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Sample records for e5 critical point

  1. Relative Critical Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Debra

    2013-05-01

    Relative equilibria of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems with symmetry are critical points of appropriate scalar functions parametrized by the Lie algebra (or its dual) of the symmetry group. Setting aside the structures - symplectic, Poisson, or variational - generating dynamical systems from such functions highlights the common features of their construction and analysis, and supports the construction of analogous functions in non-Hamiltonian settings. If the symmetry group is nonabelian, the functions are invariant only with respect to the isotropy subgroup of the given parameter value. Replacing the parametrized family of functions with a single function on the product manifold and extending the action using the (co)adjoint action on the algebra or its dual yields a fully invariant function. An invariant map can be used to reverse the usual perspective: rather than selecting a parametrized family of functions and finding their critical points, conditions under which functions will be critical on specific orbits, typically distinguished by isotropy class, can be derived. This strategy is illustrated using several well-known mechanical systems - the Lagrange top, the double spherical pendulum, the free rigid body, and the Riemann ellipsoids - and generalizations of these systems.

  2. Davies Critical Point and Tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La, Hoseong

    2012-04-01

    From the point of view of tunneling, the physical meaning of the Davies critical point of a second-order phase transition in the black hole thermodynamics is clarified. At the critical point, the nonthermal contribution vanishes so that the black hole radiation is entirely thermal. It separates two phases: one with radiation enhanced by the nonthermal contribution, the other suppressed by the nonthermal contribution. We show this in both charged and rotating black holes. The phase transition is also analyzed in the cases in which emissions of charges and angular momenta are incorporated.

  3. Critical points of metal vapors

    SciT

    Khomkin, A. L., E-mail: alhomkin@mail.ru; Shumikhin, A. S.

    2015-09-15

    A new method is proposed for calculating the parameters of critical points and binodals for the vapor–liquid (insulator–metal) phase transition in vapors of metals with multielectron valence shells. The method is based on a model developed earlier for the vapors of alkali metals, atomic hydrogen, and exciton gas, proceeding from the assumption that the cohesion determining the basic characteristics of metals under normal conditions is also responsible for their properties in the vicinity of the critical point. It is proposed to calculate the cohesion of multielectron atoms using well-known scaling relations for the binding energy, which are constructed for mostmore » metals in the periodic table by processing the results of many numerical calculations. The adopted model allows the parameters of critical points and binodals for the vapor–liquid phase transition in metal vapors to be calculated using published data on the properties of metals under normal conditions. The parameters of critical points have been calculated for a large number of metals and show satisfactory agreement with experimental data for alkali metals and with available estimates for all other metals. Binodals of metals have been calculated for the first time.« less

  4. Critical point analysis of phase envelope diagram

    SciT

    Soetikno, Darmadi; Siagian, Ucok W. R.; Kusdiantara, Rudy, E-mail: rkusdiantara@s.itb.ac.id

    2014-03-24

    Phase diagram or phase envelope is a relation between temperature and pressure that shows the condition of equilibria between the different phases of chemical compounds, mixture of compounds, and solutions. Phase diagram is an important issue in chemical thermodynamics and hydrocarbon reservoir. It is very useful for process simulation, hydrocarbon reactor design, and petroleum engineering studies. It is constructed from the bubble line, dew line, and critical point. Bubble line and dew line are composed of bubble points and dew points, respectively. Bubble point is the first point at which the gas is formed when a liquid is heated. Meanwhile,more » dew point is the first point where the liquid is formed when the gas is cooled. Critical point is the point where all of the properties of gases and liquids are equal, such as temperature, pressure, amount of substance, and others. Critical point is very useful in fuel processing and dissolution of certain chemicals. Here in this paper, we will show the critical point analytically. Then, it will be compared with numerical calculations of Peng-Robinson equation by using Newton-Raphson method. As case studies, several hydrocarbon mixtures are simulated using by Matlab.« less

  5. Critical point wetting drop tower experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaukler, W. F.; Tcherneshoff, L. M.; Straits, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary results for the Critical Point Wetting CPW Drop Tower Experiment are produced with immiscible systems. Much of the observed phenomena conformed to the anticipated behavior. More drops will be needed to test the CPW theory with these immiscible systems.

  6. Ecosystem thresholds, tipping points, and critical transitions

    SciT

    Munson, Seth M.; Reed, Sasha C.; Peñuelas, Josep

    Terrestrial ecosystems in a time of change: thresholds, tipping points, and critical transitions; an organized session at the American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, December 2017

  7. Fermion-induced quantum critical points.

    PubMed

    Li, Zi-Xiang; Jiang, Yi-Fan; Jian, Shao-Kai; Yao, Hong

    2017-08-22

    A unified theory of quantum critical points beyond the conventional Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson paradigm remains unknown. According to Landau cubic criterion, phase transitions should be first-order when cubic terms of order parameters are allowed by symmetry in the Landau-Ginzburg free energy. Here, from renormalization group analysis, we show that second-order quantum phase transitions can occur at such putatively first-order transitions in interacting two-dimensional Dirac semimetals. As such type of Landau-forbidden quantum critical points are induced by gapless fermions, we call them fermion-induced quantum critical points. We further introduce a microscopic model of SU(N) fermions on the honeycomb lattice featuring a transition between Dirac semimetals and Kekule valence bond solids. Remarkably, our large-scale sign-problem-free Majorana quantum Monte Carlo simulations show convincing evidences of a fermion-induced quantum critical points for N = 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, consistent with the renormalization group analysis. We finally discuss possible experimental realizations of the fermion-induced quantum critical points in graphene and graphene-like materials.Quantum phase transitions are governed by Landau-Ginzburg theory and the exceptions are rare. Here, Li et al. propose a type of Landau-forbidden quantum critical points induced by gapless fermions in two-dimensional Dirac semimetals.

  8. Deconfined Quantum Critical Points: Symmetries and Dualities

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Chong; Nahum, Adam; Metlitski, Max A.; ...

    2017-09-22

    The deconfined quantum critical point (QCP), separating the Néel and valence bond solid phases in a 2D antiferromagnet, was proposed as an example of (2+1)D criticality fundamentally different from standard Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson-Fisher criticality. In this work, we present multiple equivalent descriptions of deconfined QCPs, and use these to address the possibility of enlarged emergent symmetries in the low-energy limit. The easy-plane deconfined QCP, besides its previously discussed self-duality, is dual to N f=2 fermionic quantum electrodynamics, which has its own self-duality and hence may have an O(4)×ZT2 symmetry. We propose several dualities for the deconfined QCP with SU(2) spin symmetry whichmore » together make natural the emergence of a previously suggested SO(5) symmetry rotating the Néel and valence bond solid orders. These emergent symmetries are implemented anomalously. The associated infrared theories can also be viewed as surface descriptions of (3+1) D topological paramagnets, giving further insight into the dualities. We describe a number of numerical tests of these dualities. We also discuss the possibility of “pseudocritical” behavior for deconfined critical points, and the meaning of the dualities and emergent symmetries in such a scenario.« less

  9. Dynamic trapping near a quantum critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolodrubetz, Michael; Katz, Emanuel; Polkovnikov, Anatoli

    2015-02-01

    The study of dynamics in closed quantum systems has been revitalized by the emergence of experimental systems that are well-isolated from their environment. In this paper, we consider the closed-system dynamics of an archetypal model: spins driven across a second-order quantum critical point, which are traditionally described by the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. Imbuing the driving field with Newtonian dynamics, we find that the full closed system exhibits a robust new phenomenon—dynamic critical trapping—in which the system is self-trapped near the critical point due to efficient absorption of field kinetic energy by heating the quantum spins. We quantify limits in which this phenomenon can be observed and generalize these results by developing a Kibble-Zurek scaling theory that incorporates the dynamic field. Our findings can potentially be interesting in the context of early universe physics, where the role of the driving field is played by the inflaton or a modulus field.

  10. Two critical tests for the Critical Point earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzanis, A.; Vallianatos, F.

    2003-04-01

    It has been credibly argued that the earthquake generation process is a critical phenomenon culminating with a large event that corresponds to some critical point. In this view, a great earthquake represents the end of a cycle on its associated fault network and the beginning of a new one. The dynamic organization of the fault network evolves as the cycle progresses and a great earthquake becomes more probable, thereby rendering possible the prediction of the cycle’s end by monitoring the approach of the fault network toward a critical state. This process may be described by a power-law time-to-failure scaling of the cumulative seismic release rate. Observational evidence has confirmed the power-law scaling in many cases and has empirically determined that the critical exponent in the power law is typically of the order n=0.3. There are also two theoretical predictions for the value of the critical exponent. Ben-Zion and Lyakhovsky (Pure appl. geophys., 159, 2385-2412, 2002) give n=1/3. Rundle et al. (Pure appl. geophys., 157, 2165-2182, 2000) show that the power-law activation associated with a spinodal instability is essentially identical to the power-law acceleration of Benioff strain observed prior to earthquakes; in this case n=0.25. More recently, the CP model has gained support from the development of more dependable models of regional seismicity with realistic fault geometry that show accelerating seismicity before large events. Essentially, these models involve stress transfer to the fault network during the cycle such, that the region of accelerating seismicity will scale with the size of the culminating event, as for instance in Bowman and King (Geophys. Res. Let., 38, 4039-4042, 2001). It is thus possible to understand the observed characteristics of distributed accelerating seismicity in terms of a simple process of increasing tectonic stress in a region already subjected to stress inhomogeneities at all scale lengths. Then, the region of

  11. Validation of acid washes as critical control points in hazard analysis and critical control point systems.

    PubMed

    Dormedy, E S; Brashears, M M; Cutter, C N; Burson, D E

    2000-12-01

    A 2% lactic acid wash used in a large meat-processing facility was validated as an effective critical control point (CCP) in a hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plan. We examined the microbial profiles of beef carcasses before the acid wash, beef carcasses immediately after the acid wash, beef carcasses 24 h after the acid wash, beef subprimal cuts from the acid-washed carcasses, and on ground beef made from acid-washed carcasses. Total mesophilic, psychrotrophic, coliforms, generic Escherichia coli, lactic acid bacteria, pseudomonads, and acid-tolerant microorganisms were enumerated on all samples. The presence of Salmonella spp. was also determined. Acid washing significantly reduced all counts except for pseudomonads that were present at very low numbers before acid washing. All other counts continued to stay significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those on pre-acid-washed carcasses throughout all processing steps. Total bacteria, coliforms, and generic E. coli enumerated on ground beef samples were more than 1 log cycle lower than those reported in the U.S. Department of Agriculture Baseline data. This study suggests that acid washes may be effective CCPs in HACCP plans and can significantly reduce the total number of microorganisms present on the carcass and during further processing.

  12. Critical point wetting drop tower experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaukler, William F.

    1990-01-01

    The 100 m Drop Tower at NASA-Marshall was used to provide the step change in acceleration from 1.0 to 0.0005 g. An inter-fluid meniscus oscillates vertically within a cylindrical container when suddenly released from earth's gravity and taken into a microgravity environment. Oscillations damp out from energy dissipative mechanisms such as viscosity and interfacial friction. Damping of the oscillations by the later mechanism is affected by the nature of the interfacial junction between the fluid-fluid interface and the container wall. In earlier stages of the project, the meniscus shape which developed during microgravity conditions was applied to evaluations of wetting phenomena near the critical temperature. Variations in equilibrium contact angle against the container wall were expected to occur under critical wetting conditions. However, it became apparent that the meaningful phenomenon was the damping of interfacial oscillations. This latter concept makes up the bulk of this report. Perfluoromethyl cyclohexane and isopropanol in glass were the materials used for the experiment. The wetting condition of the fluids against the wall changes at the critical wetting transition temperature. This change in wetting causes a change in the damping characteristics of the interfacial excursions during oscillation and no measurable change in contact angle. The effect of contact line friction measured above and below the wetting transition temperature was to increase the period of vertical oscillation for the vapor-liquid interface when below the wetting transition temperature.

  13. Ecosystem thresholds, tipping points, and critical transitions

    Munson, Seth M.; Reed, Sasha C.; Peñuelas, Josep; McDowell, Nathan G.; Sala, Osvaldo E.

    2018-01-01

    Abrupt shifts in ecosystems are cause for concern and will likelyintensify under global change (Scheffer et al., 2001). The terms‘thresho lds’, ‘tipping points’, and ‘critical transitions’ have beenused interchangeably to refer to sudden changes in the integrityor state of an ecosystem caused by environmental drivers(Holling, 1973; May, 1977). Threshold-based concepts havesignific antly aided our capacity to predict the controls overecosystem structure and functioning (Schwinning et al., 2004;Peters et al., 2007) and have become a framework to guide themanagement of natural resources (Glick et al., 2010; Allen et al.,2011). However, our unders tanding of how biotic and abioticdrivers interact to regulate ecosystem responses and of ways toforecast th e impending responses remain limited. Terrestrialecosystems, in particular, are already responding to globalchange in ways that are both transformati onal and difficult topredict due to strong heterogeneity across temporal and spatialscales (Pe~nuelas & Filella, 2001; McDowell et al., 2011;Munson, 2013; Reed et al., 2016). Comparing approaches formeasuring ecosystem performance in response to changingenvironme ntal conditions and for detecting stress and thresholdresponses can improve tradition al tests of resilience and provideearly warning signs of ecosystem transitions. Similarly, com-paring responses across ecosystems can offer insight into themechanisms that underlie variation in threshold responses.

  14. Homoclinic orbits and critical points of barrier functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannarsa, Piermarco; Cheng, Wei

    2015-06-01

    We interpret the close link between the critical points of Mather's barrier functions and minimal homoclinic orbits with respect to the Aubry sets on {{T}}n . We also prove a critical point theorem for barrier functions and the existence of such homoclinic orbits on {{T}}2 as an application.

  15. The location of the second critical point of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanno, Hitoshi; Miyata, Kuniharu

    2006-05-01

    Based on the DTA data for homogeneous ice nucleation of emulsified liquid water at low temperatures and high pressures, the location of the second critical point (SCP) of water, which is expected to exist in addition to the normal liquid-vapor critical point, is estimated to be at 145 K < Tc2 < 175 K and Pc2 = ˜200 MPa ( Tc2: second critical temperature, Pc2: second critical pressure). It is shown that SCP is closely associated with the break point of the curve for the homogeneous ice nucleation temperature ( TH) of liquid water and with the transition between low density and high density amorphous solid water (LDA and HDA). Although the existence of SCP has become more realistic, the location seems to be less favorable to the water model of the second-critical-point interpretation.

  16. Order parameter fluctuations at a buried quantum critical point

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yejun; Wang, Jiyang; Jaramillo, R.; van Wezel, Jasper; Haravifard, S.; Srajer, G.; Liu, Y.; Xu, Z.-A.; Littlewood, P. B.; Rosenbaum, T. F.

    2012-01-01

    Quantum criticality is a central concept in condensed matter physics, but the direct observation of quantum critical fluctuations has remained elusive. Here we present an X-ray diffraction study of the charge density wave (CDW) in 2H-NbSe2 at high pressure and low temperature, where we observe a broad regime of order parameter fluctuations that are controlled by proximity to a quantum critical point. X-rays can track the CDW despite the fact that the quantum critical regime is shrouded inside a superconducting phase; and in contrast to transport probes, allow direct measurement of the critical fluctuations of the charge order. Concurrent measurements of the crystal lattice point to a critical transition that is continuous in nature. Our results confirm the long-standing expectations of enhanced quantum fluctuations in low-dimensional systems, and may help to constrain theories of the quantum critical Fermi surface. PMID:22529348

  17. Metallic quantum critical points with finite BCS couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghu, Srinivas

    The problem of superconductivity near quantum critical points (QCPs) remains a central topic of modern condensed matter physics. In such systems, there is a competition between the enhanced pairing tendency due to the presence of long-range attractive interactions near criticality, and the suppression of superconductivity due to the destruction of Landau quasiparticles. I will describe some recent work that addresses these competing effects in the context of a solvable model of a metallic quantum critical point. I will show that the two effects - namely the enhanced pairing and the destruction of Landau quasiparticles - can offset one another, resulting in stable ''naked'' quantum critical points without superconductivity. However, the resulting quantum critical metal exhibits strong superconducting fluctuations on all length scales. Reference: S.R., Gonzalo Torroba, and Huajia Wang, arXiv1507.06652, PRB(2015).

  18. Binary Colloidal Alloy Test-3 and 4: Critical Point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weitz, David A.; Lu, Peter J.

    2007-01-01

    Binary Colloidal Alloy Test - 3 and 4: Critical Point (BCAT-3-4-CP) will determine phase separation rates and add needed points to the phase diagram of a model critical fluid system. Crewmembers photograph samples of polymer and colloidal particles (tiny nanoscale spheres suspended in liquid) that model liquid/gas phase changes. Results will help scientists develop fundamental physics concepts previously cloaked by the effects of gravity.

  19. Inherently unstable networks collapse to a critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheinman, M.; Sharma, A.; Alvarado, J.; Koenderink, G. H.; MacKintosh, F. C.

    2015-07-01

    Nonequilibrium systems that are driven or drive themselves towards a critical point have been studied for almost three decades. Here we present a minimalist example of such a system, motivated by experiments on collapsing active elastic networks. Our model of an unstable elastic network exhibits a collapse towards a critical point from any macroscopically connected initial configuration. Taking into account steric interactions within the network, the model qualitatively and quantitatively reproduces results of the experiments on collapsing active gels.

  20. Phase diagram and critical end point for strongly interacting quarks.

    PubMed

    Qin, Si-xue; Chang, Lei; Chen, Huan; Liu, Yu-xin; Roberts, Craig D

    2011-04-29

    We introduce a method based on chiral susceptibility, which enables one to draw a phase diagram in the chemical-potential-temperature plane for strongly interacting quarks whose interactions are described by any reasonable gap equation, even if the diagrammatic content of the quark-gluon vertex is unknown. We locate a critical end point at (μ(E),T(E))∼(1.0,0.9)T(c), where T(c) is the critical temperature for chiral-symmetry restoration at μ=0, and find that a domain of phase coexistence opens at the critical end point whose area increases as a confinement length scale grows.

  1. Exact renormalization group equation for the Lifshitz critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bervillier, C.

    2004-10-01

    An exact renormalization equation (ERGE) accounting for an anisotropic scaling is derived. The critical and tricritical Lifshitz points are then studied at leading order of the derivative expansion which is shown to involve two differential equations. The resulting estimates of the Lifshitz critical exponents compare well with the O(ε) calculations. In the case of the Lifshitz tricritical point, it is shown that a marginally relevant coupling defies the perturbative approach since it actually makes the fixed point referred to in the previous perturbative calculations O(ε) finally unstable.

  2. Defect production in nonlinear quench across a quantum critical point.

    PubMed

    Sen, Diptiman; Sengupta, K; Mondal, Shreyoshi

    2008-07-04

    We show that the defect density n, for a slow nonlinear power-law quench with a rate tau(-1) and an exponent alpha>0, which takes the system through a critical point characterized by correlation length and dynamical critical exponents nu and z, scales as n approximately tau(-alphanud/(alphaznu+1)) [n approximately (alphag((alpha-1)/alpha)/tau)(nud/(znu+1))] if the quench takes the system across the critical point at time t=0 [t=t(0) not = 0], where g is a nonuniversal constant and d is the system dimension. These scaling laws constitute the first theoretical results for defect production in nonlinear quenches across quantum critical points and reproduce their well-known counterpart for a linear quench (alpha=1) as a special case. We supplement our results with numerical studies of well-known models and suggest experiments to test our theory.

  3. Lifetimes in Te 124 : Examining critical-point symmetry in the Te nuclei

    DOE PAGES

    Hicks, S. F.; Vanhoy, J. R.; Burkett, P. G.; ...

    2017-03-27

    The Doppler-shift attenuation method following inelastic neutron scattering was used to determine the lifetimes of nuclear levels to 3.3-MeV excitation in 124Te. Level energies and spins, γ -ray energies and branching ratios, and multipole-mixing ratios were deduced from measured γ-ray angular distributions at incident neutron energies of 2.40 and 3.30 MeV, γ-ray excitation functions, and γγ coincidence measurements. The newly obtained reduced transition probabilities and level energies for 124Te were compared to critical-point symmetry model predictions. The E(5) and β 4 potential critical-point symmetries were also investigated in 122Te and 126Te.

  4. Critical Point in Self-Organized Tissue Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar-Hidalgo, Daniel; Werner, Steffen; Wartlick, Ortrud; González-Gaitán, Marcos; Friedrich, Benjamin M.; Jülicher, Frank

    2018-05-01

    We present a theory of pattern formation in growing domains inspired by biological examples of tissue development. Gradients of signaling molecules regulate growth, while growth changes these graded chemical patterns by dilution and advection. We identify a critical point of this feedback dynamics, which is characterized by spatially homogeneous growth and proportional scaling of patterns with tissue length. We apply this theory to the biological model system of the developing wing of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and quantitatively identify signatures of the critical point.

  5. Verifying critical control points for Phytophthora introduction into nurseries

    N.K. Osterbauer; M. Lujan; G. McAninch; A. Trippe; S. Lane

    2013-01-01

    The Oregon Department of Agriculture implemented the Grower Assisted Inspection Program (GAIP) for nurseries in 2007. Participants in GAIP adopted best management practices (BMP) for five critical control points (CCP) (used containers, irrigation water, soil substrate, potting media, and incoming plants), where foliar Phytophthora can be introduced...

  6. Quantum-to-classical crossover near quantum critical point

    DOE PAGES

    Vasin, M.; Ryzhov, V.; Vinokur, V. M.

    2015-12-21

    A quantum phase transition (QPT) is an inherently dynamic phenomenon. However, while non-dissipative quantum dynamics is described in detail, the question, that is not thoroughly understood is how the omnipresent dissipative processes enter the critical dynamics near a quantum critical point (QCP). Here we report a general approach enabling inclusion of both adiabatic and dissipative processes into the critical dynamics on the same footing. We reveal three distinct critical modes, the adiabatic quantum mode (AQM), the dissipative classical mode [classical critical dynamics mode (CCDM)], and the dissipative quantum critical mode (DQCM). We find that as a result of the transitionmore » from the regime dominated by thermal fluctuations to that governed by the quantum ones, the system acquires effective dimension d+zΛ(T), where z is the dynamical exponent, and temperature-depending parameter Λ(T)ε[0, 1] decreases with the temperature such that Λ(T=0) = 1 and Λ(T →∞) = 0. Lastly, our findings lead to a unified picture of quantum critical phenomena including both dissipation- and dissipationless quantum dynamic effects and offer a quantitative description of the quantum-to-classical crossover.« less

  7. Optical Studies of Pure Fluids about Their Critical Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Kian Tiong

    Three optical experiments were performed on pure fluids near their critical points. In the first two setups, CH_3F and H_2C:CF _2 were each tested in a temperature -controlled, prism-shaped cell and a thin parallel-windows cell. In the prism cell, a laser beam was additionally deflected by the fluid present. From the deflection data, the refractive index was related to the density to find the Lorentz-Lorenz function. Critical temperature (T _{c}), density, refractive index and electronic polarizability were found. In the second experiment, a critically-filled, thin parallel-windows cell was placed in one arm of a Mach-Zehnder interoferometer. Fluid density was monitored by changes in the fringe pattern with changing cell temperature. The aim was to improve on the precision of T_{c}: T_{c}{rm (CH}_3 F) = (44cdot9087 +/- 0cdot0002)C; T _{c}{rm(H}_2C:CF _2) = (29cdot7419 +/- 0cdot0001)C; and, to study the coexistence curve and diameter as close to T_{c} as possible. The critical behaviour was compared to the theoretical renormalization group calculations. The derived coefficients were tested against a proposed three-body interaction to explain the field-mixing term in the diameter near the critical point. It was found that H_2C:CF_2 behaved as predicted by such an interaction; CH _3F (and CHF_3) did not. The third experiment was a feasibility study to find out if (critical) isotherms could be measured optically in a setup which combined the prism and parallel-windows cells. The aim was to map isotherms in as wide a range of pressure and density as possible and to probe the critical region directly. Pressure was monitored by a precise digital pressure gauge. CH_3F and CHF _3 were tested in this system. It was found that at low densities, the calculated second and third virial coefficients agreed with reference values. However, the data around the critical point were not accurate enough for use to calculate the critical exponent, delta . The calculated value was

  8. Quantum critical point revisited by dynamical mean-field theory

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, Wenhu; Kotliar, Gabriel; Tsvelik, Alexei M.

    2017-03-31

    Dynamical mean-field theory is used to study the quantum critical point (QCP) in the doped Hubbard model on a square lattice. We characterize the QCP by a universal scaling form of the self-energy and a spin density wave instability at an incommensurate wave vector. The scaling form unifies the low-energy kink and the high-energy waterfall feature in the spectral function, while the spin dynamics includes both the critical incommensurate and high-energy antiferromagnetic paramagnons. Here, we use the frequency-dependent four-point correlation function of spin operators to calculate the momentum-dependent correction to the electron self-energy. Furthermore, by comparing with the calculations basedmore » on the spin-fermion model, our results indicate the frequency dependence of the quasiparticle-paramagnon vertices is an important factor to capture the momentum dependence in quasiparticle scattering.« less

  9. Entanglement spectrum of random-singlet quantum critical points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagotti, Maurizio; Calabrese, Pasquale; Moore, Joel E.

    2011-01-01

    The entanglement spectrum (i.e., the full distribution of Schmidt eigenvalues of the reduced density matrix) contains more information than the conventional entanglement entropy and has been studied recently in several many-particle systems. We compute the disorder-averaged entanglement spectrum in the form of the disorder-averaged moments TrρAα̲ of the reduced density matrix ρA for a contiguous block of many spins at the random-singlet quantum critical point in one dimension. The result compares well in the scaling limit with numerical studies on the random XX model and is also expected to describe the (interacting) random Heisenberg model. Our numerical studies on the XX case reveal that the dependence of the entanglement entropy and spectrum on the geometry of the Hilbert space partition is quite different than for conformally invariant critical points.

  10. Protecting clean critical points by local disorder correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyos, J. A.; Laflorencie, Nicolas; Vieira, André.; Vojta, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    We show that a broad class of quantum critical points can be stable against locally correlated disorder even if they are unstable against uncorrelated disorder. Although this result seemingly contradicts the Harris criterion, it follows naturally from the absence of a random-mass term in the associated order-parameter field theory. We illustrate the general concept with explicit calculations for quantum spin-chain models. Instead of the infinite-randomness physics induced by uncorrelated disorder, we find that weak locally correlated disorder is irrelevant. For larger disorder, we find a line of critical points with unusual properties such as an increase of the entanglement entropy with the disorder strength. We also propose experimental realizations in the context of quantum magnetism and cold-atom physics. Financial support: Fapesp, CNPq, NSF, and Research Corporation.

  11. Quantum critical point revisited by dynamical mean-field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenhu; Kotliar, Gabriel; Tsvelik, Alexei M.

    2017-03-01

    Dynamical mean-field theory is used to study the quantum critical point (QCP) in the doped Hubbard model on a square lattice. The QCP is characterized by a universal scaling form of the self-energy and a spin density wave instability at an incommensurate wave vector. The scaling form unifies the low-energy kink and the high-energy waterfall feature in the spectral function, while the spin dynamics includes both the critical incommensurate and high-energy antiferromagnetic paramagnons. We use the frequency-dependent four-point correlation function of spin operators to calculate the momentum-dependent correction to the electron self-energy. By comparing with the calculations based on the spin-fermion model, our results indicate the frequency dependence of the quasiparticle-paramagnon vertices is an important factor to capture the momentum dependence in quasiparticle scattering.

  12. Quantum Critical Point revisited by the Dynamical Mean Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenhu; Kotliar, Gabriel; Tsvelik, Alexei

    Dynamical mean field theory is used to study the quantum critical point (QCP) in the doped Hubbard model on a square lattice. The QCP is characterized by a universal scaling form of the self energy and a spin density wave instability at an incommensurate wave vector. The scaling form unifies the low energy kink and the high energy waterfall feature in the spectral function, while the spin dynamics includes both the critical incommensurate and high energy antiferromagnetic paramagnons. We use the frequency dependent four-point correlation function of spin operators to calculate the momentum dependent correction to the electron self energy. Our results reveal a substantial difference with the calculations based on the Spin-Fermion model which indicates that the frequency dependence of the the quasiparitcle-paramagnon vertices is an important factor. The authors are supported by Center for Computational Design of Functional Strongly Correlated Materials and Theoretical Spectroscopy under DOE Grant DE-FOA-0001276.

  13. Behavior of an aeroelastic system beyond critical point of instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekar, T. Chandra; Agarwal, Ravindra; Mandal, Alakesh Chandra; Kushari, Abhijit

    2017-11-01

    Understanding the behavior of an aeroelastic system beyond the critical point is essential for effective implementation of any active control scheme since the control system design depends on the type of instability (bifurcation) the system encounters. Previous studies had found the aeroelastic system to enter into chaos beyond the point of instability. In the present work, an attempt has been made to carry out an experimental study on an aeroelastic model placed in a wind tunnel, to understand the behavior of aerodynamics around a wing section undergoing classical flutter. Wind speed was increased from zero until the model encountered flutter. Pressure at various locations along the surface of wing and acceleration at multiple points on the wing were measured in real time for the entire duration of experiment. A Leading Edge Separation Bubble (LSB) was observed beyond the critical point. The growing strength of the LSB with increasing wind speed was found to alter the aerodynamic moment acting on the system, which forced the system to enter into a second bifurcation. Based on the nature of the response, the system appears to undergo periodic doubling bifurcation rather than Hopf-bifurcation, resulting in chaotic motion. Eliminating the LSB can help in preventing the system from entering chaos. Any active flow control scheme that can avoid or counter the formation of leading edge separation bubble can be a potential solution to control the classical flutter.

  14. Finding Out Critical Points For Real-Time Path Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei

    1989-03-01

    Path planning for a mobile robot is a classic topic, but the path planning under real-time environment is a different issue. The system sources including sampling time, processing time, processes communicating time, and memory space are very limited for this type of application. This paper presents a method which abstracts the world representation from the sensory data and makes the decision as to which point will be a potentially critical point to span the world map by using incomplete knowledge about physical world and heuristic rule. Without any previous knowledge or map of the workspace, the robot will determine the world map by roving through the workspace. The computational complexity for building and searching such a map is not more than O( n2 ) The find-path problem is well-known in robotics. Given an object with an initial location and orientation, a goal location and orientation, and a set of obstacles located in space, the problem is to find a continuous path for the object from the initial position to the goal position which avoids collisions with obstacles along the way. There are a lot of methods to find a collision-free path in given environment. Techniques for solving this problem can be classified into three approaches: 1) the configuration space approach [1],[2],[3] which represents the polygonal obstacles by vertices in a graph. The idea is to determine those parts of the free space which a reference point of the moving object can occupy without colliding with any obstacles. A path is then found for the reference point through this truly free space. Dealing with rotations turns out to be a major difficulty with the approach, requiring complex geometric algorithms which are computationally expensive. 2) the direct representation of the free space using basic shape primitives such as convex polygons [4] and overlapping generalized cones [5]. 3) the combination of technique 1 and 2 [6] by which the space is divided into the primary convex region

  15. Ramp and periodic dynamics across non-Ising critical points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Roopayan; Sen, Arnab; Sengupta, K.

    2018-01-01

    We study ramp and periodic dynamics of ultracold bosons in an one-dimensional (1D) optical lattice which supports quantum critical points separating a uniform and a Z3 or Z4 symmetry broken density-wave ground state. Our protocol involves both linear and periodic drives which takes the system from the uniform state to the quantum critical point (for linear drive protocol) or to the ordered state and back (for periodic drive protocols) via controlled variation of a parameter of the system Hamiltonian. We provide exact numerical computation, for finite-size boson chains with L ≤24 using exact diagonalization (ED), of the excitation density D , the wave function overlap F , and the excess energy Q at the end of the drive protocol. For the linear ramp protocol, we identify the range of ramp speeds for which D and Q show Kibble-Zurek scaling. We find, based on numerical analysis with L ≤24 , that such scaling is consistent with that expected from critical exponents of the q -state Potts universality class with q =3 ,4 . For the periodic protocol, we show that the model displays near-perfect dynamical freezing at specific frequencies; at these frequencies D ,Q →0 and |F |→1 . We provide a semi-analytic explanation of such freezing behavior and relate this phenomenon to a many-body version of Stuckelberg interference. We suggest experiments which can test our theory.

  16. Singular Valence Fluctuations at a Kondo Destroyed Quantum Critical Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pixley, Jedediah; Kirchner, Stefan; Ingersent, Kevin; Si, Qimiao

    2012-02-01

    Recent experiments on the heavy fermion superconductor beta-YbAlB4 have indicated that this compound satisfies quantum critical scaling [1]. Motivated by the observation of mixed valency in this material [2], we study the Kondo destruction physics in the mixed-valence regime [3] of a particle-hole asymmetric Anderson impurity model with a pseudogapped density of states. In the vicinity of the quantum critical point we determine the finite temperature spin and charge susceptibilities by utilizing a continuous time quantum Monte Carlo method [4] and the numerical renormalization group. We show that this mixed-valence quantum critical point displays a Kondo breakdown effect. Furthermore, we find that both dynamic spin and charge susceptibilities obey frequency over temperature scaling, and that the static charge susceptibility diverges with a universal exponent. Possible implications of our results for beta-YbAlB4 are discussed. [1] Matsumoto et al, Science 331, 316 (2011). [2] Okawaet al, Physical Review Letters 104, 247201 (2010). [3] J. H. Pixley, S. Kirchner, Kevin Ingersent and Q. Si, arXiv:1108.5227v1 (2011). [4] M. Glossop, S. Kirchner, J. H. Pixley and Q. Si, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 076404 (2011).

  17. A magnetically induced quantum critical point in holography

    DOE PAGES

    Gnecchi, A.; Gursoy, U.; Papadoulaki, O.; ...

    2016-09-15

    Here, we investigate quantum critical points in a 2+1 dimensional gauge theory at finite chemical potential χ and magnetic field B. The gravity dual is based on 4D N = 2 Fayet-Iliopoulos gauged supergravity and the solutions we consider — that are constructed analytically — are extremal, dyonic, asymptotically AdS4 black-branes with a nontrivial radial profile for the scalar field. We discover a line of second order fixed points at B = B c(χ) between the dyonic black brane and an extremal “thermal gas” solution with a singularity of good-type, according to the acceptability criteria of Gubser. The dual fieldmore » theory is a strongly coupled nonconformal field theory at finite charge and magnetic field, related to the ABJM theory deformed by a triple trace operator Φ 3. This line of fixed points might be useful in studying the various strongly interacting quantum critical phenomena such as the ones proposed to underlie the cuprate superconductors. We also find curious similarities between the behaviour of the VeV under B and that of the quark condensate in 2+1 dimensional NJL models.« less

  18. Deconfined quantum critical point on the triangular lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Chao-Ming; Thomson, Alex; Rasmussen, Alex; Bi, Zhen; Xu, Cenke

    2018-05-01

    In this work we propose a theory for the deconfined quantum critical point (DQCP) for spin-1/2 systems on a triangular lattice, which is a direct unfine-tuned quantum phase transition between the standard "√{3 }×√{3 } " noncollinear antiferromagnetic order (or the so-called 120∘ state) and the "√{12 }×√{12 } " valence solid bond (VBS) order, both of which are very standard ordered phases often observed in numerical simulations. This transition is beyond the standard Landau-Ginzburg paradigm and is also fundamentally different from the original DQCP theory on the square lattice due to the very different structures of both the magnetic and VBS order on frustrated lattices. We first propose a topological term in the effective-field theory that captures the "intertwinement" between the √{3 }×√{3 } antiferromagnetic order and the √{12 }×√{12 } VBS order. Then using a controlled renormalization-group calculation, we demonstrate that an unfine-tuned direct continuous DQCP exists between the two ordered phases mentioned above. This DQCP is described by the Nf=4 quantum electrodynamics (QED) with an emergent PSU(4)=SU(4)/Z4 symmetry only at the critical point. The aforementioned topological term is also naturally derived from the Nf=4 QED. We also point out that physics around this DQCP is analogous to the boundary of a 3 d bosonic symmetry- protected topological state with only on-site symmetries.

  19. Testing critical point universality along the λ-line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissen, J. A.; Swanson, D. R.; Geng, Z. K.; Dohm, V.; Israelsson, U. E.; DiPirro, M. J.; Lipa, J. A.

    1998-02-01

    We are currently building a prototype for a new test of critical-point universality at the lambda transition in 4He, which is to be performed in microgravity conditions. The flight experiment will measure the second-sound velocity as a function of temperature at pressures from 1 to 30 bars in the region close to the lambda line. The critical exponents and other parameters characterizing the behavior of the superfluid density will be determined from the measurements. The microgravity measurements will be quite extensive, probably taking 30 days to complete. In addition to the superfluid density, some measurements of the specific heat will be made using the low-g simulator at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The results of the superfluid density and specific heat measurements will be used to compare the asymptotic exponents and other universal aspects of the superfluid density with the theoretical predictions currently established by renormalization group techniques.

  20. Nontrivial Critical Fixed Point for Replica-Symmetry-Breaking Transitions.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, Patrick; Yaida, Sho

    2017-05-26

    The transformation of the free-energy landscape from smooth to hierarchical is one of the richest features of mean-field disordered systems. A well-studied example is the de Almeida-Thouless transition for spin glasses in a magnetic field, and a similar phenomenon-the Gardner transition-has recently been predicted for structural glasses. The existence of these replica-symmetry-breaking phase transitions has, however, long been questioned below their upper critical dimension, d_{u}=6. Here, we obtain evidence for the existence of these transitions in dcritical fixed point is found in the strong-coupling regime, we corroborate the result by resumming the perturbative series with inputs from a three-loop calculation and an analysis of its large-order behavior. Our study offers a resolution of the long-lasting controversy surrounding phase transitions in finite-dimensional disordered systems.

  1. Itinerant density wave instabilities at classical and quantum critical points

    DOE PAGES

    Feng, Yejun; van Wezel, Jasper; Wang, Jiyang; ...

    2015-07-27

    Charge ordering in metals is a fundamental instability of the electron sea, occurring in a host of materials and often linked to other collective ground states such as superconductivity. What is difficult to parse, however, is whether the charge order originates among the itinerant electrons or whether it arises from the ionic lattice. Here in this study we employ high-resolution X-ray diffraction, combined with high-pressure and low-temperature techniques and theoretical modelling, to trace the evolution of the ordering wavevector Q in charge and spin density wave systems at the approach to both thermal and quantum phase transitions. The non-monotonic behaviourmore » of Q with pressure and the limiting sinusoidal form of the density wave point to the dominant role of the itinerant instability in the vicinity of the critical points, with little influence from the lattice. Fluctuations rather than disorder seem to disrupt coherence.« less

  2. Black holes as critical point of quantum phase transition.

    PubMed

    Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar

    We reformulate the quantum black hole portrait in the language of modern condensed matter physics. We show that black holes can be understood as a graviton Bose-Einstein condensate at the critical point of a quantum phase transition, identical to what has been observed in systems of cold atoms. The Bogoliubov modes that become degenerate and nearly gapless at this point are the holographic quantum degrees of freedom responsible for the black hole entropy and the information storage. They have no (semi)classical counterparts and become inaccessible in this limit. These findings indicate a deep connection between the seemingly remote systems and suggest a new quantum foundation of holography. They also open an intriguing possibility of simulating black hole information processing in table-top labs.

  3. Engineering Surface Critical Behavior of (2 +1 )-Dimensional O(3) Quantum Critical Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Chengxiang; Zhang, Long; Guo, Wenan

    2018-06-01

    Surface critical behavior (SCB) refers to the singularities of physical quantities on the surface at the bulk phase transition. It is closely related to and even richer than the bulk critical behavior. In this work, we show that three types of SCB universality are realized in the dimerized Heisenberg models at the (2 +1 )-dimensional O(3) quantum critical points by engineering the surface configurations. The ordinary transition happens if the surface is gapped in the bulk disordered phase, while the gapless surface state generally leads to the multicritical special transition, even though the latter is precluded in classical phase transitions because the surface is in the lower critical dimension. An extraordinary transition is induced by the ferrimagnetic order on the surface of the staggered Heisenberg model, in which the surface critical exponents violate the results of the scaling theory and thus seriously challenge our current understanding of extraordinary transitions.

  4. Thermal and electrical transport across a magnetic quantum critical point.

    PubMed

    Pfau, Heike; Hartmann, Stefanie; Stockert, Ulrike; Sun, Peijie; Lausberg, Stefan; Brando, Manuel; Friedemann, Sven; Krellner, Cornelius; Geibel, Christoph; Wirth, Steffen; Kirchner, Stefan; Abrahams, Elihu; Si, Qimiao; Steglich, Frank

    2012-04-25

    A quantum critical point (QCP) arises when a continuous transition between competing phases occurs at zero temperature. Collective excitations at magnetic QCPs give rise to metallic properties that strongly deviate from the expectations of Landau's Fermi-liquid description, which is the standard theory of electron correlations in metals. Central to this theory is the notion of quasiparticles, electronic excitations that possess the quantum numbers of the non-interacting electrons. Here we report measurements of thermal and electrical transport across the field-induced magnetic QCP in the heavy-fermion compound YbRh(2)Si(2) (refs 2, 3). We show that the ratio of the thermal to electrical conductivities at the zero-temperature limit obeys the Wiedemann-Franz law for magnetic fields above the critical field at which the QCP is attained. This is also expected for magnetic fields below the critical field, where weak antiferromagnetic order and a Fermi-liquid phase form below 0.07 K (at zero field). At the critical field, however, the low-temperature electrical conductivity exceeds the thermal conductivity by about 10 per cent, suggestive of a non-Fermi-liquid ground state. This apparent violation of the Wiedemann-Franz law provides evidence for an unconventional type of QCP at which the fundamental concept of Landau quasiparticles no longer holds. These results imply that Landau quasiparticles break up, and that the origin of this disintegration is inelastic scattering associated with electronic quantum critical fluctuations--these insights could be relevant to understanding other deviations from Fermi-liquid behaviour frequently observed in various classes of correlated materials.

  5. Universality away from critical points in a thermostatistical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapilli, C. M.; Wexler, C.; Pfeifer, P.

    Nature uses phase transitions as powerful regulators of processes ranging from climate to the alteration of phase behavior of cell membranes to protect cells from cold, building on the fact that thermodynamic properties of a solid, liquid, or gas are sensitive fingerprints of intermolecular interactions. The only known exceptions from this sensitivity are critical points. At a critical point, two phases become indistinguishable and thermodynamic properties exhibit universal behavior: systems with widely different intermolecular interactions behave identically. Here we report a major counterexample. We show that different members of a family of two-dimensional systems —the discrete p-state clock model— with different Hamiltonians describing different microscopic interactions between molecules or spins, may exhibit identical thermodynamic behavior over a wide range of temperatures. The results generate a comprehensive map of the phase diagram of the model and, by virtue of the discrete rotors behaving like continuous rotors, an emergent symmetry, not present in the Hamiltonian. This symmetry, or many-to-one map of intermolecular interactions onto thermodynamic states, demonstrates previously unknown limits for macroscopic distinguishability of different microscopic interactions.

  6. Measurement of Critical Adsorption of Nitrogen near Its Liquid-vapor Critical Point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Moses

    2003-01-01

    The density profile of a critical fluid near a solid surface is expected to show an universal shape. This is known as critical adsorption. The measurement of this effect, especially close to the critical point, is often obscured by gravity. We were able to separate the gravitational effect from critical adsorption by using two capacitors, one with a large gap and one with a small gap of approximately 2 m. Within the uncertainty in the measurement, our data, which ranges between 10(exp -3) to 2 x 10(exp -6) in reduced temperatures, is consistent with the predicted power law dependence. This work is carried out in collaboration with Rafael Garcia, Sarah Scheidemantel and Klaus Knorr. It is funded by NASA's office of Biological and Physical Researchunder.

  7. Impurities near an antiferromagnetic-singlet quantum critical point

    DOE PAGES

    Mendes-Santos, T.; Costa, N. C.; Batrouni, G.; ...

    2017-02-15

    Heavy-fermion systems and other strongly correlated electron materials often exhibit a competition between antiferromagnetic (AF) and singlet ground states. We examine the effect of impurities in the vicinity of such an AF-singlet quantum critical point (QCP), through an appropriately defined “impurity susceptibility” χimp, using exact quantum Monte Carlo simulations. Our key finding is a connection within a single calculational framework between AF domains induced on the singlet side of the transition and the behavior of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation rate 1/T1. Furthermore, we show that local NMR measurements provide a diagnostic for the location of the QCP, whichmore » agrees remarkably well with the vanishing of the AF order parameter and large values of χimp.« less

  8. Information scrambling at an impurity quantum critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dóra, Balázs; Werner, Miklós Antal; Moca, Cǎtǎlin Paşcu

    2017-10-01

    The two-channel Kondo impurity model realizes a local non-Fermi-liquid state with finite residual entropy. The competition between the two channels drives the system to an impurity quantum critical point. We show that the out-of-time-ordered (OTO) commutator for the impurity spin reveals markedly distinct behavior depending on the low-energy impurity state. For the one-channel Kondo model with Fermi-liquid ground state, the OTO commutator vanishes for late times, indicating the absence of the butterfly effect. For the two channel case, the impurity OTO commutator is completely temperature independent and saturates quickly to its upper bound 1/4, and the butterfly effect is maximally enhanced. These compare favorably to numerics on spin chain representation of the Kondo model. Our results imply that a large late time value of the OTO commutator does not necessarily diagnose quantum chaos.

