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Sample records for e2f-containing protein complexes

  1. Humic acid protein complexation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, W. F.; Koopal, L. K.; Weng, L. P.; van Riemsdijk, W. H.; Norde, W.

    2008-04-01

    Interactions of purified Aldrich humic acid (PAHA) with lysozyme (LSZ) are investigated. In solution LSZ is moderately positively and PAHA negatively charged at the investigated pH values. The proton binding of PAHA and of LSZ is determined by potentiometric proton titrations at various KCl concentrations. It is also measured for two mixtures of PAHA-LSZ and compared with theoretically calculated proton binding assuming no mutual interaction. The charge adaptation due to PAHA-LSZ interaction is relatively small and only significant at low and high pH. Next to the proton binding, the mass ratio PAHA/LSZ at the iso-electric point (IEP) of the complex at given solution conditions is measured together with the pH using the Mütek particle charge detector. From the pH changes the charge adaptation due to the interaction can be found. Also these measurements show that the net charge adaptation is weak for PAHA-LSZ complexes at their IEP. PAHA/LSZ mass ratios in the complexes at the IEP are measured at pH 5 and 7. At pH 5 and 50 mmol/L KCl the charge of the complex is compensated for 30-40% by K +; at pH 7, where LSZ has a rather low positive charge, this is 45-55%. At pH 5 and 5 mmol/L KCl the PAHA/LSZ mass ratio at the IEP of the complex depends on the order of addition. When LSZ is added to PAHA about 25% K + is included in the complex, but no K + is incorporated when PAHA is added to LSZ. The flocculation behavior of the complexes is also different. After LSZ addition to PAHA slow precipitation occurs (6-24 h) in the IEP, but after addition of PAHA to LSZ no precipitation can be seen after 12 h. Clearly, PAHA/LSZ complexation and the colloidal stability of PAHA-LSZ aggregates depend on the order of addition. Some implications of the observed behavior are discussed.

  2. Modeling complexes of modeled proteins.

    PubMed

    Anishchenko, Ivan; Kundrotas, Petras J; Vakser, Ilya A

    2017-03-01

    Structural characterization of proteins is essential for understanding life processes at the molecular level. However, only a fraction of known proteins have experimentally determined structures. This fraction is even smaller for protein-protein complexes. Thus, structural modeling of protein-protein interactions (docking) primarily has to rely on modeled structures of the individual proteins, which typically are less accurate than the experimentally determined ones. Such "double" modeling is the Grand Challenge of structural reconstruction of the interactome. Yet it remains so far largely untested in a systematic way. We present a comprehensive validation of template-based and free docking on a set of 165 complexes, where each protein model has six levels of structural accuracy, from 1 to 6 Å C α RMSD. Many template-based docking predictions fall into acceptable quality category, according to the CAPRI criteria, even for highly inaccurate proteins (5-6 Å RMSD), although the number of such models (and, consequently, the docking success rate) drops significantly for models with RMSD > 4 Å. The results show that the existing docking methodologies can be successfully applied to protein models with a broad range of structural accuracy, and the template-based docking is much less sensitive to inaccuracies of protein models than the free docking. Proteins 2017; 85:470-478. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Protein sorting in complex plastids.

    PubMed

    Sheiner, Lilach; Striepen, Boris

    2013-02-01

    Taming a cyanobacterium in a pivitol event of endosymbiosis brought photosynthesis to eukaryotes, and gave rise to the plastids found in glaucophytes, red and green algae, and the descendants of the latter, the plants. Ultrastructural as well as molecular research over the last two decades has demonstrated that plastids have enjoyed surprising lateral mobility across the tree of life. Numerous independent secondary and tertiary endosymbiosis have led to a spread of plastids into a variety of, up to that point, non-photosynthetic lineages. Happily eating and subsequently domesticating one another protists conquered a wide variety of ecological niches. The elaborate evolution of secondary, or complex, plastids is reflected in the numerous membranes that bound them (three or four compared to the two membranes of the primary plastids). Gene transfer to the host nucleus is a hallmark of endosymbiosis and provides centralized cellular control. Here we review how these proteins find their way back into the stroma of the organelle and describe the advances in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that allow protein translocation across four membranes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein Import and Quality Control in Mitochondria and Plastids. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Structure Prediction of Protein Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Brian; Weng, Zhiping

    Protein-protein interactions are critical for biological function. They directly and indirectly influence the biological systems of which they are a part. Antibodies bind with antigens to detect and stop viruses and other infectious agents. Cell signaling is performed in many cases through the interactions between proteins. Many diseases involve protein-protein interactions on some level, including cancer and prion diseases.

  5. Investigation of a protein complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashaghi, A. R.; Ramezanpour, A.; Karimipour, V.

    2004-09-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the first eukaryote whose genome has been completely sequenced. It is also the first eukaryotic cell whose proteome (the set of all proteins) and interactome (the network of all mutual interactions between proteins) has been analyzed. In this paper we study the structure of the yeast protein complex network in which weighted edges between complexes represent the number of shared proteins. It is found that the network of protein complexes is a small world network with scale free behavior for many of its distributions. However we find that there are no strong correlations between the weights and degrees of neighboring complexes. To reveal non-random features of the network we also compare it with a null model in which the complexes randomly select their proteins. Finally we propose a simple evolutionary model based on duplication and divergence of proteins.

  6. Predicting Physical Interactions between Protein Complexes*

    PubMed Central

    Clancy, Trevor; Rødland, Einar Andreas; Nygard, Ståle; Hovig, Eivind

    2013-01-01

    Protein complexes enact most biochemical functions in the cell. Dynamic interactions between protein complexes are frequent in many cellular processes. As they are often of a transient nature, they may be difficult to detect using current genome-wide screens. Here, we describe a method to computationally predict physical interactions between protein complexes, applied to both humans and yeast. We integrated manually curated protein complexes and physical protein interaction networks, and we designed a statistical method to identify pairs of protein complexes where the number of protein interactions between a complex pair is due to an actual physical interaction between the complexes. An evaluation against manually curated physical complex-complex interactions in yeast revealed that 50% of these interactions could be predicted in this manner. A community network analysis of the highest scoring pairs revealed a biologically sensible organization of physical complex-complex interactions in the cell. Such analyses of proteomes may serve as a guide to the discovery of novel functional cellular relationships. PMID:23438732

  7. 3D Complex: A Structural Classification of Protein Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Emmanuel D; Pereira-Leal, Jose B; Chothia, Cyrus; Teichmann, Sarah A

    2006-01-01

    Most of the proteins in a cell assemble into complexes to carry out their function. It is therefore crucial to understand the physicochemical properties as well as the evolution of interactions between proteins. The Protein Data Bank represents an important source of information for such studies, because more than half of the structures are homo- or heteromeric protein complexes. Here we propose the first hierarchical classification of whole protein complexes of known 3-D structure, based on representing their fundamental structural features as a graph. This classification provides the first overview of all the complexes in the Protein Data Bank and allows nonredundant sets to be derived at different levels of detail. This reveals that between one-half and two-thirds of known structures are multimeric, depending on the level of redundancy accepted. We also analyse the structures in terms of the topological arrangement of their subunits and find that they form a small number of arrangements compared with all theoretically possible ones. This is because most complexes contain four subunits or less, and the large majority are homomeric. In addition, there is a strong tendency for symmetry in complexes, even for heteromeric complexes. Finally, through comparison of Biological Units in the Protein Data Bank with the Protein Quaternary Structure database, we identified many possible errors in quaternary structure assignments. Our classification, available as a database and Web server at http://www.3Dcomplex.org, will be a starting point for future work aimed at understanding the structure and evolution of protein complexes. PMID:17112313

  8. Bioengineering strategies to generate artificial protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heejae; Siu, Ka-Hei; Raeeszadeh-Sarmazdeh, Maryam; Sun, Qing; Chen, Qi; Chen, Wilfred

    2015-08-01

    For many applications, increasing synergy between distinct proteins through organization is important for the specificity, regulation, and overall reaction efficiency. Although there are many examples of protein complexes in nature, a generalized method to create these complexes remains elusive. Many conventional techniques such as random chemical conjugation, physical adsorption onto surfaces, and encapsulation within matrices are imprecise approaches and can lead to deactivation of protein native functionalities. More "bio-friendly" approaches such as genetically fused proteins and biological scaffolds often can result in low yields and low complex stability. Alternatively, site-specific protein conjugation or ligation can generate artificial protein complexes that preserve the native functionalities of protein domains and maintain stability through covalent bonds. In this review, we describe three distinct methods to synthesize artificial protein complexes (genetic incorPoration of unnatural amino acids to introduce bio-orthogonal azide and alkyne groups to proteins, split-intein based expressed protein ligation, and sortase mediated ligation) and highlight interesting applications for each technique. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Complex lasso: new entangled motifs in proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemyska, Wanda; Dabrowski-Tumanski, Pawel; Kadlof, Michal; Haglund, Ellinor; Sułkowski, Piotr; Sulkowska, Joanna I.

    2016-11-01

    We identify new entangled motifs in proteins that we call complex lassos. Lassos arise in proteins with disulfide bridges (or in proteins with amide linkages), when termini of a protein backbone pierce through an auxiliary surface of minimal area, spanned on a covalent loop. We find that as much as 18% of all proteins with disulfide bridges in a non-redundant subset of PDB form complex lassos, and classify them into six distinct geometric classes, one of which resembles supercoiling known from DNA. Based on biological classification of proteins we find that lassos are much more common in viruses, plants and fungi than in other kingdoms of life. We also discuss how changes in the oxidation/reduction potential may affect the function of proteins with lassos. Lassos and associated surfaces of minimal area provide new, interesting and possessing many potential applications geometric characteristics not only of proteins, but also of other biomolecules.

  10. Protein import into complex plastids: Cellular organization of higher complexity.

    PubMed

    Maier, Uwe G; Zauner, Stefan; Hempel, Franziska

    2015-01-01

    Many protists with high ecological and medical relevance harbor plastids surrounded by four membranes. Thus, nucleus-encoded proteins of these complex plastids have to traverse these barriers. Here we report on the identification of the protein translocators located in two of the plastid surrounding membranes and present recent findings on the mechanisms of protein import into the plastids of diatoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Shape Complementarity of Protein-Protein Complexes at Multiple Resolutions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qing; Sanner, Michel; Olson, Arthur J.

    2010-01-01

    Biological complexes typically exhibit intermolecular interfaces of high shape complementarity. Many computational docking approaches use this surface complementarity as a guide in the search for predicting the structures of protein-protein complexes. Proteins often undergo conformational changes in order to create a highly complementary interface when associating. These conformational changes are a major cause of failure for automated docking procedures when predicting binding modes between proteins using their unbound conformations. Low resolution surfaces in which high frequency geometric details are omitted have been used to address this problem. These smoothed, or blurred, surfaces are expected to minimize the differences between free and bound structures, especially those that are due to side chain conformations or small backbone deviations. In spite of the fact that this approach has been used in many docking protocols, there has yet to be a systematic study of the effects of such surface smoothing on the shape complementarity of the resulting interfaces. Here we investigate this question by computing shape complementarity of a set of 66 protein-protein complexes represented by multi-resolution blurred surfaces. Complexed and unbound structures are available for these protein-protein complexes. They are a subset of complexes from a non-redundant docking benchmark selected for rigidity (i.e. the proteins undergo limited conformational changes between their bound and unbound states). In this work we construct the surfaces by isocontouring a density map obtained by accumulating the densities of Gaussian functions placed at all atom centers of the molecule. The smoothness or resolution is specified by a Gaussian fall-off coefficient, termed “blobbyness”. Shape complementarity is quantified using a histogram of the shortest distances between two proteins' surface mesh vertices for both the crystallographic complexes and the complexes built using the protein

  12. PROCOS: computational analysis of protein-protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Fink, Florian; Hochrein, Jochen; Wolowski, Vincent; Merkl, Rainer; Gronwald, Wolfram

    2011-09-01

    One of the main challenges in protein-protein docking is a meaningful evaluation of the many putative solutions. Here we present a program (PROCOS) that calculates a probability-like measure to be native for a given complex. In contrast to scores often used for analyzing complex structures, the calculated probabilities offer the advantage of providing a fixed range of expected values. This will allow, in principle, the comparison of models corresponding to different targets that were solved with the same algorithm. Judgments are based on distributions of properties derived from a large database of native and false complexes. For complex analysis PROCOS uses these property distributions of native and false complexes together with a support vector machine (SVM). PROCOS was compared to the established scoring schemes of ZRANK and DFIRE. Employing a set of experimentally solved native complexes, high probability values above 50% were obtained for 90% of these structures. Next, the performance of PROCOS was tested on the 40 binary targets of the Dockground decoy set, on 14 targets of the RosettaDock decoy set and on 9 targets that participated in the CAPRI scoring evaluation. Again the advantage of using a probability-based scoring system becomes apparent and a reasonable number of near native complexes was found within the top ranked complexes. In conclusion, a novel fully automated method is presented that allows the reliable evaluation of protein-protein complexes. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Complex coacervation of supercharged proteins with polyelectrolytes.

    PubMed

    Obermeyer, Allie C; Mills, Carolyn E; Dong, Xue-Hui; Flores, Romeo J; Olsen, Bradley D

    2016-04-21

    Complexation of proteins with polyelectrolytes or block copolymers can lead to phase separation to generate a coacervate phase or self-assembly of coacervate core micelles. However, many proteins do not coacervate at conditions near neutral pH and physiological ionic strength. Here, protein supercharging is used to systematically explore the effect of protein charge on the complex coacervation with polycations. Four model proteins were anionically supercharged to varying degrees as quantified by mass spectrometry. Proteins phase separated with strong polycations when the ratio of negatively charged residues to positively charged residues on the protein (α) was greater than 1.1-1.2. Efficient partitioning of the protein into the coacervate phase required larger α (1.5-2.0). The preferred charge ratio for coacervation was shifted away from charge symmetry for three of the four model proteins and indicated an excess of positive charge in the coacervate phase. The composition of protein and polymer in the coacervate phase was determined using fluorescently labeled components, revealing that several of the coacervates likely have both induced charging and a macromolecular charge imbalance. The model proteins were also encapsulated in complex coacervate core micelles and micelles formed when the protein charge ratio α was greater than 1.3-1.4. Small angle neutron scattering and transmission electron microscopy showed that the micelles were spherical. The stability of the coacervate phase in both the bulk and micelles improved to increased ionic strength as the net charge on the protein increased. The micelles were also stable to dehydration and elevated temperatures.

  14. Cranberry Proanthocyanidins - Protein complexes for macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Carballo, Sergio M; Haas, Linda; Krueger, Christian G; Reed, Jess D

    2017-09-20

    In this work we characterize the interaction of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) proanthocyanidins (PAC) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and hen egg-white lysozyme (HEL) and determine the effects of these complexes on macrophage activation and antigen presentation. We isolated PAC from cranberry and complexed the isolated PAC with BSA and HEL. The properties of the PAC-protein complexes were studied by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), gel electrophoresis and zeta-potential. The effects of PAC-BSA complexes on macrophage activation were studied in RAW 264.7 macrophage like cells after treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Fluorescence microscopy was used to study the endocytosis of PAC-BSA complexes. The effects of the PAC complexes on macrophage antigen presentation were studied in an in vitro model of HEL antigen presentation by mouse peritoneal mononuclear cells to a T-cell hybridoma. The mass spectra of the PAC complexes with BSA and HEL differed from the spectra of the proteins alone by the presence of broad shoulders on the singly and doubly charged protein peaks. Complexation with PAC altered the electrophoretic mobility shift assay in native agarose gel and the electrophoretic mobility (ζ-potential) values. These results indicate that the PAC-protein complexes are stable and alter the protein structure without precipitating the protein. Fluorescence microscopy showed that the RAW 264.7 macrophages endocytosed BSA and PAC-BSA complexes in discrete vesicles that surrounded the nucleus. Macrophages treated with increasing amounts of PAC-BSA complexes had significantly reduced COX-2 and iNOS expression in response to treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in comparison to the controls. The PAC-HEL complexes modulated antigen uptake, processing and presentation in murine peritoneal macrophages. After 4 h of pre-incubation, only trace amounts of IL-2 were detected in the co-cultures treated with HEL

  15. Identifying protein complexes based on brainstorming strategy.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xianjun; Zhou, Jin; Yi, Li; Hu, Xiaohua; He, Tingting; Yang, Jincai

    2016-11-01

    Protein complexes comprising of interacting proteins in protein-protein interaction network (PPI network) play a central role in driving biological processes within cells. Recently, more and more swarm intelligence based algorithms to detect protein complexes have been emerging, which have become the research hotspot in proteomics field. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for identifying protein complexes based on brainstorming strategy (IPC-BSS), which is integrated into the main idea of swarm intelligence optimization and the improved K-means algorithm. Distance between the nodes in PPI network is defined by combining the network topology and gene ontology (GO) information. Inspired by human brainstorming process, IPC-BSS algorithm firstly selects the clustering center nodes, and then they are separately consolidated with the other nodes with short distance to form initial clusters. Finally, we put forward two ways of updating the initial clusters to search optimal results. Experimental results show that our IPC-BSS algorithm outperforms the other classic algorithms on yeast and human PPI networks, and it obtains many predicted protein complexes with biological significance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Protein-protein interaction networks (PPI) and complex diseases

    PubMed Central

    Safari-Alighiarloo, Nahid; Taghizadeh, Mohammad; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Goliaei, Bahram

    2014-01-01

    The physical interaction of proteins which lead to compiling them into large densely connected networks is a noticeable subject to investigation. Protein interaction networks are useful because of making basic scientific abstraction and improving biological and biomedical applications. Based on principle roles of proteins in biological function, their interactions determine molecular and cellular mechanisms, which control healthy and diseased states in organisms. Therefore, such networks facilitate the understanding of pathogenic (and physiologic) mechanisms that trigger the onset and progression of diseases. Consequently, this knowledge can be translated into effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Furthermore, the results of several studies have proved that the structure and dynamics of protein networks are disturbed in complex diseases such as cancer and autoimmune disorders. Based on such relationship, a novel paradigm is suggested in order to confirm that the protein interaction networks can be the target of therapy for treatment of complex multi-genic diseases rather than individual molecules with disrespect the network. PMID:25436094

  17. A novel method for identifying disease associated protein complexes based on functional similarity protein complex networks.

    PubMed

    Le, Duc-Hau

    2015-01-01

    Protein complexes formed by non-covalent interaction among proteins play important roles in cellular functions. Computational and purification methods have been used to identify many protein complexes and their cellular functions. However, their roles in terms of causing disease have not been well discovered yet. There exist only a few studies for the identification of disease-associated protein complexes. However, they mostly utilize complicated heterogeneous networks which are constructed based on an out-of-date database of phenotype similarity network collected from literature. In addition, they only apply for diseases for which tissue-specific data exist. In this study, we propose a method to identify novel disease-protein complex associations. First, we introduce a framework to construct functional similarity protein complex networks where two protein complexes are functionally connected by either shared protein elements, shared annotating GO terms or based on protein interactions between elements in each protein complex. Second, we propose a simple but effective neighborhood-based algorithm, which yields a local similarity measure, to rank disease candidate protein complexes. Comparing the predictive performance of our proposed algorithm with that of two state-of-the-art network propagation algorithms including one we used in our previous study, we found that it performed statistically significantly better than that of these two algorithms for all the constructed functional similarity protein complex networks. In addition, it ran about 32 times faster than these two algorithms. Moreover, our proposed method always achieved high performance in terms of AUC values irrespective of the ways to construct the functional similarity protein complex networks and the used algorithms. The performance of our method was also higher than that reported in some existing methods which were based on complicated heterogeneous networks. Finally, we also tested our method with

  18. Modeling protein complexes with BiGGER.

    PubMed

    Krippahl, Ludwig; Moura, José J; Palma, P Nuno

    2003-07-01

    This article describes the method and results of our participation in the Critical Assessment of PRediction of Interactions (CAPRI) experiment, using the protein docking program BiGGER (Bimolecular complex Generation with Global Evaluation and Ranking) (Palma et al., Proteins 2000;39:372-384). Of five target complexes (CAPRI targets 2, 4, 5, 6, and 7), only one was successfully predicted (target 6), but BiGGER generated reasonable models for targets 4, 5, and 7, which could have been identified if additional biochemical information had been available. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Community of protein complexes impacts disease association

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qianghu; Liu, Weisha; Ning, Shangwei; Ye, Jingrun; Huang, Teng; Li, Yan; Wang, Peng; Shi, Hongbo; Li, Xia

    2012-01-01

    One important challenge in the post-genomic era is uncovering the relationships among distinct pathophenotypes by using molecular signatures. Given the complex functional interdependencies between cellular components, a disease is seldom the consequence of a defect in a single gene product, instead reflecting the perturbations of a group of closely related gene products that carry out specific functions together. Therefore, it is meaningful to explore how the community of protein complexes impacts disease associations. Here, by integrating a large amount of information from protein complexes and the cellular basis of diseases, we built a human disease network in which two diseases are linked if they share common disease-related protein complex. A systemic analysis revealed that linked disease pairs exhibit higher comorbidity than those that have no links, and that the stronger association two diseases have based on protein complexes, the higher comorbidity they are prone to display. Moreover, more connected diseases tend to be malignant, which have high prevalence. We provide novel disease associations that cannot be identified through previous analysis. These findings will potentially provide biologists and clinicians new insights into the etiology, classification and treatment of diseases. PMID:22549411

  20. Peroxisome protein import: a complex journey.

    PubMed

    Baker, Alison; Lanyon-Hogg, Thomas; Warriner, Stuart L

    2016-06-15

    The import of proteins into peroxisomes possesses many unusual features such as the ability to import folded proteins, and a surprising diversity of targeting signals with differing affinities that can be recognized by the same receptor. As understanding of the structure and function of many components of the protein import machinery has grown, an increasingly complex network of factors affecting each step of the import pathway has emerged. Structural studies have revealed the presence of additional interactions between cargo proteins and the PEX5 receptor that affect import potential, with a subtle network of cargo-induced conformational changes in PEX5 being involved in the import process. Biochemical studies have also indicated an interdependence of receptor-cargo import with release of unloaded receptor from the peroxisome. Here, we provide an update on recent literature concerning mechanisms of protein import into peroxisomes. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Hsp70 Protein Complexes as Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Assimon, Victoria A.; Gillies, Anne T.; Rauch, Jennifer N.; Gestwicki, Jason E.

    2013-01-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) plays critical roles in proteostasis and is an emerging target for multiple diseases. However, competitive inhibition of the enzymatic activity of Hsp70 has proven challenging and, in some cases, may not be the most productive way to redirect Hsp70 function. Another approach is to inhibit Hsp70’s interactions with important co-chaperones, such as J proteins, nucleotide exchange factors (NEFs) and tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain-containing proteins. These co-chaperones normally bind Hsp70 and guide its many diverse cellular activities. Complexes between Hsp70 and co-chaperones have been shown to have specific functions, such as pro-folding, pro-degradation and pro-trafficking. Thus, a promising strategy may be to block protein-protein interactions between Hsp70 and its co-chaperones or to target allosteric sites that disrupt these contacts. Such an approach might shift the balance of Hsp70 complexes and re-shape the proteome and it has the potential to restore healthy proteostasis. In this review, we discuss specific challenges and opportunities related to those goals. By pursuing Hsp70 complexes as drug targets, we might not only develop new leads for therapeutic development, but also discover new chemical probes for use in understanding Hsp70 biology. PMID:22920901

  2. Nanoscale Dewetting Transition in Protein Complex Folding

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Lan; Huang, Xuhui; Liu, Pu; Zhou, Ruhong; Berne, Bruce J.

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study, a surprising drying transition was observed to take place inside the nanoscale hydrophobic channel in the tetramer of the protein melittin. The goal of this paper is to determine if there are other protein complexes capable of displaying a dewetting transition during their final stage of folding. We searched the entire protein data bank (PDB) for all possible candidates, including protein tetramers, dimers, and two-domain proteins, and then performed the molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on the top candidates identified by a simple hydrophobic scoring function based on aligned hydrophobic surface areas. Our large scale MD simulations found several more proteins, including three tetramers, six dimers, and two two-domain proteins, which display a nanoscale dewetting transition in their final stage of folding. Even though the scoring function alone is not sufficient (i.e., a high score is necessary but not sufficient) in identifying the dewetting candidates, it does provide useful insights into the features of complex interfaces needed for dewetting. All top candidates have two features in common: (1) large aligned (matched) hydrophobic areas between two corresponding surfaces, and (2) large connected hydrophobic areas on the same surface. We have also studied the effect on dewetting of different water models and different treatments of the long-range electrostatic interactions (cutoff vs PME), and found the dewetting phenomena is fairly robust. This work presents a few proteins other than melittin tetramer for further experimental studies of the role of dewetting in the end stages of protein folding. PMID:17608515

  3. Detection of protein complex from protein-protein interaction network using Markov clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochieng, P. J.; Kusuma, W. A.; Haryanto, T.

    2017-05-01

    Detection of complexes, or groups of functionally related proteins, is an important challenge while analysing biological networks. However, existing algorithms to identify protein complexes are insufficient when applied to dense networks of experimentally derived interaction data. Therefore, we introduced a graph clustering method based on Markov clustering algorithm to identify protein complex within highly interconnected protein-protein interaction networks. Protein-protein interaction network was first constructed to develop geometrical network, the network was then partitioned using Markov clustering to detect protein complexes. The interest of the proposed method was illustrated by its application to Human Proteins associated to type II diabetes mellitus. Flow simulation of MCL algorithm was initially performed and topological properties of the resultant network were analysed for detection of the protein complex. The results indicated the proposed method successfully detect an overall of 34 complexes with 11 complexes consisting of overlapping modules and 20 non-overlapping modules. The major complex consisted of 102 proteins and 521 interactions with cluster modularity and density of 0.745 and 0.101 respectively. The comparison analysis revealed MCL out perform AP, MCODE and SCPS algorithms with high clustering coefficient (0.751) network density and modularity index (0.630). This demonstrated MCL was the most reliable and efficient graph clustering algorithm for detection of protein complexes from PPI networks.

  4. Dynamic interactions of proteins in complex networks

    SciTech Connect

    Appella, E.; Anderson, C.

    2009-10-01

    Recent advances in techniques such as NMR and EPR spectroscopy have enabled the elucidation of how proteins undergo structural changes to act in concert in complex networks. The three minireviews in this series highlight current findings and the capabilities of new methodologies for unraveling the dynamic changes controlling diverse cellular functions. They represent a sampling of the cutting-edge research presented at the 17th Meeting of Methods in Protein Structure Analysis, MPSA2008, in Sapporo, Japan, 26-29 August, 2008 (http://www.iapsap.bnl.gov). The first minireview, by Christensen and Klevit, reports on a structure-based yeast two-hybrid method for identifying E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes that interact withmore » the E3 BRCA1/BARD1 heterodimer ligase to generate either mono- or polyubiquitinated products. This method demonstrated for the first time that the BRCA1/BARD1 E3 can interact with 10 different E2 enzymes. Interestingly, the interaction with multiple E2 enzymes displayed unique ubiquitin-transfer properties, a feature expected to be common among other RING and U-box E3s. Further characterization of new E3 ligases and the E2 enzymes that interact with them will greatly enhance our understanding of ubiquitin transfer and facilitate studies of roles of ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins in protein processing and trafficking. Stein et al., in the second minireview, describe recent progress in defining the binding specificity of different peptide-binding domains. The authors clearly point out that transient peptide interactions mediated by both post-translational modifications and disordered regions ensure a high level of specificity. They postulate that a regulatory code may dictate the number of combinations of domains and post-translational modifications needed to achieve the required level of interaction specificity. Moreover, recognition alone is not enough to obtain a stable complex, especially in a complex cellular environment. Increasing

  5. Protein complex prediction in large ontology attributed protein-protein interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yijia; Lin, Hongfei; Yang, Zhihao; Wang, Jian; Li, Yanpeng; Xu, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Protein complexes are important for unraveling the secrets of cellular organization and function. Many computational approaches have been developed to predict protein complexes in protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. However, most existing approaches focus mainly on the topological structure of PPI networks, and largely ignore the gene ontology (GO) annotation information. In this paper, we constructed ontology attributed PPI networks with PPI data and GO resource. After constructing ontology attributed networks, we proposed a novel approach called CSO (clustering based on network structure and ontology attribute similarity). Structural information and GO attribute information are complementary in ontology attributed networks. CSO can effectively take advantage of the correlation between frequent GO annotation sets and the dense subgraph for protein complex prediction. Our proposed CSO approach was applied to four different yeast PPI data sets and predicted many well-known protein complexes. The experimental results showed that CSO was valuable in predicting protein complexes and achieved state-of-the-art performance.

  6. Encounter complexes and dimensionality reduction in protein-protein association.

    PubMed

    Kozakov, Dima; Li, Keyong; Hall, David R; Beglov, Dmitri; Zheng, Jiefu; Vakili, Pirooz; Schueler-Furman, Ora; Paschalidis, Ioannis Ch; Clore, G Marius; Vajda, Sandor

    2014-04-08

    An outstanding challenge has been to understand the mechanism whereby proteins associate. We report here the results of exhaustively sampling the conformational space in protein-protein association using a physics-based energy function. The agreement between experimental intermolecular paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) data and the PRE profiles calculated from the docked structures shows that the method captures both specific and non-specific encounter complexes. To explore the energy landscape in the vicinity of the native structure, the nonlinear manifold describing the relative orientation of two solid bodies is projected onto a Euclidean space in which the shape of low energy regions is studied by principal component analysis. Results show that the energy surface is canyon-like, with a smooth funnel within a two dimensional subspace capturing over 75% of the total motion. Thus, proteins tend to associate along preferred pathways, similar to sliding of a protein along DNA in the process of protein-DNA recognition. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01370.001.

  7. GalaxyRefineComplex: Refinement of protein-protein complex model structures driven by interface repacking.

    PubMed

    Heo, Lim; Lee, Hasup; Seok, Chaok

    2016-08-18

    Protein-protein docking methods have been widely used to gain an atomic-level understanding of protein interactions. However, docking methods that employ low-resolution energy functions are popular because of computational efficiency. Low-resolution docking tends to generate protein complex structures that are not fully optimized. GalaxyRefineComplex takes such low-resolution docking structures and refines them to improve model accuracy in terms of both interface contact and inter-protein orientation. This refinement method allows flexibility at the protein interface and in the overall docking structure to capture conformational changes that occur upon binding. Symmetric refinement is also provided for symmetric homo-complexes. This method was validated by refining models produced by available docking programs, including ZDOCK and M-ZDOCK, and was successfully applied to CAPRI targets in a blind fashion. An example of using the refinement method with an existing docking method for ligand binding mode prediction of a drug target is also presented. A web server that implements the method is freely available at http://galaxy.seoklab.org/refinecomplex.

  8. CORUM: the comprehensive resource of mammalian protein complexes

    PubMed Central

    Ruepp, Andreas; Brauner, Barbara; Dunger-Kaltenbach, Irmtraud; Frishman, Goar; Montrone, Corinna; Stransky, Michael; Waegele, Brigitte; Schmidt, Thorsten; Doudieu, Octave Noubibou; Stümpflen, Volker; Mewes, H. Werner

    2008-01-01

    Protein complexes are key molecular entities that integrate multiple gene products to perform cellular functions. The CORUM (http://mips.gsf.de/genre/proj/corum/index.html) database is a collection of experimentally verified mammalian protein complexes. Information is manually derived by critical reading of the scientific literature from expert annotators. Information about protein complexes includes protein complex names, subunits, literature references as well as the function of the complexes. For functional annotation, we use the FunCat catalogue that enables to organize the protein complex space into biologically meaningful subsets. The database contains more than 1750 protein complexes that are built from 2400 different genes, thus representing 12% of the protein-coding genes in human. A web-based system is available to query, view and download the data. CORUM provides a comprehensive dataset of protein complexes for discoveries in systems biology, analyses of protein networks and protein complex-associated diseases. Comparable to the MIPS reference dataset of protein complexes from yeast, CORUM intends to serve as a reference for mammalian protein complexes. PMID:17965090

  9. Improving protein complex classification accuracy using amino acid composition profile.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Hung; Chou, Szu-Yu; Ng, Ka-Lok

    2013-09-01

    Protein complex prediction approaches are based on the assumptions that complexes have dense protein-protein interactions and high functional similarity between their subunits. We investigated those assumptions by studying the subunits' interaction topology, sequence similarity and molecular function for human and yeast protein complexes. Inclusion of amino acids' physicochemical properties can provide better understanding of protein complex properties. Principal component analysis is carried out to determine the major features. Adopting amino acid composition profile information with the SVM classifier serves as an effective post-processing step for complexes classification. Improvement is based on primary sequence information only, which is easy to obtain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Construction of ontology augmented networks for protein complex prediction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yijia; Lin, Hongfei; Yang, Zhihao; Wang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Protein complexes are of great importance in understanding the principles of cellular organization and function. The increase in available protein-protein interaction data, gene ontology and other resources make it possible to develop computational methods for protein complex prediction. Most existing methods focus mainly on the topological structure of protein-protein interaction networks, and largely ignore the gene ontology annotation information. In this article, we constructed ontology augmented networks with protein-protein interaction data and gene ontology, which effectively unified the topological structure of protein-protein interaction networks and the similarity of gene ontology annotations into unified distance measures. After constructing ontology augmented networks, a novel method (clustering based on ontology augmented networks) was proposed to predict protein complexes, which was capable of taking into account the topological structure of the protein-protein interaction network, as well as the similarity of gene ontology annotations. Our method was applied to two different yeast protein-protein interaction datasets and predicted many well-known complexes. The experimental results showed that (i) ontology augmented networks and the unified distance measure can effectively combine the structure closeness and gene ontology annotation similarity; (ii) our method is valuable in predicting protein complexes and has higher F1 and accuracy compared to other competing methods.

  11. A Method for Predicting Protein Complexes from Dynamic Weighted Protein-Protein Interaction Networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lizhen; Sun, Xiaowu; Song, Wei; Du, Chao

    2018-06-01

    Predicting protein complexes from protein-protein interaction (PPI) network is of great significance to recognize the structure and function of cells. A protein may interact with different proteins under different time or conditions. Existing approaches only utilize static PPI network data that may lose much temporal biological information. First, this article proposed a novel method that combines gene expression data at different time points with traditional static PPI network to construct different dynamic subnetworks. Second, to further filter out the data noise, the semantic similarity based on gene ontology is regarded as the network weight together with the principal component analysis, which is introduced to deal with the weight computing by three traditional methods. Third, after building a dynamic PPI network, a predicting protein complexes algorithm based on "core-attachment" structural feature is applied to detect complexes from each dynamic subnetworks. Finally, it is revealed from the experimental results that our method proposed in this article performs well on detecting protein complexes from dynamic weighted PPI networks.

  12. Tandem Affinity Purification of Protein Complexes from Eukaryotic Cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zheng; Fung, Victor; D'Orso, Iván

    2017-01-26

    The purification of active protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid complexes is crucial for the characterization of enzymatic activities and de novo identification of novel subunits and post-translational modifications. Bacterial systems allow for the expression and purification of a wide variety of single polypeptides and protein complexes. However, this system does not enable the purification of protein subunits that contain post-translational modifications (e.g., phosphorylation and acetylation), and the identification of novel regulatory subunits that are only present/expressed in the eukaryotic system. Here, we provide a detailed description of a novel, robust, and efficient tandem affinity purification (TAP) method using STREP- and FLAG-tagged proteins that facilitates the purification of protein complexes with transiently or stably expressed epitope-tagged proteins from eukaryotic cells. This protocol can be applied to characterize protein complex functionality, to discover post-translational modifications on complex subunits, and to identify novel regulatory complex components by mass spectrometry. Notably, this TAP method can be applied to study protein complexes formed by eukaryotic or pathogenic (viral and bacterial) components, thus yielding a wide array of downstream experimental opportunities. We propose that researchers working with protein complexes could utilize this approach in many different ways.

  13. Dilution of protein-surfactant complexes: a fluorescence study.

    PubMed

    Azadi, Glareh; Chauhan, Anuj; Tripathi, Anubhav

    2013-09-01

    Dilution of protein-surfactant complexes is an integrated step in microfluidic protein sizing, where the contribution of free micelles to the overall fluorescence is reduced by dilution. This process can be further improved by establishing an optimum surfactant concentration and quantifying the amount of protein based on the fluorescence intensity. To this end, we study the interaction of proteins with anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cationic hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) using a hydrophobic fluorescent dye (sypro orange). We analyze these interactions fluourometrically with bovine serum albumin, carbonic anhydrase, and beta-galactosidase as model proteins. The fluorescent signature of protein-surfactant complexes at various dilution points shows three distinct regions, surfactant dominant, breakdown, and protein dominant region. Based on the dilution behavior of protein-surfactant complexes, we propose a fluorescence model to explain the contribution of free and bound micelles to the overall fluorescence. Our results show that protein peak is observed at 3 mM SDS as the optimum dilution concentration. Furthermore, we study the effect of protein concentration on fluorescence intensity. In a single protein model with a constant dye quantum yield, the peak height increases with protein concentration. Finally, addition of CTAB to the protein-SDS complex at mole fractions above 0.1 shifts the protein peak from 3 mM to 4 mM SDS. The knowledge of protein-surfactant interactions obtained from these studies provides significant insights for novel detection and quantification techniques in microfluidics. © 2013 The Protein Society.

  14. Crystal structure of mitochondrial respiratory membrane protein complex II.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fei; Huo, Xia; Zhai, Yujia; Wang, Aojin; Xu, Jianxing; Su, Dan; Bartlam, Mark; Rao, Zihe

    2005-07-01

    The mitochondrial respiratory Complex II or succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (SQR) is an integral membrane protein complex in both the tricarboxylic acid cycle and aerobic respiration. Here we report the first crystal structure of Complex II from porcine heart at 2.4 A resolution and its complex structure with inhibitors 3-nitropropionate and 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA) at 3.5 A resolution. Complex II is comprised of two hydrophilic proteins, flavoprotein (Fp) and iron-sulfur protein (Ip), and two transmembrane proteins (CybL and CybS), as well as prosthetic groups required for electron transfer from succinate to ubiquinone. The structure correlates the protein environments around prosthetic groups with their unique midpoint redox potentials. Two ubiquinone binding sites are discussed and elucidated by TTFA binding. The Complex II structure provides a bona fide model for study of the mitochondrial respiratory system and human mitochondrial diseases related to mutations in this complex.

  15. An overview of the structures of protein-DNA complexes

    PubMed Central

    Luscombe, Nicholas M; Austin, Susan E; Berman , Helen M; Thornton, Janet M

    2000-01-01

    On the basis of a structural analysis of 240 protein-DNA complexes contained in the Protein Data Bank (PDB), we have classified the DNA-binding proteins involved into eight different structural/functional groups, which are further classified into 54 structural families. Here we present this classification and review the functions, structures and binding interactions of these protein-DNA complexes. PMID:11104519

  16. Sequence Complexity of Amyloidogenic Regions in Intrinsically Disordered Human Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Das, Swagata; Pal, Uttam; Das, Supriya; Bagga, Khyati; Roy, Anupam; Mrigwani, Arpita; Maiti, Nakul C.

    2014-01-01

    An amyloidogenic region (AR) in a protein sequence plays a significant role in protein aggregation and amyloid formation. We have investigated the sequence complexity of AR that is present in intrinsically disordered human proteins. More than 80% human proteins in the disordered protein databases (DisProt+IDEAL) contained one or more ARs. With decrease of protein disorder, AR content in the protein sequence was decreased. A probability density distribution analysis and discrete analysis of AR sequences showed that ∼8% residue in a protein sequence was in AR and the region was in average 8 residues long. The residues in the AR were high in sequence complexity and it seldom overlapped with low complexity regions (LCR), which was largely abundant in disorder proteins. The sequences in the AR showed mixed conformational adaptability towards α-helix, β-sheet/strand and coil conformations. PMID:24594841

  17. Principles of assembly reveal a periodic table of protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Ahnert, Sebastian E; Marsh, Joseph A; Hernández, Helena; Robinson, Carol V; Teichmann, Sarah A

    2015-12-11

    Structural insights into protein complexes have had a broad impact on our understanding of biological function and evolution. In this work, we sought a comprehensive understanding of the general principles underlying quaternary structure organization in protein complexes. We first examined the fundamental steps by which protein complexes can assemble, using experimental and structure-based characterization of assembly pathways. Most assembly transitions can be classified into three basic types, which can then be used to exhaustively enumerate a large set of possible quaternary structure topologies. These topologies, which include the vast majority of observed protein complex structures, enable a natural organization of protein complexes into a periodic table. On the basis of this table, we can accurately predict the expected frequencies of quaternary structure topologies, including those not yet observed. These results have important implications for quaternary structure prediction, modeling, and engineering. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Recording information on protein complexes in an information management system.

    PubMed

    Savitsky, Marc; Diprose, Jonathan M; Morris, Chris; Griffiths, Susanne L; Daniel, Edward; Lin, Bill; Daenke, Susan; Bishop, Benjamin; Siebold, Christian; Wilson, Keith S; Blake, Richard; Stuart, David I; Esnouf, Robert M

    2011-08-01

    The Protein Information Management System (PiMS) is a laboratory information management system (LIMS) designed for use with the production of proteins in a research environment. The software is distributed under the CCP4 licence, and so is available free of charge to academic laboratories. Like most LIMS, the underlying PiMS data model originally had no support for protein-protein complexes. To support the SPINE2-Complexes project the developers have extended PiMS to meet these requirements. The modifications to PiMS, described here, include data model changes, additional protocols, some user interface changes and functionality to detect when an experiment may have formed a complex. Example data are shown for the production of a crystal of a protein complex. Integration with SPINE2-Complexes Target Tracker application is also described. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The octamer-binding proteins form multi-protein--DNA complexes with the HSV alpha TIF regulatory protein.

    PubMed

    Kristie, T M; LeBowitz, J H; Sharp, P A

    1989-12-20

    The herpes simplex virus transactivator, alpha TIF, stimulates transcription of the alpha/immediate early genes via a cis-acting site containing an octamer element and a conserved flanking sequence. The alpha TIF protein, produced in a baculovirus expression system, nucleates the formation of at least two DNA--protein complexes on this regulatory element. Both of these complexes contain the ubiquitous Oct-1 protein, whose POU domain alone is sufficient to allow assembly of the alpha TIF-dependent complexes. A second member of the POU domain family, the lymphoid specific Oct-2 protein, can also be assembled into similar complexes at high concentrations of alpha TIF protein. These complexes contain at least two cellular proteins in addition to Oct-1. One of these proteins is present in both insect and HeLa cells and probably recognizes sequences in the cis element. The second cellular protein, only present in HeLa cells, probably binds by protein-protein interactions.

  20. Controlled assembly of artificial protein-protein complexes via DNA duplex formation.

    PubMed

    Płoskoń, Eliza; Wagner, Sara C; Ellington, Andrew D; Jewett, Michael C; O'Reilly, Rachel; Booth, Paula J

    2015-03-18

    DNA-protein conjugates have found a wide range of applications. This study demonstrates the formation of defined, non-native protein-protein complexes via the site specific labeling of two proteins of interest with complementary strands of single-stranded DNA in vitro. This study demonstrates that the affinity of two DNA-protein conjugates for one another may be tuned by the use of variable lengths of DNA allowing reversible control of complex formation.

  1. The complexity of minocycline serum protein binding.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Tran, Brian T; Tam, Vincent H

    2017-06-01

    Serum protein binding is critical for understanding the pharmacology of antimicrobial agents. Tigecycline and eravacycline were previously reported to have atypical non-linear protein binding; the percentage of free fraction decreased with increasing total concentration. In this study, we extended the investigation to other tetracyclines and examined the factors that might impact protein binding. Different minocycline concentrations (0.5-50 mg/L) and perfusion media (saline, 0.1 M HEPES buffer and 0.1 and 1 M PBS) were examined by in vitro microdialysis. After equilibration, two dialysate samples were taken from each experiment and the respective antimicrobial agent concentrations were analysed by validated LC-MS/MS methods. For comparison, the serum protein bindings of doxycycline and levofloxacin were also determined. The free fraction of minocycline decreased with increasing total concentration, and the results depended on the perfusion media used. The trends of minocycline protein binding in mouse and human sera were similar. In addition, serum protein binding of doxycycline showed the same concentration-dependent trend as minocycline, while the results of levofloxacin were concentration independent. The serum protein bindings of minocycline and doxycycline are negatively correlated with their total concentrations. It is possible that all tetracyclines share the same pharmacological property. Moreover, the specific perfusion media used could also impact the results of microdialysis. Additional studies are warranted to understand the mechanism(s) and clinical implications of serum protein binding of tetracyclines. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Nicotine affects protein complex rearrangement in Caenorhabditis elegans cells.

    PubMed

    Sobkowiak, Robert; Zielezinski, Andrzej; Karlowski, Wojciech M; Lesicki, Andrzej

    2017-10-01

    Nicotine may affect cell function by rearranging protein complexes. We aimed to determine nicotine-induced alterations of protein complexes in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) cells, thereby revealing links between nicotine exposure and protein complex modulation. We compared the proteomic alterations induced by low and high nicotine concentrations (0.01 mM and 1 mM) with the control (no nicotine) in vivo by using mass spectrometry (MS)-based techniques, specifically the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) discontinuous gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS and spectral counting. As a result, we identified dozens of C. elegans proteins that are present exclusively or in higher abundance in either nicotine-treated or untreated worms. Based on these results, we report a possible network that captures the key protein components of nicotine-induced protein complexes and speculate how the different protein modules relate to their distinct physiological roles. Using functional annotation of detected proteins, we hypothesize that the identified complexes can modulate the energy metabolism and level of oxidative stress. These proteins can also be involved in modulation of gene expression and may be crucial in Alzheimer's disease. The findings reported in our study reveal putative intracellular interactions of many proteins with the cytoskeleton and may contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) signaling and trafficking in cells.

  3. Recording information on protein complexes in an information management system

    PubMed Central

    Savitsky, Marc; Diprose, Jonathan M.; Morris, Chris; Griffiths, Susanne L.; Daniel, Edward; Lin, Bill; Daenke, Susan; Bishop, Benjamin; Siebold, Christian; Wilson, Keith S.; Blake, Richard; Stuart, David I.; Esnouf, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    The Protein Information Management System (PiMS) is a laboratory information management system (LIMS) designed for use with the production of proteins in a research environment. The software is distributed under the CCP4 licence, and so is available free of charge to academic laboratories. Like most LIMS, the underlying PiMS data model originally had no support for protein–protein complexes. To support the SPINE2-Complexes project the developers have extended PiMS to meet these requirements. The modifications to PiMS, described here, include data model changes, additional protocols, some user interface changes and functionality to detect when an experiment may have formed a complex. Example data are shown for the production of a crystal of a protein complex. Integration with SPINE2-Complexes Target Tracker application is also described. PMID:21605682

  4. Prediction of Heterodimeric Protein Complexes from Weighted Protein-Protein Interaction Networks Using Novel Features and Kernel Functions

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Peiying; Hayashida, Morihiro; Maruyama, Osamu; Akutsu, Tatsuya

    2013-01-01

    Since many proteins express their functional activity by interacting with other proteins and forming protein complexes, it is very useful to identify sets of proteins that form complexes. For that purpose, many prediction methods for protein complexes from protein-protein interactions have been developed such as MCL, MCODE, RNSC, PCP, RRW, and NWE. These methods have dealt with only complexes with size of more than three because the methods often are based on some density of subgraphs. However, heterodimeric protein complexes that consist of two distinct proteins occupy a large part according to several comprehensive databases of known complexes. In this paper, we propose several feature space mappings from protein-protein interaction data, in which each interaction is weighted based on reliability. Furthermore, we make use of prior knowledge on protein domains to develop feature space mappings, domain composition kernel and its combination kernel with our proposed features. We perform ten-fold cross-validation computational experiments. These results suggest that our proposed kernel considerably outperforms the naive Bayes-based method, which is the best existing method for predicting heterodimeric protein complexes. PMID:23776458

  5. Nanoparticle-protein complexes mimicking corona formation in ocular environment.

    PubMed

    Jo, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Son, Jin Gyeong; Dan, Ki Soon; Song, Sang Hoon; Lee, Tae Geol; Kim, Jeong Hun

    2016-12-01

    Nanoparticles adsorb biomolecules to form corona upon entering the biological environment. In this study, tissue-specific corona formation is provided as a way of controlling protein interaction with nanoparticles in vivo. In the vitreous, the composition of the corona was determined by the electrostatic and hydrophobic properties of the associated proteins, regardless of the material (gold and silica) or size (20- and 100-nm diameter) of the nanoparticles. To control protein adsorption, we pre-incubate 20-nm gold nanoparticles with 5 selectively enriched proteins from the corona, formed in the vitreous, to produce nanoparticle-protein complexes. Compared to bare nanoparticles, nanoparticle-protein complexes demonstrate improved binding to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the vitreous. Furthermore, nanoparticle-protein complexes retain in vitro anti-angiogenic properties of bare nanoparticles. In particular, priming the nanoparticles (gold and silica) with tissue-specific corona proteins allows nanoparticle-protein complexes to exert better in vivo therapeutic effects by higher binding to VEGF than bare nanoparticles. These results suggest that controlled corona formation that mimics in vivo processes may be useful in the therapeutic use of nanomaterials in local environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Stabilization of Proteins and Noncovalent Protein Complexes during Electrospray Ionization by Amino Acid Additives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Lu, Haiyan; Chingin, Konstantin; Chen, Huanwen

    2015-07-21

    Ionization of proteins and noncovalent protein complexes with minimal disturbance to their native structure presents a great challenge for biological mass spectrometry (MS). In living organisms, the native structure of intracellular proteins is commonly stabilized by solute amino acids (AAs) accumulated in cells at very high concentrations. Inspired by nature, we hypothesized that AAs could also pose a stabilizing effect on the native structure of proteins and noncovalent protein complexes during ionization. To test this hypothesis, here we explored MS response for various protein complexes upon the addition of free AAs at mM concentrations into the electrospray ionization (ESI) solution. Thermal activation of ESI droplets in the MS inlet capillary was employed as a model destabilizing factor during ionization. Our results indicate that certain AAs, in particular proline (Pro), pose considerable positive effect on the stability of noncovalent protein complexes in ESI-MS without affecting the signal intensity of protein ions and original protein-ligand equilibrium, even when added at the 20 mM concentration. The data suggest that the degree of protein stabilization is primarily determined by the osmolytic and ampholytic characteristics of AA solutes. The highest stability and visibility of noncovalent protein complexes in ESI-MS are achieved using AA additives with neutral isoelectric point, moderate proton affinity, and unfavorable interaction with the native protein state. Overall, our results indicate that the simple addition of free amino acids into the working solution can notably improve the stability and accuracy of protein analysis by native ESI-MS.

  7. Comprehensive inventory of protein complexes in the Protein Data Bank from consistent classification of interfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Bordner, Andrew J.; Gorin, Andrey A.

    2008-05-12

    Here, protein-protein interactions are ubiquitous and essential for cellular processes. High-resolution X-ray crystallographic structures of protein complexes can elucidate the details of their function and provide a basis for many computational and experimental approaches. Here we demonstrate that existing annotations of protein complexes, including those provided by the Protein Data Bank (PDB) itself, contain a significant fraction of incorrect annotations. Results: We have developed a method for identifying protein complexes in the PDB X-ray structures by a four step procedure: (1) comprehensively collecting all protein-protein interfaces; (2) clustering similar protein-protein interfaces together; (3) estimating the probability that each cluster ismore » relevant based on a diverse set of properties; and (4) finally combining these scores for each entry in order to predict the complex structure. Unlike previous annotation methods, consistent prediction of complexes with identical or almost identical protein content is insured. The resulting clusters of biologically relevant interfaces provide a reliable catalog of evolutionary conserved protein-protein interactions.« less

  8. Predicting protein complex geometries with a neural network.

    PubMed

    Chae, Myong-Ho; Krull, Florian; Lorenzen, Stephan; Knapp, Ernst-Walter

    2010-03-01

    A major challenge of the protein docking problem is to define scoring functions that can distinguish near-native protein complex geometries from a large number of non-native geometries (decoys) generated with noncomplexed protein structures (unbound docking). In this study, we have constructed a neural network that employs the information from atom-pair distance distributions of a large number of decoys to predict protein complex geometries. We found that docking prediction can be significantly improved using two different types of polar hydrogen atoms. To train the neural network, 2000 near-native decoys of even distance distribution were used for each of the 185 considered protein complexes. The neural network normalizes the information from different protein complexes using an additional protein complex identity input neuron for each complex. The parameters of the neural network were determined such that they mimic a scoring funnel in the neighborhood of the native complex structure. The neural network approach avoids the reference state problem, which occurs in deriving knowledge-based energy functions for scoring. We show that a distance-dependent atom pair potential performs much better than a simple atom-pair contact potential. We have compared the performance of our scoring function with other empirical and knowledge-based scoring functions such as ZDOCK 3.0, ZRANK, ITScore-PP, EMPIRE, and RosettaDock. In spite of the simplicity of the method and its functional form, our neural network-based scoring function achieves a reasonable performance in rigid-body unbound docking of proteins. Proteins 2010. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Centralities in simplicial complexes. Applications to protein interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Ernesto; Ross, Grant J

    2018-02-07

    Complex networks can be used to represent complex systems which originate in the real world. Here we study a transformation of these complex networks into simplicial complexes, where cliques represent the simplices of the complex. We extend the concept of node centrality to that of simplicial centrality and study several mathematical properties of degree, closeness, betweenness, eigenvector, Katz, and subgraph centrality for simplicial complexes. We study the degree distributions of these centralities at the different levels. We also compare and describe the differences between the centralities at the different levels. Using these centralities we study a method for detecting essential proteins in PPI networks of cells and explain the varying abilities of the centrality measures at the different levels in identifying these essential proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of Native Protein Complexes and Protein Isoform Variation Using Size-fractionation-based Quantitative Proteomics*

    PubMed Central

    Kirkwood, Kathryn J.; Ahmad, Yasmeen; Larance, Mark; Lamond, Angus I.

    2013-01-01

    Proteins form a diverse array of complexes that mediate cellular function and regulation. A largely unexplored feature of such protein complexes is the selective participation of specific protein isoforms and/or post-translationally modified forms. In this study, we combined native size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) with high-throughput proteomic analysis to characterize soluble protein complexes isolated from human osteosarcoma (U2OS) cells. Using this approach, we have identified over 71,500 peptides and 1,600 phosphosites, corresponding to over 8,000 proteins, distributed across 40 SEC fractions. This represents >50% of the predicted U2OS cell proteome, identified with a mean peptide sequence coverage of 27% per protein. Three biological replicates were performed, allowing statistical evaluation of the data and demonstrating a high degree of reproducibility in the SEC fractionation procedure. Specific proteins were detected interacting with multiple independent complexes, as typified by the separation of distinct complexes for the MRFAP1-MORF4L1-MRGBP interaction network. The data also revealed protein isoforms and post-translational modifications that selectively associated with distinct subsets of protein complexes. Surprisingly, there was clear enrichment for specific Gene Ontology terms associated with differential size classes of protein complexes. This study demonstrates that combined SEC/MS analysis can be used for the system-wide annotation of protein complexes and to predict potential isoform-specific interactions. All of these SEC data on the native separation of protein complexes have been integrated within the Encyclopedia of Proteome Dynamics, an online, multidimensional data-sharing resource available to the community. PMID:24043423

  11. Characterization of native protein complexes and protein isoform variation using size-fractionation-based quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Kirkwood, Kathryn J; Ahmad, Yasmeen; Larance, Mark; Lamond, Angus I

    2013-12-01

    Proteins form a diverse array of complexes that mediate cellular function and regulation. A largely unexplored feature of such protein complexes is the selective participation of specific protein isoforms and/or post-translationally modified forms. In this study, we combined native size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) with high-throughput proteomic analysis to characterize soluble protein complexes isolated from human osteosarcoma (U2OS) cells. Using this approach, we have identified over 71,500 peptides and 1,600 phosphosites, corresponding to over 8,000 proteins, distributed across 40 SEC fractions. This represents >50% of the predicted U2OS cell proteome, identified with a mean peptide sequence coverage of 27% per protein. Three biological replicates were performed, allowing statistical evaluation of the data and demonstrating a high degree of reproducibility in the SEC fractionation procedure. Specific proteins were detected interacting with multiple independent complexes, as typified by the separation of distinct complexes for the MRFAP1-MORF4L1-MRGBP interaction network. The data also revealed protein isoforms and post-translational modifications that selectively associated with distinct subsets of protein complexes. Surprisingly, there was clear enrichment for specific Gene Ontology terms associated with differential size classes of protein complexes. This study demonstrates that combined SEC/MS analysis can be used for the system-wide annotation of protein complexes and to predict potential isoform-specific interactions. All of these SEC data on the native separation of protein complexes have been integrated within the Encyclopedia of Proteome Dynamics, an online, multidimensional data-sharing resource available to the community.

  12. Protein Complex Production from the Drug Discovery Standpoint.

    PubMed

    Moarefi, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Small molecule drug discovery critically depends on the availability of meaningful in vitro assays to guide medicinal chemistry programs that are aimed at optimizing drug potency and selectivity. As it becomes increasingly evident, most disease relevant drug targets do not act as a single protein. In the body, they are instead generally found in complex with protein cofactors that are highly relevant for their correct function and regulation. This review highlights selected examples of the increasing trend to use biologically relevant protein complexes for rational drug discovery to reduce costly late phase attritions due to lack of efficacy or toxicity.

  13. Discovering protein complexes in protein interaction networks via exploring the weak ties effect

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studying protein complexes is very important in biological processes since it helps reveal the structure-functionality relationships in biological networks and much attention has been paid to accurately predict protein complexes from the increasing amount of protein-protein interaction (PPI) data. Most of the available algorithms are based on the assumption that dense subgraphs correspond to complexes, failing to take into account the inherence organization within protein complex and the roles of edges. Thus, there is a critical need to investigate the possibility of discovering protein complexes using the topological information hidden in edges. Results To provide an investigation of the roles of edges in PPI networks, we show that the edges connecting less similar vertices in topology are more significant in maintaining the global connectivity, indicating the weak ties phenomenon in PPI networks. We further demonstrate that there is a negative relation between the weak tie strength and the topological similarity. By using the bridges, a reliable virtual network is constructed, in which each maximal clique corresponds to the core of a complex. By this notion, the detection of the protein complexes is transformed into a classic all-clique problem. A novel core-attachment based method is developed, which detects the cores and attachments, respectively. A comprehensive comparison among the existing algorithms and our algorithm has been made by comparing the predicted complexes against benchmark complexes. Conclusions We proved that the weak tie effect exists in the PPI network and demonstrated that the density is insufficient to characterize the topological structure of protein complexes. Furthermore, the experimental results on the yeast PPI network show that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms. The analysis of detected modules by the present algorithm suggests that most of these modules have well biological significance in

  14. Channelopathies from Mutations in the Cardiac Sodium Channel Protein Complex

    PubMed Central

    Adsit, Graham S.; Vaidyanathan, Ravi; Galler, Carla M.; Kyle, John W.; Makielski, Jonathan C.

    2013-01-01

    The cardiac sodium current underlies excitability in heart, and inherited abnormalities of the proteins regulating and conducting this current cause inherited arrhythmia syndromes. This review focuses on inherited mutations in non-pore forming proteins of sodium channel complexes that cause cardiac arrhythmia, and the deduced mechanisms by which they affect function and dysfunction of the cardiac sodium current. Defining the structure and function of these complexes and how they are regulated will contribute to understanding the possible roles for this complex in normal and abnormal physiology and homeostasis. PMID:23557754

  15. Resolubilization of Protein from Water-Insoluble Phlorotannin–Protein Complexes upon Acidification

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Marine phlorotannins (PhT) from Laminaria digitata might protect feed proteins from ruminal digestion by formation of insoluble non-covalent tannin–protein complexes at rumen pH (6–7). Formation and disintegration of PhT–protein complexes was studied with β-casein (random coil) and bovine serum albumin (BSA, globular) at various pH. PhT had similar binding affinity for β-casein and BSA as pentagalloyl glucose, as studied by fluorescence quenching. The affinity of PhT for both proteins was independent of pH (3.0, 6.0, and 8.0). In the presence of PhT, the pH range for precipitation of tannin–protein complexes widened to 0.5–1.5 pH units around the isoelectric point (pI) of the protein. Complete protein resolubilization from insoluble PhT–protein complexes was achieved at pH 7 and 2 for β-casein and BSA, respectively. It was demonstrated that PhT modulate the solubility of proteins at neutral pH and that resolubilization of PhT–protein complexes at pH deviating from pI is mainly governed by the charge state of the protein. PMID:29058916

  16. Impact of Detergents on Membrane Protein Complex Isolation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu-Chen; Bååth, Jenny Arnling; Bastle, Ryan M; Bhattacharjee, Sonali; Cantoria, Mary Jo; Dornan, Mark; Gamero-Estevez, Enrique; Ford, Lenzie; Halova, Lenka; Kernan, Jennifer; Kürten, Charlotte; Li, Siran; Martinez, Jerahme; Sachan, Nalani; Sarr, Medoune; Shan, Xiwei; Subramanian, Nandhitha; Rivera, Keith; Pappin, Darryl; Lin, Sue-Hwa

    2018-01-05

    Detergents play an essential role during the isolation of membrane protein complexes. Inappropriate use of detergents may affect the native fold of the membrane proteins, their binding to antibodies, or their interaction with partner proteins. Here we used cadherin-11 (Cad11) as an example to examine the impact of detergents on membrane protein complex isolation. We found that mAb 1A5 could immunoprecipitate Cad11 when membranes were solubilized by dodecyl maltoside (DDM) but not by octylglucoside, suggesting that octylglucoside interferes with Cad11-mAb 1A5 interaction. Furthermore, we compared the effects of Brij-35, Triton X-100, cholate, CHAPSO, Zwittergent 3-12, Deoxy BIG CHAP, and digitonin on Cad11 solubilization and immunoprecipitation. We found that all detergents except Brij-35 could solubilize Cad11 from the membrane. Upon immunoprecipitation, we found that β-catenin, a known cadherin-interacting protein, was present in Cad11 immune complex among the detergents tested except Brij-35. However, the association of p120 catenin with Cad11 varied depending on the detergents used. Using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) to determine the relative levels of proteins in Cad11 immune complexes, we found that DDM and Triton X-100 were more efficient than cholate in solubilization and immunoprecipitation of Cad11 and resulted in the identification of both canonical and new candidate Cad11-interacting proteins.

  17. A-Kinase Anchoring Proteins: From protein complexes to physiology and disease

    PubMed Central

    Carnegie, Graeme K.; Means, Christopher K.; Scott, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Protein scaffold complexes are a key mechanism by which a common signaling pathway can serve many different functions. Sequestering a signaling enzyme to a specific subcellular environment not only ensures that the enzyme is near its relevant targets, but also segregates this activity to prevent indiscriminate phosphorylation of other substrates. One family of diverse, well-studied scaffolding proteins are the A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). These anchoring proteins form multi-protein complexes that integrate cAMP signaling with other pathways and signaling events. In this review we focus on recent advances in the elucidation of AKAP function. PMID:19319965

  18. A-kinase anchoring proteins: from protein complexes to physiology and disease.

    PubMed

    Carnegie, Graeme K; Means, Christopher K; Scott, John D

    2009-04-01

    Protein scaffold complexes are a key mechanism by which a common signaling pathway can serve many different functions. Sequestering a signaling enzyme to a specific subcellular environment not only ensures that the enzyme is near its relevant targets, but also segregates this activity to prevent indiscriminate phosphorylation of other substrates. One family of diverse, well-studied scaffolding proteins are the A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). These anchoring proteins form multi-protein complexes that integrate cAMP signaling with other pathways and signaling events. In this review, we focus on recent advances in the elucidation of AKAP function.

  19. Multi-Dimensional Scaling based grouping of known complexes and intelligent protein complex detection.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Zia Ur; Idris, Adnan; Khan, Asifullah

    2018-06-01

    Protein-Protein Interactions (PPI) play a vital role in cellular processes and are formed because of thousands of interactions among proteins. Advancements in proteomics technologies have resulted in huge PPI datasets that need to be systematically analyzed. Protein complexes are the locally dense regions in PPI networks, which extend important role in metabolic pathways and gene regulation. In this work, a novel two-phase protein complex detection and grouping mechanism is proposed. In the first phase, topological and biological features are extracted for each complex, and prediction performance is investigated using Bagging based Ensemble classifier (PCD-BEns). Performance evaluation through cross validation shows improvement in comparison to CDIP, MCode, CFinder and PLSMC methods Second phase employs Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS) for the grouping of known complexes by exploring inter complex relations. It is experimentally observed that the combination of topological and biological features in the proposed approach has greatly enhanced prediction performance for protein complex detection, which may help to understand various biological processes, whereas application of MDS based exploration may assist in grouping potentially similar complexes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Protein complex prediction for large protein protein interaction networks with the Core&Peel method.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Marco; Baglioni, Miriam; Geraci, Filippo

    2016-11-08

    Biological networks play an increasingly important role in the exploration of functional modularity and cellular organization at a systemic level. Quite often the first tools used to analyze these networks are clustering algorithms. We concentrate here on the specific task of predicting protein complexes (PC) in large protein-protein interaction networks (PPIN). Currently, many state-of-the-art algorithms work well for networks of small or moderate size. However, their performance on much larger networks, which are becoming increasingly common in modern proteome-wise studies, needs to be re-assessed. We present a new fast algorithm for clustering large sparse networks: Core&Peel, which runs essentially in time and storage O(a(G)m+n) for a network G of n nodes and m arcs, where a(G) is the arboricity of G (which is roughly proportional to the maximum average degree of any induced subgraph in G). We evaluated Core&Peel on five PPI networks of large size and one of medium size from both yeast and homo sapiens, comparing its performance against those of ten state-of-the-art methods. We demonstrate that Core&Peel consistently outperforms the ten competitors in its ability to identify known protein complexes and in the functional coherence of its predictions. Our method is remarkably robust, being quite insensible to the injection of random interactions. Core&Peel is also empirically efficient attaining the second best running time over large networks among the tested algorithms. Our algorithm Core&Peel pushes forward the state-of the-art in PPIN clustering providing an algorithmic solution with polynomial running time that attains experimentally demonstrable good output quality and speed on challenging large real networks.

