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Sample records for e2f1-driven cancer cell

  1. Lung cancer - small cell

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  2. Basal cell cancer (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Basal cell cancer is a malignant skin tumor involving cancerous changes of basal skin cells. Basal cell skin cancers ... biopsy is needed to prove the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma. Treatment varies depending on the size, depth, and ...

  3. Squamous cell cancer (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Squamous cell cancer involves cancerous changes to the cells of the middle portion of the epidermal skin layer. It is ... malignant tumor, and is more aggressive than basal cell cancer, but still may be relatively slow-growing. It ...

  4. Cell phones and cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer and cell phones; Do cell phones cause cancer? ... Several major studies show no link between cell phones and cancer at this time. However, since the information available is based on short-term studies, the impact of many years of ...

  5. Fragmentation of cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanapalli, Siva; Kamyabi, Nabiollah

    Tumor cells have to travel through blood capillaries to be able to metastasize and colonize in distant organs. Among the numerous cells that are shed by the primary tumor, very few survive in circulation. In vivo studies have shown that tumor cells can undergo breakup at microcapillary junctions affecting their survival. It is currently unclear what hydrodynamic and biomechanical factors contribute to fragmentation and moreover how different are the breakup dynamics of highly and weakly metastatic cells. In this study, we use microfluidics to investigate flow-induced breakup of prostate and breast cancer cells. We observe several different modes of breakup of cancer cells, which have striking similarities with breakup of viscous drops. We quantify the breakup time and find that highly metastatic cancer cells take longer to breakup than lowly metastatic cells suggesting that tumor cells may dynamically modify their deformability to avoid fragmentation. We also identify the role that cytoskeleton and membrane plays in the breakup process. Our study highlights the important role that tumor cell fragmentation plays in cancer metastasis. Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas.

  6. Stages of Renal Cell Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tumors Treatment Genetics of Kidney Cancer Research Renal Cell Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Renal Cell Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  7. Ovarian cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zeimet, A G; Reimer, D; Sopper, S; Boesch, M; Martowicz, A; Roessler, J; Wiedemair, A M; Rumpold, H; Untergasser, G; Concin, N; Hofstetter, G; Muller-Holzner, E; Fiegl, H; Marth, C; Wolf, D; Pesta, M; Hatina, J

    2012-01-01

    Because of its semi-solid character in dissemination and growth, advanced ovarian cancer with its hundreds of peritoneal tumor nodules and plaques appears to be an excellent in vivo model for studying the cancer stem cell hypothesis. The most important obstacle, however, is to adequately define and isolate these tumor-initiating cells endowed with the properties of anoikis-resistance and unlimited self-renewal. Until now, no universal single marker or marker constellation has been found to faithfully isolate (ovarian) cancer stem cells. As these multipotent cells are known to possess highly elaborated efflux systems for cytotoxic agents, these pump systems have been exploited to outline putative stem cells as a side-population (SP) via dye exclusion analysis. Furthermore, the cells in question have been isolated via flow cytometry on the basis of cell surface markers thought to be characteristic for stem cells.In the Vienna variant of the ovarian cancer cell line A2780 a proof-of-principle model with both a stable SP and a stable ALDH1A1+ cell population was established. Double staining clearly revealed that both cell fractions were not identical. Of note, A2780V cells were negative for expression of surface markers CD44 and CD117 (c-kit). When cultured on monolayers of healthy human mesothelial cells, green-fluorescence-protein (GFP)-transfected SP of A2780V exhibited spheroid-formation, whereas non-side-population (NSP) developed a spare monolayer growing over the healthy mesothelium. Furthermore, A2780V SP was found to be partially resistant to platinum. However, this resistance could not be explained by over-expression of the "excision repair cross-complementation group 1" (ERCC1) gene, which is essentially involved in the repair of platinated DNA damage. ERCC1 was, nonetheless, over-expressed in A2780V cells grown as spheres under stem cell-selective conditions as compared to adherent monolayers cultured under differentiating conditions. The same was true for

  8. Extragonadal Germ Cell Cancer (EGC)

    MedlinePlus

    The Testicular Cancer Resource Center Extragonadal Germ Cell Cancer (EGC) 95% of all testicular tumors are germ cell tumors. That is, the tumors originate in the sperm forming cells in the testicles ( ...

  9. Cancer stem cells and personalized cancer nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Gener, Petra; Rafael, Diana Fernandes de Sousa; Fernández, Yolanda; Ortega, Joan Sayós; Arango, Diego; Abasolo, Ibane; Videira, Mafalda; Schwartz, Simo

    2016-02-01

    Despite the progress in cancer treatment over the past years advanced cancer is still an incurable disease. Special attention is pointed toward cancer stem cell (CSC)-targeted therapies, because this minor cell population is responsible for the treatment resistance, metastatic growth and tumor recurrence. The recently described CSC dynamic phenotype and interconversion model of cancer growth hamper even more the possible success of current cancer treatments in advanced cancer stages. Accordingly, CSCs can be generated through dedifferentiation processes from non-CSCs, in particular, when CSC populations are depleted after treatment. In this context, the use of targeted CSC nanomedicines should be considered as a promising tool to increase CSC sensitivity and efficacy of specific anti-CSC therapies.

  10. Cancer stem cells, cancer cell plasticity and radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Vlashi, Erina; Pajonk, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Since the first prospective identification of cancer stem cells in solid cancers the cancer stem cell hypothesis has reemerged as a research topic of increasing interest. It postulates that solid cancers are organized hierarchically with a small number of cancer stem cells driving tumor growth, repopulation after injury and metastasis. They give rise to differentiated progeny, which lack these features. The model predicts that for any therapy to provide cure, all cancer stem cells have to be eliminated while the survival of differentiated progeny is less critical. In this review we discuss recent reports challenging the idea of a unidirectional differentiation of cancer cells. These reports provide evidence supporting the idea that non-stem cancer cells exhibit a remarkable degree of plasticity that allows them to re-acquire cancer stem cell traits, especially in the context of radiation therapy. We summarize conditions under which differentiation is reversed and discuss the current knowledge of the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Stages of Small Cell Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key ...

  12. A new prospect in cancer therapy: targeting cancer stem cells to eradicate cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Sha; Wang, An-Xin; Dong, Bing; Pu, Ke-Feng; Yuan, Li-Hua; Zhu, Yi-Min

    2012-12-01

    According to the cancer stem cell theory, cancers can be initiated by cancer stem cells. This makes cancer stem cells prime targets for therapeutic intervention. Eradicating cancer stem cells by efficient targeting agents may have the potential to cure cancer. In this review, we summarize recent breakthroughs that have improved our understanding of cancer stem cells, and we discuss the therapeutic strategy of targeting cancer stem cells, a promising future direction for cancer stem cell research.

  13. Epigenetics in cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Toh, Tan Boon; Lim, Jhin Jieh; Chow, Edward Kai-Hua

    2017-02-01

    Compelling evidence have demonstrated that bulk tumors can arise from a unique subset of cells commonly termed "cancer stem cells" that has been proposed to be a strong driving force of tumorigenesis and a key mechanism of therapeutic resistance. Recent advances in epigenomics have illuminated key mechanisms by which epigenetic regulation contribute to cancer progression. In this review, we present a discussion of how deregulation of various epigenetic pathways can contribute to cancer initiation and tumorigenesis, particularly with respect to maintenance and survival of cancer stem cells. This information, together with several promising clinical and preclinical trials of epigenetic modulating drugs, offer new possibilities for targeting cancer stem cells as well as improving cancer therapy overall.

  14. Nanotechniques Inactivate Cancer Stem Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goltsev, Anatoliy N.; Babenko, Natalya N.; Gaevskaya, Yulia A.; Bondarovich, Nikolay A.; Dubrava, Tatiana G.; Ostankov, Maksim V.; Chelombitko, Olga V.; Malyukin, Yuriy V.; Klochkov, Vladimir K.; Kavok, Nataliya S.

    2017-06-01

    One of the tasks of current oncology is identification of cancer stem cells and search of therapeutic means capable of their specific inhibition. The paper presents the data on phenotype characteristics of Ehrlich carcinoma cells as convenient and easy-to-follow model of tumor growth. The evidence of cancer stem cells as a part of Ehrlich carcinoma and significance of CD44+ and CD44- subpopulations in maintaining the growth of this type of tumor were demonstrated. A high (tenfold) tumorigenic activity of the Ehrlich carcinoma CD44+ cells if compared to CD44- cells was proven. In this pair of comparison, the CD44+ cells had a higher potential of generating in peritoneal cavity of CD44high, CD44+CD24-, CD44+CD24+ cell subpopulations, highlighting the presence of cancer stem cells in a pool of CD44+ cells.

  15. Stress Modulus of Cancer Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonin, Keith; Guthold, Martin; Guo, Xinyi; Sigley, Justin

    2012-02-01

    Our main goal is to study the different physical and mechanical properties of cells as they advance through different stages of neoplastic transformation from normal to the metastatic state. Since recent reports indicate there is significant ambiguity about how these properties change for different cancer cells, we plan to measure these properties for a single line of cells, and to determine whether the changes vary for different cellular components: i.e. whether the change in physical properties is due to a change in the cytoskeleton, the cell membrane, the cytoplasm, or a combination of these elements. Here we expect to present data on the stress modulus of cancer cells at different stages: normal, mortal cancerous, immortal cancerous, and tumorigenic. The cells are Weinberg cell line Human Mammary Epithelial (HME) cells. Atomic force microscope (AFM) probes with different diameters are used to push on the cell membrane to measure the local, regional and global cell stress modulus. Preliminary results on normal HME cells suggests a stress modulus of 1.5 ± 0.8 kPa when pushing with 7 μm spherical probes. We anticipate reporting an improved value for the modulus as well as results for some of the Weinberg cancer cells.

  16. Cells of Origin of Epithelial Ovarian Cancers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    cells in oral squamous cell carcinomas by a novel pathway-based lineage tracing approach in a murine model. ! 13! Specific aims: 1. Determine...SUNDARESAN Lineage tracing and clonal analysis of oral cancer initiating cells The goal of this project is to study cancer stem cells /cancer initiating...whether oral cancer cells genetically marked based on their activities for stem cell -related pathways exhibit cancer stem cell properties in vivo by

  17. Hurthle Cell Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be more aggressive than other types of thyroid cancer. Surgery to remove the thyroid gland is the ... factors Factors that increase the risk of developing thyroid cancer include: Being female Being older Having a history ...

  18. Drugs Approved for Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... not listed here. Drugs Approved for Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Afinitor (Everolimus) Aldesleukin Avastin (Bevacizumab) Axitinib Bevacizumab Cabometyx ( ...

  19. Treatment Options for Renal Cell Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tumors Treatment Genetics of Kidney Cancer Research Renal Cell Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Renal Cell Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  20. Treatment Option Overview (Renal Cell Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tumors Treatment Genetics of Kidney Cancer Research Renal Cell Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Renal Cell Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  1. Cancer stem cells: impact, heterogeneity, and uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Magee, Jeffrey A.; Piskounova, Elena; Morrison, Sean J.

    2015-01-01

    The differentiation of tumorigenic cancer stem cells into non-tumorigenic cancer cells confers heterogeneity to some cancers beyond that explained by clonal evolution or environmental differences. In such cancers, functional differences between tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells influence response to therapy and prognosis. However, it remains uncertain whether the model applies to many, or few, cancers due to questions about the robustness of cancer stem cell markers and the extent to which existing assays underestimate the frequency of tumorigenic cells. In cancers with rapid genetic change, reversible changes in cell states, or biological variability among patients the stem cell model may not be readily testable. PMID:22439924

  2. Schwann cells induce cancer cell dispersion and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Deborde, Sylvie; Lyubchik, Anna; Zhou, Yi; He, Shizhi; McNamara, William F.; Chernichenko, Natalya; Lee, Sei-Young; Barajas, Fernando; Chen, Chun-Hao; Bakst, Richard L.; Vakiani, Efsevia; He, Shuangba; Hall, Alan; Wong, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Nerves enable cancer progression, as cancers have been shown to extend along nerves through the process of perineural invasion, which carries a poor prognosis. Furthermore, the innervation of some cancers promotes growth and metastases. It remains unclear, however, how nerves mechanistically contribute to cancer progression. Here, we demonstrated that Schwann cells promote cancer invasion through direct cancer cell contact. Histological evaluation of murine and human cancer specimens with perineural invasion uncovered a subpopulation of Schwann cells that associates with cancer cells. Coculture of cancer cells with dorsal root ganglion extracts revealed that Schwann cells direct cancer cells to migrate toward nerves and promote invasion in a contact-dependent manner. Upon contact, Schwann cells induced the formation of cancer cell protrusions in their direction and intercalated between the cancer cells, leading to cancer cell dispersion. The formation of these processes was dependent on Schwann cell expression of neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) and ultimately promoted perineural invasion. Moreover, NCAM1-deficient mice showed decreased neural invasion and less paralysis. Such Schwann cell behavior reflects normal Schwann cell programs that are typically activated in nerve repair but are instead exploited by cancer cells to promote perineural invasion and cancer progression. PMID:26999607

  3. Anti-Cancer Phytometabolites Targeting Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Torquato, Heron F.V.; Goettert, Márcia I.; Justo, Giselle Z.; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar J.

    2017-01-01

    Medicinal plants are a plentiful source of bioactive molecules with much structural diversity. In cancer treatment, molecules obtained from plants represent an attractive alternative to other treatments because several plant-derived compounds have exhibited lower toxicity and higher selectivity against cancer cells. In this review, we focus on the possible application of bioactive molecules obtained from plants against more primitive cell populations in cancers, cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells are present in several kinds of tumors and are responsible for recurrences and metastases. Common anti-cancer drugs exhibit lower effectiveness against cancer stem cells because of their biological features. However, recently discovered natural phytometabolites exert cytotoxic effects on this rare population of cells in cancers. Therefore, this review presents the latest research on promising compounds from plants that can act as antitumor drugs and that mainly affect stem cell populations in cancers. PMID:28367074

  4. Squamous cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur on skin that is regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation. The earliest form of ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight . Always use sunscreen: Apply sunscreen with sun protection ...

  5. Quantification of cancer cell extravasation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yohan; Williams, Karla C; Gavin, Carson T; Jardine, Emily; Chambers, Ann F; Leong, Hon S

    2016-05-01

    Cancer cell 'invasiveness' is one of the main driving forces in cancer metastasis, and assays that quantify this key attribute of cancer cells are crucial in cancer metastasis research. The research goal of many laboratories is to elucidate the signaling pathways and effectors that are responsible for cancer cell invasion, but many of these experiments rely on in vitro methods that do not specifically simulate individual steps of the metastatic cascade. Cancer cell extravasation is arguably the most important example of invasion in the metastatic cascade, whereby a single cancer cell undergoes transendothelial migration, forming invasive processes known as invadopodia to mediate translocation of the tumor cell from the vessel lumen into tissue in vivo. We have developed a rapid, reproducible and economical technique to evaluate cancer cell invasiveness by quantifying in vivo rates of cancer cell extravasation in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of chicken embryos. This technique enables the investigator to perform well-powered loss-of-function studies of cancer cell extravasation within 24 h, and it can be used to identify and validate drugs with potential antimetastatic effects that specifically target cancer cell extravasation. A key advantage of this technique over similar assays is that intravascular cancer cells within the capillary bed of the CAM are clearly distinct from extravasated cells, which makes cancer cell extravasation easy to detect. An intermediate level of experience in injections of the chorioallantoic membrane of avian embryos and cell culture techniques is required to carry out the protocol.

  6. How Are Squamous and Basal Cell Skin Cancers Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Staging Tests for Basal and Squamous Cell Skin Cancers Most skin cancers are brought to a doctor’s ... Skin Cancers? More In Basal and Squamous Cell Skin Cancer About Basal and Squamous Cell Skin Cancer Causes, ...

  7. How Can We Treat Cancer Disease Not Cancer Cells?

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyu-Won; Lee, Su-Jae; Kim, Woo-Young; Seo, Ji Hae; Lee, Ho-Young

    2017-01-01

    Since molecular biology studies began, researches in biological science have centered on proteins and genes at molecular level of a single cell. Cancer research has also focused on various functions of proteins and genes that distinguish cancer cells from normal cells. Accordingly, most contemporary anticancer drugs have been developed to target abnormal characteristics of cancer cells. Despite the great advances in the development of anticancer drugs, vast majority of patients with advanced cancer have shown grim prognosis and high rate of relapse. To resolve this problem, we must reevaluate our focuses in current cancer research. Cancer should be considered as a systemic disease because cancer cells undergo a complex interaction with various surrounding cells in cancer tissue and spread to whole body through metastasis under the control of the systemic modulation. Human body relies on the cooperative interaction between various tissues and organs, and each organ performs its specialized function through tissue-specific cell networks. Therefore, investigation of the tumor-specific cell networks can provide novel strategy to overcome the limitation of current cancer research. This review presents the limitations of the current cancer research, emphasizing the necessity of studying tissue-specific cell network which could be a new perspective on treating cancer disease, not cancer cells.

  8. General Information about Small Cell Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  9. General Information about Renal Cell Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Renal Cell Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Renal Cell Cancer Go to Health Professional ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  10. Invasive cancer cells and metastasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2013-12-01

    The physics of cancer is a relatively new emerging field of cancer research. In the last decade it has become a focus of biophysical research as well as becoming a novel focus for classical cancer research. This special section of Physical Biology focusing on invasive cancer cells and metastasis (physical oncology) will give greater insight into the different subfields where physical approaches are being applied to cancer research. This focus on the physical aspects of cancer is necessary because novel approaches in the field of genomics and proteomics have not altered the field of cancer research dramatically, due to the fact that few breakthroughs have been made. It is still not understood why some primary tumors metastasize and thus have a worse outcome compared to others that do not metastasize. As biophysicists, we and others suggest that the mechanical properties of the cancer cells, which possess the ability to transmigrate, are quite different compared to non-metastatic and non-invasive cancer cells. Furthermore, we hypothesize that these cancer cells undergo a selection process within the primary tumor that enables them to weaken their cell-cell adhesions and to alter their cell-matrix adhesions in order to be able to cross the outermost boundary of the primary tumor, as well as the surrounding basement membrane, and to invade the connective tissue. This prerequisite may also help the cancer cells to enter blood or lymph vessels, get transported with the vessel flow and form secondary tumors either within the vessel, directly on the endothelium, or in a different organ after crossing the endothelial lining a second time. This special section begins with a paper by Mark F Coughlin and Jeffrey J Fredberg on the changes in cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology due to the metastatic capability of cancer cells from different cancer tissue types such as skin, bladder, prostate and kidney [1]. The hypothesis was that the metastatic outcome is impacted by

  11. Targeting Cell Polarity Machinery to Exhaust Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    resemble normal stem cells, specifically in the ability to infinitely give rise to the bulk of a tumor as the “seed” of the cancer, account for cancer...infinitely give rise to the bulk of a tumor as the “seed” of the cancer, account for cancer initiation, progression, recurrence, and chemo...cell population that can infinitely give rise to the bulk of a tumor as the “seed” of the cancer, account for cancer initiation, progression, radio

  12. Adoptive T cell cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhandzhugazyan, Karine N.; Guldberg, Per; Kirkin, Alexei F.

    2018-06-01

    Tumour heterogeneity and off-target toxicity are current challenges of cancer immunotherapy. Karine Dzhandzhugazyan, Per Guldberg and Alexei Kirkin discuss how epigenetic induction of tumour antigens in antigen-presenting cells may form the basis for multi-target therapies.

  13. Dendritic cells in cancer immunotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gall, Camille M.; Weiden, Jorieke; Eggermont, Loek J.; Figdor, Carl G.

    2018-06-01

    Camille M. Le Gall, Jorieke Weiden, Loek J. Eggermont and Carl G. Figdor provide an overview of immunotherapeutics for cancer treatment that harness dendritic cells, their challenges in clinical use, and approaches employed to enhance their recruitment and activation to promote effective anti-tumour immunity.

  14. On the Stem Cell Origin of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sell, Stewart

    2010-01-01

    In each major theory of the origin of cancer—field theory, chemical carcinogenesis, infection, mutation, or epigenetic change—the tissue stem cell is involved in the generation of cancer. Although the cancer type is identified by the more highly differentiated cells in the cancer cell lineage or hierarchy (transit-amplifying cells), the property of malignancy and the molecular lesion of the cancer exist in the cancer stem cell. In the case of teratocarcinomas, normal germinal stem cells have the potential to become cancers if placed in an environment that allows expression of the cancer phenotype (field theory). In cancers due to chemically induced mutations, viral infections, somatic and inherited mutations, or epigenetic changes, the molecular lesion or infection usually first occurs in the tissue stem cells. Cancer stem cells then give rise to transit-amplifying cells and terminally differentiated cells, similar to what happens in normal tissue renewal. However, the major difference between cancer growth and normal tissue renewal is that whereas normal transit amplifying cells usually differentiate and die, at various levels of differentiation, the cancer transit-amplifying cells fail to differentiate normally and instead accumulate (ie, they undergo maturation arrest), resulting in cancer growth. PMID:20431026

  15. Prostate Cancer Stem-Like Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death among men, killing an estimated 27,000 men each year in the United States. Men with advanced prostate cancer often become resistant to conventional therapies. Many researchers speculate that the emergence of resistance is due to the presence of cancer stem cells, which are believed to be a small subpopulation

  16. Glutathione in Cancer Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Angel L.; Mena, Salvador; Estrela, Jose M.

    2011-01-01

    Glutathione (L-γ-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine; GSH) in cancer cells is particularly relevant in the regulation of carcinogenic mechanisms; sensitivity against cytotoxic drugs, ionizing radiations, and some cytokines; DNA synthesis; and cell proliferation and death. The intracellular thiol redox state (controlled by GSH) is one of the endogenous effectors involved in regulating the mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex and, in consequence, thiol oxidation can be a causal factor in the mitochondrion-based mechanism that leads to cell death. Nevertheless GSH depletion is a common feature not only of apoptosis but also of other types of cell death. Indeed rates of GSH synthesis and fluxes regulate its levels in cellular compartments, and potentially influence switches among different mechanisms of death. How changes in gene expression, post-translational modifications of proteins, and signaling cascades are implicated will be discussed. Furthermore, this review will finally analyze whether GSH depletion may facilitate cancer cell death under in vivo conditions, and how this can be applied to cancer therapy. PMID:24212662

  17. Cancer stem cells and differentiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiong; Jin, Xun; Kim, Hyunggee

    2017-10-01

    Cancer stem cells can generate tumors from only a small number of cells, whereas differentiated cancer cells cannot. The prominent feature of cancer stem cells is its ability to self-renew and differentiate into multiple types of cancer cells. Cancer stem cells have several distinct tumorigenic abilities, including stem cell signal transduction, tumorigenicity, metastasis, and resistance to anticancer drugs, which are regulated by genetic or epigenetic changes. Like normal adult stem cells involved in various developmental processes and tissue homeostasis, cancer stem cells maintain their self-renewal capacity by activating multiple stem cell signaling pathways and inhibiting differentiation signaling pathways during cancer initiation and progression. Recently, many studies have focused on targeting cancer stem cells to eradicate malignancies by regulating stem cell signaling pathways, and products of some of these strategies are in preclinical and clinical trials. In this review, we describe the crucial features of cancer stem cells related to tumor relapse and drug resistance, as well as the new therapeutic strategy to target cancer stem cells named "differentiation therapy."

  18. Proteasome expression and activity in cancer and cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Voutsadakis, Ioannis A

    2017-03-01

    Proteasome is a multi-protein organelle that participates in cellular proteostasis by destroying damaged or short-lived proteins in an organized manner guided by the ubiquitination signal. By being in a central place in the cellular protein complement homeostasis, proteasome is involved in virtually all cell processes including decisions on cell survival or death, cell cycle, and differentiation. These processes are important also in cancer, and thus, the proteasome is an important regulator of carcinogenesis. Cancers include a variety of cells which, according to the cancer stem cell theory, descend from a small percentage of cancer stem cells, alternatively termed tumor-initiating cells. These cells constitute the subsets that have the ability to propagate the whole variety of cancer and repopulate tumors after cytostatic therapies. Proteasome plays a role in cellular processes in cancer stem cells, but it has been found to have a decreased function in them compared to the rest of cancer cells. This article will discuss the transcriptional regulation of proteasome sub-unit proteins in cancer and in particular cancer stem cells and the relationship of the proteasome with the pluripotency that is the defining characteristic of stem cells. Therapeutic opportunities that present from the understanding of the proteasome role will also be discussed.

  19. Reprogramming cancer cells: overview & current progress.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kian Lam; Teoh, Hoon Koon; Choong, Pei Feng; Teh, Hui Xin; Cheong, Soon Keng; Kamarul, Tunku

    2016-07-01

    Cancer is a disease with genetic and epigenetic origins, and the possible effects of reprogramming cancer cells using the defined sets of transcription factors remain largely uninvestigated. In the handful of publications available so far, findings have shown that reprogramming cancer cells changed the characteristics of the cells to differ from the parental cancer cells. These findings indicated the possibility of utilizing reprogramming technology to create a disease model in the laboratory to be used in studying the molecular pathogenesis or for drug screening of a particular cancer model. Despite numerous methods employed in generating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from cancer cells only a few studies have successfully reprogrammed malignant human cells. In this review we will provide an overview on i) methods to reprogram cancer cells, ii) characterization of the reprogrammed cancer cells, and iii) the differential effects of reprogramming on malignancy, epigenetics and response of the cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents. Continued technical progress in cancer cell reprogramming technology will be instrumental for more refined in vitro disease models and ultimately for the development of directed and personalized therapy for cancer patients in the future.

  20. A POX on Renal Cancer Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Proline oxidase, or POX, is an enzyme responsible for metabolizing the amino acid proline. POX contributes to the regulation of cell death that occurs when cellular systems malfunction, a process called apoptosis. Previous studies have determined that levels of POX are reduced in several types of human cancer. Likewise, many cancer cells become resistant to apoptosis, suggesting a link between POX and cancer cell survival.

  1. Extinction models for cancer stem cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Sehl, Mary; Zhou, Hua; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Lange, Kenneth L

    2011-12-01

    Cells with stem cell-like properties are now viewed as initiating and sustaining many cancers. This suggests that cancer can be cured by driving these cancer stem cells to extinction. The problem with this strategy is that ordinary stem cells are apt to be killed in the process. This paper sets bounds on the killing differential (difference between death rates of cancer stem cells and normal stem cells) that must exist for the survival of an adequate number of normal stem cells. Our main tools are birth-death Markov chains in continuous time. In this framework, we investigate the extinction times of cancer stem cells and normal stem cells. Application of extreme value theory from mathematical statistics yields an accurate asymptotic distribution and corresponding moments for both extinction times. We compare these distributions for the two cell populations as a function of the killing rates. Perhaps a more telling comparison involves the number of normal stem cells NH at the extinction time of the cancer stem cells. Conditioning on the asymptotic time to extinction of the cancer stem cells allows us to calculate the asymptotic mean and variance of NH. The full distribution of NH can be retrieved by the finite Fourier transform and, in some parameter regimes, by an eigenfunction expansion. Finally, we discuss the impact of quiescence (the resting state) on stem cell dynamics. Quiescence can act as a sanctuary for cancer stem cells and imperils the proposed therapy. We approach the complication of quiescence via multitype branching process models and stochastic simulation. Improvements to the τ-leaping method of stochastic simulation make it a versatile tool in this context. We conclude that the proposed therapy must target quiescent cancer stem cells as well as actively dividing cancer stem cells. The current cancer models demonstrate the virtue of attacking the same quantitative questions from a variety of modeling, mathematical, and computational perspectives

  2. Extinction models for cancer stem cell therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sehl, Mary; Zhou, Hua; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Lange, Kenneth L.

    2012-01-01

    Cells with stem cell-like properties are now viewed as initiating and sustaining many cancers. This suggests that cancer can be cured by driving these cancer stem cells to extinction. The problem with this strategy is that ordinary stem cells are apt to be killed in the process. This paper sets bounds on the killing differential (difference between death rates of cancer stem cells and normal stem cells) that must exist for the survival of an adequate number of normal stem cells. Our main tools are birth–death Markov chains in continuous time. In this framework, we investigate the extinction times of cancer stem cells and normal stem cells. Application of extreme value theory from mathematical statistics yields an accurate asymptotic distribution and corresponding moments for both extinction times. We compare these distributions for the two cell populations as a function of the killing rates. Perhaps a more telling comparison involves the number of normal stem cells NH at the extinction time of the cancer stem cells. Conditioning on the asymptotic time to extinction of the cancer stem cells allows us to calculate the asymptotic mean and variance of NH. The full distribution of NH can be retrieved by the finite Fourier transform and, in some parameter regimes, by an eigenfunction expansion. Finally, we discuss the impact of quiescence (the resting state) on stem cell dynamics. Quiescence can act as a sanctuary for cancer stem cells and imperils the proposed therapy. We approach the complication of quiescence via multitype branching process models and stochastic simulation. Improvements to the τ-leaping method of stochastic simulation make it a versatile tool in this context. We conclude that the proposed therapy must target quiescent cancer stem cells as well as actively dividing cancer stem cells. The current cancer models demonstrate the virtue of attacking the same quantitative questions from a variety of modeling, mathematical, and computational perspectives

  3. Targeting Stromal Recruitment by Prostate Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Ensinger, C., Tumer , Z., Tommerup, N. et al.: Hedgehog signaling in small-cell lung cancer : frequent in vivo but a rare event in vitro. Lung Cancer , 52...W81XWH-04-1-0157 TITLE: Targeting Stromal Recruitment by Prostate Cancer Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jingxian Zhang, Ph.D...DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 Feb 2004 – 14 Feb 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting Stromal Recruitment by Prostate Cancer

  4. Prostate Cancer Stem-Like Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death among men, killing an estimated 27,000 men each year in the United States. Men with advanced prostate cancer often become resistant to conventional therapies. Many researchers speculate that the emergence of resistance is due to the presence of cancer stem cells, which are believed to be a small subpopulation of tumor cells that can self-renew and give rise to more differentiated tumor cells. It is thought that these stem cells survive initial therapies (such as chemotherapy and hormone therapy) and then generate new tumor cells that are resistant to these standard treatments. If prostate cancer stem cells could be identified and characterized, it might be possible to design treatments that prevent resistance.

  5. Cell of Origin and Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype in Medulloblastomas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0115 TITLE: Cell of Origin and Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype in Medulloblastomas PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Kyuson Yun...CA130273 - Cell of Origin and Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype in Medulloblastomas 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0115 5c. PROGRAM...hypothesis, we originally proposed to transform neural stem cells (NSCs) and neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in vivo by expressing an activated form

  6. Restoration of normal phenotype in cancer cells

    DOEpatents

    Bissell, M.J.; Weaver, V.M.

    1998-12-08

    A method for reversing expression of malignant phenotype in cancer cells is described. The method comprises applying {beta}{sub 1} integrin function-blocking antibody to the cells. The method can be used to assess the progress of cancer therapy. Human breast epithelial cells were shown to be particularly responsive. 14 figs.

  7. Restoration of normal phenotype in cancer cells

    DOEpatents

    Bissell, Mina J.; Weaver, Valerie M.

    1998-01-01

    A method for reversing expression of malignant phenotype in cancer cells is described. The method comprises applying .beta..sub.1 integrin function-blocking antibody to the cells. The method can be used to assess the progress of cancer therapy. Human breast epithelial cells were shown to be particularly responsive.

  8. Isolation and Characterization of Cancer Stem Cells of the Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (A549) Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Halim, Noor Hanis Abu; Zakaria, Norashikin; Satar, Nazilah Abdul; Yahaya, Badrul Hisham

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a major health problem worldwide. The failure of current treatments to completely eradicate cancer cells often leads to cancer recurrence and dissemination. Studies have suggested that tumor growth and spread are driven by a minority of cancer cells that exhibit characteristics similar to those of normal stem cells, thus these cells are called cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs are believed to play an important role in initiating and promoting cancer. CSCs are resistant to currently available cancer therapies, and understanding the mechanisms that control the growth of CSCs might have great implications for cancer therapy. Cancer cells are consist of heterogeneous population of cells, thus methods of identification, isolation, and characterisation of CSCs are fundamental to obtain a pure CSC populations. Therefore, this chapter describes in detail a method for isolating and characterizing a pure population of CSCs from heterogeneous population of cancer cells and CSCs based on specific cell surface markers.

  9. Deregulation of Cell Signaling in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Giancotti, Filippo G.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Oncogenic mutations disrupt the regulatory circuits that govern cell function, enabling tumor cells to undergo de-regulated mitogenesis, to resist to proapoptotic insults, and to invade through tissue boundaries. Cancer cell biology has played a crucial role in elucidating the signaling mechanisms by which oncogenic mutations sustain these malignant behaviors and thereby in identifying rational targets for cancer drugs. The efficacy of such targeted therapies illustrate the power of a reductionist approach to the study of cancer. PMID:24561200

  10. The stem cell division theory of cancer.

    PubMed

    López-Lázaro, Miguel

    2018-03-01

    All cancer registries constantly show striking differences in cancer incidence by age and among tissues. For example, lung cancer is diagnosed hundreds of times more often at age 70 than at age 20, and lung cancer in nonsmokers occurs thousands of times more frequently than heart cancer in smokers. An analysis of these differences using basic concepts in cell biology indicates that cancer is the end-result of the accumulation of cell divisions in stem cells. In other words, the main determinant of carcinogenesis is the number of cell divisions that the DNA of a stem cell has accumulated in any type of cell from the zygote. Cell division, process by which a cell copies and separates its cellular components to finally split into two cells, is necessary to produce the large number of cells required for living. However, cell division can lead to a variety of cancer-promoting errors, such as mutations and epigenetic mistakes occurring during DNA replication, chromosome aberrations arising during mitosis, errors in the distribution of cell-fate determinants between the daughter cells, and failures to restore physical interactions with other tissue components. Some of these errors are spontaneous, others are promoted by endogenous DNA damage occurring during quiescence, and others are influenced by pathological and environmental factors. The cell divisions required for carcinogenesis are primarily caused by multiple local and systemic physiological signals rather than by errors in the DNA of the cells. As carcinogenesis progresses, the accumulation of DNA errors promotes cell division and eventually triggers cell division under permissive extracellular environments. The accumulation of cell divisions in stem cells drives not only the accumulation of the DNA alterations required for carcinogenesis, but also the formation and growth of the abnormal cell populations that characterize the disease. This model of carcinogenesis provides a new framework for understanding the

  11. Midbody Accumulation in Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    transit amplifying or differentiating cells. These results suggest that MBds are in almost exclusively in stem cells and putative breast cancer stem...confer tumor-like properties to these cells. We were unable to establish GFP-MKLP1 breast cancer cell lines for this analysis for some reason that we...and nonpolarized cells (Fig. 1c, d). Immuno- electron microscopy confirmed this localization and revealed ultrastructural features characteristic of

  12. A POX on Renal Cancer Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Proline oxidase, or POX, is an enzyme responsible for metabolizing the amino acid proline. POX contributes to the regulation of cell death that occurs when cellular systems malfunction, a process called apoptosis. Previous studies have determined that levels of POX are reduced in several types of human cancer. Likewise, many cancer cells become resistant to apoptosis,

  13. Confocal Raman imaging for cancer cell classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathieu, Evelien; Van Dorpe, Pol; Stakenborg, Tim; Liu, Chengxun; Lagae, Liesbet

    2014-05-01

    We propose confocal Raman imaging as a label-free single cell characterization method that can be used as an alternative for conventional cell identification techniques that typically require labels, long incubation times and complex sample preparation. In this study it is investigated whether cancer and blood cells can be distinguished based on their Raman spectra. 2D Raman scans are recorded of 114 single cells, i.e. 60 breast (MCF-7), 5 cervix (HeLa) and 39 prostate (LNCaP) cancer cells and 10 monocytes (from healthy donors). For each cell an average spectrum is calculated and principal component analysis is performed on all average cell spectra. The main features of these principal components indicate that the information for cell identification based on Raman spectra mainly comes from the fatty acid composition in the cell. Based on the second and third principal component, blood cells could be distinguished from cancer cells; and prostate cancer cells could be distinguished from breast and cervix cancer cells. However, it was not possible to distinguish breast and cervix cancer cells. The results obtained in this study, demonstrate the potential of confocal Raman imaging for cell type classification and identification purposes.

  14. Leveraging natural killer cells for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Grossenbacher, Steven K; Aguilar, Ethan G; Murphy, William J

    2017-05-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are potent antitumor effector cells of the innate immune system. Based on their ability to eradicate tumors in vitro and in animal models, significant enthusiasm surrounds the prospect of leveraging human NK cells as vehicles for cancer immunotherapy. While interest in manipulating the effector functions of NK cells has existed for over 30 years, there is renewed optimism for this approach today. Although T cells receive much of the clinical and preclinical attention when it comes to cancer immunotherapy, new strategies are utilizing adoptive NK-cell immunotherapy and monoclonal antibodies and engineered molecules which have been developed to specifically activate NK cells against tumors. Despite the numerous challenges associated with the preclinical and clinical development of NK cell-based therapies for cancer, NK cells possess many unique immunological properties and hold the potential to provide an effective means for cancer immunotherapy.

  15. Treatment Options by Stage (Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key ...

  16. Treatment Options by Stage (Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key ...

  17. Stages of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key ...

  18. Natural Killer T Cells in Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Shiny; Dhodapkar, Madhav V.

    2017-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are specialized CD1d-restricted T cells that recognize lipid antigens. Following stimulation, NKT cells lead to downstream activation of both innate and adaptive immune cells in the tumor microenvironment. This has impelled the development of NKT cell-targeted immunotherapies for treating cancer. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the stimulatory and regulatory functions of NKT cells in tumor immunity as well as highlight preclinical and clinical studies based on NKT cells. Finally, we discuss future perspectives to better harness the potential of NKT cells for cancer therapy. PMID:29018445

  19. Radiofrequency treatment alters cancer cell phenotype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware, Matthew J.; Tinger, Sophia; Colbert, Kevin L.; Corr, Stuart J.; Rees, Paul; Koshkina, Nadezhda; Curley, Steven; Summers, H. D.; Godin, Biana

    2015-07-01

    The importance of evaluating physical cues in cancer research is gradually being realized. Assessment of cancer cell physical appearance, or phenotype, may provide information on changes in cellular behavior, including migratory or communicative changes. These characteristics are intrinsically different between malignant and non-malignant cells and change in response to therapy or in the progression of the disease. Here, we report that pancreatic cancer cell phenotype was altered in response to a physical method for cancer therapy, a non-invasive radiofrequency (RF) treatment, which is currently being developed for human trials. We provide a battery of tests to explore these phenotype characteristics. Our data show that cell topography, morphology, motility, adhesion and division change as a result of the treatment. These may have consequences for tissue architecture, for diffusion of anti-cancer therapeutics and cancer cell susceptibility within the tumor. Clear phenotypical differences were observed between cancerous and normal cells in both their untreated states and in their response to RF therapy. We also report, for the first time, a transfer of microsized particles through tunneling nanotubes, which were produced by cancer cells in response to RF therapy. Additionally, we provide evidence that various sub-populations of cancer cells heterogeneously respond to RF treatment.

  20. Lung cancer - non-small cell

    MedlinePlus

    ... do develop lung cancer. Research shows that smoking marijuana may help cancer cells grow. But there is no direct link ... LoCicero, MD, private practice specializing in Hematology and Medical Oncology, Longsteet Cancer Center, Gainesville, GA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare ...

  1. Cancer stem cells of the digestive system.

    PubMed

    Colvin, Hugh S; Nishida, Naohiro; Koseki, Jun; Konno, Masamitsu; Kawamoto, Koichi; Tsunekuni, Kenta; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki; Ishii, Hideshi

    2014-12-01

    Stem cells of the digestive system are ideal in many ways for research, given they are abundant, highly proliferative and have a uniform structural arrangement. This in turn has enormously aided the research of cancer stem cells of the digestive system, which is now shaping our understanding of cancer stem cells. In this review, the recent advances in the understanding of cancer stem cells of the digestive system have been summarized, including aspects such as their identification, origin, cell-cycle dormancy, relationship with epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cellular metabolism and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Newly acquired knowledge concerning cancer stem cells have led to the development of novel cancer therapeutics with provisional yet encouraging results. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Cancer stem cells: beyond Koch's postulates.

    PubMed

    Garcion, Emmanuel; Naveilhan, Philippe; Berger, François; Wion, Didier

    2009-06-08

    Until the last century, infectious diseases were the leading cause of human mortality. Therefore, our current medical reasoning is profoundly influenced by views that originated from medical microbiology. The notion that cancer growth is sustained by a sub-population of particular cells, the cancer stem cells, is highly reminiscent of the germ theory of disease as exemplified by Koch's postulates in the XIXth century. However, accumulating data underscore the importance of cell-cell interactions and tumor environment. Hence it is essential to critically review the basic tenets of the cancer stem cell concept on the light of their relationships with Koch's postulates. Shifting the pathogenic element from a special cellular entity (cancer stem cell or microorganism) to a "pathogenic field" could be critical for curing both cancer and drug-resistant infectious diseases.

  3. Cell of Origin and Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype in Medulloblastomas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    dominant role over some oncogene function.In addition, we recently reported that cancer stem cells (CSCs)- stem cell like cells in tumors that have stem ... cell properties and tumor initiating ability- retain epigenetic memories of their cells of origin (Chow et al., 2014). We showed that CSCs derived from

  4. Engineered T cells for pancreatic cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Katari, Usha L; Keirnan, Jacqueline M; Worth, Anna C; Hodges, Sally E; Leen, Ann M; Fisher, William E; Vera, Juan F

    2011-01-01

    Objective Conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy produce marginal survival benefits in pancreatic cancer, underscoring the need for novel therapies. The aim of this study is to develop an adoptive T cell transfer approach to target tumours expressing prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), a tumour-associated antigen that is frequently expressed by pancreatic cancer cells. Methods Expression of PSCA on cell lines and primary tumour samples was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Healthy donor- and patient-derived T cells were isolated, activated in vitro using CD3/CD28, and transduced with a retroviral vector encoding a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) targeting PSCA. The ability of these cells to kill tumour cells was analysed by chromium-51 (Cr51) release. Results Prostate stem cell antigen was expressed on >70% of the primary tumour samples screened. Activated, CAR-modified T cells could be readily generated in clinically relevant numbers and were specifically able to kill PSCA-expressing pancreatic cancer cell lines with no non-specific killing of PSCA-negative target cells, thus indicating the potential efficacy and safety of this approach. Conclusions Prostate stem cell antigen is frequently expressed on pancreatic cancer cells and can be targeted for immune-mediated destruction using CAR-modified, adoptively transferred T cells. The safety and efficacy of this approach indicate that it deserves further study and may represent a promising novel treatment for patients with pancreatic cancer. PMID:21843265

  5. An immunosurveillance mechanism controls cancer cell ploidy.

    PubMed

    Senovilla, Laura; Vitale, Ilio; Martins, Isabelle; Tailler, Maximilien; Pailleret, Claire; Michaud, Mickaël; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Adjemian, Sandy; Kepp, Oliver; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Shen, Shensi; Mariño, Guillermo; Criollo, Alfredo; Boilève, Alice; Job, Bastien; Ladoire, Sylvain; Ghiringhelli, François; Sistigu, Antonella; Yamazaki, Takahiro; Rello-Varona, Santiago; Locher, Clara; Poirier-Colame, Vichnou; Talbot, Monique; Valent, Alexander; Berardinelli, Francesco; Antoccia, Antonio; Ciccosanti, Fabiola; Fimia, Gian Maria; Piacentini, Mauro; Fueyo, Antonio; Messina, Nicole L; Li, Ming; Chan, Christopher J; Sigl, Verena; Pourcher, Guillaume; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Lazar, Vladimir; Penninger, Josef M; Madeo, Frank; López-Otín, Carlos; Smyth, Mark J; Zitvogel, Laurence; Castedo, Maria; Kroemer, Guido

    2012-09-28

    Cancer cells accommodate multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations that initially activate intrinsic (cell-autonomous) and extrinsic (immune-mediated) oncosuppressive mechanisms. Only once these barriers to oncogenesis have been overcome can malignant growth proceed unrestrained. Tetraploidization can contribute to oncogenesis because hyperploid cells are genomically unstable. We report that hyperploid cancer cells become immunogenic because of a constitutive endoplasmic reticulum stress response resulting in the aberrant cell surface exposure of calreticulin. Hyperploid, calreticulin-exposing cancer cells readily proliferated in immunodeficient mice and conserved their increased DNA content. In contrast, hyperploid cells injected into immunocompetent mice generated tumors only after a delay, and such tumors exhibited reduced DNA content, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and calreticulin exposure. Our results unveil an immunosurveillance system that imposes immunoselection against hyperploidy in carcinogen- and oncogene-induced cancers.

  6. Are cancer cells really softer than normal cells?

    PubMed

    Alibert, Charlotte; Goud, Bruno; Manneville, Jean-Baptiste

    2017-05-01

    Solid tumours are often first diagnosed by palpation, suggesting that the tumour is more rigid than its surrounding environment. Paradoxically, individual cancer cells appear to be softer than their healthy counterparts. In this review, we first list the physiological reasons indicating that cancer cells may be more deformable than normal cells. Next, we describe the biophysical tools that have been developed in recent years to characterise and model cancer cell mechanics. By reviewing the experimental studies that compared the mechanics of individual normal and cancer cells, we argue that cancer cells can indeed be considered as softer than normal cells. We then focus on the intracellular elements that could be responsible for the softening of cancer cells. Finally, we ask whether the mechanical differences between normal and cancer cells can be used as diagnostic or prognostic markers of cancer progression. © 2017 Société Française des Microscopies and Société de Biologie Cellulaire de France. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Triiodothyronine regulates cell growth and survival in renal cell cancer.

    PubMed

    Czarnecka, Anna M; Matak, Damian; Szymanski, Lukasz; Czarnecka, Karolina H; Lewicki, Slawomir; Zdanowski, Robert; Brzezianska-Lasota, Ewa; Szczylik, Cezary

    2016-10-01

    Triiodothyronine plays an important role in the regulation of kidney cell growth, differentiation and metabolism. Patients with renal cell cancer who develop hypothyreosis during tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment have statistically longer survival. In this study, we developed cell based model of triiodothyronine (T3) analysis in RCC and we show the different effects of T3 on renal cell cancer (RCC) cell growth response and expression of the thyroid hormone receptor in human renal cell cancer cell lines from primary and metastatic tumors along with human kidney cancer stem cells. Wild-type thyroid hormone receptor is ubiquitously expressed in human renal cancer cell lines, but normalized against healthy renal proximal tube cell expression its level is upregulated in Caki-2, RCC6, SKRC-42, SKRC-45 cell lines. On the contrary the mRNA level in the 769-P, ACHN, HKCSC, and HEK293 cells is significantly decreased. The TRβ protein was abundant in the cytoplasm of the 786-O, Caki-2, RCC6, and SKRC-45 cells and in the nucleus of SKRC-42, ACHN, 769-P and cancer stem cells. T3 has promoting effect on the cell proliferation of HKCSC, Caki-2, ASE, ACHN, SK-RC-42, SMKT-R2, Caki-1, 786-0, and SK-RC-45 cells. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor, sunitinib, directly inhibits proliferation of RCC cells, while thyroid hormone receptor antagonist 1-850 (CAS 251310‑57-3) has less significant inhibitory impact. T3 stimulation does not abrogate inhibitory effect of sunitinib. Renal cancer tumor cells hypostimulated with T3 may be more responsive to tyrosine kinase inhibition. Moreover, some tumors may be considered as T3-independent and present aggressive phenotype with thyroid hormone receptor activated independently from the ligand. On the contrary proliferation induced by deregulated VHL and or c-Met pathways may transgress normal T3 mediated regulation of the cell cycle.

  8. A cancer cell-specific fluorescent probe for imaging Cu2 + in living cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Dong, Baoli; Kong, Xiuqi; Song, Xuezhen; Zhang, Nan; Lin, Weiying

    2017-07-01

    Monitoring copper level in cancer cells is important for the further understanding of its roles in the cell proliferation, and also could afford novel copper-based strategy for the cancer therapy. Herein, we have developed a novel cancer cell-specific fluorescent probe for the detecting Cu2 + in living cancer cells. The probe employed biotin as the cancer cell-specific group. Before the treatment of Cu2 +, the probe showed nearly no fluorescence. However, the probe can display strong fluorescence at 581 nm in response to Cu2 +. The probe exhibited excellent sensitivity and high selectivity for Cu2 + over the other relative species. Under the guidance of biotin group, could be successfully used for detecting Cu2 + in living cancer cells. We expect that this design strategy could be further applied for detection of the other important biomolecules in living cancer cells.

  9. Targeting Cell Polarity Machinery to Exhaust Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0644 TITLE: Targeting Cell Polarity Machinery to Exhaust Breast Cancer Stem Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Chun-Ju...U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: Approved for Public Release...Targeting Cell Polarity Machinery to Exhaust Breast Cancer Stem Cells 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0644 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  10. Pancreatic stellate cells enhance stem cell-like phenotypes in pancreatic cancer cells

    SciT

    Hamada, Shin; Masamune, Atsushi, E-mail: amasamune@med.tohoku.ac.jp; Takikawa, Tetsuya

    2012-05-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) promote the progression of pancreatic cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pancreatic cancer cells co-cultured with PSCs showed enhanced spheroid formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of stem cell-related genes ABCG2, Nestin and LIN28 was increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-injection of PSCs enhanced tumorigenicity of pancreatic cancer cells in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study suggested a novel role of PSCs as a part of the cancer stem cell niche. -- Abstract: The interaction between pancreatic cancer cells and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), a major profibrogenic cell type in the pancreas, is receiving increasing attention. There is accumulating evidence that PSCs promote the progression ofmore » pancreatic cancer by increasing cancer cell proliferation and invasion as well as by protecting them from radiation- and gemcitabine-induced apoptosis. Recent studies have identified that a portion of cancer cells, called 'cancer stem cells', within the entire cancer tissue harbor highly tumorigenic and chemo-resistant phenotypes, which lead to the recurrence after surgery or re-growth of the tumor. The mechanisms that maintain the 'stemness' of these cells remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that PSCs might enhance the cancer stem cell-like phenotypes in pancreatic cancer cells. Indirect co-culture of pancreatic cancer cells with PSCs enhanced the spheroid-forming ability of cancer cells and induced the expression of cancer stem cell-related genes ABCG2, Nestin and LIN28. In addition, co-injection of PSCs enhanced tumorigenicity of pancreatic cancer cells in vivo. These results suggested a novel role of PSCs as a part of the cancer stem cell niche.« less

  11. Committing to cell division may be clue to cancer cell growth | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    In a new study in Nature, CCR researchers describe, for the first time, how a cell commits to dividing during the cell cycle. Since cancer cells divide when they should not, targeting this pathway might stop their inappropriate growth.

  12. Cancer stem cells in colorectal cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    Munro, Matthew J; Wickremesekera, Susrutha K; Peng, Lifeng; Tan, Swee T; Itinteang, Tinte

    2018-02-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cancer in women and the third most common in men. Adenocarcinoma accounts for 90% of CRC cases. There has been accumulating evidence in support of the cancer stem cell (CSC) concept of cancer which proposes that CSCs are central in the initiation of cancer. CSCs have been the focus of study in a range of cancers, including CRC. This has led to the identification and understanding of genes involved in the induction and maintenance of pluripotency of stem cells, and markers for CSCs, including those investigated specifically in CRC. Knowledge of the expression pattern of CSCs in CRC has been increasing in recent years, revealing a heterogeneous population of cells within CRC ranging from pluripotent to differentiated cells, with overlapping and sometimes unique combinations of markers. This review summarises current literature on the understanding of CSCs in CRC, including evidence of the presence of CSC subpopulations, and the stem cell markers currently used to identify and localise these CSC subpopulations. Future research into this field may lead to improved methods for early detection of CRC, novel therapy and monitoring of treatment for CRC and other cancer types. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Lipid degradation promotes prostate cancer cell survival.

    PubMed

    Itkonen, Harri M; Brown, Michael; Urbanucci, Alfonso; Tredwell, Gregory; Ho Lau, Chung; Barfeld, Stefan; Hart, Claire; Guldvik, Ingrid J; Takhar, Mandeep; Heemers, Hannelore V; Erho, Nicholas; Bloch, Katarzyna; Davicioni, Elai; Derua, Rita; Waelkens, Etienne; Mohler, James L; Clarke, Noel; Swinnen, Johan V; Keun, Hector C; Rekvig, Ole P; Mills, Ian G

    2017-06-13

    Prostate cancer is the most common male cancer and androgen receptor (AR) is the major driver of the disease. Here we show that Enoyl-CoA delta isomerase 2 (ECI2) is a novel AR-target that promotes prostate cancer cell survival. Increased ECI2 expression predicts mortality in prostate cancer patients (p = 0.0086). ECI2 encodes for an enzyme involved in lipid metabolism, and we use multiple metabolite profiling platforms and RNA-seq to show that inhibition of ECI2 expression leads to decreased glucose utilization, accumulation of fatty acids and down-regulation of cell cycle related genes. In normal cells, decrease in fatty acid degradation is compensated by increased consumption of glucose, and here we demonstrate that prostate cancer cells are not able to respond to decreased fatty acid degradation. Instead, prostate cancer cells activate incomplete autophagy, which is followed by activation of the cell death response. Finally, we identified a clinically approved compound, perhexiline, which inhibits fatty acid degradation, and replicates the major findings for ECI2 knockdown. This work shows that prostate cancer cells require lipid degradation for survival and identifies a small molecule inhibitor with therapeutic potential.

  14. Relevance of mortalin to cancer cell stemness and cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Chae-Ok; Bhargava, Priyanshu; Na, Youjin; Lee, Jung-Sun; Ryu, Jihoon; Kaul, Sunil C.; Wadhwa, Renu

    2017-01-01

    Mortalin/mtHsp70 is a member of Hsp70 family of proteins. Enriched in a large variety of cancers, it has been shown to contribute to the process of carcinogenesis by multiple ways including inactivation of tumor suppressor p53 protein, deregulation of apoptosis and activation of EMT signaling. In this study, we report that upregulation of mortalin contributes to cancer cell stemness. Several cancer cell stemness markers, such as ABCG2, OCT-4, CD133, ALDH1, CD9, MRP1 and connexin were upregulated in mortalin-overexpressing cells that showed higher ability to form spheroids. These cells also showed higher migration, and were less responsive to a variety of cancer chemotherapeutic drugs. Of note, knockdown of mortalin by specific shRNA sensitized these cells to all the drugs used in this study. We report that low doses of anti-mortalin molecules, MKT-077 and CAPE, also caused similar sensitization of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs and hence are potential candidates for effective cancer chemotherapy. PMID:28165047

  15. Natural Killer Cell Immunotherapy Targeting Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Luna, Jesus I; Grossenbacher, Steven K.; Murphy, William J; Canter, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Standard cytoreductive cancer therapy, such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy, are frequently resisted by a small portion of cancer cells with “stem-cell” like properties including quiescence and repopulation. Immunotherapy represents a breakthrough modality for improving oncologic outcomes in cancer patients. Since the success of immunotherapy is not contingent on target cell proliferation, it may also be uniquely suited to address the problem of resistance and repopulation exerted by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Areas covered Natural killer (NK) cells have long been known for their ability to reject allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells, and there are increasing data demonstrating that NK cells can selectively identify and lyse CSCs. In this report, we review the current knowledge of CSCs and NK cells and highlight recent studies that support the concept that NK cells are capable of targeting CSC in solid tumors, especially in the context of combination therapy simultaneously targeting non-CSCs and CSCs. Expert Opinion Unlike cytotoxic cancer treatments, NK cells are able to target and eliminate quiescent/non-proliferating cells such as CSCs, and these enigmatic cells are an important source of relapse and metastasis. NK targeting of CSCs represents a novel and potentially high impact method to capitalize on the intrinsic therapeutic potential of NK cells. PMID:27960589

  16. Physical View on the Interactions Between Cancer Cells and the Endothelial Cell Lining During Cancer Cell Transmigration and Invasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierke, Claudia T.

    There exist many reviews on the biological and biochemical interactions of cancer cells and endothelial cells during the transmigration and tissue invasion of cancer cells. For the malignant progression of cancer, the ability to metastasize is a prerequisite. In particular, this means that certain cancer cells possess the property to migrate through the endothelial lining into blood or lymph vessels, and are possibly able to transmigrate through the endothelial lining into the connective tissue and follow up their invasion path in the targeted tissue. On the molecular and biochemical level the transmigration and invasion steps are well-defined, but these signal transduction pathways are not yet clear and less understood in regards to the biophysical aspects of these processes. To functionally characterize the malignant transformation of neoplasms and subsequently reveal the underlying pathway(s) and cellular properties, which help cancer cells to facilitate cancer progression, the biomechanical properties of cancer cells and their microenvironment come into focus in the physics-of-cancer driven view on the metastasis process of cancers. Hallmarks for cancer progression have been proposed, but they still lack the inclusion of specific biomechanical properties of cancer cells and interacting surrounding endothelial cells of blood or lymph vessels. As a cancer cell is embedded in a special environment, the mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix also cannot be neglected. Therefore, in this review it is proposed that a novel hallmark of cancer that is still elusive in classical tumor biological reviews should be included, dealing with the aspect of physics in cancer disease such as the natural selection of an aggressive (highly invasive) subtype of cancer cells displaying a certain adhesion or chemokine receptor on their cell surface. Today, the physical aspects can be analyzed by using state-of-the-art biophysical methods. Thus, this review will present

  17. Physical View on the Interactions Between Cancer Cells and the Endothelial Cell Lining During Cancer Cell Transmigration and Invasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierke, Claudia T.

    2015-10-01

    There exist many reviews on the biological and biochemical interactions of cancer cells and endothelial cells during the transmigration and tissue invasion of cancer cells. For the malignant progression of cancer, the ability to metastasize is a prerequisite. In particular, this means that certain cancer cells possess the property to migrate through the endothelial lining into blood or lymph vessels, and are possibly able to transmigrate through the endothelial lining into the connective tissue and follow up their invasion path in the targeted tissue. On the molecular and biochemical level the transmigration and invasion steps are well-defined, but these signal transduction pathways are not yet clear and less understood in regards to the biophysical aspects of these processes. To functionally characterize the malignant transformation of neoplasms and subsequently reveal the underlying pathway(s) and cellular properties, which help cancer cells to facilitate cancer progression, the biomechanical properties of cancer cells and their microenvironment come into focus in the physics-of-cancer driven view on the metastasis process of cancers. Hallmarks for cancer progression have been proposed, but they still lack the inclusion of specific biomechanical properties of cancer cells and interacting surrounding endothelial cells of blood or lymph vessels. As a cancer cell is embedded in a special environment, the mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix also cannot be neglected. Therefore, in this review it is proposed that a novel hallmark of cancer that is still elusive in classical tumor biological reviews should be included, dealing with the aspect of physics in cancer disease such as the natural selection of an aggressive (highly invasive) subtype of cancer cells displaying a certain adhesion or chemokine receptor on their cell surface. Today, the physical aspects can be analyzed by using state-of-the-art biophysical methods. Thus, this review will present

  18. Understanding cellular architecture in cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Simone; Tang, Chao

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the development of cancer is an important goal for today's science. The morphology of cellular organelles, such as the nucleus, the nucleoli and the mitochondria, which is referred to as cellular architecture or cytoarchitecture, is an important indicator of the state of the cell. In particular, there are striking difference between the cellular architecture of a healthy cell versus a cancer cell. In this work we present a dynamical model for the evolution of organelles morphology in cancer cells. Using a dynamical systems approach, we describe the evolution of a cell on its way to cancer as a trajectory in a multidimensional morphology state. The results provided by this work may increase our insight on the mechanism of tumorigenesis and help build new therapeutic strategies.

