymatic activity may be efficacious in treating both ER-positive and endocrine therapy-resistant disease.

  17. Orphan Nuclear Receptor Estrogen-Related Receptor γ (ERRγ) Is Key Regulator of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Don-Kyu; Ryu, Dongryeol; Koh, Minseob; Lee, Min-Woo; Lim, Donghyun; Kim, Min-Jung; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Cho, Won-Jea; Lee, Chul-Ho; Park, Seung Bum; Koo, Seung-Hoi; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2012-01-01

    Glucose homeostasis is tightly controlled by hormonal regulation of hepatic glucose production. Dysregulation of this system is often associated with insulin resistance and diabetes, resulting in hyperglycemia in mammals. Here, we show that the orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) is a novel downstream mediator of glucagon action in hepatic gluconeogenesis and demonstrate a beneficial impact of the inverse agonist GSK5182. Hepatic ERRγ expression was increased by fasting-dependent activation of the cAMP-response element-binding protein-CRTC2 pathway. Overexpression of ERRγ induced Pck1 and G6PC gene expression and glucose production in primary hepatocytes, whereas abolition of ERRγ gene expression attenuated forskolin-mediated induction of gluconeogenic gene expression. Deletion and mutation analyses of the Pck1 promoter showed that ERRγ directly regulates the Pck1 gene transcription via ERR response elements of the Pck1 promoter as confirmed by ChIP assay and in vivo imaging analysis. We also demonstrate that GSK5182, an inverse agonist of ERRγ, specifically inhibits the transcriptional activity of ERRγ in a PGC-1α dependent manner. Finally, the ERRγ inverse agonist ameliorated hyperglycemia through inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis in db/db mice. Control of hepatic glucose production by an ERRγ-specific inverse agonist is a new potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:22549789

  18. [Regulation of key enzymes of L-alanine biosynthesis by Brevibacterium flavum producer strains].

    PubMed

    Melkonian, L O; Avetisova, G E; Ambartsumian, A A; Chakhalian, A Kh; Sagian, A S

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms of L-alanine overproduction by Brevibacterium flavum producer strains were studied. It was shown that beta-CI-L-alanine is an inhibitor of some key enzymes involved in the synthesis of L-alanine, including alanine transaminase and valine-pyruvate transaminase. Two highly active B. flavum GL1 and GL1 8 producer strains, which are resistant to the inhibitory effect of beta-Cl-L-alanine, were obtained using a parental B. flavum AA5 producer strain, characterized by a reduced activity of alanine racemase (>or=98%). It was demonstrated that the increased L-alanine synthesis efficiency observed in the producer strains developed in this work is associated with the absence of inhibition of alanine transaminase by the end product of the biosynthesis reaction, as well as with the effect of derepression of both alanine transaminase and valine-pyruvate transaminase synthesis by the studied compound.

  19. Epigenetic regulation in pluripotent stem cells: a key to breaking the epigenetic barrier.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Akira; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Yamanaka, Shinya

    2013-01-05

    The differentiation and reprogramming of cells are accompanied by drastic changes in the epigenetic profiles of cells. Waddington's classical model clearly describes how differentiating cells acquire their cell identity as the developmental potential of an individual cell population declines towards the terminally differentiated state. The recent discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells as well as of somatic cell nuclear transfer provided evidence that the process of differentiation can be reversed. The identity of somatic cells is strictly protected by an epigenetic barrier, and these cells acquire pluripotency by breaking the epigenetic barrier by reprogramming factors such as Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, Myc and LIN28. This review covers the current understanding of the spatio-temporal regulation of epigenetics in pluripotent and differentiated cells, and discusses how cells determine their identity and overcome the epigenetic barrier during the reprogramming process.

  20. MicroRNAs: Not “Fine-Tuners” but Key Regulators of Neuronal Development and Function

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Gregory M.; Haas, Matilda A.; Pocock, Roger

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short non-coding RNAs that operate as prominent post-transcriptional regulators of eukaryotic gene expression. miRNAs are abundantly expressed in the brain of most animals and exert diverse roles. The anatomical and functional complexity of the brain requires the precise coordination of multilayered gene regulatory networks. The flexibility, speed, and reversibility of miRNA function provide precise temporal and spatial gene regulatory capabilities that are crucial for the correct functioning of the brain. Studies have shown that the underlying molecular mechanisms controlled by miRNAs in the nervous systems of invertebrate and vertebrate models are remarkably conserved in humans. We endeavor to provide insight into the roles of miRNAs in the nervous systems of these model organisms and discuss how such information may be used to inform regarding diseases of the human brain. PMID:26635721

  1. The Key to Mn Homeostasis in Plants: Regulation of Mn Transporters.

    PubMed

    Shao, Ji Feng; Yamaji, Naoki; Shen, Ren Fang; Ma, Jian Feng

    2017-03-01

    Plants only require small amounts of manganese (Mn) for healthy growth, but Mn concentrations in soil solution vary from sub-micromolar to hundreds of micromolar across the growth period. Therefore, plants must deal with large Mn concentration fluctuations, but the molecular mechanisms underlying how plants cope with low and high Mn concentrations are poorly understood. In this Opinion we discuss the role of Mn transporters in the uptake, distribution, and detoxification of Mn in response to changes in Mn concentrations through their regulation at the transcriptional and protein levels, mainly focusing on rice, an Mn-tolerant and -accumulating species. We also propose mechanisms involved in the hyperaccumulation of Mn and future prospects for studying this specific trait. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The anaphase-promoting complex: a key factor in the regulation of cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Castro, Anna; Bernis, Cyril; Vigneron, Suzanne; Labbé, Jean-Claude; Lorca, Thierry

    2005-01-13

    Events controlling cell division are governed by the degradation of different regulatory proteins by the ubiquitin-dependent pathway. In this pathway, the attachment of a polyubiquitin chain to a substrate by an ubiquitin-ligase targets this substrate for degradation by the 26S proteasome. Two different ubiquitin ligases play an important role in the cell cycle: the SCF (Skp1/Cullin/F-box) and the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). In this review, we describe the present knowledge about the APC. We pay particular attention to the latest results concerning APC structure, APC regulation and substrate recognition, and we discuss the implication of these findings in the understanding the APC function.

  3. The schistosome excretory system: a key to regulation of metabolism, drug excretion and host interaction.

    PubMed

    Kusel, John R; McVeigh, Paul; Thornhill, Joyce A

    2009-08-01

    There is a gulf between the enormous information content of the various genome projects and the understanding of the life of the parasite in the host. In vitro studies with adult Schistosoma mansoni using several substrates suggest that the excretory system contains both P-glycoproteins and multiresistance proteins. If both these families of protein were active in vivo, they could regulate parasite metabolism and be responsible for the excretion of drugs. During skin penetration, membrane-impermeant molecules of a wide range of molecular weights can be taken into the cercaria and schistosomulum through the nephridiopore, through the surface membrane or through both. We speculate that this uptake process might stimulate novel signalling pathways involved in growth and development.

  4. Transcriptional profiling of the human fibrillin/LTBP gene family, key regulators of mesenchymal cell functions

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Margaret R.; Andersson, Robin; Severin, Jessica; de Hoon, Michiel; Bertin, Nicolas; Baillie, J. Kenneth; Kawaji, Hideya; Sandelin, Albin; Forrest, Alistair R.R.; Summers, Kim M.

    2014-01-01

    The fibrillins and latent transforming growth factor binding proteins (LTBPs) form a superfamily of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins characterized by the presence of a unique domain, the 8-cysteine transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) binding domain. These proteins are involved in the structure of the extracellular matrix and controlling the bioavailability of TGFβ family members. Genes encoding these proteins show differential expression in mesenchymal cell types which synthesize the extracellular matrix. We have investigated the promoter regions of the seven gene family members using the FANTOM5 CAGE database for human. While the protein and nucleotide sequences show considerable sequence similarity, the promoter regions were quite diverse. Most genes had a single predominant transcription start site region but LTBP1 and LTBP4 had two regions initiating different transcripts. Most of the family members were expressed in a range of mesenchymal and other cell types, often associated with use of alternative promoters or transcription start sites within a promoter in different cell types. FBN3 was the lowest expressed gene, and was found only in embryonic and fetal tissues. The different promoters for one gene were more similar to each other in expression than to promoters of the other family members. Notably expression of all 22 LTBP2 promoters was tightly correlated and quite distinct from all other family members. We located candidate enhancer regions likely to be involved in expression of the genes. Each gene was associated with a unique subset of transcription factors across multiple promoters although several motifs including MAZ, SP1, GTF2I and KLF4 showed overrepresentation across the gene family. FBN1 and FBN2, which had similar expression patterns, were regulated by different transcription factors. This study highlights the role of alternative transcription start sites in regulating the tissue specificity of closely related genes and suggests that

  5. Disrupting the key circadian regulator CLOCK leads to age-dependent cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Alibhai, Faisal J; LaMarre, Jonathan; Reitz, Cristine J; Tsimakouridze, Elena V; Kroetsch, Jeffrey T; Bolz, Steffen-Sebastian; Shulman, Alex; Steinberg, Samantha; Burris, Thomas P; Oudit, Gavin Y; Martino, Tami A

    2017-04-01

    The circadian mechanism underlies daily rhythms in cardiovascular physiology and rhythm disruption is a major risk factor for heart disease and worse outcomes. However, the role of circadian rhythms is generally clinically unappreciated. Clock is a core component of the circadian mechanism and here we examine the role of Clock as a vital determinant of cardiac physiology and pathophysiology in aging. Clock(Δ19/Δ19) mice develop age-dependent increases in heart weight, hypertrophy, dilation, impaired contractility, and reduced myogenic responsiveness. Young Clock(Δ19/Δ19) hearts express dysregulated mRNAs and miRNAs in the PTEN-AKT signal pathways important for cardiac hypertrophy. We found a rhythm in the Pten gene and PTEN protein in WT hearts; rhythmic oscillations are lost in Clock(Δ19/Δ19) hearts. Changes in PTEN are associated with reduced AKT activation and changes in downstream mediators GSK-3β, PRAS40, and S6K1. Cardiomyocyte cultures confirm that Clock regulates the AKT signalling pathways crucial for cardiac hypertrophy. In old Clock(Δ19/Δ19) mice cardiac AKT, GSK3β, S6K1 phosphorylation are increased, consistent with the development of age-dependent cardiac hypertrophy. Lastly, we show that pharmacological modulation of the circadian mechanism with the REV-ERB agonist SR9009 reduces AKT activation and heart weight in old WT mice. Furthermore, SR9009 attenuates cardiac hypertrophy in mice subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC), supporting that the circadian mechanism plays an important role in regulating cardiac growth. These findings demonstrate a crucial role for Clock in growth and renewal; disrupting Clock leads to age-dependent cardiomyopathy. Pharmacological targeting of the circadian mechanism provides a new opportunity for treating heart disease.

  6. Response Regulator Heterodimer Formation Controls a Key Stage in Streptomyces Development

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bassam, Mahmoud M.; Bibb, Maureen J.; Bush, Matthew J.; Chandra, Govind; Buttner, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    The orphan, atypical response regulators BldM and WhiI each play critical roles in Streptomyces differentiation. BldM is required for the formation of aerial hyphae, and WhiI is required for the differentiation of these reproductive structures into mature spores. To gain insight into BldM function, we defined the genome-wide BldM regulon using ChIP-Seq and transcriptional profiling. BldM target genes clustered into two groups based on their whi gene dependency. Expression of Group I genes depended on bldM but was independent of all the whi genes, and biochemical experiments showed that Group I promoters were controlled by a BldM homodimer. In contrast, Group II genes were expressed later than Group I genes and their expression depended not only on bldM but also on whiI and whiG (encoding the sigma factor that activates whiI). Additional ChIP-Seq analysis showed that BldM Group II genes were also direct targets of WhiI and that in vivo binding of WhiI to these promoters depended on BldM and vice versa. We go on to demonstrate that BldM and WhiI form a functional heterodimer that controls Group II promoters, serving to integrate signals from two distinct developmental pathways. The BldM-WhiI system thus exemplifies the potential of response regulator heterodimer formation as a mechanism to expand the signaling capabilities of bacterial cells. PMID:25101778

  7. Matrix Metalloproteinase-19 Is a Key Regulator of Lung Fibrosis in Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Guoying; Kovkarova-Naumovski, Elisabetha; Jara, Paul; Parwani, Anil; Kass, Daniel; Ruiz, Victor; Lopez-Otín, Carlos; Rosas, Ivan O.; Gibson, Kevin F.; Cabrera, Sandra; Ramírez, Remedios; Yousem, Samuel A.; Richards, Thomas J.; Chensny, Lara J.; Selman, Moisés; Kaminski, Naftali

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating disease characterized by epithelial phenotypic changes and fibroblast activation. Based on the temporal heterogeneity of IPF, we hypothesized that hyperplastic alveolar epithelial cells regulate the fibrotic response. Objectives: To identify novel mediators of fibrosis comparing the transcriptional signature of hyperplastic epithelial cells and conserved epithelial cells in the same lung. Methods: Laser capture microscope and microarrays analysis were used to identify differentially expressed genes in IPF lungs. Bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis was evaluated in Mmp19-deficient and wild-type (WT) mice. The role of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-19 was additionally studied by transfecting the human MMP19 in alveolar epithelial cells. Measurements and Main Results: Laser capture microscope followed by microarray analysis revealed a novel mediator, MMP-19, in hyperplastic epithelial cells adjacent to fibrotic regions. Mmp19−/− mice showed a significantly increased lung fibrotic response to bleomycin compared with WT mice. A549 epithelial cells transfected with human MMP19 stimulated wound healing and cell migration, whereas silencing MMP19 had the opposite effect. Gene expression microarray of transfected A549 cells showed that PTGS2 (prostaglandin–endoperoxide synthase 2) was one of the highly induced genes. PTGS2 was overexpressed in IPF lungs and colocalized with MMP-19 in hyperplastic epithelial cells. In WT mice, PTGS2 was significantly increased in bronchoalveolar lavage and lung tissues after bleomycin-induced fibrosis, but not in Mmp19−/− mice. Inhibition of Mmp-19 by siRNA resulted in inhibition of Ptgs2 at mRNA and protein levels. Conclusions: Up-regulation of MMP19 induced by lung injury may play a protective role in the development of fibrosis through the induction of PTGS2. PMID:22859522

  8. Steroid Hormones Are Key Modulators of Tissue Mechanical Function via Regulation of Collagen and Elastic Fibers.

    PubMed

    Nallasamy, Shanmugasundaram; Yoshida, Kyoko; Akins, Meredith; Myers, Kristin; Iozzo, Renato; Mahendroo, Mala

    2017-04-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an active and dynamic role that both reflects and facilitates the functional requirements of a tissue. The mature ECM of the nonpregnant cervix is drastically reorganized during pregnancy to drive changes in tissue mechanics that ensure safe birth. In this study, our research on mice deficient in the proteoglycan decorin have led to the finding that progesterone and estrogen play distinct and complementary roles to orchestrate structural reorganization of both collagen and elastic fibers in the cervix during pregnancy. Abnormalities in collagen and elastic fiber structure and tissue mechanical function evident in the cervix of nonpregnant and early pregnant decorin-null mice transiently recover for the remainder of pregnancy only to return 1 month postpartum. Consistent with the hypothesis that pregnancy levels of progesterone and estrogen may regulate ECM organization and turnover, expressions of factors required for assembly and synthesis of collagen and elastic fibers are temporally regulated, and the ultrastructure of collagen fibrils and elastic fibers is markedly altered during pregnancy in wild-type mice. Finally, utilizing ovariectomized nonpregnant decorin-null mice, we demonstrate structural resolution of collagen and elastic fibers by progesterone or estrogen, respectively, and the potential for both ECM proteins to contribute to mechanical function. These investigations advance understanding of regulatory factors that drive specialized ECM organization and contribute to an understanding of the cervical remodeling process, which may provide insight into potential complications associated with preterm birth that impact 9.6% of live births in the United States. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  9. The growth factor myostatin, a key regulator in skeletal muscle growth and homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Matsakas, A; Diel, P

    2005-03-01

    Skeletal muscle possesses the ability to both respond and adapt to changing environmental stimuli, leading to a set of metabolic and morphological adaptations, which allow it to better meet the energy demands of sustained physical activity. Great progress has been achieved over the past years by means of innovative molecular techniques, which has led to the discovery of new growth factors and the identification of molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of muscle development. These findings provide new starting points to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the adaptation of skeletal muscle to exercise training. One of these new identified growth factors is myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-beta family of proteins that has been demonstrated to play a fundamental role in the regulation of skeletal muscle growth during embryogenesis. Blocking of the myostatin signalling transduction pathway by specific inhibitors and genetic manipulations has been shown to result in a dramatic increase of skeletal muscle mass. This review focuses on the importance of myostatin in mediating skeletal muscle homeostasis in response to training as well as during the progress of myogenic disease, like atrophy or dystrophy. Manipulations of myostatin signalling may be useful for agriculture applications, treatment of muscle diseases, inhibition of muscle atrophy and last but not least as life style drugs in antiaging therapies or manipulations of the muscle to fat ratio. Drugs with the ability to modulate myostatin signalling may have the potential to enhance physical performance in athletes and therefore they probably represent a new class of doping substances.

  10. The genome-wide transcriptional response to neonatal hyperoxia identifies Ahr as a key regulator

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Soumyaroop; Zhou, Zhongyang; Yee, Min; Chu, Chin-Yi; Lopez, Ashley M.; Lunger, Valerie A.; Solleti, Siva Kumar; Resseguie, Emily; Buczynski, Bradley; O'Reilly, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Premature infants requiring supplemental oxygen are at increased risk for developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Rodent models involving neonatal exposure to excessive oxygen concentrations (hyperoxia) have helped to identify mechanisms of BPD-associated pathology. Genome-wide assessments of the effects of hyperoxia in neonatal mouse lungs could identify novel BPD-related genes and pathways. Newborn C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 100% oxygen for 10 days, and whole lung tissue RNA was used for high-throughput, sequencing-based transcriptomic analysis (RNA-Seq). Significance Analysis of Microarrays and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis were used to identify genes and pathways affected. Expression patterns for selected genes were validated by qPCR. Mechanistic relationships between genes were further tested in cultured mouse lung epithelial cells. We identified 300 genes significantly and substantially affected following acute neonatal hyperoxia. Canonical pathways dysregulated in hyperoxia lungs included nuclear fctor (erythryoid-derived-2)-like 2-mediated oxidative stress signaling, p53 signaling, eNOS signaling, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) pathways. Cluster analysis identified Ccnd1, Cdkn1a, and Ahr as critical regulatory nodes in the response to hyperoxia, with Ahr serving as the major effector node. A mechanistic role for Ahr was assessed in lung epithelial cells, and we confirmed its ability to regulate the expression of multiple hyperoxia markers, including Cdkn1a, Pdgfrb, and A2m. We conclude that a global assessment of gene regulation in the acute neonatal hyperoxia model of BPD-like pathology has identified Ahr as one driver of gene dysregulation. PMID:25150061

  11. A novel “complement–metabolism–inflammasome axis” as a key regulator of immune cell effector function

    PubMed Central

    Arbore, Giuseppina

    2016-01-01

    The inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes that induce and regulate the generation of the key pro‐inflammatory cytokines IL‐1β and IL‐18 in response to infectious microbes and cellular stress. The activation of inflammasomes involves several upstream signals including classic pattern or danger recognition systems such as the TLRs. Recently, however, the activation of complement receptors, such as the anaphylatoxin C3a and C5a receptors and the complement regulator CD46, in conjunction with the sensing of cell metabolic changes, for instance increased amino acid influx and glycolysis (via mTORC1), have emerged as additional critical activators of the inflammasome. This review summarizes recent advances in our knowledge about complement‐mediated inflammasome activation, with a specific focus on a novel “complement – metabolism – NLRP3 inflammasome axis.” PMID:27184294

  12. IQGAP1 and vimentin are key regulator genes in naturally occurring hepatotumorigenesis induced by oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Tsubota, Akihito; Matsumoto, Kenji; Mogushi, Kaoru; Nariai, Koichi; Namiki, Yoshihisa; Hoshina, Sadayori; Hano, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Saito, Hirohisa; Tada, Norio

    2010-03-01

    To identify key genes involved in the complex multistep process of hepatotumorigenesis, we reduced multivariate clinicopathological variables by using the Long-Evans Cinnamon rat, a model with naturally occurring and oxidative stress-induced hepatotumorigenesis. Gene expression patterns were analyzed serially by profiling liver tissues from rats of a naive status (4 weeks old), through to those with chronic hepatitis (26 and 39 weeks old) to tumor development (67 weeks old). Of 31 099 probe sets used for microarray analysis, 87 were identified as being upregulated in a stepwise manner during disease progression and tumor development. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and statistical analyses verified that IQGAP1 and vimentin mRNA expression levels increased significantly throughout hepatotumorigenesis. A hierarchical clustering algorithm showed both genes clustered together and in the same cluster group. Immunohistochemical and western blot analyses showed similar increases in protein levels of IAGAP1 and vimentin. Finally, pathway analyses using text-mining technology with more comprehensive and recent gene-gene interaction data identified IQGAP1 and vimentin as important nodes in underlying gene regulatory networks. These findings enhance our understanding of the multistep hepatotumorigenesis and identification of target molecules for novel treatments.

  13. Substance P and Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Key Regulators of Cutaneous Microbiota Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    N’Diaye, Awa; Gannesen, Andrei; Borrel, Valérie; Maillot, Olivier; Enault, Jeremy; Racine, Pierre-Jean; Plakunov, Vladimir; Chevalier, Sylvie; Lesouhaitier, Olivier; Feuilloley, Marc G. J.

    2017-01-01

    Neurohormones diffuse in sweat and epidermis leading skin bacterial microflora to be largely exposed to these host factors. Bacteria can sense a multitude of neurohormones, but their role in skin homeostasis was only investigated recently. The first study focused on substance P (SP), a neuropeptide produced in abundance by skin nerve terminals. SP is without effect on the growth of Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas fluorescens) bacteria. However, SP is stimulating the virulence of Bacillus and Staphylococci. The action of SP is highly specific with a threshold below the nanomolar level. Mechanisms involved in the response to SP are different between bacteria although they are all leading to increased adhesion and/or virulence. The moonlighting protein EfTu was identified as the SP-binding site in B. cereus and Staphylococci. In skin nerve terminals, SP is co-secreted with the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which was shown to modulate the virulence of S. epidermidis. This effect is antagonized by SP. Identification of the CGRP sensor, DnaK, allowed understanding this phenomenon as EfTu and DnaK are apparently exported from the bacterium through a common system before acting as SP and CGRP sensors. Many other neuropeptides are expressed in skin, and their potential effects on skin bacteria remain to be investigated. Integration of these host signals by the cutaneous microbiota now appears as a key parameter in skin homeostasis. PMID:28194136

  14. Tissue Factor–Factor VII Complex As a Key Regulator of Ovarian Cancer Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Koizume, Shiro; Miyagi, Yohei

    2015-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is an integral membrane protein widely expressed in normal human cells. Blood coagulation factor VII (fVII) is a key enzyme in the extrinsic coagulation cascade that is predominantly secreted by hepatocytes and released into the bloodstream. The TF–fVII complex is aberrantly expressed on the surface of cancer cells, including ovarian cancer cells. This procoagulant complex can initiate intracellular signaling mechanisms, resulting in malignant phenotypes. Cancer tissues are chronically exposed to hypoxia. TF and fVII can be induced in response to hypoxia in ovarian cancer cells at the gene expression level, leading to the autonomous production of the TF–fVII complex. Here, we discuss the roles of the TF–fVII complex in the induction of malignant phenotypes in ovarian cancer cells. The hypoxic nature of ovarian cancer tissues and the roles of TF expression in endometriosis are discussed. Arguments will be extended to potential strategies to treat ovarian cancers based on our current knowledge of TF–fVII function. PMID:26396550

  15. An integrated analysis identifies STAT4 as a key regulator of ovarian cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, L; Ji, G; Le, X; Luo, Z; Wang, C; Feng, M; Xu, L; Zhang, Y; Lau, W B; Lau, B; Yang, Y; Lei, L; Yang, H; Xuan, Y; Chen, Y; Deng, X; Yi, T; Yao, S; Zhao, X; Wei, Y; Zhou, S

    2017-06-15

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one of the most common gynecological cancers, with diagnosis often at a late stage. Metastasis is a major cause of death in patients with EOC, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain obscure. Here, we utilized an integrated approach to find potential key transcription factors involved in ovarian cancer metastasis and identified STAT4 as a critical player in ovarian cancer metastasis. We found that activated STAT4 was overexpressed in epithelial cells of ovarian cancer and STAT4 overexpression was associated with poor outcome of ovarian cancer patients, which promoted metastasis of ovarian cancer in both in vivo and in vitro. Although STAT4 mediated EOC metastasis via inducing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of ovarian cancer cells in vivo, STAT4 failed to induce EMT directly in vitro, suggesting that STAT4 might mediate EMT process via cancer-stroma interactions. Further functional analysis revealed that STAT4 overexpression induced normal omental fibroblasts and adipose- and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to obtain cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF)-like features via induction of tumor-derived Wnt7a. Reciprocally, increased production of CAF-induced CXCL12, IL6 and VEGFA within tumor microenvironment could enable peritoneal metastasis of ovarian cancer via induction of EMT program. In summary, our study established a model that STAT4 promotes ovarian cancer metastasis via tumor-derived Wnt7a-induced activation of CAFs.

  16. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase plays a key role in regulating MAPKAPK2 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Sudo, Tatsuhiko . E-mail: sudo@riken.jp; Kawai, Kayoko; Matsuzaki, Hiroshi; Osada, Hiroyuki

    2005-11-18

    One of three major families of the mitogen-activated kinases (MAPK), p38 as well as JNK, has been shown to transduce extracellular stress stimuli into cellular responses by phospho-relay cascades. Among p38 families, p38{alpha} is a widely characterized isoform and the biological phenomena are explained by its kinase activity regulating functions of its downstream substrates. However, its specific contributions to each phenomenon are yet not fully elucidated. For better understanding of the role of MAPKs, especially p38{alpha}, we utilized newly established mouse fibroblast cell lines originated from a p38{alpha} null mouse, namely, a parental cell line without p38{alpha} gene locus, knockout of p38{alpha} (KOP), Zeosin-resistant (ZKOP), revertant of p38{alpha} (RKOP), and Exip revertant (EKOP). EKOP is smaller in size but grows faster than the others. Although comparable amounts of ERK and JNK are expressed in each cell line, ERK is highly phosphorylated in EKOP even in normal culture conditions. Serum stimulation after serum starvation led to ERK phosphorylation in RKOP and ZKOP, but not in EKOP as much. On the contrary, relative phosphorylation level of JNK to total JNK in response to UV was low in RKOP. And its phosphorylation as well as total JNK is slightly lower in EKOP. RKOP is less sensitive to UV irradiation as judged by the survival rate. Stress response upon UV or sorbitol stimuli, leading to mitogen activate protein kinase activated kinase 2 (MAPKAPK2) phosphorylation, was only observed in RKOP. Further experiments reveal that MAPKAPK2 expression is largely suppressed in ZKOP and EKOP. Its expression was recovered by re-introduction of p38{alpha}. The loss of MAPKAPK2 expression accompanied by the defect of p38{alpha} is confirmed in an embryonic extract prepared from p38{alpha} null mice. These data demonstrate that p38 signal pathway is regulated not only by phosphorylation but also by modulation of the expression of its component. Together, we have

  17. Long Non-Coding RNAs: Key Regulators of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Tumour Drug Resistance and Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Heery, Richard; Finn, Stephen P.; Cuffe, Sinead; Gray, Steven G.

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), the adoption by epithelial cells of a mesenchymal-like phenotype, is a process co-opted by carcinoma cells in order to initiate invasion and metastasis. In addition, it is becoming clear that is instrumental to both the development of drug resistance by tumour cells and in the generation and maintenance of cancer stem cells. EMT is thus a pivotal process during tumour progression and poses a major barrier to the successful treatment of cancer. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNA) often utilize epigenetic programs to regulate both gene expression and chromatin structure. One type of ncRNA, called long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), has become increasingly recognized as being both highly dysregulated in cancer and to play a variety of different roles in tumourigenesis. Indeed, over the last few years, lncRNAs have rapidly emerged as key regulators of EMT in cancer. In this review, we discuss the lncRNAs that have been associated with the EMT process in cancer and the variety of molecular mechanisms and signalling pathways through which they regulate EMT, and finally discuss how these EMT-regulating lncRNAs impact on both anti-cancer drug resistance and the cancer stem cell phenotype. PMID:28430163

  18. MCL1 is a key regulator of steroidogenesis in mouse Leydig cells.

    PubMed

    Guang-Yu, Li; Hai-Yan, Lan; Ji-Hong, Liang; Yun-Cong, Mo; Xue-Lian, Deng; Chun-Yu, Lin; Wen-Yong, Su

    2016-03-01

    Myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL1), an anti-apoptotic member of the BCL2 family, is expressed abundantly in the testis. Previous characterization revealed that MCL1 is expressed exclusively in the Leydig cells in the mouse testis, yet what it does in these cells remains unknown. We therefore analyzed testosterone biosynthesis in isolated primary Leydig cells and the MA-10 cell line, in which MCL1 was knocked down using an siRNA strategy. The mRNA abundance of the steroidogenic genes Star, Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1, Hsd3b1, Srd5a, and the luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor Lhcgr were significantly reduced following MCL1 knockdown. Of the two enzymes required for testosterone biosynthesis, STAR and P450 SCC (encoded by Cyp11a1) enzyme abundance was also reduced following Mcl1 siRNA treatment, possibly leading to the reduced production of sex steroid precursors, and testosterone in these knockdown cells. Despite its classification as an anti-apoptosis protein, Mcl1 siRNA treatment did not affect cell survival. Collectively, our findings indicate that MCL1 plays a pivotal role in Leydig-cell steroidogenesis, and might provide novel insights into metabolic regulation in this cell. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 226-235, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The Lnk adaptor protein: a key regulator of normal and pathological hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, Laura

    2012-12-01

    The development and function of blood cells are regulated by specific growth factors/cytokines and their receptors' signaling pathways. In this way, these factors influence cell survival, proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells. Central to this positive and/or negative control are the adaptor proteins. Since their identification 10 years ago, members of the Lnk adaptor protein family have proved to be important activators and/or inhibitors in the hematopoietic, immune and vascular system. In particular, the generation of animal and cellular models for the Lnk and APS proteins has helped establish the physiological role of these molecules through the identification of their specific signaling pathways and the characterization of their binding partners. Moreover, the recent identification of mutations in the LNK gene in myeloproliferative disorders, as well as the correlation of a single nucleotide polymorphism on LNK with hematological, immune and vascular diseases have suggested its involvement in the pathophysiology of these malignancies. The latter findings have thus raised the possibility of addressing Lnk signaling for the treatment of certain human diseases. This review therefore describes the pathophysiological role of this adaptor protein in hematological malignancies and the potential benefits of Lnk therapeutic targeting.

  20. CCR9 Is a Key Regulator of Early Phases of Allergic Airway Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    López-Pacheco, C.; Soldevila, G.; Du Pont, G.; Hernández-Pando, R.

    2016-01-01

    Airway inflammation is the most common hallmark of allergic asthma. Chemokine receptors involved in leukocyte recruitment are closely related to the pathology in asthma. CCR9 has been described as a homeostatic and inflammatory chemokine receptor, but its role and that of its ligand CCL25 during lung inflammation remain unknown. To investigate the role of CCR9 as a modulator of airway inflammation, we established an OVA-induced allergic inflammation model in CCR9-deficient mice. Here, we report the expression of CCR9 and CCL25 as early as 6 hours post-OVA challenge in eosinophils and T-lymphocytes. Moreover, in challenged CCR9-deficient mice, cell recruitment was impaired at peribronchial and perivenular levels. OVA-administration in CCR9-deficient mice leads to a less inflammatory cell recruitment, which modifies the expression of IL-10, CCL11, and CCL25 at 24 hours after OVA challenge. In contrast, the secretion of IL-4 and IL-5 was not affected in CCR9-deficient mice compared to WT mice. These results demonstrate for the first time that CCR9 and CCL25 expressions are induced in the early stages of airway inflammation and they have an important role modulating eosinophils and lymphocytes recruitment at the first stages of inflammatory process, suggesting that they might be a potential target to regulate inflammation in asthma. PMID:27795621

  1. Key diffusion mechanisms involved in regulating bidirectional water permeation across E. coli outer membrane lectin

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Shivangi; Kolimi, Narendar; Nair, Sanjana Anilkumar; Rathinavelan, Thenmalarchelvi

    2016-01-01

    Capsular polysaccharides (CPSs) are major bacterial virulent determinants that facilitate host immune evasion. E. coli group1 K30CPS is noncovalently attached to bacterial surface by Wzi, a lectin. Intriguingly, structure based phylogenetic analysis indicates that Wzi falls into porin superfamily. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations further shed light on dual role of Wzi as it also functions as a bidirectional passive water specific porin. Such a functional role of Wzi was not realized earlier, due to the occluded pore. While five water specific entry points distributed across extracellular & periplasmic faces regulate the water diffusion involving different mechanisms, a luminal hydrophobic plug governs water permeation across the channel. Coincidently, MD observed open state structure of “YQF” triad is seen in sugar-binding site of sodium-galactose cotransporters, implicating its involvement in K30CPS surface anchorage. Importance of Loop 5 (L5) in membrane insertion is yet another highlight. Change in water diffusion pattern of periplasmic substitution mutants suggests Wzi’s role in osmoregulation by aiding in K30CPS hydration, corroborating earlier functional studies. Water molecules located inside β-barrel of Wzi crystal structure further strengthens the role of Wzi in osmoregulation. Thus, interrupting water diffusion or L5 insertion may reduce bacterial virulence. PMID:27320406

  2. Mevalonate Biosynthesis Intermediates Are Key Regulators of Innate Immunity in Bovine Endometritis.

    PubMed

    Healey, Gareth D; Collier, Christine; Griffin, Sholeem; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim; Sandra, Olivier; Smith, David G; Mahan, Suman; Dieuzy-Labaye, Isabelle; Sheldon, I Martin

    2016-01-15

    Metabolic changes can influence inflammatory responses to bacteria. To examine whether localized manipulation of the mevalonate pathway impacts innate immunity, we exploited a unique mucosal disease model, endometritis, where inflammation is a consequence of innate immunity. IL responses to pathogenic bacteria and LPS were modulated in bovine endometrial cell and organ cultures by small molecules that target the mevalonate pathway. Treatment with multiple statins, bisphosphonates, squalene synthase inhibitors, and small interfering RNA showed that inhibition of farnesyl-diphosphate farnesyl transferase (squalene synthase), but not 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase or farnesyl diphosphate synthase, reduced endometrial organ and cellular inflammatory responses to pathogenic bacteria and LPS. Although manipulation of the mevalonate pathway reduced cellular cholesterol, impacts on inflammation were independent of cholesterol concentration as cholesterol depletion using cyclodextrins did not alter inflammatory responses. Treatment with the isoprenoid mevalonate pathway-intermediates, farnesyl diphosphate and geranylgeranyl diphosphate, also reduced endometrial cellular inflammatory responses to LPS. These data imply that manipulating the mevalonate pathway regulates innate immunity within the endometrium, and that isoprenoids are regulatory molecules in this process, knowledge that could be exploited for novel therapeutic strategies.

  3. Mevalonate Biosynthesis Intermediates Are Key Regulators of Innate Immunity in Bovine Endometritis

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Christine; Griffin, Sholeem; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim; Sandra, Olivier; Smith, David G.; Mahan, Suman; Dieuzy-Labaye, Isabelle; Sheldon, I. Martin

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic changes can influence inflammatory responses to bacteria. To examine whether localized manipulation of the mevalonate pathway impacts innate immunity, we exploited a unique mucosal disease model, endometritis, where inflammation is a consequence of innate immunity. IL responses to pathogenic bacteria and LPS were modulated in bovine endometrial cell and organ cultures by small molecules that target the mevalonate pathway. Treatment with multiple statins, bisphosphonates, squalene synthase inhibitors, and small interfering RNA showed that inhibition of farnesyl-diphosphate farnesyl transferase (squalene synthase), but not 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase or farnesyl diphosphate synthase, reduced endometrial organ and cellular inflammatory responses to pathogenic bacteria and LPS. Although manipulation of the mevalonate pathway reduced cellular cholesterol, impacts on inflammation were independent of cholesterol concentration as cholesterol depletion using cyclodextrins did not alter inflammatory responses. Treatment with the isoprenoid mevalonate pathway-intermediates, farnesyl diphosphate and geranylgeranyl diphosphate, also reduced endometrial cellular inflammatory responses to LPS. These data imply that manipulating the mevalonate pathway regulates innate immunity within the endometrium, and that isoprenoids are regulatory molecules in this process, knowledge that could be exploited for novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:26673142

  4. Key events during the transition from rapid growth to quiescence in budding yeast require posttranscriptional regulators

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lihong; Miles, Shawna; Melville, Zephan; Prasad, Amalthiya; Bradley, Graham; Breeden, Linda L.

    2013-01-01

    Yeast that naturally exhaust the glucose from their environment differentiate into three distinct cell types distinguishable by flow cytometry. Among these is a quiescent (Q) population, which is so named because of its uniform but readily reversed G1 arrest, its fortified cell walls, heat tolerance, and longevity. Daughter cells predominate in Q-cell populations and are the longest lived. The events that differentiate Q cells from nonquiescent (nonQ) cells are initiated within hours of the diauxic shift, when cells have scavenged all the glucose from the media. These include highly asymmetric cell divisions, which give rise to very small daughter cells. These daughters modify their cell walls by Sed1- and Ecm33-dependent and dithiothreitol-sensitive mechanisms that enhance Q-cell thermotolerance. Ssd1 speeds Q-cell wall assembly and enables mother cells to enter this state. Ssd1 and the related mRNA-binding protein Mpt5 play critical overlapping roles in Q-cell formation and longevity. These proteins deliver mRNAs to P-bodies, and at least one P-body component, Lsm1, also plays a unique role in Q-cell longevity. Cells lacking Lsm1 and Ssd1 or Mpt5 lose viability under these conditions and fail to enter the quiescent state. We conclude that posttranscriptional regulation of mRNAs plays a crucial role in the transition in and out of quiescence. PMID:24088570

  5. The contractile vacuole as a key regulator of cellular water flow in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Komsic-Buchmann, Karin; Wöstehoff, Luisa; Becker, Burkhard

    2014-11-01

    Most freshwater flagellates use contractile vacuoles (CVs) to expel excess water. We have used Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a green model system to investigate CV function during adaptation to osmotic changes in culture medium. We show that the contractile vacuole in Chlamydomonas is regulated in two different ways. The size of the contractile vacuoles increases during cell growth, with the contraction interval strongly depending on the osmotic strength of the medium. In contrast, there are only small fluctuations in cytosolic osmolarity and plasma membrane permeability. Modeling of the CV membrane permeability indicates that only a small osmotic gradient is necessary for water flux into the CV, which most likely is facilitated by the aquaporin major intrinsic protein 1 (MIP1). We show that MIP1 is localized to the contractile vacuole, and that the expression rate and protein level of MIP1 exhibit only minor fluctuations under different osmotic conditions. In contrast, SEC6, a protein of the exocyst complex that is required for the water expulsion step, and a dynamin-like protein are upregulated under strong hypotonic conditions. The overexpression of a CreMIP1-GFP construct did not change the physiology of the CV. The functional implications of these results are discussed. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Gut TFH and IgA: key players for regulation of bacterial communities and immune homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Kato, Lucia M; Kawamoto, Shimpei; Maruya, Mikako; Fagarasan, Sidonia

    2014-01-01

    The main function of the immune system is to protect the host against pathogens. However, unlike the systemic immune system, the gut immune system does not eliminate, but instead nourishes complex bacterial communities and establishes advanced symbiotic relationships. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is the most abundant antibody isotype in mammals, produced mainly in the gut. The primary function of IgA is to maintain homeostasis at mucosal surfaces, and studies in mice have demonstrated that IgA diversification has an essential role in the regulation of gut microbiota. Dynamic diversification and constant adaptation of IgA responses to local microbiota require expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase by B cells and control from T follicular helper and Foxp3(+) T cells in germinal centers (GCs). We discuss the finely tuned regulatory mechanisms for IgA synthesis in GCs of Peyer's patches and emphasize the roles of CD4(+) T cells for IgA selection and the maintenance of appropriate gut microbial communities required for immune homeostasis.

  7. NOTCH is a key regulator of human T-cell acute leukemia initiating cell activity.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Florence; Brunet de la Grange, Philippe; Gerby, Bastien; Rouyez, Marie-Christine; Calvo, Julien; Fontenay, Michaéla; Boissel, Nicolas; Dombret, Hervé; Baruchel, André; Landman-Parker, Judith; Roméo, Paul-Henri; Ballerini, Paola; Pflumio, Françoise

    2009-02-19

    Understanding the pathways that regulate the human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) initiating cells (T-LiC) activity has been hampered by the lack of biologic assays in which this human disease can be studied. Here we show that coculture of primary human T-ALL with a mouse stromal cell line expressing the NOTCH ligand delta-like-1 (DL1) reproducibly allowed maintenance of T-LiC and long-term growth of blast cells. Human T-ALL mutated or not on the NOTCH receptor required sustained activation of the NOTCH pathway via receptor/ligand interaction for growth and T-LiC activity. On the reverse, inhibition of the NOTCH pathway during primary cultures abolished in vitro cell growth and in vivo T-LiC activity. Altogether, these results demonstrate the major role of the NOTCH pathway activation in human T-ALL development and in the maintenance of leukemia-initiating cells.

  8. The Contractile Vacuole as a Key Regulator of Cellular Water Flow in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Komsic-Buchmann, Karin; Wöstehoff, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Most freshwater flagellates use contractile vacuoles (CVs) to expel excess water. We have used Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a green model system to investigate CV function during adaptation to osmotic changes in culture medium. We show that the contractile vacuole in Chlamydomonas is regulated in two different ways. The size of the contractile vacuoles increases during cell growth, with the contraction interval strongly depending on the osmotic strength of the medium. In contrast, there are only small fluctuations in cytosolic osmolarity and plasma membrane permeability. Modeling of the CV membrane permeability indicates that only a small osmotic gradient is necessary for water flux into the CV, which most likely is facilitated by the aquaporin major intrinsic protein 1 (MIP1). We show that MIP1 is localized to the contractile vacuole, and that the expression rate and protein level of MIP1 exhibit only minor fluctuations under different osmotic conditions. In contrast, SEC6, a protein of the exocyst complex that is required for the water expulsion step, and a dynamin-like protein are upregulated under strong hypotonic conditions. The overexpression of a CreMIP1-GFP construct did not change the physiology of the CV. The functional implications of these results are discussed. PMID:25217463

  9. Methionine aminopeptidase 2 is a key regulator of apoptotic like cell death in Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ritesh; Tiwari, Kartikeya; Dubey, Vikash Kumar

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the role of methionine aminopeptidase 2 (MAP2) in miltefosine induced programmed cell death (PCD) in promastigote form of L. donovani. We report that TNP-470, an inhibitor of MAP2, inhibits programmed cell death in miltefosine treated promastigotes. It inhibits the biochemical features of metazoan apoptosis, including caspase3/7 protease like activity, oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation, collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and increase in cytosolic pool of calcium ions but did not prevent the cell death and phosphatidyl serine externalization. The data suggests that the MAP2 is involved in the regulation of PCD in parasite. Moreover, TNP-470 shows the leishmanicidal activity (IC50 = 15 µM) and in vitro inhibition of LdMAP2 activity (K i  = 13.5 nM). Further studies on MAP2 and identification of death signaling pathways provide valuable information that could be exploited to understand the role of non caspase proteases in PCD of L. donovani.

  10. Schwann cell mitochondria as key regulators in the development and maintenance of peripheral nerve axons.

    PubMed

    Ino, Daisuke; Iino, Masamitsu

    2017-03-01

    Formation of myelin sheaths by Schwann cells (SCs) enables rapid and efficient transmission of action potentials in peripheral axons, and disruption of myelination results in disorders that involve decreased sensory and motor functions. Given that construction of SC myelin requires high levels of lipid and protein synthesis, mitochondria, which are pivotal in cellular metabolism, may be potential regulators of the formation and maintenance of SC myelin. Supporting this notion, abnormal mitochondria are found in SCs of neuropathic peripheral nerves in both human patients and the relevant animal models. However, evidence for the importance of SC mitochondria in myelination has been limited, until recently. Several studies have recently used genetic approaches that allow SC-specific ablation of mitochondrial metabolic activity in living animals to show the critical roles of SC mitochondria in the development and maintenance of peripheral nerve axons. Here, we review current knowledge about the involvement of SC mitochondria in the formation and dysfunction of myelinated axons in the peripheral nervous system.

  11. Uridine-Ribohydrolase Is a Key Regulator in the Uridine Degradation Pathway of Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Benjamin; Flörchinger, Martin; Kunz, Hans-Henning; Traub, Michaela; Wartenberg, Ruth; Jeblick, Wolfgang; Neuhaus, H. Ekkehard; Möhlmann, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    Nucleoside degradation and salvage are important metabolic pathways but hardly understood in plants. Recent work on human pathogenic protozoans like Leishmania and Trypanosoma substantiates an essential function of nucleosidase activity. Plant nucleosidases are related to those from protozoans and connect the pathways of nucleoside degradation and salvage. Here, we describe the cloning of such an enzyme from Arabidopsis thaliana, Uridine-Ribohydrolase 1 (URH1) and the characterization by complementation of a yeast mutant. Furthermore, URH1 was synthesized as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli. The pure recombinant protein exhibited highest hydrolase activity for uridine, followed by inosine and adenosine, the corresponding Km values were 0.8, 1.4, and 0.7 mM, respectively. In addition, URH1 was able to cleave the cytokinin derivative isopentenyladenine-riboside. Promoter β-glucuronidase fusion studies revealed that URH1 is mainly transcribed in the vascular cells of roots and in root tips, guard cells, and pollen. Mutants expressing the Arabidopsis enzyme or the homolog from rice (Oryza sativa) exhibit resistance toward toxic fluorouridine, fluorouracil, and fluoroorotic acid, providing clear evidence for a pivotal function of URH1 as regulative in pyrimidine degradation. Moreover, mutants with increased and decreased nucleosidase activity are delayed in germination, indicating that this enzyme activity must be well balanced in the early phase of plant development. PMID:19293370

  12. Hypothalamic temperature: a key regulator in homeostatic restoration of sleep during chronic cold exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Mahesh K; Kumar, Velayudhan Mohan; Mallick, Hruda Nanda

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to cold ambient temperature (Ta) affects sleep-wake (S-W) state. The vigilance states on the other hand influence thermal status of the animals. Simultaneous recording of body temperature (Tb) with S-W is crucial to understand the homeostatic relationship between the two. In the present study we recorded both Tb and hypothalamic temperature (Thy) along with S-W, during acute and chronic exposure to mild cold (Ta). Electrooculogram (EOG), electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) electrodes were chronically implanted in rats to assess S-W. A thermocouple, near the preoptic area, and radio transmitter in the peritoneum, were implanted, to record Thy and Tb respectively. After three days of baseline recordings of S-W, Thy and Tb at Ta of 26 dergrees C, the rats were exposed to mild cold Ta (18 degrees C) for 28 days. All the parameters were recorded during cold exposure and also for five days after the termination of cold exposure. On the first day of cold exposure there was a decrease in slow wave sleep and paradoxical sleep, but they were restored by the 21st day of continued exposure. The Thy remained decreased throughout the cold exposure. Though the Tb showed a slight decrease on the first day of cold exposure, there was no appreciable change during the subsequent days. The Thy came back to near pre exposure level on termination of cod exposure. The decrease in Thy during mild cold exposure would have triggered cold defense mechanisms. Increase in wakefulness during acute cold exposure and non-shivering thermogenesis during chronic cold exposure are probably responsible for the maintenance of Tb. Decrease in Thy is probably the key trigger for initiating thermoregulatory measures to maintain Tb and homeostatic restoration of sleep.