  1. Identifying Hierarchical and Overlapping Protein Complexes Based on Essential Protein-Protein Interactions and “Seed-Expanding” Method

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jun; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Many evidences have demonstrated that protein complexes are overlapping and hierarchically organized in PPI networks. Meanwhile, the large size of PPI network wants complex detection methods have low time complexity. Up to now, few methods can identify overlapping and hierarchical protein complexes in a PPI network quickly. In this paper, a novel method, called MCSE, is proposed based on λ-module and “seed-expanding.” First, it chooses seeds as essential PPIs or edges with high edge clustering values. Then, it identifies protein complexes by expanding each seed to a λ-module. MCSE is suitable for large PPI networks because of its low time complexity. MCSE can identify overlapping protein complexes naturally because a protein can be visited by different seeds. MCSE uses the parameter λ_th to control the range of seed expanding and can detect a hierarchical organization of protein complexes by tuning the value of λ_th. Experimental results of S. cerevisiae show that this hierarchical organization is similar to that of known complexes in MIPS database. The experimental results also show that MCSE outperforms other previous competing algorithms, such as CPM, CMC, Core-Attachment, Dpclus, HC-PIN, MCL, and NFC, in terms of the functional enrichment and matching with known protein complexes. PMID:25143945

  2. Calculations of the binding affinities of protein-protein complexes with the fast multipole method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bongkeun; Song, Jiming; Song, Xueyu

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, we used a coarse-grained model at the residue level to calculate the binding free energies of three protein-protein complexes. General formulations to calculate the electrostatic binding free energy and the van der Waals free energy are presented by solving linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equations using the boundary element method in combination with the fast multipole method. The residue level model with the fast multipole method allows us to efficiently investigate how the mutations on the active site of the protein-protein interface affect the changes in binding affinities of protein complexes. Good correlations between the calculated results and the experimental ones indicate that our model can capture the dominant contributions to the protein-protein interactions. At the same time, additional effects on protein binding due to atomic details are also discussed in the context of the limitations of such a coarse-grained model.

  3. Chimeric Protein Complexes in Hybrid Species Generate Novel Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Piatkowska, Elzbieta M.; Naseeb, Samina; Knight, David; Delneri, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Hybridization between species is an important mechanism for the origin of novel lineages and adaptation to new environments. Increased allelic variation and modification of the transcriptional network are the two recognized forces currently deemed to be responsible for the phenotypic properties seen in hybrids. However, since the majority of the biological functions in a cell are carried out by protein complexes, inter-specific protein assemblies therefore represent another important source of natural variation upon which evolutionary forces can act. Here we studied the composition of six protein complexes in two different Saccharomyces “sensu stricto” hybrids, to understand whether chimeric interactions can be freely formed in the cell in spite of species-specific co-evolutionary forces, and whether the different types of complexes cause a change in hybrid fitness. The protein assemblies were isolated from the hybrids via affinity chromatography and identified via mass spectrometry. We found evidence of spontaneous chimericity for four of the six protein assemblies tested and we showed that different types of complexes can cause a variety of phenotypes in selected environments. In the case of TRP2/TRP3 complex, the effect of such chimeric formation resulted in the fitness advantage of the hybrid in an environment lacking tryptophan, while only one type of parental combination of the MBF complex allowed the hybrid to grow under respiratory conditions. These phenotypes were dependent on both genetic and environmental backgrounds. This study provides empirical evidence that chimeric protein complexes can freely assemble in cells and reveals a new mechanism to generate phenotypic novelty and plasticity in hybrids to complement the genomic innovation resulting from gene duplication. The ability to exchange orthologous members has also important implications for the adaptation and subsequent genome evolution of the hybrids in terms of pattern of gene loss. PMID

  4. Polycomb group protein complexes exchange rapidly in living Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ficz, Gabriella; Heintzmann, Rainer; Arndt-Jovin, Donna J

    2005-09-01

    Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) microscopy was used to determine the kinetic properties of Polycomb group (PcG) proteins in whole living Drosophila organisms (embryos) and tissues (wing imaginal discs and salivary glands). PcG genes are essential genes in higher eukaryotes responsible for the maintenance of the spatially distinct repression of developmentally important regulators such as the homeotic genes. Their absence, as well as overexpression, causes transformations in the axial organization of the body. Although protein complexes have been isolated in vitro, little is known about their stability or exact mechanism of repression in vivo. We determined the translational diffusion constants of PcG proteins, dissociation constants and residence times for complexes in vivo at different developmental stages. In polytene nuclei, the rate constants suggest heterogeneity of the complexes. Computer simulations with new models for spatially distributed protein complexes were performed in systems showing both diffusion and binding equilibria, and the results compared with our experimental data. We were able to determine forward and reverse rate constants for complex formation. Complexes exchanged within a period of 1-10 minutes, more than an order of magnitude faster than the cell cycle time, ruling out models of repression in which access of transcription activators to the chromatin is limited and demonstrating that long-term repression primarily reflects mass-action chemical equilibria.

  5. Comprehensive inventory of protein complexes in the Protein Data Bank from consistent classification of interfaces.

    PubMed

    Bordner, Andrew J; Gorin, Andrey A

    2008-05-12

    Protein-protein interactions are ubiquitous and essential for all cellular processes. High-resolution X-ray crystallographic structures of protein complexes can reveal the details of their function and provide a basis for many computational and experimental approaches. Differentiation between biological and non-biological contacts and reconstruction of the intact complex is a challenging computational problem. A successful solution can provide additional insights into the fundamental principles of biological recognition and reduce errors in many algorithms and databases utilizing interaction information extracted from the Protein Data Bank (PDB). We have developed a method for identifying protein complexes in the PDB X-ray structures by a four step procedure: (1) comprehensively collecting all protein-protein interfaces; (2) clustering similar protein-protein interfaces together; (3) estimating the probability that each cluster is relevant based on a diverse set of properties; and (4) combining these scores for each PDB entry in order to predict the complex structure. The resulting clusters of biologically relevant interfaces provide a reliable catalog of evolutionary conserved protein-protein interactions. These interfaces, as well as the predicted protein complexes, are available from the Protein Interface Server (PInS) website (see Availability and requirements section). Our method demonstrates an almost two-fold reduction of the annotation error rate as evaluated on a large benchmark set of complexes validated from the literature. We also estimate relative contributions of each interface property to the accurate discrimination of biologically relevant interfaces and discuss possible directions for further improving the prediction method.

  6. Emergence of Complexity in Protein Functions and Metabolic Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andzej

    2009-01-01

    In modern organisms proteins perform a majority of cellular functions, such as chemical catalysis, energy transduction and transport of material across cell walls. Although great strides have been made towards understanding protein evolution, a meaningful extrapolation from contemporary proteins to their earliest ancestors is virtually impossible. In an alternative approach, the origin of water-soluble proteins was probed through the synthesis of very large libraries of random amino acid sequences and subsequently subjecting them to in vitro evolution. In combination with computer modeling and simulations, these experiments allow us to address a number of fundamental questions about the origins of proteins. Can functionality emerge from random sequences of proteins? How did the initial repertoire of functional proteins diversify to facilitate new functions? Did this diversification proceed primarily through drawing novel functionalities from random sequences or through evolution of already existing proto-enzymes? Did protein evolution start from a pool of proteins defined by a frozen accident and other collections of proteins could start a different evolutionary pathway? Although we do not have definitive answers to these questions, important clues have been uncovered. Considerable progress has been also achieved in understanding the origins of membrane proteins. We will address this issue in the example of ion channels - proteins that mediate transport of ions across cell walls. Remarkably, despite overall complexity of these proteins in contemporary cells, their structural motifs are quite simple, with -helices being most common. By combining results of experimental and computer simulation studies on synthetic models and simple, natural channels, I will show that, even though architectures of membrane proteins are not nearly as diverse as those of water-soluble proteins, they are sufficiently flexible to adapt readily to the functional demands arising during

  7. Re-visiting protein-centric two-tier classification of existing DNA-protein complexes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Precise DNA-protein interactions play most important and vital role in maintaining the normal physiological functioning of the cell, as it controls many high fidelity cellular processes. Detailed study of the nature of these interactions has paved the way for understanding the mechanisms behind the biological processes in which they are involved. Earlier in 2000, a systematic classification of DNA-protein complexes based on the structural analysis of the proteins was proposed at two tiers, namely groups and families. With the advancement in the number and resolution of structures of DNA-protein complexes deposited in the Protein Data Bank, it is important to revisit the existing classification. Results On the basis of the sequence analysis of DNA binding proteins, we have built upon the protein centric, two-tier classification of DNA-protein complexes by adding new members to existing families and making new families and groups. While classifying the new complexes, we also realised the emergence of new groups and families. The new group observed was where β-propeller was seen to interact with DNA. There were 34 SCOP folds which were observed to be present in the complexes of both old and new classifications, whereas 28 folds are present exclusively in the new complexes. Some new families noticed were NarL transcription factor, Z-α DNA binding proteins, Forkhead transcription factor, AP2 protein, Methyl CpG binding protein etc. Conclusions Our results suggest that with the increasing number of availability of DNA-protein complexes in Protein Data Bank, the number of families in the classification increased by approximately three fold. The folds present exclusively in newly classified complexes is suggestive of inclusion of proteins with new function in new classification, the most populated of which are the folds responsible for DNA damage repair. The proposed re-visited classification can be used to perform genome-wide surveys in the genomes of

  8. Re-visiting protein-centric two-tier classification of existing DNA-protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Sony; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2012-07-16

    Precise DNA-protein interactions play most important and vital role in maintaining the normal physiological functioning of the cell, as it controls many high fidelity cellular processes. Detailed study of the nature of these interactions has paved the way for understanding the mechanisms behind the biological processes in which they are involved. Earlier in 2000, a systematic classification of DNA-protein complexes based on the structural analysis of the proteins was proposed at two tiers, namely groups and families. With the advancement in the number and resolution of structures of DNA-protein complexes deposited in the Protein Data Bank, it is important to revisit the existing classification. On the basis of the sequence analysis of DNA binding proteins, we have built upon the protein centric, two-tier classification of DNA-protein complexes by adding new members to existing families and making new families and groups. While classifying the new complexes, we also realised the emergence of new groups and families. The new group observed was where β-propeller was seen to interact with DNA. There were 34 SCOP folds which were observed to be present in the complexes of both old and new classifications, whereas 28 folds are present exclusively in the new complexes. Some new families noticed were NarL transcription factor, Z-α DNA binding proteins, Forkhead transcription factor, AP2 protein, Methyl CpG binding protein etc. Our results suggest that with the increasing number of availability of DNA-protein complexes in Protein Data Bank, the number of families in the classification increased by approximately three fold. The folds present exclusively in newly classified complexes is suggestive of inclusion of proteins with new function in new classification, the most populated of which are the folds responsible for DNA damage repair. The proposed re-visited classification can be used to perform genome-wide surveys in the genomes of interest for the presence of DNA

  9. Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography for Bottom-Up Proteomics Analysis of Single Proteins and Protein Complexes.

    PubMed

    Rackiewicz, Michal; Große-Hovest, Ludger; Alpert, Andrew J; Zarei, Mostafa; Dengjel, Jörn

    2017-06-02

    Hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) is a robust standard analytical method to purify proteins while preserving their biological activity. It is widely used to study post-translational modifications of proteins and drug-protein interactions. In the current manuscript we employed HIC to separate proteins, followed by bottom-up LC-MS/MS experiments. We used this approach to fractionate antibody species followed by comprehensive peptide mapping as well as to study protein complexes in human cells. HIC-reversed-phase chromatography (RPC)-mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful alternative to fractionate proteins for bottom-up proteomics experiments making use of their distinct hydrophobic properties.

  10. RNA Replicon Delivery via Lipid-Complexed PRINT Protein Particles

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Luft, J. Christopher; Yi, Xianwen; Tian, Shaomin; Owens, Gary; Wang, Jin; Johnson, Ashley; Berglund, Peter; Smith, Jonathan; Napier, Mary E.; DeSimone, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    Herein we report the development of a non-viral lipid-complexed PRINT® (particle replication in non-wetting templates) protein particle system (LPP particle) for RNA replicon delivery with a view towards RNA replicon-based vaccination. Cylindrical bovine serum albumin (BSA) particles (diameter (d) 1 µm, height (h) 1 µm) loaded with RNA replicon and stabilized with a fully reversible disulfide cross-linker were fabricated using PRINT technology. Highly efficient delivery of the particles to Vero cells was achieved by complexing particles with a mixture of 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE) lipids. Our data suggest that: 1) this lipid-complexed protein particle is a promising system for delivery of RNA replicon-based vaccines, and 2) it is necessary to use a degradable cross-linker for successful delivery of RNA replicon via protein-based particles. PMID:23924216

  11. Integrating Mass Spectrometry of Intact Protein Complexes into Structural Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Hyung, Suk-Joon; Ruotolo, Brandon T.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Mass spectrometry analysis of intact protein complexes has emerged as an established technology for assessing the composition and connectivity within dynamic, heterogeneous multiprotein complexes at low concentrations and in the context of mixtures. As this technology continues to move forward, one of the main challenges is to integrate the information content of such intact protein complex measurements with other mass spectrometry approaches in structural biology. Methods such as H/D exchange, oxidative foot-printing, chemical cross-linking, affinity purification, and ion mobility separation add complementary information that allows access to every level of protein structure and organization. Here, we survey the structural information that can be retrieved by such experiments, demonstrate the applicability of integrative mass spectrometry approaches in structural proteomics, and look to the future to explore upcoming innovations in this rapidly-advancing area. PMID:22611037

  12. Predicting protein complexes from weighted protein-protein interaction graphs with a novel unsupervised methodology: Evolutionary enhanced Markov clustering.

    PubMed

    Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Pavlopoulou, Niki; Papasavvas, Christoforos; Likothanassis, Spiros; Dimitrakopoulos, Christos; Georgopoulos, Efstratios; Moschopoulos, Charalampos; Mavroudi, Seferina

    2015-03-01

    Proteins are considered to be the most important individual components of biological systems and they combine to form physical protein complexes which are responsible for certain molecular functions. Despite the large availability of protein-protein interaction (PPI) information, not much information is available about protein complexes. Experimental methods are limited in terms of time, efficiency, cost and performance constraints. Existing computational methods have provided encouraging preliminary results, but they phase certain disadvantages as they require parameter tuning, some of them cannot handle weighted PPI data and others do not allow a protein to participate in more than one protein complex. In the present paper, we propose a new fully unsupervised methodology for predicting protein complexes from weighted PPI graphs. The proposed methodology is called evolutionary enhanced Markov clustering (EE-MC) and it is a hybrid combination of an adaptive evolutionary algorithm and a state-of-the-art clustering algorithm named enhanced Markov clustering. EE-MC was compared with state-of-the-art methodologies when applied to datasets from the human and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae organisms. Using public available datasets, EE-MC outperformed existing methodologies (in some datasets the separation metric was increased by 10-20%). Moreover, when applied to new human datasets its performance was encouraging in the prediction of protein complexes which consist of proteins with high functional similarity. In specific, 5737 protein complexes were predicted and 72.58% of them are enriched for at least one gene ontology (GO) function term. EE-MC is by design able to overcome intrinsic limitations of existing methodologies such as their inability to handle weighted PPI networks, their constraint to assign every protein in exactly one cluster and the difficulties they face concerning the parameter tuning. This fact was experimentally validated and moreover, new

  13. Biclustering Protein Complex Interactions with a Biclique FindingAlgorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Chris; Zhang, Anne Ya; Holbrook, Stephen

    2006-12-01

    Biclustering has many applications in text mining, web clickstream mining, and bioinformatics. When data entries are binary, the tightest biclusters become bicliques. We propose a flexible and highly efficient algorithm to compute bicliques. We first generalize the Motzkin-Straus formalism for computing the maximal clique from L{sub 1} constraint to L{sub p} constraint, which enables us to provide a generalized Motzkin-Straus formalism for computing maximal-edge bicliques. By adjusting parameters, the algorithm can favor biclusters with more rows less columns, or vice verse, thus increasing the flexibility of the targeted biclusters. We then propose an algorithm to solve the generalized Motzkin-Straus optimizationmore » problem. The algorithm is provably convergent and has a computational complexity of O(|E|) where |E| is the number of edges. It relies on a matrix vector multiplication and runs efficiently on most current computer architectures. Using this algorithm, we bicluster the yeast protein complex interaction network. We find that biclustering protein complexes at the protein level does not clearly reflect the functional linkage among protein complexes in many cases, while biclustering at protein domain level can reveal many underlying linkages. We show several new biologically significant results.« less

  14. Heat capacity changes in carbohydrates and protein-carbohydrate complexes.

    PubMed

    Chavelas, Eneas A; García-Hernández, Enrique

    2009-05-13

    Carbohydrates are crucial for living cells, playing myriads of functional roles that range from being structural or energy-storage devices to molecular labels that, through non-covalent interaction with proteins, impart exquisite selectivity in processes such as molecular trafficking and cellular recognition. The molecular bases that govern the recognition between carbohydrates and proteins have not been fully understood yet. In the present study, we have obtained a surface-area-based model for the formation heat capacity of protein-carbohydrate complexes, which includes separate terms for the contributions of the two molecular types. The carbohydrate model, which was calibrated using carbohydrate dissolution data, indicates that the heat capacity contribution of a given group surface depends on its position in the saccharide molecule, a picture that is consistent with previous experimental and theoretical studies showing that the high abundance of hydroxy groups in carbohydrates yields particular solvation properties. This model was used to estimate the carbohydrate's contribution in the formation of a protein-carbohydrate complex, which in turn was used to obtain the heat capacity change associated with the protein's binding site. The model is able to account for protein-carbohydrate complexes that cannot be explained using a previous model that only considered the overall contribution of polar and apolar groups, while allowing a more detailed dissection of the elementary contributions that give rise to the formation heat capacity effects of these adducts.

  15. The octamer-binding proteins form multi-protein--DNA complexes with the HSV alpha TIF regulatory protein.

    PubMed Central

    Kristie, T M; LeBowitz, J H; Sharp, P A

    1989-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus transactivator, alpha TIF, stimulates transcription of the alpha/immediate early genes via a cis-acting site containing an octamer element and a conserved flanking sequence. The alpha TIF protein, produced in a baculovirus expression system, nucleates the formation of at least two DNA--protein complexes on this regulatory element. Both of these complexes contain the ubiquitous Oct-1 protein, whose POU domain alone is sufficient to allow assembly of the alpha TIF-dependent complexes. A second member of the POU domain family, the lymphoid specific Oct-2 protein, can also be assembled into similar complexes at high concentrations of alpha TIF protein. These complexes contain at least two cellular proteins in addition to Oct-1. One of these proteins is present in both insect and HeLa cells and probably recognizes sequences in the cis element. The second cellular protein, only present in HeLa cells, probably binds by protein-protein interactions. Images PMID:2556266

  16. Exocyst Complex Protein Expression in the Human Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, I.M.; Ackerman, W.E.; Vandre, D.D.; Robinson, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Protein production and secretion are essential to syncytiotrophoblast function and are associated with cytotrophoblast cell fusion and differentiation. Syncytiotrophoblast hormone secretion is a crucial determinant of maternal-fetal health, and can be misregulated in pathological pregnancies. Although, polarized secretion is a key component of placental function, the mechanisms underlying this process are poorly understood. Objective While the octameric exocyst complex is classically regarded as a master regulator of secretion in various mammalian systems, its expression in the placenta remained unexplored. We hypothesized that the syncytiotrophoblast would express all exocyst complex components and effector proteins requisite for vesicle-mediated secretion more abundantly than cytotrophoblasts in tissue specimens. Methods A two-tiered immunobiological approach was utilized to characterize exocyst and ancillary proteins in normal, term human placentas. Exocyst protein expression and localization was documented in tissue homogenates via immunoblotting and immunofluorescence labeling of placental sections. Results The eight exocyst proteins, EXOC1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8, were found in the human placenta. In addition, RAB11, an important exocyst complex modulator, was also expressed. Exocyst and Rab protein expression appeared to be regulated during trophoblast differentiation, as the syncytiotrophoblast expressed these proteins with little, if any, expression in cytotrophoblast cells. Additionally, exocyst proteins were localized at or near the syncytiotrophoblast apical membrane, the major site of placental secretion Discussion/Conclusion Our findings highlight exocyst protein expression as novel indicators of trophoblast differentiation. The exocyst’s regulated localization within the syncytiotrophoblast in conjunction with its well known functions suggests a possible role in placental polarized secretion PMID:24856041

  17. Discovering amino acid patterns on binding sites in protein complexes

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Huang-Cheng; Ong, Ping-Lin; Lin, Jung-Chang; Huang, Jen-Peng

    2011-01-01

    Discovering amino acid (AA) patterns on protein binding sites has recently become popular. We propose a method to discover the association relationship among AAs on binding sites. Such knowledge of binding sites is very helpful in predicting protein-protein interactions. In this paper, we focus on protein complexes which have protein-protein recognition. The association rule mining technique is used to discover geographically adjacent amino acids on a binding site of a protein complex. When mining, instead of treating all AAs of binding sites as a transaction, we geographically partition AAs of binding sites in a protein complex. AAs in a partition are treated as a transaction. For the partition process, AAs on a binding site are projected from three-dimensional to two-dimensional. And then, assisted with a circular grid, AAs on the binding site are placed into grid cells. A circular grid has ten rings: a central ring, the second ring with 6 sectors, the third ring with 12 sectors, and later rings are added to four sectors in order. As for the radius of each ring, we examined the complexes and found that 10Å is a suitable range, which can be set by the user. After placing these recognition complexes on the circular grid, we obtain mining records (i.e. transactions) from each sector. A sector is regarded as a record. Finally, we use the association rule to mine these records for frequent AA patterns. If the support of an AA pattern is larger than the predetermined minimum support (i.e. threshold), it is called a frequent pattern. With these discovered patterns, we offer the biologists a novel point of view, which will improve the prediction accuracy of protein-protein recognition. In our experiments, we produced the AA patterns by data mining. As a result, we found that arginine (arg) most frequently appears on the binding sites of two proteins in the recognition protein complexes, while cysteine (cys) appears the fewest. In addition, if we discriminate the shape

  18. Filtering Gene Ontology semantic similarity for identifying protein complexes in large protein interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Xie, Dong; Lin, Hongfei; Yang, Zhihao; Zhang, Yijia

    2012-06-21

    Many biological processes recognize in particular the importance of protein complexes, and various computational approaches have been developed to identify complexes from protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. However, high false-positive rate of PPIs leads to challenging identification. A protein semantic similarity measure is proposed in this study, based on the ontology structure of Gene Ontology (GO) terms and GO annotations to estimate the reliability of interactions in PPI networks. Interaction pairs with low GO semantic similarity are removed from the network as unreliable interactions. Then, a cluster-expanding algorithm is used to detect complexes with core-attachment structure on filtered network. Our method is applied to three different yeast PPI networks. The effectiveness of our method is examined on two benchmark complex datasets. Experimental results show that our method performed better than other state-of-the-art approaches in most evaluation metrics. The method detects protein complexes from large scale PPI networks by filtering GO semantic similarity. Removing interactions with low GO similarity significantly improves the performance of complex identification. The expanding strategy is also effective to identify attachment proteins of complexes.

  19. Nuclear traffic of influenza virus proteins and ribonucleoprotein complexes.

    PubMed

    Boulo, Sébastien; Akarsu, Hatice; Ruigrok, Rob W H; Baudin, Florence

    2007-03-01

    Influenza virus is a negative strand RNA virus and is one of the rare RNA viruses to replicate in the nucleus. The viral RNA is associated with 4 viral proteins to form ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs). After cell entry the RNPs are dissociated from the viral matrix protein in the low pH of the endosome and are actively imported into the cell nucleus. After translation of viral mRNAs, the proteins necessary for the assembly of new RNPs (the nucleoprotein and the three subunits of the polymerase complex) are also imported into the nucleus. Apart from these four proteins, part of the newly made matrix protein is also imported and the nuclear export protein (NEP) enters the nucleus probably through diffusion. Finally, NS1 also enters the nucleus in order to regulate a number of nuclear processes. The nuclear localization signals on all these viral proteins and their interaction with the cellular transport system are discussed. In the nucleus, the matrix protein binds to the newly assembled RNPs and NEP then binds to the matrix protein. NEP contains the nuclear export signal necessary for transport of the RNPs to the cytoplasm, necessary for the budding of new virus particles. There appears to be a intricate ballet in exposing and hiding nuclear transport signals which leads to a unidirectional transport of the RNPs to the nucleus at the start of the infection process and an opposite unidirectional export of RNPs at the end of the infection.

  20. Protein corona – from molecular adsorption to physiological complexity

    PubMed Central

    Docter, Dominic; Maskos, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Summary In biological environments, nanoparticles are enshrouded by a layer of biomolecules, predominantly proteins, mediating its subsequent interactions with cells. Detecting this protein corona, understanding its formation with regards to nanoparticle (NP) and protein properties, and elucidating its biological implications were central aims of bio-related nano-research throughout the past years. Here, we discuss the mechanistic parameters that are involved in the protein corona formation and the consequences of this corona formation for both, the particle, and the protein. We review consequences of corona formation for colloidal stability and discuss the role of functional groups and NP surface functionalities in shaping NP–protein interactions. We also elaborate the recent advances demonstrating the strong involvement of Coulomb-type interactions between NPs and charged patches on the protein surface. Moreover, we discuss novel aspects related to the complexity of the protein corona forming under physiological conditions in full serum. Specifically, we address the relation between particle size and corona composition and the latest findings that help to shed light on temporal evolution of the full serum corona for the first time. Finally, we discuss the most recent advances regarding the molecular-scale mechanistic role of the protein corona in cellular uptake of NPs. PMID:25977856

  1. Protein corona - from molecular adsorption to physiological complexity.

    PubMed

    Treuel, Lennart; Docter, Dominic; Maskos, Michael; Stauber, Roland H

    2015-01-01

    In biological environments, nanoparticles are enshrouded by a layer of biomolecules, predominantly proteins, mediating its subsequent interactions with cells. Detecting this protein corona, understanding its formation with regards to nanoparticle (NP) and protein properties, and elucidating its biological implications were central aims of bio-related nano-research throughout the past years. Here, we discuss the mechanistic parameters that are involved in the protein corona formation and the consequences of this corona formation for both, the particle, and the protein. We review consequences of corona formation for colloidal stability and discuss the role of functional groups and NP surface functionalities in shaping NP-protein interactions. We also elaborate the recent advances demonstrating the strong involvement of Coulomb-type interactions between NPs and charged patches on the protein surface. Moreover, we discuss novel aspects related to the complexity of the protein corona forming under physiological conditions in full serum. Specifically, we address the relation between particle size and corona composition and the latest findings that help to shed light on temporal evolution of the full serum corona for the first time. Finally, we discuss the most recent advances regarding the molecular-scale mechanistic role of the protein corona in cellular uptake of NPs.

  2. Cardiac mitochondrial matrix and respiratory complex protein phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Covian, Raul

    2012-01-01

    It has become appreciated over the last several years that protein phosphorylation within the cardiac mitochondrial matrix and respiratory complexes is extensive. Given the importance of oxidative phosphorylation and the balance of energy metabolism in the heart, the potential regulatory effect of these classical signaling events on mitochondrial function is of interest. However, the functional impact of protein phosphorylation and the kinase/phosphatase system responsible for it are relatively unknown. Exceptions include the well-characterized pyruvate dehydrogenase and branched chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase regulatory system. The first task of this review is to update the current status of protein phosphorylation detection primarily in the matrix and evaluate evidence linking these events with enzymatic function or protein processing. To manage the scope of this effort, we have focused on the pathways involved in energy metabolism. The high sensitivity of modern methods of detecting protein phosphorylation and the low specificity of many kinases suggests that detection of protein phosphorylation sites without information on the mole fraction of phosphorylation is difficult to interpret, especially in metabolic enzymes, and is likely irrelevant to function. However, several systems including protein translocation, adenine nucleotide translocase, cytochrome c, and complex IV protein phosphorylation have been well correlated with enzymatic function along with the classical dehydrogenase systems. The second task is to review the current understanding of the kinase/phosphatase system within the matrix. Though it is clear that protein phosphorylation occurs within the matrix, based on 32P incorporation and quantitative mass spectrometry measures, the kinase/phosphatase system responsible for this process is ill-defined. An argument is presented that remnants of the much more labile bacterial protein phosphoryl transfer system may be present in the matrix and that the

  3. Analysis of Proteins, Protein Complexes, and Organellar Proteomes Using Sheathless Capillary Zone Electrophoresis - Native Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, Arseniy M.; Viner, Rosa; Santos, Marcia R.; Horn, David M.; Bern, Marshall; Karger, Barry L.; Ivanov, Alexander R.

    2017-12-01

    Native mass spectrometry (MS) is a rapidly advancing field in the analysis of proteins, protein complexes, and macromolecular species of various types. The majority of native MS experiments reported to-date has been conducted using direct infusion of purified analytes into a mass spectrometer. In this study, capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was coupled online to Orbitrap mass spectrometers using a commercial sheathless interface to enable high-performance separation, identification, and structural characterization of limited amounts of purified proteins and protein complexes, the latter with preserved non-covalent associations under native conditions. The performance of both bare-fused silica and polyacrylamide-coated capillaries was assessed using mixtures of protein standards known to form non-covalent protein-protein and protein-ligand complexes. High-efficiency separation of native complexes is demonstrated using both capillary types, while the polyacrylamide neutral-coated capillary showed better reproducibility and higher efficiency for more complex samples. The platform was then evaluated for the determination of monoclonal antibody aggregation and for analysis of proteomes of limited complexity using a ribosomal isolate from E. coli. Native CZE-MS, using accurate single stage and tandem-MS measurements, enabled identification of proteoforms and non-covalent complexes at femtomole levels. This study demonstrates that native CZE-MS can serve as an orthogonal and complementary technique to conventional native MS methodologies with the advantages of low sample consumption, minimal sample processing and losses, and high throughput and sensitivity. This study presents a novel platform for analysis of ribosomes and other macromolecular complexes and organelles, with the potential for discovery of novel structural features defining cellular phenotypes (e.g., specialized ribosomes). [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Immunoprecipitation and Characterization of Membrane Protein Complexes from Yeast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parra-Belky, Karlett; McCulloch, Kathryn; Wick, Nicole; Shircliff, Rebecca; Croft, Nicolas; Margalef, Katrina; Brown, Jamie; Crabill, Todd; Jankord, Ryan; Waldo, Eric

    2005-01-01

    In this undergraduate biochemistry laboratory experiment, the vacuolar ATPase protein complex is purified from yeast cell extracts by doing immunoprecipitations under nondenaturing conditions. Immunoprecipitations are performed using monoclonal antibodies to facilitate data interpretation, and subunits are separated on the basis of their molecular…

  5. Protein import and the origin of red complex plastids.

    PubMed

    Gould, Sven B; Maier, Uwe-G; Martin, William F

    2015-06-15

    The number and nature of endosymbioses involving red algal endosymbionts are debated. Gene phylogenies have become the most popular tool to untangle this issue, but they deliver conflicting results. As gene and lineage sampling has increased, so have both the number of conflicting trees and the number of suggestions in the literature for multiple tertiary, and even quaternary, symbioses that might reconcile the tree conflicts. Independent lines of evidence that can address the issue are needed. Here we summarize the mechanism and machinery of protein import into complex red plastids. The process involves protein translocation machinery, known as SELMA, that arose once in evolution, that facilitates protein import across the second outermost of the four plastid membranes, and that is always targeted specifically to that membrane, regardless of where it is encoded today. It is widely accepted that the unity of protein import across the two membranes of primary plastids is strong evidence for their single cyanobacterial origin. Similarly, the unity of SELMA-dependent protein import across the second outermost plastid membrane constitutes strong evidence for the existence of a single red secondary endosymbiotic event at the common origin of all red complex plastids. We furthermore propose that the two outer membranes of red complex plastids are derived from host endoplasmic reticulum in the initial red secondary endosymbiotic event. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A high-throughput immobilized bead screen for stable proteins and multi-protein complexes

    PubMed Central

    Lockard, Meghan A.; Listwan, Pawel; Pedelacq, Jean-Denis; Cabantous, Stéphanie; Nguyen, Hau B.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Waldo, Geoffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    We describe an in vitro colony screen to identify Escherichia coli expressing soluble proteins and stable, assembled multiprotein complexes. Proteins with an N-terminal 6His tag and C-terminal green fluorescent protein (GFP) S11 tag are fluorescently labeled in cells by complementation with a coexpressed GFP 1–10 fragment. After partial colony lysis, the fluorescent soluble proteins or complexes diffuse through a supporting filtration membrane and are captured on Talon® resin metal affinity beads immobilized in agarose. Images of the fluorescent colonies convey total expression and the level of fluorescence bound to the beads indicates how much protein is soluble. Both pieces of information can be used together when selecting clones. After the assay, colonies can be picked and propagated, eliminating the need to make replica plates. We used the method to screen a DNA fragment library of the human protein p85 and preferentially obtained clones expressing the full-length ‘breakpoint cluster region-homology' and NSH2 domains. The assay also distinguished clones expressing stable multi-protein complexes from those that are unstable due to missing subunits. Clones expressing stable, intact heterotrimeric E.coli YheNML complexes were readily identified in libraries dominated by complexes of YheML missing the N subunit. PMID:21642284

  7. Folding Behaviors of Protein (Lysozyme) Confined in Polyelectrolyte Complex Micelle.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fu-Gen; Jiang, Yao-Wen; Chen, Zhan; Yu, Zhi-Wu

    2016-04-19

    The folding/unfolding behavior of proteins (enzymes) in confined space is important for their properties and functions, but such a behavior remains largely unexplored. In this article, we reported our finding that lysozyme and a double hydrophilic block copolymer, methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)5K-block-poly(l-aspartic acid sodium salt)10 (mPEG(5K)-b-PLD10), can form a polyelectrolyte complex micelle with a particle size of ∼30 nm, as verified by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The unfolding and refolding behaviors of lysozyme molecules in the presence of the copolymer were studied by microcalorimetry and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Upon complex formation with mPEG(5K)-b-PLD10, lysozyme changed from its initial native state to a new partially unfolded state. Compared with its native state, this copolymer-complexed new folding state of lysozyme has different secondary and tertiary structures, a decreased thermostability, and significantly altered unfolding/refolding behaviors. It was found that the native lysozyme exhibited reversible unfolding and refolding upon heating and subsequent cooling, while lysozyme in the new folding state (complexed with the oppositely charged PLD segments of the polymer) could unfold upon heating but could not refold upon subsequent cooling. By employing the heating-cooling-reheating procedure, the prevention of complex formation between lysozyme and polymer due to the salt screening effect was observed, and the resulting uncomplexed lysozyme regained its proper unfolding and refolding abilities upon heating and subsequent cooling. Besides, we also pointed out the important role the length of the PLD segment played during the formation of micelles and the monodispersity of the formed micelles. Furthermore, the lysozyme-mPEG(5K)-b-PLD10 mixtures prepared in this work were all transparent, without the formation of large aggregates or precipitates in solution as frequently observed in other protein

  8. Sample preparation for SFM imaging of DNA, proteins, and DNA-protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Ristic, Dejan; Sanchez, Humberto; Wyman, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Direct imaging is invaluable for understanding the mechanism of complex genome transactions where proteins work together to organize, transcribe, replicate, and repair DNA. Scanning (or atomic) force microscopy is an ideal tool for this, providing 3D information on molecular structure at nanometer resolution from defined components. This is a convenient and practical addition to in vitro studies as readily obtainable amounts of purified proteins and DNA are required. The images reveal structural details on the size and location of DNA-bound proteins as well as protein-induced arrangement of the DNA, which are directly correlated in the same complexes. In addition, even from static images, the different forms observed and their relative distributions can be used to deduce the variety and stability of different complexes that are necessarily involved in dynamic processes. Recently available instruments that combine fluorescence with topographic imaging allow the identification of specific molecular components in complex assemblies, which broadens the applications and increases the information obtained from direct imaging of molecular complexes. We describe here basic methods for preparing samples of proteins, DNA, and complexes of the two for topographic imaging and quantitative analysis. We also describe special considerations for combined fluorescence and topographic imaging of molecular complexes.

  9. Predicting overlapping protein complexes from weighted protein interaction graphs by gradually expanding dense neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Dimitrakopoulos, Christos; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Pegkas, Andreas; Likothanassis, Spiros; Mavroudi, Seferina

    2016-07-01

    Proteins are vital biological molecules driving many fundamental cellular processes. They rarely act alone, but form interacting groups called protein complexes. The study of protein complexes is a key goal in systems biology. Recently, large protein-protein interaction (PPI) datasets have been published and a plethora of computational methods that provide new ideas for the prediction of protein complexes have been implemented. However, most of the methods suffer from two major limitations: First, they do not account for proteins participating in multiple functions and second, they are unable to handle weighted PPI graphs. Moreover, the problem remains open as existing algorithms and tools are insufficient in terms of predictive metrics. In the present paper, we propose gradually expanding neighborhoods with adjustment (GENA), a new algorithm that gradually expands neighborhoods in a graph starting from highly informative "seed" nodes. GENA considers proteins as multifunctional molecules allowing them to participate in more than one protein complex. In addition, GENA accepts weighted PPI graphs by using a weighted evaluation function for each cluster. In experiments with datasets from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human, GENA outperformed Markov clustering, restricted neighborhood search and clustering with overlapping neighborhood expansion, three state-of-the-art methods for computationally predicting protein complexes. Seven PPI networks and seven evaluation datasets were used in total. GENA outperformed existing methods in 16 out of 18 experiments achieving an average improvement of 5.5% when the maximum matching ratio metric was used. Our method was able to discover functionally homogeneous protein clusters and uncover important network modules in a Parkinson expression dataset. When used on the human networks, around 47% of the detected clusters were enriched in gene ontology (GO) terms with depth higher than five in the GO hierarchy. In the present manuscript

  10. Extreme disorder in an ultrahigh-affinity protein complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgia, Alessandro; Borgia, Madeleine B.; Bugge, Katrine; Kissling, Vera M.; Heidarsson, Pétur O.; Fernandes, Catarina B.; Sottini, Andrea; Soranno, Andrea; Buholzer, Karin J.; Nettels, Daniel; Kragelund, Birthe B.; Best, Robert B.; Schuler, Benjamin

    2018-03-01

    Molecular communication in biology is mediated by protein interactions. According to the current paradigm, the specificity and affinity required for these interactions are encoded in the precise complementarity of binding interfaces. Even proteins that are disordered under physiological conditions or that contain large unstructured regions commonly interact with well-structured binding sites on other biomolecules. Here we demonstrate the existence of an unexpected interaction mechanism: the two intrinsically disordered human proteins histone H1 and its nuclear chaperone prothymosin-α associate in a complex with picomolar affinity, but fully retain their structural disorder, long-range flexibility and highly dynamic character. On the basis of closely integrated experiments and molecular simulations, we show that the interaction can be explained by the large opposite net charge of the two proteins, without requiring defined binding sites or interactions between specific individual residues. Proteome-wide sequence analysis suggests that this interaction mechanism may be abundant in eukaryotes.

  11. Modeling of protein binary complexes using structural mass spectrometry data

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, J.K. Amisha; Chance, Mark R.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we describe a general approach to modeling the structure of binary protein complexes using structural mass spectrometry data combined with molecular docking. In the first step, hydroxyl radical mediated oxidative protein footprinting is used to identify residues that experience conformational reorganization due to binding or participate in the binding interface. In the second step, a three-dimensional atomic structure of the complex is derived by computational modeling. Homology modeling approaches are used to define the structures of the individual proteins if footprinting detects significant conformational reorganization as a function of complex formation. A three-dimensional model of the complex is constructed from these binary partners using the ClusPro program, which is composed of docking, energy filtering, and clustering steps. Footprinting data are used to incorporate constraints—positive and/or negative—in the docking step and are also used to decide the type of energy filter—electrostatics or desolvation—in the successive energy-filtering step. By using this approach, we examine the structure of a number of binary complexes of monomeric actin and compare the results to crystallographic data. Based on docking alone, a number of competing models with widely varying structures are observed, one of which is likely to agree with crystallographic data. When the docking steps are guided by footprinting data, accurate models emerge as top scoring. We demonstrate this method with the actin/gelsolin segment-1 complex. We also provide a structural model for the actin/cofilin complex using this approach which does not have a crystal or NMR structure. PMID:18042684

  12. Modeling Structure and Dynamics of Protein Complexes with SAXS Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Schneidman-Duhovny, Dina; Hammel, Michal

    2018-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is an increasingly common and useful technique for structural characterization of molecules in solution. A SAXS experiment determines the scattering intensity of a molecule as a function of spatial frequency, termed SAXS profile. SAXS profiles can be utilized in a variety of molecular modeling applications, such as comparing solution and crystal structures, structural characterization of flexible proteins, assembly of multi-protein complexes, and modeling of missing regions in the high-resolution structure. Here, we describe protocols for modeling atomic structures based on SAXS profiles. The first protocol is for comparing solution and crystal structures including modeling of missing regions and determination of the oligomeric state. The second protocol performs multi-state modeling by finding a set of conformations and their weights that fit the SAXS profile starting from a single-input structure. The third protocol is for protein-protein docking based on the SAXS profile of the complex. We describe the underlying software, followed by demonstrating their application on interleukin 33 (IL33) with its primary receptor ST2 and DNA ligase IV-XRCC4 complex. PMID:29605933

  13. Molecular Signatures of Membrane Protein Complexes Underlying Muscular Dystrophy*

    PubMed Central

    Turk, Rolf; Hsiao, Jordy J.; Smits, Melinda M.; Ng, Brandon H.; Pospisil, Tyler C.; Jones, Kayla S.; Campbell, Kevin P.; Wright, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in genes encoding components of the sarcolemmal dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) are responsible for a large number of muscular dystrophies. As such, molecular dissection of the DGC is expected to both reveal pathological mechanisms, and provides a biological framework for validating new DGC components. Establishment of the molecular composition of plasma-membrane protein complexes has been hampered by a lack of suitable biochemical approaches. Here we present an analytical workflow based upon the principles of protein correlation profiling that has enabled us to model the molecular composition of the DGC in mouse skeletal muscle. We also report our analysis of protein complexes in mice harboring mutations in DGC components. Bioinformatic analyses suggested that cell-adhesion pathways were under the transcriptional control of NFκB in DGC mutant mice, which is a finding that is supported by previous studies that showed NFκB-regulated pathways underlie the pathophysiology of DGC-related muscular dystrophies. Moreover, the bioinformatic analyses suggested that inflammatory and compensatory mechanisms were activated in skeletal muscle of DGC mutant mice. Additionally, this proteomic study provides a molecular framework to refine our understanding of the DGC, identification of protein biomarkers of neuromuscular disease, and pharmacological interrogation of the DGC in adult skeletal muscle https://www.mda.org/disease/congenital-muscular-dystrophy/research. PMID:27099343

  14. A Bacillus megaterium System for the Production of Recombinant Proteins and Protein Complexes.

    PubMed

    Biedendieck, Rebekka

    2016-01-01

    For many years the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus megaterium has been used for the production and secretion of recombinant proteins. For this purpose it was systematically optimized. Plasmids with different inducible promoter systems, with different compatible origins, with small tags for protein purification and with various specific signals for protein secretion were combined with genetically improved host strains. Finally, the development of appropriate cultivation conditions for the production strains established this organism as a bacterial cell factory even for large proteins. Along with the overproduction of individual proteins the organism is now also used for the simultaneous coproduction of up to 14 recombinant proteins, multiple subsequently interacting or forming protein complexes. Some of these recombinant strains are successfully used for bioconversion or the biosynthesis of valuable components including vitamins. The titers in the g per liter scale for the intra- and extracellular recombinant protein production prove the high potential of B. megaterium for industrial applications. It is currently further enhanced for the production of recombinant proteins and multi-subunit protein complexes using directed genetic engineering approaches based on transcriptome, proteome, metabolome and fluxome data.

  15. Action of multi-enzyme complex on protein extraction to obtain a protein concentrate from okara.

    PubMed

    de Figueiredo, Vitória Ribeiro Garcia; Yamashita, Fábio; Vanzela, André Luis Laforga; Ida, Elza Iouko; Kurozawa, Louise Emy

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction of protein by applying a multi-enzymatic pretreatment to okara, a byproduct from soymilk processing. The multi-enzyme complex Viscozyme, containing a variety of carbohydrases, was used to hydrolyze the okara cell walls and facilitate extraction of proteins. Enzyme-assisted extraction was carried out under different temperatures (37-53 °C), enzyme concentrations (1.5-4%) and pH values (5.5-6.5) according to a central composite rotatable design. After extraction, the protein was concentrated by isoelectric precipitation. The optimal conditions for maximum protein content and recovery in protein concentrate were 53 °C, pH 6.2 and 4% of enzyme concentration. Under these conditions, protein content of 56% (dry weight basis) and a recovery of 28% were obtained, representing an increase of 17 and 86%, respectively, compared to the sample with no enzymatic pretreatment. The multi-enzyme complex Viscozyme hydrolyzed the structural cell wall polysaccharides, improving extraction and obtaining protein concentrate from the okara. An electrophoretic profile of the protein concentrate showed two distinct bands, corresponding to the acidic and basic subunits of the protein glycinin. There were no limiting amino acids in the protein concentrate, which had a greater content of arginine.

  16. Characterization of Mediator Complex and its Associated Proteins from Rice.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Subhasis; Thakur, Jitendra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The Mediator complex is a multi-protein complex that acts as a molecular bridge conveying transcriptional messages from the cis element-bound transcription factor to the RNA Polymerase II machinery. It is found in all eukaryotes including members of the plant kingdom. Increasing number of reports from plants regarding different Mediator subunits involved in a multitude of processes spanning from plant development to environmental interactions have firmly established it as a central hub of plant regulatory networks. Routine isolation of Mediator complex in a particular species is a necessity because of many reasons. First, composition of the Mediator complex varies from species to species. Second, the composition of the Mediator complex in a particular species is not static under all developmental and environmental conditions. Besides this, at times, Mediator complex is used in in vitro transcription systems. Rice, a staple food crop of the world, is used as a model monocot crop. Realizing the need of a reliable protocol for the isolation of Mediator complex from plants, we describe here the isolation of Mediator complex from rice.

  17. A plant virus movement protein forms ringlike complexes with the major nucleolar protein, fibrillarin, in vitro.

    PubMed

    Canetta, Elisabetta; Kim, Sang Hyon; Kalinina, Natalia O; Shaw, Jane; Adya, Ashok K; Gillespie, Trudi; Brown, John W S; Taliansky, Michael

    2008-02-29

    Fibrillarin, one of the major proteins of the nucleolus, has methyltransferase activity directing 2'-O-ribose methylation of rRNA and snRNAs and is required for rRNA processing. The ability of the plant umbravirus, groundnut rosette virus, to move long distances through the phloem, the specialized plant vascular system, has been shown to strictly depend on the interaction of one of its proteins, the ORF3 protein (protein encoded by open reading frame 3), with fibrillarin. This interaction is essential for several stages in the groundnut rosette virus life cycle such as nucleolar import of the ORF3 protein via Cajal bodies, relocalization of some fibrillarin from the nucleolus to cytoplasm, and assembly of cytoplasmic umbraviral ribonucleoprotein particles that are themselves required for the long-distance spread of the virus and systemic infection. Here, using atomic force microscopy, we determine the architecture of these complexes as single-layered ringlike structures with a diameter of 18-22 nm and a height of 2.0+/-0.4 nm, which consist of several (n=6-8) distinct protein granules. We also estimate the molar ratio of fibrillarin to ORF3 protein in the complexes as approximately 1:1. Based on these data, we propose a model of the structural organization of fibrillarin-ORF3 protein complexes and discuss potential mechanistic and functional implications that may also apply to other viruses.

  18. Chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay using ProteinA-bacterial magnetite complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Tadashi; Sato, Rika; Kamiya, Shinji; Tanaka, Tsuyosi; Takeyama, Haruko

    1999-04-01

    Bacterial magnetic particles (BMPs) which have ProteinA expressed on their surface were constructed using magA which is a key gene in BMP biosynthesis in the magnetic bacterium Magnetospirillum sp. AMB-1. Homogenous chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay using antibody bound ProteinA-BMP complexes was developed for detection of human IgG. A good correlation between the luminescence yield and the concentration of human IgG was obtained in the range of 1-10 3 ng/ml.

  19. Evolution of DNA Replication Protein Complexes in Eukaryotes and Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Nicholas; Cann, Isaac; Olsen, Gary J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The replication of DNA in Archaea and eukaryotes requires several ancillary complexes, including proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), replication factor C (RFC), and the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex. Bacterial DNA replication utilizes comparable proteins, but these are distantly related phylogenetically to their archaeal and eukaryotic counterparts at best. Methodology/Principal Findings While the structures of each of the complexes do not differ significantly between the archaeal and eukaryotic versions thereof, the evolutionary dynamic in the two cases does. The number of subunits in each complex is constant across all taxa. However, they vary subtly with regard to composition. In some taxa the subunits are all identical in sequence, while in others some are homologous rather than identical. In the case of eukaryotes, there is no phylogenetic variation in the makeup of each complex—all appear to derive from a common eukaryotic ancestor. This is not the case in Archaea, where the relationship between the subunits within each complex varies taxon-to-taxon. We have performed a detailed phylogenetic analysis of these relationships in order to better understand the gene duplications and divergences that gave rise to the homologous subunits in Archaea. Conclusion/Significance This domain level difference in evolution suggests that different forces have driven the evolution of DNA replication proteins in each of these two domains. In addition, the phylogenies of all three gene families support the distinctiveness of the proposed archaeal phylum Thaumarchaeota. PMID:20532250

  20. Electrostatic contribution to the binding stability of protein-protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Feng; Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2006-10-01

    To investigate roles of electrostatic interactions in protein binding stability, electrostatic calculations were carried out on a set of 64 mutations over six protein-protein complexes. These mutations alter polar interactions across the interface and were selected for putative dominance of electrostatic contributions to the binding stability. Three protocols of implementing the Poisson-Boltzmann model were tested. In vdW4 the dielectric boundary between the protein low dielectric and the solvent high dielectric is defined as the protein van der Waals surface and the protein dielectric constant is set to 4. In SE4 and SE20, the dielectric boundary is defined as the surface of the protein interior inaccessible to a 1.4-A solvent probe, and the protein dielectric constant is set to 4 and 20, respectively. In line with earlier studies on the barnase-barstar complex, the vdW4 results on the large set of mutations showed the closest agreement with experimental data. The agreement between vdW4 and experiment supports the contention of dominant electrostatic contributions for the mutations, but their differences also suggest van der Waals and hydrophobic contributions. The results presented here will serve as a guide for future refinement in electrostatic calculation and inclusion of nonelectrostatic effects. Proteins 2006. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Solid-state nanopore detection of protein complexes: applications in healthcare and protein kinetics.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Kevin J; Bastian, Arangassery R; Chaiken, Irwin; Kim, Min Jun

    2013-03-11

    Protein conjugation provides a unique look into many biological phenomena and has been used for decades for molecular recognition purposes. In this study, the use of solid-state nanopores for the detection of gp120-associated complexes are investigated. They exhibit monovalent and multivalent binding to anti-gp120 antibody monomer and dimers. In order to investigate the feasibility of many practical applications related to nanopores, detection of specific protein complexes is attempted within a heterogeneous protein sample, and the role of voltage on complexed proteins is researched. It is found that the electric field within the pore can result in unbinding of a freely translocating protein complex within the transient event durations measured experimentally. The strong dependence of the unbinding time with voltage can be used to improve the detection capability of the nanopore system by adding an additional level of specificity that can be probed. These data provide a strong framework for future protein-specific detection schemes, which are shown to be feasible in the realm of a 'real-world' sample and an automated multidimensional method of detecting events. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Computational modeling of carbohydrate recognition in protein complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Toyokazu

    2017-11-01

    To understand the mechanistic principle of carbohydrate recognition in proteins, we propose a systematic computational modeling strategy to identify complex carbohydrate chain onto the reduced 2D free energy surface (2D-FES), determined by MD sampling combined with QM/MM energy corrections. In this article, we first report a detailed atomistic simulation study of the norovirus capsid proteins with carbohydrate antigens based on ab initio QM/MM combined with MD-FEP simulations. The present result clearly shows that the binding geometries of complex carbohydrate antigen are determined not by one single, rigid carbohydrate structure, but rather by the sum of averaged conformations mapped onto the minimum free energy region of QM/MM 2D-FES.

  3. Immersion freezing of ice nucleation active protein complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, S.; Augustin, S.; Clauss, T.; Wex, H.; Šantl-Temkiv, T.; Voigtländer, J.; Niedermeier, D.; Stratmann, F.

    2013-06-01

    Utilising the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS), the immersion freezing behaviour of droplet ensembles containing monodisperse particles, generated from a Snomax™ solution/suspension, was investigated. Thereto ice fractions were measured in the temperature range between -5 °C to -38 °C. Snomax™ is an industrial product applied for artificial snow production and contains Pseudomonas syringae} bacteria which have long been used as model organism for atmospheric relevant ice nucleation active (INA) bacteria. The ice nucleation activity of such bacteria is controlled by INA protein complexes in their outer membrane. In our experiments, ice fractions increased steeply in the temperature range from about -6 °C to about -10 °C and then levelled off at ice fractions smaller than one. The plateau implies that not all examined droplets contained an INA protein complex. Assuming the INA protein complexes to be Poisson distributed over the investigated droplet populations, we developed the CHESS model (stoCHastic modEl of similar and poiSSon distributed ice nuclei) which allows for the calculation of ice fractions as function of temperature and time for a given nucleation rate. Matching calculated and measured ice fractions, we determined and parameterised the nucleation rate of INA protein complexes exhibiting class III ice nucleation behaviour. Utilising the CHESS model, together with the determined nucleation rate, we compared predictions from the model to experimental data from the literature and found good agreement. We found that (a) the heterogeneous ice nucleation rate expression quantifying the ice nucleation behaviour of the INA protein complex is capable of describing the ice nucleation behaviour observed in various experiments for both, Snomax™ and P. syringae bacteria, (b) the ice nucleation rate, and its temperature dependence, seem to be very similar regardless of whether the INA protein complexes inducing ice nucleation are attached

  4. Supercharging Protein Complexes from Aqueous Solution Disrupts their Native Conformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterling, Harry J.; Kintzer, Alexander F.; Feld, Geoffrey K.; Cassou, Catherine A.; Krantz, Bryan A.; Williams, Evan R.

    2012-02-01

    The effects of aqueous solution supercharging on the solution- and gas-phase structures of two protein complexes were investigated using traveling-wave ion mobility-mass spectrometry (TWIMS-MS). Low initial concentrations of m-nitrobenzyl alcohol ( m-NBA) in the electrospray ionization (ESI) solution can effectively increase the charge of concanavalin A dimers and tetramers, but at higher m-NBA concentrations, the increases in charge are accompanied by solution-phase dissociation of the dimers and up to a ~22% increase in the collision cross section (CCS) of the tetramers. With just 0.8% m-NBA added to the ESI solution of a ~630 kDa anthrax toxin octamer complex, the average charge is increased by only ~4% compared with the "native" complex, but it is sufficiently destabilized so that extensive gas-phase fragmentation occurs in the relatively high pressure regions of the TWIMS device. Anthrax toxin complexes exist in either a prechannel or a transmembrane channel state. With m-NBA, the prechannel state of the complex has the same CCS/charge ratio in the gas phase as the transmembrane channel state of the same complex formed without m-NBA, yet undergoes extensive dissociation, indicating that destabilization from supercharging occurs in the ESI droplet prior to ion formation and is not a result of Coulombic destabilization in the gas phase as a result of higher charging. These results demonstrate that the supercharging of large protein complexes is the result of conformational changes induced by the reagents in the ESI droplets, where enrichment of the supercharging reagent during droplet evaporation occurs.

  5. Crystallization of bi-functional ligand protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Antoni, Claudia; Vera, Laura; Devel, Laurent; Catalani, Maria Pia; Czarny, Bertrand; Cassar-Lajeunesse, Evelyn; Nuti, Elisa; Rossello, Armando; Dive, Vincent; Stura, Enrico Adriano

    2013-06-01

    Homodimerization is important in signal transduction and can play a crucial role in many other biological systems. To obtaining structural information for the design of molecules able to control the signalization pathways, the proteins involved will have to be crystallized in complex with ligands that induce dimerization. Bi-functional drugs have been generated by linking two ligands together chemically and the relative crystallizability of complexes with mono-functional and bi-functional ligands has been evaluated. There are problems associated with crystallization with such ligands, but overall, the advantages appear to be greater than the drawbacks. The study involves two matrix metalloproteinases, MMP-12 and MMP-9. Using flexible and rigid linkers we show that it is possible to control the crystal packing and that by changing the ligand-enzyme stoichiometric ratio, one can toggle between having one bi-functional ligand binding to two enzymes and having the same ligand bound to each enzyme. The nature of linker and its point of attachment on the ligand can be varied to aid crystallization, and such variations can also provide valuable structural information about the interactions made by the linker with the protein. We report here the crystallization and structure determination of seven ligand-dimerized complexes. These results suggest that the use of bi-functional drugs can be extended beyond the realm of protein dimerization to include all drug design projects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Thin film of polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles for protein sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talukdar, Hrishikesh; Kundu, Sarathi

    2018-04-01

    Polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles (PEC NPs) are prepared using two polyelectrolytes poly(Na-4-styrene sulphonate) (PSS) and poly(diallyldimethylammoniumchloride) (PDADMAC) at a molar mixing ratio of n-/n+ ≈ 0.67 by consecutive centrifugation. PEC NPs formation is investigated through dynamic light scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Optical behaviors of PEC NPs in thin film confirmation are studied using UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Although absorption peaks of PSS occurs at the same position before and after the formation of PEC NPs but emission peaks are found at ≈ 278 and 305 nm whereas for pure PSS emission peaks exist at ≈ 295 and 365 nm. Hence, thin film of PEC NPs can be applied as very sensitive material for protein sensing since absorption of protein is occurred at ≈ 278 nm. Protein sensing behavior of such PEC NPs thin film is studied using photoluminescence spectroscopy.

  7. Characterization of known protein complexes using k-connectivity and other topological measures

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Suzanne R; Goldberg, Debra S

    2015-01-01

    Many protein complexes are densely packed, so proteins within complexes often interact with several other proteins in the complex. Steric constraints prevent most proteins from simultaneously binding more than a handful of other proteins, regardless of the number of proteins in the complex. Because of this, as complex size increases, several measures of the complex decrease within protein-protein interaction networks. However, k-connectivity, the number of vertices or edges that need to be removed in order to disconnect a graph, may be consistently high for protein complexes. The property of k-connectivity has been little used previously in the investigation of protein-protein interactions. To understand the discriminative power of k-connectivity and other topological measures for identifying unknown protein complexes, we characterized these properties in known Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein complexes in networks generated both from highly accurate X-ray crystallography experiments which give an accurate model of each complex, and also as the complexes appear in high-throughput yeast 2-hybrid studies in which new complexes may be discovered. We also computed these properties for appropriate random subgraphs.We found that clustering coefficient, mutual clustering coefficient, and k-connectivity are better indicators of known protein complexes than edge density, degree, or betweenness. This suggests new directions for future protein complex-finding algorithms. PMID:26913183

  8. Protein-Protein Interactions in the Complex between the Enhancer Binding Protein NIFA and the Sensor NIFL from Azotobacter vinelandii

    PubMed Central

    Money, Tracy; Barrett, Jason; Dixon, Ray; Austin, Sara

    2001-01-01

    The enhancer binding protein NIFA and the sensor protein NIFL from Azotobacter vinelandii comprise an atypical two-component regulatory system in which signal transduction occurs via complex formation between the two proteins rather than by the phosphotransfer mechanism, which is characteristic of orthodox systems. The inhibitory activity of NIFL towards NIFA is stimulated by ADP binding to the C-terminal domain of NIFL, which bears significant homology to the histidine protein kinase transmitter domains. Adenosine nucleotides, particularly MgADP, also stimulate complex formation between NIFL and NIFA in vitro, allowing isolation of the complex by cochromatography. Using limited proteolysis of the purified proteins, we show here that changes in protease sensitivity of the Q linker regions of both NIFA and NIFL occurred when the complex was formed in the presence of MgADP. The N-terminal domain of NIFA adjacent to the Q linker was also protected by NIFL. Experiments with truncated versions of NIFA demonstrate that the central domain of NIFA is sufficient to cause protection of the Q linker of NIFL, although in this case, stable protein complexes are not detectable by cochromatography. PMID:11157949

  9. Radiation damage to DNA in DNA-protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Spotheim-Maurizot, M; Davídková, M

    2011-06-03

    The most aggressive product of water radiolysis, the hydroxyl (OH) radical, is responsible for the indirect effect of ionizing radiations on DNA in solution and aerobic conditions. According to radiolytic footprinting experiments, the resulting strand breaks and base modifications are inhomogeneously distributed along the DNA molecule irradiated free or bound to ligands (polyamines, thiols, proteins). A Monte-Carlo based model of simulation of the reaction of OH radicals with the macromolecules, called RADACK, allows calculating the relative probability of damage of each nucleotide of DNA irradiated alone or in complexes with proteins. RADACK calculations require the knowledge of the three dimensional structure of DNA and its complexes (determined by X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy or molecular modeling). The confrontation of the calculated values with the results of the radiolytic footprinting experiments together with molecular modeling calculations show that: (1) the extent and location of the lesions are strongly dependent on the structure of DNA, which in turns is modulated by the base sequence and by the binding of proteins and (2) the regions in contact with the protein can be protected against the attack by the hydroxyl radicals via masking of the binding site and by scavenging of the radicals. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hidden complexity of free energy surfaces for peptide (protein) folding.

    PubMed

    Krivov, Sergei V; Karplus, Martin

    2004-10-12

    An understanding of the thermodynamics and kinetics of protein folding requires a knowledge of the free energy surface governing the motion of the polypeptide chain. Because of the many degrees of freedom involved, surfaces projected on only one or two progress variables are generally used in descriptions of the folding reaction. Such projections result in relatively smooth surfaces, but they could mask the complexity of the unprojected surface. Here we introduce an approach to determine the actual (unprojected) free energy surface and apply it to the second beta-hairpin of protein G, which has been used as a model system for protein folding. The surface is represented by a disconnectivity graph calculated from a long equilibrium folding-unfolding trajectory. The denatured state is found to have multiple low free energy basins. Nevertheless, the peptide shows exponential kinetics in folding to the native basin. Projected surfaces obtained from the present analysis have a simple form in agreement with other studies of the beta-hairpin. The hidden complexity found for the beta-hairpin surface suggests that the standard funnel picture of protein folding should be revisited.

  11. Taking advantage of local structure descriptors to analyze interresidue contacts in protein structures and protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Martin, Juliette; Regad, Leslie; Etchebest, Catherine; Camproux, Anne-Claude

    2008-11-15

    Interresidue protein contacts in proteins structures and at protein-protein interface are classically described by the amino acid types of interacting residues and the local structural context of the contact, if any, is described using secondary structures. In this study, we present an alternate analysis of interresidue contact using local structures defined by the structural alphabet introduced by Camproux et al. This structural alphabet allows to describe a 3D structure as a sequence of prototype fragments called structural letters, of 27 different types. Each residue can then be assigned to a particular local structure, even in loop regions. The analysis of interresidue contacts within protein structures defined using Voronoï tessellations reveals that pairwise contact specificity is greater in terms of structural letters than amino acids. Using a simple heuristic based on specificity score comparison, we find that 74% of the long-range contacts within protein structures are better described using structural letters than amino acid types. The investigation is extended to a set of protein-protein complexes, showing that the similar global rules apply as for intraprotein contacts, with 64% of the interprotein contacts best described by local structures. We then present an evaluation of pairing functions integrating structural letters to decoy scoring and show that some complexes could benefit from the use of structural letter-based pairing functions.

  12. Electrostatic rate enhancement and transient complex of protein-protein association.

    PubMed

    Alsallaq, Ramzi; Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2008-04-01

    The association of two proteins is bounded by the rate at which they, via diffusion, find each other while in appropriate relative orientations. Orientational constraints restrict this rate to approximately 10(5)-10(6) M(-1) s(-1). Proteins with higher association rates generally have complementary electrostatic surfaces; proteins with lower association rates generally are slowed down by conformational changes upon complex formation. Previous studies (Zhou, Biophys J 1997;73:2441-2445) have shown that electrostatic enhancement of the diffusion-limited association rate can be accurately modeled by $k_{\\bf D}$ = $k_{D}0\\ {exp} ( - \\langle U_{el} \\rangle;{\\star}/k_{B} T),$ where k(D) and k(D0) are the rates in the presence and absence of electrostatic interactions, respectively, U(el) is the average electrostatic interaction energy in a "transient-complex" ensemble, and k(B)T is the thermal energy. The transient-complex ensemble separates the bound state from the unbound state. Predictions of the transient-complex theory on four protein complexes were found to agree well with the experiment when the electrostatic interaction energy was calculated with the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation (Alsallaq and Zhou, Structure 2007;15:215-224). Here we show that the agreement is further improved when the nonlinear PB equation is used. These predictions are obtained with the dielectric boundary defined as the protein van der Waals surface. When the dielectric boundary is instead specified as the molecular surface, electrostatic interactions in the transient complex become repulsive and are thus predicted to retard association. Together these results demonstrate that the transient-complex theory is predictive of electrostatic rate enhancement and can help parameterize PB calculations. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Pseudotargeted MS Method for the Sensitive Analysis of Protein Phosphorylation in Protein Complexes.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Jiawen; Wang, Yan; Mao, Jiawei; Yao, Yating; Wang, Shujuan; Zheng, Yong; Ye, Mingliang

    2018-05-15

    In this study, we presented an enrichment-free approach for the sensitive analysis of protein phosphorylation in minute amounts of samples, such as purified protein complexes. This method takes advantage of the high sensitivity of parallel reaction monitoring (PRM). Specifically, low confident phosphopeptides identified from the data-dependent acquisition (DDA) data set were used to build a pseudotargeted list for PRM analysis to allow the identification of additional phosphopeptides with high confidence. The development of this targeted approach is very easy as the same sample and the same LC-system were used for the discovery and the targeted analysis phases. No sample fractionation or enrichment was required for the discovery phase which allowed this method to analyze minute amount of sample. We applied this pseudotargeted MS method to quantitatively examine phosphopeptides in affinity purified endogenous Shc1 protein complexes at four temporal stages of EGF signaling and identified 82 phospho-sites. To our knowledge, this is the highest number of phospho-sites identified from the protein complexes. This pseudotargeted MS method is highly sensitive in the identification of low abundance phosphopeptides and could be a powerful tool to study phosphorylation-regulated assembly of protein complex.

