Science.gov

Sample records for e3 ubiquitin ub

  1. UbMES and UbFluor: Novel probes for ring-between-ring (RBR) E3 ubiquitin ligase PARKIN.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungjin; Foote, Peter K; Krist, David T; Rice, Sarah E; Statsyuk, Alexander V

    2017-10-06

    Ring-between-ring (RBR) E3 ligases have been implicated in autoimmune disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. The functions of many RBR E3s are poorly defined, and their regulation is complex, involving post-translational modifications and allosteric regulation with other protein partners. The functional complexity of RBRs, coupled with the complexity of the native ubiquitination reaction that requires ATP and E1 and E2 enzymes, makes it difficult to study these ligases for basic research and therapeutic purposes. To address this challenge, we developed novel chemical probes, ubiquitin C-terminal fluorescein thioesters UbMES and UbFluor, to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the activity of the RBR E3 ligase PARKIN in a simple experimental setup and in real time using fluorescence polarization. First, we confirmed that PARKIN does not require an E2 enzyme for substrate ubiquitination, lysine selection, and polyubiquitin chain formation. Second, we confirmed that UbFluor quantitatively detects naturally occurring activation states of PARKIN caused by Ser 65 phosphorylation (pPARKIN) and phosphorylated ubiquitin (pUb). Third, we showed that both pUb and the ubiquitin-accepting substrate contribute to maximal pPARKIN ubiquitin conjugation turnover. pUb enhances the transthiolation step, whereas the substrate clears the pPARKIN∼Ub thioester intermediate. Finally, we established that UbFluor can quantify activation or inhibition of PARKIN by structural mutations. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using UbFluor for quantitative studies of the biochemistry of RBR E3s and for high-throughput screening of small-molecule activators or inhibitors of PARKIN and other RBR E3 ligases. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. High-Throughput Screening of HECT E3 Ubiquitin Ligases Using UbFluor.

    PubMed

    Foote, Peter K; Krist, David T; Statsyuk, Alexander V

    2017-09-14

    HECT E3 ubiquitin ligases are responsible for many human disease phenotypes and are promising drug targets; however, screening assays for HECT E3 inhibitors are inherently complex, requiring upstream E1 and E2 enzymes as well as ubiquitin, ATP, and detection reagents. Intermediate ubiquitin thioesters and a complex mixture of polyubiquitin products provide further opportunities for off-target inhibition and increase the complexity of the assay. UbFluor is a novel ubiquitin thioester that bypasses the E1 and E2 enzymes and undergoes direct transthiolation with HECT E3 ligases. The release of fluorophore upon transthiolation allows fluorescence polarization detection of HECT E3 activity. In the presence of inhibitors, HECT E3 activity is ablated, and thus no reaction and no change in FP are observed. This assay has been adapted for high-throughput screening of small molecules against HECT E3 ligases, and its utility has been proven in the discovery of HECT E3 ligase inhibitors. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Molecular insights into RBR E3 ligase ubiquitin transfer mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Dove, Katja K; Stieglitz, Benjamin; Duncan, Emily D; Rittinger, Katrin; Klevit, Rachel E

    2016-08-01

    RING-in-between-RING (RBR) ubiquitin (Ub) ligases are a distinct class of E3s, defined by a RING1 domain that binds E2 Ub-conjugating enzyme and a RING2 domain that contains an active site cysteine similar to HECT-type E3s. Proposed to function as RING/HECT hybrids, details regarding the Ub transfer mechanism used by RBRs have yet to be defined. When paired with RING-type E3s, E2s perform the final step of Ub ligation to a substrate. In contrast, when paired with RBR E3s, E2s must transfer Ub onto the E3 to generate a E3~Ub intermediate. We show that RBRs utilize two strategies to ensure transfer of Ub from the E2 onto the E3 active site. First, RING1 domains of HHARI and RNF144 promote open E2~Ubs. Second, we identify a Ub-binding site on HHARI RING2 important for its recruitment to RING1-bound E2~Ub. Mutations that ablate Ub binding to HHARI RING2 also decrease RBR ligase activity, consistent with RING2 recruitment being a critical step for the RBR Ub transfer mechanism. Finally, we demonstrate that the mechanism defined here is utilized by a variety of RBRs. © 2016 The Authors.

  4. Structure of an E3:E2~Ub Complex Reveals an Allosteric Mechanism Shared among RING/U-box Ligases

    SciTech Connect

    Pruneda, Jonathan N.; Littlefield, Peter J.; Soss, Sarah E.

    2012-09-28

    Despite the widespread importance of RING/U-box E3 ubiquitin ligases in ubiquitin (Ub) signaling, the mechanismby which this class of enzymes facilitates Ub transfer remains enigmatic. Here, we present a structural model for a RING/U-box E3:E2~Ub complex poised for Ub transfer. The model and additional analyses reveal that E3 binding biases dynamic E2~Ub ensembles toward closed conformations with enhanced reactivity for substrate lysines. We identify a key hydrogen bond between a highly conserved E3 side chain and an E2 backbone carbonyl, observed in all structures of active RING/ U-Box E3/E2 pairs, as the linchpin for allosteric activation of E2~Ub. The conformationalmore » biasing mechanism is generalizable across diverse E2s and RING/U-box E3s, but is not shared by HECT-type E3s. The results provide a structural model for a RING/ U-box E3:E2~Ub ligase complex and identify the long sought-after source of allostery for RING/UBox activation of E2~Ub conjugates.« less

  5. UbSRD: The Ubiquitin Structural Relational Database.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Joseph S; Jacobs, Tim M; Houlihan, Kevin; Van Doorslaer, Koenraad; Kuhlman, Brian

    2016-02-22

    The structurally defined ubiquitin-like homology fold (UBL) can engage in several unique protein-protein interactions and many of these complexes have been characterized with high-resolution techniques. Using Rosetta's structural classification tools, we have created the Ubiquitin Structural Relational Database (UbSRD), an SQL database of features for all 509 UBL-containing structures in the PDB, allowing users to browse these structures by protein-protein interaction and providing a platform for quantitative analysis of structural features. We used UbSRD to define the recognition features of ubiquitin (UBQ) and SUMO observed in the PDB and the orientation of the UBQ tail while interacting with certain types of proteins. While some of the interaction surfaces on UBQ and SUMO overlap, each molecule has distinct features that aid in molecular discrimination. Additionally, we find that the UBQ tail is malleable and can adopt a variety of conformations upon binding. UbSRD is accessible as an online resource at rosettadesign.med.unc.edu/ubsrd. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ubiquitin chain specificities of E6AP E3 ligase and its HECT domain.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Fuminori; Nishiuchi, Takumi; Takaki, Kento; Konno, Hiroki

    2018-02-05

    Ubiquitination of target proteins is accomplished by isopeptide bond formation between the carboxy group of the C-terminal glycine (Gly) residue of ubiquitin (Ub) and the ɛ-amino group of lysine (Lys) on the target proteins. The formation of an isopeptide bond between Ubs that gives rise to a poly-Ub chain on the target proteins and the types of poly-Ub chains formed depend on which of the seven Lys residues or N-terminal methionine (Met) residue on Ub is used for chain elongation. To understand the linkage specificity mechanism of Ub chains on E3, the previous study established an assay to monitor the formation of a free diubiquitin chain (Ub 2 chain synthesis assay) by HECT type E3 ligase. In this study, we investigated Ub 2 chain specificity using E6AP HECT domain. We here demonstrate the importance of the N-terminal domain of full length E6AP for Ub 2 chain specificity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. ISG15 inhibits Nedd4 ubiquitin E3 activity and enhances the innate antiviral response.

    PubMed

    Malakhova, Oxana A; Zhang, Dong-Er

    2008-04-04

    Interferons regulate diverse immune functions through the transcriptional activation of hundreds of genes involved in anti-viral responses. The interferon-inducible ubiquitin-like protein ISG15 is expressed in cells in response to a variety of stress conditions like viral or bacterial infection and is present in its free form or is conjugated to cellular proteins. In addition, protein ubiquitination plays a regulatory role in the immune system. Many viruses modulate the ubiquitin (Ub) pathway to alter cellular signaling and the antiviral response. Ubiquitination of retroviral group-specific antigen precursors and matrix proteins of the Ebola, vesicular stomatitis, and rabies viruses by Nedd4 family HECT domain E3 ligases is an important step in facilitating viral release. We found that Nedd4 is negatively regulated by ISG15. Free ISG15 specifically bound to Nedd4 and blocked its interaction with Ub-E2 molecules, thus preventing further Ub transfer from E2 to E3. Furthermore, overexpression of ISG15 diminished the ability of Nedd4 to ubiquitinate viral matrix proteins and led to a decrease in the release of Ebola VP40 virus-like particles from the cells. These results point to a mechanistically novel function of ISG15 in the enhancement of the innate anti-viral response through specific inhibition of Nedd4 Ub-E3 activity. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a Ub-like protein with the ability to interfere with Ub-E2 and E3 interaction to inhibit protein ubiquitination.

  8. Dual RING E3 Architectures Regulate Multiubiquitination and Ubiquitin Chain Elongation by APC/C.

    PubMed

    Brown, Nicholas G; VanderLinden, Ryan; Watson, Edmond R; Weissmann, Florian; Ordureau, Alban; Wu, Kuen-Phon; Zhang, Wei; Yu, Shanshan; Mercredi, Peter Y; Harrison, Joseph S; Davidson, Iain F; Qiao, Renping; Lu, Ying; Dube, Prakash; Brunner, Michael R; Grace, Christy R R; Miller, Darcie J; Haselbach, David; Jarvis, Marc A; Yamaguchi, Masaya; Yanishevski, David; Petzold, Georg; Sidhu, Sachdev S; Kuhlman, Brian; Kirschner, Marc W; Harper, J Wade; Peters, Jan-Michael; Stark, Holger; Schulman, Brenda A

    2016-06-02

    Protein ubiquitination involves E1, E2, and E3 trienzyme cascades. E2 and RING E3 enzymes often collaborate to first prime a substrate with a single ubiquitin (UB) and then achieve different forms of polyubiquitination: multiubiquitination of several sites and elongation of linkage-specific UB chains. Here, cryo-EM and biochemistry show that the human E3 anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) and its two partner E2s, UBE2C (aka UBCH10) and UBE2S, adopt specialized catalytic architectures for these two distinct forms of polyubiquitination. The APC/C RING constrains UBE2C proximal to a substrate and simultaneously binds a substrate-linked UB to drive processive multiubiquitination. Alternatively, during UB chain elongation, the RING does not bind UBE2S but rather lures an evolving substrate-linked UB to UBE2S positioned through a cullin interaction to generate a Lys11-linked chain. Our findings define mechanisms of APC/C regulation, and establish principles by which specialized E3-E2-substrate-UB architectures control different forms of polyubiquitination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A cascading activity-based probe sequentially targets E1–E2–E3 ubiquitin enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Monique P.C.; Witting, Katharina; Berlin, Ilana; Pruneda, Jonathan N.; Wu, Kuen-Phon; Chang, Jer-Gung; Merkx, Remco; Bialas, Johanna; Groettrup, Marcus; Vertegaal, Alfred C.O.; Schulman, Brenda A.; Komander, David; Neefjes, Jacques; Oualid, Farid El; Ovaa, Huib

    2016-01-01

    Post-translational modifications of proteins with ubiquitin (Ub) and ubiquitin-like (Ubl) modifiers, orchestrated by a cascade of specialized E1, E2 and E3 enzymes, control a staggering breadth of cellular processes. To monitor catalysis along these complex reaction pathways, we developed a cascading activity-based probe, UbDha. Akin to the native Ub, upon ATP-dependent activation by the E1, UbDha can travel downstream to the E2 (and subsequently E3) enzymes through sequential trans-thioesterifications. Unlike the native Ub, at each step along the cascade UbDha has the option to react irreversibly with active site cysteine residues of target enzymes, thus enabling their detection. We show that our cascading probe ‘hops’ and ‘traps’ catalytically active ubiquitin-modifying enzymes (but not their substrates) by a mechanism diversifiable to Ubls. Our founder methodology, amenable to structural studies, proteome-wide profiling and monitoring of enzymatic activities in living cells, presents novel and versatile tools to interrogate the Ub/Ubl cascades. PMID:27182664

  10. Structure of a HOIP/E2~ubiquitin complex reveals RBR E3 ligase mechanism and regulation

    PubMed Central

    Lechtenberg, Bernhard C.; Rajput, Akhil; Sanishvili, Ruslan; Dobaczewska, Małgorzata K.; Ware, Carl F.; Mace, Peter D.; Riedl, Stefan J.

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquitination is a central process affecting all facets of cellular signaling and function1. A critical step in ubiquitination is the transfer of ubiquitin from an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme to a substrate or a growing ubiquitin chain, which is mediated by E3 ubiquitin ligases. RING-type E3 ligases typically facilitate the transfer of ubiquitin from the E2 directly to the substrate2,3. The RBR family of RING-type E3 ligases, however, breaks this paradigm by forming a covalent intermediate with ubiquitin similarly to HECT-type E3 ligases4–6. The RBR family includes Parkin4 and HOIP, the central catalytic factor of the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC)7. While structural insights into the RBR E3 ligases Parkin and HHARI in their overall autoinhibited forms are available8–13, no structures exist of intact fully active RBR E3 ligases or any of their complexes. Thus, the RBR mechanism of action has remained largely enigmatic. Here we present the first structure of the fully active HOIP-RBR in its transfer complex with an E2~ubiquitin conjugate, which elucidates the intricate nature of RBR E3 ligases. The active HOIP-RBR adopts a conformation markedly different from that of autoinhibited RBRs. HOIP-RBR binds the E2~ubiquitin conjugate in an elongated fashion, with the E2 and E3 catalytic centers ideally aligned for ubiquitin transfer, which structurally both requires and enables a HECT-like mechanism. In addition, surprisingly, three distinct helix–IBR-fold motifs inherent to RBRs form ubiquitin-binding regions that engage the activated ubiquitin of the E2~Ub conjugate as well as an additional regulatory ubiquitin molecule. The features uncovered reveal critical states of the HOIP-RBR E3 ligase cycle, and comparison with Parkin and HHARI suggests a general mechanism for RBR E3 ligases. PMID:26789245

  11. Identifying the substrate proteins of U-box E3s E4B and CHIP by orthogonal ubiquitin transfer.

    PubMed

    Bhuripanyo, Karan; Wang, Yiyang; Liu, Xianpeng; Zhou, Li; Liu, Ruochuan; Duong, Duc; Zhao, Bo; Bi, Yingtao; Zhou, Han; Chen, Geng; Seyfried, Nicholas T; Chazin, Walter J; Kiyokawa, Hiroaki; Yin, Jun

    2018-01-01

    E3 ubiquitin (UB) ligases E4B and carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) use a common U-box motif to transfer UB from E1 and E2 enzymes to their substrate proteins and regulate diverse cellular processes. To profile their ubiquitination targets in the cell, we used phage display to engineer E2-E4B and E2-CHIP pairs that were free of cross-reactivity with the native UB transfer cascades. We then used the engineered E2-E3 pairs to construct "orthogonal UB transfer (OUT)" cascades so that a mutant UB (xUB) could be exclusively used by the engineered E4B or CHIP to label their substrate proteins. Purification of xUB-conjugated proteins followed by proteomics analysis enabled the identification of hundreds of potential substrates of E4B and CHIP in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Kinase MAPK3 (mitogen-activated protein kinase 3), methyltransferase PRMT1 (protein arginine N -methyltransferase 1), and phosphatase PPP3CA (protein phosphatase 3 catalytic subunit alpha) were identified as the shared substrates of the two E3s. Phosphatase PGAM5 (phosphoglycerate mutase 5) and deubiquitinase OTUB1 (ovarian tumor domain containing ubiquitin aldehyde binding protein 1) were confirmed as E4B substrates, and β-catenin and CDK4 (cyclin-dependent kinase 4) were confirmed as CHIP substrates. On the basis of the CHIP-CDK4 circuit identified by OUT, we revealed that CHIP signals CDK4 degradation in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress.

  12. Identifying the substrate proteins of U-box E3s E4B and CHIP by orthogonal ubiquitin transfer

    PubMed Central

    Bhuripanyo, Karan; Wang, Yiyang; Liu, Xianpeng; Zhou, Li; Liu, Ruochuan; Duong, Duc; Zhao, Bo; Bi, Yingtao; Zhou, Han; Chen, Geng; Seyfried, Nicholas T.; Chazin, Walter J.; Kiyokawa, Hiroaki; Yin, Jun

    2018-01-01

    E3 ubiquitin (UB) ligases E4B and carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) use a common U-box motif to transfer UB from E1 and E2 enzymes to their substrate proteins and regulate diverse cellular processes. To profile their ubiquitination targets in the cell, we used phage display to engineer E2-E4B and E2-CHIP pairs that were free of cross-reactivity with the native UB transfer cascades. We then used the engineered E2-E3 pairs to construct “orthogonal UB transfer (OUT)” cascades so that a mutant UB (xUB) could be exclusively used by the engineered E4B or CHIP to label their substrate proteins. Purification of xUB-conjugated proteins followed by proteomics analysis enabled the identification of hundreds of potential substrates of E4B and CHIP in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Kinase MAPK3 (mitogen-activated protein kinase 3), methyltransferase PRMT1 (protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1), and phosphatase PPP3CA (protein phosphatase 3 catalytic subunit alpha) were identified as the shared substrates of the two E3s. Phosphatase PGAM5 (phosphoglycerate mutase 5) and deubiquitinase OTUB1 (ovarian tumor domain containing ubiquitin aldehyde binding protein 1) were confirmed as E4B substrates, and β-catenin and CDK4 (cyclin-dependent kinase 4) were confirmed as CHIP substrates. On the basis of the CHIP-CDK4 circuit identified by OUT, we revealed that CHIP signals CDK4 degradation in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress. PMID:29326975

  13. Activity‐Based Probes for HECT E3 Ubiquitin Ligases

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Robert; Mund, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Activity‐based probes (ABPs) have been used to dissect the biochemical/structural properties and cellular functions of deubiquitinases. However, their utility in studying cysteine‐based E3 ubiquitin ligases has been limited. In this study, we evaluate the use of ubiquitin‐ABPs (Ub‐VME and Ub‐PA) and a novel set of E2–Ub‐ABPs on a panel of HECT E3 ubiquitin ligases. Our in vitro data show that ubiquitin‐ABPs can label HECT domains. We also provide the first evidence that, in addition to the RBR E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin, E2–Ub‐ABPs can also label the catalytic HECT domains of NEDD4, UBE3C, and HECTD1. Importantly, the endogenous proteasomal E3 ligase UBE3C was also successfully labelled by Ub‐PA and His‐UBE2D2–Ub‐ABP in lysate of cells grown under basal conditions. Our findings provide novel insights into the use of ABPs for the study of HECT E3 ubiquitin ligases. PMID:28425671

  14. Molecular dynamics simulations of human E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Shi; Zhu, Shun; Xu, Shan; Han, Yanyan; Liu, Wen; Zuo, Ji

    2017-01-01

    Human E3 ubiquitin protein ligase parkin (Parkin) mediates mitophagy to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis. Parkin mutations are common genetic causes of early onset familial Parkinson's disease. The molecular mechanism of Parkin activation has been widely studied with emerging evidence suggesting an essential role of the phosphorylated (phospho)-ubiquitin interaction. However, the underlying mechanism of the phospho-ubiquitin interaction remains elusive. In the present study, replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations were performed to examine the conformational dynamics of Parkin in monomer and phospho-ubiquitin-bound states. In the Parkin monomer state, high structural flexibilities were observed in the majority of regions of Parkin particularly in the loop domain between the ubiquitin-like (UBL) and really interesting new gene (RING)0 domain. Binding of phospho-ubiquitin stabilizes the RING1/RING in between RING interface but destabilizes the RING1-UBL interface. Furthermore, using steered molecular dynamics simulations of Parkin mutations, it was demonstrated that salt bridge interactions contribute significantly to the interdomain interactions between the RING1 and UBL domain. Taken together, the results of the present study revealed the conformational dynamics of human full-length Parkin in monomer and phospho-ubiquitin-bound states, providing insights into designing potential therapeutics against Parkinson's disease. PMID:28765939

  15. RING E3 mechanism for ubiquitin ligation to a disordered substrate visualized for human anaphase-promoting complex

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, Nicholas G.; VanderLinden, Ryan; Watson, Edmond R.; ...

    2015-03-30

    For many E3 ligases, a mobile RING (Really Interesting New Gene) domain stimulates ubiquitin (Ub) transfer from a thioester-linked E2~Ub intermediate to a lysine on a remotely bound disordered substrate. One such E3 is the gigantic, multisubunit 1.2-MDa anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC), which controls cell division by ubiquitinating cell cycle regulators to drive their timely degradation. Intrinsically disordered substrates are typically recruited via their KEN-box, D-box, and/or other motifs binding to APC and a coactivator such as CDH1. On the opposite side of the APC, the dynamic catalytic core contains the cullin-like subunit APC2 and its RING partner APC11, which collaboratesmore » with the E2 UBCH10 (UBE2C) to ubiquitinate substrates. However, how dynamic RING–E2~Ub catalytic modules such as APC11–UBCH10~Ub collide with distally tethered disordered substrates remains poorly understood. In this paper, we report structural mechanisms of UBCH10 recruitment to APC CDH1 and substrate ubiquitination. Unexpectedly, in addition to binding APC11’s RING, UBCH10 is corecruited via interactions with APC2, which we visualized in a trapped complex representing an APC CDH1–UBCH10~Ub–substrate intermediate by cryo-electron microscopy, and in isolation by X-ray crystallography. To our knowledge, this is the first structural view of APC, or any cullin–RING E3, with E2 and substrate juxtaposed, and it reveals how tripartite cullin–RING–E2 interactions establish APC’s specificity for UBCH10 and harness a flexible catalytic module to drive ubiquitination of lysines within an accessible zone. Finally, we propose that multisite interactions reduce the degrees of freedom available to dynamic RING E3–E2~Ub catalytic modules, condense the search radius for target lysines, increase the chance of active-site collision with conformationally fluctuating substrates, and enable regulation.« less

  16. Molecular dynamics simulations of human E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Shi; Zhu, Shun; Xu, Shan; Han, Yanyan; Liu, Wen; Zuo, Ji

    2017-10-01

    Human E3 ubiquitin protein ligase parkin (Parkin) mediates mitophagy to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis. Parkin mutations are common genetic causes of early onset familial Parkinson's disease. The molecular mechanism of Parkin activation has been widely studied with emerging evidence suggesting an essential role of the phosphorylated (phospho)‑ubiquitin interaction. However, the underlying mecha-nism of the phospho‑ubiquitin interaction remains elusive. In the present study, replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations were performed to examine the conformational dynamics of Parkin in monomer and phospho‑ubiquitin‑bound states. In the Parkin monomer state, high structural flexi-bilities were observed in the majority of regions of Parkin particularly in the loop domain between the ubiquitin‑like (UBL) and really interesting new gene (RING)0 domain. Binding of phospho‑ubiquitin stabilizes the RING1/RING in between RING interface but destabilizes the RING1‑UBL interface. Furthermore, using steered molecular dynamics simulations of Parkin mutations, it was demonstrated that salt bridge interactions contribute significantly to the interdomain interactions between the RING1 and UBL domain. Taken together, the results of the present study revealed the conformational dynamics of human full‑length Parkin in monomer and phospho‑ubiquitin‑bound states, providing insights into designing potential therapeutics against Parkinson's disease.

  17. Autoubiquitination of feline E3 ubiquitin ligase BCA2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiran; Qu, Meng; Wang, Jiawen; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Haihong; Wu, Jiaxin; Yu, Bin; Wu, Hui; Kong, Wei; Yu, Xianghui

    2018-01-05

    BCA2/RNF115/Rabring7 is a RING type E3 ubiquitin ligase that is overexpressed in human breast tumors and is important for regulating breast cancer cell migration. In the present investigation, feline BCA2 (fBCA2) was identified and characterized. Compared with its human counterpart, the fBCA2 cDNA was confirmed to be 918 base pairs in length showing 92.6% consensus and identity positions, encoding a protein of 305 amino acids with 96.7% consensus and 93.1% identity positions. The fBCA2 protein contains a RING domain at the C-terminus, which was found to be essential for its autoubiquitination. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. RING-type E3 ligases: Master manipulators of E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes and ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Meredith B.; Pruneda, Jonathan N.; Klevit, Rachel E.; Weissman, Allan M.

    2013-01-01

    RING finger domain and RING finger-like ubiquitin ligases (E3s), such as U-box proteins, constitute the vast majority of known E3s. RING-type E3s function together with ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) to mediate ubiquitination and are implicated in numerous cellular processes. In part because of their importance in human physiology and disease, these proteins and their cellular functions represent an intense area of study. Here we review recent advances in RING-type E3 recognition of substrates, their cellular regulation, and their varied architecture. Additionally, recent structural insights into RING-type E3 function, with a focus on important interactions with E2s and ubiquitin, are reviewed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Ubiquitin-Proteasome System. PMID:23747565

  19. Phosphorylation by PINK1 Releases the UBL Domain and Initializes the Conformational Opening of the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Parkin

    PubMed Central

    Moussaud-Lamodière, Elisabeth L.; Dourado, Daniel F. A. R.; Flores, Samuel C.; Springer, Wolfdieter

    2014-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in PINK1 or PARKIN are the most common causes of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease. Both gene products, the Ser/Thr kinase PINK1 and the E3 Ubiquitin ligase Parkin, functionally cooperate in a mitochondrial quality control pathway. Upon stress, PINK1 activates Parkin and enables its translocation to and ubiquitination of damaged mitochondria to facilitate their clearance from the cell. Though PINK1-dependent phosphorylation of Ser65 is an important initial step, the molecular mechanisms underlying the activation of Parkin's enzymatic functions remain unclear. Using molecular modeling, we generated a complete structural model of human Parkin at all atom resolution. At steady state, the Ub ligase is maintained inactive in a closed, auto-inhibited conformation that results from intra-molecular interactions. Evidently, Parkin has to undergo major structural rearrangements in order to unleash its catalytic activity. As a spark, we have modeled PINK1-dependent Ser65 phosphorylation in silico and provide the first molecular dynamics simulation of Parkin conformations along a sequential unfolding pathway that could release its intertwined domains and enable its catalytic activity. We combined free (unbiased) molecular dynamics simulation, Monte Carlo algorithms, and minimal-biasing methods with cell-based high content imaging and biochemical assays. Phosphorylation of Ser65 results in widening of a newly defined cleft and dissociation of the regulatory N-terminal UBL domain. This motion propagates through further opening conformations that allow binding of an Ub-loaded E2 co-enzyme. Subsequent spatial reorientation of the catalytic centers of both enzymes might facilitate the transfer of the Ub moiety to charge Parkin. Our structure-function study provides the basis to elucidate regulatory mechanisms and activity of the neuroprotective Parkin. This may open up new avenues for the development of small molecule Parkin activators through

  20. Ubiquitin in Motion: Structural Studies of the Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme~Ubiquitin Conjugate

    SciTech Connect

    Pruneda, Jonathan N.; Stoll, Kate E.; Bolton, Laura J.

    2011-03-15

    Ubiquitination of proteins provides a powerful and versatile post-translational signal in the eukaryotic cell. The formation of a thioester bond between ubiquitin (Ub) and the active site of a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) is critical for the transfer of Ub to substrates. Assembly of a functional ubiquitin ligase (E3) complex poised for Ub transfer involves recognition and binding of an E2~Ub conjugate. Therefore, full characterization of the structure and dynamics of E2~Ub conjugates is required for further mechanistic understanding of Ub transfer reactions. Here we present characterization of the dynamic behavior of E2~Ub conjugates of two human enzymes, UbcH5c~Ub and Ubc13~Ub,more » in solution as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance and small-angle X-ray scattering. Within each conjugate, Ub retains great flexibility with respect to the E2, indicative of highly dynamic species that adopt manifold orientations. The population distribution of Ub conformations is dictated by the identity of the E2: the UbcH5c~Ub conjugate populates an array of extended conformations, and the population of Ubc13~Ub conjugates favors a closed conformation in which the hydrophobic surface of Ub faces helix 2 of Ubc13. Finally, we propose that the varied conformations adopted by Ub represent available binding modes of the E2~Ub species and thus provide insight into the diverse E2~Ub protein interactome, particularly with regard to interaction with Ub ligases.« less

  1. Liver Cytochrome P450 3A Ubiquitination in Vivo by gp78/Autocrine Motility Factor Receptor and C Terminus of Hsp70-interacting Protein (CHIP) E3 Ubiquitin Ligases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Mi; Acharya, Poulomi; Engel, Juan C.; Correia, Maria Almira

    2010-01-01

    CYP3A4 is a dominant human liver cytochrome P450 enzyme engaged in the metabolism and disposition of >50% of clinically relevant drugs and held responsible for many adverse drug-drug interactions. CYP3A4 and its mammalian liver CYP3A orthologs are endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-anchored monotopic proteins that undergo ubiquitin (Ub)-dependent proteasomal degradation (UPD) in an ER-associated degradation (ERAD) process. These integral ER proteins are ubiquitinated in vivo, and in vitro studies have identified the ER-integral gp78 and the cytosolic co-chaperone, CHIP (C terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein), as the relevant E3 Ub-ligases, along with their cognate E2 Ub-conjugating enzymes UBC7 and UbcH5a, respectively. Using lentiviral shRNA templates targeted against each of these Ub-ligases, we now document that both E3s are indeed physiologically involved in CYP3A ERAD/UPD in cultured rat hepatocytes. Accordingly, specific RNAi resulted in ≈80% knockdown of each hepatic Ub-ligase, with a corresponding ≈2.5-fold CYP3A stabilization. Surprisingly, however, such stabilization resulted in increased levels of functionally active CYP3A, thereby challenging the previous notion that E3 recognition and subsequent ERAD of CYP3A proteins required ab initio their structural and/or functional inactivation. Furthermore, coexpression in HepG2 cells of both CYP3A4 and gp78, but not its functionally inactive RING-finger mutant, resulted in enhanced CYP3A4 loss greater than that in corresponding cells expressing only CYP3A4. Stabilization of a functionally active CYP3A after RNAi knockdown of either of the E3s, coupled with the increased CYP3A4 loss on gp78 or CHIP coexpression, suggests that ERAD-associated E3 Ub-ligases can influence clinically relevant drug metabolism by effectively regulating the physiological CYP3A content and consequently its function. PMID:20819951

  2. Testing the Effects of SIAH Ubiquitin E3 Ligases on Lysine Acetyl Transferases.

    PubMed

    Hagenbucher, Jan; Stekman, Hilda; Rodriguez-Gil, Alfonso; Kracht, Michael; Schmitz, M Lienhard

    2017-01-01

    The family of seven-in-absentia (SIAH) ubiquitin E3 ligases functions in the control of numerous key signaling pathways. These enzymes belong to the RING (really interesting new gene) group of E3 ligases and mediate the attachment of ubiquitin chains to substrates, which then leads to their proteasomal degradation. Here, we describe a protocol that allows measuring SIAH-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of its client proteins as exemplified by acetyl transferases using simple overexpression experiments. The impact of SIAH expression on the relative amounts of target proteins and their mRNAs can be quantified by Western blotting and quantitative PCR (qPCR) as described here.

  3. Ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2-N and sequestosome-1 (p62) are components of the ubiquitination process mediated by the malin-laforin E3-ubiquitin ligase complex.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martín, Pablo; Romá-Mateo, Carlos; Viana, Rosa; Sanz, Pascual

    2015-12-01

    Lafora disease (LD, OMIM254780, ORPHA501) is a rare neurodegenerative form of epilepsy related to mutations in two proteins: laforin, a dual specificity phosphatase, and malin, an E3-ubiquitin ligase. Both proteins form a functional complex, where laforin recruits specific substrates to be ubiquitinated by malin. However, little is known about the mechanism driving malin-laforin mediated ubiquitination of its substrates. In this work we present evidence indicating that the malin-laforin complex interacts physically and functionally with the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2-N (UBE2N). This binding determines the topology of the chains that the complex is able to promote in the corresponding substrates (mainly K63-linked polyubiquitin chains). In addition, we demonstrate that the malin-laforin complex interacts with the selective autophagy adaptor sequestosome-1 (p62). Binding of p62 to the malin-laforin complex allows its recognition by LC3, a component of the autophagosomal membrane. In addition, p62 enhances the ubiquitinating activity of the malin-laforin E3-ubiquitin ligase complex. These data enrich our knowledge on the mechanism of action of the malin-laforin complex as an E3-ubiquitin ligase and reinforces the role of this complex in targeting substrates toward the autophagy pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. E3 ubiquitin ligases: key regulators of hormone signaling in plants.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Dior

    2018-03-07

    Ubiquitin-mediated control of protein stability is central to most aspects of plant hormone signaling. Attachment of ubiquitin to target proteins occurs via an enzymatic cascade with the final step being catalyzed by a family of enzymes known as E3 ubiquitin ligases, which have been classified based on their protein domains and structures. While E3 ubiquitin ligases are conserved among eukaryotes, in plants they are well-known to fulfill unique roles as central regulators of phytohormone signaling, including hormone perception and regulation of hormone biosynthesis. This review will highlight up-to-date findings that have refined well-known E3 ligase-substrate interactions and defined novel E3 ligase substrates that mediate numerous hormone signaling pathways. Additionally, examples of how particular E3 ligases may mediate hormone crosstalk will be discussed as an emerging theme. Looking forward, promising experimental approaches and methods that will provide deeper mechanistic insight into the roles of E3 ubiquitin ligases in plants will be considered. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Structural model of the hUbA1-UbcH10 quaternary complex: in silico and experimental analysis of the protein-protein interactions between E1, E2 and ubiquitin.

    PubMed

    Correale, Stefania; de Paola, Ivan; Morgillo, Carmine Marco; Federico, Antonella; Zaccaro, Laura; Pallante, Pierlorenzo; Galeone, Aldo; Fusco, Alfredo; Pedone, Emilia; Luque, F Javier; Catalanotti, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    UbcH10 is a component of the Ubiquitin Conjugation Enzymes (Ubc; E2) involved in the ubiquitination cascade controlling the cell cycle progression, whereby ubiquitin, activated by E1, is transferred through E2 to the target protein with the involvement of E3 enzymes. In this work we propose the first three dimensional model of the tetrameric complex formed by the human UbA1 (E1), two ubiquitin molecules and UbcH10 (E2), leading to the transthiolation reaction. The 3D model was built up by using an experimentally guided incremental docking strategy that combined homology modeling, protein-protein docking and refinement by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The structural features of the in silico model allowed us to identify the regions that mediate the recognition between the interacting proteins, revealing the active role of the ubiquitin crosslinked to E1 in the complex formation. Finally, the role of these regions involved in the E1-E2 binding was validated by designing short peptides that specifically interfere with the binding of UbcH10, thus supporting the reliability of the proposed model and representing valuable scaffolds for the design of peptidomimetic compounds that can bind selectively to Ubcs and inhibit the ubiquitylation process in pathological disorders.

  6. Inhibitors of ubiquitin E3 ligase as potential new antimalarial drug leads.

    PubMed

    Jain, Jagrati; Jain, Surendra K; Walker, Larry A; Tekwani, Babu L

    2017-06-02

    Protein ubiquitylation is an important post-translational regulation, which has been shown to be necessary for life cycle progression and survival of Plasmodium falciparum. Ubiquitin is a highly conserved 76 amino acid polypeptide, which attaches covalently to target proteins through combined action of three classes of enzymes namely, the ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1), ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) and ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3). Ubiquitin E1 and E2 are highly conserved within eukaryotes. However, the P. falciparum E3 ligase is substantially variable and divergent compared to the homologs from other eukaryotes, which make the E3 ligase a parasite-specific target. A set of selected E3 ubiquitin ligase inhibitors was tested in vitro against a chloroquine-sensitive P. falciparum D6 strain (PfD6) and a chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum W2 strain (PfW2). The inhibitors were also tested against Vero and transformed THP1 cells for cytotoxicity. The lead antimalarial E3 ubiquitin ligase inhibitors were further evaluated for the stage-specific antimalarial action and effects on cellular development of P. falciparum in vitro. Statistics analysis was done by two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey and Sidak multiple comparison test using GraphPad Prism 6. E3 ligase inhibitors namely, JNJ 26854165, HLI 373 and Nutlin 3 showed prominent antimalarial activity against PfD6 and PfW2. These inhibitors were considerably less cytotoxic to mammalian Vero cells. JNJ 26854165, HLI 373 and Nutlin 3 blocked the development of P. falciparum parasite at the trophozoite and schizont stages, resulting in accumulation of distorted trophozoites and immature schizonts. Interruption of trophozoites and schizont maturation by the antimalarial E3 ligase inhibitors suggest the role of ubiquitin/proteasome functions in the intraerythrocytic development of malaria parasite. The ubiquitin/proteasome functions may be critical for schizont maturation. Further investigations on the lead E3 ligase

  7. E2-EPF UCP Possesses E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Activity via Its Cysteine 118 Residue.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jung Hwa; Shin, Hee Won; Chung, Kyung-Sook; Kim, Nam-Soon; Kim, Ju Hee; Jung, Hong-Ryul; Im, Dong-Soo; Jung, Cho-Rok

    Here, we show that E2-EPF ubiquitin carrier protein (UCP) elongated E3-independent polyubiquitin chains on the lysine residues of von Hippel-Lindau protein (pVHL) and its own lysine residues both in vitro and in vivo. The initiation of the ubiquitin reaction depended on not only Lys11 linkage but also the Lys6, Lys48 and Lys63 residues of ubiquitin, which were involved in polyubiquitin chain formation on UCP itself. UCP self-association occurred through the UBC domain, which also contributed to the interaction with pVHL. The polyubiquitin chains appeared on the N-terminus of UCP in vivo, which indicated that the N-terminus of UCP contains target lysines for polyubiquitination. The Lys76 residue of UCP was the most critical site for auto-ubiquitination, whereas the polyubiquitin chain formation on pVHL occurred on all three of its lysines (Lys159, Lys171 and Lys196). A UCP mutant in which Cys118 was changed to alanine (UCPC118A) did not form a polyubiquitin chain but did strongly accumulate mono- and di-ubiquitin via auto-ubiquitination. Polyubiquitin chain formation required the coordination of Cys95 and Cys118 between two interacting molecules. The mechanism of the polyubiquitin chain reaction of UCP may involve the transfer of ubiquitin from Cys95 to Cys118 by trans-thiolation, with polyubiquitin chains forming at Cys118 by reversible thioester bonding. The polyubiquitin chains are then moved to the lysine residues of the substrate by irreversible isopeptide bonding. During the elongation of the ubiquitin chain, an active Cys118 residue is required in both parts of UCP, namely, the catalytic enzyme and the substrate. In conclusion, UCP possesses not only E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme activity but also E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, and Cys118 is critical for polyubiquitin chain formation.

  8. E2-EPF UCP Possesses E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Activity via Its Cysteine 118 Residue

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jung Hwa; Shin, Hee Won; Chung, Kyung-Sook; Kim, Nam-Soon; Kim, Ju Hee; Jung, Hong-Ryul; Im, Dong-Soo; Jung, Cho-Rok

    2016-01-01

    Here, we show that E2-EPF ubiquitin carrier protein (UCP) elongated E3-independent polyubiquitin chains on the lysine residues of von Hippel-Lindau protein (pVHL) and its own lysine residues both in vitro and in vivo. The initiation of the ubiquitin reaction depended on not only Lys11 linkage but also the Lys6, Lys48 and Lys63 residues of ubiquitin, which were involved in polyubiquitin chain formation on UCP itself. UCP self-association occurred through the UBC domain, which also contributed to the interaction with pVHL. The polyubiquitin chains appeared on the N-terminus of UCP in vivo, which indicated that the N-terminus of UCP contains target lysines for polyubiquitination. The Lys76 residue of UCP was the most critical site for auto-ubiquitination, whereas the polyubiquitin chain formation on pVHL occurred on all three of its lysines (Lys159, Lys171 and Lys196). A UCP mutant in which Cys118 was changed to alanine (UCPC118A) did not form a polyubiquitin chain but did strongly accumulate mono- and di-ubiquitin via auto-ubiquitination. Polyubiquitin chain formation required the coordination of Cys95 and Cys118 between two interacting molecules. The mechanism of the polyubiquitin chain reaction of UCP may involve the transfer of ubiquitin from Cys95 to Cys118 by trans-thiolation, with polyubiquitin chains forming at Cys118 by reversible thioester bonding. The polyubiquitin chains are then moved to the lysine residues of the substrate by irreversible isopeptide bonding. During the elongation of the ubiquitin chain, an active Cys118 residue is required in both parts of UCP, namely, the catalytic enzyme and the substrate. In conclusion, UCP possesses not only E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme activity but also E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, and Cys118 is critical for polyubiquitin chain formation. PMID:27685940

  9. Covalent ISG15 conjugation positively regulates the ubiquitin E3 ligase activity of parkin

    PubMed Central

    Im, Eunju; Yoo, Lang; Hyun, Minju; Shin, Woo Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra and accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins in aggregates called Lewy bodies. Several mutated genes have been found in familial PD patients, including SNCA (α-synuclein), PARK2 (parkin), PINK1, PARK7 (DJ-1), LRRK2 and ATP13A2. Many pathogenic mutations of PARK2, which encodes the ubiquitin E3 ligase parkin, result in loss of function, leading to accumulation of parkin substrates and consequently contributing to dopaminergic cell death. ISG15 is a member of the ubiquitin-like modifier family and is induced by stimulation with type I interferons. Similar to ubiquitin and ubiquitination, covalent conjugation of ISG15 to target proteins (ISGylation) regulates their biochemical properties. In this study, we identified parkin as a novel target of ISGylation specifically mediated by the ISG15-E3 ligase HERC5. In addition, we identified two ISGylation sites, Lys-349 and Lys-369, in the in-between-ring domain of parkin. ISGylation of these sites promotes parkin's ubiquitin E3 ligase activity by suppressing the intramolecular interaction that maintains its autoinhibited conformation and increases its cytoprotective effect. In conclusion, covalent ISG15 conjugation is a novel mode of modulating parkin activity, and alteration in this pathway may be associated with PD pathogenesis. PMID:27534820

  10. Covalent ISG15 conjugation positively regulates the ubiquitin E3 ligase activity of parkin.

    PubMed

    Im, Eunju; Yoo, Lang; Hyun, Minju; Shin, Woo Hyun; Chung, Kwang Chul

    2016-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra and accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins in aggregates called Lewy bodies. Several mutated genes have been found in familial PD patients, including SNCA (α-synuclein), PARK2 (parkin), PINK1, PARK7 (DJ-1), LRRK2 and ATP13A2 Many pathogenic mutations of PARK2, which encodes the ubiquitin E3 ligase parkin, result in loss of function, leading to accumulation of parkin substrates and consequently contributing to dopaminergic cell death. ISG15 is a member of the ubiquitin-like modifier family and is induced by stimulation with type I interferons. Similar to ubiquitin and ubiquitination, covalent conjugation of ISG15 to target proteins (ISGylation) regulates their biochemical properties. In this study, we identified parkin as a novel target of ISGylation specifically mediated by the ISG15-E3 ligase HERC5. In addition, we identified two ISGylation sites, Lys-349 and Lys-369, in the in-between-ring domain of parkin. ISGylation of these sites promotes parkin's ubiquitin E3 ligase activity by suppressing the intramolecular interaction that maintains its autoinhibited conformation and increases its cytoprotective effect. In conclusion, covalent ISG15 conjugation is a novel mode of modulating parkin activity, and alteration in this pathway may be associated with PD pathogenesis. © 2016 The Authors.

  11. Characterization and identification of ubiquitin conjugation sites with E3 ligase recognition specificities.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Van-Nui; Huang, Kai-Yao; Huang, Chien-Hsun; Chang, Tzu-Hao; Bretaña, Neil; Lai, K; Weng, Julia; Lee, Tzong-Yi

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, ubiquitin-conjugation is an important mechanism underlying proteasome-mediated degradation of proteins, and as such, plays an essential role in the regulation of many cellular processes. In the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, E3 ligases play important roles by recognizing a specific protein substrate and catalyzing the attachment of ubiquitin to a lysine (K) residue. As more and more experimental data on ubiquitin conjugation sites become available, it becomes possible to develop prediction models that can be scaled to big data. However, no development that focuses on the investigation of ubiquitinated substrate specificities has existed. Herein, we present an approach that exploits an iteratively statistical method to identify ubiquitin conjugation sites with substrate site specificities. In this investigation, totally 6259 experimentally validated ubiquitinated proteins were obtained from dbPTM. After having filtered out homologous fragments with 40% sequence identity, the training data set contained 2658 ubiquitination sites (positive data) and 5532 non-ubiquitinated sites (negative data). Due to the difficulty in characterizing the substrate site specificities of E3 ligases by conventional sequence logo analysis, a recursively statistical method has been applied to obtain significant conserved motifs. The profile hidden Markov model (profile HMM) was adopted to construct the predictive models learned from the identified substrate motifs. A five-fold cross validation was then used to evaluate the predictive model, achieving sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 73.07%, 65.46%, and 67.93%, respectively. Additionally, an independent testing set, completely blind to the training data of the predictive model, was used to demonstrate that the proposed method could provide a promising accuracy (76.13%) and outperform other ubiquitination site prediction tool. A case study demonstrated the effectiveness of the characterized substrate motifs for

  12. Aβ-Induced Synaptic Alterations Require the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Nedd4-1.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Elizabeth M; Scudder, Samantha L; Goo, Marisa S; Patrick, Gentry N

    2016-02-03

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease in which patients experience progressive cognitive decline. A wealth of evidence suggests that this cognitive impairment results from synaptic dysfunction in affected brain regions caused by cleavage of amyloid precursor protein into the pathogenic peptide amyloid-β (Aβ). Specifically, it has been shown that Aβ decreases surface AMPARs, dendritic spine density, and synaptic strength, and also alters synaptic plasticity. The precise molecular mechanisms by which this occurs remain unclear. Here we demonstrate a role for ubiquitination in Aβ-induced synaptic dysfunction in cultured rat neurons. We find that Aβ promotes the ubiquitination of AMPARs, as well as the redistribution and recruitment of Nedd4-1, a HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase we previously demonstrated to target AMPARs for ubiquitination and degradation. Strikingly, we show that Nedd4-1 is required for Aβ-induced reductions in surface AMPARs, synaptic strength, and dendritic spine density. Our findings, therefore, indicate an important role for Nedd4-1 and ubiquitin in the synaptic alterations induced by Aβ. Synaptic changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) include surface AMPAR loss, which can weaken synapses. In a cell culture model of AD, we found that AMPAR loss correlates with increased AMPAR ubiquitination. In addition, the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-1, known to ubiquitinate AMPARs, is recruited to synapses in response to Aβ. Strikingly, reducing Nedd4-1 levels in this model prevented surface AMPAR loss and synaptic weakening. These findings suggest that, in AD, Nedd4-1 may ubiquitinate AMPARs to promote their internalization and weaken synaptic strength, similar to what occurs in Nedd4-1's established role in homeostatic synaptic scaling. This is the first demonstration of Aβ-mediated control of a ubiquitin ligase to regulate surface AMPAR expression. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/361590-06$15.00/0.

  13. E3 ligase Rad18 promotes monoubiquitination rather than ubiquitin chain formation by E2 enzyme Rad6

    PubMed Central

    Hibbert, Richard G.; Huang, Anding; Boelens, Rolf; Sixma, Titia K.

    2011-01-01

    In ubiquitin conjugation, different combinations of E2 and E3 enzymes catalyse either monoubiquitination or ubiquitin chain formation. The E2/E3 complex Rad6/Rad18 exclusively monoubiquitinates the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) to signal for “error prone” DNA damage tolerance, whereas a different set of conjugation enzymes is required for ubiquitin chain formation on PCNA. Here we show that human E2 enzyme Rad6b is intrinsically capable of catalyzing ubiquitin chain formation. This activity is prevented during PCNA ubiquitination by the interaction of Rad6 with E3 enzyme Rad18. Using NMR and X-ray crystallography we show that the R6BD of Rad18 inhibits this activity by competing with ubiquitin for a noncovalent “backside” binding site on Rad6. Our findings provide mechanistic insights into how E3 enzymes can regulate the ubiquitin conjugation process. PMID:21422291

  14. HTLV-1 Tax Stimulates Ubiquitin E3 Ligase, Ring Finger Protein 8, to Assemble Lysine 63-Linked Polyubiquitin Chains for TAK1 and IKK Activation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yik-Khuan; Zhi, Huijun; Bowlin, Tara; Dorjbal, Batsukh; Philip, Subha; Zahoor, Muhammad Atif; Shih, Hsiu-Ming; Semmes, Oliver John; Schaefer, Brian; Glover, J N Mark; Giam, Chou-Zen

    2015-08-01

    Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) trans-activator/oncoprotein, Tax, impacts a multitude of cellular processes, including I-κB kinase (IKK)/NF-κB signaling, DNA damage repair, and mitosis. These activities of Tax have been implicated in the development of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) in HTLV-1-infected individuals, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. IKK and its upstream kinase, TGFβ-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), contain ubiquitin-binding subunits, NEMO and TAB2/3 respectively, which interact with K63-linked polyubiquitin (K63-pUb) chains. Recruitment to K63-pUb allows cross auto-phosphorylation and activation of TAK1 to occur, followed by TAK1-catalyzed IKK phosphorylation and activation. Using cytosolic extracts of HeLa and Jurkat T cells supplemented with purified proteins we have identified ubiquitin E3 ligase, ring finger protein 8 (RNF8), and E2 conjugating enzymes, Ubc13:Uev1A and Ubc13:Uev2, to be the cellular factors utilized by Tax for TAK1 and IKK activation. In vitro, the combination of Tax and RNF8 greatly stimulated TAK1, IKK, IκBα and JNK phosphorylation. In vivo, RNF8 over-expression augmented while RNF8 ablation drastically reduced canonical NF-κB activation by Tax. Activation of the non-canonical NF-κB pathway by Tax, however, is unaffected by the loss of RNF8. Using purified components, we further demonstrated biochemically that Tax greatly stimulated RNF8 and Ubc13:Uev1A/Uev2 to assemble long K63-pUb chains. Finally, co-transfection of Tax with increasing amounts of RNF8 greatly induced K63-pUb assembly in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, Tax targets RNF8 and Ubc13:Uev1A/Uev2 to promote the assembly of K63-pUb chains, which signal the activation of TAK1 and multiple downstream kinases including IKK and JNK. Because of the roles RNF8 and K63-pUb chains play in DNA damage repair and cytokinesis, this mechanism may also explain the genomic instability of HTLV-1-transformed T cells and ATL cells.

  15. HTLV-1 Tax Stimulates Ubiquitin E3 Ligase, Ring Finger Protein 8, to Assemble Lysine 63-Linked Polyubiquitin Chains for TAK1 and IKK Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Yik-Khuan; Zhi, Huijun; Bowlin, Tara; Dorjbal, Batsukh; Philip, Subha; Zahoor, Muhammad Atif; Shih, Hsiu-Ming; Semmes, Oliver John; Schaefer, Brian; Glover, J. N. Mark; Giam, Chou-Zen

    2015-01-01

    Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) trans-activator/oncoprotein, Tax, impacts a multitude of cellular processes, including I-κB kinase (IKK)/NF-κB signaling, DNA damage repair, and mitosis. These activities of Tax have been implicated in the development of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) in HTLV-1-infected individuals, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. IKK and its upstream kinase, TGFβ-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), contain ubiquitin-binding subunits, NEMO and TAB2/3 respectively, which interact with K63-linked polyubiquitin (K63-pUb) chains. Recruitment to K63-pUb allows cross auto-phosphorylation and activation of TAK1 to occur, followed by TAK1-catalyzed IKK phosphorylation and activation. Using cytosolic extracts of HeLa and Jurkat T cells supplemented with purified proteins we have identified ubiquitin E3 ligase, ring finger protein 8 (RNF8), and E2 conjugating enzymes, Ubc13:Uev1A and Ubc13:Uev2, to be the cellular factors utilized by Tax for TAK1 and IKK activation. In vitro, the combination of Tax and RNF8 greatly stimulated TAK1, IKK, IκBα and JNK phosphorylation. In vivo, RNF8 over-expression augmented while RNF8 ablation drastically reduced canonical NF-κB activation by Tax. Activation of the non-canonical NF-κB pathway by Tax, however, is unaffected by the loss of RNF8. Using purified components, we further demonstrated biochemically that Tax greatly stimulated RNF8 and Ubc13:Uev1A/Uev2 to assemble long K63-pUb chains. Finally, co-transfection of Tax with increasing amounts of RNF8 greatly induced K63-pUb assembly in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, Tax targets RNF8 and Ubc13:Uev1A/Uev2 to promote the assembly of K63-pUb chains, which signal the activation of TAK1 and multiple downstream kinases including IKK and JNK. Because of the roles RNF8 and K63-pUb chains play in DNA damage repair and cytokinesis, this mechanism may also explain the genomic instability of HTLV-1-transformed T cells and ATL cells. PMID:26285145

  16. Characterization and Promoter Analysis of a Cotton Ring-Type Ubiquitin Ligase (E3) Gene

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A cotton fiber cDNA, GhRING1, and its corresponding gene have been cloned and characterized. The GhRING1 gene encodes a RING-type ubiquitin ligase (E3) containing 337 amino acids (aa). The GhRING1 protein contains a RING finger motif with conserved cysteine and histine residues at the C-terminus a...

  17. The ubiquitin conjugating enzyme UbcH10 competes with UbcH3 for binding to the SCF complex, a ubiquitin ligase involved in cell cycle progression

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ubiquitylation, which regulates most biological pathways, occurs through an enzymatic cascade involving a ubiquitin (ub) activating enzyme (E1), a ub conjugating enzyme (E2) and a ub ligase (E3). UbcH3 is the E2 that interacts with SCF (Skp1/Cul1/F-box protein) complex and ubiquitylates many protein...

  18. CBL family E3 ubiquitin ligases control JAK2 ubiquitination and stability in hematopoietic stem cells and myeloid malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Kaosheng; Jiang, Jing; Donaghy, Ryan; Riling, Christopher R.; Cheng, Ying; Chandra, Vemika; Rozenova, Krasimira; An, Wei; Mohapatra, Bhopal C.; Goetz, Benjamin T.; Pillai, Vinodh; Han, Xu; Todd, Emily A.; Jeschke, Grace R.; Langdon, Wallace Y.; Kumar, Suresh; Hexner, Elizabeth O.

    2017-01-01

    Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) is a central kinase in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), and its uncontrolled activation is a prominent oncogenic driver of hematopoietic neoplasms. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of JAK2 have remained elusive. Here we report that the Casitas B-cell lymphoma (CBL) family E3 ubiquitin ligases down-regulate JAK2 stability and signaling via the adaptor protein LNK/SH2B3. We demonstrated that depletion of CBL/CBL-B or LNK abrogated JAK2 ubiquitination, extended JAK2 half-life, and enhanced JAK2 signaling and cell growth in human cell lines as well as primary murine HSPCs. Built on these findings, we showed that JAK inhibitor (JAKi) significantly reduced aberrant HSPCs and mitigated leukemia development in a mouse model of aggressive myeloid leukemia driven by loss of Cbl and Cbl-b. Importantly, primary human CBL mutated (CBLmut) leukemias exhibited increased JAK2 protein levels and signaling and were hypersensitive to JAKi. Loss-of-function mutations in CBL E3 ubiquitin ligases are found in a wide range of myeloid malignancies, which are diseases without effective treatment options. Hence, our studies reveal a novel signaling axis that regulates JAK2 in normal and malignant HSPCs and suggest new therapeutic strategies for treating CBLmut myeloid malignancies. PMID:28611190

  19. RNF185, a Novel Mitochondrial Ubiquitin E3 Ligase, Regulates Autophagy through Interaction with BNIP1

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Fei; Wang, Bin; Li, Na; Wu, Yanfang; Jia, Junying; Suo, Talin; Chen, Quan; Liu, Yong-Jun; Tang, Jie

    2011-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process that allows recycling of cytoplasmic organelles, such as mitochondria, to offer a bioenergetically efficient pathway for cell survival. Considerable progress has been made in characterizing mitochondrial autophagy. However, the dedicated ubiquitin E3 ligases targeting mitochondria for autophagy have not been revealed. Here we show that human RNF185 is a mitochondrial ubiquitin E3 ligase that regulates selective mitochondrial autophagy in cultured cells. The two C-terminal transmembrane domains of human RNF185 mediate its localization to mitochondrial outer membrane. RNF185 stimulates LC3II accumulation and the formation of autophagolysosomes in human cell lines. We further identified the Bcl-2 family protein BNIP1 as one of the substrates for RNF185. Human BNIP1 colocalizes with RNF185 at mitochondria and is polyubiquitinated by RNF185 through K63-based ubiquitin linkage in vivo. The polyubiquitinated BNIP1 is capable of recruiting autophagy receptor p62, which simultaneously binds both ubiquitin and LC3 to link ubiquitination and autophagy. Our study might reveal a novel RNF185-mediated mechanism for modulating mitochondrial homeostasis through autophagy. PMID:21931693

  20. Bioinformatics analysis identifies several intrinsically disordered human E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases.

    PubMed

    Boomsma, Wouter; Nielsen, Sofie V; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus; Ellgaard, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system targets misfolded proteins for degradation. Since the accumulation of such proteins is potentially harmful for the cell, their prompt removal is important. E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases mediate substrate ubiquitination by bringing together the substrate with an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, which transfers ubiquitin to the substrate. For misfolded proteins, substrate recognition is generally delegated to molecular chaperones that subsequently interact with specific E3 ligases. An important exception is San1, a yeast E3 ligase. San1 harbors extensive regions of intrinsic disorder, which provide both conformational flexibility and sites for direct recognition of misfolded targets of vastly different conformations. So far, no mammalian ortholog of San1 is known, nor is it clear whether other E3 ligases utilize disordered regions for substrate recognition. Here, we conduct a bioinformatics analysis to examine >600 human and S. cerevisiae E3 ligases to identify enzymes that are similar to San1 in terms of function and/or mechanism of substrate recognition. An initial sequence-based database search was found to detect candidates primarily based on the homology of their ordered regions, and did not capture the unique disorder patterns that encode the functional mechanism of San1. However, by searching specifically for key features of the San1 sequence, such as long regions of intrinsic disorder embedded with short stretches predicted to be suitable for substrate interaction, we identified several E3 ligases with these characteristics. Our initial analysis revealed that another remarkable trait of San1 is shared with several candidate E3 ligases: long stretches of complete lysine suppression, which in San1 limits auto-ubiquitination. We encode these characteristic features into a San1 similarity-score, and present a set of proteins that are plausible candidates as San1 counterparts in humans. In conclusion, our work indicates that San1 is

  1. Target Specificity of the E3 Ligase LUBAC for Ubiquitin and NEMO Relies on Different Minimal Requirements*

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Judith J.; van Dijk, Willem J.; El Atmioui, Dris; Merkx, Remco; Ovaa, Huib; Sixma, Titia K.

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquitination of NEMO with linear ubiquitin chains by the E3-ligase LUBAC is important for the activation of the canonical NF-κB pathway. NEMO ubiquitination requires a dual target specificity of LUBAC, priming on a lysine on NEMO and chain elongation on the N terminus of the priming ubiquitin. Here we explore the minimal requirements for these specificities. Effective linear chain formation requires a precise positioning of the ubiquitin N-terminal amine in a negatively charged environment on the top of ubiquitin. Whereas the RBR-LDD region on HOIP is sufficient for targeting the ubiquitin N terminus, the priming lysine modification on NEMO requires catalysis by the RBR domain of HOIL-1L as well as the catalytic machinery of the RBR-LDD domains of HOIP. Consequently, target specificity toward NEMO is determined by multiple LUBAC components, whereas linear ubiquitin chain elongation is realized by a specific interplay between HOIP and ubiquitin. PMID:24030825

  2. The plant homeodomain fingers of fission yeast Msc1 exhibit E3 ubiquitin ligase activity.

    PubMed

    Dul, Barbara E; Walworth, Nancy C

    2007-06-22

    The DNA damage checkpoint pathway governs how cells regulate cell cycle progression in response to DNA damage. A screen for suppressors of a fission yeast chk1 mutant defective in the checkpoint pathway identified a novel Schizosaccharomyces pombe protein, Msc1. Msc1 contains 3 plant homeodomain (PHD) finger motifs, characteristically defined by a C4HC3 consensus similar to RING finger domains. PHD finger domains in viral proteins and in the cellular protein kinase MEKK1 (mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase kinase 1) have been implicated as ubiquitin E3 protein ligases that affect protein stability. The close structural relationship of PHD fingers to RING fingers suggests that other PHD domain-containing proteins might share this activity. We show that each of the three PHD fingers of Msc1 can act as ubiquitin E3 ligases, reporting for the first time that PHD fingers from a nuclear protein exhibit E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. The function of the PHD fingers of Msc1 is needed to rescue the DNA damage sensitivity of a chk1Delta strain. Msc1 co-precipitates Rhp6, the S. pombe homologue of the human ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc2. Strikingly, deletion of msc1 confers complete suppression of the slow growth phenotype, UV and hydroxyurea sensitivities of an rhp6 deletion strain and restores deficient histone H3 methylation observed in the rhp6Delta mutant. We speculate that the target of the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of Msc1 is likely to be a chromatin-associated protein.

  3. Enzyme reversal to explore the function of yeast E3 ubiquitin-ligases.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Chris; Winistorfer, Stanley; Pope, Robert M; Wright, Michael E; Piper, Robert C

    2017-07-01

    The covalent attachment of ubiquitin onto proteins can elicit a variety of downstream consequences. Attachment is mediated by a large array of E3 ubiquitin ligases, each thought be subject to regulatory control and to have a specific repertoire of substrates. Assessing the biological roles of ligases, and in particular, identifying their biologically relevant substrates has been a persistent yet challenging question. In this study, we describe tools that may help achieve both of these goals. We describe a strategy whereby the activity of a ubiquitin ligase has been enzymatically reversed, accomplished by fusing it to a catalytic domain of an exogenous deubiquitinating enzyme. We present a library of 72 "anti-ligases" that appear to work in a dominant-negative fashion to stabilize their cognate substrates against ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal and lysosomal degradation. We then used the ligase-deubiquitinating enzyme (DUb) library to screen for E3 ligases involved in post-Golgi/endosomal trafficking. We identify ligases previously implicated in these pathways (Rsp5 and Tul1), in addition to ligases previously localized to endosomes (Pib1 and Vps8). We also document an optimized workflow for isolating and analyzing the "ubiquitome" of yeast, which can be used with mass spectrometry to identify substrates perturbed by expression of particular ligase-DUb fusions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. E3 ubiquitin ligase SP1 regulates peroxisome biogenesis in Arabidopsis

    DOE PAGES

    Pan, Ronghui; Satkovich, John; Hu, Jianping

    2016-10-31

    Peroxisomes are ubiquitous eukaryotic organelles that play pivotal roles in a suite of metabolic processes and often act coordinately with other organelles, such as chloroplasts and mitochondria. Peroxisomes import proteins to the peroxisome matrix by peroxins (PEX proteins), but how the function of the PEX proteins is regulated is poorly understood. In this study, we identified the Arabidopsis RING (really interesting new gene) type E3 ubiquitin ligase SP1 [suppressor of plastid protein import locus 1 (ppi1) 1] as a peroxisome membrane protein with a regulatory role in peroxisome protein import. SP1 interacts physically with the two components of the peroxisomemore » protein docking complex PEX13–PEX14 and the (RING)-finger peroxin PEX2. Loss of SP1 function suppresses defects of the pex14-2 and pex13-1 mutants, and SP1 is involved in the degradation of PEX13 and possibly PEX14 and all three RING peroxins. An in vivo ubiquitination assay showed that SP1 has the ability to promote PEX13 ubiquitination. Our study has revealed that, in addition to its previously reported function in chloroplast biogenesis, SP1 plays a role in peroxisome biogenesis. The same E3 ubiquitin ligase promotes the destabilization of components of two distinct protein-import machineries, indicating that degradation of organelle biogenesis factors by the ubiquitin–proteasome system may constitute an important regulatory mechanism in coordinating the biogenesis of metabolically linked organelles in eukaryotes.« less

  5. The Host E3-Ubiquitin Ligase TRIM6 Ubiquitinates the Ebola Virus VP35 Protein and Promotes Virus Replication.

    PubMed

    Bharaj, Preeti; Atkins, Colm; Luthra, Priya; Giraldo, Maria Isabel; Dawes, Brian E; Miorin, Lisa; Johnson, Jeffrey R; Krogan, Nevan J; Basler, Christopher F; Freiberg, Alexander N; Rajsbaum, Ricardo

    2017-09-15

    Ebola virus (EBOV), a member of the Filoviridae family, is a highly pathogenic virus that causes severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and is responsible for epidemics throughout sub-Saharan, central, and West Africa. The EBOV genome encodes VP35, an important viral protein involved in virus replication by acting as an essential cofactor of the viral polymerase as well as a potent antagonist of the host antiviral type I interferon (IFN-I) system. By using mass spectrometry analysis and coimmunoprecipitation assays, we show here that VP35 is ubiquitinated on lysine 309 (K309), a residue located on its IFN antagonist domain. We also found that VP35 interacts with TRIM6, a member of the E3-ubiquitin ligase tripartite motif (TRIM) family. We recently reported that TRIM6 promotes the synthesis of unanchored K48-linked polyubiquitin chains, which are not covalently attached to any protein, to induce efficient antiviral IFN-I-mediated responses. Consistent with this notion, VP35 also associated noncovalently with polyubiquitin chains and inhibited TRIM6-mediated IFN-I induction. Intriguingly, we also found that TRIM6 enhances EBOV polymerase activity in a minigenome assay and TRIM6 knockout cells have reduced replication of infectious EBOV, suggesting that VP35 hijacks TRIM6 to promote EBOV replication through ubiquitination. Our work provides evidence that TRIM6 is an important host cellular factor that promotes EBOV replication, and future studies will focus on whether TRIM6 could be targeted for therapeutic intervention against EBOV infection. IMPORTANCE EBOV belongs to a family of highly pathogenic viruses that cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and other mammals with high mortality rates (40 to 90%). Because of its high pathogenicity and lack of licensed antivirals and vaccines, EBOV is listed as a tier 1 select-agent risk group 4 pathogen. An important mechanism for the severity of EBOV infection is its suppression of innate immune responses. The EBOV VP35

  6. The Host E3-Ubiquitin Ligase TRIM6 Ubiquitinates the Ebola Virus VP35 Protein and Promotes Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Bharaj, Preeti; Atkins, Colm; Luthra, Priya; Giraldo, Maria Isabel; Dawes, Brian E.; Miorin, Lisa; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Krogan, Nevan J.; Basler, Christopher F.; Freiberg, Alexander N.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ebola virus (EBOV), a member of the Filoviridae family, is a highly pathogenic virus that causes severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and is responsible for epidemics throughout sub-Saharan, central, and West Africa. The EBOV genome encodes VP35, an important viral protein involved in virus replication by acting as an essential cofactor of the viral polymerase as well as a potent antagonist of the host antiviral type I interferon (IFN-I) system. By using mass spectrometry analysis and coimmunoprecipitation assays, we show here that VP35 is ubiquitinated on lysine 309 (K309), a residue located on its IFN antagonist domain. We also found that VP35 interacts with TRIM6, a member of the E3-ubiquitin ligase tripartite motif (TRIM) family. We recently reported that TRIM6 promotes the synthesis of unanchored K48-linked polyubiquitin chains, which are not covalently attached to any protein, to induce efficient antiviral IFN-I-mediated responses. Consistent with this notion, VP35 also associated noncovalently with polyubiquitin chains and inhibited TRIM6-mediated IFN-I induction. Intriguingly, we also found that TRIM6 enhances EBOV polymerase activity in a minigenome assay and TRIM6 knockout cells have reduced replication of infectious EBOV, suggesting that VP35 hijacks TRIM6 to promote EBOV replication through ubiquitination. Our work provides evidence that TRIM6 is an important host cellular factor that promotes EBOV replication, and future studies will focus on whether TRIM6 could be targeted for therapeutic intervention against EBOV infection. IMPORTANCE EBOV belongs to a family of highly pathogenic viruses that cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and other mammals with high mortality rates (40 to 90%). Because of its high pathogenicity and lack of licensed antivirals and vaccines, EBOV is listed as a tier 1 select-agent risk group 4 pathogen. An important mechanism for the severity of EBOV infection is its suppression of innate immune responses. The EBOV VP

  7. The E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP selectively regulates mutant epidermal growth factor receptor by ubiquitination and degradation.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chaeuk; Yoo, Geon; Kim, Tackhoon; Lee, Dahye; Lee, Choong-Sik; Cha, Hye Rim; Park, Yeon Hee; Moon, Jae Young; Jung, Sung Soo; Kim, Ju Ock; Lee, Jae Cheol; Kim, Sun Young; Park, Hee Sun; Park, Myoungrin; Park, Dong Il; Lim, Dae-Sik; Jang, Kang Won; Lee, Jeong Eun

    2016-10-14

    Somatic mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a decisive factor for the therapeutic response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) in lung adenocarcinoma. The stability of mutant EGFR is maintained by various regulators, including heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90). The C terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) is a Hsp70/Hsp90 co-chaperone and exhibits E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. The high-affinity Hsp90-CHIP complex recognizes and selectively regulates their client proteins. CHIP also works with its own E3 ligase activity independently of Hsp70/Hsp90. Here, we investigated the role of CHIP in regulating EGFR in lung adenocarcinoma and also evaluated the specificity of CHIP's effects on mutant EGFR. In HEK 293T cells transfected with either WT EGFR or EGFR mutants, the overexpression of CHIP selectively decreased the expression of certain EGFR mutants (G719S, L747_E749del A750P and L858R) but not WT EGFR. In a pull-down assay, CHIP selectively interacted with EGFR mutants and simultaneously induced their ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. The expressions of mutant EGFR in PC9 and H1975 were diminished by CHIP, while the expression of WT EGFR in A549 was nearly not affected. In addition, CHIP overexpression inhibited cell proliferation and xenograft's tumor growth of EGFR mutant cell lines, but not WT EGFR cell lines. EGFR mutant specific ubiquitination by CHIP may provide a crucial regulating mechanism for EGFR in lung adenocarcinoma. Our results suggest that CHIP can be novel therapeutic target for overcoming the EGFR TKI resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Smurf E3 ubiquitin ligases at the cross roads of oncogenesis and tumor suppression.

    PubMed

    David, Diana; Nair, S Asha; Pillai, M Radhakrishna

    2013-01-01

    Smad ubiquitin regulatory factors (Smurfs) belong to the HECT- family of E3 ubiquitin ligases and comprise mainly of two members, Smurf1 and Smurf2. Initially, Smurfs have been implicated in determining the competence of cells to respond to TGF-β/BMP signaling pathway. Nevertheless, the intrinsic catalytic activity has extended the repertoire of Smurf substrates beyond the TGF-β/BMP super family expanding its realm further to epigenetic modifications of histones governing the chromatin landscape. Through regulation of a large number of proteins in multiple cellular compartments, Smurfs regulate diverse cellular processes, including cell-cycle progression, cell proliferation, differentiation, DNA damage response, maintenance of genomic stability, and metastasis. As the genomic ablation of Smurfs leads to global changes in histone modifications and predisposition to a wide spectrum of tumors, Smurfs are also considered to have a novel tumor suppressor function. This review focuses on regulation network and biological functions of Smurfs in connection with its role in cancer progression. By providing a portrait of their protein targets, we intend to link the substrate specificity of Smurfs with their contribution to tumorigenesis. Since the regulation and biological functions of Smurfs are quite complex, understanding the oncogenic potential of these E3 ubiquitin ligases may facilitate the development of mechanism-based drugs in cancer treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Proteolytic regulation of metabolic enzymes by E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes: lessons from yeast.

    PubMed

    Nakatsukasa, Kunio; Okumura, Fumihiko; Kamura, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic organisms use diverse mechanisms to control metabolic rates in response to changes in the internal and/or external environment. Fine metabolic control is a highly responsive, energy-saving process that is mediated by allosteric inhibition/activation and/or reversible modification of preexisting metabolic enzymes. In contrast, coarse metabolic control is a relatively long-term and expensive process that involves modulating the level of metabolic enzymes. Coarse metabolic control can be achieved through the degradation of metabolic enzymes by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), in which substrates are specifically ubiquitinated by an E3 ubiquitin ligase and targeted for proteasomal degradation. Here, we review select multi-protein E3 ligase complexes that directly regulate metabolic enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The first part of the review focuses on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane-associated Hrd1 and Doa10 E3 ligase complexes. In addition to their primary roles in the ER-associated degradation pathway that eliminates misfolded proteins, recent quantitative proteomic analyses identified native substrates of Hrd1 and Doa10 in the sterol synthesis pathway. The second part focuses on the SCF (Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein) complex, an abundant prototypical multi-protein E3 ligase complex. While the best-known roles of the SCF complex are in the regulation of the cell cycle and transcription, accumulating evidence indicates that the SCF complex also modulates carbon metabolism pathways. The increasing number of metabolic enzymes whose stability is directly regulated by the UPS underscores the importance of the proteolytic regulation of metabolic processes for the acclimation of cells to environmental changes.

  10. The substrate binding domains of human SIAH E3 ubiquitin ligases are now crystal clear

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qi; Wang, Zhongduo; Hou, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Seven in absentia homologs (SIAHs) comprise a family of highly conserved E3 ubiquitin ligases that play an important role in regulating signalling pathways in tumorigenesis, including the DNA damage repair and hypoxia response pathways. SIAH1 and SIAH2 have been found to function as a tumour repressor and a proto-oncogene, respectively, despite the high sequence identity of their substrate binding domains (SBDs). Ubiquitin-specific protease USP19 is a deubiquitinase that forms a complex with SIAHs and counteracts the ligase function. Much effort has been made to find selective inhibitors of the SIAHs E3 ligases. Menadione was reported to inhibit SIAH2 specifically. Wemore » used X-ray crystallography, peptide array, bioinformatic analysis, and biophysical techniques to characterize the structure and interaction of SIAHs with deubiquitinases and literature reported compounds. We solved the crystal structures of SIAH1 in complex with a USP19 peptide and of the apo form SIAH2. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the SIAH/USP19 complex is conserved in evolution. We demonstrated that menadione destabilizes both SIAH1 and SIAH2 non-specifically through covalent modification. The SBDs of SIAH E3 ligases are structurally similar with a subtle stability difference. USP19 is the only deubiquitinase that directly binds to SIAHs through the substrate binding pocket. Menadione is not a specific inhibitor for SIAH2. The crystallographic models provide structural insights into the substrate binding of the SIAH family E3 ubiquitin ligases that are critically involved in regulating cancer-related pathways. Our results suggest caution should be taken when using menadione as a specific SIAH2 inhibitor.« less

  11. Structure and catalytic activation of the TRIM23 RING E3 ubiquitin ligase: DAWIDZIAK et al.

    SciTech Connect

    Dawidziak, Daria M.; Sanchez, Jacint G.; Wagner, Jonathan M.

    Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins comprise a large family of RING-type ubiquitin E3 ligases that regulate important biological processes. An emerging general model is that TRIMs form elongated antiparallel coiled-coil dimers that prevent interaction of the two attendant RING domains. The RING domains themselves bind E2 conjugating enzymes as dimers, implying that an active TRIM ligase requires higher-order oligomerization of the basal coiled-coil dimers. Here, we report crystal structures of the TRIM23 RING domain in isolation and in complex with an E2–ubiquitin conjugate. Our results indicate that TRIM23 enzymatic activity requires RING dimerization, consistent with the general model of TRIM activation.