  13. Rhophilin-1 is a key regulator of the podocyte cytoskeleton and is essential for glomerular filtration.

    PubMed

    Lal, Mark A; Andersson, Ann-Charlotte; Katayama, Kan; Xiao, Ziejie; Nukui, Masatoshi; Hultenby, Kjell; Wernerson, Annika; Tryggvason, Karl

    2015-03-01

    Rhophilin-1 is a Rho GTPase-interacting protein, the biologic function of which is largely unknown. Here, we identify and describe the functional role of Rhophilin-1 as a novel podocyte-specific protein of the kidney glomerulus. Rhophilin-1 knockout mice were phenotypically normal at birth but developed albuminuria at about 2 weeks of age. Kidneys from severely albuminuric mice revealed widespread podocyte foot process effacement, thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, and FSGS-like lesions. The absence of any overt changes in the expression of podocyte proteins at the onset of proteinuria suggested that the primary cause of podocyte abnormalities in Rhpn1-null mice was the result of cell-autonomous, Rhophilin-1-dependent signaling events. In culture, Rhophilin-1 was detected at the plasma membrane leading edge of primary podocytes, where it elicited remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton network. This effect of Rhophilin-1 on actin cytoskeleton organization associated with inhibitory effects on Rho-dependent phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain and stress fiber formation. Conversely, phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain increased in podocyte foot processes of Rhpn1(-/-) mice, implicating altered actinomyosin contractility in foot process effacement and compromised filtration capacity. Targeted deletion of RhoA in podocytes of Rhophilin-1 knockout mice exacerbated the renal injury. Taken together, our results indicate that Rhophilin-1 is essential for the integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier and that this protein is a key determinant of podocyte cytoskeleton architecture. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  14. The circadian clock in murine chondrocytes regulates genes controlling key aspects of cartilage homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Gossan, Nicole; Zeef, Leo; Hensman, James; Hughes, Alun; Bateman, John F; Rowley, Lynn; Little, Christopher B; Piggins, Hugh D; Rattray, Magnus; Boot-Handford, Raymond P; Meng, Qing-Jun

    2013-09-01

    To characterize the circadian clock in murine cartilage tissue and identify tissue-specific clock target genes, and to investigate whether the circadian clock changes during aging or during cartilage degeneration using an experimental mouse model of osteoarthritis (OA). Cartilage explants were obtained from aged and young adult mice after transduction with the circadian clock fusion protein reporter PER2::luc, and real-time bioluminescence recordings were used to characterize the properties of the clock. Time-series microarrays were performed on mouse cartilage tissue to identify genes expressed in a circadian manner. Rhythmic genes were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using mouse tissue, primary chondrocytes, and a human chondrocyte cell line. Experimental OA was induced in mice by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM), and articular cartilage samples were microdissected and subjected to microarray analysis. Mouse cartilage tissue and a human chondrocyte cell line were found to contain intrinsic molecular circadian clocks. The cartilage clock could be reset by temperature signals, while the circadian period was temperature compensated. PER2::luc bioluminescence demonstrated that circadian oscillations were significantly lower in amplitude in cartilage from aged mice. Time-series microarray analyses of the mouse tissue identified the first circadian transcriptome in cartilage, revealing that 615 genes (∼3.9% of the expressed genes) displayed a circadian pattern of expression. This included genes involved in cartilage homeostasis and survival, as well as genes with potential importance in the pathogenesis of OA. Several clock genes were disrupted in the early stages of cartilage degeneration in the DMM mouse model of OA. These results reveal an autonomous circadian clock in chondrocytes that can be implicated in key aspects of cartilage biology and pathology. Consequently, circadian disruption (e.g., during aging

  15. Ascorbate Peroxidase, a Key Molecule Regulating Amphotericin B Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashish; Das, Sushmita; Purkait, Bidyut; Sardar, Abul Hasan; Ghosh, Ayan Kumar; Dikhit, Manas Ranjan; Abhishek, Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Amphotericin B (AmB), a polyene macrolide, is now a first-line treatment of visceral leishmaniasis cases refractory to antimonials in India. AmB relapse cases and the emergence of secondary resistance have now been reported. To understand the mechanism of AmB, differentially expressed genes in AmB resistance strains were identified by a DNA microarray and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) approach. Of the many genes functionally overexpressed in the presence of AmB, the ascorbate peroxidase gene from a resistant Leishmania donovani strain (LdAPx gene) was selected because the gene is present only in Leishmania, not in humans. Apoptosis-like cell death after exposure to AmB was investigated in a wild-type (WT) strain in which the LdAPx gene was overexpressed and in AmB-sensitive and -resistant strains. A higher percentage of apoptosis-like cell death after AmB treatment was noticed in the sensitive strain than in both the resistant isolate and the strain sensitive to LdAPx overexpression. This event is preceded by AmB-induced formation of reactive oxygen species and elevation of the cytosolic calcium level. Enhanced cytosolic calcium was found to be responsible for depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the release of cytochrome c (Cyt c) into the cytosol. The redox behavior of Cyt c showed that it has a role in the regulation of apoptosis-like cell death by activating metacaspase- and caspase-like proteins and causing concomitant nuclear alterations, as determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) and DNA fragmentation in the resistant strain. The present study suggests that constitutive overexpression of LdAPx in the L. donovani AmB-resistant strain prevents cells from the deleterious effect of oxidative stress, i.e., mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular death induced by AmB. PMID:25114128

  16. Hic-5 mediates the initiation of endothelial sprouting by regulating a key surface metalloproteinase

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Jui M.; Abbey, Colette A.; Duran, Camille L.; Seo, Heewon; Johnson, Gregory A.; Bayless, Kayla J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT During angiogenesis, endothelial cells must coordinate matrix proteolysis with migration. Here, we tested whether the focal adhesion scaffold protein Hic-5 (also known as TGFB1I1) regulated endothelial sprouting in three dimensions. Hic-5 silencing reduced endothelial sprouting and lumen formation, and sprouting defects were rescued by the return of Hic-5 expression. Pro-angiogenic factors enhanced colocalization and complex formation between membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP, also known as MMP14) and Hic-5, but not between paxillin and MT1-MMP. The LIM2 and LIM3 domains of Hic-5 were necessary and sufficient for Hic-5 to form a complex with MT1-MMP. The degree of interaction between MT1-MMP and Hic-5 and the localization of the complex within detergent-resistant membrane fractions were enhanced during endothelial sprouting, and Hic-5 depletion lowered the surface levels of MT1-MMP. In addition, we observed that loss of Hic-5 partially reduced complex formation between MT1-MMP and focal adhesion kinase (FAK, also known as PTK2), suggesting that Hic-5 bridges MT1-MMP and FAK. Finally, Hic-5 LIM2–LIM3 deletion mutants reduced sprout initiation. Hic-5, MT1-MMP and FAK colocalized in angiogenic vessels during porcine pregnancy, supporting that this complex assembles during angiogenesis in vivo. Collectively, Hic-5 appears to enhance complex formation between MT1-MMP and FAK in activated endothelial cells, which likely coordinates matrix proteolysis and cell motility. PMID:26769900

  17. Ascorbate peroxidase, a key molecule regulating amphotericin B resistance in clinical isolates of Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashish; Das, Sushmita; Purkait, Bidyut; Sardar, Abul Hasan; Ghosh, Ayan Kumar; Dikhit, Manas Ranjan; Abhishek, Kumar; Das, Pradeep

    2014-10-01

    Amphotericin B (AmB), a polyene macrolide, is now a first-line treatment of visceral leishmaniasis cases refractory to antimonials in India. AmB relapse cases and the emergence of secondary resistance have now been reported. To understand the mechanism of AmB, differentially expressed genes in AmB resistance strains were identified by a DNA microarray and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) approach. Of the many genes functionally overexpressed in the presence of AmB, the ascorbate peroxidase gene from a resistant Leishmania donovani strain (LdAPx gene) was selected because the gene is present only in Leishmania, not in humans. Apoptosis-like cell death after exposure to AmB was investigated in a wild-type (WT) strain in which the LdAPx gene was overexpressed and in AmB-sensitive and -resistant strains. A higher percentage of apoptosis-like cell death after AmB treatment was noticed in the sensitive strain than in both the resistant isolate and the strain sensitive to LdAPx overexpression. This event is preceded by AmB-induced formation of reactive oxygen species and elevation of the cytosolic calcium level. Enhanced cytosolic calcium was found to be responsible for depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the release of cytochrome c (Cyt c) into the cytosol. The redox behavior of Cyt c showed that it has a role in the regulation of apoptosis-like cell death by activating metacaspase- and caspase-like proteins and causing concomitant nuclear alterations, as determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) and DNA fragmentation in the resistant strain. The present study suggests that constitutive overexpression of LdAPx in the L. donovani AmB-resistant strain prevents cells from the deleterious effect of oxidative stress, i.e., mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular death induced by AmB.

  18. Sphingolipids: Key Regulators of Apoptosis and Pivotal Players in Cancer Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Giussani, Paola; Tringali, Cristina; Riboni, Laura; Viani, Paola; Venerando, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Drug resistance elicited by cancer cells still constitutes a huge problem that frequently impairs the efficacy of both conventional and novel molecular therapies. Chemotherapy usually acts to induce apoptosis in cancer cells; therefore, the investigation of apoptosis control and of the mechanisms used by cancer cells to evade apoptosis could be translated in an improvement of therapies. Among many tools acquired by cancer cells to this end, the de-regulated synthesis and metabolism of sphingolipids have been well documented. Sphingolipids are known to play many structural and signalling roles in cells, as they are involved in the control of growth, survival, adhesion, and motility. In particular, in order to increase survival, cancer cells: (a) counteract the accumulation of ceramide that is endowed with pro-apoptotic potential and is induced by many drugs; (b) increase the synthesis of sphingosine-1-phosphate and glucosylceramide that are pro-survivals signals; (c) modify the synthesis and the metabolism of complex glycosphingolipids, particularly increasing the levels of modified species of gangliosides such as 9-O acetylated GD3 (αNeu5Ac(2-8)αNeu5Ac(2-3)βGal(1-4)βGlc(1-1)Cer) or N-glycolyl GM3 (αNeu5Ac (2-3)βGal(1-4)βGlc(1-1)Cer) and de-N-acetyl GM3 (NeuNH(2)βGal(1-4)βGlc(1-1)Cer) endowed with anti-apoptotic roles and of globoside Gb3 related to a higher expression of the multidrug resistance gene MDR1. In light of this evidence, the employment of chemical or genetic approaches specifically targeting sphingolipid dysregulations appears a promising tool for the improvement of current chemotherapy efficacy. PMID:24625663

  19. The physical size of transcription factors is key to transcriptional regulation in chromatin domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeshima, Kazuhiro; Kaizu, Kazunari; Tamura, Sachiko; Nozaki, Tadasu; Kokubo, Tetsuro; Takahashi, Koichi

    2015-02-01

    Genetic information, which is stored in the long strand of genomic DNA as chromatin, must be scanned and read out by various transcription factors. First, gene-specific transcription factors, which are relatively small (˜50 kDa), scan the genome and bind regulatory elements. Such factors then recruit general transcription factors, Mediators, RNA polymerases, nucleosome remodellers, and histone modifiers, most of which are large protein complexes of 1-3 MDa in size. Here, we propose a new model for the functional significance of the size of transcription factors (or complexes) for gene regulation of chromatin domains. Recent findings suggest that chromatin consists of irregularly folded nucleosome fibres (10 nm fibres) and forms numerous condensed domains (e.g., topologically associating domains). Although the flexibility and dynamics of chromatin allow repositioning of genes within the condensed domains, the size exclusion effect of the domain may limit accessibility of DNA sequences by transcription factors. We used Monte Carlo computer simulations to determine the physical size limit of transcription factors that can enter condensed chromatin domains. Small gene-specific transcription factors can penetrate into the chromatin domains and search their target sequences, whereas large transcription complexes cannot enter the domain. Due to this property, once a large complex binds its target site via gene-specific factors it can act as a ‘buoy’ to keep the target region on the surface of the condensed domain and maintain transcriptional competency. This size-dependent specialization of target-scanning and surface-tethering functions could provide novel insight into the mechanisms of various DNA transactions, such as DNA replication and repair/recombination.

  20. The Fuzzy Logic of MicroRNA Regulation: A Key to Control Cell Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Ripoli, Andrea; Rainaldi, Giuseppe; Rizzo, Milena; Mercatanti, Alberto; Pitto, Letizia

    2010-01-01

    Genomic and clinical evidence suggest a major role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the regulatory mechanisms of gene expression, with a clear impact on development and physiology; miRNAs are a class of endogenous 22-25 nt single-stranded RNA molecules, that negatively regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally, by imperfect base pairing with the 3’ UTR of the corresponding mRNA target. Because of this imperfection, each miRNA can bind multiple targets, and multiple miRNAs can bind the same mRNA target; although digital, the miRNAs control mechanism is characterized by an imprecise action, naturally understandable in the theoretical framework of fuzzy logic. A major practical application of fuzzy logic is represented by the design and the realization of efficient and robust control systems, even when the processes to be controlled show chaotic, deterministic as well unpredictable, behaviours. The vagueness of miRNA action, when considered together with the controlled and chaotic gene expression, is a hint of a cellular fuzzy control system. As a demonstration of the possibility and the effectiveness of miRNA based fuzzy mechanism, a fuzzy cognitive map -a mathematical formalism combining neural network and fuzzy logic- has been developed to study the apoptosis/proliferation control performed by the miRNA-17-92 cluster/E2F1/cMYC circuitry. When experimentally demonstrated, the concept of fuzzy control could modify the way we analyse and model gene expression, with a possible impact on the way we imagine and design therapeutic intervention based on miRNA silencing. PMID:21286312

  1. Global analysis of SUMO-binding proteins identifies SUMOylation as a key regulator of the INO80 chromatin remodeling complex.

    PubMed

    Cox, Eric; Hwang, Woochang; Uzoma, Ijeoma; Hu, Jianfei; Guzzo, Catherine; Jeong, Junseop; Matunis, Michael; Qian, Jiang; Zhu, Heng; Blackshaw, Seth

    2017-03-02

    SUMOylation is a critical regulator of a broad range of cellular processes, and is thought to do so in part by modulation of protein interaction. To comprehensively identify human proteins whose interaction is modulated by SUMOylation, we developed an in vitro binding assay using human proteome microarrays to identify targets of SUMO1 and SUMO2. We then integrated these results with protein SUMOylation and protein-protein interaction data to perform network motif analysis. We focused on a single network motif we termed a SUMOmodPPI (SUMO-modulated Protein-Protein Interaction) that included the INO80 chromatin remodeling complex subunits TFPT and INO80E. We validated the SUMO-binding activity of INO80E, and showed that TFPT is a SUMO substrate both in vitro and in vivo. We then demonstrated a key role for SUMOylation in mediating the interaction between these two proteins, both in vitro and in vivo. By demonstrating a key role for SUMOylation in regulating the INO80 chromatin-remodeling complex, this work illustrates the power of integrated analysis of large datasets in predicting novel biological phenomena.

  2. The Arabidopsis transcription factor AtTCP15 regulates endoreduplication by modulating expression of key cell-cycle genes.

    PubMed

    Li, Zi-Yu; Li, Bin; Dong, Ai-Wu

    2012-01-01

    Plant cells frequently undergo endoreduplication, a modified cell cycle in which genome is repeatedly replicated without cytokinesis. As the key step to achieve final size and function for cells, endoreduplication is prevalent during plant development. However, mechanisms to control the balance between endoreduplication and mitotic cell division are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis TCP (CINCINNATA-like TEOSINTE BRANCHED1-CYCLOIDEA-PCF)-family transcription factor gene AtTCP15 is expressed in trichomes, as well as in rapidly dividing and vascular tissues. Expression of AtTCP15SRDX, AtTCP15 fused with a SRDX repressor domain, induces extra endoreduplication in trichomes and cotyledon cells in transgenic Arabidopsis. On the contrary, overexpression of AtTCP15 suppresses endoreduplication in trichomes and other examined cells. Misregulation of AtTCP15 affects the expression of several important genes involved in cell-cycle regulation. AtTCP15 protein binds directly to the promoter regions of CYCA2;3 and RETINOBLASTOMA-RELATED (RBR) genes, which play key roles in endoreduplication. Taken together, AtTCP15 plays an important role in regulating endoreduplication during Arabidopsis development.

  3. Quaking Is a Key Regulator of Endothelial Cell Differentiation, Neovascularization, and Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Cochrane, Amy; Kelaini, Sophia; Tsifaki, Marianna; Bojdo, James; Vilà‐González, Marta; Drehmer, Daiana; Caines, Rachel; Magee, Corey; Eleftheriadou, Magdalini; Hu, Yanhua; Grieve, David; Stitt, Alan W.; Zeng, Lingfang; Xu, Qingbo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The capability to derive endothelial cell (ECs) from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) holds huge therapeutic potential for cardiovascular disease. This study elucidates the precise role of the RNA‐binding protein Quaking isoform 5 (QKI‐5) during EC differentiation from both mouse and human iPSCs (hiPSCs) and dissects how RNA‐binding proteins can improve differentiation efficiency toward cell therapy for important vascular diseases. iPSCs represent an attractive cellular approach for regenerative medicine today as they can be used to generate patient‐specific therapeutic cells toward autologous cell therapy. In this study, using the model of iPSCs differentiation toward ECs, the QKI‐5 was found to be an important regulator of STAT3 stabilization and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) activation during the EC differentiation process. QKI‐5 was induced during EC differentiation, resulting in stabilization of STAT3 expression and modulation of VEGFR2 transcriptional activation as well as VEGF secretion through direct binding to the 3′ UTR of STAT3. Importantly, mouse iPS‐ECs overexpressing QKI‐5 significantly improved angiogenesis and neovascularization and blood flow recovery in experimental hind limb ischemia. Notably, hiPSCs overexpressing QKI‐5, induced angiogenesis on Matrigel plug assays in vivo only 7 days after subcutaneous injection in SCID mice. These results highlight a clear functional benefit of QKI‐5 in neovascularization, blood flow recovery, and angiogenesis. Thus, they provide support to the growing consensus that elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying EC differentiation will ultimately advance stem cell regenerative therapy and eventually make the treatment of cardiovascular disease a reality. The RNA binding protein QKI‐5 is induced during EC differentiation from iPSCs. RNA binding protein QKI‐5 was induced during EC differentiation in parallel with the EC marker CD144

  4. The MIA Pathway: A Key Regulator of Mitochondrial Oxidative Protein Folding and Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conspectus Mitochondria are fundamental intracellular organelles with key roles in important cellular processes like energy production, Fe/S cluster biogenesis, and homeostasis of lipids and inorganic ions. Mitochondrial dysfunction is consequently linked to many human pathologies (cancer, diabetes, neurodegeneration, stroke) and apoptosis. Mitochondrial biogenesis relies on protein import as most mitochondrial proteins (about 10–15% of the human proteome) are imported after their synthesis in the cytosol. Over the last several years many mitochondrial translocation pathways have been discovered. Among them, the import pathway that targets proteins to the intermembrane space (IMS) stands out as it is the only one that couples import to folding and oxidation and results in the covalent modification of the incoming precursor that adopt internal disulfide bonds in the process (the MIA pathway). The discovery of this pathway represented a significant paradigm shift as it challenged the prevailing dogma that the endoplasmic reticulum is the only compartment of eukaryotic cells where oxidative folding can occur. The concept of the oxidative folding pathway was first proposed on the basis of folding and import data for the small Tim proteins that have conserved cysteine motifs and must adopt intramolecular disulfides after import so that they are retained in the organelle. The introduction of disulfides in the IMS is catalyzed by Mia40 that functions as a chaperone inducing their folding. The sulfhydryl oxidase Erv1 generates the disulfide pairs de novo using either molecular oxygen or, cytochrome c and other proteins as terminal electron acceptors that eventually link this folding process to respiration. The solution NMR structure of Mia40 (and supporting biochemical experiments) showed that Mia40 is a novel type of disulfide donor whose recognition capacity for its substrates relies on a hydrophobic binding cleft found adjacent to a thiol active CPC motif. Targeting

  5. The MIA pathway: a key regulator of mitochondrial oxidative protein folding and biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mordas, Amelia; Tokatlidis, Kostas

    2015-08-18

    Mitochondria are fundamental intracellular organelles with key roles in important cellular processes like energy production, Fe/S cluster biogenesis, and homeostasis of lipids and inorganic ions. Mitochondrial dysfunction is consequently linked to many human pathologies (cancer, diabetes, neurodegeneration, stroke) and apoptosis. Mitochondrial biogenesis relies on protein import as most mitochondrial proteins (about 10-15% of the human proteome) are imported after their synthesis in the cytosol. Over the last several years many mitochondrial translocation pathways have been discovered. Among them, the import pathway that targets proteins to the intermembrane space (IMS) stands out as it is the only one that couples import to folding and oxidation and results in the covalent modification of the incoming precursor that adopt internal disulfide bonds in the process (the MIA pathway). The discovery of this pathway represented a significant paradigm shift as it challenged the prevailing dogma that the endoplasmic reticulum is the only compartment of eukaryotic cells where oxidative folding can occur. The concept of the oxidative folding pathway was first proposed on the basis of folding and import data for the small Tim proteins that have conserved cysteine motifs and must adopt intramolecular disulfides after import so that they are retained in the organelle. The introduction of disulfides in the IMS is catalyzed by Mia40 that functions as a chaperone inducing their folding. The sulfhydryl oxidase Erv1 generates the disulfide pairs de novo using either molecular oxygen or, cytochrome c and other proteins as terminal electron acceptors that eventually link this folding process to respiration. The solution NMR structure of Mia40 (and supporting biochemical experiments) showed that Mia40 is a novel type of disulfide donor whose recognition capacity for its substrates relies on a hydrophobic binding cleft found adjacent to a thiol active CPC motif. Targeting of the

  6. LitMiner and WikiGene: identifying problem-related key players of gene regulation using publication abstracts.

    PubMed

    Maier, Holger; Döhr, Stefanie; Grote, Korbinian; O'Keeffe, Sean; Werner, Thomas; Hrabé de Angelis, Martin; Schneider, Ralf

    2005-07-01

    The LitMiner software is a literature data-mining tool that facilitates the identification of major gene regulation key players related to a user-defined field of interest in PubMed abstracts. The prediction of gene-regulatory relationships is based on co-occurrence analysis of key terms within the abstracts. LitMiner predicts relationships between key terms from the biomedical domain in four categories (genes, chemical compounds, diseases and tissues). Owing to the limitations (no direction, unverified automatic prediction) of the co-occurrence approach, the primary data in the LitMiner database represent postulated basic gene-gene relationships. The usefulness of the LitMiner system has been demonstrated recently in a study that reconstructed disease-related regulatory networks by promoter modelling that was initiated by a LitMiner generated primary gene list. To overcome the limitations and to verify and improve the data, we developed WikiGene, a Wiki-based curation tool that allows revision of the data by expert users over the Internet. LitMiner (http://andromeda.gsf.de/litminer) and WikiGene (http://andromeda.gsf.de/wiki) can be used unrestricted with any Internet browser.

  7. LitMiner and WikiGene: identifying problem-related key players of gene regulation using publication abstracts

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Holger; Döhr, Stefanie; Grote, Korbinian; O'Keeffe, Sean; Werner, Thomas; de Angelis, Martin Hrabé; Schneider, Ralf

    2005-01-01

    The LitMiner software is a literature data-mining tool that facilitates the identification of major gene regulation key players related to a user-defined field of interest in PubMed abstracts. The prediction of gene-regulatory relationships is based on co-occurrence analysis of key terms within the abstracts. LitMiner predicts relationships between key terms from the biomedical domain in four categories (genes, chemical compounds, diseases and tissues). Owing to the limitations (no direction, unverified automatic prediction) of the co-occurrence approach, the primary data in the LitMiner database represent postulated basic gene–gene relationships. The usefulness of the LitMiner system has been demonstrated recently in a study that reconstructed disease-related regulatory networks by promoter modelling that was initiated by a LitMiner generated primary gene list. To overcome the limitations and to verify and improve the data, we developed WikiGene, a Wiki-based curation tool that allows revision of the data by expert users over the Internet. LitMiner () and WikiGene () can be used unrestricted with any Internet browser. PMID:15980584

  8. Sialidase NEU3 contributes neoplastic potential on colon cancer cells as a key modulator of gangliosides by regulating Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kohta; Hosono, Masahiro; Sato, Ikuro; Hata, Keiko; Wada, Tadashi; Yamaguchi, Kazunori; Nitta, Kazuo; Shima, Hiroshi; Miyagi, Taeko

    2015-10-01

    The plasma membrane-associated sialidase NEU3 is a key enzyme for ganglioside degradation. We previously demonstrated remarkable up-regulation of NEU3 in various human cancers, with augmented malignant properties. Here, we provide evidence of a close link between NEU3 expression and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in colon cancer cells by analyzing tumorigenic potential and cancer stem-like characteristics. NEU3 silencing in HT-29 and HCT116 colon cancer cells resulted in significant decrease in clonogenicity on soft agar and in vivo tumor growth, along with down-regulation of stemness and Wnt-related genes. Analyses further revealed that NEU3 enhanced phosphorylation of the Wnt receptor LRP6 and consequently β-catenin activation by accelerating complex formation with LRP6 and recruitment of GSK3β and Axin, whereas its silencing exerted the opposite effects. NEU3 activity-null mutants failed to demonstrate the activation, indicating the requirement of ganglioside modulation by the sialidase for the effects. Under sphere-forming conditions, when stemness genes are up-regulated, endogenous NEU3 expression was found to be significantly increased, whereas NEU3 silencing suppressed sphere-formation and in vivo tumor incidence in NOD-SCID mice. Increased ability of clonogenicity on soft agar and sphere formation by Wnt stimulation was abrogated by NEU3 silencing. Furthermore, NEU3 was found to regulate phosphorylation of ERK and Akt via EGF receptor and Ras cascades, thought to be additionally required for tumor progression. The results indicate an essential contribution of NEU3 to tumorigenic potential through maintenance of stem-like characteristics of colon cancer cells by regulating Wnt signaling at the receptor level, in addition to tumor progression via Ras/MAPK signaling.

  9. GamR, the LysR-Type Galactose Metabolism Regulator, Regulates hrp Gene Expression via Transcriptional Activation of Two Key hrp Regulators, HrpG and HrpX, in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, M. Mamunur; Ikawa, Yumi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is the causal agent of bacterial leaf blight of rice. For the virulence of the bacterium, the hrp genes, encoding components of the type III secretion system, are indispensable. The expression of hrp genes is regulated by two key hrp regulators, HrpG and HrpX: HrpG regulates hrpX, and HrpX regulates other hrp genes. Several other regulators have been shown to be involved in the regulation of hrp genes. Here, we found that a LysR-type transcriptional regulator that we named GamR, encoded by XOO_2767 of X. oryzae pv. oryzae strain MAFF311018, positively regulated the transcription of both hrpG and hrpX, which are adjacent to each other but have opposite orientations, with an intergenic upstream region in common. In a gel electrophoresis mobility shift assay, GamR bound directly to the middle of the upstream region common to hrpG and hrpX. The loss of either GamR or its binding sites decreased hrpG and hrpX expression. Also, GamR bound to the upstream region of either a galactose metabolism-related gene (XOO_2768) or a galactose metabolism-related operon (XOO_2768 to XOO_2771) located next to gamR itself and positively regulated the genes. The deletion of the regulator gene resulted in less bacterial growth in a synthetic medium with galactose as a sole sugar source. Interestingly, induction of the galactose metabolism-related gene was dependent on galactose, while that of the hrp regulator genes was galactose independent. Our results indicate that the LysR-type transcriptional regulator that regulates the galactose metabolism-related gene(s) also acts in positive regulation of two key hrp regulators and the following hrp genes in X. oryzae pv. oryzae. IMPORTANCE The expression of hrp genes encoding components of the type III secretion system is essential for the virulence of many plant-pathogenic bacteria, including Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. It is specifically induced during infection. Research has revealed that in this

  10. Knockdown of stem cell regulator Oct4A in ovarian cancer reveals cellular reprogramming associated with key regulators of cytoskeleton-extracellular matrix remodelling

    PubMed Central

    Samardzija, Chantel; Greening, David W.; Escalona, Ruth; Chen, Maoshan; Bilandzic, Maree; Luwor, Rodney; Kannourakis, George; Findlay, Jock K.; Ahmed, Nuzhat

    2017-01-01

    Oct4A is a master regulator of self-renewal and pluripotency in embryonic stem cells. It is a well-established marker for cancer stem cell (CSC) in malignancies. Recently, using a loss of function studies, we have demonstrated key roles for Oct4A in tumor cell survival, metastasis and chemoresistance in in vitro and in vivo models of ovarian cancer. In an effort to understand the regulatory role of Oct4A in tumor biology, we employed the use of an ovarian cancer shRNA Oct4A knockdown cell line (HEY Oct4A KD) and a global mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic analysis to investigate novel biological targets of Oct4A in HEY samples (cell lysates, secretomes and mouse tumor xenografts). Based on significant differential expression, pathway and protein network analyses, and comprehensive literature search we identified key proteins involved with biologically relevant functions of Oct4A in tumor biology. Across all preparations of HEY Oct4A KD samples significant alterations in protein networks associated with cytoskeleton, extracellular matrix (ECM), proliferation, adhesion, metabolism, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), cancer stem cells (CSCs) and drug resistance was observed. This comprehensive proteomics study for the first time presents the Oct4A associated proteome and expands our understanding on the biological role of this stem cell regulator in carcinomas. PMID:28406185

  11. The Protein Level of PGC-1α, a Key Metabolic Regulator, Is Controlled by NADH-NQO1

    PubMed Central

    Adamovich, Yaarit; Shlomai, Amir; Tsvetkov, Peter; Umansky, Kfir B.; Reuven, Nina; Estall, Jennifer L.; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    2013-01-01

    PGC-1α is a key transcription coactivator regulating energy metabolism in a tissue-specific manner. PGC-1α expression is tightly regulated, it is a highly labile protein, and it interacts with various proteins—the known attributes of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). In this study, we characterize PGC-1α as an IDP and demonstrate that it is susceptible to 20S proteasomal degradation by default. We further demonstrate that PGC-1α degradation is inhibited by NQO1, a 20S gatekeeper protein. NQO1 binds and protects PGC-1α from degradation in an NADH-dependent manner. Using different cellular physiological settings, we also demonstrate that NQO1-mediated PGC-1α protection plays an important role in controlling both basal and physiologically induced PGC-1α protein level and activity. Our findings link NQO1, a cellular redox sensor, to the metabolite-sensing network that tunes PGC-1α expression and activity in regulating energy metabolism. PMID:23648480

  12. PRMT5-Dependent Methylation of the TIP60 Coactivator RUVBL1 Is a Key Regulator of Homologous Recombination.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Thomas L; Sanchez-Bailon, Maria Pilar; Chiang, Kelly; Reynolds, John J; Herrero-Ruiz, Joaquin; Bandeiras, Tiago M; Matias, Pedro M; Maslen, Sarah L; Skehel, J Mark; Stewart, Grant S; Davies, Clare C

    2017-02-21

    Protein post-translation modification plays an important role in regulating DNA repair; however, the role of arginine methylation in this process is poorly understood. Here we identify the arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 as a key regulator of homologous recombination (HR)-mediated double-strand break (DSB) repair, which is mediated through its ability to methylate RUVBL1, a cofactor of the TIP60 complex. We show that PRMT5 targets RUVBL1 for methylation at position R205, which facilitates TIP60-dependent mobilization of 53BP1 from DNA breaks, promoting HR. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that PRMT5-directed methylation of RUVBL1 is critically required for the acetyltransferase activity of TIP60, promoting histone H4K16 acetylation, which facilities 53BP1 displacement from DSBs. Interestingly, RUVBL1 methylation did not affect the ability of TIP60 to facilitate ATM activation. Taken together, our findings reveal the importance of PRMT5-mediated arginine methylation during DSB repair pathway choice through its ability to regulate acetylation-dependent control of 53BP1 localization.

  13. KDEL receptor 1 regulates T-cell homeostasis via PP1 that is a key phosphatase for ISR.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Daisuke; Katsunuma, Kokichi; Arima, Yasunobu; Atsumi, Toru; Jiang, Jing-jing; Bando, Hidenori; Meng, Jie; Sabharwal, Lavannya; Stofkova, Andrea; Nishikawa, Naoki; Suzuki, Hironao; Ogura, Hideki; Ueda, Naoko; Tsuruoka, Mineko; Harada, Masaya; Kobayashi, Junya; Hasegawa, Takanori; Yoshida, Hisahiro; Koseki, Haruhiko; Miura, Ikuo; Wakana, Shigeharu; Nishida, Keigo; Kitamura, Hidemitsu; Fukada, Toshiyuki; Hirano, Toshio; Murakami, Masaaki

    2015-06-17

    KDEL receptors are responsible for retrotransporting endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones from the Golgi complex to the ER. Here we describe a role for KDEL receptor 1 (KDELR1) that involves the regulation of integrated stress responses (ISR) in T cells. Designing and using an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-mutant mouse line, T-Red (naïve T-cell reduced), we show that a point mutation in KDELR1 is responsible for the reduction in the number of naïve T cells in this model owing to an increase in ISR. Mechanistic analysis shows that KDELR1 directly regulates protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), a key phosphatase for ISR in naïve T cells. T-Red KDELR1 does not associate with PP1, resulting in reduced phosphatase activity against eIF2α and subsequent expression of stress responsive genes including the proapoptotic factor Bim. These results demonstrate that KDELR1 regulates naïve T-cell homeostasis by controlling ISR.

  14. Inositol-requiring enzyme 1α is a key regulator of angiogenesis and invasion in malignant glioma

    PubMed Central

    Auf, Gregor; Jabouille, Arnaud; Guérit, Sylvaine; Pineau, Raphaël; Delugin, Maylis; Bouchecareilh, Marion; Magnin, Noël; Favereaux, Alexandre; Maitre, Marlène; Gaiser, Timo; von Deimling, Andreas; Czabanka, Marcus; Vajkoczy, Peter; Chevet, Eric; Bikfalvi, Andreas; Moenner, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) is a proximal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress sensor and a central mediator of the unfolded protein response. In a human glioma model, inhibition of IRE1α correlated with down-regulation of prevalent proangiogenic factors such as VEGF-A, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8. Significant up-regulation of antiangiogenic gene transcripts was also apparent. These transcripts encode SPARC, decorin, thrombospondin-1, and other matrix proteins functionally linked to mesenchymal differentiation and glioma invasiveness. In vivo, using both the chick chorio-allantoic membrane assay and a mouse orthotopic brain model, we observed in tumors underexpressing IRE1: (i) reduction of angiogenesis and blood perfusion, (ii) a decreased growth rate, and (iii) extensive invasiveness and blood vessel cooption. This phenotypic change was consistently associated with increased overall survival in glioma-implanted recipient mice. Ectopic expression of IL-6 in IRE1-deficient tumors restored angiogenesis and neutralized vessel cooption but did not reverse the mesenchymal/infiltrative cell phenotype. The ischemia-responsive IRE1 protein is thus identified as a key regulator of tumor neovascularization and invasiveness. PMID:20702765

  15. The A-type cyclin CYCA2;3 is a key regulator of ploidy levels in Arabidopsis endoreduplication.

    PubMed

    Imai, Kumiko K; Ohashi, Yohei; Tsuge, Tomohiko; Yoshizumi, Takeshi; Matsui, Minami; Oka, Atsuhiro; Aoyama, Takashi

    2006-02-01

    Plant cells frequently undergo endoreduplication, a process in which chromosomal DNA is successively duplicated in the absence of mitosis. It has been proposed that endoreduplication is regulated at its entry by mitotic cyclin-dependent kinase activity. However, the regulatory mechanisms for its termination remain unclear, although plants tightly control the ploidy level in each cell type. In the process of searching for regulatory factors of endoreduplication, the promoter of an Arabidopsis thaliana cyclin A gene, CYCA2;3, was revealed to be active in developing trichomes during the termination period of endoreduplication as well as in proliferating tissues. Taking advantage of the situation that plants encode highly redundant cyclin A genes, we were able to perform functional dissection of CYCA2;3 using null mutant alleles. Null mutations of CYCA2;3 semidominantly promoted endocycles and increased the ploidy levels achieved in mature organs, but they did not significantly affect the proportion of cells that underwent endoreduplication. Consistent with this result, expression of the CYCA2;3-green fluorescent protein fusion protein restrained endocycles in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, a mutation in the destruction box of CYCA2;3 stabilized the fusion protein in the nuclei and enhanced the restraint. We conclude that CYCA2;3 negatively regulates endocycles and acts as a key regulator of ploidy levels in Arabidopsis endoreduplication.

  16. Pou1f1, the key transcription factor related to somatic growth in tilapia (Orechromis niloticus), is regulated by two independent post-transcriptional regulation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongfang; Qin, Jingkai; Jia, Jirong; Yan, Peipei; Li, Wensheng

    2017-01-29

    This study aims to determine the post-transcriptional regulation mechanism of the transcription factor pou1f1 (pou class 1 homeobox 1), which is the key gene for pituitary development, somatic growth in vertebrates, and transcription of several hormone genes in teleost fish. MicroRNA miR-223-3p was identified as a bona fide target of pou1f; overexpression of miR-223-3p in primary pituitary cells led to the down-regulation of pou1f1 and downstream genes, and inhibition of miR-223-3p led to the up-regulation of pou1f1 in Nile tilapia dispersed primary pituitary cells. An adenylate-uridylate-rich element (AU-Rich element) was found in the 3'UTR of pou1f1 mRNA, and deletion of the AU-Rich element led to slower mRNA decay and therefore more protein output. A potential mutual relationship between miR-223-3p and the AU-rich element was also investigated, and the results demonstrated that with or without the AU-Rich element, miR-223-3p induced the up-regulation of a reporter system under serum starvation conditions, indicating that miR-223-3p and the AU-Rich element function independent of each other. This study is the first to investigate the post-transcriptional mechanism of pou1f1, which revealed that miR-223-3p down-regulated pou1f1 and downstream gene expressions, and the AU-Rich element led to rapid decay of pou1f1 mRNA. MicroRNA miR-223-3p and the AU-Rich element co-regulated the post-transcriptional expression of pou1f1 independently in Nile tilapia, demonstrating that pou1f1 is under the control of a dual post-transcription regulation mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Aging is a primary risk factor for cardiac arrhythmias: disruption of intracellular Ca2+ regulation as a key suspect.

    PubMed

    Hatch, Fiona; Lancaster, Matthew K; Jones, Sandra A

    2011-08-01

    Aging is an inevitable time-dependent progression associated with a functional decline of the cardiovascular system even in 'healthy' individuals. Age positively correlates with an increasing risk of cardiac problems including arrhythmias. Not only the prevalence but also the severity of arrhythmias escalates with age. The reasons for this are multifactorial but dysregulation of intracellular calcium within the heart is likely to play a key role in initiating and perpetuating these life-threatening events. We now know that several aspects of cardiac calcium regulation significantly change with advancing age - changes that could produce electrical instability. Further development of knowledge of the mechanisms underlying these changes will allow us to reduce what currently is an inevitable increase in the incidence of arrhythmias in the elderly.

  18. A core human primary tumor angiogenesis signature identifies the endothelial orphan receptor ELTD1 as a key regulator of angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Masiero, Massimo; Simões, Filipa Costa; Han, Hee Dong; Snell, Cameron; Peterkin, Tessa; Bridges, Esther; Mangala, Lingegowda S; Wu, Sherry Yen-Yao; Pradeep, Sunila; Li, Demin; Han, Cheng; Dalton, Heather; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Tuynman, Jurriaan B; Mortensen, Neil; Li, Ji-Liang; Patient, Roger; Sood, Anil K; Banham, Alison H; Harris, Adrian L; Buffa, Francesca M

    2013-08-12

    Limited clinical benefits derived from anti-VEGF therapy have driven the identification of new targets involved in tumor angiogenesis. Here, we report an integrative meta-analysis to define the transcriptional program underlying angiogenesis in human cancer. This approach identified ELTD1, an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor whose expression is induced by VEGF/bFGF and repressed by DLL4 signaling. Extensive analysis of multiple cancer types demonstrates significant upregulation of ELTD1 in tumor-associated endothelial cells, with a higher expression correlating with favorable prognosis. Importantly, ELTD1 silencing impairs endothelial sprouting and vessel formation in vitro and in vivo, drastically reducing tumor growth and greatly improving survival. Collectively, these results provide insight into the regulation of tumor angiogenesis and highlight ELTD1 as key player in blood vessel formation. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. LEAFY COTYLEDON1, a Key Regulator of Seed Development, Is Expressed in Vegetative and Sexual Propagules of Selaginella moellendorffii

    PubMed Central

    Kirkbride, Ryan C.; Fischer, Robert L.; Harada, John J.

    2013-01-01

    LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) is a central regulator of seed development that plays a key role in controlling the maturation phase during which storage macromolecules accumulate and the embryo becomes tolerant of desiccation. We queried the genomes of seedless plants and identified a LEC1 homolog in the lycophyte, Selaginellamoellendorffii, but not in the bryophyte, Physcomitrellapatens. Genetic suppression experiments indicated that Selaginella LEC1 is the functional ortholog of Arabidopsis LEC1. Together, these results suggest that LEC1 originated at least 30 million years before the first seed plants appeared in the fossil record. The accumulation of Selaginella LEC1 RNA primarily in sexual and asexual reproductive structures suggests its involvement in cellular processes similar to those that occur during the maturation phase of seed development. PMID:23776713

  20. LEAFY COTYLEDON1, a key regulator of seed development, is expressed in vegetative and sexual propagules of Selaginella moellendorffii.

    PubMed

    Kirkbride, Ryan C; Fischer, Robert L; Harada, John J

    2013-01-01

    LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) is a central regulator of seed development that plays a key role in controlling the maturation phase during which storage macromolecules accumulate and the embryo becomes tolerant of desiccation. We queried the genomes of seedless plants and identified a LEC1 homolog in the lycophyte, Selaginella moellendorffii, but not in the bryophyte, Physcomitrella patens. Genetic suppression experiments indicated that Selaginella LEC1 is the functional ortholog of Arabidopsis LEC1. Together, these results suggest that LEC1 originated at least 30 million years before the first seed plants appeared in the fossil record. The accumulation of Selaginella LEC1 RNA primarily in sexual and asexual reproductive structures suggests its involvement in cellular processes similar to those that occur during the maturation phase of seed development.

  1. FGF receptors 1 and 2 are key regulators of keratinocyte migration in vitro and in wounded skin

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Michael; Müller, Anna-Katharina; Yang, Jingxuan; Moik, Daniel; Ponzio, Gilles; Ornitz, David M.; Grose, Richard; Werner, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Summary Efficient wound repair is essential for the maintenance of the integrity of the skin. The repair process is controlled by a variety of growth factors and cytokines, and their abnormal expression or activity can cause healing disorders. Here, we show that wound repair is severely delayed in mice lacking fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR) 1 and 2 in keratinocytes. As the underlying mechanism, we identified impaired wound contraction and a delay in re-epithelialization that resulted from impaired keratinocyte migration at the wound edge. Scratch wounding and transwell assays demonstrated that FGFR1/2-deficient keratinocytes had a reduced migration velocity and impaired directional persistence owing to inefficient formation and turnover of focal adhesions. Underlying this defect, we identified a significant reduction in the expression of major focal adhesion components in the absence of FGFR signaling, resulting in a general migratory deficiency. These results identify FGFs as key regulators of keratinocyte migration in wounded skin. PMID:22992463

  2. miR-181b as a key regulator of the oncogenic process and its clinical implications in cancer (Review).

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan; Shi, Weifeng; Wu, Changping; Ju, Jingfang; Jiang, Jingting

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are small, non-coding, single-stranded RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level to repress protein expression of target genes. Among these, miR-181b has been found to be a critical regulatory miRNA linking inflammation and cancer. The functional significance of miR-181b in various tumors and translational research suggests that it exhibits great potential as a predictive and prognostic biomarker. Extensive efforts are underway to identify mRNA targets and the affected regulatory networks, which may be the key to providing a better understanding of miR-181b-mediated signaling pathways.

  3. Quantitative proteomics and transcriptomics of anaerobic and aerobic yeast cultures reveals post-transcriptional regulation of key cellular processes.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Marco J L; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale; van Breukelen, Bas; Knijnenburg, Theo A; de Hulster, Erik A F; Reinders, Marcel J T; Pronk, Jack T; Heck, Albert J R; Slijper, Monique

    2007-11-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is unique among yeasts in its ability to grow rapidly in the complete absence of oxygen. S. cerevisiae is therefore an ideal eukaryotic model to study physiological adaptation to anaerobiosis. Recent transcriptome analyses have identified hundreds of genes that are transcriptionally regulated by oxygen availability but the relevance of this cellular response has not been systematically investigated at the key control level of the proteome. Therefore, the proteomic response of S. cerevisiae to anaerobiosis was investigated using metabolic stable-isotope labelling in aerobic and anaerobic glucose-limited chemostat cultures, followed by relative quantification of protein expression. Using independent replicate cultures and stringent statistical filtering, a robust dataset of 474 quantified proteins was generated, of which 249 showed differential expression levels. While some of these changes were consistent with previous transcriptome studies, many of the responses of S. cerevisiae to oxygen availability were, to our knowledge, previously unreported. Comparison of transcriptomes and proteomes from identical cultivations yielded strong evidence for post-transcriptional regulation of key cellular processes, including glycolysis, amino-acyl-tRNA synthesis, purine nucleotide synthesis and amino acid biosynthesis. The use of chemostat cultures provided well-controlled and reproducible culture conditions, which are essential for generating robust datasets at different cellular information levels. Integration of transcriptome and proteome data led to new insights into the physiology of anaerobically growing yeast that would not have been apparent from differential analyses at either the mRNA or protein level alone, thus illustrating the power of multi-level studies in yeast systems biology.

  4. Expression profiling reveals Spot 42 small RNA as a key regulator in the central metabolism of Aliivibrio salmonicida

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Spot 42 was discovered in Escherichia coli nearly 40 years ago as an abundant, small and unstable RNA. Its biological role has remained obscure until recently, and is today implicated in having broader roles in the central and secondary metabolism. Spot 42 is encoded by the spf gene. The gene is ubiquitous in the Vibrionaceae family of gamma-proteobacteria. One member of this family, Aliivibrio salmonicida, causes cold-water vibriosis in farmed Atlantic salmon. Its genome encodes Spot 42 with 84% identity to E. coli Spot 42. Results We generated a A. salmonicida spf deletion mutant. We then used microarray and Northern blot analyses to monitor global effects on the transcriptome in order to provide insights into the biological roles of Spot 42 in this bacterium. In the presence of glucose, we found a surprisingly large number of ≥ 2X differentially expressed genes, and several major cellular processes were affected. A gene encoding a pirin-like protein showed an on/off expression pattern in the presence/absence of Spot 42, which suggests that Spot 42 plays a key regulatory role in the central metabolism by regulating the switch between fermentation and respiration. Interestingly, we discovered an sRNA named VSsrna24, which is encoded immediately downstream of spf. This new sRNA has an expression pattern opposite to that of Spot 42, and its expression is repressed by glucose. Conclusions We hypothesize that Spot 42 plays a key role in the central metabolism, in part by regulating the pyruvat dehydrogenase enzyme complex via pirin. PMID:22272603

  5. Effect of Low-Intensity Microwave Radiation on Monoamine Neurotransmitters and Their Key Regulating Enzymes in Rat Brain.

    PubMed

    Megha, Kanu; Deshmukh, Pravin S; Ravi, Alok K; Tripathi, Ashok K; Abegaonkar, Mahesh P; Banerjee, Basu D

    2015-09-01

    The increasing use of wireless communication devices has raised major concerns towards deleterious effects of microwave radiation on human health. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the effect of low-intensity microwave radiation on levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and gene expression of their key regulating enzymes in brain of Fischer rats. Animals were exposed to 900 MHz and 1800 MHz microwave radiation for 30 days (2 h/day, 5 days/week) with respective specific absorption rates as 5.953 × 10(-4) and 5.835 × 10(-4) W/kg. The levels of monoamine neurotransmitters viz. dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E) and serotonin (5-HT) were detected using LC-MS/MS in hippocampus of all experimental animals. In addition, mRNA expression of key regulating enzymes for these neurotransmitters viz. tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) (for DA, NE and E) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH1 and TPH2) (for serotonin) was also estimated. Results showed significant reduction in levels of DA, NE, E and 5-HT in hippocampus of microwave-exposed animals in comparison with sham-exposed (control) animals. In addition, significant downregulation in mRNA expression of TH, TPH1 and TPH2 was also observed in microwave-exposed animals (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the results indicate that low-intensity microwave radiation may cause learning and memory disturbances by altering levels of brain monoamine neurotransmitters at mRNA and protein levels.

  6. Efficient production of optically pure L-lactic acid from food waste at ambient temperature by regulating key enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Yinguang; Zhao, Shu; Chen, Hong; Zheng, Xiong; Luo, Jinyang; Liu, Yanan

    2015-03-01

    Bio-production of optically pure L-lactic acid from food waste has attracted much interest as it can treat organic wastes with simultaneous recovery of valuable by-products. However, the yield of L-lactic acid was very low and no optically pure L-lactic acid was produced in the literature due to (1) the lower activity of enzymes involved in hydrolysis and L-lactic acid generation, and (2) the participation of other enzymes related to D-lactic acid and acetic and propionic acids production. In this paper, a new strategy was reported for effective production of optically pure L-lactic acid from food waste at ambient temperature, i.e. via regulating key enzyme activity by sewage sludge supplement and intermittent alkaline fermentation. It was found that not only optically pure L-lactic acid was produced, but the yield was enhanced by 2.89-fold. The mechanism study showed that the activities of enzymes relevant to food waste hydrolysis and lactic acid production were enhanced, and the key enzymes related to volatile fatty acids and D-lactic acid generations were severally decreased or inhibited. Also, the microbes responsible for L-lactic acid production were selectively proliferated. Finally, the pilot-scale continuous experiment was conducted to testify the feasibility of this new technique.

  7. SND1, a NAC domain transcription factor, is a key regulator of secondary wall synthesis in fibers of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ruiqin; Demura, Taku; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2006-11-01

    Secondary walls in fibers and tracheary elements constitute the most abundant biomass produced by plants. Although a number of genes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary wall components have been characterized, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the coordinated expression of these genes. Here, we demonstrate that the Arabidopsis thaliana NAC (for NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) domain transcription factor, SND1 (for secondary wall-associated NAC domain protein), is a key transcriptional switch regulating secondary wall synthesis in fibers. We show that SND1 is expressed specifically in interfascicular fibers and xylary fibers in stems and that dominant repression of SND1 causes a drastic reduction in the secondary wall thickening of fibers. Ectopic overexpression of SND1 results in activation of the expression of secondary wall biosynthetic genes, leading to massive deposition of secondary walls in cells that are normally nonsclerenchymatous. In addition, we have found that SND1 upregulates the expression of several transcription factors that are highly expressed in fibers during secondary wall synthesis. Together, our results reveal that SND1 is a key transcriptional activator involved in secondary wall biosynthesis in fibers.