  14. Gcn4-Mediator Specificity Is Mediated by a Large and Dynamic Fuzzy Protein-Protein Complex.

    PubMed

    Tuttle, Lisa M; Pacheco, Derek; Warfield, Linda; Luo, Jie; Ranish, Jeff; Hahn, Steven; Klevit, Rachel E

    2018-03-20

    Transcription activation domains (ADs) are inherently disordered proteins that often target multiple coactivator complexes, but the specificity of these interactions is not understood. Efficient transcription activation by yeast Gcn4 requires its tandem ADs and four activator-binding domains (ABDs) on its target, the Mediator subunit Med15. Multiple ABDs are a common feature of coactivator complexes. We find that the large Gcn4-Med15 complex is heterogeneous and contains nearly all possible AD-ABD interactions. Gcn4-Med15 forms via a dynamic fuzzy protein-protein interface, where ADs bind the ABDs in multiple orientations via hydrophobic regions that gain helicity. This combinatorial mechanism allows individual low-affinity and specificity interactions to generate a biologically functional, specific, and higher affinity complex despite lacking a defined protein-protein interface. This binding strategy is likely representative of many activators that target multiple coactivators, as it allows great flexibility in combinations of activators that can cooperate to regulate genes with variable coactivator requirements. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Encounter complexes and dimensionality reduction in protein–protein association

    PubMed Central

    Kozakov, Dima; Li, Keyong; Hall, David R; Beglov, Dmitri; Zheng, Jiefu; Vakili, Pirooz; Schueler-Furman, Ora; Paschalidis, Ioannis Ch; Clore, G Marius; Vajda, Sandor

    2014-01-01

    An outstanding challenge has been to understand the mechanism whereby proteins associate. We report here the results of exhaustively sampling the conformational space in protein–protein association using a physics-based energy function. The agreement between experimental intermolecular paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) data and the PRE profiles calculated from the docked structures shows that the method captures both specific and non-specific encounter complexes. To explore the energy landscape in the vicinity of the native structure, the nonlinear manifold describing the relative orientation of two solid bodies is projected onto a Euclidean space in which the shape of low energy regions is studied by principal component analysis. Results show that the energy surface is canyon-like, with a smooth funnel within a two dimensional subspace capturing over 75% of the total motion. Thus, proteins tend to associate along preferred pathways, similar to sliding of a protein along DNA in the process of protein-DNA recognition. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01370.001 PMID:24714491

  16. WAVE2 Protein Complex Coupled to Membrane and Microtubules.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kazuhide

    2012-01-01

    E-cadherin is one of the key molecules in the formation of cell-cell adhesion and interacts intracellularly with a group of proteins collectively named catenins, through which the E-cadherin-catenin complex is anchored to actin-based cytoskeletal components. Although cell-cell adhesion is often disrupted in cancer cells by either genetic or epigenetic alterations in cell adhesion molecules, disruption of cell-cell adhesion alone seems to be insufficient for the induction of cancer cell migration and invasion. A small GTP-binding protein, Rac1, induces the specific cellular protrusions lamellipodia via WAVE2, a member of WASP/WAVE family of the actin cytoskeletal regulatory proteins. Biochemical and pharmacological investigations have revealed that WAVE2 interacts with many proteins that regulate microtubule growth, actin assembly, and membrane targeting of proteins, all of which are necessary for directional cell migration through lamellipodia formation. These findings might have important implications for the development of effective therapeutic agents against cancer cell migration and invasion.

  17. WAVE2 Protein Complex Coupled to Membrane and Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kazuhide

    2012-01-01

    E-cadherin is one of the key molecules in the formation of cell-cell adhesion and interacts intracellularly with a group of proteins collectively named catenins, through which the E-cadherin-catenin complex is anchored to actin-based cytoskeletal components. Although cell-cell adhesion is often disrupted in cancer cells by either genetic or epigenetic alterations in cell adhesion molecules, disruption of cell-cell adhesion alone seems to be insufficient for the induction of cancer cell migration and invasion. A small GTP-binding protein, Rac1, induces the specific cellular protrusions lamellipodia via WAVE2, a member of WASP/WAVE family of the actin cytoskeletal regulatory proteins. Biochemical and pharmacological investigations have revealed that WAVE2 interacts with many proteins that regulate microtubule growth, actin assembly, and membrane targeting of proteins, all of which are necessary for directional cell migration through lamellipodia formation. These findings might have important implications for the development of effective therapeutic agents against cancer cell migration and invasion. PMID:22315597

  18. Budding Yeast Silencing Complexes and Regulation of Sir2 Activity by Protein-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tanny, Jason C.; Kirkpatrick, Donald S.; Gerber, Scott A.; Gygi, Steven P.; Moazed, Danesh

    2004-01-01

    Gene silencing in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires the enzymatic activity of the Sir2 protein, a highly conserved NAD-dependent deacetylase. In order to study the activity of native Sir2, we purified and characterized two budding yeast Sir2 complexes: the Sir2/Sir4 complex, which mediates silencing at mating-type loci and at telomeres, and the RENT complex, which mediates silencing at the ribosomal DNA repeats. Analyses of the protein compositions of these complexes confirmed previously described interactions. We show that the assembly of Sir2 into native silencing complexes does not alter its selectivity for acetylated substrates, nor does it allow the deacetylation of nucleosomal histones. The inability of Sir2 complexes to deacetylate nucleosomes suggests that additional factors influence Sir2 activity in vivo. In contrast, Sir2 complexes show significant enhancement in their affinities for acetylated substrates and their sensitivities to the physiological inhibitor nicotinamide relative to recombinant Sir2. Reconstitution experiments showed that, for the Sir2/Sir4 complex, these differences stem from the physical interaction of Sir2 with Sir4. Finally, we provide evidence that the different nicotinamide sensitivities of Sir2/Sir4 and RENT in vitro could contribute to locus-specific differences in how Sir2 activity is regulated in vivo. PMID:15282295

  19. Biodegradation of the chitin-protein complex in crustacean cuticle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Artur, Stankiewicz B.; Mastalerz, Maria; Hof, C.H.J.; Bierstedt, A.; Flannery, M.B.; Briggs, D.E.G.; Evershed, R.P.

    1998-01-01

    Arthropod cuticles consist predominantly of chitin cross-linked with proteins. While there is some experimental evidence that this chitin-protein complex may resist decay, the chemical changes that occur during degradation have not been investigated in detail. The stomatopod crustacean Neogonodactylus oerstedii was decayed in the laboratory under anoxic conditions. A combination of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and FTIR revealed extensive chemical changes after just 2 weeks that resulted in a cuticle composition dominated by chitin. Quantitative analysis of amino acids (by HPLC) and chitin showed that the major loss of proteins and chitin occurred between weeks 1 and 2. After 8 weeks tyrosine, tryptophan and valine are the most prominent amino acid moieties, showing their resistance to degradation. The presence of cyclic ketones in the pyrolysates indicates that mucopolysaccharides or other bound non-chitinous carbohydrates are also resistant to decay. There is no evidence of structural degradation of chitin prior to 8 weeks when FTIR revealed a reduction in chitin-specific bands. The chemical changes are paralleled by structural changes in the cuticle, which becomes an increasingly open structure consisting of loose chitinous fibres. The rapid rate of decay in the experiments suggests that where chitin and protein are preserved in fossil cuticles degradation must have been inhibited.Arthropod cuticles consist predominantly of chitin cross-linked with proteins. While there is some experimental evidence that this chitin-protein complex may resist decay, the chemical changes that occur during degradation have not been investigated in detail. The stomatopod crustacean Neogonodactylus oerstedii was decayed in the laboratory under anoxic conditions. A combination of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and FTIR revealed extensive chemical changes after just 2 weeks that resulted in a cuticle composition dominated by chitin. Quantitative

  20. Electrostatic Rate Enhancement and Transient Complex of Protein-Protein Association

    PubMed Central

    Alsallaq, Ramzi; Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    The association of two proteins is bounded by the rate at which they, via diffusion, find each other while in appropriate relative orientations. Orientational constraints restrict this rate to ~105 – 106 M−1s−1. Proteins with higher association rates generally have complementary electrostatic surfaces; proteins with lower association rates generally are slowed down by conformational changes upon complex formation. Previous studies (Zhou, Biophys. J. 1997;73:2441–2445) have shown that electrostatic enhancement of the diffusion-limited association rate can be accurately modeled by kD = kD0 exp(−*/ kBT), where kD and kD0 are the rates in the presence and absence of electrostatic interactions, respectively, * is the average electrostatic interaction energy in a “transient-complex” ensemble, and kBT is thermal energy. The transient-complex ensemble separates the bound state from the unbound state. Predictions of the transient-complex theory on four protein complexes were found to agree well with experiment when the electrostatic interaction energy was calculated with the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation (Alsallaq and Zhou, Structure 2007, 15:215–224). Here we show that the agreement is further improved when the nonlinear PB equation is used. These predictions are obtained with the dielectric boundary defined as the protein van der Waals surface. When the dielectric boundary is instead specified as the molecular surface, electrostatic interactions in the transient complex become repulsive and are thus predicted to retard association. Together these results demonstrate that the transient-complex theory is predictive of electrostatic rate enhancement and can help parameterize PB calculations. PMID:17932929

  1. Inferring drug-disease associations based on known protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Liang; Huang, Jianbin; Ma, Zhixin; Zhang, Jing; Zou, Yapeng; Gao, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Inferring drug-disease associations is critical in unveiling disease mechanisms, as well as discovering novel functions of available drugs, or drug repositioning. Previous work is primarily based on drug-gene-disease relationship, which throws away many important information since genes execute their functions through interacting others. To overcome this issue, we propose a novel methodology that discover the drug-disease association based on protein complexes. Firstly, the integrated heterogeneous network consisting of drugs, protein complexes, and disease are constructed, where we assign weights to the drug-disease association by using probability. Then, from the tripartite network, we get the indirect weighted relationships between drugs and diseases. The larger the weight, the higher the reliability of the correlation. We apply our method to mental disorders and hypertension, and validate the result by using comparative toxicogenomics database. Our ranked results can be directly reinforced by existing biomedical literature, suggesting that our proposed method obtains higher specificity and sensitivity. The proposed method offers new insight into drug-disease discovery. Our method is publicly available at http://1.complexdrug.sinaapp.com/Drug_Complex_Disease/Data_Download.html.

  2. Inferring drug-disease associations based on known protein complexes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Inferring drug-disease associations is critical in unveiling disease mechanisms, as well as discovering novel functions of available drugs, or drug repositioning. Previous work is primarily based on drug-gene-disease relationship, which throws away many important information since genes execute their functions through interacting others. To overcome this issue, we propose a novel methodology that discover the drug-disease association based on protein complexes. Firstly, the integrated heterogeneous network consisting of drugs, protein complexes, and disease are constructed, where we assign weights to the drug-disease association by using probability. Then, from the tripartite network, we get the indirect weighted relationships between drugs and diseases. The larger the weight, the higher the reliability of the correlation. We apply our method to mental disorders and hypertension, and validate the result by using comparative toxicogenomics database. Our ranked results can be directly reinforced by existing biomedical literature, suggesting that our proposed method obtains higher specificity and sensitivity. The proposed method offers new insight into drug-disease discovery. Our method is publicly available at http://1.complexdrug.sinaapp.com/Drug_Complex_Disease/Data_Download.html. PMID:26044949

  3. Protein complexes and functional modules in molecular networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirin, Victor; Mirny, Leonid A.

    2003-10-01

    Proteins, nucleic acids, and small molecules form a dense network of molecular interactions in a cell. Molecules are nodes of this network, and the interactions between them are edges. The architecture of molecular networks can reveal important principles of cellular organization and function, similarly to the way that protein structure tells us about the function and organization of a protein. Computational analysis of molecular networks has been primarily concerned with node degree [Wagner, A. & Fell, D. A. (2001) Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 268, 1803-1810; Jeong, H., Tombor, B., Albert, R., Oltvai, Z. N. & Barabasi, A. L. (2000) Nature 407, 651-654] or degree correlation [Maslov, S. & Sneppen, K. (2002) Science 296, 910-913], and hence focused on single/two-body properties of these networks. Here, by analyzing the multibody structure of the network of protein-protein interactions, we discovered molecular modules that are densely connected within themselves but sparsely connected with the rest of the network. Comparison with experimental data and functional annotation of genes showed two types of modules: (i) protein complexes (splicing machinery, transcription factors, etc.) and (ii) dynamic functional units (signaling cascades, cell-cycle regulation, etc.). Discovered modules are highly statistically significant, as is evident from comparison with random graphs, and are robust to noise in the data. Our results provide strong support for the network modularity principle introduced by Hartwell et al. [Hartwell, L. H., Hopfield, J. J., Leibler, S. & Murray, A. W. (1999) Nature 402, C47-C52], suggesting that found modules constitute the "building blocks" of molecular networks.

  4. Analysis of the interface variability in NMR structure ensembles of protein-protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Calvanese, Luisa; D'Auria, Gabriella; Vangone, Anna; Falcigno, Lucia; Oliva, Romina

    2016-06-01

    NMR structures consist in ensembles of conformers, all satisfying the experimental restraints, which exhibit a certain degree of structural variability. We analyzed here the interface in NMR ensembles of protein-protein heterodimeric complexes and found it to span a wide range of different conservations. The different exhibited conservations do not simply correlate with the size of the systems/interfaces, and are most probably the result of an interplay between different factors, including the quality of experimental data and the intrinsic complex flexibility. In any case, this information is not to be missed when NMR structures of protein-protein complexes are analyzed; especially considering that, as we also show here, the first NMR conformer is usually not the one which best reflects the overall interface. To quantify the interface conservation and to analyze it, we used an approach originally conceived for the analysis and ranking of ensembles of docking models, which has now been extended to directly deal with NMR ensembles. We propose this approach, based on the conservation of the inter-residue contacts at the interface, both for the analysis of the interface in whole ensembles of NMR complexes and for the possible selection of a single conformer as the best representative of the overall interface. In order to make the analyses automatic and fast, we made the protocol available as a web tool at: https://www.molnac.unisa.it/BioTools/consrank/consrank-nmr.html. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Domain mapping of the Rad51 paralog protein complexes

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kristi A.; Sawicka, Dorota; Barsky, Daniel; Albala, Joanna S.

    2004-01-01

    The five human Rad51 paralogs are suggested to play an important role in the maintenance of genome stability through their function in DNA double-strand break repair. These proteins have been found to form two distinct complexes in vivo, Rad51B–Rad51C–Rad51D–Xrcc2 (BCDX2) and Rad51C–Xrcc3 (CX3). Based on the recent Pyrococcus furiosus Rad51 structure, we have used homology modeling to design deletion mutants of the Rad51 paralogs. The models of the human Rad51B, Rad51C, Xrcc3 and murine Rad51D (mRad51D) proteins reveal distinct N-terminal and C-terminal domains connected by a linker region. Using yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation techniques, we have demonstrated that a fragment of Rad51B containing amino acid residues 1–75 interacts with the C-terminus and linker of Rad51C, residues 79–376, and this region of Rad51C also interacts with mRad51D and Xrcc3. We have also determined that the N-terminal domain of mRad51D, residues 4–77, binds to Xrcc2 while the C-terminal domain of mRad51D, residues 77–328, binds Rad51C. By this, we have identified the binding domains of the BCDX2 and CX3 complexes to further characterize the interaction of these proteins and propose a scheme for the three-dimensional architecture of the BCDX2 and CX3 paralog complexes. PMID:14704354

  6. Proteomics-Based Analysis of Protein Complexes in Pluripotent Stem Cells and Cancer Biology.

    PubMed

    Sudhir, Putty-Reddy; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

    2016-03-22

    A protein complex consists of two or more proteins that are linked together through protein-protein interactions. The proteins show stable/transient and direct/indirect interactions within the protein complex or between the protein complexes. Protein complexes are involved in regulation of most of the cellular processes and molecular functions. The delineation of protein complexes is important to expand our knowledge on proteins functional roles in physiological and pathological conditions. The genetic yeast-2-hybrid method has been extensively used to characterize protein-protein interactions. Alternatively, a biochemical-based affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry (AP-MS) approach has been widely used to characterize the protein complexes. In the AP-MS method, a protein complex of a target protein of interest is purified using a specific antibody or an affinity tag (e.g., DYKDDDDK peptide (FLAG) and polyhistidine (His)) and is subsequently analyzed by means of MS. Tandem affinity purification, a two-step purification system, coupled with MS has been widely used mainly to reduce the contaminants. We review here a general principle for AP-MS-based characterization of protein complexes and we explore several protein complexes identified in pluripotent stem cell biology and cancer biology as examples.

  7. Calculating binding free energies for protein-carbohydrate complexes.

    PubMed

    Hadden, Jodi A; Tessier, Matthew B; Fadda, Elisa; Woods, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    A variety of computational techniques may be applied to compute theoretical binding free energies for protein-carbohydrate complexes. Elucidation of the intermolecular interactions, as well as the thermodynamic effects, that contribute to the relative strength of receptor binding can shed light on biomolecular recognition, and the resulting initiation or inhibition of a biological process. Three types of free energy methods are discussed here, including MM-PB/GBSA, thermodynamic integration, and a non-equilibrium alternative utilizing SMD. Throughout this chapter, the well-known concanavalin A lectin is employed as a model system to demonstrate the application of these methods to the special case of carbohydrate binding.

  8. Design principles for cancer therapy guided by changes in complexity of protein-protein interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Benzekry, Sebastian; Tuszynski, Jack A; Rietman, Edward A; Lakka Klement, Giannoula

    2015-05-28

    The ever-increasing expanse of online bioinformatics data is enabling new ways to, not only explore the visualization of these data, but also to apply novel mathematical methods to extract meaningful information for clinically relevant analysis of pathways and treatment decisions. One of the methods used for computing topological characteristics of a space at different spatial resolutions is persistent homology. This concept can also be applied to network theory, and more specifically to protein-protein interaction networks, where the number of rings in an individual cancer network represents a measure of complexity. We observed a linear correlation of R = -0.55 between persistent homology and 5-year survival of patients with a variety of cancers. This relationship was used to predict the proteins within a protein-protein interaction network with the most impact on cancer progression. By re-computing the persistent homology after computationally removing an individual node (protein) from the protein-protein interaction network, we were able to evaluate whether such an inhibition would lead to improvement in patient survival. The power of this approach lied in its ability to identify the effects of inhibition of multiple proteins and in the ability to expose whether the effect of a single inhibition may be amplified by inhibition of other proteins. More importantly, we illustrate specific examples of persistent homology calculations, which correctly predict the survival benefit observed effects in clinical trials using inhibitors of the identified molecular target. We propose that computational approaches such as persistent homology may be used in the future for selection of molecular therapies in clinic. The technique uses a mathematical algorithm to evaluate the node (protein) whose inhibition has the highest potential to reduce network complexity. The greater the drop in persistent homology, the greater reduction in network complexity, and thus a larger

  9. Simulating evolution of protein complexes through gene duplication and co-option.

    PubMed

    Haarsma, Loren; Nelesen, Serita; VanAndel, Ethan; Lamine, James; VandeHaar, Peter

    2016-06-21

    We present a model of the evolution of protein complexes with novel functions through gene duplication, mutation, and co-option. Under a wide variety of input parameters, digital organisms evolve complexes of 2-5 bound proteins which have novel functions but whose component proteins are not independently functional. Evolution of complexes with novel functions happens more quickly as gene duplication rates increase, point mutation rates increase, protein complex functional probability increases, protein complex functional strength increases, and protein family size decreases. Evolution of complexity is inhibited when the metabolic costs of making proteins exceeds the fitness gain of having functional proteins, or when point mutation rates get so large the functional proteins undergo deleterious mutations faster than new functional complexes can evolve. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Protein-Protein Interactions of Azurin Complex by Coarse-Grained Simulations with a Gō-Like Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusmerryani, Micke; Takasu, Masako; Kawaguchi, Kazutomo; Saito, Hiroaki; Nagao, Hidemi

    Proteins usually perform their biological functions by forming a complex with other proteins. It is very important to study the protein-protein interactions since these interactions are crucial in many processes of a living organism. In this study, we develop a coarse grained model to simulate protein complex in liquid system. We carry out molecular dynamics simulations with topology-based potential interactions to simulate dynamical properties of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa azurin complex systems. Azurin is known to play an essential role as an anticancer agent and bind many important intracellular molecules. Some physical properties are monitored during simulation time to get a better understanding of the influence of protein-protein interactions to the azurin complex dynamics. These studies will provide valuable insights for further investigation on protein-protein interactions in more realistic system.

  11. Proteomics-Based Analysis of Protein Complexes in Pluripotent Stem Cells and Cancer Biology

    PubMed Central

    Sudhir, Putty-Reddy; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    A protein complex consists of two or more proteins that are linked together through protein–protein interactions. The proteins show stable/transient and direct/indirect interactions within the protein complex or between the protein complexes. Protein complexes are involved in regulation of most of the cellular processes and molecular functions. The delineation of protein complexes is important to expand our knowledge on proteins functional roles in physiological and pathological conditions. The genetic yeast-2-hybrid method has been extensively used to characterize protein-protein interactions. Alternatively, a biochemical-based affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry (AP-MS) approach has been widely used to characterize the protein complexes. In the AP-MS method, a protein complex of a target protein of interest is purified using a specific antibody or an affinity tag (e.g., DYKDDDDK peptide (FLAG) and polyhistidine (His)) and is subsequently analyzed by means of MS. Tandem affinity purification, a two-step purification system, coupled with MS has been widely used mainly to reduce the contaminants. We review here a general principle for AP-MS-based characterization of protein complexes and we explore several protein complexes identified in pluripotent stem cell biology and cancer biology as examples. PMID:27011181

  12. Small Cofactors May Assist Protein Emergence from RNA World: Clues from RNA-Protein Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Liang; Ji, Hong-Fang

    2011-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that at an early stage in the evolution of life an RNA world arose, in which RNAs both served as the genetic material and catalyzed diverse biochemical reactions. Then, proteins have gradually replaced RNAs because of their superior catalytic properties in catalysis over time. Therefore, it is important to investigate how primitive functional proteins emerged from RNA world, which can shed light on the evolutionary pathway of life from RNA world to the modern world. In this work, we proposed that the emergence of most primitive functional proteins are assisted by the early primitive nucleotide cofactors, while only a minority are induced directly by RNAs based on the analysis of RNA-protein complexes. Furthermore, the present findings have significant implication for exploring the composition of primitive RNA, i.e., adenine base as principal building blocks. PMID:21789260

  13. Structural Assembly of Multidomain Proteins and Protein Complexes Guided by the Overall Rotational Diffusion Tensor

    PubMed Central

    Ryabov, Yaroslav; Fushman, David

    2008-01-01

    We present a simple and robust approach that uses the overall rotational diffusion tensor as a structural constraint for domain positioning in multidomain proteins and protein-protein complexes. This method offers the possibility to use NMR relaxation data for detailed structure characterization of such systems provided the structures of individual domains are available. The proposed approach extends the concept of using long-range information contained in the overall rotational diffusion tensor. In contrast to the existing approaches, we use both the principal axes and principal values of protein’s rotational diffusion tensor to determine not only the orientation but also the relative positioning of the individual domains in a protein. This is achieved by finding the domain arrangement in a molecule that provides the best possible agreement with all components of the overall rotational diffusion tensor derived from experimental data. The accuracy of the proposed approach is demonstrated for two protein systems with known domain arrangement and parameters of the overall tumbling: the HIV-1 protease homodimer and Maltose Binding Protein. The accuracy of the method and its sensitivity to domain positioning is also tested using computer-generated data for three protein complexes, for which the experimental diffusion tensors are not available. In addition, the proposed method is applied here to determine, for the first time, the structure of both open and closed conformations of Lys48-linked di-ubiquitin chain, where domain motions render impossible accurate structure determination by other methods. The proposed method opens new avenues for improving structure characterization of proteins in solution. PMID:17550252

  14. STATIC AND KINETIC SITE-SPECIFIC PROTEIN-DNA PHOTOCROSSLINKING: ANALYSIS OF BACTERIAL TRANSCRIPTION INITIATION COMPLEXES

    PubMed Central

    Naryshkin, Nikolai; Druzhinin, Sergei; Revyakin, Andrei; Kim, Younggyu; Mekler, Vladimir; Ebright, Richard H.

    2009-01-01

    Static site-specific protein-DNA photocrosslinking permits identification of protein-DNA interactions within multiprotein-DNA complexes. Kinetic site-specific protein-DNA photocrosslinking--involving rapid-quench-flow mixing and pulsed-laser irradiation--permits elucidation of pathways and kinetics of formation of protein-DNA interactions within multiprotein-DNA complexes. We present detailed protocols for application of static and kinetic site-specific protein-DNA photocrosslinking to bacterial transcription initiation complexes. PMID:19378179

  15. Ice nucleation rates of single protein complexes and single macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratmann, F.; Wex, H.; Niedermeier, D.; Hartmann, S.; Augustin, S.; Clauss, T.; Voigtlaender, J.; Pummer, B.; Grothe, H.

    2012-12-01

    With our flow-tube LACIS (Leipzig Aerosol cloud Interaction Simulator), we measured immersion freezing of droplets containing biological ice nucleating (IN) agents. From our measurements, we were able to deduce ice nucleation rates for single IN protein complexes (for Snomax) and for IN macromolecules (in the case of Birch pollen). For the measurements, aerosol particles were produced from solutions/suspensions of either Snomax (deadened and partly fractionalized pseudomonas syringae bacteria) or of Birch pollen washing water (BW in the following). All particles were dried and size selected before entering LACIS. In LACIS, particles were activated to droplets, and we measured the fraction of all droplets that froze (F(ice)) as function of temperature. For Snomax, a strong increase in F(ice) was observed around -7 to -10°C, for BW around -19 to -25°C, respectively. After this initial steep increase, F(ice) stayed constant for both examined substances down to -35°C. We found that the values of F(ice) in the plateau region depended on the dry particle size. The initial solution used to generate the particles contained parts of bacteria with ice active protein complexes on them in the case of Snomax, or IN macromolecules in the case of BW (Pummer et al., 2011). We show that the distribution of the IN proteins or IN molecules in the aerosol particles follows the Poisson distribution. With this knowledge, derivation of the ice nucleation rates for single IN protein complexes or for single IN macromolecules is possible. Combining the Poisson distribution with a stochastic model and using the derived nucleation rates, we can reproduce not only our measurements for both examined substances, but also past measurements done for Snomax and even pseudomonas syringae bacteria. As an additional peculiarity, we seem to observe two different macromolecules being ice active for Birch trees growing in Central Europe or Northern Europe, with the latter initiating freezing at

  16. The Protein Kingdom Extended: Ordered and Intrinsically Disordered Proteins, Their Folding, Supramolecular Complex Formation, and Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Turoverov, Konstantin K.; Kuznetsova, Irina M.; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2010-01-01

    The native state of a protein is usually associated with a compact globular conformation possessing a rigid and highly ordered structure. At the turn of the last century certain studies arose which concluded that many proteins cannot, in principle, form a rigid globular structure in an aqueous environment, but they are still able to fulfill their specific functions — i.e., they are native. The existence of the disordered regions allows these proteins to interact with their numerous binding partners. Such interactions are often accompanied by the formation of complexes that possess a more ordered structure than the original components. The functional diversity of these proteins, combined with the variability of signals related to the various intra-and intercellular processes handled by these proteins and their capability to produce multi-variant and multi-directional responses allow them to form a unique regulatory net in a cell. The abundance of disordered proteins inside the cell is precisely controlled at the synthesis and clearance levels as well as via interaction with specific binding partners and posttranslational modifications. Another recently recognized biologically active state of proteins is the functional amyloid. The formation of such functional amyloids is tightly controlled and therefore differs from the uncontrolled formation of pathogenic amyloids which are associated with the pathogenesis of several conformational diseases, the development of which is likely to be determined by the failures of the cellular regulatory systems rather than by the formation of the proteinaceous deposits and/or by the protofibril toxicity. PMID:20097220

  17. Protein-protein interactions in the RPS4/RRS1 immune receptor complex

    PubMed Central

    Sarris, Panagiotis F.

    2017-01-01

    Plant NLR (Nucleotide-binding domain and Leucine-rich Repeat) immune receptor proteins are encoded by Resistance (R) genes and confer specific resistance to pathogen races that carry the corresponding recognized effectors. Some NLR proteins function in pairs, forming receptor complexes for the perception of specific effectors. We show here that the Arabidopsis RPS4 and RRS1 NLR proteins are both required to make an authentic immune complex. Over-expression of RPS4 in tobacco or in Arabidopsis results in constitutive defense activation; this phenotype is suppressed in the presence of RRS1. RRS1 protein co-immunoprecipitates (co-IPs) with itself in the presence or absence of RPS4, but in contrast, RPS4 does not associate with itself in the absence of RRS1. In the presence of RRS1, RPS4 associates with defense signaling regulator EDS1 solely in the nucleus, in contrast to the extra-nuclear location found in the absence of RRS1. The AvrRps4 effector does not disrupt RPS4-EDS1 association in the presence of RRS1. In the absence of RRS1, AvrRps4 interacts with EDS1, forming nucleocytoplasmic aggregates, the formation of which is disturbed by the co-expression of PAD4 but not by SAG101. These data indicate that the study of an immune receptor protein complex in the absence of all components can result in misleading inferences, and reveals an NLR complex that dynamically interacts with the immune regulators EDS1/PAD4 or EDS1/SAG101, and with effectors, during the process by which effector recognition is converted to defense activation. PMID:28475615

  18. Feature selection and classification of protein-protein complexes based on their binding affinities using machine learning approaches.

    PubMed

    Yugandhar, K; Gromiha, M Michael

    2014-09-01

    Protein-protein interactions are intrinsic to virtually every cellular process. Predicting the binding affinity of protein-protein complexes is one of the challenging problems in computational and molecular biology. In this work, we related sequence features of protein-protein complexes with their binding affinities using machine learning approaches. We set up a database of 185 protein-protein complexes for which the interacting pairs are heterodimers and their experimental binding affinities are available. On the other hand, we have developed a set of 610 features from the sequences of protein complexes and utilized Ranker search method, which is the combination of Attribute evaluator and Ranker method for selecting specific features. We have analyzed several machine learning algorithms to discriminate protein-protein complexes into high and low affinity groups based on their Kd values. Our results showed a 10-fold cross-validation accuracy of 76.1% with the combination of nine features using support vector machines. Further, we observed accuracy of 83.3% on an independent test set of 30 complexes. We suggest that our method would serve as an effective tool for identifying the interacting partners in protein-protein interaction networks and human-pathogen interactions based on the strength of interactions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Nucleocytoplasmic Transport of RNAs and RNA-Protein Complexes.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Katherine E; Gleizes, Pierre-Emmanuel; Bohnsack, Markus T

    2016-05-22

    RNAs and ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) play key roles in mediating and regulating gene expression. In eukaryotes, most RNAs are transcribed, processed and assembled with proteins in the nucleus and then either function in the cytoplasm or also undergo a cytoplasmic phase in their biogenesis. This compartmentalization ensures that sequential steps in gene expression and RNP production are performed in the correct order and it allows important quality control mechanisms that prevent the involvement of aberrant RNAs/RNPs in these cellular pathways. The selective exchange of RNAs/RNPs between the nucleus and cytoplasm is enabled by nuclear pore complexes, which function as gateways between these compartments. RNA/RNP transport is facilitated by a range of nuclear transport receptors and adaptors, which are specifically recruited to their cargos and mediate interactions with nucleoporins to allow directional translocation through nuclear pore complexes. While some transport factors are only responsible for the export/import of a certain class of RNA/RNP, others are multifunctional and, in the case of large RNPs, several export factors appear to work together to bring about export. Recent structural studies have revealed aspects of the mechanisms employed by transport receptors to enable specific cargo recognition, and genome-wide approaches have provided the first insights into the diverse composition of pre-mRNPs during export. Furthermore, the regulation of RNA/RNP export is emerging as an important means to modulate gene expression under stress conditions and in disease. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. A Novel Algorithm for Detecting Protein Complexes with the Breadth First Search

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiwei; Wang, Jianxin; Li, Min; He, Yiming; Pan, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Most biological processes are carried out by protein complexes. A substantial number of false positives of the protein-protein interaction (PPI) data can compromise the utility of the datasets for complexes reconstruction. In order to reduce the impact of such discrepancies, a number of data integration and affinity scoring schemes have been devised. The methods encode the reliabilities (confidence) of physical interactions between pairs of proteins. The challenge now is to identify novel and meaningful protein complexes from the weighted PPI network. To address this problem, a novel protein complex mining algorithm ClusterBFS (Cluster with Breadth-First Search) is proposed. Based on the weighted density, ClusterBFS detects protein complexes of the weighted network by the breadth first search algorithm, which originates from a given seed protein used as starting-point. The experimental results show that ClusterBFS performs significantly better than the other computational approaches in terms of the identification of protein complexes. PMID:24818139

  1. Docking and scoring protein complexes: CAPRI 3rd Edition.

    PubMed

    Lensink, Marc F; Méndez, Raúl; Wodak, Shoshana J

    2007-12-01

    The performance of methods for predicting protein-protein interactions at the atomic scale is assessed by evaluating blind predictions performed during 2005-2007 as part of Rounds 6-12 of the community-wide experiment on Critical Assessment of PRedicted Interactions (CAPRI). These Rounds also included a new scoring experiment, where a larger set of models contributed by the predictors was made available to groups developing scoring functions. These groups scored the uploaded set and submitted their own best models for assessment. The structures of nine protein complexes including one homodimer were used as targets. These targets represent biologically relevant interactions involved in gene expression, signal transduction, RNA, or protein processing and membrane maintenance. For all the targets except one, predictions started from the experimentally determined structures of the free (unbound) components or from models derived by homology, making it mandatory for docking methods to model the conformational changes that often accompany association. In total, 63 groups and eight automatic servers, a substantial increase from previous years, submitted docking predictions, of which 1994 were evaluated here. Fifteen groups submitted 305 models for five targets in the scoring experiment. Assessment of the predictions reveals that 31 different groups produced models of acceptable and medium accuracy-but only one high accuracy submission-for all the targets, except the homodimer. In the latter, none of the docking procedures reproduced the large conformational adjustment required for correct assembly, underscoring yet again that handling protein flexibility remains a major challenge. In the scoring experiment, a large fraction of the groups attained the set goal of singling out the correct association modes from incorrect solutions in the limited ensembles of contributed models. But in general they seemed unable to identify the best models, indicating that current scoring

  2. Identifying Dynamic Protein Complexes Based on Gene Expression Profiles and PPI Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Chen, Weijie; Wang, Jianxin; Pan, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Identification of protein complexes from protein-protein interaction networks has become a key problem for understanding cellular life in postgenomic era. Many computational methods have been proposed for identifying protein complexes. Up to now, the existing computational methods are mostly applied on static PPI networks. However, proteins and their interactions are dynamic in reality. Identifying dynamic protein complexes is more meaningful and challenging. In this paper, a novel algorithm, named DPC, is proposed to identify dynamic protein complexes by integrating PPI data and gene expression profiles. According to Core-Attachment assumption, these proteins which are always active in the molecular cycle are regarded as core proteins. The protein-complex cores are identified from these always active proteins by detecting dense subgraphs. Final protein complexes are extended from the protein-complex cores by adding attachments based on a topological character of “closeness” and dynamic meaning. The protein complexes produced by our algorithm DPC contain two parts: static core expressed in all the molecular cycle and dynamic attachments short-lived. The proposed algorithm DPC was applied on the data of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the experimental results show that DPC outperforms CMC, MCL, SPICi, HC-PIN, COACH, and Core-Attachment based on the validation of matching with known complexes and hF-measures. PMID:24963481

  3. PROXiMATE: a database of mutant protein-protein complex thermodynamics and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Jemimah, Sherlyn; Yugandhar, K; Michael Gromiha, M

    2017-09-01

    We have developed PROXiMATE, a database of thermodynamic data for more than 6000 missense mutations in 174 heterodimeric protein-protein complexes, supplemented with interaction network data from STRING database, solvent accessibility, sequence, structural and functional information, experimental conditions and literature information. Additional features include complex structure visualization, search and display options, download options and a provision for users to upload their data. The database is freely available at http://www.iitm.ac.in/bioinfo/PROXiMATE/ . The website is implemented in Python, and supports recent versions of major browsers such as IE10, Firefox, Chrome and Opera. gromiha@iitm.ac.in. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Excitation energy transfer in photosynthetic protein-pigment complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Shu-Hao

    Quantum biology is a relatively new research area which investigates the rules that quantum mechanics plays in biology. One of the most intriguing systems in this field is the coherent excitation energy transport (EET) in photosynthesis. In this document I will discuss the theories that are suitable for describing the photosynthetic EET process and the corresponding numerical results on several photosynthetic protein-pigment complexes (PPCs). In some photosynthetic EET processes, because of the electronic coupling between the chromophores within the system is about the same order of magnitude as system-bath coupling (electron-phonon coupling), a non-perturbative method called hierarchy equation of motion (HEOM) is applied to study the EET dynamics. The first part of this thesis includes brief introduction and derivation to the HEOM approach. The second part of this thesis the HEOM method will be applied to investigate the EET process within the B850 ring of the light harvesting complex 2 (LH2) from purple bacteria, Rhodopseudomonas acidophila. The dynamics of the exciton population and coherence will be analyzed under different initial excitation configurations and temperatures. Finally, how HEOM can be implemented to simulate the two-dimensional electronic spectra of photosynthetic PPCs will be discussed. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy is a crucial experimental technique to probe EET dynamics in multi-chromophoric systems. The system we are interested in is the 7-chromophore Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex from green sulfur bacteria, Prosthecochloris aestuarii. Recent crystallographic studies report the existence of an additional (eighth) chromophore in some of the FMO monomers. By applying HEOM we are able to calculate the two-dimensional electronic spectra of the 7-site and 8-site FMO complexes and investigate the functionality of the eighth chromophore.

  5. Discovering functional interdependence relationship in PPI networks for protein complex identification.

    PubMed

    Lam, Winnie W M; Chan, Keith C C

    2012-04-01

    Protein molecules interact with each other in protein complexes to perform many vital functions, and different computational techniques have been developed to identify protein complexes in protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. These techniques are developed to search for subgraphs of high connectivity in PPI networks under the assumption that the proteins in a protein complex are highly interconnected. While these techniques have been shown to be quite effective, it is also possible that the matching rate between the protein complexes they discover and those that are previously determined experimentally be relatively low and the "false-alarm" rate can be relatively high. This is especially the case when the assumption of proteins in protein complexes being more highly interconnected be relatively invalid. To increase the matching rate and reduce the false-alarm rate, we have developed a technique that can work effectively without having to make this assumption. The name of the technique called protein complex identification by discovering functional interdependence (PCIFI) searches for protein complexes in PPI networks by taking into consideration both the functional interdependence relationship between protein molecules and the network topology of the network. The PCIFI works in several steps. The first step is to construct a multiple-function protein network graph by labeling each vertex with one or more of the molecular functions it performs. The second step is to filter out protein interactions between protein pairs that are not functionally interdependent of each other in the statistical sense. The third step is to make use of an information-theoretic measure to determine the strength of the functional interdependence between all remaining interacting protein pairs. Finally, the last step is to try to form protein complexes based on the measure of the strength of functional interdependence and the connectivity between proteins. For performance evaluation

  6. The EED protein-protein interaction inhibitor A-395 inactivates the PRC2 complex.

    PubMed

    He, Yupeng; Selvaraju, Sujatha; Curtin, Michael L; Jakob, Clarissa G; Zhu, Haizhong; Comess, Kenneth M; Shaw, Bailin; The, Juliana; Lima-Fernandes, Evelyne; Szewczyk, Magdalena M; Cheng, Dong; Klinge, Kelly L; Li, Huan-Qiu; Pliushchev, Marina; Algire, Mikkel A; Maag, David; Guo, Jun; Dietrich, Justin; Panchal, Sanjay C; Petros, Andrew M; Sweis, Ramzi F; Torrent, Maricel; Bigelow, Lance J; Senisterra, Guillermo; Li, Fengling; Kennedy, Steven; Wu, Qin; Osterling, Donald J; Lindley, David J; Gao, Wenqing; Galasinski, Scott; Barsyte-Lovejoy, Dalia; Vedadi, Masoud; Buchanan, Fritz G; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Chiang, Gary G; Sun, Chaohong; Pappano, William N

    2017-04-01

    Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is a regulator of epigenetic states required for development and homeostasis. PRC2 trimethylates histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3), which leads to gene silencing, and is dysregulated in many cancers. The embryonic ectoderm development (EED) protein is an essential subunit of PRC2 that has both a scaffolding function and an H3K27me3-binding function. Here we report the identification of A-395, a potent antagonist of the H3K27me3 binding functions of EED. Structural studies demonstrate that A-395 binds to EED in the H3K27me3-binding pocket, thereby preventing allosteric activation of the catalytic activity of PRC2. Phenotypic effects observed in vitro and in vivo are similar to those of known PRC2 enzymatic inhibitors; however, A-395 retains potent activity against cell lines resistant to the catalytic inhibitors. A-395 represents a first-in-class antagonist of PRC2 protein-protein interactions (PPI) for use as a chemical probe to investigate the roles of EED-containing protein complexes.

  7. Structural Interface Forms and Their Involvement in Stabilization of Multidomain Proteins or Protein Complexes.

    PubMed

    Dygut, Jacek; Kalinowska, Barbara; Banach, Mateusz; Piwowar, Monika; Konieczny, Leszek; Roterman, Irena

    2016-10-18

    The presented analysis concerns the inter-domain and inter-protein interface in protein complexes. We propose extending the traditional understanding of the protein domain as a function of local compactness with an additional criterion which refers to the presence of a well-defined hydrophobic core. Interface areas in selected homodimers vary with respect to their contribution to share as well as individual (domain-specific) hydrophobic cores. The basic definition of a protein domain, i.e., a structural unit characterized by tighter packing than its immediate environment, is extended in order to acknowledge the role of a structured hydrophobic core, which includes the interface area. The hydrophobic properties of interfaces vary depending on the status of interacting domains-In this context we can distinguish: (1) Shared hydrophobic cores (spanning the whole dimer); (2) Individual hydrophobic cores present in each monomer irrespective of whether the dimer contains a shared core. Analysis of interfaces in dystrophin and utrophin indicates the presence of an additional quasi-domain with a prominent hydrophobic core, consisting of fragments contributed by both monomers. In addition, we have also attempted to determine the relationship between the type of interface (as categorized above) and the biological function of each complex. This analysis is entirely based on the fuzzy oil drop model.

  8. JNK Signaling: Regulation and Functions Based on Complex Protein-Protein Partnerships

    PubMed Central

    Zeke, András; Misheva, Mariya

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), as members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, mediate eukaryotic cell responses to a wide range of abiotic and biotic stress insults. JNKs also regulate important physiological processes, including neuronal functions, immunological actions, and embryonic development, via their impact on gene expression, cytoskeletal protein dynamics, and cell death/survival pathways. Although the JNK pathway has been under study for >20 years, its complexity is still perplexing, with multiple protein partners of JNKs underlying the diversity of actions. Here we review the current knowledge of JNK structure and isoforms as well as the partnerships of JNKs with a range of intracellular proteins. Many of these proteins are direct substrates of the JNKs. We analyzed almost 100 of these target proteins in detail within a framework of their classification based on their regulation by JNKs. Examples of these JNK substrates include a diverse assortment of nuclear transcription factors (Jun, ATF2, Myc, Elk1), cytoplasmic proteins involved in cytoskeleton regulation (DCX, Tau, WDR62) or vesicular transport (JIP1, JIP3), cell membrane receptors (BMPR2), and mitochondrial proteins (Mcl1, Bim). In addition, because upstream signaling components impact JNK activity, we critically assessed the involvement of signaling scaffolds and the roles of feedback mechanisms in the JNK pathway. Despite a clarification of many regulatory events in JNK-dependent signaling during the past decade, many other structural and mechanistic insights are just beginning to be revealed. These advances open new opportunities to understand the role of JNK signaling in diverse physiological and pathophysiological states. PMID:27466283

  9. JNK Signaling: Regulation and Functions Based on Complex Protein-Protein Partnerships.

    PubMed

    Zeke, András; Misheva, Mariya; Reményi, Attila; Bogoyevitch, Marie A

    2016-09-01

    The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), as members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, mediate eukaryotic cell responses to a wide range of abiotic and biotic stress insults. JNKs also regulate important physiological processes, including neuronal functions, immunological actions, and embryonic development, via their impact on gene expression, cytoskeletal protein dynamics, and cell death/survival pathways. Although the JNK pathway has been under study for >20 years, its complexity is still perplexing, with multiple protein partners of JNKs underlying the diversity of actions. Here we review the current knowledge of JNK structure and isoforms as well as the partnerships of JNKs with a range of intracellular proteins. Many of these proteins are direct substrates of the JNKs. We analyzed almost 100 of these target proteins in detail within a framework of their classification based on their regulation by JNKs. Examples of these JNK substrates include a diverse assortment of nuclear transcription factors (Jun, ATF2, Myc, Elk1), cytoplasmic proteins involved in cytoskeleton regulation (DCX, Tau, WDR62) or vesicular transport (JIP1, JIP3), cell membrane receptors (BMPR2), and mitochondrial proteins (Mcl1, Bim). In addition, because upstream signaling components impact JNK activity, we critically assessed the involvement of signaling scaffolds and the roles of feedback mechanisms in the JNK pathway. Despite a clarification of many regulatory events in JNK-dependent signaling during the past decade, many other structural and mechanistic insights are just beginning to be revealed. These advances open new opportunities to understand the role of JNK signaling in diverse physiological and pathophysiological states. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. The Search Engine for Multi-Proteoform Complexes: An Online Tool for the Identification and Stoichiometry Determination of Protein Complexes.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Owen S; Schachner, Luis F; Kelleher, Neil L

    2016-12-08

    Recent advances in top-down mass spectrometry using native electrospray now enable the analysis of intact protein complexes with relatively small sample amounts in an untargeted mode. Here, we describe how to characterize both homo- and heteropolymeric complexes with high molecular specificity using input data produced by tandem mass spectrometry of whole protein assemblies. The tool described is a "search engine for multi-proteoform complexes," (SEMPC) and is available for free online. The output is a list of candidate multi-proteoform complexes and scoring metrics, which are used to define a distinct set of one or more unique protein subunits, their overall stoichiometry in the intact complex, and their pre- and post-translational modifications. Thus, we present an approach for the identification and characterization of intact protein complexes from native mass spectrometry data. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  11. Free energy landscapes of encounter complexes in protein-protein association.

    PubMed

    Camacho, C J; Weng, Z; Vajda, S; DeLisi, C

    1999-03-01

    We report the computer generation of a high-density map of the thermodynamic properties of the diffusion-accessible encounter conformations of four receptor-ligand protein pairs, and use it to study the electrostatic and desolvation components of the free energy of association. Encounter complex conformations are generated by sampling the translational/rotational space of the ligand around the receptor, both at 5-A and zero surface-to-surface separations. We find that partial desolvation is always an important effect, and it becomes dominant for complexes in which one of the reactants is neutral or weakly charged. The interaction provides a slowly varying attractive force over a small but significant region of the molecular surface. In complexes with no strong charge complementarity this region surrounds the binding site, and the orientation of the ligand in the encounter conformation with the lowest desolvation free energy is similar to the one observed in the fully formed complex. Complexes with strong opposite charges exhibit two types of behavior. In the first group, represented by barnase/barstar, electrostatics exerts strong orientational steering toward the binding site, and desolvation provides some added adhesion within the local region of low electrostatic energy. In the second group, represented by the complex of kallikrein and pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, the overall stability results from the rather nonspecific electrostatic attraction, whereas the affinity toward the binding region is determined by desolvation interactions.

  12. Water Dynamics at Protein-Protein Interfaces: Molecular Dynamics Study of Virus-Host Receptor Complexes.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Priyanka; Botlani, Mohsen; Varma, Sameer

    2014-12-26

    The dynamical properties of water at protein-water interfaces are unlike those in the bulk. Here we utilize molecular dynamics simulations to study water dynamics in interstitial regions between two proteins. We consider two natural protein-protein complexes, one in which the Nipah virus G protein binds to cellular ephrin B2 and the other in which the same G protein binds to ephrin B3. While the two complexes are structurally similar, the two ephrins share only a modest sequence identity of ∼50%. X-ray crystallography also suggests that these interfaces are fairly extensive and contain exceptionally large amounts of waters. We find that while the interstitial waters tend to occupy crystallographic sites, almost all waters exhibit residence times of less than hundred picoseconds in the interstitial region. We also find that while the differences in the sequence of the two ephrins result in quantitative differences in the dynamics of interstitial waters, the trends in the shifts with respect to bulk values are similar. Despite the high wetness of the protein-protein interfaces, the dynamics of interstitial waters are considerably slower compared to the bulk-the interstitial waters diffuse an order of magnitude slower and have 2-3 fold longer hydrogen bond lifetimes and 2-1000 fold slower dipole relaxation rates. To understand the role of interstitial waters, we examine how implicit solvent models compare against explicit solvent models in producing ephrin-induced shifts in the G conformational density. Ephrin-induced shifts in the G conformational density are critical to the allosteric activation of another viral protein that mediates fusion. We find that in comparison with the explicit solvent model, the implicit solvent model predicts a more compact G-B2 interface, presumably because of the absence of discrete waters at the G-B2 interface. Simultaneously, we find that the two models yield strikingly different induced changes in the G conformational density, even

  13. Translation initiation mediated by nuclear cap-binding protein complex.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Incheol; Kim, Yoon Ki

    2017-04-01

    In mammals, cap-dependent translation of mRNAs is initiated by two distinct mechanisms: cap-binding complex (CBC; a heterodimer of CBP80 and 20)-dependent translation (CT) and eIF4E-dependent translation (ET). Both translation initiation mechanisms share common features in driving cap- dependent translation; nevertheless, they can be distinguished from each other based on their molecular features and biological roles. CT is largely associated with mRNA surveillance such as nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), whereas ET is predominantly involved in the bulk of protein synthesis. However, several recent studies have demonstrated that CT and ET have similar roles in protein synthesis and mRNA surveillance. In a subset of mRNAs, CT preferentially drives the cap-dependent translation, as ET does, and ET is responsible for mRNA surveillance, as CT does. In this review, we summarize and compare the molecular features of CT and ET with a focus on the emerging roles of CT in translation. [BMB Reports 2017; 50(4): 186-193].

  14. Binding of small molecules at interface of protein-protein complex - A newer approach to rational drug design.

    PubMed

    Gurung, A B; Bhattacharjee, A; Ajmal Ali, M; Al-Hemaid, F; Lee, Joongku

    2017-02-01

    Protein-protein interaction is a vital process which drives many important physiological processes in the cell and has also been implicated in several diseases. Though the protein-protein interaction network is quite complex but understanding its interacting partners using both in silico as well as molecular biology techniques can provide better insights for targeting such interactions. Targeting protein-protein interaction with small molecules is a challenging task because of druggability issues. Nevertheless, several studies on the kinetics as well as thermodynamic properties of protein-protein interactions have immensely contributed toward better understanding of the affinity of these complexes. But, more recent studies on hot spots and interface residues have opened up new avenues in the drug discovery process. This approach has been used in the design of hot spot based modulators targeting protein-protein interaction with the objective of normalizing such interactions.

  15. Analysis of protein-protein docking decoys using interaction fingerprints: application to the reconstruction of CaM-ligand complexes.

    PubMed

    Uchikoga, Nobuyuki; Hirokawa, Takatsugu

    2010-05-11

    Protein-protein docking for proteins with large conformational changes was analyzed by using interaction fingerprints, one of the scales for measuring similarities among complex structures, utilized especially for searching near-native protein-ligand or protein-protein complex structures. Here, we have proposed a combined method for analyzing protein-protein docking by taking large conformational changes into consideration. This combined method consists of ensemble soft docking with multiple protein structures, refinement of complexes, and cluster analysis using interaction fingerprints and energy profiles. To test for the applicability of this combined method, various CaM-ligand complexes were reconstructed from the NMR structures of unbound CaM. For the purpose of reconstruction, we used three known CaM-ligands, namely, the CaM-binding peptides of cyclic nucleotide gateway (CNG), CaM kinase kinase (CaMKK) and the plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase pump (PMCA), and thirty-one structurally diverse CaM conformations. For each ligand, 62000 CaM-ligand complexes were generated in the docking step and the relationship between their energy profiles and structural similarities to the native complex were analyzed using interaction fingerprint and RMSD. Near-native clusters were obtained in the case of CNG and CaMKK. The interaction fingerprint method discriminated near-native structures better than the RMSD method in cluster analysis. We showed that a combined method that includes the interaction fingerprint is very useful for protein-protein docking analysis of certain cases.

  16. Functional mapping of protein-protein interactions in an enzyme complex by directed evolution.

    PubMed

    Roderer, Kathrin; Neuenschwander, Martin; Codoni, Giosiana; Sasso, Severin; Gamper, Marianne; Kast, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The shikimate pathway enzyme chorismate mutase converts chorismate into prephenate, a precursor of Tyr and Phe. The intracellular chorismate mutase (MtCM) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is poorly active on its own, but becomes >100-fold more efficient upon formation of a complex with the first enzyme of the shikimate pathway, 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase (MtDS). The crystal structure of the enzyme complex revealed involvement of C-terminal MtCM residues with the MtDS interface. Here we employed evolutionary strategies to probe the tolerance to substitution of the C-terminal MtCM residues from positions 84-90. Variants with randomized positions were subjected to stringent selection in vivo requiring productive interactions with MtDS for survival. Sequence patterns identified in active library members coincide with residue conservation in natural chorismate mutases of the AroQδ subclass to which MtCM belongs. An Arg-Gly dyad at positions 85 and 86, invariant in AroQδ sequences, was intolerant to mutation, whereas Leu88 and Gly89 exhibited a preference for small and hydrophobic residues in functional MtCM-MtDS complexes. In the absence of MtDS, selection under relaxed conditions identifies positions 84-86 as MtCM integrity determinants, suggesting that the more C-terminal residues function in the activation by MtDS. Several MtCM variants, purified using a novel plasmid-based T7 RNA polymerase gene expression system, showed that a diminished ability to physically interact with MtDS correlates with reduced activatability and feedback regulatory control by Tyr and Phe. Mapping critical protein-protein interaction sites by evolutionary strategies may pinpoint promising targets for drugs that interfere with the activity of protein complexes.

  17. Functional Mapping of Protein-Protein Interactions in an Enzyme Complex by Directed Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Roderer, Kathrin; Neuenschwander, Martin; Codoni, Giosiana; Sasso, Severin; Gamper, Marianne; Kast, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The shikimate pathway enzyme chorismate mutase converts chorismate into prephenate, a precursor of Tyr and Phe. The intracellular chorismate mutase (MtCM) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is poorly active on its own, but becomes >100-fold more efficient upon formation of a complex with the first enzyme of the shikimate pathway, 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase (MtDS). The crystal structure of the enzyme complex revealed involvement of C-terminal MtCM residues with the MtDS interface. Here we employed evolutionary strategies to probe the tolerance to substitution of the C-terminal MtCM residues from positions 84–90. Variants with randomized positions were subjected to stringent selection in vivo requiring productive interactions with MtDS for survival. Sequence patterns identified in active library members coincide with residue conservation in natural chorismate mutases of the AroQδ subclass to which MtCM belongs. An Arg-Gly dyad at positions 85 and 86, invariant in AroQδ sequences, was intolerant to mutation, whereas Leu88 and Gly89 exhibited a preference for small and hydrophobic residues in functional MtCM-MtDS complexes. In the absence of MtDS, selection under relaxed conditions identifies positions 84–86 as MtCM integrity determinants, suggesting that the more C-terminal residues function in the activation by MtDS. Several MtCM variants, purified using a novel plasmid-based T7 RNA polymerase gene expression system, showed that a diminished ability to physically interact with MtDS correlates with reduced activatability and feedback regulatory control by Tyr and Phe. Mapping critical protein-protein interaction sites by evolutionary strategies may pinpoint promising targets for drugs that interfere with the activity of protein complexes. PMID:25551646

  18. The Molybdenum Cofactor Biosynthesis Network: In vivo Protein-Protein Interactions of an Actin Associated Multi-Protein Complex.

    PubMed

    Kaufholdt, David; Baillie, Christin-Kirsty; Meinen, Rieke; Mendel, Ralf R; Hänsch, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Survival of plants and nearly all organisms depends on the pterin based molybdenum cofactor (Moco) as well as its effective biosynthesis and insertion into apo-enzymes. To this end, both the central Moco biosynthesis enzymes are characterized and the conserved four-step reaction pathway for Moco biosynthesis is well-understood. However, protection mechanisms to prevent degradation during biosynthesis as well as transfer of the highly oxygen sensitive Moco and its intermediates are not fully enlightened. The formation of protein complexes involving transient protein-protein interactions is an efficient strategy for protected metabolic channelling of sensitive molecules. In this review, Moco biosynthesis and allocation network is presented and discussed. This network was intensively studied based on two in vivo interaction methods: bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and split-luciferase. Whereas BiFC allows localisation of interacting partners, split-luciferase assay determines interaction strengths in vivo . Results demonstrate (i) interaction of Cnx2 and Cnx3 within the mitochondria and (ii) assembly of a biosynthesis complex including the cytosolic enzymes Cnx5, Cnx6, Cnx7, and Cnx1, which enables a protected transfer of intermediates. The whole complex is associated with actin filaments via Cnx1 as anchor protein. After biosynthesis, Moco needs to be handed over to the specific apo-enzymes. A potential pathway was discovered. Molybdenum-containing enzymes of the sulphite oxidase family interact directly with Cnx1. In contrast, the xanthine oxidoreductase family acquires Moco indirectly via a Moco binding protein (MoBP2) and Moco sulphurase ABA3. In summary, the uncovered interaction matrix enables an efficient transfer for intermediate and product protection via micro-compartmentation.

  19. StructAlign, a Program for Alignment of Structures of DNA-Protein Complexes.

    PubMed

    Popov, Ya V; Galitsyna, A A; Alexeevski, A V; Karyagina, A S; Spirin, S A

    2015-11-01

    Comparative analysis of structures of complexes of homologous proteins with DNA is important in the analysis of DNA-protein recognition. Alignment is a necessary stage of the analysis. An alignment is a matching of amino acid residues and nucleotides of one complex to residues and nucleotides of the other. Currently, there are no programs available for aligning structures of DNA-protein complexes. We present the program StructAlign, which should fill this gap. The program inputs a pair of complexes of DNA double helix with proteins and outputs an alignment of DNA chains corresponding to the best spatial fit of the protein chains.

  20. Recovering Protein-Protein and Domain-Domain Interactions from Aggregation of IP-MS Proteomics of Coregulator Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Mazloom, Amin R.; Dannenfelser, Ruth; Clark, Neil R.; Grigoryan, Arsen V.; Linder, Kathryn M.; Cardozo, Timothy J.; Bond, Julia C.; Boran, Aislyn D. W.; Iyengar, Ravi; Malovannaya, Anna; Lanz, Rainer B.; Ma'ayan, Avi

    2011-01-01

    Coregulator proteins (CoRegs) are part of multi-protein complexes that transiently assemble with transcription factors and chromatin modifiers to regulate gene expression. In this study we analyzed data from 3,290 immuno-precipitations (IP) followed by mass spectrometry (MS) applied to human cell lines aimed at identifying CoRegs complexes. Using the semi-quantitative spectral counts, we scored binary protein-protein and domain-domain associations with several equations. Unlike previous applications, our methods scored prey-prey protein-protein interactions regardless of the baits used. We also predicted domain-domain interactions underlying predicted protein-protein interactions. The quality of predicted protein-protein and domain-domain interactions was evaluated using known binary interactions from the literature, whereas one protein-protein interaction, between STRN and CTTNBP2NL, was validated experimentally; and one domain-domain interaction, between the HEAT domain of PPP2R1A and the Pkinase domain of STK25, was validated using molecular docking simulations. The scoring schemes presented here recovered known, and predicted many new, complexes, protein-protein, and domain-domain interactions. The networks that resulted from the predictions are provided as a web-based interactive application at http://maayanlab.net/HT-IP-MS-2-PPI-DDI/. PMID:22219718

  1. From pull-down data to protein interaction networks and complexes with biological relevance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Park, Byung-Hoon; Karpinets, Tatiana; Samatova, Nagiza F

    2008-04-01

    Recent improvements in high-throughput Mass Spectrometry (MS) technology have expedited genome-wide discovery of protein-protein interactions by providing a capability of detecting protein complexes in a physiological setting. Computational inference of protein interaction networks and protein complexes from MS data are challenging. Advances are required in developing robust and seamlessly integrated procedures for assessment of protein-protein interaction affinities, mathematical representation of protein interaction networks, discovery of protein complexes and evaluation of their biological relevance. A multi-step but easy-to-follow framework for identifying protein complexes from MS pull-down data is introduced. It assesses interaction affinity between two proteins based on similarity of their co-purification patterns derived from MS data. It constructs a protein interaction network by adopting a knowledge-guided threshold selection method. Based on the network, it identifies protein complexes and infers their core components using a graph-theoretical approach. It deploys a statistical evaluation procedure to assess biological relevance of each found complex. On Saccharomyces cerevisiae pull-down data, the framework outperformed other more complicated schemes by at least 10% in F(1)-measure and identified 610 protein complexes with high-functional homogeneity based on the enrichment in Gene Ontology (GO) annotation. Manual examination of the complexes brought forward the hypotheses on cause of false identifications. Namely, co-purification of different protein complexes as mediated by a common non-protein molecule, such as DNA, might be a source of false positives. Protein identification bias in pull-down technology, such as the hydrophilic bias could result in false negatives.

  2. Methods for protein complex prediction and their contributions towards understanding the organisation, function and dynamics of complexes.

    PubMed

    Srihari, Sriganesh; Yong, Chern Han; Patil, Ashwini; Wong, Limsoon

    2015-09-14

    Complexes of physically interacting proteins constitute fundamental functional units responsible for driving biological processes within cells. A faithful reconstruction of the entire set of complexes is therefore essential to understand the functional organisation of cells. In this review, we discuss the key contributions of computational methods developed till date (approximately between 2003 and 2015) for identifying complexes from the network of interacting proteins (PPI network). We evaluate in depth the performance of these methods on PPI datasets from yeast, and highlight their limitations and challenges, in particular at detecting sparse and small or sub-complexes and discerning overlapping complexes. We describe methods for integrating diverse information including expression profiles and 3D structures of proteins with PPI networks to understand the dynamics of complex formation, for instance, of time-based assembly of complex subunits and formation of fuzzy complexes from intrinsically disordered proteins. Finally, we discuss methods for identifying dysfunctional complexes in human diseases, an application that is proving invaluable to understand disease mechanisms and to discover novel therapeutic targets. We hope this review aptly commemorates a decade of research on computational prediction of complexes and constitutes a valuable reference for further advancements in this exciting area. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A novel protein-protein interaction in the RES (REtention and Splicing) complex.

    PubMed

    Tripsianes, Konstantinos; Friberg, Anders; Barrandon, Charlotte; Brooks, Mark; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Seraphin, Bertrand; Sattler, Michael

    2014-10-10

    The retention and splicing (RES) complex is a conserved spliceosome-associated module that was shown to enhance splicing of a subset of transcripts and promote the nuclear retention of unspliced pre-mRNAs in yeast. The heterotrimeric RES complex is organized around the Snu17p protein that binds to both the Bud13p and Pml1p subunits. Snu17p exhibits an RRM domain that resembles a U2AF homology motif (UHM) and Bud13p harbors a Trp residue reminiscent of an UHM-ligand motif (ULM). It has therefore been proposed that the interaction between Snu17p and Bud13p resembles canonical UHM-ULM complexes. Here, we have used biochemical and NMR structural analysis to characterize the structure of the yeast Snu17p-Bud13p complex. Unlike known UHMs that sequester the Trp residue of the ULM ligand in a hydrophobic pocket, Snu17p and Bud13p utilize a large interaction surface formed around the two helices of the Snu17p domain. In total 18 residues of the Bud13p ligand wrap around the Snu17p helical surface in an U-turn-like arrangement. The invariant Trp(232) in Bud13p is located in the center of the turn, and contacts surface residues of Snu17p. The structural data are supported by mutational analysis and indicate that Snu17p provides an extended binding surface with Bud13p that is notably distinct from canonical UHM-ULM interactions. Our data highlight structural diversity in RRM-protein interactions, analogous to the one seen for nucleic acid interactions. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Modulating the protein content of complex proteomes using acetonitrile.

    PubMed

    Prates, João; Martins, Gonçalo; López-Fernández, Hugo; Lodeiro, Carlos; Capelo, J L; Santos, Hugo M

    2018-05-15

    In this work we present acetonitrile as a tool to modulate the dynamic range of the proteome of complex samples. Different concentrations of acetonitrile ranging from 15% v/v to 65% v/v were used to modulate the protein content of serum samples from healthy people and patients with lymphoma and myeloma. We show that the proteome above 70 kDa is pelleted as a function of the concentration of acetonitrile and that profiling with PCA or Clustering is only possible using the supernatants obtained for concentrations of acetonitrile higher than 45% v/v or the pellets for concentrations of acetonitrile of 35% and 45%. The differentiation and classification of the three groups of sera samples (healthy, lymphoma and myeloma) were possible using acetonitrile at 55% v/v concentration. This work opens new avenues for the application of acetonitrile as a cost-effective tool in proteomics applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Complexity of Gene Expression Evolution after Duplication: Protein Dosage Rebalancing

    PubMed Central

    Rogozin, Igor B.

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing debates about functional importance of gene duplications have been recently intensified by a heated discussion of the “ortholog conjecture” (OC). Under the OC, which is central to functional annotation of genomes, orthologous genes are functionally more similar than paralogous genes at the same level of sequence divergence. However, a recent study challenged the OC by reporting a greater functional similarity, in terms of gene ontology (GO) annotations and expression profiles, among within-species paralogs compared to orthologs. These findings were taken to indicate that functional similarity of homologous genes is primarily determined by the cellular context of the genes, rather than evolutionary history. Subsequent studies suggested that the OC appears to be generally valid when applied to mammalian evolution but the complete picture of evolution of gene expression also has to incorporate lineage-specific aspects of paralogy. The observed complexity of gene expression evolution after duplication can be explained through selection for gene dosage effect combined with the duplication-degeneration-complementation model. This paper discusses expression divergence of recent duplications occurring before functional divergence of proteins encoded by duplicate genes. PMID:25197576

  6. HAMLET - A protein-lipid complex with broad tumoricidal activity.

    PubMed

    Ho, James C S; Nadeem, Aftab; Svanborg, Catharina

    2017-01-15

    HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made LEthal to Tumor cells) is a tumoricidal protein-lipid complex with broad effects against cancer cells of different origin. The therapeutic potential is emphasized by a high degree of specificity for tumor tissue. Here we review early studies of HAMLET, in collaboration with the Orrenius laboratory, and some key features of the subsequent development of the HAMLET project. The early studies focused on the apoptotic response that accompanies death in HAMLET treated tumor cells and the role of mitochondria in this process. In subsequent studies, we have identified a sequence of interactions that starts with the membrane integration of HAMLET and the activation of ion fluxes followed by HAMLET internalization, progressive inhibition of MAPK kinases and GTPases and sorting of HAMLET to different cellular compartments, including the nuclei. Therapeutic efficacy of HAMLET has been demonstrated in animal models of glioblastoma, bladder cancer and intestinal cancer. In clinical studies, HAMLET has been shown to target skin papillomas and bladder cancers. The findings identify HAMLET as a new drug candidate with promising selectivity for cancer cells and a strong therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Stability and Immunogenicity of Hypoallergenic Peanut Protein-Polyphenol Complexes During In Vitro Pepsin Digestion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Allergenic peanut proteins are relatively resistant to digestion, and if digested, metabolized peptides tend to remain large and immunoreactive, triggering allergic reactions in sensitive individuals. In this study, the stability of hypoallergenic peanut protein-polyphenol complexes was evaluated d...