  9. Shear Thinning Near the Critical Point of Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerli, Gregory A.; Berg, Robert F.; Moldover, Michael R.; Yao, Minwu

    2008-01-01

    We measured shear thinning, a viscosity decrease ordinarily associated with complex liquids, near the critical point of xenon. The data span a wide range of reduced shear rate: 10(exp -3) < gamma-dot tau < 700, where gamma-dot tau is the shear rate scaled by the relaxation time tau of critical fluctuations. The measurements had a temperature resolution of 0.01 mK and were conducted in microgravity aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia to avoid the density stratification caused by Earth's gravity. The viscometer measured the drag on a delicate nickel screen as it oscillated in the xenon at amplitudes 3 mu,m < chi (sub 0) >430 mu, and frequencies 1 Hz < omega/2 pi < 5 Hz. To separate shear thinning from other nonlinearities, we computed the ratio of the viscous force on the screen at gamma-dot tau to the force at gamma-dot tau approximates 0: C(sub gamma) is identical with F(chi(sub 0), omega tau, gamma-dot tau )/F)(chi(sub 0, omega tau, 0). At low frequencies, (omega tau)(exp 2) < gamma-dot tau, C(sub gamma) depends only on gamma-dot tau, as predicted by dynamic critical scaling. At high frequencies, (omega tau)(exp 2) > gamma-dot tau, C(sub gamma) depends also on both x(sub 0) and omega. The data were compared with numerical calculations based on the Carreau-Yasuda relation for complex fluids: eta(gamma-dot)/eta(0)=[1+A(sub gamma)|gamma-dot tau|](exp - chi(sub eta)/3+chi(sub eta)), where chi(sub eta) =0.069 is the critical exponent for viscosity and mode-coupling theory predicts A(sub gamma) =0.121. For xenon we find A(sub gamma) =0.137 +/- 0.029, in agreement with the mode coupling value. Remarkably, the xenon data close to the critical temperature T(sub c) were independent of the cooling rate (both above and below T(sub c) and these data were symmetric about T(sub c) to within a temperature scale factor. The scale factors for the magnitude of the oscillator s response differed from those for the oscillator's phase; this suggests that the surface tension of the two

  10. Biogeochemical control points in a water-limited critical zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorover, J.; Brooks, P. D.; Gallery, R. E.; McIntosh, J. C.; Olshansky, Y.; Rasmussen, C.

    2017-12-01

    The routing of water and carbon through complex terrain is postulated to control structure evolution in the sub-humid critical zone of the southwestern US. By combining measurements of land-atmosphere exchange, ecohydrologic partitioning, and subsurface biogeochemistry, we seek to quantify how a heterogeneous (in time and space) distribution of "reactants" impacts both short-term (sub-)catchment response (e.g., pore and surface water chemical dynamics) and long-term landscape evolution (e.g., soil geochemistry/morphology and regolith weathering depth) in watersheds underlain by rhyolite and schist. Instrumented pedons in convergent, planar, and divergent landscape positions show distinct depth-dependent responses to precipitation events. Wetting front propagation, dissolved carbon flux and associated biogeochemical responses (e.g., pulses of CO2 production, O2 depletion, solute release) vary with topography, revealing the influence of lateral subsidies of water and carbon. The impacts of these episodes on the evolution of porous media heterogeneity is being investigated by statistical analysis of pore water chemistry, chemical/spectroscopic studies of solid phase organo-mineral products, sensor-derived water characteristic curves, and quantification of co-located microbial community activity/composition. Our results highlight the interacting effects of critical zone structure and convergent hydrologic flows in the evolution of biogeochemical control points.

  11. Effective intermolecular potential and critical point for C60 molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, J. Eloy

    2017-07-01

    The approximate nonconformal (ANC) theory is applied to the C60 molecule. A new binary potential function is developed for C60, which has three parameters only and is obtained by averaging the site-site carbon interactions on the surface of two C60 molecules. It is shown that the C60 molecule follows, to a good approximation, the corresponding states principle with n-C8H18, n-C4F10 and n-C5F12. The critical point of C60 is estimated in two ways: first by applying the corresponding states principle under the framework of the ANC theory, and then by using previous computer simulations. The critical parameters obtained by applying the corresponding states principle, although very different from those reported in the literature, are consistent with the previous results of the ANC theory. It is shown that the Girifalco potential does not correspond to an average of the site-site carbon-carbon interaction.

  12. Critical limits for the control points for halal poultry slaughter.

    PubMed

    Shahdan, Intan Azura; Regenstein, Joe Mac; Rahman, Mohammad Tariqur

    2017-06-01

    This study proposes critical limits (CL) for control points for halal slaughter (CPHS). Previously, 6 control points (CP) were determined, and CL for these 6 CPHS are suggested based on: 1) a literature survey for the CL for CP 1 (poultry breeding, rearing, and poultry feed) and CP 2 (welfare of poultry during transportation and lairage); 2) a field survey of slaughter plants in Kuantan (Malaysia) for CP 3 (immobilization), CP 4 (slaughter), CP 5 (time for full bleed-out), and CP 6 (washing and packaging); and 3) controlled experiments to refine the CL for CP 3, 4, and 5. The CL for CP 1 focused on stress reduction during rearing and use of substances that could compromise poultry meat wholesomeness. The CL for CP 2 emphasizes humane best-practices for handling poultry during lairage. The CL for CP 3 suggests a gap of 5 s between 2 shackles if only one shackler is employed and shackling times of <1 min for live chickens. In countries permitting water-bath electrical stunning of halal poultry, the stunning current needed to induce unconsciousness must be defined for the breed and bird size but not cause any chicken deaths. The CL for CP 4 mandates the recitation of the tasmiyah (the invocation), which if done for every chicken, will require ≥5 s between stunning and neck cutting. The CL for CP 4 also includes information about the slaughter knife. In CP 5 the recommended minimum time between neck cutting and scalding is 9.5 min. Finally, the CL for CP 6 emphasizes good supply chain hygiene and zero adulteration from haram species and substances. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Superuniversal transport near a (2 +1 ) -dimensional quantum critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, F.; Dupuis, N.

    2017-09-01

    We compute the zero-temperature conductivity in the two-dimensional quantum O (N ) model using a nonperturbative functional renormalization-group approach. At the quantum critical point we find a universal conductivity σ*/σQ (with σQ=q2/h the quantum of conductance and q the charge) in reasonable quantitative agreement with quantum Monte Carlo simulations and conformal bootstrap results. In the ordered phase the conductivity tensor is defined, when N ≥3 , by two independent elements, σA(ω ) and σB(ω ) , respectively associated with SO (N ) rotations which do and do not change the direction of the order parameter. Whereas σA(ω →0 ) corresponds to the response of a superfluid (or perfect inductance), the numerical solution of the flow equations shows that limω→0σB(ω ) /σQ=σB*/σQ is a superuniversal (i.e., N -independent) constant. These numerical results, as well as the known exact value σB*/σQ=π /8 in the large-N limit, allow us to conjecture that σB*/σQ=π /8 holds for all values of N , a result that can be understood as a consequence of gauge invariance and asymptotic freedom of the Goldstone bosons in the low-energy limit.

  14. 21 CFR 120.8 - Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...: (i) Critical control points designed to control food hazards that are reasonably likely to occur and could be introduced inside the processing plant environment; and (ii) Critical control points designed... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP...

  15. 21 CFR 120.8 - Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...: (i) Critical control points designed to control food hazards that are reasonably likely to occur and could be introduced inside the processing plant environment; and (ii) Critical control points designed... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP...

  16. 21 CFR 120.8 - Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...: (i) Critical control points designed to control food hazards that are reasonably likely to occur and could be introduced inside the processing plant environment; and (ii) Critical control points designed... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP...

  17. 21 CFR 120.8 - Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...: (i) Critical control points designed to control food hazards that are reasonably likely to occur and could be introduced inside the processing plant environment; and (ii) Critical control points designed... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP...

  18. 21 CFR 120.8 - Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...: (i) Critical control points designed to control food hazards that are reasonably likely to occur and could be introduced inside the processing plant environment; and (ii) Critical control points designed... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP...

  19. Analysis of hygienic critical control points in boar semen production.

    PubMed

    Schulze, M; Ammon, C; Rüdiger, K; Jung, M; Grobbel, M

    2015-02-01

    The present study addresses the microbiological results of a quality control audit in artificial insemination (AI) boar studs in Germany and Austria. The raw and processed semen of 344 boars in 24 AI boar studs were analyzed. Bacteria were found in 26% (88 of 344) of the extended ejaculates and 66.7% (18 of 24) of the boar studs. The bacterial species found in the AI dose were not cultured from the respective raw semen in 95.5% (84 of 88) of the positive samples. These data, together with the fact that in most cases all the samples from one stud were contaminated with identical bacteria (species and resistance profile), indicate contamination during processing. Microbiological investigations of the equipment and the laboratory environment during semen processing in 21 AI boar studs revealed nine hygienic critical control points (HCCP), which were addressed after the first audit. On the basis of the analysis of the contamination rates of the ejaculate samples, improvements in the hygiene status were already present in the second audit (P = 0.0343, F-test). Significant differences were observed for heating cabinets (improvement, P = 0.0388) and manual operating elements (improvement, P = 0.0002). The odds ratio of finding contaminated ejaculates in the first and second audit was 1.68 (with the 95% confidence interval ranging from 1.04 to 2.69). Furthermore, an overall good hygienic status was shown for extenders, the inner face of dilution tank lids, dyes, and ultrapure water treatment plants. Among the nine HCCP considered, the most heavily contaminated samples, as assessed by the median scores throughout all the studs, were found in the sinks and/or drains. High numbers (>10(3) colony-forming units/cm(2)) of bacteria were found in the heating cabinets, ejaculate transfer, manual operating elements, and laboratory surfaces. In conclusion, the present study emphasizes the need for both training of the laboratory staff in monitoring HCCP in routine semen

  20. Quartz Solubility and Thermodynamics Above the Upper Critical End Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, J. D.; Manning, C. E.

    2010-12-01

    Silica is among the most abundant solutes in crustal and mantle fluids, especially at conditions nearing the upper critical end point of the SiO2-H2O system (~10 kbar, 1080 °C). However, the solubility of silica is not well determined at higher pressures. In addition, the thermodynamic mixing relations of the supercritical SiO2-H2O system are poorly known. We made new measurements on quartz solubility in H2O at 15 and 20 kbar at 900-1100 °C. At SiO2 mole fraction below 0.1, solubility was determined by weight loss of single crystals equilibrated with H2O. At higher SiO2 concentrations, solubility was determined by bracketing the presence of absence of quartz in charges with known bulk SiO2 concentration. The measured solubilities imply that there is a solubility minimum above 1050 °C between 10 and 20 kbar. Quartz solubility measurements from Manning (1994), Newton and Manning (2003; 2008), Nakamura (1975) and this study were fitted to a modified sub-regular solution model. A term representing the Gibbs free energy (ΔGr) of the reaction 1/2 H2O + 1/2 O2- = OH- (the depolymerization reaction that occurs when silica is dissolved in water) was added to the free energy of mixing parameterization. Thirteen independent parameters describe the T and P variation of the weak sub-regular interaction terms (Ws and Wh) and the strong interaction term (ΔGr). Nine of the parameters are linear in T and P, and the other four are quadratic: Ws and ΔGr vary with P2, and ΔGr also varies with T2 and PT. The average error between the data and the model is 5%. Because the Gibbs free energy change of the depolymerization reaction is included in the fit, the model predicts an average state of aqueous silica polymerization of solutions in equilibrium with quartz at P between 10 and 20 kbar and T above 500 °C. The results also highlight what can be inferred from the steep hydrothermal melting curve of quartz - that while pressure does determine whether the system is subcritical or

  1. Critical point relascope sampling for unbiased volume estimation of downed coarse woody debris

    Jeffrey H. Gove; Michael S. Williams; Mark J. Ducey; Mark J. Ducey

    2005-01-01

    Critical point relascope sampling is developed and shown to be design-unbiased for the estimation of log volume when used with point relascope sampling for downed coarse woody debris. The method is closely related to critical height sampling for standing trees when trees are first sampled with a wedge prism. Three alternative protocols for determining the critical...

  2. Point of View Speech (A Speech Assignment in Critical Thinking).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brydges, Michael E.

    This paper delineates an exercise where students are encouraged to give their point of view to a quotation received (the activity is an adaptation from the Impromptu Speaking event in Competitive Forensics). The paper states that students are to explain the meaning of a quotation (topic themes may be from ecology, education, environment, life,…

  3. Locating the quantum critical point of the Bose-Hubbard model through singularities of simple observables.

    PubMed

    Łącki, Mateusz; Damski, Bogdan; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2016-12-02

    We show that the critical point of the two-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model can be easily found through studies of either on-site atom number fluctuations or the nearest-neighbor two-point correlation function (the expectation value of the tunnelling operator). Our strategy to locate the critical point is based on the observation that the derivatives of these observables with respect to the parameter that drives the superfluid-Mott insulator transition are singular at the critical point in the thermodynamic limit. Performing the quantum Monte Carlo simulations of the two-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model, we show that this technique leads to the accurate determination of the position of its critical point. Our results can be easily extended to the three-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model and different Hubbard-like models. They provide a simple experimentally-relevant way of locating critical points in various cold atomic lattice systems.

  4. Near-critical point phenomena in fluids (19-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beysens, D.

    1992-01-01

    Understanding the effects of gravity is essential if the behavior of fluids is to be predicted in spacecraft and orbital stations, and, more generally, to give a better understanding of the hydrodynamics in these systems. An understanding is sought of the behavior of fluids in space. What should emerge from the International Microgravity Lab (IML-1) mission is a better understanding of the kinetics of growth in off-critical conditions, in both liquid mixtures and pure fluids. This complex phenomenon is the object of intensive study in physics and materials sciences area. It is also expected that the IML-1 flight will procure key results to provide a better understanding of how a pure fluid can be homogenized without gravity induced convections, and to what extent the 'Piston Effect' is effective in thermalizing the compressible fluids.

  5. Hydrogen bond breaking in aqueous solutions near the critical point

    Mayanovic, Robert A.; Anderson, Alan J.; Bassett, William A.; Chou, I.-Ming

    2001-01-01

    The nature of water-anion bonding is examined using X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy on a 1mZnBr2/6m NaBr aqueous solution, to near critical conditions. Analyses show that upon heating the solution from 25??C to 500??C, a 63% reduction of waters occurs in the solvation shell of ZnBr42-, which is the predominant complex at all pressure-temperature conditions investigated. A similar reduction in the hydration shell of waters in the Br- aqua ion was found. Our results indicate that the water-anion and water-water bond breaking mechanisms occurring at high temperatures are essentially the same. This is consistent with the hydration waters being weakly hydrogen bonded to halide anions in electrolyte solutions. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  6. Robustness of critical points in a complex adaptive system: Effects of hedge behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yuan; Huang, Ji-Ping

    2013-08-01

    In our recent papers, we have identified a class of phase transitions in the market-directed resource-allocation game, and found that there exists a critical point at which the phase transitions occur. The critical point is given by a certain resource ratio. Here, by performing computer simulations and theoretical analysis, we report that the critical point is robust against various kinds of human hedge behavior where the numbers of herds and contrarians can be varied widely. This means that the critical point can be independent of the total number of participants composed of normal agents, herds and contrarians, under some conditions. This finding means that the critical points we identified in this complex adaptive system (with adaptive agents) may also be an intensive quantity, similar to those revealed in traditional physical systems (with non-adaptive units).

  7. Frequency-Dependent Viscosity of Xenon Near the Critical Point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Robert F.; Moldover, Michael R.; Zimmerli, Gregory A.

    1999-01-01

    We used a novel, overdamped oscillator aboard the Space Shuttle to measure the viscosity eta of xenon near its critical density rho(sub c), and temperature T(sub c). In microgravity, useful data were obtained within 0.1 mK of T(sub c), corresponding to a reduced temperature t = (T -T(sub c))/T(sub c) = 3 x 10(exp -7). The data extend two decades closer to T(sub c) than the best ground measurements, and they directly reveal the expected power-law behavior eta proportional to t(sup -(nu)z(sub eta)). Here nu is the correlation length exponent, and our result for the small viscosity exponent is z(sub eta) = 0.0690 +/- 0.0006. (All uncertainties are one standard uncertainty.) Our value for z(sub eta) depends only weakly on the form of the viscosity crossover function, and it agrees with the value 0.067 +/- 0.002 obtained from a recent two-loop perturbation expansion. The measurements spanned the frequency range 2 Hz less than or equal to f less than or equal to 12 Hz and revealed viscoelasticity when t less than or equal to 10(exp -1), further from T(sub c) than predicted. The viscoelasticity scales as Af(tau), where tau is the fluctuation-decay time. The fitted value of the viscoelastic time-scale parameter A is 2.0 +/- 0.3 times the result of a one-loop perturbation calculation. Near T(sub c), the xenon's calculated time constant for thermal diffusion exceeded days. Nevertheless, the viscosity results were independent of the xenon's temperature history, indicating that the density was kept near rho(sub c), by judicious choices of the temperature vs. time program. Deliberately bad choices led to large density inhomogeneities. At t greater than 10(exp -5), the xenon approached equilibrium much faster than expected, suggesting that convection driven by microgravity and by electric fields slowly stirred the sample.

  8. 21 CFR 123.6 - Hazard analysis and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... identified food safety hazards, including as appropriate: (i) Critical control points designed to control... control points designed to control food safety hazards introduced outside the processing plant environment... Control Point (HACCP) plan. 123.6 Section 123.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  9. 21 CFR 123.6 - Hazard analysis and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... identified food safety hazards, including as appropriate: (i) Critical control points designed to control... control points designed to control food safety hazards introduced outside the processing plant environment... Control Point (HACCP) plan. 123.6 Section 123.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  10. 21 CFR 123.6 - Hazard analysis and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... identified food safety hazards, including as appropriate: (i) Critical control points designed to control... control points designed to control food safety hazards introduced outside the processing plant environment... Control Point (HACCP) plan. 123.6 Section 123.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  11. Transport properties of gases and binary liquids near the critical point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sengers, J. V.

    1972-01-01

    A status report is presented on the anomalies observed in the behavior of transport properties near the critical point of gases and binary liquids. The shear viscosity exhibits a weak singularity near the critical point. An analysis is made of the experimental data for those transport properties, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity near the gas-liquid critical point and binary diffusion coefficient near the critical mixing point, that determine the critical slowing down of the thermodynamic fluctuations in the order parameter. The asymptotic behavior of the thermal conductivity appears to be closely related to the asymptotic behavior of the correlation length. The experimental data for the thermal conductivity and diffusivity are shown to be in substantial agreement with current theoretical predictions.

  12. The critical behavior of the refractive index near liquid-liquid critical points.

    PubMed

    Losada-Pérez, Patricia; Glorieux, Christ; Thoen, Jan

    2012-04-14

    The nature of the critical behavior in the refractive index n is revisited in the framework of the complete scaling formulation. A comparison is made with the critical behavior of n as derived from the Lorentz-Lorenz equation. Analogue anomalies to those predicted for the dielectric constant ε, namely, a leading |t|(2β) singularity in the coexistence-curve diameter in the two-phase region and a |t|(1-α) along the critical isopleth in the one phase region, are expected in both cases. However, significant differences as regards the amplitudes of both singularities are obtained from the two approaches. Analysis of some literature data along coexistence in the two-phase region and along the critical isopleth in the one-phase region provide evidence of an intrinsic effect, independent of the density, in the critical anomalies of n. This effect is governed by the shift of the critical temperature with an electric field, which is supposed to take smaller values at optical frequencies than at low frequencies in the Hz to MHz range.

  13. Analytic Description of Critical Point Nuclei in a Spherical-Axially Deformed Shape Phase Transition

    SciT

    Iachello, F.

    2001-07-30

    An approximate solution at the critical point of the spherical to axially deformed shape phase transition in nuclei is presented. The eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian are expressed in terms of zeros of Bessel functions of irrational order.

  14. Impact of resonance decays on critical point signals in net-proton fluctuations

    DOE PAGES

    Bluhm, Marcus; Nahrgang, Marlene; Bass, Steffen A.; ...

    2017-04-03

    The non-monotonic beam energy dependence of the higher cumulants of net-proton fluctuations is a widely studied signature of the conjectured presence of a critical point in the QCD phase diagram. In this work we study the effect of resonance decays on critical fluctuations. We show that resonance effects reduce the signatures of critical fluctuations, but that for reasonable parameter choices critical effects in the net-proton cumulants survive. The relative role of resonance decays has a weak dependence on the order of the cumulants studied with a slightly stronger suppression of critical effects for higher-order cumulants.

  15. Model for a Ferromagnetic Quantum Critical Point in a 1D Kondo Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komijani, Yashar; Coleman, Piers

    2018-04-01

    Motivated by recent experiments, we study a quasi-one-dimensional model of a Kondo lattice with ferromagnetic coupling between the spins. Using bosonization and dynamical large-N techniques, we establish the presence of a Fermi liquid and a magnetic phase separated by a local quantum critical point, governed by the Kondo breakdown picture. Thermodynamic properties are studied and a gapless charged mode at the quantum critical point is highlighted.

  16. Can we approach the gas-liquid critical point using slab simulations of two coexisting phases?

    PubMed

    Goujon, Florent; Ghoufi, Aziz; Malfreyt, Patrice; Tildesley, Dominic J

    2016-09-28

    In this paper, we demonstrate that it is possible to approach the gas-liquid critical point of the Lennard-Jones fluid by performing simulations in a slab geometry using a cut-off potential. In the slab simulation geometry, it is essential to apply an accurate tail correction to the potential energy, applied during the course of the simulation, to study the properties of states close to the critical point. Using the Janeček slab-based method developed for two-phase Monte Carlo simulations [J. Janec̆ek, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 6264 (2006)], the coexisting densities and surface tension in the critical region are reported as a function of the cutoff distance in the intermolecular potential. The results obtained using slab simulations are compared with those obtained using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations of isotropic systems and the finite-size scaling techniques. There is a good agreement between these two approaches. The two-phase simulations can be used in approaching the critical point for temperatures up to 0.97 T C ∗ (T ∗ = 1.26). The critical-point exponents describing the dependence of the density, surface tension, and interfacial thickness on the temperature are calculated near the critical point.

  17. Phenomenological consequences of enhanced bulk viscosity near the QCD critical point

    DOE PAGES

    Monnai, Akihiko; Mukherjee, Swagato; Yin, Yi

    2017-03-06

    In the proximity of the QCD critical point the bulk viscosity of quark-gluon matter is expected to be proportional to nearly the third power of the critical correlation length, and become significantly enhanced. Here, this work is the first attempt to study the phenomenological consequences of enhanced bulk viscosity near the QCD critical point. For this purpose, we implement the expected critical behavior of the bulk viscosity within a non-boost-invariant, longitudinally expanding 1 + 1 dimensional causal relativistic hydrodynamical evolution at nonzero baryon density. We demonstrate that the critically enhanced bulk viscosity induces a substantial nonequilibrium pressure, effectively softening themore » equation of state, and leads to sizable effects in the flow velocity and single-particle distributions at the freeze-out. In conclusion, the observable effects that may arise due to the enhanced bulk viscosity in the vicinity of the QCD critical point can be used as complementary information to facilitate searches for the QCD critical point.« less

  18. Odd-Parity Superconductivity near an Inversion Breaking Quantum Critical Point in One Dimension

    DOE PAGES

    Ruhman, Jonathan; Kozii, Vladyslav; Fu, Liang

    2017-05-31

    In this work, we study how an inversion-breaking quantum critical point affects the ground state of a one-dimensional electronic liquid with repulsive interaction and spin-orbit coupling. We find that regardless of the interaction strength, the critical fluctuations always lead to a gap in the electronic spin sector. The origin of the gap is a two-particle backscattering process, which becomes relevant due to renormalization of the Luttinger parameter near the critical point. The resulting spin-gapped state is topological and can be considered as a one-dimensional version of a spin-triplet superconductor. Interestingly, in the case of a ferromagnetic critical point, the Luttingermore » parameter is renormalized in the opposite manner, such that the system remains nonsuperconducting.« less

  19. Energy of the quasi-free electron in supercritical krypton near the critical point.

    PubMed

    Li, Luxi; Evans, C M; Findley, G L

    2005-12-01

    Field ionization measurements of high-n CH(3)I and C(2)H(5)I Rydberg states doped into krypton are presented as a function of krypton number density along the critical isotherm. These data exhibit a decrease in the krypton-induced shift of the dopant ionization energy near the critical point. This change in shift is modeled to within +/-0.2% of experiment using a theory that accounts for the polarization of krypton by the dopant ion, the polarization of krypton by the quasi-free electron that arises from field ionization of the dopant, and the zero point kinetic energy of the free electron. The overall decrease in the shift of the dopant ionization energy near the critical point of krypton, which is a factor of 2 larger than that observed in argon, is dominated by the increase in the zero point kinetic energy of the quasi-free electron.

  20. An Improved Computational Method for the Calculation of Mixture Liquid-Vapor Critical Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrakopoulos, Panagiotis; Jia, Wenlong; Li, Changjun

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge of critical points is important to determine the phase behavior of a mixture. This work proposes a reliable and accurate method in order to locate the liquid-vapor critical point of a given mixture. The theoretical model is developed from the rigorous definition of critical points, based on the SRK equation of state (SRK EoS) or alternatively, on the PR EoS. In order to solve the resulting system of nonlinear equations, an improved method is introduced into an existing Newton-Raphson algorithm, which can calculate all the variables simultaneously in each iteration step. The improvements mainly focus on the derivatives of the Jacobian matrix, on the convergence criteria, and on the damping coefficient. As a result, all equations and related conditions required for the computation of the scheme are illustrated in this paper. Finally, experimental data for the critical points of 44 mixtures are adopted in order to validate the method. For the SRK EoS, average absolute errors of the predicted critical-pressure and critical-temperature values are 123.82 kPa and 3.11 K, respectively, whereas the commercial software package Calsep PVTSIM's prediction errors are 131.02 kPa and 3.24 K. For the PR EoS, the two above mentioned average absolute errors are 129.32 kPa and 2.45 K, while the PVTSIM's errors are 137.24 kPa and 2.55 K, respectively.

  1. Theoretical Analysis of Thermodynamic Measurements near a Liquid-Gas Critical Point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M.; Zhong, Fang; Hahn, Inseob

    2003-01-01

    Over the years, many ground-based studies have been performed near liquid-gas critical points to elucidate the expected divergences in thermodynamic quantities. The unambiguous interpretation of these studies very near the critical point is hindered by a gravity-induced density stratification. However, these ground-based measurements can give insight into the crossover behavior between the asymptotic critical region near the transition and the mean field region farther away. We have completed a detailed analysis of heat capacity, susceptibility and coexistence curve measurements near the He-3 liquid-gas critical point using the minimal-subtraction renormalization (MSR) scheme within the phi(exp 4) model. This MSR scheme, using only two adjustable parameters, provides a reasonable global fit to all of these experimental measurements in the gravity-free region out to a reduced temperature of |t| approx. 2x10(exp -2). Recently this approach has also been applied to the earlier microgravity measurements of Haupt and Straub in SF(sub 6) with surprising results. The conclusions drawn from the MSR analyses will be presented. Measurements in the gravity-affected region closer to the He-3 critical point have also been analyzed using the recent crossover parametric model (CPM) of the equation-of-state. The results of fitting heat capacity measurements to the CPM model along the He-3 critical isochore in the gravity-affected region will also be presented.

  2. Complex systems analysis of series of blackouts: cascading failure, critical points, and self-organization.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Ian; Carreras, Benjamin A; Lynch, Vickie E; Newman, David E

    2007-06-01

    We give an overview of a complex systems approach to large blackouts of electric power transmission systems caused by cascading failure. Instead of looking at the details of particular blackouts, we study the statistics and dynamics of series of blackouts with approximate global models. Blackout data from several countries suggest that the frequency of large blackouts is governed by a power law. The power law makes the risk of large blackouts consequential and is consistent with the power system being a complex system designed and operated near a critical point. Power system overall loading or stress relative to operating limits is a key factor affecting the risk of cascading failure. Power system blackout models and abstract models of cascading failure show critical points with power law behavior as load is increased. To explain why the power system is operated near these critical points and inspired by concepts from self-organized criticality, we suggest that power system operating margins evolve slowly to near a critical point and confirm this idea using a power system model. The slow evolution of the power system is driven by a steady increase in electric loading, economic pressures to maximize the use of the grid, and the engineering responses to blackouts that upgrade the system. Mitigation of blackout risk should account for dynamical effects in complex self-organized critical systems. For example, some methods of suppressing small blackouts could ultimately increase the risk of large blackouts.

  3. Competition of mesoscales and crossover to theta-point tricriticality in near-critical polymer solutions.

    PubMed

    Anisimov, M A; Kostko, A F; Sengers, J V; Yudin, I K

    2005-10-22

    The approach to asymptotic critical behavior in polymer solutions is governed by a competition between the correlation length of critical fluctuations diverging at the critical point of phase separation and an additional mesoscopic length scale, the radius of gyration. In this paper we present a theory for crossover between two universal regimes: a regime with Ising (fluctuation-induced) asymptotic critical behavior, where the correlation length prevails, and a mean-field tricritical regime with theta-point behavior controlled by the mesoscopic polymer chain. The theory yields a universal scaled description of existing experimental phase-equilibria data and is in excellent agreement with our light-scattering experiments on polystyrene solutions in cyclohexane with polymer molecular weights ranging from 2 x 10(5) up to 11.4 x 10(6). The experiments demonstrate unambiguously that crossover to theta-point tricriticality is controlled by a competition of the two mesoscales. The critical amplitudes deduced from our experiments depend on the polymer molecular weight as predicted by de Gennes [Phys. Lett. 26A, 313 (1968)]. Experimental evidence for the presence of logarithmic corrections to mean-field tricritical theta-point behavior in the molecular-weight dependence of the critical parameters is also presented.

  4. Critical Point Cancellation in 3D Vector Fields: Robustness and Discussion.

    PubMed

    Skraba, Primoz; Rosen, Paul; Wang, Bei; Chen, Guoning; Bhatia, Harsh; Pascucci, Valerio

    2016-02-29

    Vector field topology has been successfully applied to represent the structure of steady vector fields. Critical points, one of the essential components of vector field topology, play an important role in describing the complexity of the extracted structure. Simplifying vector fields via critical point cancellation has practical merit for interpreting the behaviors of complex vector fields such as turbulence. However, there is no effective technique that allows direct cancellation of critical points in 3D. This work fills this gap and introduces the first framework to directly cancel pairs or groups of 3D critical points in a hierarchical manner with a guaranteed minimum amount of perturbation based on their robustness, a quantitative measure of their stability. In addition, our framework does not require the extraction of the entire 3D topology, which contains non-trivial separation structures, and thus is computationally effective. Furthermore, our algorithm can remove critical points in any subregion of the domain whose degree is zero and handle complex boundary configurations, making it capable of addressing challenging scenarios that may not be resolved otherwise. We apply our method to synthetic and simulation datasets to demonstrate its effectiveness.

  5. Critical Point Cancellation in 3D Vector Fields: Robustness and Discussion

    SciT

    Skraba, Primoz; Rosen, Paul; Wang, Bei

    Vector field topology has been successfully applied to represent the structure of steady vector fields. Critical points, one of the essential components of vector field topology, play an important role in describing the complexity of the extracted structure. Simplifying vector fields via critical point cancellation has practical merit for interpreting the behaviors of complex vector fields such as turbulence. However, there is no effective technique that allows direct cancellation of critical points in 3D. This work fills this gap and introduces the first framework to directly cancel pairs or groups of 3D critical points in a hierarchical manner with amore » guaranteed minimum amount of perturbation based on their robustness, a quantitative measure of their stability. In addition, our framework does not require the extraction of the entire 3D topology, which contains non-trivial separation structures, and thus is computationally effective. Furthermore, our algorithm can remove critical points in any subregion of the domain whose degree is zero and handle complex boundary configurations, making it capable of addressing challenging scenarios that may not be resolved otherwise. Here, we apply our method to synthetic and simulation datasets to demonstrate its effectiveness.« less

  6. Pseudo-critical point in anomalous phase diagrams of simple plasma models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chigvintsev, A. Yu; Iosilevskiy, I. L.; Noginova, L. Yu

    2016-11-01

    Anomalous phase diagrams in subclass of simplified (“non-associative”) Coulomb models is under discussion. The common feature of this subclass is absence on definition of individual correlations for charges of opposite sign. It is e.g. modified OCP of ions on uniformly compressible background of ideal Fermi-gas of electrons OCP(∼), or a superposition of two non-ideal OCP(∼) models of ions and electrons etc. In contrast to the ordinary OCP model on non-compressible (“rigid”) background OCP(#) two new phase transitions with upper critical point, boiling and sublimation, appear in OCP(∼) phase diagram in addition to the well-known Wigner crystallization. The point is that the topology of phase diagram in OCP(∼) becomes anomalous at high enough value of ionic charge number Z. Namely, the only one unified crystal- fluid phase transition without critical point exists as continuous superposition of melting and sublimation in OCP(∼) at the interval (Z 1 < Z < Z 2). The most remarkable is appearance of pseudo-critical points at both boundary values Z = Z 1 ≈ 35.5 and Z = Z 2 ≈ 40.0. It should be stressed that critical isotherm is exactly cubic in both these pseudo-critical points. In this study we have improved our previous calculations and utilized more complicated model components equation of state provided by Chabrier and Potekhin (1998 Phys. Rev. E 58 4941).

  7. Critical Point Cancellation in 3D Vector Fields: Robustness and Discussion

    DOE PAGES

    Skraba, Primoz; Rosen, Paul; Wang, Bei; ...

    2016-02-29

    Vector field topology has been successfully applied to represent the structure of steady vector fields. Critical points, one of the essential components of vector field topology, play an important role in describing the complexity of the extracted structure. Simplifying vector fields via critical point cancellation has practical merit for interpreting the behaviors of complex vector fields such as turbulence. However, there is no effective technique that allows direct cancellation of critical points in 3D. This work fills this gap and introduces the first framework to directly cancel pairs or groups of 3D critical points in a hierarchical manner with amore » guaranteed minimum amount of perturbation based on their robustness, a quantitative measure of their stability. In addition, our framework does not require the extraction of the entire 3D topology, which contains non-trivial separation structures, and thus is computationally effective. Furthermore, our algorithm can remove critical points in any subregion of the domain whose degree is zero and handle complex boundary configurations, making it capable of addressing challenging scenarios that may not be resolved otherwise. Here, we apply our method to synthetic and simulation datasets to demonstrate its effectiveness.« less

  8. A Simple Model for the Earthquake Cycle Combining Self-Organized Criticality with Critical Point Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, W. I.; Turcotte, D. L.

    2002-12-01

    We have studied a hybrid model combining the forest-fire model with the site-percolation model in order to better understand the earthquake cycle. We consider a square array of sites. At each time step, a "tree" is dropped on a randomly chosen site and is planted if the site is unoccupied. When a cluster of "trees" spans the site (a percolating cluster), all the trees in the cluster are removed ("burned") in a "fire." The removal of the cluster is analogous to a characteristic earthquake and planting "trees" is analogous to increasing the regional stress. The clusters are analogous to the metastable regions of a fault over which an earthquake rupture can propagate once triggered. We find that the frequency-area statistics of the metastable regions are power-law with a negative exponent of two (as in the forest-fire model). This is analogous to the Gutenberg-Richter distribution of seismicity. This "self-organized critical behavior" can be explained in terms of an inverse cascade of clusters. Individual trees move from small to larger clusters until they are destroyed. This inverse cascade of clusters is self-similar and the power-law distribution of cluster sizes has been shown to have an exponent of two. We have quantified the forecasting of the spanning fires using error diagrams. The assumption that "fires" (earthquakes) are quasi-periodic has moderate predictability. The density of trees gives an improved degree of predictability, while the size of the largest cluster of trees provides a substantial improvement in forecasting a "fire."

  9. CETF Space Station payload pointing system design and analysis feasibility study. [Critical Evaluation Task Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smagala, Tom; Mcglew, Dave

    1988-01-01

    The expected pointing performance of an attached payload coupled to the Critical Evaluation Task Force Space Station via a payload pointing system (PPS) is determined. The PPS is a 3-axis gimbal which provides the capability for maintaining inertial pointing of a payload in the presence of disturbances associated with the Space Station environment. A system where the axes of rotation were offset from the payload center of mass (CM) by 10 in. in the Z axis was studied as well as a system having the payload CM offset by only 1 inch. There is a significant improvement in pointing performance when going from the 10 in. to the 1 in. gimbal offset.

  10. Critical Two-Point Function for Long-Range O( n) Models Below the Upper Critical Dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, Martin; Slade, Gordon; Wallace, Benjamin C.

    2017-12-01

    We consider the n-component |φ|^4 lattice spin model (n ≥ 1) and the weakly self-avoiding walk (n=0) on Z^d, in dimensions d=1,2,3. We study long-range models based on the fractional Laplacian, with spin-spin interactions or walk step probabilities decaying with distance r as r^{-(d+α )} with α \\in (0,2). The upper critical dimension is d_c=2α . For ɛ >0, and α = 1/2 (d+ɛ ), the dimension d=d_c-ɛ is below the upper critical dimension. For small ɛ , weak coupling, and all integers n ≥ 0, we prove that the two-point function at the critical point decays with distance as r^{-(d-α )}. This "sticking" of the critical exponent at its mean-field value was first predicted in the physics literature in 1972. Our proof is based on a rigorous renormalisation group method. The treatment of observables differs from that used in recent work on the nearest-neighbour 4-dimensional case, via our use of a cluster expansion.

  11. Conductivity of Weakly Disordered Metals Close to a "Ferromagnetic" Quantum Critical Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastrinakis, George

    2018-05-01

    We calculate analytically the conductivity of weakly disordered metals close to a "ferromagnetic" quantum critical point in the low-temperature regime. Ferromagnetic in the sense that the effective carrier potential V(q,ω ), due to critical fluctuations, is peaked at zero momentum q=0. Vertex corrections, due to both critical fluctuations and impurity scattering, are explicitly considered. We find that only the vertex corrections due to impurity scattering, combined with the self-energy, generate appreciable effects as a function of the temperature T and the control parameter a, which measures the proximity to the critical point. Our results are consistent with resistivity experiments in several materials displaying typical Fermi liquid behaviour, but with a diverging prefactor of the T^2 term for small a.

  12. Entanglement entropy of 2D conformal quantum critical points: hearing the shape of a quantum drum.

    PubMed

    Fradkin, Eduardo; Moore, Joel E

    2006-08-04

    The entanglement entropy of a pure quantum state of a bipartite system A union or logical sumB is defined as the von Neumann entropy of the reduced density matrix obtained by tracing over one of the two parts. In one dimension, the entanglement of critical ground states diverges logarithmically in the subsystem size, with a universal coefficient that for conformally invariant critical points is related to the central charge of the conformal field theory. We find that the entanglement entropy of a standard class of z=2 conformal quantum critical points in two spatial dimensions, in addition to a nonuniversal "area law" contribution linear in the size of the AB boundary, generically has a universal logarithmically divergent correction, which is completely determined by the geometry of the partition and by the central charge of the field theory that describes the critical wave function.

  13. Communication: Analytic continuation of the virial series through the critical point using parametric approximants.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Nathaniel S; Schultz, Andrew J; Weinstein, Steven J; Kofke, David A

    2015-08-21

    The mathematical structure imposed by the thermodynamic critical point motivates an approximant that synthesizes two theoretically sound equations of state: the parametric and the virial. The former is constructed to describe the critical region, incorporating all scaling laws; the latter is an expansion about zero density, developed from molecular considerations. The approximant is shown to yield an equation of state capable of accurately describing properties over a large portion of the thermodynamic parameter space, far greater than that covered by each treatment alone.

  14. Infinite-disorder critical points of models with stretched exponential interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhász, Róbert

    2014-09-01

    We show that an interaction decaying as a stretched exponential function of distance, J(l)˜ e-cl^a , is able to alter the universality class of short-range systems having an infinite-disorder critical point. To do so, we study the low-energy properties of the random transverse-field Ising chain with the above form of interaction by a strong-disorder renormalization group (SDRG) approach. We find that the critical behavior of the model is controlled by infinite-disorder fixed points different from those of the short-range model if 0 < a < 1/2. In this range, the critical exponents calculated analytically by a simplified SDRG scheme are found to vary with a, while, for a > 1/2, the model belongs to the same universality class as its short-range variant. The entanglement entropy of a block of size L increases logarithmically with L at the critical point but, unlike the short-range model, the prefactor is dependent on disorder in the range 0 < a < 1/2. Numerical results obtained by an improved SDRG scheme are found to be in agreement with the analytical predictions. The same fixed points are expected to describe the critical behavior of, among others, the random contact process with stretched exponentially decaying activation rates.

  15. Quantum critical scaling near the antiferromagnetic quantum critical point in CeCu6-xPdx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Liusuo; Poudel, L.; May, A. F.; Nelson, W. L.; Gallagher, A.; Lai, Y.; Graf, D. E.; Besara, T.; Siegrist, T. M.; Baumbach, R.; Ehlers, G.; Podlesnyak, A. A.; Lumsden, M. D.; Mandrus, D.; Christianson, A. D.

    A remarkable behavior of many quantum critical systems is the scaling of physical properties such as the dynamic susceptibility near a quantum critical point (QCP), where Fermi liquid physics usually break down. The quantum critical behavior in the vicinity of a QCP in metallic systems remains an important open question. In particular, a self-consistent universal scaling of both magnetic susceptibility and the specific heat remains missing for most cases. Recently, we have studied CeCu6-xTx (T =Au, Ag, Pd), which is a prototypical heavy fermion material that hosts an antiferromagnetic (AF) QCP. We have investigated the low temperature thermal properties including the specific heat and magnetic susceptibility. We also investigated the spin fluctuation spectrum at both critical doping and within the magnetically ordered phase. A key finding is the spin excitations exhibit a strong Ising character, resulting in the strong suppression of transverse fluctuations. A detailed scaling analysis of the quantum critical behaviors relating the thermodynamic properties to the dynamic susceptibility will be presented. DOE, ORNL LDRD.

  16. Point-of-Care Ultrasonography in Emergency and Critical Care Medicine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Leon; Malek, Tony

    To stabilize critically ill patients, emergency and critical care medicine providers often require rapid diagnosis and intervention. The demand for a safe, timely diagnostic device, alongside technological innovation, led to the advent of point-of-care ultrasonography (POCUS). POCUS allows the provider to gain invaluable clinical information with a high level of accuracy, leading to better clinical decision-making and improvements in patient safety. We have outlined the history of POCUS adaptation in emergency and critical care medicine and various clinical applications of POCUS described in literature.

  17. Euler Strut: A Mechanical Analogy for Dynamics in the Vicinity of a Critical Point

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobnar, Jaka; Susman, Katarina; Parsegian, V. Adrian; Rand, Peter R.; Cepic, Mojca; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    An anchored elastic filament (Euler strut) under an external point load applied to its free end is a simple model for a second-order phase transition. In the static case, a load greater than the critical load causes a Euler buckling instability, leading to a change in the filament's shape. The analysis of filament dynamics with an external point…

  18. One-norm geometric quantum discord and critical point estimation in the XY spin chain

    SciT

    Cheng, Chang-Cheng; Wang, Yao; Guo, Jin-Liang, E-mail: guojinliang80@163.com

    2016-11-15

    In contrast with entanglement and quantum discord (QD), we investigate the thermal quantum correlation in terms of Schatten one-norm geometric quantum discord (GQD) in the XY spin chain, and analyze their capabilities in detecting the critical point of quantum phase transition. We show that the one-norm GQD can reveal more properties about quantum correlation between two spins, especially for the long-range quantum correlation at finite temperature. Under the influences of site distance, anisotropy and temperature, one-norm GQD and its first derivative make it possible to detect the critical point efficiently for a general XY spin chain. - Highlights: • Comparingmore » with entanglement and QD, one-norm GQD is more robust versus the temperature. • One-norm GQD is more efficient in characterization of long-range quantum correlation between two distant qubits. • One-norm GQD performs well in highlighting the critical point of QPT at zero or low finite temperature. • One-norm GQD has a number of advantages over QD in detecting the critical point of the spin chain.« less

  19. Temperature dependence of the interband critical points of bulk Ge and strained Ge on Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernando, Nalin S.; Nunley, T. Nathan; Ghosh, Ayana; Nelson, Cayla M.; Cooke, Jacqueline A.; Medina, Amber A.; Zollner, Stefan; Xu, Chi; Menendez, Jose; Kouvetakis, John

    2017-11-01

    Epitaxial Ge layers on a Si substrate experience a tensile biaxial stress due to the difference between the thermal expansion coefficients of the Ge epilayer and the Si substrate, which can be measured using asymmetric X-ray diffraction reciprocal space maps. This stress depends on temperature and affects the band structure, interband critical points, and optical spectra. This manuscripts reports careful measurements of the temperature dependence of the dielectric function and the interband critical point parameters of bulk Ge and Ge epilayers on Si using spectroscopic ellipsometry from 80 to 780 K and from 0.8 to 6.5 eV. The authors find a temperature-dependent redshift of the E1 and E1 + Δ1 critical points in Ge on Si (relative to bulk Ge). This redshift can be described well with a model based on thermal expansion coefficients, continuum elasticity theory, and the deformation potential theory for interband transitions. The interband transitions leading to E0‧ and E2 critical points have lower symmetry and therefore are not affected by the stress.

  20. 21 CFR 123.6 - Hazard analysis and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hazard analysis and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan. 123.6 Section 123.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... processor shall have and implement a written HACCP plan whenever a hazard analysis reveals one or more food...

  1. 21 CFR 123.6 - Hazard analysis and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hazard analysis and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan. 123.6 Section 123.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... processor shall have and implement a written HACCP plan whenever a hazard analysis reveals one or more food...