  12. The E3 ubiquitin ligase NEDD4 is an LC3-interactive protein and regulates autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Aiqin; Wei, Jing; Childress, Chandra; Shaw, John H.; Peng, Ke; Shao, Genbao; Yang, Wannian; Lin, Qiong

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The MAP1LC3/LC3 family plays an essential role in autophagosomal biogenesis and transport. In this report, we show that the HECT family E3 ubiquitin ligase NEDD4 interacts with LC3 and is involved in autophagosomal biogenesis. NEDD4 binds to LC3 through a conserved WXXL LC3-binding motif in a region between the C2 and the WW2 domains. Knockdown of NEDD4 impaired starvation- or rapamycin-induced activation of autophagy and autophagosomal biogenesis and caused aggregates of the LC3 puncta colocalized with endoplasmic reticulum membrane markers. Electron microscopy observed gigantic deformed mitochondria in NEDD4 knockdown cells, suggesting that NEDD4 might function in mitophagy. Furthermore, SQSTM1 is ubiquitinated by NEDD4 while LC3 functions as an activator of NEDD4 ligase activity. Taken together, our studies define an important role of NEDD4 in regulation of autophagy. PMID:28085563

  13. The E3 ubiquitin ligase NEDD4 is an LC3-interactive protein and regulates autophagy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Aiqin; Wei, Jing; Childress, Chandra; Shaw, John H; Peng, Ke; Shao, Genbao; Yang, Wannian; Lin, Qiong

    2017-03-04

    The MAP1LC3/LC3 family plays an essential role in autophagosomal biogenesis and transport. In this report, we show that the HECT family E3 ubiquitin ligase NEDD4 interacts with LC3 and is involved in autophagosomal biogenesis. NEDD4 binds to LC3 through a conserved WXXL LC3-binding motif in a region between the C2 and the WW2 domains. Knockdown of NEDD4 impaired starvation- or rapamycin-induced activation of autophagy and autophagosomal biogenesis and caused aggregates of the LC3 puncta colocalized with endoplasmic reticulum membrane markers. Electron microscopy observed gigantic deformed mitochondria in NEDD4 knockdown cells, suggesting that NEDD4 might function in mitophagy. Furthermore, SQSTM1 is ubiquitinated by NEDD4 while LC3 functions as an activator of NEDD4 ligase activity. Taken together, our studies define an important role of NEDD4 in regulation of autophagy.

  14. Characterization of a novel RING-type ubiquitin E3 ligase GhRING2 differentially expressed in cotton fiber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ubiquitin-proteasome proteolysis pathway is responsible for the degradation of abnormal and short-lived proteins to regulate many important biochemical activities in eukaryotes. By employing affymetrix microarray analysis, we have identified a novel ubiquitin ligase E3 gene GhRING2 that is diffe...

  15. Ubiquitin-dependent Regulation of Phospho-AKT Dynamics by the Ubiquitin E3 Ligase, NEDD4-1, in the Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Response*

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Chuan-Dong; Lum, Michelle A.; Xu, Chao; Black, Jennifer D.; Wang, Xinjiang

    2013-01-01

    AKT is a critical effector kinase downstream of the PI3K pathway that regulates a plethora of cellular processes including cell growth, death, differentiation, and migration. Mechanisms underlying activated phospho-AKT (pAKT) translocation to its action sites remain unclear. Here we show that NEDD4-1 is a novel E3 ligase that specifically regulates ubiquitin-dependent trafficking of pAKT in insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 signaling. NEDD4-1 physically interacts with AKT and promotes HECT domain-dependent ubiquitination of exogenous and endogenous AKT. NEDD4-1 catalyzes K63-type polyubiquitin chain formation on AKT in vitro. Plasma membrane binding is the key step for AKT ubiquitination by NEDD4-1 in vivo. Ubiquitinated pAKT translocates to perinuclear regions, where it is released into the cytoplasm, imported into the nucleus, or coupled with proteasomal degradation. IGF-1 signaling specifically stimulates NEDD4-1-mediated ubiquitination of pAKT, without altering total AKT ubiquitination. A cancer-derived plasma membrane-philic mutant AKT(E17K) is more effectively ubiquitinated by NEDD4-1 and more efficiently trafficked into the nucleus compared with wild type AKT. This study reveals a novel mechanism by which a specific E3 ligase is required for ubiquitin-dependent control of pAKT dynamics in a ligand-specific manner. PMID:23195959

  16. Calcium Activates Nedd4 E3 Ubiquitin Ligases by Releasing the C2 Domain-mediated Auto-inhibition*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Peng, Qisheng; Lin, Qiong; Childress, Chandra; Carey, David; Yang, Wannian

    2010-01-01

    Nedd4 E3 ligases are members of the HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase family and regulate ubiquitination-mediated protein degradation. In this report, we demonstrate that calcium releases the C2 domain-mediated auto-inhibition in both Nedd4-1 and Nedd4-2. Calcium disrupts binding of the C2 domain to the HECT domain. Consistent with this, calcium activates the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of Nedd4. Elevation of intracellular calcium by ionomycin treatment, or activation of acetylcholine receptor or epidermal growth factor receptor by carbachol or epidermal growth factor stimulation induced activation of endogenous Nedd4 in vivo evaluated by assays of either Nedd4 E3 ligase activity or ubiquitination of Nedd4 substrate ENaC-β. The activation effect of calcium on Nedd4 E3 ligase activity was dramatically enhanced by a membrane-rich fraction, suggesting that calcium-mediated membrane translocation through the C2 domain might be an activation mechanism of Nedd4 in vivo. Our studies have revealed an activation mechanism of Nedd4 E3 ubiquitin ligases and established a connection of intracellular calcium signaling to regulation of protein ubiquitination. PMID:20172859

  17. Structure of the DDB1-CRBN E3 ubiquitin ligase in complex with thalidomide

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Eric S.; Böhm, Kerstin; Lydeard, John R.; Yang, Haidi; Stadler, Michael B.; Cavadini, Simone; Nagel, Jane; Serluca, Fabrizio; Acker, Vincent; Lingaraju, Gondichatnahalli M.; Tichkule, Ritesh B.; Schebesta, Michael; Forrester, William C.; Schirle, Markus; Hassiepen, Ulrich; Ottl, Johannes; Hild, Marc; Beckwith, Rohan E. J.; Harper, J. Wade; Jenkins, Jeremy L.; Thomä, Nicolas H.

    2015-01-01

    In the 1950s the drug thalidomide administered as a sedative to pregnant women led to the birth of thousands of children with multiple defects. Despite its teratogenicity, thalidomide and its derivatives lenalidomide and pomalidomide (together known as Immunomodulatory Drugs: IMiDs) recently emerged as effective treatments for multiple myeloma and 5q-dysplasia. IMiDs target the CUL4-RBX1-DDB1-CRBN (CRL4CRBN) E3 ubiquitin ligase and promote the ubiquitination of Ikaros/Aiolos transcription factors by CRL4CRBN. Here we present the crystal structure of the DDB1-CRBN complex bound to thalidomide, lenalidomide and pomalidomide. The structure establishes CRBN as a CRL4CRBN substrate receptor, which enantioselectively binds IMiDs. Through an unbiased screen we identify the homeobox transcription factor MEIS2 as an endogenous substrate of CRL4CRBN. Our studies suggest that IMiDs block endogenous substrates (MEIS2) from binding to CRL4CRBN when recruiting Ikaros/Aiolos for degradation. This dual activity implies that small molecules can principally modulate a ligase to up- or down-regulate the ubiquitination of proteins. PMID:25043012

  18. Regulation of human MutYH DNA glycosylase by the E3 ubiquitin ligase mule.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Julia; Ferrari, Elena; Imhof, Ralph; Ziegler, Nathalie; Hübscher, Ulrich

    2014-03-07

    Oxidation of DNA is a frequent and constantly occurring event. One of the best characterized oxidative DNA lesions is 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxo-G). It instructs most DNA polymerases to preferentially insert an adenine (A) opposite 8-oxo-G instead of the appropriate cytosine (C) thus showing miscoding potential. The MutY DNA glycosylase homologue (MutYH) recognizes A:8-oxo-G mispairs and removes the mispaired A giving way to the canonical base excision repair that ultimately restores undamaged guanine (G). Here we characterize for the first time in detail a posttranslational modification of the human MutYH DNA glycosylase. We show that MutYH is ubiquitinated in vitro and in vivo by the E3 ligase Mule between amino acids 475 and 535. Mutation of five lysine residues in this region significantly stabilizes MutYH, suggesting that these are the target sites for ubiquitination. The endogenous MutYH protein levels depend on the amount of expressed Mule. Furthermore, MutYH and Mule physically interact. We found that a ubiquitination-deficient MutYH mutant shows enhanced binding to chromatin. The mutation frequency of the ovarian cancer cell line A2780, analyzed at the HPRT locus can be increased upon oxidative stress and depends on the MutYH levels that are regulated by Mule. This reflects the importance of tightly regulated MutYH levels in the cell. In summary our data show that ubiquitination is an important regulatory mechanism for the essential MutYH DNA glycosylase in human cells.

  19. A screen for E3 ubiquitination ligases that genetically interact with the adaptor protein Cindr during Drosophila eye patterning

    PubMed Central

    Ketosugbo, Kwami F.; Bushnell, Henry L.

    2017-01-01

    Ubiquitination is a crucial post-translational modification that can target proteins for degradation. The E3 ubiquitin ligases are responsible for recognizing substrate proteins for ubiquitination, hence providing specificity to the process of protein degradation. Here, we describe a genetic modifier screen that identified E3 ligases that modified the rough-eye phenotype generated by expression of cindrRNAi transgenes during Drosophila eye development. In total, we identified 36 E3 ligases, as well as 4 Cullins, that modified the mild cindrRNA mis-patterning phenotype. This indicates possible roles for these E3s/Cullins in processes that require Cindr function, including cytoskeletal regulation, cell adhesion, cell signaling and cell survival. Three E3 ligases identified in our screen had previously been linked to regulating JNK signaling. PMID:29117266

  20. A Plasmodium yoelii HECT-like E3 ubiquitin ligase regulates parasite growth and virulence.

    PubMed

    Nair, Sethu C; Xu, Ruixue; Pattaradilokrat, Sittiporn; Wu, Jian; Qi, Yanwei; Zilversmit, Martine; Ganesan, Sundar; Nagarajan, Vijayaraj; Eastman, Richard T; Orandle, Marlene S; Tan, John C; Myers, Timothy G; Liu, Shengfa; Long, Carole A; Li, Jian; Su, Xin-Zhuan

    2017-08-09

    Infection of mice with strains of Plasmodium yoelii parasites can result in different pathology, but molecular mechanisms to explain this variation are unclear. Here we show that a P. yoelii gene encoding a HECT-like E3 ubiquitin ligase (Pyheul) influences parasitemia and host mortality. We genetically cross two lethal parasites with distinct disease phenotypes, and identify 43 genetically diverse progeny by typing with microsatellites and 9230 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. A genome-wide quantitative trait loci scan links parasite growth and host mortality to two major loci on chromosomes 1 and 7 with LOD (logarithm of the odds) scores = 6.1 and 8.1, respectively. Allelic exchange of partial sequences of Pyheul in the chromosome 7 locus and modification of the gene expression alter parasite growth and host mortality. This study identifies a gene that may have a function in parasite growth, virulence, and host-parasite interaction, and therefore could be a target for drug or vaccine development.Many strains of Plasmodium differ in virulence, but factors that control these distinctions are not known. Here the authors comparatively map virulence loci using the offspring from a P. yoelii YM and N67 genetic cross, and identify a putative HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase that may explain the variance.

  1. Identification of HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase family genes involved in stem cell regulation and regeneration in planarians.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Jordana M; Nisperos, Sean V; Weeks, Joi; Ghulam, Mahjoobah; Marín, Ignacio; Zayas, Ricardo M

    2015-08-15

    E3 ubiquitin ligases constitute a large family of enzymes that modify specific proteins by covalently attaching ubiquitin polypeptides. This post-translational modification can serve to regulate protein function or longevity. In spite of their importance in cell physiology, the biological roles of most ubiquitin ligases remain poorly understood. Here, we analyzed the function of the HECT domain family of E3 ubiquitin ligases in stem cell biology and tissue regeneration in planarians. Using bioinformatic searches, we identified 17 HECT E3 genes that are expressed in the Schmidtea mediterranea genome. Whole-mount in situ hybridization experiments showed that HECT genes were expressed in diverse tissues and most were expressed in the stem cell population (neoblasts) or in their progeny. To investigate the function of all HECT E3 ligases, we inhibited their expression using RNA interference (RNAi) and determined that orthologs of huwe1, wwp1, and trip12 had roles in tissue regeneration. We show that huwe1 RNAi knockdown led to a significant expansion of the neoblast population and death by lysis. Further, our experiments showed that wwp1 was necessary for both neoblast and intestinal tissue homeostasis as well as uncovered an unexpected role of trip12 in posterior tissue specification. Taken together, our data provide insights into the roles of HECT E3 ligases in tissue regeneration and demonstrate that planarians will be a useful model to evaluate the functions of E3 ubiquitin ligases in stem cell regulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Diggin’ on U(biquitin): A Novel Method for the Identification of Physiological E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Rubel, Carrie E.; Schisler, Jonathan C.; Hamlett, Eric D.; DeKroon, Robert M.; Gautel, Mathias; Alzate, Oscar; Patterson, Cam

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a central role in maintaining protein homeostasis, emphasized by a myriad of diseases that are associated with altered UPS function such as cancer, muscle-wasting, and neurodegeneration. Protein ubiquitination plays a central role in both the promotion of proteasomal degradation as well as cellular signaling through regulation of the stability of transcription factors and other signaling molecules. Substrate specificity is a critical regulatory step of ubiquitination and is mediated by ubiquitin ligases. Recent studies implicate ubiquitin ligases in multiple models of cardiac diseases such as cardiac hypertrophy, atrophy, and ischemia/reperfusion injury, both in a cardioprotective and maladaptive role. Therefore, identifying physiological substrates of cardiac ubiquitin ligases provides both mechanistic insights into heart disease as well as possible therapeutic targets. Current methods identifying substrates for ubiquitin ligases rely heavily upon non-physiologic in vitro methods, impeding the unbiased discovery of physiological substrates in relevant model systems. Here we describe a novel method for identifying ubiquitin ligase substrates utilizing Tandem Ubiquitin Binding Entities (TUBE) technology, two-dimensional differential in gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE), and mass spectrometry, validated by the identification of both known and novel physiological substrates of the ubiquitin ligase MuRF1 in primary cardiomyocytes. This method can be applied to any ubiquitin ligase, both in normal and disease model systems, in order to identify relevant physiological substrates under various biological conditions, opening the door to a clearer mechanistic understanding of ubiquitin ligase function and broadening their potential as therapeutic targets. PMID:23695782

  3. Preparation of ubiquitin-conjugated proteins using an insect cell-free protein synthesis system.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takashi; Ezure, Toru; Ando, Eiji; Nishimura, Osamu; Utsumi, Toshihiko; Tsunasawa, Susumu

    2010-01-01

    Ubiquitination is one of the most significant posttranslational modifications (PTMs). To evaluate the ability of an insect cell-free protein synthesis system to carry out ubiquitin (Ub) conjugation to in vitro translated proteins, poly-Ub chain formation was studied in an insect cell-free protein synthesis system. Poly-Ub was generated in the presence of Ub aldehyde (UA), a de-ubiquitinating enzyme inhibitor. In vitro ubiquitination of the p53 tumor suppressor protein was also analyzed, and p53 was poly-ubiquitinated when Ub, UA, and Mdm2, an E3 Ub ligase (E3) for p53, were added to the in vitro reaction mixture. These results suggest that the insect cell-free protein synthesis system contains enzymatic activities capable of carrying out ubiquitination. CBB-detectable ubiquitinated p53 was easily purified from the insect cell-free protein synthesis system, allowing analysis of the Ub-conjugated proteins by mass spectrometry (MS). Lys 305 of p53 was identified as one of the Ub acceptor sites using this strategy. Thus, we conclude that the insect cell-free protein synthesis system is a powerful tool for studying various PTMs of eukaryotic proteins including ubiqutination presented here.

  4. Arabidopsis RING E3 ubiquitin ligase AtATL80 is negatively involved in phosphate mobilization and cold stress response in sufficient phosphate growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Suh, Ji Yeon; Kim, Woo Taek

    2015-08-07

    Phosphate (Pi) remobilization in plants is critical to continuous growth and development. AtATL80 is a plasma membrane (PM)-localized RING E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase that belongs to the Arabidopsis Tóxicos en Levadura (ATL) family. AtATL80 was upregulated by long-term low Pi (0-0.02 mM KH2PO4) conditions in Arabidopsis seedlings. AtATL80-overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants (35S:AtATL80-sGFP) displayed increased phosphorus (P) accumulation in the shoots and lower biomass, as well as reduced P-utilization efficiency (PUE) under high Pi (1 mM KH2PO4) conditions compared to wild-type plants. The loss-of-function atatl80 mutant line exhibited opposite phenotypic traits. The atatl80 mutant line bolted earlier than wild-type plants, whereas AtATL80-overexpressors bloomed significantly later and produced lower seed yields than wild-type plants under high Pi conditions. Thus, AtATL80 is negatively correlated not only with P content and PUE, but also with biomass and seed yield in Arabidopsis. In addition, AtATL80-overexpressors were significantly more sensitive to cold stress than wild-type plants, while the atatl80 mutant line exhibited an increased tolerance to cold stress. Taken together, our results suggest that AtATL80, a PM-localized ATL-type RING E3 Ub ligase, participates in the Pi mobilization and cold stress response as a negative factor in Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Flipping the Switch from G1 to S Phase with E3 Ubiquitin Ligases

    PubMed Central

    Rizzardi, Lindsay F.

    2012-01-01

    The cell cycle ensures genome maintenance by coordinating the processes of DNA replication and chromosome segregation. Of particular importance is the irreversible transition from the G1 phase of the cell cycle to S phase. This transition marks the switch from preparing chromosomes for replication (“origin licensing”) to active DNA synthesis (“origin firing”). Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis is essential for restricting DNA replication to only once per cell cycle and is the major mechanism regulating the G1 to S phase transition. Although some changes in protein levels are attributable to regulated mRNA abundance, protein degradation elicits very rapid changes in protein abundance and is critical for the sharp and irreversible transition from one cell cycle stage to the next. Not surprisingly, regulation of the G1-to-S phase transition is perturbed in most cancer cells, and deregulation of key molecular events in G1 and S phase drives not only cell proliferation but also genome instability. In this review we focus on the mechanisms by which E3 ubiquitin ligases control the irreversible transition from G1 to S phase in mammalian cells. PMID:23634252

  6. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Itch is required for the differentiation of follicular helper T cells

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Nengming; Eto, Danelle; Elly, Chris; Peng, Guiying; Crotty, Shane; Liu, Yun-Cai

    2014-01-01

    Follicular helper T cells (TFH cells) are responsible for effective B cell–mediated immunity, and Bcl-6 is a central factor for the differentiation of TFH cells. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the induction of TFH cells remain unclear. Here we found that the E3 ubiquitin ligase Itch was essential for the differentiation of TFH cells, germinal center responses and immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses to acute viral infection. Itch acted intrinsically in CD4+ T cells at early stages of TFH cell development. Itch seemed to act upstream of Bcl-6 expression, as Bcl-6 expression was substantially impaired in Itch−/− cells, and the differentiation of Itch−/− T cells into TFH cells was restored by enforced expression of Bcl-6. Itch associated with the transcription factor Foxo1 and promoted its ubiquitination and degradation. The defective TFH differentiation of Itch−/− T cells was rectified by deletion of Foxo1. Thus, our results indicate that Itch acts as an essential positive regulator in the differentiation of TFH cells. PMID:24859451

  7. Rines E3 ubiquitin ligase regulates MAO-A levels and emotional responses.

    PubMed

    Kabayama, Miyuki; Sakoori, Kazuto; Yamada, Kazuyuki; Ornthanalai, Veravej G; Ota, Maya; Morimura, Naoko; Katayama, Kei-ichi; Murphy, Niall P; Aruga, Jun

    2013-08-07

    Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A), the catabolic enzyme of norepinephrine and serotonin, plays a critical role in emotional and social behavior. However, the control and impact of endogenous MAO-A levels in the brain remains unknown. Here we show that the RING finger-type E3 ubiquitin ligase Rines/RNF180 regulates brain MAO-A subset, monoamine levels, and emotional behavior. Rines interacted with MAO-A and promoted its ubiquitination and degradation. Rines knock-out mice displayed impaired stress responses, enhanced anxiety, and affiliative behavior. Norepinephrine and serotonin levels were altered in the locus ceruleus, prefrontal cortex, and amygdala in either stressed or resting conditions, and MAO-A enzymatic activity was enhanced in the locus ceruleus in Rines knock-out mice. Treatment of Rines knock-out mice with MAO inhibitors showed genotype-specific effects on some of the abnormal affective behaviors. These results indicated that the control of emotional behavior by Rines is partly due to the regulation of MAO-A levels. These findings verify that Rines is a critical regulator of the monoaminergic system and emotional behavior and identify a promising candidate drug target for treating diseases associated with emotion.

  8. Wheat germ-based protein libraries for the functional characterisation of the Arabidopsis E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzymes and the RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Abdelaziz; Nemoto, Keiichirou; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Hirotaka; Sawasaki, Tatsuya

    2015-11-10

    Protein ubiquitination is a ubiquitous mechanism in eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis, ubiquitin modification is mainly mediated by two ubiquitin activating enzymes (E1s), 37 ubiquitin conjugating enzymes (E2s), and more than 1300 predicted ubiquitin ligase enzymes (E3s), of which ~470 are RING-type E3s. A large proportion of the RING E3's gene products have yet to be characterised in vitro, likely because of the laborious work involved in large-scale cDNA cloning and protein expression, purification, and characterisation. In addition, several E2s, which might be necessary for the activity of certain E3 ligases, cannot be expressed by Escherichia coli or cultured insect cells and, therefore, remain uncharacterised. Using the RIKEN Arabidopsis full-length cDNA library (RAFL) with the 'split-primer' PCR method and a wheat germ cell-free system, we established protein libraries of Arabidopsis E2 and RING E3 enzymes. We expressed 35 Arabidopsis E2s including six enzymes that have not been previously expressed, and 204 RING proteins, most of which had not been functionally characterised. Thioester assays using dithiothreitol (DTT) showed DTT-sensitive ubiquitin thioester formation for all E2s expressed. In expression assays of RING proteins, 31 proteins showed high molecular smears, which are probably the result of their functional activity. The activities of another 27 RING proteins were evaluated with AtUBC10 and/or a group of different E2s. All the 27 RING E3s tested showed ubiquitin ligase activity, including 17 RING E3s. Their activities are reported for the first time. The wheat germ cell-free system used in our study, which is a eukaryotic expression system and more closely resembles the endogenous expression of plant proteins, is very suitable for expressing Arabidopsis E2s and RING E3s in their functional form. In addition, the protein libraries described here can be used for further understanding E2-E3 specificities and as platforms for protein-protein interaction

  9. Role of SKP1-CUL1-F-Box-Protein (SCF) E3 Ubiquitin Ligases in Skin Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Chuan-Ming; Wei, Wenyi; Sun, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Many biological processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and cell death depend precisely on the timely synthesis and degradation of key regulatory proteins. While protein synthesis can be regulated at multiple levels, protein degradation is mainly controlled by the ubiquitin—proteasome system (UPS), which consists of two distinct steps: (1) ubiquitylation of targeted protein by E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme, E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and E3 ubiquitin ligase, and (2) subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome. Among all E3 ubiquitin ligases, the SCF (SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein) E3 ligases are the largest family and are responsible for the turnover of many key regulatory proteins. Aberrant regulation of SCF E3 ligases is associated with various human diseases, such as cancers, including skin cancer. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of all currently published data to define a promoting role of SCF E3 ligases in the development of skin cancer. The future directions in this area of research are also discussed with an ultimate goal to develop small molecule inhibitors of SCF E3 ligases as a novel approach for the treatment of human skin cancer. Furthermore, altered components or substrates of SCF E3 ligases may also be developed as the biomarkers for early diagnosis or predicting prognosis. PMID:23522382

  10. New strategies to inhibit KEAP1 and the Cul3-based E3 ubiquitin ligases

    PubMed Central

    Canning, Peter; Bullock, Alex N.

    2014-01-01

    E3 ubiquitin ligases that direct substrate proteins to the ubiquitin–proteasome system are promising, though largely unexplored drug targets both because of their function and their remarkable specificity. CRLs [Cullin–RING (really interesting new gene) ligases] are the largest group of E3 ligases and function as modular multisubunit complexes constructed around a Cullin-family scaffold protein. The Cul3-based CRLs uniquely assemble with BTB (broad complex/tramtrack/bric-à-brac) proteins that also homodimerize and perform the role of both the Cullin adapter and the substrate-recognition component of the E3. The most prominent member is the BTB–BACK (BTB and C-terminal Kelch)–Kelch protein KEAP1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1), a master regulator of the oxidative stress response and a potential drug target for common conditions such as diabetes, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Structural characterization of BTB–Cul3 complexes has revealed a number of critical assembly mechanisms, including the binding of an N-terminal Cullin extension to a bihelical ‘3-box’ at the C-terminus of the BTB domain. Improved understanding of the structure of these complexes should contribute significantly to the effort to develop novel therapeutics targeted to CRL3-regulated pathways. PMID:24450635

  11. Degradation of human Lipin-1 by BTRC E3 ubiquitin ligase.

    PubMed

    Ishimoto, Kenji; Hayase, Ayaka; Kumagai, Fumiko; Kawai, Megumi; Okuno, Hiroko; Hino, Nobumasa; Okada, Yoshiaki; Kawamura, Takeshi; Tanaka, Toshiya; Hamakubo, Takao; Sakai, Juro; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Tachibana, Keisuke; Doi, Takefumi

    2017-06-17

    Lipin-1 has dual functions in the regulation of lipid and energy metabolism according to its subcellular localization, which is tightly controlled. However, it is unclear how Lipin-1 degradation is regulated. Here, we demonstrate that Lipin-1 is degraded through its DSGXXS motif. We show that Lipin-1 interacts with either of two E3 ubiquitin ligases, BTRC or FBXW11, and that this interaction is DSGXXS-dependent and mediates the attachment of polyubiquitin chains. Further, we demonstrate that degradation of Lipin-1 is regulated by BTRC in the cytoplasm and on membranes. These novel insights into the regulation of human Lipin-1 stability will be useful in planning further studies to elucidate its metabolic processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ubiquitin phosphorylated at Ser57 hyper-activates parkin.

    PubMed

    George, Susanna; Wang, Sabrina M; Bi, Yumin; Treidlinger, Margot; Barber, Kathryn R; Shaw, Gary S; O'Donoghue, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    Malfunction of the ubiquitin (Ub) E3 ligase, parkin, leads to defects in mitophagy and protein quality control linked to Parkinson's disease. Parkin activity is stimulated by phosphorylation of Ub at Ser65 (pUb S65 ). Since the upstream kinase is only known for Ser65 (PINK1), the biochemical function of other phosphorylation sites on Ub remain largely unknown. We used fluorescently labelled and site-specifically phosphorylated Ub substrates to quantitatively relate the position and stoichiometry of Ub phosphorylation to parkin activation. Fluorescence measurements show that pUb S65 -stimulated parkin is 5-fold more active than auto-inhibited and un-stimulated parkin, which catalyzes a basal level of auto-ubiquitination. We consistently observed a low but detectable level of parkin activity with pUb S12 . Strikingly, pUb S57 hyper-activates parkin, and our data demonstrate that parkin is able to selectively synthesize poly-pUb S57 chains, even when 90% of the Ub in the reaction is un-phosphorylated. We further found that parkin ubiquitinates its physiological substrate Miro-1 with chains solely composed of pUb S65 and more efficiently with pUb S57 chains. Parkin hyper-activation by pUb S57 demonstrates the first PINK1-independent route to active parkin, revealing the roles of multiple ubiquitin phosphorylation sites in governing parkin stimulation and catalytic activity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Biochemistry of Synthetic Biology - Recent Developments" Guest Editor: Dr. Ilka Heinemann and Dr. Patrick O'Donoghue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhanced ubiquitination of cytoskeletal proteins in pressure overloaded myocardium is accompanied by changes in specific E3 ligases.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Sundaravadivel; Mani, Santhoshkumar; Shiraishi, Hirokazu; Johnston, Rebecca K; Yamane, Kentaro; Willey, Christopher D; Cooper, George; Tuxworth, William J; Kuppuswamy, Dhandapani

    2006-10-01

    Ubiquitin conjugation of proteins is critical for cell homeostasis and contributes to both cell survival and death. Here we studied ubiquitination of proteins in pressure overloaded (PO) myocardium in the context of cardiomyocyte survival. Analysis using a feline right ventricular pressure overload (RVPO) model revealed a robust and transient increase in ubiquitination of proteins present in the Triton X-100-insoluble fraction in 24 to 48 h PO myocardium, and confocal micrographs indicate this increase in ubiquitination occurs subsarcolemmaly near the intercalated disc area of cardiomyocytes. The ubiquitination was accompanied by changes in E3 ligases including Cbl, E6AP, Mdm2 and cIAP in the same period of PO, although atrophy-related E3 ligases, MuRF1 and MuRF3 were unaltered. Furthermore, Cbl displayed a substantial increase in both levels of expression and tyrosine phosphorylation in 48 h PO myocardium. Confocal studies revealed enrichment of Cbl at the intercalated discs of 48 h PO cardiomyocytes, as evidenced by its colocalization with N-cadherin. Although apoptosis was observed in 48 h PO myocardium by TUNEL staining, cardiomyocytes showing ubiquitin staining were not positive for TUNEL staining. Furthermore, 48 h PO resulted in the phosphorylation of inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B (IkappaB), suggesting its ubiquitin-mediated degradation and the nuclear localization of NFkappaB for the expression of specific cell survival factors such as cIAPs. Together these data indicate that increased levels of E3 ligases that regulate cell homeostasis and promote cell survival could ubiquitinate multiple cytoskeletal protein targets and that these events that occur during the early phase of PO may contribute to both cardiomyocyte survival and hypertrophy.

  14. Probes of Ubiquitin E3 ligases distinguish different stages of Parkin activation

    PubMed Central

    Pao, Kuan-Chuan; Stanley, Mathew; Han, Cong; Lai, Yu-Chiang; Murphy, Paul; Balk, Kristin; Wood, Nicola T.; Corti, Olga; Corvol, Jean-Christophe; Muqit, Miratul M.K.; Virdee, Satpal

    2016-01-01

    E3 ligases represent an important class of enzymes, yet there are currently no chemical probes to profile their activity. We develop a new class of activity-based probe by reengineering of a ubiquitin-charged E2 conjugating enzyme and demonstrate their utility by profiling the transthiolation activity of the RING-in-between-RING (RBR) E3 ligase Parkin in vitro and in cellular extracts. Our study provides valuable insight into the roles, and cellular hierarchy, of distinct phosphorylation events in Parkin activation. We also profile Parkin patient disease-associated mutations and strikingly demonstrate that they largely mediate their effect by altering transthiolation activity. Furthermore, our probes enable direct and quantitative measurement of endogenous Parkin activity revealing that endogenous Parkin is activated in neuronal cell lines (≥75 %) in response to mitochondrial depolarization. This new technology also holds promise as a novel biomarker of PINK1-Parkin signalling as demonstrated by compatibility with Parkinson’s disease patient-derived samples. PMID:26928937

  15. Expression and regulation of ATL9, an E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in plant defense

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, Mitchell; Scaglione, Steven; Antico, Christopher J.; Jing, Tao; Yang, Xin; Shan, Weixing

    2017-01-01

    Plants are continually exposed to a variety of pathogenic organisms, including bacteria, fungi and viruses. In response to these assaults, plants have developed various defense pathways to protect themselves from pathogen invasion. An understanding of the expression and regulation of genes involved in defense signaling is essential to controlling plant disease. ATL9, an Arabidopsis RING zinc finger protein, is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that is induced by chitin and involved in basal resistance to the biotrophic fungal pathogen, Golovinomyces cichoracearum (G. cichoracearum). To better understand the expression and regulation of ATL9, we studied its expression pattern and the functions of its different protein domains. Using pATL9:GUS transgenic Arabidopsis lines we found that ATL9 is expressed in numerous tissues at various developmental stages and that GUS activity was induced rapidly upon wounding. Using a GFP control protein, we showed that ATL9 is a short-lived protein within plant cells and it is degraded via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. ATL9 contains two transmembrane domains (TM), a RING zinc-finger domain, and a PEST domain. Using a series of deletion mutants, we found that the PEST domain and the RING domain have effects on ATL9 degradation. Further infection assays with G. cichoracearum showed that both the RING domain and the TM domains are important for ATL9’s resistance phenotype. Interestingly, the PEST domain was also shown to be significant for resistance to fungal pathogens. This study demonstrates that the PEST domain is directly coupled to plant defense regulation and the importance of protein degradation in plant immunity. PMID:29161311

  16. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the ubiquitin-like (UbL) domain of the human homologue A of Rad23 (hHR23A) protein.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu Wai; Tajima, Toshitaka; Rees, Martin; Garcia-Maya, Mitla

    2009-09-01

    Human homologue A of Rad23 (hHR23A) plays dual roles in DNA repair as well as serving as a shuttle vehicle targeting polyubiquitinated proteins for degradation. Its N-terminal ubiquitin-like (UbL) domain interacts with the 19S proteasomal cap and provides the docking mechanism for protein delivery. Pyramidal crystals of the UbL domain of hHR23A were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with ammonium sulfate as the crystallizing agent. The crystals diffracted to beyond 2 A resolution and belonged to the hexagonal space group P6(5)22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 78.48, c = 63.57 A. The structure was solved by molecular replacement using the UbL domain of yeast Dsk2 as the search model.

  17. The mechanism of OTUB1-mediated inhibition of ubiquitination

    SciTech Connect

    Wiener, Reuven; Zhang, Xiangbin; Wang, Tao

    2013-04-08

    Histones are ubiquitinated in response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), promoting recruitment of repair proteins to chromatin. UBC13 (also known as UBE2N) is a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) that heterodimerizes with UEV1A (also known as UBE2V1) and synthesizes K63-linked polyubiquitin (K63Ub) chains at DSB sites in concert with the ubiquitin ligase (E3), RNF168 (ref. 3). K63Ub synthesis is regulated in a non-canonical manner by the deubiquitinating enzyme, OTUB1 (OTU domain-containing ubiquitin aldehyde-binding protein 1), which binds preferentially to the UBC13-Ub thiolester. Residues amino-terminal to the OTU domain, which had been implicated in ubiquitin binding, are required for binding to UBC13-Ub andmore » inhibition of K63Ub synthesis. Here we describe structural and biochemical studies elucidating how OTUB1 inhibits UBC13 and other E2 enzymes. We unexpectedly find that OTUB1 binding to UBC13-Ub is allosterically regulated by free ubiquitin, which binds to a second site in OTUB1 and increases its affinity for UBC13-Ub, while at the same time disrupting interactions with UEV1A in a manner that depends on the OTUB1 N terminus. Crystal structures of an OTUB1-UBC13 complex and of OTUB1 bound to ubiquitin aldehyde and a chemical UBC13-Ub conjugate show that binding of free ubiquitin to OTUB1 triggers conformational changes in the OTU domain and formation of a ubiquitin-binding helix in the N terminus, thus promoting binding of the conjugated donor ubiquitin in UBC13-Ub to OTUB1. The donor ubiquitin thus cannot interact with the E2 enzyme, which has been shown to be important for ubiquitin transfer. The N-terminal helix of OTUB1 is positioned to interfere with UEV1A binding to UBC13, as well as with attack on the thiolester by an acceptor ubiquitin, thereby inhibiting K63Ub synthesis. OTUB1 binding also occludes the RING E3 binding site on UBC13, thus providing a further component of inhibition. The general features of the inhibition mechanism explain how

  18. E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b in innate and adaptive immunity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qingjun; Zhou, Hong; Langdon, Wallace Y; Zhang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Casitas B-lineage lymphoma proto-oncogene-b (Cbl-b), a RING finger E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, has been demonstrated to play a crucial role in establishing the threshold for T-cell activation and controlling peripheral T-cell tolerance via multiple mechanisms. Accumulating evidence suggests that Cbl-b also regulates innate immune responses and plays an important role in host defense to pathogens. Understanding the signaling pathways regulated by Cbl-b in innate and adaptive immune cells is therefore essential for efficient manipulation of Cbl-b in emerging immunotherapies for human disorders such as autoimmune diseases, allergic inflammation, infections, and cancer. In this article, we review the latest developments in the molecular structural basis of Cbl-b function, the regulation of Cbl-b expression, the signaling mechanisms of Cbl-b in immune cells, as well as the biological function of Cbl-b in physiological and pathological immune responses in animal models and human diseases. PMID:24875217

  19. Multiple functions of the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP in immunity.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Shaohua; Wang, Tianxiao; Ge, Wei

    2017-09-03

    The carboxyl terminal of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that plays a pivotal role in the protein quality control system by shifting the balance of the folding-refolding machinery toward the degradative pathway. However, the precise mechanisms by which nonnative proteins are selected for degradation by CHIP either directly or indirectly via chaperone Hsp70 or Hsp90 are still not clear. In this review, we aim to provide a comprehensive model of the mechanism by which CHIP degrades its substrate in a chaperone-dependent or direct manner. In addition, through tight regulation of the protein level of its substrates, CHIP plays important roles in many physiological and pathological conditions, including cancers, neurological disorders, cardiac diseases, bone metabolism, immunity, and so on. Nonetheless, the precise mechanisms underlying the regulation of the immune system by CHIP are still poorly understood despite accumulating developments in our understanding of the regulatory roles of CHIP in both innate and adaptive immune responses. In this review, we also aim to provide a view of CHIP-mediated regulation of immune responses and the signaling pathways involved in the model described. Finally, we discuss the roles of CHIP in immune-related diseases.

  20. E3 Ubiquitin Ligase c-cbl Inhibits Microglia Activation After Chronic Constriction Injury.

    PubMed

    Xue, Pengfei; Liu, Xiaojuan; Shen, Yiming; Ju, Yuanyuan; Lu, Xiongsong; Zhang, Jinlong; Xu, Guanhua; Sun, Yuyu; Chen, Jiajia; Gu, Haiyan; Cui, Zhiming; Bao, Guofeng

    2018-06-22

    E3 ubiquitin ligase c-Caritas B cell lymphoma (c-cbl) is associated with negative regulation of receptor tyrosine kinases, signal transduction of antigens and cytokine receptors, and immune response. However, the expression and function of c-cbl in the regulation of neuropathic pain after chronic constriction injury (CCI) are unknown. In rat CCI model, c-cbl inhibited the activation of spinal cord microglia and the release of pro-inflammatory factors including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), which alleviated mechanical and heat pain through down-regulating extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Additionally, exogenous TNF-α inhibited c-cbl protein level vice versa. In the primary microglia transfected with c-cbl siRNA, when treated with TNF-α or TNF-α inhibitor, the corresponding secretion of IL-1β and IL-6 did not change. In summary, CCI down-regulated c-cbl expression and induced the activation of microglia, then activated microglia released inflammatory factors via ERK signaling to cause pain. Our data might supply a novel molecular target for the therapy of CCI-induced neuropathic pain.

  1. The Ubiquitin Receptor DA1 Interacts with the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase DA2 to Regulate Seed and Organ Size in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Tian; Li, Na; Dumenil, Jack; Li, Jie; Kamenski, Andrei; Bevan, Michael W.; Gao, Fan; Li, Yunhai

    2013-01-01

    Seed size in higher plants is determined by the coordinated growth of the embryo, endosperm, and maternal tissue. Several factors that act maternally to regulate seed size have been identified, such as AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR2, APETALA2, KLUH, and DA1, but the genetic and molecular mechanisms of these factors in seed size control are almost totally unknown. We previously demonstrated that the ubiquitin receptor DA1 acts synergistically with the E3 ubiquitin ligase ENHANCER1 OF DA1 (EOD1)/BIG BROTHER to regulate the final size of seeds in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we describe another RING-type protein with E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, encoded by DA2, which regulates seed size by restricting cell proliferation in the maternal integuments of developing seeds. The da2-1 mutant forms large seeds, while overexpression of DA2 decreases seed size of wild-type plants. Overexpression of rice (Oryza sativa) GRAIN WIDTH AND WEIGHT2, a homolog of DA2, restricts seed growth in Arabidopsis. Genetic analyses show that DA2 functions synergistically with DA1 to regulate seed size, but does so independently of EOD1. Further results reveal that DA2 interacts physically with DA1 in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, our findings define the genetic and molecular mechanisms of three ubiquitin-related proteins DA1, DA2, and EOD1 in seed size control and indicate that they are promising targets for crop improvement. PMID:24045020

  2. Function of ubiquitin (Ub) specific protease 15 (USP15) in HIV-1 replication and viral protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Pyeon, Dohun; Timani, Khalid Amine; Gulraiz, Fahad; He, Johnny J; Park, In-Woo

    2016-09-02

    HIV-1 Nef is necessary and may be sufficient for HIV-1-associated AIDS pathogenicity, in that knockout of Nef alone can protect HIV-infected patients from AIDS. We therefore investigated the feasibility of physical knockout of Nef, using the host ubiquitin proteasome system in HIV-1-infected cells. Our co-immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that Nef interacted with ubiquitin specific protease 15 (USP15), and that USP15, which is known to stabilize cellular proteins, degraded Nef. Nef could also cause decay of USP15, although Nef-mediated degradation of USP15 was weaker than USP15-mediated Nef degradation. Direct interaction between Nef and USP15 was essential for the observed reciprocal decay of the proteins. Further, USP15 degraded not only Nef but also HIV-1 structural protein, Gag, thereby substantially inhibiting HIV-1 replication. However, Gag did not degrade USP15, indicating that the Nef and USP15 complex, in distinction to other viral proteins, play an integral role in coordinating viral protein degradation and hence HIV-1 replication. Moreover, Nef and USP15 globally suppressed ubiquitylation of cellular proteins, indicating that these proteins are major determinants for the stability of cellular as well as viral proteins. Taken together, these data indicate that Nef and USP15 are vital in regulating degradation of viral and cellular proteins and thus HIV-1 replication, and specific degradation of viral, not cellular proteins, by USP15 points to USP15 as a candidate therapeutic agent to combat AIDS by eliminating viral proteins from the infected cells via USP15-mediated proteosomal degradation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of the SINA/SIAH ubiquitin E3 ligase family in Metazoa.

    PubMed

    Pepper, Ian J; Van Sciver, Robert E; Tang, Amy H

    2017-08-07

    The RAS signaling pathway is a pivotal developmental pathway that controls many fundamental biological processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, movement and apoptosis. Drosophila Seven-IN-Absentia (SINA) is a ubiquitin E3 ligase that is the most downstream signaling "gatekeeper" whose biological activity is essential for proper RAS signal transduction. Vertebrate SINA homologs (SIAHs) share a high degree of amino acid identity with that of Drosophila SINA. SINA/SIAH is the most conserved signaling component in the canonical EGFR/RAS/RAF/MAPK signal transduction pathway. Vertebrate SIAH1, 2, and 3 are the three orthologs to invertebrate SINA protein. SINA and SIAH1 orthologs are found in all major taxa of metazoans. These proteins have four conserved functional domains, known as RING (Really Interesting New Gene), SZF (SIAH-type zinc finger), SBS (substrate binding site) and DIMER (Dimerization). In addition to the siah1 gene, most vertebrates encode two additional siah genes (siah2 and siah3) in their genomes. Vertebrate SIAH2 has a highly divergent and extended N-terminal sequence, while its RING, SZF, SBS and DIMER domains maintain high amino acid identity/similarity to that of SIAH1. But unlike vertebrate SIAH1 and SIAH2, SIAH3 lacks a functional RING domain, suggesting that SIAH3 may be an inactive E3 ligase. The SIAH3 subtree exhibits a high degree of amino acid divergence when compared to the SIAH1 and SIAH2 subtrees. We find that SIAH1 and SIAH2 are expressed in all human epithelial cell lines examined thus far, while SIAH3 is only expressed in a limited subset of cancer cell lines. Through phylogenetic analyses of metazoan SINA and SIAH E3 ligases, we identified many invariant and divergent amino acid residues, as well as the evolutionarily conserved functional motifs in this medically relevant gene family. Our phylomedicinal study of this unique metazoan SINA/SIAH protein family has provided invaluable evolution-based support towards future

  4. Inhibitors of ubiquitin E3 ligase as potential new antimalarial drug leads

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ubiquitin/proteasome pathway is the principal system for degradation of proteins in eukaryotes. Ubiquitin is a highly conserved polypeptide that covalently attaches to target proteins through the combined action ofubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1), conjugating enzyme (E2) and a protein ligase (E...

  5. Autographa californica Nucleopolyhedrovirus AC141 (Exon0), a Potential E3 Ubiquitin Ligase, Interacts with Viral Ubiquitin and AC66 To Facilitate Nucleocapsid Egress.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Siddhartha; Willis, Leslie G; Fang, Minggang; Nie, Yingchao; Theilmann, David A

    2018-02-01

    During the infection cycle of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), two forms of virions are produced, budded virus (BV) and occlusion-derived virus (ODV). Nucleocapsids that form BV have to egress from the nucleus, whereas nucleocapsids that form ODV remain inside the nucleus. The molecular mechanism that determines whether nucleocapsids remain inside or egress from the nucleus is unknown. AC141 (a predicted E3 ubiquitin ligase) and viral ubiquitin (vUbi) have both been shown to be required for efficient BV production. In this study, it was hypothesized that vUbi interacts with AC141, and in addition, that this interaction was required for BV production. Deletion of both ac141 and vubi restricted viral infection to a single cell, and BV production was completely eliminated. AC141 was ubiquitinated by either vUbi or cellular Ubi, and this interaction was required for optimal BV production. Nucleocapsids in BV, but not ODV, were shown to be specifically ubiquitinated by vUbi, including a 100-kDa protein, as well as high-molecular-weight conjugates. The viral ubiquitinated 100-kDa BV-specific nucleocapsid protein was identified as AC66, which is known to be required for BV production and was shown by coimmunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry to interact with AC141. Confocal microscopy also showed that AC141, AC66, and vUbi interact at the nuclear periphery. These results suggest that ubiquitination of nucleocapsid proteins by vUbi functions as a signal to determine if a nucleocapsid will egress from the nucleus and form BV or remain in the nucleus to form ODV. IMPORTANCE Baculoviruses produce two types of virions called occlusion-derived virus (ODV) and budded virus (BV). ODVs are required for oral infection, whereas BV enables the systemic spread of virus to all host tissues, which is critical for killing insects. One of the important steps for BV production is the export of nucleocapsids out of the nucleus. This study investigated the

  6. K48-linked KLF4 ubiquitination by E3 ligase Mule controls T-cell proliferation and cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhenyue; Sheng, Yi; Duncan, Gordon S; Li, Wanda Y; Dominguez, Carmen; Sylvester, Jennifer; Su, Yu-Wen; Lin, Gloria H Y; Snow, Bryan E; Brenner, Dirk; You-Ten, Annick; Haight, Jillian; Inoue, Satoshi; Wakeham, Andrew; Elford, Alisha; Hamilton, Sara; Liang, Yi; Zúñiga-Pflücker, Juan C; He, Housheng Hansen; Ohashi, Pamela S; Mak, Tak W

    2017-01-13

    T-cell proliferation is regulated by ubiquitination but the underlying molecular mechanism remains obscure. Here we report that Lys-48-linked ubiquitination of the transcription factor KLF4 mediated by the E3 ligase Mule promotes T-cell entry into S phase. Mule is elevated in T cells upon TCR engagement, and Mule deficiency in T cells blocks proliferation because KLF4 accumulates and drives upregulation of its transcriptional targets E2F2 and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27. T-cell-specific Mule knockout (TMKO) mice develop exacerbated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), show impaired generation of antigen-specific CD8 + T cells with reduced cytokine production, and fail to clear LCMV infections. Thus, Mule-mediated ubiquitination of the novel substrate KLF4 regulates T-cell proliferation, autoimmunity and antiviral immune responses in vivo.

  7. Biochemical function of typical and variant Arabidopsis thaliana U-box E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases.

    PubMed

    Wiborg, Jakob; O'Shea, Charlotte; Skriver, Karen

    2008-08-01

    The variance of the U-box domain in 64 Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress) E3s (ubiquitin-protein ligases) was used to examine the interactions between E3s and E2s (ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes). E2s and E3s are components of the ubiquitin protein degradation pathway. Seven U-box proteins were analysed for their ability to ubiquitinate proteins in vitro in co-operation with different E2s. All U-box domains exhibited ubiquitination activity and interacted productively with UBC4/5-type E2s. Three and four of the U-box domains mediated ubiquitin addition in the presence of UBC13 and UBC7 E2s respectively, but no productive interaction was observed with the UBC15 E2 tested. The activity of AtPUB54 [Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress) plant U-box 54 protein] was dependent on Trp(266) in the E2-binding cleft, and the E2 selectivity was changed by substitution of this position. The function of the distant U-box protein, AtPUB49, representing a large family of eukaryotic proteins containing a U-box linked to a cyclophilin-like peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase domain, was characterized biochemically. AtPUB49 functioned both as a prolyl isomerase and a chaperone by catalysing cis-trans isomerization of peptidyl-prolyl bonds and dissolving protein aggregates. In conclusion, both typical and atypical Arabidopsis U-box proteins were active E3s. The overlap in the E3/E2 selectivity suggests that in vivo specificity is not determined only by the E3-E2 interactions, but also by other parameters, e.g. co-existence or interactions with additional domains. The biochemical functions of AtPUB49 suggest that the protein can be involved in folding or degradation of protein substrates. Similar functions can also be retained within a protein complex with separate chaperone and U-box proteins.

  8. The Blue Light-Dependent Polyubiquitination and Degradation of Arabidopsis Cryptochrome2 Requires Multiple E3 Ubiquitin Ligases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Wang, Qin; Liu, Bin; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xu; Park, Joon; Yang, Zhenming; Du, Xinglin; Bian, Mingdi; Lin, Chentao

    2016-10-01

    Cryptochromes are blue light receptors regulated by light-dependent ubiquitination and degradation in both plant and animal lineages. The Arabidopsis genome encodes two cryptochromes, CRY1 and CRY2, of which CRY2 undergoes blue light-dependent ubiquitination and 26S proteasome-dependent degradation. The molecular mechanism regulating blue light-dependent proteolysis of CRY2 is still not fully understood. We found that the F-box proteins ZEITLUPE (ZTL) and Lov Kelch Protein2 (LKP2), which mediate blue light suppression of degradation of the CRY2 signaling partner CIB1, are not required for the blue light-dependent CRY2 degradation. We further showed that the previously reported function of the COP1-SPA1 protein complex in blue light-dependent CRY2 degradation is more likely to be attributable to its cullin 4 (CUL4)-based E3 ubiquitin ligase activity than its activity as the cryptochrome signaling partner. However, the blue light-dependent CRY2 degradation is only partially impaired in the cul4 mutant, the cop1-5 null mutant and the spa1234 quadruple mutant, suggesting a possible involvement of additional E3 ubiquitin ligases in the regulation of CRY2. Consistent with this hypothesis, we demonstrated that the blue light-dependent CRY2 degradation is significantly impaired in the temperature-sensitive cul1 mutant allele (axr6-3), especially under the non-permissive temperature. Based on these and other results presented, we propose that photoexcited CRY2 undergoes Lys48-linked polyubiquitination catalyzed by the CUL4- and CUL1-based E3 ubiquitin ligases. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The E3 ligase HOIP specifies linear ubiquitin chain assembly through its RING-IBR-RING domain and the unique LDD extension

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Judith J; Monteferrario, Davide; Noordermeer, Sylvie M; van Dijk, Willem J; van der Reijden, Bert A; Sixma, Titia K

    2012-01-01

    Activation of the NF-κB pathway requires the formation of Met1-linked ‘linear' ubiquitin chains on NEMO, which is catalysed by the Linear Ubiquitin Chain Assembly Complex (LUBAC) E3 consisting of HOIP, HOIL-1L and Sharpin. Here, we show that both LUBAC catalytic activity and LUBAC specificity for linear ubiquitin chain formation are embedded within the RING-IBR-RING (RBR) ubiquitin ligase subunit HOIP. Linear ubiquitin chain formation by HOIP proceeds via a two-step mechanism involving both RING and HECT E3-type activities. RING1-IBR catalyses the transfer of ubiquitin from the E2 onto RING2, to transiently form a HECT-like covalent thioester intermediate. Next, the ubiquitin is transferred from HOIP onto the N-terminus of a target ubiquitin. This transfer is facilitated by a unique region in the C-terminus of HOIP that we termed ‘Linear ubiquitin chain Determining Domain' (LDD), which may coordinate the acceptor ubiquitin. Consistent with this mechanism, the RING2-LDD region was found to be important for NF-κB activation in cellular assays. These data show how HOIP combines a general RBR ubiquitin ligase mechanism with unique, LDD-dependent specificity for producing linear ubiquitin chains. PMID:22863777

  10. A Perturbed Ubiquitin Landscape Distinguishes Between Ubiquitin in Trafficking and in Proteolysis*

    PubMed Central

    Ziv, Inbal; Matiuhin, Yulia; Kirkpatrick, Donald S.; Erpapazoglou, Zoi; Leon, Sebastien; Pantazopoulou, Marina; Kim, Woong; Gygi, Steven P.; Haguenauer-Tsapis, Rosine; Reis, Noa; Glickman, Michael H.; Kleifeld, Oded

    2011-01-01

    Any of seven lysine residues on ubiquitin can serve as the base for chain-extension, resulting in a sizeable spectrum of ubiquitin modifications differing in chain length or linkage type. By optimizing a procedure for rapid lysis, we charted the profile of conjugated cellular ubiquitin directly from whole cell extract. Roughly half of conjugated ubiquitin (even at high molecular weights) was nonextended, consisting of monoubiquitin modifications and chain terminators (endcaps). Of extended ubiquitin, the primary linkages were via Lys48 and Lys63. All other linkages were detected, contributing a relatively small portion that increased at lower molecular weights. In vivo expression of lysineless ubiquitin (K0 Ub) perturbed the ubiquitin landscape leading to elevated levels of conjugated ubiquitin, with a higher mono-to-poly ratio. Affinity purification of these trapped conjugates identified a comprehensive list of close to 900 proteins including novel targets. Many of the proteins enriched by K0 ubiquitination were membrane-associated, or involved in cellular trafficking. Prime among them are components of the ESCRT machinery and adaptors of the Rsp5 E3 ubiquitin ligase. Ubiquitin chains associated with these substrates were enriched for Lys63 linkages over Lys48, indicating that K0 Ub is unevenly distributed throughout the ubiquitinome. Biological assays validated the interference of K0 Ub with protein trafficking and MVB sorting, minimally affecting Lys48-dependent turnover of proteasome substrates. We conclude that despite the shared use of the ubiquitin molecule, the two branches of the ubiquitin machinery—the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the ubiquitin trafficking system—were unevenly perturbed by expression of K0 ubiquitin. PMID:21427232

  11. The E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF146 promotes colorectal cancer by activating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway via ubiquitination of Axin1.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jiangli; Yu, Zhaohui; Li, Na

    2018-06-20

    The E3 ubiquitin ligase ring finger protein 146 (RNF146) has been implicated in tumor development. However, the role and clinical significance of RNF146 in colorectal cancer (CRC) remain unknown. In this study, we reported for the first time that RNF146 was upregulated in CRC tissues as well as in cell lines. Further, RNF146 expression was independent prognostic factor for poor outcome of CRC patients. RNF146 knockdown in cell lines inhibited cell growth, promoted cell apoptosis in vitro and suppressed colorectal tumor growth in vivo. Mechanistic investigations revealed that RNF146 exerted oncogenic role through ubiquitination of Axin1 to activate β-catenin signalling. In addition, RNF146 expression was positively correlated with β-catenin expression in CRC tissues. Collectively, our data suggest that RNF146 might function as a oncogene in human CRC, and represent a promising prognostic factor and a valuable therapeutic target for CRC. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Targeting Cullin–RING E3 ubiquitin ligases for drug discovery: structure, assembly and small-molecule modulation

    PubMed Central

    Bulatov, Emil; Ciulli, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, the ubiquitin–proteasome system has emerged as a valid target for the development of novel therapeutics. E3 ubiquitin ligases are particularly attractive targets because they confer substrate specificity on the ubiquitin system. CRLs [Cullin–RING (really interesting new gene) E3 ubiquitin ligases] draw particular attention, being the largest family of E3s. The CRLs assemble into functional multisubunit complexes using a repertoire of substrate receptors, adaptors, Cullin scaffolds and RING-box proteins. Drug discovery targeting CRLs is growing in importance due to mounting evidence pointing to significant roles of these enzymes in diverse biological processes and human diseases, including cancer, where CRLs and their substrates often function as tumour suppressors or oncogenes. In the present review, we provide an account of the assembly and structure of CRL complexes, and outline the current state of the field in terms of available knowledge of small-molecule inhibitors and modulators of CRL activity. A comprehensive overview of the reported crystal structures of CRL subunits, components and full-size complexes, alone or with bound small molecules and substrate peptides, is included. This information is providing increasing opportunities to aid the rational structure-based design of chemical probes and potential small-molecule therapeutics targeting CRLs. PMID:25886174

  13. TRIM25 RING-finger E3 ubiquitin ligase is essential for RIG-I-mediated antiviral activity.

    PubMed

    Gack, Michaela U; Shin, Young C; Joo, Chul-Hyun; Urano, Tomohiko; Liang, Chengyu; Sun, Lijun; Takeuchi, Osamu; Akira, Shizuo; Chen, Zhijian; Inoue, Satoshi; Jung, Jae U

    2007-04-19

    Retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I; also called DDX58) is a cytosolic viral RNA receptor that interacts with MAVS (also called VISA, IPS-1 or Cardif) to induce type I interferon-mediated host protective innate immunity against viral infection. Furthermore, members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family, which contain a cluster of a RING-finger domain, a B box/coiled-coil domain and a SPRY domain, are involved in various cellular processes, including cell proliferation and antiviral activity. Here we report that the amino-terminal caspase recruitment domains (CARDs) of RIG-I undergo robust ubiquitination induced by TRIM25 in mammalian cells. The carboxy-terminal SPRY domain of TRIM25 interacts with the N-terminal CARDs of RIG-I; this interaction effectively delivers the Lys 63-linked ubiquitin moiety to the N-terminal CARDs of RIG-I, resulting in a marked increase in RIG-I downstream signalling activity. The Lys 172 residue of RIG-I is critical for efficient TRIM25-mediated ubiquitination and for MAVS binding, as well as the ability of RIG-I to induce antiviral signal transduction. Furthermore, gene targeting demonstrates that TRIM25 is essential not only for RIG-I ubiquitination but also for RIG-I-mediated interferon- production and antiviral activity in response to RNA virus infection. Thus, we demonstrate that TRIM25 E3 ubiquitin ligase induces the Lys 63-linked ubiquitination of RIG-I, which is crucial for the cytosolic RIG-I signalling pathway to elicit host antiviral innate immunity.

  14. RavN is a member of a previously unrecognized group of Legionella pneumophila E3 ubiquitin ligases

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi-Han; Evans, Timothy R.; Doms, Alexandra G.; Beauchene, Nicole A.; Hierro, Aitor

    2018-01-01

    The eukaryotic ubiquitylation machinery catalyzes the covalent attachment of the small protein modifier ubiquitin to cellular target proteins in order to alter their fate. Microbial pathogens exploit this post-translational modification process by encoding molecular mimics of E3 ubiquitin ligases, eukaryotic enzymes that catalyze the final step in the ubiquitylation cascade. Here, we show that the Legionella pneumophila effector protein RavN belongs to a growing class of bacterial proteins that mimic host cell E3 ligases to exploit the ubiquitylation pathway. The E3 ligase activity of RavN was located within its N-terminal region and was dependent upon interaction with a defined subset of E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes. The crystal structure of the N-terminal region of RavN revealed a U-box-like motif that was only remotely similar to other U-box domains, indicating that RavN is an E3 ligase relic that has undergone significant evolutionary alteration. Substitution of residues within the predicted E2 binding interface rendered RavN inactive, indicating that, despite significant structural changes, the mode of E2 recognition has remained conserved. Using hidden Markov model-based secondary structure analyses, we identified and experimentally validated four additional L. pneumophila effectors that were not previously recognized to possess E3 ligase activity, including Lpg2452/SdcB, a new paralog of SidC. Our study provides strong evidence that L. pneumophila is dedicating a considerable fraction of its effector arsenal to the manipulation of the host ubiquitylation pathway. PMID:29415051

  15. Latency-Associated Nuclear Antigen E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Activity Impacts Gammaherpesvirus-Driven Germinal Center B Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Sofia A; Tan, Min; Li, Shijun; Juillard, Franceline; McVey, Colin E; Kaye, Kenneth M; Simas, J Pedro

    2016-09-01

    Viruses have evolved mechanisms to hijack components of cellular E3 ubiquitin ligases, thus modulating the ubiquitination pathway. However, the biological relevance of such mechanisms for viral pathogenesis in vivo remains largely unknown. Here, we utilized murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) infection of mice as a model system to address the role of MuHV-4 latency-associated nuclear antigen (mLANA) E3 ligase activity in gammaherpesvirus latent infection. We show that specific mutations in the mLANA SOCS box (V199A, V199A/L202A, or P203A/P206A) disrupted mLANA's ability to recruit Elongin C and Cullin 5, thereby impairing the formation of the Elongin BC/Cullin 5/SOCS (EC5S(mLANA)) complex and mLANA's E3 ligase activity on host NF-κB and Myc. Although these mutations resulted in considerably reduced mLANA binding to viral terminal repeat DNA as assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), the mutations did not disrupt mLANA's ability to mediate episome persistence. In vivo, MuHV-4 recombinant viruses bearing these mLANA SOCS box mutations exhibited a deficit in latency amplification in germinal center (GC) B cells. These findings demonstrate that the E3 ligase activity of mLANA contributes to gammaherpesvirus-driven GC B cell proliferation. Hence, pharmacological inhibition of viral E3 ligase activity through targeting SOCS box motifs is a putative strategy to control gammaherpesvirus-driven lymphoproliferation and associated disease. The gammaherpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) cause lifelong persistent infection and play causative roles in several human malignancies. Colonization of B cells is crucial for virus persistence, and access to the B cell compartment is gained by virus-driven proliferation in germinal center (GC) B cells. Infection of B cells is predominantly latent, with the viral genome persisting as a multicopy episome and expressing only a small subset of viral genes. Here, we focused on

  16. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Trim7 mediates c-Jun/AP-1 activation by Ras signalling

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Atanu; Diefenbacher, Markus E.; Mylona, Anastasia; Kassel, Olivier; Behrens, Axel

    2015-01-01

    The c-Jun/AP-1 transcription factor controls key cellular behaviours, including proliferation and apoptosis, in response to JNK and Ras/MAPK signalling. While the JNK pathway has been well characterised, the mechanism of activation by Ras was elusive. Here we identify the uncharacterised ubiquitin ligase Trim7 as a critical component of AP-1 activation via Ras. We found that MSK1 directly phosphorylates Trim7 in response to direct activation by the Ras–Raf–MEK–ERK pathway, and this modification stimulates Trim7 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Trim7 mediates Lys63-linked ubiquitination of the AP-1 coactivator RACO-1, leading to RACO-1 protein stabilisation. Consequently, Trim7 depletion reduces RACO-1 levels and AP-1-dependent gene expression. Moreover, transgenic overexpression of Trim7 increases lung tumour burden in a Ras-driven cancer model, and knockdown of Trim7 in established xenografts reduces tumour growth. Thus, phosphorylation-ubiquitination crosstalk between MSK1, Trim7 and RACO-1 completes the long sought-after mechanism linking growth factor signalling and AP-1 activation. PMID:25851810

  17. The E3 ubiquitin ligase NEDD4 enhances killing of membrane-perturbing intracellular bacteria by promoting autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Gang; Buijze, Hellen; Liu, Haipeng; Moura-Alves, Pedro; Goosmann, Christian; Brinkmann, Volker; Kawabe, Hiroshi; Dorhoi, Anca; Kaufmann, Stefan H. E.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The E3 ubiquitin ligase NEDD4 has been intensively studied in processes involved in viral infections, such as virus budding. However, little is known about its functions in bacterial infections. Our investigations into the role of NEDD4 in intracellular bacterial infections demonstrate that Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Listeria monocytogenes, but not Mycobacterium bovis BCG, replicate more efficiently in NEDD4 knockdown macrophages. In parallel, NEDD4 knockdown or knockout impaired basal macroautophagy/autophagy, as well as infection-induced autophagy. Conversely, NEDD4 expression promoted autophagy in an E3 catalytic activity-dependent manner, thereby restricting intracellular Listeria replication. Mechanistic studies uncovered that endogenous NEDD4 interacted with BECN1/Beclin 1 and this interaction increased during Listeria infection. Deficiency of NEDD4 resulted in elevated K48-linkage ubiquitination of endogenous BECN1. Further, NEDD4 mediated K6- and K27- linkage ubiquitination of BECN1, leading to elevated stability of BECN1 and increased autophagy. Thus, NEDD4 participates in killing of intracellular bacterial pathogens via autophagy by sustaining the stability of BECN1. PMID:29251248

  18. Down-regulation of Intestinal Apical Calcium Entry Channel TRPV6 by Ubiquitin E3 Ligase Nedd4-2*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Na, Tao; Wu, Guojin; Jing, Haiyan; Peng, Ji-Bin

    2010-01-01

    Nedd4-2 is an archetypal HECT ubiquitin E3 ligase that disposes target proteins for degradation. Because of the proven roles of Nedd4-2 in degradation of membrane proteins, such as epithelial Na+ channel, we examined the effect of Nedd4-2 on the apical Ca2+ channel TRPV6, which is involved in transcellular Ca2+ transport in the intestine using the Xenopus laevis oocyte system. We demonstrated that a significant amount of Nedd4-2 protein was distributed to the absorptive epithelial cells in ileum, cecum, and colon along with TRPV6. When co-expressed in oocytes, Nedd4-2 and, to a lesser extent, Nedd4 down-regulated the protein abundance and Ca2+ influx of TRPV6 and TRPV5, respectively. TRPV6 ubiquitination was increased, and its stability was decreased by Nedd4-2. The Nedd4-2 inhibitory effects on TRPV6 were partially blocked by proteasome inhibitor MG132 but not by the lysosome inhibitor chloroquine. The rate of TRPV6 internalization was not significantly altered by Nedd4-2. The HECT domain was essential to the inhibitory effect of Nedd4-2 on TRPV6 and to their association. The WW1 and WW2 domains interacted with TRPV6 terminal regions, and a disruption of the interactions by D204H and D376H mutations in the WW1 and WW2 domains increased TRPV6 ubiquitination and degradation. Thus, WW1 and WW2 may serve as a molecular switch to limit the ubiquitination of TRPV6 by the HECT domain. In conclusion, Nedd4-2 may regulate TRPV6 protein abundance in intestinal epithelia by controlling TRPV6 ubiquitination. PMID:20843805

  19. Down-regulation of intestinal apical calcium entry channel TRPV6 by ubiquitin E3 ligase Nedd4-2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Na, Tao; Wu, Guojin; Jing, Haiyan; Peng, Ji-Bin

    2010-11-19

    Nedd4-2 is an archetypal HECT ubiquitin E3 ligase that disposes target proteins for degradation. Because of the proven roles of Nedd4-2 in degradation of membrane proteins, such as epithelial Na(+) channel, we examined the effect of Nedd4-2 on the apical Ca(2+) channel TRPV6, which is involved in transcellular Ca(2+) transport in the intestine using the Xenopus laevis oocyte system. We demonstrated that a significant amount of Nedd4-2 protein was distributed to the absorptive epithelial cells in ileum, cecum, and colon along with TRPV6. When co-expressed in oocytes, Nedd4-2 and, to a lesser extent, Nedd4 down-regulated the protein abundance and Ca(2+) influx of TRPV6 and TRPV5, respectively. TRPV6 ubiquitination was increased, and its stability was decreased by Nedd4-2. The Nedd4-2 inhibitory effects on TRPV6 were partially blocked by proteasome inhibitor MG132 but not by the lysosome inhibitor chloroquine. The rate of TRPV6 internalization was not significantly altered by Nedd4-2. The HECT domain was essential to the inhibitory effect of Nedd4-2 on TRPV6 and to their association. The WW1 and WW2 domains interacted with TRPV6 terminal regions, and a disruption of the interactions by D204H and D376H mutations in the WW1 and WW2 domains increased TRPV6 ubiquitination and degradation. Thus, WW1 and WW2 may serve as a molecular switch to limit the ubiquitination of TRPV6 by the HECT domain. In conclusion, Nedd4-2 may regulate TRPV6 protein abundance in intestinal epithelia by controlling TRPV6 ubiquitination.

  20. KCTD2, an adaptor of Cullin3 E3 ubiquitin ligase, suppresses gliomagenesis by destabilizing c-Myc

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Jung; Kim, Sung-Hak; Jin, Xiong; Jin, Xun; Kim, Hyunggee

    2017-01-01

    Cullin3 E3 ubiquitin ligase ubiquitinates a wide range of substrates through substrate-specific adaptors Bric-a-brac, Tramtrack, and Broad complex (BTB) domain proteins. These E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes are involved in diverse cellular functions. Our recent study demonstrated that decreased Cullin3 expression induces glioma initiation and correlates with poor prognosis of patients with malignant glioma. However, the substrate recognition mechanism associated with tumorigenesis is not completely understood. Through yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified potassium channel tetramerization domain-containing 2 (KCTD2) as a BTB domain protein that binds to Cullin3. The interaction of Cullin3 and KCTD2 was verified using immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence. Of interest, KCTD2 expression was markedly decreased in patient-derived glioma stem cells (GSCs) compared with non-stem glioma cells. Depletion of KCTD2 using a KCTD2-specific short-hairpin RNA in U87MG glioma cells and primary Ink4a/Arf-deficient murine astrocytes markedly increased self-renewal activity in addition with an increased expression of stem cell markers, and mouse in vivo intracranial tumor growth. As an underlying mechanism for these KCTD2-mediated phenotypic changes, we demonstrated that KCTD2 interacts with c-Myc, which is a key stem cell factor, and causes c-Myc protein degradation by ubiquitination. As a result, KCTD2 depletion acquires GSC features and affects aerobic glycolysis via expression changes in glycolysis-associated genes through c-Myc protein regulation. Of clinical significance was our finding that patients having a profile of KCTD2 mRNA-low and c-Myc gene signature-high, but not KCTD2 mRNA-low and c-Myc mRNA-high, are strongly associated with poor prognosis. This study describes a novel regulatory mode of c-Myc protein in malignant gliomas and provides a potential framework for glioma therapy by targeting c-Myc function. PMID:28060381

  1. E3 ubiquitin ligase Mule ubiquitinates Miz1 and is required for TNFalpha-induced JNK activation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Do, HanhChi; Tian, Xuejun; Zhang, Chaozheng; Liu, Xinyuan; Dada, Laura A; Sznajder, Jacob I; Liu, Jing

    2010-07-27

    The zinc finger transcription factor Miz1 is a negative regulator of TNFalpha-induced JNK activation and cell death through inhibition of TRAF2 K63-polyubiquitination in a transcription-independent manner. Upon TNFalpha stimulation, Miz1 undergoes K48-linked polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation, thereby relieving its inhibition. However, the underling regulatory mechanism is not known. Here, we report that HECT-domain-containing Mule is the E3 ligase that catalyzes TNFalpha-induced Miz1 polyubiquitination. Mule is a Miz1-associated protein and catalyzes its K48-linked polyubiquitination. TNFalpha-induced polyubiquitination and degradation of Miz1 were inhibited by silencing of Mule and were promoted by ectopic expression of Mule. The interaction between Mule and Miz1 was promoted by TNFalpha independently of the pox virus and zinc finger domain of Miz1. Silencing of Mule stabilized Miz1, thereby suppressing TNFalpha-induced JNK activation and cell death. Thus, our study reveals a molecular mechanism by which Mule regulates TNFalpha-induced JNK activation and apoptosis by catalyzing the polyubiquitination of Miz1.

  2. Human Adenovirus Infection Causes Cellular E3 Ubiquitin Ligase MKRN1 Degradation Involving the Viral Core Protein pVII.