  19. Mechanisms of Cancer Cell Dormancy--Another Hallmark of Cancer?

    PubMed

    Yeh, Albert C; Ramaswamy, Sridhar

    2015-12-01

    Disease relapse in cancer patients many years after clinical remission, often referred to as cancer dormancy, is well documented but remains an incompletely understood phenomenon on the biologic level. Recent reviews have summarized potential models that can explain this phenomenon, including angiogenic, immunologic, and cellular dormancy. We focus on mechanisms of cellular dormancy as newer biologic insights have enabled better understanding of this process. We provide a historical context, synthesize current advances in the field, and propose a mechanistic framework that treats cancer cell dormancy as a dynamic cell state conferring a fitness advantage to an evolving malignancy under stress. Cellular dormancy appears to be an active process that can be toggled through a variety of signaling mechanisms that ultimately downregulate the RAS/MAPK and PI(3)K/AKT pathways, an ability that is preserved even in cancers that constitutively depend on these pathways for their growth and survival. Just as unbridled proliferation is a key hallmark of cancer, the ability of cancer cells to become quiescent may be critical to evolving malignancies, with implications for understanding cancer initiation, progression, and treatment resistance. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. c-Myc-Dependent Cell Competition in Human Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Patel, Manish S; Shah, Heta S; Shrivastava, Neeta

    2017-07-01

    Cell Competition is an interaction between cells for existence in heterogeneous cell populations of multicellular organisms. This phenomenon is involved in initiation and progression of cancer where heterogeneous cell populations compete directly or indirectly for the survival of the fittest based on differential gene expression. In Drosophila, cells having lower dMyc expression are eliminated by cell competition through apoptosis when present in the milieu of cells having higher dMyc expression. Thus, we designed a study to develop c-Myc (human homolog) dependent in vitro cell competition model of human cancer cells. Cells with higher c-Myc were transfected with c-myc shRNA to prepare cells with lower c-Myc and then co-cultured with the same type of cells having a higher c-Myc in equal ratio. Cells with lower c-Myc showed a significant decrease in numbers when compared with higher c-Myc cells, suggesting "loser" and "winner" status of cells, respectively. During microscopy, engulfment of loser cells by winner cells was observed with higher expression of JNK in loser cells. Furthermore, elimination of loser cells was prevented significantly, when co-cultured cells were treated with the JNK (apoptosis) inhibitor. Above results indicate elimination of loser cells in the presence of winner cells by c-Myc-dependent mechanisms of cell competition in human cancer cells. This could be an important mechanism in human tumors where normal cells are eliminated by c-Myc-overexpressed tumor cells. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1782-1791, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Are Mast Cells MASTers in Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Varricchi, Gilda; Galdiero, Maria Rosaria; Loffredo, Stefania; Marone, Giancarlo; Iannone, Raffaella; Marone, Gianni; Granata, Francescopaolo

    2017-01-01

    Prolonged low-grade inflammation or smoldering inflammation is a hallmark of cancer. Mast cells form a heterogeneous population of immune cells with differences in their ultra-structure, morphology, mediator content, and surface receptors. Mast cells are widely distributed throughout all tissues and are stromal components of the inflammatory microenvironment that modulates tumor initiation and development. Although canonically associated with allergic disorders, mast cells are a major source of pro-tumorigenic (e.g., angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors) and antitumorigenic molecules (e.g., TNF-α and IL-9), depending on the milieu. In certain neoplasias (e.g., gastric, thyroid and Hodgkin’s lymphoma) mast cells play a pro-tumorigenic role, in others (e.g., breast cancer) a protective role, whereas in yet others they are apparently innocent bystanders. These seemingly conflicting results suggest that the role of mast cells and their mediators could be cancer specific. The microlocalization (e.g., peritumoral vs intratumoral) of mast cells is another important aspect in the initiation/progression of solid and hematologic tumors. Increasing evidence in certain experimental models indicates that targeting mast cells and/or their mediators represent a potential therapeutic target in cancer. Thus, mast cells deserve focused consideration also as therapeutic targets in different types of tumors. There are many unanswered questions that should be addressed before we understand whether mast cells are an ally, adversary, or innocent bystanders in human cancers. PMID:28446910

  2. Are Mast Cells MASTers in Cancer?

    PubMed

    Varricchi, Gilda; Galdiero, Maria Rosaria; Loffredo, Stefania; Marone, Giancarlo; Iannone, Raffaella; Marone, Gianni; Granata, Francescopaolo

    2017-01-01

    Prolonged low-grade inflammation or smoldering inflammation is a hallmark of cancer. Mast cells form a heterogeneous population of immune cells with differences in their ultra-structure, morphology, mediator content, and surface receptors. Mast cells are widely distributed throughout all tissues and are stromal components of the inflammatory microenvironment that modulates tumor initiation and development. Although canonically associated with allergic disorders, mast cells are a major source of pro-tumorigenic (e.g., angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors) and antitumorigenic molecules (e.g., TNF-α and IL-9), depending on the milieu. In certain neoplasias (e.g., gastric, thyroid and Hodgkin's lymphoma) mast cells play a pro-tumorigenic role, in others (e.g., breast cancer) a protective role, whereas in yet others they are apparently innocent bystanders. These seemingly conflicting results suggest that the role of mast cells and their mediators could be cancer specific. The microlocalization (e.g., peritumoral vs intratumoral) of mast cells is another important aspect in the initiation/progression of solid and hematologic tumors. Increasing evidence in certain experimental models indicates that targeting mast cells and/or their mediators represent a potential therapeutic target in cancer. Thus, mast cells deserve focused consideration also as therapeutic targets in different types of tumors. There are many unanswered questions that should be addressed before we understand whether mast cells are an ally, adversary, or innocent bystanders in human cancers.

  3. Survivorship Care Planning in Patients With Colorectal or Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-12-16

    Stage I Colon Cancer; Stage I Rectal Cancer; Stage IA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

  4. Cell Senescence: Aging and Cancer

    Campisi, Judith

    2017-12-27

    Scientists have identified a molecular cause behind the ravages of old age and in doing so have also shown how a natural process for fighting cancer in younger persons can actually promote cancer in older individuals.

  5. Gene sensitizes cancer cells to chemotherapy drugs

    Cancer.gov

    NCI scientists have found that a gene, Schlafen-11 (SLFN11), sensitizes cells to substances known to cause irreparable damage to DNA.  As part of their study, the researchers used a repository of 60 cell types to identify predictors of cancer cell respons

  6. Metabolic cooperation between cancer and non-cancerous stromal cells is pivotal in cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Lopes-Coelho, Filipa; Gouveia-Fernandes, Sofia; Serpa, Jacinta

    2018-02-01

    The way cancer cells adapt to microenvironment is crucial for the success of carcinogenesis, and metabolic fitness is essential for a cancer cell to survive and proliferate in a certain organ/tissue. The metabolic remodeling in a tumor niche is endured not only by cancer cells but also by non-cancerous cells that share the same microenvironment. For this reason, tumor cells and stromal cells constitute a complex network of signal and organic compound transfer that supports cellular viability and proliferation. The intensive dual-address cooperation of all components of a tumor sustains disease progression and metastasis. Herein, we will detail the role of cancer-associated fibroblasts, cancer-associated adipocytes, and inflammatory cells, mainly monocytes/macrophages (tumor-associated macrophages), in the remodeling and metabolic adaptation of tumors.

  7. Measuring the metastatic potential of cancer cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.; Gratzner, Howard; Atassi, M. Z.

    1993-01-01

    Cancer cells must secrete proteolytic enzymes to invade adjacent tissues and migrate to a new metastatic site. Urokinase (uPA) is a key enzyme related to metastasis in cancers of the lung, colon, gastric, uterine, breast, brain, and malignant melanoma. A NASA technology utilization project has combined fluorescence microscopy, image analysis, and flow cytometry, using fluorescent dyes, and urokinase-specific antibodies to measure uPA and abnormal DNA levels (related to cancer cell proliferation) inside the cancer cells. The project is focused on developing quantitative measurements to determine if a patient's tumor cells are actively metastasizing. If a significant number of tumor cells contain large amounts of uPA (esp. membrane-bound) then the post-surgical chemotherapy or radiotherapy can be targeted for metastatic cells that have already left the primary tumor. These analytical methods have been applied to a retrospective study of biopsy tissues from 150 node negative, stage 1 breast cancer patients. Cytopathology and image analysis has shown that uPA is present in high levels in many breast cancer cells, but not found in normal breast. Significant amounts of uPA also have been measured in glioma cell lines cultured from brain tumors. Commercial applications include new diagnostic tests for metastatic cells, in different cancers, which are being developed with a company that provides a medical testing service using flow cytometry for DNA analysis and hormone receptors on tumor cells from patient biopsies. This research also may provide the basis for developing a new 'magic bullet' treatment against metastasis using chemotherapeutic drugs or radioisotopes attached to urokinase-specific monoclonal antibodies that will only bind to metastatic cells.

  8. Cancer Cells Regulate Biomechanical Properties of Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2011-01-01

    Metastasis is a key event of malignant tumor progression. The capability to metastasize depends on the ability of the cancer cell to migrate into connective tissue, adhere, and possibly transmigrate through the endothelium. Previously we reported that the endothelium does not generally act as barrier for cancer cells to migrate in three-dimensional extracellular matrices (3D-ECMs). Instead, the endothelium acts as an enhancer or a promoter for the invasiveness of certain cancer cells. How invasive cancer cells diminish the endothelial barrier function still remains elusive. Therefore, this study investigates whether invasive cancer cells can decrease the endothelial barrier function through alterations of endothelial biomechanical properties. To address this, MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were used that invade deeper and more numerous into 3D-ECMs when co-cultured with microvascular endothelial cells. Using magnetic tweezer measurements, MDA-MB-231 cells were found to alter the mechanical properties of endothelial cells by reducing endothelial cell stiffness. Using spontaneous bead diffusion, actin cytoskeletal remodeling dynamics were shown to be increased in endothelial cells co-cultured with MDA-MB-231 cells compared with mono-cultured endothelial cells. In addition, knockdown of the α5 integrin subunit in highly transmigrating α5β1high cells derived from breast, bladder, and kidney cancer cells abolished the endothelial invasion-enhancing effect comparable with the inhibition of myosin light chain kinase. These results indicate that the endothelial invasion-enhancing effect is α5β1 integrin-dependent. Moreover, inhibition of Rac-1, Rho kinase, MEK kinase, and PI3K reduced the endothelial invasion-enhancing effect, indicating that signaling via small GTPases may play a role in the endothelial facilitated increased invasiveness of cancer cells. In conclusion, decreased stiffness and increased cytoskeletal remodeling dynamics of endothelial cells may account

  9. Cancer Stem Cell Hierarchy in Glioblastoma Multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Amy; Wickremsekera, Agadha; Tan, Swee T.; Peng, Lifeng; Davis, Paul F.; Itinteang, Tinte

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), an aggressive tumor that typically exhibits treatment failure with high mortality rates, is associated with the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) within the tumor. CSCs possess the ability for perpetual self-renewal and proliferation, producing downstream progenitor cells that drive tumor growth. Studies of many cancer types have identified CSCs using specific markers, but it is still unclear as to where in the stem cell hierarchy these markers fall. This is compounded further by the presence of multiple GBM and glioblastoma cancer stem cell subtypes, making investigation and establishment of a universal treatment difficult. This review examines the current knowledge on the CSC markers SALL4, OCT-4, SOX2, STAT3, NANOG, c-Myc, KLF4, CD133, CD44, nestin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein, specifically focusing on their use and validity in GBM research and how they may be utilized for investigations into GBM’s cancer biology. PMID:27148537

  10. Cancer stem cells: a metastasizing menace!

    PubMed

    Bandhavkar, Saurabh

    2016-04-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and is estimated to be a reason of death of more than 18 billion people in the coming 5 years. Progress has been made in diagnosis and treatment of cancer; however, a sound understanding of the underlying cell biology still remains an unsolved mystery. Current treatments include a combination of radiation, surgery, and/or chemotherapy. However, these treatments are not a complete cure, aimed simply at shrinking the tumor and in majority of cases, there is a relapse of tumor. Several evidences suggest the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor-initiating stem-like cells, a small population of cells present in the tumor, capable of self-renewal and generation of differentiated progeny. The presence of these CSCs can be attributed to the failure of cancer treatments as these cells are believed to exhibit therapy resistance. As a result, increasing attention has been given to CSC research to resolve the therapeutic problems related to cancer. Progress in this field of research has led to the development of novel strategies to treat several malignancies and has become a hot topic of discussion. In this review, we will briefly focus on the main characteristics, therapeutic implications, and perspectives of CSCs in cancer therapy. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Mechanisms of Cancer Cell Dormancy – Another Hallmark of Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Albert C.; Ramaswamy, Sridhar

    2015-01-01

    Disease relapse in cancer patients many years after clinical remission, often referred to as cancer dormancy, is well documented but remains an incompletely understood phenomenon on the biological level. Recent reviews have summarized potential models that can explain this phenomenon, including angiogenic, immunologic, and cellular dormancy. We focus on mechanisms of cellular dormancy as newer biological insights have enabled better understanding of this process. We provide a historical context, synthesize current advances in the field, and propose a mechanistic framework that treats cancer cell dormancy as a dynamic cell state conferring a fitness advantage to an evolving malignancy under stress. Cellular dormancy appears to be an active process that can be toggled through a variety of signaling mechanisms that ultimately down-regulate the Ras/MAPK and PI(3)K/AKT pathways, an ability that is preserved even in cancers that constitutively depend on these pathways for their growth and survival. Just as unbridled proliferation is a key hallmark of cancer, the ability of cancer cells to become quiescent may be critical to evolving malignancies, with implications for understanding cancer initiation, progression, and treatment resistance. PMID:26354021

  12. Stem cell divisions, somatic mutations, cancer etiology, and cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Tomasetti, Cristian; Li, Lu; Vogelstein, Bert

    2017-03-24

    Cancers are caused by mutations that may be inherited, induced by environmental factors, or result from DNA replication errors (R). We studied the relationship between the number of normal stem cell divisions and the risk of 17 cancer types in 69 countries throughout the world. The data revealed a strong correlation (median = 0.80) between cancer incidence and normal stem cell divisions in all countries, regardless of their environment. The major role of R mutations in cancer etiology was supported by an independent approach, based solely on cancer genome sequencing and epidemiological data, which suggested that R mutations are responsible for two-thirds of the mutations in human cancers. All of these results are consistent with epidemiological estimates of the fraction of cancers that can be prevented by changes in the environment. Moreover, they accentuate the importance of early detection and intervention to reduce deaths from the many cancers arising from unavoidable R mutations. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Cell plasticity and heterogeneity in cancer.

    PubMed

    Marjanovic, Nemanja D; Weinberg, Robert A; Chaffer, Christine L

    2013-01-01

    Heterogeneity within a given cancer arises from diverse cell types recruited to the tumor and from genetic and/or epigenetic differences amongst the cancer cells themselves. These factors conspire to create a disease with various phenotypes. There are 2 established models of cancer development and progression to metastatic disease. These are the clonal evolution and cancer stem cell models. The clonal evolution theory suggests that successive mutations accumulating in a given cell generate clonal outgrowths that thrive in response to microenvironmental selection pressures, dictating the phenotype of the tumor. The alternative cancer stem cell (CSC) model suggests that cancer cells with similar genetic backgrounds can be hierarchically organized according to their tumorigenic potential. Accordingly, CSCs reside at the apex of the hierarchy and are thought to possess the majority of a cancer's tumor-initiating and metastatic ability. A defining feature of this model is its apparent unidirectional nature, whereby CSCs undergo symmetric division to replenish the CSC pool and irreversible asymmetric division to generate daughter cells (non-CSCs) with low tumorigenic potential. However, evolving evidence supports a new model of tumorigenicity, in which considerable plasticity exists between the non-CSC and CSC compartments, such that non-CSCs can reacquire a CSC phenotype. These findings suggest that some tumors may adhere to a plastic CSC model, in which bidirectional conversions are common and essential components of tumorigenicity. Accumulating evidence surrounding the plasticity of cancer cells, in particular, suggests that aggressive CSCs can be created de novo within a tumor. Given the current focus on therapeutic targeting of CSCs, we discuss the implications of non-CSC-to-CSC conversions on the development of future therapies. © 2012 American Association for Clinical Chemistry

  14. Cancer stem cells and cell size: A causal link?

    PubMed

    Li, Qiuhui; Rycaj, Kiera; Chen, Xin; Tang, Dean G

    2015-12-01

    The majority of normal animal cells are 10-20 μm in diameter. Many signaling mechanisms, notably PI3K/Akt/mTOR, Myc, and Hippo pathways, tightly control and coordinate cell growth, cell size, cell division, and cell number during homeostasis. These regulatory mechanisms are frequently deregulated during tumorigenesis resulting in wide variations in cell sizes and increased proliferation in cancer cells. Here, we first review the evidence that primitive stem cells in adult tissues are quiescent and generally smaller than their differentiated progeny, suggesting a correlation between small cell sizes with the stemness. Conversely, increased cell size positively correlates with differentiation phenotypes. We then discuss cancer stem cells (CSCs) and present some evidence that correlates cell sizes with CSC activity. Overall, a causal link between CSCs and cell size is relatively weak and remains to be rigorously assessed. In the future, optimizing methods for isolating cells based on size should help elucidate the connection between cancer cell size and CSC characteristics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Curcumin: a promising agent targeting cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zang, Shufei; Liu, Tao; Shi, Junping; Qiao, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Cancer stem cells are a subset of cells that are responsible for cancer initiation and relapse. They are generally resistant to the current anticancer agents. Successful anticancer therapy must consist of approaches that can target not only the differentiated cancer cells, but also cancer stem cells. Emerging evidence suggested that the dietary agent curcumin exerted its anti-cancer activities via targeting cancer stem cells of various origins such as those of colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, brain cancer, and head and neck cancer. In order to enhance the therapeutic potential of curcumin, this agent has been modified or used in combination with other agents in the experimental therapy for many cancers. In this mini-review, we discussed the effect of curcumin and its derivatives in eliminating cancer stem cells and the possible underlying mechanisms.

  16. Cell-of-Origin of Cancer versus Cancer Stem Cells: Assays and Interpretations.

    PubMed

    Rycaj, Kiera; Tang, Dean G

    2015-10-01

    A tumor originates from a normal cell that has undergone tumorigenic transformation as a result of genetic mutations. This transformed cell is the cell-of-origin for the tumor. In contrast, an established clinical tumor is sustained by subpopulations of self-renewing cancer cells operationally called cancer stem cells (CSC) that can generate, intraclonally, both tumorigenic and nontumorigenic cells. Identifying and characterizing tumor cell-of-origin and CSCs should help elucidate tumor cell heterogeneity, which, in turn, should help understand tumor cell responses to clinical treatments, drug resistance, tumor relapse, and metastatic spread. Both tumor transplantation and lineage-tracing assays have been helpful in characterizing these cancer cell populations, although each system has its strengths and caveats. In this article, we briefly review and summarize advantages and limitations of both assays in support of a combinatorial approach to accurately define the roles of both cancer-initiating and cancer-propagating cells. As an aside, we also wish to clarify the definitions of cancer cell-of-origin and CSCs, which are often interchangeably used by mistake. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Biomechanical investigation of colorectal cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmieri, Valentina; Lucchetti, Donatella; Maiorana, Alessandro; Papi, Massimiliano; Maulucci, Giuseppe; Ciasca, Gabriele; Svelto, Maria; De Spirito, Marco; Sgambato, Alessandro

    2014-09-01

    The nanomechanical properties of SW480 colon cancer cells were investigated using Atomic Force Microscopy. SW480 cells are composed of two sub-populations with different shape and invasiveness. These two cells populations showed similar adhesion properties while appeared significantly different in term of cells stiffness. Since cell stiffness is related to invasiveness and growth, we suggest elasticity as a useful parameter to distinguish invasive cells inside the colorectal tumor bulk and the high-resolution mechanical mapping as a promising diagnostic tool for the identification of malignant cells.

  18. Study characterizes how DNA-damaging anti-cancer drugs kill cancer cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Patients whose cancer cells express the SLFN11 protein are more likely to respond to DNA-damaging anti-cancer drugs than those whose cancer cells don’t express SLFN11. In a new study, Center for Cancer Research investigators show how these drugs recruit SLFN11 to block replication and kill cancer cells. Read more…

  19. Cell polarity signaling in the plasticity of cancer cell invasiveness

    PubMed Central

    Gandalovičová, Aneta; Vomastek, Tomáš; Rosel, Daniel; Brábek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Apico-basal polarity is typical of cells present in differentiated epithelium while front-rear polarity develops in motile cells. In cancer development, the transition from epithelial to migratory polarity may be seen as the hallmark of cancer progression to an invasive and metastatic disease. Despite the morphological and functional dissimilarity, both epithelial and migratory polarity are controlled by a common set of polarity complexes Par, Scribble and Crumbs, phosphoinositides, and small Rho GTPases Rac, Rho and Cdc42. In epithelial tissues, their mutual interplay ensures apico-basal and planar cell polarity. Accordingly, altered functions of these polarity determinants lead to disrupted cell-cell adhesions, cytoskeleton rearrangements and overall loss of epithelial homeostasis. Polarity proteins are further engaged in diverse interactions that promote the establishment of front-rear polarity, and they help cancer cells to adopt different invasion modes. Invading cancer cells can employ either the collective, mesenchymal or amoeboid invasion modes or actively switch between them and gain intermediate phenotypes. Elucidation of the role of polarity proteins during these invasion modes and the associated transitions is a necessary step towards understanding the complex problem of metastasis. In this review we summarize the current knowledge of the role of cell polarity signaling in the plasticity of cancer cell invasiveness. PMID:26872368

  20. Combination Chemotherapy, Radiation Therapy, and Gefitinib in Treating Patients With Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-04

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Bronchoalveolar Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  1. Cancer cell metabolism: one hallmark, many faces.

    PubMed

    Cantor, Jason R; Sabatini, David M

    2012-10-01

    Cancer cells must rewire cellular metabolism to satisfy the demands of growth and proliferation. Although many of the metabolic alterations are largely similar to those in normal proliferating cells, they are aberrantly driven in cancer by a combination of genetic lesions and nongenetic factors such as the tumor microenvironment. However, a single model of altered tumor metabolism does not describe the sum of metabolic changes that can support cell growth. Instead, the diversity of such changes within the metabolic program of a cancer cell can dictate by what means proliferative rewiring is driven, and can also impart heterogeneity in the metabolic dependencies of the cell. A better understanding of this heterogeneity may enable the development and optimization of therapeutic strategies that target tumor metabolism.

  2. NOVEL POLYPHENOLS THAT INHIBIT COLON CANCER CELL GROWTH AFFECTING CANCER CELL METABOLISM.

    PubMed

    Gomez de Cedron, Marta; Vargas, Teodoro; Madrona, Andres; Jimenez, Aranza; Perez Perez, Maria Jesus; Quintela, Jose Carlos; Reglero, Guillermo; San-Felix, Ana Rosa; Ramirez de Molina, Ana

    2018-06-05

    New series of polyphenols with a hydrophilic galloyl based "head" and a hydrophobic N-acyl "tail", linked through a serinol moiety, have been synthesized and tested against colon cancer cell growth. Our structure activity relationship studies revealed that galloyl moieties are essential for growth inhibition. Moreover, the length of the N-acyl chain is crucial for the activity. Introduction of a (Z) double bond in the acyl chain increased the anti-cancer properties. Our findings demonstrate that 16, the most potent compound within this series, has inhibitory effects on colon cancer cell growth and metabolism (glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration) at the same time that activates AMPK and induces apoptotic cell death. Based on these results we propose that 16 might reprogram colon cancer cell metabolism through AMPK activation. This might lead to alterations on cancer cell bioenergy compromising cancer cell viability. Importantly, these anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects are selective for cancer cells. Accordingly, these results indicate that 16, with an unsaturated C18 chain, might be a useful prototype for the development of novel colon cancer cell growth inhibitors affecting cell metabolism. The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  3. PERSPECTIVES ON CANCER STEM CELLS IN OSTEOSARCOMA

    PubMed Central

    Basu-Roy, Upal; Basilico, Claudio; Mansukhani, Alka

    2012-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is an aggressive pediatric tumor of growing bones that, despite surgery and chemotherapy, is prone to relapse. These mesenchymal tumors are derived from progenitor cells in the osteoblast lineage that have accumulated mutations to escape cell cycle checkpoints leading to excessive proliferation and defects in their ability to differentiate appropriately into mature bone-forming osteoblasts. Like other malignant tumors, osteosarcoma is often heterogeneous, consisting of phenotypically distinct cells with features of different stages of differentiation. The cancer stem cell hypothesis posits that tumors are maintained by stem cells and it is the incomplete eradication of a refractory population of tumor-initiating stem cells that accounts for drug resistance and tumor relapse. In this review we present our current knowledge about the biology of osteosarcoma stem cells from mouse and human tumors, highlighting new insights and unresolved issues in the identification of this elusive population. We focus on factors and pathways that are implicated in maintaining such cells, and differences from paradigms of epithelial cancers. Targeting of the cancer stem cells in osteosarcoma is a promising avenue to explore to develop new therapies for this devastating childhood cancer. PMID:22659734

  4. Cell of Origin and Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype in Medulloblastomas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0115 TITLE: Cell of Origin and Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype in Medulloblastomas PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Kyuson Yun...YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE July 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1 Jul 2014 - 30 Jun 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cell ...of Origin and Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype in Medulloblastomas 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0115 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  5. Novel Compounds Line up to Combat Drug Resistance in Cancer Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    As the war on cancer has intensified and new molecular attacks on cancer cells have been developed, cancer cells have devised innovative ways of defending themselves. Many drugs have been designed or discovered and used to kill cancer cells; in response, these cells are staging new mechanisms to resist the effects of a variety of drugs, a phenomenon called multidrug resistance

  6. The Role of SIRT1 in Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    Stem cell markers, SOX-2 and Nanog, are significantly decreased in SIRT1 inhibitor treated cancer cells by qRT-PCR and western blot in T47D cell line...cells. Immunohistochemistry performed on breast cancer specimens shows the correlation between cancer stem cell markers and SIRT1 overexpression. SIRT1

  7. Identification of Human Cutaneous Basal Cell Carcinoma Cancer Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Huw; Olivero, Carlotta; Patel, Girish K

    2018-04-20

    The cancer stem cell model states that a subset of tumor cells, called "cancer stem cells," can initiate and propagate tumor growth through self-renewal, high proliferative capacity, and their ability to recreate tumor heterogeneity. In basal cell carcinoma (BCC), we have shown that tumor cells that express the cell surface protein CD200 fulfill the cancer stem cell hypothesis. CD200+ CD45- BCC cells represent 0.05-3.96% of all BCC cells and reside in small clusters at the tumor periphery. Using a novel, reproducible in vivo xenograft growth assay, we determined that tumor-initiating cell (TIC) frequencies are approximately 1 per 1.5 million unsorted BCC cells. The CD200+ CD45- BCC subpopulation recreated BCC tumor growth in vivo with typical histological architecture and expression of sonic hedgehog-regulated genes. Reproducible in vivo BCC growth was achieved with as few as 10,000 CD200+ CD45- cells, representing ~1500-fold enrichment. The methods used to identify and purify CD200+ CD45- BCC cells, as well as characterize gene expression, are described herein.

  8. Pharmacogenomic agreement between two cancer cell line data sets.

    PubMed

    2015-12-03

    Large cancer cell line collections broadly capture the genomic diversity of human cancers and provide valuable insight into anti-cancer drug response. Here we show substantial agreement and biological consilience between drug sensitivity measurements and their associated genomic predictors from two publicly available large-scale pharmacogenomics resources: The Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia and the Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer databases.

  9. Cell Membrane Softening in Cancer Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Sebastian; Händel, Chris; Käs, Josef

    Biomechanical properties are useful characteristics and regulators of the cell's state. Current research connects mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton to many cellular processes but does not investigate the biomechanics of the plasma membrane. We evaluated thermal fluctuations of giant plasma membrane vesicles, directly derived from the plasma membranes of primary breast and cervical cells and observed a lowered rigidity in the plasma membrane of malignant cells compared to non-malignant cells. To investigate the specific role of membrane rigidity changes, we treated two cell lines with the Acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitor Soraphen A. It changed the lipidome of cells and drastically increased membrane stiffness by up regulating short chained membrane lipids. These altered cells had a decreased motility in Boyden chamber assays. Our results indicate that the thermal fluctuations of the membrane, which are much smaller than the fluctuations driven by the cytoskeleton, can be modulated by the cell and have an impact on adhesion and motility.

  10. Targeting the cancer initiating cell: the Achilles' heel of cancer.

    PubMed

    McCubrey, James A; Chappell, William H; Abrams, Stephen L; Franklin, Richard A; Long, Jacquelyn M; Sattler, Jennifer A; Kempf, C Ruth; Laidler, Piotr; Steelman, Linda S

    2011-01-01

    We have isolated cell with the cancer initiating cell (CIC) phenotype from PC3 cells. The PC3/(CIC) cells are more resistant than the PC3/(BC) cells to chemotherapeutic drugs such as docetaxel which is used to treat prostate cancer. Thus these prostate CICs could lay dormant and persist even after chemotherapeutic drug treatment. Then when the chemotherapeutic drug is removed, they could potentially repopulate the original tumor site or metastize to a distant site. However, the prostate CICs were not significantly more resistant to drugs which target EGFR, NF-κB, Smo and the natural product genistein. Interesting the prostate CICs could be rendered more sensitive to docetaxel by inclusion of suboptimal doses of genistein, cyclopamine, and EGFR inhibitors. In contrast, addition of suboptimal amounts of genistein, cyclopamine, or EGFR inhibitors did not increase the sensitivity of the PC/(BC) cells to docetaxel. Similar results were observed when combination experiments were performed with cyclopamine and suboptimal doses of either genistein or docetaxel. The BC cells are usually more rapidly proliferating than the CICs. Thus the CICs are not as sensitive to docetaxel which targets replication. In contrast, the CICs could be rendered sensitive to docetaxel or cyclopamine by co-treatment with certain other drugs, including the natural product genistein which is present in the human diet of many people, especially Asians. Genistein is by itself only weakly toxic to prostate and other cancer cells. That is probably one of the big reasons that it can be used as a dietary supplement for prostate and breast cancers. It is clear from our studies that low doses of genistein can increase the sensitivity of prostate CICs to drugs such as docetaxel and cyclopamine, two drugs either used or under consideration for prostate cancer therapy.

  11. CD24 negative lung cancer cells, possessing partial cancer stem cell properties, cannot be considered as cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haineng; Mu, Jiasheng; Xiao, Jing; Wu, Xiangsong; Li, Maolan; Liu, Tianrun; Liu, Xinyuan

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play vital role in lung cancer progression, resistance, metastasis and relapse. Identifying lung CSCs makers for lung CSCs targeting researches are critical for lung cancer therapy. In this study, utilizing previous identified lung CSCs as model, we compared the expression of CD24, CD133 and CD44 between CSCs and non-stem cancer cells. Increased ratio of CD24- cells were found in CSCs. CD24- cells were then sorted by flow cytometry and their proliferative ability, chemo-resistance property and in vivo tumor formation abilities were detected. A549 CD24- cells formed smaller colonies, slower proliferated in comparison to A549 CD24+ cells. Besides, A549 CD24- exhibited stronger resistance to chemotherapy drug. However, A549 CD24- didn't exert any stronger tumor formation ability in vivo, which is the gold standard of CSCs. These results showed that CD24- A549 cells showed some properties of CSCs but not actually CSCs. This study provides evidence that CD24 cannot be considered as lung CSCs marker.

  12. The CEA-/lo colorectal cancer cell population harbors cancer stem cells and metastatic cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chang; Hu, Yibing; Zhang, Bo; Mu, Lei; Huang, Kaiyu; Zhao, Hui; Ma, Chensen; Li, Xiaolan; Tao, Deding; Gong, Jianping; Qin, Jichao

    2016-12-06

    Serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is the most commonly used tumor marker in a variety of cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC) for tumor diagnosis and monitoring. Recent studies have shown that colonic crypt cells expressing little or no CEA may enrich for stem cells. Numerous studies have clearly shown that there exist CRC patients with normal serum CEA levels during tumor progression or even tumor relapse, although CEA itself is considered to promote metastasis and block cell differentiation. These seemingly contradictory observations prompted us to investigate, herein, the biological properties as well as tumorigenic and metastatic capacity of CRC cells that express high (CEA+) versus low CEA (CEA-/lo) levels of CEA. Our findings show that the abundance of CEA-/lo cells correlate with poor differentiation and poor prognosis, and moreover, CEA-/lo cells form more spheres in vitro, generate more tumors and exhibit a higher potential in developing liver and lung metastases than corresponding CEA+ cells. Applying RNAi-mediated approach, we found that IGF1R mediated tumorigenic and capacity of CEA-/lo cells but did not mediate those of CEA+ cells. Notably, our data demonstrated that CEA molecule was capable of protecting CEA-/lo cells from anoikis, implying that CEA+ cells, although themselves possessing less tumorigenic and metastatic capacity, may promote metastasis of CEA-/lo cells via secreting CEA molecule. Our observations suggest that, besides targeting CEA molecule, CEA-/lo cells may represent a critical source of tumor progression and metastasis, and should therefore be the target of future therapies.

  13. Stem Cell Transplants in Cancer Treatment

    Cancer.gov

    Stem cell transplants are procedures that restore blood-forming stem cells in cancer patients who have had theirs destroyed by very high doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Learn about the types of transplants and side effects that may occur.

  14. Phenotype heterogeneity in cancer cell populations

    SciT

    Almeida, Luis; Chisholm, Rebecca; Clairambault, Jean

    2016-06-08

    Phenotype heterogeneity in cancer cell populations, be it of genetic, epigenetic or stochastic origin, has been identified as a main source of resistance to drug treatments and a major source of therapeutic failures in cancers. The molecular mechanisms of drug resistance are partly understood at the single cell level (e.g., overexpression of ABC transporters or of detoxication enzymes), but poorly predictable in tumours, where they are hypothesised to rely on heterogeneity at the cell population scale, which is thus the right level to describe cancer growth and optimise its control by therapeutic strategies in the clinic. We review a fewmore » results from the biological literature on the subject, and from mathematical models that have been published to predict and control evolution towards drug resistance in cancer cell populations. We propose, based on the latter, optimisation strategies of combined treatments to limit emergence of drug resistance to cytotoxic drugs in cancer cell populations, in the monoclonal situation, which limited as it is still retains consistent features of cell population heterogeneity. The polyclonal situation, that may be understood as “bet hedging” of the tumour, thus protecting itself from different sources of drug insults, may lie beyond such strategies and will need further developments. In the monoclonal situation, we have designed an optimised therapeutic strategy relying on a scheduled combination of cytotoxic and cytostatic treatments that can be adapted to different situations of cancer treatments. Finally, we review arguments for biological theoretical frameworks proposed at different time and development scales, the so-called atavistic model (diachronic view relying on Darwinian genotype selection in the coursof billions of years) and the Waddington-like epigenetic landscape endowed with evolutionary quasi-potential (synchronic view relying on Lamarckian phenotype instruction of a given genome by reversible mechanisms

  15. Phenotype heterogeneity in cancer cell populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Luis; Chisholm, Rebecca; Clairambault, Jean; Escargueil, Alexandre; Lorenzi, Tommaso; Lorz, Alexander; Trélat, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    Phenotype heterogeneity in cancer cell populations, be it of genetic, epigenetic or stochastic origin, has been identified as a main source of resistance to drug treatments and a major source of therapeutic failures in cancers. The molecular mechanisms of drug resistance are partly understood at the single cell level (e.g., overexpression of ABC transporters or of detoxication enzymes), but poorly predictable in tumours, where they are hypothesised to rely on heterogeneity at the cell population scale, which is thus the right level to describe cancer growth and optimise its control by therapeutic strategies in the clinic. We review a few results from the biological literature on the subject, and from mathematical models that have been published to predict and control evolution towards drug resistance in cancer cell populations. We propose, based on the latter, optimisation strategies of combined treatments to limit emergence of drug resistance to cytotoxic drugs in cancer cell populations, in the monoclonal situation, which limited as it is still retains consistent features of cell population heterogeneity. The polyclonal situation, that may be understood as "bet hedging" of the tumour, thus protecting itself from different sources of drug insults, may lie beyond such strategies and will need further developments. In the monoclonal situation, we have designed an optimised therapeutic strategy relying on a scheduled combination of cytotoxic and cytostatic treatments that can be adapted to different situations of cancer treatments. Finally, we review arguments for biological theoretical frameworks proposed at different time and development scales, the so-called atavistic model (diachronic view relying on Darwinian genotype selection in the coursof billions of years) and the Waddington-like epigenetic landscape endowed with evolutionary quasi-potential (synchronic view relying on Lamarckian phenotype instruction of a given genome by reversible mechanisms), to

  16. Harnessing the apoptotic programs in cancer stem-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying-Hua; Scadden, David T

    2015-01-01

    Elimination of malignant cells is an unmet challenge for most human cancer types even with therapies targeting specific driver mutations. Therefore, a multi-pronged strategy to alter cancer cell biology on multiple levels is increasingly recognized as essential for cancer cure. One such aspect of cancer cell biology is the relative apoptosis resistance of tumor-initiating cells. Here, we provide an overview of the mechanisms affecting the apoptotic process in tumor cells emphasizing the differences in the tumor-initiating or stem-like cells of cancer. Further, we summarize efforts to exploit these differences to design therapies targeting that important cancer cell population. PMID:26253117

  17. Cancer Cells with Irons in the Fire

    PubMed Central

    Bystrom, Laura M.; Rivella, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Iron is essential for the growth and proliferation of cells, as well as for many biological processes that are important for the maintenance and survival of the human body. However, excess iron is associated with the development of cancer and other pathological conditions, due in part to the pro-oxidative nature of iron and its damaging effects on DNA. Current studies suggest that iron depletion may be beneficial for patients that have diseases associated with iron overload or other iron metabolism disorders that may increase the risk for cancer. On the other hand, studies suggest that cancer cells are more vulnerable to the effects of iron depletion and oxidative stress in comparison to normal cells. Therefore, cancer patients might benefit from treatments that alter both iron metabolism and oxidative stress. This review highlights the pro-oxidant effects of iron, the relationship between iron and cancer development, the vulnerabilities of iron-dependent cancer phenotype, and how these characteristics may be exploited to prevent or treat cancer. PMID:24835768

  18. Gene and cell therapy for pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Singh, Hans Martin; Ungerechts, Guy; Tsimberidou, Apostolia M

    2015-04-01

    The clinical outcomes of patients with pancreatic cancer are poor, and the limited success of classical chemotherapy underscores the need for new, targeted approaches for this disease. The delivery of genetic material to cells allows for a variety of therapeutic concepts. Engineered agents based on synthetic biology are under clinical investigation in various cancers, including pancreatic cancer. This review focuses on Phase I - III clinical trials of gene and cell therapy for pancreatic cancer and on future implications of recent translational research. Trials available in the US National Library of Medicine (www.clinicaltrials.gov) until February 2014 were reviewed and relevant published results of preclinical and clinical studies were retrieved from www.pubmed.gov . In pancreatic cancer, gene and cell therapies are feasible and may have synergistic antitumor activity with standard treatment and/or immunotherapy. Challenges are related to application safety, manufacturing costs, and a new spectrum of adverse events. Further studies are needed to evaluate available agents in carefully designed protocols and combination regimens. Enabling personalized cancer therapy, insights from molecular diagnostic technologies will guide the development and selection of new gene-based drugs. The evolving preclinical and clinical data on gene-based therapies can lay the foundation for future avenues improving patient care in pancreatic cancer.

  19. Cancer Cell Migration in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirtz, Denis

    2014-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) in vitro culture systems have for a number of years provided a controlled and versatile environment for mechanistic studies of cell adhesion, polarization, and migration, three interrelated cell functions critical to cancer metastasis. However, the organization and functions of focal adhesion proteins, protrusion machinery, and microtubule-based polarization in cells embedded in physiologically more relevant 3D extracellular matrices is qualitatively different from their organization and functions on conventional 2D planar substrates. This talk will describe the implications of the dependence of focal adhesion protein-based cell migration on micro-environmental dimensionality (1D vs. 2D vs.. 3D), how cell micromechanics plays a critical role in promoting local cell invasion, and associated validation in mouse models. We will discuss the implications of this work in cancer metastasis.

  20. Nano-discs Destroy Cancer Cells

    SciT

    None

    A new technique, designed with the potential to treat brain cancers, is under study at Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chicago Medical Center. The micron-sized magnetic materials, with vortex-like arrangements of spins, were successfully interfaced with Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cancer cells. The microdisks are gold-coated and biofunctionalized with a cancer-targeting antibody. The antibody recognizes unique receptors on the cancer cells and attaches to them (and them alone), leaving surrounding healthy cells unaffected during treatment. Under application of an alternative magnetic field, the magnetic vortices shift, leading to oscillatory motion of the disks and causing the magneto-mechanic stimulus tomore » be transmitted directly to the cancer cell. Probably because of the damage to the cancer cell membrane, this results in cellular signal transduction and amplification, causing initiation of apoptosis (programmed cell death or "cell suicide"). Manifestation of apoptosis is of clinical significance because the malignant cells are known to be almost "immortal"; (due to suppressed apoptosis), and, consequently, highly resistant to conventional (chemo- and radio-) therapies. Due to unique properties of the vortex microdisks, an extremely high spin-vortex-induced cytotoxicity effect can be caused by application of unprecedentedly weak magnetic fields. An alternative magnetic field as slow as about 10s Hertz (for comparison, 60 Hertz in a electrical outlet) and as small as less than 90 Oersteds (which is actually less than the field produced by a magnetized razor blade) applied only for 10 minutes was sufficient to cause ~90% cancer cell destruction in vitro. The study has only been conducted in cells in a laboratory; animal trials are being planned. Watch a news clip of the story from ABC-7 News: http://abclocal.go.com/wls/storysection=news/health&id=7245605. More details on this study can be found in the original research paper

  1. Cancer stem cell-like cells from a single cell of oral squamous carcinoma cell lines

    SciT

    Felthaus, O.; Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg; Ettl, T.

    2011-04-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Four oral squamous cancer cell lines (OSCCL) were analyzed for cancer stem cells (CSCs). {yields} Single cell derived colonies of OSCCL express CSC-marker CD133 differentially. {yields} Monoclonal cell lines showed reduced sensitivity for Paclitaxel. {yields} In situ CD133{sup +} cells are slow cycling (Ki67-) indicating a reduced drug sensitivity. {yields} CD133{sup +} and CSC-like cells can be obtained from single colony forming cells of OSCCL. -- Abstract: Resistance of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) to conventional chemotherapy or radiation therapy might be due to cancer stem cells (CSCs). The development of novel anticancer drugs requires a simplemore » method for the enrichment of CSCs. CSCs can be enriched from OSCC cell lines, for example, after cultivation in serum-free cell culture medium (SFM). In our study, we analyzed four OSCC cell lines for the presence of CSCs. CSC-like cells could not be enriched with SFM. However, cell lines obtained from holoclone colonies showed CSC-like properties such as a reduced rate of cell proliferation and a reduced sensitivity to Paclitaxel in comparison to cells from the parental lineage. Moreover, these cell lines differentially expressed the CSC-marker CD133, which is also upregulated in OSCC tissues. Interestingly, CD133{sup +} cells in OSCC tissues expressed little to no Ki67, the cell proliferation marker that also indicates reduced drug sensitivity. Our study shows a method for the isolation of CSC-like cell lines from OSCC cell lines. These CSC-like cell lines could be new targets for the development of anticancer drugs under in vitro conditions.« less

  2. Cancer stem cells in the development of liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Taro; Wang, Xin Wei

    2013-01-01

    Liver cancer is an aggressive disease with a poor outcome. Several hepatic stem/progenitor markers are useful for isolating a subset of liver cells with stem cell features, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs). These cells are responsible for tumor relapse, metastasis, and chemoresistance. Liver CSCs dictate a hierarchical organization that is shared in both organogenesis and tumorigenesis. An increased understanding of the molecular signaling events that regulate cellular hierarchy and stemness, and success in defining key CSC-specific genes, have opened up new avenues to accelerate the development of novel diagnostic and treatment strategies. This Review highlights recent advances in understanding the pathogenesis of liver CSCs and discusses unanswered questions about the concept of liver CSCs. PMID:23635789

  3. Metastatic cancer stem cells: from the concept to therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wen-Ting; Ye, Ya-Ping; Deng, Yong-Jian; Bian, Xiu-Wu; Ding, Yan-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic cancer stem cells (MCSCs) refer to a subpopulation of cancer cells with both stem cell properties and invasion capabilities that contribute to cancer metastasis. MCSCs have capability of self-renewal, potentials of multiple differentiation and development and/or reconstruction of cancer tissues. As compared with stationary cancer stem cells, MCSCs are capable of invasion to normal tissues such as vasculatures, resistance to chemo- and/or radio-therapies, escape from immune surveillance, survival in circulation and formation of metastasis. MCSCs are derived from invasive cancer stem cells (iCSCs) due to the plasticity of cancer stem cells, which is one of the characteristics of cancer cell heterogeneity. Both stages of iCSCs and MSCSs are the potential therapeutic targets for cancer metastasis in the future strategies of personalized cancer therapy.

  4. Gastric cancer stem cells: A novel therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shree Ram

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains one of the leading causes of global cancer mortality. Multipotent gastric stem cells have been identified in both mouse and human stomachs, and they play an essential role in the self-renewal and homeostasis of gastric mucosa. There are several environmental and genetic factors known to promote gastric cancer. In recent years, numerous in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that gastric cancer may originate from normal stem cells or bone marrow–derived mesenchymal cells, and that gastric tumors contain cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells are believed to share a common microenvironment with normal niche, which play an important role in gastric cancer and tumor growth. This mini-review presents a brief overview of the recent developments in gastric cancer stem cell research. The knowledge gained by studying cancer stem cells in gastric mucosa will support the development of novel therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer. PMID:23583679

  5. Exosome secretion promotes chemotaxis of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sung, Bong Hwan; Weaver, Alissa M

    2017-03-04

    Migration of cells toward chemical cues, or chemotaxis, is important for many biologic processes such as immune defense, wound healing and cancer metastasis. Although chemotaxis is thought to occur in cancer cells, it is less well characterized than chemotaxis of professional immune cells such as neutrophils. Here, we show that cancer cell chemotaxis relies on secretion of exosome-type extracellular vesicles. Migration of fibrosarcoma cells toward a gradient of exosome-depleted serum was diminished by knockdown of the exosome secretion regulator Rab27a. Rescue experiments in which chemotaxis chambers were coated with purified extracellular vesicles demonstrate that exosomes but not microvesicles affect both speed and directionality of migrating cells. Chamber coating with purified fibronectin and fibronectin-depleted exosomes demonstrates that the exosome cargo fibronectin promotes cell speed but cannot account for the role of exosomes in promoting directionality of fibrosarcoma cell movement during chemotaxis. These experiments indicate that exosomes contain multiple motility-promoting cargoes that contribute to different aspects of cell motility.

  6. Dormancy activation mechanism of oral cavity cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiang; Li, Xin; Zhao, Baohong; Shang, Dehao; Zhong, Ming; Deng, Chunfu; Jia, Xinshan

    2015-07-01

    Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are targeted primarily at rapidly proliferating cancer cells and are unable to eliminate cancer stem cells in the G0 phase. Thus, these treatments cannot prevent the recurrence and metastasis of cancer. Understanding the mechanisms by which cancer stem cells are maintained in the dormant G0 phase, and how they become active is key to developing new cancer therapies. The current study found that the anti-cancer drug 5-fluorouracil, acting on the oral squamous cell carcinoma KB cell line, selectively killed proliferating cells while sparing cells in the G0 phase. Bisulfite sequencing PCR showed that demethylation of the Sox2 promoter led to the expression of Sox2. This then resulted in the transformation of cancer stem cells from the G0 phase to the division stage and suggested that the transformation of cancer stem cells from the G0 phase to the division stage is closely related to an epigenetic modification of the cell.

  7. Circulating tumor cells in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bidard, Francois-Clement; Proudhon, Charlotte; Pierga, Jean-Yves

    2016-03-01

    Over the past decade, technically reliable circulating tumor cell (CTC) detection methods allowed the collection of large datasets of CTC counts in cancer patients. These data can be used either as a dynamic prognostic biomarker or as tumor material for "liquid biopsy". Breast cancer appears to be the cancer type in which CTC have been the most extensively studied so far, with level-of-evidence-1 studies supporting the clinical validity of CTC count in both early and metastatic stage. This review summarizes and discusses the clinical results obtained in breast cancer patients, the issues faced by the molecular characterization of CTC and the biological findings about cancer biology and metastasis that were obtained from CTC. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cell membrane softening in human breast and cervical cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Händel, Chris; Schmidt, B. U. Sebastian; Schiller, Jürgen; Dietrich, Undine; Möhn, Till; Kießling, Tobias R.; Pawlizak, Steve; Fritsch, Anatol W.; Horn, Lars-Christian; Briest, Susanne; Höckel, Michael; Zink, Mareike; Käs, Josef A.

    2015-08-01

    Biomechanical properties are key to many cellular functions such as cell division and cell motility and thus are crucial in the development and understanding of several diseases, for instance cancer. The mechanics of the cellular cytoskeleton have been extensively characterized in cells and artificial systems. The rigidity of the plasma membrane, with the exception of red blood cells, is unknown and membrane rigidity measurements only exist for vesicles composed of a few synthetic lipids. In this study, thermal fluctuations of giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs) directly derived from the plasma membranes of primary breast and cervical cells, as well as breast cell lines, are analyzed. Cell blebs or GPMVs were studied via thermal membrane fluctuations and mass spectrometry. It will be shown that cancer cell membranes are significantly softer than their non-malignant counterparts. This can be attributed to a loss of fluid raft forming lipids in malignant cells. These results indicate that the reduction of membrane rigidity promotes aggressive blebbing motion in invasive cancer cells.

  9. Diet, Stem Cells, and Breast Cancer Prevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    pepper [39], flavonoids such as hesperetin and naringenin in citrus fruits and tomatoes [40], isoflavones (e.g., GEN, daidzein) from legumes and red...Inhibition of human breast cancer cell proliferation and delay of mammary tumorigenesis by flavonoids and citrus juices. Nutr Cancer 1996;26:167–81. [41...38], capsaicin from chili pepper [39], flavonoids such as hesperetin and naringenin in citrus fruits and tomatoes [40], isoflavones (e.g., GEN

  10. Chemotherapy in heterogeneous cultures of cancer cells with interconversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilão, Rui

    2015-02-01

    Recently, the interconversion between differentiated and stem-like cancer cells has been observed. Here, we model the in vitro growth of heterogeneous cell cultures in the presence of interconversion from differentiated cancer cells to cancer stem cells (CSCs), showing that, by targeting only CSC with cytotoxic agents, it is not always possible to eradicate cancer. We have determined the kinetic conditions under which cytotoxic agents in in vitro heterogeneous cultures of cancer cells eradicate cancer. In particular, we have shown that the chemotherapeutic elimination of in vitro cultures of heterogeneous cancer cells is effective only if it targets all cancer cell types, and if the induced death rates for the different subpopulations of cancer cell types are large enough. The quantitative results of the model are compared and validated with experimental data.

  11. Hypoxic stellate cells of pancreatic cancer stroma regulate extracellular matrix fiber organization and cancer cell motility.

    PubMed

    Sada, Masafumi; Ohuchida, Kenoki; Horioka, Kohei; Okumura, Takashi; Moriyama, Taiki; Miyasaka, Yoshihiro; Ohtsuka, Takao; Mizumoto, Kazuhiro; Oda, Yoshinao; Nakamura, Masafumi

    2016-03-28

    Desmoplasia and hypoxia in pancreatic cancer mutually affect each other and create a tumor-supportive microenvironment. Here, we show that microenvironment remodeling by hypoxic pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) promotes cancer cell motility through alteration of extracellular matrix (ECM) fiber architecture. Three-dimensional (3-D) matrices derived from PSCs under hypoxia exhibited highly organized parallel-patterned matrix fibers compared with 3-D matrices derived from PSCs under normoxia, and promoted cancer cell motility by inducing directional migration of cancer cells due to the parallel fiber architecture. Microarray analysis revealed that procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2 (PLOD2) in PSCs was the gene that potentially regulates ECM fiber architecture under hypoxia. Stromal PLOD2 expression in surgical specimens of pancreatic cancer was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of PLOD2 in PSCs blocked parallel fiber architecture of 3-D matrices, leading to decreased directional migration of cancer cells within the matrices. In conclusion, these findings indicate that hypoxia-induced PLOD2 expression in PSCs creates a permissive microenvironment for migration of cancer cells through architectural regulation of stromal ECM in pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Therapeutic targeting of cancer cell metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Hamaker, Max; Sun, Peng; Le, Anne; Gao, Ping

    2012-01-01

    In 1927, Otto Warburg and coworkers reported the increased uptake of glucose and production of lactate by tumors in vivo as compared with normal tissues. This phenomenon, now known as the Warburg effect, was recapitulated in vitro with cancer tissue slices exhibiting excessive lactate production even with adequate oxygen. Warburg's in vivo studies of tumors further suggest that the dependency of tumors in vivo on glucose could be exploited for therapy, because reduction of arterial glucose by half resulted in a four-fold reduction in tumor fermentation. Recent work in cancer metabolism indicates that the Warburg effect or aerobic glycolysis contributes to redox balance and lipid synthesis, but glycolysis is insufficient to sustain a growing and dividing cancer cell. In this regard, glutamine, which contributes its carbons to the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, has been re-discovered as an essential bioenergetic and anabolic substrate for many cancer cell types. Could alterations in cancer metabolism be exploited for therapy? Here, we address this question by reviewing current concepts of normal metabolism and altered metabolism in cancer cells with specific emphasis on molecular targets involved directly in glycolysis or glutamine metabolism. PMID:21301795

  13. Novel Compounds Line up to Combat Drug Resistance in Cancer Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    As the war on cancer has intensified and new molecular attacks on cancer cells have been developed, cancer cells have devised innovative ways of defending themselves. Many drugs have been designed or discovered and used to kill cancer cells; in response, these cells are staging new mechanisms to resist the effects of a variety of drugs, a phenomenon called multidrug resistance (MDR). One way cancer cells accomplish this is by catching the intruding drug and throwing it out of the cell before it can act. The arsenal that the cancer cell uses to accomplish this task is a collection of specialized proteins on its membrane called ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters.

  14. Correlation of cancer stem cell markers and immune cell markers in resected non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhaoqin; Yu, Haining; Zhang, Jianbo; Jing, Haiyan; Zhu, Wanqi; Li, Xiaolin; Kong, Lingling; Xing, Ligang; Yu, Jinming; Meng, Xiangjiao

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recent studies confirmed that immunotherapy showed prominent efficacy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Cancer stem cells/cancer initiating cells are resistant to anticancer treatment. The purpose of the study was to analyze the correlation of cancer stem cells/cancer initiating cells and tumor-infiltrating immune cells in NSCLC. Methods: CD133, octamer 4 (OCT-4), CD8, CD56, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) were assessed in 172 resected NSCLC samples. The staining was analyzed and scored by the pathologist who was blinded to the clinical pathological data of the patients. Results: High CD8+ T cell infiltration was correlated significantly with squamous cell carcinoma histology (p=0.008). High PD-L1 expression (≥10%) was associated with high tumor status (p=0.043). Pearson's correlation test showed that CD56+ cells were negatively correlated with CD133 expression (r=-0.361, p<0.001) and weakly correlated with negative OCT-4 expression (r=-0.180, p=0.018). There was a strong positive correlation between CD8 and HLA class I (r=0.573, p<0.001). In the survival analysis, high CD8+ T cell infiltration is an independent predictor of improved disease-free survival and overall survival. Patients with low CD133 expression and high CD56 expression had a longer overall survival than those with high CD133 expression and/or low CD56 expression (p=0.013). Conclusion: There is a negative correlation between CD56+ cells and cancer stem cell markers. This correlation may confirm the possibility that natural killer cells can target CD133+ cancer stem cells/cancer initiating cells in non-small cell lung cancer.

  15. Cancer cell-selective killing polymer/copper combination.

    PubMed

    He, Huacheng; Altomare, Diego; Ozer, Ufuk; Xu, Hanwen; Creek, Kim; Chen, Hexin; Xu, Peisheng

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy has been adopted for cancer treatment for decades. However, its efficacy and safety are frequently compromised by the multidrug-resistance of cancer cells and the poor cancer cell selectivity of anticancer drugs. Hereby, we report a combination of a pyridine-2-thiol containing polymer and copper which can effectively kill a wide spectrum of cancer cells, including drug resistant cancer cells, while sparing normal cells. The polymer nanoparticle enters cells via an exofacial thiol facilitated route, and releases active pyridine-2-thiol with the help of intracellularly elevated glutathione (GSH). Due to their high GSH level, cancer cells are more vulnerable to the polymer/copper combination. In addition, RNA microarray analysis revealed that the treatment can reverse cancer cells' upregulated oncogenes (CIRBP and STMN1) and downregulated tumor suppressor genes (CDKN1C and GADD45B) to further enhance the selectivity for cancer cells.

  16. Single cell sequencing reveals heterogeneity within ovarian cancer epithelium and cancer associated stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Winterhoff, Boris J; Maile, Makayla; Mitra, Amit Kumar; Sebe, Attila; Bazzaro, Martina; Geller, Melissa A; Abrahante, Juan E; Klein, Molly; Hellweg, Raffaele; Mullany, Sally A; Beckman, Kenneth; Daniel, Jerry; Starr, Timothy K

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the level of heterogeneity in high grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) by analyzing RNA expression in single epithelial and cancer associated stromal cells. In addition, we explored the possibility of identifying subgroups based on pathway activation and pre-defined signatures from cancer stem cells and chemo-resistant cells. A fresh, HGSOC tumor specimen derived from ovary was enzymatically digested and depleted of immune infiltrating cells. RNA sequencing was performed on 92 single cells and 66 of these single cell datasets passed quality control checks. Sequences were analyzed using multiple bioinformatics tools, including clustering, principle components analysis, and geneset enrichment analysis to identify subgroups and activated pathways. Immunohistochemistry for ovarian cancer, stem cell and stromal markers was performed on adjacent tumor sections. Analysis of the gene expression patterns identified two major subsets of cells characterized by epithelial and stromal gene expression patterns. The epithelial group was characterized by proliferative genes including genes associated with oxidative phosphorylation and MYC activity, while the stromal group was characterized by increased expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) genes and genes associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Neither group expressed a signature correlating with published chemo-resistant gene signatures, but many cells, predominantly in the stromal subgroup, expressed markers associated with cancer stem cells. Single cell sequencing provides a means of identifying subpopulations of cancer cells within a single patient. Single cell sequence analysis may prove to be critical for understanding the etiology, progression and drug resistance in ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Antitumor immunity and cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Schatton, Tobias; Frank, Markus H

    2009-09-01

    Self-renewing cancer stem cells (CSC) capable of spawning more differentiated tumor cell progeny are required for tumorigenesis and neoplastic progression of leukemias and several solid cancers. The mechanisms by which CSC cause tumor initiation and growth are currently unknown. Recent findings that suggest a negative correlation between degrees of host immunocompetence and rates of cancer development raise the possibility that only a restricted minority of malignant cells, namely CSC, may possess the phenotypic and functional characteristics to evade host antitumor immunity. In human malignant melanoma, a highly immunogenic cancer, we recently identified malignant melanoma initiating cells (MMIC), a novel type of CSC, based on selective expression of the chemoresistance mediator ABCB5. Here we present evidence of a relative immune privilege of ABCB5(+) MMIC, suggesting refractoriness to current immunotherapeutic treatment strategies. We discuss our findings in the context of established immunomodulatory functions of physiologic stem cells and in relation to mechanisms responsible for the downregulation of immune responses against tumors. We propose that the MMIC subset might be responsible for melanoma immune evasion and that immunomodulation might represent one mechanism by which CSC advance tumorigenic growth and resistance to immunotherapy. Accordingly, the possibility of an MMIC-driven tumor escape from immune-mediated rejection has important implications for current melanoma immunotherapy.