  2. Flow topology of rare back flow events and critical points in turbulent channels and toroidal pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, C.; Vinuesa, R.; Örlü, R.; Cardesa, J. I.; Noorani, A.; Schlatter, P.; Chong, M. S.

    2018-04-01

    A study of the back flow events and critical points in the flow through a toroidal pipe at friction Reynolds number Re τ ≈ 650 is performed and compared with the results in a turbulent channel flow at Re τ ≈ 934. The statistics and topological properties of the back flow events are analysed and discussed. Conditionally-averaged flow fields in the vicinity of the back flow event are obtained, and the results for the torus show a similar streamwise wall-shear stress topology which varies considerably for the spanwise wall-shear stress when compared to the channel flow. The comparison between the toroidal pipe and channel flows also shows fewer back flow events and critical points in the torus. This cannot be solely attributed to differences in Reynolds number, but is a clear effect of the secondary flow present in the toroidal pipe. A possible mechanism is the effect of the secondary flow present in the torus, which convects momentum from the inner to the outer bend through the core of the pipe, and back from the outer to the inner bend through the pipe walls. In the region around the critical points, the skin-friction streamlines and vorticity lines exhibit similar flow characteristics with a node and saddle pair for both flows. These results indicate that back flow events and critical points are genuine features of wall-bounded turbulence, and are not artifacts of specific boundary or inflow conditions in simulations and/or measurement uncertainties in experiments.

  3. Noise switching at a dynamical critical point in a cavity-conductor hybrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armour, Andrew D.; Kubala, Björn; Ankerhold, Joachim

    2017-12-01

    Coupling a mesoscopic conductor to a microwave cavity can lead to fascinating feedback effects which generate strong correlations between the dynamics of photons and charges. We explore the connection between cavity dynamics and charge transport in a model system consisting of a voltage-biased Josephson junction embedded in a high-Q cavity, focusing on the behavior as the system is tuned through a dynamical critical point. On one side of the critical point the noise is strongly suppressed, signaling the existence of a regime of highly coherent transport, but on the other side it switches abruptly to a much larger value. Using a semiclassical approach we show that this behavior arises because of the strongly nonlinear cavity drive generated by the Cooper pairs. We also uncover an equivalence between charge and photonic current noise in the system which opens up a route to detecting the critical behavior through straightforward microwave measurements.

  4. A Model for Hydrogen Thermal Conductivity and Viscosity Including the Critical Point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Howard A.; Tunc, Gokturk; Bayazitoglu, Yildiz

    2001-01-01

    In order to conduct a thermal analysis of heat transfer to liquid hydrogen near the critical point, an accurate understanding of the thermal transport properties is required. A review of the available literature on hydrogen transport properties identified a lack of useful equations to predict the thermal conductivity and viscosity of liquid hydrogen. The tables published by the National Bureau of Standards were used to perform a series of curve fits to generate the needed correlation equations. These equations give the thermal conductivity and viscosity of hydrogen below 100 K. They agree with the published NBS tables, with less than a 1.5 percent error for temperatures below 100 K and pressures from the triple point to 1000 KPa. These equations also capture the divergence in the thermal conductivity at the critical point

  5. Equation of state and critical point behavior of hard-core double-Yukawa fluids.

    PubMed

    Montes, J; Robles, M; López de Haro, M

    2016-02-28

    A theoretical study on the equation of state and the critical point behavior of hard-core double-Yukawa fluids is presented. Thermodynamic perturbation theory, restricted to first order in the inverse temperature and having the hard-sphere fluid as the reference system, is used to derive a relatively simple analytical equation of state of hard-core multi-Yukawa fluids. Using such an equation of state, the compressibility factor and phase behavior of six representative hard-core double-Yukawa fluids are examined and compared with available simulation results. The effect of varying the parameters of the hard-core double-Yukawa intermolecular potential on the location of the critical point is also analyzed using different perspectives. The relevance of this analysis for fluids whose molecules interact with realistic potentials is also pointed out.

  6. Theory of First Order Chemical Kinetics at the Critical Point of Solution.

    PubMed

    Baird, James K; Lang, Joshua R

    2017-10-26

    Liquid mixtures, which have a phase diagram exhibiting a miscibility gap ending in a critical point of solution, have been used as solvents for chemical reactions. The reaction rate in the forward direction has often been observed to slow down as a function of temperature in the critical region. Theories based upon the Gibbs free energy of reaction as the driving force for chemical change have been invoked to explain this behavior. With the assumption that the reaction is proceeding under relaxation conditions, these theories expand the free energy in a Taylor series about the position of equilibrium. Since the free energy is zero at equilibrium, the leading term in the Taylor series is proportional to the first derivative of the free energy with respect to the extent of reaction. To analyze the critical behavior of this derivative, the theories exploit the principle of critical point isomorphism, which is thought to govern all critical phenomena. They find that the derivative goes to zero in the critical region, which accounts for the slowing down observed in the reaction rate. As has been pointed out, however, most experimental rate investigations have been carried out under irreversible conditions as opposed to relaxation conditions [Shen et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 2015, 119, 8784-8791]. Below, we consider a reaction governed by first order kinetics and invoke transition state theory to take into account the irreversible conditions. We express the apparent activation energy in terms of thermodynamic derivatives evaluated under standard conditions as well as the pseudoequilibrium conditions associated with the reactant and the activated complex. We show that these derivatives approach infinity in the critical region. The apparent activation energy follows this behavior, and its divergence accounts for the slowing down of the reaction rate.

  7. Metal-insulator quantum critical point beneath the high Tc superconducting dome.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Suchitra E; Harrison, N; Altarawneh, M M; Mielke, C H; Liang, Ruixing; Bonn, D A; Hardy, W N; Lonzarich, G G

    2010-04-06

    An enduring question in correlated systems concerns whether superconductivity is favored at a quantum critical point (QCP) characterized by a divergent quasiparticle effective mass. Despite such a scenario being widely postulated in high T(c) cuprates and invoked to explain non-Fermi liquid transport signatures, experimental evidence is lacking for a critical divergence under the superconducting dome. We use ultrastrong magnetic fields to measure quantum oscillations in underdoped YBa(2)Cu(3)O(6+x), revealing a dramatic doping-dependent upturn in quasiparticle effective mass at a critical metal-insulator transition beneath the superconducting dome. Given the location of this QCP under a plateau in T(c) in addition to a postulated QCP at optimal doping, we discuss the intriguing possibility of two intersecting superconducting subdomes, each centered at a critical Fermi surface instability.

  8. Reaction kinetics and critical phenomena: iodination of acetone in isobutyric acid + water near the consolute point.

    PubMed

    Hu, Baichuan; Baird, James K

    2010-01-14

    The rate of iodination of acetone has been measured as a function of temperature in the binary solvent isobutyric acid (IBA) + water near the upper consolute point. The reaction mixture was prepared by the addition of acetone, iodine, and potassium iodide to IBA + water at its critical composition of 38.8 mass % IBA. The value of the critical temperature determined immediately after mixing was 25.43 degrees C. Aliquots were extracted from the mixture at regular intervals in order to follow the time course of the reaction. After dilution of the aliquot with water to quench the reaction, the concentration of triiodide ion was determined by the measurement of the optical density at a wavelength of 565 nm. These measurements showed that the kinetics were zeroth order. When at the end of 24 h the reaction had come to equilibrium, the critical temperature was determined again and found to be 24.83 degrees C. An Arrhenius plot of the temperature dependence of the observed rate constant, k(obs), was linear over the temperature range 27.00-38.00 degrees C, but between 25.43 and 27.00 degrees C, the values of k(obs) fell below the extrapolation of the Arrhenius line. This behavior is evidence in support of critical slowing down. Our experimental method and results are significant in three ways: (1) In contrast to in situ measurements of optical density, the determination of the optical density of diluted aliquots avoided any interference from critical opalescence. (2) The measured reaction rate exhibited critical slowing down. (3) The rate law was pseudo zeroth order both inside and outside the critical region, indicating that the reaction mechanism was unaffected by the presence of the critical point.

  9. Critical point and phase behavior of the pure fluid and a Lennard-Jones mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potoff, Jeffrey J.; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.

    1998-12-01

    Monte Carlo simulations in the grand canonical ensemble were used to obtain liquid-vapor coexistence curves and critical points of the pure fluid and a binary mixture of Lennard-Jones particles. Critical parameters were obtained from mixed-field finite-size scaling analysis and subcritical coexistence data from histogram reweighting methods. The critical parameters of the untruncated Lennard-Jones potential were obtained as Tc*=1.3120±0.0007, ρc*=0.316±0.001 and pc*=0.1279±0.0006. Our results for the critical temperature and pressure are not in agreement with the recent study of Caillol [J. Chem. Phys. 109, 4885 (1998)] on a four-dimensional hypersphere. Mixture parameters were ɛ1=2ɛ2 and σ1=σ2, with Lorentz-Berthelot combining rules for the unlike-pair interactions. We determined the critical point at T*=1.0 and pressure-composition diagrams at three temperatures. Our results have much smaller statistical uncertainties relative to comparable Gibbs ensemble simulations.

  10. Superconductivity and non-Fermi liquid behavior near a nematic quantum critical point.

    PubMed

    Lederer, Samuel; Schattner, Yoni; Berg, Erez; Kivelson, Steven A

    2017-05-09

    Using determinantal quantum Monte Carlo, we compute the properties of a lattice model with spin [Formula: see text] itinerant electrons tuned through a quantum phase transition to an Ising nematic phase. The nematic fluctuations induce superconductivity with a broad dome in the superconducting [Formula: see text] enclosing the nematic quantum critical point. For temperatures above [Formula: see text], we see strikingly non-Fermi liquid behavior, including a "nodal-antinodal dichotomy" reminiscent of that seen in several transition metal oxides. In addition, the critical fluctuations have a strong effect on the low-frequency optical conductivity, resulting in behavior consistent with "bad metal" phenomenology.

  11. Intrinsic low pass filtering improves signal-to-noise ratio in critical-point flexure biosensors

    SciT

    Jain, Ankit; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful, E-mail: alam@purdue.edu

    2014-08-25

    A flexure biosensor consists of a suspended beam and a fixed bottom electrode. The adsorption of the target biomolecules on the beam changes its stiffness and results in change of beam's deflection. It is now well established that the sensitivity of sensor is maximized close to the pull-in instability point, where effective stiffness of the beam vanishes. The question: “Do the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the limit-of-detection (LOD) also improve close to the instability point?”, however remains unanswered. In this article, we systematically analyze the noise response to evaluate SNR and establish LOD of critical-point flexure sensors. We find thatmore » a flexure sensor acts like an effective low pass filter close to the instability point due to its relatively small resonance frequency, and rejects high frequency noise, leading to improved SNR and LOD. We believe that our conclusions should establish the uniqueness and the technological relevance of critical-point biosensors.« less

  12. Elliptic Euler-Poisson-Darboux equation, critical points and integrable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopelchenko, B. G.; Ortenzi, G.

    2013-12-01

    The structure and properties of families of critical points for classes of functions W(z,{\\overline{z}}) obeying the elliptic Euler-Poisson-Darboux equation E(1/2, 1/2) are studied. General variational and differential equations governing the dependence of critical points in variational (deformation) parameters are found. Explicit examples of the corresponding integrable quasi-linear differential systems and hierarchies are presented. There are the extended dispersionless Toda/nonlinear Schrödinger hierarchies, the ‘inverse’ hierarchy and equations associated with the real-analytic Eisenstein series E(\\beta ,{\\overline{\\beta }};1/2) among them. The specific bi-Hamiltonian structure of these equations is also discussed.

  13. Non-linear regime of the Generalized Minimal Massive Gravity in critical points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setare, M. R.; Adami, H.

    2016-03-01

    The Generalized Minimal Massive Gravity (GMMG) theory is realized by adding the CS deformation term, the higher derivative deformation term, and an extra term to pure Einstein gravity with a negative cosmological constant. In the present paper we obtain exact solutions to the GMMG field equations in the non-linear regime of the model. GMMG model about AdS_3 space is conjectured to be dual to a 2-dimensional CFT. We study the theory in critical points corresponding to the central charges c_-=0 or c_+=0, in the non-linear regime. We show that AdS_3 wave solutions are present, and have logarithmic form in critical points. Then we study the AdS_3 non-linear deformation solution. Furthermore we obtain logarithmic deformation of extremal BTZ black hole. After that using Abbott-Deser-Tekin method we calculate the energy and angular momentum of these types of black hole solutions.

  14. Nanoporous Materials Can Tune the Critical Point of a Pure Substance

    DOE PAGES

    Braun, Efrem; Chen, Joseph J.; Schnell, Sondre K.; ...

    2015-09-30

    Molecular simulations and NMR relaxometry experiments demonstrate that pure benzene or xylene confined in isoreticular metal–organic frameworks (IRMOFs) exhibit true vapor–liquid phase equilibria where the effective critical point may be reduced by tuning the structure of the MOF. Our results are consistent with vapor and liquid phases extending over many MOF unit cells. These results are counterintuitive since the MOF pore diameters are approximately the same length scale as the adsorbate molecules. Lastly, as applications of these materials in catalysis, separations, and gas storage rely on the ability to tune the properties of adsorbed molecules, we anticipate that the abilitymore » to systematically control the critical point, thereby preparing spatially inhomogeneous local adsorbate densities, could add a new design tool for MOF applications.« less

  15. Weak phase stiffness and nature of the quantum critical point in underdoped cuprates

    DOE PAGES

    Yildirim, Yucel; Ku, Wei

    2015-11-02

    We demonstrate that the zero-temperature superconducting phase diagram of underdoped cuprates can be quantitatively understood in the strong binding limit, using only the experimental spectral function of the “normal” pseudogap phase without any free parameter. In the prototypical (La 1–xSr x) 2CuO 4, a kinetics-driven d-wave superconductivity is obtained above the critical doping δ c ~ 5.2%, below which complete loss of superfluidity results from local quantum fluctuation involving local p-wave pairs. Near the critical doping, an enormous mass enhancement of the local pairs is found responsible for the observed rapid decrease of phase stiffness. Lastly, a striking mass divergencemore » is predicted at δ c that dictates the occurrence of the observed quantum critical point and the abrupt suppression of the Nernst effects in the nearby region.« less

  16. Electron-density critical points analysis and catastrophe theory to forecast structure instability in periodic solids.

    PubMed

    Merli, Marcello; Pavese, Alessandro

    2018-03-01

    The critical points analysis of electron density, i.e. ρ(x), from ab initio calculations is used in combination with the catastrophe theory to show a correlation between ρ(x) topology and the appearance of instability that may lead to transformations of crystal structures, as a function of pressure/temperature. In particular, this study focuses on the evolution of coalescing non-degenerate critical points, i.e. such that ∇ρ(x c ) = 0 and λ 1 , λ 2 , λ 3 ≠ 0 [λ being the eigenvalues of the Hessian of ρ(x) at x c ], towards degenerate critical points, i.e. ∇ρ(x c ) = 0 and at least one λ equal to zero. The catastrophe theory formalism provides a mathematical tool to model ρ(x) in the neighbourhood of x c and allows one to rationalize the occurrence of instability in terms of electron-density topology and Gibbs energy. The phase/state transitions that TiO 2 (rutile structure), MgO (periclase structure) and Al 2 O 3 (corundum structure) undergo because of pressure and/or temperature are here discussed. An agreement of 3-5% is observed between the theoretical model and experimental pressure/temperature of transformation.

  17. Overlapping Modularity at the Critical Point of k-Clique Percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, Bálint; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-05-01

    One of the most remarkable social phenomena is the formation of communities in social networks corresponding to families, friendship circles, work teams, etc. Since people usually belong to several different communities at the same time, the induced overlaps result in an extremely complicated web of the communities themselves. Thus, uncovering the intricate community structure of social networks is a non-trivial task with great potential for practical applications, gaining a notable interest in the recent years. The Clique Percolation Method (CPM) is one of the earliest overlapping community finding methods, which was already used in the analysis of several different social networks. In this approach the communities correspond to k-clique percolation clusters, and the general heuristic for setting the parameters of the method is to tune the system just below the critical point of k-clique percolation. However, this rule is based on simple physical principles and its validity was never subject to quantitative analysis. Here we examine the quality of the partitioning in the vicinity of the critical point using recently introduced overlapping modularity measures. According to our results on real social and other networks, the overlapping modularities show a maximum close to the critical point, justifying the original criteria for the optimal parameter settings.

  18. Estimating the Critical Point of Crowding in the Emergency Department for the Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Y.; Pan, C.; Tseng, C.; Wen, J.

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to deduce a function from the admissions/discharge rate of patient flow to estimate a "Critical Point" that provides a reference for warning systems in regards to crowding in the emergency department (ED) of a hospital or medical clinic. In this study, a model of "Input-Throughput-Output" was used in our established mathematical function to evaluate the critical point. The function is defined as dPin/dt=dwait/dt+Cp×B+ dPout/dt where Pin= number of registered patients, Pwait= number of waiting patients, Cp= retention rate per bed (calculated for the critical point), B= number of licensed beds in the treatment area, and Pout= number of patients discharged from the treatment area. Using the average Cp of ED crowding, we could start the warning system at an appropriate time and then plan for necessary emergency response to facilitate the patient process more smoothly. It was concluded that ED crowding could be quantified using the average value of Cp and the value could be used as a reference for medical staff to give optimal emergency medical treatment to patients. Therefore, additional practical work should be launched to collect more precise quantitative data.

  19. Using change-point models to estimate empirical critical loads for nitrogen in mountain ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Roth, Tobias; Kohli, Lukas; Rihm, Beat; Meier, Reto; Achermann, Beat

    2017-01-01

    To protect ecosystems and their services, the critical load concept has been implemented under the framework of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (UNECE) to develop effects-oriented air pollution abatement strategies. Critical loads are thresholds below which damaging effects on sensitive habitats do not occur according to current knowledge. Here we use change-point models applied in a Bayesian context to overcome some of the difficulties when estimating empirical critical loads for nitrogen (N) from empirical data. We tested the method using simulated data with varying sample sizes, varying effects of confounding variables, and with varying negative effects of N deposition on species richness. The method was applied to the national-scale plant species richness data from mountain hay meadows and (sub)alpine scrubs sites in Switzerland. Seven confounding factors (elevation, inclination, precipitation, calcareous content, aspect as well as indicator values for humidity and light) were selected based on earlier studies examining numerous environmental factors to explain Swiss vascular plant diversity. The estimated critical load confirmed the existing empirical critical load of 5-15 kg N ha -1 yr -1 for (sub)alpine scrubs, while for mountain hay meadows the estimated critical load was at the lower end of the current empirical critical load range. Based on these results, we suggest to narrow down the critical load range for mountain hay meadows to 10-15 kg N ha -1 yr -1 . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Noise and time delay induce critical point in a bistable system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianqiang; Nie, Linru; Yu, Lilong; Zhang, Xinyu

    2014-07-01

    We study relaxation time Tc of time-delayed bistable system driven by two cross-correlated Gaussian white noises that one is multiplicative and the other is additive. By means of numerical calculations, the results indicate that: (i) Combination of noise and time delay can induce two critical points about the relaxation time at some certain noise cross-correlation strength λ under the condition that the multiplicative intensity D equals to the additive noise intensity α. (ii) For each fixed D or α, there are two symmetrical critical points which locates in the regions of positive and negative correlations, respectively. Namely, as λ equals to the critical value λc, Tc is independent of the delay time and the result of Tc versus τ is a horizontal line, but as |λ|>|λc| (or |λ|<|λc|), the relaxation time Tc monotonically increases (or decreases) with the delay time increasing. (iii) In the presence of D = α, the change of λc with D is two symmetrical curves about the axis of λc = 0, and the critical value λc is close to zero for a smaller D, which approaches to +1 or -1 for a greater D.

  1. Scaling functions for the Inverse Compressibility near the QCD critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, Roy

    2017-09-01

    The QCD phase diagram can be mapped out by studying fluctuations and their response to changes in the temperature and baryon chemical potential. Theoretical studies indicate that the cumulant ratios Cn /Cm used to characterize the fluctuation of conserved charges, provide a valuable probe of deconfinement and chiral dynamics, as well as for identifying the position of the critical endpoint (CEP) in the QCD phase diagram. The ratio C1 /C2 , which is linked to the inverse compressibility, vanishes at the CEP due to the divergence of the net quark number fluctuations at the critical point belonging to the Z(2) universality class. Therefore, it's associated scaling function can give insight on the location of the critical end point, as well as the critical exponents required to assign its static universality class. Scaling functions for the ratio C1 /C2 , obtained from net-proton multiplicity distributions for a broad range of collision centralities in Au+Au (√{sNN} = 7.7 - 200 GeV) collisions will be presented and discussed.

  2. Indications for a critical point in the phase diagram for hot and dense nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, Roy A.

    2016-12-01

    Two-pion interferometry measurements are studied for a broad range of collision centralities in Au+Au (√{sNN} = 7.7- 200 GeV) and Pb+Pb (√{sNN} = 2.76 TeV) collisions. They indicate non-monotonic excitation functions for the Gaussian emission source radii difference (Rout -Rside), suggestive of reaction trajectories which spend a fair amount of time near a soft point in the equation of state (EOS) that coincides with the critical end point (CEP). A Finite-Size Scaling (FSS) analysis of these excitation functions, provides further validation tests for the CEP. It also indicates a second order phase transition at the CEP, and the values Tcep ∼ 165 MeV and μBcep ∼ 95 MeV for its location in the (T ,μB)-plane of the phase diagram. The static critical exponents (ν ≈ 0.66 and γ ≈ 1.2) extracted via the same FSS analysis, place this CEP in the 3D Ising model (static) universality class. A Dynamic Finite-Size Scaling analysis of the excitation functions, gives the estimate z ∼ 0.87 for the dynamic critical exponent, suggesting that the associated critical expansion dynamics is dominated by the hydrodynamic sound mode.

  3. Assessment of hygiene standards and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points implementation on passenger ships.

    PubMed

    Mouchtouri, Varavara; Malissiova, Eleni; Zisis, Panagiotis; Paparizou, Evina; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2013-01-01

    The level of hygiene on ferries can have impact on travellers' health. The aim of this study was to assess the hygiene standards of ferries in Greece and to investigate whether Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) implementation contributes to the hygiene status and particularly food safety aboard passenger ships. Hygiene inspections on 17 ferries in Greece were performed using a standardized inspection form, with a 135-point scale. Thirty-four water and 17 food samples were collected and analysed. About 65% (11/17) of ferries were scored with >100 points. Ferries with HACCP received higher scores during inspection compared to those without HACCP (p value <0.001). All 34 microbiological water test results were found negative and, from the 17 food samples, only one was found positive for Salmonella spp. Implementation of management systems including HACCP principles can help to raise the level of hygiene aboard passenger ships.

  4. Solid-like features in dense vapors near the fluid critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruppeiner, George; Dyjack, Nathan; McAloon, Abigail; Stoops, Jerry

    2017-06-01

    The phase diagram (pressure versus temperature) of the pure fluid is typically envisioned as being featureless apart from the presence of the liquid-vapor coexistence curve terminating at the critical point. However, a number of recent authors have proposed that this simple picture misses important features, such as the Widom line, the Fisher-Widom line, and the Frenkel line. In our paper, we discuss another way of augmenting the pure fluid phase diagram, lines of zero thermodynamic curvature R = 0 separating regimes of fluid solid-like behavior (R > 0) from gas-like or liquid-like behavior (R < 0). We systematically evaluate R for the 121 pure fluids in the NIST/REFPROP (version 9.1) fluid database near the saturated vapor line from the triple point to the critical point. Our specific goal was to identify regions of positive R abutting the saturated vapor line ("feature D"). We found the following: (i) 97/121 of the NIST/REFPROP fluids have feature D. (ii) The presence and character of feature D correlates with molecular complexity, taken to be the number of atoms Q per molecule. (iii) The solid-like properties of feature D might be attributable to a mesoscopic model based on correlations among coordinated spinning molecules, a model that might be testable with computer simulations. (iv) There are a number of correlations between thermodynamic quantities, including the acentric factor ω , but we found little explicit correlation between ω and the shape of a molecule. (v) Feature D seriously constrains the size of the asymptotic fluid critical point regime, possibly resolving a long-standing mystery about why these are so small. (vi) Feature D correlates roughly with regimes of anomalous sound propagation.

  5. Vegetation community change points suggest that critical loads of nutrient nitrogen may be too high

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Kayla; Aherne, Julian; Bleasdale, Andy

    2016-12-01

    It is widely accepted that elevated nitrogen deposition can have detrimental effects on semi-natural ecosystems, including changes to plant diversity. Empirical critical loads of nutrient nitrogen have been recommended to protect many sensitive European habitats from significant harmful effects. In this study, we used Threshold Indicator Taxa Analysis (TITAN) to investigate shifts in vegetation communities along an atmospheric nitrogen deposition gradient for twenty-two semi-natural habitat types (as described under Annex I of the European Union Habitats Directive) in Ireland. Significant changes in vegetation community, i.e., change points, were determined for twelve habitats, with seven habitats showing a decrease in the number of positive indicator species. Community-level change points indicated a decrease in species abundance along a nitrogen deposition gradient ranging from 3.9 to 15.3 kg N ha-1 yr-1, which were significantly lower than recommended critical loads (Wilcoxon signed-rank test; V = 6, p < 0.05). These results suggest that lower critical loads of empirical nutrient nitrogen deposition may be required to protect many European habitats. Changes to vegetation communities may mean a loss of sensitive indicator species and potentially rare species in these habitats, highlighting how emission reductions policies set under the National Emissions Ceilings Directive may be directly linked to meeting the goal set out under the European Union's Biodiversity Strategy of "halting the loss of biodiversity" across Europe by 2020.

  6. Quantum critical point and spin fluctuations in lower-mantle ferropericlase

    PubMed Central

    Lyubutin, Igor S.; Struzhkin, Viktor V.; Mironovich, A. A.; Gavriliuk, Alexander G.; Naumov, Pavel G.; Lin, Jung-Fu; Ovchinnikov, Sergey G.; Sinogeikin, Stanislav; Chow, Paul; Xiao, Yuming; Hemley, Russell J.

    2013-01-01

    Ferropericlase [(Mg,Fe)O] is one of the most abundant minerals of the earth’s lower mantle. The high-spin (HS) to low-spin (LS) transition in the Fe2+ ions may dramatically alter the physical and chemical properties of (Mg,Fe)O in the deep mantle. To understand the effects of compression on the ground electronic state of iron, electronic and magnetic states of Fe2+ in (Mg0.75Fe0.25)O have been investigated using transmission and synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy at high pressures and low temperatures (down to 5 K). Our results show that the ground electronic state of Fe2+ at the critical pressure Pc of the spin transition close to T = 0 is governed by a quantum critical point (T = 0, P = Pc) at which the energy required for the fluctuation between HS and LS states is zero. Analysis of the data gives Pc = 55 GPa. Thermal excitation within the HS or LS states (T > 0 K) is expected to strongly influence the magnetic as well as physical properties of ferropericlase. Multielectron theoretical calculations show that the existence of the quantum critical point at temperatures approaching zero affects not only physical properties of ferropericlase at low temperatures but also its properties at P-T of the earth’s lower mantle. PMID:23589892

  7. Critical point in the phase diagram of primordial quark-gluon matter from black hole physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Critelli, Renato; Noronha, Jorge; Noronha-Hostler, Jacquelyn; Portillo, Israel; Ratti, Claudia; Rougemont, Romulo

    2017-11-01

    Strongly interacting matter undergoes a crossover phase transition at high temperatures T ˜1012 K and zero net-baryon density. A fundamental question in the theory of strong interactions, QCD, is whether a hot and dense system of quarks and gluons displays critical phenomena when doped with more quarks than antiquarks, where net-baryon number fluctuations diverge. Recent lattice QCD work indicates that such a critical point can only occur in the baryon dense regime of the theory, which defies a description from first principles calculations. Here we use the holographic gauge/gravity correspondence to map the fluctuations of baryon charge in the dense quark-gluon liquid onto a numerically tractable gravitational problem involving the charge fluctuations of holographic black holes. This approach quantitatively reproduces ab initio results for the lowest order moments of the baryon fluctuations and makes predictions for the higher-order baryon susceptibilities and also for the location of the critical point, which is found to be within the reach of heavy-ion collision experiments.

  8. Change of carrier density at the pseudogap critical point of a cuprate superconductor.

    PubMed

    Badoux, S; Tabis, W; Laliberté, F; Grissonnanche, G; Vignolle, B; Vignolles, D; Béard, J; Bonn, D A; Hardy, W N; Liang, R; Doiron-Leyraud, N; Taillefer, Louis; Proust, Cyril

    2016-03-10

    The pseudogap is a partial gap in the electronic density of states that opens in the normal (non-superconducting) state of cuprate superconductors and whose origin is a long-standing puzzle. Its connection to the Mott insulator phase at low doping (hole concentration, p) remains ambiguous and its relation to the charge order that reconstructs the Fermi surface at intermediate doping is still unclear. Here we use measurements of the Hall coefficient in magnetic fields up to 88 tesla to show that Fermi-surface reconstruction by charge order in the cuprate YBa2Cu3Oy ends sharply at a critical doping p = 0.16 that is distinctly lower than the pseudogap critical point p* = 0.19 (ref. 11). This shows that the pseudogap and charge order are separate phenomena. We find that the change in carrier density n from n = 1 + p in the conventional metal at high doping (ref. 12) to n = p at low doping (ref. 13) starts at the pseudogap critical point. This shows that the pseudogap and the antiferromagnetic Mott insulator are linked.

  9. Critical control points of complementary food preparation and handling in eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed Central

    Ehiri, J. E.; Azubuike, M. C.; Ubbaonu, C. N.; Anyanwu, E. C.; Ibe, K. M.; Ogbonna, M. O.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate microbial contamination and critical control points (CCPs) in the preparation and handling of complementary foods in 120 households in Imo state, Nigeria. METHODS: The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) approach was used to investigate processes and procedures that contributed to microbial contamination, growth and survival, and to identify points where controls could be applied to prevent or eliminate these microbiological hazards or reduce them to acceptable levels. Food samples were collected and tested microbiologically at different stages of preparation and handling. FINDINGS: During cooking, all foods attained temperatures capable of destroying vegetative forms of food-borne pathogens. However, the risk of contamination increased by storage of food at ambient temperature, by using insufficiently high temperatures to reheat the food, and by adding contaminated ingredients such as dried ground crayfish and soybean powder at stages where no further heat treatment was applied. The purchasing of contaminated raw foodstuffs and ingredients, particularly raw akamu, from vendors in open markets is also a CCP. CONCLUSION: Although an unsafe environment poses many hazards for children's food, the hygienic quality of prepared food can be assured if basic food safety principles are observed. When many factors contribute to food contamination, identification of CCPs becomes particularly important and can facilitate appropriate targeting of resources and prevention efforts. PMID:11417038

  10. 75 FR 8239 - School Food Safety Program Based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Principles (HACCP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... 0584-AD65 School Food Safety Program Based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Principles... Safety Program Based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Principles (HACCP) was published on... of Management and Budget (OMB) cleared the associated information collection requirements (ICR) on...

  11. Mechanism of a strange metal state near a heavy-fermion quantum critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yung-Yeh; Paschen, Silke; Chung, Chung-Hou

    2018-01-01

    Unconventional metallic or strange metal (SM) behavior with non-Fermi liquid (NFL) properties, generic features of heavy-fermion systems near quantum phase transitions, are yet to be understood microscopically. A paradigmatic example is the magnetic field-tuned quantum critical heavy-fermion metal YbRh2Si2 , revealing a possible SM state over a finite range of fields at low temperatures when substituted with Ge. Above a critical field, the SM state gives way to a heavy Fermi liquid with Kondo correlation. The NFL behavior, most notably a linear-in-temperature electrical resistivity and a logarithmic-in-temperature followed by a power-law singularity in the specific heat coefficient at low temperatures, still lacks a definite understanding. We propose the following mechanism as origin of the experimentally observed behavior: a quasi-2 d fluctuating short-ranged resonating-valence-bond spin liquid competing with the Kondo correlation. Applying a field-theoretical renormalization group analysis on an effective field theory beyond a large-N approach to an antiferromagnetic Kondo-Heisenberg model, we identify the critical point and explain remarkably well the SM behavior. Our theory goes beyond the well-established framework of quantum phase transitions and serves as a basis to address open issues in quantum critical heavy-fermion systems.

  12. Anesthetics lower Tc of a 2D miscibility critical point in the plasma membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machta, Benjamin; Gray, Elly; Veatch, Sarah

    2014-03-01

    Many small hydrophobic molecules induce general anesthesia. Their efficacy as anesthetics has been shown to correlate both with their hydrophobicity and with their potency in inhibiting certain ligand gated ion channels. I will first report on our experiments on the effects that these molecules have on the two-dimensional miscibility critical point observed in cell derived vesicles (GPMVs). We show that anesthetics depress the critical temperature (Tc) of these GPMVs but do not strongly affect the ratio of phases found below Tc. The magnitude of this affect is consistent across the n-alcohols only when their concentration is rescaled by the median anesthetic concentration (AC50) for tadpole anesthesia and at AC50 we see a 4K downward shift in Tc. I will next present a model in which anesthetics interfere with native allosteric regulation of ligand gated channels by the critical membrane, showing that our observed change in critical properties could lead to the previously observed changes in channel conductance without a direct interaction between anesthetic molecules and their target proteins. Finally, I will discuss ongoing experiments that will clarify the role of this membrane effect in mediating the organism level anesthetic response.

  13. Susceptibility Measurements Near the He-3 Liquid-Gas Critical Point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin; Zhong, Fang; Hahn, Inseob

    2000-01-01

    An experiment is now being developed to measure both the linear susceptibility and specific heat at constant volume near the liquid-gas critical point of He-3 in a microgravity environment. An electrostriction technique for measuring susceptibility will be described. Initial electrostriction measurements were performed on the ground along the critical isochore in a 0.5 mm high measurement cell filled to within 0.1 % of the critical density. These measurements agreed with the susceptibility determined from pressure-density measurements along isotherms. The critical temperature, T(sub c), determined separately from specific heat and susceptibility measurements was self-consistent. Susceptibility measurements in the range t = T/T(sub c) - 1 > 10(exp -4)were fit to Chi(sup *)(sub T) = Gamma(sup +)t(exp -lambda)(1 + Gamma(sup +)(sub 1)t(sup delta). Best fit parameters for the asymptotic amplitude Gamma(sup +) and the first Wegner amplitude Gamma(sup +)(sub 1) will be presented and compared to previous measurements.

  14. Ferromagnetic quantum critical point in CePd2P2 with Pd → Ni substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Y.; Bone, S. E.; Minasian, S.; Ferrier, M. G.; Lezama-Pacheco, J.; Mocko, V.; Ditter, A. S.; Kozimor, S. A.; Seidler, G. T.; Nelson, W. L.; Chiu, Y.-C.; Huang, K.; Potter, W.; Graf, D.; Albrecht-Schmitt, T. E.; Baumbach, R. E.

    2018-06-01

    An investigation of the structural, thermodynamic, and electronic transport properties of the isoelectronic chemical substitution series Ce (Pd1-xNix) 2P2 is reported, where a possible ferromagnetic quantum critical point is uncovered in the temperature-concentration (T -x ) phase diagram. This behavior results from the simultaneous contraction of the unit cell volume, which tunes the relative strengths of the Kondo and Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interactions, and the introduction of disorder through alloying. Near the critical region at xcr≈ 0.7, the rate of contraction of the unit cell volume strengthens, indicating that the cerium f valence crosses over from trivalent to a noninteger value. Consistent with this picture, x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements reveal that while CePd2P2 has a purely trivalent cerium f state, CeNi2P2 has a small (<10 %) tetravalent contribution. In a broad region around xcr, there is a breakdown of Fermi-liquid temperature dependences, signaling the influence of quantum critical fluctuations and disorder effects. Measurements of clean CePd2P2 furthermore show that applied pressure has an initial effect similar to alloying on the ferromagnetic order. From these results, CePd2P2 emerges as a keystone system to test theories such as the Belitz-Kirkpatrick-Vojta model for ferromagnetic quantum criticality, where distinct behaviors are expected in the dirty and clean limits.

  15. Candidate Elastic Quantum Critical Point in LaCu 6 - x Au x

    SciT

    Poudel, Lekh; May, Andrew F.; Koehler, Michael R.

    2016-11-30

    In this paper, the structural properties of LaCu 6-xAu x are studied using neutron diffraction, x-ray diffraction, and heat capacity measurements. The continuous orthorhombic-monoclinic structural phase transition in LaCu 6 is suppressed linearly with Au substitution until a complete suppression of the structural phase transition occurs at the critical composition x c=0.3. Heat capacity measurements at low temperatures indicate residual structural instability at x c. The instability is ferroelastic in nature, with density functional theory calculations showing negligible coupling to electronic states near the Fermi level. Finally, the data and calculations presented here are consistent with the zero temperature terminationmore » of a continuous structural phase transition suggesting that the LaCu 6-xAu x series hosts an elastic quantum critical point.« less

  16. Critical Point of a Weakly Interacting Two-Dimensional Bose Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokof'ev, Nikolay; Ruebenacker, Oliver; Svistunov, Boris

    2002-03-01

    We study the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition in a We study the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition in a weakly interacting 2D quantum Bose gas using the concept of universality and numerical simulations of the classical |ψ|^4-model on a lattice. The critical density and chemical potential are given by relations n_c=(mT/2π hbar^2) ln(ξ hbar^2/ mU) and μ_c=(mTU/π hbar^2) ln(ξ_μ hbar^2/ mU), where T is the temperature, m is the mass, and U is the effective interaction. The dimensionless constant ξ= 380 ± 3 is very large and thus any quantitative analysis of the experimental data crucially depends on its value. For ξ_μ our result is ξ_μ = 13.2 ± 0.4 . We also report the study of the quasi-condensate correlations at the critical point.

  17. Avoided ferromagnetic quantum critical point: unusual short-range ordered state in CeFePO.

    PubMed

    Lausberg, S; Spehling, J; Steppke, A; Jesche, A; Luetkens, H; Amato, A; Baines, C; Krellner, C; Brando, M; Geibel, C; Klauss, H-H; Steglich, F

    2012-11-21

    Cerium 4f electronic spin dynamics in single crystals of the heavy-fermion system CeFePO is studied by means of ac susceptibility, specific heat, and muon-spin relaxation (μSR). Short-range static magnetism occurs below the freezing temperature T(g) ≈ 0.7 K, which prevents the system from accessing a putative ferromagnetic quantum critical point. In the μSR, the sample-averaged muon asymmetry function is dominated by strongly inhomogeneous spin fluctuations below 10 K and exhibits a characteristic time-field scaling relation expected from glassy spin dynamics, strongly evidencing cooperative and critical spin fluctuations. The overall behavior can be ascribed neither to canonical spin glasses nor other disorder-driven mechanisms.

  18. Mapping the current–current correlation function near a quantum critical point

    SciT

    Prodan, Emil, E-mail: prodan@yu.edu; Bellissard, Jean

    2016-05-15

    The current–current correlation function is a useful concept in the theory of electron transport in homogeneous solids. The finite-temperature conductivity tensor as well as Anderson’s localization length can be computed entirely from this correlation function. Based on the critical behavior of these two physical quantities near the plateau–insulator or plateau–plateau transitions in the integer quantum Hall effect, we derive an asymptotic formula for the current–current correlation function, which enables us to make several theoretical predictions about its generic behavior. For the disordered Hofstadter model, we employ numerical simulations to map the current–current correlation function, obtain its asymptotic form near amore » critical point and confirm the theoretical predictions.« less

  19. Vanishing characteristic speeds and critical dispersive points in nonlinear interfacial wave problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratliff, Daniel J.

    2017-11-01

    Criticality plays a central role in the study of reductions and stability of hydrodynamical systems. At critical points, it is often the case that nonlinear reductions with dispersion arise to govern solution behavior. By considering when such models become bidirectional and lose their initial dispersive properties, it will be shown that higher order dispersive models may be supported in hydrodynamical systems. Precisely, this equation is a two-way Boussinesq equation with sixth order dispersion. The case of two layered shallow water is considered to illustrate this, and it is reasoned why such an environment is natural for such a system to emerge. Further, it is demonstrated that the regions in the parameter space for nontrivial flow, which admit this reduction, are vast and in fact form a continuum. The reduced model is then numerically simulated to illustrate how the two-way and higher dispersive properties suggest more exotic families of solitary wave solutions can emerge in stratified flows.

  20. Turbidity very near the critical point of methanol-cyclohexane mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopelman, R. B.; Gammon, R. W.; Moldover, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    The turbidity of a critical mixture of methanol and cyclohexane has been measured extremely close to the consolute point. The data span the reduced-temperature range between 10 to the -7th and 10 to the -3d, which is two decades closer to Tc than previous measurements. In this temperature range, the turbidity varies approximately as 1nt, as expected from the integrated form for Ornstein-Zernike scattering. A thin cell (200-micron optical path) with a very small volume (0.08 ml) was used to avoid multiple scattering. A carefully controlled temperature history was used to mix the sample and to minimize the effects of critical wetting layers. The data are consistent with a correlation-length amplitude of 3.9 plus or minus 1.0 A, in agreement with the value 3.5 A calculated from two-scale-factor universality and heat-capacity data from the literature.

  1. Turbidity very near the critical point of methanol-cyclohexane mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopelman, R. B.; Gammon, R. W.; Moldover, M. R.

    1984-04-01

    The turbidity of a critical mixture of methanol and cyclohexane has been measured extremely close to the consolute point. The data span the reduced-temperature range between 10 to the -7th and 10 to the -3d, which is two decades closer to Tc than previous measurements. In this temperature range, the turbidity varies approximately as 1nt, as expected from the integrated form for Ornstein-Zernike scattering. A thin cell (200-micron optical path) with a very small volume (0.08 ml) was used to avoid multiple scattering. A carefully controlled temperature history was used to mix the sample and to minimize the effects of critical wetting layers. The data are consistent with a correlation-length amplitude of 3.9 plus or minus 1.0 A, in agreement with the value 3.5 A calculated from two-scale-factor universality and heat-capacity data from the literature.

  2. Examination of two methods of describing the thermodynamic properties of oxygen near the critical point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rees, T. H.; Suttles, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    A computer study was conducted to compare the numerical behavior of two approaches to describing the thermodynamic properties of oxygen near the critical point. Data on the relative differences between values of specific heats at constant pressure (sub p) density, and isotherm and isochor derivatives of the equation of state are presented for selected supercritical pressures at temperatures in the range 100 to 300 K. The results of a more detailed study of the sub p representations afforded by the two methods are also presented.

  3. Has the QCD critical point been signaled by observations at the BNL relativistic heavy ion collider?

    PubMed

    Lacey, Roy A; Ajitanand, N N; Alexander, J M; Chung, P; Holzmann, W G; Issah, M; Taranenko, A; Danielewicz, P; Stöcker, Horst

    2007-03-02

    The shear viscosity to entropy ratio (eta/s) is estimated for the hot and dense QCD matter created in Au+Au collisions at BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (square root[s_{NN}]=200 GeV). A very low value is found; eta/s approximately 0.1, which is close to the conjectured lower bound (1/4pi). It is argued that such a low value is indicative of thermodynamic trajectories for the decaying matter which lie close to the QCD critical end point.

  4. [Incorporation of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point system (HACCP) in food legislation].

    PubMed

    Castellanos Rey, Liliana C; Villamil Jiménez, Luis C; Romero Prada, Jaime R

    2004-01-01

    The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point system (HACCP), recommended by different international organizations as the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the World Trade Organization (WTO), the International Office of Epizootics (OIE) and the International Convention for Vegetables Protection (ICPV) amongst others, contributes to ensuring the innocuity of food along the agro-alimentary chain and requires of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) for its implementation, GMP's which are legislated in most countries. Since 1997, Colombia has set rules and legislation for application of HACCP system in agreement with international standards. This paper discusses the potential and difficulties of the legislation enforcement and suggests some policy implications towards food safety.

  5. On the critical temperature, normal boiling point, and vapor pressure of ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Rebelo, Luis P N; Canongia Lopes, José N; Esperança, José M S S; Filipe, Eduardo

    2005-04-07

    One-stage, reduced-pressure distillations at moderate temperature of 1-decyl- and 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bistriflilamide ([Ntf(2)](-)) ionic liquids (ILs) have been performed. These liquid-vapor equilibria can be understood in light of predictions for normal boiling points of ILs. The predictions are based on experimental surface tension and density data, which are used to estimate the critical points of several ILs and their corresponding normal boiling temperatures. In contrast to the situation found for relatively unstable ILs at high-temperature such as those containing [BF(4)](-) or [PF(6)](-) anions, [Ntf(2)](-)-based ILs constitute a promising class in which reliable, accurate vapor pressure measurements can in principle be performed. This property is paramount for assisting in the development and testing of accurate molecular models.

  6. On the potential of Galileo E5 for time transfer.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Belda, Mari Carmen; Defraigne, Pascale; Bruyninx, Carine

    2013-01-01

    The main global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) technique currently used for accurate time and frequency transfer is based on an analysis of the ionosphere-free combinations of dual-frequency code and carrier phase measurements in a precise point positioning (PPP) mode. This technique analyses the observations of one GNSS station using external products for satellite clocks and orbits to determine the position and clock synchronization errors of this station. The frequency stability of this time transfer is limited by the noise and multipath of the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Globalnaya Navigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema (GLONASS) codes. In the near future, Galileo will offer a broadband signal E5, with low noise in the centimeter range and with the lowest multipath error ever observed. This paper investigates new analysis procedures based on the E5 codeplus- carrier (CPC) combination for time transfer. The CPC combination with E5 provides a noise level 10 times lower than the ionosphere-free combination of Galileo E1 and E5, which is very promising for improving GNSS time transfer performances. From some tests with simulated Galileo data, it is shown here that the use of the CPC combination with E5 does not improve, at present, the medium- and long-term stability of time transfer with respect to the ionosphere-free combination of Galileo E1 and E5 codes, because of the need for a second frequency signal to correct for the ionospheric delays and ambiguities.