  8. Preparation of milk protein-vitamin A complexes and their evaluation for vitamin A binding ability.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Chitra; Arora, Sumit; Syama, M A; Sharma, Apurva

    2017-12-15

    The recent trends for consumption of low fat and fat free foods have led to an increase in deficiencies of vitamin A. Vitamin A is susceptible to light and heat and thus require stabilization in aqueous medium. Stability can be improved by binding of vitamin A to milk protein. In the present research work, succinylated milk proteins were also prepared. 3.2 mol of succinic anhydride/mole of lysine content gave maximum degree of succinylation for both sodium caseinate and milk protein concentrate. Native, reassembled and succinylated milk proteins were used for the preparation of milk protein-Vitamin A (Vit A) complexes. These complexes were further evaluated for unbound vitamin A, ability of milk protein to bind vitamin A and solubility of protein and vitamin A as affected by complexation. Estimation of unbound vitamin A in milk protein-Vit A complexes was carried out using ammonium sulphate for precipitation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Network Organization of Cancer-associated Protein Complexes in Human Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing; Lee, Sang Hoon; Huss, Mikael; Holme, Petter

    2013-01-01

    Differential gene expression profiles for detecting disease genes have been studied intensively in systems biology. However, it is known that various biological functions achieved by proteins follow from the ability of the protein to form complexes by physically binding to each other. In other words, the functional units are often protein complexes rather than individual proteins. Thus, we seek to replace the perspective of disease-related genes by disease-related complexes, exemplifying with data on 39 human solid tissue cancers and their original normal tissues. To obtain the differential abundance levels of protein complexes, we apply an optimization algorithm to genome-wide differential expression data. From the differential abundance of complexes, we extract tissue- and cancer-selective complexes, and investigate their relevance to cancer. The method is supported by a clustering tendency of bipartite cancer-complex relationships, as well as a more concrete and realistic approach to disease-related proteomics. PMID:23567845

  10. Association of nonribosomal nucleolar proteins in ribonucleoprotein complexes during interphase and mitosis.

    PubMed

    Piñol-Roma, S

    1999-01-01

    rRNA precursors are bound throughout their length by specific proteins, as the pre-rRNAs emerge from the transcription machinery. The association of pre-rRNA with proteins as ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes persists during maturation of 18S, 5.8S, and 28S rRNA, and through assembly of ribosomal subunits in the nucleolus. Preribosomal RNP complexes contain, in addition to ribosomal proteins, an unknown number of nonribosomal nucleolar proteins, as well as small nucleolar RNA-ribonucleoproteins (sno-RNPs). This report describes the use of a specific, rapid, and mild immunopurification approach to isolate and analyze human RNP complexes that contain nonribosomal nucleolar proteins, as well as ribosomal proteins and rRNA. Complexes immunopurified with antibodies to nucleolin-a major nucleolar RNA-binding protein-contain several distinct specific polypeptides that include, in addition to nucleolin, the previously identified nucleolar proteins B23 and fibrillarin, proteins with electrophoretic mobilities characteristic of ribosomal proteins including ribosomal protein S6, and a number of additional unidentified proteins. The physical association of these proteins with one another is mediated largely by RNA, in that the complexes dissociate upon digestion with RNase. Complexes isolated from M-phase cells are similar in protein composition to those isolated from interphase cell nuclear extracts. Therefore, the predominant proteins that associate with nucleolin in interphase remain in RNP complexes during mitosis, despite the cessation of rRNA synthesis and processing in M-phase. In addition, precursor rRNA, as well as processed 18S and 28S rRNA and candidate rRNA processing intermediates, is found associated with the immunopurified complexes. The characteristics of the rRNP complexes described here, therefore, indicate that they represent bona fide precursors of mature cytoplasmic ribosomal subunits.

  11. Detection of Protein Complexes Based on Penalized Matrix Decomposition in a Sparse Protein⁻Protein Interaction Network.

    PubMed

    Cao, Buwen; Deng, Shuguang; Qin, Hua; Ding, Pingjian; Chen, Shaopeng; Li, Guanghui

    2018-06-15

    High-throughput technology has generated large-scale protein interaction data, which is crucial in our understanding of biological organisms. Many complex identification algorithms have been developed to determine protein complexes. However, these methods are only suitable for dense protein interaction networks, because their capabilities decrease rapidly when applied to sparse protein⁻protein interaction (PPI) networks. In this study, based on penalized matrix decomposition ( PMD ), a novel method of penalized matrix decomposition for the identification of protein complexes (i.e., PMD pc ) was developed to detect protein complexes in the human protein interaction network. This method mainly consists of three steps. First, the adjacent matrix of the protein interaction network is normalized. Second, the normalized matrix is decomposed into three factor matrices. The PMD pc method can detect protein complexes in sparse PPI networks by imposing appropriate constraints on factor matrices. Finally, the results of our method are compared with those of other methods in human PPI network. Experimental results show that our method can not only outperform classical algorithms, such as CFinder, ClusterONE, RRW, HC-PIN, and PCE-FR, but can also achieve an ideal overall performance in terms of a composite score consisting of F-measure, accuracy (ACC), and the maximum matching ratio (MMR).

  12. Protein tyrosine phosphatase σ targets apical junction complex proteins in the intestine and regulates epithelial permeability

    PubMed Central

    Murchie, Ryan; Guo, Cong-Hui; Persaud, Avinash; Muise, Aleixo; Rotin, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)σ (PTPRS) was shown previously to be associated with susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). PTPσ−/− mice exhibit an IBD-like phenotype in the intestine and show increased susceptibility to acute models of murine colitis. However, the function of PTPσ in the intestine is uncharacterized. Here, we show an intestinal epithelial barrier defect in the PTPσ−/− mouse, demonstrated by a decrease in transepithelial resistance and a leaky intestinal epithelium that was determined by in vivo tracer analysis. Increased tyrosine phosphorylation was observed at the plasma membrane of epithelial cells lining the crypts of the small bowel and colon of the PTPσ−/− mouse, suggesting the presence of PTPσ substrates in these regions. Using mass spectrometry, we identified several putative PTPσ intestinal substrates that were hyper–tyrosine-phosphorylated in the PTPσ−/− mice relative to wild type. Among these were proteins that form or regulate the apical junction complex, including ezrin. We show that ezrin binds to and is dephosphorylated by PTPσ in vitro, suggesting it is a direct PTPσ substrate, and identified ezrin-Y353/Y145 as important sites targeted by PTPσ. Moreover, subcellular localization of the ezrin phosphomimetic Y353E or Y145 mutants were disrupted in colonic Caco-2 cells, similar to ezrin mislocalization in the colon of PTPσ−/− mice following induction of colitis. Our results suggest that PTPσ is a positive regulator of intestinal epithelial barrier, which mediates its effects by modulating epithelial cell adhesion through targeting of apical junction complex-associated proteins (including ezrin), a process impaired in IBD. PMID:24385580

  13. High-throughput Isolation and Characterization of Untagged Membrane Protein Complexes: Outer Membrane Complexes of Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Cell membranes represent the “front line” of cellular defense and the interface between a cell and its environment. To determine the range of proteins and protein complexes that are present in the cell membranes of a target organism, we have utilized a “tagless” process for the system-wide isolation and identification of native membrane protein complexes. As an initial subject for study, we have chosen the Gram-negative sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris. With this tagless methodology, we have identified about two-thirds of the outer membrane- associated proteins anticipated. Approximately three-fourths of these appear to form homomeric complexes. Statistical and machine-learning methods used to analyze data compiled over multiple experiments revealed networks of additional protein–protein interactions providing insight into heteromeric contacts made between proteins across this region of the cell. Taken together, these results establish a D. vulgaris outer membrane protein data set that will be essential for the detection and characterization of environment-driven changes in the outer membrane proteome and in the modeling of stress response pathways. The workflow utilized here should be effective for the global characterization of membrane protein complexes in a wide range of organisms. PMID:23098413

  14. Affinity proteomics to study endogenous protein complexes: Pointers, pitfalls, preferences and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    LaCava, John; Molloy, Kelly R.; Taylor, Martin S.; Domanski, Michal; Chait, Brian T.; Rout, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Dissecting and studying cellular systems requires the ability to specifically isolate distinct proteins along with the co-assembled constituents of their associated complexes. Affinity capture techniques leverage high affinity, high specificity reagents to target and capture proteins of interest along with specifically associated proteins from cell extracts. Affinity capture coupled to mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic analyses has enabled the isolation and characterization of a wide range of endogenous protein complexes. Here, we outline effective procedures for the affinity capture of protein complexes, highlighting best practices and common pitfalls. PMID:25757543

  15. Identifying protein complexes in PPI network using non-cooperative sequential game.

    PubMed

    Maulik, Ujjwal; Basu, Srinka; Ray, Sumanta

    2017-08-21

    Identifying protein complexes from protein-protein interaction (PPI) network is an important and challenging task in computational biology as it helps in better understanding of cellular mechanisms in various organisms. In this paper we propose a noncooperative sequential game based model for protein complex detection from PPI network. The key hypothesis is that protein complex formation is driven by mechanism that eventually optimizes the number of interactions within the complex leading to dense subgraph. The hypothesis is drawn from the observed network property named small world. The proposed multi-player game model translates the hypothesis into the game strategies. The Nash equilibrium of the game corresponds to a network partition where each protein either belong to a complex or form a singleton cluster. We further propose an algorithm to find the Nash equilibrium of the sequential game. The exhaustive experiment on synthetic benchmark and real life yeast networks evaluates the structural as well as biological significance of the network partitions.

  16. A Type-2 fuzzy data fusion approach for building reliable weighted protein interaction networks with application in protein complex detection.

    PubMed

    Mehranfar, Adele; Ghadiri, Nasser; Kouhsar, Morteza; Golshani, Ashkan

    2017-09-01

    Detecting the protein complexes is an important task in analyzing the protein interaction networks. Although many algorithms predict protein complexes in different ways, surveys on the interaction networks indicate that about 50% of detected interactions are false positives. Consequently, the accuracy of existing methods needs to be improved. In this paper we propose a novel algorithm to detect the protein complexes in 'noisy' protein interaction data. First, we integrate several biological data sources to determine the reliability of each interaction and determine more accurate weights for the interactions. A data fusion component is used for this step, based on the interval type-2 fuzzy voter that provides an efficient combination of the information sources. This fusion component detects the errors and diminishes their effect on the detection protein complexes. So in the first step, the reliability scores have been assigned for every interaction in the network. In the second step, we have proposed a general protein complex detection algorithm by exploiting and adopting the strong points of other algorithms and existing hypotheses regarding real complexes. Finally, the proposed method has been applied for the yeast interaction datasets for predicting the interactions. The results show that our framework has a better performance regarding precision and F-measure than the existing approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. ComplexContact: a web server for inter-protein contact prediction using deep learning.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hong; Wang, Sheng; Zhou, Tianming; Zhao, Feifeng; Li, Xiufeng; Wu, Qing; Xu, Jinbo

    2018-05-22

    ComplexContact (http://raptorx2.uchicago.edu/ComplexContact/) is a web server for sequence-based interfacial residue-residue contact prediction of a putative protein complex. Interfacial residue-residue contacts are critical for understanding how proteins form complex and interact at residue level. When receiving a pair of protein sequences, ComplexContact first searches for their sequence homologs and builds two paired multiple sequence alignments (MSA), then it applies co-evolution analysis and a CASP-winning deep learning (DL) method to predict interfacial contacts from paired MSAs and visualizes the prediction as an image. The DL method was originally developed for intra-protein contact prediction and performed the best in CASP12. Our large-scale experimental test further shows that ComplexContact greatly outperforms pure co-evolution methods for inter-protein contact prediction, regardless of the species.

  18. NSP-CAS Protein Complexes: Emerging Signaling Modules in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wallez, Yann; Mace, Peter D; Pasquale, Elena B; Riedl, Stefan J

    2012-05-01

    The CAS (CRK-associated substrate) family of adaptor proteins comprises 4 members, which share a conserved modular domain structure that enables multiple protein-protein interactions, leading to the assembly of intracellular signaling platforms. Besides their physiological role in signal transduction downstream of a variety of cell surface receptors, CAS proteins are also critical for oncogenic transformation and cancer cell malignancy through associations with a variety of regulatory proteins and downstream effectors. Among the regulatory partners, the 3 recently identified adaptor proteins constituting the NSP (novel SH2-containing protein) family avidly bind to the conserved carboxy-terminal focal adhesion-targeting (FAT) domain of CAS proteins. NSP proteins use an anomalous nucleotide exchange factor domain that lacks catalytic activity to form NSP-CAS signaling modules. Additionally, the NSP SH2 domain can link NSP-CAS signaling assemblies to tyrosine-phosphorylated cell surface receptors. NSP proteins can potentiate CAS function by affecting key CAS attributes such as expression levels, phosphorylation state, and subcellular localization, leading to effects on cell adhesion, migration, and invasion as well as cell growth. The consequences of these activities are well exemplified by the role that members of both families play in promoting breast cancer cell invasiveness and resistance to antiestrogens. In this review, we discuss the intriguing interplay between the NSP and CAS families, with a particular focus on cancer signaling networks.

  19. Characterizing informative sequence descriptors and predicting binding affinities of heterodimeric protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Srinivasulu, Yerukala Sathipati; Wang, Jyun-Rong; Hsu, Kai-Ti; Tsai, Ming-Ju; Charoenkwan, Phasit; Huang, Wen-Lin; Huang, Hui-Ling; Ho, Shinn-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are involved in various biological processes, and underlying mechanism of the interactions plays a crucial role in therapeutics and protein engineering. Most machine learning approaches have been developed for predicting the binding affinity of protein-protein complexes based on structure and functional information. This work aims to predict the binding affinity of heterodimeric protein complexes from sequences only. This work proposes a support vector machine (SVM) based binding affinity classifier, called SVM-BAC, to classify heterodimeric protein complexes based on the prediction of their binding affinity. SVM-BAC identified 14 of 580 sequence descriptors (physicochemical, energetic and conformational properties of the 20 amino acids) to classify 216 heterodimeric protein complexes into low and high binding affinity. SVM-BAC yielded the training accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, AUC and test accuracy of 85.80%, 0.89, 0.83, 0.86 and 83.33%, respectively, better than existing machine learning algorithms. The 14 features and support vector regression were further used to estimate the binding affinities (Pkd) of 200 heterodimeric protein complexes. Prediction performance of a Jackknife test was the correlation coefficient of 0.34 and mean absolute error of 1.4. We further analyze three informative physicochemical properties according to their contribution to prediction performance. Results reveal that the following properties are effective in predicting the binding affinity of heterodimeric protein complexes: apparent partition energy based on buried molar fractions, relations between chemical structure and biological activity in principal component analysis IV, and normalized frequency of beta turn. The proposed sequence-based prediction method SVM-BAC uses an optimal feature selection method to identify 14 informative features to classify and predict binding affinity of heterodimeric protein complexes. The characterization

  20. Characterizing informative sequence descriptors and predicting binding affinities of heterodimeric protein complexes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are involved in various biological processes, and underlying mechanism of the interactions plays a crucial role in therapeutics and protein engineering. Most machine learning approaches have been developed for predicting the binding affinity of protein-protein complexes based on structure and functional information. This work aims to predict the binding affinity of heterodimeric protein complexes from sequences only. Results This work proposes a support vector machine (SVM) based binding affinity classifier, called SVM-BAC, to classify heterodimeric protein complexes based on the prediction of their binding affinity. SVM-BAC identified 14 of 580 sequence descriptors (physicochemical, energetic and conformational properties of the 20 amino acids) to classify 216 heterodimeric protein complexes into low and high binding affinity. SVM-BAC yielded the training accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, AUC and test accuracy of 85.80%, 0.89, 0.83, 0.86 and 83.33%, respectively, better than existing machine learning algorithms. The 14 features and support vector regression were further used to estimate the binding affinities (Pkd) of 200 heterodimeric protein complexes. Prediction performance of a Jackknife test was the correlation coefficient of 0.34 and mean absolute error of 1.4. We further analyze three informative physicochemical properties according to their contribution to prediction performance. Results reveal that the following properties are effective in predicting the binding affinity of heterodimeric protein complexes: apparent partition energy based on buried molar fractions, relations between chemical structure and biological activity in principal component analysis IV, and normalized frequency of beta turn. Conclusions The proposed sequence-based prediction method SVM-BAC uses an optimal feature selection method to identify 14 informative features to classify and predict binding affinity of heterodimeric protein

  1. Tuning structure of oppositely charged nanoparticle and protein complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sugam; Aswal, V. K.; Callow, P.

    2014-04-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to probe the structures of anionic silica nanoparticles (LS30) and cationic lyszyme protein (M.W. 14.7kD, I.P. ˜ 11.4) by tuning their interaction through the pH variation. The protein adsorption on nanoparticles is found to be increasing with pH and determined by the electrostatic attraction between two components as well as repulsion between protein molecules. We show the strong electrostatic attraction between nanoparticles and protein molecules leads to protein-mediated aggregation of nanoparticles which are characterized by fractal structures. At pH 5, the protein adsorption gives rise to nanoparticle aggregation having surface fractal morphology with close packing of nanoparticles. The surface fractals transform to open structures of mass fractal morphology at higher pH (7 and 9) on approaching isoelectric point (I.P.).

  2. Interaction of the iron(II) cage complexes with proteins: protein fluorescence quenching study.

    PubMed

    Losytskyy, Mykhaylo Y; Kovalska, Vladyslava B; Varzatskii, Oleg A; Sergeev, Alexander M; Yarmoluk, Sergiy M; Voloshin, Yan Z

    2013-09-01

    Interaction of the iron(II) mono- and bis-clathrochelates with bovine serum albumin (BSA), β-lactoglobulin, lysozyme and insulin was studied by the steady-state and time-resolved fluorescent spectroscopies. These cage complexes do not make significant impact on fluorescent properties of β-lactoglobulin, lysozyme and insulin. At the same time, the monoclathrochelates strongly quench a fluorescence intensity of BSA and substantially decrease its excited state lifetime due to their binding to this protein. This occurs due to the excitation energy transfer from a tryptophan residue to a cage molecule or/and to the change of the tryptophan nearest environment caused by either clathrochelate binding or an alteration of the BSA conformation. The effect of the iron(II) bis-clathrochelate on BSA fluorescence is much weaker as compared to its monomacrobicyclic analogs as a result of an increase in its size.

  3. The Legionella IcmS-IcmW protein complex is important for Dot/Icm-mediated protein translocation.

    PubMed

    Ninio, Shira; Zuckman-Cholon, Deborah M; Cambronne, Eric D; Roy, Craig R

    2005-02-01

    The intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila can infect and replicate within macrophages of a human host. To establish infection, Legionella require the Dot/Icm secretion system to inject protein substrates directly into the host cell cytoplasm. The mechanism by which substrate proteins are engaged and translocated by the Dot/Icm system is not well understood. Here we show that two cytosolic components of the Dot/Icm secretion machinery, the proteins IcmS and IcmW, play an important role in substrate translocation. Biochemical analysis indicates that IcmS and IcmW form a stable protein complex. In Legionella, the IcmW protein is rapidly degraded in the absence of the IcmS protein. Substrate proteins translocated into mammalian host cells by the Dot/Icm system were identified using the IcmW protein as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen. It was determined that the IcmS-IcmW complex interacts with these substrates and plays an important role in translocation of these proteins into mammalian cells. These data are consistent with the IcmS-IcmW complex being involved in the recognition and Dot/Icm-dependent translocation of substrate proteins during Legionella infection of host cells.

  4. Characterization of the ternary Usher syndrome SANS/ush2a/whirlin protein complex.

    PubMed

    Sorusch, Nasrin; Bauß, Katharina; Plutniok, Janet; Samanta, Ananya; Knapp, Barbara; Nagel-Wolfrum, Kerstin; Wolfrum, Uwe

    2017-03-15

    The Usher syndrome (USH) is the most common form of inherited deaf-blindness, accompanied by vestibular dysfunction. Due to the heterogeneous manifestation of the clinical symptoms, three USH types (USH1-3) and additional atypical forms are distinguished. USH1 and USH2 proteins have been shown to function together in multiprotein networks in photoreceptor cells and hair cells. Mutations in USH proteins are considered to disrupt distinct USH protein networks and finally lead to the development of USH.To get novel insights into the molecular pathomechanisms underlying USH, we further characterize the periciliary USH protein network in photoreceptor cells. We show the direct interaction between the scaffold protein SANS (USH1G) and the transmembrane adhesion protein ush2a and that both assemble into a ternary USH1/USH2 complex together with the PDZ-domain protein whirlin (USH2D) via mutual interactions. Immunohistochemistry and proximity ligation assays demonstrate co-localization of complex partners and complex formation, respectively, in the periciliary region, the inner segment and at the synapses of rodent and human photoreceptor cells. Protein-protein interaction assays and co-expression of complex partners reveal that pathogenic mutations in USH1G severely affect formation of the SANS/ush2a/whirlin complex. Translational read-through drug treatment, targeting the c.728C > A (p.S243X) nonsense mutation, restored SANS scaffold function. We conclude that USH1 and USH2 proteins function together in higher order protein complexes. The maintenance of USH1/USH2 protein complexes depends on multiple USH1/USH2 protein interactions, which are disrupted by pathogenic mutations in USH1G protein SANS. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Looping and clustering model for the organization of protein-DNA complexes on the bacterial genome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Jean-Charles; Walliser, Nils-Ole; David, Gabriel; Dorignac, Jérôme; Geniet, Frédéric; Palmeri, John; Parmeggiani, Andrea; Wingreen, Ned S.; Broedersz, Chase P.

    2018-03-01

    The bacterial genome is organized by a variety of associated proteins inside a structure called the nucleoid. These proteins can form complexes on DNA that play a central role in various biological processes, including chromosome segregation. A prominent example is the large ParB-DNA complex, which forms an essential component of the segregation machinery in many bacteria. ChIP-Seq experiments show that ParB proteins localize around centromere-like parS sites on the DNA to which ParB binds specifically, and spreads from there over large sections of the chromosome. Recent theoretical and experimental studies suggest that DNA-bound ParB proteins can interact with each other to condense into a coherent 3D complex on the DNA. However, the structural organization of this protein-DNA complex remains unclear, and a predictive quantitative theory for the distribution of ParB proteins on DNA is lacking. Here, we propose the looping and clustering model, which employs a statistical physics approach to describe protein-DNA complexes. The looping and clustering model accounts for the extrusion of DNA loops from a cluster of interacting DNA-bound proteins that is organized around a single high-affinity binding site. Conceptually, the structure of the protein-DNA complex is determined by a competition between attractive protein interactions and loop closure entropy of this protein-DNA cluster on the one hand, and the positional entropy for placing loops within the cluster on the other. Indeed, we show that the protein interaction strength determines the ‘tightness’ of the loopy protein-DNA complex. Thus, our model provides a theoretical framework for quantitatively computing the binding profiles of ParB-like proteins around a cognate (parS) binding site.

  6. Topological properties of complex networks in protein structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyungsik; Jung, Jae-Won; Min, Seungsik

    2014-03-01

    We study topological properties of networks in structural classification of proteins. We model the native-state protein structure as a network made of its constituent amino-acids and their interactions. We treat four structural classes of proteins composed predominantly of α helices and β sheets and consider several proteins from each of these classes whose sizes range from amino acids of the Protein Data Bank. Particularly, we simulate and analyze the network metrics such as the mean degree, the probability distribution of degree, the clustering coefficient, the characteristic path length, the local efficiency, and the cost. This work was supported by the KMAR and DP under Grant WISE project (153-3100-3133-302-350).

  7. Two dimensional Blue Native-/SDS-PAGE analysis of SLP family adaptor protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Mahima; Kulathu, Yogesh; Ernst, Sandra; Reth, Michael; Schamel, Wolfgang W A

    2006-04-15

    SH2 domain containing leukocyte protein (SLP) adaptor proteins serve a central role in the antigen-mediated activation of lymphocytes by organizing multiprotein signaling complexes. Here, we use two dimensional native-/SDS-gel electrophoresis to study the number, size and relative abundance of protein complexes containing SLP family proteins. In non-stimulated T cells all SLP-76 proteins are in a approximately 400 kDa complex with the small adaptor protein Grb2-like adaptor protein downstream of Shc (Gads), whereas half of Gads is monomeric. This constitutive SLP-76/Gads complex could be reconstituted in Drosophila S2 cells expressing both components, suggesting that it might not contain additional subunits. In contrast, in B cells SLP-65 exists in a 180 kDa complex as well as in monomeric form. Since the complex was not found in S2 cells expressing only SLP-65, it was not di/trimeric SLP-65. Upon antigen-stimulation only the complexed SLP-65 was phosphorylated. Surprisingly, stimulation-induced alteration of SLP complexes could not be detected, suggesting that active signaling complexes form only transiently, and are of low abundance.

  8. More Membranes, more Proteins: Complex Protein Import Mechanisms into Secondary Plastids

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Swati; Striepen, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Plastids are found across the tree of life in a tremendous diversity of life forms. Surprisingly they are not limited to photosynthetic organisms but also found in numerous predators and parasites. An important reason for the pervasiveness of plastids has been their ability to move laterally and to jump from one branch of the tree of life to the next through secondary endosymbiosis. Eukaryotic algae have entered endosymbiotic relationships with other eukaryotes on multiple independent occasions. The descendants of these endosymbiotic events now carry complex plastids, organelles that are bound by three or even four membranes. As in all endosymbiotic organelles most of the symbiont’s genes have been transferred to the host and their protein products have to be imported into the organelle. As four membranes might suggest, this is a complex process. The emerging mechanisms display a series of translocons that mirror the divergent ancestry of the membranes they cross. This review is written from a parasite biologist viewpoint and seeks to provide a brief overview of plastid evolution in particular for readers not already familiar with plant and algal biology and then focuses on recent molecular discoveries using genetically tractable Apicomplexa and diatoms. PMID:21036664

  9. Surfactant-free purification of membrane protein complexes from bacteria: application to the staphylococcal penicillin-binding protein complex PBP2/PBP2a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulin, Sarah; Jamshad, Mohammed; Dafforn, Timothy R.; Garcia-Lara, Jorge; Foster, Simon J.; Galley, Nicola F.; Roper, David I.; Rosado, Helena; Taylor, Peter W.

    2014-07-01

    Surfactant-mediated removal of proteins from biomembranes invariably results in partial or complete loss of function and disassembly of multi-protein complexes. We determined the capacity of styrene-co-maleic acid (SMA) co-polymer to remove components of the cell division machinery from the membrane of drug-resistant staphylococcal cells. SMA-lipid nanoparticles solubilized FtsZ-PBP2-PBP2a complexes from intact cells, demonstrating the close physical proximity of these proteins within the lipid bilayer. Exposure of bacteria to (-)-epicatechin gallate, a polyphenolic agent that abolishes β-lactam resistance in staphylococci, disrupted the association between PBP2 and PBP2a. Thus, SMA purification provides a means to remove native integral membrane protein assemblages with minimal physical disruption and shows promise as a tool for the interrogation of molecular aspects of bacterial membrane protein structure and function.

  10. Predicting protein complexes using a supervised learning method combined with local structural information.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yadong; Sun, Yongqi; Qin, Chao

    2018-01-01

    The existing protein complex detection methods can be broadly divided into two categories: unsupervised and supervised learning methods. Most of the unsupervised learning methods assume that protein complexes are in dense regions of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks even though many true complexes are not dense subgraphs. Supervised learning methods utilize the informative properties of known complexes; they often extract features from existing complexes and then use the features to train a classification model. The trained model is used to guide the search process for new complexes. However, insufficient extracted features, noise in the PPI data and the incompleteness of complex data make the classification model imprecise. Consequently, the classification model is not sufficient for guiding the detection of complexes. Therefore, we propose a new robust score function that combines the classification model with local structural information. Based on the score function, we provide a search method that works both forwards and backwards. The results from experiments on six benchmark PPI datasets and three protein complex datasets show that our approach can achieve better performance compared with the state-of-the-art supervised, semi-supervised and unsupervised methods for protein complex detection, occasionally significantly outperforming such methods.

  11. Understanding the nanoparticle-protein corona complexes using computational and experimental methods.

    PubMed

    Kharazian, B; Hadipour, N L; Ejtehadi, M R

    2016-06-01

    Nanoparticles (NP) have capability to adsorb proteins from biological fluids and form protein layer, which is called protein corona. As the cell sees corona coated NPs, the protein corona can dictate biological response to NPs. The composition of protein corona is varied by physicochemical properties of NPs including size, shape, surface chemistry. Processing of protein adsorption is dynamic phenomena; to that end, a protein may desorb or leave a surface vacancy that is rapidly filled by another protein and cause changes in the corona composition mainly by the Vroman effect. In this review, we discuss the interaction between NP and proteins and the available techniques for identification of NP-bound proteins. Also we review current developed computational methods for understanding the NP-protein complex interactions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Effect of the ordered interfacial water layer in protein complex formation: A nonlocal electrostatic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinstein, A.; Sabirianov, R. F.; Mei, W. N.; Namavar, F.; Khoynezhad, A.

    2010-08-01

    Using a nonlocal electrostatic approach that incorporates the short-range structure of the contacting media, we evaluated the electrostatic contribution to the energy of the complex formation of two model proteins. In this study, we have demonstrated that the existence of an ordered interfacial water layer at the protein-solvent interface reduces the charging energy of the proteins in the aqueous solvent, and consequently increases the electrostatic contribution to the protein binding (change in free energy upon the complex formation of two proteins). This is in contrast with the finding of the continuum electrostatic model, which suggests that electrostatic interactions are not strong enough to compensate for the unfavorable desolvation effects.

  13. Effect of the ordered interfacial water layer in protein complex formation: A nonlocal electrostatic approach.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, A; Sabirianov, R F; Mei, W N; Namavar, F; Khoynezhad, A

    2010-08-01

    Using a nonlocal electrostatic approach that incorporates the short-range structure of the contacting media, we evaluated the electrostatic contribution to the energy of the complex formation of two model proteins. In this study, we have demonstrated that the existence of an ordered interfacial water layer at the protein-solvent interface reduces the charging energy of the proteins in the aqueous solvent, and consequently increases the electrostatic contribution to the protein binding (change in free energy upon the complex formation of two proteins). This is in contrast with the finding of the continuum electrostatic model, which suggests that electrostatic interactions are not strong enough to compensate for the unfavorable desolvation effects.

  14. Prediction of heterotrimeric protein complexes by two-phase learning using neighboring kernels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Protein complexes play important roles in biological systems such as gene regulatory networks and metabolic pathways. Most methods for predicting protein complexes try to find protein complexes with size more than three. It, however, is known that protein complexes with smaller sizes occupy a large part of whole complexes for several species. In our previous work, we developed a method with several feature space mappings and the domain composition kernel for prediction of heterodimeric protein complexes, which outperforms existing methods. Results We propose methods for prediction of heterotrimeric protein complexes by extending techniques in the previous work on the basis of the idea that most heterotrimeric protein complexes are not likely to share the same protein with each other. We make use of the discriminant function in support vector machines (SVMs), and design novel feature space mappings for the second phase. As the second classifier, we examine SVMs and relevance vector machines (RVMs). We perform 10-fold cross-validation computational experiments. The results suggest that our proposed two-phase methods and SVM with the extended features outperform the existing method NWE, which was reported to outperform other existing methods such as MCL, MCODE, DPClus, CMC, COACH, RRW, and PPSampler for prediction of heterotrimeric protein complexes. Conclusions We propose two-phase prediction methods with the extended features, the domain composition kernel, SVMs and RVMs. The two-phase method with the extended features and the domain composition kernel using SVM as the second classifier is particularly useful for prediction of heterotrimeric protein complexes. PMID:24564744

  15. Determining protein complex connectivity using a probabilistic deletion network derived from quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Sardiu, Mihaela E; Gilmore, Joshua M; Carrozza, Michael J; Li, Bing; Workman, Jerry L; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P

    2009-10-06

    Protein complexes are key molecular machines executing a variety of essential cellular processes. Despite the availability of genome-wide protein-protein interaction studies, determining the connectivity between proteins within a complex remains a major challenge. Here we demonstrate a method that is able to predict the relationship of proteins within a stable protein complex. We employed a combination of computational approaches and a systematic collection of quantitative proteomics data from wild-type and deletion strain purifications to build a quantitative deletion-interaction network map and subsequently convert the resulting data into an interdependency-interaction model of a complex. We applied this approach to a data set generated from components of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rpd3 histone deacetylase complexes, which consists of two distinct small and large complexes that are held together by a module consisting of Rpd3, Sin3 and Ume1. The resulting representation reveals new protein-protein interactions and new submodule relationships, providing novel information for mapping the functional organization of a complex.

  16. Identifying protein complex by integrating characteristic of core-attachment into dynamic PPI network.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xianjun; Yi, Li; Jiang, Xingpeng; He, Tingting; Yang, Jincai; Xie, Wei; Hu, Po; Hu, Xiaohua

    2017-01-01

    How to identify protein complex is an important and challenging task in proteomics. It would make great contribution to our knowledge of molecular mechanism in cell life activities. However, the inherent organization and dynamic characteristic of cell system have rarely been incorporated into the existing algorithms for detecting protein complexes because of the limitation of protein-protein interaction (PPI) data produced by high throughput techniques. The availability of time course gene expression profile enables us to uncover the dynamics of molecular networks and improve the detection of protein complexes. In order to achieve this goal, this paper proposes a novel algorithm DCA (Dynamic Core-Attachment). It detects protein-complex core comprising of continually expressed and highly connected proteins in dynamic PPI network, and then the protein complex is formed by including the attachments with high adhesion into the core. The integration of core-attachment feature into the dynamic PPI network is responsible for the superiority of our algorithm. DCA has been applied on two different yeast dynamic PPI networks and the experimental results show that it performs significantly better than the state-of-the-art techniques in terms of prediction accuracy, hF-measure and statistical significance in biology. In addition, the identified complexes with strong biological significance provide potential candidate complexes for biologists to validate.

  17. Drawing the PDB: Protein-Ligand Complexes in Two Dimensions.

    PubMed

    Stierand, Katrin; Rarey, Matthias

    2010-12-09

    The two-dimensional representation of molecules is a popular communication medium in chemistry and the associated scientific fields. Computational methods for drawing small molecules with and without manual investigation are well-established and widely spread in terms of numerous software tools. Concerning the planar depiction of molecular complexes, there is considerably less choice. We developed the software PoseView, which automatically generates two-dimensional diagrams of macromolecular complexes, showing the ligand, the interactions, and the interacting residues. All depicted molecules are drawn on an atomic level as structure diagrams; thus, the output plots are clearly structured and easily readable for the scientist. We tested the performance of PoseView in a large-scale application on nearly all druglike complexes of the PDB (approximately 200000 complexes); for more than 92% of the complexes considered for drawing, a layout could be computed. In the following, we will present the results of this application study.

  18. A Three-Hybrid System to Probe In Vivo Protein-Protein Interactions: Application to the Essential Proteins of the RD1 Complex of M. tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Bhalla, Kuhulika; Ghosh, Anamika; Kumar, Krishan; Kumar, Sushil; Ranganathan, Anand

    2011-01-01

    Background Protein-protein interactions play a crucial role in enabling a pathogen to survive within a host. In many cases the interactions involve a complex of proteins rather than just two given proteins. This is especially true for pathogens like M. tuberculosis that are able to successfully survive the inhospitable environment of the macrophage. Studying such interactions in detail may help in developing small molecules that either disrupt or augment the interactions. Here, we describe the development of an E. coli based bacterial three-hybrid system that can be used effectively to study ternary protein complexes. Methodology/Principal Findings The protein-protein interactions involved in M. tuberculosis pathogenesis have been used as a model for the validation of the three-hybrid system. Using the M. tuberculosis RD1 encoded proteins CFP10, ESAT6 and Rv3871 for our proof-of-concept studies, we show that the interaction between the proteins CFP10 and Rv3871 is strengthened and stabilized in the presence of ESAT6, the known heterodimeric partner of CFP10. Isolating peptide candidates that can disrupt crucial protein-protein interactions is another application that the system offers. We demonstrate this by using CFP10 protein as a disruptor of a previously established interaction between ESAT6 and a small peptide HCL1; at the same time we also show that CFP10 is not able to disrupt the strong interaction between ESAT6 and another peptide SL3. Conclusions/Significance The validation of the three-hybrid system paves the way for finding new peptides that are stronger binders of ESAT6 compared even to its natural partner CFP10. Additionally, we believe that the system offers an opportunity to study tri-protein complexes and also perform a screening of protein/peptide binders to known interacting proteins so as to elucidate novel tri-protein complexes. PMID:22087330

  19. An updated version of NPIDB includes new classifications of DNA–protein complexes and their families

    PubMed Central

    Zanegina, Olga; Kirsanov, Dmitriy; Baulin, Eugene; Karyagina, Anna; Alexeevski, Andrei; Spirin, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    The recent upgrade of nucleic acid–protein interaction database (NPIDB, http://npidb.belozersky.msu.ru/) includes a newly elaborated classification of complexes of protein domains with double-stranded DNA and a classification of families of related complexes. Our classifications are based on contacting structural elements of both DNA: the major groove, the minor groove and the backbone; and protein: helices, beta-strands and unstructured segments. We took into account both hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interaction. The analyzed material contains 1942 structures of protein domains from 748 PDB entries. We have identified 97 interaction modes of individual protein domain–DNA complexes and 17 DNA–protein interaction classes of protein domain families. We analyzed the sources of diversity of DNA–protein interaction modes in different complexes of one protein domain family. The observed interaction mode is sometimes influenced by artifacts of crystallization or diversity in secondary structure assignment. The interaction classes of domain families are more stable and thus possess more biological sense than a classification of single complexes. Integration of the classification into NPIDB allows the user to browse the database according to the interacting structural elements of DNA and protein molecules. For each family, we present average DNA shape parameters in contact zones with domains of the family. PMID:26656949

  20. Protein-protein interactions indicate composition of a 480 kDa SELMA complex in the second outermost membrane of diatom complex plastids.

    PubMed

    Lau, Julia B; Stork, Simone; Moog, Daniel; Schulz, Julian; Maier, Uwe G

    2016-04-01

    Most secondary plastids of red algal origin are surrounded by four membranes and nucleus-encoded plastid proteins have to traverse these barriers. Translocation across the second outermost plastid membrane, the periplastidal membrane (PPM), is facilitated by a ERAD-(ER-associated degradation) derived machinery termed SELMA (symbiont-specific ERAD-like machinery). In the last years, important subunits of this translocator have been identified, which clearly imply compositional similarities between SELMA and ERAD. Here we investigated, via protein-protein interaction studies, if the composition of SELMA is comparable to the known ERAD complex. As a result, our data suggest that the membrane proteins of SELMA, the derlin proteins, are linked to the soluble sCdc48 complex via the UBX protein sUBX. This is similar to the ERAD machinery whereas the additional SELMA components, sPUB und a second Cdc48 copy might indicate the influence of functional constraints in developing a translocation machinery from ERAD-related factors. In addition, we show for the first time that a rhomboid protease is a central interaction partner of the membrane proteins of the SELMA system in complex plastids. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Detection of in situ protein-protein complexes at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction using proximity ligation assay.

    PubMed

    Wang, Simon; Yoo, SooHyun; Kim, Hae-Yoon; Wang, Mannan; Zheng, Clare; Parkhouse, Wade; Krieger, Charles; Harden, Nicholas

    2015-01-20

    Discs large (Dlg) is a conserved member of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase family, and serves as a major scaffolding protein at the larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ) in Drosophila. Previous studies have shown that the postsynaptic distribution of Dlg at the larval NMJ overlaps with that of Hu-li tai shao (Hts), a homologue to the mammalian adducins. In addition, Dlg and Hts are observed to form a complex with each other based on co-immunoprecipitation experiments involving whole adult fly lysates. Due to the nature of these experiments, however, it was unknown whether this complex exists specifically at the NMJ during larval development. Proximity Ligation Assay (PLA) is a recently developed technique used mostly in cell and tissue culture that can detect protein-protein interactions in situ. In this assay, samples are incubated with primary antibodies against the two proteins of interest using standard immunohistochemical procedures. The primary antibodies are then detected with a specially designed pair of oligonucleotide-conjugated secondary antibodies, termed PLA probes, which can be used to generate a signal only when the two probes have bound in close proximity to each other. Thus, proteins that are in a complex can be visualized. Here, it is demonstrated how PLA can be used to detect in situ protein-protein interactions at the Drosophila larval NMJ. The technique is performed on larval body wall muscle preparations to show that a complex between Dlg and Hts does indeed exist at the postsynaptic region of NMJs.

  2. Crystallization of bFGF-DNA Aptamer Complexes Using a Sparse Matrix Designed for Protein-Nucleic Acid Complexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannone, Jaime J.; Barnes, Cindy L.; Achari, Aniruddha; Kundrot, Craig E.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Sparse Matrix approach for obtaining lead crystallization conditions has proven to be very fruitful for the crystallization of proteins and nucleic acids. Here we report a Sparse Matrix developed specifically for the crystallization of protein-DNA complexes. This method is rapid and economical, typically requiring 2.5 mg of complex to test 48 conditions. The method was originally developed to crystallize basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) complexed with DNA sequences identified through in vitro selection, or SELEX, methods. Two DNA aptamers that bind with approximately nanomolar affinity and inhibit the angiogenic properties of bFGF were selected for co-crystallization. The Sparse Matrix produced lead crystallization conditions for both bFGF-DNA complexes.

  3. Monte Carlo simulations of flexible polyanions complexing with whey proteins at their isoelectric point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, R.

    2004-02-01

    Electrostatic complexation of flexible polyanions with the whey proteins α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin is studied using Monte Carlo simulations. The proteins are considered at their respective isoelectric points. Discrete charges on the model polyelectrolytes and proteins interact through Debye-Hückel potentials. Protein excluded volume is taken into account through a coarse-grained model of the protein shape. Consistent with experimental results, it is found that α-lactalbumin complexes much more strongly than β-lactoglobulin. For α-lactalbumin, strong complexation is due to localized binding to a single large positive "charge patch," whereas for β-lactoglobulin, weak complexation is due to diffuse binding to multiple smaller charge patches.

  4. Monte Carlo simulations of flexible polyanions complexing with whey proteins at their isoelectric point.

    PubMed

    de Vries, R

    2004-02-15

    Electrostatic complexation of flexible polyanions with the whey proteins alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin is studied using Monte Carlo simulations. The proteins are considered at their respective isoelectric points. Discrete charges on the model polyelectrolytes and proteins interact through Debye-Huckel potentials. Protein excluded volume is taken into account through a coarse-grained model of the protein shape. Consistent with experimental results, it is found that alpha-lactalbumin complexes much more strongly than beta-lactoglobulin. For alpha-lactalbumin, strong complexation is due to localized binding to a single large positive "charge patch," whereas for beta-lactoglobulin, weak complexation is due to diffuse binding to multiple smaller charge patches. Copyright 2004 American Institute of Physics

  5. Lateral release of proteins from the TOM complex into the outer membrane of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Harner, Max; Neupert, Walter; Deponte, Marcel

    2011-07-15

    The TOM complex of the outer membrane of mitochondria is the entry gate for the vast majority of precursor proteins that are imported into the mitochondria. It is made up by receptors and a protein conducting channel. Although precursor proteins of all subcompartments of mitochondria use the TOM complex, it is not known whether its channel can only mediate passage across the outer membrane or also lateral release into the outer membrane. To study this, we have generated fusion proteins of GFP and Tim23 which are inserted into the inner membrane and, at the same time, are spanning either the TOM complex or are integrated into the outer membrane. Our results demonstrate that the TOM complex, depending on sequence determinants in the precursors, can act both as a protein conducting pore and as an insertase mediating lateral release into the outer membrane.

  6. Thermal proximity coaggregation for system-wide profiling of protein complex dynamics in cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chris Soon Heng; Go, Ka Diam; Bisteau, Xavier; Dai, Lingyun; Yong, Chern Han; Prabhu, Nayana; Ozturk, Mert Burak; Lim, Yan Ting; Sreekumar, Lekshmy; Lengqvist, Johan; Tergaonkar, Vinay; Kaldis, Philipp; Sobota, Radoslaw M; Nordlund, Pär

    2018-03-09

    Proteins differentially interact with each other across cellular states and conditions, but an efficient proteome-wide strategy to monitor them is lacking. We report the application of thermal proximity coaggregation (TPCA) for high-throughput intracellular monitoring of protein complex dynamics. Significant TPCA signatures observed among well-validated protein-protein interactions correlate positively with interaction stoichiometry and are statistically observable in more than 350 annotated human protein complexes. Using TPCA, we identified many complexes without detectable differential protein expression, including chromatin-associated complexes, modulated in S phase of the cell cycle. Comparison of six cell lines by TPCA revealed cell-specific interactions even in fundamental cellular processes. TPCA constitutes an approach for system-wide studies of protein complexes in nonengineered cells and tissues and might be used to identify protein complexes that are modulated in diseases. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  7. Common and distinctive localization patterns of Crumbs polarity complex proteins in the mammalian eye.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Young; Song, Ji Yun; Karnam, Santi; Park, Jun Young; Lee, Jamie J H; Kim, Seonhee; Cho, Seo-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Crumbs polarity complex proteins are essential for cellular and tissue polarity, and for adhesion of epithelial cells. In epithelial tissues deletion of any of three core proteins disrupts localization of the other proteins, indicating structural and functional interdependence among core components. Despite previous studies of function and co-localization that illustrated the properties that these proteins share, it is not known whether an individual component of the complex plays a distinct role in a unique cellular and developmental context. In order to investigate this question, we primarily used confocal imaging to determine the expression and subcellular localization of the core Crumbs polarity complex proteins during ocular development. Here we show that in developing ocular tissues core Crumbs polarity complex proteins, Crb, Pals1 and Patj, generally appear in an overlapping pattern with some exceptions. All three core complex proteins localize to the apical junction of the retinal and lens epithelia. Pals1 is also localized in the Golgi of the retinal cells and Patj localizes to the nuclei of the apically located subset of progenitor cells. These findings suggest that core Crumbs polarity complex proteins exert common and independent functions depending on cellular context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. AMMOS2: a web server for protein-ligand-water complexes refinement via molecular mechanics.

    PubMed

    Labbé, Céline M; Pencheva, Tania; Jereva, Dessislava; Desvillechabrol, Dimitri; Becot, Jérôme; Villoutreix, Bruno O; Pajeva, Ilza; Miteva, Maria A

    2017-07-03

    AMMOS2 is an interactive web server for efficient computational refinement of protein-small organic molecule complexes. The AMMOS2 protocol employs atomic-level energy minimization of a large number of experimental or modeled protein-ligand complexes. The web server is based on the previously developed standalone software AMMOS (Automatic Molecular Mechanics Optimization for in silico Screening). AMMOS utilizes the physics-based force field AMMP sp4 and performs optimization of protein-ligand interactions at five levels of flexibility of the protein receptor. The new version 2 of AMMOS implemented in the AMMOS2 web server allows the users to include explicit water molecules and individual metal ions in the protein-ligand complexes during minimization. The web server provides comprehensive analysis of computed energies and interactive visualization of refined protein-ligand complexes. The ligands are ranked by the minimized binding energies allowing the users to perform additional analysis for drug discovery or chemical biology projects. The web server has been extensively tested on 21 diverse protein-ligand complexes. AMMOS2 minimization shows consistent improvement over the initial complex structures in terms of minimized protein-ligand binding energies and water positions optimization. The AMMOS2 web server is freely available without any registration requirement at the URL: http://drugmod.rpbs.univ-paris-diderot.fr/ammosHome.php. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. SVP-like MADS-box protein from Carya cathayensis forms higher-order complexes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingjing; Hou, Chuanming; Huang, Jianqin; Wang, Zhengjia; Xu, Yingwu

    2015-03-01

    To properly regulate plant flowering time and construct floral pattern, MADS-domain containing transcription factors must form multimers including homo- and hetero-dimers. They are also active in forming hetero-higher-order complexes with three to five different molecules. However, it is not well known if a MADS-box protein can also form homo-higher-order complex. In this study a biochemical approach is utilized to provide insight into the complex formation for an SVP-like MADS-box protein cloned from hickory. The results indicated that the protein is a heterogeneous higher-order complex with the peak population containing over 20 monomers. Y2H verified the protein to form homo-complex in yeast cells. Western blot of the hickory floral bud sample revealed that the protein exists in higher-order polymers in native. Deletion assays indicated that the flexible C-terminal residues are mainly responsible for the higher-order polymer formation and the heterogeneity. Current results provide direct biochemical evidences for an active MADS-box protein to be a high order complex, much higher than a quartermeric polymer. Analysis suggests that a MADS-box subset may be able to self-assemble into large complexes, and thereby differentiate one subfamily from the other in a higher-order structural manner. Present result is a valuable supplement to the action of mechanism for MADS-box proteins in plant development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Interrogation of Mammalian Protein Complex Structure, Function, and Membership Using Genome-Scale Fitness Screens.

    PubMed

    Pan, Joshua; Meyers, Robin M; Michel, Brittany C; Mashtalir, Nazar; Sizemore, Ann E; Wells, Jonathan N; Cassel, Seth H; Vazquez, Francisca; Weir, Barbara A; Hahn, William C; Marsh, Joseph A; Tsherniak, Aviad; Kadoch, Cigall

    2018-05-23

    Protein complexes are assemblies of subunits that have co-evolved to execute one or many coordinated functions in the cellular environment. Functional annotation of mammalian protein complexes is critical to understanding biological processes, as well as disease mechanisms. Here, we used genetic co-essentiality derived from genome-scale RNAi- and CRISPR-Cas9-based fitness screens performed across hundreds of human cancer cell lines to assign measures of functional similarity. From these measures, we systematically built and characterized functional similarity networks that recapitulate known structural and functional features of well-studied protein complexes and resolve novel functional modules within complexes lacking structural resolution, such as the mammalian SWI/SNF complex. Finally, by integrating functional networks with large protein-protein interaction networks, we discovered novel protein complexes involving recently evolved genes of unknown function. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the utility of genetic perturbation screens alone, and in combination with large-scale biophysical data, to enhance our understanding of mammalian protein complexes in normal and disease states. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Crucial HSP70 co–chaperone complex unlocks metazoan protein disaggregation

    PubMed Central

    Nillegoda, Nadinath B.; Kirstein, Janine; Szlachcic, Anna; Berynskyy, Mykhaylo; Stank, Antonia; Stengel, Florian; Arnsburg, Kristin; Gao, Xuechao; Scior, Annika; Aebersold, Ruedi; Guilbride, D. Lys; Wade, Rebecca C.; Morimoto, Richard I.; Mayer, Matthias P.; Bukau, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Protein aggregates are the hallmark of stressed and ageing cells, and characterize several pathophysiological states1,2. Healthy metazoan cells effectively eliminate intracellular protein aggregates3,4, indicating that efficient disaggregation and/or degradation mechanisms exist. However, metazoans lack the key heat-shock protein disaggregase HSP100 of non-metazoan HSP70-dependent protein disaggregation systems5,6, and the human HSP70 system alone, even with the crucial HSP110 nucleotide exchange factor, has poor disaggregation activity in vitro4,7. This unresolved conundrum is central to protein quality control biology. Here we show that synergic cooperation between complexed J-protein co-chaperones of classes A and B unleashes highly efficient protein disaggregation activity in human and nematode HSP70 systems. Metazoan mixed-class J-protein complexes are transient, involve complementary charged regions conserved in the J-domains and carboxy-terminal domains of each J-protein class, and are flexible with respect to subunit composition. Complex formation allows J-proteins to initiate transient higher order chaperone structures involving HSP70 and interacting nucleotide exchange factors. A network of cooperative class A and B J-protein interactions therefore provides the metazoan HSP70 machinery with powerful, flexible, and finely regulatable disaggregase activity and a further level of regulation crucial for cellular protein quality control. PMID:26245380

  12. RING1 is associated with the polycomb group protein complex and acts as a transcriptional repressor.

    PubMed

    Satijn, D P; Gunster, M J; van der Vlag, J; Hamer, K M; Schul, W; Alkema, M J; Saurin, A J; Freemont, P S; van Driel, R; Otte, A P

    1997-07-01

    The Polycomb (Pc) protein is a component of a multimeric, chromatin-associated Polycomb group (PcG) protein complex, which is involved in stable repression of gene activity. The identities of components of the PcG protein complex are largely unknown. In a two-hybrid screen with a vertebrate Pc homolog as a target, we identify the human RING1 protein as interacting with Pc. RING1 is a protein that contains the RING finger motif, a specific zinc-binding domain, which is found in many regulatory proteins. So far, the function of the RING1 protein has remained enigmatic. Here, we show that RING1 coimmunoprecipitates with a human Pc homolog, the vertebrate PcG protein BMI1, and HPH1, a human homolog of the PcG protein Polyhomeotic (Ph). Also, RING1 colocalizes with these vertebrate PcG proteins in nuclear domains of SW480 human colorectal adenocarcinoma and Saos-2 human osteosarcoma cells. Finally, we show that RING1, like Pc, is able to repress gene activity when targeted to a reporter gene. Our findings indicate that RING1 is associated with the human PcG protein complex and that RING1, like PcG proteins, can act as a transcriptional repressor.

  13. Capture of unstable protein complex on the streptavidin-coated single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zunfeng; Voskamp, Patrick; Zhang, Yue; Chu, Fuqiang; Abrahams, Jan Pieter

    2013-04-01

    Purification of unstable protein complexes is a bottleneck for investigation of their 3D structure and in protein-protein interaction studies. In this paper, we demonstrate that streptavidin-coated single-walled carbon nanotubes (Strep•SWNT) can be used to capture the biotinylated DNA- EcoRI complexes on a 2D surface and in solution using atomic force microscopy and electrophoresis analysis, respectively. The restriction enzyme EcoRI forms unstable complexes with DNA in the absence of Mg2+. Capturing the EcoRI-DNA complexes on the Strep•SWNT succeeded in the absence of Mg2+, demonstrating that the Strep•SWNT can be used for purifying unstable protein complexes.

  14. Identification of amino acids that promote specific and rigid TAR RNA-tat protein complex formation.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Thomas E; Robinson, Bruce H; Sigurdsson, Snorri Th

    2005-03-01

    The Tat protein and the transactivation responsive (TAR) RNA form an essential complex in the HIV lifecycle, and mutations in the basic region of the Tat protein alter this RNA-protein molecular recognition. Here, EPR spectroscopy was used to identify amino acids, flanking an essential arginine of the Tat protein, which contribute to specific and rigid TAR-Tat complex formation by monitoring changes in the mobility of nitroxide spin-labeled TAR RNA nucleotides upon binding. Arginine to lysine N-terminal mutations did not affect TAR RNA interfacial dynamics. In contrast, C-terminal point mutations, R56 in particular, affected the mobility of nucleotides U23 and U38, which are involved in a base-triple interaction in the complex. This report highlights the role of dynamics in specific molecular complex formation and demonstrates the ability of EPR spectroscopy to study interfacial dynamics of macromolecular complexes.

  15. DNAproDB: an interactive tool for structural analysis of DNA–protein complexes

    PubMed Central

    Sagendorf, Jared M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Many biological processes are mediated by complex interactions between DNA and proteins. Transcription factors, various polymerases, nucleases and histones recognize and bind DNA with different levels of binding specificity. To understand the physical mechanisms that allow proteins to recognize DNA and achieve their biological functions, it is important to analyze structures of DNA–protein complexes in detail. DNAproDB is a web-based interactive tool designed to help researchers study these complexes. DNAproDB provides an automated structure-processing pipeline that extracts structural features from DNA–protein complexes. The extracted features are organized in structured data files, which are easily parsed with any programming language or viewed in a browser. We processed a large number of DNA–protein complexes retrieved from the Protein Data Bank and created the DNAproDB database to store this data. Users can search the database by combining features of the DNA, protein or DNA–protein interactions at the interface. Additionally, users can upload their own structures for processing privately and securely. DNAproDB provides several interactive and customizable tools for creating visualizations of the DNA–protein interface at different levels of abstraction that can be exported as high quality figures. All functionality is documented and freely accessible at http://dnaprodb.usc.edu. PMID:28431131

  16. Protein Crystal Eco R1 Endonulease-DNA Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Type II restriction enzymes, such as Eco R1 endonulease, present a unique advantage for the study of sequence-specific recognition because they leave a record of where they have been in the form of the cleaved ends of the DNA sites where they were bound. The differential behavior of a sequence -specific protein at sites of differing base sequence is the essence of the sequence-specificity; the core question is how do these proteins discriminate between different DNA sequences especially when the two sequences are very similar. Principal Investigator: Dan Carter/New Century Pharmaceuticals

  17. On the interconnection of stable protein complexes: inter-complex hubs and their conservation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Homo sapiens networks.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Concettina

    2015-01-01

    Protein complexes are key molecular entities that perform a variety of essential cellular functions. The connectivity of proteins within a complex has been widely investigated with both experimental and computational techniques. We developed a computational approach to identify and characterise proteins that play a role in interconnecting complexes. We computed a measure of inter-complex centrality, the crossroad index, based on disjoint paths connecting proteins in distinct complexes and identified inter-complex hubs as proteins with a high value of the crossroad index. We applied the approach to a set of stable complexes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in Homo sapiens. Just as done for hubs, we evaluated the topological and biological properties of inter-complex hubs addressing the following questions. Do inter-complex hubs tend to be evolutionary conserved? What is the relation between crossroad index and essentiality? We found a good correlation between inter-complex hubs and both evolutionary conservation and essentiality.

  18. Conformational dynamics of activation for the pentameric complex of dimeric G protein – coupled receptor and heterotrimeric G protein

    PubMed Central

    Orban, Tivadar; Jastrzebska, Beata; Gupta, Sayan; Wang, Benlian; Miyagi, Masaru; Chance, Mark R.; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    Summary Photoactivation of rhodopsin (Rho), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), causes conformational changes that provide a specific binding site for the rod G protein, Gt. In this work we employed structural mass spectrometry (MS) techniques to elucidate the structural changes accompanying transition of ground state Rho to photoactivated Rho (Rho*) and in the pentameric complex between dimeric Rho* and heterotrimeric Gt. Observed differences in hydroxyl radical labeling and deuterium uptake between Rho* and the (Rho*)2-Gt complex suggest that photoactivation causes structural relaxation of Rho following its initial tightening upon Gt coupling. In contrast, nucleotide-free Gt in the complex is significantly more accessible to deuterium uptake allowing it to accept GTP and mediating complex dissociation. Thus, we provide direct evidence that in the critical step of signal amplification, Rho* and Gt exhibit dissimilar conformational changes when they are coupled in the (Rho*)2-Gt complex. PMID:22579250

  19. Dynamics of Nanoparticle-Protein Corona Complex Formation: Analytical Results from Population Balance Equations

    PubMed Central

    Darabi Sahneh, Faryad; Scoglio, Caterina; Riviere, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Background Nanoparticle-protein corona complex formation involves absorption of protein molecules onto nanoparticle surfaces in a physiological environment. Understanding the corona formation process is crucial in predicting nanoparticle behavior in biological systems, including applications of nanotoxicology and development of nano drug delivery platforms. Method This paper extends the modeling work in to derive a mathematical model describing the dynamics of nanoparticle corona complex formation from population balance equations. We apply nonlinear dynamics techniques to derive analytical results for the composition of nanoparticle-protein corona complex, and validate our results through numerical simulations. Results The model presented in this paper exhibits two phases of corona complex dynamics. In the first phase, proteins rapidly bind to the free surface of nanoparticles, leading to a metastable composition. During the second phase, continuous association and dissociation of protein molecules with nanoparticles slowly changes the composition of the corona complex. Given sufficient time, composition of the corona complex reaches an equilibrium state of stable composition. We find analytical approximate formulae for metastable and stable compositions of corona complex. Our formulae are very well-structured to clearly identify important parameters determining corona composition. Conclusion The dynamics of biocorona formation constitute vital aspect of interactions between nanoparticles and living organisms. Our results further understanding of these dynamics through quantitation of experimental conditions, modeling results for in vitro systems to better predict behavior for in vivo systems. One potential application would involve a single cell culture medium related to a complex protein medium, such as blood or tissue fluid. PMID:23741371

  20. Dynamics of nanoparticle-protein corona complex formation: analytical results from population balance equations.

    PubMed

    Darabi Sahneh, Faryad; Scoglio, Caterina; Riviere, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticle-protein corona complex formation involves absorption of protein molecules onto nanoparticle surfaces in a physiological environment. Understanding the corona formation process is crucial in predicting nanoparticle behavior in biological systems, including applications of nanotoxicology and development of nano drug delivery platforms. This paper extends the modeling work in to derive a mathematical model describing the dynamics of nanoparticle corona complex formation from population balance equations. We apply nonlinear dynamics techniques to derive analytical results for the composition of nanoparticle-protein corona complex, and validate our results through numerical simulations. The model presented in this paper exhibits two phases of corona complex dynamics. In the first phase, proteins rapidly bind to the free surface of nanoparticles, leading to a metastable composition. During the second phase, continuous association and dissociation of protein molecules with nanoparticles slowly changes the composition of the corona complex. Given sufficient time, composition of the corona complex reaches an equilibrium state of stable composition. We find analytical approximate formulae for metastable and stable compositions of corona complex. Our formulae are very well-structured to clearly identify important parameters determining corona composition. The dynamics of biocorona formation constitute vital aspect of interactions between nanoparticles and living organisms. Our results further understanding of these dynamics through quantitation of experimental conditions, modeling results for in vitro systems to better predict behavior for in vivo systems. One potential application would involve a single cell culture medium related to a complex protein medium, such as blood or tissue fluid.

  1. A novel Pfs38 protein complex on the surface of Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage merozoites.

    PubMed

    Paul, Gourab; Deshmukh, Arunaditya; Kaur, Inderjeet; Rathore, Sumit; Dabral, Surbhi; Panda, Ashutosh; Singh, Susheel Kumar; Mohmmed, Asif; Theisen, Michael; Malhotra, Pawan

    2017-02-16

    The Plasmodium genome encodes for a number of 6-Cys proteins that contain a module of six cysteine residues forming three intramolecular disulphide bonds. These proteins have been well characterized at transmission as well as hepatic stages of the parasite life cycle. In the present study, a large complex of 6-Cys proteins: Pfs41, Pfs38 and Pfs12 and three other merozoite surface proteins: Glutamate-rich protein (GLURP), SERA5 and MSP-1 were identified on the Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface. Recombinant 6-cys proteins i.e. Pfs38, Pfs12, Pfs41 as well as PfMSP-1 65 were expressed and purified using Escherichia coli expression system and antibodies were raised against each of these proteins. These antibodies were used to immunoprecipitate the native proteins and their associated partners from parasite lysate. ELISA, Far western, surface plasmon resonance and glycerol density gradient fractionation were carried out to confirm the respective interactions. Furthermore, erythrocyte binding assay with 6-cys proteins were undertaken to find out their possible role in host-parasite infection and seropositivity was assessed using Indian and Liberian sera. Immunoprecipitation of parasite-derived polypeptides, followed by LC-MS/MS analysis, identified a large Pfs38 complex comprising of 6-cys proteins: Pfs41, Pfs38, Pfs12 and other merozoite surface proteins: GLURP, SERA5 and MSP-1. The existence of such a complex was further corroborated by several protein-protein interaction tools, co-localization and co-sedimentation analysis. Pfs38 protein of Pfs38 complex binds to host red blood cells (RBCs) directly via glycophorin A as a receptor. Seroprevalence analysis showed that of the six antigens, prevalence varied from 40 to 99%, being generally highest for MSP-1 65 and GLURP proteins. Together the data show the presence of a large Pfs38 protein-associated complex on the parasite surface which is involved in RBC binding. These results highlight the complex molecular

  2. Modifications in structure and interaction of nanoparticle-protein-surfactant complexes in electrolyte solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehan, Sumit; Kumar, S.; Aswal, V. K.; Schweins, R.

    2016-05-01

    SANS experiments of three-component system of anionic silica nanoparticles, anionic BSA protein and anionic SDS surfactants have been carried out without and with electrolyte in aqueous solution. In both the cases, the interaction of surfactant with protein results in formation of bead-necklace structure of protein-surfactant complexes in solution. These protein-surfactant complexes interact very differently with nanoparticles in absence and presence of electrolyte. In absence of electrolyte, nanoparticles remain in dispersed phase in solution, whereas with the addition of electrolyte the nanoparticles fractal aggregates are formed. SANS describes the phase behavior to be governed by competition of electrostatic and depletion interactions among the components solution.

  3. MD simulations of papillomavirus DNA-E2 protein complexes hints at a protein structural code for DNA deformation.

    PubMed

    Falconi, M; Oteri, F; Eliseo, T; Cicero, D O; Desideri, A

    2008-08-01

    The structural dynamics of the DNA binding domains of the human papillomavirus strain 16 and the bovine papillomavirus strain 1, complexed with their DNA targets, has been investigated by modeling, molecular dynamics simulations, and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. The simulations underline different dynamical features of the protein scaffolds and a different mechanical interaction of the two proteins with DNA. The two protein structures, although very similar, show differences in the relative mobility of secondary structure elements. Protein structural analyses, principal component analysis, and geometrical and energetic DNA analyses indicate that the two transcription factors utilize a different strategy in DNA recognition and deformation. Results show that the protein indirect DNA readout is not only addressable to the DNA molecule flexibility but it is finely tuned by the mechanical and dynamical properties of the protein scaffold involved in the interaction.

  4. Structure of the Get3 targeting factor in complex with its membrane protein cargo

    DOE PAGES

    Mateja, Agnieszka; Paduch, Marcin; Chang, Hsin-Yang; ...

    2015-03-06

    Tail-anchored (TA) proteins are a physiologically important class of membrane proteins targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum by the conserved guided-entry of TA proteins (GET) pathway. During transit, their hydrophobic transmembrane domains (TMDs) are chaperoned by the cytosolic targeting factor Get3, but the molecular nature of the functional Get3-TA protein targeting complex remains unknown. In this paper, we reconstituted the physiologic assembly pathway for a functional targeting complex and showed that it comprises a TA protein bound to a Get3 homodimer. Crystal structures of Get3 bound to different TA proteins showed an α-helical TMD occupying a hydrophobic groove that spans themore » Get3 homodimer. Finally, our data elucidate the mechanism of TA protein recognition and shielding by Get3 and suggest general principles of hydrophobic domain chaperoning by cellular targeting factors.« less

  5. Direct Modulation of Heterotrimeric G Protein-coupled Signaling by a Receptor Kinase Complex.

    PubMed

    Tunc-Ozdemir, Meral; Urano, Daisuke; Jaiswal, Dinesh Kumar; Clouse, Steven D; Jones, Alan M

    2016-07-01

    Plants and some protists have heterotrimeric G protein complexes that activate spontaneously without canonical G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In Arabidopsis, the sole 7-transmembrane regulator of G protein signaling 1 (AtRGS1) modulates the G protein complex by keeping it in the resting state (GDP-bound). However, it remains unknown how a myriad of biological responses is achieved with a single G protein modulator. We propose that in complete contrast to G protein activation in animals, plant leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR RLKs), not GPCRs, provide this discrimination through phosphorylation of AtRGS1 in a ligand-dependent manner. G protein signaling is directly activated by the pathogen-associated molecular pattern flagellin peptide 22 through its LRR RLK, FLS2, and co-receptor BAK1. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Improved understanding of protein complex offers insight into DNA

    Science.gov Websites

    replication - through its crystal structure offers new insight into fundamental mechanisms of DNA replication Advanced Photon Source (APS), a U.S. Department of Energy User Facility based at Argonne National Laboratory, to obtain the first atomic-level resolution picture of this complex. The structure shows that

  7. Improving prediction of heterodimeric protein complexes using combination with pairwise kernel.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Peiying; Hayashida, Morihiro; Akutsu, Tatsuya; Vert, Jean-Philippe

    2018-02-19

    Since many proteins become functional only after they interact with their partner proteins and form protein complexes, it is essential to identify the sets of proteins that form complexes. Therefore, several computational methods have been proposed to predict complexes from the topology and structure of experimental protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. These methods work well to predict complexes involving at least three proteins, but generally fail at identifying complexes involving only two different proteins, called heterodimeric complexes or heterodimers. There is however an urgent need for efficient methods to predict heterodimers, since the majority of known protein complexes are precisely heterodimers. In this paper, we use three promising kernel functions, Min kernel and two pairwise kernels, which are Metric Learning Pairwise Kernel (MLPK) and Tensor Product Pairwise Kernel (TPPK). We also consider the normalization forms of Min kernel. Then, we combine Min kernel or its normalization form and one of the pairwise kernels by plugging. We applied kernels based on PPI, domain, phylogenetic profile, and subcellular localization properties to predicting heterodimers. Then, we evaluate our method by employing C-Support Vector Classification (C-SVC), carrying out 10-fold cross-validation, and calculating the average F-measures. The results suggest that the combination of normalized-Min-kernel and MLPK leads to the best F-measure and improved the performance of our previous work, which had been the best existing method so far. We propose new methods to predict heterodimers, using a machine learning-based approach. We train a support vector machine (SVM) to discriminate interacting vs non-interacting protein pairs, based on informations extracted from PPI, domain, phylogenetic profiles and subcellular localization. We evaluate in detail new kernel functions to encode these data, and report prediction performance that outperforms the state-of-the-art.