  18. Antitumor Immunity and Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schatton, Tobias; Frank, Markus H.

    2010-01-01

    Self-renewing cancer stem cells (CSC) capable of spawning more differentiated tumor cell progeny are required for tumorigenesis and neoplastic progression of leukemias and several solid cancers. The mechanisms by which CSC cause tumor initiation and growth are currently unknown. Recent findings that suggest a negative correlation between degrees of host immunocompetence and rates of cancer development raise the possibility that only a restricted minority of malignant cells, namely CSC, may possess the phenotypic and functional characteristics to evade host antitumor immunity. In human malignant melanoma, a highly immunogenic cancer, we recently identified malignant melanoma initiating cells (MMIC), a novel type of CSC, based on selective expression of the chemoresistance mediator ABCB5. Here we present evidence of a relative immune privilege of ABCB5+ MMIC, suggesting refractoriness to current immunotherapeutic treatment strategies. We discuss our findings in the context of established immunomodulatory functions of physiologic stem cells and in relation to mechanisms responsible for the downregulation of immune responses against tumors. We propose that the MMIC subset might be responsible for melanoma immune evasion and that immunomodulation might represent one mechanism by which CSC advance tumorigenic growth and resistance to immunotherapy. Accordingly, the possibility of an MMIC-driven tumor escape from immune-mediated rejection has important implications for current melanoma immunotherapy. PMID:19796244

  19. EF5 and Motexafin Lutetium in Detecting Tumor Cells in Patients With Abdominal or Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-15

    Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Carcinoma of the Appendix; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; Localized Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Localized Gallbladder Cancer; Localized Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Localized Resectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Stromal Cancer; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Small Intestine Cancer; Recurrent Uterine Sarcoma; Regional Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Small Intestine Adenocarcinoma; Small Intestine Leiomyosarcoma; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Stage 0 Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage I Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage I Colon Cancer; Stage I Gastric Cancer; Stage I Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage I Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage I Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage I Pancreatic Cancer; Stage I Rectal Cancer; Stage I Uterine Sarcoma; Stage II Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage II Colon Cancer; Stage II Gastric Cancer; Stage II Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Pancreatic Cancer; Stage II Rectal Cancer; Stage II Uterine Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Colon Cancer; Stage III Gastric Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Rectal Cancer; Stage III Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage

  20. Pancreatic Cancer: Molecular Characterization, Clonal Evolution and Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pelosi, Elvira; Castelli, Germana

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death and is the most lethal of common malignancies with a five-year survival rate of <10%. PDAC arises from different types of non-invasive precursor lesions: intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, mucinous cystic neoplasms and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia. The genetic landscape of PDAC is characterized by the presence of four frequently-mutated genes: KRAS, CDKN2A, TP53 and SMAD4. The development of mouse models of PDAC has greatly contributed to the understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms through which driver genes contribute to pancreatic cancer development. Particularly, oncogenic KRAS-driven genetically-engineered mouse models that phenotypically and genetically recapitulate human pancreatic cancer have clarified the mechanisms through which various mutated genes act in neoplasia induction and progression and have led to identifying the possible cellular origin of these neoplasias. Patient-derived xenografts are increasingly used for preclinical studies and for the development of personalized medicine strategies. The studies of the purification and characterization of pancreatic cancer stem cells have suggested that a minority cell population is responsible for initiation and maintenance of pancreatic adenocarcinomas. The study of these cells could contribute to the identification and clinical development of more efficacious drug treatments. PMID:29156578

  1. Deubiquitylating enzymes as cancer stem cell therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Haq, Saba; Suresh, Bharathi; Ramakrishna, Suresh

    2018-01-01

    The focus of basic and applied research on core stem cell transcription factors has paved the way to initial delineation of their characteristics, their regulatory mechanisms, and the applicability of their regulatory proteins for protein-induced pluripotent stem cells (protein-IPSC) generation and in further clinical settings. Striking parallels have been observed between cancer stem cells (CSCs) and stem cells. For the maintenance of stem cells and CSC pluripotency and differentiation, post translational modifications (i.e., ubiquitylation and deubiquitylation) are tightly regulated, as these modifications result in a variety of stem cell fates. The identification of deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs) involved in the regulation of core stem cell transcription factors and CSC-related proteins might contribute to providing novel insights into the implications of DUB regulatory mechanisms for governing cellular reprogramming and carcinogenesis. Moreover, we propose the novel possibility of applying DUBs coupled with core transcription factors to improve protein-iPSC generation efficiency. Additionally, this review article further illustrates the potential of applying DUB inhibitors as a novel therapeutic intervention for targeting CSCs. Thus, defining DUBs as core pharmacological targets implies that future endeavors to develop their inhibitors may revolutionize our ability to regulate stem cell maintenance and differentiation, somatic cell reprogramming, and cancer stem cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Focus Issue: Cell biology meets cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Gough, Nancy R

    2016-02-16

    Cells are the targets of anticancer therapy, whether the therapy is directed at the tumor cells themselves or the cells of the immune system. Articles in this issue and in the 2015 Science Signaling archives provide insights into what makes a cell responsive to therapy and how understanding the cellular processes affected by the drugs (including endosomal trafficking and response to proteotoxic stress) can lead to personalized cancer therapies, thereby minimizing side effects and ineffective treatment strategies. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Cell-Cell Adhesion and Breast Cancer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Lodish, H., Baltimore, D., Berk, A., Zipurski, S. L, Matsudaira, P., and J. Darnell. (1995). Molecular Cell Biology. Scientific American Books , New...Bruhn, L., Wedlich, D., Grosschedl, R., and Birchmeier, W. (1996) Nature 382, 638-642 6. Molenaar , M., van de Wetering, M., Oosterwegel, M., Peterson

  4. Distinct metabolic responses of an ovarian cancer stem cell line.

    PubMed

    Vermeersch, Kathleen A; Wang, Lijuan; McDonald, John F; Styczynski, Mark P

    2014-12-18

    Cancer metabolism is emerging as an important focus area in cancer research. However, the in vitro cell culture conditions under which much cellular metabolism research is performed differ drastically from in vivo tumor conditions, which are characterized by variations in the levels of oxygen, nutrients like glucose, and other molecules like chemotherapeutics. Moreover, it is important to know how the diverse cell types in a tumor, including cancer stem cells that are believed to be a major cause of cancer recurrence, respond to these variations. Here, in vitro environmental perturbations designed to mimic different aspects of the in vivo environment were used to characterize how an ovarian cancer cell line and its derived, isogenic cancer stem cells metabolically respond to environmental cues. Mass spectrometry was used to profile metabolite levels in response to in vitro environmental perturbations. Docetaxel, the chemotherapeutic used for this experiment, caused significant metabolic changes in amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism in ovarian cancer cells, but had virtually no metabolic effect on isogenic ovarian cancer stem cells. Glucose deprivation, hypoxia, and the combination thereof altered ovarian cancer cell and cancer stem cell metabolism to varying extents for the two cell types. Hypoxia had a much larger effect on ovarian cancer cell metabolism, while glucose deprivation had a greater effect on ovarian cancer stem cell metabolism. Core metabolites and pathways affected by these perturbations were identified, along with pathways that were unique to cell types or perturbations. The metabolic responses of an ovarian cancer cell line and its derived isogenic cancer stem cells differ greatly under most conditions, suggesting that these two cell types may behave quite differently in an in vivo tumor microenvironment. While cancer metabolism and cancer stem cells are each promising potential therapeutic targets, such varied behaviors in vivo would need to

  5. General Information about Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  6. Renal Cell Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Renal cell cancer treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, arterial embolization, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, and chemotherapy. Get detailed information about the treatment of newly diagnosed and recurrent renal cell cancer in this summary for clinicians.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions HLRCC Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer ( HLRCC ) is a disorder in which affected individuals ...

  8. Immune cell functions in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Plate, J M; Harris, J E

    2000-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer kills nearly 29,000 people in the United States annually-as many people as are diagnosed with the disease. Chemotherapeutic treatment is ineffective in halting progression of the disease. Yet, specific immunity to pancreatic tumor cells in subjects with pancreatic cancer has been demonstrated repeatedly during the last 24 years. Attempts to expand and enhance tumor-specific immunity with biotherapy, however, have not met with success. The question remains, "Why can't specific immunity regulate pancreatic cancer growth?" The idea that tumor cells have evolved protective mechanisms against immunity was raised years ago and has recently been revisited by a number of research laboratories. In pancreatic cancer, soluble factors produced by and for the protection of the tumor environment have been detected and are often distributed to the victim's circulatory system where they may effect a more generalized immunosuppression. Yet the nature of these soluble factors remains controversial, since some also serve as tumor antigens that are recognized by the same T cells that may become inactivated by them. Unless the problem of tumor-derived immunosuppressive products is addressed directly through basic and translational research studies, successful biotherapeutic treatment for pancreatic cancer may not be forthcoming.

  9. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Neutropenia and cancer; Absolute neutrophil count and cancer; ANC and cancer ... A person with cancer can develop a low WBC count from the cancer or from treatment for the cancer. Cancer may be in ...

  10. Brain Cancer Stem Cells Display Preferential Sensitivity to Akt Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Eyler, Christine E.; Foo, Wen-Chi; LaFiura, Katherine M.; McLendon, Roger E.; Hjelmeland, Anita B.; Rich, Jeremy N.

    2009-01-01

    Malignant brain tumors are among the most lethal cancers, and conventional therapies are largely limited to palliation. Novel therapies targeted against specific molecular pathways may offer improved efficacy and reduced toxicity compared to conventional therapies, but initial clinical trials of molecular targeted agents in brain cancer therapy have been frequently disappointing. In brain tumors and other cancers, subpopulations of tumor cells have recently been characterized by their ability to self-renew and initiate tumors. Although these cancer stem cells, or tumor initiating cells, are often only present in small numbers in human tumors, mounting evidence suggests that cancer stem cells contribute to tumor maintenance and therapeutic resistance. Thus, the development of therapies that target cancer stem cell signal transduction and biologies may improve brain tumor patient survival. We now demonstrate that populations enriched for cancer stem cells are preferentially sensitive to an inhibitor of Akt, a prominent cell survival and invasion signaling node. Treatment with an Akt inhibitor more potently reduced the numbers of viable brain cancer stem cells relative to matched non-stem cancer cells associated with a preferential induction of apoptosis and a suppression of neurosphere formation. Akt inhibition also reduced the motility and invasiveness of all tumor cells but had a greater impact on cancer stem cell behaviors. Furthermore, inhibition of Akt activity in cancer stem cells increased survival of immunocompromised mice bearing human glioma xenografts in vivo. Together, these results suggest that Akt inhibitors may function as effective anti-cancer stem cell therapies. PMID:18802038

  11. Human Colon Cancer Cells Cultivated in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Within five days, bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells (shown) grown in Microgravity on the STS-70 mission in 1995, had grown 30 times the volume of the control specimens on Earth. The samples grown in space had a higher level of cellular organization and specialization. Because they more closely resemble tumors found in the body, microgravity grown cell cultures are ideal for research purposes.

  12. Holding Tight: Cell Junctions and Cancer Spread.

    PubMed

    Knights, Alexander J; Funnell, Alister P W; Crossley, Merlin; Pearson, Richard C M

    2012-01-01

    Cell junctions are sites of intercellular adhesion that maintain the integrity of epithelial tissue and regulate signalling between cells. These adhesive junctions are comprised of protein complexes that serve to establish an intercellular cytoskeletal network for anchoring cells, in addition to regulating cell polarity, molecular transport and communication. The expression of cell adhesion molecules is tightly controlled and their downregulation is essential for epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process that facilitates the generation of morphologically and functionally diverse cell types during embryogenesis. The characteristics of EMT are a loss of cell adhesion and increased cellular mobility. Hence, in addition to its normal role in development, dysregulated EMT has been linked to cancer progression and metastasis, the process whereby primary tumors migrate to invasive secondary sites in the body. This paper will review the current understanding of cell junctions and their role in cancer, with reference to the abnormal regulation of junction protein genes. The potential use of cell junction molecules as diagnostic and prognostic markers will also be discussed, as well as possible therapies for adhesive dysregulation.

  13. Tumor-Initiating Label-Retaining Cancer Cells in Human Gastrointestinal Cancers Undergo Asymmetric Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Hong-Wu; Hari, Danielle M.; Mullinax, John E.; Ambe, Chenwi M.; Koizumi, Tomotake; Ray, Satyajit; Anderson, Andrew J.; Wiegand, Gordon W.; Garfield, Susan H.; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S.; Avital, Itzhak

    2012-01-01

    Label-retaining cells (LRCs) have been proposed to represent adult tissue stem cells. LRCs are hypothesized to result from either slow cycling or asymmetric cell division (ACD). However, the stem cell nature and whether LRC undergo ACD remain controversial. Here, we demonstrate label-retaining cancer cells (LRCCs) in several gastrointestinal (GI) cancers including fresh surgical specimens. Using a novel method for isolation of live LRCC, we demonstrate that a subpopulation of LRCC is actively dividing and exhibits stem cells and pluripotency gene expression profiles. Using real-time confocal microscopic cinematography, we show live LRCC undergoing asymmetric nonrandom chromosomal cosegregation LRC division. Importantly, LRCCs have greater tumor-initiating capacity than non-LRCCs. Based on our data and that cancers develop in tissues that harbor normal-LRC, we propose that LRCC might represent a novel population of GI stem-like cancer cells. LRCC may provide novel mechanistic insights into the biology of cancer and regenerative medicine and present novel targets for cancer treatment. PMID:22331764

  14. Circulating tumor cells in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Young, Rachel; Pailler, Emma; Billiot, Fanny; Drusch, Françoise; Barthelemy, Amélie; Oulhen, Marianne; Besse, Benjamin; Soria, Jean-Charles; Farace, Françoise; Vielh, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have emerged as potential biomarkers in several cancers such as colon, prostate, and breast carcinomas, with a correlation between CTC number and patient prognosis being established by independent research groups. The detection and enumeration of CTCs, however, is still a developing field, with no universal method of detection suitable for all types of cancer. CTC detection in lung cancer in particular has proven difficult to perform, as CTCs in this type of cancer often present with nonepithelial characteristics. Moreover, as many detection methods rely on the use of epithelial markers to identify CTCs, the loss of these markers during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in certain metastatic cancers can render these methods ineffective. The development of personalized medicine has led to an increase in the advancement of molecular characterization of CTCs. The application of techniques such as FISH and RT-PCR to detect EGFR, HER2, and KRAS abnormalities in lung, breast, and colon cancer, for example, could be used to characterize CTCs in real time. The use of CTCs as a 'liquid biopsy' is therefore an exciting possibility providing information on patient prognosis and treatment efficacy. This review summarizes the state of CTC detection today, with particular emphasis on lung cancer, and discusses the future applications of CTCs in helping the clinician to develop new strategies in patient treatment. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Therapeutic strategies impacting cancer cell glutamine metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lukey, Michael J; Wilson, Kristin F; Cerione, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic adaptations that support oncogenic growth can also render cancer cells dependent on certain nutrients. Along with the Warburg effect, increased utilization of glutamine is one of the metabolic hallmarks of the transformed state. Glutamine catabolism is positively regulated by multiple oncogenic signals, including those transmitted by the Rho family of GTPases and by c-Myc. The recent identification of mechanistically distinct inhibitors of glutaminase, which can selectively block cellular transformation, has revived interest in the possibility of targeting glutamine metabolism in cancer therapy. Here, we outline the regulation and roles of glutamine metabolism within cancer cells and discuss possible strategies for, and the consequences of, impacting these processes therapeutically. PMID:24047273

  16. EXAFS studies of prostate cancer cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla, J.; Kwiatek, W. M.; Lekki, J.; Kisiel, A.; Steininger, R.; Goettlicher, J.

    2013-04-01

    Sulphur plays a vital role in every human organism. It is known, that sulphur-bearing compounds, such as for example cysteine and glutathione, play critical roles in development and progression of many diseases. Any alteration in sulphur's biochemistry could become a precursor of serious pathological conditions. One of such condition is prostate cancer, the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in the western world and the second leading cause of cancer related death in men. The purpose of presented studies was to examine what changes occur in the nearest chemical environment of sulphur in prostate cancer cell lines in comparison to healthy cells. The Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy was used, followed by theoretical calculations. The results of preliminary analysis is presented.

  17. Single-cell-precision microplasma-induced cancer cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiao; Zhao, Shasha; Lei, Qian; Lu, Xinpei; He, Guangyuan; Ostrikov, Kostya

    2014-01-01

    The issue of single-cell control has recently attracted enormous interest. However, in spite of the presently achievable intracellular-level physiological probing through bio-photonics, nano-probe-based, and some other techniques, the issue of inducing selective, single-cell-precision apoptosis, without affecting neighbouring cells remains essentially open. Here we resolve this issue and report on the effective single-cell-precision cancer cell treatment using the reactive chemistry of the localized corona-type plasma discharge around a needle-like electrode with the spot size ∼1 µm. When the electrode is positioned with the micrometer precision against a selected cell, a focused and highly-localized micro-plasma discharge induces apoptosis in the selected individual HepG2 and HeLa cancer cells only, without affecting any surrounding cells, even in small cell clusters. This is confirmed by the real-time monitoring of the morphological and structural changes at the cellular and cell nucleus levels after the plasma exposure.

  18. Are All Highly Malignant Cancer Cells Identical?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    embryo cells or even the original fertilized ovum. If this speculation has validity, the carcinogenesis and differentiation have the same destinies but...whose activity leads to the suppression of the transcrip- tion of the genes responsible for the unique set of embryo -cancer proteins and whose mutation

  19. Ciprofloxacin mediates cancer stem cell phenotypes in lung cancer cells through caveolin-1-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Phiboonchaiyanan, Preeyaporn Plaimee; Kiratipaiboon, Chayanin; Chanvorachote, Pithi

    2016-04-25

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a subpopulation of cancer cells with high aggressive behaviors, have been identified in many types of cancer including lung cancer as one of the key mediators driving cancer progression and metastasis. Here, we have reported for the first time that ciprofloxacin (CIP), a widely used anti-microbial drug, has a potentiating effect on CSC-like features in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. CIP treatment promoted CSC-like phenotypes, including enhanced anchorage-independent growth and spheroid formation. The known lung CSC markers: CD133, CD44, ABCG2 and ALDH1A1 were found to be significantly increased, while the factors involving in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT): Slug and Snail, were depleted. Also, self-renewal transcription factors Oct-4 and Nanog were found to be up-regulated in CIP-treated cells. The treatment of CIP on CSC-rich populations obtained from secondary spheroids resulted in the further increase of CSC markers. In addition, we have proven that the mechanistic insight of the CIP induced stemness is through Caveolin-1 (Cav-1)-dependent mechanism. The specific suppression of Cav-1 by stably transfected Cav-1 shRNA plasmid dramatically reduced the effect of CIP on CSC markers as well as the CIP-induced spheroid formation ability. Cav-1 was shown to activate protein kinase B (Akt) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways in CSC-rich population; however, such an effect was rarely found in the main lung cancer cells population. These findings reveal a novel effect of CIP in positively regulating CSCs in lung cancer cells via the activation of Cav-1, Akt and ERK, and may provoke the awareness of appropriate therapeutic strategy in cancer patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Isolation and Characterization of Human Prostate Cancer Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    established cell lines and primary patient samples) with human prostate fibroblasts hold promise as models of tumor initiation/cancer stem cell activity...We continue to optimize and validate our in vitro model of prostate cancer initiation to facilitate cancer stem cell discovery as well as drug targeting.

  1. Ceramide signaling in cancer and stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Bieberich, Erhard

    2008-01-01

    Most of the previous work on the sphingolipid ceramide has been devoted to its function as an apoptosis inducer. Recent studies, however, have shown that in stem cells, ceramide has additional nonapoptotic functions. In this article, ceramide signaling will be reviewed in light of ‘systems interface biology’: as an interconnection of sphingolipid metabolism, membrane biophysics and cell signaling. The focus will be on the metabolic interconversion of ceramide and sphingomyelin or sphingosine-1-phosphate. Lipid rafts and sphingolipid-induced protein scaffolds will be discussed as a membrane interface for lipid-controlled cell signaling. Ceramide/sphingomyelin and ceramide/sphingosine-1-phosphate-interdependent cell-signaling pathways are significant for the regulation of cell polarity, apoptosis and/or proliferation, and as novel pharmacologic targets in cancer and stem cells. PMID:19050750

  2. Engineering Dendritic Cells to Enhance Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Boudreau, Jeanette E; Bonehill, Aude; Thielemans, Kris; Wan, Yonghong

    2011-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy aims to establish immune-mediated control of tumor growth by priming T-cell responses to target tumor-associated antigens. Three signals are required for T-cell activation: (i) presentation of cognate antigen in self MHC molecules; (ii) costimulation by membrane-bound receptor-ligand pairs; and (iii) soluble factors to direct polarization of the ensuing immune response. The ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to provide all three signals required for T-cell activation makes them an ideal cancer vaccine platform. Several strategies have been developed to enhance and control antigen presentation, costimulation, and cytokine production. In this review, we discuss progress toward developing DC-based cancer vaccines by genetic modification using RNA, DNA, and recombinant viruses. Furthermore, the ability of DC-based vaccines to activate natural killer (NK) and B-cells, and the impact of gene modification strategies on these populations is described. Clinical trials using gene-modified DCs have shown modest results, therefore, further considerations for DC manipulation to enhance their clinical efficacy are also discussed. PMID:21468005

  3. The role of dendritic cells in cancer.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Morten; Andersen, Mads Hald

    2017-04-01

    Though present in low numbers, dendritic cells (DCs) are recognized as major players in the control of cancer by adaptive immunity. The roles of cytotoxic CD8 + T-cells and Th1 helper CD4 + T-cells are well-documented in murine models of cancer and associated with a profound prognostic impact when infiltrating human tumors, but less information is known about how these T-cells gain access to the tumor or how they are primed to become tumor-specific. Here, we highlight recent findings that demonstrate a vital role of CD103 + DCs, which have been shown to be experts in cross-priming and the induction of anti-tumor immunity. We also focus on two different mediators that impair the function of tumor-associated DCs: prostaglandin E 2 and β-catenin. Both of these mediators seem to be important for the exclusion of T-cells in the tumor microenvironment and may represent key pathways to target in optimized treatment regimens against cancer.

  4. Biliary tract cancer stem cells - translational options and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Mayr, Christian; Ocker, Matthias; Ritter, Markus; Pichler, Martin; Neureiter, Daniel; Kiesslich, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Management of biliary tract cancer remains challenging. Tumors show high recurrence rates and therapeutic resistance, leading to dismal prognosis and short survival. The cancer stem cell model states that a tumor is a heterogeneous conglomerate of cells, in which a certain subpopulation of cells - the cancer stem cells - possesses stem cell properties. Cancer stem cells have high clinical relevance due to their potential contributions to development, progression and aggressiveness as well as recurrence and metastasis of malignant tumors. Consequently, reliable identification of as well as pharmacological intervention with cancer stem cells is an intensively investigated and promising research field. The involvement of cancer stem cells in biliary tract cancer is likely as a number of studies demonstrated their existence and the obvious clinical relevance of several established cancer stem cell markers in biliary tract cancer models and tissues. In the present article, we review and discuss the currently available literature addressing the role of putative cancer stem cells in biliary tract cancer as well as the connection between known contributors of biliary tract tumorigenesis such as oncogenic signaling pathways, micro-RNAs and the tumor microenvironment with cancer stem cells. PMID:28465631

  5. Radiation Therapy and MK-3475 for Patients With Recurrent/Metastatic Head and Neck Cancer, Renal Cell Cancer, Melanoma, and Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-10-25

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Metastatic Renal Cell Cancer; Recurrent Head and Neck Carcinoma; Recurrent Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Skin Carcinoma; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Lung Cancer; Stage IV Skin Melanoma

  6. Neutrophils Kill Antibody-Opsonized Cancer Cells by Trogoptosis.

    PubMed

    Matlung, Hanke L; Babes, Liane; Zhao, Xi Wen; van Houdt, Michel; Treffers, Louise W; van Rees, Dieke J; Franke, Katka; Schornagel, Karin; Verkuijlen, Paul; Janssen, Hans; Halonen, Pasi; Lieftink, Cor; Beijersbergen, Roderick L; Leusen, Jeanette H W; Boelens, Jaap J; Kuhnle, Ingrid; van der Werff Ten Bosch, Jutte; Seeger, Karl; Rutella, Sergio; Pagliara, Daria; Matozaki, Takashi; Suzuki, Eiji; Menke-van der Houven van Oordt, Catharina Willemien; van Bruggen, Robin; Roos, Dirk; van Lier, Rene A W; Kuijpers, Taco W; Kubes, Paul; van den Berg, Timo K

    2018-06-26

    Destruction of cancer cells by therapeutic antibodies occurs, at least in part, through antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), and this can be mediated by various Fc-receptor-expressing immune cells, including neutrophils. However, the mechanism(s) by which neutrophils kill antibody-opsonized cancer cells has not been established. Here, we demonstrate that neutrophils can exert a mode of destruction of cancer cells, which involves antibody-mediated trogocytosis by neutrophils. Intimately associated with this is an active mechanical disruption of the cancer cell plasma membrane, leading to a lytic (i.e., necrotic) type of cancer cell death. Furthermore, this mode of destruction of antibody-opsonized cancer cells by neutrophils is potentiated by CD47-SIRPα checkpoint blockade. Collectively, these findings show that neutrophil ADCC toward cancer cells occurs by a mechanism of cytotoxicity called trogoptosis, which can be further improved by targeting CD47-SIRPα interactions. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cancer stem cell-targeted therapeutics and delivery strategies.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Gulzar; Amiji, Mansoor M

    2017-08-01

    Cancer initiating or stem cells (CSCs) are a small population of cells in the tumor mass, which have been reported to be present in different types of cancers. CSCs usually reside within the tumor and are responsible for reoccurrence of cancer. The imprecise, inaccessible nature and increased efflux of conventional therapeutic drugs make these cells resistant to drugs. We discuss the specific markers for identification of these cells, role of CSCs in chemotherapy resistance and use of different therapeutic means to target them, including elucidation of specific cell markers, exploitation of different signaling pathways and use of nanotechnology. Area covered: This review covers cancer stem cell signaling which are used by these cells to maintain their quiescence, stemness and resistant phenotype, distinct cell surface markers, contribution of these cells in drug resistance, inevitability to cure cancer and use of nanotechnology to overcome this hurdle. Expert opinion: Cancer stem cells are the main culprit of our failure to cure cancer. In order to cure cancer along with other cells types in cancer, cancer stem cells need to be targeted in the tumor bed. Nanotechnology solutions can facilitate clinical translation of the therapeutics along with other emerging technologies to cure cancer.

  8. Can dendritic cells improve whole cancer cell vaccines based on immunogenically killed cancer cells?

    PubMed Central

    Cicchelero, Laetitia; Denies, Sofie; Devriendt, Bert; de Rooster, Hilde; Sanders, Niek N

    2015-01-01

    Immunogenic cell death (ICD) offers interesting opportunities in cancer cell (CC) vaccine manufacture, as it increases the immunogenicity of the dead CC. Furthermore, fusion of CCs with dendritic cells (DCs) is considered a superior method for generating whole CC vaccines. Therefore, in this work, we determined in naive mice whether immunogenically killed CCs per se (CC vaccine) elicit an antitumoral immune response different from the response observed when immunogenically killed CCs are associated with DCs through fusion (fusion vaccine) or through co-incubation (co-incubation vaccine). After tumor inoculation, the type of immune response in the prophylactically vaccinated mice differed between the groups. In more detail, fusion vaccines elicited a humoral anticancer response, whereas the co-incubation and CC vaccine mainly induced a cellular response. Despite these differences, all three approaches offered a prophylactic protection against tumor development in the murine mammary carcinoma model. In summary, it can be concluded that whole CC vaccines based on immunogenically killed CCs may not necessarily require association with DCs to elicit a protective anticancer immune response. If this finding can be endorsed in other cancer models, the manufacture of CC vaccines would greatly benefit from this new insight, as production of DC-based vaccines is laborious, time-consuming and expensive. PMID:26587315

  9. Albendazole sensitizes cancer cells to ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Brain metastases afflict approximately half of patients with metastatic melanoma (MM) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and represent the direct cause of death in 60 to 70% of those affected. Standard of care remains ineffective in both types of cancer with the challenge of overcoming the blood brain barrier (BBB) exacerbating the clinical problem. Our purpose is to determine and characterize the potential of albendazole (ABZ) as a cytotoxic and radiosensitizing agent against MM and SCLC cells. Methods Here, ABZ's mechanism of action as a DNA damaging and microtubule disrupting agent is assessed through analysis of histone H2AX phosphorylation and cell cyle progression. The cytotoxicity of ABZ alone and in combination with radiation therapy is determined though clonogenic cell survival assays in a panel of MM and SCLC cell lines. We further establish ABZ's ability to act synergistically as a radio-sensitizer through combination index calculations and apoptotic measurements of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Results ABZ induces DNA damage as measured by increased H2AX phosphorylation. ABZ inhibits the growth of MM and SCLC at clinically achievable plasma concentrations. At these concentrations, ABZ arrests MM and SCLC cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle after 12 hours of treatment. Exploiting the notion that cells in the G2/M phase are the most sensitive to radiation therapy, we show that treatment of MM and SCLC cells treated with ABZ renders them more sensitive to radiation in a synergistic fashion. Additionally, MM and SCLC cells co-treated with ABZ and radiation exhibit increased apoptosis at 72 hours. Conclusions Our study suggests that the orally available antihelminthic ABZ acts as a potent radiosensitizer in MM and SCLC cell lines. Further evaluation of ABZ in combination with radiation as a potential treatment for MM and SCLC brain metastases is warranted. PMID:22094106

  10. Stemming Colorectal Cancer Growth and Metastasis: HOXA5 Forces Cancer Stem Cells to Differentiate.

    PubMed

    Tan, Si Hui; Barker, Nick

    2015-12-14

    Wnt signaling drives colorectal cancer stem cells, but effective therapeutics targeting these cells and their signaling pathways are lacking. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Ordóñez-Morán and colleagues describe a promising therapeutic intervention for colorectal cancers that selectively induces cancer stem cell differentiation through HOXA5 expression and Wnt signaling inhibition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 3D modeling of cancer stem cell niche

    PubMed Central

    He, Jun; Xiong, Li; Li, Qinglong; Lin, Liangwu; Miao, Xiongying; Yan, Shichao; Hong, Zhangyong; Yang, Leping; Wen, Yu; Deng, Xiyun

    2018-01-01

    Cancer stem cells reside in a distinct microenvironment called niche. The reciprocal interactions between cancer stem cells and niche contribute to the maintenance and enrichment of cancer stem cells. In order to simulate the interactions between cancer stem cells and niche, three-dimensional models have been developed. These in vitro culture systems recapitulate the spatial dimension, cellular heterogeneity, and the molecular networks of the tumor microenvironment and show great promise in elucidating the pathophysiology of cancer stem cells and designing more clinically relavant treatment modalites. PMID:29416698

  12. Cell Phones and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... cell phone use in this country during that time ( 24 ). An analysis of incidence data from Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden for the period 1974–2008 similarly revealed no increase in age-adjusted incidence of brain tumors ( 25 ). A series of studies testing different scenarios (called simulations by ...

  13. Lymphocyte Infusion in Treating Patients With Relapsed Cancer After Bone Marrow or Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2011-11-28

    Breast Cancer; Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Kidney Cancer; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Neuroblastoma; Ovarian Cancer; Sarcoma; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

  14. Biological Therapy Following Chemotherapy and Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation in Treating Patients With Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-03-25

    Breast Cancer; Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Kidney Cancer; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Neuroblastoma; Ovarian Cancer; Sarcoma; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

  15. Recombinant Interleukin-15 in Treating Patients With Advanced Melanoma, Kidney Cancer, Non-small Cell Lung Cancer, or Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-14

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Head and Neck Carcinoma; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Skin Carcinoma; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IIIA Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer

  16. Role of natural killer cells in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Aktaş, Ozge Nur; Öztürk, Ayşe Bilge; Erman, Baran; Erus, Suat; Tanju, Serhan; Dilege, Şükrü

    2018-06-01

    One of the key immune cells involved in the pathogenesis of lung cancer is natural killer (NK) cells and these cells are novel targets for therapeutic applications in lung cancer. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current literature on lung cancer pathogenesis with a focus on the interaction between NK cells and smoking, how these factors are related to the pathogenesis of lung cancer and how NK cell-based immunotherapy effect lung cancer survival. The relevant literature from PubMed and Medline databases is reviewed in this article. The cytolytic potential of NK cells are reduced in lung cancer and increasing evidence suggests that improving NK cell functioning may induce tumor regression. Recent clinical trials on NK cell-based novel therapies such as cytokines including interleukin (IL)-15, IL-12 and IL-2, NK-92 cell lines and allogenic NK cell immunotherapy showed promising results with less adverse effects on the lung cancer survival. The NK cell targeting strategy has not yet been approved for lung cancer treatment. More clinical studies focusing on the role of NK cells in lung cancer pathogenesis are warranted to develop novel NK cell-based therapeutic approaches for the treatment of lung cancer.

  17. Highlighting cancer cells with macromolecular probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Sicheng; Zhang, Yang; Thapaliya, Ek Raj; Brown, Adrienne S.; Wilson, James N.; Raymo, Françisco M.

    2017-02-01

    Conventional fluorophore-ligand constructs for the detection of cancer cells generally produce relatively weak signals with modest contrast. The inherently low brightness accessible per biding event with the pairing of a single organic fluorophore to a single ligand as well as the contribution of unbound probes to background fluorescence are mainly responsible for these limitations. Our laboratories identified a viable structural design to improve both brightness and contrast. It is based on the integration of activatable fluorophores and targeting ligands within the same macromolecular construct. The chromophoric components are engineered to emit bright fluorescence exclusively in acidic environments. The targeting agents are designed to bind complementary receptors overexpressed on the surface of cancer cells and allow internalization of the macromolecules into acidic organelles. As a result of these properties, our macromolecular probes switch their intense emission on exclusively in the intracellular space of target cells with minimal background fluorescence from the extracellular matrix. In fact, these operating principles translate into a 170-fold enhancement in brightness, relative to equivalent but isolated chromophoric components, and a 3-fold increase in contrast, relative to model but non-activatable fluorophores. Thus, our macromolecular probes might ultimately evolve into valuable analytical tools to highlight cancer cells with optimal signal-to-noise ratios in a diversity of biomedical applications.

  18. The Dynamics of HPV Infection and Cervical Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Asih, Tri Sri Noor; Lenhart, Suzanne; Wise, Steven; Aryati, Lina; Adi-Kusumo, F; Hardianti, Mardiah S; Forde, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The development of cervical cells from normal cells infected by human papillomavirus into invasive cancer cells can be modeled using population dynamics of the cells and free virus. The cell populations are separated into four compartments: susceptible cells, infected cells, precancerous cells and cancer cells. The model system of differential equations also has a free virus compartment in the system, which infect normal cells. We analyze the local stability of the equilibrium points of the model and investigate the parameters, which play an important role in the progression toward invasive cancer. By simulation, we investigate the boundary between initial conditions of solutions, which tend to stable equilibrium point, representing controlled infection, and those which tend to unbounded growth of the cancer cell population. Parameters affected by drug treatment are varied, and their effect on the risk of cancer progression is explored.

  19. Treating Cancer with Genetically Engineered T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Tristen S.; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Morgan, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Administration of ex-vivo cultured, naturally occurring tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have been shown to mediate durable regression of melanoma tumors. However, the generation of TIL is not possible in all patients and there has been limited success in generating TIL in other cancers. Advances in genetic engineering have overcome these limitations by introducing tumor-antigen-targeting receptors into human T lymphocytes. Physicians can now genetically engineer lymphocytes to express highly active T-cell receptors (TCRs) or chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting a variety of tumor antigens expressed in cancer patients. In this review we discuss the development of TCR and CAR gene transfer technology and the expansion of these therapies into different cancers with the recent demonstration of the clinical efficacy of these treatments. PMID:21663987

  20. Cell Death and Cancer Therapy: Don't Forget to Kill the Cancer Cell!

    PubMed

    Letai, Anthony

    2015-11-15

    In our current age of targeted therapies, there is understandably considerable attention paid to the specific molecular targets of pharmaceutical intervention. For a targeted drug to work, it must bind to a target selectively and impair its function. Monitoring biomarkers of the impaired target function can provide vital in vivo pharmacodynamic information. Moreover, genetic changes to the target are often the source of resistance to targeted agents. However, for the treatment of cancer, it is necessary that the therapy not only provide efficient binding and inhibition of the target, but also that this intervention reliably kills the cancer cell. In this CCR Focus section, four articles make the connection between therapies that target T-cell activation, autophagy, IAP proteins, and BCL-2 and the commitment of cancer cells to cell death. Before addressing those exciting classes of targeted therapies, however, an overview is provided to discuss cell death induced by what is arguably still the most successful set of drugs in the history of medical oncology, conventional chemotherapy. See all articles in this CCR Focus section, "Cell Death and Cancer Therapy." ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. The Anti-Cancer Effect of Polyphenols against Breast Cancer and Cancer Stem Cells: Molecular Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Abdal Dayem, Ahmed; Choi, Hye Yeon; Yang, Gwang-Mo; Kim, Kyeongseok; Saha, Subbroto Kumar; Cho, Ssang-Goo

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of breast cancer in developed and developing countries, and its correlation to cancer-related deaths, has prompted concerned scientists to discover novel alternatives to deal with this challenge. In this review, we will provide a brief overview of polyphenol structures and classifications, as well as on the carcinogenic process. The biology of breast cancer cells will also be discussed. The molecular mechanisms involved in the anti-cancer activities of numerous polyphenols, against a wide range of breast cancer cells, in vitro and in vivo, will be explained in detail. The interplay between autophagy and apoptosis in the anti-cancer activity of polyphenols will also be highlighted. In addition, the potential of polyphenols to target cancer stem cells (CSCs) via various mechanisms will be explained. Recently, the use of natural products as chemotherapeutics and chemopreventive drugs to overcome the side effects and resistance that arise from using chemical-based agents has garnered the attention of the scientific community. Polyphenol research is considered a promising field in the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. PMID:27657126

  2. Targeting Prostate Cancer Stemlike Cells through Cell Surface Expressed GRP78

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This study investigated a function for cell surface GRP78 in regulating prostate cancer stem -like cells . In year 1, we showed that...enrichment of cell surface GRP78+ cancer stem like cells in sphere culture. We also showed that the signaling axis activated by cell surface GRP78 is...but not the GRP78(-) cells , exhibited cancer stem -like cell behavior. Furthermore an GRP78 monoclonal antibody inhibited sphere forming ability of

  3. Single Cell Characterization of Prostate Cancer-Circulating Tumor Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    prostate cancer using RT- PCR [8] and EGFR mutations in non-small cell lung cancer [45]. Microarray-based assessments of gene expression have been carried...analysis. DAPI negative putative CTCs were isolated in 1 ul of 10% Superblock/PBS with a pipetteman into a 0.2 ml PCR tube containing 2.5 ul of 5...Sequencing kit (Clontech). cDNA was amplified using the Advantage 2 PCR kit (Clontech) for 18–25 cycles prior to conversion into a Illumina compatible DNA

  4. Primary cultures of human colon cancer as a model to study cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Koshkin, Sergey; Danilova, Anna; Raskin, Grigory; Petrov, Nikolai; Bajenova, Olga; O'Brien, Stephen J; Tomilin, Alexey; Tolkunova, Elena

    2016-09-01

    The principal cause of death in cancer involves tumor progression and metastasis. Since only a small proportion of the primary tumor cells, cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are the most aggressive, have the capacity to metastasize and display properties of stem cells, it is imperative to characterize the gene expression of diagnostic markers and to evaluate the drug sensitivity in the CSCs themselves. Here, we have examined the key genes that are involved in the progression of colorectal cancer and are expressed in cancer stem cells. Primary cultures of colorectal cancer cells from a patient's tumors were studied using the flow cytometry and cytological methods. We have evaluated the clinical and stem cell marker expression in these cells, their resistance to 5-fluorouracil and irinotecan, and the ability of cells to form tumors in mice. The data shows the role of stem cell marker Oct4 in the resistance of primary colorectal cancer tumor cells to 5-fluorouracil.

  5. Uptake of DNA by cancer cells without a transfection reagent.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yanping; Zhang, Xianbo; Zhao, Yongliang; Xue, Yanfang; Zhang, Ye

    2017-01-21

    Cancer cells exhibit elevated levels of glucose uptake and may obtain pre-formed, diet-derived fatty acids from the bloodstream to boost their rapid growth; they may also use nucleic acid from their microenvironment. The study of processing nucleic acid by cancer cells will help improve the understanding of the metabolism of cancer. DNA is commonly packaged into a viral or lipid particle to be transferred into cells; this process is called transfection in laboratory. Cancer cells are known for having gene mutations and the evolving ability of endocytosis. Their uptake of DNAs might be different from normal cells; they may take in DNAs directly from the environment. In this report, we studied the uptake of DNAs in cancer cells without a transfection reagent. A group of DNA fragments were prepared with PCR and labeled with isotope phosphorous-32 to test their uptake by Huh 7 (liver cancer) and THLE3 (normal liver cells) after incubation overnight by counting radioactivity of the cells' genomic DNA. Multiple cell lines including breast cancer and lung cancer were tested with the same method. DNA molecules were also labeled with fluorescence to test the location in the cells using a kit of "label it fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)" from Mirus (USA). The data demonstrated that hepatocellular carcinoma cells possess the ability to take in large DNA fragments directly without a transfection reagent whereas normal liver cells cannot. Huh7 and MDA-MB231 cells displayed a significantly higher Rhodamine density in the cytoplasmic phagosomes and this suggests that the mechanism of uptake of large DNA by cancer cells is likely endocytosis. The efficacy of uptake is related to the DNA's size. Some cell lines of lung cancer and breast cancer also showed similar uptake of DNA. In the present study, we have revealed the evidence that some cancer cells, but not nontumorigenic cells, can take DNA fragments directly from the environment without the aid of the transfecting

  6. A negative genetic interaction map in isogenic cancer cell lines reveals cancer cell vulnerabilities

    PubMed Central

    Vizeacoumar, Franco J; Arnold, Roland; Vizeacoumar, Frederick S; Chandrashekhar, Megha; Buzina, Alla; Young, Jordan T F; Kwan, Julian H M; Sayad, Azin; Mero, Patricia; Lawo, Steffen; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Brown, Kevin R; Baryshnikova, Anastasia; Mak, Anthony B; Fedyshyn, Yaroslav; Wang, Yadong; Brito, Glauber C; Kasimer, Dahlia; Makhnevych, Taras; Ketela, Troy; Datti, Alessandro; Babu, Mohan; Emili, Andrew; Pelletier, Laurence; Wrana, Jeff; Wainberg, Zev; Kim, Philip M; Rottapel, Robert; O'Brien, Catherine A; Andrews, Brenda; Boone, Charles; Moffat, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Improved efforts are necessary to define the functional product of cancer mutations currently being revealed through large-scale sequencing efforts. Using genome-scale pooled shRNA screening technology, we mapped negative genetic interactions across a set of isogenic cancer cell lines and confirmed hundreds of these interactions in orthogonal co-culture competition assays to generate a high-confidence genetic interaction network of differentially essential or differential essentiality (DiE) genes. The network uncovered examples of conserved genetic interactions, densely connected functional modules derived from comparative genomics with model systems data, functions for uncharacterized genes in the human genome and targetable vulnerabilities. Finally, we demonstrate a general applicability of DiE gene signatures in determining genetic dependencies of other non-isogenic cancer cell lines. For example, the PTEN−/− DiE genes reveal a signature that can preferentially classify PTEN-dependent genotypes across a series of non-isogenic cell lines derived from the breast, pancreas and ovarian cancers. Our reference network suggests that many cancer vulnerabilities remain to be discovered through systematic derivation of a network of differentially essential genes in an isogenic cancer cell model. PMID:24104479

  7. Radiosensitization of cancer cells by hydroxychalcones.

    PubMed

    Pruitt, Rory; Sasi, Nidhish; Freeman, Michael L; Sekhar, Konjeti R

    2010-10-15

    Radiation sensitization is significantly increased by proteotoxic stress, such as a heat shock. We undertook an investigation, seeking to identify natural products that induced proteotoxic stress and then determined if a compound exhibited radiosensitizing properties. The hydroxychalcones, 2',5'-dihydroxychalcone (D-601) and 2,2'-dihydroxychalcone (D-501), were found to activate heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1) and exhibited radiation sensitization properties in colon and pancreatic cancer cells. The radiosensitization ability of D-601 was blocked by pretreatment with α-napthoflavone (ANF), a specific inhibitor of cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2), suggesting that the metabolite of D-601 is essential for radiosensitization. The study demonstrated the ability of hydroxychalcones to radiosensitize cancer cells and provides new leads for developing novel radiation sensitizers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Radiosensitization of Cancer Cells by Hydroxychalcones

    PubMed Central

    Pruitt, Rory; Sasi, Nidhish; Freeman, Michael L.; Sekhar, Konjeti R.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation sensitization is significantly increased by proteotoxic stress, such as a heat shock. We undertook an investigation, seeking to identify natural products that induced proteotoxic stress and then determined if a compound exhibited radiosensitizing properties. The hydroxychalcones, 2′,5′-dihydroxychalcone (D-601) and 2,2′-dihydroxychalcone (D-501), were found to activate heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1) and exhibited radiation sensitization properties in colon and pancreatic cancer cells. The radiosensitization ability of D-601 was blocked by pretreatment with α-napthoflavone (ANF), a specific inhibitor of cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2), suggesting that the metabolite of D-601 is essential for radiosensitization. The study demonstrated the ability of hydroxychalcones to radiosensitize cancer cells and provides new leads for developing novel radiation sensitizers. PMID:20826087

  9. Immune and Inflammatory Cell Composition of Human Lung Cancer Stroma

    PubMed Central

    Banat, G-Andre; Tretyn, Aleksandra; Pullamsetti, Soni Savai; Wilhelm, Jochen; Weigert, Andreas; Olesch, Catherine; Ebel, Katharina; Stiewe, Thorsten; Grimminger, Friedrich; Seeger, Werner; Fink, Ludger; Savai, Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the abnormal microenvironment of tumors may play a critical role in carcinogenesis, including lung cancer. We comprehensively assessed the number of stromal cells, especially immune/inflammatory cells, in lung cancer and evaluated their infiltration in cancers of different stages, types and metastatic characteristics potential. Immunohistochemical analysis of lung cancer tissue arrays containing normal and lung cancer sections was performed. This analysis was combined with cyto-/histomorphological assessment and quantification of cells to classify/subclassify tumors accurately and to perform a high throughput analysis of stromal cell composition in different types of lung cancer. In human lung cancer sections we observed a significant elevation/infiltration of total-T lymphocytes (CD3+), cytotoxic-T cells (CD8+), T-helper cells (CD4+), B cells (CD20+), macrophages (CD68+), mast cells (CD117+), mononuclear cells (CD11c+), plasma cells, activated-T cells (MUM1+), B cells, myeloid cells (PD1+) and neutrophilic granulocytes (myeloperoxidase+) compared with healthy donor specimens. We observed all of these immune cell markers in different types of lung cancers including squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, adenosquamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, papillary adenocarcinoma, metastatic adenocarcinoma, and bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. The numbers of all tumor-associated immune cells (except MUM1+ cells) in stage III cancer specimens was significantly greater than those in stage I samples. We observed substantial stage-dependent immune cell infiltration in human lung tumors suggesting that the tumor microenvironment plays a critical role during lung carcinogenesis. Strategies for therapeutic interference with lung cancer microenvironment should consider the complexity of its immune cell composition. PMID:26413839

  10. Exosomes Promote Ovarian Cancer Cell Invasion through Transfer of CD44 to Peritoneal Mesothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Koji; Sawada, Kenjiro; Kinose, Yasuto; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Toda, Aska; Nakatsuka, Erika; Hashimoto, Kae; Mabuchi, Seiji; Morishige, Ken-Ichirou; Kurachi, Hirohisa; Lengyel, Ernst; Kimura, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells metastasize within the peritoneal cavity and directly encounter human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMC) as the initial step of metastasis. The contact between ovarian cancer cells and the single layer of mesothelial cells involves direct communications that modulate cancer progression but the mechanisms are unclear. One candidate mediating cell-cell communications is exosomes, 30-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin, through the cell-cell transfer of proteins, mRNAs, or microRNAs. Therefore, the goal was to mechanistically characterize how EOC-derived exosomes modulate metastasis. Exosomes from ovarian cancer cells were fluorescently labeled and cocultured with HPMCs which internalized the exosomes. Upon exosome uptake, HPMCs underwent a change in cellular morphology to a mesenchymal, spindle phenotype. CD44, a cell surface glycoprotein, was found to be enriched in the cancer cell-derived exosomes, transferred, and internalized to HPMCs, leading to high levels of CD44 in HPMCs. This increased CD44 expression in HPMCs promoted cancer invasion by inducing the HPMCs to secrete MMP9 and by cleaning the mesothelial barrier for improved cancer cell invasion. When CD44 expression was knocked down in cancer cells, exosomes had fewer effects on HPMCs. The inhibition of exosome release from cancer cells blocked CD44 internalization in HPMCs and suppressed ovarian cancer invasion. In ovarian cancer omental metastasis, positive CD44 expression was observed in those mesothelial cells that directly interacted with cancer cells, whereas CD44 expression was negative in the mesothelial cells remote from the invading edge. This study indicates that ovarian cancer-derived exosomes transfer CD44 to HPMCs, facilitating cancer invasion. Mechanistic insight from the current study suggests that therapeutic targeting of exosomes may be beneficial in treating ovarian cancer. Mol Cancer Res; 15(1); 78-92. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American

  11. (-)-Gossypol reduces invasiveness in metastatic prostate cancer cells

    Acquisition of metastatic ability by prostatic cancer cells is the most lethal aspect of prostatic cancer progression. (-)-Gossypol, a polyphenolic compound present in cottonseeds, possesses anti-proliferation and pro-apoptotic effects in various cancer cells. In this study, the differences betwee...

  12. Therapeutic Effectiveness of Anticancer Phytochemicals on Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jisun; Hlatky, Lynn; Jeong, Yong-Seob; Kim, Dohoon

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how to target cancer stem cells (CSCs) may provide helpful insights for the development of therapeutic or preventive strategies against cancers. Dietary phytochemicals with anticancer properties are promising candidates and have selective impact on CSCs. This review summarizes the influence of phytochemicals on heterogeneous cancer cell populations as well as on specific targeting of CSCs. PMID:27376325

  13. Cell-ECM Interactions During Cancer Invasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yi

    The extracellular matrix (ECM), a fibrous material that forms a network in a tissue, significantly affects many aspects of cellular behavior, including cell movement and proliferation. Transgenic mouse tumor studies indicate that excess collagen, a major component of ECM, enhances tumor formation and invasiveness. Clinically, tumor associated collagen signatures are strong markers for breast cancer survival. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear since the properties of ECM are complex, with diverse structural and mechanical properties depending on various biophysical parameters. We have developed a three-dimensional elastic fiber network model, and parameterized it with in vitro collagen mechanics. Using this model, we study ECM remodeling as a result of local deformation and cell migration through the ECM as a network percolation problem. We have also developed a three-dimensional, multiscale model of cell migration and interaction with ECM. Our model reproduces quantitative single cell migration experiments. This model is a first step toward a fully biomechanical cell-matrix interaction model and may shed light on tumor associated collagen signatures in breast cancer. This work was partially supported by NIH-U01CA143069.

  14. Transdifferentiation between Luminal- and Basal-Type Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    cancer patients have few choices of therapeutic agents. The MB231 cell line is a basal type cell line and is resistant to EGFR inhibitor erlotinib...mitotic inhibitor paclitaxel and DNA damaging agent cisplatin. However, over- expression of PKD1 makes the cell line sensitive to erlotinib and...approach will help to understand how PKD1 acts in basal-type cancer cells; (3) using existing small molecule inhibitors for PKD1 to treat breast cancer

  15. Generation of Breast Cancer Stem Cells by the EMT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    shift in the type of human breast cancer cells. We began to use experimentally immortalized HMLE cells that were then transformed through...Generation of Breast Cancer Stem Cells by the EMT PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Robert A. Weinberg, Ph.D. CONTRACTING...Generation of Breast Cancer Stem Cells by the EMT 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0464 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  16. Single cell transcriptomic analysis of prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Welty, Christopher J; Coleman, Ilsa; Coleman, Roger; Lakely, Bryce; Xia, Jing; Chen, Shu; Gulati, Roman; Larson, Sandy R; Lange, Paul H; Montgomery, Bruce; Nelson, Peter S; Vessella, Robert L; Morrissey, Colm

    2013-02-16

    The ability to interrogate circulating tumor cells (CTC) and disseminated tumor cells (DTC) is restricted by the small number detected and isolated (typically <10). To determine if a commercially available technology could provide a transcriptomic profile of a single prostate cancer (PCa) cell, we clonally selected and cultured a single passage of cell cycle synchronized C4-2B PCa cells. Ten sets of single, 5-, or 10-cells were isolated using a micromanipulator under direct visualization with an inverted microscope. Additionally, two groups of 10 individual DTC, each isolated from bone marrow of 2 patients with metastatic PCa were obtained. RNA was amplified using the WT-Ovation™ One-Direct Amplification System. The amplified material was hybridized on a 44K Whole Human Gene Expression Microarray. A high stringency threshold, a mean Alexa Fluor® 3 signal intensity above 300, was used for gene detection. Relative expression levels were validated for select genes using real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Using this approach, 22,410, 20,423, and 17,009 probes were positive on the arrays from 10-cell pools, 5-cell pools, and single-cells, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of gene detection on the single-cell analyses were 0.739 and 0.972 respectively when compared to 10-cell pools, and 0.814 and 0.979 respectively when compared to 5-cell pools, demonstrating a low false positive rate. Among 10,000 randomly selected pairs of genes, the Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.875 between the single-cell and 5-cell pools and 0.783 between the single-cell and 10-cell pools. As expected, abundant transcripts in the 5- and 10-cell samples were detected by RT-qPCR in the single-cell isolates, while lower abundance messages were not. Using the same stringency, 16,039 probes were positive on the patient single-cell arrays. Cluster analysis showed that all 10 DTC grouped together within each patient. A transcriptomic profile can be reliably obtained from a single cell using

  17. Mycoplasma Infection Alters Cancer Stem Cell Properties in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Gedye, Craig; Cardwell, Tracy; Dimopoulos, Nektaria; Tan, Bee Shin; Jackson, Heather; Svobodová, Suzanne; Anaka, Matthew; Behren, Andreas; Maher, Christopher; Hofmann, Oliver; Hide, Winston; Caballero, Otavia; Davis, Ian D; Cebon, Jonathan

    2016-02-01

    Cancer cell lines can be useful to model cancer stem cells. Infection with Mycoplasma species is an insidious problem in mammalian cell culture. While investigating stem-like properties in early passage melanoma cell lines, we noted poorly reproducible results from an aliquot of a cell line that was later found to be infected with Mycoplasma hyorhinis. Deliberate infection of other early passage melanoma cell lines aliquots induced variable and unpredictable effects on expression of putative cancer stem cell markers, clonogenicity, proliferation and global gene expression. Cell lines established in stem cell media (SCM) were equally susceptible. Mycoplasma status is rarely reported in publications using cultured cells to study the cancer stem cell hypothesis. Our work highlights the importance of surveillance for Mycoplasma infection while using any cultured cells to interrogate tumor heterogeneity.

  18. Cell division cycle 45 promotes papillary thyroid cancer progression via regulating cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Shi, Run; Zhao, Sha; Li, Xiaona; Lu, Shan; Bu, Hemei; Ma, Xianghua

    2017-05-01

    Cell division cycle 45 was reported to be overexpressed in some cancer-derived cell lines and was predicted to be a candidate oncogene in cervical cancer. However, the clinical and biological significance of cell division cycle 45 in papillary thyroid cancer has never been investigated. We determined the expression level and clinical significance of cell division cycle 45 using The Cancer Genome Atlas, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. A great upregulation of cell division cycle 45 was observed in papillary thyroid cancer tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. Furthermore, overexpression of cell division cycle 45 positively correlates with more advanced clinical characteristics. Silence of cell division cycle 45 suppressed proliferation of papillary thyroid cancer cells via G1-phase arrest and inducing apoptosis. The oncogenic activity of cell division cycle 45 was also confirmed in vivo. In conclusion, cell division cycle 45 may serve as a novel biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for papillary thyroid cancer.

  19. T Cells that Recognize HPV Protein Can Target Virus-Infected Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Adoptive T-cell transfer (ACT) is a promising form of cancer immunotherapy. Treating patients with T cells isolated from a tumor and subsequently expanded in the lab can cause the complete regression of some melanomas and cervical cancers, but the treatment is currently restricted to a few cancer types. An approach that may be applied to a wider array of cancers involves

  20. EMMPRIN Regulates Cytoskeleton Reorganization and Cell Adhesion in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Haining; Zhao, Jun; Zhu, Beibei; Collazo, Joanne; Gal, Jozsef; Shi, Ping; Liu, Li; Ström, Anna-Lena; Lu, Xiaoning; McCann, Richard O.; Toborek, Michal; Kyprianou, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    Background Proteins on cell surface play important roles during cancer progression and metastasis via their ability to mediate cell-to-cell interactions and navigate the communication between cells and the microenvironment. Methods In this study a targeted proteomic analysis was conducted to identify the differential expression of cell surface proteins in human benign (BPH-1) vs. malignant (LNCaP and PC-3) prostate epithelial cells. We identified EMMPRIN (extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer) as a key candidate and shRNA functional approaches were subsequently applied to determine the role of EMMPRIN in prostate cancer cell adhesion, migration, invasion as well as cytoskeleton organization. Results EMMPRIN was found to be highly expressed on the surface of prostate cancer cells compared to BPH-1 cells, consistent with a correlation between elevated EMMPRIN and metastasis found in other tumors. No significant changes in cell proliferation, cell cycle progression or apoptosis were detected in EMMPRIN knockdown cells compared to the scramble controls. Furthermore, EMMPRIN silencing markedly decreased the ability of PC-3 cells to form filopodia, a critical feature of invasive behavior, while it increased expression of cell-cell adhesion and gap junction proteins. Conclusions Our results suggest that EMMPRIN regulates cell adhesion, invasion and cytoskeleton reorganization in prostate cancer cells. This study identifies a new function for EMMPRIN as a contributor to prostate cancer cell-cell communication and cytoskeleton changes towards metastatic spread, and suggests its potential value as a marker of prostate cancer progression to metastasis. PMID:21563192

  1. EMMPRIN regulates cytoskeleton reorganization and cell adhesion in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haining; Zhao, Jun; Zhu, Beibei; Collazo, Joanne; Gal, Jozsef; Shi, Ping; Liu, Li; Ström, Anna-Lena; Lu, Xiaoning; McCann, Richard O; Toborek, Michal; Kyprianou, Natasha

    2012-01-01

    Proteins on cell surface play important roles during cancer progression and metastasis via their ability to mediate cell-to-cell interactions and navigate the communication between cells and the microenvironment. In this study a targeted proteomic analysis was conducted to identify the differential expression of cell surface proteins in human benign (BPH-1) versus malignant (LNCaP and PC-3) prostate epithelial cells. We identified EMMPRIN (extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer) as a key candidate and shRNA functional approaches were subsequently applied to determine the role of EMMPRIN in prostate cancer cell adhesion, migration, invasion as well as cytoskeleton organization. EMMPRIN was found to be highly expressed on the surface of prostate cancer cells compared to BPH-1 cells, consistent with a correlation between elevated EMMPRIN and metastasis found in other tumors. No significant changes in cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, or apoptosis were detected in EMMPRIN knockdown cells compared to the scramble controls. Furthermore, EMMPRIN silencing markedly decreased the ability of PC-3 cells to form filopodia, a critical feature of invasive behavior, while it increased expression of cell-cell adhesion and gap junction proteins. Our results suggest that EMMPRIN regulates cell adhesion, invasion, and cytoskeleton reorganization in prostate cancer cells. This study identifies a new function for EMMPRIN as a contributor to prostate cancer cell-cell communication and cytoskeleton changes towards metastatic spread, and suggests its potential value as a marker of prostate cancer progression to metastasis. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Tricking the balance: NK cells in anti-cancer immunity.