  7. The application of hazard analysis and critical control points and risk management in the preparation of anti-cancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Bonan, Brigitte; Martelli, Nicolas; Berhoune, Malik; Maestroni, Marie-Laure; Havard, Laurent; Prognon, Patrice

    2009-02-01

    To apply the Hazard analysis and Critical Control Points method to the preparation of anti-cancer drugs. To identify critical control points in our cancer chemotherapy process and to propose control measures and corrective actions to manage these processes. The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points application began in January 2004 in our centralized chemotherapy compounding unit. From October 2004 to August 2005, monitoring of the process nonconformities was performed to assess the method. According to the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points method, a multidisciplinary team was formed to describe and assess the cancer chemotherapy process. This team listed all of the critical points and calculated their risk indexes according to their frequency of occurrence, their severity and their detectability. The team defined monitoring, control measures and corrective actions for each identified risk. Finally, over a 10-month period, pharmacists reported each non-conformity of the process in a follow-up document. Our team described 11 steps in the cancer chemotherapy process. The team identified 39 critical control points, including 11 of higher importance with a high-risk index. Over 10 months, 16,647 preparations were performed; 1225 nonconformities were reported during this same period. The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points method is relevant when it is used to target a specific process such as the preparation of anti-cancer drugs. This method helped us to focus on the production steps, which can have a critical influence on product quality, and led us to improve our process.

  8. Higgs amplitude mode in a two-dimensional quantum antiferromagnet near the quantum critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Tao; Matsumoto, Masashige; Qiu, Yiming; Chen, Wangchun; Gentile, Thomas R.; Watson, Shannon; Awwadi, Firas F.; Turnbull, Mark M.; Dissanayake, Sachith E.; Agrawal, Harish; Toft-Petersen, Rasmus; Klemke, Bastian; Coester, Kris; Schmidt, Kai P.; Tennant, David A.

    2017-07-01

    Spontaneous symmetry-breaking quantum phase transitions play an essential role in condensed-matter physics. The collective excitations in the broken-symmetry phase near the quantum critical point can be characterized by fluctuations of phase and amplitude of the order parameter. The phase oscillations correspond to the massless Nambu-Goldstone modes whereas the massive amplitude mode, analogous to the Higgs boson in particle physics, is prone to decay into a pair of low-energy Nambu-Goldstone modes in low dimensions. Especially, observation of a Higgs amplitude mode in two dimensions is an outstanding experimental challenge. Here, using inelastic neutron scattering and applying the bond-operator theory, we directly and unambiguously identify the Higgs amplitude mode in a two-dimensional S = 1/2 quantum antiferromagnet C9H18N2CuBr4 near a quantum critical point in two dimensions. Owing to an anisotropic energy gap, it kinematically prevents such decay and the Higgs amplitude mode acquires an infinite lifetime.

  9. Effect of hydrophobic environments on the hypothesized liquid-liquid critical point of water.

    PubMed

    Strekalova, Elena G; Corradini, Dario; Mazza, Marco G; Buldyrev, Sergey V; Gallo, Paola; Franzese, Giancarlo; Stanley, H Eugene

    2012-01-01

    The complex behavior of liquid water, along with its anomalies and their crucial role in the existence of life, continue to attract the attention of researchers. The anomalous behavior of water is more pronounced at subfreezing temperatures and numerous theoretical and experimental studies are directed towards developing a coherent thermodynamic and dynamic framework for understanding supercooled water. The existence of a liquid-liquid critical point in the deep supercooled region has been related to the anomalous behavior of water. However, the experimental study of supercooled water at very low temperatures is hampered by the homogeneous nucleation of the crystal. Recently, water confined in nanoscopic structures or in solutions has attracted interest because nucleation can be delayed. These systems have a tremendous relevance also for current biological advances; e.g., supercooled water is often confined in cell membranes and acts as a solvent for biological molecules. In particular, considerable attention has been recently devoted to understanding hydrophobic interactions or the behavior of water in the presence of apolar interfaces due to their fundamental role in self-assembly of micelles, membrane formation and protein folding. This article reviews and compares two very recent computational works aimed at elucidating the changes in the thermodynamic behavior in the supercooled region and the liquid-liquid critical point phenomenon for water in contact with hydrophobic environments. The results are also compared to previous reports for water in hydrophobic environments.

  10. Investigation of Near Critical Point States of Molybdenum by Pulse Heating under Launching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaev, Dmitriy

    2005-07-01

    The near critical point states (NCPS) of the liquid-vapour phase transition of molybdenum were investigated. The heating of molybdenum foil samples in 1-D geometry was carried out by multiple-shocked He from the back side of the sample under dynamically created isobaric conditions [1]. The temperature of sample was measured by fast 4-channel optical pyrometer. The pressure was obtained from shock velosity in He, measured by streak camera on the step on transparent window. Two sets of experiments with various hystory of heating were carryed out, allowed us to evaluate spinode and binode lines, and the position of critical point on P-T plane: Tc=12500±1000 K, Pc=1±0.1 GPa. Work was supported by ISTC grant 2107, RFBR grant 04-02-16790. [1] V.Ya.Ternovoi, V.E.Fortov et.al. High Temp.-High Pres. 2002, v.34, pp.73-79[2] D.N.Nikolaev, A.N.Emelyanov et.al. in: SCCM-2003, AIP conf. proc. 706, ed.by M.D.Furnish, Y.M.Gupta et.al, pp.1231-1234

  11. Critical end point in the presence of a chiral chemical potential

    SciT

    Cui, Z. -F.; Cloët, I. C.; Lu, Y.

    A class of Polyakov-loop-modified Nambu-Jona-Lasinio models has been used to support a conjecture that numerical simulations of lattice-regularized QCD defined with a chiral chemical potential can provide information about the existence and location of a critical end point in the QCD phase diagram drawn in the plane spanned by baryon chemical potential and temperature. That conjecture is challenged by conflicts between the model results and analyses of the same problem using simulations of lattice-regularized QCD (lQCD) and well-constrained Dyson-Schwinger equation (DSE) studies. We find the conflict is resolved in favor of the lQCD and DSE predictions when both a physicallymore » motivated regularization is employed to suppress the contribution of high-momentum quark modes in the definition of the effective potential connected with the Polyakov-loop-modified Nambu-Jona-Lasinio models and the four-fermion coupling in those models does not react strongly to changes in the mean field that is assumed to mock-up Polyakov-loop dynamics. With the lQCD and DSE predictions thus confirmed, it seems unlikely that simulations of lQCD with mu(5) > 0 can shed any light on a critical end point in the regular QCD phase diagram.« less

  12. Critical Points and Traveling Wave in Locomotion: Experimental Evidence and Some Theoretical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Saltiel, Philippe; d'Avella, Andrea; Tresch, Matthew C; Wyler, Kuno; Bizzi, Emilio

    2017-01-01

    The central pattern generator (CPG) architecture for rhythm generation remains partly elusive. We compare cat and frog locomotion results, where the component unrelated to pattern formation appears as a temporal grid, and traveling wave respectively. Frog spinal cord microstimulation with N-methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA), a CPG activator, produced a limited set of force directions, sometimes tonic, but more often alternating between directions similar to the tonic forces. The tonic forces were topographically organized, and sites evoking rhythms with different force subsets were located close to the constituent tonic force regions. Thus CPGs consist of topographically organized modules. Modularity was also identified as a limited set of muscle synergies whose combinations reconstructed the EMGs. The cat CPG was investigated using proprioceptive inputs during fictive locomotion. Critical points identified both as abrupt transitions in the effect of phasic perturbations, and burst shape transitions, had biomechanical correlates in intact locomotion. During tonic proprioceptive perturbations, discrete shifts between these critical points explained the burst durations changes, and amplitude changes occurred at one of these points. Besides confirming CPG modularity, these results suggest a fixed temporal grid of anchoring points, to shift modules onsets and offsets. Frog locomotion, reconstructed with the NMDA synergies, showed a partially overlapping synergy activation sequence. Using the early synergy output evoked by NMDA at different spinal sites, revealed a rostrocaudal topographic organization, where each synergy is preferentially evoked from a few, albeit overlapping, cord regions. Comparing the locomotor synergy sequence with this topography suggests that a rostrocaudal traveling wave would activate the synergies in the proper sequence for locomotion. This output was reproduced in a two-layer model using this topography and a traveling wave. Together our results

  13. Fermion-induced quantum critical points in two-dimensional Dirac semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Shao-Kai; Yao, Hong

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we investigate the nature of quantum phase transitions between two-dimensional Dirac semimetals and Z3-ordered phases (e.g., Kekule valence-bond solid), where cubic terms of the order parameter are allowed in the quantum Landau-Ginzberg theory and the transitions are putatively first order. From large-N renormalization-group (RG) analysis, we find that fermion-induced quantum critical points (FIQCPs) [Z.-X. Li et al., Nat. Commun. 8, 314 (2017), 10.1038/s41467-017-00167-6] occur when N (the number of flavors of four-component Dirac fermions) is larger than a critical value Nc. Remarkably, from the knowledge of space-time supersymmetry, we obtain an exact lower bound for Nc, i.e., Nc>1 /2 . (Here the "1/2" flavor of four-component Dirac fermions is equivalent to one flavor of four-component Majorana fermions). Moreover, we show that the emergence of two length scales is a typical phenomenon of FIQCPs and obtain two different critical exponents, i.e., ν ≠ν' , by large-N RG calculations. We further give a brief discussion of possible experimental realizations of FIQCPs.

  14. Coherent inflationary dynamics for Bose-Einstein condensates crossing a quantum critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lei; Clark, Logan W.; Gaj, Anita; Chin, Cheng

    2018-03-01

    Quantum phase transitions, transitions between many-body ground states, are of extensive interest in research ranging from condensed-matter physics to cosmology1-4. Key features of the phase transitions include a stage with rapidly growing new order, called inflation in cosmology5, followed by the formation of topological defects6-8. How inflation is initiated and evolves into topological defects remains a hot topic of debate. Ultracold atomic gas offers a pristine and tunable platform to investigate quantum critical dynamics9-21. We report the observation of coherent inflationary dynamics across a quantum critical point in driven Bose-Einstein condensates. The inflation manifests in the exponential growth of density waves and populations in well-resolved momentum states. After the inflation stage, extended coherent dynamics is evident in both real and momentum space. We present an intuitive description of the quantum critical dynamics in our system and demonstrate the essential role of phase fluctuations in the formation of topological defects.

  15. Criticality as a Set-Point for Adaptive Behavior in Neuromorphic Hardware

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasa, Narayan; Stepp, Nigel D.; Cruz-Albrecht, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Neuromorphic hardware are designed by drawing inspiration from biology to overcome limitations of current computer architectures while forging the development of a new class of autonomous systems that can exhibit adaptive behaviors. Several designs in the recent past are capable of emulating large scale networks but avoid complexity in network dynamics by minimizing the number of dynamic variables that are supported and tunable in hardware. We believe that this is due to the lack of a clear understanding of how to design self-tuning complex systems. It has been widely demonstrated that criticality appears to be the default state of the brain and manifests in the form of spontaneous scale-invariant cascades of neural activity. Experiment, theory and recent models have shown that neuronal networks at criticality demonstrate optimal information transfer, learning and information processing capabilities that affect behavior. In this perspective article, we argue that understanding how large scale neuromorphic electronics can be designed to enable emergent adaptive behavior will require an understanding of how networks emulated by such hardware can self-tune local parameters to maintain criticality as a set-point. We believe that such capability will enable the design of truly scalable intelligent systems using neuromorphic hardware that embrace complexity in network dynamics rather than avoiding it. PMID:26648839

  16. Universal Scaling in the Fan of an Unconventional Quantum Critical Point

    SciT

    Melko, Roger G; Kaul, Ribhu

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of extensive finite-temperature Quantum Monte Carlo simulati ons on a SU(2) symmetric,more » $S=1/2$$ quantum antiferromagnet with a frustrating four-s pin interaction -- the so-called 'JQ' model~[Sandvik, Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 98}, 22 7202 (2007)]. Our simulations, which are unbiased, free of the sign-problem and car ried out on lattice sizes containing in excess of $$1.6\\times 10^4$$ spins, indicate that N\\'eel order is destroyed through a continuous quantum transition at a critica l value of the frustrating interaction. At larger values of this coupling the param agnetic state obtained has valence-bond solid order. The scaling behavior in the 'q uantum critical fan' above the putative critical point confirms a $$z=1$ quantum pha se transition that is not in the conventional $O(3)$ universality class. Our result s are consistent with the predictions of the 'deconfined quantum criticality' scena rio.« less

  17. Magnetic compensation of gravity forces in (p-) hydrogen near its critical point: application to weightless conditions

    PubMed

    Wunenburger; Chatain; Garrabos; Beysens

    2000-07-01

    We report a study concerning the compensation of gravity forces in two-phase (p-) hydrogen. The sample is placed near one end of the vertical z axis of a superconducting coil, where there is a near-uniform magnetic field gradient. A variable effective gravity level g can thus be applied to the two-phase fluid system. The vanishing behavior of the capillary length l(C) at the critical point is compensated by a decrease in g and l(C) is kept much smaller than the cell dimension. For g ranging from 1 to 0.25 times Earth's gravity (modulus g(0)) we compare the actual shape of the meniscus to the expected shape in a homogeneous gravity field. We determine l(C) in a wide range of reduced temperature tau=(T(C)-T)/T(C)=[10(-4)-0.02] from a fit of the meniscus shape. The data are in agreement with previous measurements further from T(C) performed in n-H2 under Earth's gravity. The effective gravity is homogeneous within 10(-2)g(0) for a 3 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness sample and is in good agreement with the computed one, validating the use of the apparatus as a variable gravity facility. In the vicinity of the levitation point (where magnetic forces exactly compensate Earth's gravity), the computed axial component of the acceleration is found to be quadratic in z, whereas its radial component is proportional to the distance to the axis, which explains the gas-liquid patterns observed near the critical point.

  18. Magnetic compensation of gravity forces in (p-) hydrogen near its critical point: Application to weightless conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunenburger, R.; Chatain, D.; Garrabos, Y.; Beysens, D.

    2000-07-01

    We report a study concerning the compensation of gravity forces in two-phase (p-) hydrogen. The sample is placed near one end of the vertical z axis of a superconducting coil, where there is a near-uniform magnetic field gradient. A variable effective gravity level g can thus be applied to the two-phase fluid system. The vanishing behavior of the capillary length lC at the critical point is compensated by a decrease in g and lC is kept much smaller than the cell dimension. For g ranging from 1 to 0.25 times Earth's gravity (modulus g0) we compare the actual shape of the meniscus to the expected shape in a homogeneous gravity field. We determine lC in a wide range of reduced temperature τ=(TC-T)/TC=[10-4-0.02] from a fit of the meniscus shape. The data are in agreement with previous measurements further from TC performed in n-H2 under Earth's gravity. The effective gravity is homogeneous within 10-2g0 for a 3 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness sample and is in good agreement with the computed one, validating the use of the apparatus as a variable gravity facility. In the vicinity of the levitation point (where magnetic forces exactly compensate Earth's gravity), the computed axial component of the acceleration is found to be quadratic in z, whereas its radial component is proportional to the distance to the axis, which explains the gas-liquid patterns observed near the critical point.

  19. Critical current scaling and the pivot-point in Nb3Sn strands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, Y.; Hampshire, D. P.

    2012-05-01

    Detailed measurements are provided of the engineering critical current density (Jc) and the index of transition (n-value) of two different types of advanced ITER Nb3Sn superconducting strand for fusion applications. The samples consist of one internal-tin strand (OST) and two bronze-route strands (BEAS I and BEAS II—reacted using different heat treatments). Tests on different sections of these wires show that prior to applying strain, Jc is homogeneous to better than 2% along the length of each strand. Jc data have been characterized as a function of magnetic field (B ≤ 14.5 T), temperature (4.2 K ≤ T ≤ 12 K) and applied axial strain ( - 1% ≤ ɛA ≤ 0.8%). Strain-cycling tests demonstrate that the variable strain Jc data are reversible to better than 2% when the applied axial strain is in the range of - 1% ≤ ɛA ≤ 0.5%. The wires are damaged when the intrinsic strain (ɛI) is ɛI ≥ 0.55% and ɛI ≥ 0.23% for the OST and BEAS strands, respectively. The strain dependences of the normalized Jc for each type of strand are similar to those of prototype strands of similar design measured in 2005 and 2008 to about 2% which makes them candidate strands for a round-robin interlaboratory comparison. The Jc data are described by Durham, ITER and Josephson-junction parameterizations to an accuracy of about 4%. For all of these scaling laws, the percentage difference between the data and the parameterization is larger when Jc is small, caused by high B, T or |ɛI|. The n-values can be described by a modified power law of the form n=1+r{I}_{{c}}^{s}, where r and s are approximately constant and Ic is the critical current. It has long been known that pivot-points (or cross-overs) in Jc occur at high magnetic field and temperature. Changing the magnetic field or temperature from one side of the pivot-point to the other changes the highest Jc sample to the lowest Jc sample and vice versa. The pivot-point follows the B-T phase boundary associated with the upper

  20. Point-of-care blood glucose measurement errors overestimate hypoglycaemia rates in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Nya-Ngatchou, Jean-Jacques; Corl, Dawn; Onstad, Susan; Yin, Tom; Tylee, Tracy; Suhr, Louise; Thompson, Rachel E; Wisse, Brent E

    2015-02-01

    Hypoglycaemia is associated with morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients, and many hospitals have programmes to minimize hypoglycaemia rates. Recent studies have established the hypoglycaemic patient-day as a key metric and have published benchmark inpatient hypoglycaemia rates on the basis of point-of-care blood glucose data even though these values are prone to measurement errors. A retrospective, cohort study including all patients admitted to Harborview Medical Center Intensive Care Units (ICUs) during 2010 and 2011 was conducted to evaluate a quality improvement programme to reduce inappropriate documentation of point-of-care blood glucose measurement errors. Laboratory Medicine point-of-care blood glucose data and patient charts were reviewed to evaluate all episodes of hypoglycaemia. A quality improvement intervention decreased measurement errors from 31% of hypoglycaemic (<70 mg/dL) patient-days in 2010 to 14% in 2011 (p < 0.001) and decreased the observed hypoglycaemia rate from 4.3% of ICU patient-days to 3.4% (p < 0.001). Hypoglycaemic events were frequently recurrent or prolonged (~40%), and these events are not identified by the hypoglycaemic patient-day metric, which also may be confounded by a large number of very low risk or minimally monitored patient-days. Documentation of point-of-care blood glucose measurement errors likely overestimates ICU hypoglycaemia rates and can be reduced by a quality improvement effort. The currently used hypoglycaemic patient-day metric does not evaluate recurrent or prolonged events that may be more likely to cause patient harm. The monitored patient-day as currently defined may not be the optimal denominator to determine inpatient hypoglycaemic risk. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Evaluation of the i-STAT Point-of-Care Analyzer in Critically Ill Adult Patients

    PubMed Central

    Steinfelder-Visscher, Jacoline; Teerenstra, Steven; Klein Gunnewiek, Jacqueline M.T.; Weerwind, Patrick W.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: Point-of-care analyzers may benefit therapeutic decision making by reducing turn-around-time for samples. This is especially true when biochemical parameters exceed the clinical reference range, in which acute and effective treatment is essential. We therefore evaluated the analytical performance of the i-STAT point-of-care analyzer in two critically ill adult patient populations. During a 3-month period, 48 blood samples from patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and 42 blood samples from non-cardiac patients who needed intensive care treatment were analyzed on both the i-STAT analyzer (CPB and non-CPB mode, respectively) and our laboratory analyzers (RapidLab 865/Sysmex XE-2100 instrument). The agreement analysis for quantitative data was used to compare i-STAT to RapidLab for blood gas/electrolytes and for hematocrit with the Sysmex instrument. Point-of-care electrolytes and blood gases had constant deviation, except for pH, pO2, and hematocrit. A clear linear trend in deviation of i-STAT from RapidLab was noticed for pH during CPB (r = 0.32, p = .03) and for pO2 > 10 kPa during CPB (r = −0.59, p < .0001 when 10 < pO2 <30 kPa) and in the intensive care unit (r = −0.61, p < .001 when 10 < pO2 <30 kPa). In the normal pO2 range (10.6 < pO2 <13.3 kPa), the performance of the i-STAT was comparable to the RapidLab. In contrast to hematocrit measured during CPB, hematocrit using the non-CPB mode in the non-cardiac intensive care population showed an underestimation up to 2.2% (p < .0001) in the hematocrit range below 25% (n = 11) using the i-STAT. The i-STAT analyzer is suitable for point-of-care testing of electrolytes and blood gases in critically ill patients, except for high pO2. However, the discrepancy in hematocrit bias shows that accuracy established in one patient population cannot be automatically extrapolated to other patient populations, thus stressing the need for separate evaluation. PMID:18389666

  2. Absence of Critical Points of Solutions to the Helmholtz Equation in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, Giovanni S.

    2016-11-01

    The focus of this paper is to show the absence of critical points for the solutions to the Helmholtz equation in a bounded domain {Ωsubset{R}3} , given by { div(a nabla u_{ω}g)-ω qu_{ω}g=0&quad{in Ω,} u_{ω}g=g quad{on partialΩ.} We prove that for an admissible g there exists a finite set of frequencies K in a given interval and an open cover {overline{Ω}=\\cup_{ωin K} Ω_{ω}} such that {|nabla u_{ω}g(x)| > 0} for every {ωin K} and {xinΩ_{ω}} . The set K is explicitly constructed. If the spectrum of this problem is simple, which is true for a generic domain {Ω} , the admissibility condition on g is a generic property.

  3. The Subtle Balance between Lipolysis and Lipogenesis: A Critical Point in Metabolic Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Saponaro, Chiara; Gaggini, Melania; Carli, Fabrizia; Gastaldelli, Amalia

    2015-11-13

    Excessive accumulation of lipids can lead to lipotoxicity, cell dysfunction and alteration in metabolic pathways, both in adipose tissue and peripheral organs, like liver, heart, pancreas and muscle. This is now a recognized risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders, such as obesity, diabetes, fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The causes for lipotoxicity are not only a high fat diet but also excessive lipolysis, adipogenesis and adipose tissue insulin resistance. The aims of this review are to investigate the subtle balances that underlie lipolytic, lipogenic and oxidative pathways, to evaluate critical points and the complexities of these processes and to better understand which are the metabolic derangements resulting from their imbalance, such as type 2 diabetes and non alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  4. LaCu6-xAgx : A promising host of an elastic quantum critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poudel, L.; Cruz, C. de la; Koehler, M. R.; McGuire, M. A.; Keppens, V.; Mandrus, D.; Christianson, A. D.

    2018-05-01

    Structural properties of LaCu6-xAgx have been investigated using neutron and x-ray diffraction, and resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) measurements. Diffraction measurements indicate a continuous structural transition from orthorhombic (Pnma) to monoclinic (P21 / c) structure. RUS measurements show softening of natural frequencies at the structural transition, consistent with the elastic nature of the structural ground state. The structural transition temperatures in LaCu6-xAgx decrease with Ag composition until the monoclinic phase is completely suppressed at xc = 0.225 . All of the evidence is consistent with the presence of an elastic quantum critical point in LaCu6-xAgx .

  5. [Preliminary studies on critical control point of traceability system in wolfberry].

    PubMed

    Liu, Sai; Xu, Chang-Qing; Li, Jian-Ling; Lin, Chen; Xu, Rong; Qiao, Hai-Li; Guo, Kun; Chen, Jun

    2016-07-01

    As a traditional Chinese medicine, wolfberry (Lycium barbarum) has a long cultivation history and a good industrial development foundation. With the development of wolfberry production, the expansion of cultivation area and the increased attention of governments and consumers on food safety, the quality and safety requirement of wolfberry is higher demanded. The quality tracing and traceability system of production entire processes is the important technology tools to protect the wolfberry safety, and to maintain sustained and healthy development of the wolfberry industry. Thus, this article analyzed the wolfberry quality management from the actual situation, the safety hazard sources were discussed according to the HACCP (hazard analysis and critical control point) and GAP (good agricultural practice for Chinese crude drugs), and to provide a reference for the traceability system of wolfberry. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  6. Time delay of critical images in the vicinity of cusp point of gravitational-lens systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, A.; Zhdanov, V.

    2016-12-01

    We consider approximate analytical formulas for time-delays of critical images of a point source in the neighborhood of a cusp-caustic. We discuss zero, first and second approximations in powers of a parameter that defines the proximity of the source to the cusp. These formulas link the time delay with characteristics of the lens potential. The formula of zero approximation was obtained by Congdon, Keeton & Nordgren (MNRAS, 2008). In case of a general lens potential we derived first order correction thereto. If the potential is symmetric with respect to the cusp axis, then this correction is identically equal to zero. For this case, we obtained second order correction. The relations found are illustrated by a simple model example.

  7. Quantum critical point underlying the pseudogap state in underdoped cuprate superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepin, Catherine

    2014-03-01

    Cuprate superconductors rank among the most complex materials that are known in the universe. Faced with this complexity, scientists have adopted two types of approaches. In a bottom up approach, one considers that strong correlations occur at a high energy scale of roughly 1 eV upon very strong Coulomb interactions. In the top down approach one considers that one universal singularity at very low temperatures is responsible for complexity of the phase diagram. In this talk we will argue that the strong quantum fluctuations experienced at the proximity to a anti-ferromagnetic Quantum Critical Point (QCP) is responsible for a cascade of phase transitions in the charge and superconducting channels. We will discuss in this context the emergence of the pseudo-gap and charge order modulations. Symmetries and relations to experimental observations will be addressed. Work done in collaboration with K.B. Efetov (Bochum) and H. Meier (Yale).

  8. Vector critical points and generalized quasi-efficient solutions in nonsmooth multi-objective programming.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Li, Ru; Yu, Guolin

    2017-01-01

    In this work, several extended approximately invex vector-valued functions of higher order involving a generalized Jacobian are introduced, and some examples are presented to illustrate their existences. The notions of higher-order (weak) quasi-efficiency with respect to a function are proposed for a multi-objective programming. Under the introduced generalization of higher-order approximate invexities assumptions, we prove that the solutions of generalized vector variational-like inequalities in terms of the generalized Jacobian are the generalized quasi-efficient solutions of nonsmooth multi-objective programming problems. Moreover, the equivalent conditions are presented, namely, a vector critical point is a weakly quasi-efficient solution of higher order with respect to a function.

  9. Critical Point Facility (CPE) Group in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Critical Point Facility (CPE) group in the SL POCC during STS-42, IML-1 mission.

  10. Seismic precursory patterns before a cliff collapse and critical point phenomena

    Amitrano, D.; Grasso, J.-R.; Senfaute, G.

    2005-01-01

    We analyse the statistical pattern of seismicity before a 1-2 103 m3 chalk cliff collapse on the Normandie ocean shore, Western France. We show that a power law acceleration of seismicity rate and energy in both 40 Hz-1.5 kHz and 2 Hz-10kHz frequency range, is defined on 3 orders of magnitude, within 2 hours from the collapse time. Simultaneously, the average size of the seismic events increases toward the time to failure. These in situ results are derived from the only station located within one rupture length distance from the rock fall rupture plane. They mimic the "critical point" like behavior recovered from physical and numerical experiments before brittle failures and tertiary creep failures. Our analysis of this first seismic monitoring data of a cliff collapse suggests that the thermodynamic phase transition models for failure may apply for cliff collapse. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Holographic QCD phase diagram with critical point from Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaute, J.; Yaresko, R.; Kämpfer, B.

    2018-03-01

    Supplementing the holographic Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton model of [1,2] by input of lattice QCD data for 2 + 1 flavors and physical quark masses for the equation of state and quark number susceptibility at zero baryo-chemical potential we explore the resulting phase diagram over the temperature-chemical potential plane. A first-order phase transition sets in at a temperature of about 112 MeV and a baryo-chemical potential of 612 MeV. We estimate the accuracy of the critical point position in the order of approximately 5-8% by considering parameter variations and different low-temperature asymptotics for the second-order quark number susceptibility. The critical pressure as a function of the temperature has a positive slope, i.e. the entropy per baryon jumps up when crossing the phase border line from larger values of temperature/baryo-chemical potential, thus classifying the phase transition as a gas-liquid one. The updated holographic model exhibits in- and outgoing isentropes in the vicinity of the first-order phase transition.

  12. Early warning of climate tipping points from critical slowing down: comparing methods to improve robustness

    PubMed Central

    Lenton, T. M.; Livina, V. N.; Dakos, V.; Van Nes, E. H.; Scheffer, M.

    2012-01-01

    We address whether robust early warning signals can, in principle, be provided before a climate tipping point is reached, focusing on methods that seek to detect critical slowing down as a precursor of bifurcation. As a test bed, six previously analysed datasets are reconsidered, three palaeoclimate records approaching abrupt transitions at the end of the last ice age and three models of varying complexity forced through a collapse of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Approaches based on examining the lag-1 autocorrelation function or on detrended fluctuation analysis are applied together and compared. The effects of aggregating the data, detrending method, sliding window length and filtering bandwidth are examined. Robust indicators of critical slowing down are found prior to the abrupt warming event at the end of the Younger Dryas, but the indicators are less clear prior to the Bølling-Allerød warming, or glacial termination in Antarctica. Early warnings of thermohaline circulation collapse can be masked by inter-annual variability driven by atmospheric dynamics. However, rapidly decaying modes can be successfully filtered out by using a long bandwidth or by aggregating data. The two methods have complementary strengths and weaknesses and we recommend applying them together to improve the robustness of early warnings. PMID:22291229

  13. Thermodynamics in the vicinity of a relativistic quantum critical point in 2+1 dimensions.

    PubMed

    Rançon, A; Kodio, O; Dupuis, N; Lecheminant, P

    2013-07-01

    We study the thermodynamics of the relativistic quantum O(N) model in two space dimensions. In the vicinity of the zero-temperature quantum critical point (QCP), the pressure can be written in the scaling form P(T)=P(0)+N(T(3)/c(2))F(N)(Δ/T), where c is the velocity of the excitations at the QCP and |Δ| a characteristic zero-temperature energy scale. Using both a large-N approach to leading order and the nonperturbative renormalization group, we compute the universal scaling function F(N). For small values of N (Ncritical regime (|x|/~1) regimes, but fails to describe the nonmonotonic behavior of F(N) in the quantum critical regime. We discuss the renormalization-group flows in the various regimes near the QCP and make the connection with the quantum nonlinear sigma model in the renormalized classical regime. We compute the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition temperature in the quantum O(2) model and find that in the vicinity of the QCP the universal ratio T(BKT)/ρ(s)(0) is very close to π/2, implying that the stiffness ρ(s)(T(BKT)(-)) at the transition is only slightly reduced with respect to the zero-temperature stiffness ρ(s)(0). Finally, we briefly discuss the experimental determination of the universal function F(2) from the pressure of a Bose gas in an optical lattice near the superfluid-Mott-insulator transition.

  14. Heat Capacity Anomaly Near the Lower Critical Consolute Point of Triethylamine-Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flewelling, Anne C.; DeFonseka, Rohan J.; Khaleeli, Nikfar; Partee, J.; Jacobs, D. T.

    1996-01-01

    The heat capacity of the binary liquid mixture triethylamine-water has been measured near its lower critical consolute point using a scanning, adiabatic calorimeter. Two data runs are analyzed to provide heat capacity and enthalpy data that are fitted by equations with background terms and a critical term that includes correction to scaling. The critical exponent a was determined to be 0.107 +/- 0.006, consistent with theoretical predictions. When alpha was fixed at 0.11 to determine various amplitudes consistently, our values of A(+) and A(-) agreed with a previous heat capacity measurement, but the value of A(-) was inconsistent with values determined by density or refractive index measurements. While our value for the amplitude ratio A(+)/ A(-) = 0.56 +/- 0.02 was consistent with other recent experimental determinations in binary liquid mixtures, it was slightly larger than either theoretical predictions or recent experimental values in liquid-vapor systems. The correction to scaling amplitude ratio D(+)/D(-) = 0.5 +/- 0.1 was half of that predicted. As a result of several more precise theoretical calculations and experimental determinations, the two-scale-factor universality ratio X, which we found to be 0.019 +/- 0.003, now is consistent among experiments and theories. A new 'universal' amplitude ratio R(sup +/-)(sub Bcr) involving the amplitudes for the specific heat was tested. Our determination of R(sup +/-)(sub Bcr) = -0.5 +/- 0.1 and R(sup -)(sub Bcr) = 1.1 +/- 0.1 is smaller in magnitude than predicted and is the first such determination in a binary fluid mixture.

  15. Controlling organic chemical hazards in food manufacturing: a hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) approach.

    PubMed

    Ropkins, K; Beck, A J

    2002-08-01

    Hazard analysis by critical control points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment and control of hazards. Effective HACCP requires the consideration of all hazards, i.e., chemical, microbiological and physical. However, to-date most 'in-place' HACCP procedures have tended to focus on the control of microbiological and physical food hazards. In general, the chemical component of HACCP procedures is either ignored or limited to applied chemicals, e.g., food additives and pesticides. In this paper we discuss the application of HACCP to a broader range of chemical hazards, using organic chemical contaminants as examples, and the problems that are likely to arise in the food manufacturing sector. Chemical HACCP procedures are likely to result in many of the advantages previously identified for microbiological HACCP procedures: more effective, efficient and economical than conventional end-point-testing methods. However, the high costs of analytical monitoring of chemical contaminants and a limited understanding of formulation and process optimisation as means of controlling chemical contamination of foods are likely to prevent chemical HACCP becoming as effective as microbiological HACCP.

  16. The G1 restriction point as critical regulator of neocortical neuronogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caviness, V. S. Jr; Takahashi, T.; Nowakowski, R. S.

    1999-01-01

    Neuronogenesis in the pseudostratified ventricular epithelium is the initial process in a succession of histogenetic events which give rise to the laminate neocortex. Here we review experimental findings in mouse which support the thesis that the restriction point of the G1 phase of the cell cycle is the critical point of regulation of the overall neuronogenetic process. The neuronogenetic interval in mouse spans 6 days. In the course of these 6 days the founder population and its progeny execute 11 cell cycles. With each successive cycle there is an increase in the fraction of postmitotic cells which leaves the cycle (the Q fraction) and also an increase in the length of the cell cycle due to an increase in the length of the G1 phase of the cycle. Q corresponds to the probability that postmitotic cells will exit the cycle at the restriction point of the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Q increases non-linearly, but the rate of change of Q with cycle (i.e., the first derivative) over the course of the neuronogenetic interval is a constant, k, which appears to be set principally by cell internal mechanisms which are species specific. Q also seems to be modulated, but at low amplitude, by a balance of mitogenic and antimitogenic influences acting from without the cell. We suggest that intracellular signal transduction systems control a general advance of Q during development and thereby determine the general developmental plan (i.e., cell number and laminar composition) of the neocortex and that external mitogens and anti-mitogens modulate this advance regionally and temporally and thereby produce regional modifications of the general plan.

  17. Evidence of f-electron localization at a heavy-fermion quantum critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steglich, Frank

    2014-03-01

    The prototypical heavy-fermion compound YbRh2Si2 exhibits a magnetic-field (B) induced antiferromagnetic quantum critical point (QCP) at Bc (⊥c) ~ 60 mT. As inferred from transport and thermodynamic measurements a quantum-critical energy scale, kB T *(B) , indicating a crossover of the Fermi surface, has been established for this system. Upon extrapolating finite-temperature (T) data to T = 0, one concludes (i) a vanishing of T*(B) and (ii) an abrupt drop in the (normal) Hall coefficient RH(B) at B =Bc , verifying the proposal of a Kondo destroying QCP. The dynamical processes underlying this apparent break-up of the Kondo singlets have been explored by studying the Lorenz ratio L/L0 as a function of Tand B. Here, L = ρ / w is the ratio of the electrical (ρ) and thermal (w = L0 T / κ) resistivities, with κ being the thermal conductivity and L0 = (πkB)2 /3e2 Sommerfeld's constant. By properly taking care of bosonic (magnon/paramagnon) contributions to the heat current which exist at finite temperature only, extrapolation of the measured data to T = 0 yields a purely electronic Lorenz ratio L/L0 = 1 at B ≠Bc . At B = Bc, we extrapolate L/L0 ~ 0.9. Therefore, the Wiedemann Franz (WF) law holds at any value of the control parameter B, except for the field-induced QCP, as is also illustrated by a pronounced heating of the sample when measuring the low - T electrical resistivity in the vicinity of the critical magnetic field. This violation of the WF law is ascribed to scatterings of the electronic heat carriers from fermionic quantum-critical fluctuations, namely those of the Fermi surface. Work done in collaboration with H. Pfau, S. Lausberg, P. Sun, U. Stockert, M. Brando, S. Friedemann, C. Krellner, C. Geibel, S. Wirth, S. Kirchner, E. Abrahams and Q. Si.

  18. We did well but we definitely have to do better: four critical points about fluxnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsch, W. L.

    2014-12-01

    Fluxnet is a real success story of data integration. The scientific outcome is overwhelming. Nevertheless: in a time of methodological consolidation and transfer of the networks to technically more integrated infrastructures, a critical view on its weak points may strengthen the future success and our position within biogeochemical science. Four points should be discussed: We have to select our sites more thoroughly. We need better data curation. We should think about 'forgetting' some of the older datasets. We have responsibility for the results of integration studies. ad 1: We had to learn during the past years that the EC is not applicable in all terrains. Slope and footprint problems are widespread and sites have to be critically scrutinized before being sure that we submit valuable ecological information. This is time consuming and may be frustrating since we have to accept that we had sometimes invested lots of work and money for building a flux tower at a site that is not suitable for the method. Nevertheless, a clear site quality policy should be developed among infrastructures and integrating activities. ad 2: In some cases it has turned out that the information about different steps leading from the raw data to a number in integrated scientific papers has been lost. This is a big challenge to research infrastructures that should develop common rules for data curation to increase trust in integration activities. ad 3: In the first approach Fluxnet left the responsibility for site and data quality to the site PI and accepted more or less all data submitted. Further approaches and in particular long-term infrastructures have to develop strategies to reject (or at least flag) data from sites that are prone by terrain problems. This includes that in future integration studies we should stop using some of the datasets from the 'wild old times' when we did not know better. ad4: We need a strategy to communicate with data users that are far away from practical

  19. The critical point and two-phase boundary of seawater, 200–500°C

    Bischoff, James L.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.

    1984-01-01

    The two-phase boundary of seawater was determined by isothermal decompression of fully condensed seawater in the range of 200–500°C. The pressure at which phase separation occurred for each isotherm was determined by a comparison of the refractive index of fluid removed from the top and bottom of the reaction vessel. The critical point was determined to be in the range of 403–406°C, 285–302 bar and was located by the inflection in the two-phase boundary and by the relative volume of fluid and vapor as a function of temperature. The two-phase boundary of 3.2% NaCl solution was found to coincide exactly with that of seawater over the range tested in the present study. The boundary for both is described by a single seventh-order polynomial equation. The two-phase boundary defines the maximum temperature of seawater circulating at depth in the oceanic crust. Thus the boundary puts a limit of about 390°C for seawater circulating near the seafloor at active ocean ridges (2.5 km water depth), and about 465°C at the top of a magma chamber occurring at 2 km below the seafloor.

  20. Critical points of Brazil nuts: a beginning for food safety, quality control and Amazon sustainability.

    PubMed

    Lima, Andriele M; Gonçalves, Evonnildo C; Andrade, Soraya S; Barbosa, Maria S R; Barroso, Karla F P; de Sousa, Mayara B; Borges, Larissa; Vieira, Jozé L F; Teixeira, Francisco M

    2013-03-15

    One difficulty of self-sustainability is the quality assurance of native products. This research was designed to study the risks and critical control points in the collection, handling and marketing of Brazil nuts from native forests and urban fairs in the Brazilian Amazon by characterisation of morphological aspects of fungi and posterior identification by molecular biology and determination of aflatoxins by high-performance liquid chromatography. Several corrective actions to improve product quality were found to be necessary in both sites. Growth of fungi was observed in 95% of fragments of Brazil nuts from both sites during the between-harvest period. Aflatoxin levels indicated that, although fungal growth was observed in both sites, only Brazil nuts from the native forest showed a high risk to human health (total aflatoxin level of 471.69 µg kg(-1)). This study has shown the main issues related to the process design of Brazil nuts, supporting the necessity for research on new strategies to improve the quality of nuts. Also, the habit of eating Brazil nuts stored throughout the year may represent a risk to farmers. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Cadmium and lead residue control in a hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) environment.

    PubMed

    Pagan-Rodríguez, Doritza; O'Keefe, Margaret; Deyrup, Cindy; Zervos, Penny; Walker, Harry; Thaler, Alice

    2007-02-21

    In 2003-2004, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) conducted an exploratory assessment to determine the occurrence and levels of cadmium and lead in randomly collected samples of kidney, liver, and muscle tissues of mature chickens, boars/stags, dairy cows, and heifers. The data generated in the study were qualitatively compared to data that FSIS gathered in a 1985-1986 study in order to identify trends in the levels of cadmium and lead in meat and poultry products. The exploratory assessment was necessary to verify that Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point plans and efforts to control exposure to these heavy metals are effective and result in products that meet U.S. export requirements. A comparison of data from the two FSIS studies suggests that the incidence and levels of cadmium and lead in different slaughter classes have remained stable since the first study was conducted in 1985-1986. This study was conducted to fulfill FSIS mandate to ensure that meat, poultry, and egg products entering commerce in the United States are free of adulterants, including elevated levels of environmental contaminants such as cadmium and lead.

  2. Intensively exploited Mediterranean aquifers: resilience and proximity to critical points of seawater intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazi, K.; Koussis, A. D.; Destouni, G.

    2013-11-01

    We investigate here seawater intrusion in three prominent Mediterranean aquifers that are subject to intensive exploitation and modified hydrologic regimes by human activities: the Nile Delta Aquifer, the Israel Coastal Aquifer and the Cyprus Akrotiri Aquifer. Using a generalized analytical sharp-interface model, we review the salinization history and current status of these aquifers, and quantify their resilience/vulnerability to current and future sea intrusion forcings. We identify two different critical limits of sea intrusion under groundwater exploitation and/or climatic stress: a limit of well intrusion, at which intruded seawater reaches key locations of groundwater pumping, and a tipping point of complete sea intrusion upto the prevailing groundwater divide of a coastal aquifer. Either limit can be reached, and ultimately crossed, under intensive aquifer exploitation and/or climate-driven change. We show that sea intrusion vulnerability for different aquifer cases can be directly compared in terms of normalized intrusion performance curves. The site-specific assessments show that the advance of seawater currently seriously threatens the Nile Delta Aquifer and the Israel Coastal Aquifer. The Cyprus Akrotiri Aquifer is currently somewhat less threatened by increased seawater intrusion.

  3. Influence of pedal cadence on the respiratory compensation point and its relation to critical power.

    PubMed

    Broxterman, R M; Ade, C J; Barker, T; Barstow, T J

    2015-03-01

    It is not known if the respiratory compensation point (RCP) is a distinct work rate (Watts (W)) or metabolic rate V̇(O2) and if the RCP is mechanistically related to critical power (CP). To examine these relationships, 10 collegiate men athletes performed cycling incremental and constant-power tests at 60 and 100 rpm to determine RCP and CP. RCP work rate was significantly (p≤0.05) lower for 100 than 60 rpm (197±24 W vs. 222±24 W), while RCP V̇(O2) was not significantly different (3.00±0.33 l min(-1) vs. 3.12±0.41 l min(-1)). CP at 60 rpm (214±51 W; V̇(O2): 3.01±0.69 l min(-1)) and 100 rpm (196±46 W; V̇(O2): 2.95±0.54 l min(-1)) were not significantly different from RCP. However, RCP and CP were not significantly correlated. These findings demonstrate that RCP represents a distinct metabolic rate, which can be achieved at different power outputs, but that RCP and CP are not equivalent parameters and should not, therefore, be used synonymously. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nematic quantum critical point without magnetism in FeSe1-xSx superconductors.

    PubMed

    Hosoi, Suguru; Matsuura, Kohei; Ishida, Kousuke; Wang, Hao; Mizukami, Yuta; Watashige, Tatsuya; Kasahara, Shigeru; Matsuda, Yuji; Shibauchi, Takasada

    2016-07-19

    In most unconventional superconductors, the importance of antiferromagnetic fluctuations is widely acknowledged. In addition, cuprate and iron-pnictide high-temperature superconductors often exhibit unidirectional (nematic) electronic correlations, including stripe and orbital orders, whose fluctuations may also play a key role for electron pairing. In these materials, however, such nematic correlations are intertwined with antiferromagnetic or charge orders, preventing the identification of the essential role of nematic fluctuations. This calls for new materials having only nematicity without competing or coexisting orders. Here we report systematic elastoresistance measurements in FeSe1-xSx superconductors, which, unlike other iron-based families, exhibit an electronic nematic order without accompanying antiferromagnetic order. We find that the nematic transition temperature decreases with sulfur content x; whereas, the nematic fluctuations are strongly enhanced. Near [Formula: see text], the nematic susceptibility diverges toward absolute zero, revealing a nematic quantum critical point. The obtained phase diagram for the nematic and superconducting states highlights FeSe1-xSx as a unique nonmagnetic system suitable for studying the impact of nematicity on superconductivity.