    PubMed

    Inturi, Raviteja; Mun, Kwangchol; Singethan, Katrin; Schreiner, Sabrina; Punga, Tanel

    2018-02-01

    Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are common human pathogens encoding a highly abundant histone-like core protein, VII, which is involved in nuclear delivery and protection of viral DNA as well as in sequestering immune danger signals in infected cells. The molecular details of how protein VII acts as a multifunctional protein have remained to a large extent enigmatic. Here we report the identification of several cellular proteins interacting with the precursor pVII protein. We show that the cellular E3 ubiquitin ligase MKRN1 is a novel precursor pVII-interacting protein in HAdV-C5-infected cells. Surprisingly, the endogenous MKRN1 protein underwent proteasomal degradation during the late phase of HAdV-C5 infection in various human cell lines. MKRN1 protein degradation occurred independently of the HAdV E1B55K and E4orf6 proteins. We provide experimental evidence that the precursor pVII protein binding enhances MKRN1 self-ubiquitination, whereas the processed mature VII protein is deficient in this function. Based on these data, we propose that the pVII protein binding promotes MKRN1 self-ubiquitination, followed by proteasomal degradation of the MKRN1 protein, in HAdV-C5-infected cells. In addition, we show that measles virus and vesicular stomatitis virus infections reduce the MKRN1 protein accumulation in the recipient cells. Taken together, our results expand the functional repertoire of the HAdV-C5 precursor pVII protein in lytic virus infection and highlight MKRN1 as a potential common target during different virus infections. IMPORTANCE Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are common pathogens causing a wide range of diseases. To achieve pathogenicity, HAdVs have to counteract a variety of host cell antiviral defense systems, which would otherwise hamper virus replication. In this study, we show that the HAdV-C5 histone-like core protein pVII binds to and promotes self-ubiquitination of a cellular E3 ubiquitin ligase named MKRN1. This mutual interaction between the pVII and

  3. The Role of Ubiquitin E3 Ligase SCF-SKP2 in Prostate Cancer Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    2004; 303:1371-4. 26. Nag A, Bondar T, Shiv S, Raychaudhuri P. The xeroderma pigmentosum group E gene product DDB2 is a specific target of cullin 4A...ubiquitin ligases. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2005; 6:9-20. 2. Nag A, Bondar T, Shiv S, Raychaudhuri P. The xeroderma pigmentosum group E gene product DDB2 is... xeroderma pigmentosum group E patient and the subsequent inability to bind DDB1 (ref. 16). This motif is present in most of the WDR proteins we found (see

  4. E3 Ubiquitin Ligase CHIP and NBR1-Mediated Selective Autophagy Protect Additively against Proteotoxicity in Plant Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Jingxia; Chi, Yingjin; Fan, Baofang; Yu, Jing-Quan; Chen, Zhixiang

    2014-01-01

    Plant stress responses require both protective measures that reduce or restore stress-inflicted damage to cellular structures and mechanisms that efficiently remove damaged and toxic macromolecules, such as misfolded and damaged proteins. We have recently reported that NBR1, the first identified plant autophagy adaptor with a ubiquitin-association domain, plays a critical role in plant stress tolerance by targeting stress-induced, ubiquitinated protein aggregates for degradation by autophagy. Here we report a comprehensive genetic analysis of CHIP, a chaperone-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase from Arabidopsis thaliana implicated in mediating degradation of nonnative proteins by 26S proteasomes. We isolated two chip knockout mutants and discovered that they had the same phenotypes as the nbr1 mutants with compromised tolerance to heat, oxidative and salt stresses and increased accumulation of insoluble proteins under heat stress. To determine their functional interactions, we generated chip nbr1 double mutants and found them to be further compromised in stress tolerance and in clearance of stress-induced protein aggregates, indicating additive roles of CHIP and NBR1. Furthermore, stress-induced protein aggregates were still ubiquitinated in the chip mutants. Through proteomic profiling, we systemically identified heat-induced protein aggregates in the chip and nbr1 single and double mutants. These experiments revealed that highly aggregate-prone proteins such as Rubisco activase and catalases preferentially accumulated in the nbr1 mutant while a number of light-harvesting complex proteins accumulated at high levels in the chip mutant after a relatively short period of heat stress. With extended heat stress, aggregates for a large number of intracellular proteins accumulated in both chip and nbr1 mutants and, to a greater extent, in the chip nbr1 double mutant. Based on these results, we propose that CHIP and NBR1 mediate two distinct but complementary anti

  5. GNIP1 E3 ubiquitin ligase is a novel player in regulating glycogen metabolism in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Montori-Grau, Marta; Pedreira-Casahuga, Robert; Boyer-Díaz, Zoé; Lassot, Iréna; García-Martínez, Celia; Orozco, Anna; Cebrià, Judith; Osorio-Conles, Oscar; Chacón, Matilde R; Vendrell, Joan; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel; Desagher, Solange; Jiménez-Chillarón, Josep Carles; Gómez-Foix, Anna Ma

    2018-06-01

    Glycogenin-interacting protein 1 (GNIP1) is a tripartite motif (TRIM) protein with E3 ubiquitin ligase activity that interacts with glycogenin. These data suggest that GNIP1 could play a major role in the control of glycogen metabolism. However, direct evidence based on functional analysis remains to be obtained. The aim of this study was 1) to define the expression pattern of glycogenin-interacting protein/Tripartite motif containing protein 7 (GNIP/TRIM7) isoforms in humans, 2) to test their ubiquitin E3 ligase activity, and 3) to analyze the functional effects of GNIP1 on muscle glucose/glycogen metabolism both in human cultured cells and in vivo in mice. We show that GNIP1 was the most abundant GNIP/TRIM7 isoform in human skeletal muscle, whereas in cardiac muscle only TRIM7 was expressed. GNIP1 and TRIM7 had autoubiquitination activity in vitro and were localized in the Golgi apparatus and cytosol respectively in LHCN-M2 myoblasts. GNIP1 overexpression increased glucose uptake in LHCN-M2 myotubes. Overexpression of GNIP1 in mouse muscle in vivo increased glycogen content, glycogen synthase (GS) activity and phospho-GSK-3α/β (Ser21/9) and phospho-Akt (Ser473) content, whereas decreased GS phosphorylation in Ser640. These modifications led to decreased blood glucose levels, lactate levels and body weight, without changing whole-body insulin or glucose tolerance in mouse. GNIP1 is an ubiquitin ligase with a markedly glycogenic effect in skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Functional characterization of Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) E3 ubiquitin ligases in tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinfang; Wan, Lixin; Dai, Xiangpeng; Sun, Yi; Wei, Wenyi

    2014-01-01

    The Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) is a multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that primarily governs cell cycle progression. APC/C is composed of at least 14 core subunits and recruits its substrates for ubiquitination via one of the two adaptor proteins, Cdc20 or Cdh1, in M or M/early G1 phase, respectively. Furthermore, recent studies have shed light on crucial functions for APC/C in maintaining genomic integrity, neuronal differentiation, cellular metabolism and tumorigenesis. To gain better insight into the in vivo physiological functions of APC/C in regulating various cellular processes, particularly development and tumorigenesis, a number of mouse models of APC/C core subunits, coactivators or inhibitors have been established and characterized. However, due to their essential role in cell cycle regulation, most of the germline knockout mice targeting the APC/C pathway are embryonic lethal, indicating the need for generating conditional knockout mouse models to assess the role in tumorigenesis for each APC/C signaling component in specific tissues. In this review, we will first provide a brief introduction of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and the biochemical activities and cellular functions of the APC/C E3 ligase. We will then focus primarily on characterizing genetic mouse models used to understand the physiological roles of each APC/C signaling component in embryogenesis, cell proliferation, development and carcinogenesis. Finally, we discuss future research directions to further elucidate the physiological contributions of APC/C components during tumorigenesis and validate their potentials as a novel class of anti-cancer targets. PMID:24569229

  7. The E3 ubiquitin ligase, HECTD1, is involved in ABCA1-mediated cholesterol export from macrophages.

    PubMed

    Aleidi, Shereen M; Yang, Alryel; Sharpe, Laura J; Rao, Geetha; Cochran, Blake J; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Kockx, Maaike; Brown, Andrew J; Gelissen, Ingrid C

    2018-04-01

    The ABC lipid transporters, ABCA1 and ABCG1, are essential for maintaining lipid homeostasis in cells such as macrophages by exporting excess cholesterol to extracellular acceptors. These transporters are highly regulated at the post-translational level, including protein ubiquitination. Our aim was to investigate the role of the E3 ubiquitin ligase HECTD1, recently identified as associated with ABCG1, on ABCG1 and ABCA1 protein levels and cholesterol export function. Here, we show that HECTD1 protein is widely expressed in a range of human and murine primary cells and cell lines, including macrophages, neuronal cells and insulin secreting β-cells. siRNA knockdown of HECTD1 unexpectedly decreased overexpressed ABCG1 protein levels and cell growth, but increased native ABCA1 protein in CHO-K1 cells. Knockdown of HECTD1 in unloaded THP-1 macrophages did not affect ABCG1 but significantly increased ABCA1 protein levels, in wild-type as well as THP-1 cells that do not express ABCG1. Cholesterol export from macrophages to apoA-I over time was increased after knockdown of HECTD1, however these effects were not sustained in cholesterol-loaded cells. In conclusion, we have identified a new candidate, the E3 ubiquitin ligase HECTD1, that may be involved in the regulation of ABCA1-mediated cholesterol export from unloaded macrophages to apoA-I. The exact mechanism by which this ligase affects this pathway remains to be elucidated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP interacts with C-type lectin-like receptor CLEC-2 and promotes its ubiquitin-proteasome degradation.

    PubMed

    Shao, Miaomiao; Li, Lili; Song, Shushu; Wu, Weicheng; Peng, Peike; Yang, Caiting; Zhang, Mingming; Duan, Fangfang; Jia, Dongwei; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Hao; Zhao, Ran; Wang, Lan; Ruan, Yuanyuan; Gu, Jianxin

    2016-10-01

    C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2) was originally identified as a member of non-classical C-type lectin-like receptors in platelets and immune cells. Activation of CLEC-2 is involved in thrombus formation, lymphatic/blood vessel separation, platelet-mediated tumor metastasis and immune response. Nevertheless, the regulation of CLEC-2 expression is little understood. In this study, we identified that the C terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) interacted with CLEC-2 by mass spectrometry analysis, and CHIP decreased the protein expression of CLEC-2 through lysine-48-linked ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Deleted and point mutation also revealed that CHIP controlled CLEC-2 protein expression via both tetratricopeptide repeats (TPR) domain and Ubox domain in a HSP70/90-independent manner. Moreover, reduced CHIP expression was associated with decreased CLEC-2 polyubiquitination and increased CLEC-2 protein levels in PMA-induced differentiation of THP-1 monocytes into macrophages. These results indicate that CLEC-2 is the target substrate of E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP, and suggest that the CHIP/CLEC-2 axis may play an important role in the modulation of immune response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Mule acts through the ATM-p53 axis to maintain B lymphocyte homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhenyue; Duncan, Gordon S; Su, Yu-Wen; Li, Wanda Y; Silvester, Jennifer; Hong, Claire; You, Han; Brenner, Dirk; Gorrini, Chiara; Haight, Jillian; Wakeham, Andrew; You-Ten, Annick; McCracken, Susan; Elia, Andrew; Li, Qinxi; Detmar, Jacqui; Jurisicova, Andrea; Hobeika, Elias; Reth, Michael; Sheng, Yi; Lang, Philipp A; Ohashi, Pamela S; Zhong, Qing; Wang, Xiaodong; Mak, Tak W

    2012-01-16

    Cellular homeostasis is controlled by pathways that balance cell death with survival. Mcl-1 ubiquitin ligase E3 (Mule) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets the proapoptotic molecule p53 for polyubiquitination and degradation. To elucidate the role of Mule in B lymphocyte homeostasis, B cell-specific Mule knockout (BMKO) mice were generated using the Cre-LoxP recombination system. Analysis of BMKO mice showed that Mule was essential for B cell development, proliferation, homeostasis, and humoral immune responses. p53 transactivation was increased by two- to fourfold in Mule-deficient B cells at steady state. Genetic ablation of p53 in BMKO mice restored B cell development, proliferation, and homeostasis. p53 protein was increased in resting Mule-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and embryonic stem (ES) cells. Loss of Mule in both MEFs and B cells at steady state resulted in increased levels of phospho-ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and the ATM substrate p53. Under genotoxic stress, BMKO B cells were resistant to apoptosis, and control MEFs exhibited evidence of a physical interaction between Mule and phospho-ATM. Phospho-ATM, phospho-p53, and Brca1 levels were reduced in Mule-deficient B cells and MEFs subjected to genotoxic stress. Thus, Mule regulates the ATM-p53 axis to maintain B cell homeostasis under both steady-state and stress conditions.

  10. A MARCH6 and IDOL E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Circuit Uncouples Cholesterol Synthesis from Lipoprotein Uptake in Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Loregger, Anke; Cook, Emma Claire Laura; Nelson, Jessica Kristin; Moeton, Martina; Sharpe, Laura Jane; Engberg, Susanna; Karimova, Madina; Lambert, Gilles; Brown, Andrew John

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol synthesis and lipoprotein uptake are tightly coordinated to ensure that the cellular level of cholesterol is adequately maintained. Hepatic dysregulation of these processes is associated with pathological conditions, most notably cardiovascular disease. Using a genetic approach, we have recently identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH6 as a regulator of cholesterol biosynthesis, owing to its ability to promote degradation of the rate-limiting enzymes 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) and squalene epoxidase (SQLE). Here, we present evidence for MARCH6 playing a multifaceted role in the control of cholesterol homeostasis in hepatocytes. We identify MARCH6 as an endogenous inhibitor of the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) transcriptional program. Accordingly, loss of MARCH6 increases expression of SREBP-regulated genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis and lipoprotein uptake. Unexpectedly, this is associated with a decrease in cellular lipoprotein uptake, induced by enhanced lysosomal degradation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). Finally, we provide evidence that induction of the E3 ubiquitin ligase IDOL represents the molecular mechanism underlying this MARCH6-induced phenotype. Our study thus highlights a MARCH6-dependent mechanism to direct cellular cholesterol accretion that relies on uncoupling of cholesterol synthesis from lipoprotein uptake. PMID:26527619

  11. The role of E3 ubiquitin-ligases MuRF-1 and MAFbx in loss of skeletal muscle mass.

    PubMed

    Rom, Oren; Reznick, Abraham Z

    2016-09-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is the main regulatory mechanism of protein degradation in skeletal muscle. The ubiquitin-ligase enzymes (E3s) have a central role in determining the selectivity and specificity of the UPS. Since their identification in 2001, the muscle specific E3s, muscle RING finger-1 (MuRF-1) and muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx), have been shown to be implicated in the regulation of skeletal muscle atrophy in various pathological and physiological conditions. This review aims to explore the involvement of MuRF-1 and MAFbx in catabolism of skeletal muscle during various pathologies, such as cancer cachexia, sarcopenia of aging, chronic kidney disease (CKD), diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In addition, the effects of various lifestyle and modifiable factors (e.g. nutrition, exercise, cigarette smoking, and alcohol) on MuRF-1 and MAFbx regulation will be discussed. Finally, evidence of potential strategies to protect against skeletal muscle wasting through inhibition of MuRF-1 and MAFbx expression will be explored. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. E3 ubiquitin ligase RFWD2 controls lung branching through protein-level regulation of ETV transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Yokoyama, Shigetoshi; Herriges, John C; Zhang, Zhen; Young, Randee E; Verheyden, Jamie M; Sun, Xin

    2016-07-05

    The mammalian lung is an elaborate branching organ, and it forms following a highly stereotypical morphogenesis program. It is well established that precise control at the transcript level is a key genetic underpinning of lung branching. In comparison, little is known about how regulation at the protein level may play a role. Ring finger and WD domain 2 (RFWD2, also termed COP1) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that modifies specific target proteins, priming their degradation via the ubiquitin proteasome system. RFWD2 is known to function in the adult in pathogenic processes such as tumorigenesis. Here, we show that prenatal inactivation of Rfwd2 gene in the lung epithelium led to a striking halt in branching morphogenesis shortly after secondary branch formation. This defect is accompanied by distalization of the lung epithelium while growth and cellular differentiation still occurred. In the mutant lung, two E26 transformation-specific (ETS) transcription factors essential for normal lung branching, ETS translocation variant 4 (ETV4) and ETV5, were up-regulated at the protein level, but not at the transcript level. Introduction of Etv loss-of-function alleles into the Rfwd2 mutant background attenuated the branching phenotype, suggesting that RFWD2 functions, at least in part, through degrading ETV proteins. Because a number of E3 ligases are known to target factors important for lung development, our findings provide a preview of protein-level regulatory network essential for lung branching morphogenesis.

  13. Mechanism of phospho-ubiquitin induced PARKIN activation

    PubMed Central

    Wauer, Tobias; Simicek, Michal; Schubert, Alexander; Komander, David

    2016-01-01

    Summary The E3 ubiquitin ligase PARKIN (encoded by PARK2) and the protein kinase PINK1 (encoded by PARK6) are mutated in autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinsonism (AR-JP) and work together in the disposal of damaged mitochondria by mitophagy1–3. PINK1 is stabilised on the outside of depolarised mitochondria, and phosphorylates poly-ubiquitin (polyUb)4–8 as well as the PARKIN Ub-like (Ubl) domain9,10. These phosphorylation events lead to PARKIN recruitment to mitochondria, and activation by an unknown allosteric mechanism4–12. Here we present the crystal structure of Pediculus humanus PARKIN in complex with Ser65-phosphorylated ubiquitin (phosphoUb), revealing the molecular basis for PARKIN recruitment and activation. The phosphoUb binding site on PARKIN comprises a conserved phosphate pocket and harbours residues mutated in AR-JP patients. PhosphoUb binding leads to straightening of a helix in the RING1 domain, and the resulting conformational changes release the Ubl domain from the PARKIN core; this activates PARKIN. Moreover, phosphoUb-mediated Ubl release enhances Ubl phosphorylation by PINK1, leading to conformational changes within the Ubl domain and stabilisation of an open, active conformation of PARKIN. We redefine the role of the Ubl domain not only as an inhibitory13 but also as an activating element that is restrained in inactive PARKIN and released by phosphoUb. Our work opens new avenues to identify small molecule PARKIN activators. PMID:26161729

  14. Nedd4 is a Specific E3 Ubiquitin Ligase for the NMDA Receptor Subunit GluN2D

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Vivek; Trinidad, Jonathan C.; Rimerman, Ronald A.; Costa, Blaise M.; Burlingame, Alma L.; Monaghan, Daniel T.

    2013-01-01

    NMDA receptors are a family of glutamate-gated ion channels that regulate various CNS functions such as synaptic plasticity and learning. However hypo-or hyper-activation of NMDA receptors is critically involved in many neurological and psychiatric conditions such as pain, stroke, epilepsy, neurodegeneration, schizophrenia, and depression. Thus, it is important to identify mechanisms (such as by targeted ubiquitination) that regulate the levels of individual subtypes of NMDA receptors. In this study, we used a series of tagged, carboxy terminal constructs of GluN2D to identify associating proteins from rat brain. Of seven different GluN2D C-terminal fragments used as bait, only the construct containing amino acids 983-1097 associated with an E3 ligase, Nedd4. A direct interaction between GluN2D and Nedd4 was confirmed both in vivo and in vitro. This association is mediated by an interaction between GluN2D's C-terminal PPXY motif and the 2nd and 3rd WW domains of Nedd4. Of the four GluN2 subunits, Nedd4 directly interacted with GluN2D and also weakly with GluN2A. Nedd4 coexpression with GluN2D enhances GluN2D ubiquitination and reduces GluN1/GluN2D NMDA receptor responses. These results identify Nedd4 as a novel binding partner for GluN2D and suggest a mechanism for the regulation of NMDA receptors that contains GluN2D subunit through ubiquitination-dependent downregulation. PMID:23639431

  15. Mindbomb 1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, forms a complex with RYK to activate Wnt/β-catenin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Berndt, Jason D.; Aoyagi, Atsushi; Yang, Peitzu; Anastas, Jamie N.; Tang, Lan

    2011-01-01

    Receptor-like tyrosine kinase (RYK) functions as a transmembrane receptor for the Wnt family of secreted protein ligands. Although RYK undergoes endocytosis in response to Wnt, the mechanisms that regulate its internalization and concomitant activation of Wnt signaling are unknown. We discovered that RYK both physically and functionally interacts with the E3 ubiquitin ligase Mindbomb 1 (MIB1). Overexpression of MIB1 promotes the ubiquitination of RYK and reduces its steady-state levels at the plasma membrane. Moreover, we show that MIB1 is sufficient to activate Wnt/β-catenin (CTNNB1) signaling and that this activity depends on endogenous RYK. Conversely, in loss-of-function studies, both RYK and MIB1 are required for Wnt-3A–mediated activation of CTNNB1. Finally, we identify the Caenorhabditis elegans orthologue of MIB1 and demonstrate a genetic interaction between ceMIB and lin-18/RYK in vulva development. These findings provide insights into the mechanisms of Wnt/RYK signaling and point to novel targets for the modulation of Wnt signaling. PMID:21875946

  16. Significance of the E3 ubiquitin protein UBR5 as an oncogene and a prognostic biomarker in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaowen; Zhu, Yan; Guo, Aizhen; Shen, Xian; Cao, Fuao; Chang, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    The E3 ubiquitin protein UBR5 has been implicated in the regulation of multiple biological functions and has recently emerged as a key regulator of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in cancer. However, the clinical significance and biological function of UBR5 in colorectal cancer (CRC) are poorly understood. In this study, we compared the expression pattern of UBR5 between CRC and adjacent normal tissues and found that UBR5 expression was frequently elevated in CRC, possibly through chromosomal gains. Using three CRC patient cohorts, we found that patients with high UBR5 mRNA levels, UBR5 gene amplification, or high nuclear UBR5 protein levels had poor prognoses. Multivariate analysis showed that the alterations in UBR5 were independent predictors of CRC prognosis with the TNM stage as a confounding factor. Furthermore, knockdown of UBR5 prevented the proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion of CRC cells in cell culture models. An in vivo animal model further confirmed that UBR5 knockdown reduced the growth of CRC tumors. In conclusion, our study is the first to systematically investigate the clinical and biological significance of UBR5 and to conclude that an elevated UBR5 level plays an oncogenic role and may be a potential prognostic marker in CRC. PMID:29296225

  17. H2B ubiquitination: Conserved molecular mechanism, diverse physiologic functions of the E3 ligase during meiosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liying; Cao, Chunwei; Wang, Fang; Zhao, Jianguo; Li, Wei

    2017-09-03

    RNF20/Bre1 mediated H2B ubiquitination (H2Bub) has various physiologic functions. Recently, we found that H2Bub participates in meiotic recombination by promoting chromatin relaxation during meiosis. We then analyzed the phylogenetic relationships among the E3 ligase for H2Bub, its E2 Rad6 and their partner WW domain-containing adaptor with a coiled-coil (WAC) or Lge1, and found that the molecular mechanism underlying H2Bub is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to mammals. However, RNF20 has diverse physiologic functions in different organisms, which might be caused by the evolutionary divergency of their domain/motif architectures. In the current extra view, we not only elucidate the evolutionarily conserved molecular mechanism underlying H2Bub, but also discuss the diverse physiologic functions of RNF20 during meiosis.

  18. Identification of essential sequences for cellular localization in the muscle-specific ubiquitin E3 ligase MAFbx/Atrogin 1.

    PubMed

    Julie, Lagirand-Cantaloube; Sabrina, Batonnet-Pichon; Marie-Pierre, Leibovitch; Leibovitch, Serge A

    2012-02-17

    In skeletal muscle atrophy, upregulation and nuclear accumulation of the Ubiquitin E3 ligase MAFbx is essential for accelerated muscle protein loss, but the nuclear/cytoplasmic shuttling of MAFbx is undefined. Here we found that MAFbx contains two functional nuclear localization signals (NLS). Mutation or deletion of only one NLS induced cytoplasmic localization of MAFbx. We identified a non-classical NES located in the leucine charged domain (LCD) of MAFbx, which is leptomycin B insensitive. We demonstrated that mutation (L169Q) in LLXXL motif of LCD suppressed cytoplasmic retention of MAFbx. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of MAFbx represents a novel mechanism for targeting its substrates and its cytosolic partners in muscle atrophy. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. RNF8 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Stimulates Ubc13 E2 Conjugating Activity That Is Essential for DNA Double Strand Break Signaling and BRCA1 Tumor Suppressor Recruitment

    DOE PAGES

    Hodge, Curtis D.; Ismail, Ismail H.; Edwards, Ross A.; ...

    2016-02-22

    DNA double strand break (DSB) responses depend on the sequential actions of the E3 ubiquitin ligases RNF8 and RNF168 plus E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc13 to specifically generate histone Lys-63-linked ubiquitin chains in DSB signaling. In this paper, we defined the activated RNF8-Ubc13~ubiquitin complex by x-ray crystallography and its functional solution conformations by x-ray scattering, as tested by separation-of-function mutations imaged in cells by immunofluorescence. The collective results show that the RING E3 RNF8 targets E2 Ubc13 to DSB sites and plays a critical role in damage signaling by stimulating polyubiquitination through modulating conformations of ubiquitin covalently linked to the Ubc13more » active site. Structure-guided separation-of-function mutations show that the RNF8 E2 stimulating activity is essential for DSB signaling in mammalian cells and is necessary for downstream recruitment of 53BP1 and BRCA1. Chromatin-targeted RNF168 rescues 53BP1 recruitment involved in non-homologous end joining but not BRCA1 recruitment for homologous recombination. Finally, these findings suggest an allosteric approach to targeting the ubiquitin-docking cleft at the E2-E3 interface for possible interventions in cancer and chronic inflammation, and moreover, they establish an independent RNF8 role in BRCA1 recruitment.« less

  20. HDAC7 Ubiquitination by the E3 Ligase CBX4 Is Involved in Contextual Fear Conditioning Memory Formation.

    PubMed

    Jing, Xu; Sui, Wen-Hai; Wang, Shuai; Xu, Xu-Feng; Yuan, Rong-Rong; Chen, Xiao-Rong; Ma, Hui-Xian; Zhu, Ying-Xiao; Sun, Jin-Kai; Yi, Fan; Chen, Zhe-Yu; Wang, Yue

    2017-04-05

    Histone acetylation, an epigenetic modification, plays an important role in long-term memory formation. Recently, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors were demonstrated to promote memory formation, which raises the intriguing possibility that they may be used to rescue memory deficits. However, additional research is necessary to clarify the roles of individual HDACs in memory. In this study, we demonstrated that HDAC7, within the dorsal hippocampus of C57BL6J mice, had a late and persistent decrease after contextual fear conditioning (CFC) training (4-24 h), which was involved in long-term CFC memory formation. We also showed that HDAC7 decreased via ubiquitin-dependent degradation. CBX4 was one of the HDAC7 E3 ligases involved in this process. Nur77, as one of the target genes of HDAC7, increased 6-24 h after CFC training and, accordingly, modulated the formation of CFC memory. Finally, HDAC7 was involved in the formation of other hippocampal-dependent memories, including the Morris water maze and object location test. The current findings facilitate an understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of HDAC7 in the regulation of hippocampal-dependent memory. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The current findings demonstrated the effects of histone deacetylase 7 (HDAC7) on hippocampal-dependent memories. Moreover, we determined the mechanism of decreased HDAC7 in contextual fear conditioning (CFC) through ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation. We also verified that CBX4 was one of the HDAC7 E3 ligases. Finally, we demonstrated that Nur77, as one of the important targets for HDAC7, was involved in CFC memory formation. All of these proteins, including HDAC7, CBX4, and Nur77, could be potential therapeutic targets for preventing memory deficits in aging and neurological diseases. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/373848-16$15.00/0.

  1. TRIM5α requires Ube2W to anchor Lys63-linked ubiquitin chains and restrict reverse transcription

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Adam J; Christensen, Devin E; Nelson, Chad; Tan, Choon Ping; Schaller, Torsten; Lehner, Paul J; Sundquist, Wesley I; Towers, Greg J

    2015-01-01

    TRIM5α is an antiviral, cytoplasmic, E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase that assembles on incoming retroviral capsids and induces their premature dissociation. It inhibits reverse transcription of the viral genome and can also synthesize unanchored polyubiquitin (polyUb) chains to stimulate innate immune responses. Here, we show that TRIM5α employs the E2 Ub-conjugating enzyme Ube2W to anchor the Lys63-linked polyUb chains in a process of TRIM5α auto-ubiquitination. Chain anchoring is initiated, in cells and in vitro, through Ube2W-catalyzed monoubiquitination of TRIM5α. This modification serves as a substrate for the elongation of anchored Lys63-linked polyUb chains, catalyzed by the heterodimeric E2 enzyme Ube2N/Ube2V2. Ube2W targets multiple TRIM5α internal lysines with Ub especially lysines 45 and 50, rather than modifying the N-terminal amino group, which is instead αN-acetylated in cells. E2 depletion or Ub mutation inhibits TRIM5α ubiquitination in cells and restores restricted viral reverse transcription, but not infection. Our data indicate that the stepwise formation of anchored Lys63-linked polyUb is a critical early step in the TRIM5α restriction mechanism and identify the E2 Ub-conjugating cofactors involved. PMID:26101372

  2. Merkel cell polyomavirus small T antigen induces genome instability by E3 ubiquitin ligase targeting.

    PubMed

    Kwun, H J; Wendzicki, J A; Shuda, Y; Moore, P S; Chang, Y

    2017-12-07

    The formation of a bipolar mitotic spindle is an essential process for the equal segregation of duplicated DNA into two daughter cells during mitosis. As a result of deregulated cellular signaling pathways, cancer cells often suffer a loss of genome integrity that might etiologically contribute to carcinogenesis. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) small T (sT) oncoprotein induces centrosome overduplication, aneuploidy, chromosome breakage and the formation of micronuclei by targeting cellular ligases through a sT domain that also inhibits MCV large T oncoprotein turnover. These results provide important insight as to how centrosome number and chromosomal stability can be affected by the E3 ligase targeting capacity of viral oncoproteins such as MCV sT, which may contribute to Merkel cell carcinogenesis.

  3. Modulation of Phototropic Responsiveness in Arabidopsis through Ubiquitination of Phototropin 1 by the CUL3-Ring E3 Ubiquitin Ligase CRL3NPH3[W

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Diana; Pedmale, Ullas V.; Morrow, Johanna; Sachdev, Shrikesh; Lechner, Esther; Tang, Xiaobo; Zheng, Ning; Hannink, Mark; Genschik, Pascal; Liscum, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    Plant phototropism is an adaptive response to changes in light direction, quantity, and quality that results in optimization of photosynthetic light harvesting, as well as water and nutrient acquisition. Though several components of the phototropic signal response pathway have been identified in recent years, including the blue light (BL) receptors phototropin1 (phot1) and phot2, much remains unknown. Here, we show that the phot1-interacting protein NONPHOTOTROPIC HYPOCOTYL3 (NPH3) functions as a substrate adapter in a CULLIN3-based E3 ubiquitin ligase, CRL3NPH3. Under low-intensity BL, CRL3NPH3 mediates the mono/multiubiquitination of phot1, likely marking it for clathrin-dependent internalization from the plasma membrane. In high-intensity BL, phot1 is both mono/multi- and polyubiquitinated by CRL3NPH3, with the latter event targeting phot1 for 26S proteasome-mediated degradation. Polyubiquitination and subsequent degradation of phot1 under high-intensity BL likely represent means of receptor desensitization, while mono/multiubiquitination-stimulated internalization of phot1 may be coupled to BL-induced relocalization of hormone (auxin) transporters. PMID:21990941

  4. Modulation of phototropic responsiveness in Arabidopsis through ubiquitination of phototropin 1 by the CUL3-Ring E3 ubiquitin ligase CRL3(NPH3).

    PubMed

    Roberts, Diana; Pedmale, Ullas V; Morrow, Johanna; Sachdev, Shrikesh; Lechner, Esther; Tang, Xiaobo; Zheng, Ning; Hannink, Mark; Genschik, Pascal; Liscum, Emmanuel

    2011-10-01

    Plant phototropism is an adaptive response to changes in light direction, quantity, and quality that results in optimization of photosynthetic light harvesting, as well as water and nutrient acquisition. Though several components of the phototropic signal response pathway have been identified in recent years, including the blue light (BL) receptors phototropin1 (phot1) and phot2, much remains unknown. Here, we show that the phot1-interacting protein NONPHOTOTROPIC HYPOCOTYL3 (NPH3) functions as a substrate adapter in a CULLIN3-based E3 ubiquitin ligase, CRL3(NPH3). Under low-intensity BL, CRL3(NPH3) mediates the mono/multiubiquitination of phot1, likely marking it for clathrin-dependent internalization from the plasma membrane. In high-intensity BL, phot1 is both mono/multi- and polyubiquitinated by CRL3(NPH3), with the latter event targeting phot1 for 26S proteasome-mediated degradation. Polyubiquitination and subsequent degradation of phot1 under high-intensity BL likely represent means of receptor desensitization, while mono/multiubiquitination-stimulated internalization of phot1 may be coupled to BL-induced relocalization of hormone (auxin) transporters.

  5. Insights into Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase recruitment: structure of the VHL-EloBC-Cul2 complex.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Henry C; Yang, Haitao; Fribourgh, Jennifer L; Wolfe, Leslie S; Xiong, Yong

    2015-03-03

    The von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein (VHL) recruits a Cullin 2 (Cul2) E3 ubiquitin ligase to downregulate HIF-1α, an essential transcription factor for the hypoxia response. Mutations in VHL lead to VHL disease and renal cell carcinomas. Inhibition of this pathway to upregulate erythropoietin production is a promising new therapy to treat ischemia and chronic anemia. Here, we report the crystal structure of VHL bound to a Cul2 N-terminal domain, Elongin B, and Elongin C (EloC). Cul2 interacts with both the VHL BC box and cullin box and a novel EloC site. Comparison with other cullin E3 ligase structures shows that there is a conserved, yet flexible, cullin recognition module and that cullin selectivity is influenced by distinct electrostatic interactions. Our structure provides a structural basis for the study of the pathogenesis of VHL disease and rationale for the design of novel compounds that may modulate cullin-substrate receptor interactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Direct Role for Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen in Substrate Recognition by the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase CRL4Cdt2*

    PubMed Central

    Havens, Courtney G.; Shobnam, Nadia; Guarino, Estrella; Centore, Richard C.; Zou, Lee; Kearsey, Stephen E.; Walter, Johannes C.

    2012-01-01

    The E3 ubiquitin ligase Cullin-ring ligase 4-Cdt2 (CRL4Cdt2) is emerging as an important cell cycle regulator that targets numerous proteins for destruction in S phase and after DNA damage, including Cdt1, p21, and Set8. CRL4Cdt2 substrates contain a “PIP degron,” which consists of a canonical proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) interaction motif (PIP box) and an adjacent basic amino acid. Substrates use their PIP box to form a binary complex with PCNA on chromatin and the basic residue to recruit CRL4Cdt2 for substrate ubiquitylation. Using Xenopus egg extracts, we identify an acidic residue in PCNA that is essential to support destruction of all CRL4Cdt2 substrates. This PCNA residue, which adjoins the basic amino acid of the bound PIP degron, is dispensable for substrate binding to PCNA but essential for CRL4Cdt2 recruitment to chromatin. Our data show that the interaction of CRL4Cdt2 with substrates requires molecular determinants not only in the substrate degron but also on PCNA. The results illustrate a potentially general mechanism by which E3 ligases can couple ubiquitylation to the formation of protein-protein interactions. PMID:22303007

  7. The Replisome-Coupled E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Rtt101Mms22 Counteracts Mrc1 Function to Tolerate Genotoxic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Melnik, Andre; Wilson-Zbinden, Caroline; Schellhaas, René; Kastner, Lisa; Piwko, Wojciech; Dees, Martina; Picotti, Paola; Maric, Marija; Labib, Karim; Luke, Brian; Peter, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Faithful DNA replication and repair requires the activity of cullin 4-based E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRL4), but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The budding yeast Cul4 homologue, Rtt101, in complex with the linker Mms1 and the putative substrate adaptor Mms22 promotes progression of replication forks through damaged DNA. Here we characterized the interactome of Mms22 and found that the Rtt101Mms22 ligase associates with the replisome progression complex during S-phase via the amino-terminal WD40 domain of Ctf4. Moreover, genetic screening for suppressors of the genotoxic sensitivity of rtt101Δ cells identified a cluster of replication proteins, among them a component of the fork protection complex, Mrc1. In contrast to rtt101Δ and mms22Δ cells, mrc1Δ rtt101Δ and mrc1Δ mms22Δ double mutants complete DNA replication upon replication stress by facilitating the repair/restart of stalled replication forks using a Rad52-dependent mechanism. Our results suggest that the Rtt101Mms22 E3 ligase does not induce Mrc1 degradation, but specifically counteracts Mrc1’s replicative function, possibly by modulating its interaction with the CMG (Cdc45-MCM-GINS) complex at stalled forks. PMID:26849847

  8. Ubiquitin C-terminal electrophiles are activity-based probes for identification and mechanistic study of ubiquitin conjugating machinery.

    PubMed

    Love, Kerry Routenberg; Pandya, Renuka K; Spooner, Eric; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2009-04-17

    Protein modification by ubiquitin (Ub) and ubiquitin-like modifiers (Ubl) requires the action of activating (E1), conjugating (E2), and ligating (E3) enzymes and is a key step in the specific destruction of proteins. Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) deconjugate substrates modified with Ub/Ubl's and recycle Ub inside the cell. Genome mining based on sequence homology to proteins with known function has assigned many enzymes to this pathway without confirmation of either conjugating or DUB activity. Function-dependent methodologies are still the most useful for rapid identification or assessment of biological activity of expressed proteins from cells. Activity-based protein profiling uses chemical probes that are active-site-directed for the classification of protein activities in complex mixtures. Here we show that the design and use of an expanded set of Ub-based electrophilic probes allowed us to recover and identify members of each enzyme class in the ubiquitin-proteasome system, including E3 ligases and DUBs with previously unverified activity. We show that epitope-tagged Ub-electrophilic probes can be used as activity-based probes for E3 ligase identification by in vitro labeling and activity studies of purified enzymes identified from complex mixtures in cell lysate. Furthermore, the reactivity of our probe with the HECT domain of the E3 Ub ligase ARF-BP1 suggests that multiple cysteines may be in the vicinity of the E2-binding site and are capable of the transfer of Ub to self or to a substrate protein.

  9. Shigella IpaH7.8 E3 ubiquitin ligase targets glomulin and activates inflammasomes to demolish macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shiho; Mimuro, Hitomi; Kim, Minsoo; Ogawa, Michinaga; Ashida, Hiroshi; Toyotome, Takahito; Franchi, Luigi; Suzuki, Masato; Sanada, Takahito; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Tsutsui, Hiroko; Núñez, Gabriel; Sasakawa, Chihiro

    2014-01-01

    When nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain–like receptors (NLRs) sense cytosolic-invading bacteria, they induce the formation of inflammasomes and initiate an innate immune response. In quiescent cells, inflammasome activity is tightly regulated to prevent excess inflammation and cell death. Many bacterial pathogens provoke inflammasome activity and induce inflammatory responses, including cell death, by delivering type III secreted effectors, the rod component flagellin, and toxins. Recent studies indicated that Shigella deploy multiple mechanisms to stimulate NLR inflammasomes through type III secretion during infection. Here, we show that Shigella induces rapid macrophage cell death by delivering the invasion plasmid antigen H7.8 (IpaH7.8) enzyme 3 (E3) ubiquitin ligase effector via the type III secretion system, thereby activating the NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) and NLR family CARD domain-containing 4 (NLRC4) inflammasomes and caspase-1 and leading to macrophage cell death in an IpaH7.8 E3 ligase-dependent manner. Mice infected with Shigella possessing IpaH7.8, but not with Shigella possessing an IpaH7.8 E3 ligase-null mutant, exhibited enhanced bacterial multiplication. We defined glomulin/flagellar-associated protein 68 (GLMN) as an IpaH7.8 target involved in IpaH7.8 E3 ligase-dependent inflammasome activation. This protein originally was identified through its association with glomuvenous malformations and more recently was described as a member of a Cullin ring ligase inhibitor. Modifying GLMN levels through overexpression or knockdown led to reduced or augmented inflammasome activation, respectively. Macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide/ATP induced GLMN puncta that localized with the active form of caspase-1. Macrophages from GLMN+/− mice were more responsive to inflammasome activation than those from GLMN+/+ mice. Together, these results highlight a unique bacterial adaptation that hijacks inflammasome activation via

  10. The Arabidopsis E3 Ubiquitin Ligase HOS1 Negatively Regulates CONSTANS Abundance in the Photoperiodic Control of Flowering[W

    PubMed Central

    Lazaro, Ana; Valverde, Federico; Piñeiro, Manuel; Jarillo, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana early in short days6 (esd6) mutant was isolated in a screen for mutations that accelerate flowering time. Among other developmental alterations, esd6 displays early flowering in both long- and short-day conditions. Fine mapping of the mutation showed that the esd6 phenotype is caused by a lesion in the HIGH EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPONSIVE GENES1 (HOS1) locus, which encodes a RING finger–containing E3 ubiquitin ligase. The esd6/hos1 mutation causes decreased FLOWERING LOCUS C expression and requires CONSTANS (CO) protein for its early flowering phenotype under long days. Moreover, CO and HOS1 physically interact in vitro and in planta, and HOS1 regulates CO abundance, particularly during the daylight period. Accordingly, hos1 causes a shift in the regular long-day pattern of expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) transcript, starting to rise 4 h after dawn in the mutant. In addition, HOS1 interacts synergistically with CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1, another regulator of CO protein stability, in the regulation of flowering time. Taken together, these results indicate that HOS1 is involved in the control of CO abundance, ensuring that CO activation of FT occurs only when the light period reaches a certain length and preventing precocious flowering in Arabidopsis. PMID:22408073

  11. E3 ubiquitin ligase Pirh2 enhances tumorigenic properties of human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Fedorova, Olga; Shuvalov, Oleg; Merkulov, Valeriy; Vasileva, Elena; Antonov, Alexey; Barlev, Nikolai A.

    2016-01-01

    The product of RCHY1 human gene, Pirh2, is a RING-finger containing E3 ligase that modifies p53 with ubiquitin residues resulting in its subsequent degradation in proteasomes. Transcription of RCHY1 is regulated by p53 itself thus forming a negative regulatory feedback loop. Functionally, by eliminating p53, Pirh2 facilitates tumorigenesis. However, the role of Pirh2 in cancer cells lacking p53 is yet not well understood. Therefore, we decided to elucidate the role of Pirh2 in p53-negative human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells, H1299. We found that ectopic expression of Pirh2 enhanced cell proliferation, resistance to doxorubicin, and increased migration potential. Ablation of Pirh2 by specific shRNA reversed these phenotypes. Mechanistically, Pirh2 increased mRNA and protein levels of the c-Myc oncogene. The bioinformatics data indicate that co-expression of both c-Myc and Pirh2 strongly correlated with poor survival of lung cancer patients. Collectively, our results suggest that Pirh2 can be considered as a potential pharmacological target for developing anticancer therapies to treat p53-negative cancers. PMID:28191284

  12. The E3 Ubiquitin Ligase MIB-1 Is Necessary To Form the Nuclear Halo in Caenorhabditis elegans Sperm.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Leslie A; Starr, Daniel A

    2018-05-18

    Unlike the classical nuclear envelope with two membranes found in other eukaryotic cells, most nematode sperm nuclei are not encapsulated by membranes. Instead, they are surrounded by a nuclear halo of unknown composition. How the halo is formed and regulated is unknown. We used forward genetics to identify molecular lesions behind three classical fer (fertilization defective) mutations that disrupt the ultrastructure of the Caenorhabditis elegans sperm nuclear halo. We found fer-2 and fer-4 alleles to be nonsense mutations in mib-1. fer-3 was caused by a nonsense mutation in eri-3 GFP::MIB-1 was expressed in the germline during early spermatogenesis, but not in mature sperm. mib-1 encodes a conserved E3 ubiquitin ligase homologous to vertebrate Mib1 and Mib2, which function in Notch signaling. Here, we show that mib-1 is important for male sterility and is involved in the regulation or formation of the nuclear halo during nematode spermatogenesis. Copyright © 2018, G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics.

  13. LOSS OF JAK2 REGULATION VIA VHL-SOCS1 E3 UBIQUITIN HETEROCOMPLEX UNDERLIES CHUVASH POLYCYTHEMIA

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Ryan C.; Sufan, Roxana I.; Zhou, Bing; Heir, Pardeep; Bunda, Severa; Sybingco, Stephanie S.; Greer, Samantha N.; Roche, Olga; Heathcote, Samuel A.; Chow, Vinca W.K.; Boba, Lukasz M.; Richmond, Terri D.; Hickey, Michele M.; Barber, Dwayne L.; Cheresh, David A.; Simon, M. Celeste; Irwin, Meredith S.; Kim, William Y.; Ohh, Michael

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Chuvash polycythemia (CP) is a rare congenital form of polycythemia caused by homozygous R200W and H191D mutations in the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene whose gene product is the principal negative regulator of hypoxia-inducible factor. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying some of the hallmark features of CP such as hypersensitivity to erythropoietin are unclear. Here, we show that VHL directly binds suppressor of cytokine signalling 1 (SOCS1) to form a heterodimeric E3 ligase that targets phosphorylated (p)JAK2 for ubiquitin-mediated destruction. In contrast, CP-associated VHL mutants have altered affinity for SOCS1 and fail to engage and degrade pJAK2. Systemic administration of a highly selective JAK2 inhibitor, TG101209, reverses the disease phenotype in vhlR200W/R200W knock-in mice, a model that faithfully recapitulates human CP. These results reveal VHL as a SOCS1-cooperative negative regulator of JAK2 and provide compelling biochemical and preclinical evidence for JAK2- targeted therapy in CP patients. PMID:21685897

  14. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4/Nedd4L is directly regulated by microRNA 1

    PubMed Central

    Heidersbach, Amy; Kathiriya, Irfan S.; Garay, Bayardo I.; Ivey, Kathryn N.

    2017-01-01

    miR-1 is a small noncoding RNA molecule that modulates gene expression in heart and skeletal muscle. Loss of Drosophila miR-1 produces defects in somatic muscle and embryonic heart development, which have been partly attributed to miR-1 directly targeting Delta to decrease Notch signaling. Here, we show that overexpression of miR-1 in the fly wing can paradoxically increase Notch activity independently of its effects on Delta. Analyses of potential miR-1 targets revealed that miR-1 directly regulates the 3′UTR of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4. Analysis of embryonic and adult fly heart revealed that the Nedd4 protein regulates heart development in Drosophila. Larval fly hearts overexpressing miR-1 have profound defects in actin filament organization that are partially rescued by concurrent overexpression of Nedd4. These results indicate that miR-1 and Nedd4 act together in the formation and actin-dependent patterning of the fly heart. Importantly, we have found that the biochemical and genetic relationship between miR-1 and the mammalian ortholog Nedd4-like (Nedd4l) is evolutionarily conserved in the mammalian heart, potentially indicating a role for Nedd4L in mammalian postnatal maturation. Thus, miR-1-mediated regulation of Nedd4/Nedd4L expression may serve to broadly modulate the trafficking or degradation of Nedd4/Nedd4L substrates in the heart. PMID:28246214

  15. Hydrogen peroxide stimulates ubiquitin-conjugating activity and expression of genes for specific E2 and E3 proteins in skeletal muscle myotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Yi-Ping; Chen, Yuling; Li, Andrew S.; Reid, Michael B.

    2003-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are thought to promote muscle atrophy in chronic wasting diseases, but the underlying mechanism has not been determined. Here we show that H2O2 stimulates ubiquitin conjugation to muscle proteins through transcriptional regulation of the enzymes (E2 and E3 proteins) that conjugate ubiquitin to muscle proteins. Incubation of C2C12 myotubes with 100 microM H2O2 increased the rate of 125I-labeled ubiquitin conjugation to muscle proteins in whole cell extracts. This response required at least 4-h exposure to H2O2 and persisted for at least 24 h. Preincubating myotubes with cycloheximide or actinomycin D blocked H2O2 stimulation of ubiquitin-conjugating activity, suggesting that gene transcription is required. Northern blot analyses revealed that H2O2 upregulates expression of specific E3 and E2 proteins that are thought to regulate muscle catabolism, including atrogin1/MAFbx, MuRF1, and E214k. These results suggest that ROS stimulate protein catabolism in skeletal muscle by upregulating the ubiquitin conjugation system.

  16. Genetically engineered mouse models for functional studies of SKP1-CUL1-F-box-protein (SCF) E3 ubiquitin ligases.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weihua; Wei, Wenyi; Sun, Yi

    2013-05-01

    The SCF (SKP1 (S-phase-kinase-associated protein 1), Cullin-1, F-box protein) E3 ubiquitin ligases, the founding member of Cullin-RING ligases (CRLs), are the largest family of E3 ubiquitin ligases in mammals. Each individual SCF E3 ligase consists of one adaptor protein SKP1, one scaffold protein cullin-1 (the first family member of the eight cullins), one F-box protein out of 69 family members, and one out of two RING (Really Interesting New Gene) family proteins RBX1/ROC1 or RBX2/ROC2/SAG/RNF7. Various combinations of these four components construct a large number of SCF E3s that promote the degradation of many key regulatory proteins in cell-context, temporally, and spatially dependent manners, thus controlling precisely numerous important cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, gene transcription, signal transduction, DNA replication, maintenance of genome integrity, and tumorigenesis. To understand how the SCF E3 ligases regulate these cellular processes and embryonic development under in vivo physiological conditions, a number of mouse models with transgenic (Tg) expression or targeted deletion of components of SCF have been established and characterized. In this review, we will provide a brief introduction to the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligases, followed by a comprehensive overview on the existing Tg and knockout (KO) mouse models of the SCF E3s, and discuss the role of each component in mouse embryogenesis, cell proliferation, apoptosis, carcinogenesis, as well as other pathogenic processes associated with human diseases. We will end with a brief discussion on the future directions of this research area and the potential applications of the knowledge gained to more effective therapeutic interventions of human diseases.

  17. Investigation of the intermolecular recognition mechanism between the E3 ubiquitin ligase Keap1 and substrate based on multiple substrates analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zheng-Yu; Xu, Li-Li; Lu, Meng-Chen; Pan, Yang; Huang, Hao-Ze; Zhang, Xiao-Jin; Sun, Hao-Peng; You, Qi-Dong

    2014-12-01

    E3 ubiquitin ligases are attractive drug targets due to their specificity to the ubiquitin machinery. However, the development of E3 ligase inhibitors has proven challenging for the fact that they must disrupt protein-protein interactions (PPIs). The E3 ligase involved in interactome provide new hope for the discovery of the E3 ligase inhibitors. These currently known natural binding partners of the E3 ligase can benefit the discovery of other unknown substrates and also the E3 ligase inhibitors. Herein, we present a novel strategy that using multiple substrates to elucidate the molecular recognition mechanism of E3 ubiquitin ligase. Molecular dynamics simulation, molecular mechanics-generalized born surface area (MM-GBSA) binding energy calculation and energy decomposition scheme were incorporated to evaluate the quantitative contributions of sub-pocket and per-residue to binding. In this case, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1 (Keap1), a substrate adaptor component of the Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases complex, is applied for the investigation of how it recognize its substrates, especially Nrf2, a master regulator of the antioxidant response. By analyzing multiple substrates binding determinants, we found that both the polar sub-pockets (P1 and P2) and the nonpolar sub-pockets (P4 and P5) of Keap1 can make remarkable contributions to intermolecular interactions. This finding stresses the requirement for substrates to interact with the polar and nonpolar sub-pockets simultaneously. The results discussed in this paper not only show the binding determinants of the Keap1 substrates but also provide valuable implications for both Keap1 substrate discovery and PPI inhibitor design.

  18. Investigation of the intermolecular recognition mechanism between the E3 ubiquitin ligase Keap1 and substrate based on multiple substrates analysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zheng-Yu; Xu, Li-Li; Lu, Meng-Chen; Pan, Yang; Huang, Hao-Ze; Zhang, Xiao-Jin; Sun, Hao-Peng; You, Qi-Dong

    2014-12-01

    E3 ubiquitin ligases are attractive drug targets due to their specificity to the ubiquitin machinery. However, the development of E3 ligase inhibitors has proven challenging for the fact that they must disrupt protein-protein interactions (PPIs). The E3 ligase involved in interactome provide new hope for the discovery of the E3 ligase inhibitors. These currently known natural binding partners of the E3 ligase can benefit the discovery of other unknown substrates and also the E3 ligase inhibitors. Herein, we present a novel strategy that using multiple substrates to elucidate the molecular recognition mechanism of E3 ubiquitin ligase. Molecular dynamics simulation, molecular mechanics-generalized born surface area (MM-GBSA) binding energy calculation and energy decomposition scheme were incorporated to evaluate the quantitative contributions of sub-pocket and per-residue to binding. In this case, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1 (Keap1), a substrate adaptor component of the Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases complex, is applied for the investigation of how it recognize its substrates, especially Nrf2, a master regulator of the antioxidant response. By analyzing multiple substrates binding determinants, we found that both the polar sub-pockets (P1 and P2) and the nonpolar sub-pockets (P4 and P5) of Keap1 can make remarkable contributions to intermolecular interactions. This finding stresses the requirement for substrates to interact with the polar and nonpolar sub-pockets simultaneously. The results discussed in this paper not only show the binding determinants of the Keap1 substrates but also provide valuable implications for both Keap1 substrate discovery and PPI inhibitor design.

  19. The E3 ubiquitin ligase NEDD4 mediates cell migration signaling of EGFR in lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shao, Genbao; Wang, Ranran; Sun, Aiqin; Wei, Jing; Peng, Ke; Dai, Qian; Yang, Wannian; Lin, Qiong

    2018-02-19

    EGFR-dependent cell migration plays an important role in lung cancer progression. Our previous study observed that the HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase NEDD4 is significantly correlated with tumor metastasis and required for migration and invasion signaling of EGFR in gastric cancer cells. However, how NEDD4 promotes the EGFR-dependent lung cancer cell migration is unknown. This study is to elucidate the mechanism by which NEDD4 mediates the EGFR lung cancer migration signaling. Lentiviral vector-loaded NEDD4 shRNA was used to deplete endogenous NEDD4 in lung cancer cell lines. Effects of the NEDD4 knockdown on the EGFR-dependent or independent lung cancer cell migration were determined using the wound-healing and transwell assays. Association of NEDD4 with activated EGFR was assayed by co-immunoprecipitation. Co-expression of NEDD4 with EGFR or PTEN was determined by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining in 63 lung adenocarcinoma tissue samples. Effects of NEDD4 ectopic expression or knockdown on PTEN ubiquitination and down-regulation, AKT activation and lysosomal secretion were examined using the GST-Uba pulldown assay, immunoblotting, immunofluorescent staining and a human cathepsin B ELISA assay respectively. The specific cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074Me was used for assessing the role of cathepsin B in lung cancer cell migration. Knockdown of NEDD4 significantly reduced EGF-stimulated cell migration in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells. Co-immunoprecipitation assay found that NEDD4 is associated with EGFR complex upon EGF stimulation, and IHC staining indicates that NEDD4 is co-expressed with EGFR in lung adenocarcinoma tumor tissues, suggesting that NEDD4 might mediate lung cancer cell migration by interaction with the EGFR signaling complex. Interestingly, NEDD4 promotes the EGF-induced cathepsin B secretion, possibly through lysosomal exocytosis, as overexpression of the ligase-dead mutant of NEDD4 impedes lysosomal secretion, and knockdown of NEDD4

  20. The HIP2~Ubiquitin Conjugate Forms a Non-Compact Monomeric Thioester during Di-Ubiquitin Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Benjamin W.; Barber, Kathryn R.; Shilton, Brian H.

    2015-03-23

    Polyubiquitination is a post-translational event used to control the degradation of damaged or unwanted proteins by modifying the target protein with a chain of ubiquitin molecules. One potential mechanism for the assembly of polyubiquitin chains involves the dimerization of an E2 conjugating enzyme allowing conjugated ubiquitin molecules to be put into close proximity to assist reactivity. HIP2 (UBE2K) and Ubc1 (yeast homolog of UBE2K) are unique E2 conjugating enzymes that each contain a C-terminal UBA domain attached to their catalytic domains, and they have basal E3-independent polyubiquitination activity. Although the isolated enzymes are monomeric, polyubiquitin formation activity assays show thatmore » both can act as ubiquitin donors or ubiquitin acceptors when in the activated thioester conjugate suggesting dimerization of the E2-ubiquitin conjugates. Stable disulfide complexes, analytical ultracentrifugation and small angle x-ray scattering were used to show that the HIP2-Ub and Ubc1-Ub thioester complexes remain predominantly monomeric in solution. Models of the HIP2-Ub complex derived from SAXS data show the complex is not compact but instead forms an open or backbent conformation similar to UbcH5b~Ub or Ubc13~Ub where the UBA domain and covalently attached ubiquitin reside on opposite ends of the catalytic domain. Activity assays showed that full length HIP2 exhibited a five-fold increase in the formation rate of di-ubiquitin compared to a HIP2 lacking the UBA domain. This difference was not observed for Ubc1 and may be attributed to the closer proximity of the UBA domain in HIP2 to the catalytic core than for Ubc1.« less

  1. The role of hybrid ubiquitin chains in the MyD88 and other innate immune signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Philip; Strickson, Sam

    2017-07-01

    The adaptor protein MyD88 is required for signal transmission by toll-like receptors and receptors of the interleukin-1 family of cytokines. MyD88 signalling triggers the formation of Lys63-linked and Met1-linked ubiquitin (K63-Ub, M1-Ub) chains within minutes. The K63-Ub chains, which are formed by the E3 ubiquitin ligases TRAF6, Pellino1 and Pellino2, activate TAK1, the master kinase that switches on mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades and initiates activation of the canonical IκB kinase (IKK) complex. The M1-Ub chains, which are formed by the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), bind to the NEMO (NF-κB essential modulator) component of the IKK complex and are required for TAK1 to activate IKKs, but not MAP kinases. An essential E3 ligase-independent role of TRAF6 is to recruit LUBAC into the MyD88 signalling complex, where it recognises preformed K63-Ub chains attached to protein components of these complexes, such as IRAK1 (IL-1 receptor-associated kinase), producing ubiquitin chains containing both types of linkage, termed K63/M1-Ub hybrids. The formation of K63/M1-Ub hybrids, which is a feature of several innate immune signalling pathways, permits the co-recruitment of proteins that interact with either K63-Ub or M1-Ub chains. Two likely roles for K63/M1-Ub hybrids are to facilitate the TAK1-dependent activation of the IKK complex and to prevent the hyperactivation of these kinases by recruiting A20 and A20-binding inhibitor of NF-κB1 (ABIN1). These proteins restrict activation of the TAK1 and IKK complexes, probably by competing with them for binding to K63/M1-Ub hybrids. The formation of K63/M1-Ub hybrids may also regulate the rate at which the ubiquitin linkages in these chains are hydrolysed. The IKK-catalysed phosphorylation of some of its substrates permits their recognition by the E3 ligase SCF βTRCP , leading to their Lys48-linked ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. Innate immune signalling is therefore controlled

  2. The role of hybrid ubiquitin chains in the MyD88 and other innate immune signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Philip; Strickson, Sam

    2017-01-01

    The adaptor protein MyD88 is required for signal transmission by toll-like receptors and receptors of the interleukin-1 family of cytokines. MyD88 signalling triggers the formation of Lys63-linked and Met1-linked ubiquitin (K63-Ub, M1-Ub) chains within minutes. The K63-Ub chains, which are formed by the E3 ubiquitin ligases TRAF6, Pellino1 and Pellino2, activate TAK1, the master kinase that switches on mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades and initiates activation of the canonical IκB kinase (IKK) complex. The M1-Ub chains, which are formed by the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), bind to the NEMO (NF-κB essential modulator) component of the IKK complex and are required for TAK1 to activate IKKs, but not MAP kinases. An essential E3 ligase-independent role of TRAF6 is to recruit LUBAC into the MyD88 signalling complex, where it recognises preformed K63-Ub chains attached to protein components of these complexes, such as IRAK1 (IL-1 receptor-associated kinase), producing ubiquitin chains containing both types of linkage, termed K63/M1-Ub hybrids. The formation of K63/M1-Ub hybrids, which is a feature of several innate immune signalling pathways, permits the co-recruitment of proteins that interact with either K63-Ub or M1-Ub chains. Two likely roles for K63/M1-Ub hybrids are to facilitate the TAK1-dependent activation of the IKK complex and to prevent the hyperactivation of these kinases by recruiting A20 and A20-binding inhibitor of NF-κB1 (ABIN1). These proteins restrict activation of the TAK1 and IKK complexes, probably by competing with them for binding to K63/M1-Ub hybrids. The formation of K63/M1-Ub hybrids may also regulate the rate at which the ubiquitin linkages in these chains are hydrolysed. The IKK-catalysed phosphorylation of some of its substrates permits their recognition by the E3 ligase SCFβTRCP, leading to their Lys48-linked ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. Innate immune signalling is therefore controlled by

  3. Mutations of E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Cbl Family Members Constitute a Novel Common Pathogenic Lesion in Myeloid Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Makishima, Hideki; Cazzolli, Heather; Szpurka, Hadrian; Dunbar, Andrew; Tiu, Ramon; Huh, Jungwon; Muramatsu, Hideki; O'Keefe, Christine; Hsi, Eric; Paquette, Ronald L.; Kojima, Seiji; List, Alan F.; Sekeres, Mikkael A.; McDevitt, Michael A.; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw P.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Acquired somatic uniparental disomy (UPD) is commonly observed in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN), or secondary acute myelogenous leukemia (sAML) and may point toward genes harboring mutations. Recurrent UPD11q led to identification of homozygous mutations in c-Cbl, an E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in attenuation of proliferative signals transduced by activated receptor tyrosine kinases. We examined the role and frequency of Cbl gene family mutations in MPN and related conditions. Methods We applied high-density SNP-A karyotyping to identify loss of heterozygosity of 11q in 442 patients with MDS, MDS/MPN, MPN, sAML evolved from these conditions, and primary AML. We sequenced c-Cbl, Cbl-b, and Cbl-c in patients with or without corresponding UPD or deletions and correlated mutational status with clinical features and outcomes. Results We identified c-Cbl mutations in 5% and 9% of patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) and sAML, and also in CML blast crisis and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). Most mutations were homozygous and affected c-Cbl; mutations in Cbl-b were also found in patients with similar clinical features. Patients with Cbl family mutations showed poor prognosis, with a median survival of 5 months. Pathomorphologic features included monocytosis, monocytoid blasts, aberrant expression of phosphoSTAT5, and c-kit overexpression. Serial studies showed acquisition of c-Cbl mutations during malignant evolution. Conclusion Mutations in the Cbl family RING finger domain or linker sequence constitute important pathogenic lesions associated with not only preleukemic CMML, JMML, and other MPN, but also progression to AML, suggesting that impairment of degradation of activated tyrosine kinases constitutes an important cancer mechanism. PMID:19901108

  4. Glucocorticoids Induce Bone and Muscle Atrophy by Tissue-Specific Mechanisms Upstream of E3 Ubiquitin Ligases

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Amy Y.; Richardson, Danielle; Cregor, Meloney; Davis, Hannah M.; Au, Ernie D.; McAndrews, Kevin; Zimmers, Teresa A.; Organ, Jason M.; Peacock, Munro; Plotkin, Lilian I.

    2017-01-01

    Glucocorticoid excess, either endogenous with diseases of the adrenal gland, stress, or aging or when administered for immunosuppression, induces bone and muscle loss, leading to osteopenia and sarcopenia. Muscle weakness increases the propensity for falling, which, combined with the lower bone mass, increases the fracture risk. The mechanisms underlying glucocorticoid-induced bone and muscle atrophy are not completely understood. We have demonstrated that the loss of bone and muscle mass, decreased bone formation, and reduced muscle strength, hallmarks of glucocorticoid excess, are accompanied by upregulation in both tissues in vivo of the atrophy-related genes atrogin1, MuRF1, and MUSA1. These are E3 ubiquitin ligases traditionally considered muscle-specific. Glucocorticoids also upregulated atrophy genes in cultured osteoblastic/osteocytic cells, in ex vivo bone organ cultures, and in muscle organ cultures and C2C12 myoblasts/myotubes. Furthermore, glucocorticoids markedly increased the expression of components of the Notch signaling pathway in muscle in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro. In contrast, glucocorticoids did not increase Notch signaling in bone or bone cells. Moreover, the increased expression of atrophy-related genes in muscle, but not in bone, and the decreased myotube diameter induced by glucocorticoids were prevented by inhibiting Notch signaling. Thus, glucocorticoids activate different mechanisms in bone and muscle that upregulate atrophy-related genes. However, the role of these genes in the effects of glucocorticoids in bone is unknown. Nevertheless, these findings advance our knowledge of the mechanism of action of glucocorticoids in the musculoskeletal system and provide the basis for novel therapies to prevent glucocorticoid-induced atrophy of bone and muscle. PMID:28359087

  5. [Ubiquitin-proteasome system and sperm DNA repair: An update].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Wei; Cai, Hong-Cai; Shang, Xue-Jun

    2016-09-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is a proteasome system widely present in the human body, which is composed of ubiquitin (Ub), ubiquitin activating enzymes (E1), ubiquitin conjugating enzymes (E2), ubiquitin protein ligases (E3), 26S proteasome, and deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) and involved in cell cycle regulation, immune response, signal transduction, DNA repair as well as protein degradation. Sperm DNA is vulnerable to interference or damage in the progression of chromosome association and homologous recombination. Recent studies show that UPS participates in DNA repair in spermatogenesis by modulating DNA repair enzymes via ubiquitination, assisting in the identification of DNA damage sites, raising damage repair-related proteins, initiating the DNA repair pathway, maintaining chromosome stability, and ensuring the normal process of spermatogenesis.

  6. Dual Function of Phosphoubiquitin in E3 Activation of Parkin*

    PubMed Central

    Walinda, Erik; Morimoto, Daichi; Sugase, Kenji; Shirakawa, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding parkin, an auto-inhibited E3 ubiquitin ligase that functions in the clearance of damaged mitochondria, are the most common cause of autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinsonism. The mechanism regulating parkin activation remains poorly understood. Here we show, by using isothermal titration calorimetry, solution NMR, and fluorescence spectroscopy, that parkin can bind ubiquitin and phosphomimetic ubiquitin by recognizing the canonical hydrophobic patch and C terminus of ubiquitin. The affinity of parkin for both phosphomimetic and unmodified ubiquitin is markedly enhanced upon removal of the ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain of parkin. This suggests that the agonistic binding of ubiquitin to parkin in trans is counterbalanced by the antagonistic activity of the parkin UBL domain in cis. Intriguingly, UBL binding is enthalpy-driven, whereas ubiquitin binding is driven by an increase in the total entropy of the system. These thermodynamic differences are explained by different chemistry in the ubiquitin- and UBL-binding pockets of parkin and, as shown by molecular dynamics simulations, are not a consequence of changes in protein conformational entropy. Indeed, comparison of conformational fluctuations reveals that the RING1-IBR element becomes considerably more rigid upon complex formation. A model of parkin activation is proposed in which E2∼Ub binding triggers large scale diffusional motion of the RING2 domain toward the ubiquitin-stabilized RING1-IBR assembly to complete formation of the active parkin-E2∼Ub transfer complex. Thus, ubiquitin plays a dual role in parkin activation by competing with the inhibitory UBL domain and stabilizing the active form of parkin. PMID:27284007

  7. Dual Function of Phosphoubiquitin in E3 Activation of Parkin.

    PubMed

    Walinda, Erik; Morimoto, Daichi; Sugase, Kenji; Shirakawa, Masahiro

    2016-08-05

    Mutations in the gene encoding parkin, an auto-inhibited E3 ubiquitin ligase that functions in the clearance of damaged mitochondria, are the most common cause of autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinsonism. The mechanism regulating parkin activation remains poorly understood. Here we show, by using isothermal titration calorimetry, solution NMR, and fluorescence spectroscopy, that parkin can bind ubiquitin and phosphomimetic ubiquitin by recognizing the canonical hydrophobic patch and C terminus of ubiquitin. The affinity of parkin for both phosphomimetic and unmodified ubiquitin is markedly enhanced upon removal of the ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain of parkin. This suggests that the agonistic binding of ubiquitin to parkin in trans is counterbalanced by the antagonistic activity of the parkin UBL domain in cis Intriguingly, UBL binding is enthalpy-driven, whereas ubiquitin binding is driven by an increase in the total entropy of the system. These thermodynamic differences are explained by different chemistry in the ubiquitin- and UBL-binding pockets of parkin and, as shown by molecular dynamics simulations, are not a consequence of changes in protein conformational entropy. Indeed, comparison of conformational fluctuations reveals that the RING1-IBR element becomes considerably more rigid upon complex formation. A model of parkin activation is proposed in which E2∼Ub binding triggers large scale diffusional motion of the RING2 domain toward the ubiquitin-stabilized RING1-IBR assembly to complete formation of the active parkin-E2∼Ub transfer complex. Thus, ubiquitin plays a dual role in parkin activation by competing with the inhibitory UBL domain and stabilizing the active form of parkin. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. LIN-23, an E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Component, Is Required for the Repression of CDC-25.2 Activity during Intestinal Development in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Son, Miseol; Kawasaki, Ichiro; Oh, Bong-Kyeong; Shim, Yhong-Hee

    2016-11-30

    Caenorhabditis elegans ( C. elegans ) utilizes two different cell-cycle modes, binucleations during the L1 larval stage and endoreduplications at four larval moltings, for its postembryonic intestinal development. Previous genetic studies indicated that CDC-25.2 is specifically required for binucleations at the L1 larval stage and is repressed before endoreduplications. Furthermore, LIN-23, the C. elegans β-TrCP ortholog, appears to function as a repressor of CDC-25.2 to prevent excess intestinal divisions. We previously reported that intestinal hyperplasia in lin-23(e1883) mutants was effectively suppressed by the RNAi depletion of cdc-25.2 . Nevertheless, LIN-23 targeting CDC-25.2 for ubiquitination as a component of E3 ubiquitin ligase has not yet been tested. In this study, LIN-23 is shown to be the major E3 ubiquitin ligase component, recognizing CDC-25.2 to repress their activities for proper transition of cell-cycle modes during the C. elegans postembryonic intestinal development. In addition, for the first time that LIN-23 physically interacts with both CDC-25.1 and CDC-25.2 and facilitates ubiquitination for timely regulation of their activities during the intestinal development.

  9. Covalent ISG15 conjugation to CHIP promotes its ubiquitin E3 ligase activity and inhibits lung cancer cell growth in response to type I interferon.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Lang; Yoon, A-Rum; Yun, Chae-Ok; Chung, Kwang Chul

    2018-01-24

    The carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP) acts as a ubiquitin E3 ligase and a link between the chaperones Hsp70/90 and the proteasome system, playing a vital role in maintaining protein homeostasis. CHIP regulates a number of proteins involved in a myriad of physiological and pathological processes, but the underlying mechanism of action via posttranslational modification has not been extensively explored. In this study, we investigated a novel modulatory mode of CHIP and its effect on CHIP enzymatic activity. ISG15, an ubiquitin-like modifier, is induced by type I interferon (IFN) stimulation and can be conjugated to target proteins (ISGylation). Here we demonstrated that CHIP may be a novel target of ISGylation in HEK293 cells stimulated with type I IFN. We also found that Lys143/144/145 and Lys287 residues in CHIP are important for and target residues of ISGylation. Moreover, ISGylation promotes the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of CHIP, subsequently causing a decrease in levels of oncogenic c-Myc, one of its many ubiquitination targets, in A549 lung cancer cells and inhibiting A549 cell and tumor growth. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that covalent ISG15 conjugation produces a novel CHIP regulatory mode that enhances the tumor-suppressive activity of CHIP, thereby contributing to the antitumor effect of type I IFN.

  10. Protein–Protein Interactions Modulate the Docking-Dependent E3-Ubiquitin Ligase Activity of Carboxy-Terminus of Hsc70-Interacting Protein (CHIP)*

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Vikram; Landré, Vivien; Ning, Jia; Hernychova, Lenka; Muller, Petr; Verma, Chandra; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D.; Blackburn, Elizabeth A.; Ball, Kathryn L.

    2015-01-01

    CHIP is a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain protein that functions as an E3-ubiquitin ligase. As well as linking the molecular chaperones to the ubiquitin proteasome system, CHIP also has a docking-dependent mode where it ubiquitinates native substrates, thereby regulating their steady state levels and/or function. Here we explore the effect of Hsp70 on the docking-dependent E3-ligase activity of CHIP. The TPR-domain is revealed as a binding site for allosteric modulators involved in determining CHIP's dynamic conformation and activity. Biochemical, biophysical and modeling evidence demonstrate that Hsp70-binding to the TPR, or Hsp70-mimetic mutations, regulate CHIP-mediated ubiquitination of p53 and IRF-1 through effects on U-box activity and substrate binding. HDX-MS was used to establish that conformational-inhibition-signals extended from the TPR-domain to the U-box. This underscores inter-domain allosteric regulation of CHIP by the core molecular chaperones. Defining the chaperone-associated TPR-domain of CHIP as a manager of inter-domain communication highlights the potential for scaffolding modules to regulate, as well as assemble, complexes that are fundamental to protein homeostatic control. PMID:26330542

  11. Ralstonia solanacearum novel E3 ubiquitin ligase (NEL) effectors RipAW and RipAR suppress pattern-triggered immunity in plants.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Masahito; Oda, Kenji; Mukaihara, Takafumi

    2017-07-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum is the causal agent of bacterial wilt in solanaceous crops. This pathogen injects more than 70 effector proteins into host plant cells via the Hrp type III secretion system to cause a successful infection. However, the function of these effectors in plant cells, especially in the suppression of plant immunity, remains largely unknown. In this study, we characterized two Ralstonia solanacearum effectors, RipAW and RipAR, which share homology with the IpaH family of effectors from animal and plant pathogenic bacteria, that have a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase (NEL) domain. Recombinant RipAW and RipAR show E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in vitro. RipAW and RipAR localized to the cytoplasm of plant cells and significantly suppressed pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) responses such as the production of reactive oxygen species and the expression of defence-related genes when expressed in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana. Mutation in the conserved cysteine residue in the NEL domain of RipAW completely abolished the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in vitro and the ability to suppress PTI responses in plant leaves. These results indicate that RipAW suppresses plant PTI responses through the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Unlike other members of the IpaH family of effectors, RipAW and RipAR had no leucine-rich repeat motifs in their amino acid sequences. A conserved C-terminal region of RipAW is indispensable for PTI suppression. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing RipAW and RipAR showed increased disease susceptibility, suggesting that RipAW and RipAR contribute to bacterial virulence in plants.

  12. The ECS(SPSB) E3 ubiquitin ligase is the master regulator of the lifetime of inducible nitric-oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kazuma; Nishiya, Tadashi; Maekawa, Satoshi; Horinouchi, Takahiro; Ogasawara, Kouetsu; Uehara, Takashi; Miwa, Soichi

    2011-05-27

    The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is an important regulatory system for the lifetime of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS), a high-output isoform compared to neuronal NOS (nNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS), to prevent overproduction of NO that could trigger detrimental effects such as cytotoxicity. Two E3 ubiquitin ligases, Elongin B/C-Cullin-5-SPRY domain- and SOCS box-containing protein [ECS(SPSB)] and the C-terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP), recently have been reported to target iNOS for proteasomal degradation. However, the significance of each E3 ubiquitin ligase for the proteasomal degradation of iNOS remains to be determined. Here, we show that ECS(SPSB) specifically interacted with iNOS, but not nNOS and eNOS, and induced the subcellular redistribution of iNOS from dense regions to diffused expression as well as the ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of iNOS, whereas CHIP neither interacted with iNOS nor had any effects on the subcellular localization, ubiquitination, and proteasomal degradation of iNOS. These results differ from previous reports. Furthermore, the lifetime of the iNOS(N27A) mutant, a form of iNOS that does not bind to ECS(SPSB), was substantially extended in macrophages. These results demonstrate that ECS(SPSB), but not CHIP, is the master regulator of the iNOS lifetime. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Tomato U-Box Type E3 Ligase PUB13 Acts With Group III Ubiquitin E2 Enzymes to Modulate FLS2-Mediated Immune Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bangjun; Zeng, Lirong

    2018-01-01

    In Arabidopsis and rice, the ubiquitin ligase PUB13-mediated protein degradation plays a significant role in plant pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and flowering time control. The Arabidopsis PUB13 has been shown to attenuate the pattern recognition receptor FLS2-mediated immune signaling by ubiquitinating FLS2 and consequently promoting its degradation by the 26S proteasome. Nevertheless, the cognate ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2) with which PUB13 acts to modulate FLS2-mediated PTI are unknown. To address this question, we investigate here the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) homolog of PUB13, SlPUB13 by utilizing the recently characterized complete set of tomato E2s. Of the 13 groups of tomato E2s, only members in group III are found to interact and act with SlPUB13. Knocking-down of the group III E2 genes enhances callose deposition and induction of the RbohB gene in the immunity-associated, early oxidative burst after flg22 treatment. The group III E2s are also found to work with SlPUB13 to ubiquitinate FLS2 in vitro and are required for PUB13-mediated degradation of FLS2 in vivo upon flg22 treatment, suggesting an essential role for group III E2s in the modulation of FLS2-mediated immune signaling by PUB13. Additionally, another immunity-associated E3, NtCMPG1 is shown to also work specifically with members of group III E2 in the in vitro ubiquitination assay, which implies the group III E2 enzymes may cooperate with many E3 ligases to regulate different aspects of PTI. Taken together, these data corroborate the notion that group III E2 enzymes play an important role in PTI and build a foundation for further functional and mechanistic characterization of tomato PUB13.

  14. A Cullin1-Based SCF E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Targets the InR/PI3K/TOR Pathway to Regulate Neuronal Pruning

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jack Jing Lin; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Heng; Kirilly, Daniel; Wu, Chunlai; Liou, Yih-Cherng; Wang, Hongyan; Yu, Fengwei

    2013-01-01

    Pruning that selectively eliminates unnecessary axons/dendrites is crucial for sculpting the nervous system during development. During Drosophila metamorphosis, dendrite arborization neurons, ddaCs, selectively prune their larval dendrites in response to the steroid hormone ecdysone, whereas mushroom body γ neurons specifically eliminate their axon branches within dorsal and medial lobes. However, it is unknown which E3 ligase directs these two modes of pruning. Here, we identified a conserved SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase that plays a critical role in pruning of both ddaC dendrites and mushroom body γ axons. The SCF E3 ligase consists of four core components Cullin1/Roc1a/SkpA/Slimb and promotes ddaC dendrite pruning downstream of EcR-B1 and Sox14, but independently of Mical. Moreover, we demonstrate that the Cullin1-based E3 ligase facilitates ddaC dendrite pruning primarily through inactivation of the InR/PI3K/TOR pathway. We show that the F-box protein Slimb forms a complex with Akt, an activator of the InR/PI3K/TOR pathway, and promotes Akt ubiquitination. Activation of the InR/PI3K/TOR pathway is sufficient to inhibit ddaC dendrite pruning. Thus, our findings provide a novel link between the E3 ligase and the InR/PI3K/TOR pathway during dendrite pruning. PMID:24068890

  15. RMND5 from Xenopus laevis is an E3 ubiquitin-ligase and functions in early embryonic forebrain development.

    PubMed

    Pfirrmann, Thorsten; Villavicencio-Lorini, Pablo; Subudhi, Abinash K; Menssen, Ruth; Wolf, Dieter H; Hollemann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the Gid-complex functions as an ubiquitin-ligase complex that regulates the metabolic switch between glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. In higher organisms six conserved Gid proteins form the CTLH protein-complex with unknown function. Here we show that Rmnd5, the Gid2 orthologue from Xenopus laevis, is an ubiquitin-ligase embedded in a high molecular weight complex. Expression of rmnd5 is strongest in neuronal ectoderm, prospective brain, eyes and ciliated cells of the skin and its suppression results in malformations of the fore- and midbrain. We therefore suggest that Xenopus laevis Rmnd5, as a subunit of the CTLH complex, is a ubiquitin-ligase targeting an unknown factor for polyubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation for proper fore- and midbrain development.