    PubMed

    Pahl, Jens; Cerwenka, Adelheid

    2017-01-01

    Natural Killer (NK) cells are classically considered innate immune effector cells involved in the first line of defense against infected and malignant cells. More recently, NK cells have emerged to acquire properties of adaptive immunity in response to certain viral infections such as expansion of specific NK cell subsets and long-lasting virus-specific responses to secondary challenges. NK cells distinguish healthy cells from abnormal cells by measuring the net input of activating and inhibitory signals perceived from target cells through NK cell surface receptors. Acquisition of activating ligands in combination with reduced expression of MHC class I molecules on virus-infected and cancer cells activates NK cell cytotoxicity and release of immunostimulatory cytokines like IFN-γ. In the cancer microenvironment however, NK cells become functionally impaired by inhibitory factors produced by immunosuppressive immune cells and cancer cells. Here we review recent progress on the role of NK cells in cancer immunity. We describe regulatory factors of the tumor microenvironment on NK cell function which determine cancer cell destruction or escape from immune recognition. Finally, recent strategies that focus on exploiting NK cell anti-cancer responses for immunotherapeutic approaches are outlined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Mir-30d suppresses cell proliferation of colon cancer cells by inhibiting cell autophagy and promoting cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Xu, Jian; Zhao, Jian; Bai, Jinghui

    2017-06-01

    MiR-30 family plays an important role in the tumorigenesis of human cancers. The aim of the study is to investigate the role of miR-30d in human colon cancer cell lines and explore the molecular mechanism in the proliferation of colon cancer cells. The expression of miR-30d was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction assay in colon cancer cell lines (HCT15, HCT116, HT-29, DLD-1, and SW480) and the results demonstrated that miR-30d level was significantly decreased in human colon cancer cell lines, compared with normal colon epithelial cell line. Transfection with miR-30d mimics inhibited cell proliferation, and transfection with miR-30d inhibitors significantly promoted cell viability of colon cancer cells. Furthermore, TargetScan analysis predicted that miR-30d interacted with messenger RNA on its 3' untranslated region of ATG5, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, and Beclin1 to negatively regulate cell autophagy in colon cancer cells. Moreover, transfection with miR-30d induced cell arrest at G2/M phase of HT-29 cells. Overexpression of miR-30d mimics inhibited cell viability probably due to the inhibition of cell autophagy and promotion of cell apoptosis. Thus, MiR-30d inhibited cell autophagy by directly targeting messenger RNA of ATG5, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, and Beclin1 and promoted cell apoptosis of human colon cancer cells. It is helpful to clarify the function of miR-30d in tumorigenesis of human cancers.

  4. Treating cancer stem cells and cancer metastasis using glucose-coated gold nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chenxia; Niestroj, Martin; Yuan, Daniel; Chang, Steven; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Cancer ranks among the leading causes of human mortality. Cancer becomes intractable when it spreads from the primary tumor site to various organs (such as bone, lung, liver, and then brain). Unlike solid tumor cells, cancer stem cells and metastatic cancer cells grow in a non-attached (suspension) form when moving from their source to other locations in the body. Due to the non-attached growth nature, metastasis is often first detected in the circulatory systems, for instance in a lymph node near the primary tumor. Cancer research over the past several decades has primarily focused on treating solid tumors, but targeted therapy to treat cancer stem cells and cancer metastasis has yet to be developed. Because cancers undergo faster metabolism and consume more glucose than normal cells, glucose was chosen in this study as a reagent to target cancer cells. In particular, by covalently binding gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with thio-PEG (polyethylene glycol) and thio-glucose, the resulting functionalized GNPs (Glu-GNPs) were created for targeted treatment of cancer metastasis and cancer stem cells. Suspension cancer cell THP-1 (human monocytic cell line derived from acute monocytic leukemia patients) was selected because it has properties similar to cancer stem cells and has been used as a metastatic cancer cell model for in vitro studies. To take advantage of cancer cells’ elevated glucose consumption over normal cells, different starvation periods were screened in order to achieve optimal treatment effects. Cancer cells were then fed using Glu-GNPs followed by X-ray irradiation treatment. For comparison, solid tumor MCF-7 cells (breast cancer cell line) were studied as well. Our irradiation experimental results show that Glu-GNPs are better irradiation sensitizers to treat THP-1 cells than MCF-7 cells, or Glu-GNPs enhance the cancer killing of THP-1 cells 20% more than X-ray irradiation alone and GNP treatment alone. This finding can help oncologists to design

  5. Can Nanomedicines Kill Cancer Stem Cells?

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yi; Alakhova, Daria Y.; Kabanov, Alexander V.

    2014-01-01

    Most tumors are heterogeneous and many cancers contain small population of highly tumorigenic and intrinsically drug resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs). Like normal stem cell, CSCs have ability to self-renew and differentiate to other tumor cell types. They are believed to be a source for drug resistance, tumor recurrence and metastasis. CSCs often overexpress drug efflux transporters, spend most of their time in non-dividing G0 cell cycle state, and therefore, can escape the conventional chemotherapies. Thus, targeting CSCs is essential for developing novel therapies to prevent cancer relapse and emerging of drug resistance. Nanocarrier-based therapeutic agents (nanomedicines) have been used to achieve longer circulation times, better stability and bioavailability over current therapeutics. Recently, some groups have successfully applied nanomedicines to target CSCs to eliminate the tumor and prevent its recurrence. These approaches include 1) delivery of therapeutic agents (small molecules, siRNA, antibodies) that affect embryonic signaling pathways implicated in self-renewal and differentiation in CSCs, 2) inhibiting drug efflux transporters in an attempt to sensitize CSCs to therapy, 3) targeting metabolism in CSCs through nanoformulated chemicals and field-responsive magnetic nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes, and 4) disruption of multiple pathways in drug resistant cells using combination of chemotherapeutic drugs with amphiphilic Pluronic block copolymers. Despite clear progress of these studies the challenges of targeting CSCs by nanomedicines still exist and leave plenty of room for improvement and development. This review summarizes biological processes that are related to CSCs, overviews the current state of anti-CSCs therapies, and discusses state-of-the-art nanomedicine approaches developed to kill CSCs. PMID:24120657

  6. Omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid induces pyroptosis cell death in triple-negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Pizato, Nathalia; Luzete, Beatriz Christina; Kiffer, Larissa Fernanda Melo Vasconcelos; Corrêa, Luís Henrique; de Oliveira Santos, Igor; Assumpção, José Antônio Fagundes; Ito, Marina Kiyomi; Magalhães, Kelly Grace

    2018-01-31

    The implication of inflammation in pathophysiology of several type of cancers has been under intense investigation. Omega-3 fatty acids can modulate inflammation and present anticancer effects, promoting cancer cell death. Pyroptosis is an inflammation related cell death and so far, the function of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in pyroptosis cell death has not been described. This study investigated the role of DHA in triggering pyroptosis activation in breast cancer cells. MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were supplemented with DHA and inflammation cell death was analyzed. DHA-treated breast cancer cells triggered increased caspase-1and gasdermin D activation, enhanced IL-1β secretion, translocated HMGB1 towards the cytoplasm, and membrane pore formation when compared to untreated cells, suggesting DHA induces pyroptosis programmed cell death in breast cancer cells. Moreover, caspase-1 inhibitor (YVAD) could protect breast cancer cells from DHA-induced pyroptotic cell death. In addition, membrane pore formation showed to be a lysosomal damage and ROS formation-depended event in breast cancer cells. DHA triggered pyroptosis cell death in MDA-MB-231by activating several pyroptosis markers in these cells. This is the first study that shows the effect of DHA triggering pyroptosis programmed cell death in breast cancer cells and it could improve the understanding of the omega-3 supplementation during breast cancer treatment.

  7. Nonequilibrium Population Dynamics of Phenotype Conversion of Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Joseph Xu; Pisco, Angela Oliveira; Qian, Hong; Huang, Sui

    2014-01-01

    Tumorigenesis is a dynamic biological process that involves distinct cancer cell subpopulations proliferating at different rates and interconverting between them. In this paper we proposed a mathematical framework of population dynamics that considers both distinctive growth rates and intercellular transitions between cancer cell populations. Our mathematical framework showed that both growth and transition influence the ratio of cancer cell subpopulations but the latter is more significant. We derived the condition that different cancer cell types can maintain distinctive subpopulations and we also explain why there always exists a stable fixed ratio after cell sorting based on putative surface markers. The cell fraction ratio can be shifted by changing either the growth rates of the subpopulations (Darwinism selection) or by environment-instructed transitions (Lamarckism induction). This insight can help us to understand the dynamics of the heterogeneity of cancer cells and lead us to new strategies to overcome cancer drug resistance. PMID:25438251

  8. Reprogramming of human cancer cells to pluripotency for models of cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jungsun; Zaret, Kenneth S

    2015-01-01

    The ability to study live cells as they progress through the stages of cancer provides the opportunity to discover dynamic networks underlying pathology, markers of early stages, and ways to assess therapeutics. Genetically engineered animal models of cancer, where it is possible to study the consequences of temporal-specific induction of oncogenes or deletion of tumor suppressors, have yielded major insights into cancer progression. Yet differences exist between animal and human cancers, such as in markers of progression and response to therapeutics. Thus, there is a need for human cell models of cancer progression. Most human cell models of cancer are based on tumor cell lines and xenografts of primary tumor cells that resemble the advanced tumor state, from which the cells were derived, and thus do not recapitulate disease progression. Yet a subset of cancer types have been reprogrammed to pluripotency or near-pluripotency by blastocyst injection, by somatic cell nuclear transfer and by induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) technology. The reprogrammed cancer cells show that pluripotency can transiently dominate over the cancer phenotype. Diverse studies show that reprogrammed cancer cells can, in some cases, exhibit early-stage phenotypes reflective of only partial expression of the cancer genome. In one case, reprogrammed human pancreatic cancer cells have been shown to recapitulate stages of cancer progression, from early to late stages, thus providing a model for studying pancreatic cancer development in human cells where previously such could only be discerned from mouse models. We discuss these findings, the challenges in developing such models and their current limitations, and ways that iPS reprogramming may be enhanced to develop human cell models of cancer progression. PMID:25712212

  9. Fusion of bone marrow-derived cells with cancer cells: metastasis as a secondary disease in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pawelek, John M.

    2014-01-01

    This perspective article highlights the leukocyte-cancer cell hybrid theory as a mechanism for cancer metastasis. Beginning from the first proposal of the theory more than a century ago and continuing today with the first proof for this theory in a human cancer, the hybrid theory offers a unifying explanation for metastasis. In this scenario, leukocyte fusion with a cancer cell is a secondary disease superimposed upon the early tumor, giving birth to a new, malignant cell with a leukocyte-cancer cell hybrid epigenome. PMID:24589183

  10. Long term imaging of living brain cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farias, Patricia M. A.; Galembeck, André; Milani, Raquel; Andrade, Arnaldo C. D. S.; Stingl, Andreas

    2018-02-01

    QDs synthesized in aqueous medium and functionalized with polyethylene glycol were used as fluorescent probes. They label and monitor living healthy and cancer brain glial cells in culture. Physical-chemical characterization was performed. Toxicological studies were performed by in vivo short and long-term inhalation in animal models. Healthy and cancer glial living cells were incubated in culture media with highly controlled QDs. Specific features of glial cancer cells were enhanced by QD labelling. Cytoplasmic labelling pattern was clearly distinct for healthy and cancer cells. Labelled cells kept their normal activity for same period as non-labelled control samples.

  11. Crosstalk between stromal cells and cancer cells in pancreatic cancer: New insights into stromal biology.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Han-Xiang; Zhou, Bin; Cheng, Yu-Gang; Xu, Jian-Wei; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Guang-Yong; Hu, San-Yuan

    2017-04-28

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) remains one of the most lethal malignancies worldwide. Increasing evidence has confirmed the pivotal role of stromal components in the regulation of carcinogenesis, invasion, metastasis, and therapeutic resistance in PC. Interaction between neoplastic cells and stromal cells builds a specific microenvironment, which further modulates the malignant properties of cancer cells. Instead of being a "passive bystander", stroma may play a role as a "partner in crime" in PC. However, the role of stromal components in PC is complex and requires further investigation. In this article, we review recent advances regarding the regulatory roles and mechanisms of stroma biology, especially the cellular components such as pancreatic stellate cells, macrophages, neutrophils, adipocytes, epithelial cells, pericytes, mast cells, and lymphocytes, in PC. Crosstalk between stromal cells and cancer cells is thoroughly investigated. We also review the prognostic value and molecular therapeutic targets of stroma in PC. This review may help us further understand the molecular mechanisms of stromal biology and its role in PC development and therapeutic resistance. Moreover, targeting stroma components may provide new therapeutic strategies for this stubborn disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Dendritic cell-based therapeutic cancer vaccines].

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Manglio; Alaniz, Laura; Mazzolini, Guillermo D

    In recent years immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of patients with advanced cancer. The increased knowledge in the tumor immune-biology has allowed developing rational treatments by manipulation of the immune system with significant clinical impact. This rapid development has significantly changed the prognosis of many tumors without treatment options up to date. Other strategies have explored the use of therapeutic vaccines based on dendritic cells (DC) by inducing antitumor immunity. DC are cells of hematopoietic origin, constitutively expressing molecules capable to present antigens, that are functionally the most potent inducers of the activation and proliferation of antigen specific T lymphocytes. The CD8+ T cells proliferate and acquire cytotoxic capacity after recognizing their specific antigen presented on the surface of DC, although only some types of DC can present antigens internalized from outside the cell to precursors of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (this function is called cross-presentation) requiring translocation mechanisms of complex antigens. The induction of an effective adaptive immune response is considered a good option given its specificity, and prolonged duration of response. The DC, thanks to its particular ability of antigen presentation and lymphocyte stimulation, are able to reverse the poor antitumor immune response experienced by patients with cancer. The DC can be obtained from various sources, using different protocols to generate differentiation and maturation, and are administered by various routes such as subcutaneous, intravenous or intranodal. The wide variety of protocols resulted in heterogeneous clinical responses.

  13. Stiffness nanotomography of human epithelial cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staunton, Jack R.; Doss, Bryant L.; Gilbert, C. Michael; Kasas, Sandor; Ros, Robert

    2012-02-01

    The mechanical stiffness of individual cells is important in both cancer initiation and metastasis. We present atomic force microscopy (AFM) based nanoindentation experiments on various human mammary and esophagus cell lines covering the spectrum from normal immortalized cells to highly metastatic ones. The combination of an AFM with a confocal fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope (FLIM) in conjunction with the ability to move the sample and objective independently allow for precise alignment of AFM probe and laser focus with an accuracy down to a few nanometers. This enables us to correlate the mechanical properties with the point of indentation in the FLIM image. We are using force-volume measurements as well as force indentation curves on distinct points on the cells to compare the elastic moduli of the nuclei, nucleoli, and the cytoplasm, and how they vary within and between individual cells and cell lines. Further, a detailed analysis of the force-indentation curves allows study of the cells' mechanical properties at different indentation depths and to generate 3D elasticity maps.

  14. Ursodeoxycholic acid inhibits the proliferation of colon cancer cells by regulating oxidative stress and cancer stem-like cell growth.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Cho, Jae Hee; Kim, EuiJoo; Kim, Yoon Jae

    2017-01-01

    The regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) exists as a therapeutic target for cancer treatments. Previous studies have shown that ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) suppresses the proliferation of colon cancer cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of UDCA upon the proliferation of colon cancer cells as a direct result of the regulation of ROS. Colon cancer cell lines (HT29 and HCT116) were treated with UDCA. The total number of cells and the number of dead cells were determined using cell counters. A fluorescein isothiocyanate-bromodeoxyuridine flow kit was used to analyze cell cycle variations. Upon exposure to UDCA, the protein levels of p27, p21, CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6 were determined using western blotting, and qRT-PCR was used to determine levels of mRNA. We preformed dichlorofluorescindiacetate (DCF-DA) staining to detect alteration of intracellular ROS using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Colon cancer stem-like cell lines were generated by tumorsphere culture and treated with UDCA for seven days. The total number of tumorspheres was determined using microscopy. We found that UDCA reduced the total number of colon cancer cells, but did not increase the number of dead cells. UDCA inhibited the G1/S and G2/M transition phases in colon cancer cells. UDCA induced expression of cell cycle inhibitors such as p27 and p21. However, it was determined that UDCA suppressed levels of CDK2, CDK4, and CDK6. UDCA regulated intracellular ROS generation in colon cancer cells, and induced activation of Erk1/2. Finally, UDCA inhibited formation of colon cancer stem-like cells. Our results indicate that UDCA suppresses proliferation through regulation of oxidative stress in colon cancer cells, as well as colon cancer stem-like cells.

  15. Ursodeoxycholic acid inhibits the proliferation of colon cancer cells by regulating oxidative stress and cancer stem-like cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Kim, EuiJoo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) exists as a therapeutic target for cancer treatments. Previous studies have shown that ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) suppresses the proliferation of colon cancer cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of UDCA upon the proliferation of colon cancer cells as a direct result of the regulation of ROS. Method Colon cancer cell lines (HT29 and HCT116) were treated with UDCA. The total number of cells and the number of dead cells were determined using cell counters. A fluorescein isothiocyanate-bromodeoxyuridine flow kit was used to analyze cell cycle variations. Upon exposure to UDCA, the protein levels of p27, p21, CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6 were determined using western blotting, and qRT-PCR was used to determine levels of mRNA. We preformed dichlorofluorescindiacetate (DCF-DA) staining to detect alteration of intracellular ROS using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Colon cancer stem-like cell lines were generated by tumorsphere culture and treated with UDCA for seven days. The total number of tumorspheres was determined using microscopy. Results We found that UDCA reduced the total number of colon cancer cells, but did not increase the number of dead cells. UDCA inhibited the G1/S and G2/M transition phases in colon cancer cells. UDCA induced expression of cell cycle inhibitors such as p27 and p21. However, it was determined that UDCA suppressed levels of CDK2, CDK4, and CDK6. UDCA regulated intracellular ROS generation in colon cancer cells, and induced activation of Erk1/2. Finally, UDCA inhibited formation of colon cancer stem-like cells. Conclusion Our results indicate that UDCA suppresses proliferation through regulation of oxidative stress in colon cancer cells, as well as colon cancer stem-like cells. PMID:28708871

  16. Niche construction game cancer cells play

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, Aviv; Gligorijevic, Bojana

    2015-10-01

    Niche construction concept was originally defined in evolutionary biology as the continuous interplay between natural selection via environmental conditions and the modification of these conditions by the organism itself. Processes unraveling during cancer metastasis include construction of niches, which cancer cells use towards more efficient survival, transport into new environments and preparation of the remote sites for their arrival. Many elegant experiments were done lately illustrating, for example, the premetastatic niche construction, but there is practically no mathematical modeling done which would apply the niche construction framework. To create models useful for understanding niche construction role in cancer progression, we argue that a) genetic, b) phenotypic and c) ecological levels are to be included. While the model proposed here is phenomenological in its current form, it can be converted into a predictive outcome model via experimental measurement of the model parameters. Here we give an overview of an experimentally formulated problem in cancer metastasis and propose how niche construction framework can be utilized and broadened to model it. Other life science disciplines, such as host-parasite coevolution, may also benefit from niche construction framework adaptation, to satisfy growing need for theoretical considerations of data collected by experimental biology.

  17. Solid cancers after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Rochelle E.; Socié, Gérard; Sobocinski, Kathleen A.; Gilbert, Ethel; Landgren, Ola; Travis, Lois B.; Travis, William D.; Flowers, Mary E. D.; Friedman, Debra L.; Horowitz, Mary M.; Wingard, John R.; Deeg, H. Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Transplant recipients have been reported to have an increased risk of solid cancers but most studies are small and have limited ability to evaluate the interaction of host, disease, and treatment-related factors. In the largest study to date to evaluate risk factors for solid cancers, we studied a multi-institutional cohort of 28 874 allogeneic transplant recipients with 189 solid malignancies. Overall, patients developed new solid cancers at twice the rate expected based on general population rates (observed-to-expected ratio 2.1; 95% confidence interval 1.8-2.5), with the risk increasing over time (P trend < .001); the risk reached 3-fold among patients followed for 15 years or more after transplantation. New findings showed that the risk of developing a non–squamous cell carcinoma (non-SCC) following conditioning radiation was highly dependent on age at exposure. Among patients irradiated at ages under 30 years, the relative risk of non-SCC was 9 times that of nonirradiated patients, while the comparable risk for older patients was 1.1 (P interaction < .01). Chronic graft-versus-host disease and male sex were the main determinants for risk of SCC. These data indicate that allogeneic transplant survivors, particularly those irradiated at young ages, face increased risks of solid cancers, supporting strategies to promote lifelong surveillance among these patients. PMID:18971419

  18. Niche construction game cancer cells play.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Aviv; Gligorijevic, Bojana

    2015-10-01

    Niche construction concept was originally defined in evolutionary biology as the continuous interplay between natural selection via environmental conditions and the modification of these conditions by the organism itself. Processes unraveling during cancer metastasis include construction of niches, which cancer cells use towards more efficient survival, transport into new environments and preparation of the remote sites for their arrival. Many elegant experiments were done lately illustrating, for example, the premetastatic niche construction, but there is practically no mathematical modeling done which would apply the niche construction framework. To create models useful for understanding niche construction role in cancer progression, we argue that a) genetic, b) phenotypic and c) ecological levels are to be included. While the model proposed here is phenomenological in its current form, it can be converted into a predictive outcome model via experimental measurement of the model parameters. Here we give an overview of an experimentally formulated problem in cancer metastasis and propose how niche construction framework can be utilized and broadened to model it. Other life science disciplines, such as host-parasite coevolution, may also benefit from niche construction framework adaptation, to satisfy growing need for theoretical considerations of data collected by experimental biology.

  19. Genetics of Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell Cancer) (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Genetics of Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell) includes the hereditary cancer syndromes von Hippel-Lindau disease, hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer, Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, and hereditary papillary renal carcinoma. Get comprehensive information on these syndromes in this clinician summary.

  20. Expression of pleiotrophin in small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, H Q; Wang, J

    2015-01-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a kind of heparin binding growth factor closely related to tumor progression. This study aimed to discuss the significance of the expression of PTN in benign and malignant lung cancer tissues, especially small cell lung cancer. Lung cancer samples were collected for study and lung tissue samples with benign lesions were taken as controls. The expression of PTN was detected using tissue chip combined with the immunohistochemical method, and the differences of small cell lung cancer with non-small cell lung cancer and benign lesion tissue were compared. It was found that PTN expression was mainly located in the cytoplasm and membrane of cells; PTN expression in the lung cancer group was higher than that in the control group (p < 0.01), and PTN expression in the small cell cancer group was higher than that in the squamous carcinoma group and glandular cancer group (p < 0.05). In addition, PTN expression quantity in patients with lung cancer were in close correlation with TNM staging, pathological type and tumor differentiation degree (p < 0.05). PTN was found to express abnormally high in lung cancer, especially small cell lung cancer tissue. PTN is most likely to be a new tumor marker for diagnosis and prognosis of lung cancer.

  1. RUNX1T1 Amplification Induces Small Cell Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    and it is believed that the second, more differentiated component has transformed into a small cell cancer. Similarly, extra-pulmonary small cell...tumors have primary tumors that arise outside the lung, such as in the prostate or GI tract, and transform into a small cell cancer. So in reality the

  2. Method for restoration of normal phenotype in cancer cells

    DOEpatents

    Bissell, Mina J.; Weaver, Valerie M.

    2000-01-01

    A method for reversing expression of malignant phenotype in cancer cells is described. The method comprises applying .beta..sub.1 integrin function-blocking antibody to the cells. The method can be used to assess the progress of cancer therapy. Human breast epithelial cells were shown to be particularly responsive.

  3. Stromal cells in breast cancer as a potential therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Dykes, Samantha S.; Hughes, Veronica S.; Wiggins, Jennifer M.; Fasanya, Henrietta O.; Tanaka, Mai; Siemann, Dietmar

    2018-01-01

    Breast cancer in the United States is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. About 1 in 8 women will develop invasive breast cancer over the course of her lifetime and breast cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death. In pursuit of novel therapeutic strategies, researchers have examined the tumor microenvironment as a potential anti-cancer target. In addition to neoplastic cells, the tumor microenvironment is composed of several critical normal cell types, including fibroblasts, vascular and lymph endothelial cells, osteoclasts, adipocytes, and immune cells. These cells have important roles in healthy tissue stasis, which frequently are altered in tumors. Indeed, tumor-associated stromal cells often contribute to tumorigenesis, tumor progression, and metastasis. Consequently, these host cells may serve as a possible target in anti-tumor and anti-metastatic therapeutic strategies. Targeting the tumor associated host cells offers the benefit that such cells do not mutate and develop resistance in response to treatment, a major cause of failure in cancer therapeutics targeting neoplastic cells. This review discusses the role of host cells in the tumor microenvironment during tumorigenesis, progression, and metastasis, and provides an overview of recent developments in targeting these cell populations to enhance cancer therapy efficacy.

  4. Crocetin shifts autophagic cell survival to death of breast cancer cells in chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ailian; Li, Jincheng

    2017-03-01

    The chemotherapy with fluorouracil is not always effective, in which some breast cancer cells may survive the fluorouracil treatment through enhanced autophagy. Crocetin is the major constituent of saffron, a Chinese traditional herb, which has recently found to have multiple pharmacological effects, including anticancer. However, the effects of Crocetin on the outcome of fluorouracil therapy for breast cancer have not been studied. Here, we showed that fluorouracil treatment inhibited the growth of breast cancer cells, in either a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay or an MTT assay. Inhibition of autophagy further suppressed breast cancer cell growth, suggesting that the breast cancer cells increased autophagic cell survival during fluorouracil treatment. However, Crocetin significantly increased the suppressive effects of fluorouracil on breast cancer cell growth, without affecting either cell apoptosis or autophagy. Inhibition of autophagy at the presence of Crocetin partially abolished the suppressive effects on breast cancer cell growth, suggesting that Crocetin may increase autophagic cell death in fluorouracil-treated breast cancer cells. Furthermore, Crocetin decreased Beclin-1 levels but increased ATG1 levels in fluorouracil-treated breast cancer cells. Together, these data suggest that Crocetin may shift autophagic cell survival to autophagic cell death in fluorouracil-treated breast cancer cells, possibly through modulation of the expression of ATG1 and Beclin-1.

  5. Radiation Therapy, Chemotherapy, and Soy Isoflavones in Treating Patients With Stage IIIA-IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-23

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Bronchoalveolar Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  6. S0536: Cetuximab, Paclitaxel, Carboplatin, and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-11

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Bronchoalveolar Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  7. Low-Dose Acetylsalicylic Acid in Treating Patients With Stage I-III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-06-29

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  8. Sirolimus and Auranofin in Treating Patients With Advanced or Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer or Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-08-28

    Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Lung Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

  9. A Phase I Study of LJM716 in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck, or HER2+ Breast Cancer or Gastric Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-21

    HER2 + Breast Cancer, HER2 + Gastric Cancer, Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck, Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; HER2 + Breast Cancer; HER2 + Gastric Cancer; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck; Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  10. Lgr5-positive cells are cancer stem cells in skin squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shunli; Gong, Zhenyu; Chen, Mingrui; Liu, Benli; Bian, Donghui; Wu, Kai

    2014-11-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) in most human tumors are commonly identified and enriched using similar strategies for identifying normal stem cells, including flow cytometry assays for side population, high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, and CD133 positivity. Thus, development of a method for isolating a specific cancer using cancer-specific characteristic appears to be potentially important. Here, we reported extremely high Lgr5 levels in the specimen from skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in patients. Using SCC cell line A431, we detected high Lgr5 and CD133 levels in ALDH-high or side population from these cancer cells. To figure out whether Lgr5 is a marker of CSCs in SCC, we transfected A431 cells with a Lgr5-creERT-2A-DTR/Cag-Loxp-GFP-STOP-Loxp-RFP plasmid and purified transfected cells (tA431) based on GFP by flow cytometry. 4-Hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) was given to label Lgr5-positive cells with RFP, for comparison to GFP-positive Lgr5-negative cells. Lgr5-positive cells grew significantly faster than Lgr5-negative cells, and the fold increase in growth of Lgr5-positive vs Lgr5-negative cells is significantly higher than SP vs non-SP, or ALDH-high vs ALDH-low, or CD133-positive vs CD133-negative cells. Moreover, in Lgr5-negative population, Lgr5-positive re-appeared in culture with time, suggesting that Lgr5-positive cells can be regenerated from Lgr5-negative cells. Furthermore, the growth of tA431 cells significantly decreased upon a single dose of diphtheria toxin (DT)/4-OHT to eliminate Lgr5-positive cell lineage, while multiple doses of DT/4-OHT nearly completely inhibited tA431 cell growth. Taken together, our data provide compelling data to demonstrate that Lgr5-positive cells are CSCs in skin SCC.

  11. MUC4 stabilizes HER2 expression and maintains the cancer stem cell population in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ponnusamy, Moorthy P; Seshacharyulu, Parthasarathy; Vaz, Arokiapriyanka; Dey, Parama; Batra, Surinder K

    2011-04-26

    Recent evidence has suggested that the capability of cancer to grow, propagate and relapse after therapy is dependent on a small subset of the cell population within the tumor, called cancer stem cells. Therefore, this subpopulation of cells needs to be targeted with different approaches by identification of unique stem-cell specific target antigens. One of the well known tumor antigens is the epithelial cell mucin MUC4, which is aberrantly expressed in ovarian cancer as compared to the normal ovary and plays a pivotal role in the aggressiveness and metastasis of ovarian cancer cells. In the present study, we aimed to analyze the cancer stem cell population in MUC4 overexpressed ovarian cancer cells. MUC4 was ectopically overexpressed in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells. Western blot analysis was performed for MUC4, HER2, CD133, ALDH1 and Shh expression in MUC4 overexpressed cells. Confocal analysis of MUC4, HER2 and CD133 was also done in the MUC4 overexpressed cells. CD133 and Hoechst33342 dye staining was used to analyze the cancer stem cell population via FACS method in SKOV3-MUC4 cells. MUC4 overexpressed SKOV3 cells showed an increased expression of HER2 compared to control cells. MUC4 overexpression leads to increased (0.1%) side population (SP) and CD133-positive cancer stem cells compared to the control cells. Interestingly, the tumor sphere type circular colony formation was observed only in the MUC4 overexpressed ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, the cancer stem cell marker CD133 was expressed along with MUC4 in the isolated circular colonies as analyzed by both confocal and western blot analysis. HER2 and cancer stem cell specific marker ALDH1 along with Shh, a self-renewal marker, showed increased expression in the isolated circular colonies compared to MUC4-transfected cells. These studies demonstrate that MUC4 overexpression leads to an enriched ovarian cancer stem cell population either directly or indirectly through HER2. In future, this study would be

  12. MUC4 stabilizes HER2 expression and maintains the cancer stem cell population in ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent evidence has suggested that the capability of cancer to grow, propagate and relapse after therapy is dependent on a small subset of the cell population within the tumor, called cancer stem cells. Therefore, this subpopulation of cells needs to be targeted with different approaches by identification of unique stem-cell specific target antigens. One of the well known tumor antigens is the epithelial cell mucin MUC4, which is aberrantly expressed in ovarian cancer as compared to the normal ovary and plays a pivotal role in the aggressiveness and metastasis of ovarian cancer cells. In the present study, we aimed to analyze the cancer stem cell population in MUC4 overexpressed ovarian cancer cells. Methods MUC4 was ectopically overexpressed in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells. Western blot analysis was performed for MUC4, HER2, CD133, ALDH1 and Shh expression in MUC4 overexpressed cells. Confocal analysis of MUC4, HER2 and CD133 was also done in the MUC4 overexpressed cells. CD133 and Hoechst33342 dye staining was used to analyze the cancer stem cell population via FACS method in SKOV3-MUC4 cells. Results MUC4 overexpressed SKOV3 cells showed an increased expression of HER2 compared to control cells. MUC4 overexpression leads to increased (0.1%) side population (SP) and CD133-positive cancer stem cells compared to the control cells. Interestingly, the tumor sphere type circular colony formation was observed only in the MUC4 overexpressed ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, the cancer stem cell marker CD133 was expressed along with MUC4 in the isolated circular colonies as analyzed by both confocal and western blot analysis. HER2 and cancer stem cell specific marker ALDH1 along with Shh, a self-renewal marker, showed increased expression in the isolated circular colonies compared to MUC4-transfected cells. Conclusion These studies demonstrate that MUC4 overexpression leads to an enriched ovarian cancer stem cell population either directly or indirectly through

  13. Radiobiological characteristics of cancer stem cells from esophageal cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-Lin; Yu, Jing-Ping; Sun, Zhi-Qiang; Sun, Su-Ping

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To study the cancer stem cell population in esophageal cancer cell lines KYSE-150 and TE-1 and identify whether the resulting stem-like spheroid cells display cancer stem cells and radiation resistance characteristics. METHODS: A serum-free medium (SFM) suspension was used to culture esophageal cancer stem cell lines and enrich the esophageal stem-like spheres. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay was used to detect stem cell gene expression in the spheroid cells. Radiosensitivity of stem-like spheres and parental cells were evaluated by clonogenic assays. Furthermore, different cells after different doses of irradiation were tested to evaluate the change in sphere formation, cell cycle and CD44+CD271+ expression of tumor stem-like spheroid cells using flow cytometry before and after irradiation. RESULTS: The cells were observed to generate an increased number of spheres in SFM with increasing cell passage. Radiation increased the rate of generation of stem-like spheres in both types of cells. The average survival fraction (SF2) of the cultured KYSE-150 compared with TE-1 stem-like spheres after 2 Gy of radiation was 0.81 ± 0.03 vs 0.87 ± 0.01 (P < 0.05), while the average SF2 of KYSE-150 compared with TE-1 parental cells was 0.69 ± 0.04 vs 0.80 ± 0.03, P < 0.05. In the esophageal parental cells, irradiation dose-dependently induced G2 arrest. Stem-like esophageal spheres were resistant to irradiation-induced G2 arrest without significant changes in the percentage population of irradiated stem-like cells. Under irradiation at 0, 4, and 8 Gy, the CD44+CD271+ cell percentage for KYSE150 parental cells was 1.08% ± 0.03% vs 1.29% ± 0.07% vs 1.11% ± 0.09%, respectively; the CD44+CD271+ cell percentage for TE1 parental cells was 1.16% ± 0.11% vs 0.97% ± 0.08% vs 1.45% ± 0.35%, respectively. The differences were not statistically significant. Under irradiation at 0, 4, and 8 Gy, the CD44+CD271+ cell percentage for KYSE-150 stem

  14. Radiobiological characteristics of cancer stem cells from esophageal cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Lin; Yu, Jing-Ping; Sun, Zhi-Qiang; Sun, Su-Ping

    2014-12-28

    To study the cancer stem cell population in esophageal cancer cell lines KYSE-150 and TE-1 and identify whether the resulting stem-like spheroid cells display cancer stem cells and radiation resistance characteristics. A serum-free medium (SFM) suspension was used to culture esophageal cancer stem cell lines and enrich the esophageal stem-like spheres. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay was used to detect stem cell gene expression in the spheroid cells. Radiosensitivity of stem-like spheres and parental cells were evaluated by clonogenic assays. Furthermore, different cells after different doses of irradiation were tested to evaluate the change in sphere formation, cell cycle and CD44(+)CD271(+) expression of tumor stem-like spheroid cells using flow cytometry before and after irradiation. The cells were observed to generate an increased number of spheres in SFM with increasing cell passage. Radiation increased the rate of generation of stem-like spheres in both types of cells. The average survival fraction (SF2) of the cultured KYSE-150 compared with TE-1 stem-like spheres after 2 Gy of radiation was 0.81 ± 0.03 vs 0.87 ± 0.01 (P < 0.05), while the average SF2 of KYSE-150 compared with TE-1 parental cells was 0.69 ± 0.04 vs 0.80 ± 0.03, P < 0.05. In the esophageal parental cells, irradiation dose-dependently induced G2 arrest. Stem-like esophageal spheres were resistant to irradiation-induced G2 arrest without significant changes in the percentage population of irradiated stem-like cells. Under irradiation at 0, 4, and 8 Gy, the CD44(+)CD271(+) cell percentage for KYSE150 parental cells was 1.08% ± 0.03% vs 1.29% ± 0.07% vs 1.11% ± 0.09%, respectively; the CD44(+)CD271(+) cell percentage for TE1 parental cells was 1.16% ± 0.11% vs 0.97% ± 0.08% vs 1.45% ± 0.35%, respectively. The differences were not statistically significant. Under irradiation at 0, 4, and 8 Gy, the CD44(+)CD271(+) cell percentage for KYSE-150 stem-like spheres was

  15. The Function of Neuroendocrine Cells in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-20

    Comprehensive Cancer Center and 4Broad Center for Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Biology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte... Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine , Los Angeles, California. 2Department of Urology, The First...progress in prostate cancer. Soochou University Annual Translational Medicine Meeting, Suzhou, China, November 2013 21. Prostate Cancer Stem Cells

  16. A Cell-Based Approach to Early Pancreatic Cancer Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-15-1-0457 TITLE: A Cell -Based Approach to Early Pancreatic Cancer Detection PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Ben Stanger...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER A Cell -Based Approach to Early Pancreatic Cancer Detection 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0457 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...tumor cells from mouse blood by depleting the sample of white blood cells (WBCs). Furthermore, the RNA profile of these cells can be assessed by

  17. Identification and Characterization of Cells with Cancer Stem Cell Properties in Human Primary Lung Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Suo, Zhenhe; Munthe, Else; Solberg, Steinar; Ma, Liwei; Wang, Mengyu; Westerdaal, Nomdo Anton Christiaan; Kvalheim, Gunnar; Gaudernack, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer (LC) with its different subtypes is generally known as a therapy resistant cancer with the highest morbidity rate worldwide. Therapy resistance of a tumor is thought to be related to cancer stem cells (CSCs) within the tumors. There have been indications that the lung cancer is propagated and maintained by a small population of CSCs. To study this question we established a panel of 15 primary lung cancer cell lines (PLCCLs) from 20 fresh primary tumors using a robust serum-free culture system. We subsequently focused on identification of lung CSCs by studying these cell lines derived from 4 representative lung cancer subtypes such as small cell lung cancer (SCLC), large cell carcinoma (LCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (AC). We identified a small population of cells strongly positive for CD44 (CD44high) and a main population which was either weakly positive or negative for CD44 (CD44low/−). Co-expression of CD90 further narrowed down the putative stem cell population in PLCCLs from SCLC and LCC as spheroid-forming cells were mainly found within the CD44highCD90+ sub-population. Moreover, these CD44highCD90+ cells revealed mesenchymal morphology, increased expression of mesenchymal markers N-Cadherin and Vimentin, increased mRNA levels of the embryonic stem cell related genes Nanog and Oct4 and increased resistance to irradiation compared to other sub-populations studied, suggesting the CD44highCD90+ population a good candidate for the lung CSCs. Both CD44highCD90+ and CD44highCD90− cells in the PLCCL derived from SCC formed spheroids, whereas the CD44low/− cells were lacking this potential. These results indicate that CD44highCD90+ sub-population may represent CSCs in SCLC and LCC, whereas in SCC lung cancer subtype, CSC potentials were found within the CD44high sub-population. PMID:23469181

  18. Cell stiffness is a biomarker of the metastatic potential of ovarian cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenwei; Mezencev, Roman; Kim, Byungkyu; Wang, Lijuan; McDonald, John; Sulchek, Todd; Sulchek Team; McDonald Team

    2013-03-01

    The metastatic potential of cells is an important parameter in the design of optimal strategies for the personalized treatment of cancer. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM), we show that ovarian cancer cells are generally softer and display lower intrinsic variability in cell stiffness than non-malignant ovarian epithelial cells. A detailed study of highly invasive ovarian cancer cells (HEY A8) and their less invasive parental cells (HEY), demonstrates that deformability can serve as an accurate biomarker of metastatic potential. Comparative gene expression profiling indicate that the reduced stiffness of highly metastatic HEY A8 cells is associated with actin cytoskeleton remodeling, microscopic examination of actin fiber structure in these cell lines is consistent with this prediction. Our results indicate that cell stiffness not only distinguishes ovarian cancer cells from non-malignant cells, but may also be a useful biomarker to evaluate the relative metastatic potential of ovarian and perhaps other types of cancer cells.

  19. Angular-dependent light scattering from cancer cells in different phases of the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaogang; Wan, Nan; Weng, Lingdong; Zhou, Yong

    2017-10-10

    Cancer cells in different phases of the cell cycle result in significant differences in light scattering properties. In order to harvest cancer cells in particular phases of the cell cycle, we cultured cancer cells through the process of synchronization. Flow cytometric analysis was applied to check the results of cell synchronization and prepare for light scattering measurements. Angular-dependent light scattering measurements of cancer cells arrested in the G1, S, and G2 phases have been performed. Based on integral calculations for scattering intensities from 5° to 10° and from 110° to 150°, conclusions have been reached. Clearly, the sizes of the cancer cells in different phases of the cell cycle dominated the forward scatter. Accompanying the increase of cell size with the progression of the cell cycle, the forward scattering intensity also increased. Meanwhile, the DNA content of cancer cells in every phase of the cell cycle is responsible for light scattering at large scatter angles. The higher the DNA content of cancer cells was, the greater the positive effect on the high-scattering intensity. As expected, understanding the relationships between the light scattering from cancer cells and cell cycles will aid in the development of cancer diagnoses. Also, it may assist in the guidance of antineoplastic drugs clinically.

  20. Doxycycline inhibits the cancer stem cell phenotype and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Le; Xu, Liang; Zhang, Fengchun; Vlashi, Erina

    2017-04-18

    Experimental evidence suggest that breast tumors originate from breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), and that mitochondrial biogenesis is essential for the anchorage-independent clonal expansion and survival of CSCs, thus rendering mitochondria a significant target for novel treatment approaches. One of the recognized side effects of the FDA-approved drug, doxycycline is the inhibition of mitochondrial biogenesis. Here we investigate the mechanism by which doxycycline exerts its inhibitory effects on the properties of breast cancer cells and BCSCs, such as mammosphere forming efficiency, invasion, migration, apoptosis, the expression of stem cell markers and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) related markers of breast cancer cells. In addition, we explored whether autophagy plays a role in the inhibitory effect of doxycycline on breast cancer cells. We find that doxycyline can inhibit the viability and proliferation of breast cancer cells and BCSCs, decrease mammosphere forming efficiency, migration and invasion, and EMT of breast cancer cells. Expression of stem cell factors Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and CD44 were also significantly downregulated after doxycycline treatment. Moreover, doxycycline could down-regulate the expression of the autophagy marker LC-3BI and LC-3BII, suggesting that inhibiting autophagy may be responsible in part for the observed effects on proliferation, EMT and stem cell markers. The potent inhibition of EMT and cancer stem-like characteristics in breast cancer cells by doxycycline treatment suggests that this drug can be repurposed as an anti-cancer drug in the treatment of breast cancer patients in the clinic.

  1. Automatic cell cloning assay for determining the clonogenic capacity of cancer and cancer stem-like cells.

    PubMed

    Fedr, Radek; Pernicová, Zuzana; Slabáková, Eva; Straková, Nicol; Bouchal, Jan; Grepl, Michal; Kozubík, Alois; Souček, Karel

    2013-05-01

    The clonogenic assay is a well-established in vitro method for testing the survival and proliferative capability of cells. It can be used to determine the cytotoxic effects of various treatments including chemotherapeutics and ionizing radiation. However, this approach can also characterize cells with different phenotypes and biological properties, such as stem cells or cancer stem cells. In this study, we implemented a faster and more precise method for assessing the cloning efficiency of cancer stem-like cells that were characterized and separated using a high-speed cell sorter. Cell plating onto a microplate using an automatic cell deposition unit was performed in a single-cell or dilution rank mode by the fluorescence-activated cell sorting method. We tested the new automatic cell-cloning assay (ACCA) on selected cancer cell lines and compared it with the manual approach. The obtained results were also compared with the results of the limiting dilution assay for different cell lines. We applied the ACCA to analyze the cloning capacity of different subpopulations of prostate and colon cancer cells based on the expression of the characteristic markers of stem (CD44 and CD133) and cancer stem cells (TROP-2, CD49f, and CD44). Our results revealed that the novel ACCA is a straightforward approach for determining the clonogenic capacity of cancer stem-like cells identified in both cell lines and patient samples. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  2. Stem cells and cancer of the stomach and intestine.

    PubMed

    Vries, Robert G J; Huch, Meritxell; Clevers, Hans

    2010-10-01

    Cancer in the 21st century has become the number one cause of death in developed countries. Although much progress has been made in improving patient survival, tumour relapse is one of the important causes of cancer treatment failure. An early observation in the study of cancer was the heterogeneity of tumours. Traditionally, this was explained by a combination of genomic instability of tumours and micro environmental factors leading to diverse phenotypical characteristics. It was assumed that cells in a tumour have an equal capacity to propagate the cancer. This model is currently known as the stochastic model. Recently, the Cancer stem cell model has been proposed to explain the heterogeneity of a tumour and its progression. According to this model, the heterogeneity of tumours is the result of aberrant differentiation of tumour cells into the cells of the tissue the tumour originated from. Tumours were suggested to contain stem cell-like cells, the cancer stem cells or tumour-initiating cells, which are uniquely capable of propagating a tumour much like normal stem cells fuel proliferation and differentiation in normal tissue. In this review we discuss the normal stem cell biology of the stomach and intestine followed by both the stochastic and cancer stem cell models in light of recent findings in the gastric and intestinal systems. The molecular pathways underlying normal and tumourigenic growth have been well studied, and recently the stem cells of the stomach and intestine have been identified. Furthermore, intestinal stem cells were identified as the cells-of-origin of colon cancer upon loss of the tumour suppressor APC. Lastly, several studies have proposed the positive identification of a cancer stem cell of human colon cancer. At the end we compare the cancer stem cell model and the stochastic model. We conclude that clonal evolution of tumour cells resulting from genetic mutations underlies tumour initiation and progression in both cancer models. This

  3. Genetic load makes cancer cells more sensitive to common drugs: evidence from Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia.

    PubMed

    Pavel, Ana B; Korolev, Kirill S

    2017-05-16

    Genetic alterations initiate tumors and enable the evolution of drug resistance. The pro-cancer view of mutations is however incomplete, and several studies show that mutational load can reduce tumor fitness. Given its negative effect, genetic load should make tumors more sensitive to anticancer drugs. Here, we test this hypothesis across all major types of cancer from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia, which provides genetic and expression data of 496 cell lines together with their response to 24 common anticancer drugs. We found that the efficacy of 9 out of 24 drugs showed significant association with genetic load in a pan-cancer analysis. The associations for some tissue-drug combinations were remarkably strong, with genetic load explaining up to 83% of the variance in the drug response. Overall, the role of genetic load depended on both the drug and the tissue type with 10 tissues being particularly vulnerable to genetic load. We also identified changes in gene expression associated with increased genetic load, which included cell-cycle checkpoints, DNA damage and apoptosis. Our results show that genetic load is an important component of tumor fitness and can predict drug sensitivity. Beyond being a biomarker, genetic load might be a new, unexplored vulnerability of cancer.

  4. Intravital characterization of tumor cell migration in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Beerling, Evelyne; Oosterom, Ilse; Voest, Emile; Lolkema, Martijn; van Rheenen, Jacco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Curing pancreatic cancer is difficult as metastases often determine the poor clinical outcome. To gain more insight into the metastatic behavior of pancreatic cancer cells, we characterized migratory cells in primary pancreatic tumors using intravital microscopy. We visualized the migratory behavior of primary tumor cells of a genetically engineered pancreatic cancer mouse model and found that pancreatic tumor cells migrate with a mesenchymal morphology as single individual cells or collectively as a stream of non-cohesive single motile cells. These findings may improve our ability to conceive treatments that block metastatic behavior. PMID:28243522

  5. Implications of Cancer Stem Cell Theory for Cancer Chemoprevention by Natural Dietary Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanyan; Wicha, Max S.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Sun, Duxin

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of cancer stem cell theory has profound implications for cancer chemoprevention and therapy. Cancer stem cells give rise to the tumor bulk through continuous self-renewal and differentiation. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate self-renewal is of greatest importance for discovery of anti-cancer drugs targeting cancer stem cells. Naturally-occurring dietary compounds have received increasing attention in cancer chemoprevention. The anti-cancer effects of many dietary components have been reported for both in vitro and in vivo studies. Recently, a number of studies have found that several dietary compounds can directly or indirectly affect cancer stem cell self-renewal pathways. Herein we review the current knowledge of most common natural dietary compounds for their impact on self-renewal pathways and potential effect against cancer stem cells. Three pathways (Wnt/β-catenin, Hedgehog, and Notch) are summarized for their functions in self-renewal of cancer stem cells. The dietary compounds, including curcumin, sulforaphane, soy isoflavone, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, resveratrol, lycopene, piperine, and vitamin D3, are discussed for their direct or indirect effect on these self-renewal pathways. Curcumin and piperine have been demonstrated to target breast cancer stem cells. Sulforaphane has been reported to inhibit pancreatic tumor initiating cells and breast cancer stem cells. These studies provide a basis for preclinical and clinical evaluation of dietary compounds for chemoprevention of cancer stem cells. This may enable us to discover more preventive strategies for cancer management by reducing cancer resistance and recurrence and improving patient survival. PMID:21295962

  6. Cancer (stem) cell differentiation: An inherent or acquired property?

    PubMed

    Mohr, Marieke; Zänker, Kurt S; Dittmar, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing list of data indicating that cancer (stem) cells could functionally adapt foreign tissue features, such as endothelial-like cells or neuroendocrine cells, express lineage markers or could differentiate into various lineages in response to appropriate differentiation criteria. The finding that cancer (stem) cells may possess some kind of differentiation capacity poses the question whether this might be an inherent or acquired property. Cancer stem cells share stem cell characteristics and may thus possess an inherent differentiation capacity enabling the cells to respond to various differentiation stimuli. Considering the plasticity of cancer (stem) cells, even non-tumorigenic (and putatively non-differentiable) tumor cells could give rise to tumorigenic tumor stem cells, exhibiting stem cell characteristics including an inherent differentiation capacity. On the contrary, cancer (stem) cells may have acquired differentiation capacity as a consequence of a previous cell fusion event with cell types exhibiting differentiation potential and being fusogenic, such as macrophages or stem cells. Of pivotal interest in a tumor context are macrophages, which chiefly foster the chronically inflamed tumor microenvironment. Because chronically inflamed tissue is a well-known trigger for cell fusion and both macrophages and stem cells are highly fusogenic we conclude that cell fusion events between these cell types and cancer (stem) cells should frequently occur, thereby giving rise to hybrid cells exhibiting not only novel properties, like an enhanced metastatogenic phenotype, but also parental characteristics, such as differentiation capacity. Conceivably, the combination of both properties might be advantageous for metastasizing cancer (stem) cells to adapt better and faster to a foreign organ tissue environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dedifferentiation into blastomere-like cancer stem cells via formation of polyploid giant cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Niu, N; Mercado-Uribe, I; Liu, J

    2017-01-01

    Our recent perplexing findings that polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCCs) acquired embryonic-like stemness and were capable of tumor initiation raised two important unanswered questions: how do PGCCs acquire such stemness, and to which stage of normal development do PGCCs correspond. Intriguingly, formation of giant cells due to failed mitosis/cytokinesis is common in the blastomere stage of the preimplantation embryo. However, the relationship between PGCCs and giant blastomeres has never been studied. Here, we tracked the fate of single PGCCs following paclitaxel-induced mitotic failure. Morphologically, early spheroids derived from PGCCs were indistinguishable from human embryos at the blastomere, polyploid blastomere, compaction, morula and blastocyst-like stages by light, scanning electron or three-dimensional confocal scanning microscopy. Formation of PGCCs was associated with activation of senescence, while budding of daughter cells was associated with senescence escape. PGCCs showed time- and space-dependent activation of expression of the embryonic stem cell markers OCT4, NANOG, SOX2 and SSEA1 and lacked expression of Xist. PGCCs acquired mesenchymal phenotype and were capable of differentiation into all three germ layers in vitro. The embryonic-like stemness of PGCCs was associated with nuclear accumulation of YAP, a key mediator of the Hippo pathway. Spheroids derived from single PGCCs grew into a wide spectrum of human neoplasms, including germ cell tumors, high-grade and low-grade carcinomas and benign tissues. Daughter cells derived from PGCCs showed attenuated capacity for invasion and increased resistance to paclitaxel. We also observed formation of PGCCs and dedifferentiation in ovarian cancer specimens from patients treated with chemotherapy. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that PGCCs represent somatic equivalents of blastomeres, the most primitive cancer stem cells reported to date. Thus, our studies reveal an evolutionarily conserved

  8. Renal cell cancer and exposure to gasoline: a review.

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, J K

    1993-01-01

    A review of the epidemiology of renal cell cancer is presented. Risk factors for renal cell cancer such as cigarette smoking, obesity, diet, and use of analgesics and prescription diuretics are examined. Although uncommon, occupational risk factors are also reviewed. Studies examining gasoline exposure and renal cell cancer are evaluated, including investigations recently presented at a meeting on this topic. Overall, most studies find no link between gasoline exposure and renal cell cancer; moreover, the experimental evidence that initiated the health concern is no longer considered relevant to humans. Positive associations, however, reported in two recent studies prevent a firm conclusion of no risk for this exposure. PMID:8020434

  9. Contributions of 3D Cell Cultures for Cancer Research.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Maddaly; Ramesh, Aarthi; Pattabhi, Aishwarya

    2017-10-01

    Cancer cell lines have contributed immensely in understanding the complex physiology of cancers. They are excellent material for studies as they offer homogenous samples without individual variations and can be utilised with ease and flexibility. Also, the number of assays and end-points one can study is almost limitless; with the advantage of improvising, modifying or altering several variables and methods. Literally, a new dimension to cancer research has been achieved by the advent of 3Dimensional (3D) cell culture techniques. This approach increased many folds the ways in which cancer cell lines can be utilised for understanding complex cancer biology. 3D cell culture techniques are now the preferred way of using cancer cell lines to bridge the gap between the 'absolute in vitro' and 'true in vivo'. The aspects of cancer biology that 3D cell culture systems have contributed include morphology, microenvironment, gene and protein expression, invasion/migration/metastasis, angiogenesis, tumour metabolism and drug discovery, testing chemotherapeutic agents, adaptive responses and cancer stem cells. We present here, a comprehensive review on the applications of 3D cell culture systems for these aspects of cancers. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 2679-2697, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Stem Cell Transplantation in Treating Patients With Hematologic Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-05-31

    Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Graft Versus Host Disease; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Precancerous/Nonmalignant Condition; Small Intestine Cancer

  11. Delivery of therapeutics using nanocarriers for targeting cancer cells and cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Sangeetha; Ke, Xiyu; Yang, Yi Yan

    2015-01-01

    Development of cancer resistance, cancer relapse and metastasis are attributed to the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Eradication of this subpopulation has been shown to increase life expectancy of patients. Since the discovery of CSCs a decade ago, several strategies have been devised to specifically target them but with limited success. Nanocarriers have recently been employed to deliver anti-CSC therapeutics for reducing the population of CSCs at the tumor site with great success. This review discusses the different therapeutic strategies that have been employed using nanocarriers, their advantages, success in targeting CSCs and the challenges that are to be overcome. Exploiting this new modality of cancer treatment in the coming decade may improve outcomes profoundly with promise of effective treatment response and reducing relapse and metastasis.

  12. Adhesion between peptides/antibodies and breast cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, J.; Paetzell, E.; Bogorad, A.; Soboyejo, W. O.

    2010-06-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques were used to measure the adhesion forces between the receptors on breast cancer cells specific to human luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) peptides and antibodies specific to the EphA2 receptor. The adhesion forces between LHRH-coated AFM tips and human MDA-MB-231 cells (breast cancer cells) were shown to be about five times greater than those between LHRH-coated AFM tips and normal Hs578Bst breast cells. Similarly, those between EphA2 antibody-coated AFM tips and breast cancer cells were over five times greater than those between EphA2 antibody-coated AFM tips and normal breast cells. The results suggest that AFM can be used for the detection of breast cancer cells in biopsies. The implications of the results are also discussed for the early detection and localized treatment of cancer.

  13. Application of single-cell technology in cancer research.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shao-Bo; Fu, Li-Wu

    2017-07-01

    In this review, we have outlined the application of single-cell technology in cancer research. Single-cell technology has made encouraging progress in recent years and now provides the means to detect rare cancer cells such as circulating tumor cells and cancer stem cells. We reveal how this technology has advanced the analysis of intratumor heterogeneity and tumor epigenetics, and guided individualized treatment strategies. The future prospects now are to bring single-cell technology into the clinical arena. We believe that the clinical application of single-cell technology will be beneficial in cancer diagnostics and treatment, and ultimately improve survival in cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Differential MDR in Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Source: Sanofi -Aventis Grant Title: CMDRP Era of Hope Scholar Award BC044784 Breast Cancer Stem Cells: A Novel Therapeutic Target Role in Project Co...E.M. and Whiteside, T.L. “Processing of Tumors for Vaccine and/or Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes”, p. 817-819 in Rose, N.R., Conway de Macario, E...Counterparts, Ernst Schering Res Foundation Workshop, In Press. [14] E.M. Elder, T.L. Whiteside, Processing of tumors for vaccine and/or tumor

  15. Current opinion in germ cell cancer 2000.

    PubMed

    Oliver, R T

    2000-05-01

    Despite its relative rarity compared with the common adult cancers, scientific and clinical interest in germ cell cancer is increasing. From the point of view of epidemiology, the controversy about the relative importance of intrauterine versus postpubertal risk factors has continued. Evidence to support the importance of intrauterine factors comes from reports from Norway, Canada, and the US, confirming the Danish observation that the rising incidence of germ cell cancer is linked to a birth cohort effect; evidence in support of the importance of postpubertal risk comes from three case/control studies demonstrating increased risk linked to postpubertal exposures such as pesticides, plastics, electromagnetic radiation, trauma, and infections. There has been increasing interest in human endogenous retrovirus K10 as a possible factor explaining genetic susceptibility and providing a linkage between the two groups of risk factors. In cytogenetics, progress was reported in identifying the deletion point of the suspected tumor suppressor gene responsible for the i12p marker chromosome abnormality and development of FISH probes for diagnostic purposes. In molecular biology, the importance of DNA repair deficiency in normal germ cells as a factor in the exquisite chemosensitivity of germ cell cancer has been high-lighted by a report demonstrating a low level of the xeroderma pigmentosa group A (XPA) protein and induction of resistance in vitro by adding XPA. In the clinic, progress in positron emission tomography scanning and laparoscopic lymph node staging are leading to changes in outlook on management of stage 1 cases and patients with small residual masses postchemotherapy. Salvage chemotherapy regimens integrating dose dense and vertical dose intensification strategies reported 60% progression-free survival. New drugs such as gemcitabine demonstrated continued therapeutic potential for chemotherapy in these tumors. A report demonstrating the inadequacies of hormone

  16. High aldehyde dehydrogenase activity identifies cancer stem cells in human cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shu-Yan; Zheng, Peng-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    High aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity characterizes a subpopulation of cells with cancer stem cell (CSC) properties in several malignancies. To clarify whether ALDH can be used as a marker of cervical cancer stem cells (CCSCs), ALDHhigh and ALDHlow cells were sorted from 4 cervical cancer cell lines and 5 primary tumor xenografts and examined for CSC characteristics. Here, we demonstrate that cervical cancer cells with high ALDH activity fulfill the functional criteria for CSCs: (1) ALDHhigh cells, unlike ALDHlow cells, are highly tumorigenic in vivo; (2) ALDHhigh cells can give rise to both ALDHhigh and ALDHlow cells in vitro and in vivo, thereby establishing a cellular hierarchy; and (3) ALDHhigh cells have enhanced self-renewal and differentiation potentials. Additionally, ALDHhigh cervical cancer cells are more resistant to cisplatin treatment than ALDHlow cells. Finally, expression of the stem cell self-renewal-associated transcription factors OCT4, NANOG, KLF4 and BMI1 is elevated in ALDHhigh cervical cancer cells. Taken together, our data indicated that high ALDH activity may represent both a functional marker for CCSCs and a target for novel cervical cancer therapies. PMID:24318570

  17. Use of Cancer Stem Cells to Investigate the Pathogenesis of Colitis-associated Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Julie M.; Santaolalla, Rebeca

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Colitis-associated cancer (CAC) can develop in patients with inflammatory bowel disease with long-term uncontrolled inflammation. The mutational history and tumor microenvironment observed in CAC patients is distinct from that observed in sporadic colon cancer and suggests a different etiology. Recently, much attention has been focused on understanding the cellular origin of cancer and the cancer stem cells, which is key to growth and progression. Cancer stem cells are often chemo-resistant making them attractive targets for improving patient outcomes. New techniques have rapidly been evolving allowing for a better understanding of the normal intestinal stem cell function and behavior in the niche. Use of these new technologies will be crucial to understanding cancer stem cells in both sporadic and CAC. In this review, we will explore emerging methods related to the study of normal and cancer stem cells in the intestine, and examine potential avenues of investigation and application to understanding the pathogenesis of CAC. PMID:26963566

  18. Erlotinib Hydrochloride and Cetuximab in Treating Patients With Advanced Gastrointestinal Cancer, Head and Neck Cancer, Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, or Colorectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-28

    Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Carcinoma of the Appendix; Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Anal Cancer; Recurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Esophageal Cancer; Recurrent Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Small Intestine Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Small Intestine Adenocarcinoma; Small Intestine Leiomyosarcoma; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Stage IV Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Anal Cancer; Stage IV Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage IV Esophageal Cancer; Stage IV Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  19. Apoptosis Induction in Cancer Cells by Ultrasound Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Akihiro; Kawai, Kazuaki; Sato, Toshio; Nishimura, Hiroyuki; Kawashima, Norimichi; Takeuchi, Shinichi

    2004-05-01

    The methods of suppressing cancer cell proliferation by ultrasound exposure were investigated to develop a new minimally invasive cancer treatment. A stainless-steel diaphragm with a bolt-clamped Langevin-type transducer (BLT) was attached to the bottom of a water tank in the ultrasound exposure system used in this study. Cancer cells of a mouse T lymphoma (EL-4) in a flask were exposed to ultrasound under various conditions of exposure time, ultrasound frequency, ultrasound waveform, and so forth. The number of cancer cells exposed to ultrasound decreased during the culturing process. In this study, it was proved by electrophoresis, enzyme activity measurement and morphological observation that cancer cell proliferation can be suppressed by apoptosis induction in cancer cells by ultrasound exposure.