  8. Plasmin and Plasminogen induce macrophage reprogramming and regulate key steps of inflammation resolution via Annexin A1.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Michelle A; Ribeiro, Ana Luíza C; Costa, Bruno R C; Vago, Juliana P; Lima, Kátia M; Carneiro, Fernanda S; Ortiz, Mylena Maira O; Lima, Graziele Letícia N; Carmo, Aline A F; Rocha, Renata M; Perez, Denise A; Reis, Alessandra C; Pinho, Vanessa; Miles, Lindsey A; Garcia, Cristiana C; Teixeira, Mauro M; Sousa, Lirlândia P

    2017-03-20

    Inflammation resolution is an active process that functions to restore tissue homeostasis. Participation of the plasminogen/plasmin (Plg/Pla) system in the productive phase of inflammation is well known, but its involvement in the resolution phase remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the potential role of Plg/Pla in key events during the resolution of acute inflammation and its underlying mechanisms. Plg/Pla injection into the pleural cavity of BALB/c mice induced a time-dependent influx of mononuclear cells that were primarily macrophages of anti-inflammatory (M2 - F4/80(high) Gr1(-) CD11b(high)) and proresolving (Mres - F4/80(med) CD11b(low)) phenotypes, without changing the number of macrophages with a pro-inflammatory profile (M1 - F4/80(low) Gr1(+) CD11b(med)). Pleural injection of Plg/Pla also increased M2 markers (CD206 and Arginase-1) and secretory products (TGF-β and IL-6) and decreased the expression of iNOS (M1 marker). During the resolving phase of LPS-induced inflammation, when resolving macrophages predominate, we found increased Plg expression and Pla activity, further supporting a link between the Plg/Pla system and key cellular events in resolution. Indeed, Plg or Pla given at the peak of inflammation promoted resolution by decreasing neutrophil numbers and increasing neutrophil apoptosis and efferocytosis in a serine-protease inhibitor sensitive manner. Next, we confirmed the ability of Plg/Pla to both promote efferocytosis and override the pro-survival effect of LPS, via AnxA1. These findings suggest that Plg/Pla regulate several key steps in inflammation resolution, namely, neutrophil apoptosis, macrophage reprogramming and efferocytosis, which have a major impact on the establishment of an efficient resolution process.

  9. Global Analysis of mRNA, Translation, and Protein Localization: Local Translation Is a Key Regulator of Cell Protrusions.

    PubMed

    Mardakheh, Faraz K; Paul, Angela; Kümper, Sandra; Sadok, Amine; Paterson, Hugh; Mccarthy, Afshan; Yuan, Yinyin; Marshall, Christopher J

    2015-11-09

    Polarization of cells into a protrusive front and a retracting cell body is the hallmark of mesenchymal-like cell migration. Many mRNAs are localized to protrusions, but it is unclear to what degree mRNA localization contributes toward protrusion formation. We performed global quantitative analysis of the distributions of mRNAs, proteins, and translation rates between protrusions and the cell body by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and quantitative proteomics. Our results reveal local translation as a key determinant of protein localization to protrusions. Accordingly, inhibition of local translation destabilizes protrusions and inhibits mesenchymal-like morphology. Interestingly, many mRNAs localized to protrusions are translationally repressed. Specific cis-regulatory elements within mRNA UTRs define whether mRNAs are locally translated or repressed. Finally, RNAi screening of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) enriched in protrusions revealed trans-regulators of localized translation that are functionally important for protrusions. We propose that by deciphering the localized mRNA UTR code, these proteins regulate protrusion stability and mesenchymal-like morphology.

  10. The small heat shock protein 27 is a key regulator of CD8+ CD57+ lymphocyte survival.

    PubMed

    Wood, Karen L; Voss, Oliver H; Huang, Qin; Parihar, Arti; Mehta, Neeraj; Batra, Sanjay; Doseff, Andrea I

    2010-05-15

    Differences in CD8(+)CD57(-) and CD8(+)CD57(+) lymphocyte lifespan have been documented. Lower numbers and shorter lifespan are characteristic of CD8(+)CD57(+) in normal individuals. However, CD8(+)CD57(+) are expanded in certain disease states including T cell large granular leukemia and other hematologic malignancies. The mechanisms responsible for the differences in CD8(+)CD57(-) and CD8(+)CD57(+) lifespan remain elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that the small heat shock protein (Hsp) 27 is a key regulator of CD8(+)CD57(+) lymphocyte lifespan. We found that Hsp27 expression is significantly lower in CD8(+)CD57(+) than in CD8(+)CD57(-) lymphocytes. In contrast, Hsp60 and Hsp70 are expressed at comparable levels. Unlike other antiapoptotic Bcl-2-like molecules, the expression of Hsp27 tightly correlates with CD8(+)CD57(+) and CD8(+)CD57(-) lifespan. We demonstrate that Hsp27 overexpression in CD8(+)CD57(+) lymphocytes to levels found normally in CD8(+)CD57(-) lymphocytes decreased apoptosis. Accordingly, silencing of Hsp27 in CD8(+)CD57(-) lymphocytes increased apoptosis. Collectively these results demonstrate that Hsp27 is a critical regulator of normal CD8(+)CD57(+) lifespan supporting its use as a marker of lifespan in this lineage, and suggest a mechanism responsible for the decreased apoptosis and clonal expansion characteristic of certain disease states.

  11. Adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase and its key role in catabolism: structure, regulation, biological activity, and pharmacological activation.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Sukriti; Richardson, Des R; Sahni, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a cellular energy sensor, which once activated, plays a role in several processes within the cell to restore energy homeostasis. The protein enhances catabolic pathways, such as β-oxidation and autophagy, to generate ATP, and inhibits anabolic processes that require energy, including fatty acid, cholesterol, and protein synthesis. Due to its key role in the regulation of critical cellular pathways, deregulation of AMPK is associated with the pathology of many diseases, including cancer, Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. In fact, AMPK is a target of some pharmacological agents implemented in the treatment of diabetes (metformin and thiazolidinediones) as well as other naturally derived products, such as berberine, which is used in traditional medicine. Due to its critical role in the cell and the pathology of several disorders, research into developing AMPK as a therapeutic target is becoming a burgeoning and exciting field of pharmacological research. A profound understanding of the regulation and activity of AMPK would enhance its development as a promising therapeutic target.

  12. The Regulation of Alfalfa Saponin Extract on Key Genes Involved in Hepatic Cholesterol Metabolism in Hyperlipidemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yinghua; Guo, Rui; Wang, Xianke; Yuan, Dedi; Zhang, Senhao; Wang, Jie; Yan, Xuebing; Wang, Chengzhang

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the cholesterol-lowering effects of alfalfa saponin extract (ASE) and its regulation mechanism on some key genes involved in cholesterol metabolism, 40 healthy 7 weeks old male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups with 10 rats in each group: control group, hyperlipidemic group, ASE treatment group, ASE prevention group. The body weight gain, relative liver weight and serum lipid 1evels of rats were determined. Total cholesterol (TC) and total bile acids (TBA) levels in liver and feces were also measured. Furthermore, the activity and mRNA expressions of Hmgcr, Acat2, Cyp7a1 and Ldlr were investigated. The results showed the following: (1) The abnormal serum lipid levels in hyperlipidemic rats were ameliorated by ASE administration (both ASE prevention group and treatment group) (P<0.05). (2) Both ASE administration to hyperlipidemic rats significantly reduced liver TC and increased liver TBA level (P<0.05). TC and TBA levels in feces of hyperlipidemic rats were remarkably elevated by both ASE administration (P<0.05). (3) mRNA expressions of Hmgcr and Acat2 in the liver of hyperlipidemic rats were remarkably down-regulated (P<0.05), as well as mRNA expressions of Cyp7a1 and Ldlr were dramatically up-regulated by both ASE administration (P<0.05). The activities of these enzymes also paralleled the observed changes in mRNA levels. (4) There was no significant difference between ASE treatment and ASE prevention group for most parameters evaluated. Our present study indicated that ASE had cholesterol-lowering effects. The possible mechanism could be attributed to (1) the down-regulation of Hmgcr and Acat2, as well as up-regulation of Cyp7a1 and Ldlr in the liver of hyperlipidemic rats, which was involved in cholesterol biosynthesis, uptake, and efflux pathway; (2) the increase in excretion of cholesterol. The findings in our study suggested ASE had great potential usefulness as a natural agent for treating hyperlipidemia. PMID

  13. PDE11A regulates social behaviors and is a key mechanism by which social experience sculpts the brain.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Shweta; Ji, Hao; Oliver, David; Patel, Neema S; Poupore, Nicolas; Shtutman, Michael; Kelly, Michy P

    2016-10-29

    Despite the fact that appropriate social behaviors are vital to thriving in one's environment, little is understood of the molecular mechanisms controlling social behaviors or how social experience sculpts these signaling pathways. Here, we determine if Phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A), an enzyme that is enriched in the ventral hippocampal formation (VHIPP) and that breaks down cAMP and cGMP, regulates social behaviors. PDE11 wild-type (WT), heterozygous (HT), and knockout (KO) mice were tested in various social approach assays and gene expression differences were measured by RNA sequencing. The effect of social isolation on PDE11A4 compartmentalization and subsequent social interactions and social memory was also assessed. Deletion of PDE11A triggered age- and sex-dependent deficits in social approach in specific social contexts but not others. Mice appear to detect altered social behaviors of PDE11A KO mice, because C57BL/6J mice prefer to spend time with a sex-matched PDE11A WT vs. its KO littermate; whereas, a PDE11A KO prefers to spend time with a novel PDE11A KO vs. its WT littermate. Not only is PDE11A required for intact social interactions, we found that 1month of social isolation vs. group housing decreased PDE11A4 protein expression specifically within the membrane fraction of VHIPP. This isolation-induced decrease in PDE11A4 expression appears functional because social isolation impairs subsequent social approach behavior and social memory in a PDE11A genotype-dependent manner. Pathway analyses following RNA sequencing suggests PDE11A is a key regulator of the oxytocin pathway and membrane signaling, consistent with its pivotal role in regulating social behavior. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. GAS6 is a key homeostatic immunological regulator of host-commensal interactions in the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Maria; Tabib, Yaara; Capucha, Tal; Mizraji, Gabriel; Nir, Tsipora; Pevsner-Fischer, Meirav; Zilberman-Schapira, Gili; Heyman, Oded; Nussbaum, Gabriel; Bercovier, Herve; Wilensky, Asaf; Elinav, Eran; Burstyn-Cohen, Tal; Hovav, Avi-Hai

    2017-01-17

    The oral epithelium contributes to innate immunity and oral mucosal homeostasis, which is critical for preventing local inflammation and the associated adverse systemic conditions. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which the oral epithelium maintains homeostasis are poorly understood. Here, we studied the role of growth arrest specific 6 (GAS6), a ligand of the TYRO3-AXL-MERTK (TAM) receptor family, in regulating oral mucosal homeostasis. Expression of GAS6 was restricted to the outer layers of the oral epithelium. In contrast to protein S, the other TAM ligand, which was constitutively expressed postnatally, expression of GAS6 initiated only 3-4 wk after birth. Further analysis revealed that GAS6 expression was induced by the oral microbiota in a myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88)-dependent fashion. Mice lacking GAS6 presented higher levels of inflammatory cytokines, elevated frequencies of neutrophils, and up-regulated activity of enzymes, generating reactive nitrogen species. We also found an imbalance in Th17/Treg ratio known to control tissue homeostasis, as Gas6-deficient dendritic cells preferentially secreted IL-6 and induced Th17 cells. As a result of this immunological shift, a significant microbial dysbiosis was observed in Gas6(-/-) mice, because anaerobic bacteria largely expanded by using inflammatory byproducts for anaerobic respiration. Using chimeric mice, we found a critical role for GAS6 in epithelial cells in maintaining oral homeostasis, whereas its absence in hematopoietic cells synergized the level of dysbiosis. We thus propose GAS6 as a key immunological regulator of host-commensal interactions in the oral epithelium.

  15. The neuronal kinesin UNC-104/KIF1A is a key regulator of synaptic aging and insulin signaling-regulated memory

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling-Bo; Lei, Haoyun; Arey, Rachel N.; Li, Pengpeng; Liu, Jianfeng; Murphy, Coleen T.; Xu, X.Z. Shawn; Shen, Kang

    2016-01-01

    Summary Aging is the greatest risk factor for a number of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. Furthermore, normal aging is associated with a decline in sensory, motor, and cognitive functions. Emerging evidence suggests that synapse alterations, rather than neuronal cell death, are the causes of neuronal dysfunctions in normal aging, and in early stages of neurodegenerative diseases. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying age-related synaptic decline. Here we uncover a surprising role of the anterograde molecular motor UNC-104/KIF1A as a key regulator of neural circuit deterioration in aging C. elegans. Through analyses of synapse protein localization, synaptic transmission, and animal behaviors, we find that reduced function of UNC-104 accelerates motor circuit dysfunction with age, while upregulation of UNC-104 significantly improves motor function at advanced ages and also mildly extends lifespan. In addition, UNC-104-overexpressing animals outperform wild-type controls in associative learning and memory tests. Further genetic analyses suggest that UNC-104 functions downstream of the DAF-2 signaling pathway, and is regulated by the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16, which contributes to the effects of DAF-2 in neuronal aging. Together, our cellular, electrophysiological, and behavioral analyses highlight the importance of axonal transport in the maintenance of synaptic structural integrity and function during aging, and raise the possibility of targeting kinesins to slow age-related neural circuit dysfunction. PMID:26877087

  16. Shedding light on NO homeostasis: Light as a key regulator of glutathione and nitric oxide metabolisms during seedling deetiolation.

    PubMed

    Zuccarelli, Rafael; Coelho, Aline C P; Peres, Lazaro E P; Freschi, Luciano

    2017-01-18

    Despite the significant impacts of light on nitric oxide (NO) levels in plants, the mechanism underlying the influence of this environmental factor on NO metabolism remains poorly understood. A critical mechanism controlling NO levels in plant cells relies on the S-nitrosylation of glutathione (GSH), giving rise to S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), which can be either stored or degraded depending on the cellular context. Here, we demonstrate that a strict balance is maintained between NO generation and scavenging during tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seedling deetiolation. Given the absence of accurate methods in the literature to estimate NO scavenging in planta, we first developed a simple, robust system to continuously monitor the global in vivo NO scavenging by plant tissues. Then, using photomorphogenic tomato mutants, we demonstrated that the light-evoked de-etiolation is associated with a dramatic rise in NO content followed by a progressive increment in NO scavenging capacity of the tissues. Light-driven increments in NO scavenging rates coincided with pronounced rises in S-nitrosothiol content and GSNO reductase (GSNOR) activity, thereby suggesting that GSNO formation and subsequent removal via GSNOR might be key for controlling NO levels during seedling deetiolation. Accordingly, treatments with thiol-blocking compounds further indicated that thiol nitrosylation might be critically involved in the NO scavenging mechanism responsible for maintaining NO homeostasis during deetiolation. The impacts of both light and NO on the transcriptional profile of glutathione metabolic genes also revealed an independent but coordinated action of these signals on the regulation of key components of glutathione and GSNO metabolisms. Altogether, these data indicated that GSNO formation and subsequent removal might facilitate maintaining NO homeostasis during light-driven seedling deetiolation.

  17. VdNUC-2, the Key Regulator of Phosphate Responsive Signaling Pathway, Is Required for Verticillium dahliae Infection

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Sheng; Wang, Cai-yue; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Qing; Lin, Ling

    2015-01-01

    In fungal cells, a phosphate (Pi) responsive signaling and metabolism (PHO) pathway regulates Pi-homeostasis. NUC-2/PHO81 and its homologs are one of the most important components in the regulation pathway. In soil-borne phytopathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae, we identified a Neurospora crassa nuc-2 homolog gene VdNUC-2. VdNUC-2 is composed of 1,018 amino acids, and is highly conserved in tested filamentous fungi. Under conditions of Pi-starvation, compared with the wild-type strain and ectopic complementation strains, the VdNUC-2 knocked out mutants exhibited reduced radial growth, decreased production of conidia and microsclerotia, and were more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide stress. The virulence of VdNUC-2 defective mutants was significantly compromised, and that was unable to be restored by exogenous application of extra Pi. Additionally, the deletion mutants of VdNUC-1, a key transcription factor gene positively controlled by VdNUC-2 in the PHO pathway, showed the similar cultural phenotypes as VdNUC-2 mutants when both of them grew in Pi-limited conditions. However, the virulence of VdNUC-1 mutants was comparable to the wild-type strain. These evidences indicated that the virulence reduction in VdNUC-2 mutants is not due to the interruptions in the PHO pathway or the disturbance of Pi-homeostasis in V. dahliae cytoplasm. VdNUC-2 is not only a crucial gene in the PHO pathway in V. dahliae, but also is required for the full virulence during host-infection. PMID:26670613

  18. A key hydrophobic patch identified in an AAA⁺ protein essential for its in trans inhibitory regulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Simpson, Timothy; Lawton, Edward; Uzdavinys, Povilas; Joly, Nicolas; Burrows, Patricia; Buck, Martin

    2013-08-09

    Bacterial enhancer binding proteins (bEBPs) are a subclass of the AAA(+) (ATPases Associated with various cellular Activities) protein family. They are responsible for σ(54)-dependent transcription activation during infection and function under many stressful growth conditions. The majority of bEBPs are regulated in their formation of ring-shaped hexameric self-assemblies via an amino-terminal domain through its phosphorylation or ligand binding. In contrast, the Escherichia coli phage shock protein F (PspF) is negatively regulated in trans by phage shock protein A (PspA). Up to six PspA subunits suppress PspF hexamer action. Here, we present biochemical evidence that PspA engages across the side of a PspF hexameric ring. We identify three key binding determinants located in a surface-exposed 'W56 loop' of PspF, which form a tightly packed hydrophobic cluster, the 'YLW' patch. We demonstrate the profound impact of the PspF W56 loop residues on ATP hydrolysis, the σ(54) binding loop 1, and the self-association interface. We infer from single-chain studies that for complete PspF inhibition to occur, more than three PspA subunits need to bind a PspF hexamer with at least two binding to adjacent PspF subunits. By structural modelling, we propose that PspA binds to PspF via its first two helical domains. After PspF binding-induced conformational changes, PspA may then share structural similarities with a bEBP regulatory domain.

  19. Regulation of Adipogenesis and Key Adipogenic Gene Expression by 1, 25-Dihydroxyvitamin D in 3T3-L1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Shuhan; Doumit, Matthew E; Hill, Rodney A

    2015-01-01

    The functions of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1, 25-(OH)2D3) in regulating adipogenesis, adipocyte differentiation and key adipogenic gene expression were studied in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Five concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 nM) of 1, 25-(OH)2D3 were studied and lipid accumulation measured by Oil Red O staining and expression of adipogenic genes quantified using quantitative real-time PCR. Adipogenic responses to 1, 25-(OH)2D3 were determined on 6, and 12 h, and days 1-10 after induction of adipogenesis by a hormonal cocktail with or without 1, 25-(OH)2D3. In response to 1, 25-(OH)2D3 (1, 10, and 100 nM), lipid accumulation and the expression of PPARγ, C/EBPα, FABP4 and SCD-1 were inhibited through day 10, and vitamin D receptor expression was inhibited in the early time points. The greatest inhibitory effect was upon expression of FABP4. Expression of SREBP-1c was only affected on day 2. The lowest concentrations of 1, 25-(OH)2D3 tested did not affect adipocyte differentiation or adipogenic gene expression. The C/EBPα promoter activity response to 1, 25-(OH)2D3 was also tested, with no effect detected. These results indicate that 1, 25-(OH)2D3 inhibited adipogenesis via suppressing adipogenic-specific genes, and is invoked either during PPARγ activation or immediately up-stream thereof. Gene expression down-stream of PPARγ especially FABP4 was strongly inhibited, and we suggest that the role of 1, 25-(OH)2D3 in regulating adipogenesis will be informed by further studies of adipogenic-specific gene promoter activity.

  20. AMP-activated kinase in human spermatozoa: identification, intracellular localization, and key function in the regulation of sperm motility.

    PubMed

    Calle-Guisado, Violeta; de Llera, Ana Hurtado; Martin-Hidalgo, David; Mijares, Jose; Gil, Maria C; Alvarez, Ignacio S; Bragado, Maria J; Garcia-Marin, Luis J

    2016-09-27

    AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), a protein that regulates energy balance and metabolism, has recently been identified in boar spermatozoa where regulates key functional sperm processes essential for fertilization. This work's aims are AMPK identification, intracellular localization, and their role in human spermatozoa function. Semen was obtained from healthy human donors. Sperm AMPK and phospho-Thr172-AMPK were analyzed by Western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence. High- and low-quality sperm populations were separated by a 40%-80% density gradient. Human spermatozoa motility was evaluated by an Integrated Semen Analysis System (ISAS) in the presence or absence of the AMPK inhibitor compound C (CC). AMPK is localized along the human spermatozoa, at the entire acrosome, midpiece and tail with variable intensity, whereas its active form, phospho-Thr172-AMPK, shows a prominent staining at the acrosome and sperm tail with a weaker staining in the midpiece and the postacrosomal region. Interestingly, spermatozoa bearing an excess residual cytoplasm show strong AMPK staining in this subcellular compartment. Both AMPK and phospho-Thr172-AMPK human spermatozoa contents exhibit important individual variations. Moreover, active AMPK is predominant in the high motility sperm population, where shows a stronger intensity compared with the low motility sperm population. Inhibition of AMPK activity in human spermatozoa by CC treatment leads to a significant reduction in any sperm motility parameter analyzed: percent of motile sperm, sperm velocities, progressivity, and other motility coefficients. This work identifies and points out AMPK as a new molecular mechanism involved in human spermatozoa motility. Further AMPK implications in the clinical efficiency of assisted reproduction and in other reproductive areas need to be studied.

  1. The lin-35/Rb and RNAi pathways cooperate to regulate a key cell cycle transition in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Ouellet, Jimmy; Roy, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Background The Retinoblastoma gene product (Rb) has been shown to regulate the transcription of key genes involved in cell growth and proliferation. Consistent with this, mutations in Rb are associated with numerous types of cancer making it a critical tumour suppressor gene. Its function is conferred through a large multiprotein complex that exhibits a dual function in both activation and repression of gene targets. In C. elegans, the Rb orthologue lin-35 functions redundantly with other transcriptional regulators to appropriately specify both vulval and pharyngeal cell fates. Results In C. elegans the intestinal cells must alter their cell cycle from the mitotic cell divisions typical of embryogenesis to karyokinesis and then endoreplication, which facilitates growth during larval development. While screening for genes that affect the ability of the intestinal cells to appropriately make this cell cycle transition during post-embryonic development, we isolated mutants that either compromise this switch and remain mononucleate, or cause these cells to undergo multiple rounds of nuclear division. Among these mutants we identified a novel allele of lin-35/Rb, while we also found that the components of the synMuv B complex, which are involved in vulval specification, are also required to properly regulate the developmentally-controlled cell cycle transition typical of these intestinal cells during larval development. More importantly, our work uncovered a role for certain members of the pathways involved in RNAi in mediating the efficient transition between these cell cycle programs, suggesting that lin-35/Rb cooperates with these RNAi components. Furthermore, our findings suggest that met-2, a methyltransferase as well as hpl-1 and hpl-2, two C. elegans homologues of the heterochromatin protein HP1 are also required for this transition. Conclusion Our findings are consistent with lin-35/Rb, synMuv and RNAi components cooperating, probably through their additive

  2. Glucose and Insulin Stimulate Lipogenesis in Porcine Adipocytes: Dissimilar and Identical Regulation Pathway for Key Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Zhang Guo; Xiong, Lu Jian; Yan, Chen; Wei, Dai Hong; YingPai, ZhaXi; Qing, Zhao Yong; Lin, Qiao Zi; Fei, Feng Ruo; Ling, Wang Ya; Ren, Ma Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Lipogenesis is under the concerted action of ChREBP, SREBP-1c and other transcription factors in response to glucose and insulin. The isolated porcine preadipocytes were differentiated into mature adipocytes to investigate the roles and interrelation of these transcription factors in the context of glucose- and insulin-induced lipogenesis in pigs. In ChREBP-silenced adipocytes, glucose-induced lipogenesis decreased by ~70%, however insulin-induced lipogenesis was unaffected. Moreover, insulin had no effect on ChREBP expression of unperturbed adipocytes irrespective of glucose concentration, suggesting ChREBP mediate glucose-induced lipogenesis. Insulin stimulated SREBP-1c expression and when SREBP-1c activation was blocked, and the insulin-induced lipogenesis decreased by ~55%, suggesting SREBP-1c is a key transcription factor mediating insulin-induced lipogenesis. LXRα activation promoted lipogenesis and lipogenic genes expression. In ChREBP-silenced or SREBP-1c activation blocked adipocytes, LXRα activation facilitated lipogenesis and SREBP-1c expression, but had no effect on ChREBP expression. Therefore, LXRα might mediate lipogenesis via SREBP-1c rather than ChREBP. When ChREBP expression was silenced and SREBP-1c activation blocked simultaneously, glucose and insulin were still able to stimulated lipogenesis and lipogenic genes expression, and LXRα activation enhanced these effects, suggesting LXRα mediated directly glucose- and insulin-induced lipogenesis. In summary, glucose and insulin stimulated lipogenesis through both dissimilar and identical regulation pathway in porcine adipocytes. PMID:27871177

  3. The glucocorticoid receptor is a key regulator of the decision between self-renewal and differentiation in erythroid progenitors.

    PubMed Central

    Wessely, O; Deiner, E M; Beug, H; von Lindern, M

    1997-01-01

    During development and in regenerating tissues such as the bone marrow, progenitor cells constantly need to make decisions between proliferation and differentiation. We have used a model system, normal erythroid progenitors of the chicken, to determine the molecular players involved in making this decision. The molecules identified comprised receptor tyrosine kinases (c-Kit and c-ErbB) and members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily (thyroid hormone receptor and estrogen receptor). Here we identify the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) as a key regulator of erythroid progenitor self-renewal (i.e. continuous proliferation in the absence of differentiation). In media lacking a GR ligand or containing a GR antagonist, erythroid progenitors failed to self-renew, even if c-Kit, c-ErbB and the estrogen receptor were activated simultaneously. To induce self-renewal, the GR required the continuous presence of an activated receptor tyrosine kinase and had to cooperate with the estrogen receptor for full activity. Mutant analysis showed that DNA binding and a functional AF-2 transactivation domain are required for proliferation stimulation and differentiation arrest. c-myb was identified as a potential target gene of the GR in erythroblasts. It could be demonstrated that delta c-Myb, an activated c-Myb protein, can functionally replace the GR. PMID:9029148

  4. The microbiome as a key regulator of brain, behavior and immunity: Commentary on the 2017 named series.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Michael T; Cryan, John F

    2017-08-23

    The focus on the microbiome for the 2017 Named Series in Brain, Behavior, and Immunity reflects the rapidly growing interest in commensal microbes and the effects that they can have on physiological processes often studied in PsychoNeuroImmunology Research. The studies included in this Named Series show that commensal microbes can impact immune system activity, as well as brain and behavioral processes across the lifespan, and are involved in behavioral and immunological responses to social stresses. The studies also show that dietary effects on brain, behavior, and immunity often involve alterations of the gut microbiota. Thus, diet can be used therapeutically for diseases and conditions involving the brain, behavior, and immunity, as can treatment with both pre- and probiotics. While this has been widely tested in animal models, fewer studies have focused on pre- and probiotic treatment in humans. The studies in this Named Series highlight the challenges of probiotic research in human populations, but also highlight the future promise of probiotics for human health. While emotional disorders, such as anxiety and depression have been often been linked to alterations in the gut microbiota, studies in this Named Series identify new domains involving interactions between the microbiota, brain, behavior, and immunity, including schizophrenia, traumatic brain injury, and stroke. As a whole, this collection of work demonstrates the importance of the microbiome in regulating key aspects of immunity, brain, and behavior, and provides important rationale for extending the work so that findings can be translated into clinical practice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. miR-135b, a key regulator of malignancy, is linked to poor prognosis in human myxoid liposarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Nezu, Y; Hagiwara, K; Yamamoto, Y; Fujiwara, T; Matsuo, K; Yoshida, A; Kawai, A; Saito, T; Ochiya, T

    2016-01-01

    Myxoid/round cell (RC) liposarcomas (MLS) were originally classified into two distinct populations based on histological differences; a myxoid component and a RC component. It is notable that, depending on an increase of the RC component, the prognosis significantly differs. Hence, the RC component is associated with metastasis and poor prognosis. However, the molecular mechanisms that contribute to the malignancy of the RC component still remain largely unknown. Here, we report microRNA-135b (miR-135b), a key regulator of the malignancy, highly expressed in the RC component and promoting MLS cell invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo through the direct suppression of thrombospondin 2 (THBS2). Decreased THBS2 expression by miR-135b increases the total amount of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and influences cellular density and an extracellular matrix structure, thereby resulting in morphological change in tumor. The expression levels of miR-135b and THBS2 significantly correlated with a poor prognosis in MLS patients. Overall, our study reveals that the miR-135b/THBS2/MMP2 axis is tightly related to MLS pathophysiology and has an important clinical implication. This work provides noteworthy evidence for overcoming metastasis and improving patient outcomes, and sheds light on miR-135b and THBS2 as novel molecular targets for diagnosis and therapy in MLS. PMID:27157622

  6. Mapping of transcription factor motifs in active chromatin identifies IRF5 as key regulator in classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Kreher, Stephan; Bouhlel, M Amine; Cauchy, Pierre; Lamprecht, Björn; Li, Shuang; Grau, Michael; Hummel, Franziska; Köchert, Karl; Anagnostopoulos, Ioannis; Jöhrens, Korinna; Hummel, Michael; Hiscott, John; Wenzel, Sören-Sebastian; Lenz, Peter; Schneider, Markus; Küppers, Ralf; Scheidereit, Claus; Giefing, Maciej; Siebert, Reiner; Rajewsky, Klaus; Lenz, Georg; Cockerill, Peter N; Janz, Martin; Dörken, Bernd; Bonifer, Constanze; Mathas, Stephan

    2014-10-21

    Deregulated transcription factor (TF) activities are commonly observed in hematopoietic malignancies. Understanding tumorigenesis therefore requires determining the function and hierarchical role of individual TFs. To identify TFs central to lymphomagenesis, we identified lymphoma type-specific accessible chromatin by global mapping of DNaseI hypersensitive sites and analyzed enriched TF-binding motifs in these regions. Applying this unbiased approach to classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), a common B-cell-derived lymphoma with a complex pattern of deregulated TFs, we discovered interferon regulatory factor (IRF) sites among the top enriched motifs. High-level expression of the proinflammatory TF IRF5 was specific to HL cells and crucial for their survival. Furthermore, IRF5 initiated a regulatory cascade in human non-Hodgkin B-cell lines and primary murine B cells by inducing the TF AP-1 and cooperating with NF-κB to activate essential characteristic features of HL. Our strategy efficiently identified a lymphoma type-specific key regulator and uncovered a tumor promoting role of IRF5.

  7. Mapping of transcription factor motifs in active chromatin identifies IRF5 as key regulator in classical Hodgkin lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Kreher, Stephan; Bouhlel, M. Amine; Cauchy, Pierre; Lamprecht, Björn; Li, Shuang; Grau, Michael; Hummel, Franziska; Köchert, Karl; Anagnostopoulos, Ioannis; Jöhrens, Korinna; Hummel, Michael; Hiscott, John; Wenzel, Sören-Sebastian; Lenz, Peter; Schneider, Markus; Küppers, Ralf; Scheidereit, Claus; Giefing, Maciej; Siebert, Reiner; Rajewsky, Klaus; Lenz, Georg; Cockerill, Peter N.; Janz, Martin; Dörken, Bernd; Bonifer, Constanze; Mathas, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Deregulated transcription factor (TF) activities are commonly observed in hematopoietic malignancies. Understanding tumorigenesis therefore requires determining the function and hierarchical role of individual TFs. To identify TFs central to lymphomagenesis, we identified lymphoma type-specific accessible chromatin by global mapping of DNaseI hypersensitive sites and analyzed enriched TF-binding motifs in these regions. Applying this unbiased approach to classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), a common B-cell–derived lymphoma with a complex pattern of deregulated TFs, we discovered interferon regulatory factor (IRF) sites among the top enriched motifs. High-level expression of the proinflammatory TF IRF5 was specific to HL cells and crucial for their survival. Furthermore, IRF5 initiated a regulatory cascade in human non-Hodgkin B-cell lines and primary murine B cells by inducing the TF AP-1 and cooperating with NF-κB to activate essential characteristic features of HL. Our strategy efficiently identified a lymphoma type-specific key regulator and uncovered a tumor promoting role of IRF5. PMID:25288773

  8. EphA2 is a key effector of the MEK/ERK/RSK pathway regulating glioblastoma cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Hamaoka, Yuho; Negishi, Manabu; Katoh, Hironori

    2016-08-01

    EphA2, a member of the Eph receptor tyrosine kinases, is frequently overexpressed in a variety of malignancies, including glioblastoma, and its expression is correlated with poor prognosis. EphA2 acts as a tumor promoter through a ligand ephrin-independent mechanism, which requires phosphorylation of EphA2 on serine 897 (S897), leading to increased cell migration and invasion. In this study, we show that ligand-independent EphA2 signaling occurs downstream of the MEK/ERK/RSK pathway and mediates epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced cell proliferation in glioblastoma cells. Suppression of EphA2 expression by long-term exposure to ligand ephrinA1 or EphA2-targeted shRNA inhibited EGF-induced cell proliferation. Stimulation of the cells with EGF induced EphA2 S897 phosphorylation, which was suppressed by MEK and RSK inhibitors, but not by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt inhibitors. The RSK inhibitor or RSK2-targeted shRNA also suppressed EGF-induced cell proliferation. Furthermore, overexpression of wild-type EphA2 promoted cell proliferation without EGF stimulation, whereas overexpression of EphA2-S897A mutant suppressed EGF- or RSK2-induced proliferation. Taken together, these results suggest that EphA2 is a key downstream target of the MEK/ERK/RSK signaling pathway in the regulation of glioblastoma cell proliferation.

  9. Characterization of gene expression profiles in HBV-related liver fibrosis patients and identification of ITGBL1 as a key regulator of fibrogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mingjie; Gong, Qiming; Zhang, Jiming; Chen, Liang; Zhang, Zhanqing; Lu, Lungen; Yu, Demin; Han, Yue; Zhang, Donghua; Chen, Peizhan; Zhang, Xiaonan; Yuan, Zhenghong; Huang, Jinyan; Zhang, Xinxin

    2017-01-01

    Although hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the leading cause of liver fibrosis (LF), the mechanisms underlying liver fibrotic progression remain unclear. Here, we investigated the gene expression profiles of HBV-related LF patients. Whole genome expression arrays were used to detect gene expression in liver biopsy samples from chronically HBV infected patients. Through integrative data analysis, we identified several pathways and key genes involved in the initiation and exacerbation of liver fibrosis. Weight gene co-expression analysis revealed that integrin subunit β-like 1 (ITGBL1) was a key regulator of fibrogenesis. Functional experiments demonstrated that ITGBL1 was an upstream regulator of LF via interactions with transforming growth factor β1. In summary, we investigated the gene expression profiles of HBV-related LF patients and identified a key regulator ITGBL1. Our findings provide a foundation for future studies of gene functions and promote the development of novel antifibrotic therapies. PMID:28262670

  10. Regulation of Tacaribe Mammarenavirus Translation: Positive 5' and Negative 3' Elements and Role of Key Cellular Factors.

    PubMed

    Foscaldi, Sabrina; D'Antuono, Alejandra; Noval, María Gabriela; de Prat Gay, Gonzalo; Scolaro, Luis; Lopez, Nora

    2017-07-15

    Mammarenaviruses are enveloped viruses with a bisegmented negative-stranded RNA genome that encodes the nucleocapsid protein (NP), the envelope glycoprotein precursor (GPC), the RNA polymerase (L), and a RING matrix protein (Z). Viral proteins are synthesized from subgenomic mRNAs bearing a capped 5' untranslated region (UTR) and lacking 3' poly(A) tail. We analyzed the translation strategy of Tacaribe virus (TCRV), a prototype of the New World mammarenaviruses. A virus-like transcript that carries a reporter gene in place of the NP open reading frame and transcripts bearing modified 5' and/or 3' UTR were evaluated in a cell-based translation assay. We found that the presence of the cap structure at the 5' end dramatically increases translation efficiency and that the viral 5' UTR comprises stimulatory signals while the 3' UTR,specifically the presence of a terminal C+G-rich sequence and/or a stem-loop structure, down-modulates translation. Additionally, translation was profoundly reduced in eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4G-inactivated cells, whereas depletion of intracellular levels of eIF4E had less impact on virus-like mRNA translation than on a cell-like transcript. Translation efficiency was independent of NP expression or TCRV infection. Our results indicate that TCRV mRNAs are translated using a cap-dependent mechanism, whose efficiency relies on the interplay between stimulatory signals in the 5' UTR and a negative modulatory element in the 3' UTR. The low dependence on eIF4E suggests that viral mRNAs may engage yet-unknown noncanonical host factors for a cap-dependent initiation mechanism.IMPORTANCE Several members of the Arenaviridae family cause serious hemorrhagic fevers in humans. In the present report, we describe the mechanism by which Tacaribe virus, a prototypic nonpathogenic New World mammarenavirus, regulates viral mRNA translation. Our results highlight the impact of untranslated sequences and key host translation factors on this process

  11. GC/MS-based metabolomic studies reveal key roles of glycine in regulating silk synthesis in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Chen, Quanmei; Liu, Xinyu; Zhao, Ping; Sun, Yanhui; Zhao, Xinjie; Xiong, Ying; Xu, Guowang; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-02-01

    Metabolic profiling of silkworm, especially the factors that affect silk synthesis at the metabolic level, is little known. Herein, metabolomic method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was applied to identify key metabolic changes in silk synthesis deficient silkworms. Forty-six differential metabolites were identified in Nd group with the defect of silk synthesis. Significant changes in the levels of glycine and uric acid (up-regulation), carbohydrates and free fatty acids (down-regulation) were observed. The further metabolomics of silk synthesis deficient silkworms by decreasing silk proteins synthesis using knocking out fibroin heavy chain gene or extirpating silk glands operation showed that the changes of the metabolites were almost consistent with those of the Nd group. Furthermore, the increased silk yields by supplying more glycine or its related metabolite confirmed that glycine is a key metabolite to regulate silk synthesis. These findings provide important insights into the regulation between metabolic profiling and silk synthesis.

  12. Quorum sensing is a key regulator for the antifungal and biocontrol activity of chitinase-producing Chromobacterium sp. C61.

    PubMed

    Kim, In Seon; Yang, Si Young; Park, Seur Kee; Kim, Young Cheol

    2017-01-01

    Chromobacterium sp. strain C61 has strong biocontrol activity; however, the genetic and biochemical determinants of its plant disease suppression activity are not well understood. Here, we report the identification and characterization of two new determinants of its biocontrol activity. Transposon mutagenesis was used to identify mutants that were deficient in fungal suppression. One of these mutants had an insertion in a homologue of depD, a structural gene in the dep operon, that encodes a protein involved in non-ribosomal peptide synthesis. In the second mutant, the insertion was in a homologue of the luxI gene, which encodes a homoserine lactone synthase. The luxI(-) and depD(-) mutants had no antifungal activity in vitro and a dramatically reduced capacity to suppress various plant diseases in planta. Antifungal production and biocontrol were restored by complementation of the luxI(-) mutant. Other phenotypes associated with effective biological control, including motility and lytic enzyme secretion, were also affected by the luxI mutation. Biochemical analysis of ethyl acetate extracts of culture filtrates of the mutant and wild-type strains showed that a key antifungal compound, chromobactomycin, was produced by wild-type C61 and the complemented luxI(-) mutant, but not by the luxI(-) or depD(-) mutant. These data suggest that multiple biocontrol-related phenotypes are regulated by homoserine lactones in C61. Thus, quorum sensing plays an essential role in the biological control potential of diverse bacterial lineages. © 2016 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Transcriptome Phase Distribution Analysis Reveals Diurnal Regulated Biological Processes and Key Pathways in Rice Flag Leaves and Seedling Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meina; Xing, Zhuo; Yang, Wenqiang; Chen, Guang; Guo, Han; Gong, Xiaojie; Du, Zhou; Zhang, Zhenhai; Hu, Xingming; Wang, Dong; Qian, Qian; Wang, Tai; Su, Zhen; Xue, Yongbiao

    2011-01-01

    Plant diurnal oscillation is a 24-hour period based variation. The correlation between diurnal genes and biological pathways was widely revealed by microarray analysis in different species. Rice (Oryza sativa) is the major food staple for about half of the world's population. The rice flag leaf is essential in providing photosynthates to the grain filling. However, there is still no comprehensive view about the diurnal transcriptome for rice leaves. In this study, we applied rice microarray to monitor the rhythmically expressed genes in rice seedling and flag leaves. We developed a new computational analysis approach and identified 6,266 (10.96%) diurnal probe sets in seedling leaves, 13,773 (24.08%) diurnal probe sets in flag leaves. About 65% of overall transcription factors were identified as flag leaf preferred. In seedling leaves, the peak of phase distribution was from 2:00am to 4:00am, whereas in flag leaves, the peak was from 8:00pm to 2:00am. The diurnal phase distribution analysis of gene ontology (GO) and cis-element enrichment indicated that, some important processes were waken by the light, such as photosynthesis and abiotic stimulus, while some genes related to the nuclear and ribosome involved processes were active mostly during the switch time of light to dark. The starch and sucrose metabolism pathway genes also showed diurnal phase. We conducted comparison analysis between Arabidopsis and rice leaf transcriptome throughout the diurnal cycle. In summary, our analysis approach is feasible for relatively unbiased identification of diurnal transcripts, efficiently detecting some special periodic patterns with non-sinusoidal periodic patterns. Compared to the rice flag leaves, the gene transcription levels of seedling leaves were relatively limited to the diurnal rhythm. Our comprehensive microarray analysis of seedling and flag leaves of rice provided an overview of the rice diurnal transcriptome and indicated some diurnal regulated biological

  14. A simple repeat polymorphism in the MITF-M promoter is a key regulator of white spotting in dogs.

    PubMed

    Baranowska Körberg, Izabella; Sundström, Elisabeth; Meadows, Jennifer R S; Rosengren Pielberg, Gerli; Gustafson, Ulla; Hedhammar, Åke; Karlsson, Elinor K; Seddon, Jennifer; Söderberg, Arne; Vilà, Carles; Zhang, Xiaolan; Åkesson, Mikael; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Andersson, Göran; Andersson, Leif

    2014-01-01

    The white spotting locus (S) in dogs is colocalized with the MITF (microphtalmia-associated transcription factor) gene. The phenotypic effects of the four S alleles range from solid colour (S) to extreme white spotting (s(w)). We have investigated four candidate mutations associated with the s(w) allele, a SINE insertion, a SNP at a conserved site and a simple repeat polymorphism all associated with the MITF-M promoter as well as a 12 base pair deletion in exon 1B. The variants associated with white spotting at all four loci were also found among wolves and we conclude that none of these could be a sole causal mutation, at least not for extreme white spotting. We propose that the three canine white spotting alleles are not caused by three independent mutations but represent haplotype effects due to different combinations of causal polymorphisms. The simple repeat polymorphism showed extensive diversity both in dogs and wolves, and allele-sharing was common between wolves and white spotted dogs but was non-existent between solid and spotted dogs as well as between wolves and solid dogs. This finding was unexpected as Solid is assumed to be the wild-type allele. The data indicate that the simple repeat polymorphism has been a target for selection during dog domestication and breed formation. We also evaluated the significance of the three MITF-M associated polymorphisms with a Luciferase assay, and found conclusive evidence that the simple repeat polymorphism affects promoter activity. Three alleles associated with white spotting gave consistently lower promoter activity compared with the allele associated with solid colour. We propose that the simple repeat polymorphism affects cooperativity between transcription factors binding on either flanking sides of the repeat. Thus, both genetic and functional evidence show that the simple repeat polymorphism is a key regulator of white spotting in dogs.

  15. Screening active components from Yu-ping-feng-san for regulating initiative key factors in allergic sensitization.

    PubMed

    Shen, Dandan; Xie, Xuejian; Zhu, Zhijie; Yu, Xi; Liu, Hailiang; Wang, Huizhu; Fan, Hongwei; Wang, Dawei; Jiang, Guorong; Hong, Min

    2014-01-01

    Yu-ping-feng-san (YPFS) is a Chinese medical formula that is used clinically for allergic diseases and characterized by reducing allergy relapse. Our previous studies demonstrated that YPFS efficiently inhibited T helper 2 cytokines in allergic inflammation. The underlying mechanisms of action of YPFS and its effective components remain unclear. In this study, it was shown that YPFS significantly inhibited production of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), an epithelial cell-derived initiative factor in allergic inflammation, in vitro and in vivo. A method of human bronchial epithelial cell (16HBE) binding combined with HPLC-MS (named 16HBE-HPLC-MS) was established to explore potential active components of YPFS. The following five components bound to 16HBE cells: calycosin-7-glucoside, ononin, claycosin, sec-o-glucosylhamaudol and formononetin. Serum from YPFS-treated mice was analyzed and three major components were detected claycosin, formononetin and cimifugin. Among these, claycosin and formononetin were detected by 16HBE-HPLC-MS and in the serum of YPFS-treated mice. Claycosin and formononetin decreased the level of TSLP markedly at the initial stage of allergic inflammation in vivo. Nuclear factor (NF)-κB, a key transcription factor in TSLP production, was also inhibited by claycosin and formononetin, either in terms of transcriptional activation or its nuclear translocation in vitro. Allergic inflammation was reduced by claycosin and formononetin when they are administered only at the initial stage in a murine model of atopic contact dermatitis. Thus, epithelial cell binding combined with HPLC-MS is a valid method for screening active components from complex mixtures of Chinese medicine. It was demonstrated that the compounds screened from YPFS significantly attenuated allergic inflammation probably by reducing TSLP production via regulating NF-κB activation.

  16. Forward Genetics Defines Xylt1 as a Key, Conserved Regulator of Early Chondrocyte Maturation and Skeletal Length

    PubMed Central

    Mis, Emily K.; Liem, Karel F.; Kong, Yong; Schwartz, Nancy B.; Domowicz, Miriam; Weatherbee, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    The long bones of the vertebrate body are built by the initial formation of a cartilage template that is later replaced by mineralized bone. The proliferation and maturation of the skeletal precursor cells (chondrocytes) within the cartilage template and their replacement by bone is a highly coordinated process which, if misregulated, can lead to a number of defects including dwarfism and other skeletal deformities. This is exemplified by the fact that abnormal bone development is one of the most common types of human birth defects. Yet, many of the factors that initiate and regulate chondrocyte maturation are not known. We identified a recessive dwarf mouse mutant (pug) from an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis screen. pug mutant skeletal elements are patterned normally during development, but display a ~20% length reduction compared to wild-type embryos. We show that the pug mutation does not lead to changes in chondrocyte proliferation but instead promotes premature maturation and early ossification, which ultimately leads to disproportionate dwarfism. Using sequence capture and high-throughput sequencing, we identified a missense mutation in the Xylosyltransferase 1 (Xylt1) gene in pug mutants. Xylosyltransferases catalyze the initial step in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain addition to proteoglycan core proteins, and these modifications are essential for normal proteoglycan function. We show that the pug mutation disrupts Xylt1 activity and subcellular localization, leading to a reduction in GAG chains in pug mutants. The pug mutant serves as a novel model for mammalian dwarfism and identifies a key role for proteoglycan modification in the initiation of chondrocyte maturation. PMID:24161523

  17. Heat or cold priming-induced cross-tolerance to abiotic stresses in plants: key regulators and possible mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad Anwar; Li, Zhong-Guang; Hoque, Tahsina Sharmin; Burritt, David J; Fujita, Masayuki; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2017-08-04

    Plants growing under field conditions are constantly exposed, either simultaneously or sequentially, to more than one abiotic stress factor. Plants have evolved sophisticated sensory systems to perceive a number of stress signals that allow them to activate the most adequate response to grow and survive in a given environment. Recently, cross-stress tolerance (i.e. tolerance to a second, strong stress after a different type of mild primary stress) has gained attention as a potential means of producing stress-resistant crops to aid with global food security. Heat or cold priming-induced cross-tolerance is very common in plants and often results from the synergistic co-activation of multiple stress signalling pathways, which involve reactive nitrogen species (RNS), reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive carbonyl species (RCS), plant hormones and transcription factors. Recent studies have shown that the signalling functions of ROS, RNS and RCS, most particularly hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide (NO) and methylglyoxal (MG), provide resistance to abiotic stresses and underpin cross-stress tolerance in plants by modulating the expression of genes as well as the post-translational modification of proteins. The current review highlights the key regulators and mechanisms underlying heat or cold priming-induced cross-stress tolerance in plants, with a focus on ROS, MG and NO signalling, as well as on the role of antioxidant and glyoxalase systems, osmolytes, heat-shock proteins (HSPs) and hormones. Our aim is also to provide a comprehensive idea on the topic for researchers using heat or cold priming-induced cross-tolerance as a mechanism to improve crop yields under multiple abiotic stresses.