  5. Dynamical susceptibility near a long-wavelength critical point with a nonconserved order parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Avraham; Lederer, Samuel; Chowdhury, Debanjan; Berg, Erez; Chubukov, Andrey

    2018-04-01

    We study the dynamic response of a two-dimensional system of itinerant fermions in the vicinity of a uniform (Q =0 ) Ising nematic quantum critical point of d - wave symmetry. The nematic order parameter is not a conserved quantity, and this permits a nonzero value of the fermionic polarization in the d - wave channel even for vanishing momentum and finite frequency: Π (q =0 ,Ωm)≠0 . For weak coupling between the fermions and the nematic order parameter (i.e., the coupling is small compared to the Fermi energy), we perturbatively compute Π (q =0 ,Ωm)≠0 over a parametrically broad range of frequencies where the fermionic self-energy Σ (ω ) is irrelevant, and use Eliashberg theory to compute Π (q =0 ,Ωm) in the non-Fermi-liquid regime at smaller frequencies, where Σ (ω )>ω . We find that Π (q =0 ,Ω ) is a constant, plus a frequency-dependent correction that goes as |Ω | at high frequencies, crossing over to |Ω| 1 /3 at lower frequencies. The |Ω| 1 /3 scaling holds also in a non-Fermi-liquid regime. The nonvanishing of Π (q =0 ,Ω ) gives rise to additional structure in the imaginary part of the nematic susceptibility χ″(q ,Ω ) at Ω >vFq , in marked contrast to the behavior of the susceptibility for a conserved order parameter. This additional structure may be detected in Raman scattering experiments in the d - wave geometry.

  6. Efficient Wideband Numerical Simulations for Nanostructures Employing a Drude-Critical Points (DCP) Dispersive Model.

    PubMed

    Ren, Qiang; Nagar, Jogender; Kang, Lei; Bian, Yusheng; Werner, Ping; Werner, Douglas H

    2017-05-18

    A highly efficient numerical approach for simulating the wideband optical response of nano-architectures comprised of Drude-Critical Points (DCP) media (e.g., gold and silver) is proposed and validated through comparing with commercial computational software. The kernel of this algorithm is the subdomain level discontinuous Galerkin time domain (DGTD) method, which can be viewed as a hybrid of the spectral-element time-domain method (SETD) and the finite-element time-domain (FETD) method. An hp-refinement technique is applied to decrease the Degrees-of-Freedom (DoFs) and computational requirements. The collocated E-J scheme facilitates solving the auxiliary equations by converting the inversions of matrices to simpler vector manipulations. A new hybrid time stepping approach, which couples the Runge-Kutta and Newmark methods, is proposed to solve the temporal auxiliary differential equations (ADEs) with a high degree of efficiency. The advantages of this new approach, in terms of computational resource overhead and accuracy, are validated through comparison with well-known commercial software for three diverse cases, which cover both near-field and far-field properties with plane wave and lumped port sources. The presented work provides the missing link between DCP dispersive models and FETD and/or SETD based algorithms. It is a competitive candidate for numerically studying the wideband plasmonic properties of DCP media.

  7. Implementation of hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) in dried anchovy production process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Citraresmi, A. D. P.; Wahyuni, E. E.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to inspect the implementation of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) for identification and prevention of potential hazards in the production process of dried anchovy at PT. Kelola Mina Laut (KML), Lobuk unit, Sumenep. Cold storage process is needed in each anchovy processing step in order to maintain its physical and chemical condition. In addition, the implementation of quality assurance system should be undertaken to maintain product quality. The research was conducted using a survey method, by following the whole process of making anchovy from the receiving raw materials to the packaging of final product. The method of data analysis used was descriptive analysis method. Implementation of HACCP at PT. KML, Lobuk unit, Sumenep was conducted by applying Pre Requisite Programs (PRP) and preparation stage consisting of 5 initial stages and 7 principles of HACCP. The results showed that CCP was found in boiling process flow with significant hazard of Listeria monocytogenesis bacteria and final sorting process with significant hazard of foreign material contamination in the product. Actions taken were controlling boiling temperature of 100 – 105°C for 3 - 5 minutes and training for sorting process employees.

  8. Liquid-liquid critical point in a simple analytical model of water.

    PubMed

    Urbic, Tomaz

    2016-10-01

    A statistical model for a simple three-dimensional Mercedes-Benz model of water was used to study phase diagrams. This model on a simple level describes the thermal and volumetric properties of waterlike molecules. A molecule is presented as a soft sphere with four directions in which hydrogen bonds can be formed. Two neighboring waters can interact through a van der Waals interaction or an orientation-dependent hydrogen-bonding interaction. For pure water, we explored properties such as molar volume, density, heat capacity, thermal expansion coefficient, and isothermal compressibility and found that the volumetric and thermal properties follow the same trends with temperature as in real water and are in good general agreement with Monte Carlo simulations. The model exhibits also two critical points for liquid-gas transition and transition between low-density and high-density fluid. Coexistence curves and a Widom line for the maximum and minimum in thermal expansion coefficient divides the phase space of the model into three parts: in one part we have gas region, in the second a high-density liquid, and the third region contains low-density liquid.

  9. Liquid-liquid critical point in a simple analytical model of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbic, Tomaz

    2016-10-01

    A statistical model for a simple three-dimensional Mercedes-Benz model of water was used to study phase diagrams. This model on a simple level describes the thermal and volumetric properties of waterlike molecules. A molecule is presented as a soft sphere with four directions in which hydrogen bonds can be formed. Two neighboring waters can interact through a van der Waals interaction or an orientation-dependent hydrogen-bonding interaction. For pure water, we explored properties such as molar volume, density, heat capacity, thermal expansion coefficient, and isothermal compressibility and found that the volumetric and thermal properties follow the same trends with temperature as in real water and are in good general agreement with Monte Carlo simulations. The model exhibits also two critical points for liquid-gas transition and transition between low-density and high-density fluid. Coexistence curves and a Widom line for the maximum and minimum in thermal expansion coefficient divides the phase space of the model into three parts: in one part we have gas region, in the second a high-density liquid, and the third region contains low-density liquid.

  10. Critical tipping point distinguishing two types of transitions in modular network structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shai, Saray; Kenett, Dror Y.; Kenett, Yoed N.; Faust, Miriam; Dobson, Simon; Havlin, Shlomo

    2015-12-01

    Modularity is a key organizing principle in real-world large-scale complex networks. The relatively sparse interactions between modules are critical to the functionality of the system and are often the first to fail. We model such failures as site percolation targeting interconnected nodes, those connecting between modules. We find, using percolation theory and simulations, that they lead to a "tipping point" between two distinct regimes. In one regime, removal of interconnected nodes fragments the modules internally and causes the system to collapse. In contrast, in the other regime, while only attacking a small fraction of nodes, the modules remain but become disconnected, breaking the entire system. We show that networks with broader degree distribution might be highly vulnerable to such attacks since only few nodes are needed to interconnect the modules, consequently putting the entire system at high risk. Our model has the potential to shed light on many real-world phenomena, and we briefly consider its implications on recent advances in the understanding of several neurocognitive processes and diseases.

  11. Critical behaviour in DOPC/DPPC/cholesterol mixtures: static (2)H NMR line shapes near the critical point.

    PubMed

    Davis, James H; Schmidt, Miranda L

    2014-05-06

    Static (2)H NMR spectroscopy is used to study the critical behavior of mixtures of 1,2-dioleoyl-phosphatidylcholine/1,2-dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC)/cholesterol in molar proportion 37.5:37.5:25 using either chain perdeuterated DPPC-d62 or chain methyl deuterated DPPC-d6. The temperature dependence of the first moment of the (2)H spectrum of the sample made with DPPC-d62 and of the quadrupolar splittings of the chain-methyl-labeled DPPC-d6 sample are directly related to the temperature dependence of the critical order parameter η, which scales as [Formula: see text] near the critical temperature. Analysis of the data reveals that for the chain perdeuterated sample, the value of Tc is 301.51 ± 0.1 K, and that of the critical exponent, βc = 0.391 ± 0.02. The line shape analysis of the methyl labeled (d6) sample gives Tc = 303.74 ± 0.07 K and βc = 0.338 ± 0.009. These values obtained for βc are in good agreement with the predictions of a three-dimensional Ising model. The difference in critical temperature between the two samples having nominally the same molar composition arises because of the lowering of the phase transition temperature that occurs due to the perdeuteration of the DPPC. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of heavy metal concentrations in street dusts in Istanbul E-5 highway.

    PubMed

    Sezgin, Naim; Ozcan, H Kurtulus; Demir, Goksel; Nemlioglu, Semih; Bayat, Cuma

    2004-01-01

    Components and quantity of street dust are environmental pollution indicators especially in big cities. Street dust is generally composed of car exhaust gas originated particles and wind-transported particles. Heavy metals, which are found in street dust, such as Pb, Cu, Mn, Zn, Cd and Ni are significant for environmental pollution. According to the kind of vehicle in traffic, quantity and type of heavy metals vary in street dust. The use of leaded gasoline gives a boost to the importance of lead level especially in street dust even at the start of 21st century. These metals possess bioaccumulation property, and the possibility of the amount of these metals reaching a critical value and threatening human health increases the importance of this issue. In this study, street dusts have been collected from E-5 Highway from Topkapi to Avcilar regions that spans about 18 km in Istanbul, Turkey, and Pb, Cu, Mn, Zn, Cd and Ni concentrations have been detected in street dust. Twenty-two street dust samples were taken from a total of 22 different points at previously decided 14 main areas. Analyses were conducted using Leeds Public Analyst method. According to the results of this study, Pb, Cu and Zn concentrations in E-5 Highway between Topkapi and Avcilar region in Istanbul were higher than maximum concentration levels of these heavy metals in normal soil. This situation indicates that there is heavy metal pollution in the inspected area in E-5 Highway in Istanbul.

  13. Magnetic-field induced quantum critical points of valence transition in Ce- and Yb-based heavy fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Shinji; Tsuruta, Atsushi; Miyake, Kazumasa; Flouquet, Jacques

    2009-03-01

    Valence instability and its critical fluctuations have attracted much attention recently in the heavy-electron systems. Valence fluctuations are essentially charge fluctuations, and it is highly non-trivial how the quantum critical point (QCP) as well as the critical end point is controlled by the magnetic field. To clarify this fundamental issue, we have studied the mechanism of how the critical points of the first-order valence transitions are controlled by the magnetic field [1]. We show that the critical temperature is suppressed to be the QCP by the magnetic field and unexpectedly the QCP exhibits nonmonotonic field dependence in the ground-state phase diagram, giving rise to emergence of metamagnetism even in the intermediate valence-crossover regime. The driving force of the field-induced QCP is clarified to be a cooperative phenomenon of Zeeman effect and Kondo effect, which creates a distinct energy scale from the Kondo temperature. This mechanism explains a peculiar magnetic response in CeIrIn5 and metamagnetic transition in YbXCu4 for X=In as well as a sharp contrast between X=Ag and Cd. We present the novel phenomena under the magnetic field to discuss significance of the proximity of the critical points of the first-order valence transition. [1] S. Watanabe et al. PRL100, (2008) 236401.

  14. The role of point of care ultrasound in prehospital critical care: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bøtker, Morten Thingemann; Jacobsen, Lars; Rudolph, Søren Steemann; Knudsen, Lars

    2018-06-26

    In 2011, the role of Point of Care Ultrasound (POCUS) was defined as one of the top five research priorities in physician-provided prehospital critical care and future research topics were proposed; the feasibility of prehospital POCUS, changes in patient management induced by POCUS and education of providers. This systematic review aimed to assess these three topics by including studies examining all kinds of prehospital patients undergoing all kinds of prehospital POCUS examinations and studies examining any kind of POCUS education in prehospital critical care providers. By a systematic literature search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases, we identified and screened titles and abstracts of 3264 studies published from 2012 to 2017. Of these, 65 studies were read in full-text for assessment of eligibility and 27 studies were ultimately included and assessed for quality by SIGN-50 checklists. No studies compared patient outcome with and without prehospital POCUS. Four studies of acceptable quality demonstrated feasibility and changes in patient management in trauma. Two studies of acceptable quality demonstrated feasibility and changes in patient management in breathing difficulties. Four studies of acceptable quality demonstrated feasibility, outcome prediction and changes in patient management in cardiac arrest, but also that POCUS may prolong pauses in compressions. Two studies of acceptable quality demonstrated that short (few hours) teaching sessions are sufficient for obtaining simple interpretation skills, but not image acquisition skills. Three studies of acceptable quality demonstrated that longer one- or two-day courses including hands-on training are sufficient for learning simple, but not advanced, image acquisition skills. Three studies of acceptable quality demonstrated that systematic educational programs including supervised examinations are sufficient for learning advanced image acquisition skills in healthy volunteers, but that more than 50

  15. Critical Watersheds: Climate Change, Tipping Points, and Energy-Water Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, R. S.; Brown, M.; Coon, E.; Linn, R.; McDowell, N. G.; Painter, S. L.; Xu, C.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change, extreme climate events, and climate-induced disturbances will have a substantial and detrimental impact on terrestrial ecosystems. How ecosystems respond to these impacts will, in turn, have a significant effect on the quantity, quality, and timing of water supply for energy security, agriculture, industry, and municipal use. As a community, we lack sufficient quantitative and mechanistic understanding of the complex interplay between climate extremes (e.g., drought, floods), ecosystem dynamics (e.g., vegetation succession), and disruptive events (e.g., wildfire) to assess ecosystem vulnerabilities and to design mitigation strategies that minimize or prevent catastrophic ecosystem impacts. Through a combination of experimental and observational science and modeling, we are developing a unique multi-physics ecohydrologic framework for understanding and quantifying feedbacks between novel climate and extremes, surface and subsurface hydrology, ecosystem dynamics, and disruptive events in critical watersheds. The simulation capability integrates and advances coupled surface-subsurface hydrology from the Advanced Terrestrial Simulator (ATS), dynamic vegetation succession from the Ecosystem Demography (ED) model, and QUICFIRE, a novel wildfire behavior model developed from the FIRETEC platform. These advances are expected to make extensive contributions to the literature and to earth system modeling. The framework is designed to predict, quantify, and mitigate the impacts of climate change on vulnerable watersheds, with a focus on the US Mountain West and the energy-water nexus. This emerging capability is used to identify tipping points in watershed ecosystems, quantify impacts on downstream users, and formally evaluate mitigation efforts including forest (e.g., thinning, prescribed burns) and watershed (e.g., slope stabilization). The framework is being trained, validated, and demonstrated using field observations and remote data collections in the

  16. Pure F-actin networks are distorted and branched by steps in the critical-point drying method.

    PubMed

    Resch, Guenter P; Goldie, Kenneth N; Hoenger, Andreas; Small, J Victor

    2002-03-01

    Elucidation of the ultrastructural organization of actin networks is crucial for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying actin-based motility. Results obtained from cytoskeletons and actin comets prepared by the critical-point procedure, followed by rotary shadowing, support recent models incorporating actin filament branching as a main feature of lamellipodia and pathogen propulsion. Since actin branches were not evident in earlier images obtained by negative staining, we explored how these differences arise. Accordingly, we have followed the structural fate of dense networks of pure actin filaments subjected to steps of the critical-point drying protocol. The filament networks have been visualized in parallel by both cryo-electron microscopy and negative staining. Our results demonstrate the selective creation of branches and other artificial structures in pure F-actin networks by the critical-point procedure and challenge the reliability of this method for preserving the detailed organization of actin assemblies that drive motility. (c) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  17. Neuromuscular control of the point to point and oscillatory movements of a sagittal arm with the actor-critic reinforcement learning method.

    PubMed

    Golkhou, Vahid; Parnianpour, Mohamad; Lucas, Caro

    2005-04-01

    In this study, we have used a single link system with a pair of muscles that are excited with alpha and gamma signals to achieve both point to point and oscillatory movements with variable amplitude and frequency.The system is highly nonlinear in all its physical and physiological attributes. The major physiological characteristics of this system are simultaneous activation of a pair of nonlinear muscle-like-actuators for control purposes, existence of nonlinear spindle-like sensors and Golgi tendon organ-like sensor, actions of gravity and external loading. Transmission delays are included in the afferent and efferent neural paths to account for a more accurate representation of the reflex loops.A reinforcement learning method with an actor-critic (AC) architecture instead of middle and low level of central nervous system (CNS), is used to track a desired trajectory. The actor in this structure is a two layer feedforward neural network and the critic is a model of the cerebellum. The critic is trained by state-action-reward-state-action (SARSA) method. The critic will train the actor by supervisory learning based on the prior experiences. Simulation studies of oscillatory movements based on the proposed algorithm demonstrate excellent tracking capability and after 280 epochs the RMS error for position and velocity profiles were 0.02, 0.04 rad and rad/s, respectively.

  18. Nonequilibrium Phase Transitions and a Nonequilibrium Critical Point from Anti-de Sitter Space and Conformal Field Theory Correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Shin

    2012-09-01

    We find novel phase transitions and critical phenomena that occur only outside the linear-response regime of current-driven nonequilibrium states. We consider the strongly interacting (3+1)-dimensional N=4 large-Nc SU(Nc) supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with a single flavor of fundamental N=2 hypermultiplet as a microscopic theory. We compute its nonlinear nonballistic quark-charge conductivity by using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We find that the system exhibits a novel nonequilibrium first-order phase transition where the conductivity jumps and the sign of the differential conductivity flips at finite current density. A nonequilibrium critical point is discovered at the end point of the first-order regime. We propose a nonequilibrium steady-state analogue of thermodynamic potential in terms of the gravity-dual theory in order to define the transition point. Nonequilibrium analogues of critical exponents are proposed as well. The critical behavior of the conductivity is numerically confirmed on the basis of these proposals. The present work provides a new example of nonequilibrium phase transitions and nonequilibrium critical points.

  19. [Powdered infant formulae preparation guide for hospitals based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) principles].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Leguás, H; Rodríguez Garrido, V; Lorite Cuenca, R; Pérez-Portabella, C; Redecillas Ferreiro, S; Campins Martí, M

    2009-06-01

    This guide for the preparation of powdered infant formulae in hospital environments is a collaborative work between several hospital services and is based on national and European regulations, international experts meetings and the recommendations of scientific societies. This guide also uses the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point principles proposed by Codex Alimentarius and emphasises effective verifying measures, microbiological controls of the process and the corrective actions when monitoring indicates that a critical control point is not under control. It is a dynamic guide and specifies the evaluation procedures that allow it to be constantly adapted.

  20. Hazard analysis and critical control point systems in the United States Department of Agriculture regulatory policy.

    PubMed

    Billy, T J; Wachsmuth, I K

    1997-08-01

    Recent outbreaks of foodborne illness and studies by expert groups have established the need for fundamental change in the United States meat and poultry inspection programme to reduce the risk of foodborne illness. The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has embarked on a broad effort to bring about such change, with particular emphasis on the reduction of pathogenic micro-organisms in raw meat and poultry products. The publication on 25 July 1996 of the Final Rule on pathogen reduction and hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) systems was a major milestone in the FSIS strategy for change. The Final Rule provides a framework for change and clarifies the respective roles of industry and government in ensuring the safety of meat and poultry products. With the implementation of this Final Rule underway, the FSIS has been exploring ways in which slaughter inspection carried out under an HACCP-based system can be changed so that food safety risks are addressed more adequately and the allocation of inspection resources is improved further. In addition, the FSIS is broadening the focus of food safety activities to extend beyond slaughter and processing plants by working with industry, academia and other government agencies. Such co-operation should lead to the development of measures to improve food safety before animals reach the slaughter plant and after products leave the inspected establishment for distribution to the retail level. For the future, the FSIS believes that quantitative risk assessments will be at the core of food safety activities. Risk assessments provide the most effective means of identifying how specific pathogens and other hazards may be encountered throughout the farm-to-table chain and of measuring the potential impact of various interventions. In addition, these assessments will be used in the development and evaluation of HACCP systems. The FSIS is currently conducting a

  1. Test of phi(sup 2) model predictions near the (sup 3)He liquid-gas critical point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M.; Zhong, F.; Hahn, I.

    2000-01-01

    NASA is supporting the development of an experiment called MISTE (Microgravity Scaling Theory Experiment) for future International Space Station mission. The main objective of this flight experiment is to perform in-situ PVT, heat capacity at constant volume, C(sub v) and chi(sub tau), measurements in the asymptotic region near the (sup 3)He liquid-gas critical point.

  2. Critical points of the O(n) loop model on the martini and the 3-12 lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Chengxiang; Fu, Zhe; Guo, Wenan

    2012-06-01

    We derive the critical line of the O(n) loop model on the martini lattice as a function of the loop weight n basing on the critical points on the honeycomb lattice conjectured by Nienhuis [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.49.1062 49, 1062 (1982)]. In the limit n→0 we prove the connective constant μ=1.7505645579⋯ of self-avoiding walks on the martini lattice. A finite-size scaling analysis based on transfer matrix calculations is also performed. The numerical results coincide with the theoretical predictions with a very high accuracy. Using similar numerical methods, we also study the O(n) loop model on the 3-12 lattice. We obtain similarly precise agreement with the critical points given by Batchelor [J. Stat. Phys.JSTPBS0022-471510.1023/A:1023065215233 92, 1203 (1998)].

  3. Thermoacoustic effects in supercritical fluids near the critical point: Resonance, piston effect, and acoustic emission and reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onuki, Akira

    2007-12-01

    We present a general theory of thermoacoustic phenomena in one phase states of one-component fluids. Singular behavior is predicted in supercritical fluids near the critical point. In a one-dimensional geometry we start with linearized hydrodynamic equations taking into account the effects of heat conduction in the boundary walls and the bulk viscosity. We introduce a coefficient Z(ω) characterizing reflection of sound with frequency ω at the boundary in a rigid cell. As applications, we examine acoustic eigenmodes, response to time-dependent perturbations, and sound emission and reflection. Resonance and rapid adiabatic changes are noteworthy. In these processes, the role of the thermal diffusion layers is enhanced near the critical point because of the strong critical divergence of the thermal expansion.

  4. Critical points of the cosmic velocity field and the uncertainties in the value of the Hubble constant

    SciT

    Liu, Hao; Naselsky, Pavel; Mohayaee, Roya, E-mail: liuhao@nbi.dk, E-mail: roya@iap.fr, E-mail: naselsky@nbi.dk

    2016-06-01

    The existence of critical points for the peculiar velocity field is a natural feature of the correlated vector field. These points appear at the junctions of velocity domains with different orientations of their averaged velocity vectors. Since peculiar velocities are the important cause of the scatter in the Hubble expansion rate, we propose that a more precise determination of the Hubble constant can be made by restricting analysis to a subsample of observational data containing only the zones around the critical points of the peculiar velocity field, associated with voids and saddle points. On large-scales the critical points, where themore » first derivative of the gravitational potential vanishes, can easily be identified using the density field and classified by the behavior of the Hessian of the gravitational potential. We use high-resolution N-body simulations to show that these regions are stable in time and hence are excellent tracers of the initial conditions. Furthermore, we show that the variance of the Hubble flow can be substantially minimized by restricting observations to the subsample of such regions of vanishing velocity instead of aiming at increasing the statistics by averaging indiscriminately using the full data sets, as is the common approach.« less

  5. HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) to guarantee safe water reuse and drinking water production--a case study.

    PubMed

    Dewettinck, T; Van Houtte, E; Geenens, D; Van Hege, K; Verstraete, W

    2001-01-01

    To obtain a sustainable water catchment in the dune area of the Flemish west coast, the integration of treated domestic wastewater in the existing potable water production process is planned. The hygienic hazards associated with the introduction of treated domestic wastewater into the water cycle are well recognised. Therefore, the concept of HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) was used to guarantee hygienically safe drinking water production. Taking into account the literature data on the removal efficiencies of the proposed advanced treatment steps with regard to enteric viruses and protozoa and after setting high quality limits based on the recent progress in quantitative risk assessment, the critical control points (CCPs) and points of attention (POAs) were identified. Based on the HACCP analysis a specific monitoring strategy was developed which focused on the control of these CCPs and POAs.

  6. Optimal Management of the Critically Ill: Anaesthesia, Monitoring, Data Capture, and Point-of-Care Technological Practices in Ovine Models of Critical Care

    PubMed Central

    Shekar, Kiran; Tung, John-Paul; Dunster, Kimble R.; Platts, David; Watts, Ryan P.; Gregory, Shaun D.; Simonova, Gabriela; McDonald, Charles; Hayes, Rylan; Bellpart, Judith; Timms, Daniel; Fung, Yoke L.; Toon, Michael; Maybauer, Marc O.; Fraser, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Animal models of critical illness are vital in biomedical research. They provide possibilities for the investigation of pathophysiological processes that may not otherwise be possible in humans. In order to be clinically applicable, the model should simulate the critical care situation realistically, including anaesthesia, monitoring, sampling, utilising appropriate personnel skill mix, and therapeutic interventions. There are limited data documenting the constitution of ideal technologically advanced large animal critical care practices and all the processes of the animal model. In this paper, we describe the procedure of animal preparation, anaesthesia induction and maintenance, physiologic monitoring, data capture, point-of-care technology, and animal aftercare that has been successfully used to study several novel ovine models of critical illness. The relevant investigations are on respiratory failure due to smoke inhalation, transfusion related acute lung injury, endotoxin-induced proteogenomic alterations, haemorrhagic shock, septic shock, brain death, cerebral microcirculation, and artificial heart studies. We have demonstrated the functionality of monitoring practices during anaesthesia required to provide a platform for undertaking systematic investigations in complex ovine models of critical illness. PMID:24783206

  7. Recommendations for dealing with waste contaminated with Ebola virus: a Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points approach.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, Kelly L; Elrahman, Samira Abd; Bell, Diana J; Brainard, Julii; Dervisevic, Samir; Fedha, Tsimbiri P; Few, Roger; Howard, Guy; Lake, Iain; Maes, Peter; Matofari, Joseph; Minnigh, Harvey; Mohamedani, Ahmed A; Montgomery, Maggie; Morter, Sarah; Muchiri, Edward; Mudau, Lutendo S; Mutua, Benedict M; Ndambuki, Julius M; Pond, Katherine; Sobsey, Mark D; van der Es, Mike; Zeitoun, Mark; Hunter, Paul R

    2016-06-01

    To assess, within communities experiencing Ebola virus outbreaks, the risks associated with the disposal of human waste and to generate recommendations for mitigating such risks. A team with expertise in the Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points framework identified waste products from the care of individuals with Ebola virus disease and constructed, tested and confirmed flow diagrams showing the creation of such products. After listing potential hazards associated with each step in each flow diagram, the team conducted a hazard analysis, determined critical control points and made recommendations to mitigate the transmission risks at each control point. The collection, transportation, cleaning and shared use of blood-soiled fomites and the shared use of latrines contaminated with blood or bloodied faeces appeared to be associated with particularly high levels of risk of Ebola virus transmission. More moderate levels of risk were associated with the collection and transportation of material contaminated with bodily fluids other than blood, shared use of latrines soiled with such fluids, the cleaning and shared use of fomites soiled with such fluids, and the contamination of the environment during the collection and transportation of blood-contaminated waste. The risk of the waste-related transmission of Ebola virus could be reduced by the use of full personal protective equipment, appropriate hand hygiene and an appropriate disinfectant after careful cleaning. Use of the Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points framework could facilitate rapid responses to outbreaks of emerging infectious disease.

  8. Recommendations for dealing with waste contaminated with Ebola virus: a Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points approach

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, Kelly L; Elrahman, Samira Abd; Bell, Diana J; Brainard, Julii; Dervisevic, Samir; Fedha, Tsimbiri P; Few, Roger; Howard, Guy; Lake, Iain; Maes, Peter; Matofari, Joseph; Minnigh, Harvey; Mohamedani, Ahmed A; Montgomery, Maggie; Morter, Sarah; Muchiri, Edward; Mudau, Lutendo S; Mutua, Benedict M; Ndambuki, Julius M; Pond, Katherine; Sobsey, Mark D; van der Es, Mike; Zeitoun, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess, within communities experiencing Ebola virus outbreaks, the risks associated with the disposal of human waste and to generate recommendations for mitigating such risks. Methods A team with expertise in the Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points framework identified waste products from the care of individuals with Ebola virus disease and constructed, tested and confirmed flow diagrams showing the creation of such products. After listing potential hazards associated with each step in each flow diagram, the team conducted a hazard analysis, determined critical control points and made recommendations to mitigate the transmission risks at each control point. Findings The collection, transportation, cleaning and shared use of blood-soiled fomites and the shared use of latrines contaminated with blood or bloodied faeces appeared to be associated with particularly high levels of risk of Ebola virus transmission. More moderate levels of risk were associated with the collection and transportation of material contaminated with bodily fluids other than blood, shared use of latrines soiled with such fluids, the cleaning and shared use of fomites soiled with such fluids, and the contamination of the environment during the collection and transportation of blood-contaminated waste. Conclusion The risk of the waste-related transmission of Ebola virus could be reduced by the use of full personal protective equipment, appropriate hand hygiene and an appropriate disinfectant after careful cleaning. Use of the Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points framework could facilitate rapid responses to outbreaks of emerging infectious disease. PMID:27274594

  9. The susceptibility critical exponent for a nonaqueous ionic binary mixture near a consolute point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Kai C.; Briggs, Matthew E.; Gammon, Robert W.; Levelt Sengers, J. M. H.

    1992-01-01

    We report turbidity measurements of a nonaqueous ionic solution of triethyl n-hexylammonium triethyl n-hexylboride in diphenyl ether. A classical susceptibility critical exponent gamma = 1.01 +/- 0.01 is obtained over the reduced temperature range t between values of 0.1 and 0.0001. The best fits of the sample transmission had a standard deviation of 0.39 percent over this range. Ising and spherical model critical exponents are firmly excluded. The correlation length amplitude xi sub 0 from fitting is 1.0 +/- 0.2 nm which is much larger than values found in neutral fluids and some aqueous binary mixtures.

  10. A Demonstration of the Continuous Phase (Second-Order) Transition of a Binary Liquid System in the Region around Its Critical Point

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Michael R.

    2006-01-01

    In most general chemistry and introductory physical chemistry classes, critical point is defined as that temperature-pressure point on a phase diagram where the liquid-gas interface disappears, a phenomenon that generally occurs at relatively high temperatures or high pressures. Two examples are: water, with a critical point at 647 K (critical…

  11. On the temperature derivative of the surface tension at a critical end point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, M.; Tavan, P.

    1983-03-01

    It is shown that, according to the van der Waals theory of fluid interfaces, the surface tension of the interface between a This result holds for any number of phases and independently varying densities and is not restricted to classical values of the critical exponents.

  12. Educational Turning Point in Albania: No More Mechanic Parrots but Critical Thinkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhasani, Mirela Dubali

    2015-01-01

    Since 2004 Albanian academics have been making efforts to establish the best Western practices of academic writing associated with critical thinking and writing skills for university students. In this article, I will shed light upon the special challenges and peculiarities the establishment of Academic Writing discipline has encountered in Albania…

  13. On the possibility of complete revivals after quantum quenches to a critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najafi, K.; Rajabpour, M. A.

    2017-07-01

    In a recent letter [J. Cardy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 220401 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.220401], the author made a very interesting observation that complete revivals of quantum states after quantum quench can happen in a period that is a fraction of the system size. This is possible for critical systems that can be described by minimal conformal field theories with central charge c <1 . In this paper, we show that these complete revivals are impossible in microscopic realizations of those minimal models. We will prove the absence of the mentioned complete revivals for the critical transverse field Ising chain analytically, and present numerical results for the critical line of the XY chain. In particular, for the considered initial states, we will show that criticality has no significant effect in partial revivals. We also comment on the applicability of quasiparticle picture to determine the period of the partial revivals qualitatively. In particular, we detect a regime in the phase diagram of the XY chain in which one can not determine the period of the partial revivals using the quasiparticle picture.

  14. Zero-point term and quantum effects in the Johnson noise of resistors: a critical appraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kish, Laszlo B.; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Granqvist, Claes G.

    2016-05-01

    There is a longstanding debate about the zero-point term in the Johnson noise voltage of a resistor. This term originates from a quantum-theoretical treatment of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT). Is the zero-point term really there, or is it only an experimental artifact, due to the uncertainty principle, for phase-sensitive amplifiers? Could it be removed by renormalization of theories? We discuss some historical measurement schemes that do not lead to the effect predicted by the FDT, and we analyse new features that emerge when the consequences of the zero-point term are measured via the mean energy and force in a capacitor shunting the resistor. If these measurements verify the existence of a zero-point term in the noise, then two types of perpetual motion machines can be constructed. Further investigation with the same approach shows that, in the quantum limit, the Johnson-Nyquist formula is also invalid under general conditions even though it is valid for a resistor-antenna system. Therefore we conclude that in a satisfactory quantum theory of the Johnson noise, the FDT must, as a minimum, include also the measurement system used to evaluate the observed quantities. Issues concerning the zero-point term may also have implications for phenomena in advanced nanotechnology.

  15. The implementation of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point management system in a peanut butter ice cream plant.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yu-Ting; Liu, Chi-Te; Peng, I-Chen; Hsu, Chin; Yu, Roch-Chui; Cheng, Kuan-Chen

    2015-09-01

    To ensure the safety of the peanut butter ice cream manufacture, a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan has been designed and applied to the production process. Potential biological, chemical, and physical hazards in each manufacturing procedure were identified. Critical control points for the peanut butter ice cream were then determined as the pasteurization and freezing process. The establishment of a monitoring system, corrective actions, verification procedures, and documentation and record keeping were followed to complete the HACCP program. The results of this study indicate that implementing the HACCP system in food industries can effectively enhance food safety and quality while improving the production management. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Energy-loss spectrum for inelastic scattering of charged particles in disordered systems near the critical point

    SciT

    Gerasimov, O. I.; Adamian, V. M.

    The behavior of the theoretically predicted correlational ''fine''energy-loss spectrum of inelastic electron scattering in disordered systemsclose to single resonance is investigated near the critical point. In extendingour earlier work, it is shown that the relation of the statistical expressionof the cross section of energy loss to the function which describes the lineshape in an ideal gas asymptotically increases near the critical point as apower law. ''Fracton'' interpretation of display of the localization of asingle excitation in disordered systems in the resonance-line shape of theenergy-loss spectrum is suggested. The possibility of direct determination ofthe pair distribution function (without Fourier transformation ofmore » the structurefactor) using the method of charged-particle scattering is discussed.« less

  17. [Introduction of hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) principles at the flight catering food production plant].

    PubMed

    Popova, A Yu; Trukhina, G M; Mikailova, O M

    In the article there is considered the quality control and safety system implemented in the one of the largest flight catering food production plant for airline passengers and flying squad. The system for the control was based on the Hazard Analysis And Critical Control Points (HACCP) principles and developed hygienic and antiepidemic measures. There is considered the identification of hazard factors at stages of the technical process. There are presented results of the analysis data of monitoring for 6 critical control points over the five-year period. The quality control and safety system permit to decline food contamination risk during acceptance, preparation and supplying of in-flight meal. There was proved the efficiency of the implemented system. There are determined further ways of harmonization and implementation for HACCP principles in the plant.

  18. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points among Chinese Food Business Operators.

    PubMed

    Saccares, Stefano; Amadei, Paolo; Masotti, Gianfranco; Condoleo, Roberto; Guidi, Alessandra

    2014-08-28

    The purpose of the present paper is to highlight some critical situations emerged during the implementation of long-term projects locally managed by Prevention Services, to control some manufacturing companies in Rome and Prato, Central Italy. In particular, some critical issues on the application of self-control in marketing and catering held by Chinese operators are underlined. The study showed serious flaws in preparing and controlling of manuals for good hygiene practice, participating of the consultants among food business operators (FBOs) to the control of the procedures. Only after regular actions by the Prevention Services, there have been satisfying results. This confirms the need to have qualified and expert partners able to promptly act among FBOs and to give adequate support to authorities in charge in order to guarantee food safety.

  19. First-Order Interfacial Transformations with a Critical Point: Breaking the Symmetry at a Symmetric Tilt Grain Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shengfeng; Zhou, Naixie; Zheng, Hui; Ong, Shyue Ping; Luo, Jian

    2018-02-01

    First-order interfacial phaselike transformations that break the mirror symmetry of the symmetric ∑5 (210 ) tilt grain boundary (GB) are discovered by combining a modified genetic algorithm with hybrid Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations. Density functional theory calculations confirm this prediction. This first-order coupled structural and adsorption transformation, which produces two variants of asymmetric bilayers, vanishes at an interfacial critical point. A GB complexion (phase) diagram is constructed via semigrand canonical ensemble atomistic simulations for the first time.

  20. Accurate Determination of the Quasiparticle and Scaling Properties Surrounding the Quantum Critical Point of Disordered Three-Dimensional Dirac Semimetals.

    PubMed

    Fu, Bo; Zhu, Wei; Shi, Qinwei; Li, Qunxiang; Yang, Jinlong; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2017-04-07

    Exploiting the enabling power of the Lanczos method in momentum space, we determine accurately the quasiparticle and scaling properties of disordered three-dimensional Dirac semimetals surrounding the quantum critical point separating the semimetal and diffusive metal regimes. We unveil that the imaginary part of the quasiparticle self-energy obeys a common power law before, at, and after the quantum phase transition, but the power law is nonuniversal, whose exponent is dependent on the disorder strength. More intriguingly, whereas a common power law is also found for the real part of the self-energy before and after the phase transition, a distinctly different behavior is identified at the critical point, characterized by the existence of a nonanalytic logarithmic singularity. This nonanalytical correction serves as the very basis for the unusual power-law behaviors of the quasiparticles and many other physical properties surrounding the quantum critical point. Our approach also allows the ready and reliable determination of the scaling properties of the correlation length and dynamical exponents. We further show that the central findings are valid for both uncorrelated and correlated disorder distributions and should be directly comparable with future experimental observations.

  1. Accurate Determination of the Quasiparticle and Scaling Properties Surrounding the Quantum Critical Point of Disordered Three-dimensional Dirac Semimetals

    DOE PAGES

    Fu, Bo; Zhu, Wei; Shi, Qinwei; ...

    2017-04-03

    Exploiting the enabling power of the Lanczos method in momentum space, we determine accurately the quasiparticle and scaling properties of disordered three-dimensional Dirac semimetals surrounding the quantum critical point separating the semimetal and diffusive metal regimes. We unveil that the imaginary part of the quasiparticle self-energy obeys a common power law before, at, and after the quantum phase transition, but the power law is nonuniversal, whose exponent is dependent on the disorder strength. More intriguingly, whereas a common power law is also found for the real part of the self-energy before and after the phase transition, a distinctly different behaviormore » is identified at the critical point, characterized by the existence of a nonanalytic logarithmic singularity. This nonanalytical correction serves as the very basis for the unusual power-law behaviors of the quasiparticles and many other physical properties surrounding the quantum critical point. Our approach also allows the ready and reliable determination of the scaling properties of the correlation length and dynamical exponents. Furthermore, we show that the central findings are valid for both uncorrelated and correlated disorder distributions and should be directly comparable with future experimental observations.« less

  2. On the Critical Behaviour, Crossover Point and Complexity of the Exact Cover Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robin D.; Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.; Shumow, Daniel; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Research into quantum algorithms for NP-complete problems has rekindled interest in the detailed study a broad class of combinatorial problems. A recent paper applied the quantum adiabatic evolution algorithm to the Exact Cover problem for 3-sets (EC3), and provided an empirical evidence that the algorithm was polynomial. In this paper we provide a detailed study of the characteristics of the exact cover problem. We present the annealing approximation applied to EC3, which gives an over-estimate of the phase transition point. We also identify empirically the phase transition point. We also study the complexity of two classical algorithms on this problem: Davis-Putnam and Simulated Annealing. For these algorithms, EC3 is significantly easier than 3-SAT.

  3. Dielectric function, critical points, and Rydberg exciton series of WSe2 monolayer.

    PubMed

    Diware, M S; Ganorkar, S P; Park, K; Chegal, W; Cho, H M; Cho, Y J; Kim, Y D; Kim, H

    2018-06-13

    The complex dielectric function ([Formula: see text]) of WSe 2 monolayer grown by atomic layer deposition is investigated using spectroscopic ellipsometry. Band structure parameters are obtained by standard line-shape analysis of the second-energy-derivative of [Formula: see text] spectra. The fundamental band gap is observed at 2.26 eV, corresponds to transition between valence band (VB) maximum at the K point and conduction band (CB) minimum at Q point in the Brillouin zone (BZ). Two strong so-called A and B excitonic peaks in [Formula: see text] spectra originate from vertical transitions from spin-orbit split (0.43 eV) VB to CB at K point of the BZ. Binding energies of A and B exactions are 0.71 and 0.28 eV, respectively. Well resolved five excited excitons states has been detected within the spectral region between A and B. Energy profile of the Rydberg series shows significant deviation from the hydrogenic behavior, discussed in connection with the 2D hydrogen model. Results presented here will improve our understanding about the optical response of 2D materials and will help to design better optoelectronic applications and validate theoretical considerations.

  4. Dielectric function, critical points, and Rydberg exciton series of WSe2 monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diware, M. S.; Ganorkar, S. P.; Park, K.; Chegal, W.; Cho, H. M.; Cho, Y. J.; Kim, Y. D.; Kim, H.

    2018-06-01

    The complex dielectric function () of WSe2 monolayer grown by atomic layer deposition is investigated using spectroscopic ellipsometry. Band structure parameters are obtained by standard line-shape analysis of the second-energy-derivative of spectra. The fundamental band gap is observed at 2.26 eV, corresponds to transition between valence band (VB) maximum at the K point and conduction band (CB) minimum at Q point in the Brillouin zone (BZ). Two strong so-called A and B excitonic peaks in spectra originate from vertical transitions from spin–orbit split (0.43 eV) VB to CB at K point of the BZ. Binding energies of A and B exactions are 0.71 and 0.28 eV, respectively. Well resolved five excited excitons states has been detected within the spectral region between A and B. Energy profile of the Rydberg series shows significant deviation from the hydrogenic behavior, discussed in connection with the 2D hydrogen model. Results presented here will improve our understanding about the optical response of 2D materials and will help to design better optoelectronic applications and validate theoretical considerations.

  5. Time delay of critical images of a point source near the gravitational lens fold-caustic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, A.; Zhdanov, V.

    2016-06-01

    Within the framework of the analytical theory of the gravitational lensing we derive asymptotic formula for the time delay of critical images of apoint source, which is situated near a fold-caustic. We found corrections of the first and second order in powers of a parameter, which describescloseness of the source to the caustic. Our formula modifies earlier result by Congdon, Keeton &Nordgren (MNRAS, 2008) obtained in zero-orderapproximation. We have proved the hypothesis put forward by these authors that the first-order correction to the relative time delay of two criticalmages is identically zero. The contribution of the corrections is illustrated in model example by comparison with exact expression.

  6. Critical viewpoints on the methods of realizing the metal freezing points of the ITS-90

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, C. K.

    1995-08-01

    The time-honored method for realizing the freezing point tf of a metal (in practice necessarily a dilute alloy) is that of continuous, slow freezing where the plateau temperature (which is the result of solidifying material's being so pure that its phase-transition temperature is observably constant) is measured. The freezing point being an equilibrium temperature, Ancsin considers this method to be inappropriate in principle: equilibrium between the solid and liquid phases cannot be achieved while the solid is being cooled to dispose of the releasing latent heat and while it is accreting at the expense of the liquid. In place of the continuous freezing method he has employed the pulse-heating method (in which the sample is allowed to approach equilibrium after each heat pulse) in his study of Ag; his measurements suggest that freezing can produce non-negligible errors. Here we examine both methods and conclude that the freezing method, employing an inside solid-liquid interface thermally isolated by an outside interface, can provide realizations of the highest accuracy; in either method, perturbation, by inducing solid-liquid phase transition continuously or intermittently, is essential for detecting equilibrium thermally. The respective merits and disadvantages of these two methods and also of the inner-melt method are discussed. We conclude that in a freezing-point measurement what is being measured is in effect the however minutely varying phase transition, and nonconstitutional equilibrium, temperature ti at the solid-liquid interface. The objective is then to measure the ti that is the best measure of tf, which is, normally, the plateau temperature.

  7. Non Fermi liquid properties of Ni-V close to the ferromagnetic quantum critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Almut; Ubaid-Kassis, Sara; Wyatt, Brendan; Vojta, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Resistivity (ρ) and magnetization (M) data of the d-metal alloy Ni 1-x Vx are presented in the vicinity of the critical vanadium concentration xc ~ 11 % where the onset of long-range ferromagnetic (FM) order is suppressed to zero temperature. Above x c the temperature (T) dependence of the magnetic susceptibility is best described by simple nonuniversal power laws (e.g. M/H(T, H --> 0) ~ T α-1). Also the resistivity displays power laws (Δρ ~ T n) . Both exponents α (x) and n(x) vary with x displaying signatures of a disordered quantum phase transition in a metal very different than of a clean 3D FM. Supported by NSF (DMR-0306766, DMR-0339147, DMR-0906566) OBR-440653 and Research Corporation.

  8. Transition probability, dynamic regimes, and the critical point of financial crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yinan; Chen, Ping

    2015-07-01

    An empirical and theoretical analysis of financial crises is conducted based on statistical mechanics in non-equilibrium physics. The transition probability provides a new tool for diagnosing a changing market. Both calm and turbulent markets can be described by the birth-death process for price movements driven by identical agents. The transition probability in a time window can be estimated from stock market indexes. Positive and negative feedback trading behaviors can be revealed by the upper and lower curves in transition probability. Three dynamic regimes are discovered from two time periods including linear, quasi-linear, and nonlinear patterns. There is a clear link between liberalization policy and market nonlinearity. Numerical estimation of a market turning point is close to the historical event of the US 2008 financial crisis.