  16. Increased A20-E3 ubiquitin ligase interactions in bid-deficient glia attenuate TLR3- and TLR4-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kinsella, Sinéad; Fichtner, Michael; Watters, Orla; König, Hans-Georg; Prehn, Jochen H M

    2018-05-02

    Chronic pro-inflammatory signaling propagates damage to neural tissue and affects the rate of disease progression. Increased activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), master regulators of the innate immune response, is implicated in the etiology of several neuropathologies including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. Previously, we identified that the Bcl-2 family protein BH3-interacting domain death agonist (Bid) potentiates the TLR4-NF-κB pro-inflammatory response in glia, and specifically characterized an interaction between Bid and TNF receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) in microglia in response to TLR4 activation. We assessed the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) inflammatory pathways in response to TLR3 and TLR4 agonists in wild-type (wt) and bid-deficient microglia and macrophages, using Western blot and qPCR, focusing on the response of the E3 ubiquitin ligases Pellino 1 (Peli1) and TRAF3 in the absence of microglial and astrocytic Bid. Additionally, by Western blot, we investigated the Bid-dependent turnover of Peli1 and TRAF3 in wt and bid -/- microglia using the proteasome inhibitor Bortezomib. Interactions between the de-ubiquitinating Smad6-A20 and the E3 ubiquitin ligases, TRAF3 and TRAF6, were determined by FLAG pull-down in TRAF6-FLAG or Smad6-FLAG overexpressing wt and bid-deficient mixed glia. We elucidated a positive role of Bid in both TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF)- and myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88)-dependent pathways downstream of TLR4, concurrently implicating TLR3-induced inflammation. We identified that Peli1 mRNA levels were significantly reduced in PolyI:C- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated bid-deficient microglia, suggesting disturbed IRF3 activation. Differential regulation of TRAF3 and Peli1, both essential E3 ubiquitin ligases facilitating TRIF-dependent signaling, was

  17. Apple RING E3 ligase MdMIEL1 inhibits anthocyanin accumulation by ubiquitinating and degrading MdMYB1 protein.

    PubMed

    An, Jian-Ping; Liu, Xin; Li, Hao-Hao; You, Chun-Xiang; Wang, Xiao-Fei; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2017-11-01

    MdMYB1 is an important regulator for anthocyanin accumulation in apple (Malus × domestica). Here, an apple RING E3 ligase, MdMIEL1, was screened out as a partner of MdMYB1 with a yeast two-hybrid approach. Pull-down, bimolecular fluorescence complementation and coimmunoprecipitation assays further verified the interaction between MdMIEL1 and MdMYB1 proteins. Subsequently, in vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that MdMIEL1 functioned as a ubiquitin E3 ligase to ubiquitinate MdMYB1 protein, followed by degradation through a 26S proteasome pathway. Furthermore, transgenic studies in apple calli and Arabidopsis demonstrated that MdMIEL1 negatively regulated anthocyanin accumulation by modulating the degradation of MdMYB1 protein. Taken together, our findings provide a new insight into the molecular mechanism by which MdMIEL1 negatively regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis by ubiquitinating and degrading MdMYB1 protein. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Shigella IpaH0722 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Effector Targets TRAF2 to Inhibit PKC–NF-κB Activity in Invaded Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ashida, Hiroshi; Nakano, Hiroyasu; Sasakawa, Chihiro

    2013-01-01

    NF-κB plays a central role in modulating innate immune responses to bacterial infections. Therefore, many bacterial pathogens deploy multiple mechanisms to counteract NF-κB activation. The invasion of and subsequent replication of Shigella within epithelial cells is recognized by various pathogen recognition receptors as pathogen-associated molecular patterns. These receptors trigger innate defense mechanisms via the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Here, we show the inhibition of the NF-κB activation by the delivery of the IpaH E3 ubiquitin ligase family member IpaH0722 using Shigella's type III secretion system. IpaH0722 dampens the acute inflammatory response by preferentially inhibiting the PKC-mediated activation of NF-κB by ubiquitinating TRAF2, a molecule downstream of PKC, and by promoting its proteasome-dependent degradation. PMID:23754945

  19. Ubiquitin--conserved protein or selfish gene?

    PubMed

    Catic, André; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2005-11-01

    The posttranslational modifier ubiquitin is encoded by a multigene family containing three primary members, which yield the precursor protein polyubiquitin and two ubiquitin moieties, Ub(L40) and Ub(S27), that are fused to the ribosomal proteins L40 and S27, respectively. The gene encoding polyubiquitin is highly conserved and, until now, those encoding Ub(L40) and Ub(S27) have been generally considered to be equally invariant. The evolution of the ribosomal ubiquitin moieties is, however, proving to be more dynamic. It seems that the genes encoding Ub(L40) and Ub(S27) are actively maintained by homologous recombination with the invariant polyubiquitin locus. Failure to recombine leads to deterioration of the sequence of the ribosomal ubiquitin moieties in several phyla, although this deterioration is evidently constrained by the structural requirements of the ubiquitin fold. Only a few amino acids in ubiquitin are vital for its function, and we propose that conservation of all three ubiquitin genes is driven not only by functional properties of the ubiquitin protein, but also by the propensity of the polyubiquitin locus to act as a 'selfish gene'.

  20. Ubiquitin ligase activity of TFIIH and the transcriptional response to DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Yuichiro; Masuda, Claudio A; Chang, Wei-Hau; Komori, Hirofumi; Wang, Dong; Hunter, Tony; Joazeiro, Claudio A P; Kornberg, Roger D

    2005-04-15

    Core transcription factor (TF) IIH purified from yeast possesses an E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase activity, which resides, at least in part, in a RING finger (RNF) domain of the Ssl1 subunit. Yeast strains mutated in the Ssl1 RNF domain are sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) light and to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). This increased sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents does not reflect a deficiency in nucleotide excision repair. Rather, it correlates with reduced transcriptional induction of genes involved in DNA repair, suggesting that the E3 Ub ligase activity of TFIIH mediates the transcriptional response to DNA damage.

  1. BRCC36, A Novel Subunit of a BRCA1/2 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Complex: Candidate Breast Cancer Susceptibility Gene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    Hancock, A.K. Godwin, And Anthony T. Yeung. Enzymatic and Chemical Cleavage Methods to Identify Genetic Variation. In Molecular Diagnostics (Ed. G...R.G.H. Cotton, L. Hancock, A.K. Godwin, And Anthony T. Yeung. Enzymatic and Chemical Cleavage Methods to Identify Genetic Variation. In Molecular ... Diagnostics (Ed. G. Patrinos and W Ansorge) in press 2005. 9 Godwin, A.K., Ph.D. E-CONCLUSIONS: E.1. "BRCC36, a Novel Subunit of a BRCA1/2 E3 Ubiquitin

  2. MicroRNA-300 Regulates the Ubiquitination of PTEN through the CRL4BDCAF13 E3 Ligase in Osteosarcoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Kaibiao; Chen, Bin; Wang, Kun; Lao, Lifeng; Hou, Canglong; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Caiguo; Shen, Hongxing

    2018-03-02

    Cullins, critical members of the cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases (CRLs), are often aberrantly expressed in different cancers. However, the underlying mechanisms regarding aberrant expression of these cullins and the specific substrates of CRLs in different cancers are mostly unknown. Here, we demonstrate that overexpressed CUL4B in human osteosarcoma cells forms an E3 complex with DNA damage binding protein 1 (DDB1) and DDB1- and CUL4-associated factor 13 (DCAF13). In vitro and in vivo analyses indicated that the CRL4B DCAF13 E3 ligase specifically recognized the tumor suppressor PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) for degradation, and disruption of this E3 ligase resulted in PTEN accumulation. Further analyses indicated that miR-300 directly targeted the 3' UTR of CUL4B, and DNA hypermethylation of a CpG island in the miR-300 promoter region contributed to the downregulation of miR-300. Interestingly, ectopic expression of miR-300 or treatment with 5-AZA-2'-deoxycytidine, a DNA methylation inhibitor, decreased the stability of CRL4B DCAF13 E3 ligase and reduced PTEN ubiquitination. By applying in vitro screening to identify small molecules that specifically inhibit CUL4B-DDB1 interaction, we found that TSC01131 could greatly inhibit osteosarcoma cell growth and could disrupt the stability of the CRL4B DCAF13 E3 ligase. Collectively, our findings shed new light on the molecular mechanism of CUL4B function and might also provide a new avenue for osteosarcoma therapy. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ubiquitin conjugation by the N-end rule pathway and mRNAs for its components increase in muscles of diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Lecker, Stewart H.; Solomon, Vered; Price, S. Russ; Kwon, Yong Tae; Mitch, William E.; Goldberg, Alfred L.

    1999-01-01

    Insulin deficiency (e.g., in acute diabetes or fasting) is associated with enhanced protein breakdown in skeletal muscle leading to muscle wasting. Because recent studies have suggested that this increased proteolysis is due to activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome (Ub-proteasome) pathway, we investigated whether diabetes is associated with an increased rate of Ub conjugation to muscle protein. Muscle extracts from streptozotocin-induced insulin-deficient rats contained greater amounts of Ub-conjugated proteins than extracts from control animals and also 40–50% greater rates of conjugation of 125I-Ub to endogenous muscle proteins. This enhanced Ub-conjugation occurred mainly through the N-end rule pathway that involves E214k and E3α. A specific substrate of this pathway, α-lactalbumin, was ubiquitinated faster in the diabetic extracts, and a dominant negative form of E214k inhibited this increase in ubiquitination rates. Both E214k and E3α were shown to be rate-limiting for Ub conjugation because adding small amounts of either to extracts stimulated Ub conjugation. Furthermore, mRNA for E214k and E3α (but not E1) were elevated 2-fold in muscles from diabetic rats, although no significant increase in E214k and E3α content could be detected by immunoblot or activity assays. The simplest interpretation of these results is that small increases in both E214k and E3α in muscles of insulin-deficient animals together accelerate Ub conjugation and protein degradation by the N-end rule pathway, the same pathway activated in cancer cachexia, sepsis, and hyperthyroidism. J. Clin. Invest. 104:1411–1420 (1999). PMID:10562303

  4. Ubiquitin conjugation by the N-end rule pathway and mRNAs for its components increase in muscles of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Lecker, S H; Solomon, V; Price, S R; Kwon, Y T; Mitch, W E; Goldberg, A L

    1999-11-01

    Insulin deficiency (e.g., in acute diabetes or fasting) is associated with enhanced protein breakdown in skeletal muscle leading to muscle wasting. Because recent studies have suggested that this increased proteolysis is due to activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome (Ub-proteasome) pathway, we investigated whether diabetes is associated with an increased rate of Ub conjugation to muscle protein. Muscle extracts from streptozotocin-induced insulin-deficient rats contained greater amounts of Ub-conjugated proteins than extracts from control animals and also 40-50% greater rates of conjugation of (125)I-Ub to endogenous muscle proteins. This enhanced Ub-conjugation occurred mainly through the N-end rule pathway that involves E2(14k) and E3alpha. A specific substrate of this pathway, alpha-lactalbumin, was ubiquitinated faster in the diabetic extracts, and a dominant negative form of E2(14k) inhibited this increase in ubiquitination rates. Both E2(14k) and E3alpha were shown to be rate-limiting for Ub conjugation because adding small amounts of either to extracts stimulated Ub conjugation. Furthermore, mRNA for E2(14k) and E3alpha (but not E1) were elevated 2-fold in muscles from diabetic rats, although no significant increase in E2(14k) and E3alpha content could be detected by immunoblot or activity assays. The simplest interpretation of these results is that small increases in both E2(14k) and E3alpha in muscles of insulin-deficient animals together accelerate Ub conjugation and protein degradation by the N-end rule pathway, the same pathway activated in cancer cachexia, sepsis, and hyperthyroidism.

  5. Ubiquitin conjugation by the N-end rule pathway and mRNAs for its components increase in muscles of diabetic rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecker, S. H.; Solomon, V.; Price, S. R.; Kwon, Y. T.; Mitch, W. E.; Goldberg, A. L.

    1999-01-01

    Insulin deficiency (e.g., in acute diabetes or fasting) is associated with enhanced protein breakdown in skeletal muscle leading to muscle wasting. Because recent studies have suggested that this increased proteolysis is due to activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome (Ub-proteasome) pathway, we investigated whether diabetes is associated with an increased rate of Ub conjugation to muscle protein. Muscle extracts from streptozotocin-induced insulin-deficient rats contained greater amounts of Ub-conjugated proteins than extracts from control animals and also 40-50% greater rates of conjugation of (125)I-Ub to endogenous muscle proteins. This enhanced Ub-conjugation occurred mainly through the N-end rule pathway that involves E2(14k) and E3alpha. A specific substrate of this pathway, alpha-lactalbumin, was ubiquitinated faster in the diabetic extracts, and a dominant negative form of E2(14k) inhibited this increase in ubiquitination rates. Both E2(14k) and E3alpha were shown to be rate-limiting for Ub conjugation because adding small amounts of either to extracts stimulated Ub conjugation. Furthermore, mRNA for E2(14k) and E3alpha (but not E1) were elevated 2-fold in muscles from diabetic rats, although no significant increase in E2(14k) and E3alpha content could be detected by immunoblot or activity assays. The simplest interpretation of these results is that small increases in both E2(14k) and E3alpha in muscles of insulin-deficient animals together accelerate Ub conjugation and protein degradation by the N-end rule pathway, the same pathway activated in cancer cachexia, sepsis, and hyperthyroidism.

  6. Ubiquitinated Proteome: Ready for Global?*

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yi; Xu, Ping; Qin, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Ubiquitin (Ub) is a small and highly conserved protein that can covalently modify protein substrates. Ubiquitination is one of the major post-translational modifications that regulate a broad spectrum of cellular functions. The advancement of mass spectrometers as well as the development of new affinity purification tools has greatly expedited proteome-wide analysis of several post-translational modifications (e.g. phosphorylation, glycosylation, and acetylation). In contrast, large-scale profiling of lysine ubiquitination remains a challenge. Most recently, new Ub affinity reagents such as Ub remnant antibody and tandem Ub binding domains have been developed, allowing for relatively large-scale detection of several hundreds of lysine ubiquitination events in human cells. Here we review different strategies for the identification of ubiquitination site and discuss several issues associated with data analysis. We suggest that careful interpretation and orthogonal confirmation of MS spectra is necessary to minimize false positive assignments by automatic searching algorithms. PMID:21339389

  7. HECT Domain-containing E3 Ubiquitin Ligase NEDD4L Negatively Regulates Wnt Signaling by Targeting Dishevelled for Proteasomal Degradation*

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yi; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Chao; Tao, Qing-Hua; Chen, Ye-Guang

    2013-01-01

    Wnt signaling plays a pivotal role in embryogenesis and tissue homeostasis. Dishevelled (Dvl) is a central mediator for both Wnt/β-catenin and Wnt/planar cell polarity pathways. NEDD4L, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, has been shown to regulate ion channel activity, cell signaling, and cell polarity. Here, we report a novel role of NEDD4L in the regulation of Wnt signaling. NEDD4L induces Dvl2 polyubiquitination and targets Dvl2 for proteasomal degradation. Interestingly, the NEDD4L-mediated ubiquitination of Dvl2 is Lys-6, Lys-27, and Lys-29 linked but not typical Lys-48-linked ubiquitination. Consistent with the role of Dvl in both Wnt/β-catenin and Wnt/planar cell polarity signaling, NEDD4L regulates the cellular β-catenin level and Rac1, RhoA, and JNK activities. We have further identified a hierarchical regulation that Wnt5a induces JNK-mediated phosphorylation of NEDD4L, which in turn promotes its ability to degrade Dvl2. Finally, we show that NEDD4L inhibits Dvl2-induced axis duplication in Xenopus embryos. Our work thus demonstrates that NEDD4L is a negative feedback regulator of Wnt signaling. PMID:23396981

  8. Pathogenic variants in E3 ubiquitin ligase RLIM/RNF12 lead to a syndromic X-linked intellectual disability and behavior disorder.

    PubMed

    Frints, Suzanna G M; Ozanturk, Aysegul; Rodríguez Criado, Germán; Grasshoff, Ute; de Hoon, Bas; Field, Michael; Manouvrier-Hanu, Sylvie; E Hickey, Scott; Kammoun, Molka; Gripp, Karen W; Bauer, Claudia; Schroeder, Christopher; Toutain, Annick; Mihalic Mosher, Theresa; Kelly, Benjamin J; White, Peter; Dufke, Andreas; Rentmeester, Eveline; Moon, Sungjin; Koboldt, Daniel C; van Roozendaal, Kees E P; Hu, Hao; Haas, Stefan A; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Murray, Lucinda; Haan, Eric; Shaw, Marie; Carroll, Renee; Friend, Kathryn; Liebelt, Jan; Hobson, Lynne; De Rademaeker, Marjan; Geraedts, Joep; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Vermeesch, Joris; Raynaud, Martine; Riess, Olaf; Gribnau, Joost; Katsanis, Nicholas; Devriendt, Koen; Bauer, Peter; Gecz, Jozef; Golzio, Christelle; Gontan, Cristina; Kalscheuer, Vera M

    2018-05-04

    RLIM, also known as RNF12, is an X-linked E3 ubiquitin ligase acting as a negative regulator of LIM-domain containing transcription factors and participates in X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) in mice. We report the genetic and clinical findings of 84 individuals from nine unrelated families, eight of whom who have pathogenic variants in RLIM (RING finger LIM domain-interacting protein). A total of 40 affected males have X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) and variable behavioral anomalies with or without congenital malformations. In contrast, 44 heterozygous female carriers have normal cognition and behavior, but eight showed mild physical features. All RLIM variants identified are missense changes co-segregating with the phenotype and predicted to affect protein function. Eight of the nine altered amino acids are conserved and lie either within a domain essential for binding interacting proteins or in the C-terminal RING finger catalytic domain. In vitro experiments revealed that these amino acid changes in the RLIM RING finger impaired RLIM ubiquitin ligase activity. In vivo experiments in rlim mutant zebrafish showed that wild type RLIM rescued the zebrafish rlim phenotype, whereas the patient-specific missense RLIM variants failed to rescue the phenotype and thus represent likely severe loss-of-function mutations. In summary, we identified a spectrum of RLIM missense variants causing syndromic XLID and affecting the ubiquitin ligase activity of RLIM, suggesting that enzymatic activity of RLIM is required for normal development, cognition and behavior.

  9. Cancer stem-like cell related protein CD166 degrades through E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Meng; Yan, Ming; Zhang, Jianjun; Xu, Qin; Qi, Shengcai; Wang, Xu; Chen, Wantao

    2017-04-01

    Our previous studies have identified that CD166 works as a cancer stem-like cell (CSC) marker in epithelial cancers with a large repertoire of cellular functions. However, the post-translational regulatory mechanisms underlying CD166 turnover remain elusive. Several independent studies have reported that E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP revealed significant biological effects through ubiquitin proteasome pathway on some kinds of malignant tumors. With analyzing the effects of CHIP expressions on stem-like cell populations, we found that CHIP represses CSC characteristics mainly targeting the CSC related protein CD166 in head and neck cancer (HNC). To investigate the role and relationship between CD166 and CHIP, HNC tissues and cell lines were used in this study. A significant negative correlation was observed between the expression levels of CHIP and CD166 in HNC patient samples. We also found that CHIP directly regulates the stability of CD166 protein through the ubiquitin proteasome system, which was also identified participating in the regulation of CSC behaviors in HNCs. Our findings demonstrate that CHIP-CD166-proteasome axis participates in regulating CSC properties in HNCs, suggesting that the regulation of CD166 by CHIP could provide new options for diagnosing and treating in the patients with HNCs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Heterologous Expression and Molecular and Cellular Characterization of CaPUB1 Encoding a Hot Pepper U-Box E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Homolog1[C

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Seok Keun; Chung, Hoo Sun; Ryu, Moon Young; Park, Mi Jin; Lee, Myeong Min; Bahk, Young-Yil; Kim, Jungmook; Pai, Hyun Sook; Kim, Woo Taek

    2006-01-01

    The U-box motif is a conserved domain found in the diverse isoforms of E3 ubiquitin ligase in eukaryotes. From water-stressed hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv Pukang) plants, we isolated C. annuum putative U-box protein 1 (CaPUB1), which encodes a protein containing a single U-box motif in its N-terminal region. In vitro ubiquitination and site-directed mutagenesis assays revealed that CaPUB1 possessed E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and that the U-box motif was indeed essential for its enzyme activity. RNA gel-blot analysis showed that CaPUB1 mRNA was induced rapidly by a broad spectrum of abiotic stresses, including drought, high salinity, cold temperature, and mechanical wounding, but not in response to ethylene, abscisic acid, or a bacterial pathogen, suggesting its role in the early events in the abiotic-related defense response. Because transgenic work was extremely difficult in hot pepper, in this study we overexpressed CaPUB1 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) to provide cellular information on the function of this gene in the development and plant responses to abiotic stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants that constitutively expressed the CaPUB1 gene under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter had markedly longer hypocotyls and roots and grew more rapidly than the wild type, leading to an early bolting phenotype. Microscopic analysis showed that 35S∷CaPUB1 roots had increased numbers of small-sized cells, resulting in disordered, highly populated cell layers in the cortex, endodermis, and stele. In addition, CaPUB1-overexpressing plants displayed increased sensitivity to water stress and mild salinity. These results indicate that CaPUB1 is functional in Arabidopsis cells, thereby effectively altering cell and tissue growth and also the response to abiotic stresses. Comparative proteomic analysis showed that the level of RPN6 protein, a non-ATPase subunit of the 26S proteasome complex, was significantly reduced in 35S∷CaPUB1

  11. Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) May Act as a Substrate and a Recognition Unit for CRL4CRBN and Stub1 E3 Ligases Facilitating Ubiquitination of Proteins Involved in Presynaptic Functions and Neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Del Prete, Dolores; Rice, Richard C; Rajadhyaksha, Anjali M; D'Adamio, Luciano

    2016-08-12

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP), whose mutations cause Alzheimer disease, plays an important in vivo role and facilitates transmitter release. Because the APP cytosolic region (ACR) is essential for these functions, we have characterized its brain interactome. We found that the ACR interacts with proteins that regulate the ubiquitin-proteasome system, predominantly with the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases Stub1, which binds the NH2 terminus of the ACR, and CRL4(CRBN), which is formed by Cul4a/b, Ddb1, and Crbn, and interacts with the COOH terminus of the ACR via Crbn. APP shares essential functions with APP-like protein-2 (APLP2) but not APP-like protein-1 (APLP1). Noteworthy, APLP2, but not APLP1, interacts with Stub1 and CRL4(CRBN), pointing to a functional pathway shared only by APP and APLP2. In vitro ubiquitination/ubiquitome analysis indicates that these E3 ligases are enzymatically active and ubiquitinate the ACR residues Lys(649/650/651/676/688) Deletion of Crbn reduces ubiquitination of Lys(676) suggesting that Lys(676) is physiologically ubiquitinated by CRL4(CRBN) The ACR facilitated in vitro ubiquitination of presynaptic proteins that regulate exocytosis, suggesting a mechanism by which APP tunes transmitter release. Other dementia-related proteins, namely Tau and apoE, interact with and are ubiquitinated via the ACR in vitro This, and the evidence that CRBN and CUL4B are linked to intellectual disability, prompts us to hypothesize a pathogenic mechanism, in which APP acts as a modulator of E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase(s), shared by distinct neuronal disorders. The well described accumulation of ubiquitinated protein inclusions in neurodegenerative diseases and the link between the ubiquitin-proteasome system and neurodegeneration make this concept plausible. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Quantifying Ubiquitin Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ordureau, Alban; Münch, Christian; Harper, J. Wade

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquitin (UB)-driven signaling systems permeate biology, and are often integrated with other types of post-translational modifications (PTMs), most notably phosphorylation. Flux through such pathways is typically dictated by the fractional stoichiometry of distinct regulatory modifications and protein assemblies as well as the spatial organization of pathway components. Yet, we rarely understand the dynamics and stoichiometry of rate-limiting intermediates along a reaction trajectory. Here, we review how quantitative proteomic tools and enrichment strategies are being used to quantify UB-dependent signaling systems, and to integrate UB signaling with regulatory phosphorylation events. A key regulatory feature of ubiquitylation is that the identity of UB chain linkage types can control downstream processes. We also describe how proteomic and enzymological tools can be used to identify and quantify UB chain synthesis and linkage preferences. The emergence of sophisticated quantitative proteomic approaches will set a new standard for elucidating biochemical mechanisms of UB-driven signaling systems. PMID:26000850

  13. The Ubiquitin E3 Ligase PRU1 Regulates WRKY6 Degradation to Modulate Phosphate Homeostasis in Response to Low-Pi Stress in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qing; Wang, Hui; Su, Tong; Wu, Wei-Hua; Chen, Yi-Fang

    2018-03-22

    Since phosphorus is an essential nutrient for plants, plants have evolved a number of adaptive mechanisms to respond to changes in phosphate (Pi) supply. Previously, we reported that the transcription factor WRKY6 modulates Pi homeostasis by down-regulating PHOSPHATE 1 (PHO1) expression, and that WRKY6 is degraded during Pi starvation in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the molecular mechanism underlying low-Pi-induced WRKY6 degradation was unknown. Here, we report that a ubiquitin E3 ligase, PHOSPHATE RESPONSE UBIQUITIN E3 LIGASE 1 (PRU1), modulates WRKY6 protein levels in response to low-Pi stress. A pru1 mutant was more sensitive than the wild type to Pi-deficient conditions, exhibiting a reduced Pi contents in the shoot, similar to the pho1-2 mutant and WRKY6-overexpressing line. PRU1 interacted with WRKY6 in vitro and in vivo. Under low-Pi stress, the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of WRKY6, as well as the consequential enhancement of PHO1 expression, were impaired in pru1. PRU1 complementation lines displayed no obvious differences compared to wild-type plants. Further genetic analysis showed that disruption of WRKY6 abolished the low-Pi sensitivity of pru1, indicating that WRKY6 functioned downstream of PRU1. Taken together, this study uncovers a mechanism by which PRU1 modulates Pi homeostasis, through regulating the abundance of WRKY6 in response to low-Pi stress in Arabidopsis. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  14. The role of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway in keratin intermediate filament protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Rogel, Micah R; Jaitovich, Ariel; Ridge, Karen M

    2010-02-01

    Lung injury, whether caused by hypoxic or mechanical stresses, elicits a variety of responses at the cellular level. Alveolar epithelial cells respond and adapt to such injurious stimuli by reorganizing the cellular cytoskeleton, mainly accomplished through modification of the intermediate filament (IF) network. The structural and mechanical integrity in epithelial cells is maintained through this adaptive reorganization response. Keratin, the predominant IF expressed in epithelial cells, displays highly dynamic properties in response to injury, sometimes in the form of degradation of the keratin IF network. Post-translational modification, such as phosphorylation, targets keratin proteins for degradation in these circumstances. As with other structural and regulatory proteins, turnover of keratin is regulated by the ubiquitin (Ub)-proteasome pathway. The degradation process begins with activation of Ub by the Ub-activating enzyme (E1), followed by the exchange of Ub to the Ub-conjugating enzyme (E2). E2 shuttles the Ub molecule to the substrate-specific Ub ligase (E3), which then delivers the Ub to the substrate protein, thereby targeting it for degradation. In some cases of injury and IF-related disease, aggresomes form in epithelial cells. The mechanisms that regulate aggresome formation are currently unknown, although proteasome overload may play a role. Therefore, a more complete understanding of keratin degradation--causes, mechanisms, and consequences--will allow for a greater understanding of epithelial cell biology and lung pathology alike.

  15. Selective Proteasomal Degradation of the B′β Subunit of Protein Phosphatase 2A by the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Adaptor Kelch-like 15*

    PubMed Central

    Oberg, Elizabeth A.; Nifoussi, Shanna K.; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Strack, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a ubiquitous and pleiotropic regulator of intracellular signaling, is composed of a core dimer (AC) bound to a variable (B) regulatory subunit. PP2A is an enzyme family of dozens of heterotrimers with different subcellular locations and cellular substrates dictated by the B subunit. B′β is a brain-specific PP2A regulatory subunit that mediates dephosphorylation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and tyrosine hydroxylase. Unbiased proteomic screens for B′β interactors identified Cullin3 (Cul3), a scaffolding component of E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes, and the previously uncharacterized Kelch-like 15 (KLHL15). KLHL15 is one of ∼40 Kelch-like proteins, many of which have been identified as adaptors for the recruitment of substrates to Cul3-based E3 ubiquitin ligases. Here, we report that KLHL15-Cul3 specifically targets B′β to promote turnover of the PP2A subunit by ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. Comparison of KLHL15 and B′β tissue expression profiles suggests that the E3 ligase adaptor contributes to selective expression of the PP2A/B′β holoenzyme in the brain. We mapped KLHL15 residues critical for homodimerization as well as interaction with Cul3 and B′β. Explaining PP2A subunit selectivity, the divergent N terminus of B′β was found necessary and sufficient for KLHL15-mediated degradation, with Tyr-52 having an obligatory role. Although KLHL15 can interact with the PP2A/B′β heterotrimer, it only degrades B′β, thus promoting exchange with other regulatory subunits. E3 ligase adaptor-mediated control of PP2A holoenzyme composition thereby adds another layer of regulation to cellular dephosphorylation events. PMID:23135275

  16. Flying saucer1 is a transmembrane RING E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates the degree of pectin methylesterification in Arabidopsis seed mucilage.

    PubMed

    Voiniciuc, Catalin; Dean, Gillian H; Griffiths, Jonathan S; Kirchsteiger, Kerstin; Hwang, Yeen Ting; Gillett, Alan; Dow, Graham; Western, Tamara L; Estelle, Mark; Haughn, George W

    2013-03-01

    Pectins are complex polysaccharides that form the gel matrix of the primary cell wall and are abundant in the middle lamella that holds plant cells together. Their degree of methylesterification (DM) impacts wall strength and cell adhesion since unesterified pectin regions can cross-link via Ca(2+) ions to form stronger gels. Here, we characterize flying saucer1 (fly1), a novel Arabidopsis thaliana seed coat mutant, which displays primary wall detachment, reduced mucilage extrusion, and increased mucilage adherence. These defects appear to result from a lower DM in mucilage and are enhanced by the addition of Ca(2+) or completely rescued using alkaline Ca(2+) chelators. FLY1 encodes a transmembrane protein with a RING-H2 domain that has in vitro E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. FLY1 is orthologous to TRANSMEMBRANE UBIQUITIN LIGASE1, a Golgi-localized E3 ligase involved in the quality control of membrane proteins in yeast. However, FLY1-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) fusions are localized in punctae that are predominantly distinct from the Golgi and the trans-Golgi network/early endosome in the seed coat epidermis. Wortmannin treatment, which induces the fusion of late endosomes in plants, resulted in enlarged FLY1-YFP bodies. We propose that FLY1 regulates the DM of pectin in mucilage, potentially by recycling pectin methylesterase enzymes in the endomembrane system of seed coat epidermal cells.

  17. Endoplasmic reticulum-resident E3 ubiquitin ligase Hrd1 controls B-cell immunity through degradation of the death receptor CD95/Fas

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Sinyi; Yang, Yi; Xu, Yuanming; Wang, Yajun; Zhang, Yusi; Melo-Cardenas, Johanna; Xu, Xiangping; Gao, Beixue; Thorp, Edward B.; Zhang, Donna D.; Zhang, Bin; Song, Jianxun; Zhang, Kezhong; Zhang, Jianning; Zhang, Jinping; Li, Huabin; Fang, Deyu

    2016-01-01

    Humoral immunity involves multiple checkpoints during B-cell development, maturation, and activation. The cell death receptor CD95/Fas-mediated apoptosis plays a critical role in eliminating the unwanted activation of B cells by self-reactive antigens and in maintaining B-cell homeostasis through activation-induced B-cell death (AICD). The molecular mechanisms controlling AICD remain largely undefined. Herein, we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase Hrd1 protected B cells from activation-induced cell death by degrading the death receptor Fas. Hrd1-null B cells exhibited high Fas expression during activation and rapidly underwent Fas-mediated apoptosis, which could be largely inhibited by FasL neutralization. Fas mutation in Hrd1 KO mice abrogated the increase in B-cell AICD. We identified Hrd1 as the first E3 ubiquitin ligase of the death receptor Fas and Hrd1-mediated Fas destruction as a molecular mechanism in regulating B-cell immunity. PMID:27573825

  18. Endoplasmic reticulum-resident E3 ubiquitin ligase Hrd1 controls B-cell immunity through degradation of the death receptor CD95/Fas.

    PubMed

    Kong, Sinyi; Yang, Yi; Xu, Yuanming; Wang, Yajun; Zhang, Yusi; Melo-Cardenas, Johanna; Xu, Xiangping; Gao, Beixue; Thorp, Edward B; Zhang, Donna D; Zhang, Bin; Song, Jianxun; Zhang, Kezhong; Zhang, Jianning; Zhang, Jinping; Li, Huabin; Fang, Deyu

    2016-09-13

    Humoral immunity involves multiple checkpoints during B-cell development, maturation, and activation. The cell death receptor CD95/Fas-mediated apoptosis plays a critical role in eliminating the unwanted activation of B cells by self-reactive antigens and in maintaining B-cell homeostasis through activation-induced B-cell death (AICD). The molecular mechanisms controlling AICD remain largely undefined. Herein, we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase Hrd1 protected B cells from activation-induced cell death by degrading the death receptor Fas. Hrd1-null B cells exhibited high Fas expression during activation and rapidly underwent Fas-mediated apoptosis, which could be largely inhibited by FasL neutralization. Fas mutation in Hrd1 KO mice abrogated the increase in B-cell AICD. We identified Hrd1 as the first E3 ubiquitin ligase of the death receptor Fas and Hrd1-mediated Fas destruction as a molecular mechanism in regulating B-cell immunity.

  19. An E3 Ubiquitin Ligase-BAG Protein Module Controls Plant Innate Immunity and Broad-Spectrum Disease Resistance.

    PubMed

    You, Quanyuan; Zhai, Keran; Yang, Donglei; Yang, Weibing; Wu, Jingni; Liu, Junzhong; Pan, Wenbo; Wang, Jianjun; Zhu, Xudong; Jian, Yikun; Liu, Jiyun; Zhang, Yingying; Deng, Yiwen; Li, Qun; Lou, Yonggen; Xie, Qi; He, Zuhua

    2016-12-14

    Programmed cell death (PCD) and immunity in plants are tightly controlled to promote antimicrobial defense while preventing autoimmunity. However, the mechanisms contributing to this immune homeostasis are poorly understood. Here, we isolated a rice mutant ebr1 (enhanced blight and blast resistance 1) that shows enhanced broad-spectrum bacterial and fungal disease resistance, but displays spontaneous PCD, autoimmunity, and stunted growth. EBR1 encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase that interacts with OsBAG4, which belongs to the BAG (Bcl-2-associated athanogene) family that functions in cell death, growth arrest, and immune responses in mammals. EBR1 directly targets OsBAG4 for ubiquitination-mediated degradation. Elevated levels of OsBAG4 in rice are necessary and sufficient to trigger PCD and enhanced disease resistance to pathogenic infection, most likely by activating pathogen-associated molecular patterns-triggered immunity (PTI). Together, our study suggests that an E3-BAG module orchestrates innate immune homeostasis and coordinates the trade-off between defense and growth in plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of factors required for m6 A mRNA methylation in Arabidopsis reveals a role for the conserved E3 ubiquitin ligase HAKAI.

    PubMed

    Růžička, Kamil; Zhang, Mi; Campilho, Ana; Bodi, Zsuzsanna; Kashif, Muhammad; Saleh, Mária; Eeckhout, Dominique; El-Showk, Sedeer; Li, Hongying; Zhong, Silin; De Jaeger, Geert; Mongan, Nigel P; Hejátko, Jan; Helariutta, Ykä; Fray, Rupert G

    2017-07-01

    N6-adenosine methylation (m 6 A) of mRNA is an essential process in most eukaryotes, but its role and the status of factors accompanying this modification are still poorly understood. Using combined methods of genetics, proteomics and RNA biochemistry, we identified a core set of mRNA m 6 A writer proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. The components required for m 6 A in Arabidopsis included MTA, MTB, FIP37, VIRILIZER and the E3 ubiquitin ligase HAKAI. Downregulation of these proteins led to reduced relative m 6 A levels and shared pleiotropic phenotypes, which included aberrant vascular formation in the root, indicating that correct m 6 A methylation plays a role in developmental decisions during pattern formation. The conservation of these proteins amongst eukaryotes and the demonstration of a role in writing m 6 A for the E3 ubiquitin ligase HAKAI is likely to be of considerable relevance beyond the plant sciences. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. PUB22 and PUB23 U-BOX E3 ligases directly ubiquitinate RPN6, a 26S proteasome lid subunit, for subsequent degradation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seok Keun; Bae, Hansol; Ryu, Moon Young; Wook Yang, Seong; Kim, Woo TaeK

    2015-09-04

    Drought stress strongly affects plant growth and development, directly connected with crop yields, accordingly. However, related to the function of U-BOX E3 ligases, the underlying molecular mechanisms of desiccation stress response in plants are still largely unknown. Here we report that PUB22 and PUB23, two U-box E3 ligase homologs, tether ubiquitins to 19S proteasome regulatory particle (RP) subunit RPN6, leading to its degradation. RPN6 was identified as an interacting substrate of PUB22 by yeast two-hybrid screening, and in vitro pull-down assay confirmed that RPN6 interacts not only with PUB22, but also with PUB23. Both PUB22 and PUB23 were able to conjugate ubiquitins on RPN6 in vitro. Furthermore, RPN6 showed a shorter protein half-life in PUB22 overexpressing plants than in wild-type, besides RPN6 was significantly stabilized in pub22pub23 double knockout plants. Taken together, these results solidify a notion that PUB22 and PUB23 can alter the activity of 26S proteasome in response to drought stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. FLYING SAUCER1 Is a Transmembrane RING E3 Ubiquitin Ligase That Regulates the Degree of Pectin Methylesterification in Arabidopsis Seed Mucilage[W

    PubMed Central

    Voiniciuc, Cătălin; Dean, Gillian H.; Griffiths, Jonathan S.; Kirchsteiger, Kerstin; Hwang, Yeen Ting; Gillett, Alan; Dow, Graham; Western, Tamara L.; Estelle, Mark; Haughn, George W.

    2013-01-01

    Pectins are complex polysaccharides that form the gel matrix of the primary cell wall and are abundant in the middle lamella that holds plant cells together. Their degree of methylesterification (DM) impacts wall strength and cell adhesion since unesterified pectin regions can cross-link via Ca2+ ions to form stronger gels. Here, we characterize flying saucer1 (fly1), a novel Arabidopsis thaliana seed coat mutant, which displays primary wall detachment, reduced mucilage extrusion, and increased mucilage adherence. These defects appear to result from a lower DM in mucilage and are enhanced by the addition of Ca2+ or completely rescued using alkaline Ca2+ chelators. FLY1 encodes a transmembrane protein with a RING-H2 domain that has in vitro E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. FLY1 is orthologous to TRANSMEMBRANE UBIQUITIN LIGASE1, a Golgi-localized E3 ligase involved in the quality control of membrane proteins in yeast. However, FLY1–yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) fusions are localized in punctae that are predominantly distinct from the Golgi and the trans-Golgi network/early endosome in the seed coat epidermis. Wortmannin treatment, which induces the fusion of late endosomes in plants, resulted in enlarged FLY1-YFP bodies. We propose that FLY1 regulates the DM of pectin in mucilage, potentially by recycling pectin methylesterase enzymes in the endomembrane system of seed coat epidermal cells. PMID:23482858

  3. The E3 ubiquitin ligase NEDD4 induces endocytosis and lysosomal sorting of connexin 43 to promote loss of gap junctions.

    PubMed

    Totland, Max Z; Bergsland, Christian H; Fykerud, Tone A; Knudsen, Lars M; Rasmussen, Nikoline L; Eide, Peter W; Yohannes, Zeremariam; Sørensen, Vigdis; Brech, Andreas; Lothe, Ragnhild A; Leithe, Edward

    2017-09-01

    Intercellular communication via gap junctions has an important role in controlling cell growth and in maintaining tissue homeostasis. Connexin 43 (Cx43; also known as GJA1) is the most abundantly expressed gap junction channel protein in humans and acts as a tumor suppressor in multiple tissue types. Cx43 is often dysregulated at the post-translational level during cancer development, resulting in loss of gap junctions. However, the molecular basis underlying the aberrant regulation of Cx43 in cancer cells has remained elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the oncogenic E3 ubiquitin ligase NEDD4 regulates the Cx43 protein level in HeLa cells, both under basal conditions and in response to protein kinase C activation. Furthermore, overexpression of NEDD4, but not a catalytically inactive form of NEDD4, was found to result in nearly complete loss of gap junctions and increased lysosomal degradation of Cx43 in both HeLa and C33A cervical carcinoma cells. Collectively, the data provide new insights into the molecular basis underlying the regulation of gap junction size and represent the first evidence that an oncogenic E3 ubiquitin ligase promotes loss of gap junctions and Cx43 degradation in human carcinoma cells. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. The Ubiquitin-associated Domain of Cellular Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins Facilitates Ubiquitylation*

    PubMed Central

    Budhidarmo, Rhesa; Day, Catherine L.

    2014-01-01

    The cellular inhibitor of apoptosis (cIAP) proteins are essential RING E3 ubiquitin ligases that regulate apoptosis and inflammatory responses. cIAPs contain a ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domain that binds ubiquitin and is implicated in the regulation of cell survival and proteasomal degradation. Here we show that mutation of the MGF and LL motifs in the UBA domain of cIAP1 caused unfolding and increased cIAP1 multimonoubiquitylation. By developing a UBA mutant that disrupted ubiquitin binding but not the structure of the UBA domain, we found that the UBA domain enhances cIAP1 and cIAP2 ubiquitylation. We demonstrate that the UBA domain binds to the UbcH5b∼Ub conjugate, and this promotes RING domain-dependent monoubiquitylation. This study establishes ubiquitin-binding modules, such as the UBA domain, as important regulatory modules that can fine tune the activity of E3 ligases. PMID:25065467

  5. The E3 ubiquitin-ligase SEVEN IN ABSENTIA like 7 mono-ubiquitinates glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 isoform in vitro and is required for its nuclear localization in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Peralta, Diego A; Araya, Alejandro; Busi, Maria V; Gomez-Casati, Diego F

    2016-01-01

    The E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases are associated to various processes such as cell cycle control and diverse developmental pathways. Arabidopsis thaliana SEVEN IN ABSENTIA like 7, which has ubiquitin ligase activity, is located in the nucleus and cytosol and is expressed at several stages in almost all plant tissues suggesting an important role in plant functions. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of this protein is unknown. Since we found that the SEVEN IN ABSENTIA like 7 gene expression is altered in plants with impaired mitochondria, and in plants deficient in the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1, we decided to study the possible interactions between both proteins as potential partners in plant signaling functions. We found that SEVEN IN ABSENTIA like 7 is able to interact in vitro with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and that the Lys231 residue of the last is essential for this function. Following the interaction, a concomitant increase in the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase catalytic activity was observed. However, when SEVEN IN ABSENTIA like 7 was supplemented with E1 and E2 proteins to form a complete E1-E2-E3 modifier complex, we observed the mono-ubiquitination of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 at the Lys76 residue and a dramatic decrease of its catalytic activity. Moreover, we found that localization of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 in the nucleus is dependent on the expression SEVEN IN ABSENTIA like 7. These observations suggest that the association of both proteins might result in different biological consequences in plants either through affecting the glycolytic flux or via cytoplasm-nucleus relocation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Structure of PINK1 in complex with its substrate ubiquitin

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Alexander F.; Gladkova, Christina; Pardon, Els; Wagstaff, Jane L.; Freund, Stefan M.V.; Steyaert, Jan; Maslen, Sarah L.; Komander, David

    2018-01-01

    Autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinsonism (AR-JP) is caused by mutations in a number of PARK genes, in particular in the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin (PARK2), and in its upstream protein kinase PINK1 (PARK6). PINK1 phosphorylates ubiquitin and the Parkin ubiquitin-like domain on structurally protected Ser65 to trigger mitophagy. We here report a crystal structure of a nanobody stabilised complex between Pediculus humanus corporis (Ph)PINK1 bound to ubiquitin in the ‘C-terminally retracted’ (Ub-CR) conformation. The structure reveals many peculiarities of PINK1, including the architecture of the C-terminal region, and reveals how the PINK1 N-lobe binds ubiquitin via a unique insertion. The flexible Ser65-loop in the Ub-CR conformation reaches the activation segment, facilitating placement of Ser65 in a phosphate accepting position. The structure also explains how autophosphorylation in the N-lobe stabilises structurally and functionally important insertions, and reveals the molecular basis for AR-JP causing mutations, some of which disrupt ubiquitin binding. PMID:29160309

  7. Structure of PINK1 in complex with its substrate ubiquitin.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Alexander F; Gladkova, Christina; Pardon, Els; Wagstaff, Jane L; Freund, Stefan M V; Steyaert, Jan; Maslen, Sarah L; Komander, David

    2017-12-07

    Autosomal-recessive juvenile Parkinsonism (AR-JP) is caused by mutations in a number of PARK genes, in particular the genes encoding the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin (PARK2, also known as PRKN) and its upstream protein kinase PINK1 (also known as PARK6). PINK1 phosphorylates both ubiquitin and the ubiquitin-like domain of Parkin on structurally protected Ser65 residues, triggering mitophagy. Here we report a crystal structure of a nanobody-stabilized complex containing Pediculus humanus corporis (Ph)PINK1 bound to ubiquitin in the 'C-terminally retracted' (Ub-CR) conformation. The structure reveals many peculiarities of PINK1, including the architecture of the C-terminal region, and reveals how the N lobe of PINK1 binds ubiquitin via a unique insertion. The flexible Ser65 loop in the Ub-CR conformation contacts the activation segment, facilitating placement of Ser65 in a phosphate-accepting position. The structure also explains how autophosphorylation in the N lobe stabilizes structurally and functionally important insertions, and reveals the molecular basis of AR-JP-causing mutations, some of which disrupt ubiquitin binding.

  8. Two Distinct Types of E3 Ligases Work in Unison to Regulate Substrate Ubiquitylation.

    PubMed

    Scott, Daniel C; Rhee, David Y; Duda, David M; Kelsall, Ian R; Olszewski, Jennifer L; Paulo, Joao A; de Jong, Annemieke; Ovaa, Huib; Alpi, Arno F; Harper, J Wade; Schulman, Brenda A

    2016-08-25

    Hundreds of human cullin-RING E3 ligases (CRLs) modify thousands of proteins with ubiquitin (UB) to achieve vast regulation. Current dogma posits that CRLs first catalyze UB transfer from an E2 to their client substrates and subsequent polyubiquitylation from various linkage-specific E2s. We report an alternative E3-E3 tagging cascade: many cellular NEDD8-modified CRLs associate with a mechanistically distinct thioester-forming RBR-type E3, ARIH1, and rely on ARIH1 to directly add the first UB and, in some cases, multiple additional individual monoubiquitin modifications onto CRL client substrates. Our data define ARIH1 as a component of the human CRL system, demonstrate that ARIH1 can efficiently and specifically mediate monoubiquitylation of several CRL substrates, and establish principles for how two distinctive E3s can reciprocally control each other for simultaneous and joint regulation of substrate ubiquitylation. These studies have broad implications for CRL-dependent proteostasis and mechanisms of E3-mediated UB ligation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Destabilization of Atoh1 by E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Huwe1 and Casein Kinase 1 Is Essential for Normal Sensory Hair Cell Development*

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yen-Fu; Tong, Mingjie; Edge, Albert S. B.

    2016-01-01

    Proneural basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Atoh1, plays a key role in the development of sensory hair cells. We show here that the level of Atoh1 must be accurately controlled by degradation of the protein in addition to the regulation of Atoh1 gene expression to achieve normal cellular patterning during development of the cochlear sensory epithelium. The stability of Atoh1 was regulated by the ubiquitin proteasome system through the action of Huwe1, a HECT-domain, E3 ubiquitin ligase. An interaction between Huwe1 and Atoh1 could be visualized by a proximity ligation assay and was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry. Transfer of a lysine 48-linked polyubiquitin chain to Atoh1 by Huwe1 could be demonstrated both in intact cells and in a cell-free system, and proteasome inhibition or Huwe1 silencing increased Atoh1 levels. The interaction with Huwe1 and polyubiquitylation were blocked by disruption of casein kinase 1 (CK1) activity, and mass spectrometry and mutational analysis identified serine 334 as an important phosphorylation site for Atoh1 ubiquitylation and subsequent degradation. Phosphorylation by CK1 thus targeted the protein for degradation. Development of an extra row of inner hair cells in the cochlea and an approximate doubling in the number of afferent synapses was observed after embryonic or early postnatal deletion of Huwe1 in cochlear-supporting cells, and hair cells died in the early postnatal period when Huwe1 was knocked out in the developing cochlea. These data indicate that the regulation of Atoh1 by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway is necessary for hair cell fate determination and survival. PMID:27542412

  10. A conserved catalytic residue in the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pei-Ying; Hanlon, Mary; Eddins, Michael; Tsui, Colleen; Rogers, Richard S.; Jensen, Jane P.; Matunis, Michael J.; Weissman, Allan M.; Wolberger, Cynthia P.; Pickart, Cecile M.

    2003-01-01

    Ubiquitin (Ub) regulates diverse functions in eukaryotes through its attachment to other proteins. The defining step in this protein modification pathway is the attack of a substrate lysine residue on Ub bound through its C-terminus to the active site cysteine residue of a Ub-conjugating enzyme (E2) or certain Ub ligases (E3s). So far, these E2 and E3 cysteine residues are the only enzyme groups known to participate in the catalysis of conjugation. Here we show that a strictly conserved E2 asparagine residue is critical for catalysis of E2- and E2/RING E3-dependent isopeptide bond formation, but dispensable for upstream and downstream reactions of Ub thiol ester formation. In constrast, the strictly conserved histidine and proline residues immediately upstream of the asparagine are dispensable for catalysis of isopeptide bond formation. We propose that the conserved asparagine side chain stabilizes the oxyanion intermediate formed during lysine attack. The E2 asparagine is the first non-covalent catalytic group to be proposed in any Ub conjugation factor. PMID:14517261

  11. Aging Triggers Cytoplasmic Depletion and Nuclear Translocation of the E3 Ligase Mahogunin: A Function for Ubiquitin in Neuronal Survival.

    PubMed

    Benvegnù, Stefano; Mateo, María Inés; Palomer, Ernest; Jurado-Arjona, Jerónimo; Dotti, Carlos G

    2017-05-04

    A decline in proteasome function is causally connected to neuronal aging and aging-associated neuropathologies. By using hippocampal neurons in culture and in vivo, we show that aging triggers a reduction and a cytoplasm-to-nucleus redistribution of the E3 ubiquitin ligase mahogunin (MGRN1). Proteasome impairment induces MGRN1 monoubiquitination, the key post-translational modification for its nuclear entry. One potential mechanism for MGRN1 monoubiquitination is via progressive deubiquitination at the proteasome of polyubiquitinated MGRN1. Once in the nucleus, MGRN1 potentiates the transcriptional cellular response to proteotoxic stress. Inhibition of MGRN1 impairs ATF3-mediated neuronal responsiveness to proteosomal stress and increases neuronal stress, while increasing MGRN1 ameliorates signs of neuronal aging, including cognitive performance in old animals. Our results imply that, among others, the strength of neuronal survival in a proteasomal deterioration background, like during aging, depends on the fine-tuning of ubiquitination-deubiquitination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. HTLV-1 Tax Functions as a Ubiquitin E3 Ligase for Direct IKK Activation via Synthesis of Mixed-Linkage Polyubiquitin Chains.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong; Long, Wenying; Peng, Chao; Hu, Lin; Zhang, Qiong; Wu, Ailing; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Duan, Xiaotao; Wong, Catherine C L; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Xia, Zongping

    2016-04-01

    The HTLV-1 oncoprotein Tax plays a key role in CD4+ T cell transformation by promoting cell proliferation and survival, mainly through permanent activation of the NK-κB pathway and induction of many NF-κB target genes. Elucidating the underlying molecular mechanism is therefore critical in understanding HTLV-1-mediated transformation. Current studies have suggested multiple but controversial mechanisms regarding Tax-induced IKK activation mainly due to blending of primary Tax-induced IKK activation events and secondary IKK activation events induced by cytokines secreted by the primary Tax-induced IKK-NF-κB activation events. We reconstituted Tax-stimulated IKK activation in a cell-free system to dissect the essential cellular components for primary IKK activation by Tax and studied the underlying biochemical mechanism. We found that Tax is a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase, which, together with UbcH2, UhcH5c, or UbcH7, catalyzes the assembly of free mixed-linkage polyubiquitin chains. These free mixed-linkage polyubiquitin chains are then responsible for direct IKK activation by binding to the NEMO subunit of IKK. Our studies revealed the biochemical function of Tax in the process of IKK activation, which utilizes the minimal cellular ubiquitination components for NF-κB activation.

  13. HTLV-1 Tax Functions as a Ubiquitin E3 Ligase for Direct IKK Activation via Synthesis of Mixed-Linkage Polyubiquitin Chains

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chong; Long, Wenying; Peng, Chao; Hu, Lin; Zhang, Qiong; Wu, Ailing; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Duan, Xiaotao; Wong, Catherine C. L.; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Xia, Zongping

    2016-01-01

    The HTLV-1 oncoprotein Tax plays a key role in CD4+ T cell transformation by promoting cell proliferation and survival, mainly through permanent activation of the NK-κB pathway and induction of many NF-κB target genes. Elucidating the underlying molecular mechanism is therefore critical in understanding HTLV-1-mediated transformation. Current studies have suggested multiple but controversial mechanisms regarding Tax-induced IKK activation mainly due to blending of primary Tax-induced IKK activation events and secondary IKK activation events induced by cytokines secreted by the primary Tax-induced IKK-NF-κB activation events. We reconstituted Tax-stimulated IKK activation in a cell-free system to dissect the essential cellular components for primary IKK activation by Tax and studied the underlying biochemical mechanism. We found that Tax is a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase, which, together with UbcH2, UhcH5c, or UbcH7, catalyzes the assembly of free mixed-linkage polyubiquitin chains. These free mixed-linkage polyubiquitin chains are then responsible for direct IKK activation by binding to the NEMO subunit of IKK. Our studies revealed the biochemical function of Tax in the process of IKK activation, which utilizes the minimal cellular ubiquitination components for NF-κB activation. PMID:27082114

  14. E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Cbl-b Prevents Tumor Metastasis by Maintaining the Epithelial Phenotype in Multiple Drug-Resistant Gastric and Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ling; Zhang, Ye; Qu, Xiujuan; Che, Xiaofang; Guo, Tianshu; Cai, Ying; Li, Aodi; Li, Danni; Li, Ce; Wen, Ti; Fan, Yibo; Hou, Kezuo; Ma, Yanju; Hu, Xuejun; Liu, Yunpeng

    2017-04-01

    Multiple drug resistance (MDR) and metastasis are two major factors that contribute to the failure of cancer treatment. However, the relationship between MDR and metastasis has not been characterized. Additionally, the role of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b in metastasis of MDR gastric and breast cancer is not well known. In the present study, we found that MDR gastric and breast cancer cells possess a typical mesenchymal phenotype and enhanced cell migration capacity. Additionally, Cbl-b is poorly expressed in MDR gastric and breast cancer cells. In MDR gastric adenocarcinoma tissues, gastric cancer patients with low Cbl-b expression were more likely to have tumor invasion (P=.016) and lymph node metastasis (P=.007). Moreover, overexpression of Cbl-b reduced cell migration in MDR cell cultures both in vitro and in vivo. Cbl-b overexpression also prevented EMT by inducing ubiquitination and degradation of EGFR, leading to inhibition of the EGFR-ERK/Akt-miR-200c-ZEB1 axis. However, further overexpression of EGFR on a background of Cbl-b overexpression restored both the mesenchymal phenotype and cell migration capacity of MDR gastric and breast cancer cells. These results suggest that Cbl-b is an important factor for maintenance of the epithelial phenotype and inhibition of cell migration in MDR gastric and breast cancer cells. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. IKKε-mediated tumorigenesis requires K63-linked polyubiquitination by a cIAP1/cIAP2/TRAF2 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Alicia Y.; Shen, Rhine R.; Kim, Eejung; Lock, Ying J.; Xu, Ming; Chen, Zhijian J.; Hahn, William C.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY IκB kinase ε (IKKε, IKBKE) is a key regulator of innate immunity and a breast cancer oncogene, amplified in ~30% of breast cancers, that promotes malignant transformation through NF-κB activation. Here we show that IKKε is modified and regulated by K63-linked polyubiquitination at Lysine 30 and Lysine 401. TNFα and IL-1β stimulation induces IKKε K63-linked polyubiquitination over baseline levels in both macrophages and breast cancer cell lines, and this modification is essential for IKKε kinase activity, IKKε-mediated NF-κB activation and IKKε-induced malignant transformation. Disruption of K63-linked ubiquitination of IKKε does not affect its overall structure but impairs the recruitment of canonical NF-κB proteins. A cIAP1/cIAP2/TRAF2 E3 ligase complex binds to and ubiquitinates IKKε. Together, these observations demonstrate that K63-linked polyubiquitination regulates IKKε activity in both inflammatory and oncogenic contexts and suggests an alterative approach to target this breast cancer oncogene. PMID:23453969

  16. A Large Complement of the Predicted Arabidopsis ARM Repeat Proteins Are Members of the U-Box E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Family1[w

    PubMed Central

    Mudgil, Yashwanti; Shiu, Shin-Han; Stone, Sophia L.; Salt, Jennifer N.; Goring, Daphne R.

    2004-01-01

    The Arabidopsis genome was searched to identify predicted proteins containing armadillo (ARM) repeats, a motif known to mediate protein-protein interactions in a number of different animal proteins. Using domain database predictions and models generated in this study, 108 Arabidopsis proteins were identified that contained a minimum of two ARM repeats with the majority of proteins containing four to eight ARM repeats. Clustering analysis showed that the 108 predicted Arabidopsis ARM repeat proteins could be divided into multiple groups with wide differences in their domain compositions and organizations. Interestingly, 41 of the 108 Arabidopsis ARM repeat proteins contained a U-box, a motif present in a family of E3 ligases, and these proteins represented the largest class of Arabidopsis ARM repeat proteins. In 14 of these U-box/ARM repeat proteins, there was also a novel conserved domain identified in the N-terminal region. Based on the phylogenetic tree, representative U-box/ARM repeat proteins were selected for further study. RNA-blot analyses revealed that these U-box/ARM proteins are expressed in a variety of tissues in Arabidopsis. In addition, the selected U-box/ARM proteins were found to be functional E3 ubiquitin ligases. Thus, these U-box/ARM proteins represent a new family of E3 ligases in Arabidopsis. PMID:14657406

  17. A large complement of the predicted Arabidopsis ARM repeat proteins are members of the U-box E3 ubiquitin ligase family.

    PubMed

    Mudgil, Yashwanti; Shiu, Shin-Han; Stone, Sophia L; Salt, Jennifer N; Goring, Daphne R

    2004-01-01

    The Arabidopsis genome was searched to identify predicted proteins containing armadillo (ARM) repeats, a motif known to mediate protein-protein interactions in a number of different animal proteins. Using domain database predictions and models generated in this study, 108 Arabidopsis proteins were identified that contained a minimum of two ARM repeats with the majority of proteins containing four to eight ARM repeats. Clustering analysis showed that the 108 predicted Arabidopsis ARM repeat proteins could be divided into multiple groups with wide differences in their domain compositions and organizations. Interestingly, 41 of the 108 Arabidopsis ARM repeat proteins contained a U-box, a motif present in a family of E3 ligases, and these proteins represented the largest class of Arabidopsis ARM repeat proteins. In 14 of these U-box/ARM repeat proteins, there was also a novel conserved domain identified in the N-terminal region. Based on the phylogenetic tree, representative U-box/ARM repeat proteins were selected for further study. RNA-blot analyses revealed that these U-box/ARM proteins are expressed in a variety of tissues in Arabidopsis. In addition, the selected U-box/ARM proteins were found to be functional E3 ubiquitin ligases. Thus, these U-box/ARM proteins represent a new family of E3 ligases in Arabidopsis.

  18. Suppression of Arabidopsis RING E3 ubiquitin ligase AtATL78 increases tolerance to cold stress and decreases tolerance to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Jin; Kim, Woo Taek

    2013-08-19

    AtATL78 is an Arabidopsis RING E3 ubiquitin ligase. RT-PCR and promoter-GUS assays revealed that AtATL78 was up-regulated by cold stress and down-regulated by drought. AtATL78 was localized at the plasma-membrane. Suppression of AtATL78 increased tolerance to cold stress but decreased tolerance to drought. Our data suggests that AtATL78 is a negative regulator of cold stress response and a positive regulator of drought stress response in Arabidopsis. These results further suggest that AtATL78 plays opposing roles in cold and drought stress responses. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Arabidopsis C3HC4-RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase AtAIRP4 positively regulates stress-responsive abscisic acid signaling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liang; Liu, Qiaohong; Liu, Zhibin; Yang, Hao; Wang, Jianmei; Li, Xufeng; Yang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Degradation of proteins via the ubiquitin system is an important step in many stress signaling pathways in plants. E3 ligases recognize ligand proteins and dictate the high specificity of protein degradation, and thus, play a pivotal role in ubiquitination. Here, we identified a gene, named Arabidopsis thaliana abscisic acid (ABA)-insensitive RING protein 4 (AtAIRP4), which is induced by ABA and other stress treatments. AtAIRP4 encodes a cellular protein with a C3HC4-RING finger domain in its C-terminal side, which has in vitro E3 ligase activity. Loss of AtAIRP4 leads to a decrease in sensitivity of root elongation and stomatal closure to ABA, whereas overexpression of this gene in the T-DNA insertion mutant atairp4 effectively recovered the ABA-associated phenotypes. AtAIRP4 overexpression plants were hypersensitive to salt and osmotic stresses during seed germination, and showed drought avoidance compared with the wild-type and atairp4 mutant plants. In addition, the expression levels of ABA- and drought-induced marker genes in AtAIRP4 overexpression plants were markedly higher than those in the wild-type and atairp4 mutant plants. Hence, these results indicate that AtAIRP4 may act as a positive regulator of ABA-mediated drought avoidance and a negative regulator of salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  20. The β-catenin E3 ubiquitin ligase SIAH-1 is regulated by CSN5/JAB1 in CRC cells.

    PubMed

    Jumpertz, Sandra; Hennes, Thomas; Asare, Yaw; Vervoorts, Jörg; Bernhagen, Jürgen; Schütz, Anke K

    2014-09-01

    COP9 signalosome subunit 5 (CSN5) plays a decisive role in cellular processes such as cell cycle regulation and apoptosis via promoting protein degradation, gene transcription, and nuclear export. CSN5 regulates cullin-RING-E3 ligase (CRL) activity through its deNEDDylase function. It is overexpressed in several tumor entities, but its role in colorectal cancer (CRC) is poorly understood. Wnt/β-catenin signaling is aberrant in most CRC cells, resulting in increased levels of oncogenic β-catenin and thus tumor progression. Under physiological conditions, β-catenin levels are tightly regulated by continuous proteasomal degradation. We recently showed that knockdown of CSN5 in model and CRC cells results in decreased (phospho)-β-catenin levels. Reduced β-catenin levels were associated with an attenuated proliferation rate of different CRC cell types after CSN5 knockdown. The canonical Wnt pathway involves degradation of β-catenin by a β-TrCP1-containing E3 ligase, but is mostly non-functional in CRC cells. We thus hypothesized that alternative β-catenin degradation mediated by SIAH-1 (seven in absentia homolog-1), is responsible for the effect of CSN5 on β-catenin signaling in CRC cells. We found that SIAH-1 plays an essential role in β-catenin degradation in HCT116 CRC cells and that CSN5 affects β-catenin target gene expression in these cells. Of note, CSN5 affected SIAH-1 mRNA and SIAH-1 protein levels. Moreover, β-catenin and SIAH-1 form protein complexes with CSN5 in HCT116 cells. Lastly, we demonstrate that CSN5 promotes SIAH-1 degradation in HCT116 and SW480 cells and that this is associated with its deNEDDylase activity. In conclusion, we have identified a CSN5/β-catenin/SIAH-1 interaction network that might control β-catenin degradation in CRC cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. E3 ubiquitin ligase gene CMPG1-V from Haynaldia villosa L. contributes to powdery mildew resistance in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanfei; Li, Yingbo; Fei, Fei; Wang, Zongkuan; Wang, Wei; Cao, Aizhong; Liu, Yuan; Han, Shuang; Xing, Liping; Wang, Haiyan; Chen, Wei; Tang, Sanyuan; Huang, Xiahe; Shen, Qianhua; Xie, Qi; Wang, Xiue

    2015-10-01

    Powdery mildew is one of the most devastating wheat fungal diseases. A diploid wheat relative, Haynaldia villosa L., is highly resistant to powdery mildew, and its genetic resource of resistances, such as the Pm21 locus, is now widely used in wheat breeding. Here we report the cloning of a resistance gene from H. villosa, designated CMPG1-V, that encodes a U-box E3 ubiquitin ligase. Expression of the CMPG1-V gene was induced in the leaf and stem of H. villosa upon inoculation with Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) fungus, and the presence of Pm21 is essential for its rapid induction of expression. CMPG1-V has conserved key residues for E3 ligase, and possesses E3 ligase activity in vitro and in vivo. CMPG1-V is localized in the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, plasma membrane and partially in trans-Golgi network/early endosome vesicles. Transgenic wheat over-expressing CMPG1-V showed improved broad-spectrum powdery mildew resistance at seedling and adult stages, associated with an increase in expression of salicylic acid-responsive genes, H2 O2 accumulation, and cell-wall protein cross-linking at the Bgt infection sites, and the expression of CMPG1-V in H. villosa was increased when treated with salicylic acid, abscisic acid and H2 O2 . These results indicate the involvement of E3 ligase in defense responses to Bgt fungus in wheat, particularly in broad-spectrum disease resistance, and suggest association of reactive oxidative species and the phytohormone pathway with CMPG1-V-mediated powdery mildew resistance. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Solution structure of lysine-free (K0) ubiquitin

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tao; Li, Jess; Byrd, R Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Lysine-free ubiquitin (K0-Ub) is commonly used to study the ubiquitin-signaling pathway, where it is assumed to have the same structure and function as wild-type ubiquitin (wt-Ub). However, the K0-Ub 15N heteronuclear single quantum correlation NMR spectrum differs significantly from wt-Ub and the melting temperature is depressed by 19°C, raising the question of the structural integrity and equivalence to wt-Ub. The three-dimensional structure of K0-Ub was determined by solution NMR, using chemical shift and residual dipolar coupling data. K0-Ub adopts the same backbone structure as wt-Ub, and all significant chemical shifts can be related to interactions impacted by the K to R mutations. PMID:24591328

  3. Cardiac-specific ablation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Mdm2 leads to oxidative stress, broad mitochondrial deficiency and early death

    PubMed Central

    Hauck, Ludger; Stanley-Hasnain, Shanna; Fung, Amelia; Grothe, Daniela; Rao, Vivek; Mak, Tak W.

    2017-01-01

    The maintenance of normal heart function requires proper control of protein turnover. The ubiquitin-proteasome system is a principal regulator of protein degradation. Mdm2 is the main E3 ubiquitin ligase for p53 in mitotic cells thereby regulating cellular growth, DNA repair, oxidative stress and apoptosis. However, which of these Mdm2-related activities are preserved in differentiated cardiomyocytes has yet to be determined. We sought to elucidate the role of Mdm2 in the control of normal heart function. We observed markedly reduced Mdm2 mRNA levels accompanied by highly elevated p53 protein expression in the hearts of wild type mice subjected to myocardial infarction or trans-aortic banding. Accordingly, we generated conditional cardiac-specific Mdm2 gene knockout (Mdm2f/f;mcm) mice. In adulthood, Mdm2f/f;mcm mice developed spontaneous cardiac hypertrophy, left ventricular dysfunction with early mortality post-tamoxifen. A decreased polyubiquitination of myocardial p53 was observed, leading to its stabilization and activation, in the absence of acute stress. In addition, transcriptomic analysis of Mdm2-deficient hearts revealed that there is an induction of E2f1 and c-Myc mRNA levels with reduced expression of the Pgc-1a/Ppara/Esrrb/g axis and Pink1. This was associated with a significant degree of cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and an inhibition of redox homeostasis and mitochondrial bioenergetics. All these processes are early, Mdm2-associated events and contribute to the development of pathological hypertrophy. Our genetic and biochemical data support a role for Mdm2 in cardiac growth control through the regulation of p53, the Pgc-1 family of transcriptional coactivators and the pivotal antioxidant Pink1. PMID:29267372

  4. Aggregated low-density lipoprotein induces LRP1 stabilization through E3 ubiquitin ligase CHFR downregulation in human vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Cal, Roi; García-Arguinzonis, Maisa; Revuelta-López, Elena; Castellano, José; Padró, Teresa; Badimon, Lina; Llorente-Cortés, Vicenta

    2013-02-01

    Low density lipoprotein retention and aggregation in the arterial intima are key processes in atherogenesis. Aggregated LDL (agLDL) is taken up through low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) by human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). AgLDL increases LRP1 expression, at least in part, by downregulation of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins. It is unknown whether agLDL has some effect on the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and therefore on the LRP1 receptor turnover. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of agLDL on the degradation of LRP1 by the ubiquitin-proteasome system in human VSMC. Human VSMC were isolated from the media of human coronary arteries. Ubiquitinylated LRP1 protein levels were significantly reduced in human VSMC exposed to agLDL (100 μg/mL) for 20 hours (agLDL: 3.70±0.44 a.u. versus control: 9.68±0.55 a.u). Studies performed with cycloheximide showed that agLDL prolongs the LRP1 protein half life. Pulse-chase analysis showed that LRP1 turnover rate is reduced in agLDL-exposed VSMC. Two-dimensional electrophoresis shows an alteration in the proteomic profile of a RING type E3 ubiquitin ligase, CHFR. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis showed that agLDL (100 μg/mL) decreased the transcriptional and protein expression of CHFR. CHFR silencing increased VSMC, but not macrophage, LRP1 expression. However, CHFR silencing did not exert any effect on the classical low-density lipoprotein receptor protein levels. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that the physical interaction between CHFR and LRP1 decreased in the presence of agLDL. Our results demonstrate that agLDL prolongs the half life of LRP1 by preventing the receptor ubiquitinylation, at least in part, through CHFR targeting. This mechanism seems to be specific for LRP1 and VSMC.

  5. Overexpression of OsRDCP1, a rice RING domain-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase, increased tolerance to drought stress in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Bae, Hansol; Kim, Sung Keun; Cho, Seok Keun; Kang, Bin Goo; Kim, Woo Taek

    2011-06-01

    CaRma1H1 was previously identified as a hot pepper drought-induced RING E3 Ub ligase. We have identified five putative proteins that display a significant sequence identity with CaRma1H1 in the rice genome database (http://signal.salk.edu/cgi-bin/RiceGE). These five rice paralogs possess a single RING motif in their N-terminal regions, consistent with the notion that RING proteins are encoded by a multi-gene family. Therefore, these proteins were named OsRDCPs (Oryza sativa RING domain-containing proteins). Among these paralogs, OsRDCP1 was induced by drought stress, whereas the other OsRDCP members were constitutively expressed, with OsRDCP4 transcripts expressed at the highest level in rice seedlings. osrdcp1 loss-of-function knockout mutant and OsRDCP1-overexpressing transgenic rice plants were developed. Phenotypic analysis showed that wild-type plants and the homozygous osrdcp1 G2 mutant line displayed similar phenotypes under normal growth conditions and in response to drought stress. This may be due to complementation by other OsRDCP paralogs. In contrast, 35S:OsRDCP1 T2 transgenic rice plants exhibited improved tolerance to severe water deficits. Although the physiological function of OsRDCP1 remains unclear, there are several possible mechanisms for its involvement in a subset of physiological responses to counteract dehydration stress in rice plants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Interaction of E3 Ubiquitin Ligase MARCH7 with Long Noncoding RNA MALAT1 and Autophagy-Related Protein ATG7 Promotes Autophagy and Invasion in Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianguo; Zhang, Luo; Mei, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Yuan; Yi, Yuan; Liu, Li; Meng, Ying; Zhou, Lili; Zeng, Jianhua; Wu, Huan; Jiang, Xingwei

    2018-05-22

    Ubiquitin E3 ligase MARCH7 plays an important role in T cell proliferation and neuronal development. But its role in ovarian cancer remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the role of Ubiquitin E3 ligase MARCH7 in ovarian cancer. Real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blotting analysis were performed to determine the expression of MARCH7, MALAT1 and ATG7 in ovarian cancer cell lines and clinical specimens. The role of MARCH7 in maintaining ovarian cancer malignant phenotype was examined by Wound healing assay, Matrigel invasion assays and Mouse orthotopic xenograft model. Luciferase reporter assay, western blot analysis and ChIP assay were used to determine whether MARCH7 activates TGF-β-smad2/3 pathway by interacting with TGFβR2. MARCH7 interacted with MALAT1 by miR-200a (microRNA-200a). MARCH7 may function as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) to regulate the expression of ATG7 by competing with miR-200a. MARCH7 regulated TGF-β-smad2/3 pathway by interacting with TGFβR2. Inhibition of TGF-β-smad2/3 pathway downregulated MARCH7, MALAT1 and ATG7. MiR-200a regulated TGF-β induced autophagy, invasion and metastasis of SKOV3 cells by targeting MARCH7. MARCH7 silencing inhibited autophagy invasion and metastasis of SKOV3 cells both in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, MARCH7 overexpression promoted TGF-β induced autophagy, invasion and metastasis of A2780 cells in vitro by depending on MALAT1 and ATG7. We also found that TGF-β-smad2/3 pathway regulated MARCH7 and ATG7 through MALAT1. These findings suggested that TGFβR2-Smad2/3-MALAT1/MARCH7/ATG7 feedback loop mediated autophagy, migration and invasion in ovarian cancer. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Loss of the E3 ubiquitin ligase LRSAM1 sensitizes peripheral axons to degeneration in a mouse model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    PubMed

    Bogdanik, Laurent P; Sleigh, James N; Tian, Cong; Samuels, Mark E; Bedard, Karen; Seburn, Kevin L; Burgess, Robert W

    2013-05-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition characterized by peripheral axon degeneration with subsequent motor and sensory deficits. Several CMT gene products function in endosomal sorting and trafficking to the lysosome, suggesting that defects in this cellular pathway might present a common pathogenic mechanism for these conditions. LRSAM1 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that is implicated in this process, and mutations in LRSAM1 have recently been shown to cause CMT. We have generated mouse mutations in Lrsam1 to create an animal model of this form of CMT (CMT2P). Mouse Lrsam1 is abundantly expressed in the motor and sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system. Both homozygous and heterozygous mice have largely normal neuromuscular performance and only a very mild neuropathy phenotype with age. However, Lrsam1 mutant mice are more sensitive to challenge with acrylamide, a neurotoxic agent that causes axon degeneration, indicating that the axons in the mutant mice are indeed compromised. In transfected cells, LRSAM1 primarily localizes in a perinuclear compartment immediately beyond the Golgi and shows little colocalization with components of the endosome to lysosome trafficking pathway, suggesting that other cellular mechanisms also merit consideration.