  18. Transcriptome phase distribution analysis reveals diurnal regulated biological processes and key pathways in rice flag leaves and seedling leaves.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenying; Yang, Rendong; Li, Meina; Xing, Zhuo; Yang, Wenqiang; Chen, Guang; Guo, Han; Gong, Xiaojie; Du, Zhou; Zhang, Zhenhai; Hu, Xingming; Wang, Dong; Qian, Qian; Wang, Tai; Su, Zhen; Xue, Yongbiao

    2011-03-02

    Plant diurnal oscillation is a 24-hour period based variation. The correlation between diurnal genes and biological pathways was widely revealed by microarray analysis in different species. Rice (Oryza sativa) is the major food staple for about half of the world's population. The rice flag leaf is essential in providing photosynthates to the grain filling. However, there is still no comprehensive view about the diurnal transcriptome for rice leaves. In this study, we applied rice microarray to monitor the rhythmically expressed genes in rice seedling and flag leaves. We developed a new computational analysis approach and identified 6,266 (10.96%) diurnal probe sets in seedling leaves, 13,773 (24.08%) diurnal probe sets in flag leaves. About 65% of overall transcription factors were identified as flag leaf preferred. In seedling leaves, the peak of phase distribution was from 2:00am to 4:00am, whereas in flag leaves, the peak was from 8:00pm to 2:00am. The diurnal phase distribution analysis of gene ontology (GO) and cis-element enrichment indicated that, some important processes were waken by the light, such as photosynthesis and abiotic stimulus, while some genes related to the nuclear and ribosome involved processes were active mostly during the switch time of light to dark. The starch and sucrose metabolism pathway genes also showed diurnal phase. We conducted comparison analysis between Arabidopsis and rice leaf transcriptome throughout the diurnal cycle. In summary, our analysis approach is feasible for relatively unbiased identification of diurnal transcripts, efficiently detecting some special periodic patterns with non-sinusoidal periodic patterns. Compared to the rice flag leaves, the gene transcription levels of seedling leaves were relatively limited to the diurnal rhythm. Our comprehensive microarray analysis of seedling and flag leaves of rice provided an overview of the rice diurnal transcriptome and indicated some diurnal regulated biological

  19. Screening Active Components from Yu-Ping-Feng-San for Regulating Initiative Key Factors in Allergic Sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhijie; Yu, Xi; Liu, Hailiang; Wang, Huizhu; Fan, Hongwei; Wang, Dawei; Jiang, Guorong; Hong, Min

    2014-01-01

    Yu-ping-feng-san (YPFS) is a Chinese medical formula that is used clinically for allergic diseases and characterized by reducing allergy relapse. Our previous studies demonstrated that YPFS efficiently inhibited T helper 2 cytokines in allergic inflammation. The underlying mechanisms of action of YPFS and its effective components remain unclear. In this study, it was shown that YPFS significantly inhibited production of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), an epithelial cell-derived initiative factor in allergic inflammation, in vitro and in vivo. A method of human bronchial epithelial cell (16HBE) binding combined with HPLC-MS (named 16HBE-HPLC-MS) was established to explore potential active components of YPFS. The following five components bound to 16HBE cells: calycosin-7-glucoside, ononin, claycosin, sec-o-glucosylhamaudol and formononetin. Serum from YPFS-treated mice was analyzed and three major components were detected claycosin, formononetin and cimifugin. Among these, claycosin and formononetin were detected by 16HBE-HPLC-MS and in the serum of YPFS-treated mice. Claycosin and formononetin decreased the level of TSLP markedly at the initial stage of allergic inflammation in vivo. Nuclear factor (NF)-κB, a key transcription factor in TSLP production, was also inhibited by claycosin and formononetin, either in terms of transcriptional activation or its nuclear translocation in vitro. Allergic inflammation was reduced by claycosin and formononetin when they are administered only at the initial stage in a murine model of atopic contact dermatitis. Thus, epithelial cell binding combined with HPLC-MS is a valid method for screening active components from complex mixtures of Chinese medicine. It was demonstrated that the compounds screened from YPFS significantly attenuated allergic inflammation probably by reducing TSLP production via regulating NF-κB activation. PMID:25198676

  20. Receptor Activator for Nuclear Factor kappa B Ligand (RANKL) as an osteoimmune key regulator in bone physiology and pathology.

    PubMed

    Narducci, Paola; Bareggi, Renato; Nicolin, Vanessa

    2011-02-01

    The strength and integrity of the human skeleton depends on a delicate equilibrium between bone resorption and bone formation. Bone resorption is an elementary cellular activity in the modelling of the skeleton during growth and development. Later in life a most important physiological process in the skeleton is bone remodelling, which is locally initiated by resorption. During remodelling bone resorption is coupled to new bone formation that ensures renewal of bone with only minor local and temporary bone loss. Cells responsible for bone resorption and subsequent bone formation are the osteoclasts and osteoblasts, respectively. The osteoclast is derived from the pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell, which gives rise to a myeloid stem cell that can further differentiate into megakaryocytes, granulocytes, monocytes/macrophages and osteoclasts. The respective bone resorbing and forming actions of osteoclasts and osteoblasts are finely coupled, so that bone mass remains remarkably stable in a healthy adult. Imbalance between osteoclast and osteoblast activities can arise from a wide variety of hormonal changes or perturbations of inflammatory and growth factors resulting in postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget's disease, lytic bone metastases, or rheumatoid arthritis, leading to increased bone resorption and crippling bone damage. In view of the critical role of osteoclasts in diverse pathology, there has been immense effort aimed at understanding the biology of this unique cell. The present review is focused on the current knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate the functional links between bone turnover and the immune system helping us to understand the main factors that lead to bone loss observed in osteoporosis, cancer and in rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of this review paper is to consider the key molecular interactions involved in the formation of osteoclast cells in normal and pathological conditions.

  1. Acidosis is a key regulator of osteoblast ecto-nucleotidase pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (NPP1) expression and activity.

    PubMed

    Orriss, Isabel R; Key, Michelle L; Hajjawi, Mark O R; Millán, José L; Arnett, Timothy R

    2015-12-01

    Previous work has shown that acidosis prevents bone nodule formation by osteoblasts in vitro by inhibiting mineralisation of the collagenous matrix. The ratio of phosphate (Pi ) to pyrophosphate (PPi ) in the bone microenvironment is a fundamental regulator of bone mineralisation. Both Pi and PPi , a potent inhibitor of mineralisation, are generated from extracellular nucleotides by the actions of ecto-nucleotidases. This study investigated the expression and activity of ecto-nucleotidases by osteoblasts under normal and acid conditions. We found that osteoblasts express mRNA for a number of ecto-nucleotidases including NTPdase 1-6 (ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase) and NPP1-3 (ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase). The rank order of mRNA expression in differentiating rat osteoblasts (day 7) was Enpp1 > NTPdase 4 > NTPdase 6 > NTPdase 5 >  alkaline phosphatase > ecto-5-nucleotidase > Enpp3 > NTPdase 1 > NTPdase 3 > Enpp2 > NTPdase 2. Acidosis (pH 6.9) upregulated NPP1 mRNA (2.8-fold) and protein expression at all stages of osteoblast differentiation compared to physiological pH (pH 7.4); expression of other ecto-nucleotidases was unaffected. Furthermore, total NPP activity was increased up to 53% in osteoblasts cultured in acid conditions (P < 0.001). Release of ATP, one of the key substrates for NPP1, from osteoblasts, was unaffected by acidosis. Further studies showed that mineralised bone formation by osteoblasts cultured from NPP1 knockout mice was increased compared with wildtypes (2.5-fold, P < 0.001) and was partially resistant to the inhibitory effect of acidosis. These results indicate that increased NPP1 expression and activity might contribute to the decreased mineralisation observed when osteoblasts are exposed to acid conditions.

  2. Tyrosine phosphatases as key regulators of StAR induction and cholesterol transport: SHP2 as a potential tyrosine phosphatase involved in steroid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Mariana; Mele, Pablo; Maloberti, Paula; Duarte, Alejandra; Poderoso, Cecilia; Orlando, Ulises; Paz, Cristina; Cornejo Maciel, Fabiana; Podestá, Ernesto J

    2011-04-10

    The phospho-dephosphorylation of intermediate proteins is a key event in the regulation of steroid biosynthesis. In this regard, it is well accepted that steroidogenic hormones act through the activation of serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) protein kinases. Although many cellular processes can be regulated by a crosstalk between different kinases and phosphatases, the relationship of Ser/Thr phosphorylation and tyrosine (Tyr)-dephosphorylation is a recently explored field in the regulation of steroid synthesis. Indeed in steroidogenic cells, one of the targets of hormone-induced Ser/Thr phosphorylation is a protein tyrosine phosphatase. Whereas protein tyrosine phosphatases were initially regarded as household enzymes with constitutive activity, dephosphorylating all the substrates they encountered, evidence is now accumulating that protein tyrosine phosphatases are tightly regulated by various mechanisms. Here, we will describe the role of protein tyrosine phosphatases in the regulation of steroid biosynthesis, relating them to steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, arachidonic acid metabolism and mitochondrial rearrangement.

  3. Decreased Levels of Proapoptotic Factors and Increased Key Regulators of Mitochondrial Biogenesis Constitute New Potential Beneficial Features of Long-lived Growth Hormone Receptor Gene–Disrupted Mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Decreased somatotrophic signaling is among the most important mechanisms associated with extended longevity. Mice homozygous for the targeted disruption of the growth hormone (GH) receptor gene (GH receptor knockout; GHRKO) are obese and dwarf, are characterized by a reduced weight and body size, undetectable levels of GH receptor, high concentration of serum GH, and greatly reduced plasma levels of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I, and are remarkably long lived. Recent results suggest new features of GHRKO mice that may positively affect longevity—decreased levels of proapoptotic factors and increased levels of key regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis. The alterations in levels of the proapoptotic factors and key regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis were not further improved by two other potential life-extending interventions—calorie restriction and visceral fat removal. This may attribute the primary role to GH resistance in the regulation of apoptosis and mitochondrial biogenesis in GHRKO mice in terms of increased life span. PMID:23197187

  4. LNK (SH2B3) is a key regulator of integrin signaling in endothelial cells and targets α-parvin to control cell adhesion and migration

    PubMed Central

    Devallière, Julie; Chatelais, Mathias; Fitau, Juliette; Gérard, Nathalie; Hulin, Philippe; Velazquez, Laura; Turner, Christopher E.; Charreau, Béatrice

    2012-01-01

    Focal adhesion (FA) formation and disassembly play an essential role in adherence and migration of endothelial cells. These processes are highly regulated and involve various signaling molecules that are not yet completely identified. Lnk [Src homology 2-B3 (SH2B3)] belongs to a family of SH2-containing proteins with important adaptor functions. In this study, we showed that Lnk distribution follows that of vinculin, localizing Lnk in FAs. Inhibition of Lnk by RNA interference resulted in decreased spreading, whereas sustained expression dramatically increases the number of focal and cell-matrix adhesions. We demonstrated that Lnk expression impairs FA turnover and cell migration and regulates β1-integrin-mediated signaling via Akt and GSK3β phosphorylation. Moreover, the α-parvin protein was identified as one of the molecular targets of Lnk responsible for impaired FA dynamics and cell migration. Finally, we established the ILK protein as a new molecular partner for Lnk and proposed a model in which Lnk regulates α-parvin expression through its interaction with ILK. Collectively, our results underline the adaptor Lnk as a novel and effective key regulator of integrin-mediated signaling controlling endothelial cell adhesion and migration.—Devallière, J., Chatelais, M., Fitau, J., Gérard, N., Hulin, P., Velazquez, L., Turner, C. E. Charreau, B. LNK (SH2B3) is a key regulator of integrin signaling in endothelial cells and targets α-parvin to control cell adhesion and migration. PMID:22441983

  5. A gene with domains related to transcription regulation is required for pathogenicity in Colletotrichum acutatum causing Key lime anthracnose.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Qin; Cao, Lihua; Dekkers, Katherine L; Rollins, Jeffrey A; Ko, Nan J; Timmer, L W; Chung, Kuang-Ren

    2005-09-01

    SUMMARY Colletotrichum acutatum causes Key lime anthracnose (KLA) and postbloom fruit drop (PFD) of citrus. We utilized restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) mutagenesis to produce six non-pathogenic mutants from a KLA isolate after screening 1064 transformants on detached Key lime leaves. Subsequently, a gene designated KLAP1 (Key Lime Anthracnose Pathogenicity) was identified from one of the mutants and was demonstrated genetically to be required for pathogenicity to Key lime leaves. The predicted polypeptide encoded by KLAP1 contains a cAMP and cGMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation site, and two RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) cell attachment sequences, a bipartite nuclear targeting sequence, a fungal G-protein alpha subunit signature, a putative metal-binding zinc finger (Cys(2)His(2)) and a putative HMG-I/Y ('high mobility group' non-histone chromatin protein encoding genes) DNA-binding domain (A+T hook), suggesting that KLAP1 may function as a transcription activator in C. acutatum. Sequences homologous to KLAP1 were detected in most C. acutatum isolates examined, and similarity was found in several classes of fungi, animals, plants and bacteria, indicating that KLAP1 is a putative, uncharacterized, conserved transcription activator in fungi. Targeted gene disruption of KLAP1 yielded mutants that were blocked in the penetration stage and were completely defective in pathogenicity on Key lime leaves, but remained pathogenic to flower petals. Complementation of a klap1-null mutant with a full-length KLAP1 gene clone restored complete ability to incite lesions on Key lime. The results indicate that KLAP1 is an important pathogenicity factor in C. acutatum.

  6. Deciphering the function and regulation of SbCAD2: A key lignin gene to improve sorghum biomass degradability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic modification of lignin biosynthesis in the cell wall of biofuel feedstocks is likely one of the most effective ways to improve the conversion efficiency of cellulosic biomass to biofuel for the bioenergy industry. As a key enzyme that catalyzes the last step of monolignol synthesis, cinnamy...

  7. Adrenergic regulation of a key cardiac potassium channel can contribute to atrial fibrillation: evidence from an IKs transgenic mouse

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Kevin J; Terrenoire, Cecile; Cervantes, Daniel O; Kaba, Riyaz A; Peters, Nicholas S; Kass, Robert S

    2008-01-01

    Inherited gain-of-function mutations of genes coding for subunits of the heart slow potassium (IKs) channel can cause familial atrial fibrillation (AF). Here we consider a potentially more prevalent mechanism and hypothesize that β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR)-mediated regulation of the IKs channel, a natural gain-of-function pathway, can also lead to AF. Using a transgenic IKs channel mouse model, we studied the role of the channel and its regulation by β-AR stimulation on atrial arrhythmias. In vivo administration of isoprenaline (isoproterenol) predisposes IKs channel transgenic mice but not wild-type (WT) littermates that lack IKs to prolonged atrial arrhythmias. Patch-clamp analysis demonstrated expression and isoprenaline-mediated regulation of IKs in atrial myocytes from transgenic but not WT littermates. Furthermore, computational modelling revealed that β-AR stimulation-dependent accumulation of open IKs channels accounts for the pro-arrhythmic substrate. Our results provide evidence that β-AR-regulated IKs channels can play a role in AF and imply that specific IKs deregulation, perhaps through disruption of the IKs macromolecular complex necessary for β-AR-mediated IKs channel regulation, may be a novel therapeutic strategy for treating this most common arrhythmia. PMID:18006587

  8. AP-1 Is a Key Regulator of Proinflammatory Cytokine TNFα-mediated Triple-negative Breast Cancer Progression*

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Yichun; He, Huan; Jonsson, Philip; Sinha, Indranil; Zhao, Chunyan; Dahlman-Wright, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents a highly aggressive form of breast cancer with limited treatment options. Proinflammatory cytokines such as TNFα can facilitate tumor progression and metastasis. However, the mechanistic aspects of inflammation mediated TNBC progression remain unclear. Using ChIP-seq, we demonstrate that the cistrome for the AP-1 transcription factor c-Jun is comprised of 13,800 binding regions in TNFα-stimulated TNBC cells. In addition, we show that c-Jun regulates nearly a third of the TNFα-regulated transcriptome. Interestingly, high expression level of the c-Jun-regulated pro-invasion gene program is associated with poor clinical outcome in TNBCs. We further demonstrate that c-Jun drives TNFα-mediated increase of malignant characteristics of TNBC cells by transcriptional regulation of Ninj1. As exemplified by the CXC chemokine genes clustered on chromosome 4, we demonstrate that NF-κB might be a pioneer factor required for the regulation of TNFα-inducible inflammatory genes, whereas c-Jun has little effect. Together, our results uncover AP-1 as an important determinant for inflammation-induced cancer progression, rather than inflammatory response. PMID:26792858

  9. A regulating method for the distribution of phosphorus fractions based on environmental parameters related to the key phosphate-solubilizing bacteria during composting.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuquan; Wei, Zimin; Cao, Zhenyu; Zhao, Yue; Zhao, Xinyu; Lu, Qian; Wang, Xueqin; Zhang, Xu

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to assess the abundance, incidence and diversity of the culturable phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) community during different organic wastes composting. The key PSB affecting different phosphorus (P) fractions and their relationship with environmental variables were analyzed by redundancy analysis (RDA). The results showed that there were distinct differences in amounts, incidence and community composition of PSB for the composts from different sources. Regression analysis demonstrated significant corrections between the density and incidence of PSB and pH, temperature, OM and DOC/DON. Most of culturable PSB showed high percentages of identity with the phyla of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. There were thirteen key PSB correlated closely (p<0.05) with different P fractions variation. Conclusively, we suggested a process control method to regulate the distribution of P fractions during composting based on the relationship between the key PSB and P fractions as well as environmental parameters.

  10. The Key Role of Experiential Uncertainty when Dealing with Risks: Its Relationships with Demand for Regulation and Institutional Trust.

    PubMed

    Poortvliet, P Marijn; Lokhorst, Anne Marike

    2016-08-01

    The results of a survey and an experiment show that experiential uncertainty-people's experience of uncertainty in risk contexts-plays a moderating role in individuals' risk-related demand for government regulation and trust in risk-managing government institutions. First, descriptions of risks were presented to respondents in a survey (N = 1,017) and their reactions to questions about experiential uncertainty, risk perception, and demand for government regulation were measured, as well as levels of risk-specific knowledge. When experiential uncertainty was high, risk perceptions had a positive relationship with demand for government regulation of risk; no such relationship showed under low experiential uncertainty. Conversely, when people experience little experiential uncertainty, having more knowledge about the risk topic involved was associated with a weaker demand for government regulation of risk. For people experiencing uncertainty, this relationship between knowledge and demand for regulation did not emerge. Second, in an experiment (N = 120), experiential uncertainty and openness in risk communication were manipulated to investigate effects on trust. In the uncertainty condition, the results showed that open versus nonopen government communication about Q-fever-a zoonosis-led to higher levels of trust in the government agency, but not in in the control condition. Altogether, this research suggests that only when people experience relatively little uncertainty about the risk, knowledge provision may preclude them from demanding government action. Also, only when persons experience uncertainty are stronger risk perceptions associated with a demand for government regulation, and they are affected by openness of risk communication in forming institutional trust. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Using a large-scale knowledge database on reactions and regulations to propose key upstream regulators of various sets of molecules participating in cell metabolism.

    PubMed

    Blavy, Pierre; Gondret, Florence; Lagarrigue, Sandrine; van Milgen, Jaap; Siegel, Anne

    2014-03-17

    Most of the existing methods to analyze high-throughput data are based on gene ontology principles, providing information on the main functions and biological processes. However, these methods do not indicate the regulations behind the biological pathways. A critical point in this context is the extraction of information from many possible relationships between the regulated genes, and its combination with biochemical regulations. This study aimed at developing an automatic method to propose a reasonable number of upstream regulatory candidates from lists of various regulated molecules by confronting experimental data with encyclopedic information. A new formalism of regulated reactions combining biochemical transformations and regulatory effects was proposed to unify the different mechanisms contained in knowledge libraries. Based on a related causality graph, an algorithm was developed to propose a reasonable set of upstream regulators from lists of target molecules. Scores were added to candidates according to their ability to explain the greatest number of targets or only few specific ones. By testing 250 lists of target genes as inputs, each with a known solution, the success of the method to provide the expected transcription factor among 50 or 100 proposed regulatory candidates, was evaluated to 62.6% and 72.5% of the situations, respectively. An additional prioritization among candidates might be further realized by adding functional ontology information. The benefit of this strategy was proved by identifying PPAR isotypes and their partners as the upstream regulators of a list of experimentally-identified targets of PPARA, a pivotal transcriptional factor in lipid oxidation. The proposed candidates participated in various biological functions that further enriched the original information. The efficiency of the method in merging reactions and regulations was also illustrated by identifying gene candidates participating in glucose homeostasis from an input

  12. Using a large-scale knowledge database on reactions and regulations to propose key upstream regulators of various sets of molecules participating in cell metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Most of the existing methods to analyze high-throughput data are based on gene ontology principles, providing information on the main functions and biological processes. However, these methods do not indicate the regulations behind the biological pathways. A critical point in this context is the extraction of information from many possible relationships between the regulated genes, and its combination with biochemical regulations. This study aimed at developing an automatic method to propose a reasonable number of upstream regulatory candidates from lists of various regulated molecules by confronting experimental data with encyclopedic information. Results A new formalism of regulated reactions combining biochemical transformations and regulatory effects was proposed to unify the different mechanisms contained in knowledge libraries. Based on a related causality graph, an algorithm was developed to propose a reasonable set of upstream regulators from lists of target molecules. Scores were added to candidates according to their ability to explain the greatest number of targets or only few specific ones. By testing 250 lists of target genes as inputs, each with a known solution, the success of the method to provide the expected transcription factor among 50 or 100 proposed regulatory candidates, was evaluated to 62.6% and 72.5% of the situations, respectively. An additional prioritization among candidates might be further realized by adding functional ontology information. The benefit of this strategy was proved by identifying PPAR isotypes and their partners as the upstream regulators of a list of experimentally-identified targets of PPARA, a pivotal transcriptional factor in lipid oxidation. The proposed candidates participated in various biological functions that further enriched the original information. The efficiency of the method in merging reactions and regulations was also illustrated by identifying gene candidates participating in glucose

  13. miR-340 predicts glioblastoma survival and modulates key cancer hallmarks through down-regulation of NRAS

    PubMed Central

    Fiore, Danilo; Donnarumma, Elvira; Roscigno, Giuseppina; Iaboni, Margherita; Russo, Valentina; Affinito, Alessandra; Adamo, Assunta; De Martino, Fabio; Quintavalle, Cristina; Romano, Giulia; Greco, Adelaide; Soini, Ylermi; Brunetti, Arturo; Croce, Carlo M.; Condorelli, Gerolama

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain tumor in adults; with a survival rate of 12 months from diagnosis. However, a small subgroup of patients, termed long-term survivors (LTS), has a survival rate longer then 12–14 months. There is thus increasing interest in the identification of molecular signatures predicting glioblastoma prognosis and in how to improve the therapeutic approach. Here, we report miR-340 as prognostic tumor-suppressor microRNA for glioblastoma. We analyzed microRNA expression in > 500 glioblastoma patients and found that although miR-340 is strongly down-regulated in glioblastoma overall, it is up-regulated in LTS patients compared to short-term survivors (STS). Indeed, miR-340 expression predicted better prognosis in glioblastoma patients. Coherently, overexpression of miR-340 in glioblastoma cells was found to produce a tumor-suppressive activity. We identified NRAS mRNA as a critical, direct target of miR-340: in fact, miR-340 negatively influenced multiple aspects of glioblastoma tumorigenesis by down-regulating NRAS and downstream AKT and ERK pathways. Thus, we demonstrate that expression of miR-340 in glioblastoma is responsible for a strong tumor-suppressive effect in LTS patients by down-regulating NRAS. miR-340 may thus represent a novel marker for glioblastoma diagnosis and prognosis, and may be developed into a tool to improve treatment of glioblastoma. PMID:26799668

  14. Systems biology study of transcriptional and post-transcriptional co-regulatory network sheds light on key regulators involved in important biological processes in Citrus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Khodadadi, Ehsan; Mehrabi, Ali Ashraf; Najafi, Ali; Rastad, Saber; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali

    2017-04-01

    Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulators including transcription regulator, transcription factor and miRNA are the main endogenous molecular elements which control complex cellular mechanisms such as development, growth and response to biotic and abiotic stresses in a coordinated manner in plants. Utilizing the most recent information on such relationships in a plant species, obtained from high-throughput experimental technologies and advanced computational tools, we can reconstruct its co-regulatory network which consequently sheds light on key regulators involved in its important biological processes. In this article, combined systems biology approaches such as mining the literatures, various databases and network reconstruction, analysis, and visualization tools were employed to infer and visualize the coregulatory relationships between miRNAs and transcriptional regulators in Citrus sinensis. Using computationally and experimentally verified miRNA-target interactions and constructed co-expression networks on array-based data, 10 coregulatory networks and 10 corresponding subgraphs include FFL motifs were obtained for 10 distinct tissues/conditions. Then PPI subnetworks were extracted for transcripts/genes included in mentioned subgraphs in order to the functional analysis of extracted coregulatory circuits. These proposed coregulatory connections shed light on precisely identifying C. sinensis metabolic pathways key switches, which are demanded for ultimate goals such as genome editing.

  15. Basic roles of key molecules connected with NMDAR signaling pathway on regulating learning and memory and synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Peng, Rui-Yun

    2016-01-01

    With key roles in essential brain functions ranging from the long-term potentiation (LTP) to synaptic plasticity, the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) can be considered as one of the fundamental glutamate receptors in the central nervous system. The role of NMDA R was first identified in synaptic plasticity and has been extensively studied. Some molecules, such as Ca(2+), postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95), calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II), protein kinase A (PKA), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) responsive element binding protein (CREB), are of special importance in learning and memory. This review mainly focused on the new research of key molecules connected with learning and memory, which played important roles in the NMDAR signaling pathway.

  16. HrcT is a key component of the type III secretion system in Xanthomonas spp. and also regulates the expression of the key hrp transcriptional activator HrpX.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Yang; Zou, Li-Fang; Xue, Xiao-Bo; Cai, Lu-Lu; Ma, Wen-Xiu; Xiong, Li; Ji, Zhi-Yuan; Chen, Gong-You

    2014-07-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS), encoded by hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity) genes in Gram-negative phytopathogenic bacteria, delivers repertoires of T3SS effectors (T3SEs) into plant cells to trigger the hypersensitive response (HR) in nonhost or resistant-host plants and promote pathogenicity in susceptible plants. The expression of hrp genes in Xanthomonas is regulated by two key regulatory proteins, HrpG and HrpX. However, the interactions between hrp gene products in directing T3SE secretion are largely unknown. Here we demonstrated that HrcT of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola functions as a T3SS component and positively regulates the expression of hrpX. Transcription of hrcT occurs via two distinct promoters; one (T1) is with the hrpB operon and the second (T3) within hrpB7 Via either promoter T1 or T3, the defect in Hrp phenotype by hrcT deletion was corrected in the presence of hrcT only from Xanthomonas species but not from other phytopathogenic bacteria. An N-terminally truncated HrcT was able to bind the hrpX promoter and activate the expression of hrpX, supporting that HrcT is a positive regulator of hrpX. A revised model showing the regulatory interactions between HrcT, HrpX, and HrpG is proposed.

  17. A Chemical Biology Study of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Unveils HSPA8 as a Key Regulator of Pluripotency.

    PubMed

    Geng, Yijie; Zhao, Yongfeng; Schuster, Lisa Corinna; Feng, Bradley; Lynn, Dana A; Austin, Katherine M; Stoklosa, Jason Daniel; Morrison, Joseph D

    2015-12-08

    Chemical biology methods such as high-throughput screening (HTS) and affinity-based target identification can be used to probe biological systems on a biomacromolecule level, providing valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms of those systems. Here, by establishing a human embryonal carcinoma cell-based HTS platform, we screened 171,077 small molecules for regulators of pluripotency and identified a small molecule, Displurigen, that potently disrupts hESC pluripotency by targeting heat shock 70-kDa protein 8 (HSPA8), the constitutively expressed member of the 70-kDa heat shock protein family, as elucidated using affinity-based target identification techniques and confirmed by loss-of-function and gain-of-function assays. We demonstrated that HSPA8 maintains pluripotency by binding to the master pluripotency regulator OCT4 and facilitating its DNA-binding activity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The bHLH transcription factor SPATULA is a key regulator of organ size in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Makkena, Srilakshmi; Lamb, Rebecca S

    2013-05-01

    Plant organ size and thus plant size is determined by both cell proliferation and cell expansion. The bHLH transcription factor SPATULA (SPT) was originally identified as a regulator of carpel patterning. It has subsequently been found to control growth of the organs of the shoot. It does this at least in part by controlling the size of meristematic regions of organs in parallel to gibberellic acid (GA). It also acts downstream of several environmental signals, influencing growth in response to light and temperature. We have recently demonstrated that SPT functions to repress the size of the root meristem and thus root growth and size. It appears to do this using a similar mechanism to its control of leaf size. Based on the recent work on SPT, we propose that it is a growth repressor that acts to limit the size of meristems in response to environmental signals, perhaps by regulating auxin transport.

  19. IGF-I: A Key Growth Factor that Regulates Neurogenesis and Synaptogenesis from Embryonic to Adult Stages of the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Nieto-Estévez, Vanesa; Defterali, Çağla; Vicario-Abejón, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The generation of neurons in the adult mammalian brain requires the activation of quiescent neural stem cells (NSCs). This activation and the sequential steps of neuron formation from NSCs are regulated by a number of stimuli, which include growth factors. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) exert pleiotropic effects, regulating multiple cellular processes depending on their concentration, cell type, and the developmental stage of the animal. Although IGF-I expression is relatively high in the embryonic brain its levels drop sharply in the adult brain except in neurogenic regions, i.e., the hippocampus (HP) and the subventricular zone-olfactory bulb (SVZ-OB). By contrast, the expression of IGF-IR remains relatively high in the brain irrespective of the age of the animal. Evidence indicates that IGF-I influences NSC proliferation and differentiation into neurons and glia as well as neuronal maturation including synapse formation. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that IGF-I not only promote adult neurogenesis by regulating NSC number and differentiation but also by influencing neuronal positioning and migration as described during SVZ-OB neurogenesis. In this article we will revise and discuss the actions reported for IGF-I signaling in a variety of in vitro and in vivo models, focusing on the maintenance and proliferation of NSCs/progenitors, neurogenesis, and neuron integration in synaptic circuits. PMID:26941597

  20. [New heterodimeric nuclear receptors: key metabolic regulators with relevance in the pathophysiology and therapy of dyslipidemias and diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Cortés, Víctor; Quezada, Nicolás; Rigotti, Attilio; Maiz, Alberto

    2005-12-01

    The regulation of gene expression is crucial for the normal development and the homeostatic maintenance of body tissues. Thus, its malfunction may determine a variety of human disease conditions. A growing body of evidence has shown the overwhelming relevance of a new class of gene expression regulators: the heterodimeric nuclear receptors, a family of structurally related proteins involved in multiple biological functions. In response to activating ligands, these molecules bind to specific genomic regulatory regions where they can coordinately modify the transcriptional activity of several genes involved in the main metabolic pathways of lipids and carbohydrates in cells. These functional properties have stimulated the study of the relationships between heterodimeric nuclear receptors and various disease conditions, such as dyslipidemias and diabetes mellitus. Here we review the experimental, clinical and epidemiological evidences that support the relevance of these transcriptional regulators in the pathophysiology of the most prevalent and lethal diseases in Western countries. We also explore the potential therapeutic impact of new strategies based in the pharmacological modulation of the heterodimeric nuclear receptors.

  1. Glucocorticoid-dependent Wnt signaling by mature osteoblasts is a key regulator of cranial skeletal development in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hong; Mak, Wendy; Kalak, Robert; Street, Janine; Fong-Yee, Colette; Zheng, Yu; Dunstan, Colin R; Seibel, Markus J

    2009-02-01

    Glucocorticoids are important regulators of bone cell differentiation and mesenchymal lineage commitment. Using a cell-specific approach of osteoblast-targeted transgenic disruption of intracellular glucocorticoid signaling, we discovered a novel molecular pathway by which glucocorticoids, mainly through the mature osteoblast, regulate the cellular mechanisms that govern cranial skeleton development. Embryonic and neonatal transgenic mice revealed a distinct phenotype characterized by hypoplasia and osteopenia of the cranial skeleton; disorganized frontal, parietal and interparietal bones; increased suture patency; ectopic differentiation of cartilage in the sagittal suture; and disturbed postnatal removal of parietal cartilage. Concurrently, expression of Mmp14, an enzyme essential for calvarial cartilage removal, was markedly reduced in parietal bone and cartilage of transgenic animals. Expression of Wnt9a and Wnt10b was significantly reduced in osteoblasts with disrupted glucocorticoid signaling, and accumulation of beta-catenin, the upstream regulator of Mmp14 expression, was decreased in osteoblasts, chondrocytes and mesenchymal progenitors of transgenic mice. Supracalvarial injection of Wnt3a protein rescued the transgenic cranial phenotype. These results define novel roles for glucocorticoids in skeletal development and delineate how osteoblasts--under steroid hormone control--orchestrate the intricate process of intramembranous bone formation by directing mesenchymal cell commitment towards osteoblastic differentiation while simultaneously initiating and controlling cartilage dissolution in the postnatal mouse.

  2. Key role of microRNA in the regulation of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor expression in murine alveolar epithelial cells during oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Sturrock, Anne; Mir-Kasimov, Mustafa; Baker, Jessica; Rowley, Jesse; Paine, Robert

    2014-02-14

    GM-CSF is an endogenous pulmonary cytokine produced by normal alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) that is a key defender of the alveolar space. AEC GM-CSF expression is suppressed by oxidative stress through alternations in mRNA turnover, an effect that is reversed by treatment with recombinant GM-CSF. We hypothesized that specific microRNA (miRNA) would play a key role in AEC GM-CSF regulation. A genome-wide miRNA microarray identified 19 candidate miRNA altered in primary AEC during oxidative stress with reversal by treatment with GM-CSF. Three of these miRNA (miR 133a, miR 133a*, and miR 133b) are also predicted to bind the GM-CSF 3'-untranslated region (UTR). PCR for the mature miRNA confirmed induction during oxidative stress that was reversed by treatment with GM-CSF. Experiments using a GM-CSF 3'-UTR reporter construct demonstrated that miR133a and miR133b effects on GM-CSF expression are through interactions with the GM-CSF 3'-UTR. Using lentiviral transduction of specific mimics and inhibitors in primary murine AEC, we determined that miR133a and miR133b suppress GM-CSF expression and that their inhibition both reverses oxidant-induced suppression of GM-CSF expression and increases basal expression of GM-CSF in cells in normoxia. In contrast, these miRNAs are not active in regulation of GM-CSF expression in murine EL4 T cells. Thus, members of the miR133 family play key roles in regulation of GM-CSF expression through effects on mRNA turnover in AEC during oxidative stress. Increased understanding of GM-CSF gene regulation may provide novel miRNA-based interventions to augment pulmonary innate immune defense in lung injury.

  3. Analysis of celery (Apium graveolens) mannitol dehydrogenase (Mtd) promoter regulation in Arabidopsis suggests roles for MTD in key environmental and metabolic responses.

    PubMed

    Zamski, E; Guo, W W; Yamamoto, Y T; Pharr, D M; Williamson, J D

    2001-11-01

    Of the growing list of promising genes for plant improvement, some of the most versatile appear to be those involved in sugar alcohol metabolism. Mannitol, one of the best characterized sugar alcohols, is a significant photosynthetic product in many higher plants. The roles of mannitol as both a metabolite and an osmoprotectant in celery (Apium graveolens) are well documented. However, there is growing evidence that 'metabolites' can also have key roles in other environmental and developmental responses in plants. For instance, in addition to its other properties, mannitol is an antioxidant and may have significant roles in plant-pathogen interactions. The mannitol catabolic enzyme mannitol dehydrogenase (MTD) is a prime modulator of mannitol accumulation in plants. Because the complex regulation of MTD is central to the balanced integration of mannitol metabolism in celery, its study is crucial in clarifying the physiological role(s) of mannitol metabolism in environmental and metabolic responses. In this study we used transformed Arabidopsis to analyze the multiple environmental and metabolic responses of the Mtd promoter. Our data show that all previously described changes in Mtd RNA accumulation in celery cells mirrored changes in Mtd transcription in Arabidopsis. These include up-regulation by salicylic acid, hexokinase-mediated sugar down-regulation, and down-regulation by salt, osmotic stress and ABA. In contrast, the massive up-regulation of Mtd expression in the vascular tissues of salt-stressed Arabidopsis roots suggests a possible role for MTD in mannitol translocation and unloading and its interrelation with sugar metabolism.

  4. Polypyrimidine Tract Binding Protein Homologs from Arabidopsis Are Key Regulators of Alternative Splicing with Implications in Fundamental Developmental Processes[W

    PubMed Central

    Rühl, Christina; Stauffer, Eva; Kahles, André; Wagner, Gabriele; Drechsel, Gabriele; Rätsch, Gunnar; Wachter, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) generates transcript variants by variable exon/intron definition and massively expands transcriptome diversity. Changes in AS patterns have been found to be linked to manifold biological processes, yet fundamental aspects, such as the regulation of AS and its functional implications, largely remain to be addressed. In this work, widespread AS regulation by Arabidopsis thaliana Polypyrimidine tract binding protein homologs (PTBs) was revealed. In total, 452 AS events derived from 307 distinct genes were found to be responsive to the levels of the splicing factors PTB1 and PTB2, which predominantly triggered splicing of regulated introns, inclusion of cassette exons, and usage of upstream 5′ splice sites. By contrast, no major AS regulatory function of the distantly related PTB3 was found. Dependent on their position within the mRNA, PTB-regulated events can both modify the untranslated regions and give rise to alternative protein products. We find that PTB-mediated AS events are connected to diverse biological processes, and the functional implications of selected instances were further elucidated. Specifically, PTB misexpression changes AS of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR6, coinciding with altered rates of abscisic acid–dependent seed germination. Furthermore, AS patterns as well as the expression of key flowering regulators were massively changed in a PTB1/2 level-dependent manner. PMID:23192226

  5. Identification of key regulators and their controlling mechanism in a combinatorial apoptosis network: a systems biology approach.

    PubMed

    Nafis, Shazia; Ponnusamy, Kalaiarasan; Husain, Mohammad; Singh, R K Brojen; Bamezai, Rameshwar N K

    2016-10-18

    An experimentally validated set of apoptosis-regulatory proteins was subjected to network analysis, depicting a scale-free hierarchical fractal network. The power-law distribution of the various topological properties of the network revealed the fractal nature of the network, a signature of self-organization of the network where the network maintained the democratic constitution of nodes at various levels and showed the absence of the centrality-lethality control system. Even though network breakdown under the absence of the centrality-lethality rule of hub removal did not happen, the change in the topological properties of the network could be observed. Depending on the amount of change observed in topological properties, we identified a few proteins (hubs) which could be functionally important in the combinatorial apoptosis gene regulatory network. The crosstalk of these important proteins within the network along with functional modules probably tries to maintain the structural features of the network. NFKB1 was found to be the most efficient signal transducer followed by SP1. In addition, hsa-let-7a controlled the modules independently, revealing its importance in the incoherent and coherent types of feed forward loop motif analysis. The sub-modules and sub-sub-modules predicted bi-fan and multi-layer-perceptron motifs, suggesting the role of multifunctional signals in regulating apoptosis. Finally, SP1, NFKB1 and hsa-let-7a were observed to regulate apoptosis by influencing motifs, signal transduction, and module regulation, which was validated through the removal of hubs, signifying their biological importance in association with cancers.

  6. Identification of Direct Targets of FUSCA3, a Key Regulator of Arabidopsis Seed Development1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fangfang; Perry, Sharyn E.

    2013-01-01

    FUSCA3 (FUS3) is a B3 domain transcription factor that is a member of the LEAFY COTYLEDON (LEC) group of genes. The LEC genes encode proteins that also include LEC2, a B3 domain factor related to FUS3, and LEC1, a CCAAT box-binding factor. LEC1, LEC2, and FUS3 are essential for plant embryo development. All three loss-of-function mutants in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) prematurely exit embryogenesis and enter seedling developmental programs. When ectopically expressed, these genes promote embryo programs in seedlings. We report on chromatin immunoprecipitation-tiling array experiments to globally map binding sites for FUS3 that, along with other published work to assess transcriptomes in response to FUS3, allow us to determine direct from indirect targets. Many transcription factors associated with embryogenesis are direct targets of FUS3, as are genes involved in the seed maturation program. FUS3 regulates genes encoding microRNAs that, in turn, control transcripts encoding transcription factors involved in developmental phase changes. Examination of direct targets of FUS3 reveals that FUS3 acts primarily or exclusively as a transcriptional activator. Regulation of microRNA-encoding genes is one mechanism by which FUS3 may repress indirect target genes. FUS3 also directly up-regulates VP1/ABI3-LIKE1 (VAL1), encoding a B3 domain protein that functions as a repressor of transcription. VAL1, along with VAL2 and VAL3, is involved in the transition from embryo to seedling development. Many genes are responsive to FUS3 and to VAL1/VAL2 but with opposite regulatory consequences. The emerging picture is one of complex cross talk and interactions among embryo transcription factors and their target genes. PMID:23314941

  7. Arf3p GTPase is a key regulator of Bud2p activation for invasive growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jia-Wei; Lee, Fang-Jen S

    2013-08-01

    The regulation and signaling pathways involved in the invasive growth of yeast have been studied extensively because of their general applicability to fungal pathogenesis. Bud2p, which functions as a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for Bud1p/Rsr1p, is required for appropriate budding patterns and filamentous growth. The regulatory mechanisms leading to Bud2p activation, however, are poorly understood. In this study, we report that ADP-ribosylation factor 3p (Arf3p) acts as a regulator of Bud2p activation during invasive growth. Arf3p binds directly to the N-terminal region of Bud2p and promotes its GAP activity both in vitro and in vivo. Genetic analysis shows that deletion of BUD1 suppresses the defect of invasive growth in arf3Δ or bud2Δ cells. Lack of Arf3p, like that of Bud2p, causes the intracellular accumulation of Bud1p-GTP. The Arf3p-Bud2p interaction is important for invasive growth and facilitates the Bud2p-Bud1p association in vivo. Finally, we show that under glucose depletion-induced invasion conditions in yeast, more Arf3p is activated to the GTP-bound state, and the activation is independent of Arf3p guanine nucleotide-exchange factor Yel1p. Thus we demonstrate that a novel spatial activation of Arf3p plays a role in regulating Bud2p activation during glucose depletion-induced invasive growth.

  8. Mxr1p, a Key Regulator of the Methanol Utilization Pathway and Peroxisomal Genes in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Lin-Cereghino, Geoffrey Paul; Godfrey, Laurie; de la Cruz, Bernard J.; Johnson, Sabrina; Khuongsathiene, Samone; Tolstorukov, Ilya; Yan, Mingda; Lin-Cereghino, Joan; Veenhuis, Marten; Subramani, Suresh; Cregg, James M.

    2006-01-01

    Growth of the yeast Pichia pastoris on methanol induces the expression of genes whose products are required for its metabolism. Three of the methanol pathway enzymes are located in an organelle called the peroxisome. As a result, both methanol pathway enzymes and proteins involved in peroxisome biogenesis (PEX proteins) are induced in response to this substrate. The most highly regulated of these genes is AOX1, which encodes alcohol oxidase, the first enzyme of the methanol pathway, and a peroxisomal enzyme. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for methanol regulation, we identify genes required for the expression of AOX1. Mutations in one gene, named MXR1 (methanol expression regulator 1), result in strains that are unable to (i) grow on the peroxisomal substrates methanol and oleic acid, (ii) induce the transcription of AOX1 and other methanol pathway and PEX genes, and (iii) form normal-appearing peroxisomes in response to methanol. MXR1 encodes a large protein with a zinc finger DNA-binding domain near its N terminus that has similarity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Adr1p. In addition, Mxr1p is localized to the nucleus in cells grown on methanol or other gluconeogenic substrates. Finally, Mxr1p specifically binds to sequences upstream of AOX1. We conclude that Mxr1p is a transcription factor that is necessary for the activation of many genes in response to methanol. We propose that MXR1 is the P. pastoris homologue of S. cerevisiae ADR1 but that it has gained new functions and lost others through evolution as a result of changes in the spectrum of genes that it controls. PMID:16428444

  9. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B is a key regulator of IFNAR1 endocytosis and a target for antiviral therapies

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Christopher J.; Zheng, Hui; Bhattacharya, Sabyasachi; Lewis, John R.; Reiter, Alexander M.; Henthorn, Paula; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Baker, Darren P.; Ukkiramapandian, Radha; Bence, Kendra K.; Fuchs, Serge Y.

    2012-01-01

    Type 1 interferons (IFN1) elicit antiviral defenses by activating the cognate receptor composed of IFN-α/β receptor chain 1 (IFNAR1) and IFNAR2. Down-regulation of this receptor occurs through IFN1-stimulated IFNAR1 ubiquitination, which exposes a Y466-based linear endocytic motif within IFNAR1 to recruitment of the adaptin protein-2 complex (AP2) and ensuing receptor endocytosis. Paradoxically, IFN1-induced Janus kinase-mediated phosphorylation of Y466 is expected to decrease its affinity for AP2 and to inhibit the endocytic rate. To explain how IFN1 promotes Y466 phosphorylation yet stimulates IFNAR1 internalization, we proposed that the activity of a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) is required to enable both events by dephosphorylating Y466. An RNAi-based screen identified PTP1B as a specific regulator of IFNAR1 endocytosis stimulated by IFN1, but not by ligand-independent inducers of IFNAR1 ubiquitination. PTP1B is a promising target for treatment of obesity and diabetes; numerous research programs are aimed at identification and characterization of clinically relevant inhibitors of PTP1B. PTP1B is capable of binding and dephosphorylating IFNAR1. Genetic or pharmacologic modulation of PTP1B activity regulated IFN1 signaling in a manner dependent on the integrity of Y466 within IFNAR1 in human cells. These effects were less evident in mouse cells whose IFNAR1 lacks an analogous motif. PTP1B inhibitors robustly augmented the antiviral effects of IFN1 against vesicular stomatitis and hepatitis C viruses in human cells and proved beneficial in feline stomatitis patients. The clinical significance of these findings in the context of using PTP1B inhibitors to increase the therapeutic efficacy of IFN against viral infections is discussed. PMID:23129613

  10. NAC transcription factors, NST1 and NST3, are key regulators of the formation of secondary walls in woody tissues of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Iwase, Akira; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Masato; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

    2007-01-01

    Wood is formed by the successive addition of secondary xylem, which consists of cells with a conspicuously thickened secondary wall composed mainly of lignin and cellulose. Several genes involved in lignin and cellulose biosynthesis have been characterized, but the factors that regulate the formation of secondary walls in woody tissues remain to be identified. In this study, we show that plant-specific transcription factors, designated NAC SECONDARY WALL THICKENING PROMOTING FACTOR1 (NST1) and NST3, are key regulators of the formation of secondary walls in woody tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana. In nst1-1 nst3-1 double knockout plants, the secondary wall thickenings in interfascicular fibers and secondary xylem, except for vascular vessels, were completely suppressed without affecting formation of cells destined to be woody tissues. Conversely, as shown previously for NST1, overexpression of NST3 induced ectopic secondary wall thickenings in various aboveground tissues. Furthermore, the expression of chimeric repressors derived from NST1 and NST3 suppressed secondary wall thickenings in the presumptive interfascicular fibers. Because putative orthologs of NST1 and NST3 are present in the genome of poplar, our results suggest that they are also key regulators of the formation of secondary walls in woody plants and could be used as a tool for the genetic engineering of wood and its derivatives.

  11. cAMP and EPAC Are Key Players in the Regulation of the Signal Transduction Pathway Involved in the α-Hemolysin Autophagic Response

    PubMed Central

    Mestre, María Belén; Colombo, María Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a microorganism that causes serious diseases in the human being. This microorganism is able to escape the phagolysosomal pathway, increasing intracellular bacterial survival and killing the eukaryotic host cell to spread the infection. One of the key features of S. aureus infection is the production of a series of virulence factors, including secreted enzymes and toxins. We have shown that the pore-forming toxin α-hemolysin (Hla) is the S. aureus–secreted factor responsible for the activation of the autophagic pathway and that this response occurs through a PI3K/Beclin1-independent form. In the present report we demonstrate that cAMP has a key role in the regulation of this autophagic response. Our results indicate that cAMP is able to inhibit the autophagy induced by Hla and that PKA, the classical cAMP effector, does not participate in this regulation. We present evidence that EPAC and Rap2b, through calpain activation, are the proteins involved in the regulation of Hla-induced autophagy. Similar results were obtained in cells infected with different S. aureus strains. Interestingly, in this report we show, for the first time to our knowledge, that both EPAC and Rap2b are recruited to the S. aureus–containing phagosome. We believe that our findings have important implications in understanding innate immune processes involved in intracellular pathogen invasion of the host cell. PMID:22654658

  12. Tracing a key player in the regulation of plant architecture: the columnar growth habit of apple trees (Malus × domestica).

    PubMed

    Petersen, Romina; Krost, Clemens

    2013-07-01

    Plant architecture is regulated by a complex interplay of some key players (often transcription factors), phytohormones and other signaling molecules such as microRNAs. The columnar growth habit of apple trees is a unique form of plant architecture characterized by thick and upright stems showing a compaction of internodes and carrying short fruit spurs instead of lateral branches. The molecular basis for columnar growth is a single dominant allele of the gene Columnar, whose identity, function and gene product are unknown. As a result of marker analyses, this gene has recently been fine-mapped to chromosome 10 at 18.51-19.09 Mb [according to the annotation of the apple genome by Velasco (2010)], a region containing a cluster of quantitative trait loci associated with plant architecture, but no homologs to the well-known key regulators of plant architecture. Columnar apple trees have a higher auxin/cytokinin ratio and lower levels of gibberellins and abscisic acid than normal apple trees. Transcriptome analyses corroborate these results and additionally show differences in cell membrane and cell wall function. It can be expected that within the next year or two, an integration of these different research methodologies will reveal the identity of the Columnar gene. Besides enabling breeders to efficiently create new apple (and maybe related pear, peach, cherry, etc.) cultivars which combine desirable characteristics of commercial cultivars with the advantageous columnar growth habit using gene technology, this will also provide new insights into an elevated level of plant growth regulation.