  8. Stability and immunogenicity of hypoallergenic peanut protein-polyphenol complexes during in vitro pepsin digestion.

    PubMed

    Plundrich, Nathalie J; White, Brittany L; Dean, Lisa L; Davis, Jack P; Foegeding, E Allen; Lila, Mary Ann

    2015-07-01

    Allergenic peanut proteins are relatively resistant to digestion, and if digested, metabolized peptides tend to remain large and immunoreactive, triggering allergic reactions in sensitive individuals. In this study, the stability of hypoallergenic peanut protein-polyphenol complexes was evaluated during simulated in vitro gastric digestion. When digested with pepsin, the basic subunit of the peanut allergen Ara h 3 was more rapidly hydrolyzed in peanut protein-cranberry or green tea polyphenol complexes compared to uncomplexed peanut flour. Ara h 2 was also hydrolyzed more quickly in the peanut protein-cranberry polyphenol complex than in uncomplexed peanut flour. Peptides from peanut protein-cranberry polyphenol complexes and peanut protein-green tea polyphenol complexes were substantially less immunoreactive (based on their capacity to bind to peanut-specific IgE from patient plasma) compared to peptides from uncomplexed peanut flour. These results suggest that peanut protein-polyphenol complexes may be less immunoreactive passing through the digestive tract in vivo, contributing to their attenuated allergenicity.

  9. Sequence co-evolution gives 3D contacts and structures of protein complexes

    PubMed Central

    Hopf, Thomas A; Schärfe, Charlotta P I; Rodrigues, João P G L M; Green, Anna G; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Sander, Chris; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J; Marks, Debora S

    2014-01-01

    Protein–protein interactions are fundamental to many biological processes. Experimental screens have identified tens of thousands of interactions, and structural biology has provided detailed functional insight for select 3D protein complexes. An alternative rich source of information about protein interactions is the evolutionary sequence record. Building on earlier work, we show that analysis of correlated evolutionary sequence changes across proteins identifies residues that are close in space with sufficient accuracy to determine the three-dimensional structure of the protein complexes. We evaluate prediction performance in blinded tests on 76 complexes of known 3D structure, predict protein–protein contacts in 32 complexes of unknown structure, and demonstrate how evolutionary couplings can be used to distinguish between interacting and non-interacting protein pairs in a large complex. With the current growth of sequences, we expect that the method can be generalized to genome-wide elucidation of protein–protein interaction networks and used for interaction predictions at residue resolution. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03430.001 PMID:25255213

  10. Complex Stability of Single Proteins Explored by Forced Unfolding Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Janovjak, Harald; Sapra, K. Tanuj; Müller, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    In the last decade atomic force microscopy has been used to measure the mechanical stability of single proteins. These force spectroscopy experiments have shown that many water-soluble and membrane proteins unfold via one or more intermediates. Recently, Li and co-workers found a linear correlation between the unfolding force of the native state and the intermediate in fibronectin, which they suggested indicated the presence of a molecular memory or multiple unfolding pathways (1). Here, we apply two independent methods in combination with Monte Carlo simulations to analyze the unfolding of α-helices E and D of bacteriorhodopsin (BR). We show that correlation analysis of unfolding forces is very sensitive to errors in force calibration of the instrument. In contrast, a comparison of relative forces provides a robust measure for the stability of unfolding intermediates. The proposed approach detects three energetically different states of α-helices E and D in trimeric BR. These states are not observed for monomeric BR and indicate that substantial information is hidden in forced unfolding experiments of single proteins. PMID:15792967

  11. Complex stability of single proteins explored by forced unfolding experiments.

    PubMed

    Janovjak, Harald; Sapra, K Tanuj; Müller, Daniel J

    2005-05-01

    In the last decade atomic force microscopy has been used to measure the mechanical stability of single proteins. These force spectroscopy experiments have shown that many water-soluble and membrane proteins unfold via one or more intermediates. Recently, Li and co-workers found a linear correlation between the unfolding force of the native state and the intermediate in fibronectin, which they suggested indicated the presence of a molecular memory or multiple unfolding pathways (1). Here, we apply two independent methods in combination with Monte Carlo simulations to analyze the unfolding of alpha-helices E and D of bacteriorhodopsin (BR). We show that correlation analysis of unfolding forces is very sensitive to errors in force calibration of the instrument. In contrast, a comparison of relative forces provides a robust measure for the stability of unfolding intermediates. The proposed approach detects three energetically different states of alpha-helices E and D in trimeric BR. These states are not observed for monomeric BR and indicate that substantial information is hidden in forced unfolding experiments of single proteins.

  12. Protein complex purification from Thermoplasma acidophilum using a phage display library.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Agnes; Mitani, Yasuo; Tamura, Tomohiro; Boicu, Marius; Nagy, István

    2014-03-01

    We developed a novel protein complex isolation method using a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) based phage display library in a two-step purification procedure. We adapted the antibody-based phage display technology which has been developed for single target proteins to a protein mixture containing about 300 proteins, mostly subunits of Thermoplasma acidophilum complexes. T. acidophilum protein specific phages were selected and corresponding scFvs were expressed in Escherichia coli. E. coli cell lysate containing the expressed His-tagged scFv specific against one antigen protein and T. acidophilum crude cell lysate containing intact target protein complexes were mixed, incubated and subjected to protein purification using affinity and size exclusion chromatography steps. This method was confirmed to isolate intact particles of thermosome and proteasome suitable for electron microscopy analysis and provides a novel protein complex isolation strategy applicable to organisms where no genetic tools are available. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cardiolipin synthesizing enzymes form a complex that interacts with cardiolipin-dependent membrane organizing proteins.

    PubMed

    Serricchio, Mauro; Vissa, Adriano; Kim, Peter K; Yip, Christopher M; McQuibban, G Angus

    2018-04-01

    The mitochondrial glycerophospholipid cardiolipin plays important roles in mitochondrial biology. Most notably, cardiolipin directly binds to mitochondrial proteins and helps assemble and stabilize mitochondrial multi-protein complexes. Despite their importance for mitochondrial health, how the proteins involved in cardiolipin biosynthesis are organized and embedded in mitochondrial membranes has not been investigated in detail. Here we show that human PGS1 and CLS1 are constituents of large protein complexes. We show that PGS1 forms oligomers and associates with CLS1 and PTPMT1. Using super-resolution microscopy, we observed well-organized nanoscale structures formed by PGS1. Together with the observation that cardiolipin and CLS1 are not required for PGS1 to assemble in the complex we predict the presence of a PGS1-centered cardiolipin-synthesizing scaffold within the mitochondrial inner membrane. Using an unbiased proteomic approach we found that PGS1 and CLS1 interact with multiple cardiolipin-binding mitochondrial membrane proteins, including prohibitins, stomatin-like protein 2 and the MICOS components MIC60 and MIC19. We further mapped the protein-protein interaction sites between PGS1 and itself, CLS1, MIC60 and PHB. Overall, this study provides evidence for the presence of a cardiolipin synthesis structure that transiently interacts with cardiolipin-dependent protein complexes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Defining the RNA-Protein Interactions in the Trypanosome Preribosomal Complex

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Ciganda, Martin

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotes, 5S rRNA is transcribed in the nucleoplasm and requires the ribosomal protein L5 to deliver it to the nucleolus for ribosomal assembly. The trypanosome-specific proteins P34 and P37 form a novel preribosomal complex with the eukaryotic conserved L5-5S rRNA complex in the nucleoplasm. Previous results suggested that P34 acts together with L5 to bridge the interaction with 5S rRNA and thus to stabilize 5S rRNA, an important role in the early steps of ribosomal biogenesis. Here, we have delineated the domains of the two protein components, L5 and P34, and regions of the RNA partner, 5S rRNA, that are critical for protein-RNA interactions within the complex. We found that the L18 domain of L5 and the N terminus and RNA recognition motif of P34 bind 5S rRNA. We showed that Trypanosoma brucei L5 binds the β arm of 5S rRNA, while P34 binds loop A/stem V of 5S rRNA. We demonstrated that 5S rRNA is able to enhance the association between the protein components of the complex, L5 and P34. Both loop A/stem V and the β arm of 5S rRNA can separately enhance the protein-protein association, but their effects are neither additive nor synergistic. Domains in the two proteins for protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions overlap or are close to each other. This suggests that 5S rRNA binding might cause conformational changes in L5 and P34 and might also bridge the interactions, thus enhancing binding between the protein partners of this novel complex. PMID:23397568

  15. Crystallization of Mitochondrial Respiratory Complex II from Chicken Heart: a Membrane Protein Complex Diffracting to 2.0 Å.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Li-shar; Borders, Toni M.; Shen, John T.; Wang, Chung-Jen; Berry, Edward

    2006-01-01

    Synopsis A multi-subunit mitochondrial membrane protein complex involved in the Krebs Cycle and respiratory chain has been crystallized in a form suitable for near-atomic resolution structure determination. A procedure is presented for preparation of diffraction-quality crystals of a vertebrate mitochondrial respiratory Complex II. The crystals have the potential to diffract to at least 2.0 Å with optimization of post-crystal-growth treatment and cryoprotection. This should allow determination of the structure of this important and medically relevant membrane protein complex at near-atomic resolution and provide great detail of the mode of binding of substrates and inhibitors at the two substrate-binding sites. PMID:15805592

  16. Quantification of dynamic protein complexes using Renilla luciferase fragment complementation applied to protein kinase A activities in vivo.

    PubMed

    Stefan, E; Aquin, S; Berger, N; Landry, C R; Nyfeler, B; Bouvier, M; Michnick, S W

    2007-10-23

    The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily represents the most important class of pharmaceutical targets. Therefore, the characterization of receptor cascades and their ligands is a prerequisite to discovering novel drugs. Quantification of agonist-induced second messengers and downstream-coupled kinase activities is central to characterization of GPCRs or other pathways that converge on GPCR-mediated signaling. Furthermore, there is a need for simple, cell-based assays that would report on direct or indirect actions on GPCR-mediated effectors of signaling. More generally, there is a demand for sensitive assays to quantify alterations of protein complexes in vivo. We describe the development of a Renilla luciferase (Rluc)-based protein fragment complementation assay (PCA) that was designed specifically to investigate dynamic protein complexes. We demonstrate these features for GPCR-induced disassembly of protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory and catalytic subunits, a key effector of GPCR signaling. Taken together, our observations show that the PCA allows for direct and accurate measurements of live changes of absolute values of protein complex assembly and disassembly as well as cellular imaging and dynamic localization of protein complexes. Moreover, the Rluc-PCA has a sufficiently high signal-to-background ratio to identify endogenously expressed Galpha(s) protein-coupled receptors. We provide pharmacological evidence that the phosphodiesterase-4 family selectively down-regulates constitutive beta-2 adrenergic- but not vasopressin-2 receptor-mediated PKA activities. Our results show that the sensitivity of the Rluc-PCA simplifies the recording of pharmacological profiles of GPCR-based candidate drugs and could be extended to high-throughput screens to identify novel direct modulators of PKA or upstream components of GPCR signaling cascades.

  17. Structural Biology of Proteins of the Multi-enzyme Assembly Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Objectives and research challenges of this effort include: 1. Need to establish Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex protein crystals; 2. Need to test value of microgravity for improving crystal quality of Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex protein crystals; 3. Need to improve flight hardware in order to control and understand the effects of microgravity on crystallization of Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex proteins; 4. Need to integrate sets of national collaborations with the restricted and specific requirements of flight experiments; 5. Need to establish a highly controlled experiment in microgravity with a rigor not yet obtained; 6. Need to communicate both the rigor of microgravity experiments and the scientific value of results obtained from microgravity experiments to the national community; and 7. Need to advance the understanding of Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex structures so that scientific and commercial advance is identified for these proteins.

  18. Proteoform-specific protein binding of small molecules in complex matrices

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Characterizing the specific binding between protein targets and small molecules is critically important for drug discovery. Conventional assays require isolation and purification of small molecules from complex matrices through multistep chromatographic fractionation, which may alter their original ...

  19. Protein complex could be key to drug responsiveness in lymphoma patients | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Continuing a decades-long refinement in understanding how and why a drug is more effective in some patients with lymphoma than others has led to the discovery of a complex of proteins that affects drug responsiveness.

  20. Complex network theory for the identification and assessment of candidate protein targets.

    PubMed

    McGarry, Ken; McDonald, Sharon

    2018-06-01

    In this work we use complex network theory to provide a statistical model of the connectivity patterns of human proteins and their interaction partners. Our intention is to identify important proteins that may be predisposed to be potential candidates as drug targets for therapeutic interventions. Target proteins usually have more interaction partners than non-target proteins, but there are no hard-and-fast rules for defining the actual number of interactions. We devise a statistical measure for identifying hub proteins, we score our target proteins with gene ontology annotations. The important druggable protein targets are likely to have similar biological functions that can be assessed for their potential therapeutic value. Our system provides a statistical analysis of the local and distant neighborhood protein interactions of the potential targets using complex network measures. This approach builds a more accurate model of drug-to-target activity and therefore the likely impact on treating diseases. We integrate high quality protein interaction data from the HINT database and disease associated proteins from the DrugTarget database. Other sources include biological knowledge from Gene Ontology and drug information from DrugBank. The problem is a very challenging one since the data is highly imbalanced between target proteins and the more numerous nontargets. We use undersampling on the training data and build Random Forest classifier models which are used to identify previously unclassified target proteins. We validate and corroborate these findings from the available literature. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Contribution of Human Oral Cells to Astringency by Binding Salivary Protein/Tannin Complexes.

    PubMed

    Soares, Susana; Ferrer-Galego, Raúl; Brandão, Elsa; Silva, Mafalda; Mateus, Nuno; Freitas, Victor de

    2016-10-10

    The most widely accepted mechanism to explain astringency is the interaction and precipitation of salivary proteins by food tannins, in particular proline-rich proteins. However, other mechanisms have been arising to explain astringency, such as binding of tannins to oral cells. In this work, an experimental method was adapted to study the possible contribution of both salivary proteins and oral cells to astringency induced by grape seed procyanidin fractions. Overall, in the absence of salivary proteins, the extent of procyanidin complexation with oral cells increased with increasing procyanidin degree of polymerization (mDP). Procyanidin fractions rich in monomers were the ones with the lowest ability to bind to oral cells. In the presence of salivary proteins and for procyanidins with mDP 2 the highest concentrations (1.5 and 2.0 mM) resulted in an increased binding of procyanidins to oral cells. This was even more evident for fractions III and IV at 1.0 mM and upper concentrations. Regarding the salivary proteins affected, it was possible to observe a decrease of P-B peptide and aPRP proteins for fractions II and III. This decrease is greater as the procyanidins' mDP increases. In fact, for fraction IV an almost total depletion of all salivary proteins was observed. This decrease is due to the formation of insoluble salivary protein/procyanidin complexes. Altogether, these data suggest that some procyanidins are able to bind to oral cells and that the salivary proteins interact with procyanidins forming salivary protein/procyanidin complexes that are also able to link to oral cells. The procyanidins that remain unbound to oral cells are able to bind to salivary proteins forming a large network of salivary protein/procyanidin complexes. Overall, the results presented herein provide one more step to understand food oral astringency onset.

  2. Measurement of protein HC (alpha 1 microglobulin) and protein HC-IgA complex in different body fluids.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Luna, J L; Leyva-Cobián, F; Méndez, E

    1988-01-01

    Protein HC and protein HC-IgA complex were measured in 18 different types of fluid sample from healthy subjects and patients with different illnesses to determine if the concentrations of protein HC and protein HC-IgA complexes could be used to monitor certain diseases, when measured separately. The normal values for HC ranged from between 0.30 mg/l in saliva and 11.7 mg/l in blood plasma. HC-IgA complex has a greater range, from undetectable concentrations (urine, colostrum, and cervical mucus) up to 59.2 mg/l in blood plasma. Undetectable concentrations of HC-IgA complex were also shown in serum from patients with IgA immune deficiency and in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with multiple sclerosis. Increased concentrations of HC were noted in bronchoalveolar fluid from a patient with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, serum from patients with Behcet's syndrome, and in synovial fluid from patients with gout, chondrocalcinosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. On the other hand, the concentrations of HC-IgA complex were raised only in those patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis or rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:2463270

  3. The malaria parasite RhopH protein complex interacts with erythrocyte calmyrin identified from a comprehensive erythrocyte protein library.

    PubMed

    Miura, Toyokazu; Takeo, Satoru; Ntege, Edward H; Otsuki, Hitoshi; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Ishino, Tomoko; Takashima, Eizo; Tsuboi, Takafumi

    2018-06-02

    Malaria merozoite apical organelles; microneme and rhoptry secreted proteins play functional roles during and following invasion of host erythrocytes. Among numerous proteins, the rhoptries discharge high molecular weight proteins known as RhopH complex. Recent reports suggest that the RhopH complex is essential for growth and survival of the malaria parasite within erythrocytes. However, an in-depth understanding of the host-parasite molecular interactions is indispensable. Here we utilized a comprehensive mouse erythrocyte protein library consisting of 443 proteins produced by a wheat germ cell-free system, combined with AlphaScreen technology to identify mouse erythrocyte calmyrin as an interacting molecule of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium yoelii RhopH complex (PyRhopH). The PyRhopH interaction was dependent on the calmyrin N-terminus and divalent cation capacity. The finding unveils a recommendable and invaluable usefulness of our comprehensive mouse erythrocyte protein library together with the AlphaScreen technology in investigating a wide-range of host-parasite molecular interactions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Glycolipid-anchored proteins in neuroblastoma cells form detergent- resistant complexes without caveolin

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    It has been known for a number of years that glycosyl- phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins, in contrast to many transmembrane proteins, are insoluble at 4 degrees C in nonionic detergents such as Triton X-100. Recently, it has been proposed that this behavior reflects the incorporation of GPI-linked proteins into large aggregates that are rich in sphingolipids and cholesterol, as well as in cytoplasmic signaling molecules such as heterotrimeric G proteins and src-family tyrosine kinases. It has been suggested that these lipid-protein complexes are derived from caveolae, non-clathrin- coated invaginations of the plasmalemma that are abundant in endothelial cells, smooth muscle, and lung. Caveolin, a proposed coat protein of caveolae, has been hypothesized to be essential for formation of the complexes. To further investigate the relationship between the detergent-resistant complexes and caveolae, we have characterized the behavior of GPI-anchored proteins in lysates of N2a neuroblastoma cells, which lack morphologically identifiable caveolae, and which do not express caveolin (Shyng, S.-L., J. E. Heuser, and D. A. Harris. 1994. J. Cell Biol. 125:1239-1250). We report here that the complexes prepared from N2a cells display the large size and low buoyant density characteristic of complexes isolated from sources that are rich in caveolae, and contain the same major constituents, including multiple GPI-anchored proteins, alpha and beta subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins, and the tyrosine kinases fyn and yes. Our results argue strongly that detergent-resistant complexes are not equivalent to caveolae in all cell types, and that in neuronal cells caveolin is not essential for the integrity of these complexes. PMID:7537273

  5. Proteins required for lipopolysaccharide assembly in Escherichia coli form a transenvelope complex.

    PubMed

    Chng, Shu-Sin; Gronenberg, Luisa S; Kahne, Daniel

    2010-06-08

    The viability of Gram-negative organisms is dependent on the proper placement of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the outer leaflet of its outer membrane. LPS is synthesized inside the cell and transported to the surface by seven essential lipopolysaccharide transport (Lpt) proteins. How these proteins cooperate to transport LPS is unknown. We show that these Lpt proteins can be found in a membrane fraction that contains inner and outer membranes and that they copurify. This constitutes the first evidence that the Lpt proteins form a transenvelope complex. We suggest that this protein bridge provides a route for LPS transport across the cell envelope.

  6. On the Importance of Polar Interactions for Complexes Containing Intrinsically Disordered Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Eric T. C.; Na, Dokyun; Gsponer, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing recognition for the importance of proteins with large intrinsically disordered (ID) segments in cell signaling and regulation. ID segments in these proteins often harbor regions that mediate molecular recognition. Coupled folding and binding of the recognition regions has been proposed to confer high specificity to interactions involving ID segments. However, researchers recently questioned the origin of the interaction specificity of ID proteins because of the overrepresentation of hydrophobic residues in their interaction interfaces. Here, we focused on the role of polar and charged residues in interactions mediated by ID segments. Making use of the extended nature of most ID segments when in complex with globular proteins, we first identified large numbers of complexes between globular proteins and ID segments by using radius-of-gyration-based selection criteria. Consistent with previous studies, we found the interfaces of these complexes to be enriched in hydrophobic residues, and that these residues contribute significantly to the stability of the interaction interface. However, our analyses also show that polar interactions play a larger role in these complexes than in structured protein complexes. Computational alanine scanning and salt-bridge analysis indicate that interfaces in ID complexes are highly complementary with respect to electrostatics, more so than interfaces of globular proteins. Follow-up calculations of the electrostatic contributions to the free energy of binding uncovered significantly stronger Coulombic interactions in complexes harbouring ID segments than in structured protein complexes. However, they are counter-balanced by even higher polar-desolvation penalties. We propose that polar interactions are a key contributing factor to the observed high specificity of ID segment-mediated interactions. PMID:23990768

  7. The multiBac protein complex production platform at the EMBL.

    PubMed

    Berger, Imre; Garzoni, Frederic; Chaillet, Maxime; Haffke, Matthias; Gupta, Kapil; Aubert, Alice

    2013-07-11

    Proteomics research revealed the impressive complexity of eukaryotic proteomes in unprecedented detail. It is now a commonly accepted notion that proteins in cells mostly exist not as isolated entities but exert their biological activity in association with many other proteins, in humans ten or more, forming assembly lines in the cell for most if not all vital functions.(1,2) Knowledge of the function and architecture of these multiprotein assemblies requires their provision in superior quality and sufficient quantity for detailed analysis. The paucity of many protein complexes in cells, in particular in eukaryotes, prohibits their extraction from native sources, and necessitates recombinant production. The baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) has proven to be particularly useful for producing eukaryotic proteins, the activity of which often relies on post-translational processing that other commonly used expression systems often cannot support.(3) BEVS use a recombinant baculovirus into which the gene of interest was inserted to infect insect cell cultures which in turn produce the protein of choice. MultiBac is a BEVS that has been particularly tailored for the production of eukaryotic protein complexes that contain many subunits.(4) A vital prerequisite for efficient production of proteins and their complexes are robust protocols for all steps involved in an expression experiment that ideally can be implemented as standard operating procedures (SOPs) and followed also by non-specialist users with comparative ease. The MultiBac platform at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) uses SOPs for all steps involved in a multiprotein complex expression experiment, starting from insertion of the genes into an engineered baculoviral genome optimized for heterologous protein production properties to small-scale analysis of the protein specimens produced.(5-8) The platform is installed in an open-access mode at EMBL Grenoble and has supported many

  8. An Ocular Protein Triad Can Classify Four Complex Retinal Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuiper, J. J. W.; Beretta, L.; Nierkens, S.; van Leeuwen, R.; Ten Dam-van Loon, N. H.; Ossewaarde-van Norel, J.; Bartels, M. C.; de Groot-Mijnes, J. D. F.; Schellekens, P.; de Boer, J. H.; Radstake, T. R. D. J.

    2017-01-01

    Retinal diseases generally are vision-threatening conditions that warrant appropriate clinical decision-making which currently solely dependents upon extensive clinical screening by specialized ophthalmologists. In the era where molecular assessment has improved dramatically, we aimed at the identification of biomarkers in 175 ocular fluids to classify four archetypical ocular conditions affecting the retina (age-related macular degeneration, idiopathic non-infectious uveitis, primary vitreoretinal lymphoma, and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment) with one single test. Unsupervised clustering of ocular proteins revealed a classification strikingly similar to the clinical phenotypes of each disease group studied. We developed and independently validated a parsimonious model based merely on three proteins; interleukin (IL)-10, IL-21, and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) that could correctly classify patients with an overall accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of respectively, 86.7%, 79.4% and 92.5%. Here, we provide proof-of-concept for molecular profiling as a diagnostic aid for ophthalmologists in the care for patients with retinal conditions.

  9. Influence of pea protein aggregates on the structure and stability of pea protein/soybean polysaccharide complex emulsions.

    PubMed

    Yin, Baoru; Zhang, Rujing; Yao, Ping

    2015-03-20

    The applications of plant proteins in the food and beverage industry have been hampered by their precipitation in acidic solution. In this study, pea protein isolate (PPI) with poor dispersibility in acidic solution was used to form complexes with soybean soluble polysaccharide (SSPS), and the effects of PPI aggregates on the structure and stability of PPI/SSPS complex emulsions were investigated. Under acidic conditions, high pressure homogenization disrupts the PPI aggregates and the electrostatic attraction between PPI and SSPS facilitates the formation of dispersible PPI/SSPS complexes. The PPI/SSPS complex emulsions prepared from the PPI containing aggregates prove to possess similar droplet structure and similar stability compared with the PPI/SSPS emulsions produced from the PPI in which the aggregates have been previously removed by centrifugation. The oil droplets are protected by PPI/SSPS complex interfacial films and SSPS surfaces. The emulsions show long-term stability against pH and NaCl concentration changes. This study demonstrates that PPI aggregates can also be used to produce stable complex emulsions, which may promote the applications of plant proteins in the food and beverage industry.

  10. Binding Linkage in a Telomere DNA–Protein Complex at the Ends of Oxytricha nova Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Buczek, Pawel; Orr, Rochelle S.; Pyper, Sean R.; Shum, Mili; Ota, Emily Kimmel Irene; Gerum, Shawn E.; Horvath, Martin P.

    2005-01-01

    Alpha and beta protein subunits of the telomere end binding protein from Oxytricha nova (OnTEBP) combine with telomere single strand DNA to form a protective cap at the ends of chromosomes. We tested how protein–protein interactions seen in the co-crystal structure relate to DNA binding through use of fusion proteins engineered as different combinations of domains and subunits derived from OnTEBP. Joining alpha and beta resulted in a protein that bound single strand telomere DNA with high affinity (KD-DNA=1.4 nM). Another fusion protein, constructed without the C-terminal protein–protein interaction domain of alpha, bound DNA with 200-fold diminished affinity (KD-DNA=290 nM) even though the DNA-binding domains of alpha and beta were joined through a peptide linker. Adding back the alpha C-terminal domain as a separate protein restored high-affinity DNA binding. The binding behaviors of these fusion proteins and the native protein subunits are consistent with cooperative linkage between protein-association and DNA-binding equilibria. Linking DNA–protein stability to protein–protein contacts at a remote site may provide a trigger point for DNA–protein disassembly during telomere replication when the single strand telomere DNA must exchange between a very stable OnTEBP complex and telomerase. PMID:15967465

  11. BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NATIVE USHER PROTEIN COMPLEXES FROM A VESICULAR SUBFRACTION OF TRACHEAL EPITHELIAL CELLS†

    PubMed Central

    Zallocchi, Marisa; Sisson, Joseph H.; Cosgrove, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Usher syndrome is the major cause of deaf/blindness in the world. It is a genetic heterogeneous disorder, with nine genes already identified as causative for the disease. We noted expression of all known Usher proteins in bovine tracheal epithelial cells, and exploited this system for large-scale biochemical analysis of Usher protein complexes. The dissected epithelia were homogenized in non-detergent buffer, and sedimented on sucrose gradients. At least two complexes were evident after the first gradient: one formed by specific isoforms of CDH23, PCDH15 and VLGR-1, and a different one at the top of the gradient that included all the Usher proteins and rab5, a transport vesicle marker. TEM analysis of these top fractions found them enriched in 100–200 nm vesicles, confirming a vesicular association of the Usher complex(es). Immunoisolation of these vesicles confirmed some of the associations already predicted and identified novel interactions. When the vesicles are lysed in the presence of phenylbutyrate, most of the Usher proteins co-sediment into the gradient at a sedimentation coefficient of approximately 50S, correlating with a predicted molecular mass of 2 × 106 Daltons. Although it is still unclear whether there is only one complex or several independent complexes that are trafficked within distinct vesicular pools, this work shows for the first time that native Usher proteins complexes occur in vivo. This complex(es) is present primarily in transport vesicles at the apical pole of tracheal epithelial cells, predicting that Usher proteins may be directionally transported as complexes in hair cells and photoreceptors. PMID:20058854

  12. Biochemical characterization of native Usher protein complexes from a vesicular subfraction of tracheal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zallocchi, Marisa; Sisson, Joseph H; Cosgrove, Dominic

    2010-02-16

    Usher syndrome is the major cause of deaf/blindness in the world. It is a genetic heterogeneous disorder, with nine genes already identified as causative for the disease. We noted expression of all known Usher proteins in bovine tracheal epithelial cells and exploited this system for large-scale biochemical analysis of Usher protein complexes. The dissected epithelia were homogenized in nondetergent buffer and sedimented on sucrose gradients. At least two complexes were evident after the first gradient: one formed by specific isoforms of CDH23, PCDH15, and VLGR-1 and a different one at the top of the gradient that included all of the Usher proteins and rab5, a transport vesicle marker. TEM analysis of these top fractions found them enriched in 100-200 nm vesicles, confirming a vesicular association of the Usher complex(es). Immunoisolation of these vesicles confirmed some of the associations already predicted and identified novel interactions. When the vesicles are lysed in the presence of phenylbutyrate, most of the Usher proteins cosediment into the gradient at a sedimentation coefficient of approximately 50 S, correlating with a predicted molecular mass of 2 x 10(6) Da. Although it is still unclear whether there is only one complex or several independent complexes that are trafficked within distinct vesicular pools, this work shows for the first time that native Usher protein complexes occur in vivo. This complex(es) is present primarily in transport vesicles at the apical pole of tracheal epithelial cells, predicting that Usher proteins may be directionally transported as complexes in hair cells and photoreceptors.

  13. Cryo-EM of dynamic protein complexes in eukaryotic DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingchuan; Yuan, Zuanning; Bai, Lin; Li, Huilin

    2017-01-01

    DNA replication in Eukaryotes is a highly dynamic process that involves several dozens of proteins. Some of these proteins form stable complexes that are amenable to high-resolution structure determination by cryo-EM, thanks to the recent advent of the direct electron detector and powerful image analysis algorithm. But many of these proteins associate only transiently and flexibly, precluding traditional biochemical purification. We found that direct mixing of the component proteins followed by 2D and 3D image sorting can capture some very weakly interacting complexes. Even at 2D average level and at low resolution, EM images of these flexible complexes can provide important biological insights. It is often necessary to positively identify the feature-of-interest in a low resolution EM structure. We found that systematically fusing or inserting maltose binding protein (MBP) to selected proteins is highly effective in these situations. In this chapter, we describe the EM studies of several protein complexes involved in the eukaryotic DNA replication over the past decade or so. We suggest that some of the approaches used in these studies may be applicable to structural analysis of other biological systems. © 2016 The Protein Society.

  14. Detection of the HA-33 protein in botulinum neurotoxin type G complex by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kalb, Suzanne R; Baudys, Jakub; Barr, John R

    2015-10-23

    The disease botulism is caused by intoxication with botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), extremely toxic proteins which cause paralysis. This neurotoxin is produced by some members of the Clostridium botulinum and closely related species, and is produced as a protein complex consisting of the neurotoxin and neurotoxin-associated proteins (NAPs). There are seven known serotypes of BoNT, A-G, and the composition of the NAPs can differ between these serotypes. It was previously published that the BoNT/G complex consisted of BoNT/G, nontoxic-nonhemagglutinin (NTNH), Hemagglutinin 70 (HA-70), and HA-17, but that HA-33, a component of the protein complex of other serotypes of BoNT, was not found. Components of the BoNT/G complex were first separated by SDS-PAGE, and bands corresponding to components of the complex were digested and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Gel bands were identified with sequence coverages of 91% for BoNT/G, 91% for NTNH, 89% for HA-70, and 88% for HA-17. Notably, one gel band was also clearly identified as HA-33 with 93% sequence coverage. The BoNT/G complex consists of BoNT/G, NTNH, HA-70, HA-17, and HA-33. These proteins form the progenitor form of BoNT/G, similar to all other HA positive progenitor toxin complexes.

  15. Intermolecular detergent-membrane protein noes for the characterization of the dynamics of membrane protein-detergent complexes.

    PubMed

    Eichmann, Cédric; Orts, Julien; Tzitzilonis, Christos; Vögeli, Beat; Smrt, Sean; Lorieau, Justin; Riek, Roland

    2014-12-11

    The interaction between membrane proteins and lipids or lipid mimetics such as detergents is key for the three-dimensional structure and dynamics of membrane proteins. In NMR-based structural studies of membrane proteins, qualitative analysis of intermolecular nuclear Overhauser enhancements (NOEs) or paramagnetic resonance enhancement are used in general to identify the transmembrane segments of a membrane protein. Here, we employed a quantitative characterization of intermolecular NOEs between (1)H of the detergent and (1)H(N) of (2)H-perdeuterated, (15)N-labeled α-helical membrane protein-detergent complexes following the exact NOE (eNOE) approach. Structural considerations suggest that these intermolecular NOEs should show a helical-wheel-type behavior along a transmembrane helix or a membrane-attached helix within a membrane protein as experimentally demonstrated for the complete influenza hemagglutinin fusion domain HAfp23. The partial absence of such a NOE pattern along the amino acid sequence as shown for a truncated variant of HAfp23 and for the Escherichia coli inner membrane protein YidH indicates the presence of large tertiary structure fluctuations such as an opening between helices or the presence of large rotational dynamics of the helices. Detergent-protein NOEs thus appear to be a straightforward probe for a qualitative characterization of structural and dynamical properties of membrane proteins embedded in detergent micelles.

  16. G protein βγ complex translocation from plasma membrane to Golgi complex is influenced by receptor γ subunit interaction

    PubMed Central

    Akgoz, Muslum; Kalyanaraman, Vani; Gautam, N.

    2008-01-01

    On activation of a receptor the G protein βγ complex translocates away from the receptor on the plasma membrane to the Golgi complex. The rate of translocation is influenced by the type of γ subunit associated with the G protein. Complementary approaches — imaging living cells expressing fluorescent protein tagged G proteins and assaying reconstituted receptors and G proteins in vitro — were used to identify mechanisms at the basis of the translocation process. Translocation of Gβγ containing mutant γ subunits with altered prenyl moieties showed that the differences in the prenyl moieties were not sufficient to explain the differential effects of geranylgeranylated γ5 and farnesylated γ11 on the translocation process. The translocation properties of Gβγ were altered dramatically by mutating the C terminal tail region of the γ subunit. The translocation characteristics of these mutants suggest that after receptor activation, Gβγ retains contact with a receptor through the γ subunit C terminal domain and that differential interaction of the activated receptor with this domain controls Gβγ translocation from the plasma membrane. PMID:16517125

  17. Computational Approaches for Designing Protein/Inhibitor Complexes and Membrane Protein Variants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayendran, Krishna Gajan

    Drug discovery of small-molecule protein inhibitors is a vast enterprise that involves several scientific disciplines (i.e. genomics, cell biology, x-ray crystallography, chemistry, computer science, statistics), with each discipline focusing on a particular aspect of the process. In this thesis, I use computational and experimental approaches to explore the most fundamental aspect of drug discovery: the molecular interactions of small-molecules inhibitors with proteins. In Part I (Chapters I and II), I describe how computational docking approaches can be used to identify structurally diverse molecules that can inhibit multiple protein targets in the brain. I illustrate this approach using the examples of microtubule-stabilizing agents and inhibitors of cyclooxygenase(COX)-I and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX). In Part II (Chapters III and IV), I focus on membrane proteins, which are notoriously difficult to work with due to their low natural abundances, low yields for heterologous over expression, and propensities toward aggregation. I describe a general approach for designing water-soluble variants of membrane proteins, for the purpose of developing cell-free, label-free, detergent-free, solution-phase studies of protein structure and small-molecule binding. I illustrate this approach through the design of a water-soluble variant of the membrane protein Smoothened, wsSMO. This wsSMO stands to serve as a first-step towards developing membrane protein analogs of this important signaling protein and drug target.

  18. Interactions of cullin3/KCTD5 complexes with both cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins: Evidence for a role in protein stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Rutz, Natalja; Heilbronn, Regine; Weger, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.weger@charite.de

    2015-08-28

    Based on its specific interaction with cullin3 mediated by an N-terminal BTB/POZ homologous domain, KCTD5 has been proposed to function as substrate adapter for cullin3 based ubiquitin E3 ligases. In the present study we tried to validate this hypothesis through identification and characterization of additional KCTD5 interaction partners. For the replication protein MCM7, the zinc finger protein ZNF711 and FAM193B, a yet poorly characterized cytoplasmic protein, we could demonstrate specific interaction with KCTD5 both in yeast two-hybrid and co-precipitation studies in mammalian cells. Whereas trimeric complexes of cullin3 and KCTD5 with the respective KCTD5 binding partner were formed, KCTD5/cullin3 inducedmore » polyubiquitylation and/or proteasome-dependent degradation of these binding partners could not be demonstrated. On the contrary, KCTD5 or Cullin3 overexpression increased ZNF711 protein stability. - Highlights: • KCTD5 nuclear translocation depends upon M phase and protein oligomerization. • Identification of MCM7, ZNF711 and FAM193 as KCTD5 interaction partners. • Formation of trimeric complexes of KCTD5/cullin3 with MCM7, ZNF711 and FAM193B. • KCTD5 is not involved in polyubiquitylation of MCM7 replication factor. • The KCTD5/cullin3 complex stabilizes ZNF711 transcription factor.« less

  19. Analysis of Native-Like Proteins and Protein Complexes Using Cation to Anion Proton Transfer Reactions (CAPTR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laszlo, Kenneth J.; Bush, Matthew F.

    2015-12-01

    Mass spectra of native-like protein complexes often exhibit narrow charge-state distributions, broad peaks, and contributions from multiple, coexisting species. These factors can make it challenging to interpret those spectra, particularly for mixtures with significant heterogeneity. Here we demonstrate the use of ion/ion proton transfer reactions to reduce the charge states of m/ z-selected, native-like ions of proteins and protein complexes, a technique that we refer to as cation to anion proton transfer reactions (CAPTR). We then demonstrate that CAPTR can increase the accuracy of charge state assignments and the resolution of interfering species in native mass spectrometry. The CAPTR product ion spectra for pyruvate kinase exhibit ~30 peaks and enable unambiguous determination of the charge state of each peak, whereas the corresponding precursor spectra exhibit ~6 peaks and the assigned charge states have an uncertainty of ±3%. 15+ bovine serum albumin and 21+ yeast enolase dimer both appear near m/ z 4450 and are completely unresolved in a mixture. After a single CAPTR event, the resulting product ions are baseline resolved. The separation of the product ions increases dramatically after each subsequent CAPTR event; 12 events resulted in a 3000-fold improvement in separation relative to the precursor ions. Finally, we introduce a framework for interpreting and predicting the figures of merit for CAPTR experiments. More generally, these results suggest that CAPTR strongly complements other mass spectrometry tools for analyzing proteins and protein complexes, particularly those in mixtures.

  20. Molecular counting by photobleaching in protein complexes with many subunits: best practices and application to the cellulose synthesis complex

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Yalei; Deffenbaugh, Nathan C.; Anderson, Charles T.; ...

    2014-09-17

    The constituents of large, multisubunit protein complexes dictate their functions in cells, but determining their precise molecular makeup in vivo is challenging. One example of such a complex is the cellulose synthesis complex (CSC), which in plants synthesizes cellulose, the most abundant biopolymer on Earth. In growing plant cells, CSCs exist in the plasma membrane as six-lobed rosettes that contain at least three different cellulose synthase (CESA) isoforms, but the number and stoichiometry of CESAs in each CSC are unknown. To begin to address this question, we performed quantitative photobleaching of GFP-tagged AtCESA3-containing particles in living Arabidopsis thaliana cells usingmore » variable-angle epifluorescence microscopy and developed a set of information-based step detection procedures to estimate the number of GFP molecules in each particle. The step detection algorithms account for changes in signal variance due to changing numbers of fluorophores, and the subsequent analysis avoids common problems associated with fitting multiple Gaussian functions to binned histogram data. The analysis indicates that at least 10 GFP-AtCESA3 molecules can exist in each particle. In conclusion, these procedures can be applied to photobleaching data for any protein complex with large numbers of fluorescently tagged subunits, providing a new analytical tool with which to probe complex composition and stoichiometry.« less

  1. Molecular counting by photobleaching in protein complexes with many subunits: best practices and application to the cellulose synthesis complex

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yalei; Deffenbaugh, Nathan C.; Anderson, Charles T.; Hancock, William O.

    2014-01-01

    The constituents of large, multisubunit protein complexes dictate their functions in cells, but determining their precise molecular makeup in vivo is challenging. One example of such a complex is the cellulose synthesis complex (CSC), which in plants synthesizes cellulose, the most abundant biopolymer on Earth. In growing plant cells, CSCs exist in the plasma membrane as six-lobed rosettes that contain at least three different cellulose synthase (CESA) isoforms, but the number and stoichiometry of CESAs in each CSC are unknown. To begin to address this question, we performed quantitative photobleaching of GFP-tagged AtCESA3-containing particles in living Arabidopsis thaliana cells using variable-angle epifluorescence microscopy and developed a set of information-based step detection procedures to estimate the number of GFP molecules in each particle. The step detection algorithms account for changes in signal variance due to changing numbers of fluorophores, and the subsequent analysis avoids common problems associated with fitting multiple Gaussian functions to binned histogram data. The analysis indicates that at least 10 GFP-AtCESA3 molecules can exist in each particle. These procedures can be applied to photobleaching data for any protein complex with large numbers of fluorescently tagged subunits, providing a new analytical tool with which to probe complex composition and stoichiometry. PMID:25232006

  2. A Light Harvesting Complex-Like Protein in Maintenance of Photosynthetic Components in Chlamydomonas1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lei; Cheng, Dongmei; Huang, Xiahe; Chen, Mei; Xing, Jiale; Gao, Liyan; Li, Lingyu; Wang, Yale; Peng, Lianwei; Wang, Yingchun

    2017-01-01

    Using a genetic approach, we have identified and characterized a novel protein, named Msf1 (Maintenance factor for photosystem I), that is required for the maintenance of specific components of the photosynthetic apparatus in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Msf1 belongs to the superfamily of light-harvesting complex proteins with three transmembrane domains and consensus chlorophyll-binding sites. Loss of Msf1 leads to reduced accumulation of photosystem I and chlorophyll-binding proteins/complexes. Msf1is a component of a thylakoid complex containing key enzymes of the tetrapyrrole biosynthetic pathway, thus revealing a possible link between Msf1 and chlorophyll biosynthesis. Protein interaction assays and greening experiments demonstrate that Msf1 interacts with Copper target homolog1 (CHL27B) and accumulates concomitantly with chlorophyll in Chlamydomonas, implying that chlorophyll stabilizes Msf1. Contrary to other light-harvesting complex-like genes, the expression of Msf1 is not stimulated by high-light stress, but its protein level increases significantly under heat shock, iron and copper limitation, as well as in stationary cells. Based on these results, we propose that Msf1 is required for the maintenance of photosystem I and specific protein-chlorophyll complexes especially under certain stress conditions. PMID:28637830

  3. Unraveling the CHIP:Hsp70 complex as an information processor for protein quality control.

    PubMed

    VanPelt, Jamie; Page, Richard C

    2017-02-01

    The CHIP:Hsp70 complex stands at the crossroads of the cellular protein quality control system. Hsp70 facilitates active refolding of misfolded client proteins, while CHIP directs ubiquitination of misfolded client proteins bound to Hsp70. The direct competition between CHIP and Hsp70 for the fate of misfolded proteins leads to the question: how does the CHIP:Hsp70 complex execute triage decisions that direct misfolded proteins for either refolding or degradation? The current body of literature points toward action of the CHIP:Hsp70 complex as an information processor that takes inputs in the form of client folding state, dynamics, and posttranslational modifications, then outputs either refolded or ubiquitinated client proteins. Herein we examine the CHIP:Hsp70 complex beginning with the structure and function of CHIP and Hsp70, followed by an examination of recent studies of the interactions and dynamics of the CHIP:Hsp70 complex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nanoparticle-Fusion Protein Complexes Protect against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.

    PubMed

    Hart, Peter; Copland, Alastair; Diogo, Gil Reynolds; Harris, Shane; Spallek, Ralf; Oehlmann, Wulf; Singh, Mahavir; Basile, Juan; Rottenberg, Martin; Paul, Matthew John; Reljic, Rajko

    2018-03-07

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from infectious disease, and the current vaccine, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), is inadequate. Nanoparticles (NPs) are an emerging vaccine technology, with recent successes in oncology and infectious diseases. NPs have been exploited as antigen delivery systems and also for their adjuvantic properties. However, the mechanisms underlying their immunological activity remain obscure. Here, we developed a novel mucosal TB vaccine (Nano-FP1) based upon yellow carnauba wax NPs (YC-NPs), coated with a fusion protein consisting of three Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens: Acr, Ag85B, and HBHA. Mucosal immunization of BCG-primed mice with Nano-FP1 significantly enhanced protection in animals challenged with low-dose, aerosolized Mtb. Bacterial control by Nano-FP1 was associated with dramatically enhanced cellular immunity compared to BCG, including superior CD4 + and CD8 + T cell proliferation, tissue-resident memory T cell (Trm) seeding in the lungs, and cytokine polyfunctionality. Alongside these effects, we also observed potent humoral responses, such as the generation of Ag85B-specific serum IgG and respiratory IgA. Finally, we found that YC-NPs were able to activate antigen-presenting cells via an unconventional IRF-3-associated activation signature, without the production of potentially harmful inflammatory mediators, providing a mechanistic framework for vaccine efficacy and future development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Refined views of multi-protein complexes in the erythrocyte membrane

    PubMed Central

    Mankelow, TJ; Satchwell, TJ; Burton, NM

    2015-01-01

    The erythrocyte membrane has been extensively studied, both as a model membrane system and to investigate its role in gas exchange and transport. Much is now known about the protein components of the membrane, how they are organised into large multi-protein complexes and how they interact with each other within these complexes. Many links between the membrane and the cytoskeleton have also been delineated and have been demonstrated to be crucial for maintaining the deformability and integrity of the erythrocyte. In this study we have refined previous, highly speculative molecular models of these complexes by including the available data pertaining to known protein-protein interactions. While the refined models remain highly speculative, they provide an evolving framework for visualisation of these important cellular structures at the atomic level. PMID:22465511

  6. An automated method for finding molecular complexes in large protein interaction networks

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Gary D; Hogue, Christopher WV

    2003-01-01

    Background Recent advances in proteomics technologies such as two-hybrid, phage display and mass spectrometry have enabled us to create a detailed map of biomolecular interaction networks. Initial mapping efforts have already produced a wealth of data. As the size of the interaction set increases, databases and computational methods will be required to store, visualize and analyze the information in order to effectively aid in knowledge discovery. Results This paper describes a novel graph theoretic clustering algorithm, "Molecular Complex Detection" (MCODE), that detects densely connected regions in large protein-protein interaction networks that may represent molecular complexes. The method is based on vertex weighting by local neighborhood density and outward traversal from a locally dense seed protein to isolate the dense regions according to given parameters. The algorithm has the advantage over other graph clustering methods of having a directed mode that allows fine-tuning of clusters of interest without considering the rest of the network and allows examination of cluster interconnectivity, which is relevant for protein networks. Protein interaction and complex information from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used for evaluation. Conclusion Dense regions of protein interaction networks can be found, based solely on connectivity data, many of which correspond to known protein complexes. The algorithm is not affected by a known high rate of false positives in data from high-throughput interaction techniques. The program is available from . PMID:12525261

  7. An asymmetric structure of the Bacillus subtilis replication terminator protein in complex with DNA.

    PubMed

    Vivian, J P; Porter, C J; Wilce, J A; Wilce, M C J

    2007-07-13

    In Bacillus subtilis, the termination of DNA replication via polar fork arrest is effected by a specific protein:DNA complex formed between the replication terminator protein (RTP) and DNA terminator sites. We report the crystal structure of a replication terminator protein homologue (RTP.C110S) of B. subtilis in complex with the high affinity component of one of its cognate DNA termination sites, known as the TerI B-site, refined at 2.5 A resolution. The 21 bp RTP:DNA complex displays marked structural asymmetry in both the homodimeric protein and the DNA. This is in contrast to the previously reported complex formed with a symmetrical TerI B-site homologue. The induced asymmetry is consistent with the complex's solution properties as determined using NMR spectroscopy. Concomitant with this asymmetry is variation in the protein:DNA binding pattern for each of the subunits of the RTP homodimer. It is proposed that the asymmetric "wing" positions, as well as other asymmetrical features of the RTP:DNA complex, are critical for the cooperative binding that underlies the mechanism of polar fork arrest at the complete terminator site.

  8. MFIB: a repository of protein complexes with mutual folding induced by binding.

    PubMed

    Fichó, Erzsébet; Reményi, István; Simon, István; Mészáros, Bálint

    2017-11-15

    It is commonplace that intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are involved in crucial interactions in the living cell. However, the study of protein complexes formed exclusively by IDPs is hindered by the lack of data and such analyses remain sporadic. Systematic studies benefited other types of protein-protein interactions paving a way from basic science to therapeutics; yet these efforts require reliable datasets that are currently lacking for synergistically folding complexes of IDPs. Here we present the Mutual Folding Induced by Binding (MFIB) database, the first systematic collection of complexes formed exclusively by IDPs. MFIB contains an order of magnitude more data than any dataset used in corresponding studies and offers a wide coverage of known IDP complexes in terms of flexibility, oligomeric composition and protein function from all domains of life. The included complexes are grouped using a hierarchical classification and are complemented with structural and functional annotations. MFIB is backed by a firm development team and infrastructure, and together with possible future community collaboration it will provide the cornerstone for structural and functional studies of IDP complexes. MFIB is freely accessible at http://mfib.enzim.ttk.mta.hu/. The MFIB application is hosted by Apache web server and was implemented in PHP. To enrich querying features and to enhance backend performance a MySQL database was also created. simon.istvan@ttk.mta.hu, meszaros.balint@ttk.mta.hu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. Application of linker technique to trap transiently interacting protein complexes for structural studies

    PubMed Central

    Reddy Chichili, Vishnu Priyanka; Kumar, Veerendra; Sivaraman, J.

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions are key events controlling several biological processes. We have developed and employed a method to trap transiently interacting protein complexes for structural studies using glycine-rich linkers to fuse interacting partners, one of which is unstructured. Initial steps involve isothermal titration calorimetry to identify the minimum binding region of the unstructured protein in its interaction with its stable binding partner. This is followed by computational analysis to identify the approximate site of the interaction and to design an appropriate linker length. Subsequently, fused constructs are generated and characterized using size exclusion chromatography and dynamic light scattering experiments. The structure of the chimeric protein is then solved by crystallization, and validated both in vitro and in vivo by substituting key interacting residues of the full length, unlinked proteins with alanine. This protocol offers the opportunity to study crucial and currently unattainable transient protein interactions involved in various biological processes. PMID:26985443

  10. Bioluminescence methodology for the detection of protein-protein interactions within the voltage-gated sodium channel macromolecular complex.

    PubMed

    Shavkunov, Alexander; Panova, Neli; Prasai, Anesh; Veselenak, Ron; Bourne, Nigel; Stoilova-McPhie, Svetla; Laezza, Fernanda

    2012-04-01

    Protein-protein interactions are critical molecular determinants of ion channel function and emerging targets for pharmacological interventions. Yet, current methodologies for the rapid detection of ion channel macromolecular complexes are still lacking. In this study we have adapted a split-luciferase complementation assay (LCA) for detecting the assembly of the voltage-gated Na+ (Nav) channel C-tail and the intracellular fibroblast growth factor 14 (FGF14), a functionally relevant component of the Nav channelosome that controls gating and targeting of Nav channels through direct interaction with the channel C-tail. In the LCA, two complementary N-terminus and C-terminus fragments of the firefly luciferase were fused, respectively, to a chimera of the CD4 transmembrane segment and the C-tail of Nav1.6 channel (CD4-Nav1.6-NLuc) or FGF14 (CLuc-FGF14). Co-expression of CLuc-FGF14 and CD4-Nav1.6-NLuc in live cells led to a robust assembly of the FGF14:Nav1.6 C-tail complex, which was attenuated by introducing single-point mutations at the predicted FGF14:Nav channel interface. To evaluate the dynamic regulation of the FGF14:Nav1.6 C-tail complex by signaling pathways, we investigated the effect of kinase inhibitors on the complex formation. Through a platform of counter screenings, we show that the p38/MAPK inhibitor, PD169316, and the IκB kinase inhibitor, BAY 11-7082, reduce the FGF14:Nav1.6 C-tail complementation, highlighting a potential role of the p38MAPK and the IκB/NFκB pathways in controlling neuronal excitability through protein-protein interactions. We envision the methodology presented here as a new valuable tool to allow functional evaluations of protein-channel complexes toward probe development and drug discovery targeting ion channels implicated in human disorders.

  11. Interactions of the Human MCM-BP Protein with MCM Complex Components and Dbf4

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tin; Jagannathan, Madhav; Shire, Kathy; Frappier, Lori

    2012-01-01

    MCM-BP was discovered as a protein that co-purified from human cells with MCM proteins 3 through 7; results which were recapitulated in frogs, yeast and plants. Evidence in all of these organisms supports an important role for MCM-BP in DNA replication, including contributions to MCM complex unloading. However the mechanisms by which MCM-BP functions and associates with MCM complexes are not well understood. Here we show that human MCM-BP is capable of interacting with individual MCM proteins 2 through 7 when co-expressed in insect cells and can greatly increase the recovery of some recombinant MCM proteins. Glycerol gradient sedimentation analysis indicated that MCM-BP interacts most strongly with MCM4 and MCM7. Similar gradient analyses of human cell lysates showed that only a small amount of MCM-BP overlapped with the migration of MCM complexes and that MCM complexes were disrupted by exogenous MCM-BP. In addition, large complexes containing MCM-BP and MCM proteins were detected at mid to late S phase, suggesting that the formation of specific MCM-BP complexes is cell cycle regulated. We also identified an interaction between MCM-BP and the Dbf4 regulatory component of the DDK kinase in both yeast 2-hybrid and insect cell co-expression assays, and this interaction was verified by co-immunoprecipitation of endogenous proteins from human cells. In vitro kinase assays showed that MCM-BP was not a substrate for DDK but could inhibit DDK phosphorylation of MCM4,6,7 within MCM4,6,7 or MCM2-7 complexes, with little effect on DDK phosphorylation of MCM2. Since DDK is known to activate DNA replication through phosphorylation of these MCM proteins, our results suggest that MCM-BP may affect DNA replication in part by regulating MCM phosphorylation by DDK. PMID:22540012

  12. Interactions of the human MCM-BP protein with MCM complex components and Dbf4.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tin; Jagannathan, Madhav; Shire, Kathy; Frappier, Lori

    2012-01-01

    MCM-BP was discovered as a protein that co-purified from human cells with MCM proteins 3 through 7; results which were recapitulated in frogs, yeast and plants. Evidence in all of these organisms supports an important role for MCM-BP in DNA replication, including contributions to MCM complex unloading. However the mechanisms by which MCM-BP functions and associates with MCM complexes are not well understood. Here we show that human MCM-BP is capable of interacting with individual MCM proteins 2 through 7 when co-expressed in insect cells and can greatly increase the recovery of some recombinant MCM proteins. Glycerol gradient sedimentation analysis indicated that MCM-BP interacts most strongly with MCM4 and MCM7. Similar gradient analyses of human cell lysates showed that only a small amount of MCM-BP overlapped with the migration of MCM complexes and that MCM complexes were disrupted by exogenous MCM-BP. In addition, large complexes containing MCM-BP and MCM proteins were detected at mid to late S phase, suggesting that the formation of specific MCM-BP complexes is cell cycle regulated. We also identified an interaction between MCM-BP and the Dbf4 regulatory component of the DDK kinase in both yeast 2-hybrid and insect cell co-expression assays, and this interaction was verified by co-immunoprecipitation of endogenous proteins from human cells. In vitro kinase assays showed that MCM-BP was not a substrate for DDK but could inhibit DDK phosphorylation of MCM4,6,7 within MCM4,6,7 or MCM2-7 complexes, with little effect on DDK phosphorylation of MCM2. Since DDK is known to activate DNA replication through phosphorylation of these MCM proteins, our results suggest that MCM-BP may affect DNA replication in part by regulating MCM phosphorylation by DDK.

  13. Two alternative binding mechanisms connect the protein translocation Sec71-Sec72 complex with heat shock proteins.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Arati; Mandon, Elisabet C; Gilmore, Reid; Rapoport, Tom A

    2017-05-12

    The biosynthesis of many eukaryotic proteins requires accurate targeting to and translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Post-translational protein translocation in yeast requires both the Sec61 translocation channel, and a complex of four additional proteins: Sec63, Sec62, Sec71, and Sec72. The structure and function of these proteins are largely unknown. This pathway also requires the cytosolic Hsp70 protein Ssa1, but whether Ssa1 associates with the translocation machinery to target protein substrates to the membrane is unclear. Here, we use a combined structural and biochemical approach to explore the role of Sec71-Sec72 subcomplex in post-translational protein translocation. To this end, we report a crystal structure of the Sec71-Sec72 complex, which revealed that Sec72 contains a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain that is anchored to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane by Sec71. We also determined the crystal structure of this TPR domain with a C-terminal peptide derived from Ssa1, which suggests how Sec72 interacts with full-length Ssa1. Surprisingly, Ssb1, a cytoplasmic Hsp70 that binds ribosome-associated nascent polypeptide chains, also binds to the TPR domain of Sec72, even though it lacks the TPR-binding C-terminal residues of Ssa1. We demonstrate that Ssb1 binds through its ATPase domain to the TPR domain, an interaction that leads to inhibition of nucleotide exchange. Taken together, our results suggest that translocation substrates can be recruited to the Sec71-Sec72 complex either post-translationally through Ssa1 or co-translationally through Ssb1. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Two alternative binding mechanisms connect the protein translocation Sec71-Sec72 complex with heat shock proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, Arati; Mandon, Elisabet C.; Gilmore, Reid

    The biosynthesis of many eukaryotic proteins requires accurate targeting to and translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Post-translational protein translocation in yeast requires both the Sec61 translocation channel, and a complex of four additional proteins: Sec63, Sec62, Sec71, and Sec72. The structure and function of these proteins are largely unknown. This pathway also requires the cytosolic Hsp70 protein Ssa1, but whether Ssa1 associates with the translocation machinery to target protein substrates to the membrane is unclear. Here, we use a combined structural and biochemical approach to explore the role of Sec71-Sec72 subcomplex in post-translational protein translocation. To this end, wemore » report a crystal structure of the Sec71-Sec72 complex, which revealed that Sec72 contains a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain that is anchored to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane by Sec71. We also determined the crystal structure of this TPR domain with a C-terminal peptide derived from Ssa1, which suggests how Sec72 interacts with full-length Ssa1. Surprisingly, Ssb1, a cytoplasmic Hsp70 that binds ribosome-associated nascent polypeptide chains, also binds to the TPR domain of Sec72, even though it lacks the TPR-binding C-terminal residues of Ssa1. We demonstrate that Ssb1 binds through its ATPase domain to the TPR domain, an interaction that leads to inhibition of nucleotide exchange. Taken together, our results suggest that translocation substrates can be recruited to the Sec71-Sec72 complex either post-translationally through Ssa1 or co-translationally through Ssb1.« less

  15. MALDI mass spectrometry of dye-peptide and dye-protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Salih, B; Zenobi, R

    1998-04-15

    Immobilized sulfonate dyes are widely used for protein separation and purification, but the mode of interaction between the dye molecules and the proteins is largely unknown. Here we show that specific noncovalent dye-protein and dye-peptide complexes can be observed using MALDI mass spectrometry. We prove that the interaction is prodominantly electrostatic and that it involves protonated sites of the peptides and proteins, including the NH2 terminus, and deprotonated SO3 groups of the dyes. Furthermore, we show that MALDI-MS of such complexes with a nonacidic matrix, p-nitro-aniline, can be used to determine the number of accessible basic sites of a protein or peptide in its folded structure. Our results are in good agreement with measurements of the same property done with electrospray ionization.

  16. Disassembly of synthetic Agrobacterium T-DNA–protein complexes via the host SCFVBF ubiquitin–ligase complex pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zaltsman, Adi; Lacroix, Benoît; Gafni, Yedidya; Citovsky, Vitaly

    2013-01-01

    One the most intriguing, yet least studied, aspects of the bacterium–host plant interaction is the role of the host ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS) in the infection process. Increasing evidence indicates that pathogenic bacteria subvert the host UPS to facilitate infection. Although both mammalian and plant bacterial pathogens are known to use the host UPS, the first prokaryotic F-box protein, an essential component of UPS, was identified in Agrobacterium. During its infection, which culminates in genetic modification of the host cell, Agrobacterium transfers its T-DNA—as a complex (T-complex) with the bacterial VirE2 and host VIP1 proteins—into the host cell nucleus. There the T-DNA is uncoated from its protein components before undergoing integration into the host genome. It has been suggested that the host UPS mediates this uncoating process, but there is no evidence indicating that this activity can unmask the T-DNA molecule. Here we provide support for the idea that the plant UPS uncoats synthetic T-complexes via the Skp1/Cullin/F-box protein VBF pathway and exposes the T-DNA molecule to external enzymatic activity. PMID:23248273

  17. Tools used to study how protein complexes are assembled in signaling cascades

    PubMed Central

    Dwane, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Most proteins do not function on their own but as part of large signaling complexes that are arranged in every living cell in response to specific environmental cues. Proteins interact with each other either constitutively or transiently and do so with different affinity. When identifying the role played by a protein inside a cell, it is essential to define its particular cohort of binding partners so that the researcher can predict what signaling pathways the protein is engaged in. Once identified and confirmed, the information might allow the interaction to be manipulated by pharmacological inhibitors to help fight disease. PMID:22002082

  18. Co-operative intra-protein structural response due to protein-protein complexation revealed through thermodynamic quantification: study of MDM2-p53 binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Sudipta; Mukherjee, Sanchita

    2017-10-01

    The p53 protein activation protects the organism from propagation of cells with damaged DNA having oncogenic mutations. In normal cells, activity of p53 is controlled by interaction with MDM2. The well understood p53-MDM2 interaction facilitates design of ligands that could potentially disrupt or prevent the complexation owing to its emergence as an important objective for cancer therapy. However, thermodynamic quantification of the p53-peptide induced structural changes of the MDM2-protein remains an area to be explored. This study attempts to understand the conformational free energy and entropy costs due to this complex formation from the histograms of dihedral angles generated from molecular dynamics simulations. Residue-specific quantification illustrates that, hydrophobic residues of the protein contribute maximum to the conformational thermodynamic changes. Thermodynamic quantification of structural changes of the protein unfold the fact that, p53 binding provides a source of inter-element cooperativity among the protein secondary structural elements, where the highest affected structural elements (α2 and α4) found at the binding site of the protein affects faraway structural elements (β1 and Loop1) of the protein. The communication perhaps involves water mediated hydrogen bonded network formation. Further, we infer that in inhibitory F19A mutation of P53, though Phe19 is important in the recognition process, it has less prominent contribution in the stability of the complex. Collectively, this study provides vivid microscopic understanding of the interaction within the protein complex along with exploring mutation sites, which will contribute further to engineer the protein function and binding affinity.

  19. Dissociation of a Dynamic Protein Complex Studied by All-Atom Molecular Simulations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liqun; Borthakur, Susmita; Buck, Matthias

    2016-02-23

    The process of protein complex dissociation remains to be understood at the atomic level of detail. Computers now allow microsecond timescale molecular-dynamics simulations, which make the visualization of such processes possible. Here, we investigated the dissociation process of the EphA2-SHIP2 SAM-SAM domain heterodimer complex using unrestrained all-atom molecular-dynamics simulations. Previous studies on this system have shown that alternate configurations are sampled, that their interconversion can be fast, and that the complex is dynamic by nature. Starting from different NMR-derived structures, mutants were designed to stabilize a subset of configurations by swapping ion pairs across the protein-protein interface. We focused on two mutants, K956D/D1235K and R957D/D1223R, with attenuated binding affinity compared with the wild-type proteins. In contrast to calculations on the wild-type complexes, the majority of simulations of these mutants showed protein dissociation within 2.4 μs. During the separation process, we observed domain rotation and pivoting as well as a translation and simultaneous rolling, typically to alternate and weaker binding interfaces. Several unsuccessful recapturing attempts occurred once the domains were moderately separated. An analysis of protein solvation suggests that the dissociation process correlates with a progressive loss of protein-protein contacts. Furthermore, an evaluation of internal protein dynamics using quasi-harmonic and order parameter analyses indicates that changes in protein internal motions are expected to contribute significantly to the thermodynamics of protein dissociation. Considering protein association as the reverse of the separation process, the initial role of charged/polar interactions is emphasized, followed by changes in protein and solvent dynamics. The trajectories show that protein separation does not follow a single distinct pathway, but suggest that the mechanism of dissociation is common in

  20. Electron transfer protein complexes in the thylakoid membranes of heterocysts from the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Tanai; Battchikova, Natalia; Zhang, Pengpeng; Stensjö, Karin; Aro, Eva-Mari; Lindblad, Peter; Magnuson, Ann

    2009-04-01

    Filamentous, heterocystous cyanobacteria are capable of nitrogen fixation and photoautotrophic growth. Nitrogen fixation takes place in heterocysts that differentiate as a result of nitrogen starvation. Heterocysts uphold a microoxic environment to avoid inactivation of nitrogenase, e.g. by downregulation of oxygenic photosynthesis. The ATP and reductant requirement for the nitrogenase reaction is considered to depend on Photosystem I, but little is known about the organization of energy converting membrane proteins in heterocysts. We have investigated the membrane proteome of heterocysts from nitrogen fixing filaments of Nostoc punctiforme sp. PCC 73102, by 2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The membrane proteome was found to be dominated by the Photosystem I and ATP-synthase complexes. We could identify a significant amount of assembled Photosystem II complexes containing the D1, D2, CP43, CP47 and PsbO proteins from these complexes. We could also measure light-driven in vitro electron transfer from Photosystem II in heterocyst thylakoid membranes. We did not find any partially disassembled Photosystem II complexes lacking the CP43 protein. Several subunits of the NDH-1 complex were also identified. The relative amount of NDH-1M complexes was found to be higher than NDH-1L complexes, which might suggest a role for this complex in cyclic electron transfer in the heterocysts of Nostoc punctiforme.