  8. The SUD1 gene encodes a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase and is a positive regulator of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme a reductase activity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Doblas, Verónica G; Amorim-Silva, Vítor; Posé, David; Rosado, Abel; Esteban, Alicia; Arró, Montserrat; Azevedo, Herlander; Bombarely, Aureliano; Borsani, Omar; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Ferrer, Albert; Tavares, Rui M; Botella, Miguel A

    2013-02-01

    The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) enzyme catalyzes the major rate-limiting step of the mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway from which sterols and other isoprenoids are synthesized. In contrast with our extensive knowledge of the regulation of HMGR in yeast and animals, little is known about this process in plants. To identify regulatory components of the MVA pathway in plants, we performed a genetic screen for second-site suppressor mutations of the Arabidopsis thaliana highly drought-sensitive drought hypersensitive2 (dry2) mutant that shows decreased squalene epoxidase activity. We show that mutations in SUPPRESSOR OF DRY2 DEFECTS1 (SUD1) gene recover most developmental defects in dry2 through changes in HMGR activity. SUD1 encodes a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase that shows sequence and structural similarity to yeast Degradation of α factor (Doα10) and human TEB4, components of the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation C (ERAD-C) pathway. While in yeast and animals, the alternative ERAD-L/ERAD-M pathway regulates HMGR activity by controlling protein stability, SUD1 regulates HMGR activity without apparent changes in protein content. These results highlight similarities, as well as important mechanistic differences, among the components involved in HMGR regulation in plants, yeast, and animals.

  9. Novel deletion of the E3A ubiquitin protein ligase gene detected by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification in a patient with Angelman syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Calì, Francesco; Ragalmuto, Alda; Chiavetta, Valeria; Calabrese, Giuseppe; Fichera, Marco; Vinci, Mirella; Ruggeri, Giuseppa; Schinocca, Pietro; Sturnio, Maurizio; Romano, Salvatore; Elia, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a severe neurobehavioural disorder caused by failure of expression of the maternal copy of the imprinted domain located on 15q11-q13. There are different mechanisms leading to AS: maternal microdeletion, uniparental disomy, defects in a putative imprinting centre, mutations of the E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (UBE3A) gene. However, some of suspected cases of AS are still scored negative to all the latter mutations. Recently, it has been shown that a proportion of negative cases bear large deletions overlapping one or more exons of the UBE3A gene. These deletions are difficult to detect by conventional gene-scanning methods due to the masking effect by the non-deleted allele. In this study, we have used for the first time multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and comparative multiplex dosage analysis (CMDA) to search for large deletions affecting the UBE3A gene. Using this approach, we identified a novel causative deletion involving exon 8 in an affected sibling. Based on our results, we propose the use of MLPA as a fast, accurate and inexpensive test to detect large deletions in the UBE3A gene in a small but significant percentage of AS patients. PMID:21072004

  10. E3 Ubiquitin Ligase VHL Regulates Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α to Maintain Regulatory T Cell Stability and Suppressive Capacity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jee H; Elly, Chris; Park, Yoon; Liu, Yun-Cai

    2015-06-16

    Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells play a critical role in immune homeostasis; however, the mechanisms to maintain their function remain unclear. Here, we report that the E3 ubiquitin ligase VHL is essential for Treg cell function. Mice with Foxp3-restricted VHL deletion displayed massive inflammation associated with excessive Treg cell interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production. VHL-deficient Treg cells failed to prevent colitis induction, but converted into Th1-like effector T cells. VHL intrinsically orchestrated such conversion under both steady and inflammatory conditions followed by Foxp3 downregulation, which was reversed by IFN-γ deficiency. Augmented hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α)-induced glycolytic reprogramming was required for IFN-γ production. Furthermore, HIF-1α bound directly to the Ifng promoter. HIF-1α knockdown or knockout could reverse the increased IFN-γ by VHL-deficient Treg cells and restore their suppressive function in vivo. These findings indicate that regulation of HIF-1α pathway by VHL is crucial to maintain the stability and suppressive function of Foxp3(+) T cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The E3 ubiquitin ligase ZNRF2 is a substrate of mTORC1 and regulates its activation by amino acids

    PubMed Central

    Hoxhaj, Gerta; Caddye, Edward; Najafov, Ayaz; Houde, Vanessa P; Johnson, Catherine; Dissanayake, Kumara; Toth, Rachel; Campbell, David G; Prescott, Alan R; MacKintosh, Carol

    2016-01-01

    The mechanistic Target of Rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) senses intracellular amino acid levels through an intricate machinery, which includes the Rag GTPases, Ragulator and vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase). The membrane-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase ZNRF2 is released into the cytosol upon its phosphorylation by Akt. In this study, we show that ZNRF2 interacts with mTOR on membranes, promoting the amino acid-stimulated translocation of mTORC1 to lysosomes and its activation in human cells. ZNRF2 also interacts with the V-ATPase and preserves lysosomal acidity. Moreover, knockdown of ZNRF2 decreases cell size and cell proliferation. Upon growth factor and amino acid stimulation, mTORC1 phosphorylates ZNRF2 on Ser145, and this phosphosite is dephosphorylated by protein phosphatase 6. Ser145 phosphorylation stimulates vesicle-to-cytosol translocation of ZNRF2 and forms a novel negative feedback on mTORC1. Our findings uncover ZNRF2 as a component of the amino acid sensing machinery that acts upstream of Rag-GTPases and the V-ATPase to activate mTORC1. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12278.001 PMID:27244671

  12. The U-Box E3 Ubiquitin Ligase TUD1 Functions with a Heterotrimeric G α Subunit to Regulate Brassinosteroid-Mediated Growth in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xingming; Qian, Qian; Xu, Ting; Zhang, Yu'e; Dong, Guojun; Gao, Ting; Xie, Qi; Xue, Yongbiao

    2013-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are an important group of signaling molecules found in eukaryotes. They function with G-protein-coupled-receptors (GPCRs) to transduce various signals such as steroid hormones in animals. Nevertheless, their functions in plants are not well-defined. Previous studies suggested that the heterotrimeric G protein α subunit known as D1/RGA1 in rice is involved in a phytohormone gibberellin-mediated signaling pathway. Evidence also implicates D1 in the action of a second phytohormone Brassinosteroid (BR) and its pathway. However, it is unclear how D1 functions in this pathway, because so far no partner has been identified to act with D1. In this study, we report a D1 genetic interactor Taihu Dwarf1 (TUD1) that encodes a functional U-box E3 ubiquitin ligase. Genetic, phenotypic, and physiological analyses have shown that tud1 is epistatic to d1 and is less sensitive to BR treatment. Histological observations showed that the dwarf phenotype of tud1 is mainly due to decreased cell proliferation and disorganized cell files in aerial organs. Furthermore, we found that D1 directly interacts with TUD1. Taken together, these results demonstrate that D1 and TUD1 act together to mediate a BR-signaling pathway. This supports the idea that a D1-mediated BR signaling pathway occurs in rice to affect plant growth and development. PMID:23526892

  13. The E3 ubiquitin ligase mind bomb-2 (MIB2) protein controls B-cell CLL/lymphoma 10 (BCL10)-dependent NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Stempin, Cinthia C; Chi, Liying; Giraldo-Vela, Juan P; High, Anthony A; Häcker, Hans; Redecke, Vanessa

    2011-10-28

    B-cell CLL/lymphoma 10 (BCL10) is crucial for the activation of NF-κB in numerous immune receptor signaling pathways, including the T-cell receptor (TCR) and B-cell receptor signaling pathways. However, the molecular mechanisms that lead to signal transduction from BCL10 to downstream NF-κB effector kinases, such as TAK1 and components of the IKK complex, are not entirely understood. Here we used a proteomic approach and identified the E3 ligase MIB2 as a novel component of the activated BCL10 complex. In vitro translation and pulldown assays suggest direct interaction between BCL10 and MIB2. Overexpression experiments show that MIB2 controls BCL10-mediated activation of NF-κB by promoting autoubiquitination and ubiquitination of IKKγ/NEMO, as well as recruitment and activation of TAK1. Knockdown of MIB2 inhibited BCL10-dependent NF-κB activation. Together, our results identify MIB2 as a novel component of the activated BCL10 signaling complex and a missing link in the BCL10-dependent NF-κB signaling pathway.

  14. p53 down-regulates SARS coronavirus replication and is targeted by the SARS-unique domain and PLpro via E3 ubiquitin ligase RCHY1.

    PubMed

    Ma-Lauer, Yue; Carbajo-Lozoya, Javier; Hein, Marco Y; Müller, Marcel A; Deng, Wen; Lei, Jian; Meyer, Benjamin; Kusov, Yuri; von Brunn, Brigitte; Bairad, Dev Raj; Hünten, Sabine; Drosten, Christian; Hermeking, Heiko; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Mann, Matthias; Hilgenfeld, Rolf; von Brunn, Albrecht

    2016-08-30

    Highly pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) has developed strategies to inhibit host immune recognition. We identify cellular E3 ubiquitin ligase ring-finger and CHY zinc-finger domain-containing 1 (RCHY1) as an interacting partner of the viral SARS-unique domain (SUD) and papain-like protease (PL(pro)), and, as a consequence, the involvement of cellular p53 as antagonist of coronaviral replication. Residues 95-144 of RCHY1 and 389-652 of SUD (SUD-NM) subdomains are crucial for interaction. Association with SUD increases the stability of RCHY1 and augments RCHY1-mediated ubiquitination as well as degradation of p53. The calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta (CAMK2D), which normally influences RCHY1 stability by phosphorylation, also binds to SUD. In vivo phosphorylation shows that SUD does not regulate phosphorylation of RCHY1 via CAMK2D. Similarly to SUD, the PL(pro)s from SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and HCoV-NL63 physically interact with and stabilize RCHY1, and thus trigger degradation of endogenous p53. The SARS-CoV papain-like protease is encoded next to SUD within nonstructural protein 3. A SUD-PL(pro) fusion interacts with RCHY1 more intensively and causes stronger p53 degradation than SARS-CoV PL(pro) alone. We show that p53 inhibits replication of infectious SARS-CoV as well as of replicons and human coronavirus NL63. Hence, human coronaviruses antagonize the viral inhibitor p53 via stabilizing RCHY1 and promoting RCHY1-mediated p53 degradation. SUD functions as an enhancer to strengthen interaction between RCHY1 and nonstructural protein 3, leading to a further increase in in p53 degradation. The significance of these findings is that down-regulation of p53 as a major player in antiviral innate immunity provides a long-sought explanation for delayed activities of respective genes.

  15. p53 down-regulates SARS coronavirus replication and is targeted by the SARS-unique domain and PLpro via E3 ubiquitin ligase RCHY1

    PubMed Central

    Ma-Lauer, Yue; Carbajo-Lozoya, Javier; Müller, Marcel A.; Deng, Wen; Lei, Jian; Meyer, Benjamin; Kusov, Yuri; von Brunn, Brigitte; Bairad, Dev Raj; Hünten, Sabine; Drosten, Christian; Hermeking, Heiko; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Mann, Matthias; Hilgenfeld, Rolf; von Brunn, Albrecht

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) has developed strategies to inhibit host immune recognition. We identify cellular E3 ubiquitin ligase ring-finger and CHY zinc-finger domain-containing 1 (RCHY1) as an interacting partner of the viral SARS-unique domain (SUD) and papain-like protease (PLpro), and, as a consequence, the involvement of cellular p53 as antagonist of coronaviral replication. Residues 95–144 of RCHY1 and 389–652 of SUD (SUD-NM) subdomains are crucial for interaction. Association with SUD increases the stability of RCHY1 and augments RCHY1-mediated ubiquitination as well as degradation of p53. The calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta (CAMK2D), which normally influences RCHY1 stability by phosphorylation, also binds to SUD. In vivo phosphorylation shows that SUD does not regulate phosphorylation of RCHY1 via CAMK2D. Similarly to SUD, the PLpros from SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and HCoV-NL63 physically interact with and stabilize RCHY1, and thus trigger degradation of endogenous p53. The SARS-CoV papain-like protease is encoded next to SUD within nonstructural protein 3. A SUD–PLpro fusion interacts with RCHY1 more intensively and causes stronger p53 degradation than SARS-CoV PLpro alone. We show that p53 inhibits replication of infectious SARS-CoV as well as of replicons and human coronavirus NL63. Hence, human coronaviruses antagonize the viral inhibitor p53 via stabilizing RCHY1 and promoting RCHY1-mediated p53 degradation. SUD functions as an enhancer to strengthen interaction between RCHY1 and nonstructural protein 3, leading to a further increase in in p53 degradation. The significance of these findings is that down-regulation of p53 as a major player in antiviral innate immunity provides a long-sought explanation for delayed activities of respective genes. PMID:27519799

  16. The effector gene xopAE of Xanthomonas euvesicatoria 85-10 is part of an operon and encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase.

    PubMed

    Popov, Georgy; Majhi, Bharat Bhusan; Sessa, Guido

    2018-05-21

    The type III effector XopAE from the Xanthomonas euvesicatoria strain 85-10 ( Xe 85-10) was previously shown to inhibit plant immunity and enhance pathogen-induced disease symptoms. Evolutionary analysis of 60 xopAE alleles ( AEal ) revealed that the xopAE locus is conserved in multiple Xanthomonas species. The majority of xopAE alleles (55 out of 60) encodes a single ORF ( xopAE ), while in 5 alleles, including AEal 37 of the Xe 85-10 strain, a frame-shift splits the locus into two ORFs ( hpaF and a truncated xopAE ). To test whether the second ORF of AEal 37 ( xopAE 85-10 ) is translated, we examined expression of YFP fused downstream to truncated or mutant forms of the locus in Xanthomonas bacteria. YFP fluorescence was detected at maximal levels when the reporter was in proximity of an internal ribosome-binding site upstream to a rare ATT start codon in the xopAE 85-10 ORF, but severely reduced when these elements were abolished. In agreement with the notion that xopAE 85- 10 is a functional gene, its protein product was translocated into plant cells by the type III secretion system and translocation was dependent on its upstream ORF hpaF. Homology modeling predicted that XopAE 85-10 contains an E3 ligase XL-box domain at the C-terminus, and in vitro assays demonstrated that this domain displays mono-ubiquitination activity. Remarkably, the XL-box was essential for XopAE 85-10 to inhibit PAMP-induced gene expression in Arabidopsis protoplasts. Together, these results indicate that the xopAE 85-10 gene resides in a functional operon, which utilizes the alternative start codon ATT, and encodes a novel XL-box E3 ligase. Importance Xanthomonas bacteria utilize a type III secretion system to cause disease in many crops. This study provides insights into evolution, translocation and biochemical function of the XopAE type III secreted effector contributing to the understanding of Xanthomonas-host interactions. We establish XopAE as core effector of seven Xanthomonas

  17. Conformational Dynamics Modulate Activation of the Ubiquitin Conjugating Enzyme Ube2g2

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The ubiquitin conjugating enzyme Ube2g2 together with its cognate E3 ligase gp78 catalyzes the synthesis of lysine-48 polyubiquitin chains constituting signals for the proteasomal degradation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, we employ NMR spectroscopy in combination with single-turnover diubiquitin formation assays to examine the role of the RING domain from gp78 in the catalytic activation of Ube2g2∼Ub conjugates. We find that approximately 60% of the Ube2g2∼Ub conjugates occupy a closed conformation in the absence of gp78-RING, with the population increasing to 82% upon gp78-RING binding. As expected, strong mutations in the hydrophobic patch residues of the ∼Ub moiety result in Ube2g2∼Ub populating only open states with corresponding loss of the ubiquitin conjugation activity. Less disruptive mutations introduced into the hydrophobic patch of the ∼Ub moiety also destabilize the closed conformational state, yet the corresponding effect on the ubiquitin conjugation activity ranges from complete loss to an enhancement of the catalytic activity. These results present a picture in which Ube2g2’s active site is in a state of continual dynamic flux with the organization of the active site into a catalytically viable conformation constituting the rate-limiting step for a single ubiquitin ligation event. Ube2g2’s function as a highly specific K48-polyubiquitin chain elongator leads us to speculate that this may be a strategy by which Ube2g2 reduces the probability of nonproductive catalytic outcomes in the absence of available substrate. PMID:28884161

  18. Forkhead box O3 plays a role in skeletal muscle atrophy through expression of E3 ubiquitin ligases MuRF-1 and atrogin-1 in Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seol-Hee; Lee, Hae-Ahm; Kim, Mina; Lee, Eunjo; Sohn, Uy Dong; Kim, Inkyeom

    2017-06-01

    Cushing's syndrome is caused by overproduction of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal grand to make cortisol. Skeletal muscle wasting occurs in pathophysiological response to Cushing's syndrome. The forkhead box (FOX) protein family has been implicated as a key regulator of muscle loss under conditions such as diabetes and sepsis. However, the mechanistic role of the FOXO family in ACTH-induced muscle atrophy is not understood. We hypothesized that FOXO3a plays a role in muscle atrophy through expression of the E3 ubiquitin ligases, muscle RING finger protein-1 (MuRF-1), and atrogin-1 in Cushing's syndrome. For establishment of a Cushing's syndrome animal model, Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with osmotic minipumps containing ACTH (40 ng·kg -1 ·day -1 ). ACTH infusion significantly reduced muscle weight. In ACTH-infused rats, MuRF-1, atrogin-1, and FOXO3a were upregulated and the FOXO3a promoter was targeted by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Transcriptional activity and expression of FOXO3a were significantly decreased by the GR antagonist RU486. Treatment with RU486 reduced MuRF-1 and atrogin-1 expression in accordance with reduced enrichment of FOXO3a and Pol II on the promoters. Knockdown of FOXO3a prevented dexamethasone-induced MuRF-1 and atrogin-1 expression. These results indicate that FOXO3a plays a role in muscle atrophy through expression of MuRF-1 and atrogin-1 in Cushing's syndrome. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. The Putative E3 Ubiquitin Ligase ECERIFERUM9 Regulates Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis and Response during Seed Germination and Postgermination Growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huayan; Zhang, Huoming; Cui, Peng; Ding, Feng; Wang, Guangchao; Li, Rongjun; Jenks, Matthew A; Lü, Shiyou; Xiong, Liming

    2014-07-01

    The ECERIFERUM9 (CER9) gene encodes a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase that functions in cuticle biosynthesis and the maintenance of plant water status. Here, we found that CER9 is also involved in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling in seeds and young seedlings of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The germinated embryos of the mutants exhibited enhanced sensitivity to ABA during the transition from reversible dormancy to determinate seedling growth. Expression of the CER9 gene is closely related to ABA levels and displays a similar pattern to that of ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5), which encodes a positive regulator of ABA responses in seeds. cer9 mutant seeds exhibited delayed germination that is independent of seed coat permeability. Quantitative proteomic analyses showed that cer9 seeds had a protein profile similar to that of the wild type treated with ABA. Transcriptomics analyses revealed that genes involved in ABA biosynthesis or signaling pathways were differentially regulated in cer9 seeds. Consistent with this, high levels of ABA were detected in dry seeds of cer9. Blocking ABA biosynthesis by fluridone treatment or by combining an ABA-deficient mutation with cer9 attenuated the phenotypes of cer9. Whereas introduction of the abi1-1, abi3-1, or abi4-103 mutation could completely eliminate the ABA hypersensitivity of cer9, introduction of abi5 resulted only in partial suppression. These results indicate that CER9 is a novel negative regulator of ABA biosynthesis and the ABA signaling pathway during seed germination. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  20. The Putative E3 Ubiquitin Ligase ECERIFERUM9 Regulates Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis and Response during Seed Germination and Postgermination Growth in Arabidopsis1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huayan; Zhang, Huoming; Cui, Peng; Ding, Feng; Wang, Guangchao; Li, Rongjun; Jenks, Matthew A.; Lü, Shiyou; Xiong, Liming

    2014-01-01

    The ECERIFERUM9 (CER9) gene encodes a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase that functions in cuticle biosynthesis and the maintenance of plant water status. Here, we found that CER9 is also involved in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling in seeds and young seedlings of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The germinated embryos of the mutants exhibited enhanced sensitivity to ABA during the transition from reversible dormancy to determinate seedling growth. Expression of the CER9 gene is closely related to ABA levels and displays a similar pattern to that of ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5), which encodes a positive regulator of ABA responses in seeds. cer9 mutant seeds exhibited delayed germination that is independent of seed coat permeability. Quantitative proteomic analyses showed that cer9 seeds had a protein profile similar to that of the wild type treated with ABA. Transcriptomics analyses revealed that genes involved in ABA biosynthesis or signaling pathways were differentially regulated in cer9 seeds. Consistent with this, high levels of ABA were detected in dry seeds of cer9. Blocking ABA biosynthesis by fluridone treatment or by combining an ABA-deficient mutation with cer9 attenuated the phenotypes of cer9. Whereas introduction of the abi1-1, abi3-1, or abi4-103 mutation could completely eliminate the ABA hypersensitivity of cer9, introduction of abi5 resulted only in partial suppression. These results indicate that CER9 is a novel negative regulator of ABA biosynthesis and the ABA signaling pathway during seed germination. PMID:24812105

  1. Overexpression of the human ubiquitin E3 ligase CUL4A alleviates hypoxia-reoxygenation injury in pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Can; Zhang, Li-Yang; Chen, Hong

    2011-12-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of human CUL4A (hCUL4A) in PC12 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of hCUL4A on hypoxia-reoxygenation injury were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer hCUL4A suppresses apoptosis and DNA damage and thus promotes cell survival. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer hCUL4A regulates apoptosis-related proteins and cell cycle regulators. -- Abstract: The ubiquitin E3 ligase CUL4A plays important roles in diverse cellular processes including carcinogenesis and proliferation. It has been reported that the expression of CUL4A can be induced by hypoxic-ischemic injury. However, the effect of elevated expression of CUL4A on hypoxia-reoxygenation injury is currently unclear. In this study, human CUL4A (hCUL4A) was expressed in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12)more » cells using adenoviral vector-mediated gene transfer, and the effects of hCUL4A expression on hypoxia-reoxygenation injury were investigated. In PC12 cells subjected to hypoxia and reoxygenation, we found that hCUL4A suppresses apoptosis and DNA damage by regulating apoptosis-related proteins and cell cycle regulators (Bcl-2, caspase-3, p53 and p27); consequently, hCUL4A promotes cell survival. Taken together, our results reveal the beneficial effects of hCUL4A in PC12 cells upon hypoxia-reoxygenation injury.« less

  2. O2 sensing-associated glycosylation exposes the F-box-combining site of the Dictyostelium Skp1 subunit in E3 ubiquitin ligases.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, M Osman; Thieker, David; Chalmers, Gordon; Schafer, Christopher M; Ishihara, Mayumi; Azadi, Parastoo; Woods, Robert J; Glushka, John N; Bendiak, Brad; Prestegard, James H; West, Christopher M

    2017-11-17

    Skp1 is a conserved protein linking cullin-1 to F-box proteins in SCF ( S kp1/ C ullin-1/ F -box protein) E3 ubiquitin ligases, which modify protein substrates with polyubiquitin chains that typically target them for 26S proteasome-mediated degradation. In Dictyostelium (a social amoeba), Toxoplasma gondii (the agent for human toxoplasmosis), and other protists, Skp1 is regulated by a unique pentasaccharide attached to hydroxylated Pro-143 within its C-terminal F-box-binding domain. Prolyl hydroxylation of Skp1 contributes to O 2 -dependent Dictyostelium development, but full glycosylation at that position is required for optimal O 2 sensing. Previous studies have shown that the glycan promotes organization of the F-box-binding region in Skp1 and aids in Skp1's association with F-box proteins. Here, NMR and MS approaches were used to determine the glycan structure, and then a combination of NMR and molecular dynamics simulations were employed to characterize the impact of the glycan on the conformation and motions of the intrinsically flexible F-box-binding domain of Skp1. Molecular dynamics trajectories of glycosylated Skp1 whose calculated monosaccharide relaxation kinetics and rotational correlation times agreed with the NMR data indicated that the glycan interacts with the loop connecting two α-helices of the F-box-combining site. In these trajectories, the helices separated from one another to create a more accessible and dynamic F-box interface. These results offer an unprecedented view of how a glycan modification influences a disordered region of a full-length protein. The increased sampling of an open Skp1 conformation can explain how glycosylation enhances interactions with F-box proteins in cells. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. miR-135A Regulates Preimplantation Embryo Development through Down-Regulation of E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Seven in Absentia Homolog 1A (SIAH1A) Expression

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Carmen O. N.; Ye, Tian-Min; Kwan, Peter C. K.; Lee, Kai-Fai; Yeung, William S. B.

    2011-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules capable of regulating transcription and translation. Previously, a cluster of miRNAs that are specifically expressed in mouse zygotes but not in oocytes or other preimplantation stages embryos are identified by multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction-based miRNA profiling. The functional role of one of these zygote-specific miRNAs, miR-135a, in preimplantation embryo development was investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings Microinjection of miR-135a inhibitor suppressed first cell cleavage in more than 30% of the zygotes. Bioinformatics analysis identified E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Seven In Absentia Homolog 1A (Siah1a) as a predicted target of miR-135a. Western blotting and 3′UTR luciferase functional assays demonstrated that miR-135a down-regulated the expression of Siah1 in HeLa cells and in mouse zygotes. Siah1a was expressed in preimplantation embryos and its expression pattern negatively correlated with that of miR-135a. Co-injection of Siah1a-specific antibody with miR-135a inhibitor partially nullified the effect of miR-135a inhibition. Proteasome inhibition by MG-132 revealed that miR-135a regulated proteasomal degradation and potentially controlled the expression of chemokinesin DNA binding protein (Kid). Conclusions/Significance The present study demonstrated for the first time that zygotic specific miRNA modulates the first cell cleavage through regulating expression of Siah1a. PMID:22132158

  4. The E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Adaptor Protein Skp1 Is Glycosylated by an Evolutionarily Conserved Pathway That Regulates Protist Growth and Development.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Kazi; Zhao, Peng; Mandalasi, Msano; van der Wel, Hanke; Wells, Lance; Blader, Ira J; West, Christopher M

    2016-02-26

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protist parasite of warm-blooded animals that causes disease by proliferating intracellularly in muscle and the central nervous system. Previous studies showed that a prolyl 4-hydroxylase related to animal HIFα prolyl hydroxylases is required for optimal parasite proliferation, especially at low O2. We also observed that Pro-154 of Skp1, a subunit of the Skp1/Cullin-1/F-box protein (SCF)-class of E3-ubiquitin ligases, is a natural substrate of this enzyme. In an unrelated protist, Dictyostelium discoideum, Skp1 hydroxyproline is modified by five sugars via the action of three glycosyltransferases, Gnt1, PgtA, and AgtA, which are required for optimal O2-dependent development. We show here that TgSkp1 hydroxyproline is modified by a similar pentasaccharide, based on mass spectrometry, and that assembly of the first three sugars is dependent on Toxoplasma homologs of Gnt1 and PgtA. Reconstitution of the glycosyltransferase reactions in extracts with radioactive sugar nucleotide substrates and appropriate Skp1 glycoforms, followed by chromatographic analysis of acid hydrolysates of the reaction products, confirmed the predicted sugar identities as GlcNAc, Gal, and Fuc. Disruptions of gnt1 or pgtA resulted in decreased parasite growth. Off target effects were excluded based on restoration of the normal glycan chain and growth upon genetic complementation. By analogy to Dictyostelium Skp1, the mechanism may involve regulation of assembly of the SCF complex. Understanding the mechanism of Toxoplasma Skp1 glycosylation is expected to help develop it as a drug target for control of the pathogen, as the glycosyltransferases are absent from mammalian hosts. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Terminating protein ubiquitination: Hasta la vista, ubiquitin.

    PubMed

    Stringer, Daniel K; Piper, Robert C

    2011-09-15

    Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification that generally directs proteins for degradation by the proteasome or by lysosomes. However, ubiquitination has been implicated in many other cellular processes, including transcriptional regulation, DNA repair, regulation of protein-protein interactions and association with ubiquitin-binding scaffolds. Ubiquitination is a dynamic process. Ubiquitin is added to proteins by E3 ubiquitin ligases as a covalent modification to one or multiple lysine residues as well as non-lysine amino acids. Ubiquitin itself contains seven lysines, each of which can also be ubiquitinated, leading to polyubiquitin chains that are best characterized for linkages occurring through K48 and K63. Ubiquitination can also be reversed by the action of deubiquitination enzymes (DUbs). Like E3 ligases, DUbs play diverse and critical roles in cells. ( 1) Ubiquitin is expressed as a fusion protein, as a linear repeat or as a fusion to ribosomal subunits, and DUbs are necessary to liberate free ubiquitin, making them the first enzyme of the ubiquitin cascade. Proteins destined for degradation by the proteasome or by lysosomes are deubiquitinated prior to their degradation, which allows ubiquitin to be recycled by the cell, contributing to the steady-state pool of free ubiquitin. Proteins destined for degradation by lysosomes are also acted upon by both ligases and DUbs. Deubiquitination can also act as a means to prevent protein degradation, and many proteins are thought to undergo rounds of ubiquitination and deubiquitination, ultimately resulting in either the degradation or stabilization of those proteins. Despite years of study, examining the effects of the ubiquitination of proteins remains quite challenging. This is because the methods that are currently being employed to study ubiquitination are limiting. Here, we briefly examine current strategies to study the effects of ubiquitination and describe an additional novel approach that we have

  6. How Chemical Synthesis of Ubiquitin Conjugates Helps To Understand Ubiquitin Signal Transduction.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Dharjath S; Sapmaz, Aysegul; Ovaa, Huib

    2017-03-15

    Ubiquitin (Ub) is a small post-translational modifier protein involved in a myriad of biochemical processes including DNA damage repair, proteasomal proteolysis, and cell cycle control. Ubiquitin signaling pathways have not been completely deciphered due to the complex nature of the enzymes involved in ubiquitin conjugation and deconjugation. Hence, probes and assay reagents are important to get a better understanding of this pathway. Recently, improvements have been made in synthesis procedures of Ub derivatives. In this perspective, we explain various research reagents available and how chemical synthesis has made an important contribution to Ub research.

  7. The D113N mutation in the RING E3 ubiquitin protein ligase gene is not associated with ex vivo susceptibility to common anti-malarial drugs in African Plasmodium falciparum isolates.

    PubMed

    Gendrot, Mathieu; Foguim, Francis Tsombeng; Robert, Marie Gladys; Amalvict, Rémy; Mosnier, Joel; Benoit, Nicolas; Madamet, Marylin; Pradines, Bruno

    2018-03-12

    Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapy has emerged and spread in Southeast Asia. In areas where artemisinin resistance is emerging, the efficacy of combination is now based on partner drugs. In this context, the identification of novel markers of resistance is essential to monitor the emergence and spread of resistance to these partner drugs. The ubiquitylation pathway could be a possible target for anti-malarial compounds and might be involved in resistance. Polymorphisms in the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase (PF3D7_0627300) gene could be associated with decreased in vitro susceptibility to anti-malarial drugs. Plasmodium falciparum isolates were collected from patients hospitalized in France with imported malaria from a malaria-endemic country from January 2015 to December 2016 and, more particularly, from African French-speaking countries. In total, 215 isolates were successfully sequenced for the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase gene and assessed for ex vivo susceptibility to anti-malarial drugs. The D113N mutation in the RING E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase gene was present in 147 out of the 215 samples (68.4%). The IC 50 values for the ten anti-malarial drugs were not significantly different between the wild-type and mutant parasites (p values between 0.225 and 0.933). There was no significant difference in terms of the percentage of parasites with decreased susceptibility between the D113 wild-type and the 133N mutated P. falciparum strains (p values between 0.541 and 1). The present data confirmed the absence of the association between polymorphisms in the RING E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase gene and the ex vivo susceptibility to common anti-malarial drugs in African P. falciparum isolates.

  8. The Matrix Protein of Nipah Virus Targets the E3-Ubiquitin Ligase TRIM6 to Inhibit the IKKε Kinase-Mediated Type-I IFN Antiviral Response.

    PubMed

    Bharaj, Preeti; Wang, Yao E; Dawes, Brian E; Yun, Tatyana E; Park, Arnold; Yen, Benjamin; Basler, Christopher F; Freiberg, Alexander N; Lee, Benhur; Rajsbaum, Ricardo

    2016-09-01

    For efficient replication, viruses have developed mechanisms to evade innate immune responses, including the antiviral type-I interferon (IFN-I) system. Nipah virus (NiV), a highly pathogenic member of the Paramyxoviridae family (genus Henipavirus), is known to encode for four P gene-derived viral proteins (P/C/W/V) with IFN-I antagonist functions. Here we report that NiV matrix protein (NiV-M), which is important for virus assembly and budding, can also inhibit IFN-I responses. IFN-I production requires activation of multiple signaling components including the IκB kinase epsilon (IKKε). We previously showed that the E3-ubiquitin ligase TRIM6 catalyzes the synthesis of unanchored K48-linked polyubiquitin chains, which are not covalently attached to any protein, and activate IKKε for induction of IFN-I mediated antiviral responses. Using co-immunoprecipitation assays and confocal microscopy we show here that the NiV-M protein interacts with TRIM6 and promotes TRIM6 degradation. Consequently, NiV-M expression results in reduced levels of unanchored K48-linked polyubiquitin chains associated with IKKε leading to impaired IKKε oligomerization, IKKε autophosphorylation and reduced IFN-mediated responses. This IFN antagonist function of NiV-M requires a conserved lysine residue (K258) in the bipartite nuclear localization signal that is found in divergent henipaviruses. Consistent with this, the matrix proteins of Ghana, Hendra and Cedar viruses were also able to inhibit IFNβ induction. Live NiV infection, but not a recombinant NiV lacking the M protein, reduced the levels of endogenous TRIM6 protein expression. To our knowledge, matrix proteins of paramyxoviruses have never been reported to be involved in innate immune antagonism. We report here a novel mechanism of viral innate immune evasion by targeting TRIM6, IKKε and unanchored polyubiquitin chains. These findings expand the universe of viral IFN antagonism strategies and provide a new potential target for

  9. The Matrix Protein of Nipah Virus Targets the E3-Ubiquitin Ligase TRIM6 to Inhibit the IKKε Kinase-Mediated Type-I IFN Antiviral Response

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, Brian E.; Yun, Tatyana E.; Park, Arnold; Yen, Benjamin; Basler, Christopher F.; Freiberg, Alexander N.; Lee, Benhur; Rajsbaum, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    For efficient replication, viruses have developed mechanisms to evade innate immune responses, including the antiviral type-I interferon (IFN-I) system. Nipah virus (NiV), a highly pathogenic member of the Paramyxoviridae family (genus Henipavirus), is known to encode for four P gene-derived viral proteins (P/C/W/V) with IFN-I antagonist functions. Here we report that NiV matrix protein (NiV-M), which is important for virus assembly and budding, can also inhibit IFN-I responses. IFN-I production requires activation of multiple signaling components including the IκB kinase epsilon (IKKε). We previously showed that the E3-ubiquitin ligase TRIM6 catalyzes the synthesis of unanchored K48-linked polyubiquitin chains, which are not covalently attached to any protein, and activate IKKε for induction of IFN-I mediated antiviral responses. Using co-immunoprecipitation assays and confocal microscopy we show here that the NiV-M protein interacts with TRIM6 and promotes TRIM6 degradation. Consequently, NiV-M expression results in reduced levels of unanchored K48-linked polyubiquitin chains associated with IKKε leading to impaired IKKε oligomerization, IKKε autophosphorylation and reduced IFN-mediated responses. This IFN antagonist function of NiV-M requires a conserved lysine residue (K258) in the bipartite nuclear localization signal that is found in divergent henipaviruses. Consistent with this, the matrix proteins of Ghana, Hendra and Cedar viruses were also able to inhibit IFNβ induction. Live NiV infection, but not a recombinant NiV lacking the M protein, reduced the levels of endogenous TRIM6 protein expression. To our knowledge, matrix proteins of paramyxoviruses have never been reported to be involved in innate immune antagonism. We report here a novel mechanism of viral innate immune evasion by targeting TRIM6, IKKε and unanchored polyubiquitin chains. These findings expand the universe of viral IFN antagonism strategies and provide a new potential target for

  10. Degradation of the stress-responsive enzyme formate dehydrogenase by the RING-type E3 ligase Keep on Going and the ubiquitin 26S proteasome system.

    PubMed

    McNeilly, Daryl; Schofield, Andrew; Stone, Sophia L

    2018-02-01

    KEG is involved in mediating the proteasome-dependent degradation of FDH, a stress-responsive enzyme. The UPS may function to suppress FDH mediated stress responses under favorable growth conditions. Formate dehydrogenase (FDH) has been studied in bacteria and yeasts for the purpose of industrial application of NADH co-factor regeneration. In plants, FDH is regarded as a universal stress protein involved in responses to various abiotic and biotic stresses. Here we show that FDH abundance is regulated by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). FDH is ubiquitinated in planta and degraded by the 26S proteasome. Interaction assays identified FDH as a potential substrate for the RING-type ubiquitin ligase Keep on Going (KEG). KEG is capable of attaching ubiquitin to FDH in in vitro assays and the turnover of FDH was increased when co-expressed with a functional KEG in planta, suggesting that KEG contributes to FDH degradation. Consistent with a role in regulating FDH abundance, transgenic plants overexpressing KEG were more sensitive to the inhibitory effects of formate. In addition, FDH is a phosphoprotein and dephosphorylation was found to increase the stability of FDH in degradation assays. Based on results from this and previous studies, we propose a model where KEG mediates the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of phosphorylated FDH and, in response to unfavourable growth conditions, reduction in FDH phosphorylation levels may prohibit turnover allowing the stabilized FDH to facilitate stress responses.

  11. E2~Ub conjugates regulate the kinase activity of Shigella effector OspG during pathogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Pruneda, Jonathan N.; Smith, F. Donelson; Daurie, Angela

    Pathogenic bacteria introduce effector proteins directly into the cytosol of eukaryotic cells to promote invasion and colonization. OspG, a Shigella spp. effector kinase, plays a role in this process by helping to suppress the host inflammatory response. OspG has been reported to bind host E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes activated with ubiquitin (E2~Ub), a key enzyme complex in ubiquitin transfer pathways. A cocrystal structure of the OspG/UbcH5c~Ub complex reveals that complex formation has important ramifications for the activity of both OspG and the UbcH5c~Ub conjugate. OspG is a minimal kinase domain containing only essential elements required for catalysis. UbcH5c~Ub binding stabilizes anmore » active conformation of the kinase, greatly enhancing OspG kinase activity. In contrast, interaction with OspG stabilizes an extended, less reactive form of UbcH5c~Ub. Recognizing conserved E2 features, OspG can interact with at least ten distinct human E2s~Ub. Mouse oral infection studies indicate that E2~Ub conjugates act as novel regulators of OspG effector kinase function in eukaryotic host cells.« less

  12. Age- and disease-dependent increase of the mitophagy marker phospho-ubiquitin in normal aging and Lewy body disease.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xu; Fiesel, Fabienne C; Truban, Dominika; Castanedes Casey, Monica; Lin, Wen-Lang; Soto, Alexandra I; Tacik, Pawel; Rousseau, Linda G; Diehl, Nancy N; Heckman, Michael G; Lorenzo-Betancor, Oswaldo; Ferrer, Isidre; Arbelo, José M; Steele, John C; Farrer, Matthew J; Cornejo-Olivas, Mario; Torres, Luis; Mata, Ignacio F; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Wszolek, Zbigniew K; Ross, Owen A; Murray, Melissa E; Dickson, Dennis W; Springer, Wolfdieter

    2018-06-27

    Although exact causes of Parkinson disease (PD) remain enigmatic, mitochondrial dysfunction is increasingly appreciated as a key determinant of dopaminergic neuron susceptibility in both familial and sporadic PD. Two genes associated with recessive, early-onset PD encode the ubiquitin (Ub) kinase PINK1 and the E3 Ub ligase PRKN/PARK2/Parkin, which together orchestrate a protective mitochondrial quality control (mitoQC) pathway. Upon stress, both enzymes cooperatively identify and decorate damaged mitochondria with phosphorylated poly-Ub (p-S65-Ub) chains. This specific label is subsequently recognized by autophagy receptors that further facilitate mitochondrial degradation in lysosomes (mitophagy). Here, we analyzed human post-mortem brain specimens and identified distinct pools of p-S65-Ub-positive structures that partially colocalized with markers of mitochondria, autophagy, lysosomes and/or granulovacuolar degeneration bodies. We further quantified levels and distribution of the 'mitophagy tag' in 2 large cohorts of brain samples from normal aging and Lewy body disease (LBD) cases using unbiased digital pathology. Somatic p-S65-Ub structures independently increased with age and disease in distinct brain regions and enhanced levels in LBD brain were age- and Braak tangle stage-dependent. Additionally, we observed significant correlations of p-S65-Ub with LBs and neurofibrillary tangle levels in disease. The degree of co-existing p-S65-Ub signals and pathological PD hallmarks increased in the pre-mature stage, but decreased in the late stage of LB or tangle aggregation. Altogether, our study provides further evidence for a potential pathogenic overlap among different forms of PD and suggests that p-S65-Ub can serve as a biomarker for mitochondrial damage in aging and disease.

  13. Quantifying ubiquitin signaling.

    PubMed

    Ordureau, Alban; Münch, Christian; Harper, J Wade

    2015-05-21

    Ubiquitin (UB)-driven signaling systems permeate biology, and are often integrated with other types of post-translational modifications (PTMs), including phosphorylation. Flux through such pathways is dictated by the fractional stoichiometry of distinct modifications and protein assemblies as well as the spatial organization of pathway components. Yet, we rarely understand the dynamics and stoichiometry of rate-limiting intermediates along a reaction trajectory. Here, we review how quantitative proteomic tools and enrichment strategies are being used to quantify UB-dependent signaling systems, and to integrate UB signaling with regulatory phosphorylation events, illustrated with the PINK1/PARKIN pathway. A key feature of ubiquitylation is that the identity of UB chain linkage types can control downstream processes. We also describe how proteomic and enzymological tools can be used to identify and quantify UB chain synthesis and linkage preferences. The emergence of sophisticated quantitative proteomic approaches will set a new standard for elucidating biochemical mechanisms of UB-driven signaling systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Magnaporthe oryzae effector AvrPiz-t targets the RING E3 ubiquitin ligase APIP6 to suppress pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity in rice.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan-Ho; Chen, Songbiao; Shirsekar, Gautam; Zhou, Bo; Khang, Chang Hyun; Songkumarn, Pattavipha; Afzal, Ahmed J; Ning, Yuese; Wang, Ruyi; Bellizzi, Maria; Valent, Barbara; Wang, Guo-Liang

    2012-11-01

    Although the functions of a few effector proteins produced by bacterial and oomycete plant pathogens have been elucidated in recent years, information for the vast majority of pathogen effectors is still lacking, particularly for those of plant-pathogenic fungi. Here, we show that the avirulence effector AvrPiz-t from the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae preferentially accumulates in the specialized structure called the biotrophic interfacial complex and is then translocated into rice (Oryza sativa) cells. Ectopic expression of AvrPiz-t in transgenic rice suppresses the flg22- and chitin-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and enhances susceptibility to M. oryzae, indicating that AvrPiz-t functions to suppress pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity in rice. Interaction assays show that AvrPiz-t suppresses the ubiquitin ligase activity of the rice RING E3 ubiquitin ligase APIP6 and that, in return, APIP6 ubiquitinates AvrPiz-t in vitro. Interestingly, agroinfection assays reveal that AvrPiz-t and AvrPiz-t Interacting Protein 6 (APIP6) are both degraded when coexpressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. Silencing of APIP6 in transgenic rice leads to a significant reduction of flg22-induced ROS generation, suppression of defense-related gene expression, and enhanced susceptibility of rice plants to M. oryzae. Taken together, our results reveal a mechanism in which a fungal effector targets the host ubiquitin proteasome system for the suppression of PAMP-triggered immunity in plants.

  15. Human Liver Cytochrome P450 3A4 Ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Wang, YongQiang; Kim, Sung-Mi; Trnka, Michael J.; Liu, Yi; Burlingame, A. L.; Correia, Maria Almira

    2015-01-01

    CYP3A4 is an abundant and catalytically dominant human liver endoplasmic reticulum-anchored cytochrome P450 enzyme engaged in the biotransformation of endo- and xenobiotics, including >50% of clinically relevant drugs. Alterations of CYP3A4 protein turnover can influence clinically relevant drug metabolism and bioavailability and drug-drug interactions. This CYP3A4 turnover involves endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation via the ubiquitin (Ub)-dependent 26 S proteasomal system that relies on two highly complementary E2 Ub-conjugating-E3 Ub-ligase (UBC7-gp78 and UbcH5a-C terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP)-Hsc70-Hsp40) complexes, as well as protein kinases (PK) A and C. We have documented that CYP3A4 Ser/Thr phosphorylation (Ser(P)/Thr(P)) by PKA and/or PKC accelerates/enhances its Lys ubiquitination by either of these E2-E3 systems. Intriguingly, CYP3A4 Ser(P)/Thr(P) and ubiquitinated Lys residues reside within the cytosol-accessible surface loop and/or conformationally assembled acidic Asp/Glu clusters, leading us to propose that such post-translational Ser/Thr protein phosphorylation primes CYP3A4 for ubiquitination. Herein, this possibility was examined through various complementary approaches, including site-directed mutagenesis, chemical cross-linking, peptide mapping, and LC-MS/MS analyses. Our findings reveal that such CYP3A4 Asp/Glu/Ser(P)/Thr(P) surface clusters are indeed important for its intermolecular electrostatic interactions with each of these E2-E3 subcomponents. By imparting additional negative charge to these Asp/Glu clusters, such Ser/Thr phosphorylation would generate P450 phosphodegrons for molecular recognition by the E2-E3 complexes, thereby controlling the timing of CYP3A4 ubiquitination and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. Although the importance of phosphodegrons in the CHIP targeting of its substrates is known, to our knowledge this is the first example of phosphodegron involvement in gp78-substrate

  16. Chemical ubiquitination for decrypting a cellular code.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Mathew; Virdee, Satpal

    2016-05-15

    The modification of proteins with ubiquitin (Ub) is an important regulator of eukaryotic biology and deleterious perturbation of this process is widely linked to the onset of various diseases. The regulatory capacity of the Ub signal is high and, in part, arises from the capability of Ub to be enzymatically polymerised to form polyubiquitin (polyUb) chains of eight different linkage types. These distinct polyUb topologies can then be site-specifically conjugated to substrate proteins to elicit a number of cellular outcomes. Therefore, to further elucidate the biological significance of substrate ubiquitination, methodologies that allow the production of defined polyUb species, and substrate proteins that are site-specifically modified with them, are essential to progress our understanding. Many chemically inspired methods have recently emerged which fulfil many of the criteria necessary for achieving deeper insight into Ub biology. With a view to providing immediate impact in traditional biology research labs, the aim of this review is to provide an overview of the techniques that are available for preparing Ub conjugates and polyUb chains with focus on approaches that use recombinant protein building blocks. These approaches either produce a native isopeptide, or analogue thereof, that can be hydrolysable or non-hydrolysable by deubiquitinases. The most significant biological insights that have already been garnered using such approaches will also be summarized. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  17. Noncovalent Ubiquitin Interactions Regulate the Catalytic Activity of Ubiquitin Writers.

    PubMed

    Wright, Joshua D; Mace, Peter D; Day, Catherine L

    2016-11-01

    Covalent modification of substrate proteins with ubiquitin is the end result of an intricate network of protein-protein interactions. The inherent ability of the E1, E2, and E3 proteins of the ubiquitylation cascade (the ubiquitin writers) to interact with ubiquitin facilitates this process. Importantly, contact between ubiquitin and the E2/E3 writers is required for catalysis and the assembly of chains of a given linkage. However, ubiquitin is also an activator of ubiquitin-writing enzymes, with many recent studies highlighting the ability of ubiquitin to regulate activity and substrate modification. Here, we review the interactions between ubiquitin-writing enzymes and regulatory ubiquitin molecules that promote activity, and highlight the potential of these interactions to promote processive ubiquitin transfer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Transfer of Ho Endonuclease and Ufo1 to the Proteasome by the UbL-UbA Shuttle Protein, Ddi1, Analysed by Complex Formation In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Voloshin, Olga; Bakhrat, Anya; Herrmann, Sharon; Raveh, Dina

    2012-01-01

    The F-box protein, Ufo1, recruits Ho endonuclease to the SCFUfo1 complex for ubiquitylation. Both ubiquitylated Ho and Ufo1 are transferred by the UbL-UbA protein, Ddi1, to the 19S Regulatory Particle (RP) of the proteasome for degradation. The Ddi1-UbL domain binds Rpn1 of the 19S RP, the Ddi1-UbA domain binds ubiquitin chains on the degradation substrate. Here we used complex reconstitution in vitro to identify stages in the transfer of Ho and Ufo1 from the SCFUfo1 complex to the proteasome. We report SCFUfo1 complex at the proteasome formed in the presence of Ho. Subsequently Ddi1 is recruited to this complex by interaction between the Ddi1-UbL domain and Ufo1. The core of Ddi1 binds both Ufo1 and Rpn1; this interaction confers specificity of SCFUfo1 for Ddi1. The substrate-shield model predicts that Ho would protect Ufo1 from degradation and we find that Ddi1 binds Ho, Ufo1, and Rpn1 simultaneously forming a complex for transfer of Ho to the 19S RP. In contrast, in the absence of Ho, Rpn1 displaces Ufo1 from Ddi1 indicating a higher affinity of the Ddi1-UbL for the 19S RP. However, at high Rpn1 levels there is synergistic binding of Ufo1 to Ddi1 that is dependent on the Ddi1-UbA domain. Our interpretation is that in the absence of substrate, the Ddi1-UbL binds Rpn1 while the Ddi1-UbA binds ubiquitin chains on Ufo1. This would promote degradation of Ufo1 and disassembly of SCFUfo1 complexes. PMID:22815701

  19. Polyubiquitin-Photoactivatable Crosslinking Reagents for Mapping Ubiquitin Interactome Identify Rpn1 as a Proteasome Ubiquitin-Associating Subunit.

    PubMed

    Chojnacki, Michal; Mansour, Wissam; Hameed, Dharjath S; Singh, Rajesh K; El Oualid, Farid; Rosenzweig, Rina; Nakasone, Mark A; Yu, Zanlin; Glaser, Fabian; Kay, Lewis E; Fushman, David; Ovaa, Huib; Glickman, Michael H

    2017-04-20

    Ubiquitin (Ub) signaling is a diverse group of processes controlled by covalent attachment of small protein Ub and polyUb chains to a range of cellular protein targets. The best documented Ub signaling pathway is the one that delivers polyUb proteins to the 26S proteasome for degradation. However, studies of molecular interactions involved in this process have been hampered by the transient and hydrophobic nature of these interactions and the lack of tools to study them. Here, we develop Ub-phototrap (Ub PT ), a synthetic Ub variant containing a photoactivatable crosslinking side chain. Enzymatic polymerization into chains of defined lengths and linkage types provided a set of reagents that led to identification of Rpn1 as a third proteasome ubiquitin-associating subunit that coordinates docking of substrate shuttles, unloading of substrates, and anchoring of polyUb conjugates. Our work demonstrates the value of Ub PT , and we expect that its future uses will help define and investigate the ubiquitin interactome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Newborn mouse lens proteome and its alteration by lysine 6 mutant ubiquitin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ubiquitin is a tag that often initiates degradation of proteins by the proteasome in the ubiquitin proteasome system. Targeted expression of K6W mutant ubiquitin (K6W-Ub) in the lens results in defects in lens development and cataract formation, suggesting critical functions for ubiquitin in lens. T...

  1. The E3 ubiquitin ligase and RNA-binding protein ZNF598 orchestrates ribosome quality control of premature polyadenylated mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Garzia, Aitor; Jafarnejad, Seyed Mehdi; Meyer, Cindy; Chapat, Clément; Gogakos, Tasos; Morozov, Pavel; Amiri, Mehdi; Shapiro, Maayan; Molina, Henrik; Tuschl, Thomas; Sonenberg, Nahum

    2017-01-01

    Cryptic polyadenylation within coding sequences (CDS) triggers ribosome-associated quality control (RQC), followed by degradation of the aberrant mRNA and polypeptide, ribosome disassembly and recycling. Although ribosomal subunit dissociation and nascent peptide degradation are well-understood, the molecular sensors of aberrant mRNAs and their mechanism of action remain unknown. We studied the Zinc Finger Protein 598 (ZNF598) using PAR-CLIP and revealed that it cross-links to tRNAs, mRNAs and rRNAs, thereby placing the protein on translating ribosomes. Cross-linked reads originating from AAA-decoding tRNALys(UUU) were 10-fold enriched over its cellular abundance, and poly-lysine encoded by poly(AAA) induced RQC in a ZNF598-dependent manner. Encounter with translated polyA segments by ZNF598 triggered ubiquitination of several ribosomal proteins, requiring the E2 ubiquitin ligase UBE2D3 to initiate RQC. Considering that human CDS are devoid of >4 consecutive AAA codons, sensing of prematurely placed polyA tails by a specialized RNA-binding protein is a novel nucleic-acid-based surveillance mechanism of RQC. PMID:28685749

  2. The E3 ubiquitin ligase and RNA-binding protein ZNF598 orchestrates ribosome quality control of premature polyadenylated mRNAs.

    PubMed

    Garzia, Aitor; Jafarnejad, Seyed Mehdi; Meyer, Cindy; Chapat, Clément; Gogakos, Tasos; Morozov, Pavel; Amiri, Mehdi; Shapiro, Maayan; Molina, Henrik; Tuschl, Thomas; Sonenberg, Nahum

    2017-07-07

    Cryptic polyadenylation within coding sequences (CDS) triggers ribosome-associated quality control (RQC), followed by degradation of the aberrant mRNA and polypeptide, ribosome disassembly and recycling. Although ribosomal subunit dissociation and nascent peptide degradation are well-understood, the molecular sensors of aberrant mRNAs and their mechanism of action remain unknown. We studied the Zinc Finger Protein 598 (ZNF598) using PAR-CLIP and revealed that it cross-links to tRNAs, mRNAs and rRNAs, thereby placing the protein on translating ribosomes. Cross-linked reads originating from AAA-decoding tRNA Lys (UUU) were 10-fold enriched over its cellular abundance, and poly-lysine encoded by poly(AAA) induced RQC in a ZNF598-dependent manner. Encounter with translated polyA segments by ZNF598 triggered ubiquitination of several ribosomal proteins, requiring the E2 ubiquitin ligase UBE2D3 to initiate RQC. Considering that human CDS are devoid of >4 consecutive AAA codons, sensing of prematurely placed polyA tails by a specialized RNA-binding protein is a novel nucleic-acid-based surveillance mechanism of RQC.

  3. Mutations in CUL4B, which encodes a ubiquitin E3 ligase subunit, cause an X-linked mental retardation syndrome associated with aggressive outbursts, seizures, relative macrocephaly, central obesity, hypogonadism, pes cavus, and tremor.

    PubMed

    Tarpey, Patrick S; Raymond, F Lucy; O'Meara, Sarah; Edkins, Sarah; Teague, Jon; Butler, Adam; Dicks, Ed; Stevens, Claire; Tofts, Calli; Avis, Tim; Barthorpe, Syd; Buck, Gemma; Cole, Jennifer; Gray, Kristian; Halliday, Kelly; Harrison, Rachel; Hills, Katy; Jenkinson, Andrew; Jones, David; Menzies, Andrew; Mironenko, Tatiana; Perry, Janet; Raine, Keiran; Richardson, David; Shepherd, Rebecca; Small, Alexandra; Varian, Jennifer; West, Sofie; Widaa, Sara; Mallya, Uma; Moon, Jenny; Luo, Ying; Holder, Susan; Smithson, Sarah F; Hurst, Jane A; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kerr, Bronwyn; Boyle, Jackie; Shaw, Marie; Vandeleur, Lucianne; Rodriguez, Jayson; Slaugh, Rachel; Easton, Douglas F; Wooster, Richard; Bobrow, Martin; Srivastava, Anand K; Stevenson, Roger E; Schwartz, Charles E; Turner, Gillian; Gecz, Jozef; Futreal, P Andrew; Stratton, Michael R; Partington, Michael

    2007-02-01

    We have identified three truncating, two splice-site, and three missense variants at conserved amino acids in the CUL4B gene on Xq24 in 8 of 250 families with X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). During affected subjects' adolescence, a syndrome emerged with delayed puberty, hypogonadism, relative macrocephaly, moderate short stature, central obesity, unprovoked aggressive outbursts, fine intention tremor, pes cavus, and abnormalities of the toes. This syndrome was first described by Cazebas et al., in a family that was included in our study and that carried a CUL4B missense variant. CUL4B is a ubiquitin E3 ligase subunit implicated in the regulation of several biological processes, and CUL4B is the first XLMR gene that encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase. The relatively high frequency of CUL4B mutations in this series indicates that it is one of the most commonly mutated genes underlying XLMR and suggests that its introduction into clinical diagnostics should be a high priority.

  4. The E3 ubiquitin ligases β-TrCP and FBXW7 cooperatively mediates GSK3-dependent Mcl-1 degradation induced by the Akt inhibitor API-1, resulting in apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hui; Koo, Junghui; Guan, Baoxiang; Yue, Ping; Deng, Xingming; Chen, Mingwei; Khuri, Fadlo R; Sun, Shi-Yong

    2013-11-22

    The novel Akt inhibitor, API-1, induces apoptosis through undefined mechanisms. The current study focuses on revealing the mechanisms by which API-1 induces apoptosis. API-1 rapidly and potently reduced the levels of Mcl-1 primarily in API-1-senstive lung cancer cell lines. Ectopic expression of Mcl-1 protected cells from induction of apoptosis by API-1. API-1 treatment decreased the half-life of Mcl-1, whereas inhibition of the proteasome with MG132 rescued Mcl-1 reduction induced by API-1. API-1 decreased Mcl-1 levels accompanied with a rapid increase in Mcl-1 phosphorylation (S159/T163). Moreover, inhibition of GSK3 inhibited Mcl-1 phosphorylation and reduction induced by API-1 and antagonized the effect of API-1 on induction of apoptosis. Knockdown of either FBXW7 or β-TrCP alone, both of which are E3 ubiquitin ligases involved in Mcl-1 degradation, only partially rescued Mcl-1 reduction induced by API-1. However, double knockdown of both E3 ubiquitin ligases enhanced the rescue of API-1-induced Mcl-1 reduction. API-1 induces GSK3-dependent, β-TrCP- and FBXW7-mediated Mcl-1 degradation, resulting in induction of apoptosis.

  5. The E3 ubiquitin ligases β-TrCP and FBXW7 cooperatively mediates GSK3-dependent Mcl-1 degradation induced by the Akt inhibitor API-1, resulting in apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The novel Akt inhibitor, API-1, induces apoptosis through undefined mechanisms. The current study focuses on revealing the mechanisms by which API-1 induces apoptosis. Results API-1 rapidly and potently reduced the levels of Mcl-1 primarily in API-1-senstive lung cancer cell lines. Ectopic expression of Mcl-1 protected cells from induction of apoptosis by API-1. API-1 treatment decreased the half-life of Mcl-1, whereas inhibition of the proteasome with MG132 rescued Mcl-1 reduction induced by API-1. API-1 decreased Mcl-1 levels accompanied with a rapid increase in Mcl-1 phosphorylation (S159/T163). Moreover, inhibition of GSK3 inhibited Mcl-1 phosphorylation and reduction induced by API-1 and antagonized the effect of API-1 on induction of apoptosis. Knockdown of either FBXW7 or β-TrCP alone, both of which are E3 ubiquitin ligases involved in Mcl-1 degradation, only partially rescued Mcl-1 reduction induced by API-1. However, double knockdown of both E3 ubiquitin ligases enhanced the rescue of API-1-induced Mcl-1 reduction. Conclusions API-1 induces GSK3-dependent, β-TrCP- and FBXW7-mediated Mcl-1 degradation, resulting in induction of apoptosis. PMID:24261825

  6. Dlg3 Trafficking and Apical Tight Junction Formation Is Regulated by Nedd4 and Nedd4-2 E3 Ubiquitin Ligases

    PubMed Central

    Van Campenhout, Claude A.; Eitelhuber, Andrea; Gloeckner, Christian J.; Giallonardo, Patrizia; Gegg, Moritz; Oller, Heide; Grant, Seth G.N.; Krappmann, Daniel; Ueffing, Marius; Lickert, Heiko

    2011-01-01

    Summary The Drosophila Discs large (Dlg) scaffolding protein acts as a tumor suppressor regulating basolateral epithelial polarity and proliferation. In mammals, four Dlg homologs have been identified; however, their functions in cell polarity remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the X-linked mental retardation gene product Dlg3 contributes to apical-basal polarity and epithelial junction formation in mouse organizer tissues, as well as to planar cell polarity in the inner ear. We purified complexes associated with Dlg3 in polarized epithelial cells, including proteins regulating directed trafficking and tight junction formation. Remarkably, of the four Dlg family members, Dlg3 exerts a distinct function by recruiting the ubiquitin ligases Nedd4 and Nedd4-2 through its PPxY motifs. We found that these interactions are required for Dlg3 monoubiquitination, apical membrane recruitment, and tight junction consolidation. Our findings reveal an unexpected evolutionary diversification of the vertebrate Dlg family in basolateral epithelium formation. PMID:21920314

  7. Mapping the interactome of HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins with the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

    PubMed

    Poirson, Juline; Biquand, Elise; Straub, Marie-Laure; Cassonnet, Patricia; Nominé, Yves; Jones, Louis; van der Werf, Sylvie; Travé, Gilles; Zanier, Katia; Jacob, Yves; Demeret, Caroline; Masson, Murielle

    2017-10-01

    Protein ubiquitination and its reverse reaction, deubiquitination, regulate protein stability, protein binding activity, and their subcellular localization. These reactions are catalyzed by the enzymes E1, E2, and E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligases and deubiquitinases (DUBs). The Ub-proteasome system (UPS) is targeted by viruses for the sake of their replication and to escape host immune response. To identify novel partners of human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) E6 and E7 proteins, we assembled and screened a library of 590 cDNAs related to the UPS by using the Gaussia princeps luciferase protein complementation assay. HPV16 E6 was found to bind to the homology to E6AP C terminus-type Ub ligase (E6AP), three really interesting new gene (RING)-type Ub ligases (MGRN1, LNX3, LNX4), and the DUB Ub-specific protease 15 (USP15). Except for E6AP, the binding of UPS factors did not require the LxxLL-binding pocket of HPV16 E6. LNX3 bound preferentially to all high-risk mucosal HPV E6 tested, whereas LNX4 bound specifically to HPV16 E6. HPV16 E7 was found to bind to several broad-complex tramtrack and bric-a-brac domain-containing proteins (such as TNFAIP1/KCTD13) that are potential substrate adaptors of Cullin 3-RING Ub ligases, to RING-type Ub ligases implicated in innate immunity (RNF135, TRIM32, TRAF2, TRAF5), to the substrate adaptor DCAF15 of Cullin 4-RING Ub ligase and to some DUBs (USP29, USP33). The binding to UPS factors did not require the LxCxE motif but rather the C-terminal region of HPV16 E7 protein. The identified UPS factors interacted with most of E7 proteins across different HPV types. This study establishes a strategy for the rapid identification of interactions between host or pathogen proteins and the human ubiquitination system. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  8. A single ubiquitin is sufficient for cargo protein entry into MVBs in the absence of ESCRT ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Stringer, Daniel K.

    2011-01-01

    ESCRTs (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport) bind and sequester ubiquitinated membrane proteins and usher them into multivesicular bodies (MVBs). As Ubiquitin (Ub)-binding proteins, ESCRTs themselves become ubiquitinated. However, it is unclear whether this regulates a critical aspect of their function or is a nonspecific consequence of their association with the Ub system. We investigated whether ubiquitination of the ESCRTs was required for their ability to sort cargo into the MVB lumen. Although we found that Rsp5 was the main Ub ligase responsible for ubiquitination of ESCRT-0, elimination of Rsp5 or elimination of the ubiquitinatable lysines within ESCRT-0 did not affect MVB sorting. Moreover, by fusing the catalytic domain of deubiquitinating peptidases onto ESCRTs, we could block ESCRT ubiquitination and the sorting of proteins that undergo Rsp5-dependent ubiquitination. Yet, proteins fused to a single Ub moiety were efficiently delivered to the MVB lumen, which strongly indicates that a single Ub is sufficient in sorting MVBs in the absence of ESCRT ubiquitination. PMID:21242292

  9. Divergence in Ubiquitin Interaction and Catalysis among the Ubiquitin-Specific Protease Family Deubiquitinating Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Tencer, Adam H; Liang, Qin; Zhuang, Zhihao

    2016-08-23

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) are responsible for reversing mono- and polyubiquitination of proteins and play essential roles in numerous cellular processes. Close to 100 human DUBs have been identified and are classified into five families, with the ubiquitin-specific protease (USP) family being the largest (>50 members). The binding of ubiquitin (Ub) to USP is strikingly different from that observed for the DUBs in the ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase (UCH) and ovarian tumor domain protease (OTU) families. We generated a panel of mutant ubiquitins and used them to probe the ubiquitin's interaction with a number of USPs. Our results revealed a remarkable divergence of USP-Ub interactions among the USP catalytic domains. Our double-mutant cycle analysis targeting the ubiquitin residues located in the tip, the central body, and the tail of ubiquitin also demonstrated different crosstalk among the USP-Ub interactions. This work uncovered intriguing divergence in the ubiquitin-binding mode in the USP family DUBs and raised the possibility of targeting the ubiquitin-binding hot spots on USPs for selective inhibition of USPs by small molecule antagonists.

  10. MAVS ubiquitination by the E3 ligase TRIM25 and degradation by the proteasome is involved in type I interferon production after activation of the antiviral RIG-I-like receptors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During a viral infection, the intracellular RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) sense viral RNA and signal through the mitochondrial antiviral signaling adaptor MAVS (also known as IPS-1, Cardif and VISA) whose activation triggers a rapid production of type I interferons (IFN) and of pro-inflammatory cytokines through the transcription factors IRF3/IRF7 and NF-κB, respectively. While MAVS is essential for this signaling and known to operate through the scaffold protein NEMO and the protein kinase TBK1 that phosphorylates IRF3, its mechanism of action and regulation remain unclear. Results We report here that RLR activation triggers MAVS ubiquitination on lysine 7 and 10 by the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM25 and marks it for proteasomal degradation concomitantly with downstream signaling. Inhibition of this MAVS degradation with a proteasome inhibitor does not affect NF-κB signaling but it hampers IRF3 activation, and NEMO and TBK1, two essential mediators in type I IFN production, are retained at the mitochondria. Conclusions These results suggest that MAVS functions as a recruitment platform that assembles a signaling complex involving NEMO and TBK1, and that the proteasome-mediated MAVS degradation is required to release the signaling complex into the cytosol, allowing IRF3 phosphorylation by TBK1. PMID:22626058

  11. MAVS ubiquitination by the E3 ligase TRIM25 and degradation by the proteasome is involved in type I interferon production after activation of the antiviral RIG-I-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Castanier, Céline; Zemirli, Naima; Portier, Alain; Garcin, Dominique; Bidère, Nicolas; Vazquez, Aimé; Arnoult, Damien

    2012-05-24

    During a viral infection, the intracellular RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) sense viral RNA and signal through the mitochondrial antiviral signaling adaptor MAVS (also known as IPS-1, Cardif and VISA) whose activation triggers a rapid production of type I interferons (IFN) and of pro-inflammatory cytokines through the transcription factors IRF3/IRF7 and NF-κB, respectively. While MAVS is essential for this signaling and known to operate through the scaffold protein NEMO and the protein kinase TBK1 that phosphorylates IRF3, its mechanism of action and regulation remain unclear. We report here that RLR activation triggers MAVS ubiquitination on lysine 7 and 10 by the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM25 and marks it for proteasomal degradation concomitantly with downstream signaling. Inhibition of this MAVS degradation with a proteasome inhibitor does not affect NF-κB signaling but it hampers IRF3 activation, and NEMO and TBK1, two essential mediators in type I IFN production, are retained at the mitochondria. These results suggest that MAVS functions as a recruitment platform that assembles a signaling complex involving NEMO and TBK1, and that the proteasome-mediated MAVS degradation is required to release the signaling complex into the cytosol, allowing IRF3 phosphorylation by TBK1.

  12. The Rice E3-Ubiquitin Ligase HIGH EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPONSIVE GENE1 Modulates the Expression of ROOT MEANDER CURLING, a Gene Involved in Root Mechanosensing, through the Interaction with Two ETHYLENE-RESPONSE FACTOR Transcription Factors1

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, Tiago F.; Serra, Tânia S.; Cordeiro, André M.; Swanson, Sarah J.; Gilroy, Simon; Saibo, Nelson J.M.; Oliveira, M. Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Plant roots can sense and respond to a wide diversity of mechanical stimuli, including touch and gravity. However, little is known about the signal transduction pathways involved in mechanical stimuli responses in rice (Oryza sativa). This work shows that rice root responses to mechanical stimuli involve the E3-ubiquitin ligase rice HIGH EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPONSIVE GENE1 (OsHOS1), which mediates protein degradation through the proteasome complex. The morphological analysis of the roots in transgenic RNA interference::OsHOS1 and wild-type plants, exposed to a mechanical barrier, revealed that the OsHOS1 silencing plants keep a straight root in contrast to wild-type plants that exhibit root curling. Moreover, it was observed that the absence of root curling in response to touch can be reverted by jasmonic acid. The straight root phenotype of the RNA interference::OsHOS1 plants was correlated with a higher expression rice ROOT MEANDER CURLING (OsRMC), which encodes a receptor-like kinase characterized as a negative regulator of rice root curling mediated by jasmonic acid. Using the yeast two-hybrid system and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays, we showed that OsHOS1 interacts with two ETHYLENE-RESPONSE FACTOR transcription factors, rice ETHYLENE-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT BINDING PROTEIN1 (OsEREBP1) and rice OsEREBP2, known to regulate OsRMC gene expression. In addition, we showed that OsHOS1 affects the stability of both transcription factors in a proteasome-dependent way, suggesting that this E3-ubiquitin ligase targets OsEREBP1 and OsEREBP2 for degradation. Our results highlight the function of the proteasome in rice response to mechanical stimuli and in the integration of these signals, through hormonal regulation, into plant growth and developmental programs. PMID:26381316

  13. Interactions between the S-Domain Receptor Kinases and AtPUB-ARM E3 Ubiquitin Ligases Suggest a Conserved Signaling Pathway in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Marcus A.; Mudgil, Yashwanti; Salt, Jennifer N.; Delmas, Frédéric; Ramachandran, Shaliny; Chilelli, Andrea; Goring, Daphne R.

    2008-01-01

    The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome encompasses multiple receptor kinase families with highly variable extracellular domains. Despite their large numbers, the various ligands and the downstream interacting partners for these kinases have been deciphered only for a few members. One such member, the S-receptor kinase, is known to mediate the self-incompatibility (SI) response in Brassica. S-receptor kinase has been shown to interact and phosphorylate a U-box/ARM-repeat-containing E3 ligase, ARC1, which, in turn, acts as a positive regulator of the SI response. In an effort to identify conserved signaling pathways in Arabidopsis, we performed yeast two-hybrid analyses of various S-domain receptor kinase family members with representative Arabidopsis plant U-box/ARM-repeat (AtPUB-ARM) E3 ligases. The kinase domains from S-domain receptor kinases were found to interact with ARM-repeat domains from AtPUB-ARM proteins. These kinase domains, along with M-locus protein kinase, a positive regulator of SI response, were also able to phosphorylate the ARM-repeat domains in in vitro phosphorylation assays. Subcellular localization patterns were investigated using transient expression assays in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells and changes were detected in the presence of interacting kinases. Finally, potential links to the involvement of these interacting modules to the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) were investigated. Interestingly, AtPUB9 displayed redistribution to the plasma membrane of BY-2 cells when either treated with ABA or coexpressed with the active kinase domain of ARK1. As well, T-DNA insertion mutants for ARK1 and AtPUB9 lines were altered in their ABA sensitivity during germination and acted at or upstream of ABI3, indicating potential involvement of these proteins in ABA responses. PMID:18552232

  14. Interactions between the S-domain receptor kinases and AtPUB-ARM E3 ubiquitin ligases suggest a conserved signaling pathway in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Marcus A; Mudgil, Yashwanti; Salt, Jennifer N; Delmas, Frédéric; Ramachandran, Shaliny; Chilelli, Andrea; Goring, Daphne R

    2008-08-01

    The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome encompasses multiple receptor kinase families with highly variable extracellular domains. Despite their large numbers, the various ligands and the downstream interacting partners for these kinases have been deciphered only for a few members. One such member, the S-receptor kinase, is known to mediate the self-incompatibility (SI) response in Brassica. S-receptor kinase has been shown to interact and phosphorylate a U-box/ARM-repeat-containing E3 ligase, ARC1, which, in turn, acts as a positive regulator of the SI response. In an effort to identify conserved signaling pathways in Arabidopsis, we performed yeast two-hybrid analyses of various S-domain receptor kinase family members with representative Arabidopsis plant U-box/ARM-repeat (AtPUB-ARM) E3 ligases. The kinase domains from S-domain receptor kinases were found to interact with ARM-repeat domains from AtPUB-ARM proteins. These kinase domains, along with M-locus protein kinase, a positive regulator of SI response, were also able to phosphorylate the ARM-repeat domains in in vitro phosphorylation assays. Subcellular localization patterns were investigated using transient expression assays in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells and changes were detected in the presence of interacting kinases. Finally, potential links to the involvement of these interacting modules to the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) were investigated. Interestingly, AtPUB9 displayed redistribution to the plasma membrane of BY-2 cells when either treated with ABA or coexpressed with the active kinase domain of ARK1. As well, T-DNA insertion mutants for ARK1 and AtPUB9 lines were altered in their ABA sensitivity during germination and acted at or upstream of ABI3, indicating potential involvement of these proteins in ABA responses.

  15. 76 FR 28118 - UBS AG., et al.; Notice of Application and Temporary Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... Management, L.L.C. (``UBS Willow''), UBS Eucalyptus Management, L.L.C. (``UBS Eucalyptus'') and UBS Juniper Management, L.L.C. (``UBS Juniper'') (UBS Willow, UBS Eucalyptus, and UBS Juniper are referred to collectively as ``UBS Alternative Managers''); UBS Global Asset Management (Americas) Inc. (``UBS Global AM...

  16. The single-subunit RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase RSL1 targets PYL4 and PYR1 ABA receptors in plasma membrane to modulate abscisic acid signaling.