  20. Molecular Connections between Cancer Cell Metabolism and the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Justus, Calvin R.; Sanderlin, Edward J.; Yang, Li V.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells preferentially utilize glycolysis, instead of oxidative phosphorylation, for metabolism even in the presence of oxygen. This phenomenon of aerobic glycolysis, referred to as the “Warburg effect”, commonly exists in a variety of tumors. Recent studies further demonstrate that both genetic factors such as oncogenes and tumor suppressors and microenvironmental factors such as spatial hypoxia and acidosis can regulate the glycolytic metabolism of cancer cells. Reciprocally, altered cancer cell metabolism can modulate the tumor microenvironment which plays important roles in cancer cell somatic evolution, metastasis, and therapeutic response. In this article, we review the progression of current understandings on the molecular interaction between cancer cell metabolism and the tumor microenvironment. In addition, we discuss the implications of these interactions in cancer therapy and chemoprevention. PMID:25988385

  1. Epithelial stem cells and intestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shawna; Barker, Nick

    2015-06-01

    The mammalian intestine is comprised of an epithelial layer that serves multiple functions in order to maintain digestive activity as well as intestinal homeostasis. This epithelial layer contains highly proliferative stem cells which facilitate its characteristic rapid regeneration. How these stem cells contribute to tissue repair and normal homeostasis are actively studied, and while we have a greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms and cellular locations that underlie stem cell regulation in this tissue, much still remains undiscovered. This review describes epithelial stem cells in both intestinal and non-intestinal tissues, as well as the strategies that have been used to further characterize the cells. Through a discussion of the current understanding of intestinal self-renewal and tissue regeneration in response to injury, we focus on how dysregulation of critical signaling pathways results in potentially oncogenic aberrations, and highlight issues that should be addressed in order for effective intestinal cancer therapies to be devised. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemoradiotherapy for esophageal squamous cell cancer.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yusuke; Kato, Ken

    2016-09-01

    Chemoradiotherapy has been clinically indicated for patients with resectable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma who refuse surgical resection and in locally advanced unresectable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy prolongs survival than radiation therapy alone when given as definitive treatment. Therefore, chemoradiotherapy is recognized as the standard non-invasive treatment for patients with localized esophageal cancer who opt for non-surgical treatment. JCOG9906 showed promising outcomes for stage II/III ESCC patients. But there are some problems about chemoradiotherapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Late toxicities are sometimes lethal for patients who achieved complete response even after years. Salvage treatment for residual or recurrent disease is unestablished. Modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group regimen at the dose of 50.4 Gy reduced late toxicities without reducing efficacy. Optimal timings and procedure of salvage surgery and endoscopic therapy is evaluated in JCOG0909. Strategy including salvage therapy after chemoradiotherapy should be considered at the time of starting the treatment. Targeted therapy has not shown adding effect for chemoradiotherapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma yet. New agents, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, are expected to show synergistic effect with chemoradiotherapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Further investigation is needed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Enrichment and characterization of cancer stem cells from a human non-small cell lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Changhong; Setrerrahmane, Sarra; Xu, Hanmei

    2015-10-01

    Tumor cells from the same origin comprise different cell populations. Among them, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have higher tumorigenicity. It is necessary to enrich CSCs to determine an effective way to suppress and eliminate them. In the present study, using the non-adhesive culture system, tumor spheres were successfully generated from human A549 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line within 2 weeks. Compared to A549 adherent cells, sphere cells had a higher self-renewal ability and increased resistance to cytotoxic drugs. Sphere cells were more invasive and expressed stem cell markers including octamer‑binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4) and sex-determining region Y-box 2 (Sox2) at high levels. CD133, a disputed marker of lung CSCs, was also upregulated. Tumor sphere cells showed higher tumorigenic ability in vivo, indicating that more CSCs were enriched in the sphere cells. More blood vessels were formed in the tumor generated by sphere cells suggesting the interaction between CSCs and blood vessel. A reliable model of enriching CSCs from the human A549 NSCLC cell line was established that was simple and cost-effective compared to other methods.

  4. Dihydroartemisinin is an inhibitor of ovarian cancer cell growth.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yang; Ge, Chun-min; Meng, Qing-hui; Cao, Jian-ping; Tong, Jian; Fan, Sai-jun

    2007-07-01

    To investigate the anticancer activity of dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a derivative of antimalaria drug artemisinin in a panel of human ovarian cancer cell lines. Cell growth was determined by the MTT viability assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle progression were evaluated by a DNA fragmentation gel electro-phoresis, flow cytometry assay, and TUNEL assay; protein and mRNA expression were analyzed by Western blotting and RT-PCR assay. Artemisinin and its derivatives, including artesunate, arteether, artemether, arteannuin, and DHA, exhibit anticancer growth activities in human ovarian cancer cells. Among them, DHA is the most effective in inhibiting cell growth. Ovarian cancer cell lines are more sensitive (5-10-fold) to DHA treatment compared to normal ovarian cell lines. DHA at micromolar dose levels exhibits a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity in ovarian cancer cell lines. Furthermore, DHA induced apoptosis and G2 cell cycle arrest, accompanied by a decrease of Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 and an increase of Bax and Bad. The promising results show for the first time that DHA inhibits the growth of human ovarian cancer cells. The selective inhibition of ovarian cancer cell growth, apoptosis induction, and G2 arrest provide in vitro evidence for further studies of DHA as a possible anticancer drug in the clinical treatment of ovarian cancer.

  5. Tumor microenvironment derived exosomes pleiotropically modulate cancer cell metabolism

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a major cellular component of tumor microenvironment in most solid cancers. Altered cellular metabolism is a hallmark of cancer, and much of the published literature has focused on neoplastic cell-autonomous processes for these adaptations. We demonstrate tha...

  6. Protective mechanism against cancer found in progeria patient cells

    Cancer.gov

    NCI scientists have studied cells of patients with an extremely rare genetic disease that is characterized by drastic premature aging and discovered a new protective cellular mechanism against cancer. They found that cells from patients with Hutchinson Gi

  7. Low Blood Cell Counts: Side Effect of Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... and, in particular, a low level of neutrophils (neutropenia), a type of white blood cell that fights ... Cancer Institute, 2011 Low white blood cell count Fever higher than 100.5 F (38 C) Chills ...

  8. 3D cancer cell migration in a confined matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alobaidi, Amani; Sun, Bo

    Cancer cell migration is widely studied in 2D motion, which does not mimic the invasion processes in vivo. More recently, 3D cell migration studies have been performed. The ability of cancer cells to migrate within the extracellular matrix depends on the physical and biochemical features of the extracellular matrix. We present a model of cell motility in confined matrix geometry. The aim of the study is to study cancer migration in collagen matrix, as a soft tissue, to investigate their motility within the confined and surrounding collagen environment. Different collagen concentrations have been used to show the ability of these cancer cells to move through such a complex structure by measuring Cancer cell migration velocity as well as the displacement. Graduate student physics department.

  9. Trespassing cancer cells: 'fingerprinting' invasive protrusions reveals metastatic culprits.

    PubMed

    Klemke, Richard L

    2012-10-01

    Metastatic cancer cells produce invasive membrane protrusions called invadopodia and pseudopodia, which play a central role in driving cancer cell dissemination in the body. Malignant cells use these structures to attach to and degrade extracellular matrix proteins, generate force for cell locomotion, and to penetrate the vasculature. Recent work using unique subcellular fractionation methodologies combined with spatial genomic, proteomic, and phosphoproteomic profiling has provided insight into the invadopodiome and pseudopodiome signaling networks that control the protrusion of invasive membranes. Here I highlight how these powerful spatial 'omics' approaches reveal important signatures of metastatic cancer cells and possible new therapeutic targets aimed at treating metastatic disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Advances in evidence-based cancer adoptive cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Ge, Chunlei; Li, Ruilei; Song, Xin; Qin, Shukui

    2017-04-01

    Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) has been developed in cancer treatment by transferring/infusing immune cells into cancer patients, which are able to recognize, target, and destroy tumor cells. Recently, sipuleucel-T and genetically-modified T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) show a great potential to control metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer and hematologic malignancies in clinic. This review summarized some of the major evidence-based ACT and the challenges to improve cell quality and reduce the side effects in the field. This review also provided future research directions to make sure ACT widely available in clinic.

  11. Selective in vivo metabolic cell-labeling-mediated cancer targeting

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Wang, Ruibo; Cai, Kaimin; He, Hua; Liu, Yang; Yen, Jonathan; Wang, Zhiyu; Xu, Ming; Sun, Yiwen; Zhou, Xin; Yin, Qian; Tang, Li; Dobrucki, Iwona T; Dobrucki, Lawrence W; Chaney, Eric J; Boppart, Stephen A; Fan, Timothy M; Lezmi, Stéphane; Chen, Xuesi; Yin, Lichen; Cheng, Jianjun

    2017-01-01

    Distinguishing cancer cells from normal cells through surface receptors is vital for cancer diagnosis and targeted therapy. Metabolic glycoengineering of unnatural sugars provides a powerful tool to manually introduce chemical receptors onto the cell surface; however, cancer-selective labeling still remains a great challenge. Herein we report the design of sugars that can selectively label cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, we inhibit the cell-labeling activity of tetraacetyl-N-azidoacetylmannosamine (Ac4ManAz) by converting its anomeric acetyl group to a caged ether bond that can be selectively cleaved by cancer-overexpressed enzymes and thus enables the overexpression of azido groups on the surface of cancer cells. Histone deacetylase and cathepsin L-responsive acetylated azidomannosamine, one such enzymatically activatable Ac4ManAz analog developed, mediated cancer-selective labeling in vivo, which enhanced tumor accumulation of a dibenzocyclooctyne–doxorubicin conjugate via click chemistry and enabled targeted therapy against LS174T colon cancer, MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer and 4T1 metastatic breast cancer in mice. PMID:28192414

  12. Inhibitory effect of Disulfiram/copper complex on non-small cell lung cancer cells

    SciT

    Duan, Lincan; Shen, Hongmei; Zhao, Guangqiang

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Disulfiram and copper synergistically inhibit lung cancer cell proliferation. • Lung cancer cell colony formation ability is inhibited by Disulfiram/copper. • Disulfiram/copper increases the sensitivity of cisplatin to lung cancer cells. • Lung cancer stem cells are specifically targeted by Disulfiram/copper complex. - Abstract: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common cause of cancer-related death in both men and women worldwide. Recently, Disulfiram has been reported to be able to inhibit glioblastoma, prostate, or breast cancer cell proliferation. In this study, the synergistic effect of Disulfiram and copper on NSCLC cell growth was investigated. Inhibition ofmore » cancer cell proliferation was detected by 1-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3,5-diphenylformazan (MTT) assay and cell cycle analysis. Liquid colony formation and tumor spheroid formation assays were used to evaluate their effect on cancer cell clonogenicity. Real-time PCR was performed to test the mRNA level of cancer stem cell related genes. We found that Disulfiram or copper alone did not potently inhibit NSCLC cell proliferation in vitro. However, the presence of copper significantly enhanced inhibitory effect of Disulfiram on NSCLC cell growth, indicating a synergistic effect between Disulfiram and copper. Cell cycle analysis showed that Disulfiram/copper complex caused NSCLC cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. Furthermore, Disulfiram/copper significantly increased the sensitivity of cisplatin in NSCLC cells tested by MTT assay. Liquid colony formation assay revealed that copper dramatically increased the inhibitory effect of Disulfiram on NSCLC cell colony forming ability. Disulfiram combined with copper significantly attenuated NSCLC cell spheroid formation and recuded the mRNA expression of lung cancer stem cell related genes. Our data suggest that Disulfiram/copper complex alone or combined with other chemotherapy is a potential therapeutic strategy for NSCLC

  13. Cancer microenvironment, inflammation and cancer stem cells: A hypothesis for a paradigm change and new targets in cancer control

    PubMed Central

    Blaylock, Russell L.

    2015-01-01

    Since President Nixon officially declared a war on cancer with the National Cancer Act, billions of dollars have been spent on research in hopes of finding a cure for cancer. Recent reviews have pointed out that over the ensuing 42 years, cancer death rates have barely changed for the major cancers. Recently, several researchers have questioned the prevailing cancer paradigm based on recent discoveries concerning the mechanism of carcinogenesis and the origins of cancer. Over the past decade we have learned a great deal concerning both of these central issues. Cell signaling has taken center stage, particularly as regards the links between chronic inflammation and cancer development. It is now evident that the common factor among a great number of carcinogenic agents is activation of genes controlling inflammation cell-signaling pathways and that these signals control all aspects of the cancer process. Of these pathways, the most important and common to all cancers is the NFκB and STAT3 pathways. The second discovery of critical importance is that mutated stem cells appear to be in charge of the cancer process. Most chemotherapy agents and radiotherapy kill daughter cells of the cancer stem cell, many of which are not tumorigenic themselves. Most cancer stem cells are completely resistant to conventional treatments, which explain dormancy and the poor cure rate with metastatic tumors. A growing number of studies are finding that several polyphenol extracts can kill cancer stem cells as well as daughter cells and can enhance the effectiveness and safety of conventional treatments. These new discoveries provide the clinician with a whole new set of targets for cancer control and cure. PMID:26097771

  14. Investigation of MACC1 Gene Expression in Head and Neck Cancer and Cancer Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Evran, Ebru; Şahin, Hilal; Akbaş, Kübra; Çiğdem, Sadik; Gündüz, Esra

    2016-12-01

    By investigating the MACC1 gene (metastasis-associated in colon cancer 1) in cancer stem cells (CSC) resistant to chemotherapy and in cancer stem cells (CSC) resistant to chemotherapy and in cancer cells (CS) sensitive to chemotherapy we determineda steady expression in both types of cells in head and neck cancer. In conformity with the result we examined if this gene could be a competitor gene for chemotherapy. According to literature, the MACC1 gene shows a clear expression in head and neck cancer cells [1]. Here we examined MACC1 expression in CSC and investigated it as a possible biomarker. Our experiments were performed in the UT -SCC -74 in primary head and neck cancer cell line. We examined the MACC -1 gene expression by Real Time PCR from both isolated CSC and CS. Expression of MACC -1 gene of cancer stem cells showed an two-fold increase compared with cancer cells. Based on the positive expression of MACC1 in both CS and CSC, this gene may serve as a potential biomarker in head and neck cancer. By comparing the results of this study with the novel features of MACC1, two important hypotheses could be examined. The first hypothesis is that MACC1 is a possible transcripton factor in colon cancer, which influences a high expression of CSC in head and neck and affects the expression of three biomarkers of the CSC control group biomarkers. The second hypothesisis is that the positive expression of MACC1 in patients with a malignant prognosis of tongue cancer, which belongs to head and neck cancer types, operates a faster development of CSC to cancer cells.

  15. Xylitol induces cell death in lung cancer A549 cells by autophagy.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunjoo; Park, Mi Hee; Na, Hee Sam; Chung, Jin

    2015-05-01

    Xylitol is a widely used anti-caries agent that has anti-inflammatory effects. We have evaluated the potential of xylitol in cancer treatment. It's effects on cell proliferation and cytotoxicity were measured by MTT assay and LDH assay. Cell morphology and autophagy were examined by immunostaining and immunoblotting. Xylitol inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in these cancer cells: A549, Caki, NCI-H23, HCT-15, HL-60, K562, and SK MEL-2. The IC50 of xylitol in human gingival fibroblast cells was higher than in cancer cells, indicating that it is more specific for cancer cells. Moreover, xylitol induced autophagy in A549 cells that was inhibited by 3-methyladenine, an autophagy inhibitor. These results indicate that xylitol has potential in therapy against lung cancer by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing autophagy of A549 cells.

  16. Definition of molecular determinants of prostate cancer cell bone extravasation.

    PubMed

    Barthel, Steven R; Hays, Danielle L; Yazawa, Erika M; Opperman, Matthew; Walley, Kempland C; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Burdick, Monica M; Gillard, Bryan M; Moser, Michael T; Pantel, Klaus; Foster, Barbara A; Pienta, Kenneth J; Dimitroff, Charles J

    2013-01-15

    Advanced prostate cancer commonly metastasizes to bone, but transit of malignant cells across the bone marrow endothelium (BMEC) remains a poorly understood step in metastasis. Prostate cancer cells roll on E-selectin(+) BMEC through E-selectin ligand-binding interactions under shear flow, and prostate cancer cells exhibit firm adhesion to BMEC via β1, β4, and αVβ3 integrins in static assays. However, whether these discrete prostate cancer cell-BMEC adhesive contacts culminate in cooperative, step-wise transendothelial migration into bone is not known. Here, we describe how metastatic prostate cancer cells breach BMEC monolayers in a step-wise fashion under physiologic hemodynamic flow. Prostate cancer cells tethered and rolled on BMEC and then firmly adhered to and traversed BMEC via sequential dependence on E-selectin ligands and β1 and αVβ3 integrins. Expression analysis in human metastatic prostate cancer tissue revealed that β1 was markedly upregulated compared with expression of other β subunits. Prostate cancer cell breaching was regulated by Rac1 and Rap1 GTPases and, notably, did not require exogenous chemokines as β1, αVβ3, Rac1, and Rap1 were constitutively active. In homing studies, prostate cancer cell trafficking to murine femurs was dependent on E-selectin ligand, β1 integrin, and Rac1. Moreover, eliminating E-selectin ligand-synthesizing α1,3 fucosyltransferases in transgenic adenoma of mouse prostate mice dramatically reduced prostate cancer incidence. These results unify the requirement for E-selectin ligands, α1,3 fucosyltransferases, β1 and αVβ3 integrins, and Rac/Rap1 GTPases in mediating prostate cancer cell homing and entry into bone and offer new insight into the role of α1,3 fucosylation in prostate cancer development.

  17. Colorectal cancer cells suppress CD4+ T cells immunity through canonical Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuan; Liu, Suoning; Wang, Daguang; Zhang, Yang; Li, Wei; Guo, Yuchen; Zhang, Hua; Suo, Jian

    2017-02-28

    Understanding how colorectal cancer escapes from immunosurveillance and immune attack is important for developing novel immunotherapies for colorectal cancer. In this study we evaluated the role of canonical Wnt signaling in the regulation of T cell function in a mouse colorectal cancer model. We found that colorectal cancer cells expressed abundant Wnt ligands, and intratumoral T cells expressed various Frizzled proteins. Meanwhile, both active β-catenin and total β-catenin were elevated in intratumoral T cells. In vitro study indicated that colorectal cancer cells suppressed IFN-γ expression and increased IL-17a expression in activated CD4+ T cells. However, the cytotoxic activity of CD8+ T cells was not altered by colorectal cancer cells. To further evaluate the importance of Wnt signaling for CD4+ T cell-mediated cancer immunity, β-catenin expression was enforced in CD4+ T cells using lentiviral transduction. In an adoptive transfer model, enforced expression of β-catenin in intratumoral CD4+ T cells increased IL-17a expression, enhanced proliferation and inhibited apoptosis of colorectal cancer cells. Taken together, our study disclosed a new mechanism by which colorectal cancer impairs T cell immunity.

  18. Cytokines in immunogenic cell death: Applications for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Showalter, Anne; Limaye, Arati; Oyer, Jeremiah L; Igarashi, Robert; Kittipatarin, Christina; Copik, Alicja J; Khaled, Annette R

    2017-09-01

    Despite advances in treatments like chemotherapy and radiotherapy, metastatic cancer remains a leading cause of death for cancer patients. While many chemotherapeutic agents can efficiently eliminate cancer cells, long-term protection against cancer is not achieved and many patients experience cancer recurrence. Mobilizing and stimulating the immune system against tumor cells is one of the most effective ways to protect against cancers that recur and/or metastasize. Activated tumor specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) can seek out and destroy metastatic tumor cells and reduce tumor lesions. Natural Killer (NK) cells are a front-line defense against drug-resistant tumors and can provide tumoricidal activity to enhance tumor immune surveillance. Cytokines like IFN-γ or TNF play a crucial role in creating an immunogenic microenvironment and therefore are key players in the fight against metastatic cancer. To this end, a group of anthracyclines or treatments like photodynamic therapy (PDT) exert their effects on cancer cells in a manner that activates the immune system. This process, known as immunogenic cell death (ICD), is characterized by the release of membrane-bound and soluble factors that boost the function of immune cells. This review will explore different types of ICD inducers, some in clinical trials, to demonstrate that optimizing the cytokine response brought about by treatments with ICD-inducing agents is central to promoting anti-cancer immunity that provides long-lasting protection against disease recurrence and metastasis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Implications of cancer stem cell theory for cancer chemoprevention by natural dietary compounds.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanyan; Wicha, Max S; Schwartz, Steven J; Sun, Duxin

    2011-09-01

    The emergence of cancer stem cell theory has profound implications for cancer chemoprevention and therapy. Cancer stem cells give rise to the tumor bulk through continuous self-renewal and differentiation. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate self-renewal is of greatest importance for discovery of anticancer drugs targeting cancer stem cells. Naturally occurring dietary compounds have received increasing attention in cancer chemoprevention. The anticancer effects of many dietary components have been reported for both in vitro and in vivo studies. Recently, a number of studies have found that several dietary compounds can directly or indirectly affect cancer stem cell self-renewal pathways. Herein we review the current knowledge of most common natural dietary compounds for their impact on self-renewal pathways and potential effect against cancer stem cells. Three pathways (Wnt/β-catenin, Hedgehog and Notch) are summarized for their functions in self-renewal of cancer stem cells. The dietary compounds, including curcumin, sulforaphane, soy isoflavone, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, resveratrol, lycopene, piperine and vitamin D(3), are discussed for their direct or indirect effect on these self-renewal pathways. Curcumin and piperine have been demonstrated to target breast cancer stem cells. Sulforaphane has been reported to inhibit pancreatic tumor-initiating cells and breast cancer stem cells. These studies provide a basis for preclinical and clinical evaluation of dietary compounds for chemoprevention of cancer stem cells. This may enable us to discover more preventive strategies for cancer management by reducing cancer resistance and recurrence and improving patient survival. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of side population in thyroid cancer cell lines: cancer stem-like cells are enriched partly but not exclusively.

    PubMed

    Mitsutake, Norisato; Iwao, Atsuhiko; Nagai, Kazuhiro; Namba, Hiroyuki; Ohtsuru, Akira; Saenko, Vladimir; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2007-04-01

    There is increasing evidence that cancers contain their own stem-like cells called cancer stem cells (CSCs). A small subset of cells, termed side population (SP), has been identified using flow cytometric analysis. The SP cells have the ability to exclude the DNA binding dye, Hoechst33342, and are highly enriched for stem cells in many kinds of normal tissues. Because CSCs are thought to be drug resistant, SP cells in cancers might contain CSCs. We initially examined the presence of SP cells in several human thyroid cancer cell lines. A small percentage of SP cells were found in ARO (0.25%), FRO (0.1%), NPA (0.06%), and WRO (0.02%) cells but not TPC1 cells. After sorting, the SP cells generated both SP and non-SP cells in culture. The clonogenic ability of SP cells was significantly higher than that of non-SP cells. Moreover, the SP prevalence was dependent on cell density in culture, suggesting that SP cells preferentially survived at lower cell density. Microarray experiment revealed differential gene expression profile between SP and non-SP cells, and several genes related to stemness were up-regulated. However, non-SP population also contained cells that were tumorigenic in nude mice, and non-SP cells generated a small number of SP cells. These results suggest that cancer stem-like cells are partly, but not exclusively, enriched in SP population. Clarifying the key tumorigenic population might contribute to the establishment of a novel therapy for thyroid cancer.

  1. Identification of a distinct population of CD133+CXCR4+ cancer stem cells in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cioffi, Michele; D’Alterio, Crescenzo; Camerlingo, Rosalba; Tirino, Virginia; Consales, Claudia; Riccio, Anna; Ieranò, Caterina; Cecere, Sabrina Chiara; Losito, Nunzia Simona; Greggi, Stefano; Pignata, Sandro; Pirozzi, Giuseppe; Scala, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    CD133 and CXCR4 were evaluated in the NCI-60 cell lines to identify cancer stem cell rich populations. Screening revealed that, ovarian OVCAR-3, -4 and -5 and colon cancer HT-29, HCT-116 and SW620 over expressed both proteins. We aimed to isolate cells with stem cell features sorting the cells expressing CXCR4+CD133+ within ovarian cancer cell lines. The sorted population CD133+CXCR4+ demonstrated the highest efficiency in sphere formation in OVCAR-3, OVCAR-4 and OVCAR-5 cells. Moreover OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and NANOG were highly expressed in CD133+CXCR4+ sorted OVCAR-5 cells. Most strikingly CXCR4+CD133+ sorted OVCAR-5 and -4 cells formed the highest number of tumors when inoculated in nude mice compared to CD133−CXCR4−, CD133+CXCR4−, CD133−CXCR4+ cells. CXCR4+CD133+ OVCAR-5 cells were resistant to cisplatin, overexpressed the ABCG2 surface drug transporter and migrated toward the CXCR4 ligand, CXCL12. Moreover, when human ovarian cancer cells were isolated from 37 primary ovarian cancer, an extremely variable level of CXCR4 and CD133 expression was detected. Thus, in human ovarian cancer cells CXCR4 and CD133 expression identified a discrete population with stem cell properties that regulated tumor development and chemo resistance. This cell population represents a potential therapeutic target. PMID:26020117

  2. Microscopic FTIR studies of lung cancer cells in pleural fluid.

    PubMed

    Wang, H P; Wang, H C; Huang, Y J

    1997-10-01

    Structural changes associated with lung cancer and tuberculous cells in pleural fluid were studied by microscopic FTIR spectroscopy. Infrared spectra demonstrate significant spectral differences between normal, lung cancer and tuberculous cells. The ratio of the peak intensities of the 1030 and 1080 cm-1 bands (originated mainly in glycogen and phosphodiester groups of nucleic acids) differs greatly between normal and lung cancer samples. Such findings prompt the consideration that recording infrared spectra from lung cancer and tuberculous cells may be of diagnostic value. Since measurements of IR spectra of lung cancer cells in the pleural fluid can be a very rapid inexpensive process, our finding warrant exploration of this possibility in the investigation of the mechanism whereby the environmental pollution related cancers develop.

  3. Dynamics of Cancer Cell near Collagen Fiber Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jihan; Sun, Bo

    Cell migration is an integrated process that is important in life. Migration is essential for embryonic development as well as homeostatic processes such as wound healing and immune responses. When cell migrates through connective extracellular matrix (ECM), it applies cellular traction force to ECM and senses the rigidity of their local environment. We used human breast cancer cell (MDA-MB-231) which is highly invasive and applies strong traction force to ECM. As cancer cell applies traction force to type I collage-based ECM, it deforms collagen fibers near the surface. Patterns of deforming collagen fibers are significantly different with pairs of cancer cells compared to a single cancer cell. While a pair of cancer cells within 60 um creates aligned collagen fiber chains between them permanently, a single cancer cell does not form any fiber chains. In this experiment we measured a cellular response and an interaction between a pair of cells through the chain. Finally, we analyzed correlation of directions between cancer cell migration and the collagen chain alignment.

  4. Prostate cancer stem cells: from theory to practice.

    PubMed

    Adamowicz, Jan; Pakravan, Katayoon; Bakhshinejad, Babak; Drewa, Tomasz; Babashah, Sadegh

    2017-04-01

    None of the generally accepted theories on prostate cancer development can fully explain many distinguishing features of the disease, such as intratumoral heterogeneity, metastatic growth, drug resistance and tumor relapse. Prostate stem cells are a heterogeneous and small subpopulation of self-renewing cells which can actively proliferate in response to changes in the androgen level and give rise to all the cell lineages that build the prostate epithelium. According to the cancer stem cell hypothesis, prostate cancer could be a stem cell disease. Prostate cancer stem cells, which represent only a minimal percentage of the tumor mass, are characterized by a markedly increased clonogenicity and therapeutic resistance. These tumor-initiating cells reside in dynamic niches distributed within the prostate but at a higher concentration in proximal regions of the prostatic ducts. Several markers have been used to identify prostate cancer stem cells. Nevertheless, a definitive profile has not yet been established owing to specificity issues. As cancer stem cells play determining roles in the birth and burst of prostate malignancy, strategies that selectively target them have gained huge clinical attention. Unraveling the mechanisms underlying the physiological functions of cancer stem cells and gaining fundamental insights into their putative involvement in the pathogenesis of prostate tumors provide novel opportunities for the development of efficient and sophisticated therapeutic strategies in the future.

  5. How does metabolism affect cell death in cancer?

    PubMed

    Villa, Elodie; Ricci, Jean-Ehrland

    2016-07-01

    In cancer research, identifying a specificity of tumor cells compared with 'normal' proliferating cells for targeted therapy is often considered the Holy Grail for researchers and clinicians. Although diverse in origin, most cancer cells share characteristics including the ability to escape cell death mechanisms and the utilization of different methods of energy production. In the current paradigm, aerobic glycolysis is considered the central metabolic characteristic of cancer cells (Warburg effect). However, recent data indicate that cancer cells also show significant changes in other metabolic pathways. Indeed, it was recently suggested that Kreb's cycle, pentose phosphate pathway intermediates, and essential and nonessential amino acids have key roles. Renewed interest in the fact that cancer cells have to reprogram their metabolism in order to proliferate or resist treatment must take into consideration the ability of tumor cells to adapt their metabolism to the local microenvironment (low oxygen, low nutrients). This variety of metabolic sources might be either a strength, resulting in infinite possibilities for adaptation and increased ability to resist chemotherapy-induced death, or a weakness that could be targeted to kill cancer cells. Here, we discuss recent insights showing how energetic metabolism may regulate cell death and how this might be relevant for cancer treatment. © 2015 FEBS.

  6. Adherence to Survivorship Care Guidelines in Health Care Providers for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Colorectal Cancer Survivor Care

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-05

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage I Colon Cancer; Stage I Rectal Cancer; Stage IA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

  7. GTI-2040 and Docetaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent, Metastatic, or Unresectable Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Prostate Cancer, or Other Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-23

    Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Prostate Cancer; Stage III Prostate Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Prostate Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  8. Identifying Tumor Progenitor Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    All cells within a tumor are not identical. In fact, only a small subset appears to be capable of actually generating the tumor. These tumor-initiating cells tend to resemble normal stem cells, which have the unique ability to give rise to differentiated cells while simultaneously producing additional undifferentiated stem cells. Most chemotherapeutics affect the bulk of a tumor but spare the stem-like cells, allowing the tumor to re-grow once chemotherapy is stopped. If, however, the cancer-initiating cells could be successfully targeted, cancer recurrence could be prevented.

  9. Reliable in vitro studies require appropriate ovarian cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer death in women and the leading cause of death from gynaecological malignancies. Of the 75% women diagnosed with locally advanced or disseminated disease, only 30% will survive five years following treatment. This poor prognosis is due to the following reasons: limited understanding of the tumor origin, unclear initiating events and early developmental stages of ovarian cancer, lack of reliable ovarian cancer-specific biomarkers, and drug resistance in advanced cases. In the past, in vitro studies using cell line models have been an invaluable tool for basic, discovery-driven cancer research. However, numerous issues including misidentification and cross-contamination of cell lines have hindered research efforts. In this study we examined all ovarian cancer cell lines available from cell banks. Hereby, we identified inconsistencies in the reporting, difficulties in the identification of cell origin or clinical data of the donor patients, restricted ethnic and histological type representation, and a lack of tubal and peritoneal cancer cell lines. We recommend that all cell lines should be distributed via official cell banks only with strict guidelines regarding the minimal available information required to improve the quality of ovarian cancer research in future. PMID:24936210

  10. Epirubicin-Adsorbed Nanodiamonds Kill Chemoresistant Hepatic Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chemoresistance is a primary cause of treatment failure in cancer and a common property of tumor-initiating cancer stem cells. Overcoming mechanisms of chemoresistance, particularly in cancer stem cells, can markedly enhance cancer therapy and prevent recurrence and metastasis. This study demonstrates that the delivery of Epirubicin by nanodiamonds is a highly effective nanomedicine-based approach to overcoming chemoresistance in hepatic cancer stem cells. The potent physical adsorption of Epirubicin to nanodiamonds creates a rapidly synthesized and stable nanodiamond–drug complex that promotes endocytic uptake and enhanced tumor cell retention. These attributes mediate the effective killing of both cancer stem cells and noncancer stem cells in vitro and in vivo. Enhanced treatment of both tumor cell populations results in an improved impairment of secondary tumor formation in vivo compared with treatment by unmodified chemotherapeutics. On the basis of these results, nanodiamond-mediated drug delivery may serve as a powerful method for overcoming chemoresistance in cancer stem cells and markedly improving overall treatment against hepatic cancers. PMID:25437772

  11. Renal cell cancer among African Americans: an epidemiologic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Incidence rates for renal cell cancer, which accounts for 85% of kidney cancers, have been rising more rapidly among blacks than whites, almost entirely accounted for by an excess of localized disease. This excess dates back to the 1970s, despite less access among blacks to imaging procedures in the past. In contrast, mortality rates for this cancer have been virtually identical among blacks and whites since the early 1990s, despite the fact that nephrectomy rates, regardless of stage, are lower among blacks than among whites. These observations suggest that renal cell cancer may be a less aggressive tumor in blacks. We have reviewed the epidemiology of renal cell cancer, with emphasis on factors which may potentially play a role in the observed differences in incidence and mortality patterns of renal cell cancer among blacks and whites. To date, the factors most consistently, albeit modestly, associated with increased renal cell cancer risk in epidemiologic studies among whites - obesity, hypertension, cigarette smoking - likely account for less than half of these cancers, and there is virtually no epidemiologic evidence in the literature pertaining to their association with renal cell cancer among blacks. There is a long overdue need for detailed etiologic cohort and case-control studies of renal cell cancer among blacks, as they now represent the population at highest risk in the United States. In particular, investigation of the influence on renal cell cancer development of hypertension and chronic kidney disease, both of which occur substantially more frequently among blacks, is warranted, as well as investigations into the biology and natural history of this cancer among blacks. PMID:21486465

  12. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Based Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-13-1-0304 TITLE: Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Therapy for Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: John Isaacs CONTRACTING...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Therapy for Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0304 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...effective therapy for castrate resistant metastatic prostate cancer (CRPC). Based upon a substantial published literature from multiple groups, as well as

  13. Comparative proteomics analysis of oral cancer cell lines: identification of cancer associated proteins

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A limiting factor in performing proteomics analysis on cancerous cells is the difficulty in obtaining sufficient amounts of starting material. Cell lines can be used as a simplified model system for studying changes that accompany tumorigenesis. This study used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) to compare the whole cell proteome of oral cancer cell lines vs normal cells in an attempt to identify cancer associated proteins. Results Three primary cell cultures of normal cells with a limited lifespan without hTERT immortalization have been successfully established. 2DE was used to compare the whole cell proteome of these cells with that of three oral cancer cell lines. Twenty four protein spots were found to have changed in abundance. MALDI TOF/TOF was then used to determine the identity of these proteins. Identified proteins were classified into seven functional categories – structural proteins, enzymes, regulatory proteins, chaperones and others. IPA core analysis predicted that 18 proteins were related to cancer with involvements in hyperplasia, metastasis, invasion, growth and tumorigenesis. The mRNA expressions of two proteins – 14-3-3 protein sigma and Stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1 – were found to correlate with the corresponding proteins’ abundance. Conclusions The outcome of this analysis demonstrated that a comparative study of whole cell proteome of cancer versus normal cell lines can be used to identify cancer associated proteins. PMID:24422745

  14. Non-immune cells equipped with T cell receptor-like signaling for cancer cell ablation

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Ryosuke; Scheller, Leo; Fussenegger, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The ability to engineer custom cell-contact-sensing output devices into human non-immune cells would be useful for extending the applicability of cell-based cancer therapies and avoiding risks associated with engineered immune cells. Here, we have developed a new class of synthetic T-cell receptor-like signal-transduction device that functions efficiently in human non-immune cells and triggers release of output molecules specifically upon sensing contact with a target cell. This device employs an interleukin signaling cascade, whose OFF/ON switching is controlled by biophysical segregation of a transmembrane signal-inhibitory protein from the sensor cell/target cell interface. We further showed that designer non-immune cells equipped with this device driving expression of a membrane-penetrator/prodrug-activating enzyme construct could specifically kill target cells in the presence of the prodrug, indicating its potential usefulness for target-cell-specific, cell-based enzyme-prodrug cancer therapy. Our study also contributes to advancement of synthetic biology by extending available design principles to transmit extracellular information to cells. PMID:29131143

  15. Hybrid clone cells derived from human breast epithelial cells and human breast cancer cells exhibit properties of cancer stem/initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Gauck, Daria; Keil, Silvia; Niggemann, Bernd; Zänker, Kurt S; Dittmar, Thomas

    2017-08-02

    The biological phenomenon of cell fusion has been associated with cancer progression since it was determined that normal cell × tumor cell fusion-derived hybrid cells could exhibit novel properties, such as enhanced metastatogenic capacity or increased drug resistance, and even as a mechanism that could give rise to cancer stem/initiating cells (CS/ICs). CS/ICs have been proposed as cancer cells that exhibit stem cell properties, including the ability to (re)initiate tumor growth. Five M13HS hybrid clone cells, which originated from spontaneous cell fusion events between M13SV1-EGFP-Neo human breast epithelial cells and HS578T-Hyg human breast cancer cells, and their parental cells were analyzed for expression of stemness and EMT-related marker proteins by Western blot analysis and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The frequency of ALDH1-positive cells was determined by flow cytometry using AldeRed fluorescent dye. Concurrently, the cells' colony forming capabilities as well as the cells' abilities to form mammospheres were investigated. The migratory activity of the cells was analyzed using a 3D collagen matrix migration assay. M13HS hybrid clone cells co-expressed SOX9, SLUG, CK8 and CK14, which were differently expressed in parental cells. A variation in the ALDH1-positive putative stem cell population was observed among the five hybrids ranging from 1.44% (M13HS-7) to 13.68% (M13HS-2). In comparison to the parental cells, all five hybrid clone cells possessed increased but also unique colony formation and mammosphere formation capabilities. M13HS-4 hybrid clone cells exhibited the highest colony formation capacity and second highest mammosphere formation capacity of all hybrids, whereby the mean diameter of the mammospheres was comparable to the parental cells. In contrast, the largest mammospheres originated from the M13HS-2 hybrid clone cells, whereas these cells' mammosphere formation capacity was comparable to the parental breast cancer cells. All M13HS

  16. Epidemiologic characteristics and risk factors for renal cell cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lipworth, Loren; Tarone, Robert E; Lund, Lars; McLaughlin, Joseph K

    2009-01-01

    Incidence rates of renal cell cancer, which accounts for 85% of kidney cancers, have been rising in the United States and in most European countries for several decades. Family history is associated with a two- to four-fold increase in risk, but the major forms of inherited predisposition together account for less than 4% of renal cell cancers. Cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension are the most consistently established risk factors. Analgesics have not been convincingly linked with renal cell cancer risk. A reduced risk of renal cell cancer among statin users has been hypothesized but has not been adequately studied. A possible protective effect of fruit and vegetable consumption is the only moderately consistently reported dietary finding, and, with the exception of a positive association with parity, evidence for a role of hormonal or reproductive factors in the etiology of renal cell cancer in humans is limited. A recent hypothesis that moderate levels of alcohol consumption may be protective for renal cell cancer is not strongly supported by epidemiologic results, which are inconsistent with respect to the categories of alcohol consumption and the amount of alcohol intake reportedly associated with decreased risk. For occupational factors, the weight of the evidence does not provide consistent support for the hypotheses that renal cell cancer may be caused by asbestos, gasoline, or trichloroethylene exposure. The established determinants of renal cell cancer, cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension, account for less than half of these cancers. Novel epidemiologic approaches, including evaluation of gene–environment interactions and epigenetic mechanisms of inherited and acquired increased risk, are needed to explain the increasing incidence of renal cell cancer. PMID:20865085

  17. Self-renewal molecular mechanisms of colorectal cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tianhui; Xu, Jinghong; Zhu, Yongliang

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer stem cells (CCSCs) represent a small fraction of the colorectal cancer cell population that possess self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation potential and drive tumorigenicity. Self-renewal is essential for the malignant biological behaviors of colorectal cancer stem cells. While the self-renewal molecular mechanisms of colorectal cancer stem cells are not yet fully understood, the aberrant activation of signaling pathways, such as Wnt, Notch, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Hedgehog-Gli (HH-GLI), specific roles mediated by cell surface markers and micro-environmental factors are involved in the regulation of self-renewal. The elucidation of the molecular mechanisms behind self-renewal may lead to the development of novel targeted interventions for the treatment of colorectal cancer.

  18. Separation of cancer cells from a red blood cell suspension using inertial force.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tatsuya; Ishikawa, Takuji; Numayama-Tsuruta, Keiko; Imai, Yohsuke; Ueno, Hironori; Matsuki, Noriaki; Yamaguchi, Takami

    2012-11-07

    The circulating tumor cell (CTC) test has recently become popular for evaluating prognosis and treatment efficacy in cancer patients. The accuracy of the test is strongly dependent on the precision of the cancer cell separation. In this study, we developed a multistage microfluidic device to separate cancer cells from a red blood cell (RBC) suspension using inertial migration forces. The device was able to effectively remove RBCs up to the 1% hematocrit (Hct) condition with a throughput of 565 μL min(-1). The collection efficiency of cancer cells from a RBC suspension was about 85%, and the enrichment of cancer cells was about 120-fold. Further improvements can be easily achieved by parallelizing the device. These results illustrate that the separation of cancer cells from RBCs is possible using only inertial migration forces, thus paving the way for the development of a novel microfluidic device for future CTC tests.

  19. Cell cycle proteins as promising targets in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Otto, Tobias; Sicinski, Piotr

    2017-01-27

    Cancer is characterized by uncontrolled tumour cell proliferation resulting from aberrant activity of various cell cycle proteins. Therefore, cell cycle regulators are considered attractive targets in cancer therapy. Intriguingly, animal models demonstrate that some of these proteins are not essential for proliferation of non-transformed cells and development of most tissues. By contrast, many cancers are uniquely dependent on these proteins and hence are selectively sensitive to their inhibition. After decades of research on the physiological functions of cell cycle proteins and their relevance for cancer, this knowledge recently translated into the first approved cancer therapeutic targeting of a direct regulator of the cell cycle. In this Review, we focus on proteins that directly regulate cell cycle progression (such as cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs)), as well as checkpoint kinases, Aurora kinases and Polo-like kinases (PLKs). We discuss the role of cell cycle proteins in cancer, the rationale for targeting them in cancer treatment and results of clinical trials, as well as the future therapeutic potential of various cell cycle inhibitors.

  20. Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Improving Lung Function in Patients With Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Undergoing Chemoradiation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-12

    Cachexia; Fatigue; Pulmonary Complications; Radiation Toxicity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  1. T Cells that Recognize HPV Protein Can Target Virus-Infected Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Treating patients with T cells isolated from a tumor and subsequently expanded in the lab can cause the complete regression of some melanomas and cervical cancers, but the treatment is currently restricted to a few cancer types.

  2. Growing Bladder-Cancer Cells In Three-Dimensional Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn F.; Prewett, Tacey L.; Goodwin, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    Artificial growth process helps fill gaps in cancer research. Cell cultures more accurate as models for in vivo studies and as sources of seed cells for in vivo studies. Effected in horizontal rotating bioreactor described in companion article, "Simplified Bioreactor for Growing Mammalian Cells" (MSC-22060). Provides aggregates of cells needed to fill many of gaps.

  3. Serine Proteases Enhance Immunogenic Antigen Presentation on Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Peters, Haley L; Tripathi, Satyendra C; Kerros, Celine; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Garber, Haven R; St John, Lisa S; Federico, Lorenzo; Meraz, Ismail M; Roth, Jack A; Sepesi, Boris; Majidi, Mourad; Ruisaard, Kathryn; Clise-Dwyer, Karen; Roszik, Jason; Gibbons, Don L; Heymach, John V; Swisher, Stephen G; Bernatchez, Chantale; Alatrash, Gheath; Hanash, Samir; Molldrem, Jeffrey J

    2017-04-01

    Immunotherapies targeting immune checkpoints have proven efficacious in reducing the burden of lung cancer in patients; however, the antigenic targets of these reinvigorated T cells remain poorly defined. Lung cancer tumors contain tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) and neutrophils, which release the serine proteases neutrophil elastase (NE) and proteinase 3 (P3) into the tumor microenvironment. NE and P3 shape the antitumor adaptive immune response in breast cancer and melanoma. In this report, we demonstrate that lung cancer cells cross-presented the tumor-associated antigen PR1, derived from NE and P3. Additionally, NE and P3 enhanced the expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules on lung cancer cells and induced unique, endogenous peptides in the immunopeptidome, as detected with mass spectrometry sequencing. Lung cancer patient tissues with high intratumoral TAMs were enriched for MHC class I genes and T-cell markers, and patients with high TAM and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) infiltration had improved overall survival. We confirmed the immunogenicity of unique, endogenous peptides with cytotoxicity assays against lung cancer cell lines, using CTLs from healthy donors that had been expanded against select peptides. Finally, CTLs specific for serine proteases-induced endogenous peptides were detected in lung cancer patients using peptide/HLA-A2 tetramers and were elevated in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Thus, serine proteases in the tumor microenvironment of lung cancers promote the presentation of HLA class I immunogenic peptides that are expressed by lung cancer cells, thereby increasing the antigen repertoire that can be targeted in lung cancer. Cancer Immunol Res; 5(4); 319-29. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Salidroside induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in human breast cancer cells

    SciT

    Hu, Xiaolan, E-mail: huxiaolan1998@yahoo.com.cn; Zhang, Xianqi; Qiu, Shuifeng

    2010-07-16

    Research highlights: {yields} Salidroside inhibits the growth of human breast cancer cells. {yields} Salidroside induces cell-cycle arrest of human breast cancer cells. {yields} Salidroside induces apoptosis of human breast cancer cell lines. -- Abstract: Recently, salidroside (p-hydroxyphenethyl-{beta}-D-glucoside) has been identified as one of the most potent compounds isolated from plants of the Rhodiola genus used widely in traditional Chinese medicine, but pharmacokinetic data on the compound are unavailable. We were the first to report the cytotoxic effects of salidroside on cancer cell lines derived from different tissues, and we found that human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells (estrogen receptor negative) weremore » sensitive to the inhibitory action of low-concentration salidroside. To further investigate the cytotoxic effects of salidroside on breast cancer cells and reveal possible ER-related differences in response to salidroside, we used MDA-MB-231 cells and MCF-7 cells (estrogen receptor-positive) as models to study possible molecular mechanisms; we evaluated the effects of salidroside on cell growth characteristics, such as proliferation, cell cycle duration, and apoptosis, and on the expression of apoptosis-related molecules. Our results demonstrated for the first time that salidroside induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in human breast cancer cells and may be a promising candidate for breast cancer treatment.« less

  5. Cell Cycle-Dependent Rho GTPase Activity Dynamically Regulates Cancer Cell Motility and Invasion In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kagawa, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Shinji; Kamioka, Yuji; Mimori, Koshi; Naito, Yoko; Ishii, Taeko; Okuzaki, Daisuke; Nishida, Naohiro; Maeda, Sakae; Naito, Atsushi; Kikuta, Junichi; Nishikawa, Keizo; Nishimura, Junichi; Haraguchi, Naotsugu; Takemasa, Ichiro; Mizushima, Tsunekazu; Ikeda, Masataka; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Sekimoto, Mitsugu; Ishii, Hideshi; Doki, Yuichiro; Matsuda, Michiyuki; Kikuchi, Akira; Mori, Masaki; Ishii, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism behind the spatiotemporal control of cancer cell dynamics and its possible association with cell proliferation has not been well established. By exploiting the intravital imaging technique, we found that cancer cell motility and invasive properties were closely associated with the cell cycle. In vivo inoculation of human colon cancer cells bearing fluorescence ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (Fucci) demonstrated an unexpected phenomenon: S/G2/M cells were more motile and invasive than G1 cells. Microarray analyses showed that Arhgap11a, an uncharacterized Rho GTPase-activating protein (RhoGAP), was expressed in a cell-cycle-dependent fashion. Expression of ARHGAP11A in cancer cells suppressed RhoA-dependent mechanisms, such as stress fiber formation and focal adhesion, which made the cells more prone to migrate. We also demonstrated that RhoA suppression by ARHGAP11A induced augmentation of relative Rac1 activity, leading to an increase in the invasive properties. RNAi-based inhibition of Arhgap11a reduced the invasion and in vivo expansion of cancers. Additionally, analysis of human specimens showed the significant up-regulation of Arhgap11a in colon cancers, which was correlated with clinical invasion status. The present study suggests that ARHGAP11A, a cell cycle-dependent RhoGAP, is a critical regulator of cancer cell mobility and is thus a promising therapeutic target in invasive cancers. PMID:24386239

  6. Cell cycle-dependent Rho GTPase activity dynamically regulates cancer cell motility and invasion in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Shinji; Kamioka, Yuji; Mimori, Koshi; Naito, Yoko; Ishii, Taeko; Okuzaki, Daisuke; Nishida, Naohiro; Maeda, Sakae; Naito, Atsushi; Kikuta, Junichi; Nishikawa, Keizo; Nishimura, Junichi; Haraguchi, Naotsugu; Takemasa, Ichiro; Mizushima, Tsunekazu; Ikeda, Masataka; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Sekimoto, Mitsugu; Ishii, Hideshi; Doki, Yuichiro; Matsuda, Michiyuki; Kikuchi, Akira; Mori, Masaki; Ishii, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism behind the spatiotemporal control of cancer cell dynamics and its possible association with cell proliferation has not been well established. By exploiting the intravital imaging technique, we found that cancer cell motility and invasive properties were closely associated with the cell cycle. In vivo inoculation of human colon cancer cells bearing fluorescence ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (Fucci) demonstrated an unexpected phenomenon: S/G2/M cells were more motile and invasive than G1 cells. Microarray analyses showed that Arhgap11a, an uncharacterized Rho GTPase-activating protein (RhoGAP), was expressed in a cell-cycle-dependent fashion. Expression of ARHGAP11A in cancer cells suppressed RhoA-dependent mechanisms, such as stress fiber formation and focal adhesion, which made the cells more prone to migrate. We also demonstrated that RhoA suppression by ARHGAP11A induced augmentation of relative Rac1 activity, leading to an increase in the invasive properties. RNAi-based inhibition of Arhgap11a reduced the invasion and in vivo expansion of cancers. Additionally, analysis of human specimens showed the significant up-regulation of Arhgap11a in colon cancers, which was correlated with clinical invasion status. The present study suggests that ARHGAP11A, a cell cycle-dependent RhoGAP, is a critical regulator of cancer cell mobility and is thus a promising therapeutic target in invasive cancers.

  7. Sensitivity to sequencing depth in single-cell cancer genomics.

    PubMed

    Alves, João M; Posada, David

    2018-04-16

    Querying cancer genomes at single-cell resolution is expected to provide a powerful framework to understand in detail the dynamics of cancer evolution. However, given the high costs currently associated with single-cell sequencing, together with the inevitable technical noise arising from single-cell genome amplification, cost-effective strategies that maximize the quality of single-cell data are critically needed. Taking advantage of previously published single-cell whole-genome and whole-exome cancer datasets, we studied the impact of sequencing depth and sampling effort towards single-cell variant detection. Five single-cell whole-genome and whole-exome cancer datasets were independently downscaled to 25, 10, 5, and 1× sequencing depth. For each depth level, ten technical replicates were generated, resulting in a total of 6280 single-cell BAM files. The sensitivity of variant detection, including structural and driver mutations, genotyping, clonal inference, and phylogenetic reconstruction to sequencing depth was evaluated using recent tools specifically designed for single-cell data. Altogether, our results suggest that for relatively large sample sizes (25 or more cells) sequencing single tumor cells at depths > 5× does not drastically improve somatic variant discovery, characterization of clonal genotypes, or estimation of single-cell phylogenies. We suggest that sequencing multiple individual tumor cells at a modest depth represents an effective alternative to explore the mutational landscape and clonal evolutionary patterns of cancer genomes.

  8. Genetics of Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell Cancer) (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Hereditary kidney cancer syndromes include von Hippel-Lindau disease, hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer, Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, and hereditary papillary renal carcinoma. Learn about the genetics, clinical manifestations, and management of these hereditary kidney cancer syndromes in this expert-reviewed summary.

  9. Hypermethylation of the TSLC1 Gene Promoter in Primary Gastric Cancers and Gastric Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Teiichiro; Waki, Takayoshi; Jin, Zhe; Sato, Kiyoshi; Motoyama, Teiichi; Kawata, Sumio; Kimura, Wataru; Nishizuka, Satoshi; Murakami, Yoshinori

    2002-01-01

    The TSLC1 (tumor suppressor in lung cancer–1) gene is a novel tumor suppressor gene on chromosomal region 11q23.2, and is frequently inactivated by concordant promoter hypermethylation and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in non‐small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Because LOH on 11q has also been observed frequently in other human neoplasms including gastric cancer, we investigated the promoter methylation status of TSLC1 in 10 gastric cancer cell lines and 97 primary gastric cancers, as well as the corresponding non‐cancerous gastric tissues, by bisulfite‐SSCP analysis followed by direct sequencing. Allelic status of the TSLC1 gene was also investigated in these cell lines and primary gastric cancers. The TSLC1 promoter was methylated in two gastric cancer cell lines, KATO‐III and ECC10, and in 15 out of 97 (16%) primary gastric cancers. It was not methylated in non‐cancerous gastric tissues, suggesting that this hypermethylation is a cancer‐specific alteration. KATO‐III and ECC10 cells retained two alleles of TSLC1, both of which showed hypermethylation, associated with complete loss of gene expression. Most of the primary gastric cancers with promoter methylation also retained heterozygosity at the TSLC1 locus on 11q23.2. These data indicate that bi‐allelic hypermethylation of the TSLC1 promoter and resulting gene silencing occur in a subset of primary gastric cancers. PMID:12716461

  10. iPS-cell derived dendritic cells and macrophages for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Senju, Satoru

    2016-08-01

    Antibody-based anti-cancer immunotherapy was recently recognized as one of the truly effective therapies for cancer patients. Antibodies against cell surface cancer antigens, such as CD20, and also those against immune-inhibitory molecules called "immune checkpoint blockers", such as CTLA4 or PD1, have emerged. Large-scale clinical trials have confirmed that, in some cases, antibody-based drugs are superior to conventional chemotherapeutic agents. These antibody-based drugs are now being manufactured employing a mass-production system by pharmaceutical companies. Anti-cancer therapy by immune cells, i.e. cell-based immunotherapy, is expected to be more effective than antibody therapy, because immune cells can recognize, infiltrate, and act in cancer tissues more directly than antibodies. In order to achieve cell-based anti-cancer immunotherapy, it is necessary to develop manufacturing systems for mass-production of immune cells. Our group has been studying immunotherapy with myeloid cells derived from ES cells or iPS cells. These pluripotent stem cells can be readily propagated under constant culture conditions, with expansion into a large quantity. We consider these stem cells to be the most suitable cellular source for mass-production of immune cells. This review introduces our studies on anti-cancer therapy with iPS cell-derived dendritic cells and iPS cell-derived macrophages.

  11. Drug-tolerant persister cancer cells are vulnerable to GPX4 inhibition* | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Acquired drug resistance prevents cancer therapies from achieving stable and complete responses. Emerging evidence implicates a key role for non-mutational drug resistance mechanisms underlying the survival of residual cancer 'persister' cells. The persister cell pool constitutes a reservoir from which drug-resistant tumours may emerge. Targeting persister cells therefore presents a therapeutic opportunity to impede tumour relapse. We previously found that cancer cells in a high mesenchymal therapy-resistant cell state are dependent on the lipid hydroperoxidase GPX4 for survival.