  9. Temperature-driven evolution of critical points, interlayer coupling, and layer polarization in bilayer Mo S2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Luojun; Zhang, Tingting; Liao, Mengzhou; Liu, Guibin; Wang, Shuopei; He, Rui; Ye, Zhipeng; Yu, Hua; Yang, Rong; Shi, Dongxia; Yao, Yugui; Zhang, Guangyu

    2018-04-01

    The recently emerging two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have been a fertile ground for exploring abundant exotic physical properties. Critical points, the extrema or saddle points of electronic bands, are the cornerstone of condensed-matter physics and fundamentally determine the optical and transport phenomena of the TMDCs. However, for bilayer Mo S2 , a typical TMDC and the unprecedented electrically tunable venue for valleytronics, there has been a considerable controversy on its intrinsic electronic structure, especially for the conduction band-edge locations. Moreover, interlayer hopping and layer polarization in bilayer Mo S2 which play vital roles in valley-spintronic applications have remained experimentally elusive. Here, we report the experimental observation of intrinsic critical points locations, interlayer hopping, layer-spin polarization, and their evolution with temperature in bilayer Mo S2 by performing temperature-dependent photoluminescence. Our measurements confirm that the conduction-band minimum locates at the Kc instead of Qc, and the energy splitting between Qc and Kc redshifts with a descent of temperature. Furthermore, the interlayer hopping energy for holes and temperature-dependent layer polarization are quantitatively determined. Our observations are in good harmony with density-functional theory calculations.

  10. Constructivisms from a genetic point of view: a critical classification of current tendencies.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, José Carlos; Loredo, José Carlos

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a critical classification of contemporary constructivist orientations. Our fundamental theoretical reference is the notion of genesis, understood as the construction of reality in a way that is neither relativist nor positivist-realist. We identify a nucleus of classic, genetic constructivism that revolves around the ideas of Baldwin, Piaget and Vygotsky and discuss two tendencies that distort the spirit of that nucleus: objectivism and subjectivism. Objectivism rules out the psychological, constructive activity of the subject, subordinating (or just reducing) it to objective structures either from nature (like genetic endowment or neural functioning), or from culture (like language or social practices). Subjectivism completely detaches the objectivity of knowledge from its construction on the part of the subject, reducing it to the mere product of individual interest, view, or irrationality. Thus, subjectivism is the non-constructive way to conceive the subject. Then, we attempt to show the dialectics that exists between these two tendencies and the scope of our criteria by analysing a representative (non exhaustive) group of authors who are defined as constructivists or who bring important elements to the debate about constructivism.

  11. Thermomagnetic instabilities in a vertical layer of ferrofluid: nonlinear analysis away from a critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Pinkee; Suslov, Sergey A.

    2016-12-01

    A finite amplitude instability has been analysed to discover the exact mechanism leading to the appearance of stationary magnetoconvection patterns in a vertical layer of a non-conducting ferrofluid heated from the side and placed in an external magnetic field perpendicular to the walls. The physical results have been obtained using a version of a weakly nonlinear analysis that is based on the disturbance amplitude expansion. It enables a low-dimensional reduction of a full nonlinear problem in supercritical regimes away from a bifurcation point. The details of the reduction are given in comparison with traditional small-parameter expansions. It is also demonstrated that Squire’s transformation can be introduced for higher-order nonlinear terms thus reducing the full three-dimensional problem to its equivalent two-dimensional counterpart and enabling significant computational savings. The full three-dimensional instability patterns are subsequently recovered using the inverse transforms The analysed stationary thermomagnetic instability is shown to occur as a result of a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation.

  12. 29 CFR 2584.8477(e)-5 - Effect of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of allocation. 2584.8477(e)-5 Section 2584.8477(e)-5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... REGULATIONS FOR THE ALLOCATION OF FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY § 2584.8477(e)-5 Effect of allocation. Where...

  13. The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) generic model for the production of Thai fermented pork sausage (Nham).

    PubMed

    Paukatong, K V; Kunawasen, S

    2001-01-01

    Nham is a traditional Thai fermented pork sausage. The major ingredients of Nham are ground pork meat and shredded pork rind. Nham has been reported to be contaminated with Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. Therefore, it is a potential cause of foodborne diseases for consumers. A Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) generic model has been developed for the Nham process. Nham processing plants were observed and a generic flow diagram of Nham processes was constructed. Hazard analysis was then conducted. Other than microbial hazards, the pathogens previously found in Nham, sodium nitrite and metal were identified as chemical and physical hazards in this product, respectively. Four steps in the Nham process have been identified as critical control points. These steps are the weighing of the nitrite compound, stuffing, fermentation, and labeling. The chemical hazard of nitrite must be controlled during the weighing step. The critical limit of nitrite levels in the Nham mixture has been set at 100-200 ppm. This level is high enough to control Clostridium botulinum but does not cause chemical hazards to the consumer. The physical hazard from metal clips could be prevented by visual inspection of every Nham product during stuffing. The microbiological hazard in Nham could be reduced in the fermentation process. The critical limit of the pH of Nham was set at lower than 4.6. Since this product is not cooked during processing, finally, educating the consumer, by providing information on the label such as "safe if cooked before consumption", could be an alternative way to prevent the microbiological hazards of this product.

  14. Application of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point in the local manufacture of ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTFs).

    PubMed

    Henry, C Jeya K; Xin, Janice Lim Wen

    2014-06-01

    The local manufacture of ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTFs) is increasing, and there is a need to develop methods to ensure their safe production. We propose the application of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles to achieve this goal. The basic principles of HACCP in the production of RUTFs are outlined. It is concluded that the implementation of an HACCP system in the manufacture of RUTFs is not only feasible but also attainable. The introduction of good manufacturing practices, coupled with an effective HACCP system, will ensure that RUTFs are produced in a cost-effective, safe, and hygienic manner.

  15. Phases of higher spin black holes: Hawking-Page, transitions between black holes, and a critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bañados, Máximo; Düring, Gustavo; Faraggi, Alberto; Reyes, Ignacio A.

    2017-08-01

    We study the thermodynamic phase diagram of three-dimensional s l (N ;R ) higher spin black holes. By analyzing the semiclassical partition function we uncover a rich structure that includes Hawking-Page transitions to the AdS3 vacuum, first order phase transitions among black hole states, and a second order critical point. Our analysis is explicit for N =4 but we extrapolate some of our conclusions to arbitrary N . In particular, we argue that even N is stable in the ensemble under consideration but odd N is not.

  16. The solubility of the noble gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe in water up to the critical point

    Potter, R.W.; Clynne, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    The solubility of the noble gases Ar, He, Ne, Kr, and Xe in pure water was measured from 298 to 561??K. These data in turn were extrapolated to the critical point of water, thus providing a complete set of Henry's law constants from 274 to 647??K when combined with the existing literature data. Equations describing the behavior of the Henry's law constants over this temperature range are also given. The data do not confirm extrapolations of empirical correlations based on low-temperature solubility data. ?? 1978 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

  17. Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points Assessment as a Tool to Respond to Emerging Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, Kelly L.; Hunter, Paul R.; Few, Roger; Bell, Diana J.

    2013-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) strain H5N1 has had direct and indirect economic impacts arising from direct mortality and control programmes in over 50 countries reporting poultry outbreaks. HPAI H5N1 is now reported as the most widespread and expensive zoonotic disease recorded and continues to pose a global health threat. The aim of this research was to assess the potential of utilising Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP) assessments in providing a framework for a rapid response to emerging infectious disease outbreaks. This novel approach applies a scientific process, widely used in food production systems, to assess risks related to a specific emerging health threat within a known zoonotic disease hotspot. We conducted a HACCP assessment for HPAI viruses within Vietnam’s domestic poultry trade and relate our findings to the existing literature. Our HACCP assessment identified poultry flock isolation, transportation, slaughter, preparation and consumption as critical control points for Vietnam’s domestic poultry trade. Introduction of the preventative measures highlighted through this HACCP evaluation would reduce the risks posed by HPAI viruses and pressure on the national economy. We conclude that this HACCP assessment provides compelling evidence for the future potential that HACCP analyses could play in initiating a rapid response to emerging infectious diseases. PMID:23967294

  18. Application of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) to the Cultivation Line of Mushroom and Other Cultivated Edible Fungi.

    PubMed

    Pardo, José E; de Figueirêdo, Vinícius Reis; Alvarez-Ortí, Manuel; Zied, Diego C; Peñaranda, Jesús A; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Pardo-Giménez, Arturo

    2013-09-01

    The Hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) is a preventive system which seeks to ensure food safety and security. It allows product protection and correction of errors, improves the costs derived from quality defects and reduces the final overcontrol. In this paper, the system is applied to the line of cultivation of mushrooms and other edible cultivated fungi. From all stages of the process, only the reception of covering materials (stage 1) and compost (stage 3), the pre-fruiting and induction (step 6) and the harvest (stage 7) have been considered as critical control point (CCP). The main hazards found were the presence of unauthorized phytosanitary products or above the permitted dose (stages 6 and 7), and the presence of pathogenic bacteria (stages 1 and 3) and/or heavy metals (stage 3). The implementation of this knowledge will allow the self-control of their productions based on the system HACCP to any plant dedicated to mushroom or other edible fungi cultivation.

  19. The application of quality risk management to the bacterial endotoxins test: use of hazard analysis and critical control points.

    PubMed

    Annalaura, Carducci; Giulia, Davini; Stefano, Ceccanti

    2013-01-01

    Risk analysis is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry to manage production processes, validation activities, training, and other activities. Several methods of risk analysis are available (for example, failure mode and effects analysis, fault tree analysis), and one or more should be chosen and adapted to the specific field where they will be applied. Among the methods available, hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) is a methodology that has been applied since the 1960s, and whose areas of application have expanded over time from food to the pharmaceutical industry. It can be easily and successfully applied to several processes because its main feature is the identification, assessment, and control of hazards. It can be also integrated with other tools, such as fishbone diagram and flowcharting. The aim of this article is to show how HACCP can be used to manage an analytical process, propose how to conduct the necessary steps, and provide data templates necessary to document and useful to follow current good manufacturing practices. In the quality control process, risk analysis is a useful tool for enhancing the uniformity of technical choices and their documented rationale. Accordingly, it allows for more effective and economical laboratory management, is capable of increasing the reliability of analytical results, and enables auditors and authorities to better understand choices that have been made. The aim of this article is to show how hazard analysis and critical control points can be used to manage bacterial endotoxins testing and other analytical processes in a formal, clear, and detailed manner.

  20. Splitting of the zero-energy Landau level and universal dissipative conductivity at critical points in disordered graphene.

    PubMed

    Ortmann, Frank; Roche, Stephan

    2013-02-22

    We report on robust features of the longitudinal conductivity (σ(xx)) of the graphene zero-energy Landau level in the presence of disorder and varying magnetic fields. By mixing an Anderson disorder potential with a low density of sublattice impurities, the transition from metallic to insulating states is theoretically explored as a function of Landau-level splitting, using highly efficient real-space methods to compute the Kubo conductivities (both σ(xx) and Hall σ(xy)). As long as valley degeneracy is maintained, the obtained critical conductivity σ(xx) =/~ 1.4e(2)/h is robust upon an increase in disorder (by almost 1 order of magnitude) and magnetic fields ranging from about 2 to 200 T. When the sublattice symmetry is broken, σ(xx) eventually vanishes at the Dirac point owing to localization effects, whereas the critical conductivities of pseudospin-split states (dictating the width of a σ(xy) = 0 plateau) change to σ(xx) =/~ e(2)/h, regardless of the splitting strength, superimposed disorder, or magnetic strength. These findings point towards the nondissipative nature of the quantum Hall effect in disordered graphene in the presence of Landau level splitting.

  1. Predicting critical temperatures of ionic and non-ionic fluids from thermophysical data obtained near the melting point.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Volker C

    2015-10-14

    In the correlation and prediction of thermophysical data of fluids based on a corresponding-states approach, the critical temperature Tc plays a central role. For some fluids, in particular ionic ones, however, the critical region is difficult or even impossible to access experimentally. For molten salts, Tc is on the order of 3000 K, which makes accurate measurements a challenging task. Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) decompose thermally between 400 K and 600 K due to their organic constituents; this range of temperatures is hundreds of degrees below recent estimates of their Tc. In both cases, reliable methods to deduce Tc based on extrapolations of experimental data recorded at much lower temperatures near the triple or melting points are needed and useful because the critical point influences the fluid's behavior in the entire liquid region. Here, we propose to employ the scaling approach leading to universal fluid behavior [Román et al., J. Chem. Phys. 123, 124512 (2005)] to derive a very simple expression that allows one to estimate Tc from the density of the liquid, the surface tension, or the enthalpy of vaporization measured in a very narrow range of low temperatures. We demonstrate the validity of the approach for simple and polar neutral fluids, for which Tc is known, and then use the methodology to obtain estimates of Tc for ionic fluids. When comparing these estimates to those reported in the literature, good agreement is found for RTILs, whereas the ones for the molten salts NaCl and KCl are lower than previous estimates by 10%. The coexistence curve for ionic fluids is found to be more adequately described by an effective exponent of βeff = 0.5 than by βeff = 0.33.

  2. A role for HPV16 E5 in cervical carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Maufort, John P; Shai, Anny; Pitot, Henry C; Lambert, Paul F

    2010-04-01

    A subset of the mucosotropic human papillomaviruses (HPV), including HPV16, are etiologic agents for the vast majority of cervical cancers, other anogenital cancers, and a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. HPV16 encodes three oncogenes: E5, E6, and E7. Although E6 and E7 have been well-studied and clearly shown to be important contributors to these cancers, less is known about E5. In this study, we used E5 transgenic mice to investigate the role of E5 in cervical cancer. When treated for 6 months with estrogen, a cofactor for cervical carcinogenesis, E5 transgenic mice developed more severe neoplastic cervical disease than similarly treated nontransgenic mice, although no frank cancers were detected. In addition, E5 when combined with either E6 or E7 induced more severe neoplastic disease than seen in mice expressing only one viral oncogene. Prolonged treatment of E5 transgenic mice with exogenous estrogen uncovered an ability of E5 to cause frank cancer. These data indicate that E5 acts as an oncogene in the reproductive tracts of female mice.

  3. Direct observation of the Higgs amplitude mode in a two-dimensional quantum antiferromagnet near the quantum critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Tao; Matsumoto, M.; Qiu, Y.; Chen, W. C.; Gentile, T. R.; Watson, S.; Awwadi, F. F.; Turnbull, M. M.; Dissanayake, S. E.; Agrawal, H.; Toft-Petersen, R.; Klemke, B.; Coester, K.; Schmidt, K. P.; Tennant, D. A.

    The emergence of low-energy excitations in the spontaneous symmetry-breaking quantum phase transitions can be characterized by fluctuations of phase and amplitude of the order parameter. The phase oscillations correspond to the massless Nambu-Goldstone (or transverse) modes whereas the massive amplitude (or longitudinal) mode, analogous to the Higgs boson in particle physics, is prone to decay into a pair of low-energy Nambu-Goldstone modes in low dimensions, which makes it experimentally difficult to detect Here, using inelastic neutron scattering and applying the bondoperator theory, we directly and unambiguously identify the Higgs amplitude mode in a two dimensional S = 1/2 quantum antiferromagnet C9H18N2CuBr4 near a quantum critical point in two dimensions. Owing to an anisotropic energy gap of the transverse spin excitation, it kinematically prevents such decay and the Higgs amplitude mode acquires an infinite life time.

  4. Shape information from a critical point analysis of calculated electron density maps: application to DNA-drug systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leherte, L.; Allen, F. H.; Vercauteren, D. P.

    1995-04-01

    A computational method is described for mapping the volume within the DNA double helix accessible to a groove-binding antibiotic, netropsin. Topological critical point analysis is used to locate maxima in electron density maps reconstructed from crystallographically determined atomic coordinates. The peaks obtained in this way are represented as ellipsoids with axes related to local curvature of the electron density function. Combining the ellipsoids produces a single electron density function which can be probed to estimate effective volumes of the interacting species. Close complementarity between host and ligand in this example shows the method to be a good representation of the electron density function at various resolutions; while at the atomic level the ellipsoid method gives results which are in close agreement with those from the conventional, spherical, van der Waals approach.

  5. Shape information from a critical point analysis of calculated electron density maps: Application to DNA-drug systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leherte, Laurence; Allen, Frank H.

    1994-06-01

    A computational method is described for mapping the volume within the DNA double helix accessible to the groove-binding antibiotic netropsin. Topological critical point analysis is used to locate maxima in electron density maps reconstructed from crystallographically determined atomic coordinates. The peaks obtained in this way are represented as ellipsoids with axes related to local curvature of the electron density function. Combining the ellipsoids produces a single electron density function which can be probed to estimate effective volumes of the interacting species. Close complementarity between host and ligand in this example shows the method to give a good representation of the electron density function at various resolutions. At the atomic level, the ellipsoid method gives results which are in close agreement with those from the conventional spherical van der Waals approach.

  6. LaCu 6-xAg x: A promising host of an elastic quantum critical point

    SciT

    Poudel, Lekh; Dela Cruz, Clarina R.; Koehler, Michael R.

    Structural properties of LaCu 6-xAg x have been investigated using neutron and x-ray diffraction, and resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) measurements. Diffraction measurements indicate a continuous structural transition from orthorhombic (Pnma) to monoclinic (P2₁/C) structure. RUS measurements show softening of natural frequencies at the structural transition, consistent with the elastic nature of the structural ground state. The structural transition temperatures in LaCu 6-xAg x decrease with Ag composition until the monoclinic phase is completely suppressed at x c=0.225. All of the evidence is consistent with the presence of an elastic quantum critical point in LaCu 6-xAg x.

  7. Zero-field quantum critical point in Ce0.91Yb0.09CoIn5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Y. P.; Adhikari, R. B.; Haney, D. J.; White, B. D.; Maple, M. B.; Dzero, M.; Almasan, C. C.

    2018-05-01

    We present results of specific heat, electrical resistance, and magnetoresistivity measurements on single crystals of the heavy-fermion superconducting alloy Ce0.91Yb0.09CoIn5 . Non-Fermi-liquid to Fermi-liquid crossovers are clearly observed in the temperature dependence of the Sommerfeld coefficient γ and resistivity data. Furthermore, we show that the Yb-doped sample with x =0.09 exhibits universality due to an underlying quantum phase transition without an applied magnetic field by utilizing the scaling analysis of γ . Fitting of the heat capacity and resistivity data based on existing theoretical models indicates that the zero-field quantum critical point is of antiferromagnetic origin. Finally, we found that at zero magnetic field the system undergoes a third-order phase transition at the temperature Tc 3≈7 K.

  8. Critical point of gas-liquid type phase transition and phase equilibrium functions in developed two-component plasma model.

    PubMed

    Butlitsky, M A; Zelener, B B; Zelener, B V

    2014-07-14

    A two-component plasma model, which we called a "shelf Coulomb" model has been developed in this work. A Monte Carlo study has been undertaken to calculate equations of state, pair distribution functions, internal energies, and other thermodynamics properties. A canonical NVT ensemble with periodic boundary conditions was used. The motivation behind the model is also discussed in this work. The "shelf Coulomb" model can be compared to classical two-component (electron-proton) model where charges with zero size interact via a classical Coulomb law. With important difference for interaction of opposite charges: electrons and protons interact via the Coulomb law for large distances between particles, while interaction potential is cut off on small distances. The cut off distance is defined by an arbitrary ɛ parameter, which depends on system temperature. All the thermodynamics properties of the model depend on dimensionless parameters ɛ and γ = βe(2)n(1/3) (where β = 1/kBT, n is the particle's density, kB is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the temperature) only. In addition, it has been shown that the virial theorem works in this model. All the calculations were carried over a wide range of dimensionless ɛ and γ parameters in order to find the phase transition region, critical point, spinodal, and binodal lines of a model system. The system is observed to undergo a first order gas-liquid type phase transition with the critical point being in the vicinity of ɛ(crit) ≈ 13(T(*)(crit) ≈ 0.076), γ(crit) ≈ 1.8(v(*)(crit) ≈ 0.17), P(*)(crit) ≈ 0.39, where specific volume v* = 1/γ(3) and reduced temperature T(*) = ɛ(-1).

  9. Measurement methods and accuracy analysis of Chang'E-5 Panoramic Camera installation parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wei; Ren, Xin; Liu, Jianjun; Tan, Xu; Wang, Wenrui; Chen, Wangli; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Li, Chunlai

    2016-04-01

    Chang'E-5 (CE-5) is a lunar probe for the third phase of China Lunar Exploration Project (CLEP), whose main scientific objectives are to implement lunar surface sampling and to return the samples back to the Earth. To achieve these goals, investigation of lunar surface topography and geological structure within sampling area seems to be extremely important. The Panoramic Camera (PCAM) is one of the payloads mounted on CE-5 lander. It consists of two optical systems which installed on a camera rotating platform. Optical images of sampling area can be obtained by PCAM in the form of a two-dimensional image and a stereo images pair can be formed by left and right PCAM images. Then lunar terrain can be reconstructed based on photogrammetry. Installation parameters of PCAM with respect to CE-5 lander are critical for the calculation of exterior orientation elements (EO) of PCAM images, which is used for lunar terrain reconstruction. In this paper, types of PCAM installation parameters and coordinate systems involved are defined. Measurement methods combining camera images and optical coordinate observations are studied for this work. Then research contents such as observation program and specific solution methods of installation parameters are introduced. Parametric solution accuracy is analyzed according to observations obtained by PCAM scientifically validated experiment, which is used to test the authenticity of PCAM detection process, ground data processing methods, product quality and so on. Analysis results show that the accuracy of the installation parameters affects the positional accuracy of corresponding image points of PCAM stereo images within 1 pixel. So the measurement methods and parameter accuracy studied in this paper meet the needs of engineering and scientific applications. Keywords: Chang'E-5 Mission; Panoramic Camera; Installation Parameters; Total Station; Coordinate Conversion

  10. Naturally tuned quantum critical point in the S =1 kagomé YCa3(VO) 3(BO3)4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverstein, Harlyn J.; Sinclair, Ryan; Sharma, Arzoo; Qiu, Yiming; Heinmaa, Ivo; Leitmäe, Alexander; Wiebe, Christopher R.; Stern, Raivo; Zhou, Haidong

    2018-04-01

    Although S =1 /2 kagomé systems have been intensely studied theoretically, and within the past decade been realized experimentally, much less is known about the S =1 analogs. While the theoretical ground state is still under debate, it has been found experimentally that S =1 kagomé systems either order at low temperatures or enter a spin glass state. In this work, YCa3(VO) 3(BO3)4 (YCVBO) is presented, with trivalent vanadium. Owing to its unusual crystal structure, the metal-metal bonding is highly connected along all three crystallographic directions, atypical of other kagomé materials. Using neutron scattering it is shown that YCVBO fails to order down to at least 50 mK and exhibits broad and dispersionless excitations. 11B NMR provides evidence of fluctuating spins at low temperatures while dc magnetization shows critical scaling that is also observed in systems near a quantum critical point such as Herbertsmithite, despite its insulating nature and S =1 magnetism. The evidence shown indicates that YCVBO is naturally tuned to be a quantum disordered magnet in the limit of T =0 K.

  11. Strong enhancement of s -wave superconductivity near a quantum critical point of Ca 3 Ir 4 Sn 13

    DOE PAGES

    Biswas, P. K.; Guguchia, Z.; Khasanov, R.; ...

    2015-11-11

    We repormore » t microscopic studies by muon spin rotation/relaxation as a function of pressure of the Ca 3 Ir 4 Sn 13 and Sr 3Ir 4Sn 13 system displaying superconductivity and a structural phase transition associated with the formation of a charge density wave (CDW). Our findings show a strong enhancement of the superfluid density and a dramatic increase of the pairing strength above a pressure of ≈ 1.6 GPa giving direct evidence of the presence of a quantum critical point separating a superconducting phase coexisting with CDW from a pure superconducting phase. The superconducting order parameter in both phases has the same s-wave symmetry. In spite of the conventional phonon-mediated BCS character of the weakly correlated (Ca 1-xSr x) 3Ir 4Sn 13 system the dependence of the effective superfluid density on the critical temperature puts this compound in the “Uemura” plot close to unconventional superconductors. This system exemplifies that conventional BCS superconductors in the presence of competing orders or multi-band structure can also display characteristics of unconventional superconductors.« less

  12. Wetting and Layering for Solid-on-Solid I: Identification of the Wetting Point and Critical Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacoin, Hubert

    2018-06-01

    We provide a complete description of the low temperature wetting transition for the two dimensional solid-on-solid model. More precisely, we study the integer-valued field {(φ(x))_{x\\in Z^2}} , associated associated with the energy functional V(φ)=β \\sum_{x ˜ y}|φ(x)-φ(y)|-\\sumx ( h{1}_{φ(x)=0}-∞{1}_{φ(x) < 0} ). Since the pioneering work Chalker [15], it is known that for every {β} , there exists {hw(β) > 0} delimiting a transition between a delocalized phase ({h < hw(β)} ) where the proportion of points at level zero vanishes, and a localized phase ({h > hw(β)} ) where this proportion is positive. We prove in the present paper that for {β} sufficiently large we have h_w(β)= log (e^{4β}/e^{4β-1} ). Furthermore, we provide a sharp asymptotic for the free energy at the vicinity of the critical line: We show that close to {h_w(β)} , the free energy is approximately piecewise affine and that the points of discontinuity for the derivative of the affine approximation forms a geometric sequence accumulating on the right of {h_w(β)} . This asymptotic behavior provides strong evidence for the conjectured existence of countably many "layering transitions" at the vicinity of the wetting line, corresponding to jumps for the typical height of the field.

  13. Critical point of gas-liquid type phase transition and phase equilibrium functions in developed two-component plasma model

    SciT

    Butlitsky, M. A.; Zelener, B. V.; Zelener, B. B.

    A two-component plasma model, which we called a “shelf Coulomb” model has been developed in this work. A Monte Carlo study has been undertaken to calculate equations of state, pair distribution functions, internal energies, and other thermodynamics properties. A canonical NVT ensemble with periodic boundary conditions was used. The motivation behind the model is also discussed in this work. The “shelf Coulomb” model can be compared to classical two-component (electron-proton) model where charges with zero size interact via a classical Coulomb law. With important difference for interaction of opposite charges: electrons and protons interact via the Coulomb law for largemore » distances between particles, while interaction potential is cut off on small distances. The cut off distance is defined by an arbitrary ε parameter, which depends on system temperature. All the thermodynamics properties of the model depend on dimensionless parameters ε and γ = βe{sup 2}n{sup 1/3} (where β = 1/k{sub B}T, n is the particle's density, k{sub B} is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the temperature) only. In addition, it has been shown that the virial theorem works in this model. All the calculations were carried over a wide range of dimensionless ε and γ parameters in order to find the phase transition region, critical point, spinodal, and binodal lines of a model system. The system is observed to undergo a first order gas-liquid type phase transition with the critical point being in the vicinity of ε{sub crit}≈13(T{sub crit}{sup *}≈0.076),γ{sub crit}≈1.8(v{sub crit}{sup *}≈0.17),P{sub crit}{sup *}≈0.39, where specific volume v* = 1/γ{sup 3} and reduced temperature T{sup *} = ε{sup −1}.« less

  14. Heat capacity peak at the quantum critical point of the transverse Ising magnet CoNb2O6

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Tian; Koohpayeh, S. M.; Krizan, J. W.; McQueen, T. M.; Cava, R. J.; Ong, N. P.

    2015-01-01

    The transverse Ising magnet Hamiltonian describing the Ising chain in a transverse magnetic field is the archetypal example of a system that undergoes a transition at a quantum critical point (QCP). The columbite CoNb2O6 is the closest realization of the transverse Ising magnet found to date. At low temperatures, neutron diffraction has observed a set of discrete collective spin modes near the QCP. Here, we ask if there are low-lying spin excitations distinct from these relatively high-energy modes. Using the heat capacity, we show that a significant band of gapless spin excitations exists. At the QCP, their spin entropy rises to a prominent peak that accounts for 30% of the total spin degrees of freedom. In a narrow field interval below the QCP, the gapless excitations display a fermion-like, temperature-linear heat capacity below 1 K. These novel gapless modes are the main spin excitations participating in, and affected by, the quantum transition. PMID:26146018

  15. The QCD Equation of state and critical end-point estimates at O (μB6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sayantan; Bielefeld-BNL-CCNU Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    We present results for the QCD Equation of State at non-zero chemical potentials corresponding to the conserved charges in QCD using Taylor expansion upto sixth order in the baryon number, electric charge and strangeness chemical potentials. The latter two are constrained by the strangeness neutrality and a fixed electric charge to baryon number ratio. In our calculations, we use the Highly Improved Staggered Quarks (HISQ) discretization scheme at physical quark masses and at different values of the lattice spacings to control lattice cut-off effects. Furthermore we calculate the pressure along lines of constant energy density, which serve as proxies for the freeze-out conditions and discuss their dependence on μB, which is necessary for hydrodynamic modelling near freezeout. We also provide an estimate of the radius of convergence of the Taylor series from the 6th order coefficients which provides a new constraint on the location of the critical end-point in the T-μB plane of the QCD phase diagram.

  16. [Implementation and evaluation of critical hazards and check points analysis (CHCPA) in gofio-producing industries from Tenerife].

    PubMed

    Caballero Mesa, J M; Alonso Marrero, S; González Weller, D M; Afonso Gutiérrez, V L; Rubio Armendariz, C; Hardisson de la Torre, A

    2006-01-01

    To satisfactorily implement the critical hazards and check points analysis. Tenerife Island Subjects: 15 industries visits to gofio-manufacturing industries were done with the aim of giving advice to employers and workers, and thereafter, the intervention was assessed verifying the hygiene and sanitary conditions of the industry and the correct application of the established auto-control system. After the advising intervention, we observed that certain parameters taken into account from the hygiene and sanitary perspective have been corrected, such as modifying the facilities to adapt them to in force regulations, or asking the suppliers to certify raw materials. With regards to food production process, the intervention was effective in such a way that more than have of the industries reduced the time of those phases with higher contamination susceptibility and to carry out the control registries that were established. All industries implemented the auto-control system by means of registration charts of each one of the elaboration phases. 86% of the industries have introduced more hygienic materials. 60% implemented a reduction in intermediate times of production phases. 26% perfmored some obsolete machinery replacement modernaizing the facilities.

  17. Multiband nodeless superconductivity near the charge-density-wave quantum critical point in ZrTe3-x Se x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Cui; Lan-Po, He; Xiao-Chen, Hong; Xiang-De, Zhu; Cedomir, Petrovic; Shi-Yan, Li

    2016-07-01

    It was found that selenium doping can suppress the charge-density-wave (CDW) order and induce bulk superconductivity in ZrTe3. The observed superconducting dome suggests the existence of a CDW quantum critical point (QCP) in ZrTe3-x Se x near x ≈ 0.04. To elucidate the superconducting state near the CDW QCP, we measure the thermal conductivity of two ZrTe3-x Se x single crystals (x = 0.044 and 0.051) down to 80 mK. For both samples, the residual linear term κ 0/T at zero field is negligible, which is a clear evidence for nodeless superconducting gap. Furthermore, the field dependence of κ 0/T manifests a multigap behavior. These results demonstrate multiple nodeless superconducting gaps in ZrTe3-x Se x , which indicates conventional superconductivity despite of the existence of a CDW QCP. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2012CB821402 and 2015CB921401), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 91421101, 11422429, and 11204312), the Program for Professor of Special Appointment (Eastern Scholar) at Shanghai Institutions of Higher Learning, China, and STCSM of China (Grant No. 15XD1500200). Work at Brookhaven National Laboratory was supported by the US DOE under Contract No. DESC00112704.

  18. Representative equations for the thermodynamic and transport properties of fluids near the gas-liquid critical point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sengers, J. V.; Basu, R. S.; Sengers, J. M. H. L.

    1981-01-01

    A survey is presented of representative equations for various thermophysical properties of fluids in the critical region. Representative equations for the transport properties are included. Semi-empirical modifications of the theoretically predicted asymtotic critical behavior that yield simple and practical representations of the fluid properties in the critical region are emphasized.

  19. Critical control points for avian influenza A H5N1 in live bird markets in low resource settings.

    PubMed

    Samaan, Gina; Gultom, Anita; Indriani, Risa; Lokuge, Kamalini; Kelly, Paul M

    2011-06-01

    Live bird markets can become contaminated with and become a source of transmission for avian influenza viruses including the highly pathogenic H5N1 strain. Many countries affected by the H5N1-virus have limited resources for programs in environmental health, sanitation and disease control in live bird markets. This study proposes five critical control points (CCPs) to reduce the risk of H5N1-virus contamination in markets in low resource settings. The CCPs were developed based on three surveys conducted in Indonesia: a cross-sectional survey in 119 markets, a knowledge, attitudes and practice survey in 3 markets and a microbiological survey in 83 markets. These surveys assessed poultry workflow, market infrastructure, hygiene and regulatory practices and microbiological contamination with the H5N1-virus. The five CCPs identified were (1) reducing risk of receiving infected birds into the market, (2) reducing the risk of virus spread between different bird flocks in holding cages, (3) reducing surface contamination by isolating slaughter processes from other poultry-related processes, (4) minimizing the potential for contamination during evisceration of carcasses and (5) reducing the risk of surface contamination in the sale zone of the market. To be relevant for low resource settings, the CCPs do not necessitate large infrastructure changes. The CCPs are suited for markets that slaughter poultry and have capacity for daily disposal and removal of solid waste from the market. However, it is envisaged that the CCPs can be adapted for the development of risk-based programs in various settings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Locating the QCD critical end point through peaked baryon number susceptibilities along the freeze-out line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhibin; Chen, Yidian; Li, Danning; Huang, Mei

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the baryon number susceptibilities up to fourth order along different freeze-out lines in a holographic QCD model with a critical end point (CEP), and we propose that the peaked baryon number susceptibilities along the freeze-out line can be used as a clean signature to locate the CEP in the QCD phase diagram. On the temperature and baryon chemical potential plane, the cumulant ratio of the baryon number susceptibilities (up to fourth order) forms a ridge along the phase boundary, and develops a sword-shaped “mountain” standing upright around the CEP in a narrow and oblate region. The measurement of baryon number susceptibilities from heavy-ion collision experiments is along the freeze-out line. If the freeze-out line crosses the foot of the CEP mountain, then one can observe the peaked baryon number susceptibilities along the freeze-out line, and the kurtosis of the baryon number distributions has the highest magnitude. The data from the first phase of the beam energy scan program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider indicates that there should be a peak of the kurtosis of the baryon number distribution at a collision energy of around 5 GeV, which suggests that the freeze-out line crosses the foot of the CEP mountain and the summit of the CEP should be located nearby, around a collision energy of 3-7 GeV. Supported by NSFC (11275213, and 11261130311) (CRC 110 by DFG and NSFC), CAS key project KJCX2-EW-N01, and Youth Innovation Promotion Association of CAS

  1. Application of hazard analysis and critical control point methodology and risk-based grading to consumer food safety surveys.

    PubMed

    Røssvoll, Elin Halbach; Ueland, Øydis; Hagtvedt, Therese; Jacobsen, Eivind; Lavik, Randi; Langsrud, Solveig

    2012-09-01

    Traditionally, consumer food safety survey responses have been classified as either "right" or "wrong" and food handling practices that are associated with high risk of infection have been treated in the same way as practices with lower risks. In this study, a risk-based method for consumer food safety surveys has been developed, and HACCP (hazard analysis and critical control point) methodology was used for selecting relevant questions. We conducted a nationally representative Web-based survey (n = 2,008), and to fit the self-reported answers we adjusted a risk-based grading system originally developed for observational studies. The results of the survey were analyzed both with the traditional "right" and "wrong" classification and with the risk-based grading system. The results using the two methods were very different. Only 5 of the 10 most frequent food handling violations were among the 10 practices associated with the highest risk. These 10 practices dealt with different aspects of heat treatment (lacking or insufficient), whereas the majority of the most frequent violations involved storing food at room temperature for too long. Use of the risk-based grading system for survey responses gave a more realistic picture of risks associated with domestic food handling practices. The method highlighted important violations and minor errors, which are performed by most people and are not associated with significant risk. Surveys built on a HACCP-based approach with risk-based grading will contribute to a better understanding of domestic food handling practices and will be of great value for targeted information and educational activities.

  2. Evaluation of an active learning module to teach hazard and risk in Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) classes.

    PubMed

    Oyarzabal, Omar A; Rowe, Ellen

    2017-04-01

    The terms hazard and risk are significant building blocks for the organization of risk-based food safety plans. Unfortunately, these terms are not clear for some personnel working in food manufacturing facilities. In addition, there are few examples of active learning modules for teaching adult participants the principles of hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP). In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of an active learning module to teach hazard and risk to participants of HACCP classes provided by the University of Vermont Extension in 2015 and 2016. This interactive module is comprised of a questionnaire; group playing of a dice game that we have previously introduced in the teaching of HACCP; the discussion of the terms hazard and risk; and a self-assessment questionnaire to evaluate the teaching of hazard and risk. From 71 adult participants that completed this module, 40 participants (56%) provided the most appropriate definition of hazard, 19 participants (27%) provided the most appropriate definition of risk, 14 participants (20%) provided the most appropriate definitions of both hazard and risk, and 23 participants (32%) did not provide an appropriate definition for hazard or risk. Self-assessment data showed an improvement in the understanding of these terms (P < 0.05). Thirty participants (42%) stated that the most valuable thing they learned with this interactive module was the difference between hazard and risk, and 40 participants (65%) responded that they did not attend similar presentations in the past. The fact that less than one third of the participants answered properly to the definitions of hazard and risk at baseline is not surprising. However, these results highlight the need for the incorporation of modules to discuss these important food safety terms and include more active learning modules to teach food safety classes. This study suggests that active learning helps food personnel better understand important food safety

  3. Quasiparticle mass enhancement close to the quantum critical point in BaFe2(As(1-x)P(x))2.

    PubMed

    Walmsley, P; Putzke, C; Malone, L; Guillamón, I; Vignolles, D; Proust, C; Badoux, S; Coldea, A I; Watson, M D; Kasahara, S; Mizukami, Y; Shibauchi, T; Matsuda, Y; Carrington, A

    2013-06-21

    We report a combined study of the specific heat and de Haas-van Alphen effect in the iron-pnictide superconductor BaFe2(As(1-x)P(x))2. Our data when combined with results for the magnetic penetration depth give compelling evidence for the existence of a quantum critical point close to x=0.30 which affects the majority of the Fermi surface by enhancing the quasiparticle mass. The results show that the sharp peak in the inverse superfluid density seen in this system results from a strong increase in the quasiparticle mass at the quantum critical point.

  4. Effect of farmyard manure rate on water erosion of a Mediterranean soil: determination of the critical point of inefficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annabi, Mohamed; Bahri, Haithem; Cheick M'Hamed, Hatem; Hermessi, Taoufik

    2016-04-01

    Intensive cultivation of soils, using multiple soil tillage, led to the decrease of their organic matter content and structural stability in several cultivated area of the Mediterranean countries. In these degraded soils, the addition of organic products, traditionally the animal manure, should improve soil health among them the resistance of soil to water erosion. The aim of this study was to evaluate after 1 year of the addition to a cambisoil different doses of farmyard manure on soil organic matter content, on microbial activity and on aggregate stability (proxy to soil resistance to water erosion). The statistical process (bilinear model) was used to found a point at which the addition of the organic product no longer influences the soil resistance to erosion. The farmyard manure issued from a cow breeding was composted passively during 4 months and used to amend a small plots of a cultivated cambisol (silty-clay texture, 0.9% TOC) located in the northeast of Tunisia (Morneg region). The manure was intimately incorporate to the soil. The manure organic matter content was 31%, and its isohumic coefficient was 49%. Twelve dose of manure were tested: from 0 to 220 t C.ha-1. The experiment was started on September 2011. In November 2012, soil sampling was done and soil organic carbon content (Walkley-Black method) and soil aggregate stability (wet method of Le Bissonnais) were assessed. A laboratory incubations of soil+manure mixtures, with the same proportions as tested in the field conditions, was carried at 28°C and at 75% of the mixture field capacity water retention. Carbon mineralization was monitored during three months incubation. Results show that the addition of farmyard manure stimulated the microbial activity proportionally to the added dose. This activation is due to the presence of easily biodegradable carbon in the manure, which increases with increasing manure dose. On the other hand, the addition of manure increased the aggregate stability with

  5. 42 CFR 52e.5 - What are the project requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.5 What are the project... of heart, blood vessel, lung, or blood diseases; (2) With respect to applications relating to... National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute with one or more other Federal Health agencies, State, local or...

  6. 42 CFR 52e.5 - What are the project requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.5 What are the project... of heart, blood vessel, lung, or blood diseases; (2) With respect to applications relating to... National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute with one or more other Federal Health agencies, State, local or...

  7. 42 CFR 52e.5 - What are the project requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.5 What are the project... of heart, blood vessel, lung, or blood diseases; (2) With respect to applications relating to... National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute with one or more other Federal Health agencies, State, local or...

  8. 42 CFR 52e.5 - What are the project requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.5 What are the project... of heart, blood vessel, lung, or blood diseases; (2) With respect to applications relating to... National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute with one or more other Federal Health agencies, State, local or...

  9. 42 CFR 52e.5 - What are the project requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.5 What are the project... of heart, blood vessel, lung, or blood diseases; (2) With respect to applications relating to... National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute with one or more other Federal Health agencies, State, local or...

  10. Investigating point zero: The artificial catchment 'Chicken Creek' as an observatory to study critical zone structures and processes of the critical zone in an initial ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüttl, Reinhard F.; Gerwin, Werner

    2010-05-01

    Recently, earth surface structures reaching from vegetation to the groundwater in the near underground have been termed "critical zone". This zone is "critical" to supporting life on Earth and, thus, the understanding of processes within this zone is of great importance in environmental sciences. Investigating the critical zone requires interdisciplinary and integrative research approaches across the fields of geomorphology, ecology, biology, soil science, hydrology and environmental modeling. A central motivation of the critical zone concept is the need for moving beyond traditional disciplinary boundaries to a more holistic and integrated study of the Earth surface system. However, the critical zone is characterized by complex interactions between abiotic and biotic structures and processes which need to be analyzed for improving our understanding of ecosystem functioning as well as of ecosystem development. To gain a better understanding of these fundamental questions it might be helpful to look at initial ecosystems, i.e. at ecosystems in the initial phase of development. It can be hypothesized that the complexity of a very young ecosystem is lower compared to mature systems and, therefore, structure-process interactions might become more obvious at early than at later stages of development. In this context, an artificial watershed was constructed with well known boundary conditions to investigate the initial ecosystem phase. The catchment ‘Chicken Creek' in Lusatia (Germany; 150 km SE from Berlin) has an area of 6 ha. It was set up with a layer of post-glacial sandy sediments overlying an aquiclude made of clay at the base. These hydrological starting conditions allowed for the formation of a groundwater body within the sandy layer of the experimental catchment. Further, after completion of the construction works in September 2005 the site was left to natural succession and no measures like planting or fertilization were carried out. As the initial phase of

  11. New experimental constraints on liquidi, critical mixing, and the second critical end point in the system albite-H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhluf, A. R.; Newton, R. C.; Manning, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    Supercritical fluids in rock-H2O systems have been proposed to be important agents of mass transfer in high-pressure environments such as subduction zones. We conducted new experimental studies of the important model system H2O-albite (NaAlSi3O8). Equilibrium phase relations were determined in isobaric T-XH2O binaries at 10.0, 12.5, 14.0, 16.0, and 17.0 kbar, at 600-1060 °C and H2O mole fractions (XH2O) of 0.35 to 0.99. All experiments were conducted in a piston-cylinder apparatus. Stabilities of hydrous albite liquid (L) and H2O-rich vapor (V) were determined from textural analysis of run products by binocular, petrographic and scanning electron microscopy. At each pressure, the experiments bracketed the liquidus curve, the topology of the L+V miscibility gap, and the temperature of critical mixing (TC). The bulk composition at critical mixing of L+V is ~50 wt% H2O at all pressures investigated. The P-T trace of the critical curve is described by the equation TC = -59.9P + 1650 (R2=0.998) where T is in °C and P is in kbar, and the equation is valid over the investigated P and T. The results indicate a critical endpoint on the hydrous melting curve at 16.3 kbar and 667 °C. Our results agree reasonably well with the work of Burnham and Jahns (1962, Am. Journal of Sci., 260, 721) and Shen and Keppler (1997, Nature, 385, 710). The constraints on the phase equilibria allow derivation of a thermodynamic model using a modified version of the Redlich-Kister method (1948, Indus. and Eng. Chem., 40b, 345) which allows quantification of the NaAlSi3O8 activity, aAb, and H2O activity, aH2O, over the entire composition range at each of the above listed pressures, between the solidus temperatures and critical temperatures. The results provide fundamental constraints on the physical chemical controls on the generation and solution properties of supercritical and subcritical fluids in the albite-H2O system.

  12. Prepharmacy predictors of success in pharmacy school: grade point averages, pharmacy college admissions test, communication abilities, and critical thinking skills.