    PubMed

    Bueso, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Lesia; Lorenzo-Orts, Laura; Gonzalez-Guzman, Miguel; Sayas, Enric; Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Ibañez, Carla; Serrano, Ramón; Rodriguez, Pedro L

    2014-12-01

    Membrane-delimited events play a crucial role for ABA signaling and PYR/PYL/RCAR ABA receptors, clade A PP2Cs and SnRK2/CPK kinases modulate the activity of different plasma membrane components involved in ABA action. Therefore, the turnover of PYR/PYL/RCARs in the proximity of plasma membrane might be a step that affects receptor function and downstream signaling. In this study we describe a single-subunit RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase RSL1 that interacts with the PYL4 and PYR1 ABA receptors at the plasma membrane. Overexpression of RSL1 reduces ABA sensitivity and rsl1 RNAi lines that impair expression of several members of the RSL1/RFA gene family show enhanced sensitivity to ABA. RSL1 bears a C-terminal transmembrane domain that targets the E3 ligase to plasma membrane. Accordingly, bimolecular fluorescent complementation (BiFC) studies showed the RSL1-PYL4 and RSL1-PYR1 interaction is localized to plasma membrane. RSL1 promoted PYL4 and PYR1 degradation in vivo and mediated in vitro ubiquitylation of the receptors. Taken together, these results suggest ubiquitylation of ABA receptors at plasma membrane is a process that might affect their function via effect on their half-life, protein interactions or trafficking. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Structural changes induced by L50P and I61T single mutations of ubiquitin affect cell cycle progression while impairing its regulatory and degradative functions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Ankita; Sharma, Mrinal; Prabha, C Ratna

    2017-06-01

    Posttranslational conjugation of ubiquitin to proteins either regulates their function directly or concentration through ubiquitination dependent degradation. High degree of conservation of ubiquitin's sequence implies structural and functional importance of the conserved residues. Ubiquitin gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was evolved in vitro by us to study the significance of conserved residues. Present study investigates the structural changes in the protein resulting from the single mutations UbS20F, UbA46S, UbL50P, UbI61T and their functional consequences in the SUB60 strain of S. cerevisiae. Expression of UbL50P and UbI61T decreased Cdc28 protein kinase, enhanced Fus3 levels, caused dosage dependent lethality and at sublethal level produced drastic effects on stress tolerance, protein sorting, protein degradation by ubiquitin fusion degradation pathway and by lysosomes. UbS20F and UbA46S produced insignificant effects over the cells. All four mutations of ubiquitin were incorporated into polyubiquitin. However, polyubiquitination with K63 linkage decreased significantly in cells expressing UbL50P and UbI61T. Structural studies on UbL50P and UbI61T revealed distorted structure with greatly reduced α-helical and elevated β-sheet contents, while UbS20F and UbA46S show mild structural alterations. Our results on functional efficacy of ubiquitin in relation to structural integrity may be useful for designing inhibitors to investigate and modulate eukaryotic cellular dynamics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. CaPUB1, a Hot Pepper U-box E3 Ubiquitin Ligase, Confers Enhanced Cold Stress Tolerance and Decreased Drought Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Min, Hye Jo; Jung, Ye Jin; Kang, Bin Goo; Kim, Woo Taek

    2016-03-01

    Abiotic stresses such as drought and low temperature critically restrict plant growth, reproduction, and productivity. Higher plants have developed various defense strategies against these unfavorable conditions. CaPUB1 (Capsicum annuum Putative U-box protein 1) is a hot pepper U-box E3 Ub ligase. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants that constitutively expressed CaPUB1 exhibited drought-sensitive phenotypes, suggesting that it functions as a negative regulator of the drought stress response. In this study, CaPUB1 was over-expressed in rice (Oryza sativa L.), and the phenotypic properties of transgenic rice plants were examined in terms of their drought and cold stress tolerance. Ubi:CaPUB1 T3 transgenic rice plants displayed phenotypes hypersensitive to dehydration, suggesting that its role in the negative regulation of drought stress response is conserved in dicot Arabidopsis and monocot rice plants. In contrast, Ubi:CaPUB1 progeny exhibited phenotypes markedly tolerant to prolonged low temperature (4°C) treatment, compared to those of wild-type plants, as determined by survival rates, electrolyte leakage, and total chlorophyll content. Cold stress-induced marker genes, including DREB1A, DREB1B, DREB1C, and Cytochrome P450, were more up-regulated by cold treatment in Ubi:CaPUB1 plants than in wild-type plants. These results suggest that CaPUB1 serves as both a negative regulator of the drought stress response and a positive regulator of the cold stress response in transgenic rice plants. This raises the possibility that CaPUB1 participates in the cross-talk between drought and low-temperature signaling pathways.

  19. Molecular characterization and functional analysis of ubiquitin extension genes from the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ubiquitin is a highly conserved 76-amino acid protein found in every eukaryotic cell. It has been proposed that ubiquitin has many cellular functions including DNA repair, transcription regulation, regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis. We identified two ubiquitin extension genes (Gr-Ubi1 and Gr-Ub...

  20. Role of a non-canonical surface of Rad6 in ubiquitin conjugating activity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pankaj; Magala, Pearl; Geiger-Schuller, Kathryn R.; Majumdar, Ananya; Tolman, Joel R.; Wolberger, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Rad6 is a yeast E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme that monoubiquitinates histone H2B in conjunction with the E3, Bre1, but can non-specifically modify histones on its own. We determined the crystal structure of a Rad6∼Ub thioester mimic, which revealed a network of interactions in the crystal in which the ubiquitin in one conjugate contacts Rad6 in another. The region of Rad6 contacted is located on the distal face of Rad6 opposite the active site, but differs from the canonical E2 backside that mediates free ubiquitin binding and polyubiquitination activity in other E2 enzymes. We find that free ubiquitin interacts weakly with both non-canonical and canonical backside residues of Rad6 and that mutations of non-canonical residues have deleterious effects on Rad6 activity comparable to those observed to mutations in the canonical E2 backside. The effect of non-canonical backside mutations is similar in the presence and absence of Bre1, indicating that contacts with non-canonical backside residues govern the intrinsic activity of Rad6. Our findings shed light on the determinants of intrinsic Rad6 activity and reveal new ways in which contacts with an E2 backside can regulate ubiquitin conjugating activity. PMID:26286193

  1. Ubiquitin-like and ubiquitin-associated domain proteins: significance in proteasomal degradation

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Alan F.

    2009-01-01

    The ubiquitin–proteasome pathway of protein degradation is one of the major mechanisms that are involved in the maintenance of the proper levels of cellular proteins. The regulation of proteasomal degradation thus ensures proper cell functions. The family of proteins containing ubiquitin-like (UbL) and ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domains has been implicated in proteasomal degradation. UbL–UBA domain containing proteins associate with substrates destined for degradation as well as with subunits of the proteasome, thus regulating the proper turnover of proteins. PMID:19468686

  2. Prokaryotic Ubiquitin-Like Protein Modification

    PubMed Central

    Maupin-Furlow, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Prokaryotes form ubiquitin (Ub)-like isopeptide bonds on the lysine residues of proteins by at least two distinct pathways that are reversible and regulated. In mycobacteria, the C-terminal Gln of Pup (prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein) is deamidated and isopeptide linked to proteins by a mechanism distinct from ubiquitylation in enzymology yet analogous to ubiquitylation in targeting proteins for destruction by proteasomes. Ub-fold proteins of archaea (SAMPs, small archaeal modifier proteins) and Thermus (TtuB, tRNA-two-thiouridine B) that differ from Ub in amino acid sequence, yet share a common β-grasp fold, also form isopeptide bonds by a mechanism that appears streamlined compared with ubiquitylation. SAMPs and TtuB are found to be members of a small group of Ub-fold proteins that function not only in protein modification but also in sulfur-transfer pathways associated with tRNA thiolation and molybdopterin biosynthesis. These multifunctional Ub-fold proteins are thought to be some of the most ancient of Ub-like protein modifiers. PMID:24995873

  3. Structural basis of ubiquitin modification by the Legionella effector SdeA.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yanan; Mu, Yajuan; Xie, Yongchao; Zhang, Yupeng; Han, Youyou; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Wenhe; Liu, Zihe; Wu, Mei; Wang, Hao; Pan, Man; Xu, Ning; Xu, Cong-Qiao; Yang, Maojun; Fan, Shilong; Deng, Haiteng; Tan, Tianwei; Liu, Xiaoyun; Liu, Lei; Li, Jun; Wang, Jiawei; Fang, Xianyang; Feng, Yue

    2018-05-01

    Protein ubiquitination is a multifaceted post-translational modification that controls almost every process in eukaryotic cells. Recently, the Legionella effector SdeA was reported to mediate a unique phosphoribosyl-linked ubiquitination through successive modifications of the Arg42 of ubiquitin (Ub) by its mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase (mART) and phosphodiesterase (PDE) domains. However, the mechanisms of SdeA-mediated Ub modification and phosphoribosyl-linked ubiquitination remain unknown. Here we report the structures of SdeA in its ligand-free, Ub-bound and Ub-NADH-bound states. The structures reveal that the mART and PDE domains of SdeA form a catalytic domain over its C-terminal region. Upon Ub binding, the canonical ADP-ribosyltransferase toxin turn-turn (ARTT) and phosphate-nicotinamide (PN) loops in the mART domain of SdeA undergo marked conformational changes. The Ub Arg72 might act as a 'probe' that interacts with the mART domain first, and then movements may occur in the side chains of Arg72 and Arg42 during the ADP-ribosylation of Ub. Our study reveals the mechanism of SdeA-mediated Ub modification and provides a framework for further investigations into the phosphoribosyl-linked ubiquitination process.

  4. Multimeric complexes among ankyrin-repeat and SOCS-box protein 9 (ASB9), ElonginBC, and Cullin 5: insights into the structure and assembly of ECS-type Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jemima C; Matak-Vinkovic, Dijana; Van Molle, Inge; Ciulli, Alessio

    2013-08-06

    Proteins of the ankyrin-repeat and SOCS-box (ASB) family act as the substrate-recognition subunits of ECS-type (ElonginBC-Cullin-SOCS-box) Cullin RING E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL) complexes that catalyze the specific polyubiquitination of cellular proteins to target them for degradation by the proteasome. Therefore, ASB multimeric complexes are involved in numerous cell processes and pathways; however, their interactions, assembly, and biological roles remain poorly understood. To enhance our understanding of ASB CRL systems, we investigated the structure, affinity, and assembly of the quaternary multisubunit complex formed by ASB9, Elongin B, Elongin C (EloBC), and Cullin 5. Here, we describe the application of several biophysical techniques including differential scanning fluorimetry, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), nanoelectrospray ionization, and ion-mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) to provide structural and thermodynamic information for a quaternary ASB CRL complex. We find that ASB9 is unstable alone but forms a stable ternary complex with EloBC that binds with high affinity to the Cullin 5 N-terminal domain (Cul5NTD) but not to Cul2NTD. The structure of the monomeric ASB9-EloBC-Cul5NTD quaternary complex is revealed by molecular modeling and is consistent with IM-MS and temperature-dependent ITC data. This is the first experimental study to validate structural information for the assembly of the quaternary N-terminal region of an ASB CRL complex. The results suggest that ASB E3 ligase complexes function and assemble in an analogous manner to that of other CRL systems and provide a platform for further molecular investigation of this important protein family. The data reported here will also be of use for the future development of chemical probes to examine the biological function and modulation of other ECS-type CRL systems.

  5. Multimeric Complexes among Ankyrin-Repeat and SOCS-box Protein 9 (ASB9), ElonginBC, and Cullin 5: Insights into the Structure and Assembly of ECS-type Cullin-RING E3 Ubiquitin Ligases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Proteins of the ankyrin-repeat and SOCS-box (ASB) family act as the substrate-recognition subunits of ECS-type (ElonginBC–Cullin–SOCS-box) Cullin RING E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL) complexes that catalyze the specific polyubiquitination of cellular proteins to target them for degradation by the proteasome. Therefore, ASB multimeric complexes are involved in numerous cell processes and pathways; however, their interactions, assembly, and biological roles remain poorly understood. To enhance our understanding of ASB CRL systems, we investigated the structure, affinity, and assembly of the quaternary multisubunit complex formed by ASB9, Elongin B, Elongin C (EloBC), and Cullin 5. Here, we describe the application of several biophysical techniques including differential scanning fluorimetry, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), nanoelectrospray ionization, and ion-mobility mass spectrometry (IM–MS) to provide structural and thermodynamic information for a quaternary ASB CRL complex. We find that ASB9 is unstable alone but forms a stable ternary complex with EloBC that binds with high affinity to the Cullin 5 N-terminal domain (Cul5NTD) but not to Cul2NTD. The structure of the monomeric ASB9–EloBC–Cul5NTD quaternary complex is revealed by molecular modeling and is consistent with IM–MS and temperature-dependent ITC data. This is the first experimental study to validate structural information for the assembly of the quaternary N-terminal region of an ASB CRL complex. The results suggest that ASB E3 ligase complexes function and assemble in an analogous manner to that of other CRL systems and provide a platform for further molecular investigation of this important protein family. The data reported here will also be of use for the future development of chemical probes to examine the biological function and modulation of other ECS-type CRL systems. PMID:23837592

  6. The SUD1 Gene Encodes a Putative E3 Ubiquitin Ligase and Is a Positive Regulator of 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase Activity in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Doblas, Verónica G.; Amorim-Silva, Vítor; Posé, David; Rosado, Abel; Esteban, Alicia; Arró, Montserrat; Azevedo, Herlander; Bombarely, Aureliano; Borsani, Omar; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Ferrer, Albert; Tavares, Rui M.; Botella, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) enzyme catalyzes the major rate-limiting step of the mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway from which sterols and other isoprenoids are synthesized. In contrast with our extensive knowledge of the regulation of HMGR in yeast and animals, little is known about this process in plants. To identify regulatory components of the MVA pathway in plants, we performed a genetic screen for second-site suppressor mutations of the Arabidopsis thaliana highly drought-sensitive drought hypersensitive2 (dry2) mutant that shows decreased squalene epoxidase activity. We show that mutations in SUPPRESSOR OF DRY2 DEFECTS1 (SUD1) gene recover most developmental defects in dry2 through changes in HMGR activity. SUD1 encodes a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase that shows sequence and structural similarity to yeast Degradation of α factor (Doα10) and human TEB4, components of the endoplasmic reticulum–associated degradation C (ERAD-C) pathway. While in yeast and animals, the alternative ERAD-L/ERAD-M pathway regulates HMGR activity by controlling protein stability, SUD1 regulates HMGR activity without apparent changes in protein content. These results highlight similarities, as well as important mechanistic differences, among the components involved in HMGR regulation in plants, yeast, and animals. PMID:23404890

  7. The proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and TNF-alpha induce the expression of Synoviolin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, in mouse synovial fibroblasts via the Erk1/2-ETS1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Gao, Beixue; Calhoun, Karen; Fang, Deyu

    2006-01-01

    The overgrowth of synovial tissues is critical in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The expression of Synoviolin (SYN), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is upregulated in arthritic synovial fibroblasts and is involved in the overgrowth of synovial cells during RA. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the elevated SYN expression are not known. Here, we found that SYN expression is elevated in the synovial fibroblasts from mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). The proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) induce SYN expression in mouse synovial fibroblasts. Cultivation of mouse synovial fibroblasts with IL-1beta activates mitogen-activated protein kinases, including extra-cellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk), JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase), and p38, while only Erk-specific inhibitor blocks IL-1beta-induced SYN expression. Expression of transcription factor ETS1 further enhances IL-1beta-induced SYN expression. The dominant negative ETS1 mutant lacking the transcription activation domain inhibits SYN expression in a dose-dependent manner. The activation of both Erk1/2 and ETS1 is increased in the CIA synovial fibroblasts. Inhibition of Erk activation reduces ETS1 phosphorylation and SYN expression. Our data indicate that the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and TNF-alpha induce the overgrowth of synovial cells by upregulating SYN expression via the Erk1/-ETS1 pathway. These molecules or pathways could therefore be potential targets for the treatment of RA.

  8. Structure-Guided Design of Peptides as Tools to Probe the Protein-Protein Interaction between Cullin-2 and Elongin BC Substrate Adaptor in Cullin RING E3 Ubiquitin Ligases.

    PubMed

    Cardote, Teresa A F; Ciulli, Alessio

    2017-09-21

    Cullin RING E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRLs) are large dynamic multi-subunit complexes that control the fate of many proteins in cells. CRLs are attractive drug targets for the development of small-molecule inhibitors and chemical inducers of protein degradation. Herein we describe a structure-guided biophysical approach to probe the protein-protein interaction (PPI) between the Cullin-2 scaffold protein and the adaptor subunits Elongin BC within the context of the von Hippel-Lindau complex (CRL2 VHL ) using peptides. Two peptides were shown to bind at the targeted binding site on Elongin C, named the "EloC site", with micromolar dissociation constants, providing a starting point for future optimization. Our results suggest ligandability of the EloC binding site to short linear peptides, unveiling the opportunity and challenges to develop small molecules that have the potential to target selectively the Cul2-adaptor PPI within CRLs. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Proteomic snapshot of the EGF-induced ubiquitin network

    PubMed Central

    Argenzio, Elisabetta; Bange, Tanja; Oldrini, Barbara; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Peesari, Raghunath; Mari, Sara; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Mann, Matthias; Polo, Simona

    2011-01-01

    The activity, localization and fate of many cellular proteins are regulated through ubiquitination, a process whereby one or more ubiquitin (Ub) monomers or chains are covalently attached to target proteins. While Ub-conjugated and Ub-associated proteomes have been described, we lack a high-resolution picture of the dynamics of ubiquitination in response to signaling. In this study, we describe the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-regulated Ubiproteome, as obtained by two complementary purification strategies coupled to quantitative proteomics. Our results unveil the complex impact of growth factor signaling on Ub-based intracellular networks to levels that extend well beyond what might have been expected. In addition to endocytic proteins, the EGF-regulated Ubiproteome includes a large number of signaling proteins, ubiquitinating and deubiquitinating enzymes, transporters and proteins involved in translation and transcription. The Ub-based signaling network appears to intersect both housekeeping and regulatory circuitries of cellular physiology. Finally, as proof of principle of the biological relevance of the EGF-Ubiproteome, we demonstrated that EphA2 is a novel, downstream ubiquitinated target of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), critically involved in EGFR biological responses. PMID:21245847

  10. Ubiquitin Ligases: Structure, Function, and Regulation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ning; Shabek, Nitzan

    2017-06-20

    Ubiquitin E3 ligases control every aspect of eukaryotic biology by promoting protein ubiquitination and degradation. At the end of a three-enzyme cascade, ubiquitin ligases mediate the transfer of ubiquitin from an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme to specific substrate proteins. Early investigations of E3s of the RING (really interesting new gene) and HECT (homologous to the E6AP carboxyl terminus) types shed light on their enzymatic activities, general architectures, and substrate degron-binding modes. Recent studies have provided deeper mechanistic insights into their catalysis, activation, and regulation. In this review, we summarize the current progress in structure-function studies of ubiquitin ligases as well as exciting new discoveries of novel classes of E3s and diverse substrate recognition mechanisms. Our increased understanding of ubiquitin ligase function and regulation has provided the rationale for developing E3-targeting therapeutics for the treatment of human diseases.

  11. Ubiquitin and Proteasomes in Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Fuqiang; Wenzel, Sabine; Tansey, William P.

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of gene transcription is vitally important for the maintenance of normal cellular homeostasis. Failure to correctly regulate gene expression, or to deal with problems that arise during the transcription process, can lead to cellular catastrophe and disease. One of the ways cells cope with the challenges of transcription is by making extensive use of the proteolytic and nonproteolytic activities of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Here, we review recent evidence showing deep mechanistic connections between the transcription and ubiquitin-proteasome systems. Our goal is to leave the reader with a sense that just about every step in transcription—from transcription initiation through to export of mRNA from the nucleus—is influenced by the UPS and that all major arms of the system—from the first step in ubiquitin (Ub) conjugation through to the proteasome—are recruited into transcriptional processes to provide regulation, directionality, and deconstructive power. PMID:22404630

  12. Ubiquitin modifications

    PubMed Central

    Swatek, Kirby N; Komander, David

    2016-01-01

    Protein ubiquitination is a dynamic multifaceted post-translational modification involved in nearly all aspects of eukaryotic biology. Once attached to a substrate, the 76-amino acid protein ubiquitin is subjected to further modifications, creating a multitude of distinct signals with distinct cellular outcomes, referred to as the 'ubiquitin code'. Ubiquitin can be ubiquitinated on seven lysine (Lys) residues or on the N-terminus, leading to polyubiquitin chains that can encompass complex topologies. Alternatively or in addition, ubiquitin Lys residues can be modified by ubiquitin-like molecules (such as SUMO or NEDD8). Finally, ubiquitin can also be acetylated on Lys, or phosphorylated on Ser, Thr or Tyr residues, and each modification has the potential to dramatically alter the signaling outcome. While the number of distinctly modified ubiquitin species in cells is mind-boggling, much progress has been made to characterize the roles of distinct ubiquitin modifications, and many enzymes and receptors have been identified that create, recognize or remove these ubiquitin modifications. We here provide an overview of the various ubiquitin modifications present in cells, and highlight recent progress on ubiquitin chain biology. We then discuss the recent findings in the field of ubiquitin acetylation and phosphorylation, with a focus on Ser65-phosphorylation and its role in mitophagy and Parkin activation. PMID:27012465

  13. Investigation of the Expression of Myogenic Transcription Factors, microRNAs and Muscle-Specific E3 Ubiquitin Ligases in the Medial Gastrocnemius and Soleus Muscles following Peripheral Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wiberg, Rebecca; Jonsson, Samuel; Novikova, Liudmila N.; Kingham, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite surgical innovation, the sensory and motor outcome after a peripheral nerve injury remains incomplete. One contributing factor to the poor outcome is prolonged denervation of the target organ, leading to apoptosis of both mature myofibres and satellite cells with subsequent replacement of the muscle tissue with fibrotic scar and adipose tissue. In this study, we investigated the expression of myogenic transcription factors, muscle specific microRNAs and muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases at several time points following denervation in two different muscles, the gastrocnemius (containing predominantly fast type fibres) and soleus (slow type) muscles, since these molecules may influence the degree of atrophy following denervation. Both muscles exhibited significant atrophy (compared with the contra-lateral sides) at 7 days following either a nerve transection or crush injury. In the crush model, the soleus muscle showed significantly increased muscle weights at days 14 and 28 which was not the case for the gastrocnemius muscle which continued to atrophy. There was a significantly more pronounced up-regulation of MyoD expression in the denervated soleus muscle compared with the gastrocnemius muscle. Conversely, myogenin was more markedly elevated in the gastrocnemius versus soleus muscles. The muscles also showed significantly contrasting transcriptional regulation of the microRNAs miR-1 and miR-206. MuRF1 and Atrogin-1 showed the highest levels of expression in the denervated gastrocnemius muscle. This study provides further insights regarding the intracellular regulatory molecules that generate and maintain distinct patterns of gene expression in different fibre types following peripheral nerve injury. PMID:26691660

  14. The proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α induce the expression of Synoviolin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, in mouse synovial fibroblasts via the Erk1/2-ETS1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Beixue; Calhoun, Karen; Fang, Deyu

    2006-01-01

    The overgrowth of synovial tissues is critical in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The expression of Synoviolin (SYN), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is upregulated in arthritic synovial fibroblasts and is involved in the overgrowth of synovial cells during RA. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the elevated SYN expression are not known. Here, we found that SYN expression is elevated in the synovial fibroblasts from mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). The proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) induce SYN expression in mouse synovial fibroblasts. Cultivation of mouse synovial fibroblasts with IL-1β activates mitogen-activated protein kinases, including extra-cellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk), JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase), and p38, while only Erk-specific inhibitor blocks IL-1β-induced SYN expression. Expression of transcription factor ETS1 further enhances IL-1β-induced SYN expression. The dominant negative ETS1 mutant lacking the transcription activation domain inhibits SYN expression in a dose-dependent manner. The activation of both Erk1/2 and ETS1 is increased in the CIA synovial fibroblasts. Inhibition of Erk activation reduces ETS1 phosphorylation and SYN expression. Our data indicate that the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α induce the overgrowth of synovial cells by upregulating SYN expression via the Erk1/-ETS1 pathway. These molecules or pathways could therefore be potential targets for the treatment of RA. PMID:17105652

  15. Ubiquitin enzymes in the regulation of immune responses.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Petra; Versteeg, Gijs A; Ikeda, Fumiyo

    2017-08-01

    Ubiquitination plays a central role in the regulation of various biological functions including immune responses. Ubiquitination is induced by a cascade of enzymatic reactions by E1 ubiquitin activating enzyme, E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, and E3 ubiquitin ligase, and reversed by deubiquitinases. Depending on the enzymes, specific linkage types of ubiquitin chains are generated or hydrolyzed. Because different linkage types of ubiquitin chains control the fate of the substrate, understanding the regulatory mechanisms of ubiquitin enzymes is central. In this review, we highlight the most recent knowledge of ubiquitination in the immune signaling cascades including the T cell and B cell signaling cascades as well as the TNF signaling cascade regulated by various ubiquitin enzymes. Furthermore, we highlight the TRIM ubiquitin ligase family as one of the examples of critical E3 ubiquitin ligases in the regulation of immune responses.

  16. Ubiquitin enzymes in the regulation of immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Ebner, Petra; Versteeg, Gijs A.; Ikeda, Fumiyo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Ubiquitination plays a central role in the regulation of various biological functions including immune responses. Ubiquitination is induced by a cascade of enzymatic reactions by E1 ubiquitin activating enzyme, E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, and E3 ubiquitin ligase, and reversed by deubiquitinases. Depending on the enzymes, specific linkage types of ubiquitin chains are generated or hydrolyzed. Because different linkage types of ubiquitin chains control the fate of the substrate, understanding the regulatory mechanisms of ubiquitin enzymes is central. In this review, we highlight the most recent knowledge of ubiquitination in the immune signaling cascades including the T cell and B cell signaling cascades as well as the TNF signaling cascade regulated by various ubiquitin enzymes. Furthermore, we highlight the TRIM ubiquitin ligase family as one of the examples of critical E3 ubiquitin ligases in the regulation of immune responses. PMID:28524749

  17. Functional role of TRIM E3 ligase oligomerization and regulation of catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Koliopoulos, Marios G; Esposito, Diego; Christodoulou, Evangelos; Taylor, Ian A; Rittinger, Katrin

    2016-06-01

    TRIM E3 ubiquitin ligases regulate a wide variety of cellular processes and are particularly important during innate immune signalling events. They are characterized by a conserved tripartite motif in their N-terminal portion which comprises a canonical RING domain, one or two B-box domains and a coiled-coil region that mediates ligase dimerization. Self-association via the coiled-coil has been suggested to be crucial for catalytic activity of TRIMs; however, the precise molecular mechanism underlying this observation remains elusive. Here, we provide a detailed characterization of the TRIM ligases TRIM25 and TRIM32 and show how their oligomeric state is linked to catalytic activity. The crystal structure of a complex between the TRIM25 RING domain and an ubiquitin-loaded E2 identifies the structural and mechanistic features that promote a closed E2~Ub conformation to activate the thioester for ubiquitin transfer allowing us to propose a model for the regulation of activity in the full-length protein. Our data reveal an unexpected diversity in the self-association mechanism of TRIMs that might be crucial for their biological function. © 2016 Francis Crick Institute. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  18. Differential Ubiquitin Binding by the Acidic Loops of Ube2g1 and Ube2r1 Enzymes Distinguishes Their Lys-48-ubiquitylation Activities*

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Seok; Lee, Yun-Ju; Lee, Seo-Yeon; Shi, Lei; Ha, Jung-Hye; Cheong, Hae-Kap; Cheong, Chaejoon; Cohen, Robert E.; Ryu, Kyoung-Seok

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitin E2 enzymes, Ube2g1 and Ube2r1, are able to synthesize Lys-48-linked polyubiquitins without an E3 ligase but how that is accomplished has been unclear. Although both E2s contain essential acidic loops, only Ube2r1 requires an additional C-terminal extension (184–196) for efficient Lys-48-ubiquitylation activity. The presence of Tyr-102 and Tyr-104 in the Ube2g1 acidic loop enhanced both ubiquitin binding and Lys-48-ubiquitylation and distinguished Ube2g1 from the otherwise similar truncated Ube2r11–183 (Ube2r1C). Replacement of Gln-105–Ser-106–Gly-107 in the acidic loop of Ube2r1C (Ube2r1CYGY) by the corresponding residues from Ube2g1 (Tyr-102–Gly-103–Tyr-104) increased Lys-48-ubiquitylation activity and ubiquitin binding. Two E2∼UB thioester mimics (oxyester and disulfide) were prepared to characterize the ubiquitin binding activity of the acidic loop. The oxyester but not the disulfide derivative was found to be a functional equivalent of the E2∼UB thioester. The ubiquitin moiety of the Ube2r1CC93S-[15N]UBK48R oxyester displayed two-state conformational exchange, whereas the Ube2r1CC93S/YGY-[15N]UBK48R oxyester showed predominantly one state. Together with NMR studies that compared UBK48R oxyesters of the wild-type and the acidic loop mutant (Y102G/Y104G) forms of Ube2g1, in vitro ubiquitylation assays with various mutation forms of the E2s revealed how the intramolecular interaction between the acidic loop and the attached donor ubiquitin regulates Lys-48-ubiquitylation activity. PMID:25471371

  19. Ubiquitin B in Cervical Cancer: Critical for the Maintenance of Cancer Stem-Like Cell Characters

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yingying; Ji, Teng; Sun, Shujuan; Mo, Qingqing; Chen, Pingbo; Fang, Yong; Liu, Jia; Wang, Beibei; Zhou, Jianfeng; Ma, Ding; Wu, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer cells exhibit an increased requirement for ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation associated with an elevated metabolic turnover rate. Ubiquitin, which is a small, highly conserved protein expressed in all eukaryotic cells, can be covalently linked to certain target proteins to mark them for degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Previous studies highlight the essential role of Ubiquitin B (UbB) and UbB-dependent proteasomal protein degradation in histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) -induced tumor selectivity. We hypothesized that UbB plays a critical role in the function of cervical cancer stem cells. We measured endogenous UbB levels in mammospheres in vitro by real-time PCR and Western blotting. The function of UbB in cancer stem-like cells was assessed after knockdown of UbB expression in prolonged Trichostatin A-selected HeLa cells (HeLa/TSA) by measuring in vitro cell proliferation, cell apoptosis, invasion, and chemotherapy resistance as well as by measuring in vivo growth in an orthotopic model of cervical cancer. We also assessed the cancer stem cell frequency, tumorsphere formation, and in vivo growth of human cervical cancer xenografts after UbB silencing. We found that HeLa/TSA were resistant to chemotherapy, highly expressed the UbB gene and the stem cell markers Sox2, Oct4 and Nanog. These cells also displayed induced differentiation abilities, including enhanced migration/invasion/malignancy capabilities in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, an elevated expression of UbB was shown in the tumor samples of chemotherapy patients. Silencing of UbB inhibited tumorsphere formation, lowered the expression of stem cell markers and decreased cervical xenograft growth. Our results demonstrate that UbB was significantly increased in prolonged Trichostatin A-selected HeLa cells and it played a key role in the maintenance of cervical cancer stem-like cells. PMID:24367661

  20. Ubiquitination of specific mitochondrial matrix proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann, Gilad; Ziv, Tamar; Braten, Ori

    2016-06-17

    Several protein quality control systems in bacteria and/or mitochondrial matrix from lower eukaryotes are absent in higher eukaryotes. These are transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA), The N-end rule ATP-dependent protease ClpAP, and two more ATP-dependent proteases, HslUV and ClpXP (in yeast). The lost proteases resemble the 26S proteasome and the role of tmRNA and the N-end rule in eukaryotic cytosol is performed by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). Therefore, we hypothesized that the UPS might have substituted these systems – at least partially – in the mitochondrial matrix of higher eukaryotes. Using three independent experimental approaches, we demonstrated the presence of ubiquitinatedmore » proteins in the matrix of isolated yeast mitochondria. First, we show that isolated mitochondria contain ubiquitin (Ub) conjugates, which remained intact after trypsin digestion. Second, we demonstrate that the mitochondrial soluble fraction contains Ub-conjugates, several of which were identified by mass spectrometry and are localized to the matrix. Third, using immunoaffinity enrichment by specific antibodies recognizing digested ubiquitinated peptides, we identified a group of Ub-modified matrix proteins. The modification was further substantiated by separation on SDS-PAGE and immunoblots. Last, we attempted to identify the ubiquitin ligase(s) involved, and identified Dma1p as a trypsin-resistant protein in our mitochondrial preparations. Taken together, these data suggest a yet undefined role for the UPS in regulation of the mitochondrial matrix proteins. -- Highlights: •Mitochondrial matrix contains ubiquitinated proteins. •Ubiquitination occurs most probably in the matrix. •Dma1p is a ubiquitin ligase present in mitochondrial preparations.« less

  1. Ubiquitinated proteins enriched from tumor cells by a ubiquitin binding protein Vx3(A7) as a potent cancer vaccine.

    PubMed

    Aldarouish, Mohanad; Wang, Huzhan; Zhou, Meng; Hu, Hong-Ming; Wang, Li-Xin

    2015-04-16

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that autophagosome-enriched vaccine (named DRibbles: DRiPs-containing blebs) induce a potent anti-tumor efficacy in different murine tumor models, in which DRibble-containing ubiquitinated proteins are efficient tumor-specific antigen source for the cross-presentation after being loaded onto dendritic cells. In this study, we sought to detect whether ubiquitinated proteins enriched from tumor cells could be used directly as a novel cancer vaccine. The ubiquitin binding protein Vx3(A7) was used to isolate ubiquitinated proteins from EL4 and B16-F10 tumor cells after blocking their proteasomal degradation pathway. C57BL/6 mice were vaccinated with different doses of Ub-enriched proteins via inguinal lymph nodes or subcutaneous injection and with DRibbles, Ub-depleted proteins and whole cell lysate as comparison groups, respectively. The lymphocytes from the vaccinated mice were re-stimulated with inactivated tumor cells and the levels of IFN-γ in the supernatant were detected by ELISA. Anti-tumor efficacy of Ub-enriched proteins vaccine was evaluated by monitoring tumor growth in established tumor mice models. Graphpad Prism 5.0 was used for all statistical analysis. We found that after stimulation with inactivated tumor cells, the lymphocytes from the Ub-enriched proteins-vaccinated mice secreted high level of IFN-γ in dose dependent manner, in which the priming vaccination via inguinal lymph nodes injection induced higher IFN-γ level than that via subcutaneous injection. Moreover, the level of secreted IFN-γ in the Ub-enriched proteins group was markedly higher than that in the whole cell lysate and Ub-depleted proteins. Interestingly, the lymphocytes from mice vaccinated with Ub-enriched proteins, but not Ub-depleted proteins and whole cell lysates, isolated from EL4 or B16-F10 tumor cells also produced an obvious level of IFN-γ when stimulated alternately with inactivated B16-F10 or EL4 tumor cells. Furthermore, Ub

  2. Recognition and Cleavage of Related to Ubiquitin 1 (Rub1) and Rub1-Ubiquitin Chains by Components of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System*

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajesh K.; Zerath, Sylvia; Kleifeld, Oded; Scheffner, Martin; Glickman, Michael H.; Fushman, David

    2012-01-01

    Of all ubiquitin-like proteins, Rub1 (Nedd8 in mammals) is the closest kin of ubiquitin. We show via NMR that structurally, Rub1 and ubiquitin are fundamentally similar as well. Despite these profound similarities, the prevalence of Rub1/Nedd8 and of ubiquitin as modifiers of the proteome is starkly different, and their attachments to specific substrates perform different functions. Recently, some proteins, including p53, p73, EGFR, caspase-7, and Parkin, have been shown to be modified by both Rub1/Nedd8 and ubiquitin within cells. To understand whether and how it might be possible to distinguish among the same target protein modified by Rub1 or ubiquitin or both, we examined whether ubiquitin receptors can differentiate between Rub1 and ubiquitin. Surprisingly, Rub1 interacts with proteasome ubiquitin-shuttle proteins comparably to ubiquitin but binds more weakly to a proteasomal ubiquitin receptor Rpn10. We identified Rub1-ubiquitin heteromers in yeast and Nedd8-Ub heteromers in human cells. We validate that in human cells and in vitro, human Rub1 (Nedd8) forms chains with ubiquitin where it acts as a chain terminator. Interestingly, enzymatically assembled K48-linked Rub1-ubiquitin heterodimers are recognized by various proteasomal ubiquitin shuttles and receptors comparably to K48-linked ubiquitin homodimers. Furthermore, these heterologous chains are cleaved by COP9 signalosome or 26S proteasome. A derubylation function of the proteasome expands the repertoire of its enzymatic activities. In contrast, Rub1 conjugates may be somewhat resilient to the actions of other canonical deubiquitinating enzymes. Taken together, these findings suggest that once Rub1/Nedd8 is channeled into ubiquitin pathways, it is recognized essentially like ubiquitin. PMID:23105008

  3. The importance of regulatory ubiquitination in cancer and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, L. H.; Ko, J.; Donoghue, D. J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ubiquitination serves as a degradation mechanism of proteins, but is involved in additional cellular processes such as activation of NFκB inflammatory response and DNA damage repair. We highlight the E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzymes, E3 ubiquitin ligases and Deubiquitinases that support the metastasis of a plethora of cancers. E3 ubiquitin ligases also modulate pluripotent cancer stem cells attributed to chemotherapy resistance. We further describe mutations in E3 ubiquitin ligases that support tumor proliferation and adaptation to hypoxia. Thus, this review describes how tumors exploit members of the vast ubiquitin signaling pathways to support aberrant oncogenic signaling for survival and metastasis. PMID:28166483

  4. The prokaryotic antecedents of the ubiquitin-signaling system and the early evolution of ubiquitin-like β-grasp domains

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Burroughs, A Maxwell; Aravind, L

    2006-01-01

    Background Ubiquitin (Ub)-mediated signaling is one of the hallmarks of all eukaryotes. Prokaryotic homologs of Ub (ThiS and MoaD) and E1 ligases have been studied in relation to sulfur incorporation reactions in thiamine and molybdenum/tungsten cofactor biosynthesis. However, there is no evidence for entire protein modification systems with Ub-like proteins and deconjugation by deubiquitinating enzymes in prokaryotes. Hence, the evolutionary assembly of the eukaryotic Ub-signaling apparatus remains unclear. Results We systematically analyzed prokaryotic Ub-related β-grasp fold proteins using sensitive sequence profile searches and structural analysis. Consequently, we identified novel Ub-related proteins beyond the characterized ThiS, MoaD, TGS, and YukD domains. To understand their functional associations, we sought and recovered several conserved gene neighborhoods and domain architectures. These included novel associations involving diverse sulfur metabolism proteins, siderophore biosynthesis and the gene encoding the transfer mRNA binding protein SmpB, as well as domain fusions between Ub-like domains and PIN-domain related RNAses. Most strikingly, we found conserved gene neighborhoods in phylogenetically diverse bacteria combining genes for JAB domains (the primary de-ubiquitinating isopeptidases of the proteasomal complex), along with E1-like adenylating enzymes and different Ub-related proteins. Further sequence analysis of other conserved genes in these neighborhoods revealed several Ub-conjugating enzyme/E2-ligase related proteins. Genes for an Ub-like protein and a JAB domain peptidase were also found in the tail assembly gene cluster of certain caudate bacteriophages. Conclusion These observations imply that members of the Ub family had already formed strong functional associations with E1-like proteins, UBC/E2-related proteins, and JAB peptidases in the bacteria. Several of these Ub-like proteins and the associated protein families are likely to

  5. Quantitative proteomics reveal a feedforward mechanism for mitochondrial PARKIN translocation and ubiquitin chain synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ordureau, Alban; Sarraf, Shireen A; Duda, David M; Heo, Jin-Mi; Jedrychowski, Mark P; Sviderskiy, Vladislav O; Olszewski, Jennifer L; Koerber, James T; Xie, Tiao; Beausoleil, Sean A; Wells, James A; Gygi, Steven P; Schulman, Brenda A; Harper, J Wade

    2014-11-06

    Phosphorylation is often used to promote protein ubiquitylation, yet we rarely understand quantitatively how ligase activation and ubiquitin (UB) chain assembly are integrated with phosphoregulation. Here we employ quantitative proteomics and live-cell imaging to dissect individual steps in the PINK1 kinase-PARKIN UB ligase mitochondrial control pathway disrupted in Parkinson's disease. PINK1 plays a dual role by phosphorylating PARKIN on its UB-like domain and poly-UB chains on mitochondria. PARKIN activation by PINK1 produces canonical and noncanonical UB chains on mitochondria, and PARKIN-dependent chain assembly is required for accumulation of poly-phospho-UB (poly-p-UB) on mitochondria. In vitro, PINK1 directly activates PARKIN's ability to assemble canonical and noncanonical UB chains and promotes association of PARKIN with both p-UB and poly-p-UB. Our data reveal a feedforward mechanism that explains how PINK1 phosphorylation of both PARKIN and poly-UB chains synthesized by PARKIN drives a program of PARKIN recruitment and mitochondrial ubiquitylation in response to mitochondrial damage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Newborn Mouse Lens Proteome and Its Alteration by Lysine 6 Mutant Ubiquitin

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquitin is a tag that often initiates degradation of proteins by the proteasome in the ubiquitin proteasome system. Targeted expression of K6W mutant ubiquitin (K6W-Ub) in the lens results in defects in lens development and cataract formation, suggesting critical functions for ubiquitin in lens. To study the developmental processes that require intact ubiquitin, we executed the most extensive characterization of the lens proteome to date. We quantified lens protein expression changes in multiple replicate pools of P1 wild-type and K6W-Ub-expressing mouse lenses. Lens proteins were digested with trypsin, peptides were separated using strong cation exchange and reversed-phase liquid chromatography, and tandem mass (MS/MS) spectra were collected with a linear ion trap. Transgenic mice that expressed low levels of K6W-Ub (low expressers) had normal, clear lenses at birth, whereas the lenses that expressed high levels of K6W-Ub (higher expressers) had abnormal lenses and cataracts at birth. A total of 2052 proteins were identified, of which 996 were reliably quantified and compared between wild-type and K6W-Ub transgenic mice. Consistent with a delayed developmental program, fiber-cell-specific proteins, such as γ-crystallins (γA, γB, γC, and γE), were down-regulated in K6W-Ub higher expressers. Up-regulated proteins were involved in energy metabolism, signal transduction, and proteolysis. The K6W-Ub low expressers exhibited delayed onset and milder cataract consistent with smaller changes in protein expression. Because lens protein expression changes occurred prior to lens morphological abnormalities and cataract formation in K6W-Ub low expressers, it appears that expression of K6W-Ub sets in motion a process of altered protein expression that results in developmental defects and cataract. PMID:24450463

  7. Auto-ubiquitination of Mdm2 Enhances Its Substrate Ubiquitin Ligase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Ranaweera, Ruchira S.; Yang, Xiaolu

    2013-01-01

    The RING domain E3 ubiquitin ligase Mdm2 is the master regulator of the tumor suppressor p53. It targets p53 for proteasomal degradation, restraining the potent activity of p53 and enabling cell survival and proliferation. Like most E3 ligases, Mdm2 can also ubiquitinate itself. How Mdm2 auto-ubiquitination may influence its substrate ubiquitin ligase activity is undefined. Here we show that auto-ubiquitination of Mdm2 is an activating event. Mdm2 that has been conjugated to polyubiquitin chains, but not to single ubiquitins, exhibits substantially enhanced activity to polyubiquitinate p53. Mechanistically, auto-ubiquitination of Mdm2 facilitates the recruitment of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. This occurs through noncovalent interactions between the ubiquitin chains on Mdm2 and the ubiquitin binding domain on E2s. Mutations that diminish the noncovalent interactions render auto-ubiquitination unable to stimulate Mdm2 substrate E3 activity. These results suggest a model in which polyubiquitin chains on an E3 increase the local concentration of E2 enzymes and permit the processivity of substrate ubiquitination. They also support the notion that autocatalysis may be a prevalent mode for turning on the activity of latent enzymes. PMID:23671280

  8. Inhibition of Protein Ubiquitination by Paraquat and 1-Methyl-4-Phenylpyridinium Impairs Ubiquitin-Dependent Protein Degradation Pathways.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Yepes, Juliana; Anandhan, Annadurai; Bradley, Erin; Bohovych, Iryna; Yarabe, Bo; de Jong, Annemieke; Ovaa, Huib; Zhou, You; Khalimonchuk, Oleh; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet; Franco, Rodrigo

    2016-10-01

    Intracytoplasmic inclusions of protein aggregates in dopaminergic cells (Lewy bodies) are the pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). Ubiquitin (Ub), alpha (α)-synuclein, p62/sequestosome 1, and oxidized proteins are the major components of Lewy bodies. However, the mechanisms involved in the impairment of misfolded/oxidized protein degradation pathways in PD are still unclear. PD is linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and environmental pesticide exposure. In this work, we evaluated the effects of the pesticide paraquat (PQ) and the mitochondrial toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) on Ub-dependent protein degradation pathways. No increase in the accumulation of Ub-bound proteins or aggregates was observed in dopaminergic cells (SK-N-SH) treated with PQ or MPP(+), or in mice chronically exposed to PQ. PQ decreased Ub protein content, but not its mRNA transcription. Protein synthesis inhibition with cycloheximide depleted Ub levels and potentiated PQ-induced cell death. The inhibition of proteasomal activity by PQ was found to be a late event in cell death progression and had neither effect on the toxicity of either MPP(+) or PQ, nor on the accumulation of oxidized sulfenylated, sulfonylated (DJ-1/PARK7 and peroxiredoxins), and carbonylated proteins induced by PQ. PQ- and MPP(+)-induced Ub protein depletion prompted the dimerization/inactivation of the Ub-binding protein p62 that regulates the clearance of ubiquitinated proteins by autophagy. We confirmed that PQ and MPP(+) impaired autophagy flux and that the blockage of autophagy by the overexpression of a dominant-negative form of the autophagy protein 5 (dnAtg5) stimulated their toxicity, but there was no additional effect upon inhibition of the proteasome. PQ induced an increase in the accumulation of α-synuclein in dopaminergic cells and membrane-associated foci in yeast cells. Our results demonstrate that the inhibition of protein ubiquitination by PQ and MPP(+) is involved in the

  9. Inhibition of protein ubiquitination by paraquat and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium impairs ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation pathways

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Yepes, Juliana; Anandhan, Annadurai; Bradley, Erin; Bohovych, Iryna; Yarabe, Bo; de Jong, Annemieke; Ovaa, Huib; Zhou, You; Khalimonchuk, Oleh; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet; Franco, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Intracytoplasmic inclusions of protein aggregates in dopaminergic cells (Lewy bodies) are the pathological hallmark of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Ubiquitin (Ub), alpha [α]-synuclein, p62/sequestosome 1 and oxidized proteins are major components of Lewy bodies. However, the mechanisms involved in the impairment of misfolded/oxidized protein degradation pathways in PD are still unclear. PD is linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and environmental pesticide exposure. In this work, we evaluated the effect of the pesticide paraquat (PQ) and the mitochondrial toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) on Ub-dependent protein degradation pathways. No increase in the accumulation of Ub-bound proteins or aggregates was observed in dopaminergic cells (SK-N-SH) treated with PQ or MPP+, or in mice chronically exposed to PQ. PQ decreased Ub protein content, but not its mRNA transcription. Protein synthesis inhibition with cycloheximide depleted Ub levels and potentiated PQ–induced cell death. Inhibition of proteasomal activity by PQ was found to be a late event in cell death progression, and had no effect on either the toxicity of MPP+ or PQ, or the accumulation of oxidized sulfenylated, sulfonylated (DJ-1/PARK7 and peroxiredoxins) and carbonylated proteins induced by PQ. PQ- and MPP+-induced Ub protein depletion prompted the dimerization/inactivation of the Ub-binding protein p62 that regulates the clearance of ubiquitinated proteins by autophagic. We confirmed that PQ and MPP+ impaired autophagy flux, and that the blockage of autophagy by the overexpression of a dominant-negative form of the autophagy protein 5 (dnAtg5) stimulated their toxicity, but there was no additional effect upon inhibition of the proteasome. PQ induced an increase in the accumulation of α-synuclein in dopaminergic cells and membrane associated foci in yeast cells. Our results demonstrate that inhibition of protein ubiquitination by PQ and MPP+ is involved in the dysfunction of Ub-dependent protein

  10. Activation of the Slx5–Slx8 Ubiquitin Ligase by Poly-small Ubiquitin-like Modifier Conjugates*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Janet R.; Brill, Steven J.

    2008-01-01

    Protein sumoylation is a regulated process that is important for the health of human and yeast cells. In budding yeast, a subset of sumoylated proteins is targeted for ubiquitination by a conserved heterodimeric ubiquitin (Ub) ligase, Slx5–Slx8, which is needed to suppress the accumulation of high molecular weight small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) conjugates. Structure-function analysis indicates that the Slx5–Slx8 complex contains multiple SUMO-binding domains that are collectively required for in vivo function. To determine the specificity of Slx5–Slx8, we assayed its Ub ligase activity using sumoylated Siz2 as an in vitro substrate. In contrast to unsumoylated or multisumoylated Siz2, substrates containing poly-SUMO conjugates were efficiently ubiquitinated by Slx5–Slx8. Although Siz2 itself was ubiquitinated, the bulk of the Ub was conjugated to SUMO residues. Slx5–Slx8 primarily mono-ubiquitinated the N-terminal SUMO moiety of the chain. These data indicate that the Slx5–Slx8 Ub ligase is stimulated by poly-SUMO conjugates and that it can ubiquitinate a poly-SUMO chain. PMID:18499666

  11. The PINK1 p.I368N mutation affects protein stability and ubiquitin kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Ando, Maya; Fiesel, Fabienne C; Hudec, Roman; Caulfield, Thomas R; Ogaki, Kotaro; Górka-Skoczylas, Paulina; Koziorowski, Dariusz; Friedman, Andrzej; Chen, Li; Dawson, Valina L; Dawson, Ted M; Bu, Guojun; Ross, Owen A; Wszolek, Zbigniew K; Springer, Wolfdieter

    2017-04-24

    Mutations in PINK1 and PARKIN are the most common causes of recessive early-onset Parkinson's disease (EOPD). Together, the mitochondrial ubiquitin (Ub) kinase PINK1 and the cytosolic E3 Ub ligase PARKIN direct a complex regulated, sequential mitochondrial quality control. Thereby, damaged mitochondria are identified and targeted to degradation in order to prevent their accumulation and eventually cell death. Homozygous or compound heterozygous loss of either gene function disrupts this protective pathway, though at different steps and by distinct mechanisms. While structure and function of PARKIN variants have been well studied, PINK1 mutations remain poorly characterized, in particular under endogenous conditions. A better understanding of the exact molecular pathogenic mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity is crucial for rational drug design in the future. Here, we characterized the pathogenicity of the PINK1 p.I368N mutation on the clinical and genetic as well as on the structural and functional level in patients' fibroblasts and in cell-based, biochemical assays. Under endogenous conditions, PINK1 p.I368N is expressed, imported, and N-terminally processed in healthy mitochondria similar to PINK1 wild type (WT). Upon mitochondrial damage, however, full-length PINK1 p.I368N is not sufficiently stabilized on the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) resulting in loss of mitochondrial quality control. We found that binding of PINK1 p.I368N to the co-chaperone complex HSP90/CDC37 is reduced and stress-induced interaction with TOM40 of the mitochondrial protein import machinery is abolished. Analysis of a structural PINK1 p.I368N model additionally suggested impairments of Ub kinase activity as the ATP-binding pocket was found deformed and the substrate Ub was slightly misaligned within the active site of the kinase. Functional assays confirmed the lack of Ub kinase activity. Here we demonstrated that mutant PINK1 p.I368N can not be stabilized on the OMM upon

  12. An Interaction Landscape of Ubiquitin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaofei; Smits, Arne H; van Tilburg, Gabrielle B A; Jansen, Pascal W T C; Makowski, Matthew M; Ovaa, Huib; Vermeulen, Michiel

    2017-03-02

    Intracellular signaling via the covalent attachment of different ubiquitin linkages to protein substrates is fundamental to many cellular processes. Although linkage-selective ubiquitin interactors have been studied on a case-by-case basis, proteome-wide analyses have not been conducted yet. Here, we present ubiquitin interactor affinity enrichment-mass spectrometry (UbIA-MS), a quantitative interaction proteomics method that makes use of chemically synthesized diubiquitin to enrich and identify ubiquitin linkage interactors from crude cell lysates. UbIA-MS reveals linkage-selective diubiquitin interactions in multiple cell types. For example, we identify TAB2 and TAB3 as novel K6 diubiquitin interactors and characterize UCHL3 as a K27-linkage selective interactor that regulates K27 polyubiquitin chain formation in cells. Additionally, we show a class of monoubiquitin and K6 diubiquitin interactors whose binding is induced by DNA damage. We expect that our proteome-wide diubiquitin interaction landscape and established workflows will have broad applications in the ongoing efforts to decipher the complex language of ubiquitin signaling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Targeting ubiquitination for cancer therapies.

    PubMed

    Morrow, John Kenneth; Lin, Hui-Kuan; Sun, Shao-Cong; Zhang, Shuxing

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquitination, the structured degradation and turnover of cellular proteins, is regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Most proteins that are critical for cellular regulations and functions are targets of the process. Ubiquitination is comprised of a sequence of three enzymatic steps, and aberrations in the pathway can lead to tumor development and progression as observed in many cancer types. Recent evidence indicates that targeting the UPS is effective for certain cancer treatment, but many more potential targets might have been previously overlooked. In this review, we will discuss the current state of small molecules that target various elements of ubiquitination. Special attention will be given to novel inhibitors of E3 ubiquitin ligases, especially those in the SCF family.

  14. Immunohistochemical detection of ubiquitin-positive intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusion bodies in diffuse alveolar damage.

    PubMed

    Yamada, T; Uehara, K; Kawanishi, R; Mizutani, T; Sunagawa, K; Araya, J; Kawabata, Y

    2006-06-01

    To clarify the relationship between ubiquitin-positive pneumocytes and intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusion bodies (IB) in patients who died of diffuse alveolar damage (DAD). Eighteen patients with DAD were studied, in whom hyaline membranes were present in one or more out of five sections from each lobe of the lungs and 15 patients with no DAD. Light microscopy revealed hyaline membrane in over 25% of lobes from 18 patients with DAD. The cytoplasm of pneumocytes from six of 18 cases of DAD contained IB. Immunohistochemically, all IBs were characteristically positive for both ubiquitin (Ub) and cytokeratin KL-1. Cytoplasmic granules were also Ub+ in four cases of DAD without IB. IB+ or Ub+ pneumocytes were undetectable in non-DAD patients. We evaluated DAD severity based on hyaline membrane formation; the mean score in DAD with IB (3.60; n = 6) was significantly higher than that in Ub- (2.92; n = 8). Ub+ pneumocytes were found with or without IB among those cases with high DAD scores. These findings suggest that disordered proteolysis in the Ub-mediated proteasome system leads to the accumulation of abnormal ubiquitinated protein, which includes cytokeratin, in pneumocytes. This is the first report to suggest that Ub+ pneumocytes are associated with disease severity in patients with DAD.

  15. Pneumocyte injury and ubiquitin-positive pneumocytes in interstitial lung diseases*

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Tsutomu; Kawabata, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Pneumocyte injury is a characteristic of pulmonary interstitial pneumonias (IPs). Histological markers of pneumocyte injury and inflammation include pneumocyte necrosis, erosion, hyaline membrane and fibrin exudation with subsequent intraluminal granulation tissue formation. We found that intracytoplasmic inclusions in pneumocytes are ubiquitin-positive (Ub+) and that the number of Ub+ pneumocytes shows positive correlation with the extent of diffuse alveolar damage (DAD). To determine the role of Ub+ pneumocytes and inclusions in IPs, we studied their relationship with pathological and clinical features of DAD, usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and organizing pneumonia (OP), including airspace enlargement with fibrosis (AEF). We analysed Ub+ pneumocytes, inclusions, erosions and intraluminal granulation tissue in relation to pneumocyte injury. The numbers of immunohistochemically identified Ub+ inclusions in each IP were higher than the number of inclusions detected by light microscopy. The inclusions detected by Ub+ immunostaining were identical to the inclusions observed by light microscopy. UIP and DAD had many Ub+ inclusions, while OP and AEF had fewer Ub+ inclusions. These results suggest that the extent of Ub+ inclusions reflects the severity of pneumocyte injury among IPs. Thus, Ub+ inclusions are a histological marker of pneumocyte injury that may be helpful in determining the severity and prognosis of IPs. PMID:25123224

  16. Atypical binding of the Swa2p UBA domain to ubiquitin.

    PubMed

    Matta-Camacho, Edna; Kozlov, Guennadi; Trempe, Jean-François; Gehring, Kalle

    2009-02-20

    Swa2p is an auxilin-like yeast protein that is involved in vesicular transport and required for uncoating of clathrin-coated vesicles. Swa2p contains a ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domain, which is present in a variety of proteins involved in ubiquitin (Ub)-mediated processes. We have determined a structural model of the Swa2p UBA domain in complex with Ub using NMR spectroscopy and molecular docking. Ub recognition occurs predominantly through an atypical interaction in which UBA helix alpha1 and the N-terminal part of helix alpha2 bind to Ub. Mutation of Ala148, a key residue in helix alpha1, to polar residues greatly reduced the affinity of the UBA domain for Ub and revealed a second low-affinity Ub-binding site located on the surface formed by helices alpha1 and alpha3. Surface plasmon resonance showed that the Swa2p UBA domain binds K48- and K63-linked di-Ub in a non-linkage-specific manner. These results reveal convergent evolution of a Ub-binding site on helix alpha1 of UBA domains involved in membrane protein trafficking.

  17. Complementation of a Fanconi anemia group A cell line by UbA{sup 52}

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, R.E.; Heina, J.A.; Jakobs, P.M.

    1994-09-01

    Cells from patients with Fanconi anemia (FA) display chromosomal instability and increased sensitivity to mitomycin C (MMC) and diepoxybutane (DEB) relative to normal cells. Several genes act in this pathway of DNA damage processing based upon four known complementation groups in FA. We have made a cDNA expression library in a vector with a G418 selectable marker to identify FA genes other than the FA-C group. Approximately 1 x 10{sup 6} independent cDNA clones were isolated with an average cDNA size of 1.5 kb. Five cell lines resistant to MMC and DEB were isolated from 6 x 10{sup 6} G418-resistantmore » transfectants from 65 individual transfections of the FA-A fibroblast line GM6914. The isolated cell lines also showed normal chromosome stability. The same cDNA (600 bp) was recovered from three independent cell lines by PCR using flanking sequence primers. The gene has sequence identity with a known gene, the ubiquitin fusion gene, UbA{sub 52}. Interestingly, each of the cDNAs were inserted in antisense orientation relative to the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter as determined by sequencing and PCR using UbA{sub 52}-specific internal primers. Southern blot analysis indicated the cell lines had distinct chromosomal insertion sites. Mutation analysis by chemical cleavage showed no reading frame mutations, indicating that UbA{sub 52} is not the FA-A gene. Re-transfection with the UbA{sub 52} gene in antisense gave complementation for MMC, DEB and chromosome stability to varying degrees. Re-transfection of the antisense construct with the CMV promotor removed or with a sense construct did not alter the MMC sensitivity. We conclude that the antisense UbA{sub 52} gene has a non-specific effect, perhaps acting by altering the cell cycle or susceptibility to apoptosis.« less

  18. E3Net: a system for exploring E3-mediated regulatory networks of cellular functions.

    PubMed

    Han, Youngwoong; Lee, Hodong; Park, Jong C; Yi, Gwan-Su

    2012-04-01

    Ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3) is a key enzyme targeting specific substrates in diverse cellular processes for ubiquitination and degradation. The existing findings of substrate specificity of E3 are, however, scattered over a number of resources, making it difficult to study them together with an integrative view. Here we present E3Net, a web-based system that provides a comprehensive collection of available E3-substrate specificities and a systematic framework for the analysis of E3-mediated regulatory networks of diverse cellular functions. Currently, E3Net contains 2201 E3s and 4896 substrates in 427 organisms and 1671 E3-substrate specific relations between 493 E3s and 1277 substrates in 42 organisms, extracted mainly from MEDLINE abstracts and UniProt comments with an automatic text mining method and additional manual inspection and partly from high throughput experiment data and public ubiquitination databases. The significant functions and pathways of the extracted E3-specific substrate groups were identified from a functional enrichment analysis with 12 functional category resources for molecular functions, protein families, protein complexes, pathways, cellular processes, cellular localization, and diseases. E3Net includes interactive analysis and navigation tools that make it possible to build an integrative view of E3-substrate networks and their correlated functions with graphical illustrations and summarized descriptions. As a result, E3Net provides a comprehensive resource of E3s, substrates, and their functional implications summarized from the regulatory network structures of E3-specific substrate groups and their correlated functions. This resource will facilitate further in-depth investigation of ubiquitination-dependent regulatory mechanisms. E3Net is freely available online at http://pnet.kaist.ac.kr/e3net.

  19. MdCOP1 Ubiquitin E3 Ligases Interact with MdMYB1 to Regulate Light-Induced Anthocyanin Biosynthesis and Red Fruit Coloration in Apple1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Mao, Ke; Zhao, Cheng; Zhao, Xian-Yan; Zhang, Hua-Lei; Shu, Huai-Rui; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2012-01-01

    MdMYB1 is a crucial regulator of light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis and fruit coloration in apple (Malus domestica). In this study, it was found that MdMYB1 protein accumulated in the light but degraded via a ubiquitin-dependent pathway in the dark. Subsequently, the MdCOP1-1 and MdCOP1-2 genes were isolated from apple fruit peel and were functionally characterized in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cop1-4 mutant. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that MdMYB1 interacts with the MdCOP1 proteins. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that MdCOP1s are necessary for the ubiquitination and degradation of MdMYB1 protein in the dark and are therefore involved in the light-controlled stability of the MdMYB1 protein. Finally, a viral vector-based transformation approach demonstrated that MdCOP1s negatively regulate the peel coloration of apple fruits by modulating the degradation of the MdMYB1 protein. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanism by which light controls anthocyanin accumulation and red fruit coloration in apple and even other plant species. PMID:22855936

  20. 1H, 15N and 13C resonance assignments for free and IEEVD peptide-bound forms of the tetratricopeptide repeat domain from the human E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huaqun; McGlone, Cameron; Mannion, Matthew M; Page, Richard C

    2017-04-01

    The ubiquitin ligase CHIP catalyzes covalent attachment of ubiquitin to unfolded proteins chaperoned by the heat shock proteins Hsp70/Hsc70 and Hsp90. CHIP interacts with Hsp70/Hsc70 and Hsp90 by binding of a C-terminal IEEVD motif found in Hsp70/Hsc70 and Hsp90 to the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain of CHIP. Although recruitment of heat shock proteins to CHIP via interaction with the CHIP-TPR domain is well established, alterations in structure and dynamics of CHIP upon binding are not well understood. In particular, the absence of a structure for CHIP-TPR in the free form presents a significant limitation upon studies seeking to rationally design inhibitors that may disrupt interactions between CHIP and heat shock proteins. Here we report the 1 H, 13 C, and 15 N backbone and side chain chemical shift assignments for CHIP-TPR in the free form, and backbone chemical shift assignments for CHIP-TPR in the IEEVD-bound form. The NMR resonance assignments will enable further studies examining the roles of dynamics and structure in regulating interactions between CHIP and the heat shock proteins Hsp70/Hsc70 and Hsp90.

  1. Structural and functional characterization of a ubiquitin variant engineered for tight and specific binding to an alpha-helical ubiquitin interacting motif.

    PubMed

    Manczyk, Noah; Yates, Bradley P; Veggiani, Gianluca; Ernst, Andreas; Sicheri, Frank; Sidhu, Sachdev S

    2017-05-01

    Ubiquitin interacting motifs (UIMs) are short α-helices found in a number of eukaryotic proteins. UIMs interact weakly but specifically with ubiquitin conjugated to other proteins, and in so doing, mediate specific cellular signals. Here we used phage display to generate ubiquitin variants (UbVs) targeting the N-terminal UIM of the yeast Vps27 protein. Selections yielded UbV.v27.1, which recognized the cognate UIM with high specificity relative to other yeast UIMs and bound with an affinity more than two orders of magnitude higher than that of ubiquitin. Structural and mutational studies of the UbV.v27.1-UIM complex revealed the molecular details for the enhanced affinity and specificity of UbV.v27.1, and underscored the importance of changes at the binding interface as well as at positions that do not contact the UIM. Our study highlights the power of the phage display approach for selecting UbVs with unprecedented affinity and high selectivity for particular α-helical UIM domains within proteomes, and it establishes a general approach for the development of inhibitors targeting interactions of this type. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  2. Regulation of T cell receptor complex-mediated signaling by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like modifications.

    PubMed

    Friend, Samantha F; Deason-Towne, Francina; Peterson, Lisa K; Berger, Allison J; Dragone, Leonard L

    2014-01-01

    Post-translational protein modifications are a dynamic method of regulating protein function in response to environmental signals. As with any cellular process, T cell receptor (TCR) complex-mediated signaling is highly regulated, since the strength and duration of TCR-generated signals governs T cell development and activation. While regulation of TCR complex-mediated signaling by phosphorylation has been well studied, regulation by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like modifiers is still an emerging area of investigation. This review will examine how ubiquitin, E3 ubiquitin ligases, and other ubiquitin-like modifications such as SUMO and NEDD8 regulate TCR complex-mediated signaling.

  3. Regulation of T cell receptor complex-mediated signaling by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like modifications

    PubMed Central

    Friend, Samantha F; Deason-Towne, Francina; Peterson, Lisa K; Berger, Allison J; Dragone, Leonard L

    2014-01-01

    Post-translational protein modifications are a dynamic method of regulating protein function in response to environmental signals. As with any cellular process, T cell receptor (TCR) complex-mediated signaling is highly regulated, since the strength and duration of TCR-generated signals governs T cell development and activation. While regulation of TCR complex-mediated signaling by phosphorylation has been well studied, regulation by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like modifiers is still an emerging area of investigation. This review will examine how ubiquitin, E3 ubiquitin ligases, and other ubiquitin-like modifications such as SUMO and NEDD8 regulate TCR complex-mediated signaling. PMID:25628960

  4. The yeast Alix homolog, Bro1, functions as a ubiquitin receptor for protein sorting into multivesicular endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Pashkova, Natasha; Gakhar, Lokesh; Winistorfer, Stanley; Sunshine, Anna B.; Rich, Matthew; Dunham, Maitreya J.; Yu, Liping; Piper, Robert

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Sorting of ubiquitinated membrane proteins into lumenal vesicles of multivesicular bodies is mediated by the ESCRT apparatus and accessory proteins such as Bro1, which recruits the deubiquitinating enzyme Doa4 to remove ubiquitin from cargo. Here we propose that Bro1 works as a receptor for the selective sorting of ubiquitinated cargos. We found synthetic genetic interactions between BRO1 and ESCRT-0, suggesting Bro1 functions similarly to ESCRT-0. Multiple structural approaches demonstrated that Bro1 binds ubiquitin via the N-terminal trihelical arm of its middle V domain. Mutants of Bro1 that lack the ability to bind Ub were dramatically impaired in their ability to sort Ub-cargo membrane proteins, but only when combined with hypomorphic alleles of ESCRT-0. These data suggest that Bro1 and other Bro1 family members function in parallel with ESCRT-0 to recognize and sort Ub-cargos. PMID:23726974

  5. Inhibition of Vpx-Mediated SAMHD1 and Vpr-Mediated Host Helicase Transcription Factor Degradation by Selective Disruption of Viral CRL4 (DCAF1) E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Assembly.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Guo, Haoran; Su, Jiaming; Rui, Yajuan; Zheng, Wenwen; Gao, Wenying; Zhang, Wenyan; Li, Zhaolong; Liu, Guanchen; Markham, Richard B; Wei, Wei; Yu, Xiao-Fang

    2017-05-01

    The lentiviral accessory proteins Vpx and Vpr are known to utilize CRL4 (DCAF1) E3 ligase to induce the degradation of the host restriction factor SAMHD1 or host helicase transcription factor (HLTF), respectively. Selective disruption of viral CRL4 (DCAF1) E3 ligase could be a promising antiviral strategy. Recently, we have determined that posttranslational modification (neddylation) of Cullin-4 is required for the activation of Vpx-CRL4 (DCAF1) E3 ligase. However, the mechanism of Vpx/Vpr-CRL4 (DCAF1) E3 ligase assembly is still poorly understood. Here, we report that zinc coordination is an important regulator of Vpx-CRL4 E3 ligase assembly. Residues in a conserved zinc-binding motif of Vpx were essential for the recruitment of the CRL4 (DCAF1) E3 complex and Vpx-induced SAMHD1 degradation. Importantly, altering the intracellular zinc concentration by treatment with the zinc chelator N , N , N '-tetrakis-(2'-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) potently blocked Vpx-mediated SAMHD1 degradation and inhibited wild-type SIVmac (simian immunodeficiency virus of macaques) infection of myeloid cells, even in the presence of Vpx. TPEN selectively inhibited Vpx and DCAF1 binding but not the Vpx-SAMHD1 interaction or Vpx virion packaging. Moreover, we have shown that zinc coordination is also important for the assembly of the HIV-1 Vpr-CRL4 E3 ligase. In particular, Vpr zinc-binding motif mutation or TPEN treatment efficiently inhibited Vpr-CRL4 (DCAF1) E3 ligase assembly and Vpr-mediated HLTF degradation or Vpr-induced G 2 cell cycle arrest. Collectively, our study sheds light on a conserved strategy by the viral proteins Vpx and Vpr to recruit host CRL4 (DCAF1) E3 ligase, which represents a target for novel anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug development. IMPORTANCE The Vpr and its paralog Vpx are accessory proteins encoded by different human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) lentiviruses. To facilitate viral replication, Vpx has

  6. Increased gibberellin contents contribute to accelerated growth and development of transgenic tobacco overexpressing a wheat ubiquitin gene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Kun; Zhang, Meng; Gong, Jiang-Feng; Guo, Qi-Fang; Feng, Ya-Nan; Wang, Wei

    2012-12-01

    Overexpressing TaUb2 promoted stem growth and resulted in early flowering in transgenic tobacco plants. Ubiquitin are involved in the production, metabolism and proper function of gibberellin. The ubiquitin-26S proteasome system (UPS), in which ubiquitin (Ub) functions as a marker, is a post-translational regulatory system that plays a prominent role in various biological processes. To investigate the impact of different Ub levels on plant growth and development, transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants were engineered to express an Ub gene (TaUb2) from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under the control of cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing TaUb2 demonstrated an accelerated growth rate at early stage and an early flowering phenotype in development. The preceding expression of MADS-box genes also corresponded to the accelerated developmental phenotypes of the transgenic tobacco plants compared to that of wild-type (WT). Total gibberellin (GA) and active GA contents in transgenic tobacco plants were higher than those in WT at the corresponding developmental stages, and some GA metabolism genes were upregulated. Treatment with GA(3) conferred a similarly accelerated grown rate in WT plants to that of transgenic tobacco plants, while growth was inhibited when transgenic tobacco plants were treated with a GA biosynthesis inhibitor. Thus, the results suggest that Ub are involved in the production, metabolism and proper function of GA, which is important in the regulation of plant growth and development.

  7. S. pombe Uba1-Ubc15 Structure Reveals a Novel Regulatory Mechanism of Ubiquitin E2 Activity.

    PubMed

    Lv, Zongyang; Rickman, Kimberly A; Yuan, Lingmin; Williams, Katelyn; Selvam, Shanmugam Panneer; Woosley, Alec N; Howe, Philip H; Ogretmen, Besim; Smogorzewska, Agata; Olsen, Shaun K

    2017-02-16

    Ubiquitin (Ub) E1 initiates the Ub conjugation cascade by activating and transferring Ub to tens of different E2s. How Ub E1 cooperates with E2s that differ substantially in their predicted E1-interacting residues is unknown. Here, we report the structure of S. pombe Uba1 in complex with Ubc15, a Ub E2 with intrinsically low E1-E2 Ub thioester transfer activity. The structure reveals a distinct Ubc15 binding mode that substantially alters the network of interactions at the E1-E2 interface compared to the only other available Ub E1-E2 structure. Structure-function analysis reveals that the intrinsically low activity of Ubc15 largely results from the presence of an acidic residue at its N-terminal region. Notably, Ub E2 N termini are serine/threonine rich in many other Ub E2s, leading us to hypothesize that phosphorylation of these sites may serve as a novel negative regulatory mechanism of Ub E2 activity, which we demonstrate biochemically and in cell-based assays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Linear ubiquitin chains: enzymes, mechanisms and biology

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Ubiquitination is a versatile post-translational modification that regulates a multitude of cellular processes. Its versatility is based on the ability of ubiquitin to form multiple types of polyubiquitin chains, which are recognized by specific ubiquitin receptors to induce the required cellular response. Linear ubiquitin chains are linked through Met 1 and have been established as important players of inflammatory signalling and apoptotic cell death. These chains are generated by a ubiquitin E3 ligase complex called the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) that is thus far the only E3 ligase capable of forming linear ubiquitin chains. The complex consists of three subunits, HOIP, HOIL-1L and SHARPIN, each of which have specific roles in the observed biological functions of LUBAC. Furthermore, LUBAC has been found to be associated with OTULIN and CYLD, deubiquitinases that disassemble linear chains and counterbalance the E3 ligase activity of LUBAC. Gene mutations in HOIP, HOIL-1L and OTULIN are found in human patients who suffer from autoimmune diseases, and HOIL-1L mutations are also found in myopathy patients. In this paper, we discuss the mechanisms of linear ubiquitin chain generation and disassembly by their respective enzymes and review our current understanding of their biological functions and association with human diseases. PMID:28446710

  9. Linear ubiquitin chains: enzymes, mechanisms and biology.

    PubMed

    Rittinger, Katrin; Ikeda, Fumiyo

    2017-04-01

    Ubiquitination is a versatile post-translational modification that regulates a multitude of cellular processes. Its versatility is based on the ability of ubiquitin to form multiple types of polyubiquitin chains, which are recognized by specific ubiquitin receptors to induce the required cellular response. Linear ubiquitin chains are linked through Met 1 and have been established as important players of inflammatory signalling and apoptotic cell death. These chains are generated by a ubiquitin E3 ligase complex called the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) that is thus far the only E3 ligase capable of forming linear ubiquitin chains. The complex consists of three subunits, HOIP, HOIL-1L and SHARPIN, each of which have specific roles in the observed biological functions of LUBAC. Furthermore, LUBAC has been found to be associated with OTULIN and CYLD, deubiquitinases that disassemble linear chains and counterbalance the E3 ligase activity of LUBAC. Gene mutations in HOIP, HOIL-1L and OTULIN are found in human patients who suffer from autoimmune diseases, and HOIL-1L mutations are also found in myopathy patients. In this paper, we discuss the mechanisms of linear ubiquitin chain generation and disassembly by their respective enzymes and review our current understanding of their biological functions and association with human diseases. © 2017 The Authors.

  10. A Review on Ubiquitination of Neurotrophin Receptors: Facts and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Sánchez, Julia; Arévalo, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Ubiquitination is a reversible post-translational modification involved in a plethora of different physiological functions. Among the substrates that are ubiquitinated, neurotrophin receptors (TrkA, TrkB, TrkC, and p75NTR) have been studied recently. TrkA is the most studied receptor in terms of its ubiquitination, and different E3 ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitinases have been implicated in its ubiquitination, whereas not much is known about the other neurotrophin receptors aside from their ubiquitination. Additional studies are needed that focus on the ubiquitination of TrkB, TrkC, and p75NTR in order to further understand the role of ubiquitination in their physiological and pathological functions. Here we review what is currently known regarding the ubiquitination of neurotrophin receptors and its physiological and pathological relevance. PMID:28335430

  11. The UbL-UBA Ubiquilin4 protein functions as a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer by p53-dependent and p53-independent regulation of p21.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shengkai; Li, Yan; Yuan, Xinghua; Zhao, Mei; Wang, Jia; Li, You; Li, Yuan; Lin, Hong; Zhang, Qiao; Wang, Wenjie; Li, Dongdong; Dong, Xin; Li, Lanfen; Liu, Min; Huang, Weiyan; Huang, Changzhi

    2018-06-13

    Ubiquilin4 (Ubqln4), a member of the UbL-UBA protein family, serves as an adaptor in the degradation of specific substrates via the proteasomal pathway. However, the biological function of Ubqln4 remains largely unknown, especially in cancer. Here, we reported that Ubqln4 was downregulated in gastric cancer tissues and functioned as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting gastric cancer cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro. Overexpression of Ubqln4-induced cellular senescence and G1-S cell cycle arrest in gastric cancer cells and activated the p53/p21 axis. Moreover, Ubqln4 regulated p21 through both p53-dependent and p53-independent manners. Ubqln4 interacted with RNF114, an E3 ubiquitin ligase of p21, and negatively regulated its expression level, which in turn stabilized p21 by attenuating proteasomal degradation of p21. These effects of Ubqln4 were partly abrogated in gastric cancer cells upon silencing of p21. Our findings not only establish the anti-tumor potential of Ubqln4 in gastric cancer but also reveal a role for Ubqln4 in regulation of the cell cycle and cellular senescence via stabilizing p21.