  12. Squamous Cell Cancer of The Lung with Synchronous Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ateş, İhsan; Yazıcı, Ozan; Ateş, Hale; Yazılıtaş, Doğan; Özcan, Ayşe Naz; Ağaçkıran, Yetkin; Zengin, Nurullah

    2016-01-01

    Coexistence of two or more primary cancers is a relatively rare case. Not with standing that the coexistence of multiple primary cancers is often discussed in the literature, there is a small number of publications concerning the coexistence of squamous cell lung carcinoma and renal cancer. In this case report, detection of both squamous cell lung carcinoma and primary renal cancer in one male patient is going to be discussed. PMID:29404140

  13. Coordinating Self-Assembly of Copper Perylenetetracarboxylate Nanorods: Selectively Lighting up Normal Cells around Cancerous Ones for Better Cancer Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lizhi; Gao, Xuedong; Wei, Ying; Liu, Kaerdun; Huang, Jianbin; Wang, Jide; Yan, Yun

    2018-05-30

    Specific imaging of cancer cells has been well-accepted in cancer diagnosis although it cannot precisely mark the boundary between the normal and cancerous cells and report their mutual influence. We report a nanorod fluorescent probe of copper perylenetetracarbonate (PTC-Cu) that can specifically light up normal cells. In combination with cancer cell imaging, the cocultured normal and cancer cells can be lit up with different colors, offering a clear contrast between the normal and cancer cells when they coexist. Because cancerous cells are only 20-30% in cancer area, this provides a possibility to visibly detect the mutual influence between the cancer and normal cells during therapy. We expect this method is beneficial to better cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  14. Drug delivery system and breast cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colone, Marisa; Kaliappan, Subramanian; Calcabrini, Annarica; Tortora, Mariarosaria; Cavalieri, Francesca; Stringaro, Annarita

    2016-06-01

    Recently, nanomedicine has received increasing attention for its ability to improve the efficacy of cancer therapeutics. Nanosized polymer therapeutic agents offer the advantage of prolonged circulation in the blood stream, targeting to specific sites, improved efficacy and reduced side effects. In this way, local, controlled delivery of the drug will be achieved with the advantage of a high concentration of drug release at the target site while keeping the systemic concentration of the drug low, thus reducing side effects due to bioaccumulation. Various drug delivery systems such as nanoparticles, liposomes, microparticles and implants have been demonstrated to significantly enhance the preventive/therapeutic efficacy of many drugs by increasing their bioavailability and targetability. As these carriers significantly increase the therapeutic effect of drugs, their administration would become less cost effective in the near future. The purpose of our research work is to develop a delivery system for breast cancer cells using a microvector of drugs. These results highlight the potential uses of these responsive platforms suited for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. At the request of all authors of the paper an updated version was published on 12 July 2016. The manuscript was prepared and submitted without Dr. Francesca Cavalieri's contribution and her name was added without her consent. Her name has been removed in the updated and re-published article.

  15. A basal stem cell signature identifies aggressive prostate cancer phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Bryan A.; Sokolov, Artem; Uzunangelov, Vladislav; Baertsch, Robert; Newton, Yulia; Graim, Kiley; Mathis, Colleen; Cheng, Donghui; Stuart, Joshua M.; Witte, Owen N.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from numerous cancers suggests that increased aggressiveness is accompanied by up-regulation of signaling pathways and acquisition of properties common to stem cells. It is unclear if different subtypes of late-stage cancer vary in stemness properties and whether or not these subtypes are transcriptionally similar to normal tissue stem cells. We report a gene signature specific for human prostate basal cells that is differentially enriched in various phenotypes of late-stage metastatic prostate cancer. We FACS-purified and transcriptionally profiled basal and luminal epithelial populations from the benign and cancerous regions of primary human prostates. High-throughput RNA sequencing showed the basal population to be defined by genes associated with stem cell signaling programs and invasiveness. Application of a 91-gene basal signature to gene expression datasets from patients with organ-confined or hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer revealed that metastatic small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma was molecularly more stem-like than either metastatic adenocarcinoma or organ-confined adenocarcinoma. Bioinformatic analysis of the basal cell and two human small cell gene signatures identified a set of E2F target genes common between prostate small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and primary prostate basal cells. Taken together, our data suggest that aggressive prostate cancer shares a conserved transcriptional program with normal adult prostate basal stem cells. PMID:26460041

  16. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Joseph; Wesolowski, Robert; Papenfuss, Tracey; Brooks, Taylor R; Carson, William E

    2013-07-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a population of immature myeloid cells defined by their suppressive actions on immune cells such as T cells, dendritic cells, and natural killer cells. MDSCs typically are positive for the markers CD33 and CD11b but express low levels of HLADR in humans. In mice, MDSCs are typically positive for both CD11b and Gr1. These cells exert their suppressive activity on the immune system via the production of reactive oxygen species, arginase, and cytokines. These factors subsequently inhibit the activity of multiple protein targets such as the T cell receptor, STAT1, and indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3-dioxygenase. The numbers of MDSCs tend to increase with cancer burden while inhibiting MDSCs improves disease outcome in murine models. MDSCs also inhibit immune cancer therapeutics. In light of the poor prognosis of metastatic breast cancer in women and the correlation of increasing levels of MDSCs with increasing disease burden, the purposes of this review are to (1) discuss why MDSCs may be important in breast cancer, (2) describe model systems used to study MDSCs in vitro and in vivo, (3) discuss mechanisms involved in MDSC induction/function in breast cancer, and (4) present pre-clinical and clinical studies that explore modulation of the MDSC-immune system interaction in breast cancer. MDSCs inhibit the host immune response in breast cancer patients and diminishing MDSC actions may improve therapeutic outcomes.

  17. Oncotripsy: Targeting cancer cells selectively via resonant harmonic excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyden, S.; Ortiz, M.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate a method of selectively targeting cancer cells by means of ultrasound harmonic excitation at their resonance frequency, which we refer to as oncotripsy. The geometric model of the cells takes into account the cytoplasm, nucleus and nucleolus, as well as the plasma membrane and nuclear envelope. Material properties are varied within a pathophysiologically-relevant range. A first modal analysis reveals the existence of a spectral gap between the natural frequencies and, most importantly, resonant growth rates of healthy and cancerous cells. The results of the modal analysis are verified by simulating the fully-nonlinear transient response of healthy and cancerous cells at resonance. The fully nonlinear analysis confirms that cancerous cells can be selectively taken to lysis by the application of carefully tuned ultrasound harmonic excitation while simultaneously leaving healthy cells intact.

  18. Current advances in T-cell-based cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mingjun; Yin, Bingnan; Wang, Helen Y; Wang, Rong-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide; due to the lack of ideal cancer biomarkers for early detection or diagnosis, most patients present with late-stage disease at the time of diagnosis, thus limiting the potential for successful treatment. Traditional cancer treatments, including surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, have demonstrated very limited efficacy for patients with late-stage disease. Therefore, innovative and effective cancer treatments are urgently needed for cancer patients with late-stage and refractory disease. Cancer immunotherapy, particularly adoptive cell transfer, has shown great promise in the treatment of patients with late-stage disease, including those who are refractory to standard therapies. In this review, we will highlight recent advances and discuss future directions in adoptive cell transfer based cancer immunotherapy. PMID:25524383

  19. Current advances in T-cell-based cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingjun; Yin, Bingnan; Wang, Helen Y; Wang, Rong-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide; due to the lack of ideal cancer biomarkers for early detection or diagnosis, most patients present with late-stage disease at the time of diagnosis, thus limiting the potential for successful treatment. Traditional cancer treatments, including surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, have demonstrated very limited efficacy for patients with late-stage disease. Therefore, innovative and effective cancer treatments are urgently needed for cancer patients with late-stage and refractory disease. Cancer immunotherapy, particularly adoptive cell transfer, has shown great promise in the treatment of patients with late-stage disease, including those who are refractory to standard therapies. In this review, we will highlight recent advances and discuss future directions in adoptive cell transfer based cancer immunotherapy.

  20. Are ovarian cancer stem cells the target for innovative immunotherapy?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liang; Xu, Tianmin; Cui, Manhua

    2018-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a subpopulation of cancer cells with the ability of self-renewal and differentiation, are believed to be responsible for tumor generation, progression, metastasis, and relapse. Ovarian cancer, the most malignant gynecological cancer, has consistent pathology behavior with CSC model, which suggests that therapies based on ovarian cancer stem cells (OCSCs) can gain a more successful prognosis. Much evidence has proved that epigenetic mechanism played an important role in tumor formation and sustainment. Since CSCs are generally resistant to conventional therapies (chemotherapy and radiotherapy), immunotherapy is a more effective method that has been implemented in the clinic. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell, an adoptive cellular immunotherapy, which results in apparent elimination of tumor in both hematologic and solid cancers, could be used for ovarian cancer. This review covers the basic conception of CSCs and OCSCs, the implication of epigenetic mechanism underlying cancer evolution considering CSC model, the immunotherapies reported for ovarian cancer targeting OCSCs currently, and the relationship between immune system and hierarchy cancer organized by CSCs. Particularly, the promising prospects and potential pitfalls of targeting OCSC surface markers to design CAR-T cellular immunotherapy are discussed here. PMID:29780254

  1. Mammary Stem Cells and Breast Cancer Stem Cells: Molecular Connections and Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Celià-Terrassa, Toni

    2018-05-04

    Cancer arises from subpopulations of transformed cells with high tumor initiation and repopulation ability, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs), which share many similarities with their normal counterparts. In the mammary gland, several studies have shown common molecular regulators between adult mammary stem cells (MaSCs) and breast cancer stem cells (bCSCs). Cell plasticity and self-renewal are essential abilities for MaSCs to maintain tissue homeostasis and regenerate the gland after pregnancy. Intriguingly, these properties are similarly executed in breast cancer stem cells to drive tumor initiation, tumor heterogeneity and recurrence after chemotherapy. In addition, both stem cell phenotypes are strongly influenced by external signals from the microenvironment, immune cells and supportive specific niches. This review focuses on the intrinsic and extrinsic connections of MaSC and bCSCs with clinical implications for breast cancer progression and their possible therapeutic applications.

  2. Investigation of the expression of RIF1 gene on head and neck, pancreatic and brain cancer and cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    GursesCila, Hacer E; Acar, Muradiye; Barut, Furkan B; Gunduz, Mehmet; Grenman, Reidar; Gunduz, Esra

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that cancer stem cells are resistant to chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to compare RIF1 gene expression in head and neck, pancreatic cancer and glioma cell lines and the cancer stem cells isolated from these cell lines. UT-SCC-74 from Turku University and UT-SCC-74B primary tumor metastasis and neck cancer cell lines, YKG-1 glioma cancer cell line from RIKEN, pancreatic cancer cell lines and ASPC-1 cells from ATCC were grown in cell culture. To isolate cancer stem cells, ALDH-1 for UT-SCC-74 and UT-SCC-74B cell line, CD-133 for YKG-1 cell line and CD-24 for ASPC-1 cell line, were used as markers of cancer stem cells. RNA isolation was performed for both cancer lines and cancer stem cells. RNAs were converted to cDNA. RIF1 gene expression was performed by qRT-PCR analysis. RIF1 gene expression was compared with cancer cell lines and cancer stem cells isolated from these cell lines. The possible effect of RIF1 gene was evaluated. In the pancreatic cells, RIF1 gene expression in the stem cell-positive cell line was 256 time that seen in the stem cell-negative cell line. Considering the importance of RIF1 in NHEJ and of NHEJ in pancreatic cancer, RIF1 may be one of the genes that plays an important role in the diagnoses and therapeutic treatment of pancreatic cancer. The results of head and neck and brain cancers are inconclusive and further studies are required to elucidate the connection between RIF1 gene and these other types of cancers.

  3. Cancer-associated fibroblasts affect breast cancer cell gene expression, invasion and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Eiro, Noemi; González, Lucía; Martínez-Ordoñez, Anxo; Fernandez-Garcia, Belen; González, Luis O; Cid, Sandra; Dominguez, Francisco; Perez-Fernandez, Román; Vizoso, Francisco J

    2018-03-01

    It has been reported that stromal cell features may affect the clinical outcome of breast cancer patients. Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) represent one of the most abundant cell types within the breast cancer stroma. Here, we aimed to explore the influence of CAFs on breast cancer gene expression, as well as on invasion and angiogenesis. qRT-PCR was used to evaluate the expression of several cancer progression related genes (S100A4, TGFβ, FGF2, FGF7, PDGFA, PDGFB, VEGFA, IL-6, IL-8, uPA, MMP2, MMP9, MMP11 and TIMP1) in the human breast cancer-derived cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, before and after co-culture with CAFs. Stromal mononuclear inflammatory cell (MIC) MMP11 expression was used to stratify primary tumors. In addition, we assessed the in vitro effects of CAFs on both MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell invasion and endothelial cell (HUVEC) tube formation. We found that the expression levels of most of the genes tested were significantly increased in both breast cancer-derived cell lines after co-culture with CAFs from either MMP11+ or MMP11- MIC tumors. IL-6 and IL-8 showed an increased expression in both cancer-derived cell lines after co-culture with CAFs from MMP11+ MIC tumors. We also found that the invasive and angiogenic capacities of, respectively, MDA-MB-231 and HUVEC cells were increased after co-culture with CAFs, especially those from MMP11+ MIC tumors. Our data indicate that tumor-derived CAFs can induce up-regulation of genes involved in breast cancer progression. Our data additionally indicate that CAFs, especially those derived from MMP11+ MIC tumors, can promote breast cancer cell invasion and angiogenesis.

  4. 5-Fluorouracil-induced apoptosis in cultured oral cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tong, D; Poot, M; Hu, D; Oda, D

    2000-03-01

    Chemotherapy is commonly used to treat advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and is known to kill cancer cells through apoptosis. Our hypothesis states that 5-fluorouracil (5FU) also kills cultured oral epithelial cells through programmed cell death or apoptosis. Cultured oral cancer cells were exposed to an optimum dose of 20 mg/ml of 5FU. Cells were analyzed for changes in cell cycle distribution and induction of cell death including apoptosis. Normal control, human papilloma virus-immortalized (PP), ATCC SCC cell line (CA1) and two primary oral SCC cell lines (CA3 and -4) were studied. Inhibition of apoptosis by a pan-caspase inhibitor was used. SYTO 11 flow cytometry showed increased apoptosis in all 5FU-treated cell cultures compared to untreated controls. The results show biological variation in apoptotic response. CA1 had the lowest apoptotic rate of the cancer cell lines at 1.5%. Next lowest was CA3, followed by CA4 and PP. In addition, alteration in the G1 and S phase fractions were found. Untreated CA1 showed 28% G1, 53% S compared to 43% G1, and 40% S of treated. We investigated the pathway of apoptosis using the pan-caspase inhibitor IDN-1529 by methylthiazolyl diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric analysis. Results showed mild inhibition of cell death when cells were incubated with 50 microM IDN-1529 for 24 h. This suggests a probable caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. In conclusion, our data suggest that 5FU induces oral cancer cell death through apoptosis and that biological variation exists between normal and cancer cells and between different types of cancer cells themselves. Our data indicate that cultures of a useful in vitro model for chemosensitivity assays are possible. Our results also suggest a caspase-dependent pathway for chemocytotoxicity in oral SCC.

  5. Pancreatic stellate cells promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic cancer cells

    SciT

    Kikuta, Kazuhiro; Masamune, Atsushi, E-mail: amasamune@med.tohoku.ac.jp; Watanabe, Takashi

    2010-12-17

    Research highlights: {yields} Recent studies have shown that pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) promote the progression of pancreatic cancer. {yields} Pancreatic cancer cells co-cultured with PSCs showed loose cell contacts and scattered, fibroblast-like appearance. {yields} PSCs decreased the expression of epithelial markers but increased that of mesenchymal markers, along with increased migration. {yields} This study suggests epithelial-mesenchymal transition as a novel mechanism by which PSCs contribute to the aggressive behavior of pancreatic cancer cells. -- Abstract: The interaction between pancreatic cancer cells and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), a major profibrogenic cell type in the pancreas, is receiving increasing attention. There ismore » accumulating evidence that PSCs promote the progression of pancreatic cancer by increasing cancer cell proliferation and invasion as well as by protecting them from radiation- and gemcitabine-induced apoptosis. Because epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in the progression of pancreatic cancer, we hypothesized that PSCs promote EMT in pancreatic cancer cells. Panc-1 and SUIT-2 pancreatic cancer cells were indirectly co-cultured with human PSCs isolated from patients undergoing operation for pancreatic cancer. The expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers was examined by real-time PCR and immunofluorescent staining. The migration of pancreatic cancer cells was examined by scratch and two-chamber assays. Pancreatic cancer cells co-cultured with PSCs showed loose cell contacts and a scattered, fibroblast-like appearance. The expression of E-cadherin, cytokeratin 19, and membrane-associated {beta}-catenin was decreased, whereas vimentin and Snail (Snai-1) expression was increased more in cancer cells co-cultured with PSCs than in mono-cultured cells. The migration of pancreatic cancer cells was increased by co-culture with PSCs. The PSC-induced decrease of E-cadherin expression was not

  6. Holoclone Forming Cells from Pancreatic Cancer Cells Enrich Tumor Initiating Cells and Represent a Novel Model for Study of Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Lei; Sui, Xin; Deng, Hongkui; Ding, Mingxiao

    2011-01-01

    Background Pancreatic cancer is one of the direct causes of cancer-related death. High level of chemoresistance is one of the major obstacles of clinical treatment. In recent years, cancer stem cells have been widely identified and indicated as the origin of chemoresistance in multi-types of solid tumors. Increasing evidences suggest that cancer stem cells reside in the cells capable of forming holoclones continuously. However, in pancreatic cancer, holoclone-forming cells have not been characterized yet. Therefore, the goal of our present study was to indentify the holoclone-forming pancreatic cancer stem cells and develop an in vitro continuous colony formation system, which will greatly facilitate the study of pancreatic cancer stem cells. Methodology/Principal Findings Pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC3 was submitted to monoclonal cultivation to generate colonies. Based on the morphologies, colonies were classified and analyzed for their capacities of secondary colony formation, long-term survival in vitro, tumor formation in vivo, and drug resistance. Flowcytometry and quantitative RT-PCR were performed to detect the expression level of cancer stem cells associated cell surface markers, regulatory genes and microRNAs in distinct types of colonies. Three types of colonies with distinct morphologies were identified and termed as holo-, mero-, and paraclones, in which only holoclones generated descendant colonies of all three types in further passages. Compared to mero- and paraclones, holoclones possessed higher capacities of long-term survival, tumor initiation, and chemoresistance. The preferential expression of cancer stem cells related marker (CXCR4), regulatory genes (BMI1, GLI1, and GLI2) and microRNAs (miR-214, miR-21, miR-221, miR-222 and miR-155) in holoclones were also highlighted. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that the pancreatic tumor-initiating cells with high level of chemoresistance were enriched in holoclones derived from BxPC3

  7. Role of monocyte-lineage cells in prostate cancer cell invasion and tissue factor expression.

    PubMed

    Lindholm, Paul F; Lu, Yi; Adley, Brian P; Vladislav, Tudor; Jovanovic, Borko; Sivapurapu, Neela; Yang, Ximing J; Kajdacsy-Balla, André

    2010-11-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is a cell surface glycoprotein intricately related to blood coagulation and inflammation. This study was performed to investigate the role of monocyte-lineage cells in prostate cancer cell TF expression and cell invasion. Prostate cancer cell invasion was tested with and without added peripheral blood monocytes or human monocyte-lineage cell lines. TF neutralizing antibodies were used to determine the TF requirement for prostate cancer cell invasion activity. Immunohistochemistry was performed to identify prostate tissue CD68 positive monocyte-derived cells and prostate epithelial TF expression. Co-culture of PC-3, DU145, and LNCaP cells with isolated human monocytes significantly stimulated prostate cancer cell invasion activity. TF expression was greater in highly invasive prostate cancer cells and was induced in PC-3, DU145, and LNCaP cells by co-culture with U-937 cells, but not with THP-1 cells. TF neutralizing antibodies inhibited PC-3 cell invasion in co-cultures with monocyte-lineage U-937 or THP-1 cells. Prostate cancer tissues contained more CD68 positive cells in the stroma and epithelium (145 ± 53/mm(2)) than benign prostate (108 ± 31/mm(2)). Samples from advanced stage prostate cancer tended to contain more CD68 positive cells when compared with lower stage lesions. Prostatic adenocarcinoma demonstrated significantly increased TF expression compared with benign prostatic epithelium. This study shows that co-culture with monocyte-lineage cells induced prostate cancer cell invasion activity. PC-3 invasion and TF expression was induced in co-culture with U-937 cells and partially inhibited with TF neutralizing antibodies.

  8. Endothelial cell-initiated extravasation of cancer cells visualized in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kanada, Masamitsu; Zhang, Jinyan; Yan, Libo; Sakurai, Takashi; Terakawa, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    The extravasation of cancer cells, a key step for distant metastasis, is thought to be initiated by disruption of the endothelial barrier by malignant cancer cells. An endothelial covering-type extravasation of cancer cells in addition to conventional cancer cell invasion-type extravasation was dynamically visualized in a zebrafish hematogenous metastasis model. The inhibition of VEGF-signaling impaired the invasion-type extravasation via inhibition of cancer cell polarization and motility. Paradoxically, the anti-angiogenic treatment showed the promotion, rather than the inhibition, of the endothelial covering-type extravasation of cancer cells, with structural changes in the endothelial walls. These findings may be a set of clues to the full understanding of the metastatic process as well as the metastatic acceleration by anti-angiogenic reagents observed in preclinical studies.

  9. Endothelial cell-initiated extravasation of cancer cells visualized in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Kanada, Masamitsu; Zhang, Jinyan; Yan, Libo; Sakurai, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The extravasation of cancer cells, a key step for distant metastasis, is thought to be initiated by disruption of the endothelial barrier by malignant cancer cells. An endothelial covering-type extravasation of cancer cells in addition to conventional cancer cell invasion-type extravasation was dynamically visualized in a zebrafish hematogenous metastasis model. The inhibition of VEGF-signaling impaired the invasion-type extravasation via inhibition of cancer cell polarization and motility. Paradoxically, the anti-angiogenic treatment showed the promotion, rather than the inhibition, of the endothelial covering-type extravasation of cancer cells, with structural changes in the endothelial walls. These findings may be a set of clues to the full understanding of the metastatic process as well as the metastatic acceleration by anti-angiogenic reagents observed in preclinical studies. PMID:25551022

  10. Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) inhibits cancer cell growth and expression of key molecules in inflammatory breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Montemayor, Michelle M; Acevedo, Raysa Rosario; Otero-Franqui, Elisa; Cubano, Luis A; Dharmawardhane, Suranganie F

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most lethal and least understood form of advanced breast cancer. Its lethality originates from its nature of invading the lymphatic system and absence of a palpable tumor mass. Different from other metastatic breast cancer cells, IBC cells invade by forming tumor spheroids that retain E-cadherin-based cell-cell adhesions. Herein we describe the potential of the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) as an attractive candidate for anti-IBC therapy. Reishi contains biological compounds that are cytotoxic against cancer cells. We report the effects of Reishi on viability, apoptosis, invasion, and its mechanism of action in IBC cells (SUM-149). Results show that Reishi selectively inhibits cancer cell viability although it does not affect the viability of noncancerous mammary epithelial cells. Apoptosis induction is consistent with decreased cell viability. Reishi inhibits cell invasion and disrupts the cell spheroids that are characteristic of the IBC invasive pathology. Reishi decreases the expression of genes involved in cancer cell survival and proliferation (BCL-2, TERT, PDGFB), and invasion and metastasis (MMP-9), whereas it increases the expression of IL8. Reishi reduces BCL-2, BCL-XL, E-cadherin, eIF4G, p120-catenin, and c-Myc protein expression and gelatinase activity. These findings suggest that Reishi is an effective anti-IBC therapeutic.

  11. Docetaxel, Cisplatin, Pegfilgrastim, and Erlotinib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Stage IIIB or Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-02-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Bronchoalveolar Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  12. Gefitinib in Treating Patients With Stage IB, II, or IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer That Was Completely Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-19

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Bronchoalveolar Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  13. The Bony Side of Endothelial Cells in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jia; Kang, Yibin

    2017-06-05

    Prostate cancer bone metastases are primarily osteoblastic, but the source of bone-forming cells in these lesions remains poorly defined. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Lin et al. (2017) demonstrate that tumor-associated endothelial cells can give rise to osteoblasts in prostate cancer through endothelial-to-osteoblast (EC-to-OSB) conversion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Tumor budding cells, cancer stem cells and epithelial-mesenchymal transition-type cells in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Karamitopoulou, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal cancers with a 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. Moreover, PDAC escapes early detection and resists treatment. Multiple combinations of genetic alterations are known to occur in PDAC including mutational activation of KRAS, inactivation of p16/CDKN2A and SMAD4 (DPC4) and dysregulation of PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling. Through their interaction with Wingless-INT pathway, the downstream molecules of these pathways have been implicated in the promotion of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Emerging evidence has demonstrated that cancer stem cells (CSCs), small populations of which have been identified in PDAC, and EMT-type cells play critical roles in drug resistance, invasion, and metastasis in pancreatic cancer. EMT may be histologically represented by the presence of tumor budding which is described as the occurrence of single tumor cells or small clusters (<5) of dedifferentiated cells at the invasive front of gastrointestinal (including colorectal, oesophageal, gastric, and ampullary) carcinomas and is linked to poor prognosis. Tumor budding has recently been shown to occur frequently in PDAC and to be associated with adverse clinicopathological features and decreased disease-free and overall survival. The aim of this review is to present a short overview on the morphological and molecular aspects that underline the relationship between tumor budding cells, CSCs, and EMT-type cells in PDAC.

  15. Extracellular ATP drives breast cancer cell migration and metastasis via S100A4 production by cancer cells and fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Geng, Yue-Hang; Yang, Hui; Yang, Han; Zhou, Yan-Ting; Zhang, Hong-Quan; Tian, Xin-Xia; Fang, Wei-Gang

    2018-05-04

    Our previous work has demonstrated that extracellular ATP is an important pro-invasive factor, and in this study, we tapped into a possible mechanism involved. We discovered that ATP could upregulate both the intracellular expression and secretion of S100A4 in breast cancer cells and fibroblasts. Apart from stimulating breast cancer cell motility via intracellular S100A4, ATP enhanced the ability of breast cancer cells to transform fibroblasts into cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF)-like cells, which in turn secreted S100A4 to further promote cancer cell motility. Both apyrase and niclosamide treatments could inhibit metastasis of inoculated tumors to lung, liver and kidney in mice model, and CAFs from these treated tumors exhibited weakened migration-stimulating capacity for breast cancer cells. Collectively, our data indicate that extracellular ATP promotes the interactions between breast cancer cells and fibroblasts, which work collaboratively via production of S100A4 to exacerbate breast cancer metastasis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Single-cell proteomics: potential implications for cancer diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Gavasso, Sonia; Gullaksen, Stein-Erik; Skavland, Jørn; Gjertsen, Bjørn T

    2016-01-01

    Single-cell proteomics in cancer is evolving and promises to provide more accurate diagnoses based on detailed molecular features of cells within tumors. This review focuses on technologies that allow for collection of complex data from single cells, but also highlights methods that are adaptable to routine cancer diagnostics. Current diagnostics rely on histopathological analysis, complemented by mutational detection and clinical imaging. Though crucial, the information gained is often not directly transferable to defined therapeutic strategies, and predicting therapy response in a patient is difficult. In cancer, cellular states revealed through perturbed intracellular signaling pathways can identify functional mutations recurrent in cancer subsets. Single-cell proteomics remains to be validated in clinical trials where serial samples before and during treatment can reveal excessive clonal evolution and therapy failure; its use in clinical trials is anticipated to ignite a diagnostic revolution that will better align diagnostics with the current biological understanding of cancer.

  17. Eliminating Cancer Stem Cells by Targeting Embryonic Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Oren, Ohad; Smith, B Douglas

    2017-02-01

    Dramatic advances have been made in the understanding of cancer over the past decade. Prime among those are better appreciation of the biology of cancer and the development of targeted therapies. Despite these improvements, however, most tumors remain refractory to anti-cancer medications and frequently recur. Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs), which in some cases express markers of pluripotency (e.g., Oct-4), share many of the molecular features of normal stem cells. These cells have been hypothesised to play a role in tumor resistance and relapse. They exhibit dependence on many primitive regulatory pathways and may be best viewed in the context of embryonic signaling pathways. In this article, we review important embryonic signaling cascades and their differential expression in CSCs. We also discuss these pathways as actionable targets for novel therapies in hopes that eliminating cancer stem cells will lead to an improvement in overall survival for patients.

  18. Integrated quantitative fractal polarimetric analysis of monolayer lung cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Suman; Zhang, Lin; Quang, Tri; Farrahi, Tannaz; Narayan, Chaya; Deshpande, Aditi; Na, Ying; Blinzler, Adam; Ma, Junyu; Liu, Bo; Giakos, George C.

    2014-05-01

    Digital diagnostic pathology has become one of the most valuable and convenient advancements in technology over the past years. It allows us to acquire, store and analyze pathological information from the images of histological and immunohistochemical glass slides which are scanned to create digital slides. In this study, efficient fractal, wavelet-based polarimetric techniques for histological analysis of monolayer lung cancer cells will be introduced and different monolayer cancer lines will be studied. The outcome of this study indicates that application of fractal, wavelet polarimetric principles towards the analysis of squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cancer cell lines may be proved extremely useful in discriminating among healthy and lung cancer cells as well as differentiating among different lung cancer cells.

  19. Differential pathway dependency discovery associated with drug response across cancer cell lines* | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    The effort to personalize treatment plans for cancer patients involves the identification of drug treatments that can effectively target the disease while minimizing the likelihood of adverse reactions. In this study, the gene-expression profile of 810 cancer cell lines and their response data to 368 small molecules from the Cancer Therapeutics Research Portal (CTRP) are analyzed to identify pathways with significant rewiring between genes, or differential gene dependency, between sensitive and non-sensitive cell lines.

  20. Correlation of HIWI and HILI Expression with Cancer Stem Cell Markers in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Litwin, Monika; Dubis, Joanna; Arczyńska, Katarzyna; Piotrowska, Aleksandra; Frydlewicz, Anna; Karczewski, Maciej; Dzięgiel, Piotr; Witkiewicz, Wojciech

    2015-06-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) constitute a sub-population of tumor cells that possess stem cell properties, such as self-renewal and the ability of differentiation. The presence of CSCs is associated with metastatic potential, treatment resistance and poor patient prognosis. Recently, aberrant expression of P-element induced wimpy testis proteins-PIWI (HIWI and HILI) has been identified in various types of tumors. The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical significance of the HIWI and HILI expression and its relationship with cancer stem cells markers in 72 patients with colorectal carcinoma (CRC). The expression level of HIWI and HILI and cancer stem cells markers in paired cancerous and non-cancerous tissues was measured by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Immunohistochemistry was performed to confirm the observed changes on mRNA level and detect tissue localization of PIWI proteins. Significantly higher mRNA levels of HIWI and decreased HILI mRNA were measured in colorectal cancer tissues compared to corresponding non-cancerous samples. The changes in HIWI mRNA level in cancer tissues were correlated with OCT4 expression. Positive correlations between HILI level and SOX2 were also observed in cancerous tissues. Our results indicate a reciprocal regulation between HIWI, HILI and some CSCs markers in colorectal cancer. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  1. ETV5 transcription factor is overexpressed in ovarian cancer and regulates cell adhesion in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Llauradó, Marta; Abal, Miguel; Castellví, Josep; Cabrera, Sílvia; Gil-Moreno, Antonio; Pérez-Benavente, Asumpció; Colás, Eva; Doll, Andreas; Dolcet, Xavier; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Vazquez-Levin, Mónica; Reventós, Jaume; Ruiz, Anna

    2012-04-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy and the fifth leading cause of cancer deaths in women in the Western world. ETS transcription factors are known to act as positive or negative regulators of the expression of genes that are involved in various biological processes, including those that control cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, tissue remodeling, angiogenesis and transformation. ETV5 belongs to the PEA3 subfamily. PEA3 subfamily members are able to activate the transcription of proteases, matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases, which is central to both tumor invasion and angiogenesis. Here, we examined the role of the ETV5 transcription factor in epithelial ovarian cancer and we found ETV5 was upregulated in ovarian tumor samples compared to ovarian tissue controls. The in vitro inhibition of ETV5 decreased cell proliferation in serum-deprived conditions, induced EMT and cell migration and decreased cell adhesion to extracellular matrix components. ETV5 inhibition also decreased cell-cell adhesion and induced apoptosis in anchorage-independent conditions. Accordingly, upregulation of ETV5 induced the expression of cell adhesion molecules and enhanced cell survival in a spheroid model. Our findings suggest that the overexpression of ETV5 detected in ovarian cancer cells may contribute to ovarian tumor progression through the ability of ETV5 to enhance proliferation of ovarian cancer cells. In addition, upregulation of ETV5 would play a role in ovarian cancer cell dissemination and metastasis into the peritoneal cavity by protecting ovarian cancer cells from apoptosis and by increasing the adhesion of ovarian cancer cells to the peritoneal wall through the regulation of cell adhesion molecules. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  2. 3D printing of biomimetic microstructures for cancer cell migration.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tina Qing; Qu, Xin; Liu, Justin; Chen, Shaochen

    2014-02-01

    To understand the physical behavior and migration of cancer cells, a 3D in vitro micro-chip in hydrogel was created using 3D projection printing. The micro-chip has a honeycomb branched structure, aiming to mimic 3D vascular morphology to test, monitor, and analyze differences in the behavior of cancer cells (i.e. HeLa) vs. non-cancerous cell lines (i.e. 10 T1/2). The 3D Projection Printing system can fabricate complex structures in seconds from user-created designs. The fabricated microstructures have three different channel widths of 25, 45, and 120 microns wide to reflect a range of blood vessel diameters. HeLa and 10 T1/2 cells seeded within the micro-chip were then analyzed for morphology and cell migration speed. 10 T1/2 cells exhibited greater changes in morphology due to channel size width than HeLa cells; however, channel width had a limited effect on 10 T1/2 cell migration while HeLa cancer cell migration increased as channel width decreased. This physiologically relevant 3D cancer tissue model has the potential to be a powerful tool for future drug discoveries and cancer migration studies.

  3. RANK rewires energy homeostasis in lung cancer cells and drives primary lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Rao, Shuan; Sigl, Verena; Wimmer, Reiner Alois; Novatchkova, Maria; Jais, Alexander; Wagner, Gabriel; Handschuh, Stephan; Uribesalgo, Iris; Hagelkruys, Astrid; Kozieradzki, Ivona; Tortola, Luigi; Nitsch, Roberto; Cronin, Shane J; Orthofer, Michael; Branstetter, Daniel; Canon, Jude; Rossi, John; D'Arcangelo, Manolo; Botling, Johan; Micke, Patrick; Fleur, Linnea La; Edlund, Karolina; Bergqvist, Michael; Ekman, Simon; Lendl, Thomas; Popper, Helmut; Takayanagi, Hiroshi; Kenner, Lukas; Hirsch, Fred R; Dougall, William; Penninger, Josef M

    2017-10-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths. Besides smoking, epidemiological studies have linked female sex hormones to lung cancer in women; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report that the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB (RANK), the key regulator of osteoclastogenesis, is frequently expressed in primary lung tumors, an active RANK pathway correlates with decreased survival, and pharmacologic RANK inhibition reduces tumor growth in patient-derived lung cancer xenografts. Clonal genetic inactivation of KRas G12D in mouse lung epithelial cells markedly impairs the progression of KRas G12D -driven lung cancer, resulting in a significant survival advantage. Mechanistically, RANK rewires energy homeostasis in human and murine lung cancer cells and promotes expansion of lung cancer stem-like cells, which is blocked by inhibiting mitochondrial respiration. Our data also indicate survival differences in KRas G12D -driven lung cancer between male and female mice, and we show that female sex hormones can promote lung cancer progression via the RANK pathway. These data uncover a direct role for RANK in lung cancer and may explain why female sex hormones accelerate lung cancer development. Inhibition of RANK using the approved drug denosumab may be a therapeutic drug candidate for primary lung cancer. © 2017 Rao et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  4. RANK rewires energy homeostasis in lung cancer cells and drives primary lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Shuan; Sigl, Verena; Wimmer, Reiner Alois; Novatchkova, Maria; Jais, Alexander; Wagner, Gabriel; Handschuh, Stephan; Uribesalgo, Iris; Hagelkruys, Astrid; Kozieradzki, Ivona; Tortola, Luigi; Nitsch, Roberto; Cronin, Shane J.; Orthofer, Michael; Branstetter, Daniel; Canon, Jude; Rossi, John; D'Arcangelo, Manolo; Botling, Johan; Micke, Patrick; Fleur, Linnea La; Edlund, Karolina; Bergqvist, Michael; Ekman, Simon; Lendl, Thomas; Popper, Helmut; Takayanagi, Hiroshi; Kenner, Lukas; Hirsch, Fred R.; Dougall, William

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths. Besides smoking, epidemiological studies have linked female sex hormones to lung cancer in women; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report that the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB (RANK), the key regulator of osteoclastogenesis, is frequently expressed in primary lung tumors, an active RANK pathway correlates with decreased survival, and pharmacologic RANK inhibition reduces tumor growth in patient-derived lung cancer xenografts. Clonal genetic inactivation of KRasG12D in mouse lung epithelial cells markedly impairs the progression of KRasG12D-driven lung cancer, resulting in a significant survival advantage. Mechanistically, RANK rewires energy homeostasis in human and murine lung cancer cells and promotes expansion of lung cancer stem-like cells, which is blocked by inhibiting mitochondrial respiration. Our data also indicate survival differences in KRasG12D-driven lung cancer between male and female mice, and we show that female sex hormones can promote lung cancer progression via the RANK pathway. These data uncover a direct role for RANK in lung cancer and may explain why female sex hormones accelerate lung cancer development. Inhibition of RANK using the approved drug denosumab may be a therapeutic drug candidate for primary lung cancer. PMID:29118048

  5. Overcoming cisplatin resistance of ovarian cancer cells by targeting HIF-1-regulated cancer metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Zhihong; Lu, Yang; Qiu, Songbo; Fan, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin is currently one of the most effective chemotherapeutic drugs used for treating ovarian cancer; however, resistance to cisplatin is common. In this study, we explored an experimental strategy for overcoming cisplatin resistance of human ovarian cancer from the new perspective of cancer cell metabolism. By using two pairs of genetically matched cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines, we tested the hypothesis that downregulating hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), which regulates metabolic enzymes involved in glycolysis, is a promising strategy for overcoming cisplatin resistance of human ovarian cancer cells. We found that cisplatin downregulated the level of the regulatable α subunit of HIF-1, HIF-1α, in cisplatin-sensitive ovarian cancer cells through enhancing HIF-1α degradation but did not downregulate HIF-1α in their cisplatin-resistant counterparts. Overexpression of a degradation-resistant HIF-1α (HIF-1α ΔODD) reduced cisplatin-induced apoptosis in cisplatin-sensitive cells, whereas genetic knockdown of HIF-1α or pharmacological promotion of HIF-1α degradation enhanced response to cisplatin in both cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells. We further demonstrated that knockdown of HIF-1α improved the response of cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin by redirecting the aerobic glycolysis in the resistant cancer cells towards mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, leading to cell death through overproduction of reactive oxygen species. Our findings suggest that the HIF-1α-regulated cancer metabolism pathway could be a novel target for overcoming cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer. PMID:26801746

  6. Prostate stromal cells express the progesterone receptor to control cancer cell mobility.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Lee, Jennifer Suehyun; Xie, Ning; Li, Estelle; Hurtado-Coll, Antonio; Fazli, Ladan; Cox, Michael; Plymate, Stephen; Gleave, Martin; Dong, Xuesen

    2014-01-01

    Reciprocal interactions between epithelium and stroma play vital roles for prostate cancer development and progression. Enhanced secretions of cytokines and growth factors by cancer associated fibroblasts in prostate tumors create a favorable microenvironment for cancer cells to grow and metastasize. Our previous work showed that the progesterone receptor (PR) was expressed specifically in prostate stromal fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells. However, the expression levels of PR and its impact to tumor microenvironment in prostate tumors are poorly understood. Immunohistochemistry assays are applied to human prostate tissue biopsies. Cell migration, invasion and proliferation assays are performed using human prostate cells. Real-time PCR and ELISA are applied to measure gene expression at molecular levels. Immunohistochemistry assays showed that PR protein levels were decreased in cancer associated stroma when compared with paired normal prostate stroma. Using in vitro prostate stromal cell models, we showed that conditioned media collected from PR positive stromal cells inhibited prostate cancer cell migration and invasion, but had minor suppressive impacts on cancer cell proliferation. PR suppressed the secretion of stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and interlukin-6 (IL-6) by stromal cells independent to PR ligands. Blocking PR expression by siRNA or supplementation of exogenous SDF-1 or IL-6 to conditioned media from PR positive stromal cells counteracted the inhibitory effects of PR to cancer cell migration and invasion. Decreased expression of the PR in cancer associated stroma may contribute to the elevated SDF-1 and IL-6 levels in prostate tumors and enhance prostate tumor progression.

  7. Tumoral stem cell reprogramming as a driver of cancer: Theory, biological models, implications in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; Hauer, Julia; Ruiz-Roca, Lucía; Ingenhag, Deborah; Rodríguez-Meira, Alba; Auer, Franziska; Borkhardt, Arndt; Sánchez-García, Isidro

    2015-06-01

    Cancer is a clonal malignant disease originated in a single cell and characterized by the accumulation of partially differentiated cells that are phenotypically reminiscent of normal stages of differentiation. According to current models, therapeutic strategies that block oncogene activity are likely to selectively target tumor cells. However, recent evidences have revealed that cancer stem cells could arise through a tumor stem cell reprogramming mechanism, suggesting that genetic lesions that initiate the cancer process might be dispensable for tumor progression and maintenance. This review addresses the impact of these results toward a better understanding of cancer development and proposes new approaches to treat cancer in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Miniature Dielectric Barrier Discharge Nonthermal Plasma Induces Apoptosis in Lung Cancer Cells and Inhibits Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Karki, Surya B; Yildirim-Ayan, Eda; Eisenmann, Kathryn M; Ayan, Halim

    2017-01-01

    Traditional cancer treatments like radiotherapy and chemotherapy have drawbacks and are not selective for killing only cancer cells. Nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasmas with dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) can be applied to living cells and tissues and have emerged as novel tools for localized cancer therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the different effects caused by miniature DBD (mDBD) plasma to A549 lung cancer cells. In this study, A549 lung cancer cells cultured in 12 well plates were treated with mDBD plasma for specified treatment times to assess the changes in the size of the area of cell detachment, the viability of attached or detached cells, and cell migration. Furthermore, we investigated an innovative mDBD plasma-based therapy for localized treatment of lung cancer cells through apoptotic induction. Our results indicate that plasma treatment for 120 sec causes apoptotic cell death in 35.8% of cells, while mDBD plasma treatment for 60 sec, 30 sec, or 15 sec causes apoptotic cell death in 20.5%, 14.1%, and 6.3% of the cell population, respectively. Additionally, we observed reduced A549 cell migration in response to mDBD plasma treatment. Thus, mDBD plasma system can be a viable platform for localized lung cancer therapy.

  9. The mitochondrial uncoupling protein-2 promotes chemoresistance in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Derdak, Zoltan; Mark, Nicholas M.; Beldi, Guido; Robson, Simon C.; Wands, Jack R.; Baffy, György

    2008-01-01

    Cancer cells acquire drug resistance as a result of selection pressure dictated by unfavorable microenvironments. This survival process is facilitated through efficient control of oxidative stress originating from mitochondria that typically initiates programmed cell death. We show this critical adaptive response in cancer cells to be linked to uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), a mitochondrial suppressor of reactive oxygen species (ROS). UCP2 is present in drug-resistant lines of various cancer cells and in human colon cancer. Overexpression of UCP2 in HCT116 human colon cancer cells inhibits ROS accumulation and apoptosis post-exposure to chemotherapeutic agents. Tumor xenografts of UCP2-overexpressing HCT116 cells retain growth in nude mice receiving chemotherapy. Augmented cancer cell survival is accompanied by altered N-terminal phosphorylation of the pivotal tumor suppressor p53 and induction of the glycolytic phenotype (Warburg effect). These findings link UCP2 with molecular mechanisms of chemoresistance. Targeting UCP2 may be considered a novel treatment strategy for cancer. PMID:18413749

  10. Reprogramming to developmental plasticity in cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    O'Brien-Ball, Caitlin; Biddle, Adrian

    2017-10-15

    During development and throughout adult life, sub-populations of cells exist that exhibit phenotypic plasticity - the ability to differentiate into multiple lineages. This behaviour is important in embryogenesis, is exhibited in a more limited context by adult stem cells, and can be re-activated in cancer cells to drive important processes underlying tumour progression. A well-studied mechanism of phenotypic plasticity is the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process which has been observed in both normal and cancerous cells. The epigenetic and metabolic modifications necessary to facilitate phenotypic plasticity are first seen in development and can be re-activated both in normal regeneration and in cancer. In cancer, the re-activation of these mechanisms enables tumour cells to acquire a cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotype with enhanced ability to survive in hostile environments, resist therapeutic interventions, and undergo metastasis. However, recent research has suggested that plasticity may also expose weaknesses in cancer cells that could be exploited for future therapeutic development. More research is needed to identify developmental mechanisms that are active in cancer, so that these may be targeted to reduce tumour growth and metastasis and overcome therapeutic resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Erlotinib in Treating Patients With Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Ovarian Cancer, or Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-08

    Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  12. Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) Inhibits Cancer Cell Growth and Expression of Key Molecules in Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Montemayor, Michelle M.; Acevedo, Raysa Rosario; Otero-Franqui, Elisa; Cubano, Luis. A.; Dharmawardhane, Suranganie F.

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most lethal and least understood form of advanced breast cancer. Its lethality originates from its nature of invading the lymphatic system and absence of a palpable tumor mass. Different from other metastatic breast cancer cells, IBC cells invade by forming tumor spheroids that retain E-cadherin-based cell–cell adhesions. Herein we describe the potential of the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) as an attractive candidate for anti-IBC therapy. Reishi contains biological compounds that are cytotoxic against cancer cells. We report the effects of Reishi on viability, apoptosis, invasion, and its mechanism of action in IBC cells (SUM-149). Results show that Reishi selectively inhibits cancer cell viability although it does not affect the viability of noncancerous mammary epithelial cells. Apoptosis induction is consistent with decreased cell viability. Reishi inhibits cell invasion and disrupts the cell spheroids that are characteristic of the IBC invasive pathology. Reishi decreases the expression of genes involved in cancer cell survival and proliferation (BCL-2, TERT, PDGFB), and invasion and metastasis (MMP-9), whereas it increases the expression of IL8. Reishi reduces BCL-2, BCL-XL, E-cadherin, eIF4G, p120-catenin, and c-Myc protein expression and gelatinase activity. These findings suggest that Reishi is an effective anti-IBC therapeutic. PMID:21888505

  13. Stars and stripes in pancreatic cancer: role of stellate cells and stroma in cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Jeremy S.; Pirola, Romano C.; Apte, Minoti V.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease with an unacceptably high mortality to incidence ratio. Traditional therapeutic approaches such as surgery in combination with chemo- or radiotherapy have had limited efficacy in improving the outcome of this disease. Up until just under a decade ago, the prominent desmoplastic reaction which is a characteristic of the majority of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC) had been largely ignored. However, since the identification of the pancreatic stellate cell (PSC) as the key cell responsible for the production of the collagenous stroma in PDAC, increasing attention has been paid to the role of the stromal reaction in pancreatic cancer pathobiology. There is now compelling evidence that PSCs interact not only with cancer cells themselves, but with several other cell types in the stroma (endothelial cells, immune cells, and possibly neuronal cells) to promote cancer progression. This review summarizes current knowledge in the field about the influence of PSCs and the stromal microenvironment on cancer behavior and discusses novel therapeutic approaches which reflect an increasing awareness amongst clinicians and researchers that targeting cancer cells alone is no longer sufficient to improve patient outcome and that combinatorial treatments targeting the stroma as well as the cancer cells will be required to change the clinical course of this disease. PMID:24592240

  14. Donor Stem Cell Transplant or Donor White Blood Cell Infusions in Treating Patients With Hematologic Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-25

    Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms; Unusual Cancers of Childhood

  15. Serum HDL cholesterol concentration in patients with squamous cell and small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Siemianowicz, K; Gminski, J; Stajszczyk, M; Wojakowski, W; Goss, M; Machalski, M; Telega, A; Brulinski, K; Magiera-Molendowska, H

    2000-09-01

    Cancer patients often present altered serum lipid profile including changes of HDL cholesterol level. The aim of our work was to evaluate serum level of HDL cholesterol in patients with squamous cell and small cell lung cancer and its dependence on histological type and clinical stage of lung cancer. Fasting serum level of HDL cholesterol was analysed in 135 patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer and compared to a control group of healthy men. All lung cancer patients, as well as subgroups of squamous cell and small cell lung cancer had statistically significantly lower HDL cholesterol concentration than controls. There were no statistically significant differences of HDL cholesterol level between the histological types or between clinical stages of each histological type of lung cancer.

  16. Doxycycline inhibits the cancer stem cell phenotype and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liang; Zhang, Fengchun; Vlashi, Erina

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Experimental evidence suggest that breast tumors originate from breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), and that mitochondrial biogenesis is essential for the anchorage-independent clonal expansion and survival of CSCs, thus rendering mitochondria a significant target for novel treatment approaches. One of the recognized side effects of the FDA-approved drug, doxycycline is the inhibition of mitochondrial biogenesis. Here we investigate the mechanism by which doxycycline exerts its inhibitory effects on the properties of breast cancer cells and BCSCs, such as mammosphere forming efficiency, invasion, migration, apoptosis, the expression of stem cell markers and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) related markers of breast cancer cells. In addition, we explored whether autophagy plays a role in the inhibitory effect of doxycycline on breast cancer cells. We find that doxycyline can inhibit the viability and proliferation of breast cancer cells and BCSCs, decrease mammosphere forming efficiency, migration and invasion, and EMT of breast cancer cells. Expression of stem cell factors Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and CD44 were also significantly downregulated after doxycycline treatment. Moreover, doxycycline could down-regulate the expression of the autophagy marker LC-3BI and LC-3BII, suggesting that inhibiting autophagy may be responsible in part for the observed effects on proliferation, EMT and stem cell markers. The potent inhibition of EMT and cancer stem-like characteristics in breast cancer cells by doxycycline treatment suggests that this drug can be repurposed as an anti-cancer drug in the treatment of breast cancer patients in the clinic. PMID:27753527

  17. Stem Cell, Regenerative Medicine and Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Of the estimated trillion cells that build up our bodies, only a little number can self-renew and give rise to many different cell types. These unspecialized cells are called stem cells. Stem cell division and differentiation is fundamental to the development of the mature organism. Stem cells have recently attracted significant attention largely due to their potential medical

  18. Susceptibility of ATM-deficient pancreatic cancer cells to radiation.

    PubMed

    Ayars, Michael; Eshleman, James; Goggins, Michael

    2017-05-19

    Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is inactivated in a significant minority of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas and may be predictor of treatment response. We determined if ATM deficiency renders pancreatic cancer cells more sensitive to fractionated radiation or commonly used chemotherapeutics. ATM expression was knocked down in three pancreatic cancer cell lines using ATM-targeting shRNA. Isogenic cell lines were tested for sensitivity to several chemotherapeutic agents and radiation. DNA repair kinetics were analyzed in irradiated cells using the comet assay. We find that while rendering pancreatic cancer cells ATM-deficient did not significantly change their sensitivity to several chemotherapeutics, it did render them exquisitely sensitized to radiation. Pancreatic cancer ATM status may help predict response to radiotherapy.

  19. Serine Proteases Enhance Immunogenic Antigen Presentation on Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Haley L.; Tripathi, Satyendra C.; Kerros, Celine; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Garber, Haven R.; St. John, Lisa S.; Federico, Lorenzo; Meraz, Ismail M.; Roth, Jack A.; Sepesi, Boris; Majidi, Mourad; Ruisaard, Kathryn; Clise-Dwyer, Karen; Roszik, Jason; Gibbons, Don L.; Heymach, John V.; Swisher, Stephen G.; Bernantchez, Chantale; Alatrash, Gheath; Hanash, Samir; Molldrem, Jeffrey J.

    2017-01-01

    Immunotherapies targeting immune checkpoints have proven efficacious in reducing the burden of lung cancer in patients; however, the antigenic targets of these re-invigorated T cells remain poorly defined. Lung cancer tumors contain tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) and neutrophils, which release the serine proteases neutrophil elastase (NE) and proteinase 3 (P3) into the tumor microenvironment. NE and P3 shape the antitumor adaptive immune response in breast cancer and melanoma. In this report, we demonstrate that lung cancer cells cross-presented the tumor-associated antigen PR1, derived from NE and P3. Additionally, NE and P3 enhanced the expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules on lung cancer cells and induced unique, endogenous peptides in the immunopeptidome, as detected with mass spectrometry sequencing. Lung cancer patient tissues with high intratumoral TAM were enriched for MHC class I genes and T-cell markers, and patients with high TAM and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) infiltration had improved overall survival. We confirmed the immunogenicity of unique, endogenous peptides with cytotoxicity assays against lung cancer cell lines, using CTL from healthy donors that had been expanded against select peptides. Finally, CTL specific for serine proteases–induced endogenous peptides were detected in lung cancer patients using peptide/HLA-A2 tetramers and were elevated in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Thus, serine proteases in the tumor microenvironment of lung cancers promote the presentation of HLA class I immunogenic peptides that are expressed by lung cancer cells, thereby increasing the antigen repertoire that can be targeted in lung cancer. PMID:28254787

  20. Apoptosis-inducing effects and growth inhibitory of a novel chalcone, in human hepatic cancer cells and lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Dong, Naiwei; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Tong; Wang, Lei; Li, Huimin; Zhang, Shuqian; Li, Xia; Bai, Xue; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Baofeng

    2018-05-29

    Apoptosis is an important biological phenomenon, which affects many diseases, such as cancer and Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, we observed that chalcone 9X, an aromatic ketone, induced apoptosis of human hepatic and lung cancer cells and inhibited cancer cell migration and invasion. This compound strongly suppressed the growth of tumor in a mouse model of xenograft tumors. The anticancer activity of chalcone 9X was equivalent to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) as a positive control agent, whereas the toxic effect of chalcone 9X in non-cancer cells was weaker than 5-FU. Molecular docking results showed that chalcone 9X could act on the active sites of pro-apoptotic proteins capspases-3 and -8 to induce apoptotic death of cancer cells. Our findings suggest that chalcone 9X might be considered a candidate compound of novel anticancer drug in the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Therapeutic PEG-ceramide nanomicelles synergize with salinomycin to target both liver cancer cells and cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meiping; Xie, Fangyuan; Wen, Xikai; Chen, Han; Zhang, Hai; Liu, Junjie; Zhang, He; Zou, Hao; Yu, Yuan; Chen, Yan; Sun, Zhiguo; Wang, Xinxia; Zhang, Guoqing; Yin, Chuan; Sun, Duxin; Gao, Jie; Jiang, Beige; Zhong, Yanqiang; Lu, Ying

    2017-05-01

    Salinomycin (SAL)-loaded PEG-ceramide nanomicelles (SCM) were prepared to target both liver cancer cells and cancer stem cells. The synergistic ratio of SAL/PEG-ceramide was evaluated to prepare SCM, and the antitumor activity of SCM was examined both in vitro and in vivo. SAL/PEG-ceramide molar ratio of 1:4 was chosen as the synergistic ratio, and SCM showed superior cytotoxic effect and increased apoptosis-inducing activity in both liver cancer cells and cancer stem cells. In vivo, SCM showed the best tumor inhibitory effect with a safety profile. Thus, PEG-ceramide nanomicelles could serve as an effective and safe therapeutic drug carrier to deliver SAL into liver cancer, opening up the avenue of using PEG-ceramide as therapeutic drug carriers.

  2. Paeoniflorin inhibits cell growth and induces cell cycle arrest through inhibition of FoxM1 in colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yue, Meng; Li, Shiquan; Yan, Guoqiang; Li, Chenyao; Kang, Zhenhua

    2018-01-01

    Paeoniflorin (PF) exhibits tumor suppressive functions in a variety of human cancers. However, the function of PF and molecular mechanism in colorectal cancer are elusive. In the present study, we investigated whether PF could exert its antiproliferative activity, anti-migration, and anti-invasive function in colorectal cancer cells. We found that PF inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis and blocked cell cycle progression in the G0/G1 phase in colorectal cancer cells. Moreover, we found that PF suppressed cell migration and invasion in colorectal cancer cells. FoxM1 has been reported to play an important oncogenic role in human cancers. We also determine whether PF inhibited the expression of FoxM1, leading to its anti-cancer activity. We found that PF treatment in colorectal cancer cells resulted in down-regulation of FoxM1. The rescue experiments showed that overexpression of FoxM1 abrogated the tumor suppressive function induced by PF treatment. Notably, depletion of FoxM1 promoted the anti-tumor activity of PF in colorectal cancer cells. Therefore, inhibition of FoxM1 could participate in the anti-tumor activity of PF in colorectal cancer cells.

  3. The ratio of cancer cells to stroma after induction therapy in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Goto, Masaki; Naito, Masahito; Saruwatari, Koichi; Hisakane, Kakeru; Kojima, Motohiro; Fujii, Satoshi; Kuwata, Takeshi; Ochiai, Atsushi; Nomura, Shogo; Aokage, Keiju; Hishida, Tomoyuki; Yoshida, Junji; Yokoi, Kohei; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Ishii, Genichiro

    2017-02-01

    Induction therapy induces degenerative changes of various degrees in both cancerous and non-cancerous cells of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The effect of induction therapy on histological characteristics, in particular the ratio of residual cancer cells to non-cancerous components, is unknown. Seventy-four NSCLC patients treated with induction therapy followed by surgery were enrolled. Residual cancer cells were identified using anti-pan-cytokeratin antibody (AE1/AE3). We analyzed and quantified the following three factors via digital image analysis; (1) the tumor area containing cancer cells and non-cancerous components (TA), (2) the total area of AE1/AE3 positive cancer cells (TACC), (3) the percentage of TACC to TA (%TACC). These factors were also analyzed in a matched control group (surgery alone, n = 80). The median TACC of the induction therapy group was significantly lower than that of the control group (p < 0.01). In addition, the median %TACC of the induction therapy group (5.9 %) was significantly lower than that of the control group (58.6 %) (p < 0.01). TACC had a strong positive correlation with TA in the control group (r = 0.93), but not in the induction therapy group. Conversely, TACC had a strong positive correlation with %TACC in the induction therapy group (r = 0.95), but not in the control group. Unlike the control group, the smaller the total area of residual cancer cells, the higher residual tumor contained non-cancerous components in the induction group, which may be the characteristic histological feature of NSCLC after induction therapy.

  4. Epigenetics changes caused by the fusion of human embryonic stem cell and ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    He, Ke; Qu, Hu; Xu, Li-Nan; Gao, Jun; Cheng, Fu-Yi; Xiang, Peng; Zhou, Can-Quan

    2016-10-01

    To observe the effect of gene expression and tumorigenicity in hybrid cells of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and ovarian cancer cells in vitro and in vivo using a mouse model, and to determine its feasibility in reprogramming tumour cells growth and apoptosis, for a potential exploration of the role of hESCs and tumour cells fusion in the management of ovarian cancer. Stable transgenic hESCs (H1) and ovarian cancer cell line OVCAR-3 were established before fusion, and cell fusion system was established to analyse the related indicators. PTEN expression in HO-H1 cells was higher than those in the parental stem cells and lower than those in parental tumour cells; the growth of OV-H1 (RFP+GFP) hybrid cells with double fluorescence expressions were obviously slower than that of human embryonic stem cells and OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells. The apoptosis signal of the OV-H1 hybrid cells was significantly higher than that of the hESCs and OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells. In vivo results showed that compared with 7 days, 28 days and 35 days after inoculation of OV-H1 hybrid cells; also, apoptotic cell detection indicated that much stronger apoptotic signal was found in OV-H1 hybrid cells inoculated mouse. The hESCs can inhibit the growth of OVCAR-3 cells in vitro by suppressing p53 and PTEN expression to suppress the growth of tumour that may be achieved by inducing apoptosis of OVCAR-3 cells. The change of epigenetics after fusion of ovarian cancer cells and hESCs may become a novel direction for treatment of ovarian cancer. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. The triterpenoids of Hibiscus syriacus induce apoptosis and inhibit cell migration in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ren-Jun; Hsu, Yao-Chin; Chen, Shu-Pin; Fu, Chia-Lynn; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Chang, Fung-Wei; Chen, Ying-Hsin; Liu, Jui-Ming; Ho, Jar-Yi; Yu, Cheng-Ping

    2015-03-14

    Breast cancer-related mortality increases annually. The efficacy of current breast cancer treatments is limited, and they have numerous side effects and permit high recurrence. Patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative or triple-negative breast cancer are particularly difficult to treat. Treatment for this type of cancer is lacking, and its prognosis is poor, necessitating the search for alternative treatments. This study screened Chinese herb Hibiscus syriacus extracts and identified a novel anti-cancer drug for patients with ER-negative breast cancer. The inhibitory effects on cell viability and migration were evaluated for each compound, and the molecular regulatory effects were evaluated on both mRNA and protein levels. We found several triterpenoids including betulin (K02) and its derivatives (K03, K04, and K06) from H. syriacus inhibited human triple-negative breast cancer cell viability and migration but revealed smaller cytotoxic effects on normal mammalian epithelial cells. Betulin and its derivatives induced apoptosis by activating apoptosis-related genes. In addition, they activated p21 expression, which induced cell cycle arrest in breast cancer cells. Betulin (K02) and betulinic acid (K06) had stronger inhibitory effects on cell viability and migration than K03 and K04. H. syriacus extracts might inhibit breast cancer cell viability and induce apoptosis by activating p53 family regulated pathways and inhibiting AKT activation. H. syriacus extracts may provide important insight into the development of novel alternative therapies for breast cancer.