  13. Interferon regulatory factor 3 is a key regulation factor for inducing the expression of SAMHD1 in antiviral innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shen; Zhan, Yuan; Zhou, Yanjun; Jiang, Yifeng; Zheng, Xuchen; Yu, Lingxue; Tong, Wu; Gao, Fei; Li, Liwei; Huang, Qinfeng; Ma, Zhiyong; Tong, Guangzhi

    2016-01-01

    SAMHD1 is a type I interferon (IFN) inducible host innate immunity restriction factor that inhibits an early step of the viral life cycle. The underlying mechanisms of SAMHD1 transcriptional regulation remains elusive. Here, we report that inducing SAMHD1 upregulation is part of an early intrinsic immune response via TLR3 and RIG-I/MDA5 agonists that ultimately induce the nuclear translocation of the interferon regulation factor 3 (IRF3) protein. Further studies show that IRF3 plays a major role in upregulating endogenous SAMHD1 expression in a mechanism that is independent of the classical IFN-induced JAK-STAT pathway. Both overexpression and activation of IRF3 enhanced the SAMHD1 promoter luciferase activity, and activated IRF3 was necessary for upregulating SAMHD1 expression in a type I IFN cascade. We also show that the SAMHD1 promoter is a direct target of IRF3 and an IRF3 binding site is sufficient to render this promoter responsive to stimulation. Collectively, these findings indicate that upregulation of endogenous SAMHD1 expression is attributed to the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IRF3 and we suggest that type I IFN induction and induced SAMHD1 expression are coordinated. PMID:27411355

  14. Gene Expression Patterns Define Key Transcriptional Events InCell-Cycle Regulation By cAMP And Protein Kinase A

    SciTech Connect

    Zambon, Alexander C.; Zhang, Lingzhi; Minovitsky, Simon; Kanter, Joan R.; Prabhakar, Shyam; Salomonis, Nathan; Vranizan, Karen; Dubchak Inna,; Conklin, Bruce R.; Insel, Paul A.

    2005-06-01

    Although a substantial number of hormones and drugs increase cellular cAMP levels, the global impact of cAMP and its major effector mechanism, protein kinase A (PKA), on gene expression is not known. Here we show that treatment of murine wild-type S49 lymphoma cells for 24 h with 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cAMP (8-CPTcAMP), a PKA-selective cAMP analog, alters the expression of approx equal to 4,500 of approx. equal to 13,600 unique genes. By contrast, gene expression was unaltered in Kin- S49 cells (that lack PKA) incubated with 8-CPTcAMP. Changes in mRNA and protein expression of several cell cycle regulators accompanied cAMP-induced G1-phase cell-cycle arrest of wild-type S49 cells. Within 2h, 8-CPT-cAMP altered expression of 152 genes that contain evolutionarily conserved cAMP-response elements within 5 kb of transcriptional start sites, including the circadian clock gene Per1. Thus, cAMP through its activation of PKA produces extensive transcriptional regulation in eukaryotic cells. These transcriptional networks include a primary group of cAMP-response element-containing genes and secondary networks that include the circadian clock.

  15. Cul3 and the BTB Adaptor Insomniac Are Key Regulators of Sleep Homeostasis and a Dopamine Arousal Pathway in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffenberger, Cory; Allada, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is homeostatically regulated, such that sleep drive reflects the duration of prior wakefulness. However, despite the discovery of genes important for sleep, a coherent molecular model for sleep homeostasis has yet to emerge. To better understand the function and regulation of sleep, we employed a reverse-genetics approach in Drosophila. An insertion in the BTB domain protein CG32810/insomniac (inc) exhibited one of the strongest baseline sleep phenotypes thus far observed, a ∼10 h sleep reduction. Importantly, this is coupled to a reduced homeostatic response to sleep deprivation, consistent with a disrupted sleep homeostat. Knockdown of the INC-interacting protein, the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cul3, results in reduced sleep duration, consolidation, and homeostasis, suggesting an important role for protein turnover in mediating INC effects. Interestingly, inc and Cul3 expression in post-mitotic neurons during development contributes to their adult sleep functions. Similar to flies with increased dopaminergic signaling, loss of inc and Cul3 result in hyper-arousability to a mechanical stimulus in adult flies. Furthermore, the inc sleep duration phenotype can be rescued by pharmacological inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme for dopamine biosynthesis. Taken together, these results establish inc and Cul3 as important new players in setting the sleep homeostat and a dopaminergic arousal pathway in Drosophila. PMID:23055946

  16. The key regulator of submergence tolerance, SUB1A, promotes photosynthetic and metabolic recovery from submergence damage in rice leaves.

    PubMed

    Alpuerto, Jasper Benedict; Hussain, Rana Muhammad Fraz; Fukao, Takeshi

    2016-03-01

    The submergence-tolerance regulator, SUBMERGENCE1A (SUB1A), of rice (Oryza sativa L.) modulates gene regulation, metabolism and elongation growth during submergence. Its benefits continue during desubmergence through protection from reactive oxygen species and dehydration, but there is limited understanding of SUB1A's role in physiological recovery from the stress. Here, we investigated the contribution of SUB1A to desubmergence recovery using the two near-isogenic lines, submergence-sensitive M202 and tolerant M202(Sub1). No visible damage was detected in the two genotypes after 3 d of submergence, but the sublethal stress differentially altered photosynthetic parameters and accumulation of energy reserves. Submergence inhibited photosystem II photochemistry and stimulated breakdown of protein and accumulation of several amino acids in both genotypes at similar levels. Upon desubmergence, however, more rapid return to homeostasis of these factors was observed in M202(Sub1). Submergence considerably restrained non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in M202, whereas the value was unaltered in M202(Sub1) during the stress. Upon reaeration, submerged plants encounter sudden exposure to higher light. A greater capability for NPQ-mediated photoprotection can benefit the rapid recovery of photosynthetic performance and energy reserve metabolism in M202(Sub1). Our findings illuminate the significant role of SUB1A in active physiological recovery upon desubmergence, a component of enhanced tolerance to submergence. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. PNPase is a key player in the regulation of small RNAs that control the expression of outer membrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, José M.; Arraiano, Cecília M.

    2008-01-01

    In this report, we demonstrate that exonucleolytic turnover is much more important in the regulation of sRNA levels than was previously recognized. For the first time, PNPase is introduced as a major regulatory feature controlling the levels of the small noncoding RNAs MicA and RybB, which are required for the accurate expression of outer membrane proteins (OMPs). In the absence of PNPase, the pattern of OMPs is changed. In stationary phase, MicA RNA levels are increased in the PNPase mutant, leading to a decrease in the levels of its target ompA mRNA and the respective protein. This growth phase regulation represents a novel pathway of control. We have evaluated other ribonucleases in the control of MicA RNA, and we showed that degradation by PNPase surpasses the effect of endonucleolytic cleavages by RNase E. RybB was also destabilized by PNPase. This work highlights a new role for PNPase in the degradation of small noncoding RNAs and opens the way to evaluate striking similarities between bacteria and eukaryotes. PMID:18203924

  18. SUMO-specific protease 3 is a key regulator for hepatic lipid metabolism in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuhan; Yu, Fudong; Han, Yan; Li, Qing; Cao, Zhujun; Xiang, Xiaogang; Jiang, Shaowen; Wang, Xiaolin; Lu, Jie; Lai, Rongtao; Wang, Hui; Cai, Wei; Bao, Shisan; Xie, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by excessive lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. The role of SENP3 in lipid metabolism, particularly NAFLD, is unclear. Our results showed that hepatic SENP3 was up-regulated in NAFLD patients and an animal model in vivo and after loading hepatocytes with free fatty acids (FFA) in vitro. Intracellular lipid accumulation was determined in SENP3 silenced or overexpressed hepatocytes with/without FFA in vitro. Confirming a role for SENP3, gene silencing was associated in vitro with amelioration of lipid accumulation and overexpression with enhancement of lipid accumulation. SENP3 related genes in NAFLD were determined in vitro using RNA-Seq. Eleven unique genes closely associated with lipid metabolism were generated using bioinformatics. Three selected genes (apoe, a2m and tnfrsf11b) were verified in vitro, showing apoe, a2m and tnfrsf11b were regulated by SENP3 with FFA stimulation. Intrahepatic and circulating APOE, A2M and TNFRSF11B were elevated in NAFLD compared with controls. These data demonstrate the important role of SENP3 in lipid metabolism during the development of NAFLD via downstream genes, which may be useful information in the development of NAFLD. The precise role of SENP3 in NAFLD will be investigated using liver-specific conditional knockout mice in future studies. PMID:27853276

  19. HNF4alpha and NF-E2 are key transcriptional regulators of the murine Abcc6 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Douet, Vanessa; VanWart, Christopher M; Heller, Matthew B; Reinhard, Sabrina; Le Saux, Olivier

    2006-01-01

    Mutations in an ABC transporter gene called ABCC6 are responsible for pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), a rare heritable disease characterized by elastic fiber calcification in skin, ocular and vascular tissues. The presumed function of this ABC transporter is to export metabolites from polarized cells. However, the endogenous substrate(s) are unknown and the exact relationship with elastic fibers is unclear. As ABCC6 is only expressed at high level in liver and kidneys, tissues seemingly unrelated to the PXE phenotype, we explored the transcriptional regulation of the murine Abcc6 gene to define the transcriptional signal conferring tissue specificity and to gather clues on its possible biological function. We cloned 2.9 kb of the mAbcc6 5'-flanking region and several deletion constructs linked to a luciferase reporter gene. We delineated a proximal promoter and a liver-specific enhancer region. We also demonstrated that the proximal region is a TATA-less promoter requiring an intact CCAAT-box and Sp1 binding for its basal activity. By using reporter assays and chromatin immunoprecipitations, we showed that HNF4alpha and surprisingly, NF-E2, enhanced the mAbcc6 promoter activity. The involvement of both HNF4alpha and NF-E2 in the mAbcc6 gene regulation suggests that Abcc6 might be involved in a detoxification processes related to hemoglobin or heme.

  20. Control of PNG kinase, a key regulator of mRNA translation, is coupled to meiosis completion at egg activation

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Masatoshi; Petrova, Boryana; Orr-Weaver, Terry L

    2017-01-01

    The oocyte-to-embryo transition involves extensive changes in mRNA translation, regulated in Drosophila by the PNG kinase complex whose activity we show here to be under precise developmental control. Despite presence of the catalytic PNG subunit and the PLU and GNU activating subunits in the mature oocyte, GNU is phosphorylated at Cyclin B/CDK1sites and unable to bind PNG and PLU. In vitro phosphorylation of GNU by CyclinB/CDK1 blocks activation of PNG. Meiotic completion promotes GNU dephosphorylation and PNG kinase activation to regulate translation. The critical regulatory effect of phosphorylation is shown by replacement in the oocyte with a phosphorylation-resistant form of GNU, which promotes PNG-GNU complex formation, elevation of Cyclin B, and meiotic defects consistent with premature PNG activation. After PNG activation GNU is destabilized, thus inactivating PNG. This short-lived burst in kinase activity links development with maternal mRNA translation and ensures irreversibility of the oocyte-to-embryo transition. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22219.001 PMID:28555567

  1. Analysis of Nicotiana tabacum PIN genes identifies NtPIN4 as a key regulator of axillary bud growth.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaodong; Qin, Guangyong; Si, Ping; Luo, Zhaopeng; Gao, Junping; Chen, Xia; Zhang, Jianfeng; Wei, Pan; Xia, Qingyou; Lin, Fucheng; Yang, Jun

    2017-01-27

    The plant-specific PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux proteins have been well characterized in many plant species, where they are crucial in the regulation of auxin transport in various aspects of plant development. However, little is known about the exact roles of the PIN genes during plant development in Nicotiana species. This study investigated the PIN genes in tobacco (N. tabacum) and in two ancestral species (N. sylvestris and N. tomentosiformis). Genome-wide analysis of the N. tabacum genome identified 20 genes of the PIN family. An in-depth phylogenetic analysis of the PIN genes of N. tabacum, N. sylvestris and N. tomentosiformis was conducted. NtPIN4 expression was strongly induced by the application of exogenous IAA, but was downregulated by the application of ABA, a strigolactone analogue, and cytokinin, as well as by decapitation treatments, suggesting that the NtPIN4 expression level is likely positively regulated by auxin. Expression analysis indicated that NtPIN4 was highly expressed in tobacco stems and shoots, which was further validated through analysis of the activity of the NtPIN4 promoter. We used CRISPR-Cas9 technology to generate mutants for NtPIN4 and observed that both T0 and T1 plants had a significantly increased axillary bud growth phenotype, as compared with the wild-type plants. Therefore, NtPIN4 offers an opportunity for studying auxin-dependent branching processes.

  2. SUMO-specific protease 3 is a key regulator for hepatic lipid metabolism in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuhan; Yu, Fudong; Han, Yan; Li, Qing; Cao, Zhujun; Xiang, Xiaogang; Jiang, Shaowen; Wang, Xiaolin; Lu, Jie; Lai, Rongtao; Wang, Hui; Cai, Wei; Bao, Shisan; Xie, Qing

    2016-11-17

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by excessive lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. The role of SENP3 in lipid metabolism, particularly NAFLD, is unclear. Our results showed that hepatic SENP3 was up-regulated in NAFLD patients and an animal model in vivo and after loading hepatocytes with free fatty acids (FFA) in vitro. Intracellular lipid accumulation was determined in SENP3 silenced or overexpressed hepatocytes with/without FFA in vitro. Confirming a role for SENP3, gene silencing was associated in vitro with amelioration of lipid accumulation and overexpression with enhancement of lipid accumulation. SENP3 related genes in NAFLD were determined in vitro using RNA-Seq. Eleven unique genes closely associated with lipid metabolism were generated using bioinformatics. Three selected genes (apoe, a2m and tnfrsf11b) were verified in vitro, showing apoe, a2m and tnfrsf11b were regulated by SENP3 with FFA stimulation. Intrahepatic and circulating APOE, A2M and TNFRSF11B were elevated in NAFLD compared with controls. These data demonstrate the important role of SENP3 in lipid metabolism during the development of NAFLD via downstream genes, which may be useful information in the development of NAFLD. The precise role of SENP3 in NAFLD will be investigated using liver-specific conditional knockout mice in future studies.

  3. Multi-omics analysis identifies ATF4 as a key regulator of the mitochondrial stress response in mammals.

    PubMed

    Quirós, Pedro M; Prado, Miguel A; Zamboni, Nicola; D'Amico, Davide; Williams, Robert W; Finley, Daniel; Gygi, Steven P; Auwerx, Johan

    2017-07-03

    Mitochondrial stress activates a mitonuclear response to safeguard and repair mitochondrial function and to adapt cellular metabolism to stress. Using a multiomics approach in mammalian cells treated with four types of mitochondrial stressors, we identify activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) as the main regulator of the stress response. Surprisingly, canonical mitochondrial unfolded protein response genes mediated by ATF5 are not activated. Instead, ATF4 activates the expression of cytoprotective genes, which reprogram cellular metabolism through activation of the integrated stress response (ISR). Mitochondrial stress promotes a local proteostatic response by reducing mitochondrial ribosomal proteins, inhibiting mitochondrial translation, and coupling the activation of the ISR with the attenuation of mitochondrial function. Through a trans-expression quantitative trait locus analysis, we provide genetic evidence supporting a role for Fh1 in the control of Atf4 expression in mammals. Using gene expression data from mice and humans with mitochondrial diseases, we show that the ATF4 pathway is activated in vivo upon mitochondrial stress. Our data illustrate the value of a multiomics approach to characterize complex cellular networks and provide a versatile resource to identify new regulators of mitochondrial-related diseases. © 2017 Quirós et al.

  4. Syndecan-2 is a key regulator of transforming growth factor beta 2/Smad2-mediated adhesion in fibrosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mytilinaiou, Maria; Bano, Artan; Nikitovic, Dragana; Berdiaki, Aikaterini; Voudouri, Kallirroi; Kalogeraki, Alexandra; Karamanos, Nikos K; Tzanakakis, George N

    2013-02-01

    Fibrosarcoma is a rare malignant tumor originating from fibroblasts. Transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGFβ2) has been established to regulate processes correlated to fibrosarcoma tumorigenesis. In this study, we investigated the possible participation of syndecan-2 (SDC-2), a cell membrane heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycan on these TGFβ2 functions. Our results demonstrate that the inhibition of SDC-2 expression by short interfering RNA (siSDC2) abolished TGFβ2-dependent HT1080 cell adhesion (P ≤ 0.01). In parallel, the downregulation of SDC-2 significantly inhibited TGFβ2-induced Smad2 phosphorylation (P ≤ 0.01). The immunoflourescence signal of TGF receptor III as well as its protein expression was decreased in SDC-2-deficient cells. The enhancement of adhesion molecules integrin β1 (P ≤ 0.01) and focal adhesion kinase expression, induced by TGFβ2 treatment (P ≤ 0.001), was markedly inhibited in SDC-2-defficient cells (P ≤ 0.01). Conclusively, the obtained data suggest that SDC-2 modulates TGFβ2 transcriptional regulation via Smad signaling to facilitate fibrosarcoma cell adhesion. Copyright © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Arabidopsis WRKY33 Is a Key Transcriptional Regulator of Hormonal and Metabolic Responses toward Botrytis cinerea Infection1[W

    PubMed Central

    Birkenbihl, Rainer P.; Diezel, Celia; Somssich, Imre E.

    2012-01-01

    The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) transcription factor WRKY33 is essential for defense toward the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Here, we aimed at identifying early transcriptional responses mediated by WRKY33. Global expression profiling on susceptible wrky33 and resistant wild-type plants uncovered massive differential transcriptional reprogramming upon B. cinerea infection. Subsequent detailed kinetic analyses revealed that loss of WRKY33 function results in inappropriate activation of the salicylic acid (SA)-related host response and elevated SA levels post infection and in the down-regulation of jasmonic acid (JA)-associated responses at later stages. This down-regulation appears to involve direct activation of several jasmonate ZIM-domain genes, encoding repressors of the JA-response pathway, by loss of WRKY33 function and by additional SA-dependent WRKY factors. Moreover, genes involved in redox homeostasis, SA signaling, ethylene-JA-mediated cross-communication, and camalexin biosynthesis were identified as direct targets of WRKY33. Genetic studies indicate that although SA-mediated repression of the JA pathway may contribute to the susceptibility of wrky33 plants to B. cinerea, it is insufficient for WRKY33-mediated resistance. Thus, WRKY33 apparently directly targets other still unidentified components that are also critical for establishing full resistance toward this necrotroph. PMID:22392279

  6. OPDA Has Key Role in Regulating Plant Susceptibility to the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne hapla in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, Cynthia; Leelarasamee, Natthanon; Meldau, Dorothea; Feussner, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant hormone that plays important roles in regulating plant defenses against necrotrophic pathogens and herbivorous insects, but the role of JA in mediating the plant responses to root-knot nematodes has been unclear. Here we show that an application of either methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or the JA-mimic coronatine (COR) on Arabidopsis significantly reduced the number of galls caused by the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla. Interestingly, the MeJA-induced resistance was independent of the JA-receptor COI1 (CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1). The MeJA-treated plants accumulated the JA precursor cis-(+)-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) in addition to JA/JA-Isoleucine, indicating a positive feedback loop in JA biosynthesis. Using mutants in the JA-biosynthetic pathway, we found that plants deficient in the biosynthesis of JA and OPDA were hyper-susceptible to M. hapla. However, the opr3 mutant, which cannot convert OPDA to JA, exhibited wild-type levels of nematode galling. In addition, mutants in the JA-biosynthesis and perception which lie downstream of opr3 also displayed wild-type levels of galling. The data put OPR3 (OPDA reductase 3) as the branch point between hyper-susceptibility and wild-type like levels of disease. Overall, the data suggests that the JA precursor, OPDA, plays a role in regulating plant defense against nematodes. PMID:27822219

  7. Long-range Electrostatic Complementarity Governs Substrate Recognition by Human Chymotrypsin C, a Key Regulator of Digestive Enzyme Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Batra, Jyotica; Szabó, András; Caulfield, Thomas R.; Soares, Alexei S.; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós; Radisky, Evette S.

    2013-01-01

    Human chymotrypsin C (CTRC) is a pancreatic serine protease that regulates activation and degradation of trypsinogens and procarboxypeptidases by targeting specific cleavage sites within their zymogen precursors. In cleaving these regulatory sites, which are characterized by multiple flanking acidic residues, CTRC shows substrate specificity that is distinct from that of other isoforms of chymotrypsin and elastase. Here, we report the first crystal structure of active CTRC, determined at 1.9-Å resolution, revealing the structural basis for binding specificity. The structure shows human CTRC bound to the small protein protease inhibitor eglin c, which binds in a substrate-like manner filling the S6-S5′ subsites of the substrate binding cleft. Significant binding affinity derives from burial of preferred hydrophobic residues at the P1, P4, and P2′ positions of CTRC, although acidic P2′ residues can also be accommodated by formation of an interfacial salt bridge. Acidic residues may also be specifically accommodated in the P6 position. The most unique structural feature of CTRC is a ring of intense positive electrostatic surface potential surrounding the primarily hydrophobic substrate binding site. Our results indicate that long-range electrostatic attraction toward substrates of concentrated negative charge governs substrate discrimination, which explains CTRC selectivity in regulating active digestive enzyme levels. PMID:23430245

  8. Sirtuin 1 is a key regulator of the interleukin-12 p70/interleukin-23 balance in human dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Yolanda; Rodríguez, Mario; Municio, Cristina; Hugo, Etzel; Alonso, Sara; Ibarrola, Nieves; Fernández, Nieves; Crespo, Mariano Sánchez

    2012-10-12

    Stimulation of human dendritic cells with the fungal surrogate zymosan produces IL-23 and a low amount of IL-12 p70. Trans-repression of il12a transcription, which encodes IL-12 p35 chain, by proteins of the Notch family and lysine deacetylation reactions have been reported as the underlying mechanisms, but a number of questions remain to be addressed. Zymosan produced the location of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) to the nucleus, enhanced its association with the il12a promoter, increased the nuclear concentration of the SIRT1 co-substrate NAD(+), and decreased chromatin accessibility in the nucleosome-1 of il12a, which contains a κB-site. The involvement of deacetylation reactions in the inhibition of il12a transcription was supported by the absence of Ac-Lys-14-histone H3 in dendritic cells treated with zymosan upon coimmunoprecipitation of transducin-like enhancer of split. In contrast, we did not obtain evidence of a possible effect of SIRT1 through the deacetylation of c-Rel, the central element of the NF-κB family involved in il12a regulation. These data indicate that an enhancement of SIRT1 activity in response to phagocytic stimuli may reduce the accessibility of c-Rel to the il12a promoter and its transcriptional activation, thus regulating the IL-12 p70/IL-23 balance and modulating the ongoing immune response.

  9. Sirtuin 1 Is a Key Regulator of the Interleukin-12 p70/Interleukin-23 Balance in Human Dendritic Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Yolanda; Rodríguez, Mario; Municio, Cristina; Hugo, Etzel; Alonso, Sara; Ibarrola, Nieves; Fernández, Nieves; Crespo, Mariano Sánchez

    2012-01-01

    Stimulation of human dendritic cells with the fungal surrogate zymosan produces IL-23 and a low amount of IL-12 p70. Trans-repression of il12a transcription, which encodes IL-12 p35 chain, by proteins of the Notch family and lysine deacetylation reactions have been reported as the underlying mechanisms, but a number of questions remain to be addressed. Zymosan produced the location of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) to the nucleus, enhanced its association with the il12a promoter, increased the nuclear concentration of the SIRT1 co-substrate NAD+, and decreased chromatin accessibility in the nucleosome-1 of il12a, which contains a κB-site. The involvement of deacetylation reactions in the inhibition of il12a transcription was supported by the absence of Ac-Lys-14-histone H3 in dendritic cells treated with zymosan upon coimmunoprecipitation of transducin-like enhancer of split. In contrast, we did not obtain evidence of a possible effect of SIRT1 through the deacetylation of c-Rel, the central element of the NF-κB family involved in il12a regulation. These data indicate that an enhancement of SIRT1 activity in response to phagocytic stimuli may reduce the accessibility of c-Rel to the il12a promoter and its transcriptional activation, thus regulating the IL-12 p70/IL-23 balance and modulating the ongoing immune response. PMID:22893703

  10. Divergence in enzyme regulation between Caenorhabditis elegans and human tyrosine hydroxylase, the key enzyme in the synthesis of dopamine.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Ana C; Pey, Angel L; Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio; Døskeland, Anne P; Martinez, Aurora

    2011-02-15

    TH (tyrosine hydroxylase) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamines. The cat-2 gene of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is expressed in mechanosensory dopaminergic neurons and has been proposed to encode a putative TH. In the present paper, we report the cloning of C. elegans full-length cat-2 cDNA and a detailed biochemical characterization of the encoded CAT-2 protein. Similar to other THs, C. elegans CAT-2 is composed of an N-terminal regulatory domain followed by a catalytic domain and a C-terminal oligomerization domain and shows high substrate specificity for L-tyrosine. Like hTH (human TH), CAT-2 is tetrameric and is phosphorylated at Ser35 (equivalent to Ser40 in hTH) by PKA (cAMP-dependent protein kinase). However, CAT-2 is devoid of characteristic regulatory mechanisms present in hTH, such as negative co-operativity for the cofactor, substrate inhibition or feedback inhibition exerted by catecholamines, end-products of the pathway. Thus TH activity in C. elegans displays a weaker regulation in comparison with the human orthologue, resembling a constitutively active enzyme. Overall, our data suggest that the intricate regulation characteristic of mammalian TH might have evolved from more simple models to adjust to the increasing complexity of the higher eukaryotes neuroendocrine systems.

  11. Impact of promoter polymorphisms in key regulators of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway on the outcome of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Rocio; St-Cyr, Janick; Lalonde, Marie-Eve; Healy, Jasmine; Richer, Chantal; Gagné, Vincent; Laverdière, Caroline; Silverman, Lewis B; Sallan, Stephen E; Neuberg, Donna; Kutok, Jeffery L; Kritikou, Ekaterini A; Krajinovic, Maja; Sinnett, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    The introduction of multiagent treatment protocols has led to a remarkable increase in survival rates for children diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, yet for a subpopulation of patients, resistance to chemotherapeutics remains an obstacle to successful treatment. Here we investigate the role of the mitochondrial (or intrinsic) apoptosis pathway in modulating the onset and outcomes of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cell death is a highly regulated process that plays an essential role in regulating cell homeostasis, particularly in tissues with high intrinsic proliferating capacity such as the hematopoietic system. Following the underlying paradigm that cis-acting genetic variation can influence disease risk and outcomes by modulating gene expression, we performed a systematic analysis of the proximal promoter regions of 21 genes involved in apoptosis. Using gene reporter assays, we show that promoter variations in 11 intrinsic apoptosis genes, including ADPRT, APAF1, BCL2, BAD, BID, MCL1, BIRC4, BCL2L1, ENDOG, YWHAB, and YWHAQ, influence promoter activity in an allele-specific manner. We also show that correlated promoter variation and increased expression of MCL1 is associated with reduced overall survival among high-risk patients receiving higher doses of corticosteroid, suggesting that increased expression of this anti-apoptosis gene could lead to reduced cell death and influence treatment response in a disease- and dose-responsive manner.

  12. Impact of promoter polymorphisms in key regulators of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway on the outcome of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Rocio; St-Cyr, Janick; Lalonde, Marie-Eve; Healy, Jasmine; Richer, Chantal; Gagné, Vincent; Laverdière, Caroline; Silverman, Lewis B.; Sallan, Stephen E.; Neuberg, Donna; Kutok, Jeffery L.; Kritikou, Ekaterini A.; Krajinovic, Maja; Sinnett, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of multiagent treatment protocols has led to a remarkable increase in survival rates for children diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, yet for a subpopulation of patients, resistance to chemotherapeutics remains an obstacle to successful treatment. Here we investigate the role of the mitochondrial (or intrinsic) apoptosis pathway in modulating the onset and outcomes of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cell death is a highly regulated process that plays an essential role in regulating cell homeostasis, particularly in tissues with high intrinsic proliferating capacity such as the hematopoietic system. Following the underlying paradigm that cis-acting genetic variation can influence disease risk and outcomes by modulating gene expression, we performed a systematic analysis of the proximal promoter regions of 21 genes involved in apoptosis. Using gene reporter assays, we show that promoter variations in 11 intrinsic apoptosis genes, including ADPRT, APAF1, BCL2, BAD, BID, MCL1, BIRC4, BCL2L1, ENDOG, YWHAB, and YWHAQ, influence promoter activity in an allele-specific manner. We also show that correlated promoter variation and increased expression of MCL1 is associated with reduced overall survival among high-risk patients receiving higher doses of corticosteroid, suggesting that increased expression of this anti-apoptosis gene could lead to reduced cell death and influence treatment response in a disease- and dose-responsive manner. PMID:24038028

  13. Convective moisture adjustment time scale as a key factor in regulating model amplitude of the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xianan; Zhao, Ming; Maloney, Eric D.; Waliser, Duane E.

    2016-10-01

    Despite its pronounced impacts on weather extremes worldwide, the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) remains poorly represented in climate models. Here we present findings that point to some necessary ingredients to produce a strong MJO amplitude in a large set of model simulations from a recent model intercomparison project. While surface flux and radiative heating anomalies are considered important for amplifying the MJO, their strength per unit MJO precipitation anomaly is found to be negatively correlated to MJO amplitude across these multimodel simulations. However, model MJO amplitude is found to be closely tied to a model's convective moisture adjustment time scale, a measure of how rapidly precipitation must increase to remove excess column water vapor, or alternately the efficiency of surface precipitation generation per unit column water vapor anomaly. These findings provide critical insights into key model processes for the MJO and pinpoint a direction for improved model representation of the MJO.

  14. Tyrosol, a phenolic compound, ameliorates hyperglycemia by regulating key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Chandramohan, Ramasamy; Pari, Leelavinothan; Rathinam, Ayyasamy; Sheikh, Bashir Ahmad

    2015-03-05

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of tyrosol, a phenolic compound, on the activities of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in the control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg body weight). Experimental rats were administered tyrosol 1 ml intra gastrically at the doses of 5, 10 and 20mg/kg body weight and glibenclamide 1 ml at a dose of 600 μg/kg body weight once a day for 45 days. At the end of the experimental period, diabetic control rats exhibited significant (p<0.05) increase in plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin with significant (p<0.05) decrease in plasma insulin, total hemoglobin and body weight. The activities of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism such as phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase were significantly (p<0.05) increased and the activities of hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were significantly (p<0.05) decreased in the liver and kidney of diabetic control rats. Further, antioxidants were lowered in diabetic control rats. A significant (p<0.05) decline in glycogen level in the liver and muscle and glycogen synthase activity in the liver and a significant (p<0.05) increase in the activity of liver glycogen phosphorylase were observed in diabetic control rats compared to normal control rats. Oral administration of tyrosol to diabetic rats reversed all the above mentioned biochemical parameters to near normal in a dose dependent manner. Tyrosol at a dose of 20mg/kg body weight showed the highest significant effect than the other two doses. Immunohistochemical staining of pancreas revealed that tyrosol treated diabetic rats showed increased insulin immunoreactive β-cells, which confirmed the biochemical findings. The observed results were compared with glibenclamide, a standard oral hypoglycemic drug. The results of the present study suggest

  15. Synchronous regulation of the determinants of endometrial receptivity to interleukin 1 at key stages of early embryo implantation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bourdiec, Amélie; Martel, Valéry; Akoum, Ali

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the expression kinetics of interleukin-1 receptors (IL-1R), receptor antagonist (IL-1RN), and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) throughout early gestation in mice. Assessment of IL-1R, IL-1RN, and MCP-1 throughout early pregnancy. Reproduction laboratory. B6C3F1 female mice bred with fertile males of the same strain. Collection of endometrial tissue at necropsy from nonimplanted and implanted sites. IL-1R, IL-1RN, and MCP-1 mRNA expression by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and protein expression by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemistry. The expression of the signaling IL-1R1 significantly increased in the first 2 days of gestation, which corresponded to the inflammatory-like period triggered by the seminal fluid, before increasing again at the implantation window and lasting throughout embryo implantation. The expression of inhibitory IL-1R2 and IL-1RN concomitantly increased during gestational days 1-2 but remained low, particularly within the embryo implantation sites and throughout the implantation period. The expression of MCP-1 significantly increased only at the embryo implantation sites and showed a significant positive correlation with IL-1R1 expression. Our data identified for the first time synchronous changes in endometrial IL-1R throughout early gestation in vivo and point to a deep modulation of endometrial receptivity to IL-1 by embryo-driven signals. This may play a key role in the creation of a receptive phenotype in the maternal endometrium and represent a key mechanism underlying embryo implantation. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Quality assurance: the key for amendments of the EU-directive/s regulating veterinary training in Europe.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Martínez, H

    2004-08-01

    requirements laid down by the Directive 78/1027. Harmonisation requires regulations but also awareness. Establishments of veterinary education must not only comply with regulations but also become aware of the advantages of quality assurance of their basic training. The present paper is a series of personal reflections by the author who ultimately addresses veterinary educators and interest organisations such as the European Association of Establishments for Veterinary Education (EAEVE) and the Federation of Veterinarians of Europe (FVE) to focus on strategies of quality assurance as the basis for claims of amendments of the EU-Directive/s regulating veterinary training in Europe.

  17. Solvent Role in the Formation of Electric Double Layers with Surface Charge Regulation: A Bystander or a Key Participant?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleharty, Mark E.; van Swol, Frank; Petsev, Dimiter N.

    2016-01-01

    The charge formation at interfaces involving electrolyte solutions is due to the chemical equilibrium between the surface reactive groups and the potential determining ions in the solution (i.e., charge regulation). In this Letter we report our findings that this equilibrium is strongly coupled to the precise molecular structure of the solution near the charged interface. The neutral solvent molecules dominate this structure due to their overwhelmingly large number. Treating the solvent as a structureless continuum leads to a fundamentally inadequate physical picture of charged interfaces. We show that a proper account of the solvent effect leads to an unexpected and complex system behavior that is affected by the molecular and ionic excluded volumes and van der Waals interactions.

  18. Heat shock transcription factor 1 is a key determinant of HCC development by regulating hepatic steatosis and metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xiongjie; Moskophidis, Demetrius; Mivechi, Nahid F.

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurrence and progression is linked tightly to progressive hepatic metabolic syndrome associated with insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, and chronic inflammation. Heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1), a major transactivator of stress proteins, increases survival by protecting cells against environmental stressors. It has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer, but specific mechanisms by which HSF1 supports cancer development remain elusive. We propose a pathogenic mechanism whereby HSF1 activation promotes growth of pre-malignant cells and HCC development by stimulating lipid biosynthesis and perpetuating chronic hepatic metabolic disease induced by carcinogens. Our work shows that inactivation of HSF1 impairs cancer progression, mitigating adverse effects of carcinogens on hepatic metabolism by enhancing insulin sensitivity and sensitizing activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an important regulator of energy homeostasis and inhibitor of lipid synthesis. HSF1 is a potential target for the control of hepatic steatosis, hepatic insulin resistance, and HCC development. PMID:21723507

  19. The Polyadenylation Factor Subunit CLEAVAGE AND POLYADENYLATION SPECIFICITY FACTOR30: A Key Factor of Programmed Cell Death and a Regulator of Immunity in Arabidopsis1[W

    PubMed Central

    Bruggeman, Quentin; Garmier, Marie; de Bont, Linda; Soubigou-Taconnat, Ludivine; Mazubert, Christelle; Benhamed, Moussa; Raynaud, Cécile; Bergounioux, Catherine; Delarue, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is essential for several aspects of plant life, including development and stress responses. Indeed, incompatible plant-pathogen interactions are well known to induce the hypersensitive response, a localized cell death. Mutational analyses have identified several key PCD components, and we recently identified the mips1 mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which is deficient for the key enzyme catalyzing the limiting step of myoinositol synthesis. One of the most striking features of mips1 is the light-dependent formation of lesions on leaves due to salicylic acid (SA)-dependent PCD, revealing roles for myoinositol or inositol derivatives in the regulation of PCD. Here, we identified a regulator of plant PCD by screening for mutants that display transcriptomic profiles opposing that of the mips1 mutant. Our screen identified the oxt6 mutant, which has been described previously as being tolerant to oxidative stress. In the oxt6 mutant, a transfer DNA is inserted in the CLEAVAGE AND POLYADENYLATION SPECIFICITY FACTOR30 (CPSF30) gene, which encodes a polyadenylation factor subunit homolog. We show that CPSF30 is required for lesion formation in mips1 via SA-dependent signaling, that the prodeath function of CPSF30 is not mediated by changes in the glutathione status, and that CPSF30 activity is required for Pseudomonas syringae resistance. We also show that the oxt6 mutation suppresses cell death in other lesion-mimic mutants, including lesion-simulating disease1, mitogen-activated protein kinase4, constitutive expressor of pathogenesis-related genes5, and catalase2, suggesting that CPSF30 and, thus, the control of messenger RNA 3′ end processing, through the regulation of SA production, is a key component of plant immune responses. PMID:24706550

  20. CsrA modulates levels of lipoproteins and key regulators of gene expression critical for pathogenic mechanisms of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Karna, S L Rajasekhar; Sanjuan, Eva; Esteve-Gassent, Maria D; Miller, Christine L; Maruskova, Mahulena; Seshu, J

    2011-02-01

    Carbon storage regulator A (CsrA) is an RNA binding protein that has been characterized in many bacterial species to play a central regulatory role by modulating several metabolic processes. We recently showed that a homolog of CsrA in Borrelia burgdorferi (CsrA(Bb), BB0184) was upregulated in response to propagation of B. burgdorferi under mammalian host-specific conditions. In order to further delineate the role of CsrA(Bb), we generated a deletion mutant designated ES10 in a linear plasmid 25-negative isolate of B. burgdorferi strain B31 (ML23). The deletion mutant was screened by PCR and Southern blot hybridization, and a lack of synthesis of CsrA(Bb) in ES10 was confirmed by immunoblot analysis. Analysis of ES10 propagated at pH 6.8/37°C revealed a significant reduction in the levels of OspC, DbpA, BBK32, and BBA64 compared to those for the parental wild-type strain propagated under these conditions, while there were no significant changes in the levels of either OspA or P66. Moreover, the levels of two regulatory proteins, RpoS and BosR, were also found to be lower in ES10 than in the control strain. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis of total RNA extracted from the parental strain and csrA(Bb) mutant revealed significant differences in gene expression consistent with the changes at the protein level. Neither the csrA(Bb) mutant nor the trans-complemented strain was capable of infection following intradermal needle inoculation in C3H/HeN mice at either 10³ or 10⁵ spirochetes per mouse. The further characterization of molecular basis of regulation mediated by CsrA(Bb) will provide significant insights into the pathophysiology of B. burgdorferi.

  1. Leptin receptor neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus are key regulators of energy expenditure and body weight, but not food intake

    PubMed Central

    Rezai-Zadeh, Kavon; Yu, Sanghou; Jiang, Yanyan; Laque, Amanda; Schwartzenburg, Candice; Morrison, Christopher D.; Derbenev, Andrei V.; Zsombok, Andrea; Münzberg, Heike

    2014-01-01

    Objective Leptin responsive neurons play an important role in energy homeostasis, controlling specific autonomic, behavioral, and neuroendocrine functions. We have previously identified a population of leptin receptor (LepRb) expressing neurons within the dorsomedial hypothalamus/dorsal hypothalamic area (DMH/DHA) which are related to neuronal circuits that control brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. Intra-DMH leptin injections also activate sympathetic outflow to BAT, but whether such effects are mediated directly via DMH/DHA LepRb neurons and whether this is physiologically relevant for whole body energy expenditure and body weight regulation has yet to be determined. Methods We used pharmacosynthetic receptors (DREADDs) to selectively activate DMH/DHA LepRb neurons. We further deleted LepRb with virally driven cre-recombinase from DMH/DHA neurons and determined the physiological importance of DMH/DHA LepRb neurons in whole body energy homeostasis. Results Neuronal activation of DMH/DHA LepRb neurons with DREADDs promoted BAT thermogenesis and locomotor activity, which robustly induced energy expenditure (p < 0.001) and decreases body weight (p < 0.001). Similarly, intra-DMH/DHA leptin injections normalized hypothermia and attenuated body weight gain in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. Conversely, ablation of LepRb from DMH/DHA neurons remarkably drives weight gain (p < 0.001) by reducing energy expenditure (p < 0.001) and locomotor activity (p < 0.001). The observed changes in body weight were largely independent of food intake. Conclusion Taken together, our data highlight that DMH/DHA LepRb neurons are sufficient and necessary to regulate energy expenditure and body weight. PMID:25352997

  2. The Colletotrichum acutatum gene encoding a putative pH-responsive transcription regulator is a key virulence determinant during fungal pathogenesis on citrus.

    PubMed

    You, Bang-Jau; Choquer, Mathias; Chung, Kuang-Ren

    2007-09-01

    Postbloom fruit drop of citrus and Key lime anthracnose (KLA) are caused by different pathotypes of Colletotrichum acutatum. Both pathotypes are pathogenic to citrus flowers, resulting in blossom blight and induction of young fruit abscission. Two fungal mutants defective in pathogenicity were recovered from a KLA pathotype after Agrobacterium-mediated mutagenesis. A PacC(KLAP2) gene encoding a polypeptide that resembles many pH-responsive PacC/ Rim101 transcription regulators in fungi was identified from one of the mutants, and functionally characterized to play a crucial role in pathogenesis to both Key lime leaves and citrus flowers. Gene disruption at the Pac(KLAP2) locus created fungal mutants that were hypersensitive to alkaline pH, altered in conidium and appressorium production and germination, and concomitant with reduced virulence to both tissues. The pacC(KLAP2) null mutants had lower alkaline phosphatase and protease activities, but increased pectolytic and lipolytic activities. The mutants initiated penetration and incited lesion formation on Key lime, indistinguishable from the wild type, when a functional copy of PacC(KLAP2) was reintroduced or the leaves were wounded prior to inoculation. The null mutants were blocked at the penetration stage and, thus, failed to initiate the necrotrophic phase. The PacC(KLAP2) transcript was barely detectable when the fungus was grown on medium buffered to pH 3 or 4, yet accumulated to high levels at a pH between 5 and 7. The Pac(KLAP2) transcript was detected 2 days postinoculation on Key lime leaves, correlating with the time of lesion formation. We conclude that PacC(KLAP2) is essential for C. acutatum pathogenesis by regulating multiple physiological and developmental processes.

  3. Low-power output-capacitorless low-dropout regulator with adjustable charge injection technique for on-off-keying transmitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akita, Ippei; Asai, Shochi; Ishida, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a low-power low-dropout (LDO) regulator for p power amplifier (PA) in on-off-keying (OOK) transmitters is proposed. The proposed technique needs no external output capacitors, enabling small-area and low-cost implementation. The response of a rapid load change in an OOK transmitter is improved by the proposed adjustable charge injection (ACI) technique that uses timing information of a transmitted data signal. The designed regulator with the ACI technique has been fabricated in a standard 180 nm CMOS process and achieves 100 mVpp dropout voltage ripple. The measured current dissipation is 65 µA at a power supply of 1.8 V.

  4. Hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 is regulated by PPARalpha and is a key mediator of hepatic lipid metabolism in ketotic states.

    PubMed

    Badman, Michael K; Pissios, Pavlos; Kennedy, Adam R; Koukos, George; Flier, Jeffrey S; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria

    2007-06-01

    Mice fed a high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) exhibit marked changes in hepatic metabolism and energy homeostasis. Here, we identify liver-derived fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) as an endocrine regulator of the ketotic state. Hepatic expression and circulating levels of FGF21 are induced by both KD and fasting, are rapidly suppressed by refeeding, and are in large part downstream of PPARalpha. Importantly, adenoviral knockdown of hepatic FGF21 in KD-fed mice causes fatty liver, lipemia, and reduced serum ketones, due at least in part to altered expression of key genes governing lipid and ketone metabolism. Hence, induction of FGF21 in liver is required for the normal activation of hepatic lipid oxidation, triglyceride clearance, and ketogenesis induced by KD. These findings identify hepatic FGF21 as a critical regulator of lipid homeostasis and identify a physiological role for this hepatic hormone.

  5. Russelioside B, a pregnane glycoside ameliorates hyperglycemia in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats by regulating key enzymes of glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Sattar, Essam; El-Maraghy, Shohda A; El-Dine, Riham Salah; Rizk, Sherine M

    2016-05-25

    An alternative strategy to treat diabetes mellitus is the use of various natural agents possessing hypoglycemic effect. Caralluma quadrangula has been used in Saudi traditional medicine in cases of thirst and hunger and for the treatment of diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the improving effect of russelioside B, a pregnane glycoside isolated from Caralluma quadrangula on glucose metabolism in the liver of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight). Experimental rats were administered russelioside B at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight once a day for 30 days. The results showed that RB improved the fasting serum glucose level, glycated hemoglobin percent, serum insulin level and lipid profile. A significant improvement was observed upon the administration of russelioside B on the activities of the key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism (glucokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and glycogen phosphorylase) in the liver of diabetic rats. Further, russelioside B administration to diabetic rats reverted gene expression of glucokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, glycogen synthase and glycogen synthase kinase-3β to near normal levels. In conclusion, russelioside B possess antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effect in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Hence, administration of russelioside B may represent a potentially useful strategy for the management of diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The non-octarepeat copper binding site of the prion protein is a key regulator of prion conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giachin, Gabriele; Mai, Phuong Thao; Tran, Thanh Hoa; Salzano, Giulia; Benetti, Federico; Migliorati, Valentina; Arcovito, Alessandro; Longa, Stefano Della; Mancini, Giordano; D'Angelo, Paola; Legname, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    The conversion of the prion protein (PrPC) into prions plays a key role in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Despite the importance for pathogenesis, the mechanism of prion formation has escaped detailed characterization due to the insoluble nature of prions. PrPC interacts with copper through octarepeat and non-octarepeat binding sites. Copper coordination to the non-octarepeat region has garnered interest due to the possibility that this interaction may impact prion conversion. We used X-ray absorption spectroscopy to study copper coordination at pH 5.5 and 7.0 in human PrPC constructs, either wild-type (WT) or carrying pathological mutations. We show that mutations and pH cause modifications of copper coordination in the non-octarepeat region. In the WT at pH 5.5, copper is anchored to His96 and His111, while at pH 7 it is coordinated by His111. Pathological point mutations alter the copper coordination at acidic conditions where the metal is anchored to His111. By using in vitro approaches, cell-based and computational techniques, we propose a model whereby PrPC coordinating copper with one His in the non-octarepeat region converts to prions at acidic condition. Thus, the non-octarepeat region may act as the long-sought-after prion switch, critical for disease onset and propagation.

  7. Key role of an ADP - ribose - dependent transcriptional regulator of NAD metabolism for fitness and virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Okon, Elza; Dethlefsen, Sarah; Pelnikevich, Anna; Barneveld, Andrea van; Munder, Antje; Tümmler, Burkhard

    2017-01-01

    NAD is an essential co-factor of redox reactions and metabolic conversions of NAD-dependent enzymes. NAD biosynthesis in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa has yet not been experimentally explored. The in silico search for orthologs in the P. aeruginosa PAO1 genome identified the operon pncA - pncB1-nadE (PA4918-PA4920) to encode the nicotinamidase, nicotinate phosporibosyltransferase and Nad synthase of salvage pathway I. The functional role of the preceding genes PA4917 and PA4916 was resolved by the characterization of recombinant protein. PA4917 turned out to encode the nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase NadD2 and PA4916 was determined to encode the transcriptional repressor NrtR that binds to an intergenic sequence between nadD2 and pncA. Complex formation between the catalytically inactive Nudix protein NrtR and its DNA binding site was suppressed by the antirepressor ADP-ribose. NrtR plasposon mutagenesis abrogated virulence of P. aeruginosa TBCF10839 in a murine acute airway infection model and constrained its metabolite profile. When grown together with other isogenic plasposon mutants, the nrtR knock-out was most compromised in competitive fitness to persist in nutrient-rich medium in vitro or murine airways in vivo. This example demonstrates how tightly metabolism and virulence can be intertwined by key elements of metabolic control.

  8. Integrating 'omic' data and biogeochemical modeling: the key to understanding the microbial regulation of matter cycling in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagel, Holger; Kandeler, Ellen; Seifert, Jana; Camarinha-Silva, Amélia; Kügler, Philipp; Rennert, Thilo; Poll, Christian; Streck, Thilo

    2016-04-01

    Matter cycling in soils and associated soil functions are intrinsically controlled by microbial dynamics. It is therefore crucial to consider functional traits of microorganisms in biogeochemical models. Tremendous advances in 'omic' methods provide a plethora of data on physiology, metabolic capabilities and ecological life strategies of microorganisms in soil. Combined with isotopic techniques, biochemical pathways and transformations can be identified and quantified. Such data have been, however, rarely used to improve the mechanistic representation of microbial dynamics in soil organic matter models. It is the goal of the Young Investigator Group SoilReg to address this challenge. Our general approach is to tightly integrate experiments and biochemical modeling. NextGen sequencing will be applied to identify key functional groups. Active microbial groups will be quantified by measurements of functional genes and by stable isotope probing methods of DNA and proteins. Based on this information a biogeochemical model that couples a mechanistic representation of microbial dynamics with physicochemical processes will be set up and calibrated. Sensitivity and stability analyses of the model as well as scenario simulations will reveal the importance of intrinsic and extrinsic controls of organic matter turnover. We will demonstrate our concept and present first results of two case studies on pesticide degradation and methane oxidation.