    PubMed

    Allen, D D; Bond, C A

    2001-07-01

    Good admissions decisions are essential for identifying successful students and good practitioners. Various parameters have been shown to have predictive power for academic success. Previous academic performance, the Pharmacy College Admissions Test (PCAT), and specific prepharmacy courses have been suggested as academic performance indicators. However, critical thinking abilities have not been evaluated. We evaluated the connection between academic success and each of the following predictive parameters: the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) score, PCAT score, interview score, overall academic performance prior to admission at a pharmacy school, and performance in specific prepharmacy courses. We confirmed previous reports but demonstrated intriguing results in predicting practice-based skills. Critical thinking skills predict practice-based course success. Also, the CCTST and PCAT scores (Pearson correlation [pc] = 0.448, p < 0.001) were closely related in our students. The strongest predictors of practice-related courses and clerkship success were PCAT (pc=0.237, p<0.001) and CCTST (pc = 0.201, p < 0.001). These findings and other analyses suggest that PCAT may predict critical thinking skills in pharmacy practice courses and clerkships. Further study is needed to confirm this finding and determine which PCAT components predict critical thinking abilities.

  13. Ferromagnetic quantum critical point avoided by the appearance of another magnetic phase in LaCrGe 3 under pressure

    SciT

    Taufour, Valentin; Kaluarachchi, Udhara S.; Khasanov, Rustem

    2016-07-13

    Here, the temperature-pressure phase diagram of the ferromagnet LaCrGe 3 is determined for the first time from a combination of magnetization, muon-spin-rotation, and electrical resistivity measurements. The ferromagnetic phase is suppressed near 2.1 GPa, but quantum criticality is avoided by the appearance of a magnetic phase, likely modulated, AFMQ. Our density functional theory total energy calculations suggest a near degeneracy of antiferromagnetic states with small magnetic wave vectors Q allowing for the potential of an ordering wave vector evolving from Q=0 to finite Q, as expected from the most recent theories on ferromagnetic quantum criticality. Our findings show that LaCrGemore » 3 is a very simple example to study this scenario of avoided ferromagnetic quantum criticality and will inspire further study on this material and other itinerant ferromagnets.« less

  14. Effect of the quartic gradient terms on the critical exponents of the Wilson-Fisher fixed point in O(N) models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Péli, Zoltán; Nagy, Sándor; Sailer, Kornel

    2018-02-01

    The effect of the O(partial4) terms of the gradient expansion on the anomalous dimension η and the correlation length's critical exponent ν of the Wilson-Fisher fixed point has been determined for the Euclidean 3-dimensional O( N) models with N≥ 2 . Wetterich's effective average action renormalization group method is used with field-independent derivative couplings and Litim's optimized regulator. It is shown that the critical theory is well approximated by the effective average action preserving O( N) symmetry with an accuracy of O(η).

  15. Temperature, concentration, and frequency dependence of the dielectric constant near the critical point of the binary liquid mixture nitrobenzene-tetradecane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leys, Jan; Losada-Pérez, Patricia; Cordoyiannis, George; Cerdeiriña, Claudio A.; Glorieux, Christ; Thoen, Jan

    2010-03-01

    Detailed results are reported for the dielectric constant ɛ as a function of temperature, concentration, and frequency near the upper critical point of the binary liquid mixture nitrobenzene-tetradecane. The data have been analyzed in the context of the recently developed concept of complete scaling. It is shown that the amplitude of the low frequency critical Maxwell-Wagner relaxation (with a relaxation frequency around 10 kHz) along the critical isopleth is consistent with the predictions of a droplet model for the critical fluctuations. The temperature dependence of ɛ in the homogeneous phase can be well described with a combination of a (1-α) power law term (with α the heat capacity critical exponent) and a linear term in reduced temperature with the Ising value for α. For the proper description of the temperature dependence of the difference Δɛ between the two coexisting phases below the critical temperature, it turned out that good fits with the Ising value for the order parameter exponent β required the addition of a corrections-to-scaling contribution or a linear term in reduced temperature. Good fits to the dielectric diameter ɛd require a (1-α) power law term, a 2β power law term (in the past considered as spurious), and a linear term in reduced temperature, consistent with complete scaling.

  16. Rare regions and Griffiths singularities at a clean critical point: the five-dimensional disordered contact process.

    PubMed

    Vojta, Thomas; Igo, John; Hoyos, José A

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the nonequilibrium phase transition of the disordered contact process in five space dimensions by means of optimal fluctuation theory and Monte Carlo simulations. We find that the critical behavior is of mean-field type, i.e., identical to that of the clean five-dimensional contact process. It is accompanied by off-critical power-law Griffiths singularities whose dynamical exponent z' saturates at a finite value as the transition is approached. These findings resolve the apparent contradiction between the Harris criterion, which implies that weak disorder is renormalization-group irrelevant, and the rare-region classification, which predicts unconventional behavior. We confirm and illustrate our theory by large-scale Monte Carlo simulations of systems with up to 70(5) sites. We also relate our results to a recently established general relation between the Harris criterion and Griffiths singularities [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 075702 (2014)], and we discuss implications for other phase transitions.

  17. Wiedemann-Franz law and nonvanishing temperature scale across the field-tuned quantum critical point of YbRh2Si2

    SciT

    Reid, J.-Ph.; Tanatar, Makariy; Daou, R.

    2014-01-23

    The in-plane thermal conductivity kappa and electrical resistivity rho of the heavy-fermion metal YbRh2Si2 were measured down to 50 mK for magnetic fields H parallel and perpendicular to the tetragonal c axis, through the field-tuned quantum critical point H-c, at which antiferromagnetic order ends. The thermal and electrical resistivities, w L0T/kappa and rho, show a linear temperature dependence below 1 K, typical of the non-Fermi-liquid behavior found near antiferromagnetic quantum critical points, but this dependence does not persist down to T = 0. Below a characteristic temperature T-star similar or equal to 0.35 K, which depends weakly on H, w(T)more » and rho(T) both deviate downward and converge as T -> 0. We propose that T-star marks the onset of short-range magnetic correlations, persisting beyond H-c. By comparing samples of different purity, we conclude that the Wiedemann-Franz law holds in YbRh2Si2, even at H-c, implying that no fundamental breakdown of quasiparticle behavior occurs in this material. The overall phenomenology of heat and charge transport in YbRh2Si2 is similar to that observed in the heavy-fermion metal CeCoIn5, near its own field-tuned quantum critical point.« less

  18. Strong Coupling Superconductivity in the Vicinity of the Structural Quantum Critical Point in (CaxSr1-x)3Rh4Sn13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wing Chi; Cheung, Yiu Wing; Saines, Paul J.; Imai, Masaki; Matsumoto, Takuya; Michioka, Chishiro; Yoshimura, Kazuyoshi; Goh, Swee K.

    The family of the superconducting quasiskutterudites (CaxSr1-x)3Rh4Sn13 features a structural quantum critical point at xc = 0 . 9 , around which a dome-shaped variation of the superconducting transition temperature Tc is found. In this talk, we present the specific heat data for the normal and the superconducting states of the entire series straddling the quantum critical point. Our analysis indicates a significant lowering of the effective Debye temperature on approaching xc, which we interpret as a result of phonon softening accompanying the structural instability. Furthermore, a remarkably large enhancement of 2 Δ /kBTc and ΔC / γTc beyond the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer values is found in the vicinity of the structural quantum critical point. Reference: Wing Chi Yu et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. (in press, 2015) This work was supported by the CUHK (Startup Grant, Direct Grant No. 4053071), UGC Hong Kong (ECS/24300214), Grants-in-Aid from MEXT (22350029 and 23550152), and Glasstone Bequest, Oxford.

  19. Phase space barriers and dividing surfaces in the absence of critical points of the potential energy: Application to roaming in ozone

    SciT

    Mauguière, Frédéric A. L., E-mail: frederic.mauguiere@bristol.ac.uk; Collins, Peter, E-mail: peter.collins@bristol.ac.uk; Wiggins, Stephen, E-mail: stephen.wiggins@mac.com

    We examine the phase space structures that govern reaction dynamics in the absence of critical points on the potential energy surface. We show that in the vicinity of hyperbolic invariant tori, it is possible to define phase space dividing surfaces that are analogous to the dividing surfaces governing transition from reactants to products near a critical point of the potential energy surface. We investigate the problem of capture of an atom by a diatomic molecule and show that a normally hyperbolic invariant manifold exists at large atom-diatom distances, away from any critical points on the potential. This normally hyperbolic invariantmore » manifold is the anchor for the construction of a dividing surface in phase space, which defines the outer or loose transition state governing capture dynamics. We present an algorithm for sampling an approximate capture dividing surface, and apply our methods to the recombination of the ozone molecule. We treat both 2 and 3 degrees of freedom models with zero total angular momentum. We have located the normally hyperbolic invariant manifold from which the orbiting (outer) transition state is constructed. This forms the basis for our analysis of trajectories for ozone in general, but with particular emphasis on the roaming trajectories.« less

  20. Selective mass enhancement close to the quantum critical point in BaFe 2(As 1-xP x) 2

    DOE PAGES

    Grinenko, V.; Iida, K.; Kurth, F.; ...

    2017-07-04

    A quantum critical point (QCP) is currently being conjectured for the BaFe 2(As 1-xP x) 2 system at the critical value x c ≈ 0.3. In the proximity of a QCP, all thermodynamic and transport properties are expected to scale with a single characteristic energy, given by the quantum fluctuations. Such a universal behavior has not, however, been found in the superconducting upper critical field H c2. Here we report H c2 data for epitaxial thin films extracted from the electrical resistance measured in very high magnetic fields up to 67 Tesla. Using a multi-band analysis we find that Hmore » c2 is sensitive to the QCP, implying a significant charge carrier effective mass enhancement at the doping-induced QCP that is essentially band-dependent. Our results point to two qualitatively different groups of electrons in BaFe 2(As 1-xP x) 2. The first one (possibly associated to hot spots or whole Fermi sheets) has a strong mass enhancement at the QCP, and the second one is insensitive to the QCP. The observed duality could also be present in many other quantum critical systems.« less

  1. Tachyonic instability of the scalar mode prior to the QCD critical point based on the functional renormalization-group method in the two-flavor case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Takeru; Kunihiro, Teiji; Morita, Kenji

    2017-10-01

    We establish and elucidate the physical meaning of the appearance of an acausal mode in the sigma mesonic channel, found in the previous work by the present authors, when the system approaches the Z2 critical point. The functional renormalization-group method is applied to the two-flavor quark-meson model with varying current quark mass mq even away from the physical value at which the pion mass is reproduced. We first determine the whole phase structure in the three-dimensional space (T ,μ ,mq) consisting of temperature T , quark chemical potential μ and mq, with the tricritical point, O(4) and Z2 critical lines being located; they altogether make a winglike shape quite reminiscent of those known in the condensed matters with a tricritical point. We then calculate the spectral functions ρσ ,π(ω ,p ) in the scalar and pseudoscalar channel around the critical points. We find that the sigma mesonic mode becomes tachyonic with a superluminal velocity at finite momenta before the system reaches the Z2 point from the lower density, even for mq smaller than the physical value. One of the possible implications of the appearance of such a tachyonic mode at finite momenta is that the assumed equilibrium state with a uniform chiral condensate is unstable toward a state with an inhomogeneous σ condensate. No such anomalous behavior is found in the pseudoscalar channel. We find that the σ -to-2 σ coupling due to finite mq plays an essential role for the drastic modification of the spectral function.

  2. Food safety and nutritional quality for the prevention of non communicable diseases: the Nutrient, hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point process (NACCP).

    PubMed

    Di Renzo, Laura; Colica, Carmen; Carraro, Alberto; Cenci Goga, Beniamino; Marsella, Luigi Tonino; Botta, Roberto; Colombo, Maria Laura; Gratteri, Santo; Chang, Ting Fa Margherita; Droli, Maurizio; Sarlo, Francesca; De Lorenzo, Antonino

    2015-04-23

    The important role of food and nutrition in public health is being increasingly recognized as crucial for its potential impact on health-related quality of life and the economy, both at the societal and individual levels. The prevalence of non-communicable diseases calls for a reformulation of our view of food. The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system, first implemented in the EU with the Directive 43/93/CEE, later replaced by Regulation CE 178/2002 and Regulation CE 852/2004, is the internationally agreed approach for food safety control. Our aim is to develop a new procedure for the assessment of the Nutrient, hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (NACCP) process, for total quality management (TMQ), and optimize nutritional levels. NACCP was based on four general principles: i) guarantee of health maintenance; ii) evaluate and assure the nutritional quality of food and TMQ; iii) give correct information to the consumers; iv) ensure an ethical profit. There are three stages for the application of the NACCP process: 1) application of NACCP for quality principles; 2) application of NACCP for health principals; 3) implementation of the NACCP process. The actions are: 1) identification of nutritional markers, which must remain intact throughout the food supply chain; 2) identification of critical control points which must monitored in order to minimize the likelihood of a reduction in quality; 3) establishment of critical limits to maintain adequate levels of nutrient; 4) establishment, and implementation of effective monitoring procedures of critical control points; 5) establishment of corrective actions; 6) identification of metabolic biomarkers; 7) evaluation of the effects of food intake, through the application of specific clinical trials; 8) establishment of procedures for consumer information; 9) implementation of the Health claim Regulation EU 1924/2006; 10) starting a training program. We calculate the risk assessment as follows

  3. Should sensory function after median nerve injury and repair be quantified using two-point discrimination as the critical measure?

    PubMed

    Jerosch-Herold, C

    2000-12-01

    Two-point discrimination (2PD) is widely used for evaluating outcome from peripheral nerve injury and repair. It is the only quantifiable measure used in the British Medical Research Council (MRC) classification that was developed by Highet in 1954. This paper reports the results of a study of 41 patients with complete median nerve lacerations to the wrist or forearm. Two-point discrimination thresholds were assessed together with locognosia (locognosia is the ability to localise a sensory stimulus on the body's surface), tactile gnosis, and touch threshold. Using the MRC classification 29 (71%) patients had a result of S2 or below, 11 (27%) were S3, and only one scored S3+. Patients scored much better on the other tests and showed progressive recovery. It remains too difficult for patients to obtain a measurable threshold value on 2PD and the test therefore lacks responsiveness. The rating of outcome from peripheral nerve repair should not be based solely on 2PD testing and must include other tests of tactile sensibility.

  4. Ambient Pressure Structural Quantum Critical Point in the Phase Diagram of (CaxSr1-x)3Rh4Sn13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goh, Swee K.; Tompsett, D. A.; Saines, P. J.; Chang, H. C.; Matsumoto, T.; Imai, M.; Yoshimura, K.; Grosche, F. M.

    The quasiskutterudite superconductor Sr3Rh4Sn13 features a pronounced anomaly in electrical resistivity at T* ~ 138 K. The anomaly is caused by a second-order structural transition, which can be tuned to 0 K by applying physical pressure and chemical pressure via the substitution of Ca for Sr. A broad superconducting dome is centered around the structural quantum critical point. Detailed analysis of the tuning parameter dependence of T* as well as insights from lattice dynamics calculations strongly support the existence of a structural quantum critical point at ambient pressure when the fraction of Ca is 0.9 (xc=0.9). This establishes the (CaxSr1-x)3Rh4Sn13 series as an important system for exploring the physics of structural quantum criticality and its interplay with the superconductivity, without the need of applying high pressures. This work was supported by CUHK (Startup Grant, Direct Grant No. 4053071), UGC Hong Kong (ECS/24300214), Trinity College (Cam- bridge), Grants-in-Aid from MEXT (No. 22350029 and 23550152) and Glasstone Bequest (Oxford).

  5. Spin dynamics near a putative antiferromagnetic quantum critical point in Cu-substituted BaFe 2 As 2 and its relation to high-temperature superconductivity

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, M. G.; Wang, M.; Tucker, G. S.; ...

    2015-12-02

    We present the results of elastic and inelastic neutron scattering measurements on nonsuperconducting Ba(Fe 0.957Cu 0.043) 2As 2, a composition close to a quantum critical point between antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordered and paramagnetic phases. By comparing these results with the spin fluctuations in the low-Cu composition as well as the parent compound BaFe 2As 2 and superconducting Ba(Fe 1–xNi x) 2As 2 compounds, we demonstrate that paramagnon-like spin fluctuations are evident in the antiferromagnetically ordered state of Ba(Fe 0.957Cu 0.043) 2As 2, which is distinct from the AFM-like spin fluctuations in the superconducting compounds. Our observations suggest that Cu substitution decouplesmore » the interaction between quasiparticles and the spin fluctuations. In addition, we show that the spin-spin correlation length ξ(T) increases rapidly as the temperature is lowered and find ω/T scaling behavior, the hallmark of quantum criticality, at an antiferromagnetic quantum critical point.« less

  6. [Design of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) plan to assure the safety of a bologna product produced by a meat processing plant].

    PubMed

    Bou Rached, Lizet; Ascanio, Norelis; Hernández, Pilar

    2004-03-01

    The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a systematic integral program used to identify and estimate the hazards (microbiological, chemical and physical) and the risks generated during the primary production, processing, storage, distribution, expense and consumption of foods. To establish a program of HACCP has advantages, being some of them: to emphasize more in the prevention than in the detection, to diminish the costs, to minimize the risk of manufacturing faulty products, to allow bigger trust to the management, to strengthen the national and international competitiveness, among others. The present work is a proposal based on the design of an HACCP program to guarantee the safety of the Bologna Special Type elaborated by a meat products industry, through the determination of hazards (microbiological, chemical or physical), the identification of critical control points (CCP), the establishment of critical limits, plan corrective actions and the establishment of documentation and verification procedures. The used methodology was based in the application of the seven basic principles settled down by the Codex Alimentarius, obtaining the design of this program. In view of the fact that recently the meat products are linked with pathogens like E. coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes, these were contemplated as microbiological hazard for the establishment of the HACCP plan whose application will guarantee the obtaining of a safe product.

  7. Risk analysis of hematopoietic stem cell transplant process: failure mode, effect, and criticality analysis and hazard analysis critical control point methods integration based on guidelines to good manufacturing practice for medicinal product ANNEX 20 (February 2008).

    PubMed

    Gianassi, S; Bisin, S; Bindi, B; Spitaleri, I; Bambi, F

    2010-01-01

    The collection and handling of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) must meet high quality requirements. An integrated Quality Risk Management can help to identify and contain potential risks related to HSC production. Risk analysis techniques allow one to "weigh" identified hazards, considering the seriousness of their effects, frequency, and detectability, seeking to prevent the most harmful hazards. The Hazard Analysis Critical Point, recognized as the most appropriate technique to identify risks associated with physical, chemical, and biological hazards for cellular products, consists of classifying finished product specifications and limits of acceptability, identifying all off-specifications, defining activities that can cause them, and finally establishing both a monitoring system for each Critical Control Point and corrective actions for deviations. The severity of possible effects on patients, as well as the occurrence and detectability of critical parameters, are measured on quantitative scales (Risk Priority Number [RPN]). Risk analysis was performed with this technique on manipulation process of HPC performed at our blood center. The data analysis showed that hazards with higher values of RPN with greater impact on the process are loss of dose and tracking; technical skills of operators and manual transcription of data were the most critical parameters. Problems related to operator skills are handled by defining targeted training programs, while other critical parameters can be mitigated with the use of continuous control systems. The blood center management software was completed by a labeling system with forms designed to be in compliance with standards in force and by starting implementation of a cryopreservation management module. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermoelastic behaviour of martensitic alloy in the vicinity of critical point in the stress-temperature phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'vov, V. A.; Matsishin, N.; Glavatska, N.

    2010-04-01

    The theoretical phase diagram of the shape memory alloy, which exhibits the first-order martensitic phase transition of the cubic-tetragonal type, has been considered. The thermoelastic behaviour of the ultra-soft Ni-Mn-Ga alloy in the vicinity of the endpoint of the phase transitions line has been modelled. To this end, the strain-temperature and stress-strain dependencies have been computed with the account of the temperature dependence of the elastic modulus of the alloy. Two important features of thermoelastic behaviour of the alloy have been disclosed: (1) even in the case of complete stress-induced martensitic transformation (MT), the MT strain determined from the length of the plateaus at the stress-strain curves is smaller than the 'spontaneous' tetragonal distortion of the crystal lattice, which arises on cooling of the alloy and (2) the stress-strain loops may include the plateau-like segment even at temperatures above the critical temperature, which corresponds to the endpoint of the stress-strain phase diagram. These features render the observation of the endpoint of phase transitions line impossible with the help of the stress-strain tests and make preferable the direct structural studies of MTs in the stressed single-crystalline specimens.

  9. Implementation of a handheld electronic point-of-care billing system improved efficiency in the critical care unit.

    PubMed

    Fahy, Brenda G; Ketzler, Jonathan T

    2007-01-01

    Coding and billing are time consuming and important considerations for critical care practitioners. A 1-year prospective, observational study incorporated the use of a personal digital assistant and MDeverywhere software (Hauppauge, New York) for patient coding and billing. Twelve months of data were examined before electronic implementation (pre-elec) and compared with a 12-month period after implementation (post-elec) by using an unpaired t test or z test with P < .05 considered significant. The total number of charges was 2479 pre-elec and 2243 post-elec. The days from date of service to billing for services significantly decreased from 37.8 pre-elec to 12.4 post-elec (P < .001); days in accounts receivable significantly decreased from 92.0 to 73.0 (P < .001). The net collection rate increased from 44.7% pre-elec to 49.3% post-elec (P < .001). Duplicate charges significantly decreased from 5.0% pre-elec to 1.4% post-elec ( P < .001). The return on investment was 1.97-fold (197%). The initiation of personal digital assistant technology to facilitate billing and coding resulted in significant improvements.

  10. Critical evaluation of connectivity-based point of care testing systems of glucose in a hospital environment.

    PubMed

    Floré, Katelijne M J; Fiers, Tom; Delanghe, Joris R

    2008-01-01

    In recent years a number of point of care testing (POCT) glucometers were introduced on the market. We investigated the analytical variability (lot-to-lot variation, calibration error, inter-instrument and inter-operator variability) of glucose POCT systems in a university hospital environment and compared these results with the analytical needs required for tight glucose monitoring. The reference hexokinase method was compared to different POCT systems based on glucose oxidase (blood gas instruments) or glucose dehydrogenase (handheld glucometers). Based upon daily internal quality control data, total errors were calculated for the various glucose methods and the analytical variability of the glucometers was estimated. The total error of the glucometers exceeded by far the desirable analytical specifications (based on a biological variability model). Lot-to-lot variation, inter-instrument variation and inter-operator variability contributed approximately equally to total variance. As in a hospital environment, distribution of hematocrit values is broad, converting blood glucose into plasma values using a fixed factor further increases variance. The percentage of outliers exceeded the ISO 15197 criteria in a broad glucose concentration range. Total analytical variation of handheld glucometers is larger than expected. Clinicians should be aware that the variability of glucose measurements obtained by blood gas instruments is lower than results obtained with handheld glucometers on capillary blood.

  11. Ferromagnetic quantum critical point in the heavy-fermion metal YbNi4(P(1-x)As(x))2.

    PubMed

    Steppke, Alexander; Küchler, Robert; Lausberg, Stefan; Lengyel, Edit; Steinke, Lucia; Borth, Robert; Lühmann, Thomas; Krellner, Cornelius; Nicklas, Michael; Geibel, Christoph; Steglich, Frank; Brando, Manuel

    2013-02-22

    Unconventional superconductivity and other previously unknown phases of matter exist in the vicinity of a quantum critical point (QCP): a continuous phase change of matter at absolute zero. Intensive theoretical and experimental investigations on itinerant systems have shown that metallic ferromagnets tend to develop via either a first-order phase transition or through the formation of intermediate superconducting or inhomogeneous magnetic phases. Here, through precision low-temperature measurements, we show that the Grüneisen ratio of the heavy fermion metallic ferromagnet YbNi(4)(P(0.92)As(0.08))(2) diverges upon cooling to T = 0, indicating a ferromagnetic QCP. Our observation that this kind of instability, which is forbidden in d-electron metals, occurs in a heavy fermion system will have a large impact on the studies of quantum critical materials.

  12. A comprehensive review of the implementation of hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) to the production of flour and flour-based products.

    PubMed

    Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Traikou, Athina

    2005-01-01

    The production of flour and semolina and their ensuing products, such as bread, cake, spaghetti, noodles, and corn flakes, is of major importance, because these products constitute some of the main ingredients of the human diet. The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system aims at ensuring the safety of these products. HACCP has been implemented within the frame of this study on various products of both Asian and European origin; the hazards, critical control limits (CCLs), observation practices, and corrective actions have been summarized in comprehensive tables. Furthermore, the various production steps, packaging included, were thoroughly analyzed, and reference was made to both the traditional and new methodologies in an attempt to pinpoint the occurring differences (advantages and disadvantages) per process.

  13. Labile glycated haemoglobin and carbamylated haemoglobin are still critical points for HbA1c measurement.

    PubMed

    Desmons, Aurore; Jaisson, Stéphane; Leroy, Nathalie; Gillery, Philippe; Guillard, Emmanuelle

    2017-06-15

    Haemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) is a key analyte for the monitoring of glycemic balance in diabetic patients and is used for diabetes diagnosis in many countries. The potential interference of carbamylated haemoglobin (cHb) and labile glycated haemoglobin (LA 1c ) on HbA 1c assays must remain a matter of vigilance. Such a situation has occurred in our laboratory with a kit replacement on the Bio-Rad Variant™ II testing system, a cation-exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system. With this method, LA 1c and cHb coeluted in a same peak which may have different consequences on HbA 1c values. The influence of increasing LA 1c and cHb values on HbA 1c results was studied with in vitro glycation and carbamylation of samples. Samples from patients with high and normal blood urea concentrations were assayed by HPLC and immunological assay. We observed that the degree of interference greatly varied depending on the nature of the interfering Hb fractions found under the so-called "LA 1c peak". Thus, we have decided to apply a decision tree using "LA 1c " thresholds depending on: (i) the retention time, (ii) the shape of the peak, (iii) other analytes, like urea. If the peak recognized as "LA 1c " is mainly formed by LA 1c, we consider that there is no interference until 4%. If the peak is mainly formed by cHb, we consider an interference threshold equal to 2%. This situation reminds that cHb and LA 1c remain critical issues in chromatography-based HbA 1c assays and that adapted criteria must be set up for result interpretation.

  14. Olive oil mill wastewaters before and after treatment: a critical review from the ecotoxicological point of view.

    PubMed

    Justino, Celine I L; Pereira, Ruth; Freitas, Ana C; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P; Panteleitchouk, Teresa S L; Duarte, Armando C

    2012-03-01

    The olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) is a problematic and polluting effluent which may degrade the soil and water quality, with critical negative impacts on ecosystems functions and services provided. The main purpose of this review paper is presenting the state of the art of OMW treatments focusing on their efficiency to reduce OMW toxicity, and emphasizing the role of ecotoxicological tests on the evaluation of such efficiency before the up-scale of treatment methodologies being considered. In the majority of research works, the reduction of OMW toxicity is related to the degradation of phenolic compounds (considered as the main responsible for the toxic effects of OMW on seed germination, on bacteria, and on different species of soil and aquatic invertebrates) or the decrease of chemical oxygen demand content, which is not scientifically sound. Batteries of ecotoxicological tests are not applied before and after OMW treatments as they should be, thus leading to knowledge gaps in terms of accurate and real assessment of OMW toxicity. Although the toxicity of OMW is usually high, the evaluation of effects on sub-lethal endpoints, on individual and multispecies test systems, are currently lacking, and the real impacts yielded by its dilution, in freshwater trophic chains of receiving systems can not be assessed. As far as the terrestrial compartment is considered, ecotoxicological data available include tests only with plants and the evaluation of soil microbial parameters, reflecting concerns with the impacts on crops when using OMW for irrigation purposes. The evaluation of its ecotoxicity to other edaphic species were not performed giving rise to a completely lack of knowledge about the consequences of such practice on other soil functions. OMW production is a great environmental problem in Mediterranean countries; hence, engineers, chemists and ecotoxicologists should face this problem together to find an ecologically friend solution.

  15. HYGIENE PRACTICES IN URBAN RESTAURANTS AND CHALLENGES TO IMPLEMENTING FOOD SAFETY AND HAZARD ANALYSIS CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS (HACCP) PROGRAMMES IN THIKA TOWN, KENYA.

    PubMed

    Muinde, R K; Kiinyukia, C; Rombo, G O; Muoki, M A

    2012-12-01

    To determine the microbial load in food, examination of safety measures and possibility of implementing an Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) system. The target population for this study consisted of restaurants owners in Thika. Municipality (n = 30). Simple randomsamples of restaurantswere selected on a systematic sampling method of microbial analysis in cooked, non-cooked, raw food and water sanitation in the selected restaurants. Two hundred and ninety eight restaurants within Thika Municipality were selected. Of these, 30 were sampled for microbiological testing. From the study, 221 (74%) of the restaurants were ready to eat establishments where food was prepared early enough to hold and only 77(26%) of the total restaurants, customers made an order of food they wanted. 118(63%) of the restaurant operators/staff had knowledge on quality control on food safety measures, 24 (8%) of the restaurants applied these knowledge while 256 (86%) of the restaurants staff showed that food contains ingredients that were hazard if poorly handled. 238 (80%) of the resultants used weighing and sorting of food materials, 45 (15%) used preservation methods and the rest used dry foods as critical control points on food safety measures. The study showed that there was need for implementation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) system to enhance food safety. Knowledge of HACCP was very low with 89 (30%) of the restaurants applying some of quality measures to the food production process systems. There was contamination with Coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus microbial though at very low level. The means of Coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureas microbial in sampled food were 9.7 x 103CFU/gm, 8.2 x 103 CFU/gm and 5.4 x 103 CFU/gm respectively with Coliforms taking the highest mean.

  16. Temperature-dependent dielectric functions and interband critical points of sulfur-rich TlIn(S1-xSex)2 layered solid solution crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomonnai, O. O.; Gordan, O.; Guranich, P. P.; Slivka, A. G.; Gomonnai, A. V.; Zahn, D. R. T.

    2017-12-01

    Real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function of TlIn(S1-xSex)2 (x = 0.05, 0.08, 0.25) single crystals were determined in the spectral range from 1 to 5 eV within a temperature interval 140-293 K from spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. The energies of interband transitions (critical points) of the TlIn(S1-xSex)2 crystals were obtained from the second derivative of the real and imaginary parts of dielectric function. Structural phase transitions are behind the observed change of electronic band structure.

  17. Two-point function of a d =2 quantum critical metal in the limit kF→∞ , Nf→0 with NfkF fixed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Säterskog, Petter; Meszena, Balazs; Schalm, Koenraad

    2017-10-01

    We show that the fermionic and bosonic spectrum of d =2 fermions at finite density coupled to a critical boson can be determined nonperturbatively in the combined limit kF→∞ ,Nf→0 with NfkF fixed. In this double scaling limit, the boson two-point function is corrected but only at one loop. This double scaling limit therefore incorporates the leading effect of Landau damping. The fermion two-point function is determined analytically in real space and numerically in (Euclidean) momentum space. The resulting spectrum is discontinuously connected to the quenched Nf→0 result. For ω →0 with k fixed the spectrum exhibits the distinct non-Fermi-liquid behavior previously surmised from the RPA approximation. However, the exact answer obtained here shows that the RPA result does not fully capture the IR of the theory.

  18. A Critical Point of Male Gonad Development: Neuroendocrine Correlates of Accelerated Testicular Growth in Rats during Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Dygalo, Nikolay N.; Shemenkova, Tatjana V.; Kalinina, Tatjana S.; Shishkina, Galina T.

    2014-01-01

    Testis growth during early life is important for future male fertility and shows acceleration during the first months of life in humans. This acceleration coincides with the peak in gonadotropic hormones in the blood, while the role of hypothalamic factors remains vague. Using neonatal rats to assess this issue, we found that day 9 of life is likely critical for testis development in rats. Before this day, testicular growth was proportional to body weight gain, but after that the testes showed accelerated growth. Hypothalamic kisspeptin and its receptor mRNA levels begin to elevate 2 days later, at day 11. A significant increase in the mRNA levels for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors in the hypothalamus between days 5 and 7 was followed by a 3-fold decrease in GnRH mRNA levels in this brain region during the next 2 days. Starting from day 9, hypothalamic GnRH mRNA levels increased significantly and positively correlated with accelerated testicular growth. Triptorelin, an agonist of GnRH, at a dose that had no effect on testicular growth during “proportional” period, increased testis weights during the period of accelerated growth. The insensitivity of testicular growth to GnRH during “proportional” period was supported by inability of a 2.5-fold siRNA knockdown of GnRH expression in the hypothalamus of the 7-day-old animals to produce any effect on their testis weights. GnRH receptor blockade with cetrorelix was also without effect on testis weights during “proportional” period but the same doses of this GnRH antagonist significantly inhibited “accelerated” testicular growth. GnRH receptor mRNA levels in the pituitary as well as plasma LH concentrations were higher during “accelerated” period of testicular growth than during “proportional” period. In general, our data defined two distinct periods in rat testicular development that are primarily characterized by different responses to GnRH signaling. PMID:24695464

  19. Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in the critically ill: a point prevalence survey of current practice in Australian and New Zealand intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Megan S; Nichol, Alistair D; Higgins, Alisa M; Bailey, Michael J; Presneill, Jeffrey J; Cooper, D James; Webb, Steven A; McArthur, Colin; MacIsaac, Christopher M

    2010-03-01

    Critically ill patients are at high risk of morbidity and mortality caused by venous thromboembolism (VTE). In addition to premorbid predisposing conditions, critically ill patients may be exposed to prolonged immobility, invasive intravascular catheters and frequent operative procedures, and further may have contraindications to pharmaceutical prophylactic measures designed to attenuate VTE risk. There are limited data describing current VTE prophylaxis regimens in Australia and New Zealand. To document current Australian and New Zealand management of VTE prophylaxis in a large mixed cohort of critically ill patients. Prospective, multicentre point prevalence survey endorsed by the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Clinical Trials Group (ANZICS CTG). 30 public hospital ICUs in Australia and New Zealand surveyed on Wednesday 9 May 2007. For all patients in each ICU on the study day, demographic data, admission diagnosis and information on VTE prophylaxis were prospectively collected. 502 patients were included in the survey, and 431 of these (86%) received VTE prophylaxis. Of these, 64% (276/431) received pharmacological prophylaxis and 80% (345/431) received mechanical prophylaxis, with 44% (190/431) receiving both. Of those receiving pharmacological prophylaxis, unfractionated heparin was used in 74%, and enoxaparin (low molecular weight heparin) in 23%. Contraindications to pharmacological prophylaxis were reported in 122 patients. Overall, pharmacological prophylaxis was administered to 87% of potentially suitable patients. We observed a high prevalence of VTE prophylaxis, with many critically ill patients receiving two or more modalities of prophylaxis. These results show that the potential risk of VTE in critically ill patients is recognised in Australia and New Zealand, and strategies to mitigate this serious complication are widely implemented.

  20. Identifying the critical point of the weakly first-order itinerant magnet DyCo2 with complementary magnetization and calorimetric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, K.; Dupas, A.; Mudryk, Y.; Pecharsky, V. K.; Gschneidner, K. A.; Caplin, A. D.; Cohen, L. F.

    2013-04-01

    We examine the character of the itinerant magnetic transition of DyCo2 by different calorimetric methods, thereby separating the heat capacity and latent heat contributions to the entropy—allowing direct comparison to other itinerant electron metamagnetic systems. The heat capacity exhibits a large λ-like peak at the ferrimagnetic ordering phase transition, a signature that is remarkably similar to La(Fe,Si)13, where it is attributed to giant spin fluctuations. Using calorimetric measurements, we also determine the point at which the phase transition ceases to be first order: the critical magnetic field, μ0Hcrit = 0.4 ± 0.1 T and temperature Tcrit = 138.5 ± 0.5 K, and we compare these values to those obtained from analysis of magnetization by application of the Shimizu inequality for itinerant electron metamagnetism. Good agreement is found between these independent measurements, thus establishing the phase diagram and critical point with some confidence. In addition, we find that the often-used Banerjee criterion may not be suitable for determination of first order behavior in itinerant magnet systems.

  1. Critical Issues and Key Points from the Survey to the Creation of the Historical Building Information Model: the Case of Santo Stefano Basilica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castagnetti, C.; Dubbini, M.; Ricci, P. C.; Rivola, R.; Giannini, M.; Capra, A.

    2017-05-01

    The new era of designing in architecture and civil engineering applications lies in the Building Information Modeling (BIM) approach, based on a 3D geometric model including a 3D database. This is easier for new constructions whereas, when dealing with existing buildings, the creation of the BIM is based on the accurate knowledge of the as-built construction. Such a condition is allowed by a 3D survey, often carried out with laser scanning technology or modern photogrammetry, which are able to guarantee an adequate points cloud in terms of resolution and completeness by balancing both time consuming and costs with respect to the request of final accuracy. The BIM approach for existing buildings and even more for historical buildings is not yet a well known and deeply discussed process. There are still several choices to be addressed in the process from the survey to the model and critical issues to be discussed in the modeling step, particularly when dealing with unconventional elements such as deformed geometries or historical elements. The paper describes a comprehensive workflow that goes through the survey and the modeling, allowing to focus on critical issues and key points to obtain a reliable BIM of an existing monument. The case study employed to illustrate the workflow is the Basilica of St. Stefano in Bologna (Italy), a large monumental complex with great religious, historical and architectural assets.

  2. Quantum Multicriticality near the Dirac-Semimetal to Band-Insulator Critical Point in Two Dimensions: A Controlled Ascent from One Dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Bitan; Foster, Matthew S.

    2018-01-01

    We compute the effects of generic short-range interactions on gapless electrons residing at the quantum critical point separating a two-dimensional Dirac semimetal and a symmetry-preserving band insulator. The electronic dispersion at this critical point is anisotropic (Ek=±√{v2kx2+b2ky2 n } with n =2 ), which results in unconventional scaling of thermodynamic and transport quantities. Because of the vanishing density of states [ϱ (E )˜|E |1 /n ], this anisotropic semimetal (ASM) is stable against weak short-range interactions. However, for stronger interactions, the direct Dirac-semimetal to band-insulator transition can either (i) become a fluctuation-driven first-order transition (although unlikely in a particular microscopic model considered here, the anisotropic honeycomb lattice extended Hubbard model) or (ii) get avoided by an intervening broken-symmetry phase. We perform a controlled renormalization group analysis with the small parameter ɛ =1 /n , augmented with a 1 /n expansion (parametrically suppressing quantum fluctuations in the higher dimension) by perturbing away from the one-dimensional limit, realized by setting ɛ =0 and n →∞ . We identify charge density wave (CDW), antiferromagnet (AFM), and singlet s -wave superconductivity as the three dominant candidates for broken symmetry. The onset of any such order at strong coupling (˜ɛ ) takes place through a continuous quantum phase transition across an interacting multicritical point, where the ordered phase, band insulator, Dirac, and anisotropic semimetals meet. We also present the phase diagram of an extended Hubbard model for the ASM, obtained via the controlled deformation of its counterpart in one dimension. The latter displays spin-charge separation and instabilities to CDW, spin density wave, and Luther-Emery liquid phases at arbitrarily weak coupling. The spin density wave and Luther-Emery liquid phases deform into pseudospin SU(2)-symmetric quantum critical points separating the

  3. High Resolution Seamless Dom Generation Over CHANG'E-5 Landing Area Using Lroc Nac Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, K.; Jia, M.; Xin, X.; Liu, B.; Liu, Z.; Peng, M.; Yue, Z.

    2018-04-01

    Chang'e-5, China's first sample return lunar mission, will be launched in 2019, and the planned landing area is near Mons Rümker in Oceanus Procellarum. High-resolution and high-precision mapping of the landing area is of great importance for supporting scientific analysis and safe landing. This paper proposes a systematic method for large area seamless digital orthophoto map (DOM) generation, and presents the mapping result of Chang'e-5 landing area using over 700 LROC NAC images. The developed method mainly consists of two stages of data processing: stage 1 includes subarea block adjustment with rational function model (RFM) and seamless subarea DOM generation; stage 2 includes whole area adjustment through registration of the subarea DOMs with thin plate spline model and seamless DOM mosaicking. The resultant seamless DOM coves a large area (20° longitude × 4° latitude) and is tied to the widely used reference DEM - SLDEM2015. As a result, the RMS errors of the tie points are all around half pixel in image space, indicating a high internal precision; the RMS errors of the control points are about one grid cell size of SLDEM2015, indicating that the resultant DOM is tied to SLDEM2015 well.

  4. Policy on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) and adherence to food preparation guidelines: a cross sectional survey of stakeholders in food service in Kumasi, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Sekyere, Kofi Boateng; Addy, Ernestine Akosua

    2013-11-04

    Food borne diseases claim more lives and are growing public health concerns. Simple preventive techniques such as adoption and adherence to hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) policy can significantly reduce this disease burden. Though food screening and inspection are done, the ultimate regulation, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point, which is known and accepted worldwide, appears not to be popular among food operators in Ghana. This paper examines the level of awareness of the existence of policy on hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) and its adherence to food preparation guidelines among food service providers in Ghana. The results revealed the mean age of food providers as 33.1 years with a standard deviation of 7.5, range of 18-55 years, more females, in full time employment and with basic education. Of the fifty institutional managers, 42 (84%) were senior officers and had worked for more than five years. Education and type of food operator had strong statistically significant relationship with the implementation of HCCP policy and adherence with food preparation guidelines. The enforcement of HACCP policy and adherence with food safety guidelines was led by the Ghana Tourist Board, Public Health officers, and KMA, respectively. While a majority of food operators 373/450 (83.3%) did not know HACCP policy is part of food safety guidelines, staff of food safety law enforcement 44/50 (88%) confirmed knowing that food operators were not aware of the HACCP policy. The study documents evidence on the practice of food safety principles or HACCP policy or adherence to food preparation guidelines. Existing food safety guidelines incorporate varying principles of HACCP, however, awareness is low among food operators. The implication is that food production is likely to fall short of acceptable standards and not be wholesome putting consumers at health risk. Repeating this study in rural and urban areas in Ghana is necessary to

  5. Policy on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) and adherence to food preparation guidelines: a cross sectional survey of stakeholders in food service in Kumasi, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Food borne diseases claim more lives and are growing public health concerns. Simple preventive techniques such as adoption and adherence to hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) policy can significantly reduce this disease burden. Though food screening and inspection are done, the ultimate regulation, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point, which is known and accepted worldwide, appears not to be popular among food operators in Ghana. This paper examines the level of awareness of the existence of policy on hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) and its adherence to food preparation guidelines among food service providers in Ghana. Results The results revealed the mean age of food providers as 33.1 years with a standard deviation of 7.5, range of 18–55 years, more females, in full time employment and with basic education. Of the fifty institutional managers, 42 (84%) were senior officers and had worked for more than five years. Education and type of food operator had strong statistically significant relationship with the implementation of HCCP policy and adherence with food preparation guidelines. The enforcement of HACCP policy and adherence with food safety guidelines was led by the Ghana Tourist Board, Public Health officers, and KMA, respectively. While a majority of food operators 373/450 (83.3%) did not know HACCP policy is part of food safety guidelines, staff of food safety law enforcement 44/50 (88%) confirmed knowing that food operators were not aware of the HACCP policy. Conclusion The study documents evidence on the practice of food safety principles or HACCP policy or adherence to food preparation guidelines. Existing food safety guidelines incorporate varying principles of HACCP, however, awareness is low among food operators. The implication is that food production is likely to fall short of acceptable standards and not be wholesome putting consumers at health risk. Repeating this study in rural and urban

  6. Multiple solutions in MHD flow and heat transfer of Sisko fluid containing nanoparticles migration with a convective boundary condition: Critical points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanai, Ruchika; Rana, Puneet; Kumar, Lokendra

    2016-05-01

    The motivation behind the present analysis is to focus on magneto-hydrodynamic flow and heat transfer characteristics of non-Newtonian fluid (Sisko fluid) past a permeable nonlinear shrinking sheet utilizing nanoparticles involving convective boundary condition. The non-homogenous nanofluid transport model considering the effect of Brownian motion, thermophoresis, suction/injection and no nanoparticle flux at the sheet with convective boundary condition has been solved numerically by the RKF45 method with shooting technique. Critical points for various pertinent parameters are evaluated in this study. The dual solutions (both first and second solutions) are captured in certain range of material constant (nc< n < ∞) , mass transfer parameter (sc < s < ∞) and shrinking parameter (χc < χ < 0) . For both the branches (upper and lower branch), the rate of heat transfer is an increasing function of the power-law index, Prandtl number and Biot number, whereas it is a decreasing function of the material constant and thermophoresis parameter.

  7. Wavelet Transform Analysis of the Power Spectrum of Centre of Pressure Signals to Detect the Critical Point Interval of Postural Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Neeraj Kumar; Snoussi, Hichem; Hewson, David; Duchêne, Jacques

    The aim of this study was to develop a method to detecting the critical point interval (CPI) when sensory feedback is used as part of a closed-loop postural control strategy. Postural balance was evaluated using centre of pressure (COP) displacements from a force plate for 17 control and 10 elderly subjects under eyes open, eyes closed, and vibration conditions. A modified local-maximum-modulus wavelet transform analysis using the power spectrum of COP signals was used to calculate CPI. Lower CPI values indicate increased closed-loop postural control with a quicker response to sensory input. Such a strategy requires greater energy expenditure due to the repeated muscular interventions to remain stable. The CPI for elderly occurred significantly quicker than for controls, indicating tighter control of posture. Similar results were observed for eyes closed and vibration conditions. The CPI parameter can be used to detect differences in postural control due to ageing.