  6. Cold atmospheric plasma treatment inhibits growth in colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Christin; Arndt, Stephanie; Zimmermann, Julia L; Li, Yangfang; Karrer, Sigrid; Bosserhoff, Anja-Katrin

    2018-06-01

    Plasma oncology is a relatively new field of research. Recent developments have indicated that cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) technology is an interesting new therapeutic approach to cancer treatment. In this study, p53 wildtype (LoVo) and human p53 mutated (HT29 and SW480) colorectal cancer cells were treated with the miniFlatPlaSter - a device particularly developed for the treatment of tumor cells - that uses the Surface Micro Discharge (SMD) technology for plasma production in air. The present study analyzed the effects of plasma on colorectal cancer cells in vitro and on normal colon tissue ex vivo. Plasma treatment had strong effects on colon cancer cells, such as inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of cell death, and modulation of p21 expression. In contrast, CAP treatment of murine colon tissue ex vivo for up to 2 min did not show any toxic effect on normal colon cells compared to H2O2 positive control. In summary, these results suggest that the miniFlatPlaSter plasma device is able to kill colorectal cancer cells independent of their p53 mutation status. Thus, this device presents a promising new approach in colon cancer therapy.

  7. Dysfunctional Natural Killer Cells in the Aftermath of Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sarwat T.; Kilgour, Marisa K.; Xu, Rebecca; Kennedy, Michael A.; Auer, Rebecca C.

    2017-01-01

    The physiological changes that occur immediately following cancer surgeries initiate a chain of events that ultimately result in a short pro-, followed by a prolonged anti-, inflammatory period. Natural Killer (NK) cells are severely affected during this period in the recovering cancer patient. NK cells play a crucial role in anti-tumour immunity because of their innate ability to differentiate between malignant versus normal cells. Therefore, an opportunity arises in the aftermath of cancer surgery for residual cancer cells, including distant metastases, to gain a foothold in the absence of NK cell surveillance. Here, we describe the post-operative environment and how the release of sympathetic stress-related factors (e.g., cortisol, prostaglandins, catecholamines), anti-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-6, TGF-β), and myeloid derived suppressor cells, mediate NK cell dysfunction. A snapshot of current and recently completed clinical trials specifically addressing NK cell dysfunction post-surgery is also discussed. In collecting and summarizing results from these different aspects of the surgical stress response, a comprehensive view of the NK cell suppressive effects of surgery is presented. Peri-operative therapies to mitigate NK cell suppression in the post-operative period could improve curative outcomes following cancer surgery. PMID:28817109

  8. Losartan sensitizes selectively prostate cancer cell to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Yazdannejat, H; Hosseinimehr, S J; Ghasemi, A; Pourfallah, T A; Rafiei, A

    2016-01-11

    Losartan is an angiotensin II receptor (AT-II-R) blocker that is widely used by human for blood pressure regulation. Also, it has antitumor property. In this study, we investigated the radiosensitizing effect of losartan on cellular toxicity induced by ionizing radiation on prostate cancer and non-malignant fibroblast cells. Human prostate cancer (DU-145) and human non-malignant fibroblast cells (HFFF2) were treated with losartan at different concentrations (0.5, 1, 10, 50 and 100 µM) and then these cells were exposed to ionizing radiation. The cell proliferation was determined using MTT assay. Our results showed that losartan exhibited antitumor effect on prostate cancer cells; it was reduced cell survival to 66% at concentration 1 µM. Losartan showed an additive killing effect in combination with ionizing radiation on prostate cancer cell. The cell proliferation was reduced to 54% in the prostate cancer cells treated with losartan at concentration 1 µM in combination with ionizing radiation. Losartan did not exhibit any toxicity on HFFF2 cell. This result shows a promising effect of losartan on enhancement of therapeutic effect of ionizing radiation in patients during therapy.

  9. Dysfunctional Natural Killer Cells in the Aftermath of Cancer Surgery.

    PubMed

    Angka, Leonard; Khan, Sarwat T; Kilgour, Marisa K; Xu, Rebecca; Kennedy, Michael A; Auer, Rebecca C

    2017-08-17

    The physiological changes that occur immediately following cancer surgeries initiate a chain of events that ultimately result in a short pro-, followed by a prolonged anti-, inflammatory period. Natural Killer (NK) cells are severely affected during this period in the recovering cancer patient. NK cells play a crucial role in anti-tumour immunity because of their innate ability to differentiate between malignant versus normal cells. Therefore, an opportunity arises in the aftermath of cancer surgery for residual cancer cells, including distant metastases, to gain a foothold in the absence of NK cell surveillance. Here, we describe the post-operative environment and how the release of sympathetic stress-related factors (e.g., cortisol, prostaglandins, catecholamines), anti-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-6, TGF-β), and myeloid derived suppressor cells, mediate NK cell dysfunction. A snapshot of current and recently completed clinical trials specifically addressing NK cell dysfunction post-surgery is also discussed. In collecting and summarizing results from these different aspects of the surgical stress response, a comprehensive view of the NK cell suppressive effects of surgery is presented. Peri-operative therapies to mitigate NK cell suppression in the post-operative period could improve curative outcomes following cancer surgery.

  10. Cancer Progenitor Cells: The Result of an Epigenetic Event?

    PubMed

    Lapinska, Karolina; Faria, Gabriela; McGonagle, Sandra; Macumber, Kate Morgan; Heerboth, Sarah; Sarkar, Sibaji

    2018-01-01

    The concept of cancer stem cells was proposed in the late 1990s. Although initially the idea seemed controversial, the existence of cancer stem cells is now well established. However, the process leading to the formation of cancer stem cells is still not clear and thus requires further research. This article discusses epigenetic events that possibly produce cancer progenitor cells from predisposed cells by the influence of their environment. Every somatic cell possesses an epigenetic signature in terms of histone modifications and DNA methylation, which are obtained during lineage-specific differentiation of pluripotent stem cells, which is specific to that particular tissue. We call this signature an epigenetic switch. The epigenetic switch is not fixed. Our epigenome alters with aging. However, depending on the predisposition of the cells of a particular tissue and their microenvironment, the balance of the switch (histone modifications and the DNA methylation) may be tilted to immortality in a few cells, which generates cancer progenitor cells. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  11. Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  12. Variable TERRA abundance and stability in cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Oh, Bong-Kyeong; Keo, Ponnarath; Bae, Jaeman; Ko, Jung Hwa; Choi, Joong Sub

    2017-06-01

    Telomeres are transcribed into long non-coding RNA, referred to as telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), which plays important roles in maintaining telomere integrity and heterochromatin formation. TERRA has been well characterized in HeLa cells, a type of cervical cancer cell. However, TERRA abundance and stability have not been examined in other cervical cancer cells, at least to the best of our knowledge. Thus, in this study, we measured TERRA levels and stability, as well as telomere length in 6 cervical cancer cell lines, HeLa, SiHa, CaSki, HeLa S3, C-33A and SNU-17. We also examined the association between the TERRA level and its stability and telomere length. We found that the TERRA level was several fold greater in the SiHa, CaSki, HeLa S3, C-33A and SNU-17 cells, than in the HeLa cells. An RNA stability assay of actinomycin D-treated cells revealed that TERRA had a short half-life of ~4 h in HeLa cells, which was consistent with previous studies, but was more stable with a longer half-life (>8 h) in the other 5 cell lines. Telomere length varied from 4 to 9 kb in the cells and did not correlate significantly with the TERRA level. On the whole, our data indicate that TERRA abundance and stability vary between different types of cervical cancer cells. TERRA degrades rapidly in HeLa cells, but is maintained stably in other cervical cancer cells that accumulate higher levels of TERRA. TERRA abundance is associated with the stability of RNA in cervical cancer cells, but is unlikely associated with telomere length.

  13. Inhibition of NEDD4 inhibits cell growth and invasion and induces cell apoptosis in bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wen, Wu; Li, Jingying; Wang, Longwang; Xing, Yifei; Li, Xuechao; Ruan, Hailong; Xi, Xiaoqing; Xiong, Jianhua; Kuang, Renrui

    2017-08-18

    The neural precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated protein 4 (NEDD4) plays a pivotal oncogenic role in various types of human cancers. However, the function of NEDD4 in bladder cancer has not been fully investigated. In the present study, we aim to explore whether NEDD4 governs cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion in bladder cancer cells. Our results showed that downregulation of NEDD4 suppressed cell proliferation in bladder cancer cells. Moreover, we found that inhibition of NEDD4 significantly induced cell apoptosis. Furthermore, downregulation of NEDD4 retarded cell migration and invasion. Notably, overexpression of NEDD4 enhanced cell growth and inhibited apoptosis. Consistently, upregulation of NEDD4 promoted cell migration and invasion in bladder cancer cells. Mechanically, our Western blotting results revealed that downregulation of NEDD4 activated PTEN and inhibited Notch-1 expression, whereas upregulation of NEDD4 reduced PTEN level and increased Notch-1 level in bladder cancer cells. Our findings indicated that NEDD4 exerts its oncogenic function partly due to regulation of PTEN and Notch-1 in bladder cancer cells. These results further revealed that targeting NEDD4 could be a useful approach for the treatment of bladder cancer.

  14. Cadherin-23 Mediates Heterotypic Cell-Cell Adhesion between Breast Cancer Epithelial Cells and Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Apostolopoulou, Maria; Ligon, Lee

    2012-01-01

    In the early stages of breast cancer metastasis, epithelial cells penetrate the basement membrane and invade the surrounding stroma, where they encounter fibroblasts. Paracrine signaling between fibroblasts and epithelial tumor cells contributes to the metastatic cascade, but little is known about the role of adhesive contacts between these two cell types in metastasis. Here we show that MCF-7 breast cancer epithelial cells and normal breast fibroblasts form heterotypic adhesions when grown together in co-culture, as evidenced by adhesion assays. PCR and immunoblotting show that both cell types express multiple members of the cadherin superfamily, including the atypical cadherin, cadherin-23, when grown in isolation and in co-culture. Immunocytochemistry experiments show that cadherin-23 localizes to homotypic adhesions between MCF-7 cells and also to heterotypic adhesions between the epithelial cells and fibroblasts, and antibody inhibition and RNAi experiments show that cadherin-23 plays a role in mediating these adhesive interactions. Finally, we show that cadherin-23 is upregulated in breast cancer tissue samples, and we hypothesize that heterotypic adhesions mediated by this atypical cadherin may play a role in the early stages of metastasis. PMID:22413011

  15. CNT Nanobombs for Specific Eradication of Cancer Cells: A New Concept in Cancer Theranostics.

    PubMed

    Omidi, Yadollah

    2011-01-01

    Whole extermination of cancerous cells/tissue seems no longer to be a dream. Exploiting advanced photoactive nanomaterials such as functionalized fullerenes and carbon nano-tubes (CNTs) can act as CNT nanobombs (CNT-NBs) when exposed to the near infrared (NIR) radiation. PEGylated CNTs tagged with an antibody/aptamer can target cancer cells. Once attached to cancer cells, the NIR emission (700-1100 nm), in which body tissues are mostly transparent, can be applied to CNT-NBs which can absorb the light and get heated up. The resultant enhanced temperature can abolish the cancer. Once stealth CNT-NBs are tagged with imaging moieties, it would be a matter of computer gaming for physician who can inject it for real time visualization and destruction of cancer by activation of the NIR laser. While, many nanosystems (NSs) are still in waiting list for clinical translation, our dreams may come true by applying stealth CNT-NBs against cancer.

  16. Advances in inducing adaptive immunity using cell-based cancer vaccines: Clinical applications in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Kajihara, Mikio; Takakura, Kazuki; Kanai, Tomoya; Ito, Zensho; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Shimodaira, Shigetaka; Okamoto, Masato; Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Koido, Shigeo

    2016-05-14

    The incidence of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is on the rise, and the prognosis is extremely poor because PDA is highly aggressive and notoriously difficult to treat. Although gemcitabine- or 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy is typically offered as a standard of care, most patients do not survive longer than 1 year. Therefore, the development of alternative therapeutic approaches for patients with PDA is imperative. As PDA cells express numerous tumor-associated antigens that are suitable vaccine targets, one promising treatment approach is cancer vaccines. During the last few decades, cell-based cancer vaccines have offered encouraging results in preclinical studies. Cell-based cancer vaccines are mainly generated by presenting whole tumor cells or dendritic cells to cells of the immune system. In particular, several clinical trials have explored cell-based cancer vaccines as a promising therapeutic approach for patients with PDA. Moreover, chemotherapy and cancer vaccines can synergize to result in increased efficacies in patients with PDA. In this review, we will discuss both the effect of cell-based cancer vaccines and advances in terms of future strategies of cancer vaccines for the treatment of PDA patients.

  17. Targeting cancer stem cells and signaling pathways by phytochemicals: Novel approach for breast cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dandawate, Prasad R.; Subramaniam, Dharmalingam; Jensen, Roy A.; Anant, Shrikant

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer diagnosed in women worldwide and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the USA. Despite the development of newer diagnostic methods, selective as well as targeted chemotherapies and their combinations, surgery, hormonal therapy, radiotherapy, breast cancer recurrence, metastasis and drug resistance are still the major problems for breast cancer. Emerging evidence suggest the existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs), a population of cells with the capacity to self-renew, differentiate and be capable of initiating and sustaining tumor growth. In addition, CSCs are believed to be responsible for cancer recurrence, anticancer drug resistance, and metastasis. Hence, compounds targeting breast CSCs may be better therapeutic agents for treating breast cancer and control recurrence and metastasis. Naturally occurring compounds, mainly phytochemicals have gained immense attention in recent times because of their wide safety profile, ability to target heterogeneous populations of cancer cells as well as CSCs, and their key signaling pathways. Therefore, in the present review article, we summarize our current understanding of breast CSCs and their signaling pathways, and the phytochemicals that affect these cells including curcumin, resveratrol, tea polyphenols (epigallocatechin-3-gallate, epigallocatechin), sulforaphane, genistein, indole-3-carbinol, 3, 3′-di-indolylmethane, vitamin E, retinoic acid, quercetin, parthenolide, triptolide, 6-shogaol, pterostilbene, isoliquiritigenin, celastrol, and koenimbin. These phytochemicals may serve as novel therapeutic agents for breast cancer treatment and future leads for drug development. PMID:27609747

  18. Targeting cancer stem cells and signaling pathways by phytochemicals: Novel approach for breast cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Dandawate, Prasad R; Subramaniam, Dharmalingam; Jensen, Roy A; Anant, Shrikant

    2016-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer diagnosed in women worldwide and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the USA. Despite the development of newer diagnostic methods, selective as well as targeted chemotherapies and their combinations, surgery, hormonal therapy, radiotherapy, breast cancer recurrence, metastasis and drug resistance are still the major problems for breast cancer. Emerging evidence suggest the existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs), a population of cells with the capacity to self-renew, differentiate and be capable of initiating and sustaining tumor growth. In addition, CSCs are believed to be responsible for cancer recurrence, anticancer drug resistance, and metastasis. Hence, compounds targeting breast CSCs may be better therapeutic agents for treating breast cancer and control recurrence and metastasis. Naturally occurring compounds, mainly phytochemicals have gained immense attention in recent times because of their wide safety profile, ability to target heterogeneous populations of cancer cells as well as CSCs, and their key signaling pathways. Therefore, in the present review article, we summarize our current understanding of breast CSCs and their signaling pathways, and the phytochemicals that affect these cells including curcumin, resveratrol, tea polyphenols (epigallocatechin-3-gallate, epigallocatechin), sulforaphane, genistein, indole-3-carbinol, 3, 3'-di-indolylmethane, vitamin E, retinoic acid, quercetin, parthenolide, triptolide, 6-shogaol, pterostilbene, isoliquiritigenin, celastrol, and koenimbin. These phytochemicals may serve as novel therapeutic agents for breast cancer treatment and future leads for drug development. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Events Cancer Currents Blog All Press Releases 2018 ... Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Cancer Currents Blog About NCI NCI Overview History ...

  20. Glutamine Transport and Mitochondrial Metabolism in Cancer Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Scalise, Mariafrancesca; Pochini, Lorena; Galluccio, Michele; Console, Lara; Indiveri, Cesare

    2017-01-01

    The concept that cancer is a metabolic disease is now well acknowledged: many cancer cell types rely mostly on glucose and some amino acids, especially glutamine for energy supply. These findings were corroborated by overexpression of plasma membrane nutrient transporters, such as the glucose transporters (GLUTs) and some amino acid transporters such as ASCT2, LAT1, and ATB0,+, which became promising targets for pharmacological intervention. On the basis of their sodium-dependent transport modes, ASCT2 and ATB0+ have the capacity to sustain glutamine need of cancer cells; while LAT1, which is sodium independent will have the role of providing cancer cells with some amino acids with plausible signaling roles. According to the metabolic reprogramming of many types of cancer cells, glucose is mainly catabolized by aerobic glycolysis in tumors, while the fate of Glutamine is completed at mitochondrial level where the enzyme Glutaminase converts Glutamine to Glutamate. Glutamine rewiring in cancer cells is heterogeneous. For example, Glutamate is converted to α-Ketoglutarate giving rise to a truncated form of Krebs cycle. This reprogrammed pathway leads to the production of ATP mainly at substrate level and regeneration of reducing equivalents needed for cells growth, redox balance, and metabolic energy. Few studies on hypothetical mitochondrial transporter for Glutamine are reported and indirect evidences suggested its presence. Pharmacological compounds able to inhibit Glutamine metabolism may represent novel drugs for cancer treatments. Interestingly, well acknowledged targets for drugs are the Glutamine transporters of plasma membrane and the key enzyme Glutaminase. PMID:29376023

  1. Scientist, Single Cell Analysis Facility | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Research Technology Program (CRTP) develops and implements emerging technology, cancer biology expertise and research capabilities to accomplish NCI research objectives.  The CRTP is an outward-facing, multi-disciplinary hub purposed to enable the external cancer research community and provides dedicated support to NCI’s intramural Center for Cancer Research (CCR).  The dedicated units provide electron microscopy, protein characterization, protein expression, optical microscopy and nextGen sequencing. These research efforts are an integral part of CCR at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR).  CRTP scientists also work collaboratively with intramural NCI investigators to provide research technologies and expertise. KEY ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES We are seeking a highly motivated Scientist II to join the newly established Single Cell Analysis Facility (SCAF) of the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) at NCI. The SCAF will house state of the art single cell sequencing technologies including 10xGenomics Chromium, BD Genomics Rhapsody, DEPPArray, and other emerging single cell technologies. The Scientist: Will interact with close to 200 laboratories within the CCR to design and carry out single cell experiments for cancer research Will work on single cell isolation/preparation from various tissues and cells and related NexGen sequencing library preparation Is expected to author publications in peer reviewed scientific journals

  2. LGR5 and Nanog identify stem cell signature of pancreas beta cells which initiate pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Amsterdam, Abraham; Raanan, Calanit; Schreiber, Letizia; Polin, Nava; Givol, David

    2013-04-05

    Pancreas cancer, is the fourth leading cause of cancer death but its cell of origin is controversial. We compared the localization of stem cells in normal and cancerous pancreas using antibodies to the stem cell markers Nanog and LGR5. Here we show, for the first time, that LGR5 is expressed in normal pancreas, exclusively in the islets of Langerhans and it is co-localized, surprisingly, with Nanog and insulin in clusters of beta cells. In cancerous pancreas Nanog and LGR5 are expressed in the remaining islets and in all ductal cancer cells. We observed insulin staining among the ductal cancer cells, but not in metastases. This indicates that the islet's beta cells, expressing LGR5 and Nanog markers are the initiating cells of pancreas cancer, which migrated from the islets to form the ductal cancerous tissue, probably after mutation and de-differentiation. This discovery may facilitate treatment of this devastating cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimum 3D Matrix Stiffness for Maintenance of Cancer Stem Cells Is Dependent on Tissue Origin of Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jabbari, Esmaiel; Sarvestani, Samaneh K.; Daneshian, Leily; Moeinzadeh, Seyedsina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The growth and expression of cancer stem cells (CSCs) depend on many factors in the tumor microenvironment. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of cancer cells’ tissue origin on the optimum matrix stiffness for CSC growth and marker expression in a model polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel without the interference of other factors in the microenvironment. Methods Human MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma, HCT116 colorectal and AGS gastric carcinoma, and U2OS osteosarcoma cells were used. The cells were encapsulated in PEGDA gels with compressive moduli in the 2-70 kPa range and optimized cell seeding density of 0.6x106 cells/mL. Micropatterning was used to optimize the growth of encapsulated cells with respect to average tumorsphere size. The CSC sub-population of the encapsulated cells was characterized by cell number, tumorsphere size and number density, and mRNA expression of CSC markers. Results The optimum matrix stiffness for growth and marker expression of CSC sub-population of cancer cells was 5 kPa for breast MCF7 and MDA231, 25 kPa for colorectal HCT116 and gastric AGS, and 50 kPa for bone U2OS cells. Conjugation of a CD44 binding peptide to the gel stopped tumorsphere formation by cancer cells from different tissue origin. The expression of YAP/TAZ transcription factors by the encapsulated cancer cells was highest at the optimum stiffness indicating a link between the Hippo transducers and CSC growth. The optimum average tumorsphere size for CSC growth and marker expression was 50 μm. Conclusion The marker expression results suggest that the CSC sub-population of cancer cells resides within a niche with optimum stiffness which depends on the cancer cells’ tissue origin. PMID:26168187

  4. Glycosylation potential of human prostate cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yin; Chachadi, Vishwanath B.; Cheng, Pi-Wan

    2014-01-01

    Altered glycosylation is a universal feature of cancer cells and altered glycans can help cancer cells escape immune surveillance, facilitate tumor invasion, and increase malignancy. The goal of this study was to identify specific glycoenzymes, which could distinguish prostate cancer cells from normal prostatic cells. We investigated enzymatic activities and gene expression levels of key glycosyl- and sulfotransferases responsible for the assembly of O- and N-glycans in several prostatic cells. These cells included immortalized RWPE-1 cells derived from normal prostatic tissues, and prostate cancer cells derived from metastasis in bone (PC-3), brain (DU145), lymph node (LNCaP), and vertebra (VCaP). We found that all cells were capable of synthesizing complex N-glycans and O-glycans with the core 1 structure, and each cell line had characteristic bio-synthetic pathways to modify these structures. The in vitro measured activities corresponded well to the mRNA levels of glycosyltransferases and sulfotransferases. Lectin and antibody binding to whole cells supported these results, which form the basis for the development of tumor cell-specific targeting strategies. PMID:22843320

  5. DNA breaks early in replication in B cell cancers

    Cancer.gov

    Research by scientists at the NCI has identified a new class of DNA sites in cells that break early in the replication process. They found that these break sites correlate with damage often seen in B cell cancers, such as diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

  6. Regulating cancer stem cells the miR way.

    PubMed

    Peter, Marcus E

    2010-01-08

    A recent study in Nature Cell Biology, Wellner et al. (2009) identifies ZEB1, a known promoter of tumor invasion, as a negative regulator of miRNA clusters that target stem cell factors. These findings provide new insight into the network of transcription factors and miRNAs that regulate cancer stem cells. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Targeting lipid metabolism of cancer cells: A promising therapeutic strategy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiuping; Luo, Qing; Halim, Alexander; Song, Guanbin

    2017-08-10

    One of the most important metabolic hallmarks of cancer cells is deregulation of lipid metabolism. In addition, enhancing de novo fatty acid (FA) synthesis, increasing lipid uptake and lipolysis have also been considered as means of FA acquisition in cancer cells. FAs are involved in various aspects of tumourigenesis and tumour progression. Therefore, targeting lipid metabolism is a promising therapeutic strategy for human cancer. Recent studies have shown that reprogramming lipid metabolism plays important roles in providing energy, macromolecules for membrane synthesis, and lipid signals during cancer progression. Moreover, accumulation of lipid droplets in cancer cells acts as a pivotal adaptive response to harmful conditions. Here, we provide a brief review of the crucial roles of FA metabolism in cancer development, and place emphasis on FA origin, utilization and storage in cancer cells. Understanding the regulation of lipid metabolism in cancer cells has important implications for exploring a new therapeutic strategy for management and treatment of cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Reprogramming cancer cells: a novel approach for cancer therapy or a tool for disease-modeling?

    PubMed

    Yilmazer, Açelya; de Lázaro, Irene; Taheri, Hadiseh

    2015-12-01

    Chromatin dynamics have been the major focus of many physiological and pathological processes over the past 20 years. Epigenetic mechanisms have been shown to be reshaped during both cellular reprogramming and tumorigenesis. For this reason, cancer cell reprogramming can provide a powerful tool to better understand both regenerative and cancer-fate processes, with a potential to develop novel therapeutic approaches. Recent studies showed that cancer cells can be reprogrammed to a pluripotent state by the overexpression of reprogramming transcription factors. Activation of transcription factors and modification of chromatin regulators may result in the remodeling of epigenetic status and refueling of tumorigenicity in these reprogrammed cancer cells. However, studies focusing on cancer cell reprogramming are contradictory; some studies reported increased tumor progression whereas others showed that cellular reprogramming has a treatment potential for cancer. In this review, first, the current knowledge on the epigenetic mechanisms involved during cancer development and cellular reprogramming will be presented. Later, different reports and key factors about pluripotency-based reprogramming of cancer cells will be reviewed in detail. New insights will be provided on cancer biology and therapy in the light of cellular reprogramming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Exclusion from spheroid formation identifies loss of essential cell-cell adhesion molecules in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Mira; Scherzer, Martin; Walter, Stefanie; Holzner, Silvio; Pudelko, Karoline; Riedl, Angelika; Unger, Christine; Kramer, Nina; Weil, Beatrix; Neesen, Jürgen; Hengstschläger, Markus; Dolznig, Helmut

    2018-01-18

    Many cell lines derived from solid cancers can form spheroids, which recapitulate tumor cell clusters and are more representative of the in vivo situation than 2D cultures. During spheroid formation, a small proportion of a variety of different colon cancer cell lines did not integrate into the sphere and lost cell-cell adhesion properties. An enrichment protocol was developed to augment the proportion of these cells to 100% purity. The basis for the separation of spheroids from non-spheroid forming (NSF) cells is simple gravity-sedimentation. This protocol gives rise to sub-populations of colon cancer cells with stable loss of cell-cell adhesion. SW620 cells lacked E-cadherin, DLD-1 cells lost α-catenin and HCT116 cells lacked P-cadherin in the NSF state. Knockdown of these molecules in the corresponding spheroid-forming cells demonstrated that loss of the respective proteins were indeed responsible for the NSF phenotypes. Loss of the spheroid forming phenotype was associated with increased migration and invasion properties in all cell lines tested. Hence, we identified critical molecules involved in spheroid formation in different cancer cell lines. We present here a simple, powerful and broadly applicable method to generate new sublines of tumor cell lines to study loss of cell-cell adhesion in cancer progression.

  10. Laser-induced thermal ablation of cancerous cell organelles.

    PubMed

    Letfullin, Renat R; Szatkowski, Scott A

    2017-07-01

    By exploiting the physical changes experienced by cancerous organelles, we investigate the feasibility of destroying cancerous cells by single and multipulse modes of laser heating. Our procedure consists of two primary steps: determining the normal and cancerous organelles optical properties and simulating the heating of all of the major organelles in the cell to find the treatment modes for the laser ablation of cancerous organelles without harming healthy cells. Our simulations show that the cancerous nucleus can be selectively heated to damaging temperatures, making this nucleus a feasible therapeutic particle and removing the need for nanoparticle injection. Because of the removal of this extra step, the procedure we propose is simpler and safer for the patient.

  11. Host manipulation by cancer cells: Expectations, facts, and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Tissot, Tazzio; Arnal, Audrey; Jacqueline, Camille; Poulin, Robert; Lefèvre, Thierry; Mery, Frédéric; Renaud, François; Roche, Benjamin; Massol, François; Salzet, Michel; Ewald, Paul; Tasiemski, Aurélie; Ujvari, Beata; Thomas, Frédéric

    2016-03-01

    Similar to parasites, cancer cells depend on their hosts for sustenance, proliferation and reproduction, exploiting the hosts for energy and resources, and thereby impairing their health and fitness. Because of this lifestyle similarity, it is predicted that cancer cells could, like numerous parasitic organisms, evolve the capacity to manipulate the phenotype of their hosts to increase their own fitness. We claim that the extent of this phenomenon and its therapeutic implications are, however, underappreciated. Here, we review and discuss what can be regarded as cases of host manipulation in the context of cancer development and progression. We elaborate on how acknowledging the applicability of these principles can offer novel therapeutic and preventive strategies. The manipulation of host phenotype by cancer cells is one more reason to adopt a Darwinian approach in cancer research. © 2016 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Anti-cancer stem cell activity of a hedgehog inhibitor GANT61 in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kurebayashi, Junichi; Koike, Yoshikazu; Ohta, Yusuke; Saitoh, Wataru; Yamashita, Tetsumasa; Kanomata, Naoki; Moriya, Takuya

    2017-05-01

    Estradiol (E2) increases not only the cell growth but also the cancer stem cell (CSC) proportion in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer cells. It has been suggested that the non-canonical hedgehog (Hh) pathway activated by E2 plays an important role in the regulation of CSC proportion in ER-positive breast cancer cells. We studied anti-CSC activity of a non-canonical Hh inhibitor GANT61 in ER-positive breast cancer cells. Effects of GANT61 on the cell growth, cell cycle progression, apoptosis and CSC proportion were investigated in four ER-positive breast cancer cell lines. CSC proportion was measured using either the mammosphere assay or CD44/CD24 assay. Expression levels of pivotal molecules in the Hh pathway were measured. Combined effects of GANT61 with antiestrogens on the anti-cell growth and anti-CSC activities were investigated. E2 significantly increased the cell growth and CSC proportion in all ER-positive cell lines. E2 increased the expression levels of glioma-associated oncogene (GLI) 1 and/or GLI2. GANT61 decreased the cell growth in association with a G1-S cell cycle retardation and increased apoptosis. GANT61 decreased the E2-induced CSC proportion measured by the mammosphere assay in all cell lines. Antiestrogens also decreased the E2-induced cell growth and CSC proportion. Combined treatments of GANT61 with antiestrogens additively enhanced anti-cell growth and/or anti-CSC activities in some ER-positive cell lines. In conclusion, the non-canonical Hh inhibitor GANT61 inhibited not only the cell growth but also the CSC proportion increased by E2 in ER-positive breast cancer cells. GANT61 enhanced anti-cell growth and/or anti-CSC activities of antiestrogens in ER-positive cell lines. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  13. New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma-1 and cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Esfandiary, Ali; Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh

    2015-01-01

    New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma 1 (NY-ESO-1) is a known cancer testis gene with exceptional immunogenicity and prevalent expression in many cancer types. These characteristics have made it an appropriate vaccine candidate with the potential application against various malignancies. This article reviews recent knowledge about the NY-ESO-1 biology, function, immunogenicity and expression in cancers as well as and the results of clinical trials with this antigen.

  14. GPER1 is regulated by insulin in cancer cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    De Marco, Paola; Romeo, Enrica; Vivacqua, Adele; Malaguarnera, Roberta; Abonante, Sergio; Romeo, Francesco; Pezzi, Vincenzo; Belfiore, Antonino; Maggiolini, Marcello

    2014-10-01

    Elevated insulin levels have been associated with an increased cancer risk as well as with aggressive and metastatic cancer phenotypes characterized by a poor prognosis. Insulin stimulates the proliferation, migration, and invasiveness of cancer cells through diverse transduction pathways, including estrogen signaling. As G protein estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1) mediates rapid cell responses to estrogens, we evaluated the potential of insulin to regulate GPER1 expression and function in leiomyosarcoma cancer cells (SKUT-1) and breast cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), which were used as a model system. We found that insulin transactivates the GPER1 promoter sequence and increases the mRNA and protein expression of GPER1 through the activation of the PRKCD/MAPK1/c-Fos/AP1 transduction pathway, as ascertained by means of specific pharmacological inhibitors and gene-silencing experiments. Moreover, cell migration triggered by insulin occurred through GPER1 and its main target gene CTGF, whereas the insulin-induced expression of GPER1 boosted cell-cycle progression and the glucose uptake stimulated by estrogens. Notably, a positive correlation between insulin serum levels and GPER1 expression was found in cancer fibroblasts obtained from breast cancer patients. Altogether, our data indicate that GPER1 may be included among the complex network of transduction signaling triggered by insulin that drives cells toward cancer progression. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  15. Metabolic Plasticity in Cancer Cells: Reconnecting Mitochondrial Function to Cancer Control

    PubMed Central

    Ramanujan, V. Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Anomalous increase in glycolytic activity defines one of the key metabolic alterations in cancer cells. A realization of this feature has led to critical advancements in cancer detection techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) as well as a number of therapeutic avenues targeting the key glycolytic steps within a cancer cell. A normal healthy cell’s survival relies on a sensitive balance between the primordial glycolysis and a more regulated mitochondrial bioenergetics. The salient difference between these two bioenergetics pathways is that oxygen availability is an obligatory requirement for mitochondrial pathway while glycolysis can function without oxygen. Early observations that some cancer cells up-regulate glycolytic activity even in the presence of oxygen (aerobic glycolysis) led to a hypothesis that such an altered cancer cell metabolism stems from inherent mitochondrial dysfunction. While a general validity of this hypothesis is still being debated, a number of recent research efforts have yielded clarity on the physiological origins of this aerobic glycolysis phenotype in cancer cells. Building on these recent studies, we present a generalized scheme of cancer cell metabolism and propose a novel hypothesis that might rationalize new avenues of cancer intervention. PMID:26457230

  16. Cell injury, retrodifferentiation and the cancer treatment paradox.

    PubMed

    Uriel, José

    2015-09-01

    This "opinion article" is an attempt to take an overview of some significant changes that have happened in our understanding of cancer status during the last half century and its evolution under the progressive influence of molecular biology. As an active worker in cancer research and developmental biology during most of this period, I would like to comment briefly on these changes and to give my critical appreciation of their outcome as it affects our knowledge of cancer development as well as the current treatment of the disease. A recall of my own contribution to the subject is also included. Two subjects are particularly developed: cell injury and cell-killing therapies. Cell injury, whatever its origin, has acquired the status of a pivotal event for the initiation of cancer emergence. It is postulated that cell injury, a potential case of cellular death, may also be the origin of a process of stepwise cell reversion (retrodifferentiation or retroprogrammation) leading, by division, mature or stem cells to progressive immaturity. The genetic instability and mutational changes that accompanies this process of cell injury and rejuvenation put normal cells in a status favourable to neoplastic transformation or may evolve cancer cells toward clones with higher malignant potentiality. Thus, cell injury suggests lifestyle as the major upstream initiator of cancer development although this not exclude randomness as an unavoidable contributor to the disease. Cell-killing agents (mainly cytotoxic drugs and radiotherapy) are currently used to treat cancer. At the same time, it is agreed that agents with high cell injury potential (ultraviolet light, ionising radiations, tobacco, environmental pollutants, etc.) contribute to the emergence of malignant tumours. This represents a real paradox. In spite of the progress accomplished in cancer survival, one is tempted to suggest that we have very few chances of really cure cancer as long as we continue to treat malignancies

  17. Low Temperature Plasma Kills SCaBER Cancer Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barekzi, Nazir; van Way, Lucas; Laroussi, Mounir

    2013-09-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder is a rare type of bladder cancer that forms as a result of chronic irritation of the epithelial lining of the bladder. The cell line used in this study is SCaBER (ATCC® HTB-3™) derived from squamous cell carcinoma of the human urinary bladder. Current treatments of bladder cancer include surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. However, the cost of these treatments, the potential toxicity of the chemotherapeutic agents and the systemic side-effects warrant an alternative to current cancer treatment. This paper represents preliminary studies to determine the effects of biologically tolerant plasma (BTP) on a cell line of human bladder cancer cells. Previous work by our group using the plasma pencil revealed the efficacy of BTP on leukemia cells suspended in solution. Based on these earlier findings we hypothesized that the plasma exposure would elicit a similar programmed cell death in the SCaBER cells. Trypan blue exclusion and MTT assays revealed the cell killing after exposure to BTP. Our study indicates that low temperature plasma generated by ionizing helium gas and the reactive species may be a suitable and safe alternative for cancer therapy.

  18. Links between DNA Replication, Stem Cells and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vassilev, Alex; DePamphilis, Melvin L.

    2017-01-01

    Cancers can be categorized into two groups: those whose frequency increases with age, and those resulting from errors during mammalian development. The first group is linked to DNA replication through the accumulation of genetic mutations that occur during proliferation of developmentally acquired stem cells that give rise to and maintain tissues and organs. These mutations, which result from DNA replication errors as well as environmental insults, fall into two categories; cancer driver mutations that initiate carcinogenesis and genome destabilizing mutations that promote aneuploidy through excess genome duplication and chromatid missegregation. Increased genome instability results in accelerated clonal evolution leading to the appearance of more aggressive clones with increased drug resistance. The second group of cancers, termed germ cell neoplasia, results from the mislocation of pluripotent stem cells during early development. During normal development, pluripotent stem cells that originate in early embryos give rise to all of the cell lineages in the embryo and adult, but when they mislocate to ectopic sites, they produce tumors. Remarkably, pluripotent stem cells, like many cancer cells, depend on the Geminin protein to prevent excess DNA replication from triggering DNA damage-dependent apoptosis. This link between the control of DNA replication during early development and germ cell neoplasia reveals Geminin as a potential chemotherapeutic target in the eradication of cancer progenitor cells. PMID:28125050

  19. One microenvironment does not fit all: heterogeneity beyond cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ik Sun; Zhang, Xiang H-F

    2016-12-01

    Human cancers exhibit formidable molecular heterogeneity, to a large extent accounting for the incomplete and transitory efficacy of current anti-cancer therapies. However, neoplastic cells alone do not manifest the disease, but conscript a battery of non-tumor cells to enable and sustain hallmark capabilities of cancer. Escaping immunosurveillance is one of such capabilities. Tumors evolve immunosuppressive microenvironment to subvert anti-tumor immunity. In this review, we will focus on tumor-associated myeloid cells, which constitute an essential part of the immune microenvironment and reciprocally interact with cancer cells to establish malignancy toward metastasis. The diversity and plasticity of these cells constitute another layer of heterogeneity, beyond the heterogeneity of cancer cells themselves. We envision that immune microenvironment co-evolves with the genetic heterogeneity of tumor. Addressing the question of how genetically distinct tumors shape and are shaped by unique immune microenvironment will provide an attractive rationale to develop novel immunotherapeutic modalities. Here, we discuss the complex nature of tumor microenvironment, with an emphasis on the cellular and functional heterogeneity among tumor-associated myeloid cells as well as immune environment heterogeneity in the context of a full spectrum of human breast cancers.

  20. Inactivated Sendai virus particle upregulates cancer cell expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and enhances natural killer cell sensitivity on cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Simin; Nishikawa, Tomoyuki; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2017-12-01

    We have already reported that the inactivated Sendai virus (hemagglutinating virus of Japan; HVJ) envelope (HVJ-E) has multiple anticancer effects, including induction of cancer-selective cell death and activation of anticancer immunity. The HVJ-E stimulates dendritic cells to produce cytokines and chemokines such as β-interferon, interleukin-6, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5, and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10, which activate both CD8 + T cells and natural killer (NK) cells and recruit them to the tumor microenvironment. However, the effect of HVJ-E on modulating the sensitivity of cancer cells to immune cell attack has yet to be investigated. In this study, we found that HVJ-E induced the production of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, CD54), a ligand of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1, in several cancer cell lines through the activation of nuclear factor-κB downstream of retinoic acid-inducible gene I and the mitochondrial antiviral signaling pathway. The upregulation of ICAM-1 on the surface of cancer cells increased the sensitivity of cancer cells to NK cells. Knocking out expression of ICAM-1 in MDA-MB-231 cells using the CRISPR/Cas9 method significantly reduced the killing effect of NK cells on ICAM-1-depleted MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, HVJ-E suppressed tumor growth in MDA-MB-231 tumor-bearing SCID mice, and the HVJ-E antitumor effect was impaired when NK cells were depleted by treatment with the anti-asialo GM1 antibody. Our findings suggest that HVJ-E enhances NK cell sensitivity against cancer cells by increasing ICAM-1 expression on the cancer cell surface. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  1. Veliparib, Cisplatin, and Gemcitabine Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Advanced Biliary, Pancreatic, Urothelial, or Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-07-01

    Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Metastatic Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Regional Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Stage III Bladder Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer; Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder; Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Unresectable Gallbladder Cancer

  2. Anetumab Ravtansine and Atezolizumab in Treating Participants With Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-12

    Mesothelin Positive; Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7

  3. Visually Tracking Translocations in Living Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Chromosomal translocations, the fusion of pieces of DNA from different chromosomes, are often observed in cancer cells and can even cause cancer. However, little is known about the dynamics and regulation of translocation formation. To investigate this critical process, Tom Misteli, Ph.D., in CCR’s Laboratory of Receptor Biology and Gene Expression, and his colleague Vassilis

  4. Wnt-11 overexpression promoting the invasion of cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Heng; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Yao; Wang, Shizhuo; Pang, Xiaoao; Zhang, Shulan

    2016-09-01

    Wnt-11 is a positive regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway, which plays a crucial role in carcinogenesis. However, Wnt-11 expression in cervical cancer has not been well investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Wnt-11 in cervical tumor proliferation and invasion. This study examined 24 normal cervical squamous epithelia, 29 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and 78 cervical cancer samples. The expression of Wnt-11 was investigated by immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. The expression of the high-risk human papilloma virus (HR-HPV) E6 oncoprotein was also investigated by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the expression of Wnt-11, HR-HPV E6, JNK-1, phosphorylated JNK-1(P-JNK1), and β-catenin was examined by western blot analysis following Wnt-11 knockdown or overexpression in HeLa or SiHa cells, respectively. The promotion of cervical cancer cell proliferation and invasion was investigated using the cell counting kit-8 and Matrigel invasion assay, respectively. Wnt-11 and HR-HPV E6 expression increased in a manner that corresponded with the progression of cervical cancer and was significantly correlated with the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics cancer stage, lymph node metastasis, tumor size, and HPV infection. Wnt-11 protein expression was positively associated with HR-HPV E6 protein expression in all 78 cervical cancer samples (P < 0.001). Furthermore, Wnt-11 was positively associated with P-JNK1 expression and promoted cervical cancer cell proliferation and invasion. These observations suggest that the increased Wnt-11 expression observed in cervical cancer cells may lead to the phosphorylation and activation of JNK-1 and significantly promote tumor cell proliferation and cell migration/invasion through activation of the Wnt/JNK pathway. Consequently, Wnt-11 may serve as a novel target for cervical cancer therapy.

  5. Epidermal stem cells: location, potential and contribution to cancer.

    PubMed

    Ambler, C A; Määttä, A

    2009-01-01

    Epidermal stem cells have been classically characterized as slow-cycling, long-lived cells that reside in discrete niches in the skin. Gene expression studies of niche-resident cells have revealed a number of stem cell markers and regulators, including the Wnt/beta-catenin, Notch, p63, c-Myc and Hedgehog pathways. A new study challenges the traditional developmental paradigm of slow-cycling stem cells and rapid-cycling transit amplifying cells in some epidermal regions, and there is mounting evidence to suggest that multi-lineage epidermal progenitors can be isolated from highly proliferative, non-niche regions. Whether there is a unique microenvironment surrounding these progenitors remains to be determined. Interestingly, cancer stem cells derived from epidermal tumours exist independent of the classic skin stem cell niche, yet also have stem cell properties, including multi-lineage differentiation. This review summarizes recent studies identifying the location and regulators of mouse and human epidermal stem cells and highlights the strategies used to identify cancer stem cells, including expression of normal epidermal stem cell markers, expression of cancer stem cell markers identified in other epidermal tumours and characterization of side-population tumour cells.

  6. S100A4 is frequently overexpressed in lung cancer cells and promotes cell growth and cell motility

    SciT

    Chen, Na; Sato, Daisuke; Saiki, Yuriko

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • We observed frequent overexpression of S100A4 in lung cancer cell lines. • Knockdown of S100A4 suppressed proliferation in lung cancer cells. • Forced expression of S100A4 accelerated cell motility in lung cancer cells. • PRDM2 was found to be one of the downstream suppressed genes of S100A4. - Abstract: S100A4, a small calcium-binding protein belonging to the S100 protein family, is commonly overexpressed in a variety of tumor types and is widely accepted to associate with metastasis by regulating the motility and invasiveness of cancer cells. However, its biological role in lung carcinogenesis is largely unknown. In thismore » study, we found that S100A4 was frequently overexpressed in lung cancer cells, irrespective of histological subtype. Then we performed knockdown and forced expression of S100A4 in lung cancer cell lines and found that specific knockdown of S100A4 effectively suppressed cell proliferation only in lung cancer cells with S100A4-overexpression; forced expression of S100A4 accelerated cell motility only in S100A4 low-expressing lung cancer cells. PRDM2 and VASH1, identified as novel upregulated genes by microarray after specific knockdown of S100A4 in pancreatic cancer, were also analyzed, and we found that PRDM2 was significantly upregulated after S100A4-knockdown in one of two analyzed S100A4-overexpressing lung cancer cells. Our present results suggest that S100A4 plays an important role in lung carcinogenesis by means of cell proliferation and motility by a pathway similar to that in pancreatic cancer.« less

  7. Mitochondria and cancer: a growing role in apoptosis, cancer cell metabolism and dedifferentiation.

    PubMed

    Scatena, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    At the beginning of the twentieth century, Otto Warburg demonstrated that cancer cells have a peculiar metabolism. These cells preferentially utilise glycolysis for energetic and anabolic purposes, producing large quantities of lactic acid. He defined this unusual metabolism "aerobic glycolysis". At the same time, Warburg hypothesised that a disruption of mitochondrial activities played a precise pathogenic role in cancer. Because of this so-called "Warburg effect", mitochondrial physiology and cellular respiration in particular have been overlooked in pathophysiological studies of cancer. Over time, however, many studies have shown that mitochondria play a fundamental role in cell death by apoptosis or necrosis. Moreover, metabolic enzymes of the Krebs cycle have also recently been recognised as oncosuppressors. Recently, a series of studies were undertaken to re-evaluate the role of oxidative mitochondrial metabolism in cancer cell growth and progression. Some of these data indicate that modulation of mitochondrial respiration may induce an arrest of cancer cell proliferation and differentiation (pseudodifferentiation) and/or or death, suggesting that iatrogenic manipulation of some mitochondrial activities may induce anticancer effects. Moreover, studying the role of mitochondria in cancer cell dedifferentiation/differentiation processes may allow further insight into the pathophysiology and therapy of so-called cancer stem cells.

  8. Methoxyphenyl chalcone sensitizes aggressive epithelial cancer to cisplatin through apoptosis induction and cancer stem cell eradication.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Kai; Huang, Wen-Chien; Lee, Wei-Hwa; Bamodu, Oluwaseun Adebayo; Zucha, Muhammad Ary; Astuti, Indwiani; Suwito, Heri; Yeh, Chi-Tai; Lin, Chien-Min

    2017-05-01

    Current standard chemotherapy for late stage ovarian cancer is found unsuccessful due to relapse after completing the regimens. After completing platinum-based chemotherapy, 70% of patients develop relapse and resistance. Recent evidence proves ovarian cancer stem cells as the source of resistance. Therefore, treatment strategy to target both cancer stem cells and normal stem cells is essential. In this study, we developed a novel chalcone derivative as novel drug candidate for ovarian cancer treatment. We found that methoxyphenyl chalcone was effective to eliminate ovarian cancer cells when given either as monotherapy or in combination with cisplatin. We found that cell viability of ovarian cancer cells was decreased through apoptosis induction. Dephosphorylation of Bcl2-associated agonist of cell death protein was increased after methoxyphenyl chalcone treatment that led to activation of caspases. Interestingly, this drug also worked as a G2/M checkpoint modulator with alternative ways of DNA damage signal-evoking potential that might work to increase response after cisplatin treatment. In addition, methoxyphenyl chalcone was able to suppress autophagic flux and stemness regulator in ovarian spheroids that decreased their survival. Therefore, combination of methoxyphenyl chalcone and cisplatin showed synergistic effects. Taken together, we believe that our novel compound is a promising novel therapeutic agent for effective clinical treatment of ovarian cancer.

  9. Understanding Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the most common form of kidney cancer in adults, is not a single disease but rather a collection of different tumor types driven by distinct genetic changes that arise within the same tissue.

  10. Breast tumor heterogeneity: cancer stem cells or clonal evolution?

    PubMed

    Campbell, Lauren L; Polyak, Kornelia

    2007-10-01

    Breast tumors are composed of a variety of cell types with distinct morphologies and behaviors. It is not clear how this tumor heterogeneity comes about. Two popular concepts that attempt to explain this are the cancer stem cell hypothesis and the clonal evolution model. Each of these ideas has been investigated for some time, leading to the accumulation of numerous findings that are used to support one or the other. Although the two views share some similarities, they are fundamentally different notions with very different clinical implications. Analysis of the research backing each concept, along with a review of the results of our recent study investigating putative breast cancer stem cells, suggests how the cancer stem cell hypothesis and the clonal evolution model may be involved in generating breast tumor heterogeneity. An understanding of this process will allow the development of more effective ways to treat and prevent breast cancer.

  11. Mid-infrared spectroscopy in skin cancer cell type identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastl, Lena; Kemper, Björn; Lloyd, Gavin R.; Nallala, Jayakrupakar; Stone, Nick; Naranjo, Valery; Penaranda, Francisco; Schnekenburger, Jürgen

    2017-07-01

    Mid infrared spectroscopy samples were developed for the analysis of skin tumor cell types and three dimensional tissue phantoms towards the application of midIR spectroscopy for fast and reliable skin cancer diagnostics.

  12. Chalcones Enhance TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Szliszka, Ewelina; Czuba, Zenon P; Mazur, Bogdan; Sedek, Lukasz; Paradysz, Andrzej; Krol, Wojciech

    2009-01-01

    Chalcones exhibit chemopreventive and antitumor effects. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a naturally occurring anticancer agent that induces apoptosis in cancer cells and is not toxic to normal cells. We examined the cytotoxic and apoptotic effect of five chalcones in combination with TRAIL on prostate cancer cells. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by the MTT and LDH assays. The apoptosis was determined using flow cytometry with annexin V-FITC. Our study showed that all five tested chalcones: chalcone, licochalcone-A, isobavachalcone, xanthohumol, butein markedly augmented TRAIL-mediated apoptosis and cytotoxicity in prostate cancer cells and confirmed the significant role of chalcones in chemoprevention of prostate cancer. PMID:20161998

  13. ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN (AFP), STEM CELLS, AND CANCER: HOW STUDY OF THE PRODUCTION OF AFP DURING CHEMICAL HEPATOCARCINOGENESIS LED TO REAFFIRMATION OF THE STEM CELL THEORY OF CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Sell, Stewart

    2008-01-01

    Identification of the cells in the liver that produce alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) during development, in response to liver injury, and during the early stages of chemical hepatocarcinogenesis led to the conclusion that maturation arrest of liver-determined tissue stem cells was the cellular process that gives rise to hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). When the cellular changes in these processes were compared that of the formation of teratocarcinomas, the hypothesis arose that all cancers arise from maturation arrest of tissue determined stem cells. This was essentially a reinterpretation of the embryonal rest theory of cancer whereby tissue stem cells take the role of embryonal rests. A corollary of the stem cell theory of the origin of cancer is that cancers contain the same functional cell populations as do normal tissues: stem cells, transit-amplifying cells, and mature cells. Cancer stem cells retain the essential feature of normal stem cells: the ability to self-renew. Growth of cancers is due to continued proliferation of cancer transit-amplifying cells that do not differentiate to mature cells (maturation arrest). On the other hand, cancer stem cells generally divide very rarely and contribute little to tumor growth. However, the presence of cancer stem cells in tumors is believed to be responsible for the properties of immortalization, transplantability and resistance to therapy characteristic of cancers. Current therapies for cancer (chemotherapy, radiotherapy, anti-angiogenesis and differentiation therapy) are directed against the cancer transit amplifying cells. When these therapies are discontinued, the cancer re-forms from the cancer stem cells. Therapy directed toward interruption of the cell-signaling pathways that maintain cancer stem cells could lead to new modalities to the prevention of re-growth of the cancer. PMID:18612221

  14. Characteristics of Notch2(+) pancreatic cancer stem-like cells and the relationship with centroacinar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhu-Chao; Dong, Qiang-Gang; Fu, De-Liang; Gong, Yi-Yi; Ni, Quan-Xing

    2013-08-01

    Notch2, a surface marker in cell lines, is used to isolate, identify and localise pancreatic cancer stem-like cells and is a target for therapy of these cells. Sphere formation was induced in Panc-1 and Bxpc-3 pancreatic cancer cell lines, and Notch2(+) cells were separated from Bxpc-3 and Panc-1 cell lines by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS). Expression of stem cell-related markers, OCT4, Nanog and PDX1, were measured by immunofluorescent (IF) staining. Expression of Notch2 was also determined immunohistochemically in pancreatic tissues. Notch2(+) cells were transplanted in subcutaneous of mice. AQP1 and AQP5 were also measured by IF in Bxpc-3 cells. The Notch signal pathway inhibitor, Compound E (CE), was used to treat Notch2(+) Bxpc-3 cells, and their vitalities were subsequently measured by the CCK-8 method. Positive expression of OCT4, Nanog and PDX1 was observed in Notch2(+) cells. Notch2(+) cells at centroacinar cell (CAC) and terminal ductal locations expressed AQP1 and AQP5. They were strongly tumourigenic in mice, and CE inhibited proliferation of Notch2(+) Bxpc-3 cells to some degree. OCT4 and Nanog can be used as markers of self-renewal in pancreatic cancer stem cells. Notch2(+) cells in human pancreatic cancer Bxpc-3 and Panc-1 cell lines had the properties of cancer stem cells. The results suggest that Notch2(+) pancreatic cancer stem-like cells had a close relationship with CAC. © 2013 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  15. Ubiquitin B in Cervical Cancer: Critical for the Maintenance of Cancer Stem-Like Cell Characters

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yingying; Ji, Teng; Sun, Shujuan; Mo, Qingqing; Chen, Pingbo; Fang, Yong; Liu, Jia; Wang, Beibei; Zhou, Jianfeng; Ma, Ding; Wu, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer cells exhibit an increased requirement for ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation associated with an elevated metabolic turnover rate. Ubiquitin, which is a small, highly conserved protein expressed in all eukaryotic cells, can be covalently linked to certain target proteins to mark them for degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Previous studies highlight the essential role of Ubiquitin B (UbB) and UbB-dependent proteasomal protein degradation in histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) -induced tumor selectivity. We hypothesized that UbB plays a critical role in the function of cervical cancer stem cells. We measured endogenous UbB levels in mammospheres in vitro by real-time PCR and Western blotting. The function of UbB in cancer stem-like cells was assessed after knockdown of UbB expression in prolonged Trichostatin A-selected HeLa cells (HeLa/TSA) by measuring in vitro cell proliferation, cell apoptosis, invasion, and chemotherapy resistance as well as by measuring in vivo growth in an orthotopic model of cervical cancer. We also assessed the cancer stem cell frequency, tumorsphere formation, and in vivo growth of human cervical cancer xenografts after UbB silencing. We found that HeLa/TSA were resistant to chemotherapy, highly expressed the UbB gene and the stem cell markers Sox2, Oct4 and Nanog. These cells also displayed induced differentiation abilities, including enhanced migration/invasion/malignancy capabilities in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, an elevated expression of UbB was shown in the tumor samples of chemotherapy patients. Silencing of UbB inhibited tumorsphere formation, lowered the expression of stem cell markers and decreased cervical xenograft growth. Our results demonstrate that UbB was significantly increased in prolonged Trichostatin A-selected HeLa cells and it played a key role in the maintenance of cervical cancer stem-like cells. PMID:24367661

  16. Glioma-Associated Oncogene Homolog Inhibitors Have the Potential of Suppressing Cancer Stem Cells of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Kuo-Shyang; Jeng, Chi-Juei; Sheen, I-Shyan; Wu, Szu-Hua; Lu, Ssu-Jung; Wang, Chih-Hsuan; Chang, Chiung-Fang

    2018-05-05

    Overexpression of Sonic Hedgehog signaling (Shh) pathway molecules is associated with invasiveness and recurrence in breast carcinoma. Therefore, inhibition of the Shh pathway downstream molecule Glioma-associated Oncogene Homolog (Gli) was investigated for its ability to reduce progression and invasiveness of patient-derived breast cancer cells and cell lines. Human primary breast cancer T2 cells with high expression of Shh signaling pathway molecules were compared with breast cancer line MDA-MB-231 cells. The therapeutic effects of Gli inhibitors were examined in terms of the cell proliferation, apoptosis, cancer stem cells, cell migration and gene expression. Blockade of the Shh signaling pathway could reduce cell proliferation and migration only in MDA-MB-231 cells. Hh pathway inhibitor-1 (HPI-1) increased the percentages of late apoptotic cells in MDA-MB-231 cells and early apoptotic cells in T2 cells. It reduced Bcl2 expression for cell proliferation and increased Bim expression for apoptosis. In addition, Gli inhibitor HPI-1 decreased significantly the percentages of cancer stem cells in T2 cells. HPI-1 worked more effectively than GANT-58 against breast carcinoma cells. In conclusion, HPI-1 could inhibit cell proliferation, reduce cell invasion and decrease cancer stem cell population in breast cancer cells. To target Gli-1 could be a potential strategy to suppress breast cancer stem cells.

  17. Tumor microenvironment derived exosomes pleiotropically modulate cancer cell metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongyun; Yang, Lifeng; Baddour, Joelle; Achreja, Abhinav; Bernard, Vincent; Moss, Tyler; Marini, Juan C; Tudawe, Thavisha; Seviour, Elena G; San Lucas, F Anthony; Alvarez, Hector; Gupta, Sonal; Maiti, Sourindra N; Cooper, Laurence; Peehl, Donna; Ram, Prahlad T; Maitra, Anirban; Nagrath, Deepak

    2016-02-27

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a major cellular component of tumor microenvironment in most solid cancers. Altered cellular metabolism is a hallmark of cancer, and much of the published literature has focused on neoplastic cell-autonomous processes for these adaptations. We demonstrate that exosomes secreted by patient-derived CAFs can strikingly reprogram the metabolic machinery following their uptake by cancer cells. We find that CAF-derived exosomes (CDEs) inhibit mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, thereby increasing glycolysis and glutamine-dependent reductive carboxylation in cancer cells. Through 13C-labeled isotope labeling experiments we elucidate that exosomes supply amino acids to nutrient-deprived cancer cells in a mechanism similar to macropinocytosis, albeit without the previously described dependence on oncogenic-Kras signaling. Using intra-exosomal metabolomics, we provide compelling evidence that CDEs contain intact metabolites, including amino acids, lipids, and TCA-cycle intermediates that are avidly utilized by cancer cells for central carbon metabolism and promoting tumor growth under nutrient deprivation or nutrient stressed conditions.