  12. Intrinsic Flexibility of Ubiquitin on Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) in Translesion Synthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Hibbert, Richard G.; Sixma, Titia K.

    2012-01-01

    Ubiquitin conjugation provides a crucial signaling role in hundreds of cellular pathways; however, a structural understanding of ubiquitinated substrates is lacking. One important substrate is monoubiquitinated PCNA (PCNA-Ub), which signals for recruitment of damage-tolerant polymerases in the translesion synthesis (TLS) pathway of DNA damage avoidance. We use a novel and efficient enzymatic method to produce PCNA-Ub at high yield with a native isopeptide bond and study its Usp1/UAF1-dependent deconjugation. In solution we find that the ubiquitin moiety is flexible relative to the PCNA, with its hydrophobic patch mostly accessible for recruitment of TLS polymerases, which promotes the interaction with polymerase η. The studies are a prototype for the nature of the ubiquitin modification. PMID:22989887

  13. Molecular dynamics of zinc-finger ubiquitin binding domains: a comparative study of histone deacetylase 6 and ubiquitin-specific protease 5.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Passos, Carolina; Simões-Pires, Claudia A; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Nurisso, Alessandra

    2016-12-01

    HDAC6 is a unique cytoplasmic histone deacetylase characterized by two deacetylase domains, and by a zinc-finger ubiquitin binding domain (ZnF-UBP) able to recognize ubiquitin (Ub). The latter has recently been demonstrated to be involved in the progression of neurodegenerative diseases and in mediating infection by the influenza A virus. Nowadays, understanding the dynamic and energetic features of HDAC6 ZnF-UBP-Ub recognition is considered as a crucial step for the conception of HDAC6 potential modulators. In this study, the atomic, solvent-related, and thermodynamic features behind HDAC6 ZnF-UBP-Ub recognition have been analyzed through molecular dynamics simulations. The behavior was then compared to the prototypical ZnF-UBP from ubiquitin-specific protease 5 (USP5) in order to spot relevant differences useful for selective drug design. Principal component analysis highlighted flapping motions of the L2A loop which were lowered down upon Ub binding in both systems. While polar and nonpolar interactions involving Ub G75 and G76 residues were also common features stabilizing both complexes, salt bridges showed a different pattern, more significant in HDAC6 ZnF-UBP-Ub, whose energetic contribution in USP5 ZnF-UBP-Ub was compensated by the presence of a more stable bridging water molecule. Whereas molecular mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) free energies of binding were comparable for both systems, in agreement with experiments, computational alanine scanning and free energy decomposition data revealed that HDAC6 E1141 and D1178 are potential hotspots for the design of selective HDAC6 modulators.

  14. PolyUbiquitin Chain Linkage Topology Selects the Functions from the Underlying Binding Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Tang, Chun; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Ubiquitin (Ub) can generate versatile molecular signals and lead to different celluar fates. The functional poly-valence of Ub is believed to be resulted from its ability to form distinct polymerized chains with eight linkage types. To provide a full picture of ubiquitin code, we explore the binding landscape of two free Ub monomers and also the functional landscapes of of all eight linkage types by theoretical modeling. Remarkably, we found that most of the compact structures of covalently connected dimeric Ub chains (diUbs) pre-exist on the binding landscape. These compact functional states were subsequently validated by corresponding linkage models. This leads to the proposal that the folding architecture of Ub monomer has encoded all functional states into its binding landscape, which is further selected by different topologies of polymeric Ub chains. Moreover, our results revealed that covalent linkage leads to symmetry breaking of interfacial interactions. We further propose that topological constraint not only limits the conformational space for effective switching between functional states, but also selects the local interactions for realizing the corresponding biological function. Therefore, the topological constraint provides a way for breaking the binding symmetry and reaching the functional specificity. The simulation results also provide several predictions that qualitatively and quantitatively consistent with experiments. Importantly, the K48 linkage model successfully predicted intermediate states. The resulting multi-state energy landscape was further employed to reconcile the seemingly contradictory experimental data on the conformational equilibrium of K48-diUb. Our results further suggest that hydrophobic interactions are dominant in the functional landscapes of K6-, K11-, K33- and K48 diUbs, while electrostatic interactions play a more important role in the functional landscapes of K27, K29, K63 and linear linkages. PMID:24992446

  15. PolyUbiquitin chain linkage topology selects the functions from the underlying binding landscape.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Tang, Chun; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin

    2014-07-01

    Ubiquitin (Ub) can generate versatile molecular signals and lead to different celluar fates. The functional poly-valence of Ub is believed to be resulted from its ability to form distinct polymerized chains with eight linkage types. To provide a full picture of ubiquitin code, we explore the binding landscape of two free Ub monomers and also the functional landscapes of of all eight linkage types by theoretical modeling. Remarkably, we found that most of the compact structures of covalently connected dimeric Ub chains (diUbs) pre-exist on the binding landscape. These compact functional states were subsequently validated by corresponding linkage models. This leads to the proposal that the folding architecture of Ub monomer has encoded all functional states into its binding landscape, which is further selected by different topologies of polymeric Ub chains. Moreover, our results revealed that covalent linkage leads to symmetry breaking of interfacial interactions. We further propose that topological constraint not only limits the conformational space for effective switching between functional states, but also selects the local interactions for realizing the corresponding biological function. Therefore, the topological constraint provides a way for breaking the binding symmetry and reaching the functional specificity. The simulation results also provide several predictions that qualitatively and quantitatively consistent with experiments. Importantly, the K48 linkage model successfully predicted intermediate states. The resulting multi-state energy landscape was further employed to reconcile the seemingly contradictory experimental data on the conformational equilibrium of K48-diUb. Our results further suggest that hydrophobic interactions are dominant in the functional landscapes of K6-, K11-, K33- and K48 diUbs, while electrostatic interactions play a more important role in the functional landscapes of K27, K29, K63 and linear linkages.

  16. Promoters active in interphase are bookmarked during mitosis by ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Mansi; Zhang, Jie; Heine, George F.; Ozer, Gulcin; Liu, Hui-wen; Huang, Kun; Parvin, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed modification of chromatin by ubiquitination in human cells and whether this mark changes through the cell cycle. HeLa cells were synchronized at different stages and regions of the genome with ubiquitinated chromatin were identified by affinity purification coupled with next-generation sequencing. During interphase, ubiquitin marked the chromatin on the transcribed regions of ∼70% of highly active genes and deposition of this mark was sensitive to transcriptional inhibition. Promoters of nearly half of the active genes were highly ubiquitinated specifically during mitosis. The ubiquitination at the coding regions in interphase but not at promoters during mitosis was enriched for ubH2B and dependent on the presence of RNF20. Ubiquitin labeling of both promoters during mitosis and transcribed regions during interphase, correlated with active histone marks H3K4me3 and H3K36me3 but not a repressive histone modification, H3K27me3. The high level of ubiquitination at the promoter chromatin during mitosis was transient and was removed within 2 h after the cells exited mitosis and entered the next cell cycle. These results reveal that the ubiquitination of promoter chromatin during mitosis is a bookmark identifying active genes during chromosomal condensation in mitosis, and we suggest that this process facilitates transcriptional reactivation post-mitosis. PMID:22941662

  17. Sequential Poly-ubiquitylation by Specialized Conjugating Enzymes Expands the Versatility of a Quality Control Ubiquitin Ligase.

    PubMed

    Weber, Annika; Cohen, Itamar; Popp, Oliver; Dittmar, Gunnar; Reiss, Yuval; Sommer, Thomas; Ravid, Tommer; Jarosch, Ernst

    2016-09-01

    The Doa10 quality control ubiquitin (Ub) ligase labels proteins with uniform lysine 48-linked poly-Ub (K48-pUB) chains for proteasomal degradation. Processing of Doa10 substrates requires the activity of two Ub conjugating enzymes. Here we show that the non-canonical conjugating enzyme Ubc6 attaches single Ub molecules not only to lysines but also to hydroxylated amino acids. These Ub moieties serve as primers for subsequent poly-ubiquitylation by Ubc7. We propose that the evolutionary conserved propensity of Ubc6 to mount Ub on diverse amino acids augments the number of ubiquitylation sites within a substrate and thereby increases the target range of Doa10. Our work provides new insights on how the consecutive activity of two specialized conjugating enzymes facilitates the attachment of poly-Ub to very heterogeneous client molecules. Such stepwise ubiquitylation reactions most likely represent a more general cellular phenomenon that extends the versatility yet sustains the specificity of the Ub conjugation system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Saturation scanning of ubiquitin variants reveals a common hot spot for binding to USP2 and USP21.

    PubMed

    Leung, Isabel; Dekel, Ayelet; Shifman, Julia M; Sidhu, Sachdev S

    2016-08-02

    A detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms whereby ubiquitin (Ub) recognizes enzymes in the Ub proteasome system is crucial for understanding the biological function of Ub. Many structures of Ub complexes have been solved and, in most cases, reveal a large structural epitope on a common face of the Ub molecule. However, owing to the generally weak nature of these interactions, it has been difficult to map in detail the functional contributions of individual Ub side chains to affinity and specificity. Here we took advantage of Ub variants (Ubvs) that bind tightly to particular Ub-specific proteases (USPs) and used phage display and saturation scanning mutagenesis to comprehensively map functional epitopes within the structural epitopes. We found that Ubvs that bind to USP2 or USP21 contain a remarkably similar core functional epitope, or "hot spot," consisting mainly of positions that are conserved as the wild type sequence, but also some positions that prefer mutant sequences. The Ubv core functional epitope contacts residues that are conserved in the human USP family, and thus it is likely important for the interactions of Ub across many family members.

  19. Structurally distinct ubiquitin- and sumo-modified PCNA: implications for their distinct roles in the DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Tsutakawa, Susan E; Yan, Chunli; Xu, Xiaojun; Weinacht, Christopher P; Freudenthal, Bret D; Yang, Kun; Zhuang, Zhihao; Washington, M Todd; Tainer, John A; Ivanov, Ivaylo

    2015-04-07

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a pivotal replication protein, which also controls cellular responses to DNA damage. Posttranslational modification of PCNA by SUMO and ubiquitin modulate these responses. How the modifiers alter PCNA-dependent DNA repair and damage tolerance pathways is largely unknown. We used hybrid methods to identify atomic models of PCNAK107-Ub and PCNAK164-SUMO consistent with small-angle X-ray scattering data of these complexes in solution. We show that SUMO and ubiquitin have distinct modes of association to PCNA. Ubiquitin adopts discrete docked binding positions. By contrast, SUMO associates by simple tethering and adopts extended flexible conformations. These structural differences are the result of the opposite electrostatic potentials of SUMO and Ub. The unexpected contrast in conformational behavior of Ub-PCNA and SUMO-PCNA has implications for interactions with partner proteins, interacting surfaces accessibility, and access points for pathway regulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Novel polyubiquitin imaging system, PolyUb-FC, reveals that K33-linked polyubiquitin is recruited by SQSTM1/p62.

    PubMed

    Nibe, Yoichi; Oshima, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Masanori; Maeyashiki, Chiaki; Matsuzawa, Yu; Otsubo, Kana; Matsuda, Hiroki; Aonuma, Emi; Nemoto, Yasuhiro; Nagaishi, Takashi; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Tsuchiya, Kiichiro; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Nakada, Shinichiro; Watanabe, Mamoru

    2018-01-01

    Ubiquitin chains are formed with 8 structurally and functionally distinct polymers. However, the functions of each polyubiquitin remain poorly understood. We developed a polyubiquitin-mediated fluorescence complementation (PolyUb-FC) assay using Kusabira Green (KG) as a split fluorescent protein. The PolyUb-FC assay has the advantage that monoubiquitination is nonfluorescent and chain-specific polyubiquitination can be directly visualized in living cells without using antibodies. We applied the PolyUb-FC assay to examine K33-linked polyubiquitin. We demonstrated that SQSTM1/p62 puncta colocalized with K33-linked polyubiquitin and this interaction was modulated by the ZRANB1/TRABID-K29 and -K33 linkage-specific deubiquitinase (DUB). We further showed that the colocalization of K33-linked polyubiquitin and MAP1LC3/LC3 (microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3) puncta was impaired by SQSTM1/p62 deficiency. Taken together, these findings provide novel insights into how atypical polyubiquitin is recruited by SQSTM1/p62. Finally, we developed an inducible-PolyUb-FC system for visualizing chain-specific polyubiquitin. The PolyUb-FC will be a useful tool for analyzing the dynamics of atypical polyubiquitin chain generation.

  1. Amyloid beta precursor protein and ubiquitin epitopes in human and experimental dystrophic axons. Ultrastructural localization.

    PubMed Central

    Bacci, B.; Cochran, E.; Nunzi, M. G.; Izeki, E.; Mizutani, T.; Patton, A.; Hite, S.; Sayre, L. M.; Autilio-Gambetti, L.; Gambetti, P.

    1994-01-01

    Dystrophic axons (DA) represent a major pathological feature of several neurodegenerative disorders, including infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD) and Alzheimer disease. We have previously presented evidence that amyloid beta precursor protein (BPP) and ubiquitin (Ub) are present in DA of different origin. We have now characterized the immunoreactivity of DA experimentally induced in rat by the administration of parabromophenylacetylurea (BPAU) and examined the subcellular localization of Ub and BPP in BPAU-induced DA and in DA present in subjects affected by INAD. BPAU-induced DA strongly immunoreacted with antisera to Ub and to COOH- and NH2-terminal regions of BPP. Immunoblots of DA-enriched brain regions were consistent with an increase in the amount of Ub and BPP in DA. Moreover, BPAU-induced DA immunoreacted with antibodies to PGP 9.5, a neuronal-specific Ub COOH-terminal hydrolase, and to the inducible heat shock protein 70. Antigenic characterization also indicated that the tubulovesicular membranes within DA derived largely from the smooth endoplasmic reticulum rather than from the Golgi system or the synaptic vesicles. Subcellular immunolocalization of Ub and BPP in both INAD- and BPAU-induced DA revealed that Ub and BPP colocalize in granulovesicular material in both conditions. In INAD DA intense Ub immunoreactivity was also detected in nonmembranous electron dense structures that were present only in these DA, probably because of the chronic course of INAD. Although BPP immunostaining may be related to accumulation of BPP-containing membranes in DA, Ub immunostaining is likely to result from activation of the Ub system by the neuron in the attempt to remove excessive and possibly abnormal proteins. A similar pathogenesis can be postulated for DA of Alzheimer disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7512790

  2. Ubiquitin S65 phosphorylation engenders a pH-sensitive conformational switch

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xu; Gong, Zhou; Lu, Yun-Bi; Liu, Kan; Qin, Ling-Yun; Ran, Meng-Lin; Zhang, Chang-Li; Liu, Zhu; Zhang, Wei-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Ubiquitin (Ub) is an important signaling protein. Recent studies have shown that Ub can be enzymatically phosphorylated at S65, and that the resulting pUb exhibits two conformational states—a relaxed state and a retracted state. However, crystallization efforts have yielded only the structure for the relaxed state, which was found similar to that of unmodified Ub. Here we present the solution structures of pUb in both states obtained through refinement against state-specific NMR restraints. We show that the retracted state differs from the relaxed state by the retraction of the last β-strand and by the extension of the second α-helix. Further, we show that at 7.2, the pKa value for the phosphoryl group in the relaxed state is higher by 1.4 units than that in the retracted state. Consequently, pUb exists in equilibrium between protonated and deprotonated forms and between retracted and relaxed states, with protonated/relaxed species enriched at slightly acidic pH and deprotonated/retracted species enriched at slightly basic pH. The heterogeneity of pUb explains the inability of phosphomimetic mutants to fully mimic pUb. The pH-sensitive conformational switch is likely preserved for polyubiquitin, as single-molecule FRET data indicate that pH change leads to quaternary rearrangement of a phosphorylated K63-linked diubiquitin. Because cellular pH varies among compartments and changes upon pathophysiological insults, our finding suggests that pH and Ub phosphorylation confer additional target specificities and enable an additional layer of modulation for Ub signals. PMID:28611216

  3. Genome-wide identification and characterization of the apple (Malus domestica) HECT ubiquitin-protein ligase family and expression analysis of their responsiveness to abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianing; Xing, Shanshan; Cui, Haoran; Chen, Xuesen; Wang, Xiaoyun

    2016-04-01

    The ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3s) directly participate in ubiquitin (Ub) transferring to the target proteins in the ubiquitination pathway. The HECT ubiquitin-protein ligase (UPL), one type of E3s, is characterized as containing a conserved HECT domain of approximately 350 amino acids in the C terminus. Some UPLs were found to be involved in trichome development and leaf senescence in Arabidopsis. However, studies on plant UPLs, such as characteristics of the protein structure, predicted functional motifs of the HECT domain, and the regulatory expression of UPLs have all been limited. Here, we present genome-wide identification of the genes encoding UPLs (HECT gene) in apple. The 13 genes (named as MdUPL1-MdUPL13) from ten different chromosomes were divided into four groups by phylogenetic analysis. Among these groups, the encoding genes in the intron-exon structure and the included additional functional domains were quite different. Notably, the F-box domain was first found in MdUPL7 in plant UPLs. The HECT domain in different MdUPL groups also presented different spatial features and three types of conservative motifs were identified. The promoters of each MdUPL member carried multiple stress-response related elements by cis-acting element analysis. Experimental results demonstrated that the expressions of several MdUPLs were quite sensitive to cold-, drought-, and salt-stresses by qRT-PCR assay. The results of this study helped to elucidate the functions of HECT proteins, especially in Rosaceae plants.

  4. Antigen-specific CD8{sup +} T cells induced by the ubiquitin fusion degradation pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Imai, Takashi; Duan Xuefeng; Hisaeda, Hajime

    We have developed a DNA vaccine encoding a fusion protein of ubiquitin (Ub) and target proteins at the N-terminus for effective induction of antigen-specific CD8{sup +} T cells. A series of expression plasmids encoding a model antigen, ovalbumin (OVA), fused with mutated Ub, was constructed. Western blotting analyses using COS7 cells transfected with these plasmids revealed that there were three types of amino acid causing different binding capacities between Ub and OVA. Natural Ub with a C-terminal glycine readily dissociated from OVA; on the other hand, artificially mutated Ub, the C-terminal amino acid of which had been exchanged to valinemore » or arginine, stably united with the polypeptide, while Ub with a C-terminal alanine partially dissociated. The ability of DNA vaccination to induce OVA-specific CD8{sup +} T cells closely correlated with the stability of Ub fusion to OVA. Our strategy could be used to optimize the effect of genetic vaccines on the induction of CD8{sup +} T cells.« less

  5. Ubiquitin Chains Modified by the Bacterial Ligase SdeA Are Protected from Deubiquitinase Hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Puvar, Kedar; Zhou, Yiyang; Qiu, Jiazhang; Luo, Zhao-Qing; Wirth, Mary J; Das, Chittaranjan

    2017-09-12

    The SidE family of Legionella pneumophila effectors is a unique group of ubiquitin-modifying enzymes. Along with catalyzing NAD + -dependent ubiquitination of certain host proteins independent of the canonical E1/E2/E3 pathway, they have also been shown to produce phosphoribosylated free ubiquitin. This modified ubiquitin product is incompatible with conventional E1/E2/E3 ubiquitination processes, with the potential to lock down various cellular functions that are dependent on ubiquitin signaling. Here, we show that in addition to free ubiquitin, Lys63-, Lys48-, Lys11-, and Met1-linked diubiquitin chains are also modified by SdeA in a similar fashion. Both the proximal and distal ubiquitin moieties are targeted in the phosphoribosylation reaction. Furthermore, this renders the ubiquitin chains unable to be processed by a variety of deubiquitinating enzymes. These observations broaden the scope of SdeA's modulatory functions during Legionella infection.

  6. A novel mosquito ubiquitin targets viral envelope protein for degradation and reduces virion production during dengue virus infection.

    PubMed

    Troupin, Andrea; Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Conway, Michael J; Cloherty, Erin; Jameson, Samuel; Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana L; Fikrig, Erol; Colpitts, Tonya M

    2016-09-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes significant human disease and mortality in the tropics and subtropics. By examining the effects of virus infection on gene expression, and interactions between virus and vector, new targets for prevention of infection and novel treatments may be identified in mosquitoes. We previously performed a microarray analysis of the Aedes aegypti transcriptome during infection with DENV and found that mosquito ubiquitin protein Ub3881 (AAEL003881) was specifically and highly down-regulated. Ubiquitin proteins have multiple functions in insects, including marking proteins for proteasomal degradation, regulating apoptosis and mediating innate immune signaling. We used qRT-PCR to quantify gene expression and infection, and RNAi to reduce Ub3881 expression. Mosquitoes were infected with DENV through blood feeding. We transfected DENV protein expression constructs to examine the effect of Ub3881 on protein degradation. We used site-directed mutagenesis and transfection to determine what amino acids are involved in Ub3881-mediated protein degradation. Immunofluorescence, Co-immunoprecipitation and Western blotting were used to examine protein interactions and co-localization. The overexpression of Ub3881, but not related ubiquitin proteins, decreased DENV infection in mosquito cells and live Ae. aegypti. The Ub3881 protein was demonstrated to be involved in DENV envelope protein degradation and reduce the number of infectious virions released. We conclude that Ub3881 has several antiviral functions in the mosquito, including specific viral protein degradation. Our data highlights Ub3881 as a target for future DENV prevention strategies in the mosquito transmission vector. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ubiquitylation of p62/sequestosome1 activates its autophagy receptor function and controls selective autophagy upon ubiquitin stress

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hong; Yang, Jiao; Li, Guangyi; You, Qing; Han, Wen; Li, Tianrang; Gao, Daming; Xie, Xiaoduo; Lee, Byung-Hoon; Du, Juan; Hou, Jian; Zhang, Tao; Rao, Hai; Huang, Ying; Li, Qinrun; Zeng, Rong; Hui, Lijian; Wang, Hongyan; Xia, Qin; Zhang, Xuemin; He, Yongning; Komatsu, Masaaki; Dikic, Ivan; Finley, Daniel; Hu, Ronggui

    2017-01-01

    Alterations in cellular ubiquitin (Ub) homeostasis, known as Ub stress, feature and affect cellular responses in multiple conditions, yet the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here we report that autophagy receptor p62/sequestosome-1 interacts with E2 Ub conjugating enzymes, UBE2D2 and UBE2D3. Endogenous p62 undergoes E2-dependent ubiquitylation during upregulation of Ub homeostasis, a condition termed as Ub+ stress, that is intrinsic to Ub overexpression, heat shock or prolonged proteasomal inhibition by bortezomib, a chemotherapeutic drug. Ubiquitylation of p62 disrupts dimerization of the UBA domain of p62, liberating its ability to recognize polyubiquitylated cargoes for selective autophagy. We further demonstrate that this mechanism might be critical for autophagy activation upon Ub+ stress conditions. Delineation of the mechanism and regulatory roles of p62 in sensing Ub stress and controlling selective autophagy could help to understand and modulate cellular responses to a variety of endogenous and environmental challenges, potentially opening a new avenue for the development of therapeutic strategies against autophagy-related maladies. PMID:28322253

  8. UB Matrix Implementation for Inelastic Neutron Scattering Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Lumsden, Mark D; Robertson, Lee; Yethiraj, Mohana

    The UB matrix approach has been extended to handle inelastic neutron scattering experiments with differing k{sub i} and k{sub f}. We have considered the typical goniometer employed on triple-axis and time-of-flight spectrometers. Expressions are derived to allow for calculation of the UB matrix and for converting from observables to Q-energy space. In addition, we have developed appropriate modes for calculation of angles for a specified Q-energy position.

  9. CSN-associated USP48 confers stability to nuclear NF-κB/RelA by trimming K48-linked Ub-chains.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Katrin; Naumann, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Diligent balance of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity is essential owing to NF-κB's decisive role in cellular processes including inflammation, immunity and cell survival. Ubiquitin/proteasome-system (UPS)-dependent degradation of activated NF-κB/RelA involves the cullin-RING-ubiquitin-ligase (CRL) ECS(SOCS1). The COP9 signalosome (CSN) controls ubiquitin (Ub) ligation by CRLs through the removal of the CRL-activating Ub-like modifier NEDD8 from their cullin subunits and through deubiquitinase (DUB) activity of associated DUBs. However, knowledge about DUBs involved in the regulation of NF-κB activity within the nucleus is scarce. In this study we observed that USP48, a DUB of hitherto ill-defined function identified through a siRNA screen, associates with the CSN and RelA in the nucleus. We show that USP48 trims rather than completely disassembles long K48-linked free and substrate-anchored Ub-chains, a catalytic property only shared with ataxin-3 (Atx3) and otubain-1 (OTU1), and that USP48 Ub-chain-trimming activity is regulated by casein-kinase-2 (CK2)-mediated phosphorylation in response to cytokine-stimulation. Functionally, we demonstrate for the first time the CSN and USP48 to cooperatively stabilize the nuclear pool of RelA, thereby facilitating timely induction and shutoff of NF-κB target genes. In summary, this study demonstrates that USP48, a nuclear DUB regulated by CK2, controls the UPS-dependent turnover of activated NF-κB/RelA in the nucleus together with the CSN. Thereby USP48 contributes to a timely control of immune responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. E2 enzyme inhibition by stabilization of a low affinity interface with ubiquitin

    PubMed Central

    St-Cyr, Daniel J.; Ziemba, Amy; Garg, Pankaj; Plamondon, Serge; Auer, Manfred; Sidhu, Sachdev; Marinier, Anne; Kleiger, Gary; Tyers, Mike; Sicheri, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Weak protein interactions between ubiquitin and the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) enzymes that mediate its covalent attachment to substrates serve to position ubiquitin for optimal catalytic transfer. We show that a small molecule inhibitor of the E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme Cdc34A, called CC0651, acts by trapping a weak interaction between ubiquitin and the E2 donor ubiquitin binding site. A structure of the ternary CC0651-Cdc34A-ubiquitin complex reveals that the inhibitor engages a composite binding pocket formed from Cdc34A and ubiquitin. CC0651 also suppresses the spontaneous hydrolysis rate of the Cdc34A-ubiquitin thioester, without overtly affecting the interaction between Cdc34A and the RING domain subunit of the E3 enzyme. Stabilization of the numerous other weak interactions between ubiquitin and UPS enzymes by small molecules may be a feasible strategy to selectively inhibit different UPS activities. PMID:24316736

  11. Structural basis for ubiquitin-mediated antiviral signal activation by RIG-I.

    PubMed

    Peisley, Alys; Wu, Bin; Xu, Hui; Chen, Zhijian J; Hur, Sun

    2014-05-01

    Ubiquitin (Ub) has important roles in a wide range of intracellular signalling pathways. In the conventional view, ubiquitin alters the signalling activity of the target protein through covalent modification, but accumulating evidence points to the emerging role of non-covalent interaction between ubiquitin and the target. In the innate immune signalling pathway of a viral RNA sensor, RIG-I, both covalent and non-covalent interactions with K63-linked ubiquitin chains (K63-Ubn) were shown to occur in its signalling domain, a tandem caspase activation and recruitment domain (hereafter referred to as 2CARD). Non-covalent binding of K63-Ubn to 2CARD induces its tetramer formation, a requirement for downstream signal activation. Here we report the crystal structure of the tetramer of human RIG-I 2CARD bound by three chains of K63-Ub2. 2CARD assembles into a helical tetramer resembling a 'lock-washer', in which the tetrameric surface serves as a signalling platform for recruitment and activation of the downstream signalling molecule, MAVS. Ubiquitin chains are bound along the outer rim of the helical trajectory, bridging adjacent subunits of 2CARD and stabilizing the 2CARD tetramer. The combination of structural and functional analyses reveals that binding avidity dictates the K63-linkage and chain-length specificity of 2CARD, and that covalent ubiquitin conjugation of 2CARD further stabilizes the Ub-2CARD interaction and thus the 2CARD tetramer. Our work provides unique insights into the novel types of ubiquitin-mediated signal-activation mechanism, and previously unexpected synergism between the covalent and non-covalent ubiquitin interaction modes.

  12. Genetic immunization based on the ubiquitin-fusion degradation pathway against Trypanosoma cruzi

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Bin; Department of Parasitology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582; Hiromatsu, Kenji, E-mail: khiromatsu@fukuoka-u.ac.jp

    2010-02-12

    Cytotoxic CD8{sup +} T cells are particularly important to the development of protective immunity against the intracellular protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. We have developed a new effective strategy of genetic immunization by activating CD8{sup +} T cells through the ubiquitin-fusion degradation (UFD) pathway. We constructed expression plasmids encoding the amastigote surface protein-2 (ASP-2) of T. cruzi. To induce the UFD pathway, a chimeric gene encoding ubiquitin fused to ASP-2 (pUB-ASP-2) was constructed. Mice immunized with pUB-ASP-2 presented lower parasitemia and longer survival period, compared with mice immunized with pASP-2 alone. Depletion of CD8{sup +}more » T cells abolished protection against T. cruzi in mice immunized with pUB-ASP-2 while depletion of CD4{sup +} T cells did not influence the effective immunity. Mice deficient in LMP2 or LMP7, subunits of immunoproteasomes, were not able to develop protective immunity induced. These results suggest that ubiquitin-fused antigens expressed in antigen-presenting cells were effectively degraded via the UFD pathway, and subsequently activated CD8{sup +} T cells. Consequently, immunization with pUB-ASP-2 was able to induce potent protective immunity against infection of T. cruzi.« less

  13. UUCD: a family-based database of ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like conjugation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tianshun; Liu, Zexian; Wang, Yongbo; Cheng, Han; Yang, Qing; Guo, Anyuan; Ren, Jian; Xue, Yu

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we developed a family-based database of UUCD (http://uucd.biocuckoo.org) for ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like conjugation, which is one of the most important post-translational modifications responsible for regulating a variety of cellular processes, through a similar E1 (ubiquitin-activating enzyme)-E2 (ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme)-E3 (ubiquitin-protein ligase) enzyme thioester cascade. Although extensive experimental efforts have been taken, an integrative data resource is still not available. From the scientific literature, 26 E1s, 105 E2s, 1003 E3s and 148 deubiquitination enzymes (DUBs) were collected and classified into 1, 3, 19 and 7 families, respectively. To computationally characterize potential enzymes in eukaryotes, we constructed 1, 1, 15 and 6 hidden Markov model (HMM) profiles for E1s, E2s, E3s and DUBs at the family level, separately. Moreover, the ortholog searches were conducted for E3 and DUB families without HMM profiles. Then the UUCD database was developed with 738 E1s, 2937 E2s, 46 631 E3s and 6647 DUBs of 70 eukaryotic species. The detailed annotations and classifications were also provided. The online service of UUCD was implemented in PHP + MySQL + JavaScript + Perl.

  14. Mass spectrometry techniques for studying the ubiquitin system.

    PubMed

    Heap, Rachel E; Gant, Megan S; Lamoliatte, Frederic; Peltier, Julien; Trost, Matthias

    2017-10-15

    Post-translational control of proteins through covalent attachment of ubiquitin plays important roles in all eukaryotic cell functions. The ubiquitin system in humans consists of 2 E1, 35 E2 and >600 E3 ubiquitin ligases as well as hundreds of deubiquitylases, which reverse ubiquitin attachment. Moreover, there are hundreds of proteins with ubiquitin-binding domains that bind one of the eight possible polyubiquitin chains. Dysfunction of the ubiquitin system is associated with many diseases such as cancer, autoimmunity and neurodegeneration, demonstrating the importance of ubiquitylation. Therefore, enzymes of the ubiquitin system are considered highly attractive drug targets. In recent years, mass spectrometry (MS)-based techniques have become increasingly important in the deciphering of the ubiquitin system. This short review addresses the state-of-the-art MS techniques for the identification of ubiquitylated proteins and their ubiquitylation sites. We also discuss the identification and quantitation of ubiquitin chain topologies and highlight how the activity of enzymes in the ubiquitin pathway can be measured. Finally, we present current MS tools that can be used for drug discovery in the ubiquitin space. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  15. A novel effect of thalidomide and its analogs: suppression of cereblon ubiquitination enhances ubiquitin ligase function

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yaobin; Huang, Xiangao; He, Xian; Zhou, Yanqing; Jiang, Xiaogang; Chen-Kiang, Selina; Jaffrey, Samie R.; Xu, Guoqiang

    2015-01-01

    The immunomodulatory drug (IMiD) thalidomide and its structural analogs lenalidomide and pomalidomide are highly effective in treating clinical indications. Thalidomide binds to cereblon (CRBN), a substrate receptor of the cullin-4 really interesting new gene (RING) E3 ligase complex. Here, we examine the effect of thalidomide and its analogs on CRBN ubiquitination and its functions in human cell lines. We find that the ubiquitin modification of CRBN includes K48-linked polyubiquitin chains and that thalidomide blocks the formation of CRBN-ubiquitin conjugates. Furthermore, we show that ubiquitinated CRBN is targeted for proteasomal degradation. Treatment of human myeloma cell lines such as MM1.S, OPM2, and U266 with thalidomide (100 μM) and its structural analog lenalidomide (10 μM) results in stabilization of CRBN and elevation of CRBN protein levels. This in turn leads to the reduced level of CRBN target proteins and enhances the sensitivity of human multiple myeloma cells to IMiDs. Our results reveal a novel mechanism by which thalidomide and its analogs modulate the CRBN function in cells. Through inhibition of CRBN ubiquitination, thalidomide and its analogs allow CRBN to accumulate, leading to the increased cullin-4 RING E3 ligase-mediated degradation of target proteins.—Liu, Y., Huang, X., He, X., Zhou, Y., Jiang, X., Chen-Kiang, S., Jaffrey, S. R., Xu, G. A novel effect of thalidomide and its analogs: suppression of cereblon ubiquitination enhances ubiquitin ligase function. PMID:26231201

  16. Decoding the Ubiquitin-Mediated Pathway of Arthropod Disease Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Choy, Anthony; Severo, Maiara S.; Sun, Ruobai; Girke, Thomas; Gillespie, Joseph J.; Pedra, Joao H. F.

    2013-01-01

    Protein regulation by ubiquitin has been extensively described in model organisms. However, characterization of the ubiquitin machinery in disease vectors remains mostly unknown. This fundamental gap in knowledge presents a concern because new therapeutics are needed to control vector-borne diseases, and targeting the ubiquitin machinery as a means for disease intervention has been already adopted in the clinic. In this study, we employed a bioinformatics approach to uncover the ubiquitin-mediated pathway in the genomes of Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Ixodes scapularis, Pediculus humanus and Rhodnius prolixus. We observed that (1) disease vectors encode a lower percentage of ubiquitin-related genes when compared to Drosophila melanogaster, Mus musculus and Homo sapiens but not Saccharomyces cerevisiae; (2) overall, there are more proteins categorized as E3 ubiquitin ligases when compared to E2-conjugating or E1-activating enzymes; (3) the ubiquitin machinery within the three mosquito genomes is highly similar; (4) ubiquitin genes are more than doubled in the Chagas disease vector (R. prolixus) when compared to other arthropod vectors; (5) the deer tick I. scapularis and the body louse (P. humanus) genomes carry low numbers of E1-activating enzymes and HECT-type E3 ubiquitin ligases; (6) R. prolixus have low numbers of RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligases; and (7) C. quinquefasciatus present elevated numbers of predicted F-box E3 ubiquitin ligases, JAB and UCH deubiquitinases. Taken together, these findings provide novel opportunities to study the interaction between a pathogen and an arthropod vector. PMID:24205097

  17. Central catalytic domain of BRAP (RNF52) recognizes the types of ubiquitin chains and utilizes oligo-ubiquitin for ubiquitylation

    PubMed Central

    Hanada, Kazuharu; Ohsawa, Noboru

    2017-01-01

    Really interesting new gene (RING)-finger protein 52 (RNF52), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is found in eukaryotes from yeast to humans. Human RNF52 is known as breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA1)-associated protein 2 (BRAP or BRAP2). The central catalytic domain of BRAP comprises four subdomains: nucleotide-binding α/β plait (NBP), really interesting new gene (RING) zinc finger, ubiquitin-specific protease (UBP)-like zinc finger (ZfUBP), and coiled-coil (CC). This domain architecture is conserved in RNF52 orthologs; however, the domain's function in the ubiquitin system has not been delineated. In the present study, we discovered that the RNF52 domain, comprising NBP–RING–ZfUBP–CC, binds to ubiquitin chains (oligo-ubiquitin) but not to the ubiquitin monomers, and can utilize various ubiquitin chains for ubiquitylation and auto-ubiquitylation. The RNF52 domain preferentially bound to M1- and K63-linked di-ubiquitin chains, weakly to K27-linked chains, but not to K6-, K11-, or K48-linked chains. The binding preferences of the RNF52 domain for ubiquitin-linkage types corresponded to ubiquitin usage in the ubiquitylation reaction, except for K11-, K29-, and K33-linked chains. Additionally, the RNF52 domain directly ligated the intact M1-linked, tri-, and tetra-ubiquitin chains and recognized the structural alterations caused by the phosphomimetic mutation of these ubiquitin chains. Full-length BRAP had nearly the same specificity for the ubiquitin-chain types as the RNF52 domain alone. Mass spectrometry analysis of oligomeric ubiquitylation products, mediated by the RNF52 domain, revealed that the ubiquitin-linkage types and auto-ubiquitylation sites depend on the length of ubiquitin chains. Here, we propose a model for the oligomeric ubiquitylation process, controlled by the RNF52 domain, which is not a sequential assembly process involving monomers. PMID:28768733

  18. Polyubiquitin-sensor proteins reveal localization and linkage-type dependence of cellular ubiquitin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Joshua J.; Scavone, Francesco; Cooper, Eric M.; Kane, Lesley A.; Youle, Richard J.; Boeke, Jef D.; Cohen, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Polyubiquitin (polyUb) chain topology is thought to direct modified substrates to specific fates, but this function-topology relationship is poorly understood, as are the dynamics and subcellular locations of specific polyUb signals. Experimental access to these questions has been limited because linkage-specific inhibitors and in vivo sensors have been unavailable. Here we present a general strategy to track linkage-specific polyUb signals in yeast and mammalian cells, and to probe their functions. We designed several high-affinity lysine-63-polyUb-binding proteins and demonstrate their specificity both in vitro and in cells. We apply these tools as competitive inhibitors to dissect the polyUb-linkage dependence of NF-κB activation in several cell types, inferring the essential role of lysine-63-polyUb for signaling via the IL-1β and TNF-related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) but not TNF-α receptors. We anticipate live-cell imaging, proteomic, and biochemical applications for these tools, and extension of the design strategy to other polymeric ubiquitin-like protein modifications. PMID:22306808

  19. High-throughput bioluminescence screening of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway inhibitors from chemical and natural sources.

    PubMed

    Ausseil, Frederic; Samson, Arnaud; Aussagues, Yannick; Vandenberghe, Isabelle; Creancier, Laurent; Pouny, Isabelle; Kruczynski, Anna; Massiot, Georges; Bailly, Christian

    2007-02-01

    To discover original inhibitors of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, the authors have developed a cell-based bioluminescent assay and used it to screen collections of plant extracts and chemical compounds. They first established a DLD-1 human colon cancer cell line that stably expresses a 4Ubiquitin-Luciferase (4Ub-Luc) reporter protein, efficiently targeted to the ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway. The assay was then adapted to 96- and 384-well plate formats and calibrated with reference proteasome inhibitors. Assay robustness was carefully assessed, particularly cell toxicity, and the statistical Z factor value was calculated to 0.83, demonstrating a good performance level of the assay. A total of 18,239 molecules and 15,744 plant extracts and fractions thereof were screened for their capacity to increase the luciferase activity in DLD-1 4Ub-Luc cells, and 21 molecules and 66 extracts inhibiting the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway were identified. The fractionation of an active methanol extract of Physalis angulata L. aerial parts was performed to isolate 2 secosteroids known as physalin B and C. In a cell-based Western blot assay, the ubiquitinated protein accumulation was confirmed after a physalin treatment confirming the accuracy of the screening process. The method reported here thus provides a robust approach to identify novel ubiquitin-proteasome pathway inhibitors in large collections of chemical compounds and natural products.

  20. Ovarian Tumor (OTU)-domain Containing Viral Proteases Evade Ubiquitin- and ISG15-dependent Innate Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Frias-Staheli, Natalia; Giannakopoulos, Nadia V.; Kikkert, Marjolein; Taylor, Shannon L.; Bridgen, Anne; Paragas, Jason J.; Richt, Juergen A.; Rowland, Raymond R.; Schmaljohn, Connie S.; Lenschow, Deborah J.; Snijder, Eric J.; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Virgin, Herbert Whiting

    2007-01-01

    Summary Ubiquitin (Ub) and interferon stimulated gene product 15 (ISG15) reversibly conjugate to proteins via a conserved LRLRGG C-terminal motif, mediating important innate antiviral responses. The ovarian tumor (OTU) domain represents a superfamily of predicted proteases found in eukaryotic, bacterial and viral proteins, some of which have Ub-deconjugating activity. We show that the OTU domain-containing proteases of nairoviruses and arteriviruses hydrolyze Ub and ISG15 from cellular target proteins. This broad activity contrasts with the target specificity of known mammalian OTU domain-containing proteins. The biological significance of this activity of viral OTU domain-containing proteases was evidenced by their capacity to inhibit NF-κB dependent signaling and to antagonize the antiviral effects of ISG15 during Sindbis virus infection in vivo. The deconjugating activity of viral OTU proteases represents a novel viral immune evasion mechanism that inhibits Ub-and ISG15-dependent antiviral pathways. PMID:18078692

  1. Viral Mimicry to Usurp Ubiquitin and SUMO Host Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wimmer, Peter; Schreiner, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of proteins include enzymatic changes by covalent addition of cellular regulatory determinants such as ubiquitin (Ub) and small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) moieties. These modifications are widely used by eukaryotic cells to control the functional repertoire of proteins. Over the last decade, it became apparent that the repertoire of ubiquitiylation and SUMOylation regulating various biological functions is not restricted to eukaryotic cells, but is also a feature of human virus families, used to extensively exploit complex host-cell networks and homeostasis. Intriguingly, besides binding to host SUMO/Ub control proteins and interfering with the respective enzymatic cascade, many viral proteins mimic key regulatory factors to usurp this host machinery and promote efficient viral outcomes. Advanced detection methods and functional studies of ubiquitiylation and SUMOylation during virus-host interplay have revealed that human viruses have evolved a large arsenal of strategies to exploit these specific PTM processes. In this review, we highlight the known viral analogs orchestrating ubiquitin and SUMO conjugation events to subvert and utilize basic enzymatic pathways. PMID:26343706

  2. The roles of ubiquitin modifying enzymes in neoplastic disease.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Nishi; Jaynes, Patrick William; Saei, Azad; Iyengar, Prasanna Vasudevan; Richard, John Lalith Charles; Eichhorn, Pieter Johan Adam

    2017-12-01

    The initial experiments performed by Rose, Hershko, and Ciechanover describing the identification of a specific degradation signal in short-lived proteins paved the way to the discovery of the ubiquitin mediated regulation of numerous physiological functions required for cellular homeostasis. Since their discovery of ubiquitin and ubiquitin function over 30years ago it has become wholly apparent that ubiquitin and their respective ubiquitin modifying enzymes are key players in tumorigenesis. The human genome encodes approximately 600 putative E3 ligases and 80 deubiquitinating enzymes and in the majority of cases these enzymes exhibit specificity in sustaining either pro-tumorigenic or tumour repressive responses. In this review, we highlight the known oncogenic and tumour suppressive effects of ubiquitin modifying enzymes in cancer relevant pathways with specific focus on PI3K, MAPK, TGFβ, WNT, and YAP pathways. Moreover, we discuss the capacity of targeting DUBs as a novel anticancer therapeutic strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Understanding Cullin-RING E3 Biology through Proteomics-based Substrate Identification*

    PubMed Central

    Harper, J. Wade; Tan, Meng-Kwang Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Protein turnover through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway controls numerous developmental decisions and biochemical processes in eukaryotes. Central to protein ubiquitylation are ubiquitin ligases, which provide specificity in targeted ubiquitylation. With more than 600 ubiquitin ligases encoded by the human genome, many of which remain to be studied, considerable effort is being placed on the development of methods for identifying substrates of specific ubiquitin ligases. In this review, we describe proteomic technologies for the identification of ubiquitin ligase targets, with a particular focus on members of the cullin-RING E3 class of ubiquitin ligases, which use F-box proteins as substrate specific adaptor proteins. Various proteomic methods are described and are compared with genetic approaches that are available. The continued development of such methods is likely to have a substantial impact on the ubiquitin-proteasome field. PMID:22962057

  4. Understanding cullin-RING E3 biology through proteomics-based substrate identification.

    PubMed

    Harper, J Wade; Tan, Meng-Kwang Marcus

    2012-12-01

    Protein turnover through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway controls numerous developmental decisions and biochemical processes in eukaryotes. Central to protein ubiquitylation are ubiquitin ligases, which provide specificity in targeted ubiquitylation. With more than 600 ubiquitin ligases encoded by the human genome, many of which remain to be studied, considerable effort is being placed on the development of methods for identifying substrates of specific ubiquitin ligases. In this review, we describe proteomic technologies for the identification of ubiquitin ligase targets, with a particular focus on members of the cullin-RING E3 class of ubiquitin ligases, which use F-box proteins as substrate specific adaptor proteins. Various proteomic methods are described and are compared with genetic approaches that are available. The continued development of such methods is likely to have a substantial impact on the ubiquitin-proteasome field.

  5. Silver and gold nanoparticles produced by pulsed laser ablation in liquid to investigate their interaction with Ubiquitin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Aglio, M.; Mangini, V.; Valenza, G.; De Pascale, O.; De Stradis, A.; Natile, G.; Arnesano, F.; De Giacomo, A.

    2016-06-01

    The interaction of nanoparticles (NPs) with proteins is widely investigated since it can be a key issue in addressing the problem of nanotoxicity, particularly in the case of biological and medical applications. In this work, silver and gold nanoparticles (AgNPs and AuNPs) were produced in water by Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquid (PLAL) and allowed to react with Ubiquitin (Ub) (a small human protein essential for degradative processes in cells). NPs produced by PLAL are completely free of undesired contaminants and do not require the use of stabilizers. We found that the NPs + Ub system behaves differently if the NPs are or are not treated with a stabilizer before performing the interaction with Ub, since the presence of capping agents modifies the surface reactivity of the metal-NPs. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption spectroscopy was employed to monitor the fast changes occurring in the NP colloidal solutions upon interaction with Ub. The results obtained by SPR were confirmed by TEM analysis. Therefore, when Ub interacts with bare NPs a rapid aggregation occurs and, at the same time, Ub undergoes an amyloid transition. Notably, the aggregation of AuNPs occurs at a much greater rate than that of analogous AgNPs and the Ub fibrils that are formed can be imaged by thioflavin T fluorescence.

  6. Ubiquitin ligase parkin promotes Mdm2-arrestin interaction but inhibits arrestin ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, M Rafiuddin; Zhan, Xuanzhi; Song, Xiufeng; Kook, Seunghyi; Gurevich, Vsevolod V; Gurevich, Eugenia V

    2011-05-10

    Numerous mutations in E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin were shown to associate with familial Parkinson's disease. Here we show that parkin binds arrestins, versatile regulators of cell signaling. Arrestin-parkin interaction was demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation of endogenous proteins from brain tissue and shown to be direct using purified proteins. Parkin binding enhances arrestin interactions with another E3 ubiquitin ligase, Mdm2, apparently by shifting arrestin conformational equilibrium to the basal state preferred by Mdm2. Although Mdm2 was reported to ubiquitinate arrestins, parkin-dependent increase in Mdm2 binding dramatically reduces the ubiquitination of both nonvisual arrestins, basal and stimulated by receptor activation, without affecting receptor internalization. Several disease-associated parkin mutations differentially affect the stimulation of Mdm2 binding. All parkin mutants tested effectively suppress arrestin ubiquitination, suggesting that bound parkin shields arrestin lysines targeted by Mdm2. Parkin binding to arrestins along with its effects on arrestin interaction with Mdm2 and ubiquitination is a novel function of this protein with implications for Parkinson's disease pathology.

  7. Ubiquitin ligase parkin promotes Mdm2-arrestin interaction but inhibits arrestin ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, M. Rafiuddin; Zhan, Xuanzhi; Song, Xiufeng; Kook, Seunghyi; Gurevich, Vsevolod V.; Gurevich, Eugenia V.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous mutations in E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin were shown to associate with familial Parkinson's disease. Here we show that parkin binds arrestins, versatile regulators of cell signaling. Arrestin-parkin interaction was demonstrated by coimmuno-precipitation of endogenous proteins from brain tissue, and shown to be direct using purified proteins. Parkin binding enhances arrestin interactions with another E3 ubiquitin ligase, Mdm2, apparently by shifting arrestin conformational equilibrium to the basal state preferred by Mdm2. Although Mdm2 was reported to ubiquitinate arrestins, parkin-dependent increase in Mdm2 binding dramatically reduces the ubiquitination of both non-visual arrestins, basal and stimulated by receptor activation, without affecting receptor internalization. Several disease-associated parkin mutations differentially affect the stimulation of Mdm2 binding. All parkin mutants tested effectively suppress arrestin ubiquitination, suggesting that bound parkin shields arrestin lysines targeted by Mdm2. Parkin binding to arrestins along with its effects on arrestin interaction with Mdm2 and ubiquitination is a novel function of this protein with implications for Parkinson's disease pathology. PMID:21466165

  8. Two-sided Ubiquitin Binding of NF-κB Essential Modulator (NEMO) Zinc Finger Unveiled by a Mutation Associated with Anhidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia with Immunodeficiency Syndrome*

    PubMed Central

    Ngadjeua, Flora; Chiaravalli, Jeanne; Traincard, François; Raynal, Bertrand; Fontan, Elisabeth; Agou, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    Hypomorphic mutations in the X-linked human NEMO gene result in various forms of anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency. NEMO function is mediated by two distal ubiquitin binding domains located in the regulatory C-terminal domain of the protein: the coiled-coil 2-leucine zipper (CC2-LZ) domain and the zinc finger (ZF) domain. Here, we investigated the effect of the D406V mutation found in the NEMO ZF of an ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency patients. This point mutation does not impair the folding of NEMO ZF or mono-ubiquitin binding but is sufficient to alter NEMO function, as NEMO-deficient fibroblasts and Jurkat T lymphocytes reconstituted with full-length D406V NEMO lead to partial and strong defects in NF-κB activation, respectively. To further characterize the ubiquitin binding properties of NEMO ZF, we employed di-ubiquitin (di-Ub) chains composed of several different linkages (Lys-48, Lys-63, and linear (Met-1-linked)). We showed that the pathogenic mutation preferentially impairs the interaction with Lys-63 and Met-1-linked di-Ub, which correlates with its ubiquitin binding defect in vivo. Furthermore, sedimentation velocity and gel filtration showed that NEMO ZF, like other NEMO related-ZFs, binds mono-Ub and di-Ub with distinct stoichiometries, indicating the presence of a new Ub site within the NEMO ZF. Extensive mutagenesis was then performed on NEMO ZF and characterization of mutants allowed the proposal of a structural model of NEMO ZF in interaction with a Lys-63 di-Ub chain. PMID:24100029

  9. Working Connections: Suzan Lee--UBS Securities LLC, New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article is about Suzan Lee of UBS Securities LLC in New York, a person who is dedicated to connecting aspiring professionals to opportunities in the world of special libraries. In 1999, Lee realized that most library students had only one resource for internships--their library schools--and that these offerings focused largely on public and…

  10. A Versatile Strategy for the Semisynthetic Production of Ser65 Phosphorylated Ubiquitin and Its Biochemical and Structural Characterisation

    PubMed Central

    Han, Cong; Pao, Kuan-Chuan; Kazlauskaite, Agne; Muqit, Miratul M K; Virdee, Satpal

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquitin phosphorylation is emerging as an important regulatory layer in the ubiquitin system. This is exemplified by the phosphorylation of ubiquitin on Ser65 by the Parkinson's disease-associated kinase PINK1, which mediates the activation of the E3 ligase Parkin. Additional phosphorylation sites on ubiquitin might also have important cellular roles. Here we report a versatile strategy for preparing phosphorylated ubiquitin. We biochemically and structurally characterise semisynthetic phospho-Ser65-ubiquitin. Unexpectedly, we observed disulfide bond formation between ubiquitin molecules, and hence a novel crystal form. The method outlined provides a direct approach to study the combinatorial effects of phosphorylation on ubiquitin function. Our analysis also suggests that disulfide engineering of ubiquitin could be a useful strategy for obtaining alternative crystal forms of ubiquitin species thereby facilitating structural validation. PMID:26010437

  11. Increase in ubiquitin-protein conjugates concomitant with the increase in proteolysis in rat skeletal muscle during starvation and atrophy denervation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, S. S.; Haas, A. L.; Goldberg, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    The rapid loss of skeletal-muscle protein during starvation and after denervation occurs primarily through increased rates of protein breakdown and activation of a non-lysosomal ATP-dependent proteolytic process. To investigate whether protein flux through the ubiquitin (Ub)-proteasome pathway is enhanced, as was suggested by related studies, we measured, using specific polyclonal antibodies, the levels of Ub-conjugated proteins in normal and atrophying muscles. The content of these critical intermediates had increased 50-250% after food deprivation in the extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles 2 days after denervation. Like rates of proteolysis, the amount of Ub-protein conjugates and the fraction of Ub conjugated to proteins increased progressively during food deprivation and returned to normal within 1 day of refeeding. During starvation, muscles of adrenalectomized rats failed to increase protein breakdown, and they showed 50% lower levels of Ub-protein conjugates than those of starved control animals. The changes in the pools of Ub-conjugated proteins (the substrates for the 26S proteasome) thus coincided with and can account for the alterations in overall proteolysis. In this pathway, large multiubiquitinated proteins are preferentially degraded, and the Ub-protein conjugates that accumulated in atrophying muscles were of high molecular mass (> 100 kDa). When innervated and denervated gastrocnemius muscles were fractionated, a significant increase in ubiquitinated proteins was found in the myofibrillar fraction, the proteins of which are preferentially degraded on denervation, but not in the soluble fraction. Thus activation of this proteolytic pathway in atrophying muscles probably occurs initially by increasing Ub conjugation to cell proteins. The resulting accumulation of Ub-protein conjugates suggests that their degradation by the 26S proteasome complex subsequently becomes rate-limiting in these catabolic states.

  12. Enzymatic production of mono-ubiquitinated proteins for structural studies: The example of the Josephin domain of ataxin-3☆

    PubMed Central

    Faggiano, Serena; Menon, Rajesh P.; Kelly, Geoff P.; McCormick, John; Todi, Sokol V.; Scaglione, K. Matthew; Paulson, Henry L.; Pastore, Annalisa

    2013-01-01

    Protein ubiquitination occurs through formation of an isopeptide bond between the C-terminal glycine of ubiquitin (Ub) and the ɛ-amino group of a substrate lysine residue. This post-translational modification, which occurs through the attachment of single and/or multiple copies of mono-ubiquitin and poly-ubiquitin chains, is involved in crucial cellular events such as protein degradation, cell-cycle regulation and DNA repair. The abnormal functioning of ubiquitin pathways is also implicated in the pathogenesis of several human diseases ranging from cancer to neurodegeneration. However, despite the undoubted biological importance, understanding the molecular basis of how ubiquitination regulates different pathways has up to now been strongly limited by the difficulty of producing the amounts of highly homogeneous samples that are needed for a structural characterization by X-ray crystallography and/or NMR. Here, we report on the production of milligrams of highly pure Josephin mono-ubiquitinated on lysine 117 through large scale in vitro enzymatic ubiquitination. Josephin is the catalytic domain of ataxin-3, a protein responsible for spinocerebellar ataxia type 3. Ataxin-3 is the first deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) reported to be activated by mono-ubiquitination. We demonstrate that the samples produced with the described method are correctly folded and suitable for structural studies. The protocol allows facile selective labelling of the components. Our results provide an important proof-of-concept that may pave the way to new approaches to the in vitro study of ubiquitinated proteins. PMID:24251111

  13. Effect of cellular ubiquitin levels on the regulation of oxidative stress response and proteasome function via Nrf1

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Donghee; Ryu, Kwon-Yul

    The polyubiquitin genes Ubb and Ubc are upregulated under oxidative stress induced by arsenite [As(III)]. However, the role of ubiquitin (Ub) under As(III) exposure is not known in detail. In a previous study, we showed that the reduced viability observed in Ubc{sup −/−} mouse embryonic fibroblasts under As(III) exposure was not due to dysregulation of the Nrf2–Keap1 pathway, which prompted us to investigate another NFE2 family protein, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 1 (Nrf1). In this study, we found that Ub deficiency due to Ubc knockdown in N2a cells reduced cell viability and proteasome activity under As(III) exposure. Furthermore, mRNAmore » levels of the proteasome subunit Psma1 were also reduced. In addition, Ub deficiency led to the nuclear accumulation of the p65 isoform of Nrf1 under As(III) exposure. Interestingly, the overexpression of p65-Nrf1 recapitulated the phenotypes of Ub-deficient N2a cells under As(III) exposure. On the other hand, Nrf1 knockdown suppressed the death of Ub-deficient N2a cells upon exposure to As(III). Therefore, the levels of p65-Nrf1 may play an important role in the maintenance of cell viability under oxidative stress induced by As(III). - Highlights: • N2a cells exhibit reduced viability upon exposure to As(III) via Ubc knockdown. • As(III)-induced proteasomal regulation is impaired in Ub-deficient N2a cells. • Ub deficiency leads to the nuclear accumulation of p65-Nrf1 under As(III) exposure. • p65 expression recapitulates As(III)-induced phenotypes of Ub-deficient N2a cells. • Nrf1 knockdown suppressed As(III)-induced death of Ub-deficient N2a cells.« less

  14. Novel TDP2-ubiquitin interactions and their importance for the repair of topoisomerase II-mediated DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Timsi; Gao, Rui; Takada, Saeko; Al Abo, Muthana; Chen, Xiang; Walters, Kylie J.; Pommier, Yves; Aihara, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (TDP2) is a multifunctional protein implicated in DNA repair, signal transduction and transcriptional regulation. In its DNA repair role, TDP2 safeguards genome integrity by hydrolyzing 5′-tyrosyl DNA adducts formed by abortive topoisomerase II (Top2) cleavage complexes to allow error-free repair of DNA double-strand breaks, thereby conferring cellular resistance against Top2 poisons. TDP2 consists of a C-terminal catalytic domain responsible for its phosphodiesterase activity, and a functionally uncharacterized N-terminal region. Here, we demonstrate that this N-terminal region contains a ubiquitin (Ub)-associated (UBA) domain capable of binding multiple forms of Ub with distinct modes of interactions and preference for either K48- or K63-linked polyUbs over monoUb. The structure of TDP2 UBA bound to monoUb shows a canonical mode of UBA-Ub interaction. However, the absence of the highly conserved MGF motif and the presence of a fourth α-helix make TDP2 UBA distinct from other known UBAs. Mutations in the TDP2 UBA-Ub binding interface do not affect nuclear import of TDP2, but severely compromise its ability to repair Top2-mediated DNA damage, thus establishing the importance of the TDP2 UBA–Ub interaction in DNA repair. The differential binding to multiple Ub forms could be important for responding to DNA damage signals under different contexts or to support the multi-functionality of TDP2. PMID:27543075

  15. A MUB E2 structure reveals E1 selectivity between cognate ubiquitin E2s in eukaryotes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaolong; Malley, Konstantin R.; Brenner, Caitlin C.; Koroleva, Olga; Korolev, Sergey; Downes, Brian P.

    2016-08-01

    Ubiquitin (Ub) is a protein modifier that controls processes ranging from protein degradation to endocytosis, but early-acting regulators of the three-enzyme ubiquitylation cascade are unknown. Here we report that the prenylated membrane-anchored ubiquitin-fold protein (MUB) is an early-acting regulator of subfamily-specific E2 activation. An AtMUB3:AtUBC8 co-crystal structure defines how MUBs inhibit E2~Ub formation using a combination of E2 backside binding and a MUB-unique lap-bar loop to block E1 access. Since MUBs tether Arabidopsis group VI E2 enzymes (related to HsUbe2D and ScUbc4/5) to the plasma membrane, and inhibit E2 activation at physiological concentrations, they should function as potent plasma membrane localized regulators of Ub chain synthesis in eukaryotes. Our findings define a biochemical function for MUB, a family of highly conserved Ub-fold proteins, and provide an example of selective activation between cognate Ub E2s, previously thought to be constitutively activated by E1s.

  16. Evolution of the ubiquitin-activating enzyme Uba1 (E1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, Douglas C.; Phillips, J. C.

    2017-10-01

    Ubiquitin tags diseased proteins and initiates an enzyme conjugation cascade, which has three stages. The first-stage enzyme Uba1 (E1) has evolved only modestly from slime mold to humans, and is > 14 times larger than Ub. Here we use critical point thermodynamic scaling theory to connect Uba1 (E1) evolution from yeast and slime mold to fruit flies and humans to subtle changes in its amino acid sequences.

  17. Protection against murine osteoarthritis by inhibition of the 26S proteasome and lysine-48 linked ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Marta; Wilkinson, David J; Hui, Wang; Destrument, Auriane P M; Charlton, Sarah H; Barter, Matt J; Gibson, Beth; Coulombe, Josée; Gray, Douglas A; Rowan, Andrew D; Young, David A

    2015-08-01

    To determine whether the process of ubiquitination and/or activity of the 26S proteasome are involved in the induction of osteoarthritis (OA). Bovine cartilage resorption assays, chondrocyte cell-line SW1353 and primary human articular chondrocytes were used with the general proteasome inhibitor MG132 or vehicle to identify a role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in cartilage destruction and matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP13) expression. In vivo, MG132 or vehicle, were delivered subcutaneously to mice following destabilisation of the medial meniscus (DMM)-induced OA. Subsequently, DMM was induced in Lys-to-Arg (K48R and K63R) mutant ubiquitin (Ub) transgenic mice. Cytokine signalling in SW1353s was monitored by immunoblotting and novel ubiquitinated substrates identified using Tandem Ubiquitin Binding Entities purification followed by mass spectrometry. The ubiquitination of TRAFD1 was assessed via immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting and its role in cytokine signal-transduction determined using RNA interference and real-time RT-PCR for MMP13 and interleukin-6 (IL6). Supplementation with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 protected cartilage from cytokine-mediated resorption and degradation in vivo in mice following DMM-induced OA. Using transgenic animals only K48R-mutated Ub partially protected against OA compared to wild-type or wild-type Ub transgenic mice, and this was only evident on the medial femoral condyle. After confirming ubiquitination was vital for NF-κB signalling and MMP13 expression, a screen for novel ubiquitinated substrates involved in cytokine-signalling identified TRAFD1; the depletion of which reduced inflammatory mediator-induced MMP13 and IL6 expression. Our data for the first time identifies a role for ubiquitination and the proteasome in the induction of OA via regulation of inflammatory mediator-induced MMP13 expression. These data open avenues of research to determine whether the proteasome, or K48-linked ubiquitination, are

  18. Regulation of E2s: A Role for Additional Ubiquitin Binding Sites?

    PubMed

    Middleton, Adam J; Wright, Joshua D; Day, Catherine L

    2017-11-10

    Attachment of ubiquitin to proteins relies on a sophisticated enzyme cascade that is tightly regulated. The machinery of ubiquitylation responds to a range of signals, which remarkably includes ubiquitin itself. Thus, ubiquitin is not only the central player in the ubiquitylation cascade but also a key regulator. The ubiquitin E3 ligases provide specificity to the cascade and often bind the substrate, while the ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) have a pivotal role in determining chain linkage and length. Interaction of ubiquitin with the E2 is important for activity, but the weak nature of these contacts has made them hard to identify and study. By reviewing available crystal structures, we identify putative ubiquitin binding sites on E2s, which may enhance E2 processivity and the assembly of chains of a defined linkage. The implications of these new sites are discussed in the context of known E2-ubiquitin interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 78 FR 12372 - UBS AG, et al.; Notice of Application and Temporary Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... financial planning and wealth management consulting, asset-based and advisory services and transaction-based... Limited (``ESC GP''); UBS Financial Services Inc. (``UBSFS''); UBS Alternative and Quantitative... Switzerland, is a Swiss-based global financial services firm. UBS AG and its subsidiaries provide global...

  20. Pulmonary inflammation-induced loss and subsequent recovery of skeletal muscle mass require functional poly-ubiquitin conjugation.

    PubMed

    Ceelen, Judith J M; Schols, Annemie M W J; Thielen, Nathalie G M; Haegens, Astrid; Gray, Douglas A; Kelders, Marco C J M; de Theije, Chiel C; Langen, Ramon C J

    2018-05-02

    Pulmonary inflammation in response to respiratory infections can evoke muscle wasting. Increased activity of the ubiquitin (Ub)-proteasome system (UPS) and the autophagy lysosome pathway (ALP) have been implicated in inflammation-induced muscle atrophy. Since poly-Ub conjugation is required for UPS-mediated proteolysis and has been implicated in the ALP, we assessed the effect of impaired ubiquitin conjugation on muscle atrophy and recovery following pulmonary inflammation, and compared activation and suppression of these proteolytic systems to protein synthesis regulation. Pulmonary inflammation was induced in mice by an intratracheal instillation of LPS. Proteolysis (UPS and ALP) and synthesis signaling were examined in gastrocnemius muscle homogenates. Ub-conjugation-dependency of muscle atrophy and recovery was addressed using Ub-K48R (K48R) mice with attenuated poly-ubiquitin conjugation, and compared to UBWT control mice. Pulmonary inflammation caused a decrease in skeletal muscle mass which was accompanied by a rapid increase in expression of UPS and ALP constituents and reduction in protein synthesis signaling acutely after LPS. Muscle atrophy was attenuated in K48R mice, while ALP and protein synthesis signaling were not affected. Muscle mass recovery starting 72 h post LPS, correlated with reduced expression of UPS and ALP constituents and restoration of protein synthesis signaling. K48R mice however displayed impaired recovery of muscle mass. Pulmonary inflammation-induced muscle atrophy is in part attributable to UPS-mediated proteolysis, as activation of ALP- and suppression of protein synthesis signaling occur independently of poly-Ub conjugation during muscle atrophy. Recovery of muscle mass following pulmonary inflammation involves inverse regulation of proteolysis and protein synthesis signaling, and requires a functional poly-Ub conjugation.

  1. Poly-Ub-Substrate-Degradative Activity of 26S Proteasome Is Not Impaired in the Aging Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Giannini, Carolin; Kloß, Alexander; Gohlke, Sabrina; Mishto, Michele; Nicholson, Thomas P.; Sheppard, Paul W.; Kloetzel, Peter-Michael; Dahlmann, Burkhardt

    2013-01-01

    Proteostasis is critical for the maintenance of life. In neuronal cells an imbalance between protein synthesis and degradation is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases during aging. Partly, this seems to be due to a decrease in the activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, wherein the 20S/26S proteasome complexes catalyse the proteolytic step. We have characterised 20S and 26S proteasomes from cerebrum, cerebellum and hippocampus of 3 weeks old (young) and 24 month old (aged) rats. Our data reveal that the absolute amount of the proteasome is not dfferent between both age groups. Within the majority of standard proteasomes in brain the minute amounts of immuno-subunits are slightly increased in aged rat brain. While this goes along with a decrease in the activities of 20S and 26S proteasomes to hydrolyse synthetic fluorogenic tripeptide substrates from young to aged rats, the capacity of 26S proteasomes for degradation of poly-Ub-model substrates and its activation by poly-Ub-substrates is not impaired or even slightly increased in brain of aged rats. We conclude that these alterations in proteasome properties are important for maintaining proteostasis in the brain during an uncomplicated aging process. PMID:23667697

  2. Polyhydroxylated [60]fullerene binds specifically to functional recognition sites on a monomeric and a dimeric ubiquitin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanzoni, Serena; Ceccon, Alberto; Assfalg, Michael; Singh, Rajesh K.; Fushman, David; D'Onofrio, Mariapina

    2015-04-01

    The use of nanoparticles (NPs) in biomedical applications requires an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms by which NPs interact with biomolecules. NPs associating with proteins may interfere with protein-protein interactions and affect cellular communication pathways, however the impact of NPs on biomolecular recognition remains poorly characterized. In this respect, particularly relevant is the study of NP-induced functional perturbations of proteins implicated in the regulation of key biochemical pathways. Ubiquitin (Ub) is a prototypical protein post-translational modifier playing a central role in numerous essential biological processes. To contribute to the understanding of the interactions between this universally distributed biomacromolecule and NPs, we investigated the adsorption of polyhydroxylated [60]fullerene on monomeric Ub and on a minimal polyubiquitin chain in vitro at atomic resolution. Site-resolved chemical shift and intensity perturbations of Ub's NMR signals, together with 15N spin relaxation rate changes, exchange saturation transfer effects, and fluorescence quenching data were consistent with the reversible formation of soluble aggregates incorporating fullerenol clusters. The specific interaction epitopes were identified, coincident with functional recognition sites in a monomeric and lysine48-linked dimeric Ub. Fullerenol appeared to target the open state of the dynamic structure of a dimeric Ub according to a conformational selection mechanism. Importantly, the protein-NP association prevented the enzyme-catalyzed synthesis of polyubiquitin chains. Our findings provide an experiment-based insight into protein/fullerenol recognition, with implications in functional biomolecular communication, including regulatory protein turnover, and for the opportunity of therapeutic intervention in Ub-dependent cellular pathways.The use of nanoparticles (NPs) in biomedical applications requires an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms by which

  3. Deciphering the Ubiquitin Code.

    PubMed

    Dittmar, Gunnar; Selbach, Matthias

    2017-03-02

    In this issue of Molecular Cell, Zhang et al. (2017) systematically identify proteins interacting with all possible di-ubiquitin linkages, thus providing a catalog of readers of the ubiquitin code. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The dynamics of histone H2A ubiquitination in HeLa cells exposed to rapamycin, ethanol, hydroxyurea, ER stress, heat shock and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Shiori; Watanabe, Tadashi; Nakagawa, Koji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Ito, Akihiro; Fujimuro, Masahiro

    2016-03-25

    Polyubiquitination plays key roles in proteasome-dependent and independent cellular events, whereas monoubiquitination is involved in gene expression, DNA repair, protein-protein interaction, and protein trafficking. We previously developed an FK2 antibody, which specifically recognizes poly-Ub moieties but not free Ub. To elucidate the role of Ub conjugation in response to cellular stress, we used FK2 to investigate whether chemical stress (rapamycin, ethanol, or hydroxyurea), ER stress (thapsigargin or tunicamycin), heat shock or DNA damage (H2O2 or methyl methanesulfonate) affect the formation of Ub conjugates including histone H2A (hH2A) ubiquitination. First, we found that all forms of stress tested increased poly-ubiquitinated proteins in HeLa cells. Furthermore, rapamycin and hydroxyurea treatment, and ER stress increased ubiquitination of hH2A, while methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) treatment induced deubiquitination of hH2A. The ethanol and H2O2 treatments, and heat shock transiently induced hH2A de-ubiquitination, although deubiquitinated hH2A were ubiquitinated again by subsequent cultivation. We also revealed that FK2 reacts with not only polyubiquitinated proteins but also mono-ubiquitinated hH2A. With the exception of MMS, all forms of stress tested increased the acetylation of K5-hH2A, K9-hH3 and K8-hH4 in addition to ubiquitination. K118 and K119 of hH2A were ubiquitinated in cells under normal conditions, and K119 was the major ubiquitination site. The MMS-treatment and heat shock induced the deubiquitination of both K118 and K119-histone H2A. Interestingly, MMS treatment did not affect cell HeLa cell viability expressing double-mutant hH2A (KK118,119AA-hH2A), while heat shock slightly but significantly decreased viability of double-mutant hH2A expressing cells, indicating that ubiquitination of both sites associates with recovery from heat shock but not MMS treatment. Thus, we characterized FK2 reactivity and demonstrated that various stresses alter

  5. $$|V_{ub}|$$ from $$B\\to\\pi\\ell\

    DOE PAGES

    Bailey, Jon A.; et al.