  1. Jab1 Mediates Protein Degradation of Rad9/Rad1/Hus1 Checkpoint Complex

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jin; Yuan, Honglin; Lu, Chongyuan; Liu, Ximeng; Cao, Xu; Wan, Mei

    2009-01-01

    Summary The Rad1-Rad9-Hus1 (9-1-1) complex serves a dual role as a DNA-damage sensor in checkpoint signaling and as a mediator in DNA repair pathway. However, the intercellular mechanisms that regulate 9-1-1 complex are poorly understood. Jab1, the fifth component of the COP9 signalosome complex, plays a central role in the degradation of multiple proteins and is emerging as an important regulator in cancer development. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Jab1 controls the protein stability of the 9-1-1 complex via the proteosome pathway. We provide evidence that Jab1 physically associates with the 9-1-1 complex. This association is mediated through direct interaction between Jab1 and Rad1, one of the subunits of 9-1-1 complex. Importantly, Jab1 causes the translocation of the 9-1-1 complex from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, mediating rapid degradation of the 9-1-1 complex via 26S proteasome. Furthermore, Jab1 significantly suppresses checkpoint signaling activation, DNA synthesis recovery from blockage and cell viability after replication stresses such as UV exposure, γ radiation and hydroxyurea treatment. These results suggest that Jab1 is an important regulator for 9-1-1 protein stability control in cells, which may provide novel information on the involvement of Jab1 in checkpoint and DNA repair signaling in response to DNA damage. PMID:17583730

  2. Complex evolutionary footprints revealed in an analysis of reused protein segments of diverse lengths

    PubMed Central

    Nepomnyachiy, Sergey; Ben-Tal, Nir; Kolodny, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Proteins share similar segments with one another. Such “reused parts”—which have been successfully incorporated into other proteins—are likely to offer an evolutionary advantage over de novo evolved segments, as most of the latter will not even have the capacity to fold. To systematically explore the evolutionary traces of segment “reuse” across proteins, we developed an automated methodology that identifies reused segments from protein alignments. We search for “themes”—segments of at least 35 residues of similar sequence and structure—reused within representative sets of 15,016 domains [Evolutionary Classification of Protein Domains (ECOD) database] or 20,398 chains [Protein Data Bank (PDB)]. We observe that theme reuse is highly prevalent and that reuse is more extensive when the length threshold for identifying a theme is lower. Structural domains, the best characterized form of reuse in proteins, are just one of many complex and intertwined evolutionary traces. Others include long themes shared among a few proteins, which encompass and overlap with shorter themes that recur in numerous proteins. The observed complexity is consistent with evolution by duplication and divergence, and some of the themes might include descendants of ancestral segments. The observed recursive footprints, where the same amino acid can simultaneously participate in several intertwined themes, could be a useful concept for protein design. Data are available at http://trachel-srv.cs.haifa.ac.il/rachel/ppi/themes/. PMID:29078314

  3. Imaging Complex Protein Metabolism in Live Organisms by Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy with Isotope Labeling

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Protein metabolism, consisting of both synthesis and degradation, is highly complex, playing an indispensable regulatory role throughout physiological and pathological processes. Over recent decades, extensive efforts, using approaches such as autoradiography, mass spectrometry, and fluorescence microscopy, have been devoted to the study of protein metabolism. However, noninvasive and global visualization of protein metabolism has proven to be highly challenging, especially in live systems. Recently, stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy coupled with metabolic labeling of deuterated amino acids (D-AAs) was demonstrated for use in imaging newly synthesized proteins in cultured cell lines. Herein, we significantly generalize this notion to develop a comprehensive labeling and imaging platform for live visualization of complex protein metabolism, including synthesis, degradation, and pulse–chase analysis of two temporally defined populations. First, the deuterium labeling efficiency was optimized, allowing time-lapse imaging of protein synthesis dynamics within individual live cells with high spatial–temporal resolution. Second, by tracking the methyl group (CH3) distribution attributed to pre-existing proteins, this platform also enables us to map protein degradation inside live cells. Third, using two subsets of structurally and spectroscopically distinct D-AAs, we achieved two-color pulse–chase imaging, as demonstrated by observing aggregate formation of mutant hungtingtin proteins. Finally, going beyond simple cell lines, we demonstrated the imaging ability of protein synthesis in brain tissues, zebrafish, and mice in vivo. Hence, the presented labeling and imaging platform would be a valuable tool to study complex protein metabolism with high sensitivity, resolution, and biocompatibility for a broad spectrum of systems ranging from cells to model animals and possibly to humans. PMID:25560305

  4. A new look on protein-polyphenol complexation during honey storage: is this a random or organized event with the help of dirigent-like proteins?

    PubMed

    Brudzynski, Katrina; Sjaarda, Calvin; Maldonado-Alvarez, Liset

    2013-01-01

    Honey storage initiates melanoidin formation that involves a cascade of seemingly unguided redox reactions between amino acids/proteins, reducing sugars and polyphenols. In the process, high molecular weight protein-polyphenol complexes are formed, but the mechanism involved remains unknown. The objective of this study was twofold: to determine quantitative and qualitative changes in proteins in honeys stored for prolonged times and in different temperatures and to relate these changes to the formation of protein-polyphenol complexes. Six -month storage decreased the protein content by 46.7% in all tested honeys (t-test, p<0.002) with the rapid reduction occurring during the first three month. The changes in protein levels coincided with alterations in molecular size and net charge of proteins on SDS -PAGE. Electro-blotted proteins reacted with a quinone-specific nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) on nitrocellulose membranes indicating that quinones derived from oxidized polyphenols formed covalent bonds with proteins. Protein-polyphenol complexes isolated by size-exclusion chromatography differed in size and stoichiometry and fall into two categories: (a) high molecular weight complexes (230-180 kDa) enriched in proteins but possessing a limited reducing activity toward the NBT and (b) lower molecular size complexes (110-85 kDa) enriched in polyphenols but strongly reducing the dye. The variable stoichiometry suggest that the large, "protein-type" complexes were formed by protein cross-linking, while in the smaller, "polyphenol-type" complexes polyphenols were first polymerized prior to protein binding. Quinones preferentially bound a 31 kDa protein which, by the electrospray quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (ESI-Qtof-MS) analysis, showed homology to dirigent-like proteins known for assisting in radical coupling and polymerization of phenolic compounds. These findings provide a new look on protein-polyphenol interaction in honey where the reaction of quinones

  5. Effect of mitochondrial complex I inhibition on Fe-S cluster protein activity

    SciTech Connect

    Mena, Natalia P.; Millennium Institute of Cell Dynamics and Biotechnology, Santiago; Bulteau, Anne Laure

    2011-06-03

    Highlights: {yields} Mitochondrial complex I inhibition resulted in decreased activity of Fe-S containing enzymes mitochondrial aconitase and cytoplasmic aconitase and xanthine oxidase. {yields} Complex I inhibition resulted in the loss of Fe-S clusters in cytoplasmic aconitase and of glutamine phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase. {yields} Consistent with loss of cytoplasmic aconitase activity, an increase in iron regulatory protein 1 activity was found. {yields} Complex I inhibition resulted in an increase in the labile cytoplasmic iron pool. -- Abstract: Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are small inorganic cofactors formed by tetrahedral coordination of iron atoms with sulfur groups. Present in numerous proteins, these clusters aremore » involved in key biological processes such as electron transfer, metabolic and regulatory processes, DNA synthesis and repair and protein structure stabilization. Fe-S clusters are synthesized mainly in the mitochondrion, where they are directly incorporated into mitochondrial Fe-S cluster-containing proteins or exported for cytoplasmic and nuclear cluster-protein assembly. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of mitochondrial complex I by rotenone decreases Fe-S cluster synthesis and cluster content and activity of Fe-S cluster-containing enzymes. Inhibition of complex I resulted in decreased activity of three Fe-S cluster-containing enzymes: mitochondrial and cytosolic aconitases and xanthine oxidase. In addition, the Fe-S cluster content of glutamine phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase and mitochondrial aconitase was dramatically decreased. The reduction in cytosolic aconitase activity was associated with an increase in iron regulatory protein (IRP) mRNA binding activity and with an increase in the cytoplasmic labile iron pool. Since IRP activity post-transcriptionally regulates the expression of iron import proteins, Fe-S cluster inhibition may result in a false iron deficiency signal. Given

  6. A Localized Complex of Two Protein Oligomers Controls the Orientation of Cell Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Lasker, Keren; Ahrens, Daniel G.; Eckart, Michael R.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Signaling hubs at bacterial cell poles establish cell polarity in the absence of membrane-bound compartments. In the asymmetrically dividing bacterium Caulobacter crescentus, cell polarity stems from the cell cycle-regulated localization and turnover of signaling protein complexes in these hubs, and yet the mechanisms that establish the identity of the two cell poles have not been established. Here, we recapitulate the tripartite assembly of a cell fate signaling complex that forms during the G1-S transition. Using in vivo and in vitro analyses of dynamic polar protein complex formation, we show that a polymeric cell polarity protein, SpmX, serves as a direct bridge between the PopZ polymeric network and the cell fate-directing DivJ histidine kinase. We demonstrate the direct binding between these three proteins and show that a polar microdomain spontaneously assembles when the three proteins are coexpressed heterologously in an Escherichia coli test system. The relative copy numbers of these proteins are essential for complex formation, as overexpression of SpmX in Caulobacter reorganizes the polarity of the cell, generating ectopic cell poles containing PopZ and DivJ. Hierarchical formation of higher-order SpmX oligomers nucleates new PopZ microdomain assemblies at the incipient lateral cell poles, driving localized outgrowth. By comparison to self-assembling protein networks and polar cell growth mechanisms in other bacterial species, we suggest that the cooligomeric PopZ-SpmX protein complex in Caulobacter illustrates a paradigm for coupling cell cycle progression to the controlled geometry of cell pole establishment. PMID:28246363

  7. Outer nuclear membrane protein Kuduk modulates the LINC complex and nuclear envelope architecture

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Zhao-Ying; Huang, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Myong-Chol; Tseng, Min-Jen; Chi, Ya-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complexes spanning the nuclear envelope (NE) contribute to nucleocytoskeletal force transduction. A few NE proteins have been found to regulate the LINC complex. In this study, we identify one, Kuduk (Kud), which can reside at the outer nuclear membrane and is required for the development of Drosophila melanogaster ovarian follicles and NE morphology of myonuclei. Kud associates with LINC complex components in an evolutionarily conserved manner. Loss of Kud increases the level but impairs functioning of the LINC complex. Overexpression of Kud suppresses NE targeting of cytoskeleton-free LINC complexes. Thus, Kud acts as a quality control mechanism for LINC-mediated nucleocytoskeletal connections. Genetic data indicate that Kud also functions independently of the LINC complex. Overexpression of the human orthologue TMEM258 in Drosophila proved functional conservation. These findings expand our understanding of the regulation of LINC complexes and NE architecture. PMID:28716842

  8. Complex chromatin condensation patterns and nuclear protein transitions during spermiogenesis: examples from mollusks.

    PubMed

    Chiva, M; Saperas, N; Ribes, E

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we review and analyze the chromatin condensation pattern during spermiogenesis in several species of mollusks. Previously, we had described the nuclear protein transitions during spermiogenesis in these species. The results of our study show two types of condensation pattern: simple patterns and complex patterns, with the following general characteristics: (a) When histones (always present in the early spermatid nucleus) are directly replaced by SNBP (sperm nuclear basic proteins) of the protamine type, the spermiogenic chromatin condensation pattern is simple. However, if the replacement is not direct but through intermediate proteins, the condensation pattern is complex. (b) The intermediate proteins found in mollusks are precursor molecules that are processed during spermiogenesis to the final protamine molecules. Some of these final protamines represent proteins with the highest basic amino acid content known to date, which results in the establishment of a very strong electrostatic interaction with DNA. (c) In some instances, the presence of complex patterns of chromatin condensation clearly correlates with the acquisition of specialized forms of the mature sperm nuclei. In contrast, simple condensation patterns always lead to rounded, oval or slightly cylindrical nuclei. (d) All known cases of complex spermiogenic chromatin condensation patterns are restricted to species with specialized sperm cells (introsperm). At the time of writing, we do not know of any report on complex condensation pattern in species with external fertilization and, therefore, with sperm cells of the primitive type (ect-aquasperm). (e) Some of the mollusk an spermiogenic chromatin condensation patterns of the complex type are very similar (almost identical) to those present in other groups of animals. Interestingly, the intermediate proteins involved in these cases can be very different.In this study, we discuss the biological significance of all these features and

  9. Heterodimerization of the Entamoeba histolytica EhCPADH virulence complex through molecular dynamics and protein-protein docking.

    PubMed

    Montaño, Sarita; Orozco, Esther; Correa-Basurto, José; Bello, Martiniano; Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; Betanzos, Abigail

    2017-02-01

    EhCPADH is a protein complex involved in the virulence of Entamoeba histolytica, the protozoan responsible for human amebiasis. It is formed by the EhCP112 cysteine protease and the EhADH adhesin. To explore the molecular basis of the complex formation, three-dimensional models were built for both proteins and molecular dynamics simulations (MDS) and docking calculations were performed. Results predicted that the pEhCP112 proenzyme and the mEhCP112 mature enzyme were globular and peripheral membrane proteins. Interestingly, in pEhCP112, the propeptide appeared hiding the catalytic site (C167, H329, N348); while in mEhCP112, this site was exposed and its residues were found structurally closer than in pEhCP112. EhADH emerged as an extended peripheral membrane protein with high fluctuation in Bro1 and V shape domains. 500 ns-long MDS and protein-protein docking predictions evidenced different heterodimeric complexes with the lowest free energy. pEhCP112 interacted with EhADH by the propeptide and C-terminal regions and mEhCP112 by the C-terminal through hydrogen bonds. In contrast, EhADH bound to mEhCP112 by 442-479 residues, adjacent to the target cell-adherence region (480-600 residues), and by the Bro1 domain (9-349 residues). Calculations of the effective binding free energy and per residue free energy decomposition showed that EhADH binds to mEhCP112 with a higher binding energy than to pEhCP112, mainly through van der Waals interactions and the nonpolar part of solvation energy. The EhADH and EhCP112 structural relationship was validated in trophozoites by immunofluorescence, TEM, and immunoprecipitation assays. Experimental findings fair agreed with in silico results.

  10. Proteins of the Glycine Decarboxylase Complex in the Hydrogenosome of Trichomonas vaginalis†

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Mandira; Brown, Mark T.; McArthur, Andrew G.; Johnson, Patricia J.

    2006-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a unicellular eukaryote that lacks mitochondria and contains a specialized organelle, the hydrogenosome, involved in carbohydrate metabolism and iron-sulfur cluster assembly. We report the identification of two glycine cleavage H proteins and a dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (L protein) of the glycine decarboxylase complex in T. vaginalis with predicted N-terminal hydrogenosomal presequences. Immunofluorescence analyses reveal that both H and L proteins are localized in hydrogenosomes, providing the first evidence for amino acid metabolism in this organelle. All three proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The experimental Km of L protein for the two H proteins were 2.6 μM and 3.7 μM, consistent with both H proteins serving as substrates of L protein. Analyses using purified hydrogenosomes showed that endogenous H proteins exist as monomers and endogenous L protein as a homodimer in their native states. Phylogenetic analyses of L proteins revealed that the T. vaginalis homologue shares a common ancestry with dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenases from the firmicute bacteria, indicating its acquisition via a horizontal gene transfer event independent of the origins of mitochondria and hydrogenosomes. PMID:17158739

  11. Distinct Roles of Chromatin Insulator Proteins in Control of the Drosophila Bithorax Complex

    PubMed Central

    Savitsky, Mikhail; Kim, Maria; Kravchuk, Oksana; Schwartz, Yuri B.

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin insulators are remarkable regulatory elements that can bring distant genomic sites together and block unscheduled enhancer–promoter communications. Insulators act via associated insulator proteins of two classes: sequence-specific DNA binding factors and “bridging” proteins. The latter are required to mediate interactions between distant insulator elements. Chromatin insulators are critical for correct expression of complex loci; however, their mode of action is poorly understood. Here, we use the Drosophila bithorax complex as a model to investigate the roles of the bridging proteins Cp190 and Mod(mdg4). The bithorax complex consists of three evolutionarily conserved homeotic genes Ubx, abd-A, and Abd-B, which specify anterior–posterior identity of the last thoracic and all abdominal segments of the fly. Looking at effects of CTCF, mod(mdg4), and Cp190 mutations on expression of the bithorax complex genes, we provide the first functional evidence that Mod(mdg4) acts in concert with the DNA binding insulator protein CTCF. We find that Mod(mdg4) and Cp190 are not redundant and may have distinct functional properties. We, for the first time, demonstrate that Cp190 is critical for correct regulation of the bithorax complex and show that Cp190 is required at an exceptionally strong Fub insulator to partition the bithorax complex into two topological domains. PMID:26715665

  12. Structure and stability of complexes of agmatine with some functional receptor residues of proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remko, Milan; Broer, Ria; Remková, Anna; Van Duijnen, Piet Th.

    2017-04-01

    The paper reports the results of a theoretical study of the conformational behavior and basicity of biogenic amine agmatine. The complexes modelling of agmatine - protein interaction are also under scrutiny of our investigation using the Becke3LYP and B97D levels of the density functional theory. The relative stabilities (Gibbs energies) of individual complexes are by both DFT methods described equally. Hydration has a dramatic effect on the hydrogen bonded complexes studied. The pairing acidic carboxylate group with different agmatine species resulted in charged hydrogen bond complexes containing negatively charged acetate species acting as proton acceptors.

  13. Protein-protein interactions and substrate channeling in orthologous and chimeric aldolase-dehydrogenase complexes.

    PubMed

    Baker, Perrin; Hillis, Colleen; Carere, Jason; Seah, Stephen Y K

    2012-03-06

    Bacterial aldolase-dehydrogenase complexes catalyze the last steps in the meta cleavage pathway of aromatic hydrocarbon degradation. The aldolase (TTHB246) and dehydrogenase (TTHB247) from Thermus thermophilus were separately expressed and purified from recombinant Escherichia coli. The aldolase forms a dimer, while the dehydrogenase is a monomer; these enzymes can form a stable tetrameric complex in vitro, consisting of two aldolase and two dehydrogenase subunits. Upon complex formation, the K(m) value of 4-hydroxy-2-oxopentanoate, the substrate of TTHB246, is decreased 4-fold while the K(m) of acetaldehyde, the substrate of TTHB247, is increased 3-fold. The k(cat) values of each enzyme were reduced by ~2-fold when they were in a complex. The half-life of TTHB247 at 50 °C increased by ~4-fold when it was in a complex with TTHB246. The acetaldehyde product from TTHB246 could be efficiently channelled directly to TTHB247, but the channeling efficiency for the larger propionaldehyde was ~40% lower. A single A324G substitution in TTHB246 increased the channeling efficiency of propionaldehyde to a value comparable to that of acetaldehyde. Stable and catalytically competent chimeric complexes could be formed between the T. thermophilus enzymes and the orthologous aldolase (BphI) and dehydrogenase (BphJ) from the biphenyl degradation pathway of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400. However, channeling efficiencies for acetaldehyde in these chimeric complexes were ~10%. Structural and sequence analysis suggests that interacting residues in the interface of the aldolase-dehydrogenase complex are highly conserved among homologues, but coevolution of partner enzymes is required to fine-tune this interaction to allow for efficient substrate channeling.

  14. Biochemical characterization of the prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1.cartilage-associated protein.cyclophilin B complex.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Wirz, Jackie; Vranka, Janice A; Nagata, Kazuhiro; Bächinger, Hans Peter

    2009-06-26

    The rough endoplasmic reticulum-resident protein complex consisting of prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1 (P3H1), cartilage-associated protein (CRTAP), and cyclophilin B (CypB) can be isolated from chick embryos on a gelatin-Sepharose column, indicating some involvement in the biosynthesis of procollagens. Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1 modifies a single proline residue in the alpha chains of type I, II, and III collagens to (3S)-hydroxyproline. The peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity of cyclophilin B was shown previously to catalyze the rate of triple helix formation. Here we show that cyclophilin B in the complex shows peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity and that the P3H1.CRTAP.CypB complex has another important function: it acts as a chaperone molecule when tested with two classical chaperone assays. The P3H1.CRTAP.CypB complex inhibited the thermal aggregation of citrate synthase and was active in the denatured rhodanese refolding and aggregation assay. The chaperone activity of the complex was higher than that of protein-disulfide isomerase, a well characterized chaperone. The P3H1.CRTAP.CypB complex also delayed the in vitro fibril formation of type I collagen, indicating that this complex is also able to interact with triple helical collagen and acts as a collagen chaperone.

  15. Fluorescence anisotropy reveals order and disorder of protein domains in the nuclear pore complex.

    PubMed

    Mattheyses, Alexa L; Kampmann, Martin; Atkinson, Claire E; Simon, Sanford M

    2010-09-22

    We present a new approach for studying individual protein domains within the nuclear pore complex (NPC) using fluorescence polarization microscopy. The NPC is a large macromolecular complex, the size and complexity of which presents experimental challenges. Using fluorescence anisotropy and exploiting the symmetry of the NPC and its organization in the nuclear envelope, we have resolved order and disorder of individual protein domains. Fluorescently tagging specific domains of individual nucleoporins revealed both rigid and flexible domains: the tips of the FG domains are disordered, whereas the NPC-anchored domains are ordered. Our technique allows the collection of structural information in vivo, providing the ability to probe the organization of protein domains within the NPC. This has particular relevance for the FG domain nucleoporins, which are crucial for nucleocytoplasmic transport. Copyright © 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. GBA manager: an online tool for querying low-complexity regions in proteins.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Nirmalya; Kahveci, Tamer

    2010-01-01

    Abstract We developed GBA Manager, an online software that facilitates the Graph-Based Algorithm (GBA) we proposed in our earlier work. GBA identifies the low-complexity regions (LCR) of protein sequences. GBA exploits a similarity matrix, such as BLOSUM62, to compute the complexity of the subsequences of the input protein sequence. It uses a graph-based algorithm to accurately compute the regions that have low complexities. GBA Manager is a user friendly web-service that enables online querying of protein sequences using GBA. In addition to querying capabilities of the existing GBA algorithm, GBA Manager computes the p-values of the LCR identified. The p-value gives an estimate of the possibility that the region appears by chance. GBA Manager presents the output in three different understandable formats. GBA Manager is freely accessible at http://bioinformatics.cise.ufl.edu/GBA/GBA.htm .

  17. Protein complex formation and intranuclear dynamics of NAC1 in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Naomi; Kato, Hiroaki; Sakashita, Gyosuke; Nariai, Yuko; Nakayama, Kentaro; Kyo, Satoru; Urano, Takeshi

    2016-09-15

    Nucleus accumbens-associated protein 1 (NAC1) is a cancer-related transcription regulator protein that is also involved in the pluripotency and differentiation of embryonic stem cells. NAC1 is overexpressed in various carcinomas including ovarian, cervical, breast, and pancreatic carcinomas. NAC1 knock-down was previously shown to result in the apoptosis of ovarian cancer cell lines and to rescue their sensitivity to chemotherapy, suggesting that NAC1 may be a potential therapeutic target, but protein complex formation and the dynamics of intranuclear NAC1 in cancer cells remain poorly understood. In this study, analysis of HeLa cell lysates by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) on a sizing column showed that the NAC1 peak corresponded to an apparent molecular mass of 300-500 kDa, which is larger than the estimated molecular mass (58 kDa) of the protein. Furthermore, live cell photobleaching analyses with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fused NAC1 proteins revealed the intranuclear dynamics of NAC1. Collectively our results demonstrate that NAC1 forms a protein complex to function as a transcriptional regulator in cancer cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Crystallization of the Large Membrane Protein Complex Photosystem I in a Microfluidic Channel

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Bahige G.; Kupitz, Christopher; Fromme, Petra; Ros, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Traditional macroscale protein crystallization is accomplished non-trivially by exploring a range of protein concentrations and buffers in solution until a suitable combination is attained. This methodology is time consuming and resource intensive, hindering protein structure determination. Even more difficulties arise when crystallizing large membrane protein complexes such as photosystem I (PSI) due to their large unit cells dominated by solvent and complex characteristics that call for even stricter buffer requirements. Structure determination techniques tailored for these ‘difficult to crystallize’ proteins such as femtosecond nanocrystallography are being developed, yet still need specific crystal characteristics. Here, we demonstrate a simple and robust method to screen protein crystallization conditions at low ionic strength in a microfluidic device. This is realized in one microfluidic experiment using low sample amounts, unlike traditional methods where each solution condition is set up separately. Second harmonic generation microscopy via Second Order Nonlinear Imaging of Chiral Crystals (SONICC) was applied for the detection of nanometer and micrometer sized PSI crystals within microchannels. To develop a crystallization phase diagram, crystals imaged with SONICC at specific channel locations were correlated to protein and salt concentrations determined by numerical simulations of the time-dependent diffusion process along the channel. Our method demonstrated that a portion of the PSI crystallization phase diagram could be reconstructed in excellent agreement with crystallization conditions determined by traditional methods. We postulate that this approach could be utilized to efficiently study and optimize crystallization conditions for a wide range of proteins that are poorly understood to date. PMID:24191698

  19. Membrane protein complexes catalyze both 4- and 3-hydroxylation of cinnamic acid derivatives in monolignol biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsi-Chuan; Li, Quanzi; Shuford, Christopher M.; Liu, Jie; Muddiman, David C.; Sederoff, Ronald R.; Chiang, Vincent L.

    2011-01-01

    The hydroxylation of 4- and 3-ring carbons of cinnamic acid derivatives during monolignol biosynthesis are key steps that determine the structure and properties of lignin. Individual enzymes have been thought to catalyze these reactions. In stem differentiating xylem (SDX) of Populus trichocarpa, two cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylases (PtrC4H1 and PtrC4H2) and a p-coumaroyl ester 3-hydroxylase (PtrC3H3) are the enzymes involved in these reactions. Here we present evidence that these hydroxylases interact, forming heterodimeric (PtrC4H1/C4H2, PtrC4H1/C3H3, and PtrC4H2/C3H3) and heterotrimeric (PtrC4H1/C4H2/C3H3) membrane protein complexes. Enzyme kinetics using yeast recombinant proteins demonstrated that the enzymatic efficiency (Vmax/km) for any of the complexes is 70–6,500 times greater than that of the individual proteins. The highest increase in efficiency was found for the PtrC4H1/C4H2/C3H3-mediated p-coumaroyl ester 3-hydroxylation. Affinity purification-quantitative mass spectrometry, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, chemical cross-linking, and reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation provide further evidence for these multiprotein complexes. The activities of the recombinant and SDX plant proteins demonstrate two protein-complex–mediated 3-hydroxylation paths in monolignol biosynthesis in P. trichocarpa SDX; one converts p-coumaric acid to caffeic acid and the other converts p-coumaroyl shikimic acid to caffeoyl shikimic acid. Cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylation is also mediated by the same protein complexes. These results provide direct evidence for functional involvement of membrane protein complexes in monolignol biosynthesis. PMID:22160716

  20. 3D DOSY-TROSY to determine the translational diffusion coefficient of large protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Didenko, Tatiana; Boelens, Rolf; Rüdiger, Stefan G D

    2011-01-01

    The translational diffusion coefficient is a sensitive parameter to probe conformational changes in proteins and protein-protein interactions. Pulsed-field gradient NMR spectroscopy allows one to measure the translational diffusion with high accuracy. Two-dimensional (2D) heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy combined with diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) provides improved resolution and therefore selectivity when compared with a conventional 1D readout. Here, we show that a combination of selective isotope labelling, 2D ¹H-¹³C methyl-TROSY (transverse relaxation-optimised spectroscopy) and DOSY allows one to study diffusion properties of large protein complexes. We propose that a 3D DOSY-heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (HMQC) pulse sequence, that uses the TROSY effect of the HMQC sequence for ¹³C methyl-labelled proteins, is highly suitable for measuring the diffusion coefficient of large proteins. We used the 20 kDa co-chaperone p23 as model system to test this 3D DOSY-TROSY technique under various conditions. We determined the diffusion coefficient of p23 in viscous solutions, mimicking large complexes of up to 200 kDa. We found the experimental data to be in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. To demonstrate the use for complex formation, we applied this technique to record the formation of a complex of p23 with the molecular chaperone Hsp90, which is around 200 kDa. We anticipate that 3D DOSY-TROSY will be a useful tool to study conformational changes in large protein complexes.

  1. Comprehensive Characterization of Minichromosome Maintenance Complex (MCM) Protein Interactions Using Affinity and Proximity Purifications Coupled to Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Marie-Line; Bastin, Charlotte; Lévesque, Dominique; Boisvert, François-Michel

    2016-09-02

    The extensive identification of protein-protein interactions under different conditions is an important challenge to understand the cellular functions of proteins. Here we use and compare different approaches including affinity purification and purification by proximity coupled to mass spectrometry to identify protein complexes. We explore the complete interactome of the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex by using both approaches for all of the different MCM proteins. Overall, our analysis identified unique and shared interaction partners and proteins enriched for distinct biological processes including DNA replication, DNA repair, and cell cycle regulation. Furthermore, we mapped the changes in protein interactions of the MCM complex in response to DNA damage, identifying a new role for this complex in DNA repair. In summary, we demonstrate the complementarity of these approaches for the characterization of protein interactions within the MCM complex.

  2. Rescuing the Rescuer: On the Protein Complex between the Human Mitochondrial Acyl Carrier Protein and ISD11.

    PubMed

    Herrera, María Georgina; Pignataro, María Florencia; Noguera, Martín Ezequiel; Cruz, Karen Magalí; Santos, Javier

    2018-05-16

    Iron-sulfur clusters are essential cofactors in many biochemical processes. ISD11, one of the subunits of the protein complex that carries out the cluster assembly in mitochondria, is necessary for cysteine desulfurase NFS1 stability and function. Several authors have recently provided evidence showing that ISD11 interacts with the acyl carrier protein (ACP). We carried out the coexpression of human mitochondrial ACP and ISD11 in E. coli. This work shows that ACP and ISD11 form a soluble, structured, and stable complex able to bind to the human NFS1 subunit modulating its activity. Results suggest that ACP plays a key-role in ISD11 folding and stability in vitro. These findings offer the opportunity to study the mechanism of interaction between ISD11 and NFS1.

  3. Description and control of dissociation channels in gas-phase protein complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thachuk, Mark; Fegan, Sarah K.; Raheem, Nigare

    2016-08-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations of a coarse-grained model of the charged apo-hemoglobin protein complex, this work expands upon our initial report [S. K. Fegan and M. Thachuk, J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 25, 722-728 (2014)] about control of dissociation channels in the gas phase using specially designed charge tags. Employing a charge hopping algorithm and a range of temperatures, a variety of dissociation channels are found for activated gas-phase protein complexes. At low temperatures, a single monomer unfolds and becomes charge enriched. At higher temperatures, two additional channels open: (i) two monomers unfold and charge enrich and (ii) two monomers compete for unfolding with one eventually dominating and the other reattaching to the complex. At even higher temperatures, other more complex dissociation channels open with three or more monomers competing for unfolding. A model charge tag with five sites is specially designed to either attract or exclude charges. By attaching this tag to the N-terminus of specific monomers, the unfolding of those monomers can be decidedly enhanced or suppressed. In other words, using charge tags to direct the motion of charges in a protein complex provides a mechanism for controlling dissociation. This technique could be used in mass spectrometry experiments to direct forces at specific attachment points in a protein complex, and hence increase the diversity of product channels available for quantitative analysis. In turn, this could provide insight into the function of the protein complex in its native biological environment. From a dynamics perspective, this system provides an interesting example of cooperative behaviour involving motions with differing time scales.

  4. The Fanconi anemia protein FANCF forms a nuclear complex with FANCA, FANCC and FANCG.

    PubMed

    de Winter, J P; van der Weel, L; de Groot, J; Stone, S; Waisfisz, Q; Arwert, F; Scheper, R J; Kruyt, F A; Hoatlin, M E; Joenje, H

    2000-11-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a chromosomal instability syndrome associated with a strong predisposition to cancer, particularly acute myeloid leukemia and squamous cell carcinoma. At the cellular level, FA is characterized by spontaneous chromosomal breakage and a unique hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents. Complementation analysis has indicated that at least seven distinct genes are involved in the pathogenesis of FA. Despite the identification of four of these genes (FANCA, FANCC, FANCF and FANCG), the nature of the 'FA pathway' has remained enigmatic, as the FA proteins lack sequence homologies or motifs that could point to a molecular function. To further define this pathway, we studied the subcellular localizations and mutual interactions of the FA proteins, including the recently identified FANCF protein, in human lymphoblasts. FANCF was found predominantly in the nucleus, where it complexes with FANCA, FANCC and FANCG. These interactions were detected in wild-type and FA-D lymphoblasts, but not in lymphoblasts of other FA complementation groups. This implies that each of the FA proteins, except FANCD, is required for these complexes to form. Similarly, we show that the interaction between FANCA and FANCC is restricted to wild-type and FA-D cells. Furthermore, we document the subcellular localization of FANCA and the FANCA/FANCG complex in all FA complementation groups. Our results, along with published data, culminate in a model in which a multi-protein FA complex serves a nuclear function to maintain genomic integrity.

  5. Differences in DNA Binding Specificity of Floral Homeotic Protein Complexes Predict Organ-Specific Target Genes.

    PubMed

    Smaczniak, Cezary; Muiño, Jose M; Chen, Dijun; Angenent, Gerco C; Kaufmann, Kerstin

    2017-08-01

    Floral organ identities in plants are specified by the combinatorial action of homeotic master regulatory transcription factors. However, how these factors achieve their regulatory specificities is still largely unclear. Genome-wide in vivo DNA binding data show that homeotic MADS domain proteins recognize partly distinct genomic regions, suggesting that DNA binding specificity contributes to functional differences of homeotic protein complexes. We used in vitro systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment followed by high-throughput DNA sequencing (SELEX-seq) on several floral MADS domain protein homo- and heterodimers to measure their DNA binding specificities. We show that specification of reproductive organs is associated with distinct binding preferences of a complex formed by SEPALLATA3 and AGAMOUS. Binding specificity is further modulated by different binding site spacing preferences. Combination of SELEX-seq and genome-wide DNA binding data allows differentiation between targets in specification of reproductive versus perianth organs in the flower. We validate the importance of DNA binding specificity for organ-specific gene regulation by modulating promoter activity through targeted mutagenesis. Our study shows that intrafamily protein interactions affect DNA binding specificity of floral MADS domain proteins. Differential DNA binding of MADS domain protein complexes plays a role in the specificity of target gene regulation. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  6. Prioritisation of associations between protein domains and complex diseases using domain-domain interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Zhang, W; Jiang, R; Luan, Y

    2010-05-01

    It is of vital importance to find genetic variants that underlie human complex diseases and locate genes that are responsible for these diseases. Since proteins are typically composed of several structural domains, it is reasonable to assume that harmful genetic variants may alter structures of protein domains, affect functions of proteins and eventually cause disorders. With this understanding, the authors explore the possibility of recovering associations between protein domains and complex diseases. The authors define associations between protein domains and disease families on the basis of associations between non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) and complex diseases, similarities between diseases, and relations between proteins and domains. Based on a domain-domain interaction network, the authors propose a 'guilt-by-proximity' principle to rank candidate domains according to their average distance to a set of seed domains in the domain-domain interaction network. The authors validate the method through large-scale cross-validation experiments on simulated linkage intervals, random controls and the whole genome. Results show that areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC scores) can be as high as 77.90%, and the mean rank ratios can be as low as 21.82%. The authors further offer a freely accessible web interface for a genome-wide landscape of associations between domains and disease families.

  7. Computer simulation of protein—carbohydrate complexes: application to arabinose-binding protein and pea lectin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, V. S. R.; Biswas, Margaret; Mukhopadhyay, Chaitali; Balaji, P. V.

    1989-03-01

    The CCEM method (Contact Criteria and Energy Minimisation) has been developed and applied to study protein-carbohydrate interactions. The method uses available X-ray data even on the native protein at low resolution (above 2.4 Å) to generate realistic models of a variety of proteins with various ligands. The two examples discussed in this paper are arabinose-binding protein (ABP) and pea lectin. The X-ray crystal structure data reported on ABP-β- L-arabinose complex at 2.8, 2.4 and 1.7 Å resolution differ drastically in predicting the nature of the interactions between the protein and ligand. It is shown that, using the data at 2.4 Å resolution, the CCEM method generates complexes which are as good as the higher (1.7 Å) resolution data. The CCEM method predicts some of the important hydrogen bonds between the ligand and the protein which are missing in the interpretation of the X-ray data at 2.4 Å resolution. The theoretically predicted hydrogen bonds are in good agreement with those reported at 1.7 Å resolution. Pea lectin has been solved only in the native form at 3 Å resolution. Application of the CCEM method also enables us to generate complexes of pea lectin with methyl-α- D-glucopyranoside and methyl-2,3-dimethyl-α- D-glucopyranoside which explain well the available experimental data in solution.

  8. Brownian dynamics of a protein-polymer chain complex in a solid-state nanopore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Craig C.; Melnikov, Dmitriy V.; Gracheva, Maria E.

    2017-08-01

    We study the movement of a polymer attached to a large protein inside a nanopore in a thin silicon dioxide membrane submerged in an electrolyte solution. We use Brownian dynamics to describe the motion of a negatively charged polymer chain of varying lengths attached to a neutral protein modeled as a spherical bead with a radius larger than that of the nanopore, allowing the chain to thread the nanopore but preventing it from translocating. The motion of the protein-polymer complex within the pore is also compared to that of a freely translocating polymer. Our results show that the free polymer's standard deviations in the direction normal to the pore axis is greater than that of the protein-polymer complex. We find that restrictions imposed by the protein, bias, and neighboring chain segments aid in controlling the position of the chain in the pore. Understanding the behavior of the protein-polymer chain complex may lead to methods that improve molecule identification by increasing the resolution of ionic current measurements.

  9. Brownian dynamics of a protein-polymer chain complex in a solid-state nanopore.

    PubMed

    Wells, Craig C; Melnikov, Dmitriy V; Gracheva, Maria E

    2017-08-07

    We study the movement of a polymer attached to a large protein inside a nanopore in a thin silicon dioxide membrane submerged in an electrolyte solution. We use Brownian dynamics to describe the motion of a negatively charged polymer chain of varying lengths attached to a neutral protein modeled as a spherical bead with a radius larger than that of the nanopore, allowing the chain to thread the nanopore but preventing it from translocating. The motion of the protein-polymer complex within the pore is also compared to that of a freely translocating polymer. Our results show that the free polymer's standard deviations in the direction normal to the pore axis is greater than that of the protein-polymer complex. We find that restrictions imposed by the protein, bias, and neighboring chain segments aid in controlling the position of the chain in the pore. Understanding the behavior of the protein-polymer chain complex may lead to methods that improve molecule identification by increasing the resolution of ionic current measurements.

  10. Effect of mitochondrial complex I inhibition on Fe-S cluster protein activity.

    PubMed

    Mena, Natalia P; Bulteau, Anne Laure; Salazar, Julio; Hirsch, Etienne C; Núñez, Marco T

    2011-06-03

    Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are small inorganic cofactors formed by tetrahedral coordination of iron atoms with sulfur groups. Present in numerous proteins, these clusters are involved in key biological processes such as electron transfer, metabolic and regulatory processes, DNA synthesis and repair and protein structure stabilization. Fe-S clusters are synthesized mainly in the mitochondrion, where they are directly incorporated into mitochondrial Fe-S cluster-containing proteins or exported for cytoplasmic and nuclear cluster-protein assembly. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of mitochondrial complex I by rotenone decreases Fe-S cluster synthesis and cluster content and activity of Fe-S cluster-containing enzymes. Inhibition of complex I resulted in decreased activity of three Fe-S cluster-containing enzymes: mitochondrial and cytosolic aconitases and xanthine oxidase. In addition, the Fe-S cluster content of glutamine phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase and mitochondrial aconitase was dramatically decreased. The reduction in cytosolic aconitase activity was associated with an increase in iron regulatory protein (IRP) mRNA binding activity and with an increase in the cytoplasmic labile iron pool. Since IRP activity post-transcriptionally regulates the expression of iron import proteins, Fe-S cluster inhibition may result in a false iron deficiency signal. Given that inhibition of complex I and iron accumulation are hallmarks of idiopathic Parkinson's disease, the findings reported here may have relevance for understanding the pathophysiology of this disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cooperation of TOM and TIM23 complexes during translocation of proteins into mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Waegemann, Karin; Popov-Čeleketić, Dušan; Neupert, Walter; Azem, Abdussalam; Mokranjac, Dejana

    2015-03-13

    Translocation of the majority of mitochondrial proteins from the cytosol into mitochondria requires the cooperation of TOM and TIM23 complexes in the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes. The molecular mechanisms underlying this cooperation remain largely unknown. Here, we present biochemical and genetic evidence that at least two contacts from the side of the TIM23 complex play an important role in TOM-TIM23 cooperation in vivo. Tim50, likely through its very C-terminal segment, interacts with Tom22. This interaction is stimulated by translocating proteins and is independent of any other TOM-TIM23 contact known so far. Furthermore, the exposure of Tim23 on the mitochondrial surface depends not only on its interaction with Tim50 but also on the dynamics of the TOM complex. Destabilization of the individual contacts reduces the efficiency of import of proteins into mitochondria and destabilization of both contacts simultaneously is not tolerated by yeast cells. We conclude that an intricate and coordinated network of protein-protein interactions involving primarily Tim50 and also Tim23 is required for efficient translocation of proteins across both mitochondrial membranes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Refinement of Generalized Born Implicit Solvation Parameters for Nucleic Acids and their Complexes with Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hai; Pérez, Alberto; Bermeo, Sherry; Simmerling, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The Generalized Born (GB) implicit solvent model has undergone significant improvements in accuracy for modeling of proteins and small molecules. However, GB still remains a less widely explored option for nucleic acid simulations, in part because fast GB models are often unable to maintain stable nucleic acid structures, or they introduce structural bias in proteins, leading to difficulty in application of GB models in simulations of protein-nucleic acid complexes. Recently, GB-neck2 was developed to improve the behavior of protein simulations. In an effort to create a more accurate model for nucleic acids, a similar procedure to the development of GB-neck2 is described here for nucleic acids. The resulting parameter set significantly reduces absolute and relative energy error relative to Poisson Boltzmann for both nucleic acids and nucleic acid-protein complexes, when compared to its predecessor GB-neck model. This improvement in solvation energy calculation translates to increased structural stability for simulations of DNA and RNA duplexes, quadruplexes, and protein-nucleic acid complexes. The GB-neck2 model also enables successful folding of small DNA and RNA hairpins to near native structures as determined from comparison with experiment. The functional form and all required parameters are provided here and also implemented in the AMBER software. PMID:26574454

  13. Isolation and structure-function characterization of a signaling-active rhodopsin-G protein complex.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yang; Westfield, Gerwin; Erickson, Jon W; Cerione, Richard A; Skiniotis, Georgios; Ramachandran, Sekar

    2017-08-25

    The visual photo-transduction cascade is a prototypical G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling system, in which light-activated rhodopsin (Rho*) is the GPCR catalyzing the exchange of GDP for GTP on the heterotrimeric G protein transducin (G T ). This results in the dissociation of G T into its component α T -GTP and β 1 γ 1 subunit complex. Structural information for the Rho*-G T complex will be essential for understanding the molecular mechanism of visual photo-transduction. Moreover, it will shed light on how GPCRs selectively couple to and activate their G protein signaling partners. Here, we report on the preparation of a stable detergent-solubilized complex between Rho* and a heterotrimer (G T *) comprising a Gα T /Gα i1 chimera (α T *) and β 1 γ 1 The complex was formed on native rod outer segment membranes upon light activation, solubilized in lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol, and purified with a combination of affinity and size-exclusion chromatography. We found that the complex is fully functional and that the stoichiometry of Rho* to Gα T * is 1:1. The molecular weight of the complex was calculated from small-angle X-ray scattering data and was in good agreement with a model consisting of one Rho* and one G T *. The complex was visualized by negative-stain electron microscopy, which revealed an architecture similar to that of the β 2 -adrenergic receptor-G S complex, including a flexible α T * helical domain. The stability and high yield of the purified complex should allow for further efforts toward obtaining a high-resolution structure of this important signaling complex. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Identifying three-dimensional structures of autophosphorylation complexes in crystals of protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qifang; Malecka, Kimberly L.; Fink, Lauren; Jordan, E. Joseph; Duffy, Erin; Kolander, Samuel; Peterson, Jeffrey; Dunbrack, Roland L.

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinase autophosphorylation is a common regulatory mechanism in cell signaling pathways. Crystal structures of several homomeric protein kinase complexes have a serine, threonine, or tyrosine autophosphorylation site of one kinase monomer located in the active site of another monomer, a structural complex that we call an “autophosphorylation complex.” We developed and applied a structural bioinformatics method to identify all such autophosphorylation kinase complexes in X-ray crystallographic structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). We identified 15 autophosphorylation complexes in the PDB, of which 5 complexes had not previously been described in the publications describing the crystal structures. These 5 consist of tyrosine residues in the N-terminal juxtamembrane regions of colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R, Tyr561) and EPH receptor A2 (EPHA2, Tyr594), tyrosine residues in the activation loops of the SRC kinase family member LCK (Tyr394) and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R, Tyr1166), and a serine in a nuclear localization signal region of CDC-like kinase 2 (CLK2, Ser142). Mutations in the complex interface may alter autophosphorylation activity and contribute to disease; therefore we mutated residues in the autophosphorylation complex interface of LCK and found that two mutations impaired autophosphorylation (T445V and N446A) and mutation of Pro447 to Ala, Gly, or Leu increased autophosphorylation. The identified autophosphorylation sites are conserved in many kinases, suggesting that, by homology, these complexes may provide insight into autophosphorylation complex interfaces of kinases that are relevant drug targets. PMID:26628682

  15. The structure of the BfrB-Bfd complex reveals protein-protein interactions enabling iron release from bacterioferritin

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Huili; Wang, Yan; Lovell, Scott; Kumar, Ritesh; Ruvinsky, Anatoly M.; Battaile, Kevin P.; Vakser, Ilya A.; Rivera, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Ferritin-like molecules are unique to cellular iron homeostasis because they can store iron at concentrations much higher than those dictated by the solubility of Fe3+. Very little is known about the protein interactions that deliver iron for storage, or promote the mobilization of stored iron from ferritin-like molecules. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterioferritin (Pa-BfrB) in complex with bacterioferritin-associated ferredoxin (Pa-Bfd) at 2.0 Å resolution. As the first example of a ferritin-like molecule in complex with a cognate partner, the structure provides unprecedented insight into the complementary interface that enables the [2Fe-2S] cluster of Pa-Bfd to promote heme-mediated electron transfer through the BfrB protein dielectric (~18 Å), a process that is necessary to reduce the core ferric mineral and facilitate mobilization of Fe2+. The Pa-BfrB-Bfd complex also revealed the first structure of a Bfd, thus providing a first view to what appears to be a versatile metal binding domain ubiquitous to the large Fer2_BFD family of proteins and enzymes with diverse functions. Residues at the Pa-BfrB-Bfd interface are highly conserved in Bfr and Bfd sequences from a number of pathogenic bacteria, suggesting that the specific recognition between Pa-BfrB and Pa-Bfd is of widespread significance to the understanding of bacterial iron homeostasis. PMID:22812654

  16. Taxonomic distribution and origins of the extended LHC (light-harvesting complex) antenna protein superfamily

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The extended light-harvesting complex (LHC) protein superfamily is a centerpiece of eukaryotic photosynthesis, comprising the LHC family and several families involved in photoprotection, like the LHC-like and the photosystem II subunit S (PSBS). The evolution of this complex superfamily has long remained elusive, partially due to previously missing families. Results In this study we present a meticulous search for LHC-like sequences in public genome and expressed sequence tag databases covering twelve representative photosynthetic eukaryotes from the three primary lineages of plants (Plantae): glaucophytes, red algae and green plants (Viridiplantae). By introducing a coherent classification of the different protein families based on both, hidden Markov model analyses and structural predictions, numerous new LHC-like sequences were identified and several new families were described, including the red lineage chlorophyll a/b-binding-like protein (RedCAP) family from red algae and diatoms. The test of alternative topologies of sequences of the highly conserved chlorophyll-binding core structure of LHC and PSBS proteins significantly supports the independent origins of LHC and PSBS families via two unrelated internal gene duplication events. This result was confirmed by the application of cluster likelihood mapping. Conclusions The independent evolution of LHC and PSBS families is supported by strong phylogenetic evidence. In addition, a possible origin of LHC and PSBS families from different homologous members of the stress-enhanced protein subfamily, a diverse and anciently paralogous group of two-helix proteins, seems likely. The new hypothesis for the evolution of the extended LHC protein superfamily proposed here is in agreement with the character evolution analysis that incorporates the distribution of families and subfamilies across taxonomic lineages. Intriguingly, stress-enhanced proteins, which are universally found in the genomes of green plants

  17. Weighing the evidence for a ternary protein complex mediating A-type K+ currents in neurons.

    PubMed

    Maffie, Jonathon; Rudy, Bernardo

    2008-12-01

    The subthreshold-operating A-type K(+) current in neurons (I(SA)) has important roles in the regulation of neuronal excitability, the timing of action potential firing and synaptic integration and plasticity. The channels mediating this current (Kv4 channels) have been implicated in epilepsy, the control of dopamine release, and the regulation of pain plasticity. It has been proposed that Kv4 channels in neurons are ternary complexes of three types of protein: pore forming subunits of the Kv4 subfamily and two types of auxiliary subunits, the Ca(2+) binding proteins KChIPs and the dipeptidyl peptidase-like proteins (DPPLs) DPP6 (also known as DPPX) and DPP10 (4 molecules of each per channel for a total of 12 proteins in the complex). Here we consider the evidence supporting this hypothesis. Kv4 channels in many neurons are likely to be ternary complexes of these three types of protein. KChIPs and DPPLs are required to efficiently traffic Kv4 channels to the plasma membrane and regulate the functional properties of the channels. These proteins may also be important in determining the localization of the channels to specific neuronal compartments, their dynamics, and their response to neuromodulators. A surprisingly large number of additional proteins have been shown to modify Kv4 channels in heterologous expression systems, but their association with native Kv4 channels in neurons has not been properly validated. A critical consideration of the evidence suggests that it is unlikely that association of Kv4 channels with these additional proteins is widespread in the CNS. However, we cannot exclude that some of these proteins may associate with the channels transiently or in specific neurons or neuronal compartments, or that they may associate with the channels in other tissues.

  18. [Pigment-protein complexes nd the number of the reaction photosystem centers in pea chlorophyll mutants].

    PubMed

    Ladygin, V G

    2004-01-01

    We studied fluorescent and absorption properties of the chloroplasts and pigment-protein complexes isolated by gel electrophoresis from the leaves of pea, the initial cultivar Torsdag and mutants chlorotica 2004 and 2014. Specific maxima of fluorescence and chlorophyll forms in individual complexes have been determined from the absorption and fluorescence spectra of the chloroplast chlorophyll and their secondary derivatives at 23 and -196 degrees C. Chlorotica 2004 mutant proved to have an increased intensity of a long-wave band at both 23 degrees C (745 nm) and -196 degrees C (728 nm) of the light-harvesting complex I. At the same time, this mutant featured a decreased accumulation of chlorophyll forms at 690, 697, and 708 nm forming the nearest-neighbor antenna of PSI reaction center. No spectral differences have been revealed between chlorotica 2014 mutant and the initial cultivar. Gel electrophoresis demonstrated synthesis of all chlorophyll-protein complexes in both mutants. At the same time, analysis of photochemical activity of PSI and PSII reaction centers and evaluation of the light-harvesting antenna as well as the number of reaction centers of the photosystems suggest that chlorotica 2004 mutant has 1.7 times less PSI reaction centers due to a mutation-disturbed chlorophyll a-protein complex of PSI. The primary effect of chlorotica 2014 mutation remains unclear. The proportional changes in the photosystem complexes in this mutant suggest that they are secondary and result from a 50% decrease in chlorophyll content.

  19. Evidence for two interconverting protein isomers in the methotrexate complex of dihydrofolate reductase from Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Falzone, C.J.; Benkovic, S.J.; Wright, P.E.

    1991-02-26

    Two-dimensional {sup 1}H NMR methods and a knowledge of the X-ray crystal structure have been used to make resonance assignments for the amino acid side chains of dihydrofolate reductase from Escherichia coli complexed with methotrexate. The H7 proton on the pteridine ring of methotrexate was found to have NOEs to the methyl protons of Leu-28 which were assigned by using the L28F mutant. These NOEs indicated that the orientation of the methotrexate pteridine ring is similar in both solution and crystal structures. During the initial assignment process, it became evident that many of the resonances in this complex, unlike thosemore » of the folate complex, are severally broadened or doubled. The observation of two distinct sets of resonances in a ratio of approximately 2:1 was attributed to the presence of two protein isomers. Many of the side chains with clearly doubled resonances were located in the {beta}-sheet and the active site. Preliminary studies on the apoprotein also revealed doubled resonances in the absence of the inhibitor, indicating the existence of the protein isomers prior to methotrexate binding. In contrast to the methotrexate complex, the binary complex with folate and the ternary MTX-NADPH-DHFR complex presented a single enzyme form. These results are proposed to reflect the ability of folate and NADPH to bind predominantly to one protein isomer.« less

  20. LINE-1 silencing by retinoblastoma proteins is effected through the nucleosomal and remodeling deacetylase multiprotein complex.

    PubMed

    Montoya-Durango, Diego E; Ramos, Kenneth A; Bojang, Pasano; Ruiz, Lorell; Ramos, Irma N; Ramos, Kenneth S

    2016-01-25

    Long Interspersed Nuclear Element-1 (L1) is an oncogenic mammalian retroelement silenced early in development via tightly controlled epigenetic mechanisms. We have previously shown that the regulatory region of human and murine L1s interact with retinoblastoma (RB) proteins to effect retroelement silencing. The present studies were conducted to identify the corepressor complex responsible for RB-mediated silencing of L1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and silencing RNA technology were used to identify the repressor complex that silences L1 in human and murine cells. Components of the Nucleosomal and Remodeling Deacetylase (NuRD) multiprotein complex specifically enriched the L1 5'-untranslated DNA sequence in human and murine cells. Genetic ablation of RB proteins in murine cells destabilized interactions within the NuRD macromolecular complex and mediated nuclear rearrangement of Mi2-β, an ATP-dependent helicase subunit with nucleosome remodeling activity. Depletion of Mi2-β, RbAP46 and HDAC2 reduced the repressor activity of the NuRD complex and reactivated a synthetic L1 reporter in human cells. Epigenetic reactivation of L1 in RB-null cells by DNA damage was markedly enhanced compared to wild type cells. RB proteins stabilize interactions of the NuRD corepressor complex within the L1 promoter to effect L1 silencing. L1 retroelements may serve as a scaffold on which RB builds heterochromatic regions that regulate chromatin function.

  1. Architecture of the 99 bp DNA-six-protein regulatory complex of the lambda att site.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xingmin; Mierke, Dale F; Biswas, Tapan; Lee, Sang Yeol; Landy, Arthur; Radman-Livaja, Marta

    2006-11-17

    The highly directional and tightly regulated recombination reaction used to site-specifically excise the bacteriophage lambda chromosome out of its E. coli host chromosome requires the binding of six sequence-specific proteins to a 99 bp segment of the phage att site. To gain structural insights into this recombination pathway, we measured 27 FRET distances between eight points on the 99 bp regulatory DNA bound with all six proteins. Triangulation of these distances using a metric matrix distance-geometry algorithm provided coordinates for these eight points. The resulting path for the protein-bound regulatory DNA, which fits well with the genetics, biochemistry, and X-ray crystal structures describing the individual proteins and their interactions with DNA, provides a new structural perspective into the molecular mechanism and regulation of the recombination reaction and illustrates a design by which different families of higher-order complexes can be assembled from different numbers and combinations of the same few proteins.

  2. Golgi-localized STELLO proteins regulate the assembly and trafficking of cellulose synthase complexes in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Nikolovski, Nino; Sorieul, Mathias; Vellosillo, Tamara; McFarlane, Heather E; Dupree, Ray; Kesten, Christopher; Schneider, René; Driemeier, Carlos; Lathe, Rahul; Lampugnani, Edwin; Yu, Xiaolan; Ivakov, Alexander; Doblin, Monika S; Mortimer, Jenny C; Brown, Steven P; Persson, Staffan; Dupree, Paul

    2016-06-09

    As the most abundant biopolymer on Earth, cellulose is a key structural component of the plant cell wall. Cellulose is produced at the plasma membrane by cellulose synthase (CesA) complexes (CSCs), which are assembled in the endomembrane system and trafficked to the plasma membrane. While several proteins that affect CesA activity have been identified, components that regulate CSC assembly and trafficking remain unknown. Here we show that STELLO1 and 2 are Golgi-localized proteins that can interact with CesAs and control cellulose quantity. In the absence of STELLO function, the spatial distribution within the Golgi, secretion and activity of the CSCs are impaired indicating a central role of the STELLO proteins in CSC assembly. Point mutations in the predicted catalytic domains of the STELLO proteins indicate that they are glycosyltransferases facing the Golgi lumen. Hence, we have uncovered proteins that regulate CSC assembly in the plant Golgi apparatus.

  3. Golgi-localized STELLO proteins regulate the assembly and trafficking of cellulose synthase complexes in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Nikolovski, Nino; Sorieul, Mathias; Vellosillo, Tamara; McFarlane, Heather E.; Dupree, Ray; Kesten, Christopher; Schneider, René; Driemeier, Carlos; Lathe, Rahul; Lampugnani, Edwin; Yu, Xiaolan; Ivakov, Alexander; Doblin, Monika S.; Mortimer, Jenny C.; Brown, Steven P.; Persson, Staffan; Dupree, Paul

    2016-01-01

    As the most abundant biopolymer on Earth, cellulose is a key structural component of the plant cell wall. Cellulose is produced at the plasma membrane by cellulose synthase (CesA) complexes (CSCs), which are assembled in the endomembrane system and trafficked to the plasma membrane. While several proteins that affect CesA activity have been identified, components that regulate CSC assembly and trafficking remain unknown. Here we show that STELLO1 and 2 are Golgi-localized proteins that can interact with CesAs and control cellulose quantity. In the absence of STELLO function, the spatial distribution within the Golgi, secretion and activity of the CSCs are impaired indicating a central role of the STELLO proteins in CSC assembly. Point mutations in the predicted catalytic domains of the STELLO proteins indicate that they are glycosyltransferases facing the Golgi lumen. Hence, we have uncovered proteins that regulate CSC assembly in the plant Golgi apparatus. PMID:27277162

  4. Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex-dependent succinylation of proteins in neurons and neuronal cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Gary E.; Xu, Hui; Chen, Huan-Lian; Chen, Wei; Denton, Travis; Zhang, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Reversible post-translation modifications of proteins are common in all cells and appear to regulate many processes. Nevertheless, the enzyme(s) responsible for the alterations and the significance of the modification are largely unknown. Succinylation of proteins occurs and causes large changes in the structure of proteins; however, the source of the succinyl groups, the targets, and the consequences of these modifications on other proteins are unknown. These studies focused on succinylation of mitochondrial proteins. The results demonstrate that the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) can serve as a trans-succinylase that mediates succinylation in an α-ketoglutarate-dependent manner. Inhibition of KGDHC reduced suc-cinylation of both cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins in cultured neurons and in a neuronal cell line. Purified KGDHC can succinylate multiple proteins including other enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle leading to modification of their activity. Inhibition of KGDHC also modifies acetylation by modifying the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. The much greater effectiveness of KGDHC than succinyl CoA suggests that the catalysis due to the E2k suc-cinyltransferase is important. Succinylation appears to be a major signaling system and it can be mediated by KGDHC. PMID:25772995

  5. Prostatic origin of a zinc binding high molecular weight protein complex in human seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, L; De Stefano, C; Petroni, M F; Vivacqua, A; Rago, V; Carpino, A

    2000-03-01

    The profile of the zinc ligand high molecular weight proteins was investigated in the seminal plasma of 55 normozoospermic subjects by size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The proteins were recovered from Sephadex G-75 gel filtration of seminal plasma in three zinc-containing fractions which were then submitted to HPLC analysis. The results were, that in all the samples, the protein profiles showed two peaks with apparent molecular weight of approximately 660 and approximately 250 kDa. Dialysis experiments revealed that both approximately 660 and approximately 250 kDa proteins were able to uptake zinc against gradient indicating their zinc binding capacity. The HPLC analysis of the whole seminal plasma evidenced only the approximately 660 kDa protein complex as a single well quantifying peak, furthermore a positive correlation between its peak area and the seminal zinc values (P < 0.001) was observed. This suggested a prostatic origin of the approximately 660 kDa protein complex which was then confirmed by the seminal plasma HPLC analysis of a subject with agenesis of the Wolffian ducts. Finally the study demonstrated the presence of two zinc binding proteins, approximately 660 and approximately 250 kDa respectively, in human seminal plasma and the prostatic origin of the approximately 660 kDa.

  6. Using Atomic Force Microscopy to Characterize the Conformational Properties of Proteins and Protein-DNA Complexes That Carry Out DNA Repair.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Sharonda; Wilkins, Hunter; Li, Zimeng; Kaur, Parminder; Wang, Hong; Erie, Dorothy A

    2017-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a scanning probe technique that allows visualization of single biomolecules and complexes deposited on a surface with nanometer resolution. AFM is a powerful tool for characterizing protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. It can be used to capture snapshots of protein-DNA solution dynamics, which in turn, enables the characterization of the conformational properties of transient protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. With AFM, it is possible to determine the stoichiometries and binding affinities of protein-protein and protein-DNA associations, the specificity of proteins binding to specific sites on DNA, and the conformations of the complexes. We describe methods to prepare and deposit samples, including surface treatments for optimal depositions, and how to quantitatively analyze images. We also discuss a new electrostatic force imaging technique called DREEM, which allows the visualization of the path of DNA within proteins in protein-DNA complexes. Collectively, these methods facilitate the development of comprehensive models of DNA repair and provide a broader understanding of all protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions. The structural details gleaned from analysis of AFM images coupled with biochemistry provide vital information toward establishing the structure-function relationships that govern DNA repair processes. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Functional Assembly of Soluble and Membrane Recombinant Proteins of Mammalian NADPH Oxidase Complex.

    PubMed

    Souabni, Hajer; Ezzine, Aymen; Bizouarn, Tania; Baciou, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Activation of phagocyte cells from an innate immune system is associated with a massive consumption of molecular oxygen to generate highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) as microbial weapons. This is achieved by a multiprotein complex, the so-called NADPH oxidase. The activity of phagocyte NADPH oxidase relies on an assembly of more than five proteins, among them the membrane heterodimer named flavocytochrome b 558 (Cytb 558 ), constituted by the tight association of the gp91 phox (also named Nox2) and p22 phox proteins. The Cytb 558 is the membrane catalytic core of the NADPH oxidase complex, through which the reducing equivalent provided by NADPH is transferred via the associated prosthetic groups (one flavin and two hemes) to reduce dioxygen into superoxide anion. The other major proteins (p47 phox , p67 phox , p40 phox , Rac) requisite for the complex activity are cytosolic proteins. Thus, the NADPH oxidase functioning relies on a synergic multi-partner assembly that in vivo can be hardly studied at the molecular level due to the cell complexity. Thus, a cell-free assay method has been developed to study the NADPH oxidase activity that allows measuring and eventually quantifying the ROS generation based on optical techniques following reduction of cytochrome c. This setup is a valuable tool for the identification of protein interactions, of crucial components and additives for a functional enzyme. Recently, this method was improved by the engineering and the production of a complete recombinant NADPH oxidase complex using the combination of purified proteins expressed in bacterial and yeast host cells. The reconstitution into artificial membrane leads to a fully controllable system that permits fine functional studies.

  8. Proteomic identification of dysferlin-interacting protein complexes in human vascular endothelium

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Cleo; Utokaparch, Soraya; Sharma, Arpeeta

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bi-directional (inward and outward) movement of GFP-dysferlin in COS-7 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dysferlin interacts with key signaling proteins for transcytosis in EC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dysferlin mediates trafficking of vesicles carrying protein cargos in EC. -- Abstract: Dysferlin is a membrane-anchored protein known to facilitate membrane repair in skeletal muscles following mechanical injury. Mutations of dysferlin gene impair sarcolemma integrity, a hallmark of certain forms of muscular dystrophy in patients. Dysferlin contains seven calcium-dependent C2 binding domains, which are required to promote fusion of intracellular membrane vesicles. Emerging evidence reveal the unexpected expression of dysferlin in non-muscle, non-mechanically active tissues, suchmore » as endothelial cells, which cast doubts over the belief that ferlin proteins act exclusively as membrane repair proteins. We and others have shown that deficient trafficking of membrane bound proteins in dysferlin-deficient cells, suggesting that dysferlin might mediate trafficking of client proteins. Herein, we describe the intracellular trafficking and movement of GFP-dysferlin positive vesicles in unfixed reconstituted cells using live microscopy. By performing GST pull-down assays followed by mass spectrometry, we identified dysferlin binding protein complexes in human vascular endothelial cells. Together, our data further support the claims that dysferlin not only mediates membrane repair but also trafficking of client proteins, ultimately, help bridging dysferlinopathies to aberrant membrane signaling.« less

  9. Protein-protein recognition: crystal structural analysis of a barnase-barstar complex at 2.0-A resolution.

    PubMed

    Buckle, A M; Schreiber, G; Fersht, A R

    1994-08-02

    We have solved, refined, and analyzed the 2.0-å resolution crystal structure of a 1:1 complex between the bacterial ribonuclease, barnase, and a Cys-->Ala(40,82) double mutant of its intracellular polypeptide inhibitor, barstar. Barstar inhibits barnase by sterically blocking the active site with a helix and adjacent loop segment. Almost half of the 14 hydrogen bonds between barnase and barstar involve two charged residues, and a third involve one charged partner. The electrostatic contribution to the overall binding energy is considerably greater than for other protein-protein interactions. Consequently, the very high rate constant for the barnase-barstar association (10(8) s-1 M-1) is most likely due to electrostatic steering effects. The barnase active-site residue His102 is located in a pocket on the surface of barstar, and its hydrogen bonds with Asp39 and Gly31 residues of barstar are directly responsible for the pH dependence of barnase-barstar binding. There is a high degree of complementarity both of the shape and of the charge of the interacting surfaces, but neither is perfect. The surface complementarity is slightly poorer than in protease-inhibitor complexes but a little better than in antibody-antigen interactions. However, since the burial of solvent in the barnase-barstar interface improves the fit significantly by filling in the majority of gaps, as well as stabilizing unfavorable electrostatic interactions, its role seems to be more important than in other protein-protein complexes. The electrostatic interactions between barnase and barstar are very similar to those between barnase and the tetranucleotide d(CGAC). In the barnase-barstar complex, the two phosphate-binding sites in the barnase active site are occupied by Asp39 and Gly43 of barstar. However, barstar has no equivalent for a guanine base of an RNA substrate, resulting in the occupation of the guanine recognition site in the barnase-barstar complex by nine ordered water molecules. Upon

  10. Mechanistic Insights Into Catalytic RNA-Protein Complexes Involved in Translation of the Genetic Code.

    PubMed

    Routh, Satya B; Sankaranarayanan, Rajan

    2017-01-01

    The contemporary world is an "RNA-protein world" rather than a "protein world" and tracing its evolutionary origins is of great interest and importance. The different RNAs that function in close collaboration with proteins are involved in several key physiological processes, including catalysis. Ribosome-the complex megadalton cellular machinery that translates genetic information encoded in nucleotide sequence to amino acid sequence-epitomizes such an association between RNA and protein. RNAs that can catalyze biochemical reactions are known as ribozymes. They usually employ general acid-base catalytic mechanism, often involving the 2'-OH of RNA that activates and/or stabilizes a nucleophile during the reaction pathway. The protein component of such RNA-protein complexes (RNPCs) mostly serves as a scaffold which provides an environment conducive for the RNA to function, or as a mediator for other interacting partners. In this review, we describe those RNPCs that are involved at different stages of protein biosynthesis and in which RNA performs the catalytic function; the focus of the account is on highlighting mechanistic aspects of these complexes. We also provide a perspective on such associations in the context of proofreading during translation of the genetic code. The latter aspect is not much appreciated and recent works suggest that this is an avenue worth exploring, since an understanding of the subject can provide useful insights into how RNAs collaborate with proteins to ensure fidelity during these essential cellular processes. It may also aid in comprehending evolutionary aspects of such associations. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. New procyanidin B3-human salivary protein complexes by mass spectrometry. Effect of salivary protein profile, tannin concentration, and time stability.