  9. Cortistatin Is a Key Factor Regulating the Sex-Dependent Response of the GH and Stress Axes to Fasting in Mice.

    PubMed

    Cordoba-Chacón, José; Gahete, Manuel D; Pozo-Salas, Ana I; de Lecea, Luis; Castaño, Justo P; Luque, Raúl M

    2016-07-01

    Cortistatin (CORT) shares high structural and functional similarities with somatostatin (SST) but displays unique sex-dependent pituitary actions. Indeed, although female CORT-knockout (CORT-KO) mice exhibit enhanced GH expression/secretion, Proopiomelanocortin expression, and circulating ACTH/corticosterone/ghrelin levels, male CORT-KO mice only display increased plasma GH/corticosterone levels. Changes in peripheral ghrelin and SST (rather than hypothalamic levels) seem to regulate GH/ACTH axes in CORT-KOs under fed conditions. Because changes in GH/ACTH axes during fasting provide important adaptive mechanisms, we sought to determine whether CORT absence influences GH/ACTH axes during fasting. Accordingly, fed and fasted male/female CORT-KO were compared with littermate controls. Fasting increased circulating GH levels in male/female controls but not in CORT-KO, suggesting that CORT can be a relevant regulator of GH secretion during fasting. However, GH levels were already higher in CORT-KO than in controls in fed state, which might preclude a further elevation in GH levels. Interestingly, although fasting-induced pituitary GH expression was elevated in both male/female controls, GH expression only increased in fasted female CORT-KOs, likely owing to specific changes observed in key factors controlling somatotrope responsiveness (ie, circulating ghrelin and IGF-1, and pituitary GHRH and ghrelin receptor expression). Fasting increased corticosterone levels in control and, most prominently, in CORT-KO mice, which might be associated with a desensitization to SST signaling and to an augmentation in CRH and ghrelin-signaling regulating corticotrope function. Altogether, these results provide compelling evidence that CORT plays a key, sex-dependent role in the regulation of the GH/ACTH axes in response to fasting.

  10. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphatase-1 Is a Key Regulator of Hypoxia-Induced Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression and Vessel Density in Lung

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Kristin M.; Panzhinskiy, Evgeniy; Burns, Nana; Zawada, W. Michael; Das, Mita

    2011-01-01

    Although mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) is a key deactivator of MAP kinases, known effectors of lung vessel formation, whether it plays a role in the expression of proangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in hypoxic lung is unknown. We therefore hypothesized that MKP-1 is a crucial modulator of hypoxia-stimulated vessel development by regulating lung VEGF levels. Wild-type MKP-1+/+, heterozygous MKP-1+/−, and deficient MKP-1−/− mice were exposed to sea level (SL), Denver altitude (DA) (1609 m [5280 feet]), and severe high altitude (HYP) (∼5182 m [∼17,000 feet]) for 6 weeks. Hypoxia enhanced phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase, a substrate of MKP-1, as well as α smooth muscle actin (αSMA) expression in vessels, respiratory epithelium, and interstitium of phosphatase-deficient lung. αSMA-positive vessel (<50 μm outside diameter) densities were markedly reduced, whereas vessel wall thickness was increased in hypoxic MKP-1−/− lung. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) of all three genotypes were isolated to pinpoint the mechanism involved in hypoxia-induced vascular abnormalities of MKP-1−/− lung. Sustained phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase was observed in MKP-1-null MEFs in response to hypoxia exposure. Although hypoxia up-regulated VEGF levels in MKP-1+/+ MEFs eightfold, only a 70% increase in VEGF expression was observed in MKP-1-deficient cells. Therefore, our data strongly suggest that MKP-1 might be the key regulator of vascular densities through the regulation of VEGF levels in hypoxic lung. PMID:21224048

  11. Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor B4 regulates key signalling molecules involved in FcγRI-mediated clathrin-dependent endocytosis and phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Mijeong; Raftery, Mark J.; Thomas, Paul S.; Geczy, Carolyn L.; Bryant, Katherine; Tedla, Nicodemus

    2016-01-01

    FcγRI cross-linking on monocytes may trigger clathrin-mediated endocytosis, likely through interaction of multiple intracellular molecules that are controlled by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events. However, the identity of phospho-proteins and their regulation are unknown. We proposed the leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor B4 (LILRB4) that inhibits FcγRI-mediated cytokine production via Tyr dephosphorylation of multiple kinases, may also regulate endocytosis/phagocytosis through similar mechanisms. FcγRI and/or LILRB4 were antibody-ligated on THP-1 cells, lysates immunoprecipitated using anti-pTyr antibody and peptides sequenced by mass spectrometry. Mascot Search identified 25 Tyr phosphorylated peptides with high confidence. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that the most significantly affected pathways were clathrin-mediated endocytosis and Fc-receptor dependent phagocytosis. Tyr phosphorylation of key candidate proteins in these pathways included common γ-chain of the Fc receptors, Syk, clathrin, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase Cbl, hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate, tripartite motif-containing 21 and heat shock protein 70. Importantly, co-ligation of LILRB4 with FcγRI caused significant dephosphorylation of these proteins and was associated with suppression of Fc receptor-dependent uptake of antibody-opsonised bacterial particles, indicating that LILRB4. These results suggest that Tyr phosphorylation may be critical in FcγRI-dependent endocytosis/phagocytosis that may be regulated by LILRB4 by triggering dephosphorylation of key signalling proteins. PMID:27725776

  12. DHN melanin biosynthesis in the plant pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea is based on two developmentally regulated key enzyme (PKS)-encoding genes.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Julia

    2016-02-01

    Botrytis cinerea is the causal agent of gray mold disease in various plant species and produces grayish macroconidia and/or black sclerotia at the end of the infection cycle. It has been suggested that the pigmentation is due to the accumulation of 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) melanin. To unravel its basis and regulation, the putative melanogenic and regulatory genes were identified and functionally characterized. Unlike other DHN melanin-producing fungi, B. cinerea and other Leotiomycetes contain two key enzyme (PKS)-encoding enzymes. Bcpks12 and bcpks13 are developmentally regulated and are required for melanogenesis in sclerotia and conidia respectively. BcYGH1 converts the BcPKS13 product and contributes thereby to conidial melanogenesis. In contrast, enzymes acting downstream in conversion of the PKS products (BcBRN2, BcSCD1 and BcBRN1) are required for both, sclerotial and conidial melanogenesis, suggesting that DHN melanogenesis in B. cinerea follows a non-linear pathway that is rather unusual for secondary metabolic pathways. Regulation of the melanogenic genes involves three pathway-specific transcription factors (TFs) that are clustered with bcpks12 or bcpks13 and other developmental regulators such as light-responsive TFs. Melanogenic genes are dispensable in vegetative mycelia for proper growth and virulence. However, DHN melanin is considered to contribute to the longevity of the reproduction structures.

  13. PCP-B class pollen coat proteins are key regulators of the hydration checkpoint in Arabidopsis thaliana pollen-stigma interactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ludi; Clarke, Lisa A; Eason, Russell J; Parker, Christopher C; Qi, Baoxiu; Scott, Rod J; Doughty, James

    2017-01-01

    The establishment of pollen-pistil compatibility is strictly regulated by factors derived from both male and female reproductive structures. Highly diverse small cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs) have been found to play multiple roles in plant reproduction, including the earliest stages of the pollen-stigma interaction. Secreted CRPs found in the pollen coat of members of the Brassicaceae, the pollen coat proteins (PCPs), are emerging as important signalling molecules that regulate the pollen-stigma interaction. Using a combination of protein characterization, expression and phylogenetic analyses we identified a novel class of Arabidopsis thaliana pollen-borne CRPs, the PCP-Bs (for pollen coat protein B-class) that are related to embryo surrounding factor (ESF1) developmental regulators. Single and multiple PCP-B mutant lines were utilized in bioassays to assess effects on pollen hydration, adhesion and pollen tube growth. Our results revealed that pollen hydration is severely impaired when multiple PCP-Bs are lost from the pollen coat. The hydration defect also resulted in reduced pollen adhesion and delayed pollen tube growth in all mutants studied. These results demonstrate that AtPCP-Bs are key regulators of the hydration 'checkpoint' in establishment of pollen-stigma compatibility. In addition, we propose that interspecies diversity of PCP-Bs may contribute to reproductive barriers in the Brassicaceae. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Quantitative Proteomic analysis on Activated Hepatic Stellate Cells reversion Reveal STAT1 as a key regulator between Liver Fibrosis and recovery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongyu; Chen, Fangyan; Fan, Xu; Lin, Cong; Hao, Yunwei; Wei, Handong; Lin, Weiran; Jiang, Ying; He, Fuchu

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the changes of activated HSCs reversion is an essential step toward clarifying the potential roles of HSCs in the treatment of liver fibrosis. In this study, we chose adipocyte differentiation mixture to induce LX-2 cells for 2 days in vitro as reversion phase, comparing with normal cultured LX-2 cells as activation phase. Mass spectrometric-based SILAC technology was adopted to study differentially expressed proteome of LX-2 cells between reversion and activation. Compared with activated HSCs, 273 proteins showed significant differences in reverted HSCs. The main pathway of up-regulated proteins associated with reversion of HSCs mainly related to oxidation-reduction and lipid metabolism, while the top pathway of down-regulated proteins was found in regulated cytoskeleton formation. Changes in the expression levels of selected proteins were verified by Western blotting analysis, especially STAT1, FLNA, LASP1, and NAMPT proteins. The distinct roles of STAT1 were further analyzed between activated and reverted of HSCs, it was found that STAT1 could affect cell proliferation of HSCs and could be viewed as a key regulator in the reversion of HSCs. Thus, the proteomic analysis could accelerate our understanding of the mechanisms of HSC reversion on cessation of fibrogenic stimuli and provide new targets for antifibrotic liver therapy. PMID:28322315

  15. Vitamin A as a key regulator of obesity & its associated disorders: Evidences from an obese rat model

    PubMed Central

    Jeyakumar, Shanmugam M.; Vajreswari, Ayyalasomayajula

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, vitamin A has evolved from its classical role as a fat-soluble vitamin and attained the status of para-/autocrine hormone. Besides its well-established role in embryogenesis, growth and development, reproduction and vision, vitamin A has also been implicated in several other physiological processes. Emerging experimental evidences emphasize adipose tissue as an active endocrine organ with great propensity to continuous growth (throughout life). Due to various genetic and lifestyle factors, excess energy accumulates in adipose tissue as fat, resulting in obesity and other complications such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have shed light on vitamin A metabolites; retinaldehyde and retinoic acid and participation of their pathway proteins in the regulation of adipose tissue metabolism and thus, obesity. In this context, we discuss here some of our important findings, which establish the role of vitamin A (supplementation) in obesity and its associated disorders by employing an obese rat model; WNIN/Ob strain. PMID:25963488

  16. Cav1.3 Channels as Key Regulators of Neuron-Like Firings and Catecholamine Release in Chromaffin Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vandael, David H.F.; Marcantoni, Andrea; Carbone, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal and neuroendocrine L-type calcium channels (Cav1.2, Cav1.3) open readily at relatively low membrane potentials and allow Ca2+ to enter the cells near resting potentials. In this way, Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 shape the action potential waveform, contribute to gene expression, synaptic plasticity, neuronal differentiation, hormone secretion and pacemaker activity. In the chromaffin cells (CCs) of the adrenal medulla, Cav1.3 is highly expressed and is shown to support most of the pacemaking current that sustains action potential (AP) firings and part of the catecholamine secretion. Cav1.3 forms Ca2+-nanodomains with the fast inactivating BK channels and drives the resting SK currents. These latter set the inter-spike interval duration between consecutive spikes during spontaneous firing and the rate of spike adaptation during sustained depolarizations. Cav1.3 plays also a primary role in the switch from “tonic” to “burst” firing that occurs in mouse CCs when either the availability of voltage-gated Na channels (Nav) is reduced or the β2 subunit featuring the fast inactivating BK channels is deleted. Here, we discuss the functional role of these “neuron-like” firing modes in CCs and how Cav1.3 contributes to them. The open issue is to understand how these novel firing patterns are adapted to regulate the quantity of circulating catecholamines during resting condition or in response to acute and chronic stress. PMID:25966692

  17. Kaiso is a key regulator of spleen germinal center formation by repressing Bcl6 expression in splenocytes.

    PubMed

    Koh, Dong-In; Yoon, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Min-Kyeong; An, Haemin; Kim, Min-Young; Hur, Man-Wook

    2013-12-13

    Kaiso was previously described as a methylated DNA-binding protein and a transcription repressor interacting with the corepressor protein complex NCoR. In the current study, we show that generation-3 Kaiso knockout mice show a phenotype of splenomegaly and large diffused germinal centers (GC). In the spleens of Kaiso knockout mice, Bcl6 (a transcriptional repressor that plays a critical role in GC development in spleen) and c-Myc were highly expressed, while the cell cycle arrest genes p27 (CDKN1B), p21 (CDKN1A) and Gadd45a were downregulated. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and transcription assays suggested that Kaiso represses Bcl6 expression, and in Kaiso knockout mice, derepressed Bcl6 increased cell proliferation by suppressing p27 (CDKN1B), p21 (CDKN1A) and Gadd45a, while upregulating the oncogene c-Myc. Further evidence for Kaiso regulation of splenomegaly was provided by B lymphocyte Ramos cells, in which ectopic KAISO repressed BCL6 and c-MYC expression, while concomitantly increasing the expression of the cell cycle arrestors p21, p27 and Gadd45a. In summary, derepressed Bcl6 expression may be responsible for increases in GC cell proliferation and splenomegaly of Kaiso knockout mice.

  18. A Genome-Wide RNAi Screen Reveals MAP Kinase Phosphatases as Key ERK Pathway Regulators during Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shen-Hsi; Kalkan, Tuzer; Morrisroe, Claire; Smith, Austin; Sharrocks, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells represent potentially important therapeutic agents in regenerative medicine. Complex interlinked transcriptional and signaling networks control the fate of these cells towards maintenance of pluripotency or differentiation. In this study we have focused on how mouse embryonic stem cells begin to differentiate and lose pluripotency and, in particular, the role that the ERK MAP kinase and GSK3 signaling pathways play in this process. Through a genome-wide siRNA screen we have identified more than 400 genes involved in loss of pluripotency and promoting the onset of differentiation. These genes were functionally associated with the ERK and/or GSK3 pathways, providing an important resource for studying the roles of these pathways in controlling escape from the pluripotent ground state. More detailed analysis identified MAP kinase phosphatases as a focal point of regulation and demonstrated an important role for these enzymes in controlling ERK activation kinetics and subsequently determining early embryonic stem cell fate decisions. PMID:23271975

  19. A Drosophila in vivo screen identifies store-operated calcium entry as a key regulator of adiposity.

    PubMed

    Baumbach, Jens; Hummel, Petra; Bickmeyer, Iris; Kowalczyk, Katarzyna M; Frank, Martina; Knorr, Konstantin; Hildebrandt, Anja; Riedel, Dietmar; Jäckle, Herbert; Kühnlein, Ronald P

    2014-02-04

    To unravel the evolutionarily conserved genetic network underlying energy homeostasis, we performed a systematic in vivo gene knockdown screen in Drosophila. We used a transgenic RNAi library enriched for fly orthologs of human genes to functionally impair about half of all Drosophila genes specifically in adult fat storage tissue. This approach identified 77 genes, which affect the body fat content of the fly, including 58 previously unknown obesity-associated genes. These genes function in diverse biological processes such as lipid metabolism, vesicle-mediated trafficking, and the universal store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). Impairment of the SOCE core component Stromal interaction molecule (Stim), as well as other components of the pathway, causes adiposity in flies. Acute Stim dysfunction in the fat storage tissue triggers hyperphagia via remote control of the orexigenic short neuropeptide F in the brain, which in turn affects the coordinated lipogenic and lipolytic gene regulation, resulting in adipose tissue hypertrophy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. mir-101-3p is a key regulator of tumor metabolism in triple negative breast cancer targeting AMPK

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xing; Tang, Hailin; Li, Shuaijie; Huang, Xiaojia; Song, Cailu; Wei, Weidong; Xie, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    mir-101-3p has been reported to be a tumor suppressor and a promising therapeutic target in cancer. Recently, AMPK dysfunction has been highlighted in cancers, including breast cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the biological roles of mir-101-3p and AMPK in breast cancer. Our research demonstrated that AMPK was up-regulated in breast cancer tissues and cell lines, especially in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). High-expression of AMPK correlated with poor outcome in both total breast cancer and TNBC patients. Ectopic expression of AMPK improved glucose uptake, glycolysis, proliferation of TNBC cells in vitro and its tumorigenicity in vivo. AMPK was predicted to be a direct target of mir-101-3p. The luciferase reporter assay was performed to certificate this prediction. The expression of AMPK was suppressed by transfection of mir-101-3p in TNBC cells. Over-expression of mir-101-3p or knock-down of AMPK inhibited glucose metabolism and proliferation of TNBC cells in vitro. Our study provides evidence that mir-101-3p- AMPK axis could be a promising therapeutic target in TNBC targeting tumor metabolism. PMID:27145268

  1. Combined Use of Genome-Wide Association Data and Correlation Networks Unravels Key Regulators of Primary Metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Si; Alseekh, Saleh; Cuadros-Inostroza, Álvaro; Mutwil, Marek; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Brotman, Yariv

    2016-01-01

    Plant primary metabolism is a highly coordinated, central, and complex network of biochemical processes regulated at both the genetic and post-translational levels. The genetic basis of this network can be explored by analyzing the metabolic composition of genetically diverse genotypes in a given plant species. Here, we report an integrative strategy combining quantitative genetic mapping and metabolite‒transcript correlation networks to identify functional associations between genes and primary metabolites in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) was used to identify metabolic quantitative trait loci (mQTL). Correlation networks built using metabolite and transcript data derived from a previously published time-course stress study yielded metabolite‒transcript correlations identified by covariation. Finally, results obtained in this study were compared with mQTL previously described. We applied a statistical framework to test and compare the performance of different single methods (network approach and quantitative genetics methods, representing the two orthogonal approaches combined in our strategy) with that of the combined strategy. We show that the combined strategy has improved performance manifested by increased sensitivity and accuracy. This combined strategy allowed the identification of 92 candidate associations between structural genes and primary metabolites, which not only included previously well-characterized gene‒metabolite associations, but also revealed novel associations. Using loss-of-function mutants, we validated two of the novel associations with genes involved in tyrosine degradation and in β-alanine metabolism. In conclusion, we demonstrate that applying our integrative strategy to the largely untapped resource of metabolite–transcript associations can facilitate the discovery of novel metabolite-related genes. This integrative strategy is not limited to A. thaliana, but generally applicable to other plant

  2. SET DOMAIN GROUP701 encodes a H3K4-methytransferase and regulates multiple key processes of rice plant development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kunpeng; Yu, Yu; Dong, Aiwu; Shen, Wen-Hui

    2017-07-01

    Chromatin-based epigenetic information plays an important role in developmental gene regulation, in response to environment, and in natural variation of gene expression levels. Histone H3 lysine 4 di/trimethylation (H3K4me2/3) is abundant in euchromatin and is generally associated with transcriptional activation. Strikingly, however, enzymes catalyzing H3K4me2/3 remain poorly characterized in crops so far. Here, we investigated the function of the rice SET DOMAIN GROUP 701 (SDG701) gene by molecular and biochemical characterization of the gene product, and by studying effects of its loss or gain of function on plant growth and development. We demonstrated that SDG701 encodes a methytransferase specifically catalyzing H3K4 methylation. Overexpression and knockdown experiments showed that SDG701 is crucial for proper sporophytic plant development as well as for gametophytic transmission that directly impacts rice grain production. In-depth analysis of plant flowering time revealed that SDG701 promotes rice flowering under either long-day or short-day photoperiods. Consistently, the SDG701 protein was found to bind chromatin to promote H3K4me3 and to enhance expression of the rice Hd3a and RFT1 florigens. Collectively, our results establish SDG701 as a major rice H3K4-specific methyltransferase and provide important insights into function of H3K4me3 deposition in transcription activation of florigens in promoting plant flowering. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. S phase of the cell cycle: a key phase for the regulation of thermodormancy in barley grain.

    PubMed

    Gendreau, Emmanuel; Cayla, Thibaud; Corbineau, Françoise

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of the cell cycle during germination as related to thermodormancy in barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Pewter) grains in relation with abscisic acid (ABA) by: (i) flow cytometry to determine the progression of the cell cycle; and (ii) reverse transcription-PCR to characterize the expression of some important genes involved in cell-cycle regulation. In dry embryos, cells are mostly (82%) arrested in G1 phase of the cell cycle, the remaining cells being in the G2 (17%) or S phase (0.9%). Germination at 20 °C was associated with an increase in the nuclei population in G2 and S (up to 32.5-44.5 and 9.2-11.3%, respectively, after 18-24h). At 30 °C, partial reactivation of the cell cycle occurred in embryos of dormant grains that did not germinate. Incubation with 50mM hydroxyurea suggests that thermodormancy resulted in a blocking of the nuclei in the S phase. In dry dormant grains, transcripts of CDKA1, CYCA3, KRP4, and WEE1 were present, while those of CDKB1, CDKD1, CYCB1, and CYCD4 were not detected. Incubation at 30 °C resulted in a strong reduction of CDKB1, CYCB1, and CYCD4 expression and overexpression of CDK1 and KRP4. ABA had a similar effect as incubation at 30 °C on the expression of CDKB1, CYCB1, and CYCD4, but did not increase that of CDK1 and KRP4. Patterns of gene expression are discussed with regard to thermodormancy expression and ABA.

  4. S phase of the cell cycle: a key phase for the regulation of thermodormancy in barley grain

    PubMed Central

    Corbineau, FranÇOise

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of the cell cycle during germination as related to thermodormancy in barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Pewter) grains in relation with abscisic acid (ABA) by: (i) flow cytometry to determine the progression of the cell cycle; and (ii) reverse transcription-PCR to characterize the expression of some important genes involved in cell-cycle regulation. In dry embryos, cells are mostly (82%) arrested in G1 phase of the cell cycle, the remaining cells being in the G2 (17%) or S phase (0.9%). Germination at 20 °C was associated with an increase in the nuclei population in G2 and S (up to 32.5–44.5 and 9.2–11.3%, respectively, after 18–24h). At 30 °C, partial reactivation of the cell cycle occurred in embryos of dormant grains that did not germinate. Incubation with 50mM hydroxyurea suggests that thermodormancy resulted in a blocking of the nuclei in the S phase. In dry dormant grains, transcripts of CDKA1, CYCA3, KRP4, and WEE1 were present, while those of CDKB1, CDKD1, CYCB1, and CYCD4 were not detected. Incubation at 30 °C resulted in a strong reduction of CDKB1, CYCB1, and CYCD4 expression and overexpression of CDK1 and KRP4. ABA had a similar effect as incubation at 30 °C on the expression of CDKB1, CYCB1, and CYCD4, but did not increase that of CDK1 and KRP4. Patterns of gene expression are discussed with regard to thermodormancy expression and ABA. PMID:22859679

  5. Regulation and Localization of Key Enzymes during the Induction of Kranz-Less, C4-Type Photosynthesis in Hydrilla verticillata.

    PubMed Central

    Magnin, N. C.; Cooley, B. A.; Reiskind, J. B.; Bowes, G.

    1997-01-01

    Kranz-less, C4-type photosynthesis was induced in the submersed monocot Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle. During a 12-d induction period the CO2 compensation point and O2 inhibition of photosynthesis declined linearly. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) activity increased 16-fold, with the major increase occurring within 3 d. Asparagine and alanine aminotransferases were also induced rapidly. Pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK) and NADP-malic enzyme (ME) activities increased 10-fold but slowly over 15 d. Total ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activity did not increase, and its activation declined from 82 to 50%. Western blots for PEPC, PPDK, and NADP-ME indicated that increased protein levels were involved in their induction. The H. verticillata NADP-ME polypeptide was larger (90 kD) than the maize C4 enzyme (62 kD). PEPC and PPDK exhibited up-regulation in the light. Subcellular fractionation of C4-type leaves showed that PEPC was cytosolic, whereas PPDK and NADP-ME were located in the chloroplasts. The O2 inhibition of photosynthesis was doubled when C4-type but not C3-type leaves were exposed to diethyl oxalacetate, a PEPC inhibitor. The data are consistent with a C4-cycle concentrating CO2 in H. verticillata chloroplasts and indicate that Kranz anatomy is not obligatory for C4-type photosynthesis. H. verticillata predates modern terrestrial C4 monocots; therefore, this inducible CO2-concentrating mechanism may represent an ancient form of C4 photosynthesis. PMID:12223888

  6. Kaiso is a key regulator of spleen germinal center formation by repressing Bcl6 expression in splenocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Koh, Dong-In; Yoon, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Min-Kyeong; An, Haemin; Kim, Min-Young; Hur, Man-Wook

    2013-12-13

    Highlights: •Knockout of Kaiso results in concordant high expression of Bcl6 and c-Myc in spleen. •Kaiso binds the Bcl6 promoter and represses Bcl6 transcription by recruiting NCoR. •Upregulated Bcl6 increases splenocyte proliferation and causes large diffused GC. •Cell cycle-inhibition genes such as Cdkn1b and Cdkn1a are repressed by Bcl6. -- Abstract: Kaiso was previously described as a methylated DNA-binding protein and a transcription repressor interacting with the corepressor protein complex NCoR. In the current study, we show that generation-3 Kaiso knockout mice show a phenotype of splenomegaly and large diffused germinal centers (GC). In the spleens of Kaiso knockout mice, Bcl6 (a transcriptional repressor that plays a critical role in GC development in spleen) and c-Myc were highly expressed, while the cell cycle arrest genes p27 (CDKN1B), p21 (CDKN1A) and Gadd45a were downregulated. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and transcription assays suggested that Kaiso represses Bcl6 expression, and in Kaiso knockout mice, derepressed Bcl6 increased cell proliferation by suppressing p27 (CDKN1B), p21 (CDKN1A) and Gadd45a, while upregulating the oncogene c-Myc. Further evidence for Kaiso regulation of splenomegaly was provided by B lymphocyte Ramos cells, in which ectopic KAISO repressed BCL6 and c-MYC expression, while concomitantly increasing the expression of the cell cycle arrestors p21, p27 and Gadd45a. In summary, derepressed Bcl6 expression may be responsible for increases in GC cell proliferation and splenomegaly of Kaiso knockout mice.

  7. The GRHL2/ZEB Feedback Loop - A Key Axis in the Regulation of EMT in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Steven M; Talebian, Vida; Jolly, Mohit Kumar; Jia, Dongya; Gromala, Monica; Levine, Herbert; McConkey, Brendan J

    2017-03-07

    More than 90% of cancer-related deaths are caused by metastasis. Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) causes tumor cell dissemination while the reverse process, Mesenchymal-to-Epithelial Transition (MET) allows cancer cells to grow and establish a potentially deadly metastatic lesion. Recent evidence indicates that in addition to E and M, cells can adopt a stable hybrid Epithelial/Mesenchymal (E/M) state where they can move collectively leading to clusters of Circulating Tumor Cells - the 'bad actors' of metastasis. EMT is postulated to occur in all four major histological breast cancer subtypes. Here, we identify a set of genes strongly correlated with CDH1 in 877 cancer cell lines, and differentially expressed genes in cell lines overexpressing ZEB1, SNAIL and TWIST. GRHL2 and ESRP1 appear in both these sets and also correlate with CDH1 at the protein level in 40 breast cancer specimens. Next, we find that GRHL2 and CD24 expression coincide with an epithelial character in human mammary epithelial cells. Further, we show that high GRHL2 expression is highly correlated with worse relapse-free survival in all 4 subtypes of breast cancer. Finally, we integrate CD24, GRHL2 and ESRP1 into a mathematical model of EMT regulation to validate the role of these players in EMT. Our data analysis and modeling results highlight the relationships among multiple crucial EMT/MET drivers including ZEB1, GRHL2, CD24 and ESRP1, particularly in basal-like breast cancers, which are most similar to triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and are considered the most dangerous subtype. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Mcidas and GemC1 are key regulators for the generation of multiciliated ependymal cells in the adult neurogenic niche.

    PubMed

    Kyrousi, Christina; Arbi, Marina; Pilz, Gregor-Alexander; Pefani, Dafni-Eleftheria; Lalioti, Maria-Eleni; Ninkovic, Jovica; Götz, Magdalena; Lygerou, Zoi; Taraviras, Stavros

    2015-11-01

    Multiciliated cells are abundant in the epithelial surface of different tissues, including cells lining the walls of the lateral ventricles in the brain and the airway epithelium. Their main role is to control fluid flow and defects in their differentiation are implicated in many human disorders, such as hydrocephalus, accompanied by defects in adult neurogenesis and mucociliary disorder in the airway system. Here we show that Mcidas, which is mutated in human mucociliary clearance disorder, and GemC1 (Gmnc or Lynkeas), previously implicated in cell cycle progression, are key regulators of multiciliated ependymal cell generation in the mouse brain. Overexpression and knockdown experiments show that Mcidas and GemC1 are sufficient and necessary for cell fate commitment and differentiation of radial glial cells to multiciliated ependymal cells. Furthermore, we show that GemC1 and Mcidas operate in hierarchical order, upstream of Foxj1 and c-Myb transcription factors, which are known regulators of ependymal cell generation, and that Notch signaling inhibits GemC1 and Mcidas function. Our results suggest that Mcidas and GemC1 are key players in the generation of multiciliated ependymal cells of the adult neurogenic niche.

  9. Comprehensive interrogation of CpG island methylation in the gene encoding COMT, a key estrogen and catecholamine regulator

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    interrogation of COMT methylation. We corroborate previous findings of variation in COMT methylation with gene expression and the Val 158 Met genotype, and also report novel associations with socioeconomic status (SES) and ethnicity at several methylated loci. These results point to novel mechanisms for COMT regulation, which may have broad therapeutic implications. PMID:24460628

  10. Mitochondrial Activity and Cyr1 Are Key Regulators of Ras1 Activation of C. albicans Virulence Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Grahl, Nora; Demers, Elora G.; Lindsay, Allia K.; Harty, Colleen E.; Willger, Sven D.; Piispanen, Amy E.; Hogan, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is both a major fungal pathogen and a member of the commensal human microflora. The morphological switch from yeast to hyphal growth is associated with disease and many environmental factors are known to influence the yeast-to-hyphae switch. The Ras1-Cyr1-PKA pathway is a major regulator of C. albicans morphogenesis as well as biofilm formation and white-opaque switching. Previous studies have shown that hyphal growth is strongly repressed by mitochondrial inhibitors. Here, we show that mitochondrial inhibitors strongly decreased Ras1 GTP-binding and activity in C. albicans and similar effects were observed in other Candida species. Consistent with there being a connection between respiratory activity and GTP-Ras1 binding, mutants lacking complex I or complex IV grew as yeast in hypha-inducing conditions, had lower levels of GTP-Ras1, and Ras1 GTP-binding was unaffected by respiratory inhibitors. Mitochondria-perturbing agents decreased intracellular ATP concentrations and metabolomics analyses of cells grown with different respiratory inhibitors found consistent perturbation of pyruvate metabolism and the TCA cycle, changes in redox state, increased catabolism of lipids, and decreased sterol content which suggested increased AMP kinase activity. Biochemical and genetic experiments provide strong evidence for a model in which the activation of Ras1 is controlled by ATP levels in an AMP kinase independent manner. The Ras1 GTPase activating protein, Ira2, but not the Ras1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor, Cdc25, was required for the reduction of Ras1-GTP in response to inhibitor-mediated reduction of ATP levels. Furthermore, Cyr1, a well-characterized Ras1 effector, participated in the control of Ras1-GTP binding in response to decreased mitochondrial activity suggesting a revised model for Ras1 and Cyr1 signaling in which Cyr1 and Ras1 influence each other and, together with Ira2, seem to form a master-regulatory complex necessary to integrate

  11. Key Role of MicroRNA in the Regulation of Granulocyte Macrophage Colony-stimulating Factor Expression in Murine Alveolar Epithelial Cells during Oxidative Stress*

    PubMed Central

    Sturrock, Anne; Mir-Kasimov, Mustafa; Baker, Jessica; Rowley, Jesse; Paine, Robert

    2014-01-01

    GM-CSF is an endogenous pulmonary cytokine produced by normal alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) that is a key defender of the alveolar space. AEC GM-CSF expression is suppressed by oxidative stress through alternations in mRNA turnover, an effect that is reversed by treatment with recombinant GM-CSF. We hypothesized that specific microRNA (miRNA) would play a key role in AEC GM-CSF regulation. A genome-wide miRNA microarray identified 19 candidate miRNA altered in primary AEC during oxidative stress with reversal by treatment with GM-CSF. Three of these miRNA (miR 133a, miR 133a*, and miR 133b) are also predicted to bind the GM-CSF 3′-untranslated region (UTR). PCR for the mature miRNA confirmed induction during oxidative stress that was reversed by treatment with GM-CSF. Experiments using a GM-CSF 3′-UTR reporter construct demonstrated that miR133a and miR133b effects on GM-CSF expression are through interactions with the GM-CSF 3′-UTR. Using lentiviral transduction of specific mimics and inhibitors in primary murine AEC, we determined that miR133a and miR133b suppress GM-CSF expression and that their inhibition both reverses oxidant-induced suppression of GM-CSF expression and increases basal expression of GM-CSF in cells in normoxia. In contrast, these miRNAs are not active in regulation of GM-CSF expression in murine EL4 T cells. Thus, members of the miR133 family play key roles in regulation of GM-CSF expression through effects on mRNA turnover in AEC during oxidative stress. Increased understanding of GM-CSF gene regulation may provide novel miRNA-based interventions to augment pulmonary innate immune defense in lung injury. PMID:24371146

  12. Transcriptomic analysis by RNA-seq reveals AP-1 pathway as key regulator that green tea may rely on to inhibit lung tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jing; Zhang, Qi; Xiong, Donghai; Vedell, Peter; Yan, Ying; Jiang, Hui; Cui, Peng; Ding, Feng; Tichelaar, Jay W; Wang, Yian; Lubet, Ronald A; You, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Green tea is a promising chemopreventive agent for lung cancer. Multiple signaling events have been reported, however, the relative importance of these mechanisms in mediating the chemopreventive function of green tea is unclear. In the present study, to examine the involvement of AP-1 in green tea polyphenols induced tumor inhibition, human NSCLC cell line H1299 and mouse SPON 10 cells were identified as AP-1 dependent, as these two lines exhibit high constitutive AP-1 activity, and when TAM67 expression was induced with doxycycline, cell growth was inhibited and correlated with suppressed AP-1 activity. RNA-seq was used to determine the global transcriptional effects of AP-1 inhibition and also uncover the possible involvement of AP-1 in tea polyphenols induced chemoprevention. TAM67 mediated changes in gene expression were identified, and within down-regulated genes, AP-1 was identified as a key transcription regulator. RNA-seq analysis revealed that Polyphenon E-treated cells shared 293 commonly down-regulated genes within TAM67 expressing H1299 cells, and by analysis of limited Chip-seq data, over 10% of the down-regulated genes contain a direct AP-1 binding site, indicating that Polyphenon E elicits chemopreventive activity by regulating AP-1 target genes. Conditional TAM67 expressing transgenic mice and NSCLC cell lines were used to further confirm that the chemopreventive activity of green tea is AP-1 dependent. Polyphenon E lost its chempreventive function both in vitro and in vivo when AP-1 was inhibited, indicating that AP-1 inhibition is a major pathway through which green tea exhibits chemopreventive effects.

  13. CheY3 of Borrelia burgdorferi is the key response regulator essential for chemotaxis and forms a long-lived phosphorylated intermediate.

    PubMed

    Motaleb, M A; Sultan, Syed Z; Miller, Michael R; Li, Chunhao; Charon, Nyles W

    2011-07-01

    Spirochetes have a unique cell structure: These bacteria have internal periplasmic flagella subterminally attached at each cell end. How spirochetes coordinate the rotation of the periplasmic flagella for chemotaxis is poorly understood. In other bacteria, modulation of flagellar rotation is essential for chemotaxis, and phosphorylation-dephosphorylation of the response regulator CheY plays a key role in regulating this rotary motion. The genome of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi contains multiple homologues of chemotaxis genes, including three copies of cheY, referred to as cheY1, cheY2, and cheY3. To investigate the function of these genes, we targeted them separately or in combination by allelic exchange mutagenesis. Whereas wild-type cells ran, paused (flexed), and reversed, cells of all single, double, and triple mutants that contained an inactivated cheY3 gene constantly ran. Capillary tube chemotaxis assays indicated that only those strains with a mutation in cheY3 were deficient in chemotaxis, and cheY3 complementation restored chemotactic ability. In vitro phosphorylation assays indicated that CheY3 was more efficiently phosphorylated by CheA2 than by CheA1, and the CheY3-P intermediate generated was considerably more stable than the CheY-P proteins found in most other bacteria. The results point toward CheY3 being the key response regulator essential for chemotaxis in B. burgdorferi. In addition, the stability of CheY3-P may be critical for coordination of the rotation of the periplasmic flagella.

  14. BRCA1 deficiency in ovarian cancer is associated with alteration in expression of several key regulators of cell motility – A proteomics study

    PubMed Central

    Gau, David M; Lesnock, Jamie L; Hood, Brian L; Bhargava, Rohit; Sun, Mai; Darcy, Kathleen; Luthra, Soumya; Chandran, Uma; Conrads, Thomas P; Edwards, Robert P; Kelley, Joseph L; Krivak, Thomas C; Roy, Partha

    2015-01-01

    Functional loss of expression of breast cancer susceptibility gene 1(BRCA1) has been implicated in genomic instability and cancer progression. There is emerging evidence that BRCA1 gene product (BRCA1) also plays a role in cancer cell migration. We performed a quantitative proteomics study of EOC patient tumor tissues and identified changes in expression of several key regulators of actin cytoskeleton/cell adhesion and cell migration (CAPN1, 14-3-3, CAPG, PFN1, SPTBN1, CFN1) associated with loss of BRCA1 function. Gene expression analyses demonstrate that several of these proteomic hits are differentially expressed between early and advanced stage EOC thus suggesting clinical relevance of these proteins to disease progression. By immunohistochemistry of ovarian tumors with BRCA1+/+ and BRCA1null status, we further verified our proteomic-based finding of elevated PFN1 expression associated with BRCA1 deficiency. Finally, we established a causal link between PFN1 and BRCA1-induced changes in cell migration thus uncovering a novel mechanistic basis for BRCA1-dependent regulation of ovarian cancer cell migration. Overall, findings of this study open up multiple avenues by which BRCA1 can potentially regulate migration and metastatic phenotype of EOC cells. PMID:25927284

  15. BRCA1 deficiency in ovarian cancer is associated with alteration in expression of several key regulators of cell motility - A proteomics study.

    PubMed

    Gau, David M; Lesnock, Jamie L; Hood, Brian L; Bhargava, Rohit; Sun, Mai; Darcy, Kathleen; Luthra, Soumya; Chandran, Uma; Conrads, Thomas P; Edwards, Robert P; Kelley, Joseph L; Krivak, Thomas C; Roy, Partha

    2015-01-01

    Functional loss of expression of breast cancer susceptibility gene 1(BRCA1) has been implicated in genomic instability and cancer progression. There is emerging evidence that BRCA1 gene product (BRCA1) also plays a role in cancer cell migration. We performed a quantitative proteomics study of EOC patient tumor tissues and identified changes in expression of several key regulators of actin cytoskeleton/cell adhesion and cell migration (CAPN1, 14-3-3, CAPG, PFN1, SPTBN1, CFN1) associated with loss of BRCA1 function. Gene expression analyses demonstrate that several of these proteomic hits are differentially expressed between early and advanced stage EOC thus suggesting clinical relevance of these proteins to disease progression. By immunohistochemistry of ovarian tumors with BRCA1(+/+) and BRCA1(null) status, we further verified our proteomic-based finding of elevated PFN1 expression associated with BRCA1 deficiency. Finally, we established a causal link between PFN1 and BRCA1-induced changes in cell migration thus uncovering a novel mechanistic basis for BRCA1-dependent regulation of ovarian cancer cell migration. Overall, findings of this study open up multiple avenues by which BRCA1 can potentially regulate migration and metastatic phenotype of EOC cells.

  16. Combined integrin phosphoproteomic analyses and small interfering RNA--based functional screening identify key regulators for cancer cell adhesion and migration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanling; Lu, Bingwen; Yang, Qingkai; Fearns, Colleen; Yates, John R; Lee, Jiing-Dwan

    2009-04-15

    Integrins interact with extracellular matrix (ECM) and deliver intracellular signaling for cell proliferation, survival, and motility. During tumor metastasis, integrin-mediated cell adhesion to and migration on the ECM proteins are required for cancer cell survival and adaptation to the new microenvironment. Using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture-mass spectrometry, we profiled the phosphoproteomic changes induced by the interactions of cell integrins with type I collagen, the most common ECM substratum. Integrin-ECM interactions modulate phosphorylation of 517 serine, threonine, or tyrosine residues in 513 peptides, corresponding to 357 proteins. Among these proteins, 33 key signaling mediators with kinase or phosphatase activity were subjected to small interfering RNA-based functional screening. Three integrin-regulated kinases, DBF4, PAK2, and GRK6, were identified for their critical role in cell adhesion and migration possibly through their regulation of actin cytoskeleton arrangement. Altogether, we not only depict an integrin-modulated phosphorylation network during cell-ECM protein interactions but also reveal novel regulators for cell adhesion and migration.

  17. A core transcriptional network composed of Pax2/8, Gata3 and Lim1 regulates key players of pro/mesonephros morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Boualia, Sami Kamel; Gaitan, Yaned; Tremblay, Mathieu; Sharma, Richa; Cardin, Julie; Kania, Artur; Bouchard, Maxime

    2013-10-15

    Translating the developmental program encoded in the genome into cellular and morphogenetic functions requires the deployment of elaborate gene regulatory networks (GRNs). GRNs are especially crucial at the onset of organ development where a few regulatory signals establish the different programs required for tissue organization. In the renal system primordium (the pro/mesonephros), important regulators have been identified but their hierarchical and regulatory organization is still elusive. Here, we have performed a detailed analysis of the GRN underlying mouse pro/mesonephros development. We find that a core regulatory subcircuit composed of Pax2/8, Gata3 and Lim1 turns on a deeper layer of transcriptional regulators while activating effector genes responsible for cell signaling and tissue organization. Among the genes directly affected by the core components are the key developmental molecules Nephronectin (Npnt) and Plac8. Hence, the pro/mesonephros GRN links together several essential genes regulating tissue morphogenesis. This renal GRN sheds new light on the disease group Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract (CAKUT) in that gene mutations are expected to generate different phenotypic outcomes as a consequence of regulatory network deficiencies rather than threshold effects from single genes.

  18. Transcriptional Activation and Cell Cycle Block Are the Keys for 5-Fluorouracil Induced Up-Regulation of Human Thymidylate Synthase Expression

    PubMed Central

    Ligabue, Alessio; Marverti, Gaetano; Liebl, Ursula; Myllykallio, Hannu

    2012-01-01

    Background 5-fluorouracil, a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent, up-regulates expression of human thymidylate synthase (hTS). Several different regulatory mechanisms have been proposed to mediate this up-regulation in distinct cell lines, but their specific contributions in a single cell line have not been investigated to date. We have established the relative contributions of these previously proposed regulatory mechanisms in the ovarian cancer cell line 2008 and the corresponding cisplatin-resistant and 5-FU cross-resistant-subline C13*. Methodology/Principal Findings Using RNA polymerase II inhibitor DRB treated cell cultures, we showed that 70–80% of up-regulation of hTS results from transcriptional activation of TYMS mRNA. Moreover, we report that 5-FU compromises the cell cycle by blocking the 2008 and C13* cell lines in the S phase. As previous work has established that TYMS mRNA is synthesized in the S and G1 phase and hTS is localized in the nuclei during S and G2-M phase, the observed cell cycle changes are also expected to affect the intracellular regulation of hTS. Our data also suggest that the inhibition of the catalytic activity of hTS and the up-regulation of the hTS protein level are not causally linked, as the inactivated ternary complex, formed by hTS, deoxyuridine monophosphate and methylenetetrahydrofolate, was detected already 3 hours after 5-FU exposure, whereas substantial increase in global TS levels was detected only after 24 hours. Conclusions/Significance Altogether, our data indicate that constitutive TYMS mRNA transcription, cell cycle-induced hTS regulation and hTS enzyme stability are the three key mechanisms responsible for 5-fluorouracil induced up-regulation of human thymidylate synthase expression in the two ovarian cancer cell lines studied. As these three independent regulatory phenomena occur in a precise order, our work provides a feasible rationale for earlier observed synergistic combinations of 5-FU with other drugs

  19. Effect of increasing body condition on key regulators of fat metabolism in subcutaneous adipose tissue depot and circulation of nonlactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Locher, L; Häussler, S; Laubenthal, L; Singh, S P; Winkler, J; Kinoshita, A; Kenéz, Á; Rehage, J; Huber, K; Sauerwein, H; Dänicke, S

    2015-02-01

    In response to negative energy balance, overconditioned cows mobilize more body fat than thin cows and subsequently are prone to develop metabolic disorders. Changes in adipose tissue (AT) metabolism are barely investigated in overconditioned cows. Therefore, the objective was to investigate the effect of increasing body condition on key regulator proteins of fat metabolism in subcutaneous AT and circulation of dairy cows. Nonlactating, nonpregnant dairy cows (n=8) investigated in the current study served as a model to elucidate the changes in the course of overcondition independent from physiological changes related to gestation, parturition, and lactation. Cows were fed diets with increasing portions of concentrate during the first 6wk of the experiment until 60% were reached, which was maintained for 9wk. Biopsy samples from AT of the subcutaneous tailhead region were collected every 8wk, whereas blood was sampled monthly. Within the experimental period cows had an average BW gain of 243±33.3 kg. Leptin and insulin concentrations were increased until wk 12. Based on serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids, the surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity were calculated. High-concentrate feeding led to decreased quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and homeostasis model assessment due to high insulin and glucose concentrations indicating decreased insulin sensitivity. Adiponectin, an adipokine-promoting insulin sensitivity, decreased in subcutaneous AT, but remained unchanged in the circulation. The high-concentrate diet affected key enzymes reflecting AT metabolism such as AMP-activated protein kinase and hormone-sensitive lipase, both represented as the proportion of the phosphorylated protein to total protein, as well as fatty acid synthase. The extent of phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and the protein expression of fatty acid synthase were inversely regulated throughout the experimental period, whereas

  20. The Medicago FLOWERING LOCUS T Homolog, MtFTa1, Is a Key Regulator of Flowering Time1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Laurie, Rebecca E.; Diwadkar, Payal; Jaudal, Mauren; Zhang, Lulu; Hecht, Valérie; Wen, Jiangqi; Tadege, Million; Mysore, Kirankumar S.; Putterill, Joanna; Weller, James L.; Macknight, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) genes encode proteins that function as the mobile floral signal, florigen. In this study, we characterized five FT-like genes from the model legume, Medicago (Medicago truncatula). The different FT genes showed distinct patterns of expression and responses to environmental cues. Three of the FT genes (MtFTa1, MtFTb1, and MtFTc) were able to complement the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ft-1 mutant, suggesting that they are capable of functioning as florigen. MtFTa1 is the only one of the FT genes that is up-regulated by both long days (LDs) and vernalization, conditions that promote Medicago flowering, and transgenic Medicago plants overexpressing the MtFTa1 gene flowered very rapidly. The key role MtFTa1 plays in regulating flowering was demonstrated by the identification of fta1 mutants that flowered significantly later in all conditions examined. fta1 mutants do not respond to vernalization but are still responsive to LDs, indicating that the induction of flowering by prolonged cold acts solely through MtFTa1, whereas photoperiodic induction of flowering involves other genes, possibly MtFTb1, which is only expressed in leaves under LD conditions and therefore might contribute to the photoperiodic regulation of flowering. The role of the MtFTc gene is unclear, as the ftc mutants did not have any obvious flowering-time or other phenotypes. Overall, this work reveals the diversity of the regulation and function of the Medicago FT family. PMID:21685176

  1. Key Role of Ser562/661 in Snf1-Dependent Regulation of Cat8p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces lactis

    PubMed Central

    Charbon, Godefroid; Breunig, Karin D.; Wattiez, Ruddy; Vandenhaute, Jean; Noël-Georis, Isabelle

    2004-01-01

    Utilization of nonfermentable carbon sources by Kluyveromyces lactis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires the Snf1p kinase and the Cat8p transcriptional activator, which binds to carbon source-responsive elements of target genes. We demonstrate that KlSnf1p and KlCat8p from K. lactis interact in a two-hybrid system and that the interaction is stronger with a kinase-dead mutant form of KlSnf1p. Of two putative phosphorylation sites in the KlCat8p sequence, serine 661 was identified as a key residue governing KlCat8p regulation. Serine 661 is located in the middle homology region, a regulatory domain conserved among zinc cluster transcription factors, and is part of an Snf1p consensus phosphorylation site. Single mutations at this site are sufficient to completely change the carbon source regulation of the KlCat8p transactivation activity observed. A serine-to-glutamate mutant form mimicking constitutive phosphorylation results in a nearly constitutively active form of KlCat8p, while a serine-to-alanine mutation has the reverse effect. Furthermore, it is shown that KlCat8p phosphorylation depends on KlSNF1. The Snf1-Cat8 connection is evolutionarily conserved: mutation of corresponding serine 562 of ScCat8p gave similar results in S. cerevisiae. The enhanced capacity of ScCat8S562E to suppress the phenotype caused by snf1 strengthens the hypothesis of direct phosphorylation of Cat8p by Snf1p. Unlike that of S. cerevisiae ScCAT8, KlCAT8 transcription is not carbon source regulated, illustrating the prominent role of posttranscriptional regulation of Cat8p in K. lactis. PMID:15121831

  2. RhoGDIα-dependent balance between RhoA and RhoC is a key regulator of cancer cell tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Giang Ho, T. T.; Stultiens, Audrey; Dubail, Johanne; Lapière, Charles M.; Nusgens, Betty V.; Colige, Alain C.; Deroanne, Christophe F.