    2015-07-23

    We present a lattice-QCD calculation of the B → πℓν semileptonic form factors and a new determination of the CKM matrix element |V ub|. We use the MILC asqtad (2+1)-flavor lattice configurations at four lattice spacings and light-quark masses down to 1/20 of the physical strange-quark mass. We extrapolate the lattice form factors to the continuum using staggered chiral perturbation theory in the hard-pion and SU(2) limits. We employ a model-independent z parametrization to extrapolate our lattice form factors from large-recoil momentum to the full kinematic range. We introduce a new functional method to propagate information from the chiral-continuum extrapolationmore » to the z expansion. We present our results together with a complete systematic error budget, including a covariance matrix to enable the combination of our form factors with other lattice-QCD and experimental results. To obtain |V ub|, we simultaneously fit the experimental data for the B → πℓν differential decay rate obtained by the BABAR and Belle collaborations together with our lattice form-factor results. We find |V ub|=(3.72±0.16) × 10 –3, where the error is from the combined fit to lattice plus experiments and includes all sources of uncertainty. Our form-factor results bring the QCD error on |V ub| to the same level as the experimental error. We also provide results for the B → πℓν vector and scalar form factors obtained from the combined lattice and experiment fit, which are more precisely determined than from our lattice-QCD calculation alone. Lastly, these results can be used in other phenomenological applications and to test other approaches to QCD.« less

  6. Ubiquitin recognition by FAAP20 expands the complex interface beyond the canonical UBZ domain

    PubMed Central

    Wojtaszek, Jessica L.; Wang, Su; Kim, Hyungjin; Wu, Qinglin; D'Andrea, Alan D.; Zhou, Pei

    2014-01-01

    FAAP20 is an integral component of the Fanconi anemia core complex that mediates the repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks. The ubiquitin-binding capacity of the FAAP20 UBZ is required for recruitment of the Fanconi anemia complex to interstrand DNA crosslink sites and for interaction with the translesion synthesis machinery. Although the UBZ–ubiquitin interaction is thought to be exclusively encapsulated within the ββα module of UBZ, we show that the FAAP20–ubiquitin interaction extends beyond such a canonical zinc-finger motif. Instead, ubiquitin binding by FAAP20 is accompanied by transforming a disordered tail C-terminal to the UBZ of FAAP20 into a rigid, extended β-loop that latches onto the complex interface of the FAAP20 UBZ and ubiquitin, with the invariant C-terminal tryptophan emanating toward I44Ub for enhanced binding specificity and affinity. Substitution of the C-terminal tryptophan with alanine in FAAP20 not only abolishes FAAP20–ubiquitin binding in vitro, but also causes profound cellular hypersensitivity to DNA interstrand crosslink lesions in vivo, highlighting the indispensable role of the C-terminal tail of FAAP20, beyond the compact zinc finger module, toward ubiquitin recognition and Fanconi anemia complex-mediated DNA interstrand crosslink repair. PMID:25414354

  7. Ubiquitin Regulates Caspase Recruitment Domain-mediated Signaling by Nucleotide-binding Oligomerization Domain-containing Proteins NOD1 and NOD2*

    PubMed Central

    Ver Heul, Aaron M.; Fowler, C. Andrew; Ramaswamy, S.; Piper, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    NOD1 and NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing proteins) are intracellular pattern recognition receptors that activate inflammation and autophagy. These pathways rely on the caspase recruitment domains (CARDs) within the receptors, which serve as protein interaction platforms that coordinately regulate immune signaling. We show that NOD1 CARD binds ubiquitin (Ub), in addition to directly binding its downstream targets receptor-interacting protein kinase 2 (RIP2) and autophagy-related protein 16-1 (ATG16L1). NMR spectroscopy and structure-guided mutagenesis identified a small hydrophobic surface of NOD1 CARD that binds Ub. In vitro, Ub competes with RIP2 for association with NOD1 CARD. In vivo, we found that the ligand-stimulated activity of NOD1 with a mutant CARD lacking Ub binding but retaining ATG16L1 and RIP2 binding is increased relative to wild-type NOD1. Likewise, point mutations in the tandem NOD2 CARDs at positions analogous to the surface residues defining the Ub interface on NOD1 resulted in loss of Ub binding and increased ligand-stimulated NOD2 signaling. These data suggest that Ub binding provides a negative feedback loop upon NOD-dependent activation of RIP2. PMID:23300079

  8. Cycles of Ubiquitination and Deubiquitination Critically Regulate Growth Factor-Mediated Activation of Akt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei-Lei; Jin, Guoxiang; Li, Chien-Feng; Jeong, Yun Seong; Moten, Asad; Xu, Dazhi; Feng, Zizhen; Chen, Wei; Cai, Zhen; Darnay, Bryant; Gu, Wei; Lin, Hui-Kuan

    2013-01-01

    K63-linked ubiquitination of Akt is a posttranslational modification that plays a critical role in growth factor-mediated membrane recruitment and activation of Akt. Although E3 ligases involved in growth factor-induced Akt ubiquitination have been defined, the deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) that triggers deubiquitination of Akt and the function of Akt deubiquitination remain largely unclear. Here, we showed that CYLD was a DUB for Akt and suppressed growth factor-mediated Akt ubiquitination and activation. CYLD directly removed ubiquitin moieties on Akt under serum-starved conditions. CYLD dissociated from Akt upon growth factor stimulation, thereby allowing E3 ligases to induce ubiquitination and activation of Akt. CYLD deficiency also promoted cancer cell proliferation, survival, glucose uptake and growth of prostate tumors. Our findings reveal the crucial role of cycles of ubiquitination and deubiquitination of Akt in its membrane recruitment and activation, and further identifies CYLD as a molecular switch for these processes. PMID:23300340

  9. Ubiquitinated Proteins Isolated From Tumor Cells Are Efficient Substrates for Antigen Cross-Presentation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guangjie; Moudgil, Tarsem; Cui, Zhihua; Mou, Yongbin; Wang, Lixin; Fox, Bernard A; Hu, Hong-Ming

    2017-06-01

    We have previously shown that inhibition of the proteasome causes defective ribosomal products to be shunted into autophagosomes and subsequently released from tumor cells as defective ribosomal products in Blebs (DRibbles). These DRibbles serve as an excellent source of antigens for cross-priming of tumor-specific T cells. Here, we examine the role of ubiquitinated proteins (Ub-proteins) in this pathway. Using purified Ub-proteins from tumor cells that express endogenous tumor-associated antigen or exogenous viral antigen, we tested the ability of these proteins to stimulate antigen-specific T-cell responses, by activation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells generated from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Compared with total cell lysates, we found that purified Ub-proteins from both a gp100-specific melanoma cell line and from a lung cancer cell line expressing cytomegalovirus pp65 antigen produced a significantly higher level of IFN-γ in gp100- or pp65-specific T cells, respectively. In addition, Ub-proteins from an allogeneic tumor cell line could be used to stimulate tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes isolated and expanded from non-small cell lung cancer patients. These results establish that Ub-proteins provide a relevant source of antigens for cross-priming of antitumor immune responses in a variety of settings, including endogenous melanoma and exogenous viral antigen presentation, as well as antigen-specific tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Thus, ubiquitin can be used as an affinity tag to enrich for unknown tumor-specific antigens from tumor cell lysates to stimulate tumor-specific T cells ex vivo or to be used as vaccines to target short-lived proteins.

  10. Ubiquitination of the Dishevelled DIX domain blocks its head-to-tail polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Madrzak, Julia; Fiedler, Marc; Johnson, Christopher M.; Ewan, Richard; Knebel, Axel; Bienz, Mariann; Chin, Jason W.

    2015-01-01

    Dishevelled relays Wnt signals from the plasma membrane to different cytoplasmic effectors. Its signalling activity depends on its DIX domain, which undergoes head-to-tail polymerization to assemble signalosomes. The DIX domain is ubiquitinated in vivo at multiple lysines, which can be antagonized by various deubiquitinases (DUBs) including the CYLD tumour suppressor that attenuates Wnt signalling. Here, we generate milligram quantities of pure human Dvl2 DIX domain mono-ubiquitinated at two lysines (K54 and K58) by genetically encoded orthogonal protection with activated ligation (GOPAL), to investigate their effect on DIX polymerization. We show that the ubiquitination of DIX at K54 blocks its polymerization in solution, whereas DIX58-Ub remains oligomerization-competent. DUB profiling identified 28 DUBs that cleave DIX-ubiquitin conjugates, half of which prefer, or are specific for, DIX54-Ub, including Cezanne and CYLD. These DUBs thus have the potential to promote Dvl polymerization and signalosome formation, rather than antagonize it as previously thought for CYLD. PMID:25907794

  11. E3 Success Story - Accelerating Adoption of E3 Recommendations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The state of Michigan, along with numerous local and state partners, formed E3 Michigan in 2010. This partnership will allow for up to 10 E3 assessments in southeast Michigan and 10 E3 assessments in western Michigan.

  12. Central catalytic domain of BRAP (RNF52) recognizes the types of ubiquitin chains and utilizes oligo-ubiquitin for ubiquitylation.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Shisako; Hanada, Kazuharu; Ohsawa, Noboru; Shirouzu, Mikako

    2017-09-07

    Really interesting new gene (RING)-finger protein 52 (RNF52), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is found in eukaryotes from yeast to humans. Human RNF52 is known as breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA1)-associated protein 2 (BRAP or BRAP2). The central catalytic domain of BRAP comprises four subdomains: nucleotide-binding α/β plait (NBP), really interesting new gene (RING) zinc finger, ubiquitin-specific protease (UBP)-like zinc finger (ZfUBP), and coiled-coil (CC). This domain architecture is conserved in RNF52 orthologs; however, the domain's function in the ubiquitin system has not been delineated. In the present study, we discovered that the RNF52 domain, comprising NBP-RING-ZfUBP-CC, binds to ubiquitin chains (oligo-ubiquitin) but not to the ubiquitin monomers, and can utilize various ubiquitin chains for ubiquitylation and auto-ubiquitylation. The RNF52 domain preferentially bound to M1- and K63-linked di-ubiquitin chains, weakly to K27-linked chains, but not to K6-, K11-, or K48-linked chains. The binding preferences of the RNF52 domain for ubiquitin-linkage types corresponded to ubiquitin usage in the ubiquitylation reaction, except for K11-, K29-, and K33-linked chains. Additionally, the RNF52 domain directly ligated the intact M1-linked, tri-, and tetra-ubiquitin chains and recognized the structural alterations caused by the phosphomimetic mutation of these ubiquitin chains. Full-length BRAP had nearly the same specificity for the ubiquitin-chain types as the RNF52 domain alone. Mass spectrometry analysis of oligomeric ubiquitylation products, mediated by the RNF52 domain, revealed that the ubiquitin-linkage types and auto-ubiquitylation sites depend on the length of ubiquitin chains. Here, we propose a model for the oligomeric ubiquitylation process, controlled by the RNF52 domain, which is not a sequential assembly process involving monomers. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  13. Domain alternation and active site remodeling are conserved structural features of ubiquitin E1.

    PubMed

    Lv, Zongyang; Yuan, Lingmin; Atkison, James H; Aldana-Masangkay, Grace; Chen, Yuan; Olsen, Shaun K

    2017-07-21

    E1 enzymes for ubiquitin (Ub) and Ub-like modifiers (Ubls) harbor two catalytic activities that are required for Ub/Ubl activation: adenylation and thioester bond formation. Structural studies of the E1 for the Ubl s mall u biquitin-like mo difier (SUMO) revealed a single active site that is transformed by a conformational switch that toggles its competency for catalysis of these two distinct chemical reactions. Although the mechanisms of adenylation and thioester bond formation revealed by SUMO E1 structures are thought to be conserved in Ub E1, there is currently a lack of structural data supporting this hypothesis. Here, we present a structure of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Uba1 in which the second catalytic cysteine half-domain (SCCH domain) harboring the catalytic cysteine has undergone a 106° rotation that results in a completely different network of intramolecular interactions between the SCCH and adenylation domains and translocation of the catalytic cysteine 12 Å closer to the Ub C terminus compared with previous Uba1 structures. SCCH domain alternation is accompanied by conformational changes within the Uba1 adenylation domains that effectively disassemble the adenylation active site. Importantly, the structural and biochemical data suggest that domain alternation and remodeling of the adenylation active site are interconnected and are intrinsic structural features of Uba1 and that the overall structural basis for adenylation and thioester bond formation exhibited by SUMO E1 is indeed conserved in Ub E1. Finally, the mechanistic insights provided by the novel conformational snapshot of Uba1 presented in this study may guide efforts to develop small molecule inhibitors of this critically important enzyme that is an active target for anticancer therapeutics. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Identification of ubiquitin/ubiquitin-like protein modification from tandem mass spectra with various PTMs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Various solutions have been introduced for the identification of post-translational modification (PTM) from tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in proteomics field but the identification of peptide modifiers, such as Ubiquitin (Ub) and ubiquitin-like proteins (Ubls), is still a challenge. The fragmentation of peptide modifier produce complex shifted ion mass patterns in combination with other PTMs, which makes it difficult to identify and locate the PTMs on a protein sequence. Currently, most PTM identification methods do not consider the complex fragmentation of peptide modifier or deals it separately from the other PTMs. Results We developed an advanced PTM identification method that inspects possible ion patterns of the most known peptide modifiers as well as other known biological and chemical PTMs to make more comprehensive and accurate conclusion. The proposed method searches all detectable mass differences of measured peaks from their theoretical values and the mass differences within mass tolerance range are grouped as mass shift classes. The most possible locations of multiple PTMs including peptide modifiers can be determined by evaluating all possible scenarios generated by the combination of the qualified mass shift classes.The proposed method showed excellent performance in the test with simulated spectra having various PTMs including peptide modifiers and in the comparison with recently developed methods such as QuickMod and SUMmOn. In the analysis of HUPO Brain Proteome Project (BPP) datasets, the proposed method could find the ubiquitin modification sites that were not identified by other conventional methods. Conclusions This work presents a novel method for identifying bothpeptide modifiers that generate complex fragmentation patternsand PTMs that are not fragmented during fragmentation processfrom tandem mass spectra. PMID:22373085

  15. Aggregation Pathways of Native-Like Ubiquitin Promoted by Single-Point Mutation, Metal Ion Concentration, and Dielectric Constant of the Medium.

    PubMed

    Fermani, Simona; Calvaresi, Matteo; Mangini, Vincenzo; Falini, Giuseppe; Bottoni, Andrea; Natile, Giovanni; Arnesano, Fabio

    2018-03-15

    Ubiquitin-positive protein aggregates are biomarkers of neurodegeneration, but the molecular mechanism responsible for their formation and accumulation is still unclear. Possible aggregation pathways of human ubiquitin (hUb) promoted by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, are here investigated. By a computational analysis, two different hUb dimers are indicated as possible precursors of amyloid-like structures, but their formation is disfavored by an electrostatic repulsion involving Glu16 and other carboxylate residues present at the dimer interface. Experimental data on the E16V mutant of hUb shows that this single-point mutation, although not affecting the overall protein conformation, promotes protein aggregation. It is sufficient to shift the same mutation by only two residues (E18V) to regain the behavior of wild-type hUb. The neutralization of Glu16 negative charge by a metal ion and a decrease of the dielectric constant of the medium by addition of trifluoroethanol (TFE), also promote hUb aggregation. The outcomes of this research have important implications for the prediction of physiological parameters that favor aggregate formation. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Structural Analysis of a Viral Ovarian Tumor Domain Protease from the Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Complex with Covalently Bonded Ubiquitin

    SciTech Connect

    Capodagli, Glenn C.; McKercher, Marissa A.; Baker, Erica A.

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus is a tick-borne, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA [ssRNA(-)] nairovirus that produces fever, prostration, and severe hemorrhages in humans. With fatality rates for CCHF ranging up to 70% based on several factors, CCHF is considered a dangerous emerging disease. Originally identified in the former Soviet Union and the Congo, CCHF has rapidly spread across large sections of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Recent reports have identified a viral homologue of the ovarian tumor protease superfamily (vOTU) within its L protein. This protease has subsequently been implicated in downregulation of the type I interferon immune response through cleavage ofmore » posttranslational modifying proteins ubiquitin (Ub) and the Ub-like interferon-simulated gene 15 (ISG15). Additionally, homologues of vOTU have been suggested to perform similar roles in the positive-sense, single-stranded RNA [ssRNA(+)] arteriviruses. By utilizing X-ray crystallographic techniques, the structure of vOTU covalently bound to ubiquitin propylamine, a suicide substrate of the enzyme, was elucidated to 1.7 {angstrom}, revealing unique structural elements that define this new subclass of the OTU superfamily. In addition, kinetic studies were carried out with aminomethylcoumarin (AMC) conjugates of monomeric Ub, ISG15, and NEDD8 (neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 8) substrates in order to provide quantitative insights into vOTU's preference for Ub and Ub-like substrates.« less

  17. Characterization and Structural Studies of the Plasmodium falciparum Ubiquitin and Nedd8 Hydrolase UCHL3

    SciTech Connect

    Artavanis-Tsakonas, Katerina; Weihofen, Wilhelm A.; Antos, John M.

    Like their human hosts, Plasmodium falciparum parasites rely on the ubiquitin-proteasome system for survival. We previously identified PfUCHL3, a deubiquitinating enzyme, and here we characterize its activity and changes in active site architecture upon binding to ubiquitin. We find strong evidence that PfUCHL3 is essential to parasite survival. The crystal structures of both PfUCHL3 alone and in complex with the ubiquitin-based suicide substrate UbVME suggest a rather rigid active site crossover loop that likely plays a role in restricting the size of ubiquitin adduct substrates. Molecular dynamics simulations of the structures and a model of the PfUCHL3-PfNedd8 complex allowed themore » identification of shared key interactions of ubiquitin and PfNedd8 with PfUCHL3, explaining the dual specificity of this enzyme. Distinct differences observed in ubiquitin binding between PfUCHL3 and its human counterpart make it likely that the parasitic DUB can be selectively targeted while leaving the human enzyme unaffected.« less

  18. Ubiquitinated Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) Function Is Modulated during DNA Damage-induced Cell Death and Survival*

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Lirong; Yuan, Zhigang; Li, Yixuan; Ling, Hongbo; Izumi, Victoria; Fang, Bin; Fukasawa, Kenji; Koomen, John; Chen, Jiandong; Seto, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Downstream signaling of physiological and pathological cell responses depends on post-translational modification such as ubiquitination. The mechanisms regulating downstream DNA damage response (DDR) signaling are not completely elucidated. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), the founding member of Class III histone deacetylases, regulates multiple steps in DDR and is closely associated with many physiological and pathological processes. However, the role of post-translational modification or ubiquitination of SIRT1 during DDR is unclear. We show that SIRT1 is dynamically and distinctly ubiquitinated in response to DNA damage. SIRT1 was ubiquitinated by the MDM2 E3 ligase in vitro and in vivo. SIRT1 ubiquitination under normal conditions had no effect on its enzymatic activity or rate of degradation; hypo-ubiquitination, however, reduced SIRT1 nuclear localization. Ubiquitination of SIRT1 affected its function in cell death and survival in response to DNA damage. Our results suggest that ubiquitination is required for SIRT1 function during DDR. PMID:25670865

  19. CNOT4-Mediated Ubiquitination of Influenza A Virus Nucleoprotein Promotes Viral RNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-Chen; Jeng, King-Song

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza A virus (IAV) RNA segments are individually packaged with viral nucleoprotein (NP) and RNA polymerases to form a viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complex. We previously reported that NP is a monoubiquitinated protein which can be deubiquitinated by a cellular ubiquitin protease, USP11. In this study, we identified an E3 ubiquitin ligase, CNOT4 (Ccr4-Not transcription complex subunit 4), which can ubiquitinate NP. We found that the levels of viral RNA, protein, viral particles, and RNA polymerase activity in CNOT4 knockdown cells were lower than those in the control cells upon IAV infection. Conversely, overexpression of CNOT4 rescued viral RNP activity. In addition, CNOT4 interacted with the NP in the cell. An in vitro ubiquitination assay also showed that NP could be ubiquitinated by in vitro-translated CNOT4, but ubiquitination did not affect the protein stability of NP. Significantly, CNOT4 increased NP ubiquitination, whereas USP11 decreased it. Mass spectrometry analysis of ubiquitinated NP revealed multiple ubiquitination sites on the various lysine residues of NP. Three of these, K184, K227, and K273, are located on the RNA-binding groove of NP. Mutations of these sites to arginine reduced viral RNA replication. These results indicate that CNOT4 is a ubiquitin ligase of NP, and ubiquitination of NP plays a positive role in viral RNA replication. PMID:28536288

  20. OTUB1 Co-opts Lys48-Linked Ubiquitin Recognition to Suppress E2 Enzyme Function

    SciTech Connect

    Juang, Yu-Chi; Landry, Marie-Claude; Sanches, Mario

    2012-03-26

    Ubiquitylation entails the concerted action of E1, E2, and E3 enzymes. We recently reported that OTUB1, a deubiquitylase, inhibits the DNA damage response independently of its isopeptidase activity. OTUB1 does so by blocking ubiquitin transfer by UBC13, the cognate E2 enzyme for RNF168. OTUB1 also inhibits E2s of the UBE2D and UBE2E families. Here we elucidate the structural mechanism by which OTUB1 binds E2s to inhibit ubiquitin transfer. OTUB1 recognizes ubiquitin-charged E2s through contacts with both donor ubiquitin and the E2 enzyme. Surprisingly, free ubiquitin associates with the canonical distal ubiquitin-binding site on OTUB1 to promote formation of the inhibitedmore » E2 complex. Lys48 of donor ubiquitin lies near the OTUB1 catalytic site and the C terminus of free ubiquitin, a configuration that mimics the products of Lys48-linked ubiquitin chain cleavage. OTUB1 therefore co-opts Lys48-linked ubiquitin chain recognition to suppress ubiquitin conjugation and the DNA damage response.« less

  1. Enzyme-substrate relationships in the ubiquitin system: approaches for identifying substrates of ubiquitin ligases.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Hazel F; Huibregtse, Jon M

    2017-09-01

    Protein ubiquitylation is an important post-translational modification, regulating aspects of virtually every biochemical pathway in eukaryotic cells. Hundreds of enzymes participate in the conjugation and deconjugation of ubiquitin, as well as the recognition, signaling functions, and degradation of ubiquitylated proteins. Regulation of ubiquitylation is most commonly at the level of recognition of substrates by E3 ubiquitin ligases. Characterization of the network of E3-substrate relationships is a major goal and challenge in the field, as this expected to yield fundamental biological insights and opportunities for drug development. There has been remarkable success in identifying substrates for some E3 ligases, in many instances using the standard protein-protein interaction techniques (e.g., two-hybrid screens and co-immunoprecipitations paired with mass spectrometry). However, some E3s have remained refractory to characterization, while others have simply not yet been studied due to the sheer number and diversity of E3s. This review will discuss the range of tools and techniques that can be used for substrate profiling of E3 ligases.

  2. Ubiquitin-protein ligases in muscle wasting: multiple parallel pathways?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecker, Stewart H.; Goldberg, A. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Studies in a wide variety of animal models of muscle wasting have led to the concept that increased protein breakdown via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is responsible for the loss of muscle mass seen as muscle atrophy. The complexity of the ubiquitination apparatus has hampered our understanding of how this pathway is activated in atrophying muscles and which ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes in muscle are responsible. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent experiments have shown that two newly identified ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3s), atrogin-1/MAFbx and MURF-1, are critical in the development of muscle atrophy. Other in-vitro studies also implicated E2(14k) and E3alpha, of the N-end rule pathway, as playing an important role in the process. SUMMARY: It seems likely that multiple pathways of ubiquitin conjugation are activated in parallel in atrophying muscle, perhaps to target for degradation specific classes of muscle proteins. The emerging challenge will be to define the protein targets for, as well as inhibitors of, these E3s.

  3. Structurally Distinct Ubiquitin- and Sumo-Modified PCNA: Implications for Their Distinct Roles in the DNA Damage Response

    DOE PAGES

    Tsutakawa, Susan E.; Yan, Chunli; Xu, Xiaojun; ...

    2015-03-12

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a pivotal replication protein, which also controls cellular responses to DNA damage. Posttranslational modification of PCNA by SUMO and ubiquitin modulate these responses. How the modifiers alter PCNA-dependent DNA repair and damage tolerance pathways is largely unknown. Here, we used hybrid methods to identify atomic models of PCNA K107-Ub and PCNA K164-SUMO consistent with small-angle X-ray scattering data of these complexes in solution. We show that SUMO and ubiquitin have distinct modes of association to PCNA. Ubiquitin adopts discrete docked binding positions. By contrast, SUMO associates by simple tethering and adopts extended flexible conformations.more » These structural differences are the result of the opposite electrostatic potentials of SUMO and Ub. In conclusion, the unexpected contrast in conformational behavior of Ub-PCNA and SUMO-PCNA has implications for interactions with partner proteins, interacting surfaces accessibility, and access points for pathway regulation.« less

  4. Mechanism of Polyubiquitination by Human Anaphase-Promoting Complex: RING Repurposing for Ubiquitin Chain Assembly

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, Nicholas G.; Watson, Edmond R.; Weissmann, Florian; ...

    2014-10-09

    Polyubiquitination by E2 and E3 enzymes is a predominant mechanism regulating protein function. Some RING E3s, including anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC), catalyze polyubiquitination by sequential reactions with two different E2s. An initiating E2 ligates ubiquitin to an E3-bound substrate. Another E2 grows a polyubiquitin chain on the ubiquitin-primed substrate through poorly defined mechanisms. Here in this paper we show that human APC’s RING domain is repurposed for dual functions in polyubiquitination. The canonical RING surface activates an initiating E2-ubiquitin intermediate for substrate modification. However, APC engages and activates its specialized ubiquitin chain-elongating E2 UBE2S in ways that differ from current paradigms.more » During chain assembly, a distinct APC11 RING surface helps deliver a substrate-linked ubiquitin to accept another ubiquitin from UBE2S. Our data define mechanisms of APC/UBE2S-mediated polyubiquitination, reveal diverse functions of RING E3s and E2s, and provide a framework for understanding distinctive RING E3 features specifying ubiquitin chain elongation.« less

  5. Glucocorticoids activate the ATP-ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic system in skeletal muscle during fasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, S. S.; Goldberg, A. L.; Goldberger, A. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are essential for the increase in protein breakdown in skeletal muscle normally seen during fasting. To determine which proteolytic pathway(s) are activated upon fasting, leg muscles from fed and fasted normal rats were incubated under conditions that block or activate different proteolytic systems. After food deprivation (1 day), the nonlysosomal ATP-dependent process increased by 250%, as shown in experiments involving depletion of muscle ATP. Also, the maximal capacity of the lysosomal process increased 60-100%, but no changes occurred in the Ca(2+)-dependent or the residual energy-independent proteolytic processes. In muscles from fasted normal and adrenalectomized (ADX) rats, the protein breakdown sensitive to inhibitors of the lysosomal or Ca(2+)-dependent pathways did not differ. However, the ATP-dependent process was 30% slower in muscles from fasted ADX rats. Administering dexamethasone to these animals or incubating their muscles with dexamethasone reversed this defect. During fasting, when the ATP-dependent process rises, muscles show a two- to threefold increase in levels of ubiquitin (Ub) mRNA. However, muscles of ADX animals failed to show this response. Injecting dexamethasone into the fasted ADX animals increased muscle Ub mRNA within 6 h. Thus glucocorticoids activate the ATP-Ub-dependent proteolytic pathway in fasting apparently by enhancing the expression of components of this system such as Ub.

  6. Structure of the Human FANCL RING-Ube2T Complex Reveals Determinants of Cognate E3-E2 Selection

    PubMed Central

    Hodson, Charlotte; Purkiss, Andrew; Miles, Jennifer Anne; Walden, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Summary The combination of an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme with an E3 ubiquitin-ligase is essential for ubiquitin modification of a substrate. Moreover, the pairing dictates both the substrate choice and the modification type. The molecular details of generic E3-E2 interactions are well established. Nevertheless, the determinants of selective, specific E3-E2 recognition are not understood. There are ∼40 E2s and ∼600 E3s giving rise to a possible ∼24,000 E3-E2 pairs. Using the Fanconi Anemia pathway exclusive E3-E2 pair, FANCL-Ube2T, we report the atomic structure of the FANCL RING-Ube2T complex, revealing a specific and extensive network of additional electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Furthermore, we show that these specific interactions are required for selection of Ube2T over other E2s by FANCL. PMID:24389026

  7. Effect of cellular ubiquitin levels on the regulation of oxidative stress response and proteasome function via Nrf1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Donghee; Ryu, Kwon-Yul

    2017-04-01

    The polyubiquitin genes Ubb and Ubc are upregulated under oxidative stress induced by arsenite [As(III)]. However, the role of ubiquitin (Ub) under As(III) exposure is not known in detail. In a previous study, we showed that the reduced viability observed in Ubc -/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts under As(III) exposure was not due to dysregulation of the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway, which prompted us to investigate another NFE2 family protein, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 1 (Nrf1). In this study, we found that Ub deficiency due to Ubc knockdown in N2a cells reduced cell viability and proteasome activity under As(III) exposure. Furthermore, mRNA levels of the proteasome subunit Psma1 were also reduced. In addition, Ub deficiency led to the nuclear accumulation of the p65 isoform of Nrf1 under As(III) exposure. Interestingly, the overexpression of p65-Nrf1 recapitulated the phenotypes of Ub-deficient N2a cells under As(III) exposure. On the other hand, Nrf1 knockdown suppressed the death of Ub-deficient N2a cells upon exposure to As(III). Therefore, the levels of p65-Nrf1 may play an important role in the maintenance of cell viability under oxidative stress induced by As(III). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ubiquitin-specific Protease 11 (USP11) Deubiquitinates Hybrid Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO)-Ubiquitin Chains to Counteract RING Finger Protein 4 (RNF4)*

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, Ivo A.; Schimmel, Joost; Eifler, Karolin; Olsen, Jesper V.; Vertegaal, Alfred C. O.

    2015-01-01

    Ring finger protein 4 (RNF4) is a SUMO-targeted ubiquitin E3 ligase with a pivotal function in the DNA damage response (DDR). SUMO interaction motifs (SIMs) in the N-terminal part of RNF4 tightly bind to SUMO polymers, and RNF4 can ubiquitinate these polymers in vitro. Using a proteomic approach, we identified the deubiquitinating enzyme ubiquitin-specific protease 11 (USP11), a known DDR-component, as a functional interactor of RNF4. USP11 can deubiquitinate hybrid SUMO-ubiquitin chains to counteract RNF4. SUMO-enriched nuclear bodies are stabilized by USP11, which functions downstream of RNF4 as a counterbalancing factor. In response to DNA damage induced by methyl methanesulfonate, USP11 could counteract RNF4 to inhibit the dissolution of nuclear bodies. Thus, we provide novel insight into cross-talk between ubiquitin and SUMO and uncover USP11 and RNF4 as a balanced SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase/protease pair with a role in the DDR. PMID:25969536

  9. Autoregulation of Parkin activity through its ubiquitin-like domain

    PubMed Central

    Chaugule, Viduth K; Burchell, Lynn; Barber, Kathryn R; Sidhu, Ateesh; Leslie, Simon J; Shaw, Gary S; Walden, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Parkin is an E3-ubiquitin ligase belonging to the RBR (RING–InBetweenRING–RING family), and is involved in the neurodegenerative disorder Parkinson's disease. Autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinsonism, which is one of the most common familial forms of the disease, is directly linked to mutations in the parkin gene. However, the molecular mechanisms of Parkin dysfunction in the disease state remain to be established. We now demonstrate that the ubiquitin-like domain of Parkin functions to inhibit its autoubiquitination. Moreover pathogenic Parkin mutations disrupt this autoinhibition, resulting in a constitutively active molecule. In addition, we show that the mechanism of autoregulation involves ubiquitin binding by a C-terminal region of Parkin. Our observations provide important molecular insights into the underlying basis of Parkinson's disease, and in the regulation of RBR E3-ligase activity. PMID:21694720

  10. Crystal structures of two bacterial HECT-like E3 ligases in complex with a human E2 reveal atomic details of pathogen-host interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, David Yin-wei; Diao, Jianbo; Chen, Jue

    2012-12-10

    In eukaryotes, ubiquitination is an important posttranslational process achieved through a cascade of ubiquitin-activating (E1), conjugating (E2), and ligase (E3) enzymes. Many pathogenic bacteria deliver virulence factors into the host cell that function as E3 ligases. How these bacterial 'Trojan horses' integrate into the eukaryotic ubiquitin system has remained a mystery. Here we report crystal structures of two bacterial E3s, Salmonella SopA and Escherichia coli NleL, both in complex with human E2 UbcH7. These structures represent two distinct conformational states of the bacterial E3s, supporting the necessary structural rearrangements associated with ubiquitin transfer. The E2-interacting surface of SopA and NleLmore » has little similarity to those of eukaryotic E3s. However, both bacterial E3s bind to the canonical surface of E2 that normally interacts with eukaryotic E3s. Furthermore, we show that a glutamate residue on E3 is involved in catalyzing ubiquitin transfer from E3 to the substrate, but not from E2 to E3. Together, these results provide mechanistic insights into the ubiquitin pathway and a framework for understanding molecular mimicry in bacterial pathogenesis.« less

  11. Regulation of the Hippo signaling pathway by ubiquitin modification.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngeun; Jho, Eek-Hoon

    2018-03-01

    The Hippo signaling pathway plays an essential role in adult tissue homeostasis and organ size control. Abnormal regulation of Hippo signaling can be a cause for multiple types of human cancers. Since the awareness of the importance of the Hippo signaling in a wide range of biological fields has been continually grown, it is also understood that a thorough and well-rounded comprehension of the precise dynamics could provide fundamental insights for therapeutic applications. Several components in the Hippo signaling pathway are known to be targeted for proteasomal degradation via ubiquitination by E3 ligases. β-TrCP is a well-known E3 ligase of YAP/TAZ, which leads to the reduction of YAP/TAZ levels. The Hippo signaling pathway can also be inhibited by the E3 ligases (such as ITCH) which target LATS1/2 for degradation. Regulation via ubiquitination involves not only complex network of E3 ligases but also deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), which remove ubiquitin from its targets. Interestingly, non-degradative ubiquitin modifications are also known to play important roles in the regulation of Hippo signaling. Although there has been much advanced progress in the investigation of ubiquitin modifications acting as regulators of the Hippo signaling pathway, research done to date still remains inadequate due to the sheer complexity and diversity of the subject. Herein, we review and discuss recent developments that implicate ubiquitin-mediated regulatory mechanisms at multiple steps of the Hippo signaling pathway. [BMB Reports 2018; 51(3): 143-150].

  12. Natural products inhibiting the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway, a target for drug development.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Sachiko; Yokosawa, Hideyoshi

    2006-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway plays a major role in selective protein degradation and regulates various cellular events including cell cycle progression, transcription, DNA repair, signal transduction, and immune response. Ubiquitin, a highly conserved small protein in eukaryotes, attaches to a target protein prior to degradation. The polyubiquitin chain tagged to the target protein is recognized by the 26S proteasome, a high-molecular-mass protease subunit complex, and the protein portion is degraded by the 26S proteasome. The potential of specific proteasome inhibitors, which act as anti-cancer agents, is now under intensive investigation, and bortezomib (PS-341), a proteasome inhibitor, has been recently approved by FDA for multiple myeloma treatment. Since ubiquitination of proteins requires the sequential action of three enzymes, ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1), ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2), and ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3), and polyubiquitination is a prerequisite for proteasome-mediated protein degradation, inhibitors of E1, E2, and E3 are reasonably thought to be drug candidates for treatment of diseases related to ubiquitination. Recently, various compounds inhibiting the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway have been isolated from natural resources. We also succeeded in isolating inhibitors against the proteasome and E1 enzyme from marine natural resources. In this review, we summarize the structures and biological activities of natural products that inhibit the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway.

  13. 78 FR 12358 - UBS Financial Services, Inc., Wealth Management Americas Operations, Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ..., Inc., Wealth Management Americas Operations, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Leafstone... Services, Inc., Wealth Management Americas Operations (UBS), Weehawken, New Jersey. The workers are engaged... to include all leased workers on-site at UBS Financial Services, Inc., Wealth Management Americas...

  14. 76 FR 78621 - Applications for New Awards; Upward Bound Program (Regular Upward Bound (UB))

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... high school who in the first year of postsecondary education placed into college-level math and English... education placed into college-level math and English or needed remediation in those subjects. The Department... grants; Veterans UB grants; and UB Math and Science grants. This notice only announces deadlines and...

  15. RFWD3-Dependent Ubiquitination of RPA Regulates Repair at Stalled Replication Forks.

    PubMed

    Elia, Andrew E H; Wang, David C; Willis, Nicholas A; Boardman, Alexander P; Hajdu, Ildiko; Adeyemi, Richard O; Lowry, Elizabeth; Gygi, Steven P; Scully, Ralph; Elledge, Stephen J

    2015-10-15

    We have used quantitative proteomics to profile ubiquitination in the DNA damage response (DDR). We demonstrate that RPA, which functions as a protein scaffold in the replication stress response, is multiply ubiquitinated upon replication fork stalling. Ubiquitination of RPA occurs on chromatin, involves sites outside its DNA binding channel, does not cause proteasomal degradation, and increases under conditions of fork collapse, suggesting a role in repair at stalled forks. We demonstrate that the E3 ligase RFWD3 mediates RPA ubiquitination. RFWD3 is necessary for replication fork restart, normal repair kinetics during replication stress, and homologous recombination (HR) at stalled replication forks. Mutational analysis suggests that multisite ubiquitination of the entire RPA complex is responsible for repair at stalled forks. Multisite protein group sumoylation is known to promote HR in yeast. Our findings reveal a similar requirement for multisite protein group ubiquitination during HR at stalled forks in mammalian cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Parkin is activated by PINK1-dependent phosphorylation of ubiquitin at Ser65

    PubMed Central

    Kazlauskaite, Agne; Kondapalli, Chandana; Gourlay, Robert; Campbell, David G.; Ritorto, Maria Stella; Hofmann, Kay; Alessi, Dario R.; Knebel, Axel; Trost, Matthias; Muqit, Miratul M. K.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously reported that the Parkinson's disease-associated kinase PINK1 (PTEN-induced putative kinase 1) is activated by mitochondrial depolarization and stimulates the Parkin E3 ligase by phosphorylating Ser65 within its Ubl (ubiquitin-like) domain. Using phosphoproteomic analysis, we identified a novel ubiquitin phosphopeptide phosphorylated at Ser65 that was enriched 14-fold in HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293 cells overexpressing wild-type PINK1 stimulated with the mitochondrial uncoupling agent CCCP (carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone), to activate PINK1, compared with cells expressing kinase-inactive PINK1. Ser65 in ubiquitin lies in a similar motif to Ser65 in the Ubl domain of Parkin. Remarkably, PINK1 directly phosphorylates Ser65 of ubiquitin in vitro. We undertook a series of experiments that provide striking evidence that Ser65-phosphorylated ubiquitin (ubiquitinPhospho−Ser65) functions as a critical activator of Parkin. First, we demonstrate that a fragment of Parkin lacking the Ubl domain encompassing Ser65 (ΔUbl-Parkin) is robustly activated by ubiquitinPhospho−Ser65, but not by non-phosphorylated ubiquitin. Secondly, we find that the isolated Parkin Ubl domain phosphorylated at Ser65 (UblPhospho−Ser65) can also activate ΔUbl-Parkin similarly to ubiquitinPhospho−Ser65. Thirdly, we establish that ubiquitinPhospho−Ser65, but not non-phosphorylated ubiquitin or UblPhospho−Ser65, activates full-length wild-type Parkin as well as the non-phosphorylatable S65A Parkin mutant. Fourthly, we provide evidence that optimal activation of full-length Parkin E3 ligase is dependent on PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of both Parkin at Ser65 and ubiquitin at Ser65, since only mutation of both proteins at Ser65 completely abolishes Parkin activation. In conclusion, the findings of the present study reveal that PINK1 controls Parkin E3 ligase activity not only by phosphorylating Parkin at Ser65, but also by phosphorylating ubiquitin at Ser65

  17. Ubiquitination independent of E1 and E2 enzymes by bacterial effectors

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Jiazhang; Sheedlo, Michael J.; Yu, Kaiwen

    Signaling by ubiquitination regulates virtually every cellular process in eukaryotes. Covalent attachment of ubiquitin to a substrate is catalyzed by the E1, E2 and E3 three-enzyme cascade 1, which links the C terminus of ubiquitin via an isopeptide bond mostly to the ε-amino group of a lysine of the substrate. Given the essential roles of ubiquitination in the regulation of the immune system, it is not surprising that the ubiquitination network is a common target for diverse infectious agents 2. For example, many bacterial pathogens exploit ubiquitin signaling using virulence factors that function as E3 ligases, deubiquitinases 3 or asmore » enzymes that directly attack ubiquitin 4. The bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila utilizes approximately 300 effectors that modulate diverse host processes to create a niche permissive for its replication in phagocytes 5. Here we demonstrate that members of the SidE effector family (SidEs) of L. pneumophila ubiquitinate multiple Rab small GTPases associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Moreover, we show that these proteins are capable of catalyzing ubiquitination without the need for the E1 and E2 enzymes. The E1/E2-independent ubiquitination catalyzed by these enzymes requires NAD but not ATP and Mg2+. A putative mono ADP-ribosyltransferase (mART) motif critical for the ubiquitination activity is also essential for the role of SidEs in intracellular bacterial replication in a protozoan host. These results establish that ubiquitination can be catalyzed by a single enzyme.« less

  18. FANCL ubiquitinates β-catenin and enhances its nuclear function

    PubMed Central

    Rotelli, Michael D.; Petersen, Curtis L.; Kaech, Stefanie; Nelson, Whitney D.; Yates, Jane E.; Hanlon Newell, Amy E.; Olson, Susan B.; Druker, Brian J.; Bagby, Grover C.

    2012-01-01

    Bone marrow failure is a nearly universal complication of Fanconi anemia. The proteins encoded by FANC genes are involved in DNA damage responses through the formation of a multisubunit nuclear complex that facilitates the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of FANCL. However, it is not known whether loss of E3 ubiquitin ligase activity accounts for the hematopoietic stem cell defects characteristic of Fanconi anemia. Here we provide evidence that FANCL increases the activity and expression of β-catenin, a key pluripotency factor in hematopoietic stem cells. We show that FANCL ubiquitinates β-catenin with atypical ubiquitin chain extension known to have nonproteolytic functions. Specifically, β-catenin modified with lysine-11 ubiquitin chain extension efficiently activates a lymphocyte enhancer-binding factor-T cell factor reporter. We also show that FANCL-deficient cells display diminished capacity to activate β-catenin leading to reduced transcription of Wnt-responsive targets c-Myc and Cyclin D1. Suppression of FANCL expression in normal human CD34+ stem and progenitor cells results in fewer β-catenin active cells and inhibits expansion of multilineage progenitors. Together, these results suggest that diminished Wnt/β-catenin signaling may be an underlying molecular defect in FANCL-deficient hematopoietic stem cells leading to their accelerated loss. PMID:22653977

  19. FANCL ubiquitinates β-catenin and enhances its nuclear function.

    PubMed

    Dao, Kim-Hien T; Rotelli, Michael D; Petersen, Curtis L; Kaech, Stefanie; Nelson, Whitney D; Yates, Jane E; Hanlon Newell, Amy E; Olson, Susan B; Druker, Brian J; Bagby, Grover C

    2012-07-12

    Bone marrow failure is a nearly universal complication of Fanconi anemia. The proteins encoded by FANC genes are involved in DNA damage responses through the formation of a multisubunit nuclear complex that facilitates the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of FANCL. However, it is not known whether loss of E3 ubiquitin ligase activity accounts for the hematopoietic stem cell defects characteristic of Fanconi anemia. Here we provide evidence that FANCL increases the activity and expression of β-catenin, a key pluripotency factor in hematopoietic stem cells. We show that FANCL ubiquitinates β-catenin with atypical ubiquitin chain extension known to have nonproteolytic functions. Specifically, β-catenin modified with lysine-11 ubiquitin chain extension efficiently activates a lymphocyte enhancer-binding factor-T cell factor reporter. We also show that FANCL-deficient cells display diminished capacity to activate β-catenin leading to reduced transcription of Wnt-responsive targets c-Myc and Cyclin D1. Suppression of FANCL expression in normal human CD34(+) stem and progenitor cells results in fewer β-catenin active cells and inhibits expansion of multilineage progenitors. Together, these results suggest that diminished Wnt/β-catenin signaling may be an underlying molecular defect in FANCL-deficient hematopoietic stem cells leading to their accelerated loss.

  20. Cdk5 regulates PSD-95 ubiquitination in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bianchetta, Michael J.; Lam, TuKiet T.; Jones, Stephen N.; Morabito, Maria A.

    2011-01-01

    The kinase Cdk5 and its activator p35 have been implicated in drug addiction, neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s, learning and memory, and synapse maturation and plasticity. However the molecular mechanisms by which Cdk5 regulates synaptic plasticity are still unclear. PSD-95 is a major postsynaptic scaffolding protein of glutamatergic synapses that regulates synaptic strength and plasticity. PSD-95 is ubiquitinated by the Ubiquitin E3 Ligase Mdm2, and rapid and transient PSD-95 ubiquitination has been implicated in NMDA receptor-induced AMPA receptor endocytosis. Here we demonstrate that genetic or pharmacological reduction of Cdk5 activity increases the interaction of Mdm2 with PSD-95 and enhances PSD-95 ubiquitination without affecting PSD-95 protein levels in vivo in mice, suggesting a non-proteolytic function of ubiquitinated PSD-95 at synapses. We show that PSD-95 ubiquitination correlates with increased interaction with β-adaptin, a subunit of the clathrin adaptor protein complex AP-2. This interaction is increased by genetic reduction of Cdk5 activity or NMDA receptor stimulation and is dependent on Mdm2. Together these results support a function for Cdk5 in regulating PSD-95 ubiqutination and its interaction with AP-2 and suggest a mechanism by which PSD-95 may regulate NMDA receptor-induced AMPA receptor endocytosis. PMID:21849563

  1. Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Ubiquitination and De-Ubiquitination in Signal Transduction and Receptor Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Critchley, William R.; Pellet-Many, Caroline; Ringham-Terry, Benjamin; Zachary, Ian C.; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2018-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are membrane-based sensors that enable rapid communication between cells and their environment. Evidence is now emerging that interdependent regulatory mechanisms, such as membrane trafficking, ubiquitination, proteolysis and gene expression, have substantial effects on RTK signal transduction and cellular responses. Different RTKs exhibit both basal and ligand-stimulated ubiquitination, linked to trafficking through different intracellular compartments including the secretory pathway, plasma membrane, endosomes and lysosomes. The ubiquitin ligase superfamily comprising the E1, E2 and E3 enzymes are increasingly implicated in this post-translational modification by adding mono- and polyubiquitin tags to RTKs. Conversely, removal of these ubiquitin tags by proteases called de-ubiquitinases (DUBs) enables RTK recycling for another round of ligand sensing and signal transduction. The endocytosis of basal and activated RTKs from the plasma membrane is closely linked to controlled proteolysis after trafficking and delivery to late endosomes and lysosomes. Proteolytic RTK fragments can also have the capacity to move to compartments such as the nucleus and regulate gene expression. Such mechanistic diversity now provides new opportunities for modulating RTK-regulated cellular responses in health and disease states. PMID:29543760

  2. The Ubiquitin Ligase RNF125 Targets Innate Immune Adaptor Protein TRIM14 for Ubiquitination and Degradation.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xue; Zhou, Hongli; Wu, Chao; Wu, Qiankun; Ma, Shichao; Wei, Congwen; Cao, Ye; Song, Jingdong; Zhong, Hui; Zhou, Zhuo; Wang, Jianwei

    2017-06-15

    Tripartite motif-containing 14 (TRIM14) is a mitochondrial adaptor that facilitates innate immune signaling. Upon virus infection, the expression of TRIM14 is significantly induced, which stimulates the production of type-I IFNs and proinflammatory cytokines. As excessive immune responses lead to harmful consequences, TRIM14-mediated signaling needs to be tightly balanced. In this study, we identify really interesting new gene-type zinc finger protein 125 (RNF125) as a negative regulator of TRIM14 in the innate antiviral immune response. Overexpression of RNF125 inhibits TRIM14-mediated antiviral response, whereas knockdown of RNF125 has the opposite effect. RNF125 interacts with TRIM14 and acts as an E3 ubiquitin ligase that catalyzes TRIM14 ubiquitination. RNF125 promotes K48-linked polyubiquitination of TRIM14 and mediates its degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Consequently, wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts show significantly reduced TRIM14 protein levels in late time points of viral infection, whereas TRIM14 protein is retained in RNF125-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Collectively, our data suggest that RNF125 plays a new role in innate immune response by regulating TRIM14 ubiquitination and degradation. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  3. Ubiquitin-coated nanodiamonds bind to autophagy receptors for entry into the selective autophagy pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kuang-Kai; Qiu, Wei-Ru; Naveen Raj, Emmanuel; Liu, Huei-Fang; Huang, Hou-Syun; Lin, Yu-Wei; Chang, Chien-Jen; Chen, Ting-Hua; Chen, Chinpiao; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Hwang, Jenn-Kang; Chao, Jui-I

    2017-01-02

    Selective macroautophagy/autophagy plays a pivotal role in the processing of foreign pathogens and cellular components to maintain homeostasis in human cells. To date, numerous studies have demonstrated the uptake of nanoparticles by cells, but their intracellular processing through selective autophagy remains unclear. Here we show that carbon-based nanodiamonds (NDs) coated with ubiquitin (Ub) bind to autophagy receptors (SQSTM1 [sequestosome 1], OPTN [optineurin], and CALCOCO2/NDP52 [calcium binding and coiled-coil domain 2]) and are then linked to MAP1LC3/LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3) for entry into the selective autophagy pathway. NDs are ultimately delivered to lysosomes. Ectopically expressed SQSTM1-green fluorescence protein (GFP) could bind to the Ub-coated NDs. By contrast, the Ub-associated domain mutant of SQSTM1 (ΔUBA)-GFP did not bind to the Ub-coated NDs. Chloroquine, an autophagy inhibitor, prevented the ND-containing autophagosomes from fusing with lysosomes. Furthermore, autophagy receptors OPTN and CALCOCO2/NDP52, involved in the processing of bacteria, were found to be involved in the selective autophagy of NDs. However, ND particles located in the lysosomes of cells did not induce mitotic blockage, senescence, or cell death. Single ND clusters in the lysosomes of cells were observed in the xenografted human lung tumors of nude mice. This study demonstrated for the first time that Ub-coated nanoparticles bind to autophagy receptors for entry into the selective autophagy pathway, facilitating their delivery to lysosomes.

  4. Ubiquitin-coated nanodiamonds bind to autophagy receptors for entry into the selective autophagy pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kuang-Kai; Qiu, Wei-Ru; Naveen Raj, Emmanuel; Liu, Huei-Fang; Huang, Hou-Syun; Lin, Yu-Wei; Chang, Chien-Jen; Chen, Ting-Hua; Chen, Chinpiao; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Hwang, Jenn-Kang; Chao, Jui-I

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Selective macroautophagy/autophagy plays a pivotal role in the processing of foreign pathogens and cellular components to maintain homeostasis in human cells. To date, numerous studies have demonstrated the uptake of nanoparticles by cells, but their intracellular processing through selective autophagy remains unclear. Here we show that carbon-based nanodiamonds (NDs) coated with ubiquitin (Ub) bind to autophagy receptors (SQSTM1 [sequestosome 1], OPTN [optineurin], and CALCOCO2/NDP52 [calcium binding and coiled-coil domain 2]) and are then linked to MAP1LC3/LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3) for entry into the selective autophagy pathway. NDs are ultimately delivered to lysosomes. Ectopically expressed SQSTM1-green fluorescence protein (GFP) could bind to the Ub-coated NDs. By contrast, the Ub-associated domain mutant of SQSTM1 (ΔUBA)-GFP did not bind to the Ub-coated NDs. Chloroquine, an autophagy inhibitor, prevented the ND-containing autophagosomes from fusing with lysosomes. Furthermore, autophagy receptors OPTN and CALCOCO2/NDP52, involved in the processing of bacteria, were found to be involved in the selective autophagy of NDs. However, ND particles located in the lysosomes of cells did not induce mitotic blockage, senescence, or cell death. Single ND clusters in the lysosomes of cells were observed in the xenografted human lung tumors of nude mice. This study demonstrated for the first time that Ub-coated nanoparticles bind to autophagy receptors for entry into the selective autophagy pathway, facilitating their delivery to lysosomes. PMID:27846374

  5. The functional interplay between the HIF pathway and the ubiquitin system - more than a one-way road.

    PubMed

    Günter, Julia; Ruiz-Serrano, Amalia; Pickel, Christina; Wenger, Roland H; Scholz, Carsten C

    2017-07-15

    The hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) pathway and the ubiquitin system represent major cellular processes that are involved in the regulation of a plethora of cellular signaling pathways and tissue functions. The ubiquitin system controls the ubiquitination of proteins, which is the covalent linkage of one or several ubiquitin molecules to specific targets. This ubiquitination is catalyzed by approximately 1000 different E3 ubiquitin ligases and can lead to different effects, depending on the type of internal ubiquitin chain linkage. The best-studied function is the targeting of proteins for proteasomal degradation. The activity of E3 ligases is antagonized by proteins called deubiquitinases (or deubiquitinating enzymes), which negatively regulate ubiquitin chains. This is performed in most cases by the catalytic removal of these chains from the targeted protein. The HIF pathway is regulated in an oxygen-dependent manner by oxygen-sensing hydroxylases. Covalent modification of HIFα subunits leads to the recruitment of an E3 ligase complex via the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein and the subsequent polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of HIFα subunits, demonstrating the regulation of the HIF pathway by the ubiquitin system. This unidirectional effect of an E3 ligase on the HIF pathway is the best-studied example for the interplay between these two important cellular processes. However, additional regulatory mechanisms of the HIF pathway through the ubiquitin system are emerging and, more recently, also the reciprocal regulation of the ubiquitin system through components of the HIF pathway. Understanding these mechanisms and their relevance for the activity of each other is of major importance for the comprehensive elucidation of the oxygen-dependent regulation of cellular processes. This review describes the current knowledge of the functional bidirectional interplay between the HIF pathway and the ubiquitin system on the protein level. Copyright © 2017

  6. Ubiquitin Linkage-Specific Affimers Reveal Insights into K6-Linked Ubiquitin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Michel, Martin A; Swatek, Kirby N; Hospenthal, Manuela K; Komander, David

    2017-10-05

    Several ubiquitin chain types have remained unstudied, mainly because tools and techniques to detect these posttranslational modifications are scarce. Linkage-specific antibodies have shaped our understanding of the roles and dynamics of polyubiquitin signals but are available for only five out of eight linkage types. We here characterize K6- and K33-linkage-specific "affimer" reagents as high-affinity ubiquitin interactors. Crystal structures of affimers bound to their cognate chain types reveal mechanisms of specificity and a K11 cross-reactivity in the K33 affimer. Structure-guided improvements yield superior affinity reagents suitable for western blotting, confocal fluorescence microscopy and pull-down applications. This allowed us to identify RNF144A and RNF144B as E3 ligases that assemble K6-, K11-, and K48-linked polyubiquitin in vitro. A protocol to enrich K6-ubiquitinated proteins from cells identifies HUWE1 as a main E3 ligase for this chain type, and we show that mitofusin-2 is modified with K6-linked polyubiquitin in a HUWE1-dependent manner. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Inactivation of USP14 Perturbs Ubiquitin Homeostasis and Delays the Cell Cycle in Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts and in Fruit Fly Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Hoon; Park, Seoyoung; Yun, Yejin; Choi, Won Hoon; Kang, Min-Ji; Lee, Min Jae

    2018-01-01

    The 26S proteasome is the key proteolytic complex for recognition and degradation of polyubiquitinated target substrates in eukaryotes. Among numerous proteasome-associated proteins, a deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) USP14 has been identified as an endogenous inhibitor of the proteasome. Here, we explored the complex regulatory functions of USP14 that involve ubiquitin (Ub) homeostasis and substrate degradation in flies and mammals. USP14-null primary and immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and USP14 knocked-down Drosophila were analyzed in this study. We measured proteasome and DUB activities using fluorogenic reporter substrates and adduct-forming probes. To examine the levels of ubiquitin, we performed immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Mass spectrometry (MS) was used to examine polyUb chain linkages and USP14-interacing proteins. Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry, BrdU labeling, and phospho-histone H3 staining. The homeostasis of Ub in USP14-/-MEFs was markedly perturbed because of facilitated clearance of Ub. This phenomenon was recapitulated in muscles of USP14-deficient Drosophila with old ages. Absolute quantitation using MS also revealed that USP14-/- MEFs contained significantly increased amounts of Ub, compared with wild-type. The key phenotype of USP14-/- MEFs was their delayed proliferation originated from prolonged interphase possibly through aberrant degradation of cyclins A and B1. We found that knocking down USP14 in Drosophila resulted in delayed eye development associated with reduced mitotic activity. Our study identifies novel cellular functions of USP14 not only in cellular Ub hometostasis but also in cell cycle progression. USP14 was also essential for proper Drosophila eye development. These results strongly suggest that the USP14-mediated proteasome activity regulation may be directly related to various human diseases including cancer. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Site-specific Interaction Mapping of Phosphorylated Ubiquitin to Uncover Parkin Activation*♦

    PubMed Central

    Yamano, Koji; Queliconi, Bruno B.; Koyano, Fumika; Saeki, Yasushi; Hirokawa, Takatsugu; Tanaka, Keiji; Matsuda, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    Damaged mitochondria are eliminated through autophagy machinery. A cytosolic E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin, a gene product mutated in familial Parkinsonism, is essential for this pathway. Recent progress has revealed that phosphorylation of both Parkin and ubiquitin at Ser65 by PINK1 are crucial for activation and recruitment of Parkin to the damaged mitochondria. However, the mechanism by which phosphorylated ubiquitin associates with and activates phosphorylated Parkin E3 ligase activity remains largely unknown. Here, we analyze interactions between phosphorylated forms of both Parkin and ubiquitin at a spatial resolution of the amino acid residue by site-specific photo-crosslinking. We reveal that the in-between-RING (IBR) domain along with RING1 domain of Parkin preferentially binds to ubiquitin in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Furthermore, another approach, the Fluoppi (fluorescent-based technology detecting protein-protein interaction) assay, also showed that pathogenic mutations in these domains blocked interactions with phosphomimetic ubiquitin in mammalian cells. Molecular modeling based on the site-specific photo-crosslinking interaction map combined with mass spectrometry strongly suggests that a novel binding mechanism between Parkin and ubiquitin leads to a Parkin conformational change with subsequent activation of Parkin E3 ligase activity. PMID:26260794

  9. Deregulation of the COP9 signalosome-cullin-RING ubiquitin-ligase pathway: mechanisms and roles in urological cancers.

    PubMed

    Gummlich, Linda; Rabien, Anja; Jung, Klaus; Dubiel, Wolfgang

    2013-07-01

    The COP9 signalosome (CSN)-cullin-RING ubiquitin (Ub)-ligase (CRL) pathway is a prominent segment of the Ub proteasome system (UPS). It specifically ubiquitinates proteins and targets them for proteolytic elimination. As part of the UPS it maintains essential cellular processes including cell cycle progression, DNA repair, antigen processing and signal transduction. The CSN-CRL pathway consists of the CSN possessing eight subunits (CSN1-CSN8) and one CRL consisting of a cullin, a RING-domain protein and a substrate recognition subunit (SRS). In human cells approximately 250 CRLs exist each of which interacting with a specific set of substrates and the CSN. The CSN-CRL interplay determines the activity and specificity of CRL ubiquitination. The removal of the Ub-like protein Nedd8 from the CRL component cullin by the CSN (deneddylation) reduces the ubiquitinating activity and at the same time enables reassembly of CRLs in order to adapt to substrate specificity requirements. On the other hand, CRLs as well as substrates negatively influence the deneddylating activity of the CSN. In recent years evidence accumulated that deregulation of the CSN-CRL pathway can cause cancer. Here we review current knowledge on modifications of CSN and CRL components including CSN subunits, SRSs and cullins causing tumorigenesis with emphasis on urological neoplasia. The CSN-CRL pathway is a target of tumor-viruses as well as of a multitude of miRNAs. Recently evaluated miRNAs altered in urological cancers might have impact on the CSN-CRL pathway which has to be analyzed in future experiments. We propose that the pathway is a suitable target for future tumor therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Can the differences in the determinations of V(ub) and V(cb) be explained by new physics?

    PubMed

    Crivellin, Andreas; Pokorski, Stefan

    2015-01-09

    The precise determination of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa elements V(ub) and V(ub) is crucial for any new physics analysis in the flavor sector. Their values can be determined from several tree-level decays: V(ub) can be extracted from B→Dℓν and B→D(*)ℓν while V(ub) can be obtained from B→πℓν, B→ρℓν, and B→τν. In addition, for both V(ub) and V(ub) an inclusive determination is available. There is a long lasting discrepancy between the inclusive and exclusive determinations which recently even increased for V(ub) above the 3σ level. In this Letter we study the possible effect of new physics on the inclusive and exclusive determination of V(ub) and V(ub) in a model independent way. We find that there is only one operator corresponding to a modified W coupling which can achieve this. However, respecting SU(2) gauge invariance at the high scale this would lead to very large violations of the Z to bb̅ coupling not compatible with experiment. Therefore, we conclude that a new physics explanation of the difference between the inclusive and exclusive determination of V(ub) and V(ub) is currently ruled out. Therefore, the discrepancies must be due to underestimated uncertainties in the theoretical and/or the experimental analysis.

  11. Parkin-catalyzed Ubiquitin-Ester Transfer Is Triggered by PINK1-dependent Phosphorylation*

    PubMed Central

    Iguchi, Masahiro; Kujuro, Yuki; Okatsu, Kei; Koyano, Fumika; Kosako, Hidetaka; Kimura, Mayumi; Suzuki, Norihiro; Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Tanaka, Keiji; Matsuda, Noriyuki

    2013-01-01

    PINK1 and PARKIN are causal genes for autosomal recessive familial Parkinsonism. PINK1 is a mitochondrial Ser/Thr kinase, whereas Parkin functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Under steady-state conditions, Parkin localizes to the cytoplasm where its E3 activity is repressed. A decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential triggers Parkin E3 activity and recruits it to depolarized mitochondria for ubiquitylation of mitochondrial substrates. The molecular basis for how the E3 activity of Parkin is re-established by mitochondrial damage has yet to be determined. Here we provide in vitro biochemical evidence for ubiquitin-thioester formation on Cys-431 of recombinant Parkin. We also report that Parkin forms a ubiquitin-ester following a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential in cells, and that this event is essential for substrate ubiquitylation. Importantly, the Parkin RING2 domain acts as a transthiolation or acyl-transferring domain rather than an E2-recruiting domain. Furthermore, formation of the ubiquitin-ester depends on PINK1 phosphorylation of Parkin Ser-65. A phosphorylation-deficient mutation completely inhibited formation of the Parkin ubiquitin-ester intermediate, whereas phosphorylation mimics, such as Ser to Glu substitution, enabled partial formation of the intermediate irrespective of Ser-65 phosphorylation. We propose that PINK1-dependent phosphorylation of Parkin leads to the ubiquitin-ester transfer reaction of the RING2 domain, and that this is an essential step in Parkin activation. PMID:23754282

  12. Commentary on "the E3 ubiquitin ligase Siah2 contributes to castration-resistant prostate cancer by regulation of androgen receptor transcriptional activity." Qi J, Tripathi M, Mishra R, Sahgal N, Fazli L, Ettinger S, Placzek WJ, Claps G, Chung LW, Bowtell D, Gleave M, Bhowmick N, Ronai ZA, Signal Transduction Program, Cancer Center, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA.: Cancer Cell 2013;23(6):332-46.

    PubMed

    Olumi, Aria F

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the mechanism underlying the regulation of the androgen receptor (AR), a central player in the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), holds promise for overcoming the challenge of treating CRPC. We demonstrate that the ubiquitin ligase Siah2 targets a select pool of NCOR1-bound, transcriptionally-inactive AR for ubiquitin-dependent degradation, thereby promoting expression of select AR target genes implicated in lipid metabolism, cell motility, and proliferation. Siah2 is required for prostate cancer cell growth under androgen-deprivation conditions in vitro and in vivo, and Siah2 inhibition promotes prostate cancer regression upon castration. Notably, Siah2 expression is markedly increased in human CRPCs. Collectively, we find that selective regulation of AR transcriptional activity by the ubiquitin ligase Siah2 is important for CRPC development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mineralogy and thermal properties of clay from Slatina (Ub, Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milosevic, Maja; Logar, Mihovil; Kaludjerovic, Lazar; Jelic, Ivana

    2017-04-01

    The "Slatina" deposit, Ub, Serbia was opened in 1965 and represents one of few deposits exploited by "Kopovi" a.d., Ub, company. Deposit is composed of clay layers belonging to Neogene sediments that are widespread transgressive over granitoid rocks of Cer mountain and Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments. Clay is mostly of illite-montmorillonite-kaolinite type and they are generally used as ceramic materials while some of the layers are used as fire-resistant materials. In this study we present mineralogical and thermal characterization of two samples to determine their application as industrial materials. Chemical and mineral composition was determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), X-ray diffraction (XRD) on powder and oriented samples, infrared spectroscopy (IR) and granulometry. Cationic exchange capacity (CEC) and specific surface area (SSA) was determined using spectrophotometry and methylene blue (MB). Thermal properties where determined by gravimetry (120, 350, 600 and 1000 oC) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Quantitative mineral composition obtained by Rietveld refinement of combined chemical and XRD data shows that the sample 1(SC) is mainly smectite-illite (45%) and kaolinite (14%) clay with 19% of quartz, 10% feldspars and 7% of limonite, while sample 2(SV) is smectite-illite (43%) and kaolinite (11%) clay with 10% of quartz, 15% feldspars and 7% of limonite. Both samples have low content of impurities (carbonate minerals). Medium grain size (μm) goes from 1.02 (SSA = 104 m2/g) for sample 1(SC) to 0.71 (SSA = 117 m2/g) for sample 2(SV) while their CEC is 12.7 and 14.9 mmol/100g for 1(SC) and 2(SV) respectively. IR spectra of the samples shows larger amount of smectite clays with quartz and carbonate minerals for both samples which is in accordance with XRD data. DTA data shows couple of events that are endothermic. First one (100-200 oC) is associated with loss of moisture and constitutive water, second

  14. Ubiquitin in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Mayer, R J; Arnold, J; László, L; Landon, M; Lowe, J

    1991-06-13

    Studies in recent years have shown that ubiquitin has increasingly important functions in eukaryotic cells; roles which were previously not suspected in healthy and diseased cells. The interplay between molecular pathological and molecular cell biological findings has indicated that ubiquitin may be pivotal in the cell stress response in chronic degenerative and viral diseases. Furthermore, the studies have led to the notion that ubiquitination may not only serve as a signal for nonlysosomal protein degradation but may be a unifying covalent protein modification for the major intracellular protein catabolic systems; these can act to identify proteins for cytosolic proteinases or direct intact and fragmented proteins into the lysosome system for breakdown to amino acids. This unifying role could explain why ubiquitin is restricted to eukaryotic cells, which possess extensive endomembrane systems in addition to a nuclear envelope. Protein ubiquitination is a feature of most filamentous inclusions and certain other intracellular conglomerates that are found in some degenerative and viral diseases. The detection of ubiquitin-protein conjugates is not of great diagnostic importance in these diseases. Protein ubiquitination is not only essential for the normal physiological turnover of proteins but appears to have been adapted as part of an intracellular surveillance system that can be activated by altered, damaged, or foreign proteins and organelles. The purpose of this system is to isolate and eliminate these noxious structures from the cell: as a cytoprotective mechanism this appears to have evolved in the cell akin perhaps to an 'intracellular immune system'. Other heat shock proteins such as hsp 70 may be involved in this process. It is apparent that ubiquitin has a role in embryonic development. Protein ubiquitination is presumably involved in the reorganisation of cytoplasm that accompanies cell differentiation. Ubiquitin is also necessary for the gross

  15. A DNA vaccine co-expressing Trichinella spiralis MIF and MCD-1 with murine ubiquitin induces partial protective immunity in mice.

    PubMed

    Tang, F; Xu, L; Yan, R; Song, X; Li, X

    2013-03-01

    Co-expression of Trichinella spiralis macrophage migration inhibitory factor (TsMIF) with T. spiralis cystatin-like domain protein (TsMCD-1) in a DNA vaccine induces a Th1 immune response and partial protection against T. spiralis infection. The present study evaluated whether co-expression of mouse ubiquitin (Ub) with TsMIF and TsMCD-1 might improve the immune response against T. spiralis infection. Groups of BALB/c mice were immunized twice at 2-week intervals with 100 μg of plasmid DNA encoding either a TsMIF-TsMCD-1 fusion protein (pVAX1-Tsmif-Tsmcd-1) or an Ub-co-expressing triple fusion protein Ub-TsMIF-TsMCD-1 (pVAX1-Ub-Tsmif-Tsmcd-1). Control animals were immunized with pVAX1-Ub or blank vector plasmid. Specific antibody levels (IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, IgM, IgA, IgE) against the recombinant protein TsMIF-TsMCD-1, serum cytokines (interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and IL-17), CD4+/CD8+ T cells and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses were monitored. Challenge infection was performed 2 weeks after the second immunization and worm burden was assayed at 35 days post-challenge. Antibody responses induced by pVAX1-Ub-Tsmif-Tsmcd-1 were significantly lower than for TsMIF-TsMCD-1, but the vaccine induced increased levels of Th1 cytokine (IFN-γ) and increased T-cell cytotoxicity. The reduction of worm burden (37.95%) following immunization with pVAX1-Ub-Tsmif-Tsmcd-1 was significantly greater than that induced by the pVAX1-Tsmif-Tsmcd-1 vaccine (23.17%; P< 0.05).

  16. E3 Sustainable Manufacturing Curriculum

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A short E3 course containing three modules on Environmental Sustainability; Lean Manufacturing and Pollution Prevention; and Energy and Carbon. Each module includes slides, a facilitator's guide with handouts, activities, quizzes, and facilitator's notes.

  17. The ubiquitin-proteasome system in spongiform degenerative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Whatley, Brandi R.; Li, Lian; Chin, Lih-Shen

    2008-01-01

    Summary Spongiform degeneration is characterized by vacuolation in nervous tissue accompanied by neuronal death and gliosis. Although spongiform degeneration is a hallmark of prion diseases, this pathology is also present in the brains of patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease, diffuse Lewy body disease, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and Canavan's spongiform leukodystrophy. The shared outcome of spongiform degeneration in these diverse diseases suggests that common cellular mechanisms must underlie the processes of spongiform change and neurodegeneration in the central nervous system. Immunohistochemical analysis of brain tissues reveals increased ubiquitin immunoreactivity in and around areas of spongiform change, suggesting the involvement of ubiquitin-proteasome system dysfunction in the pathogenesis of spongiform neurodegeneration. The link between aberrant ubiquitination and spongiform neurodegeneration has been strengthened by the discovery that a null mutation in the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase mahogunin ring finger-1 (Mgrn1) causes an autosomal recessively inherited form of spongiform neurodegeneration in animals. Recent studies have begun to suggest that abnormal ubiquitination may alter intracellular signaling and cell functions via proteasome-dependent and proteasome-independent mechanisms, leading to spongiform degeneration and neuronal cell death. Further elucidation of the pathogenic pathways involved in spongiform neurodegeneration should facilitate the development of novel rational therapies for treating prion diseases, HIV infection, and other spongiform degenerative disorders. PMID:18790052

  18. PINK1 autophosphorylation is required for ubiquitin recognition.

    PubMed

    Rasool, Shafqat; Soya, Naoto; Truong, Luc; Croteau, Nathalie; Lukacs, Gergely L; Trempe, Jean-François

    2018-04-01

    Mutations in PINK1 cause autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative movement disorder. PINK1 is a kinase that acts as a sensor of mitochondrial damage and initiates Parkin-mediated clearance of the damaged organelle. PINK1 phosphorylates Ser65 in both ubiquitin and the ubiquitin-like (Ubl) domain of Parkin, which stimulates its E3 ligase activity. Autophosphorylation of PINK1 is required for Parkin activation, but how this modulates the ubiquitin kinase activity is unclear. Here, we show that autophosphorylation of Tribolium castaneum PINK1 is required for substrate recognition. Using enzyme kinetics and NMR spectroscopy, we reveal that PINK1 binds the Parkin Ubl with a 10-fold higher affinity than ubiquitin via a conserved interface that is also implicated in RING1 and SH3 binding. The interaction requires phosphorylation at Ser205, an invariant PINK1 residue (Ser228 in human). Using mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that PINK1 rapidly autophosphorylates in trans at Ser205. Small-angle X-ray scattering and hydrogen-deuterium exchange experiments provide insights into the structure of the PINK1 catalytic domain. Our findings suggest that multiple PINK1 molecules autophosphorylate first prior to binding and phosphorylating ubiquitin and Parkin. © 2018 The Authors.

  19. Ube2w and ataxin-3 coordinately regulate the ubiquitin ligase CHIP

    PubMed Central

    Scaglione, K. Matthew; Zavodszky, Eszter; Todi, Sokol V.; Patury, Srikanth; Xu, Ping; Rodríguez-Lebrón, Edgardo; Fischer, Svetlana; Konen, John; Djarmati, Ana; Peng, Junmin; Gestwicki, Jason E.; Paulson, Henry L.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The mechanisms by which ubiquitin ligases are regulated remain poorly understood. Here we describe a series of molecular events that coordinately regulate CHIP, a neuroprotective E3 implicated in protein quality control. Through their opposing activities, the initiator E2, Ube2w, and the specialized deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB), ataxin-3, participate in initiating, regulating and terminating the CHIP ubiquitination cycle. Monoubiquitination of CHIP by Ube2w stabilizes the interaction between CHIP and ataxin-3, which through its DUB activity limits the length of chains attached to CHIP substrates. Upon completion of substrate ubiquitination ataxin-3 deubiquitinates CHIP, effectively terminating the reaction. Our results suggest that functional pairing of E3s with ataxin-3 or similar DUBs represents an important point of regulation in ubiquitin-dependent protein quality control. In addition, the results shed light on disease pathogenesis in SCA3, a neurodegenerative disorder caused by polyglutamine expansion in ataxin-3. PMID:21855799

  20. Phospho-ubiquitin: upending the PINK–Parkin–ubiquitin cascade

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria with decreased membrane potential are characterized by defects in protein import into the matrix and impairments in high-efficiency synthesis of ATP. These low-quality mitochondria are marked with ubiquitin for selective degradation. Key factors in this mechanism are PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1, a mitochondrial kinase) and Parkin (a ubiquitin ligase), disruption of which has been implicated in predisposition to Parkinson’s disease. Previously, the clearance of damaged mitochondria had been thought to be the end result of a simple cascading reaction of PINK1–Parkin–ubiquitin. However, in the past year, several research groups including ours unexpectedly revealed that Parkin regulation is mediated by PINK1-dependent phosphorylation of ubiquitin. These results overturned the simple hierarchy that posited PINK1 and ubiquitin as the upstream and downstream factors of Parkin, respectively. Although ubiquitylation is well-known as a post-translational modification, it has recently become clear that ubiquitin itself can be modified, and that this modification unexpectedly converts ubiquitin to a factor that functions in retrograde signalling. PMID:26839319

  1. Phospho-ubiquitin: upending the PINK-Parkin-ubiquitin cascade.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Noriyuki

    2016-04-01

    Mitochondria with decreased membrane potential are characterized by defects in protein import into the matrix and impairments in high-efficiency synthesis of ATP. These low-quality mitochondria are marked with ubiquitin for selective degradation. Key factors in this mechanism are PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1, a mitochondrial kinase) and Parkin (a ubiquitin ligase), disruption of which has been implicated in predisposition to Parkinson's disease. Previously, the clearance of damaged mitochondria had been thought to be the end result of a simple cascading reaction of PINK1-Parkin-ubiquitin. However, in the past year, several research groups including ours unexpectedly revealed that Parkin regulation is mediated by PINK1-dependent phosphorylation of ubiquitin. These results overturned the simple hierarchy that posited PINK1 and ubiquitin as the upstream and downstream factors of Parkin, respectively. Although ubiquitylation is well-known as a post-translational modification, it has recently become clear that ubiquitin itself can be modified, and that this modification unexpectedly converts ubiquitin to a factor that functions in retrograde signalling. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Plant Virus Infection and the Ubiquitin Proteasome Machinery: Arms Race along the Endoplasmic Reticulum.

    PubMed

    Verchot, Jeanmarie

    2016-11-19

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is central to plant virus replication, translation, maturation, and egress. Ubiquitin modification of ER associated cellular and viral proteins, alongside the actions of the 26S proteasome, are vital for the regulation of infection. Viruses can arrogate ER associated ubiquitination as well as cytosolic ubiquitin ligases with the purpose of directing the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) to new targets. Such targets include necessary modification of viral proteins which may stabilize certain complexes, or modification of Argonaute to suppress gene silencing. The UPS machinery also contributes to the regulation of effector triggered immunity pattern recognition receptor immunity. Combining the results of unrelated studies, many positive strand RNA plant viruses appear to interact with cytosolic Ub-ligases to provide novel avenues for controlling the deleterious consequences of disease. Viral interactions with the UPS serve to regulate virus infection in a manner that promotes replication and movement, but also modulates the levels of RNA accumulation to ensure successful biotrophic interactions. In other instances, the UPS plays a central role in cellular immunity. These opposing roles are made evident by contrasting studies where knockout mutations in the UPS can either hamper viruses or lead to more aggressive diseases. Understanding how viruses manipulate ER associated post-translational machineries to better manage virus-host interactions will provide new targets for crop improvement.

  3. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Suppresses Innate Immune Responses via a Ubiquitin and ISG15 Specific Protease.

    PubMed

    Scholte, Florine E M; Zivcec, Marko; Dzimianski, John V; Deaton, Michelle K; Spengler, Jessica R; Welch, Stephen R; Nichol, Stuart T; Pegan, Scott D; Spiropoulou, Christina F; Bergeron, Éric

    2017-09-05

    Antiviral responses are regulated by conjugation of ubiquitin (Ub) and interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) to proteins. Certain classes of viruses encode Ub- or ISG15-specific proteases belonging to the ovarian tumor (OTU) superfamily. Their activity is thought to suppress cellular immune responses, but studies demonstrating the function of viral OTU proteases during infection are lacking. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever vi