    PubMed

    Perez-Gregorio, Maria Rosa; Mateus, Nuno; De Freitas, Victor

    2014-10-15

    Several factors could influence the tannin-protein interaction such as the human salivary protein profile, the tannin tested, and the tannin/protein ratio. The goal of this study aims to study the effect of different salivas (A, B, and C) and different tannin concentrations (0.5 and 1 mg/mL) on the interaction process as well as the complex's stability over time. This study is focused on the identification of new procyanidin B3-human salivary protein complexes. Thus, 48 major B3-human salivary protein aggregates were identified regardless of the saliva and tannin concentration tested. A higher number of aggregates was found at lower tannin concentration. Moreover, the number of protein moieties involved in the aggregation process was higher when the tannin concentration was also higher. The selectivity of the different groups of proteins to bind tannin was also confirmed. It was also verified that the B3-human salivary protein complexes formed evolved over time.

  12. Structural Mechanism behind Distinct Efficiency of Oct4/Sox2 Proteins in Differentially Spaced DNA Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Yesudhas, Dhanusha; Anwar, Muhammad Ayaz; Panneerselvam, Suresh; Durai, Prasannavenkatesh; Shah, Masaud; Choi, Sangdun

    2016-01-01

    The octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4) and sex-determining region Y (SRY)-box 2 (Sox2) proteins induce various transcriptional regulators to maintain cellular pluripotency. Most Oct4/Sox2 complexes have either 0 base pairs (Oct4/Sox20bp) or 3 base pairs (Oct4/Sox23bp) separation between their DNA-binding sites. Results from previous biochemical studies have shown that the complexes separated by 0 base pairs are associated with a higher pluripotency rate than those separated by 3 base pairs. Here, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and calculations to determine the binding free energy and per-residue free energy for the Oct4/Sox20bp and Oct4/Sox23bp complexes to identify structural differences that contribute to differences in induction rate. Our MD simulation results showed substantial differences in Oct4/Sox2 domain movements, as well as secondary-structure changes in the Oct4 linker region, suggesting a potential reason underlying the distinct efficiencies of these complexes during reprogramming. Moreover, we identified key residues and hydrogen bonds that potentially facilitate protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions, in agreement with previous experimental findings. Consequently, our results confess that differential spacing of the Oct4/Sox2 DNA binding sites can determine the magnitude of transcription of the targeted genes during reprogramming. PMID:26790000

  13. DNA-Directed Assembly of Capture Tools for Constitutional Studies of Large Protein Complexes.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Rebecca; Faesen, Alex; Vogel, Katrin; Jeganathan, Sadasivam; Musacchio, Andrea; Niemeyer, Christof M

    2015-06-10

    Large supramolecular protein complexes, such as the molecular machinery involved in gene regulation, cell signaling, or cell division, are key in all fundamental processes of life. Detailed elucidation of structure and dynamics of such complexes can be achieved by reverse-engineering parts of the complexes in order to probe their interactions with distinctive binding partners in vitro. The exploitation of DNA nanostructures to mimic partially assembled supramolecular protein complexes in which the presence and state of two or more proteins are decisive for binding of additional building blocks is reported here. To this end, four-way DNA Holliday junction motifs bearing a fluorescein and a biotin tag, for tracking and affinity capture, respectively, are site-specifically functionalized with centromeric protein (CENP) C and CENP-T. The latter serves as baits for binding of the so-called KMN component, thereby mimicking early stages of the assembly of kinetochores, structures that mediate and control the attachment of microtubules to chromosomes in the spindle apparatus. Results from pull-down experiments are consistent with the hypothesis that CENP-C and CENP-T may bind cooperatively to the KMN network. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Using Simple Manipulatives to Improve Student Comprehension of a Complex Biological Process: Protein Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman, Karen; Bartlett, John

    2012-01-01

    Biological systems and living processes involve a complex interplay of biochemicals and macromolecular structures that can be challenging for undergraduate students to comprehend and, thus, misconceptions abound. Protein synthesis, or translation, is an example of a biological process for which students often hold many misconceptions. This article…

  15. Envelope protein complexes of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and their antigenicity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne’s disease, a chronic enteric disease of ruminant animals. In the present study, blue native PAGE electrophoresis and 2D SDS-PAGE were used to separate MAP envelope protein complexes, followed by mass spectrometry (MS) ...

  16. Role of the AP-5 adaptor protein complex in late endosome-to-Golgi retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Hirst, Jennifer; Itzhak, Daniel N.; Antrobus, Robin; Borner, Georg H. H.

    2018-01-01

    The AP-5 adaptor protein complex is presumed to function in membrane traffic, but so far nothing is known about its pathway or its cargo. We have used CRISPR-Cas9 to knock out the AP-5 ζ subunit gene, AP5Z1, in HeLa cells, and then analysed the phenotype by subcellular fractionation profiling and quantitative mass spectrometry. The retromer complex had an altered steady-state distribution in the knockout cells, and several Golgi proteins, including GOLIM4 and GOLM1, were depleted from vesicle-enriched fractions. Immunolocalisation showed that loss of AP-5 led to impaired retrieval of the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CIMPR), GOLIM4, and GOLM1 from endosomes back to the Golgi region. Knocking down the retromer complex exacerbated this phenotype. Both the CIMPR and sortilin interacted with the AP-5–associated protein SPG15 in pull-down assays, and we propose that sortilin may act as a link between Golgi proteins and the AP-5/SPG11/SPG15 complex. Together, our findings suggest that AP-5 functions in a novel sorting step out of late endosomes, acting as a backup pathway for retromer. This provides a mechanistic explanation for why mutations in AP-5/SPG11/SPG15 cause cells to accumulate aberrant endolysosomes, and highlights the role of endosome/lysosome dysfunction in the pathology of hereditary spastic paraplegia and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:29381698

  17. Role for a Novel Usher Protein Complex in Hair Cell Synaptic Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Zallocchi, Marisa; Meehan, Daniel T.; Delimont, Duane; Rutledge, Joseph; Gratton, Michael Anne; Flannery, John; Cosgrove, Dominic

    2012-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying hair cell synaptic maturation are not well understood. Cadherin-23 (CDH23), protocadherin-15 (PCDH15) and the very large G-protein coupled receptor 1 (VLGR1) have been implicated in the development of cochlear hair cell stereocilia, while clarin-1 has been suggested to also play a role in synaptogenesis. Mutations in CDH23, PCDH15, VLGR1 and clarin-1 cause Usher syndrome, characterized by congenital deafness, vestibular dysfunction and retinitis pigmentosa. Here we show developmental expression of these Usher proteins in afferent spiral ganglion neurons and hair cell synapses. We identify a novel synaptic Usher complex comprised of clarin-1 and specific isoforms of CDH23, PCDH15 and VLGR1. To establish the in vivo relevance of this complex, we performed morphological and quantitative analysis of the neuronal fibers and their synapses in the Clrn1−/− mouse, which was generated by incomplete deletion of the gene. These mice showed a delay in neuronal/synaptic maturation by both immunostaining and electron microscopy. Analysis of the ribbon synapses in Ames waltzerav3J mice also suggests a delay in hair cell synaptogenesis. Collectively, these results show that, in addition to the well documented role for Usher proteins in stereocilia development, Usher protein complexes comprised of specific protein isoforms likely function in synaptic maturation as well. PMID:22363448

  18. Rheological and structural characterization of agar/whey proteins insoluble complexes.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Cristina M R; Souza, Hiléia K S; Magalhães, Natália F; Andrade, Cristina T; Gonçalves, Maria Pilar

    2014-09-22

    Complex coacervation between whey proteins and carboxylated or highly sulphated polysaccharides has been widely studied. The aim of this work was to characterise a slightly sulphated polysaccharide (agar) and whey protein insoluble complexes in terms of yield, composition and physicochemical properties as well as to study their rheological behaviour for better understanding their structure. Unlike other sulphated polysaccharides, complexation of agar and whey protein at pH 3 in the absence of a buffering agent resulted in a coacervate that was a gel at 20°C with rheological properties and structure similar to those of simple agar gels, reinforced by proteins electrostatically aggregated to the agar network. The behaviour towards heat treatment was similar to that of agar alone, with a high thermal hysteresis and almost full reversibility. In the presence of citrate buffer, the result was a "flocculated solid", with low water content (75-81%), whose properties were governed by protein behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Screening protein – Single stranded RNA complexes by NMR spectroscopy for structure determination☆

    PubMed Central

    Foot, Jaelle N.; Feracci, Mikael; Dominguez, Cyril

    2014-01-01

    In the past few years, RNA molecules have been revealed to be at the center of numerous biological processes. Long considered as passive molecules transferring genetic information from DNA to proteins, it is now well established that RNA molecules play important regulatory roles. Associated with that, the number of identified RNA binding proteins (RBPs) has increased considerably and mutations in RNA molecules or RBP have been shown to cause various diseases, such as cancers. It is therefore crucial to understand at the molecular level how these proteins specifically recognise their RNA targets in order to design new generation drug therapies targeting protein–RNA complexes. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a particularly well-suited technique to study such protein–RNA complexes at the atomic level and can provide valuable information for new drug discovery programs. In this article, we describe the NMR strategy that we and other laboratories use for screening optimal conditions necessary for structural studies of protein-single stranded RNA complexes, using two proteins, Sam68 and T-STAR, as examples. PMID:24096002

  20. Protein receptor-independent plasma membrane remodeling by HAMLET: A tumoricidal protein-lipid complex

    DOE PAGES

    Nadeem, Aftab; Sanborn, Jeremy; Gettel, Douglas L.; ...

    2015-11-12

    A central tenet of signal transduction in eukaryotic cells is that extra-cellular ligands activate specific cell surface receptors, which orchestrate downstream responses. This ‘’protein-centric” view is increasingly challenged by evidence for the involvement of specialized membrane domains in signal transduction. Here, we propose that membrane perturbation may serve as an alternative mechanism to activate a conserved cell-death program in cancer cells. This view emerges from the extraordinary manner in which HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made LEthal to Tumor cells) kills a wide range of tumor cells in vitro and demonstrates therapeutic efficacy and selectivity in cancer models and clinical studies. Wemore » identify a ‘’receptor independent” transformation of vesicular motifs in model membranes, which is paralleled by gross remodeling of tumor cell membranes. Furthermore, we find that HAMLET accumulates within these de novo membrane conformations and define membrane blebs as cellular compartments for direct interactions of HAMLET with essential target proteins such as the Ras family of GTPases. In conclusion, we demonstrate lower sensitivity of healthy cell membranes to HAMLET challenge. These features suggest that HAMLET-induced curvature-dependent membrane conformations serve as surrogate receptors for initiating signal transduction cascades, ultimately leading to cell death.« less

  1. Protein receptor-independent plasma membrane remodeling by HAMLET: a tumoricidal protein-lipid complex

    PubMed Central

    Nadeem, Aftab; Sanborn, Jeremy; Gettel, Douglas L.; James, Ho C. S.; Rydström, Anna; Ngassam, Viviane N.; Klausen, Thomas Kjær; Pedersen, Stine Falsig; Lam, Matti; Parikh, Atul N.; Svanborg, Catharina

    2015-01-01

    A central tenet of signal transduction in eukaryotic cells is that extra-cellular ligands activate specific cell surface receptors, which orchestrate downstream responses. This ‘’protein-centric” view is increasingly challenged by evidence for the involvement of specialized membrane domains in signal transduction. Here, we propose that membrane perturbation may serve as an alternative mechanism to activate a conserved cell-death program in cancer cells. This view emerges from the extraordinary manner in which HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made LEthal to Tumor cells) kills a wide range of tumor cells in vitro and demonstrates therapeutic efficacy and selectivity in cancer models and clinical studies. We identify a ‘’receptor independent” transformation of vesicular motifs in model membranes, which is paralleled by gross remodeling of tumor cell membranes. Furthermore, we find that HAMLET accumulates within these de novo membrane conformations and define membrane blebs as cellular compartments for direct interactions of HAMLET with essential target proteins such as the Ras family of GTPases. Finally, we demonstrate lower sensitivity of healthy cell membranes to HAMLET challenge. These features suggest that HAMLET-induced curvature-dependent membrane conformations serve as surrogate receptors for initiating signal transduction cascades, ultimately leading to cell death. PMID:26561036

  2. Protein receptor-independent plasma membrane remodeling by HAMLET: a tumoricidal protein-lipid complex.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, Aftab; Sanborn, Jeremy; Gettel, Douglas L; James, Ho C S; Rydström, Anna; Ngassam, Viviane N; Klausen, Thomas Kjær; Pedersen, Stine Falsig; Lam, Matti; Parikh, Atul N; Svanborg, Catharina

    2015-11-12

    A central tenet of signal transduction in eukaryotic cells is that extra-cellular ligands activate specific cell surface receptors, which orchestrate downstream responses. This ''protein-centric" view is increasingly challenged by evidence for the involvement of specialized membrane domains in signal transduction. Here, we propose that membrane perturbation may serve as an alternative mechanism to activate a conserved cell-death program in cancer cells. This view emerges from the extraordinary manner in which HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made LEthal to Tumor cells) kills a wide range of tumor cells in vitro and demonstrates therapeutic efficacy and selectivity in cancer models and clinical studies. We identify a ''receptor independent" transformation of vesicular motifs in model membranes, which is paralleled by gross remodeling of tumor cell membranes. Furthermore, we find that HAMLET accumulates within these de novo membrane conformations and define membrane blebs as cellular compartments for direct interactions of HAMLET with essential target proteins such as the Ras family of GTPases. Finally, we demonstrate lower sensitivity of healthy cell membranes to HAMLET challenge. These features suggest that HAMLET-induced curvature-dependent membrane conformations serve as surrogate receptors for initiating signal transduction cascades, ultimately leading to cell death.

  3. Analysis of Proteins That Rapidly Change Upon Mechanistic/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) Repression Identifies Parkinson Protein 7 (PARK7) as a Novel Protein Aberrantly Expressed in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC).

    PubMed

    Niere, Farr; Namjoshi, Sanjeev; Song, Ehwang; Dilly, Geoffrey A; Schoenhard, Grant; Zemelman, Boris V; Mechref, Yehia; Raab-Graham, Kimberly F

    2016-02-01

    Many biological processes involve the mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Thus, the challenge of deciphering mTORC1-mediated functions during normal and pathological states in the central nervous system is challenging. Because mTORC1 is at the core of translation, we have investigated mTORC1 function in global and regional protein expression. Activation of mTORC1 has been generally regarded to promote translation. Few but recent works have shown that suppression of mTORC1 can also promote local protein synthesis. Moreover, excessive mTORC1 activation during diseased states represses basal and activity-induced protein synthesis. To determine the role of mTORC1 activation in protein expression, we have used an unbiased, large-scale proteomic approach. We provide evidence that a brief repression of mTORC1 activity in vivo by rapamycin has little effect globally, yet leads to a significant remodeling of synaptic proteins, in particular those proteins that reside in the postsynaptic density. We have also found that curtailing the activity of mTORC1 bidirectionally alters the expression of proteins associated with epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, and autism spectrum disorder-neurological disorders that exhibit elevated mTORC1 activity. Through a protein-protein interaction network analysis, we have identified common proteins shared among these mTORC1-related diseases. One such protein is Parkinson protein 7, which has been implicated in Parkinson's disease, yet not associated with epilepsy, Alzheimers disease, or autism spectrum disorder. To verify our finding, we provide evidence that the protein expression of Parkinson protein 7, including new protein synthesis, is sensitive to mTORC1 inhibition. Using a mouse model of tuberous sclerosis complex, a disease that displays both epilepsy and autism spectrum disorder phenotypes and has overactive mTORC1 signaling, we show that Parkinson protein 7 protein is elevated in the dendrites and colocalizes

  4. Spectral study and protein labeling of inclusion complex between dye and calixarene sulfonate.

    PubMed

    Fei, Xuening; Zhang, Yong; Zhu, Sen; Liu, Lijuan; Yu, Lu

    2013-05-01

    The host-guest inclusion complex of calix[6]arene sulfonate (SCA6) with thiazole orange (TO) formed in aqueous solution was studied. Absorption and fluorescence techniques were used for the analysis of this inclusion complex. The addition of calixarene sulfonate leads to a decrease in both absorption and fluorescence intensity of the dye, indicating that the inclusion complex was formed. Simultaneously, the inclusion phenomenon of another cyanine dye, Cy3, with calixarene sulfonate was investigated. The stability constant of the two complexes was determined, and the results were compared. The water solubility of TO dye was increased in the presence of calixarene sulfonate, and further protein labeling experiments suggested that this TO-SCA6 complex can act as a fluorescent probe for labeling of biomolecules.

  5. Cleaved thioredoxin fusion protein enables the crystallization of poorly soluble ERα in complex with synthetic ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Cura, Vincent; Gangloff, Monique; Eiler, Sylvia

    2008-01-01

    A new crystallization strategy: the presence of cleaved thioredoxin fusion is critical for crystallization of the estrogen nuclear receptor ligand binding domain in complex with synthetic ligands. This novel technique should be regarded as an interesting alternative for crystallization of difficult proteins. The ligand-binding domain (LBD) of human oestrogen receptor α was produced in Escherichia coli as a cleavable thioredoxin (Trx) fusion in order to improve solubility. Crystallization trials with either cleaved and purified LBD or with the purified fusion protein both failed to produce crystals. In another attempt, Trx was not removed from the LBD after endoproteolytic cleavage andmore » its presence promoted nucleation and subsequent crystal growth, which allowed the structure determination of two different LBD–ligand–coactivator peptide complexes at 2.3 Å resolution. This technique is likely to be applicable to other low-solubility proteins.« less

  6. Protein complexes formed during the incision reaction catalyzed by the Escherichia coli UvrABC endonuclease.

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, A T; Mattes, W B; Grossman, L

    1986-01-01

    An examination has been made into the nature of the nucleoprotein complexes formed during the incision reaction catalyzed by the Escherichia coli UvrABC endonuclease when acting on a pyrimidine dimer-containing fd RF-I DNA species. The complexes of proteins and DNA form in unique stages. The first stage of binding involves an ATP-stimulated interaction of the UvrA protein with duplex DNA containing pyrimidine dimer sites. The UvrB protein significantly stabilizes the UvrA-pyrimidine dimer containing DNA complex which, in turn, provides a foundation for the binding of UvrC to activate the UvrABC endonuclease. The binding of one molecule of UvrC to each UvrAB-damaged DNA complex is needed to catalyze incision in the vicinity of pyrimidine dimer sites. The UvrABC-DNA complex persists after the incision event suggesting that the lack of UvrABC turnover may be linked to other activities in the excision-repair pathway beyond the initial incision reaction. PMID:3960727

  7. Characterizing Protein Complexes with UV absorption, Light Scattering, and Refractive Index Detection.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trainoff, Steven

    2009-03-01

    Many modern pharmaceuticals and naturally occurring biomolecules consist of complexes of proteins and polyethylene glycol or carbohydrates. In the case of vaccine development, these complexes are often used to induce or amplify immune responses. For protein therapeutics they are used to modify solubility and function, or to control the rate of degradation and elimination of a drug from the body. Characterizing the stoichiometry of these complexes is an important industrial problem that presents a formidable challenge to analytical instrument designers. Traditional analytical methods, such as using florescent tagging, chemical assays, and mass spectrometry perturb the system so dramatically that the complexes are often destroyed or uncontrollably modified by the measurement. A solution to this problem consists of fractionating the samples and then measuring the fractions using sequential non-invasive detectors that are sensitive to different components of the complex. We present results using UV absorption, which is primarily sensitive to the protein fraction, Light Scattering, which measures the total weight average molar mass, and Refractive Index detection, which measures the net concentration. We also present a solution of the problem inter-detector band-broadening problem that has heretofore made this approach impractical. Presented will be instrumentation and an analysis method that overcome these obstacles and make this technique a reliable and robust way of non-invasively characterizing these industrially important compounds.

  8. Interdependence of free zinc changes and protein complex assembly - insights into zinc signal regulation.

    PubMed

    Kocyła, Anna; Adamczyk, Justyna; Krężel, Artur

    2018-01-24

    Cellular zinc (Zn(ii)) is bound with proteins that are part of the proteomes of all domains of life. It is mostly utilized as a catalytic or structural protein cofactor, which results in a vast number of binding architectures. The Zn(ii) ion is also important for the formation of transient protein complexes with a Zn(ii)-dependent quaternary structure that is formed upon cellular zinc signals. The mechanisms by which proteins associate with and dissociate from Zn(ii) and the connection with cellular Zn(ii) changes remain incompletely understood. In this study, we aimed to examine how zinc protein domains with various Zn(ii)-binding architectures are formed under free Zn(ii) concentration changes and how formation of the Zn(ii)-dependent assemblies is related to the protein concentration and reactivity. To accomplish these goals we chose four zinc domains with different Zn(ii)-to-protein binding stoichiometries: classical zinc finger (ZnP), LIM domain (Zn 2 P), zinc hook (ZnP 2 ) and zinc clasp (ZnP 1 P 2 ) folds. Our research demonstrated a lack of changes in the saturation level of intraprotein zinc binding sites, despite various peptide concentrations, while homo- and heterodimers indicated a concentration-dependent tendency. In other words, at a certain free Zn(ii) concentration, the fraction of a formed dimeric complex increases or decreases with subunit concentration changes. Secondly, even small or local changes in free Zn(ii) may significantly affect protein saturation depending on its architecture, function and subcellular concentration. In our paper, we indicate the importance of interdependence of free Zn(ii) availability and protein subunit concentrations for cellular zinc signal regulation.

  9. Isolation and structure–function characterization of a signaling-active rhodopsin–G protein complex

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yang; Westfield, Gerwin; Erickson, Jon W.; Cerione, Richard A.; Skiniotis, Georgios; Ramachandran, Sekar

    2017-01-01

    The visual photo-transduction cascade is a prototypical G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling system, in which light-activated rhodopsin (Rho*) is the GPCR catalyzing the exchange of GDP for GTP on the heterotrimeric G protein transducin (GT). This results in the dissociation of GT into its component αT–GTP and β1γ1 subunit complex. Structural information for the Rho*–GT complex will be essential for understanding the molecular mechanism of visual photo-transduction. Moreover, it will shed light on how GPCRs selectively couple to and activate their G protein signaling partners. Here, we report on the preparation of a stable detergent-solubilized complex between Rho* and a heterotrimer (GT*) comprising a GαT/Gαi1 chimera (αT*) and β1γ1. The complex was formed on native rod outer segment membranes upon light activation, solubilized in lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol, and purified with a combination of affinity and size-exclusion chromatography. We found that the complex is fully functional and that the stoichiometry of Rho* to GαT* is 1:1. The molecular weight of the complex was calculated from small-angle X-ray scattering data and was in good agreement with a model consisting of one Rho* and one GT*. The complex was visualized by negative-stain electron microscopy, which revealed an architecture similar to that of the β2-adrenergic receptor–GS complex, including a flexible αT* helical domain. The stability and high yield of the purified complex should allow for further efforts toward obtaining a high-resolution structure of this important signaling complex. PMID:28655769

  10. Alternative function for the mitochondrial SAM complex in biogenesis of alpha-helical TOM proteins.

    PubMed

    Stojanovski, Diana; Guiard, Bernard; Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Meisinger, Chris

    2007-12-03

    The mitochondrial outer membrane contains two preprotein translocases: the general translocase of outer membrane (TOM) and the beta-barrel-specific sorting and assembly machinery (SAM). TOM functions as the central entry gate for nuclear-encoded proteins. The channel-forming Tom40 is a beta-barrel protein, whereas all Tom receptors and small Tom proteins are membrane anchored by a transmembrane alpha-helical segment in their N- or C-terminal portion. Synthesis of Tom precursors takes place in the cytosol, and their import occurs via preexisting TOM complexes. The precursor of Tom40 is then transferred to SAM for membrane insertion and assembly. Unexpectedly, we find that the biogenesis of alpha-helical Tom proteins with a membrane anchor in the C-terminal portion is SAM dependent. Each SAM protein is necessary for efficient membrane integration of the receptor Tom22, whereas assembly of the small Tom proteins depends on Sam37. Thus, the substrate specificity of SAM is not restricted to beta-barrel proteins but also includes the majority of alpha-helical Tom proteins.

  11. Application of model bread baking in the examination of arabinoxylan-protein complexes in rye bread.

    PubMed

    Buksa, Krzysztof

    2016-09-05

    The changes in molecular mass of arabinoxylan (AX) and protein caused by bread baking process were examined using a model rye bread. Instead of the normal flour, the dough contained starch, water-extractable AX and protein which were isolated from rye wholemeal. From the crumb of selected model breads, starch was removed releasing AX-protein complexes, which were further examined by size exclusion chromatography. On the basis of the research, it was concluded that optimum model mix can be composed of 3-6% AX and 3-6% rye protein isolate at 94-88% of rye starch meaning with the most similar properties to low extraction rye flour. Application of model rye bread allowed to examine the interactions between AX and proteins. Bread baked with a share of AX, rye protein and starch, from which the complexes of the highest molar mass were isolated, was characterized by the strongest structure of the bread crumb. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. X-ray structure of the mammalian GIRK2-βγ G-protein complex

    SciTech Connect

    Whorton, Matthew R.; MacKinnon, Roderick

    2013-07-30

    G-protein-gated inward rectifier K + (GIRK) channels allow neurotransmitters, through G-protein-coupled receptor stimulation, to control cellular electrical excitability. In cardiac and neuronal cells this control regulates heart rate and neural circuit activity, respectively. Here we present the 3.5Å resolution crystal structure of the mammalian GIRK2 channel in complex with βγ G-protein subunits, the central signalling complex that links G-protein-coupled receptor stimulation to K + channel activity. Short-range atomic and long-range electrostatic interactions stabilize four βγ G-protein subunits at the interfaces between four K + channel subunits, inducing a pre-open state of the channel. The pre-open state exhibits a conformation thatmore » is intermediate between the closed conformation and the open conformation of the constitutively active mutant. The resultant structural picture is compatible with ‘membrane delimited’ activation of GIRK channels by G proteins and the characteristic burst kinetics of channel gating. The structures also permit a conceptual understanding of how the signalling lipid phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP 2) and intracellular Na + ions participate in multi-ligand regulation of GIRK channels.« less

  13. Mechanisms of Host-Pathogen Protein Complex Formation and Bacterial Immune Evasion of Streptococcus suis Protein Fhb.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueqin; Liu, Peng; Gan, Shuzhen; Zhang, Chunmao; Zheng, Yuling; Jiang, Yongqiang; Yuan, Yuan

    2016-08-12

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2)-induced sepsis and meningitis are often accompanied by bacteremia. The evasion of polymorphonuclear leukocyte-mediated phagocytic clearance is central to the establishment of bacteremia caused by S. suis 2 and is facilitated by the ability of factor H (FH)-binding protein (Fhb) to bind FH on the bacterial surface, thereby impeding alternative pathway complement activation and phagocytic clearance. Here, C3b/C3d was found to bind to Fhb, along with FH, forming a large immune complex. The formation of this immune complex was mediated by domain II of Fhb via electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, which, to our knowledge, is a new type of interaction. Interestingly, Fhb was found to be associated with the cell envelope and also present in the culture supernatant, where secreted Fhb inhibited complement activation via interactions with domain II, thereby enhancing antiphagocytic clearance by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Thus, Fhb is a multifunctional bacterial protein, which binds host complement component C3 as well as FH and interferes with innate immune recognition in a secret protein manner. S. suis 2 therefore appears to have developed a new strategy to combat host innate immunity and enhance survival in host blood. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Mechanisms of Host-Pathogen Protein Complex Formation and Bacterial Immune Evasion of Streptococcus suis Protein Fhb*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xueqin; Liu, Peng; Gan, Shuzhen; Zhang, Chunmao; Zheng, Yuling; Jiang, Yongqiang; Yuan, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2)-induced sepsis and meningitis are often accompanied by bacteremia. The evasion of polymorphonuclear leukocyte-mediated phagocytic clearance is central to the establishment of bacteremia caused by S. suis 2 and is facilitated by the ability of factor H (FH)-binding protein (Fhb) to bind FH on the bacterial surface, thereby impeding alternative pathway complement activation and phagocytic clearance. Here, C3b/C3d was found to bind to Fhb, along with FH, forming a large immune complex. The formation of this immune complex was mediated by domain II of Fhb via electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, which, to our knowledge, is a new type of interaction. Interestingly, Fhb was found to be associated with the cell envelope and also present in the culture supernatant, where secreted Fhb inhibited complement activation via interactions with domain II, thereby enhancing antiphagocytic clearance by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Thus, Fhb is a multifunctional bacterial protein, which binds host complement component C3 as well as FH and interferes with innate immune recognition in a secret protein manner. S. suis 2 therefore appears to have developed a new strategy to combat host innate immunity and enhance survival in host blood. PMID:27342778

  15. Drosophila Torsin Protein Regulates Motor Control and Stress Sensitivity and Forms a Complex with Fragile-X Mental Retardation Protein

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hyo-Min; Koh, Young Ho

    2016-01-01

    We investigated unknown in vivo functions of Torsin by using Drosophila as a model. Downregulation of Drosophila Torsin (DTor) by DTor-specific inhibitory double-stranded RNA (RNAi) induced abnormal locomotor behavior and increased susceptibility to H2O2. In addition, altered expression of DTor significantly increased the numbers of synaptic boutons. One important biochemical consequence of DTor-RNAi expression in fly brains was upregulation of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Altered expression of ADH has also been reported in Drosophila Fragile-X mental retardation protein (DFMRP) mutant flies. Interestingly, expression of DFMRP was altered in DTor mutant flies, and DTor and DFMRP were present in the same protein complexes. In addition, DTor and DFMRP immunoreactivities were partially colocalized in several cellular organelles in larval muscles. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between synaptic morphologies of dfmrp null mutants and dfmrp mutants expressing DTor-RNAi. Taken together, our evidences suggested that DTor and DFMRP might be present in the same signaling pathway regulating synaptic plasticity. In addition, we also found that human Torsin1A and human FMRP were present in the same protein complexes, suggesting that this phenomenon is evolutionarily conserved. PMID:27313903

  16. Studies on a lipopolysaccharide-protein complex from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. 1 isolation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Solov'eva, T F; Yermak, I M; Bondarenko, O D; Frolova, G M; Ovodov, Y S

    1979-01-01

    A comparative study of various procedures of a lipopolysaccharide-protein complex (LPPC) from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was carried out. The materials obtained were fractionated by molecular-sieve chromatography on Sepharose 2B resulting in highly aggregated complexes with antigen activity. LPPC aggregates dissociated in the presence of sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) and urea. The chemical composition and serologic properties of fractions obtained are under consideration. The protein component of the complex consists of two major polypeptides (molecular weights--45,000 and 20,000) and some minor ones. The LPS component appeared to give 2--3 narrow bands in gel under conditions of SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. It is suggested that such fractionation is caused by LPS association-dissociation in the course of electrophoresis.

  17. Analysis of Proteins That Rapidly Change Upon Mechanistic/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) Repression Identifies Parkinson Protein 7 (PARK7) as a Novel Protein Aberrantly Expressed in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC)*

    PubMed Central

    Niere, Farr; Namjoshi, Sanjeev; Song, Ehwang; Dilly, Geoffrey A.; Schoenhard, Grant; Zemelman, Boris V.; Mechref, Yehia; Raab-Graham, Kimberly F.

    2016-01-01

    Many biological processes involve the mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Thus, the challenge of deciphering mTORC1-mediated functions during normal and pathological states in the central nervous system is challenging. Because mTORC1 is at the core of translation, we have investigated mTORC1 function in global and regional protein expression. Activation of mTORC1 has been generally regarded to promote translation. Few but recent works have shown that suppression of mTORC1 can also promote local protein synthesis. Moreover, excessive mTORC1 activation during diseased states represses basal and activity-induced protein synthesis. To determine the role of mTORC1 activation in protein expression, we have used an unbiased, large-scale proteomic approach. We provide evidence that a brief repression of mTORC1 activity in vivo by rapamycin has little effect globally, yet leads to a significant remodeling of synaptic proteins, in particular those proteins that reside in the postsynaptic density. We have also found that curtailing the activity of mTORC1 bidirectionally alters the expression of proteins associated with epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, and autism spectrum disorder—neurological disorders that exhibit elevated mTORC1 activity. Through a protein–protein interaction network analysis, we have identified common proteins shared among these mTORC1-related diseases. One such protein is Parkinson protein 7, which has been implicated in Parkinson's disease, yet not associated with epilepsy, Alzheimers disease, or autism spectrum disorder. To verify our finding, we provide evidence that the protein expression of Parkinson protein 7, including new protein synthesis, is sensitive to mTORC1 inhibition. Using a mouse model of tuberous sclerosis complex, a disease that displays both epilepsy and autism spectrum disorder phenotypes and has overactive mTORC1 signaling, we show that Parkinson protein 7 protein is elevated in the dendrites and

  18. Postprocessing of docked protein-ligand complexes using implicit solvation models.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Anton; Edvinsson, Lotta; Johansson, Andreas; Andersson, C David; Andersson, Ida E; Raubacher, Florian; Linusson, Anna

    2011-02-28

    Molecular docking plays an important role in drug discovery as a tool for the structure-based design of small organic ligands for macromolecules. Possible applications of docking are identification of the bioactive conformation of a protein-ligand complex and the ranking of different ligands with respect to their strength of binding to a particular target. We have investigated the effect of implicit water on the postprocessing of binding poses generated by molecular docking using MM-PB/GB-SA (molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann and generalized Born surface area) methodology. The investigation was divided into three parts: geometry optimization, pose selection, and estimation of the relative binding energies of docked protein-ligand complexes. Appropriate geometry optimization afforded more accurate binding poses for 20% of the complexes investigated. The time required for this step was greatly reduced by minimizing the energy of the binding site using GB solvation models rather than minimizing the entire complex using the PB model. By optimizing the geometries of docking poses using the GB(HCT+SA) model then calculating their free energies of binding using the PB implicit solvent model, binding poses similar to those observed in crystal structures were obtained. Rescoring of these poses according to their calculated binding energies resulted in improved correlations with experimental binding data. These correlations could be further improved by applying the postprocessing to several of the most highly ranked poses rather than focusing exclusively on the top-scored pose. The postprocessing protocol was successfully applied to the analysis of a set of Factor Xa inhibitors and a set of glycopeptide ligands for the class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) A(q) protein. These results indicate that the protocol for the postprocessing of docked protein-ligand complexes developed in this paper may be generally useful for structure-based design in drug discovery.

  19. Nicked apomyoglobin: a noncovalent complex of two polypeptide fragments comprising the entire protein chain.

    PubMed

    Musi, Valeria; Spolaore, Barbara; Picotti, Paola; Zambonin, Marcello; De Filippis, Vincenzo; Fontana, Angelo

    2004-05-25

    Limited proteolysis of the 153-residue chain of horse apomyoglobin (apoMb) by thermolysin results in the selective cleavage of the peptide bond Pro88-Leu89. The N-terminal (residues 1-88) and C-terminal (residues 89-153) fragments of apoMb were isolated to homogeneity and their conformational and association properties investigated in detail. Far-UV circular dichroism (CD) measurements revealed that both fragments in isolation acquire a high content of helical secondary structure, while near-UV CD indicated the absence of tertiary structure. A 1:1 mixture of the fragments leads to a tight noncovalent protein complex (1-88/89-153, nicked apoMb), characterized by secondary and tertiary structures similar to those of intact apoMb. The apoMb complex binds heme in a nativelike manner, as given by CD measurements in the Soret region. Second-derivative absorption spectra in the 250-300 nm region provided evidence that the degree of exposure of Tyr residues in the nicked species is similar to that of the intact protein at neutral pH. Also, the microenvironment of Trp residues, located in positions 7 and 14 of the 153-residue chain of the protein, is similar in both protein species, as given by fluorescence emission data. Moreover, in analogy to intact apoMb, the nicked protein binds the hydrophobic dye 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate (ANS). Taken together, our results indicate that the two proteolytic fragments 1-88 and 89-153 of apoMb adopt partly folded states characterized by sufficiently nativelike conformational features that promote their specific association and mutual stabilization into a nicked protein species much resembling in its structural features intact apoMb. It is suggested that the formation of a noncovalent complex upon fragment complementation can mimic the protein folding process of the entire protein chain, with the difference that the folding of the complementary fragments is an intermolecular process. In particular, this study emphasizes the

  20. Models for the Binary Complex of Bacteriophage T4 Gp59 Helicase Loading Protein. GP32 Single-Stranded DNA-Binding Protein and Ternary Complex with Pseudo-Y Junction DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Hinerman, Jennifer M.; Dignam, J. David; Mueser, Timothy C.

    2012-04-05

    The bacteriophage T4 gp59 helicase assembly protein (gp59) is required for loading of gp41 replicative helicase onto DNA protected by gp32 single-stranded DNA-binding protein. The gp59 protein recognizes branched DNA structures found at replication and recombination sites. Binding of gp32 protein (full-length and deletion constructs) to gp59 protein measured by isothermal titration calorimetry demonstrates that the gp32 protein C-terminal A-domain is essential for protein-protein interaction in the absence of DNA. Sedimentation velocity experiments with gp59 protein and gp32ΔB protein (an N-terminal B-domain deletion) show that these proteins are monomers but form a 1:1 complex with a dissociation constant comparable withmore » that determined by isothermal titration calorimetry. Small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) studies indicate that the gp59 protein is a prolate monomer, consistent with the crystal structure and hydrodynamic properties determined from sedimentation velocity experiments. SAXS experiments also demonstrate that gp32ΔB protein is a prolate monomer with an elongated A-domain protruding from the core. Moreover, fitting structures of gp59 protein and the gp32 core into the SAXS-derived molecular envelope supports a model for the gp59 protein-gp32ΔB protein complex. Our earlier work demonstrated that gp59 protein attracts full-length gp32 protein to pseudo-Y junctions. A model of the gp59 protein-DNA complex, modified to accommodate new SAXS data for the binary complex together with mutational analysis of gp59 protein, is presented in the accompanying article (Dolezal, D., Jones, C. E., Lai, X., Brister, J. R., Mueser, T. C., Nossal, N. G., and Hinton, D. M. (2012) J. Biol. Chem. 287, 18596–18607).« less

  1. PROVAT: a tool for Voronoi tessellation analysis of protein structures and complexes.

    PubMed

    Gore, Swanand P; Burke, David F; Blundell, Tom L

    2005-08-01

    Voronoi tessellation has proved to be a useful tool in protein structure analysis. We have developed PROVAT, a versatile public domain software that enables computation and visualization of Voronoi tessellations of proteins and protein complexes. It is a set of Python scripts that integrate freely available specialized software (Qhull, Pymol etc.) into a pipeline. The calculation component of the tool computes Voronoi tessellation of a given protein system in a way described by a user-supplied XML recipe and stores resulting neighbourhood information as text files with various styles. The Python pickle file generated in the process is used by the visualization component, a Pymol plug-in, that offers a GUI to explore the tessellation visually. PROVAT source code can be downloaded from http://raven.bioc.cam.ac.uk/~swanand/Provat1, which also provides a webserver for its calculation component, documentation and examples.

  2. A new theoretical approach to analyze complex processes in cytoskeleton proteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B

    2014-03-20

    Cytoskeleton proteins are filament structures that support a large number of important biological processes. These dynamic biopolymers exist in nonequilibrium conditions stimulated by hydrolysis chemical reactions in their monomers. Current theoretical methods provide a comprehensive picture of biochemical and biophysical processes in cytoskeleton proteins. However, the description is only qualitative under biologically relevant conditions because utilized theoretical mean-field models neglect correlations. We develop a new theoretical method to describe dynamic processes in cytoskeleton proteins that takes into account spatial correlations in the chemical composition of these biopolymers. Our approach is based on analysis of probabilities of different clusters of subunits. It allows us to obtain exact analytical expressions for a variety of dynamic properties of cytoskeleton filaments. By comparing theoretical predictions with Monte Carlo computer simulations, it is shown that our method provides a fully quantitative description of complex dynamic phenomena in cytoskeleton proteins under all conditions.

  3. Influence of Protein-Phenolic Complex on the Antioxidant Capacity of Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) Products.

    PubMed

    Guimarães Drummond E Silva, Fernanda; Miralles, Beatriz; Hernández-Ledesma, Blanca; Amigo, Lourdes; Iglesias, Amadeu Hoshi; Reyes Reyes, Felix Guillermo; Netto, Flavia Maria

    2017-02-01

    The impact of the naturally present phenolic compounds and/or proteins on the antioxidant capacity of flaxseed products (phenolic fraction, protein concentrates, and hydrolysates) before and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion was studied. For that, whole and phenolic reduced products were assessed. Four glycosylated phenolic compounds (secoisolariciresinol and ferulic, p-coumaric, and caffeic acids) were identified in flaxseed products. Phenolic fraction exerts the highest antioxidant capacity that increased by alkaline hydrolysis and by simulated gastrointestinal digestion. The action of Alcalase and digestive enzymes resulted in an increase of the antioxidant capacity of whole and phenolic reduced products. Principal component analysis showed that proteinaceous samples act as antioxidant is by H + transfer, while those samples containing phenolic compounds exert their effects by both electron donation and H + transfer mechanisms. Protein/peptide-phenolic complexation, confirmed by fluorescence spectra, exerted a positive effect on the antioxidant capacity, mainly in protein concentrates.

  4. Gadd45a Protein Promotes Skeletal Muscle Atrophy by Forming a Complex with the Protein Kinase MEKK4.

    PubMed

    Bullard, Steven A; Seo, Seongjin; Schilling, Birgit; Dyle, Michael C; Dierdorff, Jason M; Ebert, Scott M; DeLau, Austin D; Gibson, Bradford W; Adams, Christopher M

    2016-08-19

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is a serious and highly prevalent condition that remains poorly understood at the molecular level. Previous work found that skeletal muscle atrophy involves an increase in skeletal muscle Gadd45a expression, which is necessary and sufficient for skeletal muscle fiber atrophy. However, the direct mechanism by which Gadd45a promotes skeletal muscle atrophy was unknown. To address this question, we biochemically isolated skeletal muscle proteins that associate with Gadd45a as it induces atrophy in mouse skeletal muscle fibers in vivo We found that Gadd45a interacts with multiple proteins in skeletal muscle fibers, including, most prominently, MEKK4, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase that was not previously known to play a role in skeletal muscle atrophy. Furthermore, we found that, by forming a complex with MEKK4 in skeletal muscle fibers, Gadd45a increases MEKK4 protein kinase activity, which is both sufficient to induce skeletal muscle fiber atrophy and required for Gadd45a-mediated skeletal muscle fiber atrophy. Together, these results identify a direct biochemical mechanism by which Gadd45a induces skeletal muscle atrophy and provide new insight into the way that skeletal muscle atrophy occurs at the molecular level. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Protein interactions and complexes in human microRNA biogenesis and function

    PubMed Central

    Perron, Marjorie P.; Provost, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Encoded in the genome of most eukaryotes, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been proposed to regulate specifically up to 90% of human genes through a process known as miRNA-guided RNA silencing. The aim of this review is to present this process as the integration of a succession of specialized molecular machines exerting well defined functions. The nuclear microprocessor complex initially recognizes and processes its primary miRNA substrate into a miRNA precursor (pre-miRNA). This structure is then exported to the cytoplasm by the Exportin-5 complex where it is presented to the pre-miRNA processing complex. Following pre-miRNA conversion into a miRNA:miRNA* duplex, this complex is assembled into a miRNA-containing ribonucleoprotein (miRNP) complex, after which the miRNA strand is selected. The degree of complementarity of the miRNA for its messenger RNA (mRNA) target guides the recruitment of the miRNP complex. Initially repressing its translation, the miRNP-silenced mRNA is directed to the P-bodies, where the mRNA is either released from its inhibition upon a cellular signal and/or actively degraded. The potency and specificity of miRNA biogenesis and function rely on the distinct protein·protein, protein·RNA and RNA:RNA interactions found in different complexes, each of which fulfill a specific function in a well orchestrated process. PMID:17981733

  6. CryoEM and image sorting for flexible protein/DNA complexes.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Seth A; Stewart, Phoebe L

    2014-07-01

    Intrinsically disordered regions of proteins and conformational flexibility within complexes can be critical for biological function. However, disorder, flexibility, and heterogeneity often hinder structural analyses. CryoEM and single particle image processing techniques offer the possibility of imaging samples with significant flexibility. Division of particle images into more homogenous subsets after data acquisition can help compensate for heterogeneity within the sample. We present the utility of an eigenimage sorting analysis for examining two protein/DNA complexes with significant conformational flexibility and heterogeneity. These complexes are integral to the non-homologous end joining pathway, and are involved in the repair of double strand breaks of DNA. Both complexes include the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and biotinylated DNA with bound streptavidin, with one complex containing the Ku heterodimer. Initial 3D reconstructions of the two DNA-PKcs complexes resembled a cryoEM structure of uncomplexed DNA-PKcs without additional density clearly attributable to the remaining components. Application of eigenimage sorting allowed division of the DNA-PKcs complex datasets into more homogeneous subsets. This led to visualization of density near the base of the DNA-PKcs that can be attributed to DNA, streptavidin, and Ku. However, comparison of projections of the subset structures with 2D class averages indicated that a significant level of heterogeneity remained within each subset. In summary, image sorting methods allowed visualization of extra density near the base of DNA-PKcs, suggesting that DNA binds in the vicinity of the base of the molecule and potentially to a flexible region of DNA-PKcs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Complementarity of stability patches at the interfaces of protein complexes: Implication for the structural organization of energetic hot spots.

    PubMed

    Kuttner, Yosef Y; Engel, Stanislav

    2018-02-01

    A rational design of protein complexes with defined functionalities and of drugs aimed at disrupting protein-protein interactions requires fundamental understanding of the mechanisms underlying the formation of specific protein complexes. Efforts to develop efficient small-molecule or protein-based binders often exploit energetic hot spots on protein surfaces, namely, the interfacial residues that provide most of the binding free energy in the complex. The molecular basis underlying the unusually high energy contribution of the hot spots remains obscure, and its elucidation would facilitate the design of interface-targeted drugs. To study the nature of the energetic hot spots, we analyzed the backbone dynamic properties of contact surfaces in several protein complexes. We demonstrate that, in most complexes, the backbone dynamic landscapes of interacting surfaces form complementary "stability patches," in which static areas from the opposing surfaces superimpose, and that these areas are predominantly located near the geometric center of the interface. We propose that a diminished enthalpy-entropy compensation effect augments the degree to which residues positioned within the complementary stability patches contribute to complex affinity, thereby giving rise to the energetic hot spots. These findings offer new insights into the nature of energetic hot spots and the role that backbone dynamics play in facilitating intermolecular recognition. Mapping the interfacial stability patches may provide guidance for protein engineering approaches aimed at improving the stability of protein complexes and could facilitate the design of ligands that target complex interfaces. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Molecular Simulation-Based Structural Prediction of Protein Complexes in Mass Spectrometry: The Human Insulin Dimer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinyu; Rossetti, Giulia; Dreyer, Jens; Raugei, Simone; Ippoliti, Emiliano; Lüscher, Bernhard; Carloni, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Protein electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS)-based techniques are widely used to provide insight into structural proteomics under the assumption that non-covalent protein complexes being transferred into the gas phase preserve basically the same intermolecular interactions as in solution. Here we investigate the applicability of this assumption by extending our previous structural prediction protocol for single proteins in ESI-MS to protein complexes. We apply our protocol to the human insulin dimer (hIns2) as a test case. Our calculations reproduce the main charge and the collision cross section (CCS) measured in ESI-MS experiments. Molecular dynamics simulations for 0.075 ms show that the complex maximizes intermolecular non-bonded interactions relative to the structure in water, without affecting the cross section. The overall gas-phase structure of hIns2 does exhibit differences with the one in aqueous solution, not inferable from a comparison with calculated CCS. Hence, care should be exerted when interpreting ESI-MS proteomics data based solely on NMR and/or X-ray structural information. PMID:25210764

  9. Identification of continuous interaction sites in PLA(2)-based protein complexes by peptide arrays.

    PubMed

    Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; Santos, Roberta Márcia Marques dos; Magro, Angelo José; Fontes, Marcos Roberto de Mattos; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos; Granier, Claude

    2009-01-01

    Crotoxin (CA.CB) is a beta-neurotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom that is responsible for main envenomation effects upon biting by this snake. It is a heterodimer of an acidic protein (CA) devoid of any biological activity per se and a basic, enzymatically active, PLA(2) counterpart (CB). Both lethal and enzymatic activities of crotoxin have been shown to be inhibited by CNF, a protein from the blood of C. d. terrificus snakes. CNF replaces CA in the CA.CB complex, forming a stable, non-toxic complex CNF.CB. The molecular sites involved in the tight interfacial protein-protein interactions in these PLA(2)-based complexes have not been clearly determined. To help address this question, we used the peptide arrays approach to map possible interfacial interaction sites in CA.CB and CNF.CB. Amino acid stretches putatively involved in these interactions were firstly identified in the primary structure of CB. Further analysis of the interfacial availability of these stretches in the presumed biologically active structure of CB, suggested two interaction main sites, located at the amino-terminus and beta-wing regions. Peptide segments at the carboxyl-terminus of CB were also suggested to play a secondary role in the binding of both CA and CNF.

  10. Is chloroplast import of photosynthesis proteins facilitated by an actin-TOC-TIC-VIPP1 complex?

    PubMed

    Jouhet, Juliette; Gray, John C

    2009-10-01

    Actin filaments are major components of the cytoskeleton that interact with chloroplast envelope membranes to allow chloroplast positioning and movement, stromule mobility and gravitropism perception. We recently reported that Toc159, a component of the TOC complex of the chloroplast protein import apparatus, interacts directly with actin. The interaction of Toc159 and actin was identified by co-immunoprecipitation and co-sedimentation experiments with detergent-solubilised pea chloroplast envelope membranes. In addition, many of the components of the TOC-TIC protein import apparatus and VIPP1 (vesicle-inducing protein in plastids 1) were identified by mass spectroscopy in the material co-immunoprecipitated with antibodies to actin. Toc159 is the receptor for the import of photosynthesis proteins and VIPP1 is involved in thylakoid membrane formation by inducing vesicle formation from the chloroplast inner envelope membrane, suggesting we may have identified an actin-TOC-TIC-VIPP1 complex that may provide a means of channeling cytosolic preproteins to the thylakoid membrane. The interaction of Toc159 with actin may facilitate exchange between the putative soluble and membrane forms of Toc159 and promote the interaction of cytosolic preproteins with the TOC complex.

  11. Fitting Multimeric Protein Complexes into Electron Microscopy Maps Using 3D Zernike Descriptors

    PubMed Central

    Esquivel-Rodríguez, Juan; Kihara, Daisuke

    2012-01-01

    A novel computational method for fitting high-resolution structures of multiple proteins into a cryoelectron microscopy map is presented. The method named EMLZerD generates a pool of candidate multiple protein docking conformations of component proteins, which are later compared with a provided electron microscopy (EM) density map to select the ones that fit well into the EM map. The comparison of docking conformations and the EM map is performed using the 3D Zernike descriptor (3DZD), a mathematical series expansion of three-dimensional functions. The 3DZD provides a unified representation of the surface shape of multimeric protein complex models and EM maps, which allows a convenient, fast quantitative comparison of the three dimensional structural data. Out of 19 multimeric complexes tested, near native complex structures with a root mean square deviation of less than 2.5 Å were obtained for 14 cases while medium range resolution structures with correct topology were computed for the additional 5 cases. PMID:22417139

  12. Fitting multimeric protein complexes into electron microscopy maps using 3D Zernike descriptors.

    PubMed

    Esquivel-Rodríguez, Juan; Kihara, Daisuke

    2012-06-14

    A novel computational method for fitting high-resolution structures of multiple proteins into a cryoelectron microscopy map is presented. The method named EMLZerD generates a pool of candidate multiple protein docking conformations of component proteins, which are later compared with a provided electron microscopy (EM) density map to select the ones that fit well into the EM map. The comparison of docking conformations and the EM map is performed using the 3D Zernike descriptor (3DZD), a mathematical series expansion of three-dimensional functions. The 3DZD provides a unified representation of the surface shape of multimeric protein complex models and EM maps, which allows a convenient, fast quantitative comparison of the three-dimensional structural data. Out of 19 multimeric complexes tested, near native complex structures with a root-mean-square deviation of less than 2.5 Å were obtained for 14 cases while medium range resolution structures with correct topology were computed for the additional 5 cases.

  13. Role of Yersinia pestis Toxin Complex Family Proteins in Resistance to Phagocytosis by Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Carmody, Aaron B.; Jarrett, Clayton O.; Hinnebusch, B. Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia pestis carries homologues of the toxin complex (Tc) family proteins, which were first identified in other Gram-negative bacteria as having potent insecticidal activity. The Y. pestis Tc proteins are neither toxic to fleas nor essential for survival of the bacterium in the flea, even though tc gene expression is highly upregulated and much more of the Tc proteins YitA and YipA are produced in the flea than when Y. pestis is grown in vitro. We show that Tc+ and Tc− Y. pestis strains are transmitted equivalently from coinfected fleas, further demonstrating that the Tc proteins have no discernible role, either positive or negative, in transmission by the flea vector. Tc proteins did, however, confer Y. pestis with increased resistance to killing by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). Resistance to killing was not the result of decreased PMN viability or increased intracellular survival but instead correlated with a Tc protein-dependent resistance to phagocytosis that was independent of the type III secretion system (T3SS). Correspondingly, we did not detect T3SS-dependent secretion of the native Tc proteins YitA and YipA or the translocation of YitA– or YipA–β-lactamase fusion proteins into CHO-K1 (CHO) cells or human PMNs. Thus, although highly produced by Y. pestis within the flea and related to insecticidal toxins, the Tc proteins do not affect interaction with the flea or transmission. Rather, the Y. pestis Tc proteins inhibit phagocytosis by mouse PMNs, independent of the T3SS, and may be important for subverting the mammalian innate immune response immediately following transmission from the flea. PMID:23959716

  14. LIL3, a Light-Harvesting Complex Protein, Links Terpenoid and Tetrapyrrole Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Hey, Daniel; Rothbart, Maxi; Herbst, Josephine; Wang, Peng; Müller, Jakob; Wittmann, Daniel; Gruhl, Kirsten; Grimm, Bernhard

    2017-06-01

    The LIL3 protein of Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) belongs to the light-harvesting complex (LHC) protein family, which also includes the light-harvesting chlorophyll-binding proteins of photosystems I and II, the early-light-inducible proteins, PsbS involved in nonphotochemical quenching, and the one-helix proteins and their cyanobacterial homologs designated high-light-inducible proteins. Each member of this family is characterized by one or two LHC transmembrane domains (referred to as the LHC motif) to which potential functions such as chlorophyll binding, protein interaction, and integration of interacting partners into the plastid membranes have been attributed. Initially, LIL3 was shown to interact with geranylgeranyl reductase (CHLP), an enzyme of terpene biosynthesis that supplies the hydrocarbon chain for chlorophyll and tocopherol. Here, we show another function of LIL3 for the stability of protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR). Multiple protein-protein interaction analyses suggest the direct physical interaction of LIL3 with POR but not with chlorophyll synthase. Consistently, LIL3-deficient plants exhibit substantial loss of POR as well as CHLP, which is not due to defective transcription of the POR and CHLP genes but to the posttranslational modification of their protein products. Interestingly, in vitro biochemical analyses provide novel evidence that LIL3 shows high binding affinity to protochlorophyllide, the substrate of POR. Taken together, this study suggests a critical role for LIL3 in the organization of later steps in chlorophyll biosynthesis. We suggest that LIL3 associates with POR and CHLP and thus contributes to the supply of the two metabolites, chlorophyllide and phytyl pyrophosphate, required for the final step in chlorophyll a synthesis. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  15. MDcons: Intermolecular contact maps as a tool to analyze the interface of protein complexes from molecular dynamics trajectories.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Azeim, Safwat; Chermak, Edrisse; Vangone, Anna; Oliva, Romina; Cavallo, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of protein complexes suffer from the lack of specific tools in the analysis step. Analyses of MD trajectories of protein complexes indeed generally rely on classical measures, such as the RMSD, RMSF and gyration radius, conceived and developed for single macromolecules. As a matter of fact, instead, researchers engaged in simulating the dynamics of a protein complex are mainly interested in characterizing the conservation/variation of its biological interface. On these bases, herein we propose a novel approach to the analysis of MD trajectories or other conformational ensembles of protein complexes, MDcons, which uses the conservation of inter-residue contacts at the interface as a measure of the similarity between different snapshots. A "consensus contact map" is also provided, where the conservation of the different contacts is drawn in a grey scale. Finally, the interface area of the complex is monitored during the simulations. To show its utility, we used this novel approach to study two protein-protein complexes with interfaces of comparable size and both dominated by hydrophilic interactions, but having binding affinities at the extremes of the experimental range. MDcons is demonstrated to be extremely useful to analyse the MD trajectories of the investigated complexes, adding important insight into the dynamic behavior of their biological interface. MDcons specifically allows the user to highlight and characterize the dynamics of the interface in protein complexes and can thus be used as a complementary tool for the analysis of MD simulations of both experimental and predicted structures of protein complexes.

  16. A novel transmembrane Ser/Thr kinase complexes with protein phosphatase-1 and inhibitor-2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Brautigan, David L

    2002-12-20

    Protein kinases and protein phosphatases exert coordinated control over many essential cellular processes. Here, we describe the cloning and characterization of a novel human transmembrane protein KPI-2 (Kinase/Phosphatase/Inhibitor-2) that was identified by yeast two-hybrid using protein phosphatase inhibitor-2 (Inh2) as bait. KPI-2 mRNA was predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle. KPI-2 is a 1503-residue protein with two predicted transmembrane helices at the N terminus, a kinase domain, followed by a C-terminal domain. The transmembrane helices were sufficient for targeting proteins to the membrane. KPI-2 kinase domain has about 60% identity with its closest relative, a tyrosine kinase. However, it only exhibited serine/threonine kinase activity in autophosphorylation reactions or with added substrates. KPI-2 kinase domain phosphorylated protein phosphatase-1 (PP1C) at Thr(320), which attenuated PP1C activity. KPI-2 C-terminal domain directly associated with PP1C, and this required a VTF motif. Inh2 associated with KPI-2 C-terminal domain with and without PP1C. Thus, KPI-2 is a kinase with sites to associate with PP1C and Inh2 to form a regulatory complex that is localized to membranes.

  17. Plant nuclear pore complex proteins are modified by novel oligosaccharides with terminal N-acetylglucosamine.

    PubMed Central

    Heese-Peck, A; Cole, R N; Borkhsenious, O N; Hart, G W; Raikhel, N V

    1995-01-01

    Only a few nuclear pore complex (NPC) proteins, mainly in vertebrates and yeast but none in plants, have been well characterized. As an initial step to identify plant NPC proteins, we examined whether NPC proteins from tobacco are modified by N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). Using wheat germ agglutinin, a lectin that binds specifically to GlcNAc in plants, specific labeling was often found associated with or adjacent to NPCs. Nuclear proteins containing GlcNAc can be partially extracted by 0.5 M salt, as shown by a wheat germ agglutinin blot assay, and at least eight extracted proteins were modified by terminal GlcNAc, as determined by in vitro galactosyltransferase assays. Sugar analysis indicated that the plant glycans with terminal GlcNAc differ from the single O-linked GlcNAc of vertebrate NPC proteins in that they consist of oligosaccharides that are larger in size than five GlcNAc residues. Most of these appear to be bound to proteins via a hydroxyl group. This novel oligosaccharide modification may convey properties to the plant NPC that are different from those of vertebrate NPCs. PMID:8589629

  18. GFP-like proteins as ubiquitous metazoan superfamily: evolution of functional features and structural complexity.

    PubMed

    Shagin, Dmitry A; Barsova, Ekaterina V; Yanushevich, Yurii G; Fradkov, Arkady F; Lukyanov, Konstantin A; Labas, Yulii A; Semenova, Tatiana N; Ugalde, Juan A; Meyers, Ann; Nunez, Jose M; Widder, Edith A; Lukyanov, Sergey A; Matz, Mikhail V

    2004-05-01

    Homologs of the green fluorescent protein (GFP), including the recently described GFP-like domains of certain extracellular matrix proteins in Bilaterian organisms, are remarkably similar at the protein structure level, yet they often perform totally unrelated functions, thereby warranting recognition as a superfamily. Here we describe diverse GFP-like proteins from previously undersampled and completely new sources, including hydromedusae and planktonic Copepoda. In hydromedusae, yellow and nonfluorescent purple proteins were found in addition to greens. Notably, the new yellow protein seems to follow exactly the same structural solution to achieving the yellow color of fluorescence as YFP, an engineered yellow-emitting mutant variant of GFP. The addition of these new sequences made it possible to resolve deep-level phylogenetic relationships within the superfamily. Fluorescence (most likely green) must have already existed in the common ancestor of Cnidaria and Bilateria, and therefore GFP-like proteins may be responsible for fluorescence and/or coloration in virtually any animal. At least 15 color diversification events can be inferred following the maximum parsimony principle in Cnidaria. Origination of red fluorescence and nonfluorescent purple-blue colors on several independent occasions provides a remarkable example of convergent evolution of complex features at the molecular level.