    2011-01-01

    RhoGTPases are key signaling molecules regulating main cellular functions such as migration, proliferation, survival, and gene expression through interactions with various effectors. Within the RhoA-related subclass, RhoA and RhoC contribute to several steps of tumor growth, and the regulation of their expression affects cancer progression. Our aim is to investigate their respective contributions to the acquisition of an invasive phenotype by using models of reduced or forced expression. The silencing of RhoC, but not of RhoA, increased the expression of genes encoding tumor suppressors, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug–activated gene 1 (NAG-1), and decreased migration and the anchorage-independent growth in vitro. In vivo, RhoC small interfering RNA (siRhoC) impaired tumor growth. Of interest, the simultaneous knockdown of RhoC and NAG-1 repressed most of the siRhoC-related effects, demonstrating the central role of NAG-1. In addition of being induced by RhoC silencing, NAG-1 was also largely up-regulated in cells overexpressing RhoA. The silencing of RhoGDP dissociation inhibitor α (RhoGDIα) and the overexpression of a RhoA mutant unable to bind RhoGDIα suggested that the effect of RhoC silencing is indirect and results from the up-regulation of the RhoA level through competition for RhoGDIα. This study demonstrates the dynamic balance inside the RhoGTPase network and illustrates its biological relevance in cancer progression. PMID:21757538

  3. TBK1-associated Protein in Endolysosomes (TAPE)/CC2D1A Is a Key Regulator Linking RIG-I-like Receptors to Antiviral Immunity*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kuan-Ru; Chang, Chun-Hung; Huang, Ching-Yu; Lin, Chun-Yang; Lin, Wan-Ying; Lo, Yin-Chiu; Yang, Chia-Yu; Hsing, En-Wei; Chen, Lin-Fang; Shih, Shin-Ru; Shiau, Ai-Li; Lei, Huan-Yao; Tan, Tse-Hua; Ling, Pin

    2012-01-01

    Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) are key RNA viral sensors for triggering antiviral immunity. The underlying mechanisms for RLRs to trigger antiviral immunity have yet to be explored. Here we report the identification of TAPE (TBK1-associated protein in endolysosomes) as a novel regulator of the RLR pathways. TAPE functionally and physically interacts with RIG-I, MDA5, and IPS-1 to activate the IFN-β promoter. TAPE knockdown impairs IFN-β activation induced by RLRs but not IPS-1. TAPE-deficient cells are defective in cytokine production upon RLR ligand stimulation. During RNA virus infection, TAPE knockdown or deficiency diminishes cytokine production and antiviral responses. Our data demonstrate a critical role for TAPE in linking RLRs to antiviral immunity. PMID:22833682

  4. Profiling conserved biological pathways in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disorder (ADPKD) to elucidate key transcriptomic alterations regulating cystogenesis: A cross-species meta-analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Shatakshee; Verma, Srikant Prasad; Pandey, Priyanka

    2017-09-05

    Initiation and progression of fluid filled cysts mark Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD). Thus, improved therapeutics targeting cystogenesis remains a constant challenge. Microarray studies in single ADPKD animal models species with limited sample sizes tend to provide scattered views on underlying ADPKD pathogenesis. Thus we aim to perform a cross species meta-analysis to profile conserved biological pathways that might be key targets for therapy. Nine ADPKD microarray datasets on rat, mice and human fulfilled our study criteria and were chosen. Intra-species combined analysis was performed after considering removal of batch effect. Significantly enriched GO biological processes and KEGG pathways were computed and their overlap was observed. For the conserved pathways, biological modules and gene regulatory networks were observed. Additionally, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) using Molecular Signature Database (MSigDB) was performed for genes found in conserved pathways. We obtained 28 modules of significantly enriched GO processes and 5 major functional categories from significantly enriched KEGG pathways conserved in human, mice and rats that in turn suggest a global transcriptomic perturbation affecting cyst - formation, growth and progression. Significantly enriched pathways obtained from up-regulated genes such as Genomic instability, Protein localization in ER and Insulin Resistance were found to regulate cyst formation and growth whereas cyst progression due to increased cell adhesion and inflammation was suggested by perturbations in Angiogenesis, TGF-beta, CAMs, and Infection related pathways. Additionally, networks revealed shared genes among pathways e.g. SMAD2 and SMAD7 in Endocytosis and TGF-beta. Our study suggests cyst formation and progression to be an outcome of interplay between a set of several key deregulated pathways. Thus, further translational research is warranted focusing on developing a combinatorial therapeutic

  5. The role of STAT-6 as a key transcription regulator in HeLa cell death induced by IFN-γ/TNF-α co-immobilized on nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhibin; Guan, Yan-Qing; Liu, Jun-Ming

    2014-06-01

    Based on the fact that the transcription of STAT-1 plus its Serine 727 and Tyrosine 701 phosphorylation is not the pre-requisite for the cell death signal transduction in the IFN-γ signaling pathway induced by co-immobilized IFN-γ/TNF-α, we investigate both in vitro and in vivo the key transcription regulators to promote the signal transduction of HeLa cells. It is found that IFN-γ R2 is the important death signal receptor in the HeLa cell death by RNA interference. Checking the expression of the whole transcription (STAT) protein family reveals that STAT-6 is highly expressed in comparison with the other STAT proteins. The gene silence of IFN-γ R2 leads to the down-regulation of STAT-6 and phosphorylation-STAT-6 (p-STAT-6) expressions. The successful gene silence of STAT-6 results in the reduction of HeLa cell programmed death and the expression of several important key factors related to programmed cell death (p53, Bcl-2, and Bax). More importantly, our in vivo experiments by injecting nanoparticle drug carriers with the co-immobilized IFN-γ/TNF-α into nude mice model confirm the high expression of STAT-6 and p-STAT-6. It is thus concluded that, in response to IFN-γ, the co-immobilized IFN-γ/TNF-α unusually promotes the activation of STAT-6 rather than STAT-1, resulting in the enhanced cell programmed death in HeLa. The present work reveals the gene-level molecular mechanism of IFN-γ/TNF-α co-immobilized on biomaterials as a potentially effective therapy against cancer cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. SND1, a NAC Domain Transcription Factor, Is a Key Regulator of Secondary Wall Synthesis in Fibers of Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Ruiqin; Demura, Taku; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2006-01-01

    Secondary walls in fibers and tracheary elements constitute the most abundant biomass produced by plants. Although a number of genes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary wall components have been characterized, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the coordinated expression of these genes. Here, we demonstrate that the Arabidopsis thaliana NAC (for NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) domain transcription factor, SND1 (for secondary wall–associated NAC domain protein), is a key transcriptional switch regulating secondary wall synthesis in fibers. We show that SND1 is expressed specifically in interfascicular fibers and xylary fibers in stems and that dominant repression of SND1 causes a drastic reduction in the secondary wall thickening of fibers. Ectopic overexpression of SND1 results in activation of the expression of secondary wall biosynthetic genes, leading to massive deposition of secondary walls in cells that are normally nonsclerenchymatous. In addition, we have found that SND1 upregulates the expression of several transcription factors that are highly expressed in fibers during secondary wall synthesis. Together, our results reveal that SND1 is a key transcriptional activator involved in secondary wall biosynthesis in fibers. PMID:17114348

  7. PIL5, a Phytochrome-Interacting Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Protein, Is a Key Negative Regulator of Seed Germination in Arabidopsis thalianaW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Eunkyoo; Kim, Jonghyun; Park, Eunae; Kim, Jeong-Il; Kang, Changwon; Choi, Giltsu

    2004-01-01

    The first decision made by an angiosperm seed, whether to germinate or not, is based on integration of various environmental signals such as water and light. The phytochromes (Phys) act as red and far-red light (Pfr) photoreceptors to mediate light signaling through yet uncharacterized pathways. We report here that the PIF3-like 5 (PIL5) protein, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, is a key negative regulator of phytochrome-mediated seed germination. PIL5 preferentially interacts with the Pfr forms of Phytochrome A (PhyA) and Phytochrome B (PhyB). Analyses of a pil5 mutant in conjunction with phyA and phyB mutants, a pif3 pil5 double mutant, and PIL5 overexpression lines indicate that PIL5 is a negative factor in Phy-mediated promotion of seed germination, inhibition of hypocotyl negative gravitropism, and inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. Our data identify PIL5 as the first Phy-interacting protein that regulates seed germination. PMID:15486102

  8. Setting the scene for the future: implications of key legal regulations for the development of e-health interoperability in the EU.

    PubMed

    Kautsch, Marcin; Lichoń, Mateusz; Matuszak, Natalia

    2016-09-30

    E-health has experienced a dynamic development across the European Union in the recent years and enjoys support from the European Commission that seeks to achieve interoperability of national healthcare systems in order to facilitate free movement. Differences that can be observed between the member states in legal regulations, cultural approaches and technological solutions may hinder this process. This study compares the legal standing of e-health in Denmark, Poland, Spain and the UK, along with key legal acts and their implications. The academic literature review along with an analysis of materials found through the desk study research (reports, legal acts, press articles, governmental web pages and so on) was performed in order to identify aspects relevant to e-health interoperability. The approach to legal regulation of e-health substantially differs by country. So do the procedures that they have developed regarding the requirement for patient's consent for the processing of their data, their rights to access to the medical data, to change the data, data confidentiality and types of electronic health records. The principles governing the assignment of responsibility for data protection are also different. These legal and technological differences must be reconciled if interoperability of European national e-health systems is to be achieved. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Excess of rare variants in genes that are key epigenetic regulators of spermatogenesis in the patients with non-obstructive azoospermia.

    PubMed

    Li, Zesong; Huang, Yi; Li, Honggang; Hu, Jingchu; Liu, Xiao; Jiang, Tao; Sun, Guangqing; Tang, Aifa; Sun, Xiaojuan; Qian, Weiping; Zeng, Yong; Xie, Jun; Zhao, Wei; Xu, Yu; He, Tingting; Dong, Chengliang; Liu, Qunlong; Mou, Lisha; Lu, Jingxiao; Lin, Zheguang; Wu, Song; Gao, Shengjie; Guo, Guangwu; Feng, Qiang; Li, Yingrui; Zhang, Xiuqing; Wang, Jun; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Xiong, Chengliang; Cai, Zhiming; Gui, Yaoting

    2015-03-05

    Non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA), a severe form of male infertility, is often suspected to be linked to currently undefined genetic abnormalities. To explore the genetic basis of this condition, we successfully sequenced ~650 infertility-related genes in 757 NOA patients and 709 fertile males. We evaluated the contributions of rare variants to the etiology of NOA by identifying individual genes showing nominal associations and testing the genetic burden of a given biological process as a whole. We found a significant excess of rare, non-silent variants in genes that are key epigenetic regulators of spermatogenesis, such as BRWD1, DNMT1, DNMT3B, RNF17, UBR2, USP1 and USP26, in NOA patients (P = 5.5 × 10(-7)), corresponding to a carrier frequency of 22.5% of patients and 13.7% of controls (P = 1.4 × 10(-5)). An accumulation of low-frequency variants was also identified in additional epigenetic genes (BRDT and MTHFR). Our study suggested the potential associations of genetic defects in genes that are epigenetic regulators with spermatogenic failure in human.

  10. Genome-wide map of nuclear protein degradation shows NCoR1 turnover as a key to mitochondrial gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Catic, André; Suh, Carol Y; Hill, Cedric T; Daheron, Laurence; Henkel, Theresa; Orford, Keith W; Dombkowski, David M; Liu, Tao; Liu, X Shirley; Scadden, David T

    2013-12-05

    Transcription factor activity and turnover are functionally linked, but the global patterns by which DNA-bound regulators are eliminated remain poorly understood. We established an assay to define the chromosomal location of DNA-associated proteins that are slated for degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The genome-wide map described here ties proteolysis in mammalian cells to active enhancers and to promoters of specific gene families. Nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes in particular correlate with protein elimination, which positively affects their transcription. We show that the nuclear receptor corepressor NCoR1 is a key target of proteolysis and physically interacts with the transcription factor CREB. Proteasome inhibition stabilizes NCoR1 in a site-specific manner and restrains mitochondrial activity by repressing CREB-sensitive genes. In conclusion, this functional map of nuclear proteolysis links chromatin architecture with local protein stability and identifies proteolytic derepression as highly dynamic in regulating the transcription of genes involved in energy metabolism.

  11. Overexpression of AtAP1M3 regulates flowering time and floral development in Arabidopsis and effects key flowering-related genes in poplar.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhong; Ye, Meixia; Su, Xiaoxing; Liao, Weihua; Ma, Huandi; Gao, Kai; Lei, Bingqi; An, Xinmin

    2015-08-01

    APETALA1 plays a crucial role in the transition from vegetative to reproductive phase and in floral development. In this study, to determine the effect of AP1 expression on flowering time and floral organ development, transgenic Arabidopsis and poplar overexpressing of AtAP1M3 (Arabidopsis AP1 mutant by dominant negative mutation) were generated. Transgenic Arabidopsis with e35Spro::AtAP1M3 displayed phenotypes with delayed-flowering compared to wild-type and flowers with abnormal sepals, petals and stamens. In addition, transgenic Arabidopsis plants exhibited reduced growth vigor compared to the wild-type plants. Ectopic expression of AtAP1M3 in poplar resulted in up- or down-regulation of some endogenous key flowering-related genes, including floral meristems identity gene LFY, B-class floral organ identity genes AP3 and PI, flowering pathway integrator FT1 and flower repressors TFL1 and SVP. These results suggest that AtAP1M3 regulates flowering time and floral development in plants.

  12. Jasmonate and ppHsystemin regulate key Malonylation steps in the biosynthesis of 17-Hydroxygeranyllinalool Diterpene Glycosides, an abundant and effective direct defense against herbivores in Nicotiana attenuata.

    PubMed

    Heiling, Sven; Schuman, Meredith C; Schoettner, Matthias; Mukerjee, Purba; Berger, Beatrice; Schneider, Bernd; Jassbi, Amir R; Baldwin, Ian T

    2010-01-01

    We identified 11 17-hydroxygeranyllinalool diterpene glycosides (HGL-DTGs) that occur in concentrations equivalent to starch (mg/g fresh mass) in aboveground tissues of coyote tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata) and differ in their sugar moieties and malonyl sugar esters (0-2). Concentrations of HGL-DTGs, particularly malonylated compounds, are highest in young and reproductive tissues. Within a tissue, herbivore elicitation changes concentrations and biosynthetic kinetics of individual compounds. Using stably transformed N. attenuata plants silenced in jasmonate production and perception, or production of N. attenuata Hyp-rich glycopeptide systemin precursor by RNA interference, we identified malonylation as the key biosynthetic step regulated by herbivory and jasmonate signaling. We stably silenced N. attenuata geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (ggpps) to reduce precursors for the HGL-DTG skeleton, resulting in reduced total HGL-DTGs and greater vulnerability to native herbivores in the field. Larvae of the specialist tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) grew up to 10 times as large on ggpps silenced plants, and silenced plants suffered significantly more damage from herbivores in N. attenuata's native habitat than did wild-type plants. We propose that high concentrations of HGL-DTGs effectively defend valuable tissues against herbivores and that malonylation may play an important role in regulating the distribution and storage of HGL-DTGs in plants.

  13. PdeH, a High-Affinity cAMP Phosphodiesterase, Is a Key Regulator of Asexual and Pathogenic Differentiation in Magnaporthe oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Ramanujam, Ravikrishna; Naqvi, Naweed I.

    2010-01-01

    Cyclic AMP-dependent pathways mediate the communication between external stimuli and the intracellular signaling machinery, thereby influencing important aspects of cellular growth, morphogenesis and differentiation. Crucial to proper function and robustness of these signaling cascades is the strict regulation and maintenance of intracellular levels of cAMP through a fine balance between biosynthesis (by adenylate cyclases) and hydrolysis (by cAMP phosphodiesterases). We functionally characterized gene-deletion mutants of a high-affinity (PdeH) and a low-affinity (PdeL) cAMP phosphodiesterase in order to gain insights into the spatial and temporal regulation of cAMP signaling in the rice-blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. In contrast to the expendable PdeL function, the PdeH activity was found to be a key regulator of asexual and pathogenic development in M. oryzae. Loss of PdeH led to increased accumulation of intracellular cAMP during vegetative and infectious growth. Furthermore, the pdeHΔ showed enhanced conidiation (2–3 fold), precocious appressorial development, loss of surface dependency during pathogenesis, and highly reduced in planta growth and host colonization. A pdeHΔ pdeLΔ mutant showed reduced conidiation, exhibited dramatically increased (∼10 fold) cAMP levels relative to the wild type, and was completely defective in virulence. Exogenous addition of 8-Br-cAMP to the wild type simulated the pdeHΔ defects in conidiation as well as in planta growth and development. While a fully functional GFP-PdeH was cytosolic but associated dynamically with the plasma membrane and vesicular compartments, the GFP-PdeL localized predominantly to the nucleus. Based on data from cAMP measurements and Real-Time RTPCR, we uncover a PdeH-dependent biphasic regulation of cAMP levels during early and late stages of appressorial development in M. oryzae. We propose that PdeH-mediated sustenance and dynamic regulation of cAMP signaling during M. oryzae development is

  14. CsFTL3, a chrysanthemum FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene, is a key regulator of photoperiodic flowering in chrysanthemums

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Atsushi; Narumi, Takako; Li, Tuoping; Kando, Takumi; Higuchi, Yohei; Sumitomo, Katsuhiko; Fukai, Seiichi; Hisamatsu, Tamotsu

    2012-01-01

    Chrysanthemum is a typical short-day (SD) plant that responds to shortening daylength during the transition from the vegetative to the reproductive phase. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)/Heading date 3a (Hd3a) plays a pivotal role in the induction of phase transition and is proposed to encode a florigen. Three FT-like genes were isolated from Chrysanthemum seticuspe (Maxim.) Hand.-Mazz. f. boreale (Makino) H. Ohashi & Yonek, a wild diploid chrysanthemum: CsFTL1, CsFTL2, and CsFTL3. The organ-specific expression patterns of the three genes were similar: they were all expressed mainly in the leaves. However, their response to daylength differed in that under SD (floral-inductive) conditions, the expression of CsFTL1 and CsFTL2 was down-regulated, whereas that of CsFTL3 was up-regulated. CsFTL3 had the potential to induce early flowering since its overexpression in chrysanthemum could induce flowering under non-inductive conditions. CsFTL3-dependent graft-transmissible signals partially substituted for SD stimuli in chrysanthemum. The CsFTL3 expression levels in the two C. seticuspe accessions that differed in their critical daylengths for flowering closely coincided with the flowering response. The CsFTL3 expression levels in the leaves were higher under floral-inductive photoperiods than under non-inductive conditions in both the accessions, with the induction of floral integrator and/or floral meristem identity genes occurring in the shoot apexes. Taken together, these results indicate that the gene product of CsFTL3 is a key regulator of photoperiodic flowering in chrysanthemums. PMID:22140240

  15. Florida Keys

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-12-13

    The Florida Keys are a chain of islands, islets and reefs extending from Virginia Key to the Dry Tortugas for about 309 kilometers (192 miles). The keys are chiefly limestone and coral formations. The larger islands of the group are Key West (with its airport), Key Largo, Sugarloaf Key, and Boca Chica Key. A causeway extends from the mainland to Key West. This image was acquired on October 28, 2001, by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03890

  16. HsfA1d and HsfA1e involved in the transcriptional regulation of HsfA2 function as key regulators for the Hsf signaling network in response to environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa-Yokoi, Ayako; Nosaka, Ryota; Hayashi, Hideki; Tainaka, Hitoshi; Maruta, Takanori; Tamoi, Masahiro; Ikeda, Miho; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Yabuta, Yukinori; Shigeoka, Shigeru

    2011-05-01

    Heat shock transcription factor A2 (HsfA2) acts as a key component of the Hsf signaling network involved in cellular responses to various types of environmental stress. However, the mechanism governing the regulation of HsfA2 expression is still largely unknown. We demonstrated here that a heat shock element (HSE) cluster in the 5'-flanking region of the HsfA2 gene is involved in high light (HL)-inducible HsfA2 expression. Accordingly, to identify the Hsf regulating the expression of HsfA2, we analyzed the effect of loss-of-function mutations of class A Hsfs on the expression of HsfA2 in response to HL stress. Overexpression of an HsfA1d or HsfA1e chimeric repressor and double knockout of HsfA1d and HsfA1e Arabidopsis mutants (KO-HsfA1d/A1e) significantly suppressed the induction of HsfA2 expression in response to HL and heat shock (HS) stress. Transient reporter assays showed that HsfA1d and HsfA1e activate HsfA2 transcription through the HSEs in the 5'-flanking region of HsfA2. In the KO-HsfA1d/A1e mutants, 560 genes, including a number of stress-related genes and several Hsf genes, HsfA7a, HsfA7b, HsfB1 and HsfB2a, were down-regulated compared with those in the wild-type plants under HL stress. The PSII activity of KO-HsfA1d/A1e mutants decreased under HL stress, while the activity of wild-type plants remained high. Furthermore, double knockout of HsfA1d and HsfA1e impaired tolerance to HS stress. These findings indicated that HsfA1d and HsfA1e not only regulate HsfA2 expression but also function as key regulators of the Hsf signaling network in response to environmental stress.

  17. Exogenous ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P) and phospho-ceramide analogue-1 (PCERA-1) regulate key macrophage activities via distinct receptors

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Sebastián; Ernst, Orna; Avni, Dorit; Athamna, Muhammad; Philosoph, Amir; Arana, Lide; Ouro, Alberto; Hoeferlin, L. Alexis; Meijler, Michael M.; Chalfant, Charles E.; Gómez-Muñoz, Antonio; Zor, Tsaffrir

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is an ensemble of tightly regulated steps, in which macrophages play an essential role. Previous reports showed that the natural sphingolipid ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) stimulates macrophages migration, while the synthetic C1P mimic, phospho-ceramide analogue-1 (PCERA-1), suppresses production of the key pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα and amplifies production of the key anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in LPS-stimulated macrophages, via one or more unidentified G-protein coupled receptors. We show that C1P stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages migration via the NFκB pathway and MCP-1 induction, while PCERA-1 neither mimicked nor antagonized these activities. Conversely, PCERA-1 synergistically elevated LPS-dependent IL-10 expression in RAW264.7 macrophages via the cAMP-PKA-CREB signaling pathway, while C1P neither mimicked nor antagonized these activities. Interestingly, both compounds have the capacity to additively inhibit TNFα secretion; PCERA-1, but not C1P, suppressed LPS-induced TNFα expression in macrophages in a CREB-dependent manner, while C1P, but not PCERA-1, directly inhibited recombinant TNFα converting enzyme (TACE). Finally, PCERA-1 failed to interfere with binding of C1P to either the cell surface receptor or to TACE. These results thus indicate that the natural sphingolipid C1P and its synthetic analog PCERA-1 bind and activate distinct receptors expressed in RAW264.7 macrophages. Identification of these receptors will be instrumental for elucidation of novel activities of extra-cellular sphingolipids, and may pave the way for the design of new sphingolipid mimics for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, and pathologies which depend on cell migration, as in metastatic tumors. PMID:26656944

  18. Cavbeta-subunit displacement is a key step to induce the reluctant state of P/Q calcium channels by direct G protein regulation.

    PubMed

    Sandoz, Guillaume; Lopez-Gonzalez, Ignacio; Grunwald, Didier; Bichet, Delphine; Altafaj, Xavier; Weiss, Norbert; Ronjat, Michel; Dupuis, Alain; De Waard, Michel

    2004-04-20

    P/Q Ca(2+) channel activity is inhibited by G protein-coupled receptor activation. Channel inhibition requires a direct Gbetagamma binding onto the pore-forming subunit, Ca(v)2.1. It is characterized by biophysical changes, including current amplitude reduction, activation kinetic slowing, and an I-V curve shift, which leads to a reluctant mode. Here, we have characterized the contribution of the auxiliary beta(3)-subunit to channel regulation by G proteins. The shift in I-V to a P/Q reluctant mode is exclusively observed in the presence of beta(3). Along with the observation that Gbetagamma has no effect on the I-V curve of Ca(v)2.1 alone, we propose that the reluctant mode promoted by Gbetagamma corresponds to a state in which the beta(3)-subunit has been displaced from its channel-binding site. We validate this hypothesis with a beta(3)-I-II(2.1) loop chimera construct. Gbetagamma binding onto the I-II(2.1) loop portion of the chimera releases the beta(3)-binding domain and makes it available for binding onto the I-II loop of Ca(v)1.2, a G protein-insensitive channel. This finding is extended to the full-length Ca(v)2.1 channel by using fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Gbetagamma injection into Xenopus oocytes displaces a Cy3-labeled beta(3)-subunit from a GFP-tagged Ca(v)2.1 channel. We conclude that beta-subunit dissociation from the channel complex constitutes a key step in P/Q calcium channel regulation by G proteins that underlies the reluctant state and is an important process for modulating neurotransmission through G protein-coupled receptors.

  19. Interleukin-21 regulates expression of key Epstein-Barr virus oncoproteins, EBNA2 and LMP1, in infected human B cells

    SciTech Connect

    Konforte, Danijela Simard, Nathalie; Paige, Christopher J.

    2008-04-25

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) persists for the life of the host by accessing the long-lived memory B cell pool. It has been proposed that EBV uses different combinations of viral proteins, known as latency types, to drive infected B cells to make the transition from resting B cells to memory cells. This process is normally antigen-driven. A major unresolved question is what factors coordinate expression of EBV latency proteins. We have recently described novel type III latency EBV{sup +} B cell lines (OCI-BCLs) that were induced to differentiate into late plasmablasts/early plasma cells in culture with interleukin-21 (IL-21), mimicking normal B cell development. The objective of this study was to determine whether IL-21-mediated signals also regulate the expression of key EBV latent proteins during this window of development. Here we show that IL-21-reduced gene and protein expression of growth-transforming EBV nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) in OCI-BCLs. By contrast, the expression of CD40-like, latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) strongly increased in these cells suggesting an EBNA2-independent mode of regulation. Same results were also observed in Burkitt's lymphoma line Jijoye and B95-8 transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. The effect of IL-21 on EBNA2 and LMP1 expression was attenuated by a pharmacological JAK inhibitor indicating involvement of JAK/STAT signalling in this process. Our study also shows that IL-21 induced transcription of ebna1 from the viral Q promoter (Qp)

  20. Tobacco Nicotine Uptake Permease Regulates the Expression of a Key Transcription Factor Gene in the Nicotine Biosynthesis Pathway1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The down-regulation of a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plasma membrane-localized nicotine uptake permease, NUP1, was previously reported to reduce total alkaloid levels in tobacco plants. However, it was unclear how this nicotine transporter affected the biosynthesis of the alkaloid nicotine. When NUP1 expression was suppressed in cultured tobacco cells treated with jasmonate, which induces nicotine biosynthesis, the NICOTINE2-locus transcription factor gene ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR189 (ERF189) and its target structural genes, which function in nicotine biosynthesis and transport, were strongly suppressed, resulting in decreased total alkaloid levels. Conversely, NUP1 overexpression had the opposite effect. In these experiments, the expression levels of the MYC2 transcription factor gene and its jasmonate-inducible target gene were not altered. Inhibiting tobacco alkaloid biosynthesis by suppressing the expression of genes encoding enzymes in the nicotine pathway did not affect the expression of ERF189 and other nicotine pathway genes, indicating that ERF189 is not regulated by cellular alkaloid levels. Suppressing the expression of jasmonate signaling components in cultured tobacco cells showed that NUP1 acts downstream of the CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 receptor and MYC2, but upstream of ERF189. These results suggest that although jasmonate-activated expression of MYC2 induces the expression of both NUP1 and ERF189, expression of ERF189 may actually be mediated by NUP1. Furthermore, NUP1 overexpression in tobacco plants inhibited the long-range transport of nicotine from the roots to the aerial parts. Thus, NUP1 not only mediates the uptake of tobacco alkaloids into root cells, but also positively controls the expression of ERF189, a key gene in the biosynthesis of these alkaloids. PMID:25344505

  1. A key role for tetrahydrobiopterin‐dependent endothelial NOS regulation in resistance arteries: studies in endothelial cell tetrahydrobiopterin‐deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Chuaiphichai, Surawee; Crabtree, Mark J; Mcneill, Eileen; Hale, Ashley B; Trelfa, Lucy; Douglas, Gillian

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose The cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a critical regulator of endothelial NOS (eNOS) function, eNOS‐derived NO and ROS signalling in vascular physiology. To determine the physiological requirement for de novo endothelial cell BH4 synthesis for the vasomotor function of resistance arteries, we have generated a mouse model with endothelial cell‐specific deletion of Gch1, encoding GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GTPCH), an essential enzyme for BH4 biosynthesis, and evaluated BH4‐dependent eNOS regulation, eNOS‐derived NO and ROS generation. Experimental Approach The reactivity of mouse second‐order mesenteric arteries was assessed by wire myography. High performance liquid chromatography was used to determine BH4, BH2 and biopterin. Western blotting was used for expression analysis. Key Results Gch1 fl/flTie2cre mice demonstrated reduced GTPCH protein and BH4 levels in mesenteric arteries. Deficiency in endothelial cell BH4 leads to eNOS uncoupling, increased ROS production and loss of NO generation in mesenteric arteries of Gch1 fl/flTie2cre mice. Gch1 fl/flTie2cre mesenteric arteries had enhanced vasoconstriction to U46619 and phenylephrine, which was abolished by L‐NAME. Endothelium‐dependent vasodilatations to ACh and SLIGRL were impaired in mesenteric arteries from Gch1 fl/flTie2cre mice, compared with those from wild‐type littermates. Loss of eNOS‐derived NO‐mediated vasodilatation was associated with increased eNOS‐derived H2O2 and cyclooxygenase‐derived vasodilator in Gch1 fl/flTie2cre mesenteric arteries. Conclusions and Implications Endothelial cell Gch1 and BH4‐dependent eNOS regulation play pivotal roles in maintaining vascular homeostasis in resistance arteries. Therefore, targeting vascular Gch1 and BH4 biosynthesis may provide a novel therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of microvascular dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular disease. PMID:28128438

  2. Frizzled 2 is a key component in the regulation of TOR signaling-mediated egg production in the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Weng, Shih-Che; Shiao, Shin-Hong

    2015-06-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway was first discovered as a key event in embryonic development and cell polarity in Drosophila. Recently, several reports have shown that Wnt stimulates translation and cell growth by activating the mTOR pathway in mammals. Previous studies have demonstrated that the Target of Rapamycin (TOR) pathway plays an important role in mosquito vitellogenesis. However, the interactions between these two pathways are poorly understood in the mosquito. In this study, we hypothesized that factors from the TOR and Wnt signaling pathways interacted synergistically in mosquito vitellogenesis. Our results showed that silencing Aedes aegypti Frizzled 2 (AaFz2), a transmembrane receptor of the Wnt signaling pathway, decreased the fecundity of mosquitoes. We showed that AaFz2 was highly expressed at the transcriptional and translational levels in the female mosquito 6 h after a blood meal, indicating amino acid-stimulated expression of AaFz2. Notably, the phosphorylation of S6K, a downstream target of the TOR pathway, and the expression of vitellogenin were inhibited in the absence of AaFz2. A direct link was found in this study between Wnt and TOR signaling in the regulation of mosquito reproduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Gravitropic Response of Poplar Trunks: Key Roles of Prestressed Wood Regulation and the Relative Kinetics of Cambial Growth versus Wood Maturation[C][OA

    PubMed Central

    Coutand, Catherine; Fournier, Meriem; Moulia, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    In tree trunks, the motor of gravitropism involves radial growth and differentiation of reaction wood (Archer, 1986). The first aim of this study was to quantify the kinematics of gravitropic response in young poplar (Populus nigra x Populus deltoides, ‘I4551’) by measuring the kinematics of curvature fields along trunks. Three phases were identified, including latency, upward curving, and an anticipative autotropic decurving, which has been overlooked in research on trees. The biological and mechanical bases of these processes were investigated by assessing the biomechanical model of Fournier et al. (1994). Its application at two different time spans of integration made it possible to test hypotheses on maturation, separating the effects of radial growth and cross section size from those of wood prestressing. A significant correlation between trunk curvature and Fournier's model integrated over the growing season was found, but only explained 32% of the total variance. Moreover, over a week's time period, the model failed due to a clear out phasing of the kinetics of radial growth and curvature that the model does not take into account. This demonstrates a key role of the relative kinetics of radial growth and the maturation process during gravitropism. Moreover, the degree of maturation strains appears to differ in the tension woods produced during the upward curving and decurving phases. Cell wall maturation seems to be regulated to achieve control over the degree of prestressing of tension wood, providing effective control of trunk shape. PMID:17468227

  4. An unsuspected ecdysteroid/steroid phosphatase activity in the key T-cell regulator, Sts-1: surprising relationship to insect ecdysteroid phosphate phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Davies, Lyndsay; Anderson, Ian P; Turner, Philip C; Shirras, Alan D; Rees, Huw H; Rigden, Daniel J

    2007-05-15

    The insect enzyme ecdysteroid phosphate phosphatase (EPP) mobilizes active ecdysteroids from an inactive phosphorylated pool. Previously assigned to a novel class, it is shown here that it resides in the large histidine phosphatase superfamily related to cofactor-dependent phosphoglycerate mutase, a superfamily housing notably diverse catalytic activities. Molecular modeling reveals a plausible substrate-binding mode for EPP. Analysis of genomic and transcript data for a number of insect species shows that EPP may exist in both the single domain form previously characterized and in a longer, multidomain form. This latter form bears a quite unexpected relationship in sequence and domain architecture to vertebrate proteins, including Sts-1, characterized as a key regulator of T-cell activity. Long form Drosophila melanogaster EPP, human Sts-1, and a related protein from Caenorhabditis elegans have all been cloned, assayed, and shown to catalyse the hydrolysis of ecdysteroid and steroid phosphates. The surprising relationship described and explored here between EPP and Sts-1 has implications for our understanding of the function(s) of both.

  5. Voltage-gated Na+ channel SCN5A is a key regulator of a gene transcriptional network that controls colon cancer invasion

    PubMed Central

    House, Carrie D.; Vaske, Charles J.; Schwartz, Arnold M.; Obias, Vincent; Frank, Bryan; Luu, Truong; Sarvazyan, Narine; Irby, Rosalyn; Strausberg, Robert L.; Hales, Tim G.; Stuart, Joshua M.; Lee, Norman H.

    2010-01-01

    Voltage-gated Na+ channels (VGSCs) have been implicated in the metastatic potential of human breast, prostate and lung cancer cells. Specifically, the SCN5A gene encoding the VGSC isotype Nav1.5 has been defined as a key driver of human cancer cell invasion. In this study, we examined the expression and function of VGSCs in a panel of colon cancer cell lines by electrophysiological recordings. Na+ channel activity and invasive potential were inhibited pharmacologically by tetrodotoxin or genetically by siRNAs specifically targeting SCN5A. Clinical relevance was established by immunohistochemistry of patient biopsies, where there was strong Nav1.5 protein staining in colon cancer specimens but little to no staining in matched-paired normal colon tissues. We explored the mechanism of VGSC-mediated invasive potential on the basis of reported links between VGSC activity and gene expression in excitable cells. Probabilistic modeling of loss-of-function screens and microarray data established an unequivocal role of VGSC SCN5A as a high level regulator of a colon cancer invasion network, involving genes that encompass Wnt signaling, cell migration, ectoderm development, response to biotic stimulus, steroid metabolic process and cell cycle control. siRNA-mediated knockdown of predicted downstream network components caused a loss of invasive behavior, demonstrating network connectivity and its function in driving colon cancer invasion. PMID:20651255

  6. RIP1 kinase activity is dispensable for normal development but is a key regulator of inflammation in SHARPIN-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Scott B.; Kasparcova, Viera; Hoffman, Sandy; Swift, Barb; Dare, Lauren; Schaeffer, Michelle; Capriotti, Carol; Cook, Michael; Finger, Joshua; Hughes-Earle, Angela; Harris, Philip A.; Kaiser, William J.; Mocarski, Edward S.; Bertin, John; Gough, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    RIP1 kinase is a key regulator of TNF-induced NFκB activation, apoptosis and necroptosis through its kinase and scaffolding activities. Dissecting the balance of RIP1 kinase activity and scaffolding function in vivo during development and TNF-dependent inflammation has been hampered by the perinatal lethality of RIP1-deficient mice. Here we generated RIP1 kinase-dead (Ripk1K45A) mice and showed they are viable and healthy, indicating that kinase activity of RIP1, but not its scaffolding function, is dispensable for viability and homeostasis. After validating that the Ripk1K45A mice were specifically protected against necroptotic stimuli in vitro and in vivo, we crossed these mice to SHARPIN-deficient cpdm mice, which develop severe skin and multi-organ inflammation that has been hypothesized to be mediated by TNF-dependent apoptosis and/or necroptosis. Remarkably, crossing Ripk1K45A mice to the cpdm strain protected against all cpdm-related pathology. Together, these data suggest that RIP1 kinase represents an attractive therapeutic target for TNF-driven inflammatory diseases. PMID:24821972

  7. Voltage-gated Na+ channel SCN5A is a key regulator of a gene transcriptional network that controls colon cancer invasion.

    PubMed

    House, Carrie D; Vaske, Charles J; Schwartz, Arnold M; Obias, Vincent; Frank, Bryan; Luu, Truong; Sarvazyan, Narine; Irby, Rosalyn; Strausberg, Robert L; Hales, Tim G; Stuart, Joshua M; Lee, Norman H

    2010-09-01

    Voltage-gated Na(+) channels (VGSC) have been implicated in the metastatic potential of human breast, prostate, and lung cancer cells. Specifically, the SCN5A gene encoding the VGSC isotype Na(v)1.5 has been defined as a key driver of human cancer cell invasion. In this study, we examined the expression and function of VGSCs in a panel of colon cancer cell lines by electrophysiologic recordings. Na(+) channel activity and invasive potential were inhibited pharmacologically by tetrodotoxin or genetically by small interfering RNAs (siRNA) specifically targeting SCN5A. Clinical relevance was established by immunohistochemistry of patient biopsies, with strong Na(v)1.5 protein staining found in colon cancer specimens but little to no staining in matched-paired normal colon tissues. We explored the mechanism of VGSC-mediated invasive potential on the basis of reported links between VGSC activity and gene expression in excitable cells. Probabilistic modeling of loss-of-function screens and microarray data established an unequivocal role of VGSC SCN5A as a high level regulator of a colon cancer invasion network, involving genes that encompass Wnt signaling, cell migration, ectoderm development, response to biotic stimulus, steroid metabolic process, and cell cycle control. siRNA-mediated knockdown of predicted downstream network components caused a loss of invasive behavior, demonstrating network connectivity and its function in driving colon cancer invasion.

  8. IL-22 is a key player in the regulation of inflammation in fish and involves innate immune cells and PI3K signaling.

    PubMed

    Costa, Maria M; Saraceni, Paolo R; Forn-Cuní, Gabriel; Dios, Sonia; Romero, Alejandro; Figueras, Antonio; Novoa, Beatriz

    2013-12-01

    IL-22 plays a role in various disorders in mammals, including mucosal-associated infections and inflammatory diseases. No functional IL-22 studies have been conducted on non-mammals to date. In this study, recombinant IL-22 (rIL-22) from turbot was produced to investigate its effects as a bioactive molecule. The expression of several pro-inflammatory cytokines was increased after rIL-22 treatment and reduced by pre-treatment with a JAK/STAT inhibitor. The involvement of the PI3K pathway in IL-22 induction was demonstrated. rIL-22 reduced the mortality in Aeromonas salmonicida-infected turbot, while higher Aeromonas hydrophila- or LPS-induced mortality was observed when IL-22 was blocked in zebrafish embryos. IL-22 knockdown increased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in bacteria-stimulated fish. In zebrafish, IL-22 expression was detected primarily in the myeloid innate linage. It was found during early developmental stages when the adaptive immune response is not yet functional and in rag1(-)/(-) fish that lack an adaptive immune system. Our results clarify the conserved role of IL-22 in lower vertebrates. We suggest for the first time that IL-22 constitutes a key regulator of inflammatory homeostasis even in distant species such as teleosts, which diverged from mammals more than 350 million years ago.

  9. Dickkopf-1 negatively regulates the expression of osteoprotegerin, a key osteoclastogenesis inhibitor, by sequestering Lrp6 in primary and metastatic lytic bone lesions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Hang; Zhang, Yuanjin; Li, Hong-Yan; Liu, Yun-Yan; Sun, Tao

    2016-06-01

    Recently, an inverse role for Wnt signaling in the development of osteoclasts in the bone was demonstrated. In the present study, we examined whether there is a commonality in the mechanism of bone resorption and lysis that occur in a diverse set of bone metastatic lesions, as well as in primary bone lesions. Compared with control bone tissue and bone biopsies from patients with nonmetastatic primary tumors (i.e., breast carcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma, and prostate carcinoma), patients with bone metastatic lesions from the three aforementioned primary tumors, as well as osteolytic lesions obtained from the bone biopsies of patients with multiple myeloma, demonstrated an upregulated expression of the glycoprotein Dickkopf-1 at both the mRNA and protein levels. Additionally, by coimmunoprecipitation, Dickkopf-1 pulled-down low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (Lrp6), which is a key downstream effector of the Wnt signaling pathway. The expression of Lrp6 was unaltered in the osteometastatic lesions. This negative regulation was associated with a lowered expression of osteoprotegerin in the osteometastatic lesions, an observation that was previously reported to promote osteoclastogenesis. These findings provide a common mechanism for the inverse relationship between the Wnt signaling pathway and the development of primary or metastatic bone lesions. Pharmacological modulation of the Wnt signaling pathway might benefit the clinical management of primary and metastatic bone lesions.

  10. Phytosterols Play a Key Role in Plant Innate Immunity against Bacterial Pathogens by Regulating Nutrient Efflux into the Apoplast1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Keri; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa; Ryu, Choong-Min; Kang, Li; Mysore, Kirankumar S.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens colonize a host plant by growing between the cells by utilizing the nutrients present in apoplastic space. While successful pathogens manipulate the plant cell membrane to retrieve more nutrients from the cell, the counteracting plant defense mechanism against nonhost pathogens to restrict the nutrient efflux into the apoplast is not clear. To identify the genes involved in nonhost resistance against bacterial pathogens, we developed a virus-induced gene-silencing-based fast-forward genetics screen in Nicotiana benthamiana. Silencing of N. benthamiana SQUALENE SYNTHASE, a key gene in phytosterol biosynthesis, not only compromised nonhost resistance to few pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae and Xanthomonas campestris, but also enhanced the growth of the host pathogen P. syringae pv tabaci by increasing nutrient efflux into the apoplast. An Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) sterol methyltransferase mutant (sterol methyltransferase2) involved in sterol biosynthesis also compromised plant innate immunity against bacterial pathogens. The Arabidopsis cytochrome P450 CYP710A1, which encodes C22-sterol desaturase that converts β-sitosterol to stigmasterol, was dramatically induced upon inoculation with nonhost pathogens. An Arabidopsis Atcyp710A1 null mutant compromised both nonhost and basal resistance while overexpressors of AtCYP710A1 enhanced resistance to host pathogens. Our data implicate the involvement of sterols in plant innate immunity against bacterial infections by regulating nutrient efflux into the apoplast. PMID:22298683

  11. Trace concentrations of imazethapyr (IM) affect floral organs development and reproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana: IM-induced inhibition of key genes regulating anther and pollen biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Qian, Haifeng; Li, Yali; Sun, Chongchong; Lavoie, Michel; Xie, Jun; Bai, Xiaocui; Fu, Zhengwei

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how herbicides affect plant reproduction and growth is critical to develop herbicide toxicity model and refine herbicide risk assessment. Although our knowledge of herbicides toxicity mechanisms at the physiological and molecular level in plant vegetative phase has increased substantially in the last decades, few studies have addressed the herbicide toxicity problematic on plant reproduction. Here, we determined the long-term (4-8 weeks) effect of a chiral herbicide, imazethapyr (IM), which has been increasingly used in plant crops, on floral organ development and reproduction in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. More specifically, we followed the effect of two IM enantiomers (R- and S-IM) on floral organ structure, seed production, pollen viability and the transcription of key genes involved in anther and pollen development. The results showed that IM strongly inhibited the transcripts of genes regulating A. thaliana tapetum development (DYT1: DYSFUNCTIONAL TAPETUM 1), tapetal differentiation and function (TDF1: TAPETAL DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION1), and pollen wall formation and developments (AMS: ABORTED MICROSPORES, MYB103: MYB DOMAIN PROTEIN 103, MS1: MALE STERILITY 1, MS2: MALE STERILITY 2). Since DYT1 positively regulates 33 genes involved in cell-wall modification (such as, TDF1, AMS, MYB103, MS1, MS2) that can catalyze the breakdown of polysaccharides to facilitate anther dehiscence, the consistent decrease in the transcription of these genes after IM exposure should hamper anther opening as observed under scanning electron microscopy. The toxicity of IM on anther opening further lead to a decrease in pollen production and pollen viability. Furthermore, long-term IM exposure increased the number of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP sites) in the DNA of A. thaliana and also altered the DNA of A. thaliana offspring grown in IM-free soils. Toxicity of IM on floral organs development and reproduction was generally higher in the presence of the R

  12. Key pathways regulated by HoxA9,10,11/HoxD9,10,11 during limb development.

    PubMed

    Raines, Anna M; Magella, Bliss; Adam, Mike; Potter, S Steven

    2015-07-19

    The 39 mammalian Hox genes show problematic patterns of functional overlap. In order to more fully define the developmental roles of Hox genes it is necessary to remove multiple combinations of paralogous and flanking genes. In addition, the downstream molecular pathways regulated by Hox genes during limb development remain incompletely delineated. In this report we examine limb development in mice with frameshift mutations in six Hox genes, Hoxa9,10,11 and Hoxd9,10,11. The mice were made with a novel recombineering method that allows the simultaneous targeting of frameshift mutations into multiple flanking genes. The Hoxa9,10,11 (-/-) /Hoxd9,10,11 (-/-) mutant mice show a reduced ulna and radius that is more severe than seen in Hoxa11 (-/-)/Hoxd11 (-/-) mice, indicating a minor role for the flanking Hox9,10 genes in zeugopod development, as well as their primary function in stylopod development. The mutant mice also show severe reduction of Shh expression in the zone of polarizing activity, and decreased Fgf8 expression in the apical ectodermal ridge, thereby better defining the roles of these specific Hox genes in the regulation of critical signaling centers during limb development. Importantly, we also used laser capture microdissection coupled with RNA-Seq to characterize the gene expression programs in wild type and mutant limbs. Resting, proliferative and hypertrophic compartments of E15.5 forelimb zeugopods were examined. The results provide an RNA-Seq characterization of the progression of gene expression patterns during normal endochondral bone formation. In addition of the Hox mutants showed strongly altered expression of Pknox2, Zfp467, Gdf5, Bmpr1b, Dkk3, Igf1, Hand2, Shox2, Runx3, Bmp7 and Lef1, all of which have been previously shown to play important roles in bone formation. The recombineering based frameshift mutation of the six flanking and paralogous Hoxa9,10,11 and Hoxd9,10,11 genes provides a resource for the analysis of their overlapping

  13. Differential expression of key regulators of Toll-like receptors in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease: a role for Tollip and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma?

    PubMed

    Fernandes, P; MacSharry, J; Darby, T; Fanning, A; Shanahan, F; Houston, A; Brint, E

    2016-03-01

    The innate immune system is currently seen as the probable initiator of events which culminate in the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with Toll-like receptors (TLRs) known to be involved in this disease process. Many regulators of TLRs have been described, and dysregulation of these may also be important in the pathogenesis of IBD. The aim of this study was to perform a co-ordinated analysis of the expression levels of both key intestinal TLRs and their inhibitory proteins in the same IBD cohorts, both ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), in order to evaluate the potential roles of these proteins in the pathogenesis of IBD. Of the six TLRs (TLRs 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and 9) examined, only TLR-4 was increased significantly in IBD, specifically in active UC. In contrast, differential alterations in expression of TLR inhibitory proteins were observed. A20 and suppressor of cytokine signalling 1 (SOCS1) were increased only in active UC while interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK-m) and B cell lymphoma 3 protein (Bcl-3) were increased in both active UC and CD. In contrast, expression of both peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and Toll interacting protein (Tollip) was decreased in both active and inactive UC and CD and at both mRNA and protein levels. In addition, expression of both PPARγ and A20 expression was increased by stimulation of a colonic epithelial cell line Caco-2 with both TLR ligands and commensal bacterial strains. These data suggest that IBD may be associated with distinctive changes in TLR-4 and TLR inhibitory proteins, implying that alterations in these may contribute to the pathogenesis of IBD.