  18. Tumor microenvironment derived exosomes pleiotropically modulate cancer cell metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongyun; Yang, Lifeng; Baddour, Joelle; Achreja, Abhinav; Bernard, Vincent; Moss, Tyler; Marini, Juan C; Tudawe, Thavisha; Seviour, Elena G; San Lucas, F Anthony; Alvarez, Hector; Gupta, Sonal; Maiti, Sourindra N; Cooper, Laurence; Peehl, Donna; Ram, Prahlad T; Maitra, Anirban; Nagrath, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a major cellular component of tumor microenvironment in most solid cancers. Altered cellular metabolism is a hallmark of cancer, and much of the published literature has focused on neoplastic cell-autonomous processes for these adaptations. We demonstrate that exosomes secreted by patient-derived CAFs can strikingly reprogram the metabolic machinery following their uptake by cancer cells. We find that CAF-derived exosomes (CDEs) inhibit mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, thereby increasing glycolysis and glutamine-dependent reductive carboxylation in cancer cells. Through 13C-labeled isotope labeling experiments we elucidate that exosomes supply amino acids to nutrient-deprived cancer cells in a mechanism similar to macropinocytosis, albeit without the previously described dependence on oncogenic-Kras signaling. Using intra-exosomal metabolomics, we provide compelling evidence that CDEs contain intact metabolites, including amino acids, lipids, and TCA-cycle intermediates that are avidly utilized by cancer cells for central carbon metabolism and promoting tumor growth under nutrient deprivation or nutrient stressed conditions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10250.001 PMID:26920219

  19. Separation of cancer cells from white blood cells by pinched flow fractionation.

    PubMed

    Pødenphant, Marie; Ashley, Neil; Koprowska, Kamila; Mir, Kalim U; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Bilenberg, Brian; Bodmer, Walter; Kristensen, Anders; Marie, Rodolphe

    2015-12-21

    In this paper, the microfluidic size-separation technique pinched flow fractionation (PFF) is used to separate cancer cells from white blood cells (WBCs). The cells are separated at efficiencies above 90% for both cell types. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are found in the blood of cancer patients and can form new tumors. CTCs are rare cells in blood, but they are important for the understanding of metastasis. There is therefore a high interest in developing a method for the enrichment of CTCs from blood samples, which also enables further analysis of the separated cells. The separation is challenged by the size overlap between cancer cells and the 10(6) times more abundant WBCs. The size overlap prevents high efficiency separation, however we demonstrate that cell deformability can be exploited in PFF devices to gain higher efficiencies than expected from the size distribution of the cells.

  20. Sigma-2 ligands and PARP inhibitors synergistically trigger cell death in breast cancer cells

    SciT

    McDonald, Elizabeth S.; Mankoff, Julia; Makvandi, Mehran

    The sigma-2 receptor is overexpressed in proliferating cells compared to quiescent cells and has been used as a target for imaging solid tumors by positron emission tomography. Recent work has suggested that the sigma-2 receptor may also be an effective therapeutic target for cancer therapy. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a family of enzymes involved in DNA damage response. In this study, we looked for potential synergy of cytotoxicity between PARP inhibitors and sigma-2 receptor ligands in breast cancer cell lines. We showed that the PARP inhibitor, YUN3-6, sensitized mouse breast cancer cell line, EMT6, to sigma-2 receptor ligand (SV119,more » WC-26, and RHM-138) induced cell death determined by cell viability assay and colony forming assay. The PARP inhibitor, olaparib, sensitized tumor cells to a different sigma-2 receptor ligand SW43-induced apoptosis and cell death in human triple negative cell line, MDA-MB-231. Olaparib inhibited PARP activity and cell proliferation, and arrested cells in G2/M phase of the cell cycle in MDA-MB-231 cells. Subsequently cells became sensitized to SW43 induced cell death. In conclusion, the combination of sigma-2 receptor ligands and PARP inhibitors appears to hold promise for synergistically triggering cell death in certain types of breast cancer cells and merits further investigation. - Highlights: • PARPi, YUN3-6 and olaparib, and σ2 ligands, SV119 and SW43, were evaluated. • Mouse and human breast cancer cells, EMT6 and MDA-MB-231 respectively, were used. • YUN3-6 and SV119 synergistically triggered cell death in EMT6 cells. • Olaparib and SW43 additively triggered cell death in MDA-MB-231 cells. • Olaparib arrested cells in G2/M in MDA-MB-231 cells.« less

  1. Anti-tumor effect of emodin on gynecological cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaoxian; Yu, Hui; Zhang, Jin; Ge, Xin; Gao, Jing; Zhang, Yunyan; Lou, Ge

    2015-10-01

    Although an anti-tumor effect of emodin has been reported before, its effect on human gynecological cancer cells has so far not been studied. Here, we assessed the effect of emodin on cervical cancer-derived (Hela), choriocarcinoma-derived (JAR) and ovarian cancer-derived (HO-8910) cells, and investigated the possible underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms. The respective cells were treated with 0, 5, 10 or 15 μM emodin for 72 h. Subsequently, MTT and Transwell in vitro migration assays revealed that emodin significantly decreased the viability and invasive capacity of the gynecological cancer-derived cells tested. We found that emodin induced apoptosis and significantly decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP release in these cells. We also found that emodin may exert its apoptotic effects via regulating the activity of caspase-9 and the expression of cleaved-caspase-3. Moreover, we found that emodin induced a cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, possibly through down-regulating the key cell cycle regulators Cyclin D and Cyclin E. Interestingly, emodin also led to autophagic cell death, as revealed by increased MAP LC3 expression, a marker of the autophagosome, and decreased expression of the autophagy regulators Beclin-1 and Atg12-Atg5. Finally, we found that the protein levels of both VEGF and VEGFR-2 were significantly decreased in emodin-treated cells, suggesting an anti-angiogenic effect of emodin on gynecological cancer-derived cells. Our results suggest that emodin exhibits an anti-tumor effect on gynecological cancer-derived cells, possibly through multiple mechanisms including the induction of apoptosis and autophagy, the arrest of the cell cycle, and the inhibition of angiogenesis. Our findings may provide a basis for the design of potential emodin-based strategies for the treatment of gynecological tumors.

  2. Gallic acid reduces cell viability, proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis in human cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, BING; HU, MENGCAI

    2013-01-01

    Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid, also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, which is present in plants worldwide, including Chinese medicinal herbs. Gallic acid has been shown to have cytotoxic effects in certain cancer cells, without damaging normal cells. The objective of the present study was to determine whether gallic acid is able to inhibit human cervical cancer cell viability, proliferation and invasion and suppress cervical cancer cell-mediated angiogenesis. Treatment of HeLa and HTB-35 human cancer cells with gallic acid decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. BrdU proliferation and tube formation assays indicated that gallic acid significantly decreased human cervical cancer cell proliferation and tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, respectively. Additionally, gallic acid decreased HeLa and HTB-35 cell invasion in vitro. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the expression of ADAM17, EGFR, p-Akt and p-Erk was suppressed by gallic acid in the HeLa and HTB-35 cell lines. These data indicate that the suppression of ADAM17 and the downregulation of the EGFR, Akt/p-Akt and Erk/p-Erk signaling pathways may contribute to the suppression of cancer progression by Gallic acid. Gallic acid may be a valuable candidate for the treatment of cervical cancer. PMID:24843386

  3. Quantitative Analysis of Human Cancer Cell Extravasation Using Intravital Imaging.

    PubMed

    Willetts, Lian; Bond, David; Stoletov, Konstantin; Lewis, John D

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis, or the spread of cancer cells from a primary tumor to distant sites, is the leading cause of cancer-associated death. Metastasis is a complex multi-step process comprised of invasion, intravasation, survival in circulation, extravasation, and formation of metastatic colonies. Currently, in vitro assays are limited in their ability to investigate these intricate processes and do not faithfully reflect metastasis as it occurs in vivo. Traditional in vivo models of metastasis are limited by their ability to visualize the seemingly sporadic behavior of where and when cancer cells spread (Reymond et al., Nat Rev Cancer 13:858-870, 2013). The avian embryo model of metastasis is a powerful platform to study many of the critical steps in the metastatic cascade including the migration, extravasation, and invasion of human cancer cells in vivo (Sung et al., Nat Commun 6:7164, 2015; Leong et al., Cell Rep 8, 1558-1570, 2014; Kain et al., Dev Dyn 243:216-28, 2014; Leong et al., Nat Protoc 5:1406-17, 2010; Zijlstra et al., Cancer Cell 13:221-234, 2008; Palmer et al., J Vis Exp 51:2815, 2011). The chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a readily accessible and well-vascularized tissue that surrounds the developing embryo. When the chicken embryo is grown in a shell-less, ex ovo environment, the nearly transparent CAM provides an ideal environment for high-resolution fluorescent microcopy approaches. In this model, the embryonic chicken vasculature and labeled cancer cells can be visualized simultaneously to investigate specific steps in the metastatic cascade including extravasation. When combined with the proper image analysis tools, the ex ovo chicken embryo model offers a cost-effective and high-throughput platform for the quantitative analysis of tumor cell metastasis in a physiologically relevant in vivo setting. Here we discuss detailed procedures to quantify cancer cell extravasation in the shell-less chicken embryo model with advanced fluorescence

  4. Effects of Radiation on Proteasome Function in Prostate Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    multiple myeloma progressing on prior therapy. Oncologist 8, 508-513. Kurita T., Medina R.T., Mills A.A., Cunha G.R., 2004. Role of p63 and basal cells in...tumor activity and their combination with radiotherapy or established anti- cancer agents seems to be more promising. Many chemotherapeutic agents as...proteasome inhibitors in the clinic. Investigating the role of the proteasome in different prostate cancer cell subpopulations could be fundamental for the

  5. Checkpoint Inhibitor Sensitizes Human Tumor Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    One unfortunate and detrimental side effect of ionizing radiation as a treatment for cancer is the damage it imparts to normal tissue near the targeted tumor. Technology has improved radiation delivery, minimizing the volume of normal tissue in the radiation field, but has not eliminated it completely. Thus, the identification of drugs that increase the sensitivity of cancer cells to radiation while sparing normal cells would go a long way toward improving patient quality of life and outcome.

  6. Cell of Origin: Exploring an Alternative Contributor to Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    previously shown that DDX4 is expressed in ovarian carcinomas and its expression is associated with age and the serous histophenotype. Thus, we analyzed...oncogenic alleles of human TP53, AKT1, KRAS, and PIK3CA were constructed and initially validated in both a human endometrial cancer cell line and mouse...AKT1, KRAS, or PIK3CA were successfully constructed. 9. The viral constructs were initially validated in a human endometrial cancer cell line and

  7. Properties of resistant cells generated from lung cancer cell lines treated with EGFR inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Gargi; Lian, Xiaojun; Kron, Stephen J; Palecek, Sean P

    2012-03-20

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling plays an important role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and therapeutics targeted against EGFR have been effective in treating a subset of patients bearing somatic EFGR mutations. However, the cancer eventually progresses during treatment with EGFR inhibitors, even in the patients who respond to these drugs initially. Recent studies have identified that the acquisition of resistance in approximately 50% of cases is due to generation of a secondary mutation (T790M) in the EGFR kinase domain. In about 20% of the cases, resistance is associated with the amplification of MET kinase. In the remaining 30-40% of the cases, the mechanism underpinning the therapeutic resistance is unknown. An erlotinib resistant subline (H1650-ER1) was generated upon continuous exposure of NSCLC cell line NCI-H1650 to erlotinib. Cancer stem cell like traits including expression of stem cell markers, enhanced ability to self-renew and differentiate, and increased tumorigenicity in vitro were assessed in erlotinib resistant H1650-ER1 cells. The erlotinib resistant subline contained a population of cells with properties similar to cancer stem cells. These cells were found to be less sensitive towards erlotinib treatment as measured by cell proliferation and generation of tumor spheres in the presence of erlotinib. Our findings suggest that in cases of NSCLC accompanied by mutant EGFR, treatment targeting inhibition of EGFR kinase activity in differentiated cancer cells may generate a population of cancer cells with stem cell properties.

  8. Enhanced gastric cancer growth potential of mesenchymal stem cells derived from gastric cancer tissues educated by CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rongman; Zhao, Xiangdong; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Chen, Bin; Sun, Li; Xu, Changgen; Shen, Bo; Wang, Mei; Xu, Wenrong; Zhu, Wei

    2018-04-01

    Gastric cancer mesenchymal stem cells (GC-MSCs) can promote the development of tumour growth. The tumour-promoting role of tumour-associated MSCs and T cells has been demonstrated. T cells as the major immune cells may influence and induce a pro-tumour phenotype in MSCs. This study focused on whether CD4 + T cells can affect GC-MSCs to promote gastric cancer growth. CD4 + T cells upregulation of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in GC-MSCs through the phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription (p-STAT3) signalling pathway was confirmed by immunofluorescence, western blotting and RT-PCR. Migration of GC cells was detected by Transwell migration assay, and apoptosis of GC cells was measured by flow cytometry using annexin V/propidium iodide double staining. CD4 + T cell-primed GC-MSCs promoted GC growth in a subcutaneously transplanted tumour model in BALB/c nu/nu mice. Gastric cancer mesenchymal stem cells stimulated by activated CD4 + T cells promoted migration of GC cells and enhanced GC growth potential in BALB/c nu/nu xenografts. PD-L1 upregulation of GC-MSCs stimulated by CD4 + T cells was mediated through the p-STAT3 signalling pathway. CD4 + T cells-primed GC-MSCs have greater GC volume and growth rate-promoting role than GC-MSCs, with cancer cell-intrinsic PD-1/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling activation. This study showed that GC-MSCs are plastic. The immunophenotype of GC-MSCs stimulated by CD4 + T cells has major changes that may influence tumour cell growth. This research was based on the interaction between tumour cells, MSCs and immune cells, providing a new understanding of the development and immunotherapy of GC. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Roles of microRNA on cancer cell metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Advanced studies of microRNAs (miRNAs) have revealed their manifold biological functions, including control of cell proliferation, cell cycle and cell death. However, it seems that their roles as key regulators of metabolism have drawn more and more attention in the recent years. Cancer cells display increased metabolic autonomy in comparison to non-transformed cells, taking up nutrients and metabolizing them in pathways that support growth and proliferation. MiRNAs regulate cell metabolic processes through complicated mechanisms, including directly targeting key enzymes or transporters of metabolic processes and regulating transcription factors, oncogenes / tumor suppressors as well as multiple oncogenic signaling pathways. MiRNAs like miR-375, miR-143, miR-14 and miR-29b participate in controlling cancer cell metabolism by regulating the expression of genes whose protein products either directly regulate metabolic machinery or indirectly modulate the expression of metabolic enzymes, serving as master regulators, which will hopefully lead to a new therapeutic strategy for malignant cancer. This review focuses on miRNA regulations of cancer cell metabolism,including glucose uptake, glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle and insulin production, lipid metabolism and amino acid biogenesis, as well as several oncogenic signaling pathways. Furthermore, the challenges of miRNA-based strategies for cancer diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutics have been discussed. PMID:23164426

  10. Cold Atmospheric Plasma for Selectively Ablating Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mian; Holmes, Benjamin; Cheng, Xiaoqian; Zhu, Wei; Keidar, Michael; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2013-01-01

    Traditional breast cancer treatments such as surgery and radiotherapy contain many inherent limitations with regards to incomplete and nonselective tumor ablation. Cold atomospheric plasma (CAP) is an ionized gas where the ion temperature is close to room temperature. It contains electrons, charged particles, radicals, various excited molecules, UV photons and transient electric fields. These various compositional elements have the potential to either enhance and promote cellular activity, or disrupt and destroy them. In particular, based on this unique composition, CAP could offer a minimally-invasive surgical approach allowing for specific cancer cell or tumor tissue removal without influencing healthy cells. Thus, the objective of this research is to investigate a novel CAP-based therapy for selectively bone metastatic breast cancer treatment. For this purpose, human metastatic breast cancer (BrCa) cells and bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were separately treated with CAP, and behavioral changes were evaluated after 1, 3, and 5 days of culture. With different treatment times, different BrCa and MSC cell responses were observed. Our results showed that BrCa cells were more sensitive to these CAP treatments than MSCs under plasma dose conditions tested. It demonstrated that CAP can selectively ablate metastatic BrCa cells in vitro without damaging healthy MSCs at the metastatic bone site. In addition, our study showed that CAP treatment can significantly inhibit the migration and invasion of BrCa cells. The results suggest the great potential of CAP for breast cancer therapy. PMID:24040051

  11. Thyroid Hormone Differentially Modulates Warburg Phenotype in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Suhane, Sonal; Ramanujan, V Krishnan

    2011-01-01

    Sustenance of cancer cells in vivo critically depends on a variety of genetic and metabolic adaptations. Aerobic glycolysis or Warburg effect has been a defining biochemical hallmark of transformed cells for more than five decades although a clear molecular basis of this observation is emerging only in recent years. In this study, we present our findings that thyroid hormone exerts its non-genomic and genomic actions in two model human breast cancer cell lines differentially. By laying a clear foundation for experimentally monitoring the Warburg phenotype in living cancer cells, we demonstrate that thyroid hormone-induced modulation of bioenergetic profiles in these two model cell lines depends on the degree of Warburg phenotype that they display. Further we also show that thyroid hormone can sensitize mitochondria in aggressive, triple-negative breast cancer cells favorably to increase the chemotherapeutic efficacy in these cells. Even though the role of thyroid hormone in modulating mitochondrial metabolism has been known, the current study accentuates the critical role it plays in modulating Warburg phenotype in breast cancer cells. The clinical significance of this finding is the possibility to devise strategies for metabolically modulating aggressive triple-negative tumors so as to enhance their chemosensitivity in vivo. PMID:21945435

  12. The antiproliferative effect of coumarins on several cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kawaii, S; Tomono, Y; Ogawa, K; Sugiura, M; Yano, M; Yoshizawa, Y

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-one coumarins were examined for their antiproliferative activity towards several cancer cell lines, namely lung carcinoma (A549), melanin pigment producing mouse melanoma (B16 melanoma 4A5), human T-cell leukemia (CCRF-HSB-2), and human gastric cancer, lymph node metastasized (TGBC11TKB). The structure-activity relationship established from the results revealed that the 6,7-dihydroxy moiety had an important role for their antiproliferative activity. Analysis of cell cycle distribution indicated that esculetin-treated cells accumulated in the G1 (at 400 microM) or in S phase (at 100 microM).

  13. Biocompatible and label-free separation of cancer cells from cell culture lines from white blood cells in ferrofluids.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wujun; Cheng, Rui; Lim, So Hyun; Miller, Joshua R; Zhang, Weizhong; Tang, Wei; Xie, Jin; Mao, Leidong

    2017-06-27

    This paper reports a biocompatible and label-free cell separation method using ferrofluids that can separate a variety of low-concentration cancer cells from cell culture lines (∼100 cancer cells per mL) from undiluted white blood cells, with a throughput of 1.2 mL h -1 and an average separation efficiency of 82.2%. The separation is based on the size difference of the cancer cells and white blood cells, and is conducted in a custom-made biocompatible ferrofluid that retains not only excellent short-term viabilities but also normal proliferations of 7 commonly used cancer cell lines. A microfluidic device is designed and optimized specifically to shorten the time of live cells' exposure to ferrofluids from hours to seconds, by eliminating time-consuming off-chip sample preparation and extraction steps and integrating them on-chip to achieve a one-step process. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, a ferrofluid with 0.26% volume fraction was used in this microfluidic device to separate spiked cancer cells from cell lines at a concentration of ∼100 cells per mL from white blood cells with a throughput of 1.2 mL h -1 . The separation efficiencies were 80 ± 3%, 81 ± 5%, 82 ± 5%, 82 ± 4%, and 86 ± 6% for A549 lung cancer, H1299 lung cancer, MCF-7 breast cancer, MDA-MB-231 breast cancer, and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines, respectively. The separated cancer cells' purity was between 25.3% and 28.8%. In addition, the separated cancer cells from this strategy showed an average short-term viability of 94.4 ± 1.3%, and these separated cells were cultured and demonstrated normal proliferation to confluence even after the separation process. Owing to its excellent biocompatibility and label-free operation and its ability to recover low concentrations of cancer cells from white blood cells, this method could lead to a promising tool for rare cell separation.

  14. Characterization of Human Cancer Cell Lines by Reverse-phase Protein Arrays* | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer cell lines are major model systems for mechanistic investigation and drug development. However, protein expression data linked to high-quality DNA, RNA, and drug-screening data have not been available across a large number of cancer cell lines. Using reverse-phase protein arrays, we measured expression levels of ∼230 key cancer-related proteins in >650 independent cell lines, many of which have publically available genomic, transcriptomic, and drug-screening data.

  15. Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) in Drug Resistance and their Therapeutic Implications in Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Phi, Lan Thi Hanh; Sari, Ita Novita; Yang, Ying-Gui; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Jun, Nayoung; Kim, Kwang Seock; Lee, Yun Kyung; Kwon, Hyog Young

    2018-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), also known as tumor-initiating cells (TICs), are suggested to be responsible for drug resistance and cancer relapse due in part to their ability to self-renew themselves and differentiate into heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells. Thus, it is important to understand the characteristics and mechanisms by which CSCs display resistance to therapeutic agents. In this review, we highlight the key features and mechanisms that regulate CSC function in drug resistance as well as recent breakthroughs of therapeutic approaches for targeting CSCs. This promises new insights of CSCs in drug resistance and provides better therapeutic rationales to accompany novel anticancer therapeutics.

  16. Biology of lung cancer: genetic mutation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Aoi, Takashi

    2016-09-01

    At present, most cases of unresectable cancer cannot be cured. Genetic mutations, EMT, and cancer stem cells are three major issues linked to poor prognosis in such cases, all connected by inter- and intra-tumor heterogeneity. Issues on inter-/intra-tumor heterogeneity of genetic mutation could be resolved with recent and future technologies of deep sequencers, whereas, regarding such issues as the "same genome, different epigenome/phenotype", we expect to solve many of these problems in the future through further research in stem cell biology. We herein review and discuss the three major issues in the biology of cancers, especially from the standpoint of stem cell biology.

  17. Priming the Tumor Immune Microenvironment Improves Immune Surveillance of Cancer Stem Cells and Prevents Cancer Recurrence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    YANG,a DEBBIE LIAO,b CONG CHEN,c YAN LIU,c TSUNG-HSIEN CHUANG,d RONG XIANG,a DOROTHY MARKOWITZ,b RALPH A. REISFELD,b YUNPING LUOb,c aDepartment of...tumor stem cells. Cancer Cell 2007;11:69–82. 27 Lewis CE, Pollard JW. Distinct role of macrophages in different tumor microenvironments. Cancer Res...polarization and vessel normalization through downregulation of PlGF. Cancer Cell 2011; 19: 31–44. 12 Murdoch C, Lewis CE. Macrophage migration and gene

  18. Tc17 cells in patients with uterine cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Hou, Fei; Liu, Xin; Ma, Daoxin; Zhang, Youzhong; Kong, Beihua; Cui, Baoxia

    2014-01-01

    The existence of Tc17 cells was recently shown in several types of infectious and autoimmune diseases, but their distribution and functions in uterine cervical cancer (UCC) have not been fully elucidated. The frequency of Tc17 cells in peripheral blood samples obtained from UCC patients, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) patients and healthy controls was determined by flow cytometry. Besides, the prevalence of Tc17 cells and their relationships to Th17 cells and Foxp3-expressing T cells as well as microvessels in tissue samples of the patients were assessed by immunohistochemistry staining. Compared to controls, patients with UCC or CIN had a higher proportion of Tc17 cells in both peripheral blood and cervical tissues, but the level of Tc17 cells in UCC tissues was significantly higher than that in CIN tissues. Besides, the increased level of Tc17 in UCC patients was associated with the status of pelvic lymph node metastases and increased microvessel density. Finally, significant correlations of infiltration between Tc17 cells and Th17 cells or Foxp3-expressing T cells were observed in UCC and CIN tissues. This study indicates that Tc17 cell infiltration in cervical cancers is associated with cancer progression accompanied by increased infiltrations of Th17 cells and regulatory T cells as well as promoted tumor vasculogenesis.

  19. Tc17 Cells in Patients with Uterine Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Hou, Fei; Liu, Xin; Ma, Daoxin; Zhang, Youzhong; Kong, Beihua; Cui, Baoxia

    2014-01-01

    Background The existence of Tc17 cells was recently shown in several types of infectious and autoimmune diseases, but their distribution and functions in uterine cervical cancer (UCC) have not been fully elucidated. Methods The frequency of Tc17 cells in peripheral blood samples obtained from UCC patients, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) patients and healthy controls was determined by flow cytometry. Besides, the prevalence of Tc17 cells and their relationships to Th17 cells and Foxp3-expressing T cells as well as microvessels in tissue samples of the patients were assessed by immunohistochemistry staining. Results Compared to controls, patients with UCC or CIN had a higher proportion of Tc17 cells in both peripheral blood and cervical tissues, but the level of Tc17 cells in UCC tissues was significantly higher than that in CIN tissues. Besides, the increased level of Tc17 in UCC patients was associated with the status of pelvic lymph node metastases and increased microvessel density. Finally, significant correlations of infiltration between Tc17 cells and Th17 cells or Foxp3-expressing T cells were observed in UCC and CIN tissues. Conclusions This study indicates that Tc17 cell infiltration in cervical cancers is associated with cancer progression accompanied by increased infiltrations of Th17 cells and regulatory T cells as well as promoted tumor vasculogenesis. PMID:24523865

  20. Mechanical phenotype of cancer cells: cell softening and loss of stiffness sensing.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsi-Hui; Lin, Hsiu-Kuan; Lin, I-Hsuan; Chiou, Yu-Wei; Chen, Horn-Wei; Liu, Ching-Yi; Harn, Hans I-Chen; Chiu, Wen-Tai; Wang, Yang-Kao; Shen, Meng-Ru; Tang, Ming-Jer

    2015-08-28

    The stiffness sensing ability is required to respond to the stiffness of the matrix. Here we determined whether normal cells and cancer cells display distinct mechanical phenotypes. Cancer cells were softer than their normal counterparts, regardless of the type of cancer (breast, bladder, cervix, pancreas, or Ha-RasV12-transformed cells). When cultured on matrices of varying stiffness, low stiffness decreased proliferation in normal cells, while cancer cells and transformed cells lost this response. Thus, cancer cells undergo a change in their mechanical phenotype that includes cell softening and loss of stiffness sensing. Caveolin-1, which is suppressed in many tumor cells and in oncogene-transformed cells, regulates the mechanical phenotype. Caveolin-1-upregulated RhoA activity and Y397FAK phosphorylation directed actin cap formation, which was positively correlated with cell elasticity and stiffness sensing in fibroblasts. Ha-RasV12-induced transformation and changes in the mechanical phenotypes were reversed by re-expression of caveolin-1 and mimicked by the suppression of caveolin-1 in normal fibroblasts. This is the first study to describe this novel role for caveolin-1, linking mechanical phenotype to cell transformation. Furthermore, mechanical characteristics may serve as biomarkers for cell transformation.

  1. Intersections of lung progenitor cells, lung disease and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Carla F

    2017-06-30

    The use of stem cell biology approaches to study adult lung progenitor cells and lung cancer has brought a variety of new techniques to the field of lung biology and has elucidated new pathways that may be therapeutic targets in lung cancer. Recent results have begun to identify the ways in which different cell populations interact to regulate progenitor activity, and this has implications for the interventions that are possible in cancer and in a variety of lung diseases. Today's better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lung progenitor cell self-renewal and differentiation, including understanding how multiple epigenetic factors affect lung injury repair, holds the promise for future better treatments for lung cancer and for optimising the response to therapy in lung cancer. Working between platforms in sophisticated organoid culture techniques, genetically engineered mouse models of injury and cancer, and human cell lines and specimens, lung progenitor cell studies can begin with basic biology, progress to translational research and finally lead to the beginnings of clinical trials. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  2. Isolation and characterisation of cancer stem cells from canine osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Wilson, H; Huelsmeyer, M; Chun, R; Young, K M; Friedrichs, K; Argyle, D J

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that cancer is a stem cell disease. This study sought to isolate and characterise cancer stem cells from canine osteosarcoma. One human and three canine cell lines were cultured in non-adherent culture conditions using serum-starved, semi-solid media. Primitive sarcosphere colonies from all cell lines were identified under these conditions and were characterised using molecular and cytochemical techniques for embryonic stem cell markers. Expression of the embryonic stem cell-associated genes Nanog, Oct4 and STAT3 indicated a primitive phenotype. Sarcospheres could be reproduced consistently when passaged multiple times and produced adherent cell cultures when returned to normal growth conditions. Similarities between human and canine osteosarcoma cell lines add credence to the potential of the dog as a model for human disease.

  3. Comparison of submerged and unsubmerged printing of ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Davidoff, Sherry N; Au, David; Smith, Samuel; Brooks, Amanda E; Brooks, Benjamin D

    2015-01-01

    A high-throughput cell based assay would greatly aid in the development and screening of ovarian cancer drug candidates. Previously, a three-dimensional microfluidic printer that is not only capable of controlling the location of cell deposition, but also of maintaining a liquid, nutrient rich environment to preserve cellular phenotype has been developed (Wasatch Microfluidics). In this study, we investigated the impact (i.e., viability, density, and phenotype) of depositing cells on a surface submerged in cell culture media. It was determined that submersion of the microfluidic print head in cell media did not alter the cell density, viability, or phenotype.. This article describes an in depth study detailing the impact of one of the fundamental components of a 3D microfluidic cell printer designed to mimic the in vivo cell environment. Development of such a tool holds promise as a high-throughput drug-screening platform for new cancer therapeutics.

  4. Chimeric Antigen Receptors Modified T-Cells for Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hanren; Wang, Yao; Lu, Xuechun; Han, Weidong

    2016-07-01

    The genetic modification and characterization of T-cells with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) allow functionally distinct T-cell subsets to recognize specific tumor cells. The incorporation of costimulatory molecules or cytokines can enable engineered T-cells to eliminate tumor cells. CARs are generated by fusing the antigen-binding region of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) or other ligand to membrane-spanning and intracellular-signaling domains. They have recently shown clinical benefit in patients treated with CD19-directed autologous T-cells. Recent successes suggest that the modification of T-cells with CARs could be a powerful approach for developing safe and effective cancer therapeutics. Here, we briefly review early studies, consider strategies to improve the therapeutic potential and safety, and discuss the challenges and future prospects for CAR T-cells in cancer therapy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Chimeric Antigen Receptors Modified T-Cells for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hanren; Wang, Yao; Lu, Xuechun

    2016-01-01

    The genetic modification and characterization of T-cells with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) allow functionally distinct T-cell subsets to recognize specific tumor cells. The incorporation of costimulatory molecules or cytokines can enable engineered T-cells to eliminate tumor cells. CARs are generated by fusing the antigen-binding region of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) or other ligand to membrane-spanning and intracellular-signaling domains. They have recently shown clinical benefit in patients treated with CD19-directed autologous T-cells. Recent successes suggest that the modification of T-cells with CARs could be a powerful approach for developing safe and effective cancer therapeutics. Here, we briefly review early studies, consider strategies to improve the therapeutic potential and safety, and discuss the challenges and future prospects for CAR T-cells in cancer therapy. PMID:26819347

  6. ALDH isozymes downregulation affects cell growth, cell motility and gene expression in lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Moreb, Jan S; Baker, Henry V; Chang, Lung-Ji; Amaya, Maria; Lopez, M Cecilia; Ostmark, Blanca; Chou, Wayne

    2008-11-24

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes ALDH1A1 and ALDH3A1 are highly expressed in non small cell lung cancer. Neither the mechanisms nor the biologic significance for such over expression have been studied. We have employed oligonucleotide microarrays to analyze changes in gene profiles in A549 lung cancer cell line in which ALDH activity was reduced by up to 95% using lentiviral mediated expression of siRNA against both isozymes (Lenti 1+3). Stringent analysis methods were used to identify gene expression patterns that are specific to the knock down of ALDH activity and significantly different in comparison to wild type A549 cells (WT) or cells similarly transduced with green fluorescent protein (GFP) siRNA. We confirmed significant and specific down regulation of ALDH1A1 and ALDH3A1 in Lenti 1+3 cells and in comparison to 12 other ALDH genes detected. The results of the microarray analysis were validated by real time RT-PCR on RNA obtained from Lenti 1+3 or WT cells treated with ALDH activity inhibitors. Detailed functional analysis was performed on 101 genes that were significantly different (P < 0.001) and their expression changed by > or = 2 folds in the Lenti 1+3 group versus the control groups. There were 75 down regulated and 26 up regulated genes. Protein binding, organ development, signal transduction, transcription, lipid metabolism, and cell migration and adhesion were among the most affected pathways. These molecular effects of the ALDH knock-down are associated with in vitro functional changes in the proliferation and motility of these cells and demonstrate the significance of ALDH enzymes in cell homeostasis with a potentially significant impact on the treatment of lung cancer.

  7. The effect of neighboring cells on the stiffness of cancerous and non-cancerous human mammary epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xinyi; Bonin, Keith; Scarpinato, Karin; Guthold, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) with a 5.3 μm diameter spherical probe, we determined mechanical properties of individual human mammary epithelial cells. The cells were derived from a pair of cell lines that mimic cell progression through four phases of neoplastic transformation: normal (non-transformed), immortal, tumorigenic, and metastatic. Measurements on cells in all four phases were taken over both the cytoplasmic and nuclear regions. Moreover, the measurements were made for cells in different microenvironments as related to cell-cell contacts: isolated cells; cells residing on the periphery of a contiguous cell monolayer; and cells on the inside of a contiguous cell monolayer. By fitting the AFM force versus indentation curves to a Hertz model, we determined the pseudo-elastic Young’s modulus, E. Combining all data for the cellular subregions (over nucleus and cytoplasm) and the different cell microenvironments, we obtained stiffness values for normal, immortal, tumorigenic, and metastatic cells of 870 Pa, 870 Pa, 490 Pa, and 580 Pa, respectively. That is, cells become softer as they advance to the tumorigenic phase and then stiffen somewhat in the final step to metastatic cells. We also found a distinct contrast in the influence of a cell’s microenvironment on cell stiffness. Normal mammary epithelial cells inside a monolayer are stiffer than peripheral cells, which are stiffer than isolated cells. However, the microenvironment had a slight, opposite effect on tumorigenic and little effect on immortal and metastatic cell stiffness. Thus, the stiffness of cancer cells is less sensitive to the microenvironment than normal cells. Our results show that the mechanical properties of a cell can depend on cancer progression and microenvironment (cell-cell interactions).

  8. Differentially expressed genes in nonsmall cell lung cancer: expression profiling of cancer-related genes in squamous cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kettunen, Eeva; Anttila, Sisko; Seppänen, Jouni K; Karjalainen, Antti; Edgren, Henrik; Lindström, Irmeli; Salovaara, Reijo; Nissén, Anna-Maria; Salo, Jarmo; Mattson, Karin; Hollmén, Jaakko; Knuutila, Sakari; Wikman, Harriet

    2004-03-01

    The expression patterns of cancer-related genes in 13 cases of squamous cell lung cancer (SCC) were characterized and compared with those in normal lung tissue and 13 adenocarcinomas (AC), the other major type of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). cDNA array was used to screen the gene expression levels and the array results were verified using a real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Thirty-nine percent of the 25 most upregulated and the 25 most downregulated genes were common to SCC and AC. Of these genes, DSP, HMGA1 (alias HMGIY), TIMP1, MIF, CCNB1, TN, MMP11, and MMP12 were upregulated and COPEB (alias CPBP), TYROBP, BENE, BMPR2, SOCS3, TIMP3, CAV1, and CAV2 were downregulated. The expression levels of several genes from distinct protein families (cytokeratins and hemidesmosomal proteins) were markedly increased in SCC compared with AC and normal lung. In addition, several genes, overexpressed in SCC, such as HMGA1, CDK4, IGFBP3, MMP9, MMP11, MMP12, and MMP14, fell into distinct chromosomal loci, which we have detected as gained regions on the basis of comparative genomic hybridization data. Our study revealed new candidate genes involved in NSCLC.

  9. Prostate cancer cells induce osteoblastic differentiation via semaphorin 3A.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fuzhou; Shen, Weiwei; Qiu, Hao; Hu, Xu; Zhang, Chao; Chu, Tongwei

    2015-03-01

    Prostate cancer metastasis to bone is the second most commonly diagnosed malignant disease among men worldwide. Such metastatic disease is characterized by the presence of osteoblastic bone lesions, and is associated with high rates of mortality. However, the various mechanisms involved in prostate cancer-induced osteoblastic differentiation have not been fully explored. Semaphorin 3A (Sema 3A) is a newly identified regulator of bone metabolism which stimulates differentiation of pre-osteoblastic cells under physiological conditions. We investigated in this study whether prostate cancer cells can mediate osteoblastic activity through Sema 3A. We cultured osteoprogenitor MC3T3-E1 cells in prostate cancer-conditioned medium, and analyzed levels of Sema 3A protein in diverse prostate cancer cell lines to identify cell lines in which Sema 3A production showed a positive correlation with osteo-stimulation. C4-2 cells were stably transfected with Sema 3A short hairpin RNA to further determine whether Sema 3A contributes to the ability of C4-2 cells to induce osteoblastic differentiation. Down-regulation of Sema 3A expression decreased indicators of C4-2 CM-induced osteoblastic differentiation, including alkaline phosphatase production and mineralization. Additionally, silencing or neutralizing Sema 3A in C4-2 cells resulted in diminished β-catenin expression in osteogenitor MC3T3-E1 cells. Our results suggest that prostate cancer-induced osteoblastic differentiation is at least partially mediated by Sema 3A, and may be regulated by the β-catenin signalling pathway. Sema 3A may represent a novel target for treatment of prostate cancer-induced osteoblastic lesions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Enhanced Microwave Hyperthermia of Cancer Cells with Fullerene.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mingrui; Kiourti, Asimina; Wang, Hai; Zhao, Shuting; Zhao, Gang; Lu, Xiongbin; Volakis, John L; He, Xiaoming

    2016-07-05

    Hyperthermia generated with various energy sources including microwave has been widely studied for cancer treatment. However, the potential damage due to nontargeted heating of normal tissue is a major hurdle to its widespread application. Fullerene is a potential agent for improving cancer therapy with microwave hyperthermia but is limited by its poor solubility in water for biomedical applications. Here we report a combination therapy for enhanced cancer cell destruction by combining microwave heating with C60-PCNPs consisting of fullerene (C60) encapsulated in Pluronic F127-chitosan nanoparticles (PCNPs) with high water solubility. A cell culture dish integrated with an antenna was fabricated to generate microwave (2.7 GHz) for heating PC-3 human prostate cancer cells either with or without the C60-PCNPs. The cell viability data show that the C60-PCNPs alone have minimal cytotoxicity. The combination of microwave heating and C60-PCNPs is significantly more effective than the microwave heating alone in killing the cancer cells (7.5 versus 42.2% cell survival). Moreover, the combination of microwave heating and C60-PCNPs is significantly more destructive to the cancer cells than the combination of simple water-bath heating (with a similar thermal history to microwave heating) and C60-PCNPs (7.5 versus 32.5% survival) because the C60 in the many nanoparticles taken up by the cells can absorb the microwave energy and convert it into heat to enhance heating inside the cells under microwave irradiation. These data suggest the great potential of targeted heating via fullerene for enhanced cancer treatment by microwave hyperthermia.

  11. Low Temperature Plasma for the Treatment of Epithelial Cancer Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohades, Soheila

    Biomedical applications of low temperature plasmas (LTP) may lead to a paradigm shift in treating various diseases by conducting fundamental research on the effects of LTP on cells, tissues, organisms (plants, insects, and microorganisms). This is a rapidly growing interdisciplinary research field that involves engineering, physics, life sciences, and chemistry to find novel solutions for urgent medical needs. Effects of different LTP sources have shown the anti-tumor properties of plasma exposure; however, there are still many unknowns about the interaction of plasma with eukaryotic cells which must be elucidated in order to evaluate the practical potential of plasma in cancer treatment. Plasma, the fourth state of matter, is composed of electrons, ions, reactive molecules (radicals and non-radicals), excited species, radiation, and heat. A sufficient dose (time) of plasma exposure can induce death in cancer cells. The plasma pencil is employed to study the anti-tumor properties of this treatment on epithelial cells. The plasma pencil has been previously used for the inactivation of bacteria, destroying amyloid fibrils, and the killing of various cancer cells. Bladder cancer is the 9th leading cause of cancer. In this dissertation, human urinary bladder tissue with the squamous cell carcinoma disease (SCaBER cells) is treated with LTP utilizing two different approaches: direct plasma exposure and Plasma Activated Media (PAM) as an advancement to the treatment. PAM is produced by exposing a liquid cell culture medium to the plasma pencil. Direct LTP treatment of cancer cells indicates a dose-dependent killing effect at post-treatment times. Similarly, PAM treatment shows an anti-cancer effect by inducing substantial cell death. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) have an important role in the biomedical effects of LTP treatment. This study demonstrates the capability of the plasma pencil to transport ROS/RNS into cell culture media

  12. Cancer stem cells accountability in progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: the most recent trends!

    PubMed

    Routray, Samapika; Mohanty, Neeta

    2014-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play a major role in local recurrence and metastatic spread in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Evidence suggests that cancer stem cells are resistant to conventional therapy. So the emerging concepts of the role of cancer stem cells in the pathobiology of HNSCC should be understood carefully to be able to create new paradigms in treatment plans.

  13. Adoptive cell transfer: a clinical path to effective cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Steven A.; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Yang, James C.; Morgan, Richard A.; Dudley, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) using autologous tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes has emerged as the most effective treatment for patients with metastatic melanoma and can mediate objective cancer regression in approximately 50% of patients. The use of donor lymphocytes for ACT is an effective treatment for immunosuppressed patients who develop post-transplant lymphomas. The ability to genetically engineer human lymphocytes and use them to mediate cancer regression in patients, which has recently been demonstrated, has opened possibilities for the extension of ACT immunotherapy to patients with a wide variety of cancer types and is a promising new approach to cancer treatment. PMID:18354418

  14. Transdifferentiation between Luminal- and Basal-Type Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    aggressiveness of MCF7/shPKD1 cells. More importantly, the MCF7/shPKD1 cells show reduced expression of estrogen receptor (ERα/ ESR1 , Fig 3B-D). Clinically, the...express Her2, the lack of expression of ESR1 and PgR (Fig 3D and Table 1) literally make the MCF7/shPKD1 cell a triple-negative cancer cell. Fig 3

  15. T-Cell Gene Therapy to Eradicate Disseminated Breast Cancers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    CD27 Functional tests were stalled by mycoplasma contamination of one of the parental cell lines for making VPCs. During this reporting period, new ...Rathinam C. A new role for an old cytokine: M-CSF regulates functions of human hemetopoietic stem cells, YCEMH mini symposium, New Haven, CT, July 23rd...efficacy of 3rd gen designer T cells III. Clinical ( new agent) BODY Aim 1. To test 2nd gen designer T cells in metastatic breast cancer A

  16. Cell Fusion as a Cause of Prostate Cancer Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    PC-3 cells? Does XRMV2 transform normal human cells? Does XRMV2 affect cell proliferation or viability? Is XRMV2 present in other prostate cancer...retroviral transduction. pathways regulated by tetraploidy in premalignant cells (Figure 1). In this experimental system, normal diploid human ...or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army position, policy

  17. Single cell network profiling assay in bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Covey, Todd M; Vira, Manish A; Westfall, Matt; Gulrajani, Michael; Cholankeril, Michelle; Okhunov, Zhamshid; Levey, Helen R; Marimpietri, Carol; Hawtin, Rachael; Fields, Scott Z; Cesano, Alessandra

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of applying the single cell network profiling (SCNP) assay to the examination of signaling networks in epithelial cancer cells, using bladder washings from 29 bladder cancer (BC) and 15 nonbladder cancer (NC) subjects. This report describes the methods we developed to detect rare epithelial cells (within the cells we collected from bladder washings), distinguish cancer cells from normal epithelial cells, and reproducibly quantify signaling within these low frequency cancer cells. Specifically, antibodies against CD45, cytokeratin, EpCAM, and cleaved-PARP (cPARP) were used to differentiate nonapoptotic epithelial cells from leukocytes, while measurements of DNA content to determine aneuploidy (DAPI stain) allowed for distinction between tumor and normal epithelial cells. Signaling activity in the PI3K and MAPK pathways was assessed by measuring intracellular levels of p-AKT and p-ERK at baseline and in response to pathway modulation; 66% (N = 19) of BC samples and 27% (N = 4) of NC samples met the "evaluable" criteria, i.e., at least 400,000 total cells available upon sample receipt with >2% of cells showing an epithelial phenotype. The majority of epithelial cells detected in BC samples were nonapoptotic and all signaling data were generated from identified cPARP negative cells. In four of 19 BC samples but in none of the NC specimens, SCNP assay identified epithelial cancer cells with a quantifiable increase in epidermal growth factor-induced p-AKT and p-ERK levels. Furthermore, preincubation with the PI3K inhibitor GDC-0941 reduced or completely inhibited basal and epidermal growth factor-induced p-AKT but, as expected, had no effect on p-ERK levels. This study demonstrates the feasibility of applying SCNP assay using multiparametric flow cytometry to the functional characterization of rare, bladder cancer cells collected from bladder washing. Following assay standardization, this method could potentially serve

  18. Singapore Cancer Network (SCAN) Guidelines for Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Resected Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    The SCAN lung cancer workgroup aimed to develop Singapore Cancer Network (SCAN) clinical practice guidelines for the use of adjuvant systemic therapy for non-small cell lung cancer in Singapore. The workgroup utilised a modified ADAPTE process to calibrate high quality international evidence-based clinical practice guidelines to our local setting. Five international guidelines were evaluated- those developed by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (2014), European Society of Medical Oncology (2014), National Institute of Clinical Excellence (2012), Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (2014), and the Cancer Care Council Australia (2012). Recommendations on the selection of patients, chemotherapy regimen, treatment for stage I disease, treatment for positive margins and treatment options for pN2 disease with negative margins were produced. These adapted guidelines form the SCAN Guidelines 2015 for adjuvant systemic therapy of non-small cell lung cancer.

  19. Kaempferia parviflora Extract Exhibits Anti-cancer Activity against HeLa Cervical Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Potikanond, Saranyapin; Sookkhee, Siriwoot; Na Takuathung, Mingkwan; Mungkornasawakul, Pitchaya; Wikan, Nitwara; Smith, Duncan R.; Nimlamool, Wutigri

    2017-01-01

    Kaempferia parviflora (KP) has been traditionally used as a folk remedy to treat several diseases including cancer, and several studies have reported cytotoxic activities of extracts of KP against a number of different cancer cell lines. However, many aspects of the molecular mechanism of action of KP remain unclear. In particular, the ability of KP to regulate cancer cell growth and survival signaling is still largely unexplored. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of KP on cell viability, cell migration, cell invasion, cell apoptosis, and on signaling pathways related to growth and survival of cervical cancer cells, HeLa. We discovered that KP reduced HeLa cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. The potent cytotoxicity of KP against HeLa cells was associated with a dose-dependent induction of apoptotic cell death as determined by flow cytometry and observation of nuclear fragmentation. Moreover, KP-induced cell apoptosis was likely to be mediated through the intrinsic apoptosis pathway since caspase 9 and caspase 7, but not BID, were shown to be activated after KP exposure. Based on the observation that KP induced apoptosis in HeLa cell, we further investigated the effects of KP at non-cytotoxic concentrations on suppressing signal transduction pathways relevant to cell growth and survival. We found that KP suppressed the MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways in cells activated with EGF, as observed by a significant decrease in phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Elk1, PI3K, and AKT. The data suggest that KP interferes with the growth and survival of HeLa cells. Consistent with the inhibitory effect on EGF-stimulated signaling, KP potently suppressed the migration of HeLa cells. Concomitantly, KP was demonstrated to markedly inhibit HeLa cell invasion. The ability of KP in suppressing the migration and invasion of HeLa cells was associated with the suppression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 production. These data strongly suggest that KP may slow

  20. Kaempferia parviflora Extract Exhibits Anti-cancer Activity against HeLa Cervical Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Potikanond, Saranyapin; Sookkhee, Siriwoot; Na Takuathung, Mingkwan; Mungkornasawakul, Pitchaya; Wikan, Nitwara; Smith, Duncan R; Nimlamool, Wutigri

    2017-01-01

    Kaempferia parviflora (KP) has been traditionally used as a folk remedy to treat several diseases including cancer, and several studies have reported cytotoxic activities of extracts of KP against a number of different cancer cell lines. However, many aspects of the molecular mechanism of action of KP remain unclear. In particular, the ability of KP to regulate cancer cell growth and survival signaling is still largely unexplored. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of KP on cell viability, cell migration, cell invasion, cell apoptosis, and on signaling pathways related to growth and survival of cervical cancer cells, HeLa. We discovered that KP reduced HeLa cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. The potent cytotoxicity of KP against HeLa cells was associated with a dose-dependent induction of apoptotic cell death as determined by flow cytometry and observation of nuclear fragmentation. Moreover, KP-induced cell apoptosis was likely to be mediated through the intrinsic apoptosis pathway since caspase 9 and caspase 7, but not BID, were shown to be activated after KP exposure. Based on the observation that KP induced apoptosis in HeLa cell, we further investigated the effects of KP at non-cytotoxic concentrations on suppressing signal transduction pathways relevant to cell growth and survival. We found that KP suppressed the MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways in cells activated with EGF, as observed by a significant decrease in phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Elk1, PI3K, and AKT. The data suggest that KP interferes with the growth and survival of HeLa cells. Consistent with the inhibitory effect on EGF-stimulated signaling, KP potently suppressed the migration of HeLa cells. Concomitantly, KP was demonstrated to markedly inhibit HeLa cell invasion. The ability of KP in suppressing the migration and invasion of HeLa cells was associated with the suppression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 production. These data strongly suggest that KP may slow

  1. Excited state proton transfer in the lysosome of live lung cells: normal and cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Rajdeep; Saha, Abhijit; Mandal, Amit Kumar; Jana, Batakrishna; Ghosh, Surajit; Bhattacharyya, Kankan

    2015-02-12

    Dynamics of excited state proton transfer (ESPT) in the lysosome region of live lung cells (normal and cancer) is studied by picosecond time-resolved confocal microscopy. For this, we used a fluorescent probe, pyranine (8-hydroxy-pyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonate, HPTS). From the colocalization of HPTS with a lysotracker dye (lysotracker yellow), we confirmed that HPTS resides in the lysosome for both of the cells. The diffusion coefficient (Dt) in the lysosome region was obtained from fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). From Dt, the viscosity of lysosome is estimated to be ∼40 and ∼30 cP in the cancer and normal cells, respectively. The rate constants of the elementary steps of ESPT in a normal lung cell (WI38) are compared with those in a lung cancer cell (A549). It is observed that the time constant of the initial proton transfer process in a normal cell (τ(PT) = 40 ps) is similar to that in a cancer cell. The recombination of the geminate ion pair is slightly faster (τ(rec) = 25 ps) in the normal cell than that (τ(rec) = 30 ps) in a cancer cell. The time constant of the dissociation (τ(diss)) of the geminate ion pair for the cancer cell (τ(diss) = 80 ps) is 1.5 times faster compared to that (τ(diss) = 120 ps) in a normal cell.

  2. A Novel Isoform of the B Cell Tyrosine Kinase BTK Protects Breast Cancer Cells from Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Eifert, Cheryl; Wang, Xianhui; Kokabee, Leila; Kourtidis, Antonis; Jain, Ritu; Gerdes, Michael J.; Conklin, Douglas S.

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosine kinases orchestrate key cellular signaling pathways and their dysregulation is often associated with cellular transformation. Several recent cases in which inhibitors of tyrosine kinases have been successfully used as anticancer agents have underscored the importance of this class of proteins in the development of targeted cancer therapies. We have carried out a large-scale loss-of-function analysis of the human tyrosine kinases using RNA interference to identify novel survival factors for breast cancer cells. In addition to kinases with known roles in breast and other cancers, we identified several kinases that were previously unknown to be required for breast cancer cell survival. The most surprising of these was the cytosolic, nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK), which has been extensively studied in B cell development. Down regulation of this protein with RNAi or inhibition with pharmacological inhibitors causes apoptosis; overexpression inhibits apoptosis induced by Doxorubicin in breast cancer cells. Our results surprisingly show that BTK is expressed in several breast cancer cell lines and tumors. The predominant form of BTK found in tumor cells is transcribed from an alternative promoter and results in a protein with an amino-terminal extension. This alternate form of BTK is expressed at significantly higher levels in tumorigenic breast cells than in normal breast cells. Since this protein is a survival factor for these cells, it represents both a potential marker and novel therapeutic target for breast cancer. PMID:23913792

  3. Impact of disseminated tumor cells in gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Thorban, Stefan; Rosenberg, Robert; Maak, Matthias; Friederichs, Jan; Gertler, Ralf; Siewert, Jörg-Rüdiger

    2006-05-01

    The detection of epithelial cells by sensitive immunological and molecular methods in blood, lymph nodes or bone marrow of gastrointestinal cancer patients may open a new approach to clinical metastasis research. The phenotypic and genomic characterization of these cells is of great value in the prediction of the further course of the disease and the monitoring of response to treatment. In addition, the role of ultrastaging in blood, lymph nodes and bone marrow of cancer patients for the indication of multimodal therapy is discussed in this review. The impact of prognostic or predictive factors for new treatment protocols in patients with gastrointestinal cancer was evaluated as well as the correlation with clinical factors.

  4. Pharmacological targets of breast cancer stem cells: a review.

    PubMed

    Pindiprolu, Sai Kiran S S; Krishnamurthy, Praveen T; Chintamaneni, Pavan Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Breast cancers contain small population of tumor-initiating cells called breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), which are spared even after chemotherapy. Recently, BCSCs are implicated to be a cause of metastasis, tumor relapse, and therapy resistance in breast cancer. BCSCs have unique molecular mechanisms, which can be targeted to eliminate them. These include surface biomarkers, proteins involved in self-renewal pathways, drug efflux transporters, apoptotic/antiapoptotic proteins, autophagy, metabolism, and microenvironment regulation. The complex molecular mechanisms behind the survival of BCSCs and pharmacological targets for elimination of BCSCs are described in this review.

  5. Cancer cell-secreted IGF2 instigates fibroblasts and bone marrow-derived vascular progenitor cells to promote cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wen Wen; Li, Bin; Guan, Xin Yuan; Chung, Sookja K.; Wang, Yang; Yip, Yim Ling; Law, Simon Y. K.; Chan, Kin Tak; Lee, Nikki P. Y.; Chan, Kwok Wah; Xu, Li Yan; Li, En Min; Tsao, Sai Wah; He, Qing-Yu; Cheung, Annie L. M.

    2017-01-01

    Local interactions between cancer cells and stroma can produce systemic effects on distant organs to govern cancer progression. Here we show that IGF2 secreted by inhibitor of differentiation (Id1)-overexpressing oesophageal cancer cells instigates VEGFR1-positive bone marrow cells in the tumour macroenvironment to form pre-metastatic niches at distant sites by increasing VEGF secretion from cancer-associated fibroblasts. Cancer cells are then attracted to the metastatic site via the CXCL5/CXCR2 axis. Bone marrow cells transplanted from nude mice bearing Id1-overexpressing oesophageal tumours enhance tumour growth and metastasis in recipient mice, whereas systemic administration of VEGFR1 antibody abrogates these effects. Mechanistically, IGF2 regulates VEGF in fibroblasts via miR-29c in a p53-dependent manner. Analysis of patient serum samples showed that concurrent elevation of IGF2 and VEGF levels may serve as a prognostic biomarker for oesophageal cancer. These findings suggest that the Id1/IGF2/VEGF/VEGFR1 cascade plays a critical role in tumour-driven pathophysiological processes underlying cancer progression. PMID:28186102

  6. Cancer cell-secreted IGF2 instigates fibroblasts and bone marrow-derived vascular progenitor cells to promote cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen Wen; Li, Bin; Guan, Xin Yuan; Chung, Sookja K; Wang, Yang; Yip, Yim Ling; Law, Simon Y K; Chan, Kin Tak; Lee, Nikki P Y; Chan, Kwok Wah; Xu, Li Yan; Li, En Min; Tsao, Sai Wah; He, Qing-Yu; Cheung, Annie L M

    2017-02-10

    Local interactions between cancer cells and stroma can produce systemic effects on distant organs to govern cancer progression. Here we show that IGF2 secreted by inhibitor of differentiation (Id1)-overexpressing oesophageal cancer cells instigates VEGFR1-positive bone marrow cells in the tumour macroenvironment to form pre-metastatic niches at distant sites by increasing VEGF secretion from cancer-associated fibroblasts. Cancer cells are then attracted to the metastatic site via the CXCL5/CXCR2 axis. Bone marrow cells transplanted from nude mice bearing Id1-overexpressing oesophageal tumours enhance tumour growth and metastasis in recipient mice, whereas systemic administration of VEGFR1 antibody abrogates these effects. Mechanistically, IGF2 regulates VEGF in fibroblasts via miR-29c in a p53-dependent manner. Analysis of patient serum samples showed that concurrent elevation of IGF2 and VEGF levels may serve as a prognostic biomarker for oesophageal cancer. These findings suggest that the Id1/IGF2/VEGF/VEGFR1 cascade plays a critical role in tumour-driven pathophysiological processes underlying cancer progression.

  7. Dependency of a therapy-resistant state of cancer cells on a lipid peroxidase pathway* | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Plasticity of the cell state has been proposed to drive resistance to multiple classes of cancer therapies, thereby limiting their effectiveness. A high-mesenchymal cell state observed in human tumors and cancer cell lines has been associated with resistance to multiple treatment modalities across diverse cancer lineages, but the mechanistic underpinning for this state has remained incompletely understood.

  8. IL-35-producing B cells in gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Liu, Jianming; Li, Jiansheng

    2018-05-01

    A significant characteristic of advanced gastric cancer (GC) is immune suppression, which can promote the progression of GC. Interleukin 35 (IL-35) is an immune-suppressing cytokine, and it is generally recognized that this cytokine is secreted by regulatory T (Treg) cells. Recently, studies have found that IL-35 can also be produced by B cells in mice. However, scientific studies reporting that IL-35 is secreted by B cells in humans, specifically in cancer patients, are very rare.Blood samples were collected from 30 healthy controls (HCs) and 50 untreated GC patients, and IL-35-producing B cells in the peripheral blood were investigated. Moreover, Treg cells (CD4CD25CD127), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) (CD14HLA-DR) and other lymphocyte subsets (CD3, CD4, CD8 T cells, activated and memory CD4 T cells, activated CD8 T cells, CD14 monocytes, and IL-10-producing B cells) were also examined.IL-35-producing B cells were significantly upregulated in patients with advanced GC. Furthermore, the frequency of IL-35-producing B cells was positively correlated with the frequencies of Treg cells (CD4CD25CD127), MDSCs (CD14HLA-DR), IL-10-producing B cells, and CD14 monocytes in these GC patients.In summary, the frequency of IL-35-producing B cells is significantly elevated in advanced GC; this outcome implies that this group of B cells may participate in GC progression.

  9. Advances in immunotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Reckamp, Karen L

    2015-12-01

    In most patients, lung cancer presents as advanced disease with metastases to lymph nodes and/or distant organs, and survival is poor. Lung cancer is also a highly immune-suppressing malignancy with numerous methods to evade antitumor immune responses, including deficiencies in antigen processing and presentation, release of immunomodulatory cytokines, and inhibition of T-cell activation. Advances in understanding the complex interactions of the immune system and cancer have led to novel therapies that promote T-cell activation at the tumor site, resulting in prolonged clinical benefit. Immune checkpoint inhibitors, specifically programmed death receptor 1 pathway antibodies, have demonstrated impressively durable responses and improved survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. This article will review the recent progress made in immunotherapy for lung cancer with data from trials evaluating programmed death receptor 1 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 monoclonal antibodies in addition to cancer vaccines. The review wil