  19. Rooster comb hyaluronate-protein, a non-covalently linked complex.

    PubMed Central

    Tsiganos, C P; Vynios, D H; Kalpaxis, D L

    1986-01-01

    Hyaluronate from rooster comb was isolated by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose from tissue extracts and papain digests. The preparations were labelled with [14C]acetic anhydride and subjected to CsCl-density-gradient centrifugation in 4 M-guanidinium chloride in the presence and absence of 4% ZwittergentTM 3-12. A radioactive protein fraction was separated from the hyaluronate when the zwitterionic detergent was also present. The protein could also be separated from the glycosaminoglycan by chromatography on Sepharose CL-6B eluted with the same solvent mixture. The protein fraction contained three protein bands of Mr 15,000-17,000 as assessed by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in 0.1% SDS, and seemed to lack lysozyme activity. No evidence of other protein or amino acid(s) covalently linked with the hyaluronate was obtained. The hyaluronate-protein complex may be re-formed upon mixing the components, the extent of its formation depending on the conditions used. The results show that, as in chondrosarcoma [Mason, d'Arville, Kimura & Hascall (1982) Biochem. J. 207, 445-457] and teratocarcinoma cells [Prehm (1983) Biochem. J. 211, 191-198] the rooster comb hyaluronate also is not linked covalently to a core protein. PMID:3741374

  20. Characterization of Protein Detergent Complexes by NMR, Light Scattering, and Analytical Ultracentrifugation

    PubMed Central

    Maslennikov, Innokentiy; Krupa, Martin; Dickson, Christopher; Esquivies, Luis; Blain, Katherine; Kefala, Georgia; Choe, Senyon; Kwiatkowski, Witek

    2009-01-01

    Bottlenecks in expression, solubilization, purification and crystallization hamper the structural study of integral membrane proteins (IMPs). Successful crystallization is critically dependent on the purity, stability and oligomeric homogeneity of an IMP sample. These characteristics are in turn strongly influenced by the type and concentration of the detergents used in IMP preparation. By utilizing the techniques and analytical tools we earlier developed for the characterization of protein-detergent complexes (PDCs) (Maslennikov et al., 2007), we demonstrate that for successful protein extraction from E. coli membrane fractions, the solubilizing detergent associates preferentially to IMPs rather than to membrane lipids. Notably, this result is contrary to the generally accepted mechanism of detergent-mediated IMP solubilization. We find that for one particular member of the family of proteins studied (E. coli receptor kinases, which is purified in mixed multimeric states and oligomerizes through its transmembrane region), the protein oligomeric composition is largely unaffected by a 10-fold increase in protein concentration, by alteration of micelle properties through addition of other detergents to the PDC sample, or by a 20-fold variation in the detergent concentration used for solubilization of the IMP from the membrane. We observed that the conditions used for expression of the IMP, which impact protein density in the membrane, has the greatest influence on the IMP oligomeric structure. Finally, we argue that for concentrating PDCs smaller than 30 kDa, stirred concentration cells are less prone to over-concentration of detergent and are therefore more effective than centrifugal ultrafiltration devices. PMID:19214777

  1. Structure solution of DNA-binding proteins and complexes with ARCIMBOLDO libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Pröpper, Kevin; Instituto de Biologia Molecular de Barcelona; Meindl, Kathrin

    2014-06-01

    The structure solution of DNA-binding protein structures and complexes based on the combination of location of DNA-binding protein motif fragments with density modification in a multi-solution frame is described. Protein–DNA interactions play a major role in all aspects of genetic activity within an organism, such as transcription, packaging, rearrangement, replication and repair. The molecular detail of protein–DNA interactions can be best visualized through crystallography, and structures emphasizing insight into the principles of binding and base-sequence recognition are essential to understanding the subtleties of the underlying mechanisms. An increasing number of high-quality DNA-binding protein structure determinations have been witnessed despite themore » fact that the crystallographic particularities of nucleic acids tend to pose specific challenges to methods primarily developed for proteins. Crystallographic structure solution of protein–DNA complexes therefore remains a challenging area that is in need of optimized experimental and computational methods. The potential of the structure-solution program ARCIMBOLDO for the solution of protein–DNA complexes has therefore been assessed. The method is based on the combination of locating small, very accurate fragments using the program Phaser and density modification with the program SHELXE. Whereas for typical proteins main-chain α-helices provide the ideal, almost ubiquitous, small fragments to start searches, in the case of DNA complexes the binding motifs and DNA double helix constitute suitable search fragments. The aim of this work is to provide an effective library of search fragments as well as to determine the optimal ARCIMBOLDO strategy for the solution of this class of structures.« less

  2. Uncoupling of transcription and translation of Fanconi anemia (FANC) complex proteins during spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jamsai, Duangporn; O’Connor, Anne E; O’Donnell, Liza; Lo, Jennifer Chi Yi; O’Bryan, Moira K

    2015-01-01

    Male germ cell genome integrity is critical for spermatogenesis, fertility and normal development of the offspring. Several DNA repair pathways exist in male germ cells. One such important pathway is the Fanconi anemia (FANC) pathway. Unlike in somatic cells, expression profiles and the role of the FANC pathway in germ cells remain largely unknown. In this study, we undertook an extensive expression analyses at both mRNA and protein levels of key components of the FANC pathway during spermatogenesis in the mouse. Herein we show that Fanc mRNAs and proteins displayed developmental enrichment within particular male germ cell types. Spermatogonia and pre-leptotene spermatocytes contained the majority of the FANC components examined i.e. complex I members FANCB, FANCG and FANCM, complex II members FANCD2 and FANCI, and complex III member FANCJ. Leptotene, zygotene and early pachytene spermatocytes contained FANCB, FANCG, FANCM and FANCD2. With the exception of FANCL, all FANC proteins examined were not detected in round spermatids. Elongating and elongated spermatids contained FANCB, FANCG, FANCL and FANCJ. qPCR analysis on isolated spermatocytes and round spermatids showed that Fancg, Fancl, Fancm, Fancd2, Fanci and Fancj mRNAs were expressed in both of these germ cell types, indicating that some degree of translational repression of these FANC proteins occurs during the transition from meiosis to spermiogenesis. Taken together, our findings raise the possibility that the assembly of FANC protein complexes in each of the male germ cell type is unique and may be distinct from the proposed model in mitotic cells. PMID:26413409

  3. Identifying technical aliases in SELDI mass spectra of complex mixtures of proteins

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Biomarker discovery datasets created using mass spectrum protein profiling of complex mixtures of proteins contain many peaks that represent the same protein with different charge states. Correlated variables such as these can confound the statistical analyses of proteomic data. Previously we developed an algorithm that clustered mass spectrum peaks that were biologically or technically correlated. Here we demonstrate an algorithm that clusters correlated technical aliases only. Results In this paper, we propose a preprocessing algorithm that can be used for grouping technical aliases in mass spectrometry protein profiling data. The stringency of the variance allowed for clustering is customizable, thereby affecting the number of peaks that are clustered. Subsequent analysis of the clusters, instead of individual peaks, helps reduce difficulties associated with technically-correlated data, and can aid more efficient biomarker identification. Conclusions This software can be used to pre-process and thereby decrease the complexity of protein profiling proteomics data, thus simplifying the subsequent analysis of biomarkers by decreasing the number of tests. The software is also a practical tool for identifying which features to investigate further by purification, identification and confirmation. PMID:24010718

  4. Efficient nuclear export of p65-IkappaBalpha complexes requires 14-3-3 proteins.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Cristina; Fernández-Majada, Vanessa; Inglés-Esteve, Julia; Rodilla, Verónica; Bigas, Anna; Espinosa, Lluís

    2006-09-01

    IkappaB are responsible for maintaining p65 in the cytoplasm under non-stimulating conditions and promoting the active export of p65 from the nucleus following NFkappaB activation to terminate the signal. We now show that 14-3-3 proteins regulate the NFkappaB signaling pathway by physically interacting with p65 and IkappaBalpha proteins. We identify two functional 14-3-3 binding domains in the p65 protein involving residues 38-44 and 278-283, and map the interaction region of IkappaBalpha in residues 60-65. Mutation of these 14-3-3 binding domains in p65 or IkappaBalpha results in a predominantly nuclear distribution of both proteins. TNFalpha treatment promotes recruitment of 14-3-3 and IkappaBalpha to NFkappaB-dependent promoters and enhances the binding of 14-3-3 to p65. Disrupting 14-3-3 activity by transfection with a dominant-negative 14-3-3 leads to the accumulation of nuclear p65-IkappaBalpha complexes and the constitutive association of p65 with the chromatin. In this situation, NFkappaB-dependent genes become unresponsive to TNFalpha stimulation. Together our results indicate that 14-3-3 proteins facilitate the nuclear export of IkappaBalpha-p65 complexes and are required for the appropriate regulation of NFkappaB signaling.

  5. Nephrin Regulates Lamellipodia Formation by Assembling a Protein Complex That Includes Ship2, Filamin and Lamellipodin

    PubMed Central

    Venkatareddy, Madhusudan; Cook, Leslie; Abuarquob, Kamal; Verma, Rakesh; Garg, Puneet

    2011-01-01

    Actin dynamics has emerged at the forefront of podocyte biology. Slit diaphragm junctional adhesion protein Nephrin is necessary for development of the podocyte morphology and transduces phosphorylation-dependent signals that regulate cytoskeletal dynamics. The present study extends our understanding of Nephrin function by showing in cultured podocytes that Nephrin activation induced actin dynamics is necessary for lamellipodia formation. Upon activation Nephrin recruits and regulates a protein complex that includes Ship2 (SH2 domain containing 5′ inositol phosphatase), Filamin and Lamellipodin, proteins important in regulation of actin and focal adhesion dynamics, as well as lamellipodia formation. Using the previously described CD16-Nephrin clustering system, Nephrin ligation or activation resulted in phosphorylation of the actin crosslinking protein Filamin in a p21 activated kinase dependent manner. Nephrin activation in cell culture results in formation of lamellipodia, a process that requires specialized actin dynamics at the leading edge of the cell along with focal adhesion turnover. In the CD16-Nephrin clustering model, Nephrin ligation resulted in abnormal morphology of actin tails in human podocytes when Ship2, Filamin or Lamellipodin were individually knocked down. We also observed decreased lamellipodia formation and cell migration in these knock down cells. These data provide evidence that Nephrin not only initiates actin polymerization but also assembles a protein complex that is necessary to regulate the architecture of the generated actin filament network and focal adhesion dynamics. PMID:22194892

  6. Degradation of phosphorylated p53 by viral protein-ECS E3 ligase complex.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yoshitaka; Kamura, Takumi; Shirata, Noriko; Murata, Takayuki; Kudoh, Ayumi; Iwahori, Satoko; Nakayama, Sanae; Isomura, Hiroki; Nishiyama, Yukihiro; Tsurumi, Tatsuya

    2009-07-01

    p53-signaling is modulated by viruses to establish a host cellular environment advantageous for their propagation. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lytic program induces phosphorylation of p53, which prevents interaction with MDM2. Here, we show that induction of EBV lytic program leads to degradation of p53 via an ubiquitin-proteasome pathway independent of MDM2. The BZLF1 protein directly functions as an adaptor component of the ECS (Elongin B/C-Cul2/5-SOCS-box protein) ubiquitin ligase complex targeting p53 for degradation. Intringuingly, C-terminal phosphorylation of p53 resulting from activated DNA damage response by viral lytic replication enhances its binding to BZLF1 protein. Purified BZLF1 protein-associated ECS could be shown to catalyze ubiquitination of phospho-mimetic p53 more efficiently than the wild-type in vitro. The compensation of p53 at middle and late stages of the lytic infection inhibits viral DNA replication and production during lytic infection, suggesting that the degradation of p53 is required for efficient viral propagation. Taken together, these findings demonstrate a role for the BZLF1 protein-associated ECS ligase complex in regulation of p53 phosphorylated by activated DNA damage signaling during viral lytic infection.

  7. Conformational co-dependence between Plasmodium berghei LCCL proteins promotes complex formation and stability.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Sadia; Tremp, Annie Z; Dessens, Johannes T

    2012-10-01

    Malaria parasites express a conserved family of LCCL-lectin adhesive-like domain proteins (LAPs) that have essential functions in sporozoite transmission. In Plasmodium falciparum all six family members are expressed in gametocytes and form a multi-protein complex. Intriguingly, knockout of P. falciparum LCCL proteins adversely affects expression of other family members at protein, but not at mRNA level, a phenomenon termed co-dependent expression. Here, we investigate this in Plasmodium berghei by crossing a PbLAP1 null mutant parasite with a parasite line expressing GFP-tagged PbLAP3 that displays strong fluorescence in gametocytes. Selected and validated double mutants show normal synthesis and subcellular localization of PbLAP3::GFP. However, GFP-based fluorescence is dramatically reduced without PbLAP1 present, indicating that PbLAP1 and PbLAP3 interact. Moreover, absence of PbLAP1 markedly reduces the half-life of PbLAP3, consistent with a scenario of misfolding. These findings unveil a potential mechanism of conformational interdependence that facilitates assembly and stability of the functional LCCL protein complex. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Possible role of interference, protein noise, and sink effects in nonphotochemical quenching in photosynthetic complexes.

    PubMed

    Berman, Gennady P; Nesterov, Alexander I; Gurvitz, Shmuel; Sayre, Richard T

    2017-01-01

    We analyze theoretically a simple and consistent quantum mechanical model that reveals the possible role of quantum interference, protein noise, and sink effects in the nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) in light-harvesting complexes (LHCs). The model consists of a network of five interconnected sites (excitonic states of light-sensitive molecules) responsible for the NPQ mechanism. The model also includes the "damaging" and the dissipative channels. The damaging channel is responsible for production of singlet oxygen and other destructive outcomes. In our model, both damaging and "dissipative" charge transfer channels are described by discrete electron energy levels attached to their sinks, that mimic the continuum part of electron energy spectrum. All five excitonic sites interact with the protein environment that is modeled using a stochastic process. Our approach allowed us to derive the exact and closed system of linear ordinary differential equations for the reduced density matrix and its first momentums. These equations are solved numerically including for strong interactions between the light-sensitive molecules and protein environment. As an example, we apply our model to demonstrate possible contributions of quantum interference, protein noise, and sink effects in the NPQ mechanism in the CP29 minor LHC. The numerical simulations show that using proper combination of quantum interference effects, properties of noise, and sinks, one can significantly suppress the damaging channel. Our findings demonstrate the possible role of interference, protein noise, and sink effects for modeling, engineering, and optimizing the performance of the NPQ processes in both natural and artificial light-harvesting complexes.

  9. STAM Adaptor Proteins Interact with COPII Complexes and Function in ER-to-Golgi Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Rismanchi, Neggy; Puertollano, Rosa; Blackstone, Craig

    2009-01-01

    Signal transducing adaptor molecules (STAMs) are involved in growth factor and cytokine signaling as well as receptor degradation, and they form complexes with a number of endocytic proteins, including Hrs and Eps15. Here we demonstrate that STAM proteins also localize prominently to early exocytic compartments and profoundly regulate Golgi morphology. Upon STAM overexpression in cells the Golgi apparatus becomes extensively fragmented and dispersed, but when STAMs are depleted the Golgi becomes highly condensed. Under both scenarios, vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSVG)-GFP trafficking to the plasma membrane is markedly inhibited, and recovery of Golgi morphology after brefeldin A treatment is substantially impaired in STAM-depleted cells. Furthermore, STAM proteins interact with COPII proteins, probably at endoplasmic reticulum (ER) exit sites, and Sar1 activity is required to maintain the localization of STAMs at discrete sites. Thus, in addition to their roles in signaling and endocytosis, STAMs function prominently in ER-to-Golgi trafficking, most likely through direct interactions with the COPII complex. PMID:19054391

  10. Border control: selectivity of chloroplast protein import and regulation at the TOC-complex.

    PubMed

    Demarsy, Emilie; Lakshmanan, Ashok M; Kessler, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Plants have evolved complex and sophisticated molecular mechanisms to regulate their development and adapt to their surrounding environment. Particularly the development of their specific organelles, chloroplasts and other plastid-types, is finely tuned in accordance with the metabolic needs of the cell. The normal development and functioning of plastids require import of particular subsets of nuclear encoded proteins. Most preproteins contain a cleavable sequence at their N terminal (transit peptide) serving as a signal for targeting to the organelle and recognition by the translocation machinery TOC-TIC (translocon of outer membrane complex-translocon of inner membrane complex) spanning the dual membrane envelope. The plastid proteome needs constant remodeling in response to developmental and environmental factors. Therefore selective regulation of preprotein import plays a crucial role in plant development. In this review we describe the diversity of transit peptides and TOC receptor complexes, and summarize the current knowledge and potential directions for future research concerning regulation of the different Toc isoforms.

  11. GINS complex protein Sld5 recruits SIK1 to activate MCM helicase during DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Kiranmai; Shah, Varun Jayeshkumar; Maddika, Subbareddy

    2016-12-01

    In eukaryotes, proper loading and activation of MCM helicase at chromosomal origins plays a central role in DNA replication. Activation of MCM helicase requires its association with CDC45-GINS complex, but the mechanism of how this complex activates MCM helicase is poorly understood. Here we identified SIK1 (salt-inducible kinase 1), an AMPK related protein kinase, as a molecular link that connects GINS complex with MCM helicase activity. We demonstrated that Sld5 a component of GINS complex interacts with SIK1 and recruits it to the sites of DNA replication at the onset of S phase. Depletion of SIK1 leads to defective DNA replication. Further, we showed that SIK1 phosphorylates MCM2 at five conserved residues at its N-terminus, which is essential for the activation of MCM helicase. Collectively, our results suggest SIK1 as a novel integral component of CMG replicative helicase during eukaryotic DNA replication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Psp Stress Response Proteins Form a Complex with Mislocalized Secretins in the Yersinia enterocolitica Cytoplasmic Membrane.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Disha; Moumene, Amal; Flores-Kim, Josué; Darwin, Andrew J

    2017-09-12

    The bacterial phage shock protein system (Psp) is a conserved extracytoplasmic stress response that is essential for the virulence of some pathogens, including Yersinia enterocolitica It is induced by events that can compromise inner membrane (IM) integrity, including the mislocalization of outer membrane pore-forming proteins called secretins. In the absence of the Psp system, secretin mislocalization permeabilizes the IM and causes rapid cell death. The Psp proteins PspB and PspC form an integral IM complex with two independent roles. First, the PspBC complex is required to activate the Psp response in response to some inducing triggers, including a mislocalized secretin. Second, PspBC are sufficient to counteract mislocalized secretin toxicity. Remarkably, secretin mislocalization into the IM induces psp gene expression without significantly affecting the expression of any other genes. Furthermore, psp null strains are killed by mislocalized secretins, whereas no other null mutants have been found to share this specific secretin sensitivity. This suggests an exquisitely specific relationship between secretins and the Psp system, but there has been no mechanism described to explain this. In this study, we addressed this deficiency by using a coimmunoprecipitation approach to show that the Psp proteins form a specific complex with mislocalized secretins in the Y. enterocolitica IM. Importantly, analysis of different secretin mutant proteins also revealed that this interaction is absolutely dependent on a secretin adopting a multimeric state. Therefore, the Psp system has evolved with the ability to detect and detoxify dangerous secretin multimers while ignoring the presence of innocuous monomers. IMPORTANCE The phage shock protein (Psp) response has been linked to important phenotypes in diverse bacteria, including those related to antibiotic resistance, biofilm formation, and virulence. This has generated widespread interest in understanding various aspects of

  13. Stability of integral membrane proteins under high hydrostatic pressure: the LH2 and LH3 antenna pigment-protein complexes from photosynthetic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kangur, Liina; Timpmann, Kõu; Freiberg, Arvi

    2008-07-03

    The bacteriochlorophyll a-containing LH2 and LH3 antenna complexes are the integral membrane proteins that catalyze the photosynthetic process in purple photosynthetic bacteria. The LH2 complex from Rhodobacter sphaeroides shows characteristic strong absorbance at 800 and 850 nm due to the pigment molecules confined in two separate areas of the protein. In the LH3 complex from Rhodopesudomonas acidophila the corresponding bands peak at 800 and 820 nm. Using the bacteriochlorophyll a cofactors as intrinsic probes to monitor local changes in the protein structure, we investigate spectral responses of the antenna complexes to very high hydrostatic pressures up to 2.5 GPa when embedded into natural membrane environment or extracted with detergent. We first demonstrate that high pressure does induce significant alterations to the tertiary structure of the proteins not only in proximity of the 800 nm-absorbing bacteriochlorophyll a molecules known previously (Gall, A.; et al. Biochemistry 2003, 42, 13019) but also of the 850 nm- and 820 nm-absorbing molecules, including breakage of the hydrogen bond they are involved in. The membrane-protected complexes appear more resilient to damaging effects of the compression compared with the complexes extracted into mixed detergent-buffer environment. Increased resistance of the isolated complexes is observed at high protein concentration resulting aggregation as well as when cosolvent (glycerol) is added into the solution. These stability variations correlate with ability of penetration of the surrounding polar solvent (water) into the hydrophobic protein interiors, being thus the principal reason of the pressure-induced denaturation of the proteins. Considerable variability of elastic properties of the isolated complexes was also observed, tentatively assigned to heterogeneous protein packing in detergent micelles. While a number of the isolated complexes release most of their bacteriochlorophyll a content under high pressure

  14. Structural basis of G protein-coupled receptor-Gi protein interaction: formation of the cannabinoid CB2 receptor-Gi protein complex.

    PubMed

    Mnpotra, Jagjeet S; Qiao, Zhuanhong; Cai, Jian; Lynch, Diane L; Grossfield, Alan; Leioatts, Nicholas; Hurst, Dow P; Pitman, Michael C; Song, Zhao-Hui; Reggio, Patricia H

    2014-07-18

    In this study, we applied a comprehensive G protein-coupled receptor-Gαi protein chemical cross-linking strategy to map the cannabinoid receptor subtype 2 (CB2)-Gαi interface and then used molecular dynamics simulations to explore the dynamics of complex formation. Three cross-link sites were identified using LC-MS/MS and electrospray ionization-MS/MS as follows: 1) a sulfhydryl cross-link between C3.53(134) in TMH3 and the Gαi C-terminal i-3 residue Cys-351; 2) a lysine cross-link between K6.35(245) in TMH6 and the Gαi C-terminal i-5 residue, Lys-349; and 3) a lysine cross-link between K5.64(215) in TMH5 and the Gαi α4β6 loop residue, Lys-317. To investigate the dynamics and nature of the conformational changes involved in CB2·Gi complex formation, we carried out microsecond-time scale molecular dynamics simulations of the CB2 R*·Gαi1β1γ2 complex embedded in a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine bilayer, using cross-linking information as validation. Our results show that although molecular dynamics simulations started with the G protein orientation in the β2-AR*·Gαsβ1γ2 complex crystal structure, the Gαi1β1γ2 protein reoriented itself within 300 ns. Two major changes occurred as follows. 1) The Gαi1 α5 helix tilt changed due to the outward movement of TMH5 in CB2 R*. 2) A 25° clockwise rotation of Gαi1β1γ2 underneath CB2 R* occurred, with rotation ceasing when Pro-139 (IC-2 loop) anchors in a hydrophobic pocket on Gαi1 (Val-34, Leu-194, Phe-196, Phe-336, Thr-340, Ile-343, and Ile-344). In this complex, all three experimentally identified cross-links can occur. These findings should be relevant for other class A G protein-coupled receptors that couple to Gi proteins. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Functional role of the MrpA- and MrpD-homologous protein subunits in enzyme complexes evolutionary related to respiratory chain complex I.

    PubMed

    Moparthi, Vamsi K; Kumar, Brijesh; Al-Eryani, Yusra; Sperling, Eva; Górecki, Kamil; Drakenberg, Torbjörn; Hägerhäll, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    NADH:quinone oxidoreductase or complex I is a large membrane bound enzyme complex that has evolved from the combination of smaller functional building blocks. Intermediate size enzyme complexes exist in nature that comprise some, but not all of the protein subunits in full size 14-subunit complex I. The membrane spanning complex I subunits NuoL, NuoM and NuoN are homologous to each other and to two proteins from one particular class of Na(+)/H(+) antiporters, denoted MrpA and MrpD. In complex I, these ion transporter protein subunits are prime candidates for harboring important parts of the proton pumping machinery. Using a model system, consisting of Bacillus subtilis MrpA and MrpD deletion strains and a low copy expression plasmid, it was recently demonstrated that NuoN can rescue the strain deleted for MrpD but not that deleted for MrpA, whereas the opposite tendency was seen for NuoL. This demonstrated that the MrpA-type and MrpD-type proteins have unique functional specializations. In this work, the corresponding antiporter-like protein subunits from the smaller enzymes evolutionarily related to complex I were tested in the same model system. The subunits from 11-subunit complex I from Bacillus cereus behaved essentially as those from full size complex I, corroborating that this enzyme should be regarded as a bona fide complex I. The hydrogenase-3 and hydrogenase-4 antiporter-like proteins on the other hand, could substitute equally well for MrpA or MrpD at pH7.4, suggesting that these enzymes have intermediate forms of the antiporter-like proteins, which seemingly lack the functional specificity. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Protein-protein interaction studies reveal the Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein-1 region involved in a complex formation that binds to human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Paul, Gourab; Deshmukh, Arunaditya; Kumar Chourasia, Bishwanath; Kalamuddin, Md; Panda, Ashutosh; Kumar Singh, Susheel; Gupta, Puneet K; Mohmmed, Asif; Chauhan, Virender S; Theisen, Michael; Malhotra, Pawan

    2018-03-29

    Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein (PfMSP) 1 has been studied extensively as a vaccine candidate antigen. PfMSP-1 undergoes proteolytic processing into four major products, such as p83, p30, p38, and p42, that are associated in the form of non-covalent complex(s) with other MSPs. To delineate MSP1 regions involved in the interaction with other MSPs, here we expressed recombinant proteins (PfMSP-1 65 ) encompassing part of p38 and p42 regions and PfMSP-1 19 PfMSP-1 65 interacted strongly with PfMSP-3, PfMSP-6, PfMSP-7, and PfMSP-9, whereas PfMSP-1 19 did not interact with any of these proteins. Since MSP-1 complex binds human erythrocytes, we examined the ability of these proteins to bind human erythrocyte. Among the proteins of MSP-1 complex, PfMSP-6 and PfMSP-9 bound to human erythrocytes. Serological studies showed that PfMSP-1 65 was frequently recognized by sera from malaria endemic regions, whereas this was not the case for PfMSP-1 19 In contrast, antibodies against PfMSP-1 19 showed much higher inhibition of merozoite invasion compared with antibodies against the larger PfMSP-1 65 fragment. Importantly, anti-PfMSP-1 19 antibodies recognized both recombinant proteins, PfMSP-1 19 and PfMSP-1 65 ; however, anti-PfMSP-1 65 antibody failed to recognize the PfMSP-1 19 protein. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PfMSP-1 sequences upstream of the 19 kDa C-terminal region are involved in molecular interactions with other MSPs, and these sequences may probably serve as a smoke screen to evade antibody response to the membrane-bound C-terminal 19 kDa region. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  17. Clinical spectrum and diagnostic value of antibodies against the potassium channel related protein complex.

    PubMed

    Montojo, M T; Petit-Pedrol, M; Graus, F; Dalmau, J

    2015-06-01

    Antibodies against a protein complex that includes voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKC) have been reported in patients with limbic encephalitis, peripheral nerve hyperexcitability, Morvan's syndrome, and a large variety of neurological syndromes. In this article, a review is presented of the syndromes associated with antibodies against VGKC-related proteins and the main antigens of this protein complex, the proteins LGI1 (leucine rich glioma inactivated protein 1) and Caspr2 (contactin-associated protein-like 2). The conceptual problems and clinical implications of the description of antibodies against VGKC-related proteins other than LGI1 and Caspr2 are also discussed. Although initial studies indicated the occurrence of antibodies against VGKC, recent investigations have shown that the main antigens are a neuronal secreted protein known as LGI1 which modulates synaptic excitability, and a protein called Caspr2 located on the cell surface and processes of neurons of different brain regions, and at the juxtaparanodal region of myelinated axons. While antibodies against LGI1 preferentially associate with classical limbic encephalitis, antibodies against Caspr2 associate with a wider spectrum of symptoms, including Morvan's syndrome, peripheral nerve hyperexcitability or neuromyotonia, and limbic or more extensive encephalitis. In addition there are reports of patients with antibodies against VGKC-related proteins that are different from LGI1 or Caspr2. In these cases, the identity and location of the antigens are unknown, the syndrome association is not specific, and the response to treatment uncertain. The discovery of antigens such as LGI1 and Caspr2 has resulted in a clinical and molecular definition of the broad group of diseases previously attributed to antibodies against VGKC. Considering the literature that describes the presence of antibodies against VGKC other than LGI1 and Caspr2 proteins, we propose a practical algorithm for the diagnosis and treatment

  18. Gibberellin DELLA signaling targets the retromer complex to redirect protein trafficking to the plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Salanenka, Yuliya; Verstraeten, Inge; Löfke, Christian; Tabata, Kaori; Naramoto, Satoshi; Glanc, Matouš; Friml, Jiří

    2018-01-01

    The plant hormone gibberellic acid (GA) is a crucial regulator of growth and development. The main paradigm of GA signaling puts forward transcriptional regulation via the degradation of DELLA transcriptional repressors. GA has also been shown to regulate tropic responses by modulation of the plasma membrane incidence of PIN auxin transporters by an unclear mechanism. Here we uncovered the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which GA redirects protein trafficking and thus regulates cell surface functionality. Photoconvertible reporters revealed that GA balances the protein traffic between the vacuole degradation route and recycling back to the cell surface. Low GA levels promote vacuolar delivery and degradation of multiple cargos, including PIN proteins, whereas high GA levels promote their recycling to the plasma membrane. This GA effect requires components of the retromer complex, such as Sorting Nexin 1 (SNX1) and its interacting, microtubule (MT)-associated protein, the Cytoplasmic Linker-Associated Protein (CLASP1). Accordingly, GA regulates the subcellular distribution of SNX1 and CLASP1, and the intact MT cytoskeleton is essential for the GA effect on trafficking. This GA cellular action occurs through DELLA proteins that regulate the MT and retromer presumably via their interaction partners Prefoldins (PFDs). Our study identified a branching of the GA signaling pathway at the level of DELLA proteins, which, in parallel to regulating transcription, also target by a nontranscriptional mechanism the retromer complex acting at the intersection of the degradation and recycling trafficking routes. By this mechanism, GA can redirect receptors and transporters to the cell surface, thus coregulating multiple processes, including PIN-dependent auxin fluxes during tropic responses. PMID:29463731

  19. LINC Complexes Form by Binding of Three KASH Peptides to Domain Interfaces of Trimeric SUN Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Sosa, Brian A.; Rothballer, Andrea; Kutay, Ulrike

    Linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complexes span the nuclear envelope and are composed of KASH and SUN proteins residing in the outer and inner nuclear membrane, respectively. LINC formation relies on direct binding of KASH and SUN in the perinuclear space. Thereby, molecular tethers are formed that can transmit forces for chromosome movements, nuclear migration, and anchorage. We present crystal structures of the human SUN2-KASH1/2 complex, the core of the LINC complex. The SUN2 domain is rigidly attached to a trimeric coiled coil that prepositions it to bind three KASH peptides. The peptides bind in three deep and expansivemore » grooves formed between adjacent SUN domains, effectively acting as molecular glue. In addition, a disulfide between conserved cysteines on SUN and KASH covalently links both proteins. The structure provides the basis of LINC complex formation and suggests a model for how LINC complexes might arrange into higher-order clusters to enhance force-coupling.« less

  20. Effects of conformational ordering on protein/polyelectrolyte electrostatic complexation: ionic binding and chain stiffening

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yiping; Fang, Yapeng; Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Phillips, Glyn O.

    2016-01-01

    Coupling of electrostatic complexation with conformational transition is rather general in protein/polyelectrolyte interaction and has important implications in many biological processes and practical applications. This work studied the electrostatic complexation between κ-carrageenan (κ-car) and type B gelatin, and analyzed the effects of the conformational ordering of κ-car induced upon cooling in the presence of potassium chloride (KCl) or tetramethylammonium iodide (Me4NI). Experimental results showed that the effects of conformational ordering on protein/polyelectrolyte electrostatic complexation can be decomposed into ionic binding and chain stiffening. At the initial stage of conformational ordering, electrostatic complexation can be either suppressed or enhanced due to the ionic bindings of K+ and I− ions, which significantly alter the charge density of κ-car or occupy the binding sites of gelatin. Beyond a certain stage of conformational ordering, i.e., helix content θ > 0.30, the effect of chain stiffening, accompanied with a rapid increase in helix length ζ, becomes dominant and tends to dissociate the electrostatic complexation. The effect of chain stiffening can be theoretically interpreted in terms of double helix association. PMID:27030165

  1. Survey of large protein complexes D. vulgaris reveals great structural diversity

    SciTech Connect

    Han, B.-G.; Dong, M.; Liu, H.

    2009-08-15

    An unbiased survey has been made of the stable, most abundant multi-protein complexes in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DvH) that are larger than Mr {approx} 400 k. The quaternary structures for 8 of the 16 complexes purified during this work were determined by single-particle reconstruction of negatively stained specimens, a success rate {approx}10 times greater than that of previous 'proteomic' screens. In addition, the subunit compositions and stoichiometries of the remaining complexes were determined by biochemical methods. Our data show that the structures of only two of these large complexes, out of the 13 in this set that have recognizable functions,more » can be modeled with confidence based on the structures of known homologs. These results indicate that there is significantly greater variability in the way that homologous prokaryotic macromolecular complexes are assembled than has generally been appreciated. As a consequence, we suggest that relying solely on previously determined quaternary structures for homologous proteins may not be sufficient to properly understand their role in another cell of interest.« less

  2. Sepsis-induced alterations in protein-protein interactions within mTOR complex 1 and the modulating effect of leucine on muscle protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kazi, Abid A; Pruznak, Anne M; Frost, Robert A; Lang, Charles H

    2011-02-01

    Sepsis-induced muscle atrophy is produced in part by decreased protein synthesis mediated by inhibition of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin). The present study tests the hypothesis that alteration of specific protein-protein interactions within the mTORC1 (mTOR complex 1) contributes to the decreased mTOR activity observed after cecal ligation and puncture in rats. Sepsis decreased in vivo translational efficiency in gastrocnemius and reduced the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E-binding protein (BP) 1, S6 kinase (S6K) 1, and mTOR, compared with time-matched pair-fed controls. Sepsis decreased T246-phosphorylated PRAS40 (proline-rich Akt substrate 40) and reciprocally increased S792-phosphorylated raptor (regulatory associated protein of mTOR). Despite these phosphorylation changes, sepsis did not alter PRAS40 binding to raptor. The amount of the mTOR-raptor complex did not differ between groups. In contrast, the binding and retention of both 4E-BP1 and S6K1 to raptor were increased, and, conversely, the binding of raptor with eIF3 was decreased in sepsis. These changes in mTORC1 in the basal state were associated with enhanced 5'-AMP activated kinase activity. Acute in vivo leucine stimulation increased muscle protein synthesis in control, but not septic rats. This muscle leucine resistance was associated with coordinated changes in raptor-eIF3 binding and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation. Overall, our data suggest the sepsis-induced decrease in muscle protein synthesis may be mediated by the inability of 4E-BP1 and S6K1 to be phosphorylated and released from mTORC1 as well as the decreased recruitment of eIF3 necessary for a functional 48S complex. These data provide additional mechanistic insight into the molecular mechanisms by which sepsis impairs both basal protein synthesis and the anabolic response to the nutrient signal leucine in skeletal muscle.

  3. A New Look on Protein-Polyphenol Complexation during Honey Storage: Is This a Random or Organized Event with the Help of Dirigent-Like Proteins?

    PubMed Central

    Brudzynski, Katrina; Sjaarda, Calvin; Maldonado-Alvarez, Liset

    2013-01-01

    Honey storage initiates melanoidin formation that involves a cascade of seemingly unguided redox reactions between amino acids/proteins, reducing sugars and polyphenols. In the process, high molecular weight protein-polyphenol complexes are formed, but the mechanism involved remains unknown. The objective of this study was twofold: to determine quantitative and qualitative changes in proteins in honeys stored for prolonged times and in different temperatures and to relate these changes to the formation of protein-polyphenol complexes. Six -month storage decreased the protein content by 46.7% in all tested honeys (t-test, p<0.002) with the rapid reduction occurring during the first three month. The changes in protein levels coincided with alterations in molecular size and net charge of proteins on SDS –PAGE. Electro-blotted proteins reacted with a quinone-specific nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) on nitrocellulose membranes indicating that quinones derived from oxidized polyphenols formed covalent bonds with proteins. Protein-polyphenol complexes isolated by size-exclusion chromatography differed in size and stoichiometry and fall into two categories: (a) high molecular weight complexes (230–180 kDa) enriched in proteins but possessing a limited reducing activity toward the NBT and (b) lower molecular size complexes (110–85 kDa) enriched in polyphenols but strongly reducing the dye. The variable stoichiometry suggest that the large, “protein-type” complexes were formed by protein cross-linking, while in the smaller, “polyphenol-type” complexes polyphenols were first polymerized prior to protein binding. Quinones preferentially bound a 31 kDa protein which, by the electrospray quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (ESI-Qtof-MS) analysis, showed homology to dirigent-like proteins known for assisting in radical coupling and polymerization of phenolic compounds. These findings provide a new look on protein-polyphenol interaction in honey where the

  4. Biological and protein-binding studies of newly synthesized polymer-cobalt(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Vignesh, G; Pradeep, I; Arunachalam, S; Vignesh, S; Arthur James, R; Arun, R; Premkumar, K

    2016-03-01

    The polymer-cobalt(III) complexes, [Co(bpy)(dien)BPEI]Cl3 · 4H2O (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, dien = diethylentriamine, BPEI = branched polyethyleneimine) were synthesized and characterized. The interaction of these complexes with human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated under physiological conditions using various physico-chemical techniques. The results reveal that the fluorescence quenching of serum albumins by polymer-cobalt(III) complexes took place through static quenching. The binding of these complexes changed the molecular conformation of the protein considerably. The polymer-cobalt(III) complex with x = 0.365 shows antimicrobial activity against several human pathogens. This complex also induces cytotoxicity against MCF-7 through apoptotic induction. However, further studies are needed to decipher the molecular mode of action of polymer-cobalt(III) complex and for its possible utilization in anticancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Matrix proteins of Nipah and Hendra viruses interact with beta subunits of AP-3 complexes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weina; McCrory, Thomas S; Khaw, Wei Young; Petzing, Stephanie; Myers, Terrell; Schmitt, Anthony P

    2014-11-01

    Paramyxoviruses and other negative-strand RNA viruses encode matrix proteins that coordinate the virus assembly process. The matrix proteins link the viral glycoproteins and the viral ribonucleoproteins at virus assembly sites and often recruit host machinery that facilitates the budding process. Using a co-affinity purification strategy, we have identified the beta subunit of the AP-3 adapter protein complex, AP3B1, as a binding partner for the M proteins of the zoonotic paramyxoviruses Nipah virus and Hendra virus. Binding function was localized to the serine-rich and acidic Hinge domain of AP3B1, and a 29-amino-acid Hinge-derived polypeptide was sufficient for M protein binding in coimmunoprecipitation assays. Virus-like particle (VLP) production assays were used to assess the relationship between AP3B1 binding and M protein function. We found that for both Nipah virus and Hendra virus, M protein expression in the absence of any other viral proteins led to the efficient production of VLPs in transfected cells, and this VLP production was potently inhibited upon overexpression of short M-binding polypeptides derived from the Hinge region of AP3B1. Both human and bat (Pteropus alecto) AP3B1-derived polypeptides were highly effective at inhibiting the production of VLPs. VLP production was also impaired through small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated depletion of AP3B1 from cells. These findings suggest that AP-3-directed trafficking processes are important for henipavirus particle production and identify a new host protein-virus protein binding interface that could become a useful target in future efforts to develop small molecule inhibitors to combat paramyxoviral infections. Henipaviruses cause deadly infections in humans, with a mortality rate of about 40%. Hendra virus outbreaks in Australia, all involving horses and some involving transmission to humans, have been a continuing problem. Nipah virus caused a large outbreak in Malaysia in 1998, killing 109 people

  6. Matrix Proteins of Nipah and Hendra Viruses Interact with Beta Subunits of AP-3 Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Weina; McCrory, Thomas S.; Khaw, Wei Young; Petzing, Stephanie; Myers, Terrell

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Paramyxoviruses and other negative-strand RNA viruses encode matrix proteins that coordinate the virus assembly process. The matrix proteins link the viral glycoproteins and the viral ribonucleoproteins at virus assembly sites and often recruit host machinery that facilitates the budding process. Using a co-affinity purification strategy, we have identified the beta subunit of the AP-3 adapter protein complex, AP3B1, as a binding partner for the M proteins of the zoonotic paramyxoviruses Nipah virus and Hendra virus. Binding function was localized to the serine-rich and acidic Hinge domain of AP3B1, and a 29-amino-acid Hinge-derived polypeptide was sufficient for M protein binding in coimmunoprecipitation assays. Virus-like particle (VLP) production assays were used to assess the relationship between AP3B1 binding and M protein function. We found that for both Nipah virus and Hendra virus, M protein expression in the absence of any other viral proteins led to the efficient production of VLPs in transfected cells, and this VLP production was potently inhibited upon overexpression of short M-binding polypeptides derived from the Hinge region of AP3B1. Both human and bat (Pteropus alecto) AP3B1-derived polypeptides were highly effective at inhibiting the production of VLPs. VLP production was also impaired through small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated depletion of AP3B1 from cells. These findings suggest that AP-3-directed trafficking processes are important for henipavirus particle production and identify a new host protein-virus protein binding interface that could become a useful target in future efforts to develop small molecule inhibitors to combat paramyxoviral infections. IMPORTANCE Henipaviruses cause deadly infections in humans, with a mortality rate of about 40%. Hendra virus outbreaks in Australia, all involving horses and some involving transmission to humans, have been a continuing problem. Nipah virus caused a large outbreak in Malaysia in 1998

  7. Iron-sulfur Proteins Are the Major Source of Protein-bound Dinitrosyl Iron Complexes Formed in Escherichia coli Cells under Nitric Oxide Stress

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Aaron P.; Duan, Xuewu; Huang, Hao; Ding, Huangen

    2011-01-01

    Protein-bound dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNICs) have been observed in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells under nitric oxide (NO) stress. The identity of proteins that bind DNICs, however, still remains elusive. Here we demonstrate that iron-sulfur proteins are the major source of protein-bound DNICs formed in Escherichia coli cells under NO stress. Expression of recombinant iron-sulfur proteins, but not the proteins without iron-sulfur clusters, almost doubles the amount of protein-bound DNICs formed in E. coli cells after NO exposure. Purification of recombinant proteins from the NO-exposed E. coli cells further confirms that iron-sulfur proteins, but not the proteins without iron-sulfur clusters, are modified forming protein-bound DINCs. Deletion of the iron-sulfur cluster assembly proteins IscA and SufA to block the [4Fe-4S] cluster biogenesis in E. coli cells largely eliminates the NO-mediated formation of protein-bound DNICs, suggesting that iron-sulfur clusters are mainly responsible for the NO-mediated formation of protein-bound DNICs in cells. Furthermore, depletion of “chelatable iron pool” in the wild-type E. coli cells effectively removes iron-sulfur clusters from proteins and concomitantly diminishes the NO-mediated formation of protein-bound DNICs, indicating that iron-sulfur clusters in proteins constitute at least part of “chelatable iron pool” in cells. PMID:21420489

  8. The transport of Staufen2-containing ribonucleoprotein complexes involves kinesin motor protein and is modulated by mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ji-Hye; Nam, Yeon-Ju; Kim, Seok-Yong; Kim, Eung-Gook; Jeong, Jooyoung; Kim, Hyong Kyu

    2007-09-01

    There is increasing evidence showing that mRNA is transported to the neuronal dendrites in ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes or RNA granules, which are aggregates of mRNA, rRNA, ribosomal proteins, and RNA-binding proteins. In these RNP complexes, Staufen, a double-stranded RNA-binding protein, is believed to be a core component that plays a key role in the dendritic mRNA transport. This study investigated the molecular mechanisms of the dendritic mRNA transport using green fluorescent protein-tagged Staufen2 produced employing a Sindbis viral expression system. The kinesin heavy chain was found to be associated with Staufen2. The inhibition of kinesin resulted in a significant decrease in the level of dendritic transport of the Staufen2-containing RNP complexes in neurons under non-stimulating or stimulating conditions. This suggests that the dendritic transport of the Staufen2-containing RNP complexes use kinesin as a motor protein. A mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor, PD98059, inhibited the activity-induced increase in the amount of both the Staufen2-containing RNP complexes and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha-subunit mRNA in the distal dendrites of cultured hippocampal neurons. Overall, these results suggest that dendritic mRNA transport is mediated via the Staufen2 and kinesin motor proteins and might be modulated by the neuronal activity and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

  9. Emerging functions of multi-protein complex Mediator with special emphasis on plants.

    PubMed

    Malik, Naveen; Agarwal, Pinky; Tyagi, Akhilesh

    2017-10-01

    Mediator is a multi-subunit protein complex which is involved in transcriptional regulation in yeast and other eukaryotes. As a co-activator, it connects information from transcriptional activators/repressors to transcriptional machinery including RNA polymerase II and general transcription factors. It is not only involved in transcription initiation but also has important roles to play in transcription elongation and termination. Functional attributes of different Mediator subunits have been largely defined in yeast and mammalian systems earlier, while such studies in plants have gained momentum recently. Mediator regulates various processes related to plant development and is also involved in biotic and abiotic stress response. Thus, plant Mediator, like yeast and mammalian Mediator complex, is indispensable for plant growth and survival. Interaction of its multiple subunits with other regulatory proteins and their ectopic expression or knockdown in model plant like Arabidopsis and certain crop plants are paving the way to biochemical analysis and unravel molecular mechanisms of action of Mediator in plants.

  10. Corolla Is a Novel Protein That Contributes to the Architecture of the Synaptonemal Complex of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Kimberly A.; Unruh, Jay R.; Slaughter, Brian D.; Yu, Zulin; Lake, Cathleen M.; Nielsen, Rachel J.; Box, Kimberly S.; Miller, Danny E.; Blumenstiel, Justin P.; Perera, Anoja G.; Malanowski, Kathryn E.; Hawley, R. Scott

    2014-01-01

    In most organisms the synaptonemal complex (SC) connects paired homologs along their entire length during much of meiotic prophase. To better understand the structure of the SC, we aim to identify its components and to determine how each of these components contributes to SC function. Here, we report the identification of a novel SC component in Drosophila melanogaster female oocytes, which we have named Corolla. Using structured illumination microscopy, we demonstrate that Corolla is a component of the central region of the SC. Consistent with its localization, we show by yeast two-hybrid analysis that Corolla strongly interacts with Cona, a central element protein, demonstrating the first direct interaction between two inner-synaptonemal complex proteins in Drosophila. These observations help provide a more complete model of SC structure and function in Drosophila females. PMID:24913682

  11. @TOME-2: a new pipeline for comparative modeling of protein-ligand complexes.

    PubMed

    Pons, Jean-Luc; Labesse, Gilles

    2009-07-01

    @TOME 2.0 is new web pipeline dedicated to protein structure modeling and small ligand docking based on comparative analyses. @TOME 2.0 allows fold recognition, template selection, structural alignment editing, structure comparisons, 3D-model building and evaluation. These tasks are routinely used in sequence analyses for structure prediction. In our pipeline the necessary software is efficiently interconnected in an original manner to accelerate all the processes. Furthermore, we have also connected comparative docking of small ligands that is performed using protein-protein superposition. The input is a simple protein sequence in one-letter code with no comment. The resulting 3D model, protein-ligand complexes and structural alignments can be visualized through dedicated Web interfaces or can be downloaded for further studies. These original features will aid in the functional annotation of proteins and the selection of templates for molecular modeling and virtual screening. Several examples are described to highlight some of the new functionalities provided by this pipeline. The server and its documentation are freely available at http://abcis.cbs.cnrs.fr/AT2/

  12. Proteomic identification of altered cerebral proteins in the complex regional pain syndrome animal model.

    PubMed

    Nahm, Francis Sahngun; Park, Zee-Yong; Nahm, Sang-Soep; Kim, Yong Chul; Lee, Pyung Bok

    2014-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a rare but debilitating pain disorder. Although the exact pathophysiology of CRPS is not fully understood, central and peripheral mechanisms might be involved in the development of this disorder. To reveal the central mechanism of CRPS, we conducted a proteomic analysis of rat cerebrum using the chronic postischemia pain (CPIP) model, a novel experimental model of CRPS. After generating the CPIP animal model, we performed a proteomic analysis of the rat cerebrum using a multidimensional protein identification technology, and screened the proteins differentially expressed between the CPIP and control groups. Results. A total of 155 proteins were differentially expressed between the CPIP and control groups: 125 increased and 30 decreased; expressions of proteins related to cell signaling, synaptic plasticity, regulation of cell proliferation, and cytoskeletal formation were increased in the CPIP group. However, proenkephalin A, cereblon, and neuroserpin were decreased in CPIP group. Altered expression of cerebral proteins in the CPIP model indicates cerebral involvement in the pathogenesis of CRPS. Further study is required to elucidate the roles of these proteins in the development and maintenance of CRPS.

  13. Quaternary structure of a G-protein-coupled receptor heterotetramer in complex with Gi and Gs.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Gemma; Cordomí, Arnau; Zelman-Femiak, Monika; Brugarolas, Marc; Moreno, Estefania; Aguinaga, David; Perez-Benito, Laura; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I; Lluís, Carme; Pardo, Leonardo; García-Sáez, Ana J; McCormick, Peter J; Franco, Rafael

    2016-04-05

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), in the form of monomers or homodimers that bind heterotrimeric G proteins, are fundamental in the transfer of extracellular stimuli to intracellular signaling pathways. Different GPCRs may also interact to form heteromers that are novel signaling units. Despite the exponential growth in the number of solved GPCR crystal structures, the structural properties of heteromers remain unknown. We used single-particle tracking experiments in cells expressing functional adenosine A1-A2A receptors fused to fluorescent proteins to show the loss of Brownian movement of the A1 receptor in the presence of the A2A receptor, and a preponderance of cell surface 2:2 receptor heteromers (dimer of dimers). Using computer modeling, aided by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer assays to monitor receptor homomerization and heteromerization and G-protein coupling, we predict the interacting interfaces and propose a quaternary structure of the GPCR tetramer in complex with two G proteins. The combination of results points to a molecular architecture formed by a rhombus-shaped heterotetramer, which is bound to two different interacting heterotrimeric G proteins (Gi and Gs). These novel results constitute an important advance in understanding the molecular intricacies involved in GPCR function.

  14. The impact of CRISPR repeat sequence on structures of a Cas6 protein-RNA complex

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ruiying; Zheng, Han; Preamplume, Gan

    The repeat-associated mysterious proteins (RAMPs) comprise the most abundant family of proteins involved in prokaryotic immunity against invading genetic elements conferred by the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) system. Cas6 is one of the first characterized RAMP proteins and is a key enzyme required for CRISPR RNA maturation. Despite a strong structural homology with other RAMP proteins that bind hairpin RNA, Cas6 distinctly recognizes single-stranded RNA. Previous structural and biochemical studies show that Cas6 captures the 5' end while cleaving the 3' end of the CRISPR RNA. Here, we describe three structures and complementary biochemical analysis of amore » noncatalytic Cas6 homolog from Pyrococcus horikoshii bound to CRISPR repeat RNA of different sequences. Our study confirms the specificity of the Cas6 protein for single-stranded RNA and further reveals the importance of the bases at Positions 5-7 in Cas6-RNA interactions. Substitutions of these bases result in structural changes in the protein-RNA complex including its oligomerization state.« less

  15. NMR spectroscopic and analytical ultracentrifuge analysis of membrane protein detergent complexes.

    PubMed

    Maslennikov, Innokentiy; Kefala, Georgia; Johnson, Casey; Riek, Roland; Choe, Senyon; Kwiatkowski, Witek

    2007-11-08

    Structural studies of integral membrane proteins (IMPs) are hampered by inherent difficulties in their heterologous expression and in the purification of solubilized protein-detergent complexes (PDCs). The choice and concentrations of detergents used in an IMP preparation play a critical role in protein homogeneity and are thus important for successful crystallization. Seeking an effective and standardized means applicable to genomic approaches for the characterization of PDCs, we chose 1D-NMR spectroscopic analysis to monitor the detergent content throughout their purification: protein extraction, detergent exchange, and sample concentration. We demonstrate that a single NMR measurement combined with a SDS-PAGE of a detergent extracted sample provides a useful gauge of the detergent's extraction potential for a given protein. Furthermore, careful monitoring of the detergent content during the process of IMP production allows for a high level of reproducibility. We also show that in many cases a simple sedimentation velocity measurement provides sufficient data to estimate both the oligomeric state and the detergent-to-protein ratio in PDCs, as well as to evaluate the homogeneity of the samples prior to crystallization screening. The techniques presented here facilitate the screening and selection of the extraction detergent, as well as help to maintain reproducibility in the detergent exchange and PDC concentration procedures. Such reproducibility is particularly important for the optimization of initial crystallization conditions, for which multiple purifications are routinely required.

  16. NMR spectroscopic and analytical ultracentrifuge analysis of membrane protein detergent complexes

    PubMed Central

    Maslennikov, Innokentiy; Kefala, Georgia; Johnson, Casey; Riek, Roland; Choe, Senyon; Kwiatkowski, Witek

    2007-01-01

    Background Structural studies of integral membrane proteins (IMPs) are hampered by inherent difficulties in their heterologous expression and in the purification of solubilized protein-detergent complexes (PDCs). The choice and concentrations of detergents used in an IMP preparation play a critical role in protein homogeneity and are thus important for successful crystallization. Results Seeking an effective and standardized means applicable to genomic approaches for the characterization of PDCs, we chose 1D-NMR spectroscopic analysis to monitor the detergent content throughout their purification: protein extraction, detergent exchange, and sample concentration. We demonstrate that a single NMR measurement combined with a SDS-PAGE of a detergent extracted sample provides a useful gauge of the detergent's extraction potential for a given protein. Furthermore, careful monitoring of the detergent content during the process of IMP production allows for a high level of reproducibility. We also show that in many cases a simple sedimentation velocity measurement provides sufficient data to estimate both the oligomeric state and the detergent-to-protein ratio in PDCs, as well as to evaluate the homogeneity of the samples prior to crystallization screening. Conclusion The techniques presented here facilitate the screening and selection of the extraction detergent, as well as help to maintain reproducibility in the detergent exchange and PDC concentration procedures. Such reproducibility is particularly important for the optimization of initial crystallization conditions, for which multiple purifications are routinely required. PMID:17988403

  17. Fluorescence study of protein-lipid complexes with a new symmetric squarylium probe.

    PubMed

    Ioffe, Valeriya M; Gorbenko, Galyna P; Deligeorgiev, Todor; Gadjev, Nikolai; Vasilev, Aleksey

    2007-06-01

    The novel symmetric squarylium derivative SQ-1 has been synthesized and tested for its sensitivity to the formation of protein-lipid complexes. SQ-1 binding to the model membranes composed of zwitterionic lipid phosphatidylcholine (PC) and its mixtures with anionic lipid cardiolipin (CL) in different molar ratios was found to be controlled mainly by hydrophobic interactions. Lysozyme (Lz) and ribonuclease A (RNase) exerted an influence on the probe association with lipid vesicles resulting presumably from the competition between SQ-1 and the proteins for bilayer free volume and modification of its properties. The magnitude of this effect was much higher for lysozyme which may stem from the amphipathy of protein alpha-helix involved in the membrane binding. Varying membrane composition provides evidence for the dye sensitivity to both hydrophobic and electrostatic protein-lipid interactions. Fluorescence anisotropy studies uncovered the restriction of SQ-1 rotational mobility in lipid environment in the presence of Lz and RNase being indicative of the incorporation of the proteins into bilayer interior. The results of binding, fluorescence quenching and kinetic experiments suggested lysozyme-induced local lipid demixing upon protein association with negatively charged membranes with threshold concentration of CL for the lipid demixing being 10 mol%.

  18. Profiling cellular protein complexes by proximity ligation with dual tag microarray readout.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Maria; Nong, Rachel Yuan; Ericsson, Olle; Pardali, Katerina; Landegren, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    Patterns of protein interactions provide important insights in basic biology, and their analysis plays an increasing role in drug development and diagnostics of disease. We have established a scalable technique to compare two biological samples for the levels of all pairwise interactions among a set of targeted protein molecules. The technique is a combination of the proximity ligation assay with readout via dual tag microarrays. In the proximity ligation assay protein identities are encoded as DNA sequences by attaching DNA oligonucleotides to antibodies directed against the proteins of interest. Upon binding by pairs of antibodies to proteins present in the same molecular complexes, ligation reactions give rise to reporter DNA molecules that contain the combined sequence information from the two DNA strands. The ligation reactions also serve to incorporate a sample barcode in the reporter molecules to allow for direct comparison between pairs of samples. The samples are evaluated using a dual tag microarray where information is decoded, revealing which pairs of tags that have become joined. As a proof-of-concept we demonstrate that this approach can be used to detect a set of five proteins and their pairwise interactions both in cellular lysates and in fixed tissue culture cells. This paper provides a general strategy to analyze the extent of any pairwise interactions in large sets of molecules by decoding reporter DNA strands that identify the interacting molecules.

  19. Wongabel rhabdovirus accessory protein U3 targets the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex.

    PubMed

    Joubert, D Albert; Rodriguez-Andres, Julio; Monaghan, Paul; Cummins, Michelle; McKinstry, William J; Paradkar, Prasad N; Moseley, Gregory W; Walker, Peter J

    2015-01-15

    Wongabel virus (WONV) is an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus that infects birds. It is one of the growing array of rhabdoviruses with complex genomes that encode multiple accessory proteins of unknown function. In addition to the five canonical rhabdovirus structural protein genes (N, P, M, G, and L), the 13.2-kb negative-sense single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) WONV genome contains five uncharacterized accessory genes, one overlapping the N gene (Nx or U4), three located between the P and M genes (U1 to U3), and a fifth one overlapping the G gene (Gx or U5). Here we show that WONV U3 is expressed during infection in insect and mammalian cells and is required for efficient viral replication. A yeast two-hybrid screen against a mosquito cell cDNA library identified that WONV U3 interacts with the 83-amino-acid (aa) C-terminal domain of SNF5, a component of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. The interaction was confirmed by affinity chromatography, and nuclear colocalization was established by confocal microscopy. Gene expression studies showed that SNF5 transcripts are upregulated during infection of mosquito cells with WONV, as well as West Nile virus (Flaviviridae) and bovine ephemeral fever virus (Rhabdoviridae), and that SNF5 knockdown results in increased WONV replication. WONV U3 also inhibits SNF5-regulated expression of the cytokine gene CSF1. The data suggest that WONV U3 targets the SWI/SNF complex to block the host response to infection. The rhabdoviruses comprise a large family of RNA viruses infecting plants, vertebrates, and invertebrates. In addition to the major structural proteins (N, P, M, G, and L), many rhabdoviruses encode a diverse array of accessory proteins of largely unknown function. Understanding the role of these proteins may reveal much about host-pathogen interactions in infected cells. Here we examine accessory protein U3 of Wongabel virus, an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus that infects birds. We show that U3 enters the nucleus and interacts

  20. Wongabel Rhabdovirus Accessory Protein U3 Targets the SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodeling Complex

    PubMed Central

    Joubert, D. Albert; Rodriguez-Andres, Julio; Monaghan, Paul; Cummins, Michelle; McKinstry, William J.; Paradkar, Prasad N.; Moseley, Gregory W.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Wongabel virus (WONV) is an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus that infects birds. It is one of the growing array of rhabdoviruses with complex genomes that encode multiple accessory proteins of unknown function. In addition to the five canonical rhabdovirus structural protein genes (N, P, M, G, and L), the 13.2-kb negative-sense single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) WONV genome contains five uncharacterized accessory genes, one overlapping the N gene (Nx or U4), three located between the P and M genes (U1 to U3), and a fifth one overlapping the G gene (Gx or U5). Here we show that WONV U3 is expressed during infection in insect and mammalian cells and is required for efficient viral replication. A yeast two-hybrid screen against a mosquito cell cDNA library identified that WONV U3 interacts with the 83-amino-acid (aa) C-terminal domain of SNF5, a component of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. The interaction was confirmed by affinity chromatography, and nuclear colocalization was established by confocal microscopy. Gene expression studies showed that SNF5 transcripts are upregulated during infection of mosquito cells with WONV, as well as West Nile virus (Flaviviridae) and bovine ephemeral fever virus (Rhabdoviridae), and that SNF5 knockdown results in increased WONV replication. WONV U3 also inhibits SNF5-regulated expression of the cytokine gene CSF1. The data suggest that WONV U3 targets the SWI/SNF complex to block the host response to infection. IMPORTANCE The rhabdoviruses comprise a large family of RNA viruses infecting plants, vertebrates, and invertebrates. In addition to the major structural proteins (N, P, M, G, and L), many rhabdoviruses encode a diverse array of accessory proteins of largely unknown function. Understanding the role of these proteins may reveal much about host-pathogen interactions in infected cells. Here we examine accessory protein U3 of Wongabel virus, an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus that infects birds. We show that U3 enters the

  1. The Rieske Iron-Sulfur Protein: Import and Assembly into the Cytochrome bc(1) Complex of Yeast Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Conte, Laura; Zara, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    The Rieske iron-sulfur protein, one of the catalytic subunits of the cytochrome bc(1) complex, is involved in electron transfer at the level of the inner membrane of yeast mitochondria. The Rieske iron-sulfur protein is encoded by nuclear DNA and, after being synthesized in the cytosol, is imported into mitochondria with the help of a cleavable N-terminal presequence. The imported protein, besides incorporating the 2Fe-2S cluster, also interacts with other catalytic and non-catalytic subunits of the cytochrome bc(1) complex, thereby assembling into the mature and functional respiratory complex. In this paper, we summarize the most recent findings on the import and assembly of the Rieske iron-sulfur protein into Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria, also discussing a possible role of this protein both in the dimerization of the cytochrome bc(1) complex and in the interaction of this homodimer with other complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain.

  2. The Rieske Iron-Sulfur Protein: Import and Assembly into the Cytochrome bc 1 Complex of Yeast Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Conte, Laura; Zara, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    The Rieske iron-sulfur protein, one of the catalytic subunits of the cytochrome bc 1 complex, is involved in electron transfer at the level of the inner membrane of yeast mitochondria. The Rieske iron-sulfur protein is encoded by nuclear DNA and, after being synthesized in the cytosol, is imported into mitochondria with the help of a cleavable N-terminal presequence. The imported protein, besides incorporating the 2Fe-2S cluster, also interacts with other catalytic and non-catalytic subunits of the cytochrome bc 1 complex, thereby assembling into the mature and functional respiratory complex. In this paper, we summarize the most recent findings on the import and assembly of the Rieske iron-sulfur protein into Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria, also discussing a possible role of this protein both in the dimerization of the cytochrome bc 1 complex and in the interaction of this homodimer with other complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. PMID:21716720

  3. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Protein-Ligand Complexes in Near Physiological Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wambo, Thierry Oscar

    Proteins are important molecules for their key functions. However, under certain circumstances, the function of these proteins needs to be regulated to keep us healthy. Ligands are small molecules often used to modulate the function of proteins. The binding affinity is a quantitative measure of how strong the ligand will modulate the function of the protein: a strong binding affinity will highly impact the performance of the protein. It becomes clear that it is critical to have appropriate techniques to accurately compute the binding affinity. The most difficult task in computer simulations is how to efficiently sample the space spanned by the ligand during the binding process. In this work, we have developed some schemes to compute the binding affinity of a ligand to a protein, and of a metal ion to a protein. Application of these techniques to some complexes yield results in agreement with experimental values. These methods are a brute force approach and make no assumption other than that the complexes are governed by the force field used. Specifically, we computed the free energy of binding between (1) human carbonic anhydrase II and the drug acetazolamide (hcaII-AZM), (2) human carbonic anhydrase II and the zinc ion (hcaII-Zinc), and (3) beta-lactoglobulin and five fatty acids complexes (BLG-FAs). We found the following free energies of binding in unit of kcal/mol: -12.96 +/-2.44 (-15.74) for hcaII-Zinc complex, -5.76+/-0.76 (-5.57) for BLG-OCA , -4.44+/-1.08 (-5.22) for BLG-DKA,-6.89+/-1.25 (-7.24) for BLG-DAO, -8.57+/-0.82 (-8.14) for BLG-MYR, -8.99+/-0.87 (-8.72) for BLG-PLM, and -11.87+/-1.8 (-10.8) for hcaII-AZM. The values inside the parentheses are experimental results. The simulations and quantitative analysis of each system provide interesting insights into the interactions between each entity and helps us to better understand the dynamics of these systems.

  4. Differential Roles for Inner Membrane Complex Proteins across Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona Development

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Rashmi; Harrison, Brooke; Dangoudoubiyam, Sriveny; Bandini, Giulia; Cheng, Katherine; Kosber, Aziz; Agop-Nersesian, Carolina; Howe, Daniel K.; Samuelson, John; Ferguson, David J. P.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The inner membrane complex (IMC) of apicomplexan parasites contains a network of intermediate filament-like proteins. The 14 alveolin domain-containing IMC proteins in Toxoplasma gondii fall into different groups defined by their distinct spatiotemporal dynamics during the internal budding process of tachyzoites. Here, we analyzed representatives of different IMC protein groups across all stages of the Toxoplasma life cycle and during Sarcocystis neurona asexual development. We found that across asexually dividing Toxoplasma stages, IMC7 is present exclusively in the mother’s cytoskeleton, whereas IMC1 and IMC3 are both present in mother and daughter cytoskeletons (IMC3 is strongly enriched in daughter buds). In developing macro- and microgametocytes, IMC1 and -3 are absent, whereas IMC7 is lost in early microgametocytes but retained in macrogametocytes until late in their development. We found no roles for IMC proteins during meiosis and sporoblast formation. However, we observed that IMC1 and IMC3, but not IMC7, are present in sporozoites. Although the spatiotemporal pattern of IMC15 and IMC3 suggests orthologous functions in Sarcocystis, IMC7 may have functionally diverged in Sarcocystis merozoites. To functionally characterize IMC proteins, we knocked out IMC7, -12, -14, and -15 in Toxoplasma. IMC14 and -15 appear to be involved in switching between endodyogeny and endopolygeny. In addition, IMC7, -12, and -14, which are all recruited to the cytoskeleton outside cytokinesis, are critical for the structural integrity of extracellular tachyzoites. Altogether, stage- and development-specific roles for IMC proteins can be discerned, suggesting different niches for each IMC protein across the entire life cycle. IMPORTANCE The inner membrane complex (IMC) is a defining feature of apicomplexan parasites key to both their motility and unique cell division. To provide further insights into the IMC, we analyzed the dynamics and functions of representative

  5. Differential Roles for Inner Membrane Complex Proteins across Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona Development.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Rashmi; Harrison, Brooke; Dangoudoubiyam, Sriveny; Bandini, Giulia; Cheng, Katherine; Kosber, Aziz; Agop-Nersesian, Carolina; Howe, Daniel K; Samuelson, John; Ferguson, David J P; Gubbels, Marc-Jan

    2017-01-01

    The inner membrane complex (IMC) of apicomplexan parasites contains a network of intermediate filament-like proteins. The 14 alveolin domain-containing IMC proteins in Toxoplasma gondii fall into different groups defined by their distinct spatiotemporal dynamics during the internal budding process of tachyzoites. Here, we analyzed representatives of different IMC protein groups across all stages of the Toxoplasma life cycle and during Sarcocystis neurona asexual development. We found that across asexually dividing Toxoplasma stages, IMC7 is present exclusively in the mother's cytoskeleton, whereas IMC1 and IMC3 are both present in mother and daughter cytoskeletons (IMC3 is strongly enriched in daughter buds). In developing macro- and microgametocytes, IMC1 and -3 are absent, whereas IMC7 is lost in early microgametocytes but retained in macrogametocytes until late in their development. We found no roles for IMC proteins during meiosis and sporoblast formation. However, we observed that IMC1 and IMC3, but not IMC7, are present in sporozoites. Although the spatiotemporal pattern of IMC15 and IMC3 suggests orthologous functions in Sarcocystis , IMC7 may have functionally diverged in Sarcocystis merozoites. To functionally characterize IMC proteins, we knocked out IMC7, -12, -14, and -15 in Toxoplasma . IMC14 and -15 appear to be involved in switching between endodyogeny and endopolygeny. In addition, IMC7, -12, and -14, which are all recruited to the cytoskeleton outside cytokinesis, are critical for the structural integrity of extracellular tachyzoites. Altogether, stage- and development-specific roles for IMC proteins can be discerned, suggesting different niches for each IMC protein across the entire life cycle. IMPORTANCE The inner membrane complex (IMC) is a defining feature of apicomplexan parasites key to both their motility and unique cell division. To provide further insights into the IMC, we analyzed the dynamics and functions of representative alveolin

  6. Overexpression of MutSα Complex Proteins Predicts Poor Prognosis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Vivian Petersen; Webber, Liana Preto; Salvadori, Gabriela; Meurer, Luise; Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; Castilho, Rogério Moraes; Squarize, Cristiane Helena; Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2016-05-01

    The DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system is responsible for the detection and correction of errors created during DNA replication, thereby avoiding the incorporation of mutations in dividing cells. The prognostic value of alterations in MMR system has not previously been analyzed in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).The study comprised 115 cases of OSCC diagnosed between 1996 and 2010. The specimens collected were constructed into tissue microarray blocks. Immunohistochemical staining for MutSα complex proteins hMSH2 and hMSH6 was performed. The slides were subsequently scanned into high-resolution images, and nuclear staining of hMSH2 and hMSH6 was analyzed using the Nuclear V9 algorithm. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models were performed to evaluate the prognostic value of hMSH2 and hMSH6 in OSCC.All cases in the present cohort were positive for hMSH2 and hMSH6 and a direct correlation was found between the expression of the proteins (P < 0.05). The mean number of positive cells for hMSH2 and hMSH6 was 64.44 ± 15.21 and 31.46 ± 22.38, respectively. These values were used as cutoff points to determine high protein expression. Cases with high expression of both proteins simultaneously were classified as having high MutSα complex expression. In the multivariable analysis, high expression of the MutSα complex was an independent prognostic factor for poor overall survival (hazard ratio: 2.75, P = 0.02).This study provides a first insight of the prognostic value of alterations in MMR system in OSCC. We found that MutSα complex may constitute a molecular marker for the poor prognosis of OSCC.

  7. Dissociation free-energy profiles of specific and nonspecific DNA-protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Yonetani, Yoshiteru; Kono, Hidetoshi

    2013-06-27

    DNA-binding proteins recognize DNA sequences with at least two different binding modes: specific and nonspecific. Experimental structures of such complexe