  14. Tomato Glutamate Decarboxylase Genes SlGAD2 and SlGAD3 Play Key Roles in Regulating γ-Aminobutyric Acid Levels in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    PubMed

    Takayama, Mariko; Koike, Satoshi; Kusano, Miyako; Matsukura, Chiaki; Saito, Kazuki; Ariizumi, Tohru; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) can accumulate relatively high levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during fruit development. However, the molecular mechanism underlying GABA accumulation and its physiological function in tomato fruits remain elusive. We previously identified three tomato genes (SlGAD1, SlGAD2 and SlGAD3) encoding glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), likely the key enzyme for GABA biosynthesis in tomato fruits. In this study, we generated transgenic tomato plants in which each SlGAD was suppressed and those in which all three SlGADs were simultaneously suppressed. A significant decrease in GABA levels, i.e. 50-81% compared with wild-type (WT) levels, was observed in mature green (MG) fruits of the SlGAD2-suppressed lines, while a more drastic reduction (up to <10% of WT levels) was observed in the SlGAD3- and triple SlGAD-suppressed lines. These findings suggest that both SlGAD2 and SlGAD3 expression are crucial for GABA biosynthesis in tomato fruits. The importance of SlGAD3 expression was also confirmed by generating transgenic tomato plants that over-expressed SlGAD3. The MG and red fruits of the over-expressing transgenic lines contained higher levels of GABA (2.7- to 5.2-fold) than those of the WT. We also determined that strong down-regulation of the SlGADs had little effect on overall plant growth, fruit development or primary fruit metabolism under normal growth conditions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Beneficial effect of carvone, a dietary monoterpene ameliorates hyperglycemia by regulating the key enzymes activities of carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Muruganathan, Udaiyar; Srinivasan, Subramani

    2016-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic/endocrine disorder characterized by inadequate control of carbohydrate metabolism and causes serious health issues. This study evaluates the effect of carvone, a novel monoterpene ketone, on carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in the liver of normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (40mg/kg b.w). STZ intoxication led to a significant increase in the levels of plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and decrease in the levels of insulin and hemoglobin (Hb). The activities of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes, glycogen, enzymatic antioxidants in pancreas and hepatic markers content were also altered. The daily oral administration of carvone (50mg/kg b.w) to diabetic rats for 30days resulted a significant decline in the levels of plasma glucose, HbA1c and significant improve in the levels of Hb and insulin. The reversed activities of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes, enzymic antioxidants and hepatic marker enzymes in diabetic rats were renovated to near normal level by the administration of carvone. The obtained results were compared with glyclazide, a standard oral hypoglycemia drug. Histopathological analysis of liver and pancreas and immunohistochemistry of pancreas revealed that treatment with carvone reduced the STZ-induced damage to hepatic and β-cells of the pancreas. From our results, carvone regulates carbohydrate metabolism by ameliorating the key enzymes in the hepatic tissues of STZ-induced diabetic rats however further studies and safety studies are needed to validate the effects of carvone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Sequential estrogen-progestin replacement therapy in healthy postmenopausal women: effects on cholesterol efflux capacity and key proteins regulating high-density lipoprotein levels.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Natalia; Arteaga, Eugenio; Bustos, Paulina; Durán-Sandoval, Daniel; Schulze, Kim; Castro, Graciela; Jauhiainen, Matti; Fruchart, Jean Charles; Calvo, Carlos

    2002-11-01

    Thirty healthy postmenopausal women were randomized into 2 groups that received a sequential combined hormone-replacement therapy (HRT) (n = 18; conjugated equine estrogen 0.625 mg/d for 28 days and 5 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate during the last 14 days) or placebo (n = 12). Plasma samples were collected before and during treatment (days 0, 15, 43, 71). High-density lipoprotein (HDL) lipid content, lipoprotein (Lp)A-I and LpA-I:LpA-II concentration, lecithin:cholesterol acyl transferase activity (LCAT), phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) activity, and the plasma capacity to carry out cholesterol efflux from Fu5AH cells were measured. Most significant changes were found within the first 15 days after HRT. After 71 days of HRT, we found an increase in LpA-I lipoparticles (27%) and the following HDL lipids: phospholipids (21%), triglycerides (45%), and free cholesterol (43%), as well as an increase in cholesterol efflux (12.5%). PLTP activity, on the other hand, decreased 21% after 71 days of treatment. No significant changes in LCAT activity, HDL-cholesterol ester or LpA-I:LpA-II particles were found. Positive correlation between cholesterol efflux and the variables LpA-I and HDL-phospholipids were observed. PLTP was negatively correlated with apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, LpA-I, and LpA-I:LpA-II. In summary, our study, performed during 3 hormonal cycles, shows that HRT not only modifies HDL-cholesterol level, but also its lipid composition and HDL lipoparticle distribution. HRT enhances the plasma capacity to carry out cholesterol efflux from the Fu5AH system and decreases the activity of PLTP, a key protein regulating HDL levels. Considering the protocol sampling, these results represent mainly the estrogenic effect of HRT.

  17. Key Residues and Phosphate Release Routes in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pho84 Transceptor: THE ROLE OF TYR179 IN FUNCTIONAL REGULATION.

    PubMed

    Samyn, Dieter R; Van der Veken, Jeroen; Van Zeebroeck, Griet; Persson, Bengt L; Karlsson, Björn C G

    2016-12-16

    Pho84, a major facilitator superfamily (MFS) protein, is the main high-affinity Pi transceptor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Although transport mechanisms have been suggested for other MFS members, the key residues and molecular events driving transport by Pi:H(+) symporters are unclear. The current Pho84 transport model is based on the inward-facing occluded crystal structure of the Pho84 homologue PiPT in the fungus Piriformospora indica However, this model is limited by the lack of experimental data on the regulatory residues for each stage of the transport cycle. In this study, an open, inward-facing conformation of Pho84 was used to study the release of Pi A comparison of this conformation with the model for Pi release in PiPT revealed that Tyr(179) in Pho84 (Tyr(150) in PiPT) is not part of the Pi binding site. This difference may be due to a lack of detailed information on the Pi release step in PiPT. Molecular dynamics simulations of Pho84 in which a residue adjacent to Tyr(179), Asp(178), is protonated revealed a conformational change in Pho84 from an open, inward-facing state to an occluded state. Tyr(179) then became part of the binding site as was observed in the PiPT crystal structure. The importance of Tyr(179) in regulating Pi release was supported by site-directed mutagenesis and transport assays. Using trehalase activity measurements, we demonstrated that the release of Pi is a critical step for transceptor signaling. Our results add to previous studies on PiPT, creating a more complete picture of the proton-coupled Pi transport cycle of a transceptor. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. A Novel Computational Model Predicts Key Regulators of Chemokine Gradient Formation in Lymph Nodes and Site-Specific Roles for CCL19 and ACKR4

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Bindi S.

    2017-01-01

    The chemokine receptor CCR7 drives leukocyte migration into and within lymph nodes (LNs). It is activated by chemokines CCL19 and CCL21, which are scavenged by the atypical chemokine receptor ACKR4. CCR7-dependent navigation is determined by the distribution of extracellular CCL19 and CCL21, which form concentration gradients at specific microanatomical locations. The mechanisms underpinning the establishment and regulation of these gradients are poorly understood. In this article, we have incorporated multiple biochemical processes describing the CCL19–CCL21–CCR7–ACKR4 network into our model of LN fluid flow to establish a computational model to investigate intranodal chemokine gradients. Importantly, the model recapitulates CCL21 gradients observed experimentally in B cell follicles and interfollicular regions, building confidence in its ability to accurately predict intranodal chemokine distribution. Parameter variation analysis indicates that the directionality of these gradients is robust, but their magnitude is sensitive to these key parameters: chemokine production, diffusivity, matrix binding site availability, and CCR7 abundance. The model indicates that lymph flow shapes intranodal CCL21 gradients, and that CCL19 is functionally important at the boundary between B cell follicles and the T cell area. It also predicts that ACKR4 in LNs prevents CCL19/CCL21 accumulation in efferent lymph, but does not control intranodal gradients. Instead, it attributes the disrupted interfollicular CCL21 gradients observed in Ackr4-deficient LNs to ACKR4 loss upstream. Our novel approach has therefore generated new testable hypotheses and alternative interpretations of experimental data. Moreover, it acts as a framework to investigate gradients at other locations, including those that cannot be visualized experimentally or involve other chemokines. PMID:28807994

  19. Florida Keys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Florida Keys are a chain of islands, islets and reefs extending from Virginia Key to the Dry Tortugas for about 309 kilometers (192 miles). The keys are chiefly limestone and coral formations. The larger islands of the group are Key West (with its airport), Key Largo, Sugarloaf Key, and Boca Chica Key. A causeway extends from the mainland to Key West.

    This image was acquired on October 28, 2001, by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic

  20. Florida Keys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Florida Keys are a chain of islands, islets and reefs extending from Virginia Key to the Dry Tortugas for about 309 kilometers (192 miles). The keys are chiefly limestone and coral formations. The larger islands of the group are Key West (with its airport), Key Largo, Sugarloaf Key, and Boca Chica Key. A causeway extends from the mainland to Key West.

    This image was acquired on October 28, 2001, by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic

  1. Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus deficiency on transcriptional regulation of genes encoding key enzymes of starch metabolism in duckweed (Landoltia punctata).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhao; Shi, Hui-juan; Wang, Mao-lin; Cui, Long; Zhao, Hai; Zhao, Yun

    2015-01-01

    The production of starch by plants influences their use as biofuels. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) regulate starch gene expression during plant growth and development, yet the role of key enzymes such as ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (E.C. 2.7.7.27 AGPase) in starch metabolism during N- and P-deficiency remains unknown. We investigated the effect of N- and P-deficiency on the expression of large (LeAPL1, LeAPL2, and LeAPL3) and small (LeAPS) subunits of AGPase in duckweed (Landoltia punctata) and their correlation with starch content. We first isolated the full-length cDNA encoding LeAPL1 (GenBank Accession No. KJ603244) and LeAPS (GenBank Accession No. KJ603243); they contained open reading frames of 1554 bp (57.7-kDa polypeptide of 517 amino acids) and 1578 bp (57.0 kDa polypeptide of 525 amino acids), respectively. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that LeAPL1 and LeAPL3 were highly expressed during early stages of N-deficiency, while LeAPL2 was only expressed during late stage. However, in response to P-deficiency, LeAPL1 and LeAPL2 were upregulated during early stages and LeAPL3 was primarily expressed in the late stage. Interestingly, LeAPS was highly expressed following N-deficiency during both stages, but was only upregulated in the early stage after P-deficiency. The activities of AGPase and soluble starch synthesis enzyme (SSS EC 2.4.1.21) were positively correlated with changes in starch content. Furthermore, LeAPL3 and LeSSS (SSS gene) were positively correlated with changes in starch content during N-deficiency, while LeAPS and LeSSS were correlated with starch content in response to P-deficiency. These results elevate current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying starch synthesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Key Nutrients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Lessons written to help trainer agents prepare aides for work with families in the Food and Nutrition Program are presented in this booklet. The key nutrients discussed in the 10 lessons are protein, carbohydrates, fat, calcium, iron, iodine, and Vitamins A, B, C, and D. the format of each lesson is as follows: Purpose, Presentation, Application…

  3. Determination of a Comprehensive Alternative Splicing Regulatory Network and Combinatorial Regulation by Key Factors during the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yueqin; Park, Juw Won; Bebee, Thomas W.; Warzecha, Claude C.; Guo, Yang; Shang, Xuequn

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an essential biological process during embryonic development that is also implicated in cancer metastasis. While the transcriptional regulation of EMT has been well studied, the role of alternative splicing (AS) regulation in EMT remains relatively uncharacterized. We previously showed that the epithelial cell-type-specific proteins epithelial splicing regulatory proteins 1 (ESRP1) and ESRP2 are important for the regulation of many AS events that are altered during EMT. However, the contributions of the ESRPs and other splicing regulators to the AS regulatory network in EMT require further investigation. Here, we used a robust in vitro EMT model to comprehensively characterize splicing switches during EMT in a temporal manner. These investigations revealed that the ESRPs are the major regulators of some but not all AS events during EMT. We determined that the splicing factor RBM47 is downregulated during EMT and also regulates numerous transcripts that switch splicing during EMT. We also determined that Quaking (QKI) broadly promotes mesenchymal splicing patterns. Our study highlights the broad role of posttranscriptional regulation during the EMT and the important role of combinatorial regulation by different splicing factors to fine tune gene expression programs during these physiological and developmental transitions. PMID:27044866

  4. Florida Keys

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    NASA image acquired January 4, 2012 The Florida Keys many colors were captured when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Aqua satellite captured this true-color image. NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  5. Depth keying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvili, Ronen; Kaplan, Amir; Ofek, Eyal; Yahav, Giora

    2003-05-01

    We present a new solution to the known problem of video keying in a natural environment. We segment foreground objects from background objects using their relative distance from the camera, which makes it possible to do away with the use of color for keying. To do so, we developed and built a novel depth video camera, capable of producing RGB and D signals, where D stands for the distance to each pixel. The new RGBD camera enables the creation of a whole new gallery of effects and applications such as multi-layer background substitutions. This new modality makes the production of real time mixed reality video possible, as well as post-production manipulation of recorded video. We address the problem of color spill -- in which the color of the foreground object is mixed, along its boundary, with the background color. This problem prevents an accurate separation of the foreground object from its background, and it is most visible when compositing the foreground objects to a new background. Most existing techniques are limited to the use of a constant background color. We offer a novel general approach to the problem with enabling the use of the natural background, based upon the D channel generated by the camera.

  6. Variants within MECP2, a key transcription regulator, are associated with increased susceptibility to lupus and differential gene expression in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Webb, Ryan; Wren, Jonathan D; Jeffries, Matlock; Kelly, Jennifer A; Kaufman, Kenneth M; Tang, Yuhong; Frank, Mark Barton; Merrill, Joan; Kimberly, Robert P; Edberg, Jeffrey C; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Petri, Michelle; Reveille, John D; Alarcón, Graciela S; Vilá, Luis M; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E; James, Judith A; Vyse, Timothy J; Moser, Kathy L; Gaffney, Patrick M; Gilkeson, Gary S; Harley, John B; Sawalha, Amr H

    2009-04-01

    Both genetic and epigenetic factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of lupus. The aim of this study was to examine methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 gene (MECP2) polymorphisms in a large cohort of patients with lupus and control subjects, and to determine the functional consequences of the lupus-associated MECP2 haplotype. We genotyped 18 single-nucleotide polymorphisms within MECP2, located on chromosome Xq28, in a large cohort of patients with lupus and control subjects of European descent. We studied the functional effects of the lupus-associated MECP2 haplotype by determining gene expression profiles in B cell lines in female lupus patients with and those without the lupus-associated MECP2 risk haplotype. We confirmed, replicated, and extended the genetic association between lupus and genetic markers within MECP2 in a large independent cohort of lupus patients and control subjects of European descent (odds ratio 1.35, P = 6.65 x 10(-11)). MECP2 is a dichotomous transcription regulator that either activates or represses gene expression. We identified 128 genes that are differentially expressed in lupus patients with the disease-associated MECP2 haplotype; most ( approximately 81%) were up-regulated. Genes that were up-regulated had significantly more CpG islands in their promoter regions compared with genes that were down-regulated. Gene ontology analysis using the differentially expressed genes revealed significant association with epigenetic regulatory mechanisms, suggesting that these genes are targets for MECP2 regulation in B cells. Furthermore, at least 13 of the 104 up-regulated genes are regulated by interferon. The disease-risk MECP2 haplotype was associated with increased expression of the MECP2 transcription coactivator CREB1 and decreased expression of the corepressor histone deacetylase 1. Polymorphism in the MECP2 locus is associated with lupus and, at least in part, contributes to the interferon signature observed in lupus patients.

  7. Ethylene and nitric oxide involvement in the up-regulation of key genes related to iron acquisition and homeostasis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    García, María J; Lucena, Carlos; Romera, Francisco J; Alcántara, Esteban; Pérez-Vicente, Rafael

    2010-09-01

    In a previous work it was shown that ethylene participates in the up-regulation of several Fe acquisition genes of Arabidopsis, such as AtFIT, AtFRO2, and AtIRT1. In this work the relationship between ethylene and Fe-related genes in Arabidopsis has been looked at in more depth. Genes induced by Fe deficiency regulated by ethylene were searched for. For this, studies were conducted, using microarray analysis and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), to determine which of the genes up-regulated by Fe deficiency are simultaneously suppressed by two different ethylene inhibitors (cobalt and silver thiosulphate), assessing their regulation by ethylene in additional experiments. In a complementary experiment, it was determined that the Fe-related genes up-regulated by ethylene were also responsive to nitric oxide (NO). Further studies were performed to analyse whether Fe deficiency up-regulates the expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis [S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase, and ACC oxidase genes] and signalling (AtETR1, AtCTR1, AtEIN2, AtEIN3, AtEIL1, and AtEIL3). The results obtained show that both ethylene and NO are involved in the up-regulation of many important Fe-regulated genes of Arabidopsis, such as AtFIT, AtbHLH38, AtbHLH39, AtFRO2, AtIRT1, AtNAS1, AtNAS2, AtFRD3, AtMYB72, and others. In addition, the results show that Fe deficiency up-regulates genes involved in both ethylene synthesis (AtSAM1, AtSAM2, AtACS4, AtACS6, AtACS9, AtACO1, and AtACO2) and signalling (AtETR1, AtCTR1, AtEIN2, AtEIN3, AtEIL1, and AtEIL3) in the roots.

  8. Comprehensive Profiling of Ethylene Response Factor Expression Identifies Ripening-Associated ERF Genes and Their Link to Key Regulators of Fruit Ripening in Tomato.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingchun; Gomes, Bruna Lima; Mila, Isabelle; Purgatto, Eduardo; Peres, Lázaro E P; Frasse, Pierre; Maza, Elie; Zouine, Mohamed; Roustan, Jean-Paul; Bouzayen, Mondher; Pirrello, Julien

    2016-03-01

    Our knowledge of the factors mediating ethylene-dependent ripening of climacteric fruit remains limited. The transcription of ethylene-regulated genes is mediated by ethylene response factors (ERFs), but mutants providing information on the specific role of the ERFs in fruit ripening are still lacking, likely due to functional redundancy among this large multigene family of transcription factors. We present here a comprehensive expression profiling of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) ERFs in wild-type and tomato ripening-impaired tomato mutants (Never-ripe [Nr], ripening-inhibitor [rin], and non-ripening [nor]), indicating that out of the 77 ERFs present in the tomato genome, 27 show enhanced expression at the onset of ripening while 28 display a ripening-associated decrease in expression, suggesting that different ERFs may have contrasting roles in fruit ripening. Among the 19 ERFs exhibiting the most consistent up-regulation during ripening, the expression of 11 ERFs is strongly down-regulated in rin, nor, and Nr tomato ripening mutants, while only three are consistently up-regulated. Members of subclass E, SlERF.E1, SlERF.E2, and SlERF.E4, show dramatic down-regulation in the ripening mutants, suggesting that their expression might be instrumental in fruit ripening. This study illustrates the high complexity of the regulatory network connecting RIN and ERFs and identifies subclass E members as the most active ERFs in ethylene- and RIN/NOR-dependent ripening.

  9. Comprehensive Profiling of Ethylene Response Factor Expression Identifies Ripening-Associated ERF Genes and Their Link to Key Regulators of Fruit Ripening in Tomato1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Bruna Lima; Mila, Isabelle; Frasse, Pierre; Zouine, Mohamed; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2016-01-01

    Our knowledge of the factors mediating ethylene-dependent ripening of climacteric fruit remains limited. The transcription of ethylene-regulated genes is mediated by ethylene response factors (ERFs), but mutants providing information on the specific role of the ERFs in fruit ripening are still lacking, likely due to functional redundancy among this large multigene family of transcription factors. We present here a comprehensive expression profiling of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) ERFs in wild-type and tomato ripening-impaired tomato mutants (Never-ripe [Nr], ripening-inhibitor [rin], and non-ripening [nor]), indicating that out of the 77 ERFs present in the tomato genome, 27 show enhanced expression at the onset of ripening while 28 display a ripening-associated decrease in expression, suggesting that different ERFs may have contrasting roles in fruit ripening. Among the 19 ERFs exhibiting the most consistent up-regulation during ripening, the expression of 11 ERFs is strongly down-regulated in rin, nor, and Nr tomato ripening mutants, while only three are consistently up-regulated. Members of subclass E, SlERF.E1, SlERF.E2, and SlERF.E4, show dramatic down-regulation in the ripening mutants, suggesting that their expression might be instrumental in fruit ripening. This study illustrates the high complexity of the regulatory network connecting RIN and ERFs and identifies subclass E members as the most active ERFs in ethylene- and RIN/NOR-dependent ripening. PMID:26739234

  10. Analysis of osmoadaptation system in budding yeast suggests that regulated degradation of glycerol synthesis enzyme is key to near-perfect adaptation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Anilkumar K; Bhartiya, Sharad; Venkatesh, K V

    2014-06-01

    In order to maintain its turgor pressure at a desired homeostatic level, budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae responds to the external variation of the osmotic pressure by varying its internal osmotic pressure through regulation of synthesis and transport of the intracellular glycerol. Hog1PP (dually phosphorylated Hog1), a final effector in the signalling pathway of the hyper osmotic stress, regulates the glycerol synthesis both at transcriptional and non-transcriptional stages. It is known that for a step-change in salt concentration leading to moderate osmotic shock, Hog1PP activity shows a transient response before it returns to the vicinity of pre-stimulus level. It is believed that an integrating process in a negative feedback loop can be a design strategy to yield such an adaptive response. Several negative feedback loops have been identified in the osmoadaptation system in yeast. However, the precise location of the integrating process in the osmoadaptation system which includes signalling, gene regulation, metabolism and biophysical modules is unclear. To address this issue, we developed a reduced model which captures various experimental observations of the osmoadaptation behaviour of wild type and mutant strains. Dynamic simulations and steady state analysis suggested that known information about the osmoadaptation system of budding yeast does not necessarily give a perfect integrating process through the known feedback loops of Hog1PP. On the other hand, regulation of glycerol synthesising enzyme degradation can result in a near integrating process leading to a near-perfect adaptation.

  11. Nuclear Factor of κB1 Is a Key Regulator for the Transcriptional Activation of Milk Synthesis in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Zang, Yanli; Zhang, Minghui; Yuan, Xiaohan; Li, Meng; Gao, Xuejun

    2017-02-03

    The nuclear factor of κB (NFκB) family has been well known for its significant role in regulating the expression of numerous genes that control many biological processes. However, it is unclear whether NFκB could regulate milk synthesis. In this study, we identified NFκB1 as a critical regulator for milk synthesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs). Gene function study revealed that NFκB1 modulates the expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), sterol response element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c, and β4Gal-T2 for milk synthesis. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that both methionine (Met) and estrogen (E) triggered NFκB1 to bind to gene promoters of mTOR, SREBP-1c, and β4Gal-T2 in BMECs. In addition, we confirmed that Met and E triggered NFκB1 expression and phosphorylation via phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) but not mTOR signaling pathway. Taken together, our study reveals that NFκB1 acts as a PI3K but not mTOR-dependent critical mediator for the transcriptional activation of signaling molecules regulating milk synthesis in BMECs.

  12. Adjustments of molecular key components of branchial ion and pH regulation in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in response to ocean acidification and warming.

    PubMed

    Michael, Katharina; Kreiss, Cornelia M; Hu, Marian Y; Koschnick, Nils; Bickmeyer, Ulf; Dupont, Sam; Pörtner, Hans-O; Lucassen, Magnus

    2016-03-01

    Marine teleost fish sustain compensation of extracellular pH after exposure to hypercapnia by means of efficient ion and acid-base regulation. Elevated rates of ion and acid-base regulation under hypercapnia may be stimulated further by elevated temperature. Here, we characterized the regulation of transepithelial ion transporters (NKCC1, NBC1, SLC26A6, NHE1 and 2) and ATPases (Na(+)/K(+) ATPase and V-type H(+) ATPase) in gills of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) after 4 weeks of exposure to ambient and future PCO2 levels (550 μatm, 1200 μatm, 2200 μatm) at optimum (10 °C) and summer maximum temperature (18 °C), respectively. Gene expression of most branchial ion transporters revealed temperature- and dose-dependent responses to elevated PCO2. Transcriptional regulation resulted in stable protein expression at 10 °C, whereas expression of most transport proteins increased at medium PCO2 and 18 °C. mRNA and protein expression of distinct ion transport proteins were closely co-regulated, substantiating cellular functional relationships. Na(+)/K(+) ATPase capacities were PCO2 independent, but increased with acclimation temperature, whereas H(+) ATPase capacities were thermally compensated but decreased at medium PCO2 and 10 °C. When functional capacities of branchial ATPases were compared with mitochondrial F1Fo ATP-synthase strong correlations of F1Fo ATP-synthase and ATPase capacities generally indicate close coordination of branchial aerobic ATP demand and supply. Our data indicate physiological plasticity in the gills of cod to adjust to a warming, acidifying ocean within limits. In light of the interacting and non-linear, dose-dependent effects of both climate factors the role of these mechanisms in shaping resilience under climate change remains to be explored.

  13. The dREAM/Myb-MuvB complex and Grim are key regulators of the programmed death of neural precursor cells at the Drosophila posterior wing margin.

    PubMed

    Rovani, Margritte K; Brachmann, Carrie Baker; Ramsay, Gary; Katzen, Alisa L

    2012-12-01

    Successful development of a multicellular organism depends on the finely tuned orchestration of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis from embryogenesis through adulthood. The MYB-gene family encodes sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factors that have been implicated in the regulation of both normal and neoplastic growth. The Drosophila Myb protein, DMyb (and vertebrate B-Myb protein), has been shown to be part of the dREAM/MMB complex, a large multi-subunit complex, which in addition to four Myb-interacting proteins including Mip130, contains repressive E2F and pRB proteins. This complex has been implicated in the regulation of DNA replication within the context of chorion gene amplification and transcriptional regulation of a wide array of genes. Detailed phenotypic analysis of mutations in the Drosophila myb gene, Dm myb, has revealed a previously undiscovered function for the dREAM/MMB complex in regulating programmed cell death (PCD). In cooperation with the pro-apoptotic protein Grim and dREAM/MMB, DMyb promotes the PCD of specified sensory organ precursor daughter cells in at least two different settings in the peripheral nervous system: the pIIIb precursor of the neuron and sheath cells in the posterior wing margin and the glial cell in the thoracic microchaete lineage. Unlike previously analyzed settings, in which the main role of DMyb has been to antagonize the activities of other dREAM/MMB complex members, it appears to be the critical effector in promoting PCD. The finding that Dm myb and grim are both involved in regulating PCD in two distinct settings suggests that these two genes may often work together to mediate PCD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Heterochromatin Protein 1 Alpha (HP1α: CBX5) is a Key Regulator in Differentiation of Endothelial Progenitor Cells to Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Maeng, Yong-Sun; Kwon, Ja Young; Kim, Eung Kweon; Kwon, Young-Guen

    2015-05-01

    As the ability to control the differentiation of endothelial stem/progenitor cells (EPCs) into vascular endothelial cell lineages could be useful for promoting neovascularization, it is important to obtain a deeper understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate EPC differentiation and neovascularization. Heterochromatin protein 1α (HP1α) is known to be involved in the epigenetic regulation of gene silencing. However, recent reports demonstrate that HP1α can also activate gene expression during cell differentiation. In this study, microarray analysis revealed that HP1α expression was induced during EPC differentiation and is associated with the expression of outgrowing endothelial cell (OEC)-specific protein markers. To explore the role of HP1α in the differentiation of EPCs to OECs, its expression was knocked-down or over-expressed in differentiating EPCs. Overexpression of HP1α promoted the differentiation and angiogenic activity of EPCs in vitro and in vivo, whereas knockdown of HP1α led to a defect in OEC migration, tube formation, and angiogenic sprouting activity. Gene expression profiling showed increased expression of angiogenic genes, including NOTCH1, cadherin-5, and angiopoietin-like-2, and decreased expression of progenitor cell marker genes, including CD133, CXCR4, and C-KIT, in HP1α-overexpressing EPCs. Also, increased HP1α at an early stage of EPC differentiation may regulate angiogenic gene transcription by interacting with chromatin that modifies epigenetic factors such as the methyl-CpG binding domain, Polycomb group ring finger 2, and DNA methyltransferases. Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that HP1α plays an important role in the differentiation and angiogenic function of EPCs by regulating endothelial gene expression. Stem Cells 2015;33:1512-1522. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.

  15. Early gene Broad complex plays a key role in regulating the immune response triggered by ecdysone in the Malpighian tubules of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Verma, Puja; Tapadia, Madhu G

    2015-08-01

    In insects, humoral response to injury is accomplished by the production of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) which are secreted in the hemolymph to eliminate the pathogen. Drosophila Malpighian tubules (MTs), however, are unique immune organs that show constitutive expression of AMPs even in unchallenged conditions and the onset of immune response is developmental stage dependent. Earlier reports have shown ecdysone positively regulates immune response after pathogenic challenge however, a robust response requires prior potentiation by the hormone. Here we provide evidence to show that MTs do not require prior potentiation with ecdysone hormone for expression of AMPs and they respond to ecdysone very fast even without immune challenge, although the different AMPs Diptericin, Cecropin, Attacin, Drosocin show differential expression in response to ecdysone. We show that early gene Broad complex (BR-C) could be regulating the IMD pathway by activating Relish and physically interacting with it to activate AMPs expression. BR-C depletion from Malpighian tubules renders the flies susceptible to infection. We also show that in MTs ecdysone signaling is transduced by EcR-B1 and B2. In the absence of ecdysone signaling the IMD pathway associated genes are down regulated and activation and translocation of transcription factor Relish is also affected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Expression-based GWAS identifies variants, gene interactions and key regulators affecting intramuscular fatty acid content and composition in porcine meat

    PubMed Central

    Puig-Oliveras, Anna; Revilla, Manuel; Castelló, Anna; Fernández, Ana I.; Folch, Josep M.; Ballester, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to better understand the genetic mechanisms determining two complex traits affecting porcine meat quality: intramuscular fat (IMF) content and its fatty acid (FA) composition. With this purpose, expression Genome-Wide Association Study (eGWAS) of 45 lipid-related genes associated with meat quality traits in swine muscle (Longissimus dorsi) of 114 Iberian × Landrace backcross animals was performed. The eGWAS identified 241 SNPs associated with 11 genes: ACSM5, CROT, FABP3, FOS, HIF1AN, IGF2, MGLL, NCOA1, PIK3R1, PLA2G12A and PPARA. Three expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTLs) for IGF2, ACSM5 and MGLL were identified, showing cis-acting effects, whereas 16 eQTLs had trans regulatory effects. A polymorphism in the ACSM5 promoter region associated with its expression was identified. In addition, strong candidate genes regulating ACSM5, FOS, PPARA, PIK3R1, PLA2G12A and HIF1AN gene expression were also seen. Notably, the analysis highlighted the NR3C1 transcription factor as a strong candidate gene involved in the regulation of the 45 genes analysed. Finally, the IGF2, MGLL, MC2R, ARHGAP6, and NR3C1 genes were identified as potential regulators co-localizing within QTLs for fatness and growth traits in the IBMAP population. The results obtained increase our knowledge in the functional regulatory mechanisms involved in these complex traits. PMID:27666082

  17. Opiorphin-dependent up-regulation of CD73 (a key enzyme in the adenosine signaling pathway) in corporal smooth muscle cells exposed to hypoxic conditions and in corporal tissue in pre-priapic sickle cell mice

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shibo; Davies, Kelvin P.

    2015-01-01

    The precise molecular mechanisms underlying priapism associated with sickle cell disease remain to be defined. However, there is increasing evidence that up-regulated activity of the opiorphin and adenosine pathways in corporal tissue, resulting in heighted relaxation of smooth muscle, play an important role in development of priapism. A key enzyme in the adenosine pathway is CD73, an ecto-5-prime-nucleotidase (5-prime-ribonucleotide phosphohydrolase; EC 3.1.3.5) which catalyzes the conversion of adenosine mononucleotides to adenosine. In the present study we investigated how sickle cell disease and hypoxia regulate the interplay between opiorphin and CD73. In the corpora of sickle cell mice we observed significantly elevated expression of both the mouse opiorphin homologue mSmr3a (14-fold) and CD73 (2.2-fold) relative to non-sickle cell controls at a life-stage prior to the exhibition of priapism. Sickle cell disease has a pronounced hypoxic component, therefore we determined if CD73 was also modulated in in vitro corporal smooth muscle (CSM) models of hypoxia. Hypoxia significantly increased CD73 protein and mRNA expression by 1.5-fold and 2-fold, respectively. We previously demonstrated that expression of another component of the adenosine signaling pathway, the adensosine 2B receptor, can be regulated by sialorphin (the rat opiorphin homolologue), and we demonstrate that sialorphin also regulates CD73 expression in a dose and time dependent fashion. Using siRNA to knock-down sialorphin mRNA expression in CSM cells in vitro, we demonstrate that the hypoxic up-regulation of CD73 is dependent on the up-regulation of sialorphin. Overall our data provides further evidence to support a role for opiorphin in CSM in regulating the cellular response regulating response to hypoxia or sickle cell disease by activating smooth muscle relaxant pathways. PMID:25833166

  18. Serine/Threonine Kinase 3-Phosphoinositide-Dependent Protein Kinase-1 (PDK1) as a Key Regulator of Cell Migration and Cancer Dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Di Blasio, Laura; Gagliardi, Paolo A.; Puliafito, Alberto; Primo, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Dissecting the cellular signaling that governs the motility of eukaryotic cells is one of the fundamental tasks of modern cell biology, not only because of the large number of physiological processes in which cell migration is crucial, but even more so because of the pathological ones, in particular tumor invasion and metastasis. Cell migration requires the coordination of at least four major processes: polarization of intracellular signaling, regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and membrane extension, focal adhesion and integrin signaling and contractile forces generation and rear retraction. Among the molecular components involved in the regulation of locomotion, the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway has been shown to exert fundamental role. A pivotal node of such pathway is represented by the serine/threonine kinase 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDPK1 or PDK1). PDK1, and the majority of its substrates, belong to the AGC family of kinases (related to cAMP-dependent protein kinase 1, cyclic Guanosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C), and control a plethora of cellular processes, downstream either to PI3K or to other pathways, such as RAS GTPase-MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase). Interestingly, PDK1 has been demonstrated to be crucial for the regulation of each step of cell migration, by activating several proteins such as protein kinase B/Akt (PKB/Akt), myotonic dystrophy-related CDC42-binding kinases alpha (MRCKα), Rho associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1), phospholipase C gamma 1 (PLCγ1) and β3 integrin. Moreover, PDK1 regulates cancer cell invasion as well, thus representing a possible target to prevent cancer metastasis in human patients. The aim of this review is to summarize the various mechanisms by which PDK1 controls the cell migration process, from cell polarization to actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesion regulation, and finally, to discuss the evidence supporting a

  19. ERK1/2 is a key regulator of Fndc5 and PGC1α expression during neural differentiation of mESCs.

    PubMed

    Hosseini Farahabadi, S S; Ghaedi, K; Ghazvini Zadegan, F; Karbalaie, K; Rabiee, F; Nematollahi, M; Baharvand, H; Nasr-Esfahani, M-H

    2015-06-25

    Fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (Fndc5) has already been distinguished to be involved in neural differentiation. However, cellular events of Fndc5 function are still ambiguous in the nervous system. One approach to shed light on duty of this protein in the nervous system is to find its cross-talks with various signaling pathways with defined characteristics and roles. Identification of the underlying molecular mechanism which controls Fndc5 expression and switches its activity up and down enables us to find out the Fndc5 functional map in the nervous system and other human body systems. Retinoic acid (RA) is a bio-small molecule which exerts its role as a neural inducer in the neurodevelopmental process of neural tube. RA up-regulates the expression of various genes involved in neural differentiation process via two distinct pathways: the genomic and the non-genomic. Our previous study has revealed that RA induces Fndc5 expression during neural differentiation process. In this study we have evaluated our hypothesis about the non-genomic up regulation of Fndc5 expression by RA. Interestingly we have identified that there is an association between ERK signaling pathway and Fndc5 expression. Furthermore, inhibition of this pathway by PD0325901 dramatically reduced Fndc5 mRNA level, while activating the pathway up-regulated Fndc5 transcription. In addition, it has been proven that ERK1/2 modulation via RA has more significant controlling effect on Fndc5 promoter rather than bFGF. This led us to conclude that RA enhances Fndc5 expression through a non-genomic pathway via the ERK signaling pathway. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Comprehensive Membrane Interactome Mapping of Sho1p Reveals Fps1p as a Novel Key Player in the Regulation of the HOG Pathway in S. cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Mandy Hiu Yi; Snider, Jamie; Rehal, Monique; Wong, Victoria; Aboualizadeh, Farzaneh; Drecun, Luka; Wong, Olivia; Jubran, Bellal; Li, Meirui; Ali, Mehrab; Jessulat, Matthew; Deineko, Viktor; Miller, Rachel; Lee, Mid eum; Park, Hay-Oak; Davidson, Alan; Babu, Mohan; Stagljar, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Sho1p, an integral membrane protein, plays a vital role in the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Activated under conditions of high osmotic stress, it interacts with other HOG pathway proteins to mediate cell signaling events, ensuring that yeast cells can adapt and remain viable. In an attempt to further understand how the function of Sho1p is regulated through its protein–protein interactions (PPIs), we identified 49 unique Sho1p PPIs through the use of membrane yeast two-hybrid (MYTH), an assay specifically suited to identify PPIs of full-length integral membrane proteins in their native membrane environment. Secondary validation by literature search, or two complementary PPI assays, confirmed 80% of these interactions, resulting in a high-quality Sho1p interactome. This set of putative PPIs included both previously characterized interactors, along with a large subset of interactors that have not been previously identified as binding to Sho1p. The SH3 domain of Sho1p was found to be important for binding to many of these interactors. One particular novel interactor of interest is the glycerol transporter Fps1p, which was shown to require the SH3 domain of Sho1p for binding via its N-terminal soluble regulatory domain. Furthermore, we found that Fps1p is involved in the positive regulation of Sho1p function and plays a role in the phosphorylation of the downstream kinase Hog1p. This study represents the largest membrane interactome analysis of Sho1p to date and complements past studies on the HOG pathway by increasing our understanding of Sho1p regulation. PMID:25644660

  1. Variants within MECP2, a key transcriptional regulator, are associated with increased susceptibility to lupus and differential gene expression in lupus patients

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Ryan; Wren, Jonathan D; Jeffries, Matlock; Kelly, Jennifer A; Kaufman, Kenneth M; Tang, Yuhong; Frank, Mark Barton; Merrill, Joan; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E; James, Judith A; Vyse, Timothy J; Moser, Kathy L; Gilkeson, Gary S; Harley, John B; Sawalha, Amr H

    2009-01-01

    Objective Both genetic and epigenetic factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of lupus. Herein, we study methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) polymorphism in a large cohort of lupus patients and controls, and determine functional consequences of the lupus-associated MECP2 haplotype. Methods We genotyped 18 SNPs within MECP2, located on chromosome Xq28, in a large cohort of European-derived lupus patients and controls. We studied the functional effects of the lupus-associated MECP2 haplotype by determining gene expression profiles in B cell lines from female lupus patients with and without the lupus-associated MECP2 risk haplotype. Results We confirm, replicate, and extend the genetic association between lupus and genetic markers within MECP2 in a large independent cohort of European-derived lupus patients and controls (OR= 1.35, p= 6.65×10−11). MECP2 is a dichotomous transcriptional regulator that either activates or represses gene expression. We identified 128 genes that are differentially expressed in lupus patients with the disease-associated MECP2 haplotype; most (~81%) are upregulated. Genes that were upregulated have significantly more CpG islands in their promoter regions compared to downregulated genes. Gene ontology analysis using the differentially expressed genes revealed significant association with epigenetic regulatory mechanisms suggesting that these genes are targets for MECP2 regulation in B cells. Further, at least 13 of the 104 upregulated genes are interferon-regulated genes. The disease-risk MECP2 haplotype is associated with increased expression of the MECP2 transcriptional co-activator CREB1, and decreased expression of the co-repressor HDAC1. Conclusion Polymorphism in the MECP2 locus is associated with lupus and, at least in part, contributes to the interferon signature observed in lupus patients. PMID:19333917

  2. Conserved Epigenetic Mechanisms Could Play a Key Role in Regulation of Photosynthesis and Development-Related Genes during Needle Development of Pinus radiata.

    PubMed

    Valledor, Luis; Pascual, Jesús; Meijón, Mónica; Escandón, Mónica; Cañal, María Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Needle maturation is a complex process that involves cell growth, differentiation and tissue remodelling towards the acquisition of full physiological competence. Leaf induction mechanisms are well known; however, those underlying the acquisition of physiological competence are still poorly understood, especially in conifers. We studied the specific epigenetic regulation of genes defining organ function (PrRBCS and PrRBCA) and competence and stress response (PrCSDP2 and PrSHMT4) during three stages of needle development and one de-differentiated control. Gene-specific changes in DNA methylation and histone were analysed by bisulfite sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). The expression of PrRBCA and PrRBCS increased during needle maturation and was associated with the progressive loss of H3K9me3, H3K27me3 and the increase in AcH4. The maturation-related silencing of PrSHMT4 was correlated with increased H3K9me3 levels, and the repression of PrCSDP2, to the interplay between AcH4, H3K27me3, H3K9me3 and specific DNA methylation. The employ of HAT and HDAC inhibitors led to a further determination of the role of histone acetylation in the regulation of our target genes. The integration of these results with high-throughput analyses in Arabidopsis thaliana and Populus trichocarpa suggests that the specific epigenetic mechanisms that regulate photosynthetic genes are conserved between the analysed species.

  3. The key role of miR-21-regulated SOD2 in the medium-mediated bystander responses in human fibroblasts induced by α-irradiated keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wenqian; Yin, Xiaoming; Wang, Longxiao; Wang, Jingdong; Zhu, Wei; Cao, Jianping; Yang, Hongying

    2015-10-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) is well accepted in the radiation research field by now, but the underlying molecular mechanisms for better understanding this phenomenon caused by intercellular communication and intracellular signal transduction are still incomplete. Although our previous study has demonstrated an important role of miR-21 of unirradiated bystander cells in RIBEs, the direct evidence for the hypothesis that RIBE is epigenetically regulated is still limited and how miR-21 mediates RIBEs is unknown. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been demonstrated to be involved in RIBEs, however, the roles of anti-oxidative stress system of cells in RIBEs are unclear. Using transwell insert co-culture system, we investigated medium-mediated bystander responses in WS1 human fibroblasts after co-culture with HaCaT keratinocytes traversed by α-particles. Results showed that the ROS levels in unirradiated bystander WS1 cells were significantly elevated after 30min of co-culture, and 53BP1 foci, a surrogate marker of DNA damage, were obviously induced after 3h of co-culture. This indicates the occurrence of oxidative stress and DNA damage in bystander WS1 cells after co-culture with irradiated keratinocytes. Furthermore, the expression of miR-21 was increased in bystander WS1 cells, downregulation of miR-21 eliminated the bystander responses, overexpression of miR-21 alone could induce bystander-like oxidative stress and DNA damage in WS1 cells. These data indicate an important mediating role of miR-21 in RIBEs. In addition, MnSOD or SOD2 in WS1 cells was involved in the bystander effects, overexpression of SOD2 abolished the bystander oxidative stress and DNA damage, indicating that SOD2 was critical to the induction of RIBEs. Moreover, we found that miR-21 regulated SOD2, suggesting that miR-21 might mediate bystander responses through its regulation on SOD2. In conclusion, this study revealed a profound role of miR-21-regulated SOD2 of unirradiated WS1

  4. Expression profiling and functional analysis reveals that TOR is a key player in regulating photosynthesis and phytohormone signaling pathways in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Pan; Xiong, Fangjie; Que, Yumei; Wang, Kai; Yu, Lihua; Li, Zhengguo; Ren, Maozhi

    2015-01-01

    Target of rapamycin (TOR) acts as a master regulator to control cell growth by integrating nutrient, energy, and growth factors in all eukaryotic species. TOR plays an evolutionarily conserved role in regulating the transcription of genes associated with anabolic and catabolic processes in Arabidopsis, but little is known about the functions of TOR in photosynthesis and phytohormone signaling, which are unique features of plants. In this study, AZD8055 (AZD) was screened as the strongest active-site TOR inhibitor (asTORi) in Arabidopsis compared with TORIN1 and KU63794 (KU). Gene expression profiles were evaluated using RNA-seq after treating Arabidopsis seedlings with AZD. More than three-fold differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in AZD-treated plants relative to rapamycin-treated plants in previous studies. Most of the DEGs and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways involved in cell wall elongation, ribosome biogenesis, and cell autophagy were common to both AZD- and rapamycin-treated samples, but AZD displayed much broader and more efficient inhibition of TOR compared with rapamycin. Importantly, the suppression of TOR by AZD resulted in remodeling of the expression profile of the genes associated with photosynthesis and various phytohormones, indicating that TOR plays a crucial role in modulating photosynthesis and phytohormone signaling in Arabidopsis. These newly identified DEGs expand the understanding of TOR signaling in plants. This study elucidates the novel functions of TOR in photosynthesis and phytohormone signaling and provides a platform to study the downstream targets of TOR in Arabidopsis.

  5. Structural Analysis of the Regulatory Domain of ExsA, a Key Transcriptional Regulator of the Type Three Secretion System in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Shrestha, Manisha; Xiao, Yi; Robinson, Howard; Schubot, Florian D.

    2015-08-28

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa employs a type three secretion system to facilitate infections in mammalian hosts. The operons encoding genes of structural components of the secretion machinery and associated virulence factors are all under the control of the AraC-type transcriptional activator protein, ExsA. ExsA belongs to a unique subfamily of AraC-proteins that is regulated through protein-protein contacts rather than small molecule ligands. Prior to infection, ExsA is inhibited through a direct interaction with the anti-activator ExsD. To activate ExsA upon host cell contact this interaction is disrupted by the anti-antiactivator protein ExsC. Here we report the crystal structure of the regulatory domain of ExsA, which is known to mediate ExsA dimerization as well as ExsD binding. The crystal structure suggests two models for the ExsA dimer. Both models confirmed the previously shown involvement of helix α-3 in ExsA dimerization but one also suggest a role for helix α-2. These structural data are supported by the observation that a mutation in α-2 greatly diminished the ability of ExsA to activate transcription in vitro. Lastly, additional in vitro transcription studies revealed that a conserved pocket, used by AraC and the related ToxT protein for the binding of small molecule regulators, although present in ExsA is not involved in binding of ExsD.

  6. A Key Role of Xanthophylls That Are Not Embedded in Proteins in Regulation of the Photosynthetic Antenna Function in Plants, Revealed by Monomolecular Layer Studies.

    PubMed

    Welc, Renata; Luchowski, Rafal; Grudzinski, Wojciech; Puzio, Michal; Sowinski, Karol; Gruszecki, Wieslaw I

    2016-12-29

    The main physiological function of LHCII (light-harvesting pigment-protein complex of photosystem II), the largest photosynthetic antenna complex of plants, is absorption of light quanta and transfer of excitation energy toward the reaction centers, to drive photosynthesis. However, under strong illumination, the photosynthetic apparatus faces the danger of photodegradation and therefore excitations in LHCII have to be down-regulated, e.g., via thermal energy dissipation. One of the elements of the regulatory system, operating in the photosynthetic apparatus under light stress conditions, is a conversion of violaxanthin, the xanthophyll present under low light, to zeaxanthin, accumulated under strong light. In the present study, an effect of violaxanthin and zeaxanthin on the molecular organization and the photophysical properties of LHCII was studied in a monomolecular layer system with application of molecular imaging (atomic force microscopy, fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy) and spectroscopy (UV-Vis absorption, FTIR, fluorescence spectroscopy) techniques. The results of the experiments show that violaxanthin promotes the formation of supramolecular LHCII structures preventing dissipative excitation quenching while zeaxanthin is involved in the formation of excitonic energy states able to quench chlorophyll excitations in both the higher (B states) and lower (Q states) energy levels. The results point to a strategic role of xanthophylls that are not embedded in a protein environment, in regulation of the photosynthetic light harvesting activity in plants.

  7. The large genome segment of dsRNA bacteriophage phi6 is the key regulator in the in vitro minus and plus strand synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Frilander, M; Poranen, M; Bamford, D H

    1995-01-01

    Bacteriophage phi6 is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus that has a genome composed of three linear dsRNA segments (L, M, S). These are encapsidated into a dodecahedral procapsid particle consisting of proteins P1, P2, P4, and P7. Empty preformed procapsids are able to package the plus-sense single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) of each genome segment, to synthesize the corresponding minus strands ("replication") to form dsRNA segments, and to continue to the plus strand synthesis ("transcription") in which the dsRNA segments are used as templates in production of plus-sense ssRNA. In this study, we have investigated the requirements for the switch-on of minus and plus strand syntheses. We show that there exists an inverse relationship between regulation of the ssRNA packaging and minus strand synthesis. The packaging of single-stranded l, which has previously been shown to be packaged as the last, is the necessary signal for the onset of the minus strand synthesis. The absolute requirement for plus strand synthesis is minus strand synthesis of l, but in addition, the minus strand synthesis of m and the packaging of s segment are needed for efficient plus strand synthesis. Furthermore, the second nucleotide at the 5'-end of each segment regulates the extent of the transcription. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 PMID:7489512

  8. Yeast RAD2, a homolog of human XPG, plays a key role in the regulation of the cell cycle and actin dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Mi-Sun; Yu, Sung-Lim; Kim, Ho-Yeol; Gorospe, Choco Michael; Choi, Byung Hyune; Lee, Sung Haeng; Lee, Sung-Keun

    2014-01-01

    Summary Mutations in the human XPG gene cause Cockayne syndrome (CS) and xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). Transcription defects have been suggested as the fundamental cause of CS; however, defining CS as a transcription syndrome is inconclusive. In particular, the function of XPG in transcription has not been clearly demonstrated. Here, we provide evidence for the involvement of RAD2, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae counterpart of XPG, in cell cycle regulation and efficient actin assembly following ultraviolet irradiation. RAD2 C-terminal deletion, which resembles the XPG mutation found in XPG/CS cells, caused cell growth arrest, the cell cycle stalling, a defective α-factor response, shortened lifespan, cell polarity defect, and misregulated actin-dynamics after DNA damage. Overexpression of the C-terminal 65 amino acids of Rad2p was sufficient to induce hyper-cell polarization. In addition