  8. Can the watershed non-point phosphorus pollution be interpreted by critical soil properties? A new insight of different soil P states.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chen; Ma, Ronghua; Xiong, Junfeng

    2018-07-01

    The physicochemical properties of surface soil play a key role in the fate of watershed non-point source pollution. Special emphasis is needed to identify soil properties that are sensitive to both particulate P (PP) pollution and dissolved P (DP) pollution, which is essential for watershed environmental management. The Chaohu Lake basin, a typical eutrophic lake in China, was selected as the study site. The spatial features of the Non-point Source (NPS) PP loads and DP loads were calculated simultaneously based on the integration of sediment delivery distributed model (SEDD) and pollution loads (PLOAD) model. Then several critical physicochemical soil properties, especially various soil P compositions, were innovatively introduced to determine the response of the critical soil properties to NPS P pollution. The findings can be summarized: i) the mean PP load value of the different sub-basins was 5.87 kg, and PP pollution is regarded to be the primary NPS P pollution state, while the DP loads increased rapidly under the rapid urbanization process. ii) iron-bound phosphorus (Fe-P) and aluminum-bound phosphorus (Al-P) are the main components of available P and showed the most sensitive responses to NPS PP pollution, and the correlation coefficients were approximately 0.9. Otherwise, the residual phosphorus (Res-P) was selected as a sensitive soil P state that was significantly negatively correlated with the DP loads. iii) The DP and PP concentrations were represented differently when they were correlated with various soil properties, and the clay proportion was strongly negatively related to the PP loads. Meanwhile, there is a non-linear relationship between the DP loads and the critical soil properties, such as Fe and Total Nitrogen (TN) concentrations. Specifically, a strong inhibitory effect of TN concentration on the DP load was apparent in the Nanfei river (NF) and Paihe (PH) river basins where the R 2 reached 0.67, which contrasts with the relatively poor

  9. Critical lines for an unequal size of molecules in a binary gas-liquid mixture around the van Laar point using the combination of the Tompa model and the van der Waals equation.

    PubMed

    Gençaslan, Mustafa; Keskin, Mustafa

    2012-02-14

    We combine the modified Tompa model with the van der Waals equation to study critical lines for an unequal size of molecules in a binary gas-liquid mixture around the van Laar point. The van Laar point is coined by Meijer and it is the only point at which the mathematical double point curve is stable. It is the intersection of the tricritical point and the double critical end point. We calculate the critical lines as a function of χ(1) and χ(2), the density of type I molecules and the density of type II molecules for various values of the system parameters; hence the global phase diagrams are presented and discussed in the density-density plane. We also investigate the connectivity of critical lines at the van Laar point and its vicinity and discuss these connections according to the Scott and van Konynenburg classifications. It is also found that the critical lines and phase behavior are extremely sensitive to small modifications in the system parameters. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  10. Motile bacteria in a critical fluid mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koumakis, Nick; Devailly, Clémence; Poon, Wilson C. K.

    2018-06-01

    We studied the swimming of Escherichia coli bacteria in the vicinity of the critical point in a solution of the nonionic surfactant C12E5 in buffer solution. In phase-contrast microscopy, each swimming cell produces a transient trail behind itself lasting several seconds. Comparing quantitative image analysis with simulations show that these trails are due to local phase reorganization triggered by differential adsorption. This contrasts with similar trails seen in bacteria swimming in liquid crystals, which are due to shear effects. We show how our trails are controlled, and use them to probe the structure and dynamics of critical fluctuations in the fluid medium.

  11. Magneto-acoustic study near the quantum critical point of the frustrated quantum antiferromagnet Cs{sub 2}CuCl{sub 4}

    SciT

    Cong, P. T., E-mail: t.pham@hzdr.de; Physics Institute, Goethe University Frankfurt, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main; Postulka, L.

    2016-10-14

    Magneto-acoustic investigations of the frustrated triangular-lattice antiferromagnet Cs{sub 2}CuCl{sub 4} were performed for the longitudinal modes c{sub 11} and c{sub 33} in magnetic fields along the a-axis. The temperature dependence of the sound velocity at zero field shows a mild softening at low temperature and displays a small kink-like anomaly at T{sub N}. Isothermal measurements at T < T{sub N} of the sound attenuation α reveal two closely spaced features of different characters on approaching the material's quantum-critical point (QCP) at B{sub s} ≈ 8.5 T for B || a. The peak at slightly lower fields remains sharp down to the lowest temperaturemore » and can be attributed to the ordering temperature T{sub N}(B). The second anomaly, which is rounded and which becomes reduced in size upon cooling, is assigned to the material's spin-liquid properties preceding the long-range antiferromagnetic ordering with decreasing temperature. These two features merge upon cooling suggesting a coincidence at the QCP. The elastic constant at lowest temperatures of our experiment at 32 mK can be well described by a Landau free energy model with a very small magnetoelastic coupling constant G/k{sub B} ≈ 2.8 K. The applicability of this classical model indicates the existence of a small gap in the magnetic excitation spectrum which drives the system away from quantum criticality.« less

  12. Hall and transverse even effects in the vicinity of a quantum critical point in Tm{sub 1-x}Yb{sub x}B{sub 12}

    SciT

    Sluchanko, N. E., E-mail: nes@lt.gpi.ru; Azarevich, A. N.; Bogach, A. V.

    2012-09-15

    The angular, temperature, and magnetic field dependences of the resistance recorded in the Hall effect geometry are studied for the rare-earth dodecaboride Tm{sub 1-x}Yb{sub x}B{sub 12} solid solutions where the metal-insulator and antiferromagnetic-paramagnetic phase transitions are observed in the vicinity of the quantum critical point x{sub c} Almost-Equal-To 0.3. The measurements performed on high-quality single crystals in the temperature range 1.9-300 K for the first time have revealed the appearance of the second harmonic contribution, a transverse even effect in these fcc compounds near the quantum critical point. This contribution a is found to increase drastically both under the Tm-to-ytterbiummore » substitution in the range x > x{sub c} and with an increase in the external magnetic field. Moreover, as the Yb concentration x increases, a negative peak of a significant amplitude appears on the temperature dependences of the Hall coefficient R{sub H}(T) for the Tm{sup 1-x}Yb{sub x}B{sub 12} compounds, in contrast to the invariable behavior R{sub H}(T) Almost-Equal-To const found for TmB{sub 12}. The complicated activation-type behavior of the Hall coefficient is observed at intermediate temperatures for x {>=} 0.5 with activation energies E{sub g}/k{sub B} Almost-Equal-To 200 K and E{sub a}/k{sub B} 55-75 K, and the sign inversion of R{sub H}(T) is detected at liquid-helium temperatures in the coherent regime. Renormalization effects in the electron density of states induced by variation of the Yb concentration are analyzed. The anomalies of the charge transport in Tm{sub 1-x}Yb{sub x}B{sub 12} solid solutions in various regimes (charge gap formation, intra-gap many-body resonance, and coherent regime) are discussed in detail and the results are interpreted in terms of the electron phase separation effects in combination with the formation of nanosize clusters of rare earth ions in the cage-glass state of the studied dodecaborides. The data obtained

  13. Direct Numerical Simulations of Reflection-Driven, Reduced MHD Turbulence from the Sun to the Alfvén Critical Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, J. C.; Chandran, B. D.

    2013-12-01

    We present direct numerical simulations of inhomogeneous reduced magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) turbulence between the Sun and the Alfvén critical point. These are the first such simulations that take into account the solar-wind outflow velocity and the radial inhomogeneity of the background solar wind without approximating the nonlinear terms in the governing equations. Our simulation domain is a narrow magnetic flux tube with a square cross section centered on a radial magnetic field line. We impose periodic boundary conditions in the plane perpendicular to the background magnetic field B0. RMHD turbulence is driven by outward-propagating Alfvén waves (z+ fluctuations) launched from the Sun, which undergo partial non-WKB reflection to produce sunward-propagating Alfvén waves (z- fluctuations). Nonlinear interactions between z+ and z- then cause fluctuation energy to cascade from large scales to small scales and dissipate. We present ten simulations with different values of the correlation time τ+c⊙ and perpendicular correlation length L⊥⊙ of outward-propagating Alfvén waves (AWs) at the coronal base. We find that between 15% and 33% of the z+ energy launched into the corona dissipates between the coronal base and Alfvén critical point, which is at rA = 11.1R⊙ in our model solar wind. Between 33% and 40% of this input energy goes into work on the solar-wind outflow, and between 22% and 36% escapes as z+ fluctuations through the simulation boundary at r=rA. Except in the immediate vicinity of r=R⊙, the z× power spectra scale like k⊥-α×, where k⊥ is the wavenumber in the plane perpendicular to B0. In our simulation with the smallest value of τ+c⊙ (~2 min) and largest value of L⊥⊙ (~2×104 km), we find that α+ decreases approximately linearly with increasing ln(r), reaching a value of~1.3 at r=11.1R⊙. Our simulations with larger values of τ+c⊙ exhibit alignment between the contours of constant Φ× and Ω×, where Φ× are the Els

  14. On the Limitations of Taylor’s Hypothesis in Parker Solar Probe’s Measurements near the Alfvén Critical Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourouaine, Sofiane; Perez, Jean C.

    2018-05-01

    In this Letter, we present an analysis of two-point, two-time correlation functions from high-resolution numerical simulations of Reflection-driven Alfvén Turbulence near the Alfvén critical point r c. The simulations model the turbulence in a prescribed background solar wind model chosen to match observational constraints. This analysis allows us to investigate the temporal decorrelation of solar wind turbulence and the validity of Taylor’s approximation near the heliocentric distance r c, which Parker Solar Probe (PSP) is expected to explore in the coming years. The simulations show that the temporal decay of the Fourier-transformed turbulence decorrelation function is better described by a Gaussian model rather than a pure exponential time decay, and that the decorrelation frequency is almost linear with perpendicular wave number k ⊥ (perpendicular with respect to the background magnetic field {{\\boldsymbol{B}}}0). Based on the simulations, we conclude that Taylor’s approximation cannot be used in this instance to provide a connection between the frequency ω of the time signal (measured in the probe frame) and the wavevector k ⊥ of the fluctuations because the frequency k ⊥ V sc (V sc is the spacecraft speed) near r c is comparable to the estimated decorrelation frequency. However, the use of Taylor’s approximation still leads to the correct spectral indices of the power spectra measured at the spacecraft frame. In this Letter, based on a Gaussian model, we suggest a modified relationship between ω and k ⊥, which might be useful in the interpretation of future PSP measurements.

  15. Pressure-composition relations for coexisting gases and liquids and the critical points in the system NaCl-H2O at 450, 475, and 500°C

    Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Bischoff, James L.

    1987-01-01

    Pressure-temperature-composition (P, T, x) relations for the co-existing vapor and liquid phases in the system NaCl-H2O were determined experimentally at 450, 475, and 500°C. Data for each isotherm includeP-x relations near the critical point and extend to the three-phase assemblage vapor-liquid-halite on the vapor side. On the liquid side the P-x data range from the critical point to the room-temperature halite saturation point (~25 wt.% NaCl). Critical pressures were calculated from measured pressures and compositions and classical theory. The results generally support the few data points of Urusova (1974, 1975) and Ölander and Liander (1950) but differ markedly from the extensive data of Sourirajan andKennedy (1962).

  16. Search for the critical point of the nuclear matter phase diagram. first results from the beam energy SCAN program at RHIC

    DOE PAGES

    Odyniec, Grazyna

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) launched a multi-step experimental program to investigate the QCD Phase Diagram in general, and to search for the QCD Critical Point (CP) and/or 1st order phase transition in particular. The BES (Beam Energy Scan) program involves an “energy scan” of Au+Au collisions from the top RHIC energy (√s = 200 GeV) down to energies as low as 5 GeV in NN center of mass. During the first BES run (2010), data were collected at 7.7, 11.5 and 39 GeV. It was complemented in 2011 by two other data sets at 27 andmore » 19.6 GeV. The preparations for the remaining data taking at √s = 5 GeV are in progress. The overview of the BES program and the first experimental results are presented and discussed.« less

  17. Search for the critical point of the nuclear matter phase diagram. first results from the beam energy SCAN program at RHIC

    SciT

    Odyniec, Grazyna

    In 2010, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) launched a multi-step experimental program to investigate the QCD Phase Diagram in general, and to search for the QCD Critical Point (CP) and/or 1st order phase transition in particular. The BES (Beam Energy Scan) program involves an “energy scan” of Au+Au collisions from the top RHIC energy (√s = 200 GeV) down to energies as low as 5 GeV in NN center of mass. During the first BES run (2010), data were collected at 7.7, 11.5 and 39 GeV. It was complemented in 2011 by two other data sets at 27 andmore » 19.6 GeV. The preparations for the remaining data taking at √s = 5 GeV are in progress. The overview of the BES program and the first experimental results are presented and discussed.« less

  18. Estimating changes in public health following implementation of hazard analysis and critical control point in the United States broiler slaughter industry.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michael S; Ebel, Eric D

    2012-01-01

    A common approach to reducing microbial contamination has been the implementation of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) program to prevent or reduce contamination during production. One example is the Pathogen Reduction HACCP program implemented by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). This program consisted of a staged implementation between 1996 and 2000 to reduce microbial contamination on meat and poultry products. Of the commodities regulated by FSIS, one of the largest observed reductions was for Salmonella contamination on broiler chicken carcasses. Nevertheless, how this reduction might have influenced the total number of salmonellosis cases in the United States has not been assessed. This study incorporates information from public health surveillance and surveys of the poultry slaughter industry into a model that estimates the number of broiler-related salmonellosis cases through time. The model estimates that-following the 56% reduction in the proportion of contaminated broiler carcasses observed between 1995 and 2000-approximately 190,000 fewer annual salmonellosis cases (attributed to broilers) occurred in 2000 compared with 1995. The uncertainty bounds for this estimate range from approximately 37,000 to 500,000 illnesses. Estimated illnesses prevented, due to the more modest reduction in contamination of 13% between 2000 and 2007, were not statistically significant. An analysis relating the necessary magnitude of change in contamination required for detection via human surveillance also is provided.

  19. An evolutionarily stable strategy and the critical point of hog futures trading entities based on replicator dynamic theory: 2006–2015 data for China’s 22 provinces

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Jinbo; Deng, Lingfei

    2017-01-01

    Although frequent fluctuations in domestic hog prices seriously affect the stability and robustness of the hog supply chain, hog futures (an effective hedging instrument) have not been listed in China. To better understand hog futures market hedging, it is important to study the steady state of intersubjective bidding. This paper uses evolutionary game theory to construct a game model between hedgers and speculators in the hog futures market, and replicator dynamic equations are then used to obtain the steady state between the two trading entities. The results show that the steady state is one in which hedgers adopt a “buy” strategy and speculators adopt a “do not speculate” strategy, but this type of extreme steady state is not easily realized. Thus, to explore the rational proportion of hedgers and speculators in the evolutionary stabilization strategy, bidding processes were simulated using weekly average hog prices from 2006 to 2015, such that the conditions under which hedgers and speculators achieve a steady state could be analyzed. This task was performed to achieve the stability critical point, and we show that only when the value of λ is satisfied and the conditions of hog futures price changes and futures price are satisfied can hedgers and speculators achieve a rational proportion and a stable hog futures market. This market can thus provide a valuable reference for the development of the Chinese hog futures market and the formulation and guidance of relevant departmental policies. PMID:28241024

  20. Effect of hydrothermal condition on the formation of multi-component oxides of Ni-based metallic glass under high temperature water near the critical point

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, J. S.; Kim, S. Y.; Kim, D. H.; ...

    2015-07-01

    The specific feature of multi-component oxides synthesized by hydrothermal process under high temperature (633 K) and highly pressurized water (18.9 MPa) near critical point. Effects of hydrothermal processing duration times 24 hours and 72 hours, respectively, on the oxide formation of the Ni 59Zr 20Ti 16Si 2Sn 3 metallic glass synthesized by powder metallurgy process were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, differential scanning calorimeter along with the particle size, morphology and crystalline phase of the oxides. The crystallization of the needle-shape NiTiO 3, ZrTiO 4 and ZrSnO 4 ternary oxide phases observed on the surface of metallic glass at below glassmore » transition temperature and the morphology of oxide phases changed to plate-shape around 2 μm in diameter by the increase processing time. This hydrothermal processing in subcritical water provides accelerated dense metal oxide crystals due to the reaction medium being at higher pressure than conventional oxidation processing.« less

  1. Multiband nodeless superconductivity near the charge-density-wave quantum critical point in ZrTe 3–xSe x

    DOE PAGES

    Cui, Shan; He, Lan -Po; Hong, Xiao -Chen; ...

    2016-06-09

    It was found that selenium doping can suppress the charge-density-wave (CDW) order and induce bulk superconductivity in ZrTe 3. The observed superconducting dome suggests the existence of a CDW quantum critical point (QCP) in ZrTe 3–x Se x near x ≈ 0.04. To elucidate the superconducting state near the CDW QCP, we measure the thermal conductivity of two ZrTe 3–x Se x single crystals (x = 0.044 and 0.051) down to 80 mK. For both samples, the residual linear term κ 0/T at zero field is negligible, which is a clear evidence for nodeless superconducting gap. Furthermore, the field dependencemore » of κ 0/T manifests a multigap behavior. Lastly, these results demonstrate multiple nodeless superconducting gaps in ZrTe 3–x Se x, which indicates conventional superconductivity despite of the existence of a CDW QCP.« less

  2. Microbiological testing of raw, boxed beef in the context of hazard analysis critical control point at a high-line-speed abattoir.

    PubMed

    Jericho, K W; Kozub, G C; Gannon, V P; Taylor, C M

    2000-12-01

    The efficacy of cold storage of raw, bagged, boxed beef was assessed microbiologically at a high-line-speed abattoir (270 carcasses per h). At the time of this study, plant management was in the process of creating a hazard analysis critical control point plan for all processes. Aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and type 1 Escherichia coli were enumerated (5 by 5-cm excision samples, hydrophobic grid membrane filter technology) before and after cold storage of this final product produced at six fabrication tables. In addition, the temperature-function integration technique (TFIT) was used to calculate the potential number of generations of E. coli during the first 24 or 48 h of storage of the boxed beef. Based on the temperature histories (total of 60 boxes, resulting from 12 product cuts, five boxes from each of two fabrication tables on each of 6 sampling days, and six types of fabrication tables), TFIT did not predict any growth of E. coli (with or without lag) for the test period. This was verified by E. coli mean log10 values of 0.65 to 0.42 cm2 (P > 0.05) determined by culture before and after the cooling process, respectively. Counts of aerobic bacteria and coliforms were significantly reduced (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively) during the initial period of the cooling process. There were significant microbiological differences (P < 0.05) between table-cut units.

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility of hazard analysis critical control point Escherichia coli isolates from federally inspected beef processing plants in Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Ontario.

    PubMed

    Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; Manninen, Ken; Potter, Andy; McEwen, Scott; Bohaychuk, Valerie; Klashinsky, Sandy; Deckert, Anne; Irwin, Rebecca

    2003-09-01

    A survey to estimate the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli was conducted in 7 Canadian federally inspected processing plants during 2001. Escherichia coli isolates were recovered during routine hazard analysis critical control point sampling from beef carcasses and trim and subsequently tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility by using susceptibility panels. Of the 2653 isolates analyzed, 68% were sensitive to all 18 antimicrobials tested. For 14 of the 18 antimicrobials evaluated, the percentage of resistant isolates was < or = 1. Twenty-five percent of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline, 9% to sulfamethoxazole, 7% to streptomycin, and 3% to ampicillin. Multiple resistance was found in 12% of the isolates, with 7% showing resistance to 2 antimicrobials, 2% to 3 antimicrobials, 2% to 4 antimicrobials, and 1% to 5 or more antimicrobials. Forty-five different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed. The reasons for the development of the antimicrobial resistance were not investigated in this study. This study was useful as a pilot to help to develop a national antimicrobial resistance surveillance program in Canada. This study indicates that laboratory standardization is possible for consistent results across the country and that the indicator organism, E. coli, is fairly easy to obtain for surveillance but Salmonella are not, due to their low prevalence in beef.

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility of hazard analysis critical control point Escherichia coli isolates from federally inspected beef processing plants in Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; Manninen, Ken; Potter, Andy; McEwen, Scott; Bohaychuk, Valerie; Klashinsky, Sandy; Deckert, Anne; Irwin, Rebecca

    2003-01-01

    A survey to estimate the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli was conducted in 7 Canadian federally inspected processing plants during 2001. Escherichia coli isolates were recovered during routine hazard analysis critical control point sampling from beef carcasses and trim and subsequently tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility by using susceptibility panels. Of the 2653 isolates analyzed, 68% were sensitive to all 18 antimicrobials tested. For 14 of the 18 antimicrobials evaluated, the percentage of resistant isolates was ≤ 1. Twenty-five percent of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline, 9% to sulfamethoxazole, 7% to streptomycin, and 3% to ampicillin. Multiple resistance was found in 12% of the isolates, with 7% showing resistance to 2 antimicrobials, 2% to 3 antimicrobials, 2% to 4 antimicrobials, and 1% to 5 or more antimicrobials. Forty-five different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed. The reasons for the development of the antimicrobial resistance were not investigated in this study. This study was useful as a pilot to help to develop a national antimicrobial resistance surveillance program in Canada. This study indicates that laboratory standardization is possible for consistent results across the country and that the indicator organism, E. coli, is fairly easy to obtain for surveillance but Salmonella are not, due to their low prevalence in beef. PMID:14524625

  5. An evolutionarily stable strategy and the critical point of hog futures trading entities based on replicator dynamic theory: 2006-2015 data for China's 22 provinces.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jinbo; Deng, Lingfei; Wang, Gangyi

    2017-01-01

    Although frequent fluctuations in domestic hog prices seriously affect the stability and robustness of the hog supply chain, hog futures (an effective hedging instrument) have not been listed in China. To better understand hog futures market hedging, it is important to study the steady state of intersubjective bidding. This paper uses evolutionary game theory to construct a game model between hedgers and speculators in the hog futures market, and replicator dynamic equations are then used to obtain the steady state between the two trading entities. The results show that the steady state is one in which hedgers adopt a "buy" strategy and speculators adopt a "do not speculate" strategy, but this type of extreme steady state is not easily realized. Thus, to explore the rational proportion of hedgers and speculators in the evolutionary stabilization strategy, bidding processes were simulated using weekly average hog prices from 2006 to 2015, such that the conditions under which hedgers and speculators achieve a steady state could be analyzed. This task was performed to achieve the stability critical point, and we show that only when the value of λ is satisfied and the conditions of hog futures price changes and futures price are satisfied can hedgers and speculators achieve a rational proportion and a stable hog futures market. This market can thus provide a valuable reference for the development of the Chinese hog futures market and the formulation and guidance of relevant departmental policies.

  6. A critical insight into the development pipeline of microfluidic immunoassay devices for the sensitive quantitation of protein biomarkers at the point of care.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Ana I; Reis, Nuno M

    2017-03-13

    The latest clinical procedures for the timely and cost-effective diagnosis of chronic and acute clinical conditions, such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes or sepsis (i.e. the biggest causes of death worldwide), involve the quantitation of specific protein biomarkers released into the blood stream or other physiological fluids (e.g. urine or saliva). The clinical thresholds are usually in the femtomolar to picolomar range, and consequently the measurement of these protein biomarkers heavily relies on highly sophisticated, bulky and automated equipment in centralised pathology laboratories. The first microfluidic devices capable of measuring protein biomarkers in miniaturised immunoassays were presented nearly two decades ago and promised to revolutionise point-of-care (POC) testing by offering unmatched sensitivity and automation in a compact POC format; however, the development and adoption of microfluidic protein biomarker tests has fallen behind expectations. This review presents a detailed critical overview into the pipeline of microfluidic devices developed in the period 2005-2016 capable of measuring protein biomarkers from the pM to fM range in formats compatible with POC testing, with a particular focus on the use of affordable microfluidic materials and compact low-cost signal interrogation. The integration of these two important features (essential unique selling points for the successful microfluidic diagnostic products) has been missed in previous review articles and explain the poor adoption of microfluidic technologies in this field. Most current miniaturised devices compromise either on the affordability, compactness and/or performance of the test, making current tests unsuitable for the POC measurement of protein biomarkers. Seven core technical areas, including (i) the selected strategy for antibody immobilisation, (ii) the surface area and surface-area-to-volume ratio, (iii) surface passivation, (iv) the

  7. Successful hazard analysis critical control point implementation in the United Kingdom: understanding the barriers through the use of a behavioral adherence model.

    PubMed

    Gilling, S J; Taylor, E A; Kane, K; Taylor, J Z

    2001-05-01

    Hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP), a system of risk management designed to control food safety, has emerged over the last decade as the primary approach to securing the safety of the food supply. It is thus an important tool in combatting the worldwide escalation of foodborne disease. Yet despite wide dissemination and scientific support of its principles, successful HACCP implementation has been limited. This report takes a psychological approach to this problem by examining processes and factors that could impede adherence to the internationally accepted HACCP Guidelines and subsequent successful implementation of HACCP. Utilizing knowledge of medical clinical guideline adherence models and practical experience of HACCP implementation problems, the potential advantages of applying a behavioral model to food safety management are highlighted. The models' applicability was investigated using telephone interviews from over 200 businesses in the United Kingdom. Eleven key barriers to HACCP guideline adherence were identified. In-depth narrative interviews with food business proprietors then confirmed these findings and demonstrated the subsequent negative effect(s) on HACCP implementation. A resultant HACCP awareness to adherence model is proposed that demonstrates the complex range of potential knowledge, attitude, and behavior-related barriers involved in failures of HACCP guideline adherence. The model's specificity and detail provide a tool whereby problems can be identified and located and in this way facilitate tailored and constructive intervention. It is suggested that further investigation into the barriers involved and how to overcome them would be of substantial benefit to successful HACCP implementation and thereby contribute to an overall improvement in public health.

  8. The effect of hazard analysis critical control point programs on microbial contamination of carcasses in abattoirs: a systematic review of published data.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Barbara; Rajić, Andrijana; Greig, Judy D; Waddell, Lisa; Harris, Janet

    2011-09-01

    Hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) programs have been endorsed and implemented globally to enhance food safety. Our objective was to identify, assess, and summarize or synthesize the published research investigating the effect of HACCP programs on microbial prevalence and concentration on food animal carcasses in abattoirs through primary processing. The results of microbial testing pre- and post-HACCP implementation were reported in only 19 studies, mostly investigating beef (n=13 studies) and pork (n=8 studies) carcasses. In 12 of 13 studies measuring aerobic bacterial counts, reductions were reported on beef (7/8 studies), pork (3/3), poultry (1/1), and sheep (1/1). Significant (p<0.05) reductions in prevalence of Salmonella spp. were reported in studies on pork (2/3 studies) and poultry carcasses (3/3); no significant reductions were reported on beef carcasses (0/8 studies). These trends were confirmed through meta-analysis of these data; however, powerful meta-analysis was precluded because of an overall scarcity of individual studies and significant heterogeneity across studies. Australia reported extensive national data spanning the period from 4 years prior to HACCP implementation to 4 years post-HACCP, indicating reduction in microbial prevalence and concentration on beef carcasses in abattoirs slaughtering beef for export; however, the effect of abattoir changes initiated independent of HACCP could not be excluded. More primary research and access to relevant proprietary data are needed to properly evaluate HACCP program effectiveness using modeling techniques capable of differentiating the effects of HACCP from other concurrent factors.

  9. Accuracy of point-of-care serum creatinine devices for detecting patients at risk of contrast-induced nephropathy: a critical overview.

    PubMed

    Martínez Lomakin, Felipe; Tobar, Catalina

    2014-12-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a common event in hospitals, with reported incidences ranging from 1 to 30%. Patients with underlying kidney disease have an increased risk of developing CIN. Point-of-care (POC) creatinine devices are handheld devices capable of providing quantitative data on a patient's kidney function that could be useful in stratifying preventive measures. This overview aims to synthesize the current evidence on diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of POC creatinine devices in detecting patients at risk of CIN. Five databases were searched for diagnostic accuracy studies or clinical trials that evaluated the usefulness of POC devices in detecting patients at risk of CIN. Selected articles were critically appraised to assess their individual risk of bias by the use of standard criteria; 13 studies were found that addressed the diagnostic accuracy or clinical utility of POC creatinine devices. Most studies incurred a moderate to high risk of bias. Overall concordance between POC devices and reference standards (clinical laboratory procedures) was found to be moderate, with 95% limits of agreement often lying between -35.4 and +35.4 µmol/L (-0.4 and +0.4 mg/dL). Concordance was shown to decrease with worsening kidney function. Data on the clinical utility of these devices were limited, but a significant reduction in time to diagnosis was reported in two studies. Overall, POC creatinine devices showed a moderate concordance with standard clinical laboratory creatinine measurements. Several biases could have induced optimism in these estimations. Results obtained from these devices may be unreliable in cases of severe kidney failure. Randomized trials are needed to address the clinical utility of these devices.

  10. E5 M7+ (E=C-Pb, M=Li-Cs): A Source of Viable Star-Shaped Clusters.

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Espinal, Alejandro; Palacio-Rodríguez, Karen; Ravell, Estefanía; Orozco-Ic, Mesías; Barroso, Jorge; Pan, Sudip; Tiznado, William; Merino, Gabriel

    2018-06-19

    Herein we report the systematic exploration of the potential energy surfaces of a series of clusters with formula E 5 M 7 + (E=C-Pb and M=Li-Cs). Fifteen of these combinations adopt a D 5h three-dimensional seven-pointed star-like structure in a singlet state, where M atoms interact electrostatically with the E 5 ring. The determining factors in the relative preference of having the D 5h structure over the most competitive isomer or vice-versa are analyzed. These star-shaped systems satisfy the 4n+2 Hückel's rule and exhibit a strong diatropic (σ and π) response to an external magnetic field. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Human papillomavirus 16 E5 oncogene contributes to two stages of skin carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Maufort, John P; Williams, Sybil M Genther; Pitot, Henry C; Lambert, Paul F

    2007-07-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), which cause the vast majority of cervical cancer, other anogenital cancers, and a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, encode three oncogenes: E5, E6, and E7. To determine the oncogenic properties of HPV16 E5 in vivo, we previously generated K14E5 transgenic mice, in which expression of E5 was directed to the basal compartment of stratified squamous epithelia. In these mice, E5 induced epidermal hyperplasia and spontaneous skin tumors. In the current study, we determined how E5 contributes to tumor formation in the skin using a multistage model for skin carcinogenesis that specifies the role of genes in three stages: initiation, promotion, and malignant progression. Both initiation and promotion are required steps for papilloma formation. K14E5 mice treated with the initiating agent 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) developed more papillomas than like-treated nontransgenic mice, whereas neither K14E5 nor nontransgenic mice treated with the promoting agent 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) developed papillomas. K14E5 mice treated with both DMBA and TPA to induce large numbers of papillomas had a higher incidence and earlier onset of carcinoma progression compared with like-treated nontransgenic mice. Thus, HPV16 E5 contributes to two stages of skin carcinogenesis: promotion and progression. The progressive neoplastic disease in K14E5 mice differed from that in nontransgenic mice in that benign tumors converted from exophytic to endophytic papillomas before progressing to carcinomas. Initial genetic and immunohistopathologic analyses did not determine the underlying basis for this distinct morphology, which correlates with a highly penetrant neoplastic phenotype.

  12. Properties and Cycle Performance of Refrigerant Blends Operating Near and Above the Refrigerant Critical Point, Task 2: Air Conditioner System Study

    SciT

    Piotr A. Domanski; W. Vance Payne

    2002-10-31

    The main goal of this project was to investigate and compare the performance of an R410A air conditioner to that of an R22 air conditioner, with specific interest in performance at high ambient temperatures at which the condenser of the R410A system may be operating above the refrigerant's critical point. Part 1 of this project consisted of conducting comprehensive measurements of thermophysical for refrigerant R125 and refrigerant blends R410A and R507A and developing new equation of state formulations and mixture models for predicting thermophysical properties of HFC refrigerant blends. Part 2 of this project conducted performance measurements of split-system, 3-tonmore » R22 and R410A residential air conditioners in the 80 to 135 F (27.8 to 57.2 C) outdoor temperature range and development of a system performance model. The performance data was used in preparing a beta version of EVAP-COND, a windows-based simulation package for predicting performance of finned-tube evaporators and condensers. The modeling portion of this project also included the formulation of a model for an air-conditioner equipped with a thermal expansion valve (TXV). Capacity and energy efficiency ratio (EER) were measured and compared. The R22 system's performance was measured over the outdoor ambient temperature range of 80 to 135 F (27.8 to 57.2 C). The same test range was planned for the R410A system. However, the compressor's safety system cut off the compressor at the 135.0 F (57.2 C) test temperature. The highest measurement on this system was at 130.0 F (54.4 C). Subsequently, a custom-manufactured R410A compressor with a disabled safety system and a more powerful motor was installed and performance was measured at outdoor temperatures up to 155.0 F (68.3 C). Both systems had similar capacity and EER performance at 82.0 F (27.8 C). The capacity and EER degradation of both systems were nearly linearly dependent with rising ambient outdoor ambient test temperatures. The performance

  13. Point-of-Care Versus Central Laboratory Measurements of Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, Glucose, Bicarbonate and Electrolytes: A Prospective Observational Study in Critically Ill Patients.

    PubMed

    Allardet-Servent, Jérôme; Lebsir, Melissa; Dubroca, Christian; Fabrigoule, Martine; Jordana, Sylvie; Signouret, Thomas; Castanier, Matthias; Thomas, Guillemette; Soundaravelou, Rettinavelou; Lepidi, Anne; Delapierre, Laurence; Penaranda, Guillaume; Halfon, Philippe; Seghboyan, Jean-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Rapid detection of abnormal biological values using point-of-care (POC) testing allows clinicians to promptly initiate therapy; however, there are concerns regarding the reliability of POC measurements. We investigated the agreement between the latest generation blood gas analyzer and central laboratory measurements of electrolytes, bicarbonate, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and glucose. 314 paired samples were collected prospectively from 51 critically ill patients. All samples were drawn simultaneously in the morning from an arterial line. BD Vacutainer tubes were analyzed in the central laboratory using Beckman Coulter analyzers (AU 5800 and DxH 800). BD Preset 3 ml heparinized-syringes were analyzed immediately in the ICU using the POC Siemens RAPIDPoint 500 blood gas system. We used CLIA proficiency testing criteria to define acceptable analytical performance and interchangeability. Biases, limits of agreement (±1.96 SD) and coefficients of correlation were respectively: 1.3 (-2.2 to 4.8 mmol/L, r = 0.936) for sodium; 0.2 (-0.2 to 0.6 mmol/L, r = 0.944) for potassium; -0.9 (-3.7 to 2 mmol/L, r = 0.967) for chloride; 0.8 (-1.9 to 3.4 mmol/L, r = 0.968) for bicarbonate; -11 (-30 to 9 mg/dL, r = 0.972) for glucose; -0.8 (-1.4 to -0.2 g/dL, r = 0.985) for hemoglobin; and -1.1 (-2.9 to 0.7%, r = 0.981) for hematocrit. All differences were below CLIA cut-off values, except for hemoglobin. Compared to central Laboratory analyzers, the POC Siemens RAPIDPoint 500 blood gas system satisfied the CLIA criteria of interchangeability for all tested parameters, except for hemoglobin. These results are warranted for our own procedures and devices. Bearing these restrictions, we recommend clinicians to initiate an appropriate therapy based on POC testing without awaiting a control measurement.

  14. Point-of-Care Versus Central Laboratory Measurements of Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, Glucose, Bicarbonate and Electrolytes: A Prospective Observational Study in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lebsir, Melissa; Dubroca, Christian; Fabrigoule, Martine; Jordana, Sylvie; Signouret, Thomas; Castanier, Matthias; Thomas, Guillemette; Soundaravelou, Rettinavelou; Lepidi, Anne; Delapierre, Laurence; Penaranda, Guillaume; Halfon, Philippe; Seghboyan, Jean-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Rapid detection of abnormal biological values using point-of-care (POC) testing allows clinicians to promptly initiate therapy; however, there are concerns regarding the reliability of POC measurements. We investigated the agreement between the latest generation blood gas analyzer and central laboratory measurements of electrolytes, bicarbonate, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and glucose. Methods 314 paired samples were collected prospectively from 51 critically ill patients. All samples were drawn simultaneously in the morning from an arterial line. BD Vacutainer tubes were analyzed in the central laboratory using Beckman Coulter analyzers (AU 5800 and DxH 800). BD Preset 3 ml heparinized-syringes were analyzed immediately in the ICU using the POC Siemens RAPIDPoint 500 blood gas system. We used CLIA proficiency testing criteria to define acceptable analytical performance and interchangeability. Results Biases, limits of agreement (±1.96 SD) and coefficients of correlation were respectively: 1.3 (-2.2 to 4.8 mmol/L, r = 0.936) for sodium; 0.2 (-0.2 to 0.6 mmol/L, r = 0.944) for potassium; -0.9 (-3.7 to 2 mmol/L, r = 0.967) for chloride; 0.8 (-1.9 to 3.4 mmol/L, r = 0.968) for bicarbonate; -11 (-30 to 9 mg/dL, r = 0.972) for glucose; -0.8 (-1.4 to -0.2 g/dL, r = 0.985) for hemoglobin; and -1.1 (-2.9 to 0.7%, r = 0.981) for hematocrit. All differences were below CLIA cut-off values, except for hemoglobin. Conclusions Compared to central Laboratory analyzers, the POC Siemens RAPIDPoint 500 blood gas system satisfied the CLIA criteria of interchangeability for all tested parameters, except for hemoglobin. These results are warranted for our own procedures and devices. Bearing these restrictions, we recommend clinicians to initiate an appropriate therapy based on POC testing without awaiting a control measurement. PMID:28072822

  15. Role of Glutamine 17 of the Bovine Papillomavirus E5 Protein in Platelet-Derived Growth Factor β Receptor Activation and Cell Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Ophir; Polack, Glenda W.; Surti, Toral; Kegler-Ebo, Deena; Smith, Steven O.; DiMaio, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    The bovine papillomavirus E5 protein is a small, homodimeric transmembrane protein that forms a stable complex with the cellular platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) β receptor through transmembrane and juxtamembrane interactions, resulting in receptor activation and cell transformation. Glutamine 17 in the transmembrane domain of the 44-amino-acid E5 protein is critical for complex formation and receptor activation, and we previously proposed that glutamine 17 forms a hydrogen bond with threonine 513 of the PDGF β receptor. We have constructed and analyzed mutant E5 proteins containing all possible amino acids at position 17 and examined the ability of these proteins to transform C127 fibroblasts, which express endogenous PDGF β receptor. Although several position 17 mutants were able to transform cells, mutants containing amino acids with side groups that were unable to participate in hydrogen bonding interactions did not form a stable complex with the PDGF β receptor or transform cells, in agreement with the proposed interaction between position 17 of the E5 protein and threonine 513 of the receptor. The nature of the residue at position 17 also affected the ability of the E5 proteins to dimerize. Overall, there was an excellent correlation between the ability of the various E5 mutant proteins to bind the PDGF β receptor, lead to receptor tyrosine phosphorylation, and transform cells. Similar results were obtained in Ba/F3 hematopoietic cells expressing exogenous PDGF β receptor. In addition, treatment of E5-transformed cells with a specific inhibitor of the PDGF receptor tyrosine kinase reversed the transformed phenotype. These results confirm the central importance of the PDGF β receptor in mediating E5 transformation and highlight the critical role of the residue at position 17 of the E5 protein in the productive interaction with the PDGF β receptor. On the basis of molecular modeling analysis and the known chemical properties of the amino acids, we

  16. Role of glutamine 17 of the bovine papillomavirus E5 protein in platelet-derived growth factor beta receptor activation and cell transformation.

    PubMed

    Klein, O; Polack, G W; Surti, T; Kegler-Ebo, D; Smith, S O; DiMaio, D

    1998-11-01

    The bovine papillomavirus E5 protein is a small, homodimeric transmembrane protein that forms a stable complex with the cellular platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) beta receptor through transmembrane and juxtamembrane interactions, resulting in receptor activation and cell transformation. Glutamine 17 in the transmembrane domain of the 44-amino-acid E5 protein is critical for complex formation and receptor activation, and we previously proposed that glutamine 17 forms a hydrogen bond with threonine 513 of the PDGF beta receptor. We have constructed and analyzed mutant E5 proteins containing all possible amino acids at position 17 and examined the ability of these proteins to transform C127 fibroblasts, which express endogenous PDGF beta receptor. Although several position 17 mutants were able to transform cells, mutants containing amino acids with side groups that were unable to participate in hydrogen bonding interactions did not form a stable complex with the PDGF beta receptor or transform cells, in agreement with the proposed interaction between position 17 of the E5 protein and threonine 513 of the receptor. The nature of the residue at position 17 also affected the ability of the E5 proteins to dimerize. Overall, there was an excellent correlation between the ability of the various E5 mutant proteins to bind the PDGF beta receptor, lead to receptor tyrosine phosphorylation, and transform cells. Similar results were obtained in Ba/F3 hematopoietic cells expressing exogenous PDGF beta receptor. In addition, treatment of E5-transformed cells with a specific inhibitor of the PDGF receptor tyrosine kinase reversed the transformed phenotype. These results confirm the central importance of the PDGF beta receptor in mediating E5 transformation and highlight the critical role of the residue at position 17 of the E5 protein in the productive interaction with the PDGF beta receptor. On the basis of molecular modeling analysis and the known chemical properties of the

  17. GIS-based landslide hazard evaluation at the regional scale: some critical points in the permanent displacement approach for seismically-induced landslide maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vessia, Giovanna; Parise, Mario

    2013-04-01

    the assumed depth of the sliding surface. Thus, it is of paramount relevance to correctly understand and describe the dynamic behavior of the lithologies affected by the earthquake. Accordingly, we put here in evidence some critical points in the application of the permanent displacement formulations by considering the case study of Santa Susana Mountains (California, USA) shaken by the Northridge earthquake in 1994. During this earthquake, a high number of registrations has been collected, whilst soon after a careful inventory of the mass movements triggered by the shaking has been produced, together with analysis of the related failure mechanisms. Hence, these data allow to perform a back analysis in order to verify the reliability of some numerical expressions, such as those proposed by Ambraseys and Menu (1988), Romeo (2000), and Jibson (2007), with respect to the possible dynamic behavior of the lithologies affected by landslides. In this sector of California, the following lithologies crop out, that were involved in shallow landslides: (1) Quaternay deposits; (2) Saugus Formation; (3) Towsley Formation; (4) Pico Formation; (5) Topanga Formation; (6) Modelo Formation; (7) Simi Conglomerate; (8) Santa Susana Formation; (9) Llajas and Chatsworth Formations. The surveys carried out after the Northridge earthquake (Harp and Jibson, 1995), and the analysis of landslide distribution (Parise and Jibson 2000) pointed out that the strongest formations with slopes higher than 50° mainly suffered toppling or fall failures: thus, our hazard maps based on permanent displacements did not take into account such range of slopes. Further, areas with slopes lower than 10° were not affected by relevant mass movements. Thus, a limited range of slopes (between 10° and 45°) was considered in the analyses, with depth of the sliding surface varying between 1 and 3 m, and using the resistance parameters of involved lithologies obtained from in situ and laboratory tests performed by

  18. 7. VIEW OF E5 WORK STATION AND MANIPULATOR ARMS WITHIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF E-5 WORK STATION AND MANIPULATOR ARMS WITHIN THE SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE HOT BAY. - Nevada Test Site, Engine Maintenance Assembly & Disassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  19. hrHPV E5 oncoprotein: immune evasion and related immunotherapies.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Antonio Carlos; de Oliveira, Talita Helena Araújo; Barros, Marconi Rego; Venuti, Aldo

    2017-05-25

    The immune response is a key factor in the fight against HPV infection and related cancers, and thus, HPV is able to promote immune evasion through the expression of oncogenes. In particular, the E5 oncogene is responsible for modulation of several immune mechanisms, including antigen presentation and inflammatory pathways. Moreover, E5 was suggested as a promising therapeutic target, since there is still no effective medical therapy for the treatment of HPV-related pre-neoplasia and cancer. Indeed, several studies have shown good prospective for E5 immunotherapy, suggesting that it could be applied for the treatment of pre-cancerous lesions. Thus, insofar as the majority of cervical, oropharyngeal and anal cancers are caused by high-risk HPV (hrHPV), mainly by HPV16, the aim of this review is to discuss the immune pathways interfered by E5 oncoprotein of hrHPV highlighting the various aspects of the potential immunotherapeutic approaches.

  20. Cooperative transformation and coexpression of bovine papillomavirus type 1 E5 and E7 proteins.

    PubMed

    Bohl, J; Hull, B; Vande Pol, S B

    2001-01-01

    Productively infected bovine fibropapillomas were examined for bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) E7 localization. BPV-1 E7 was observed in the cytoplasm of basal and lower spinous epithelial cells, coexpressed in the cytoplasm of basal cells with the E5 oncoprotein. E7 was also observed in nucleoli throughout the basal and spinous layers but not in the granular cell layer. Ectopic expression of E7 in cultured epithelial cells gave rise to localization similar to that seen in productive fibropapillomas, with cytoplasmic and nucleolar expression observed. Consistent with the coexpression of E7 and E5 in basal keratinocytes, BPV-1 E7 cooperated with E5 as well as E6 in an anchorage independence transformation assay. While E5 is expressed in both basal and superficial differentiating keratinocytes, BPV-1 E7 is only observed in basal and lower spinous epithelial cells. Therefore, BPV-1 E7 may serve to modulate the cellular response of basal epithelial cells to E5 expression.

  1. Structures of (2E,5E)-2-(4-cyanobenzylidene)-5-(4-dimethylaminobenzylidene)cyclopentanone and (2E,5E)-2-benzylidene-5-cinnamylidenecyclopentanone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoto, Christopher A.; MacDonald, John C.

    2017-10-01

    The X-ray crystal structures of (2E,5E)-2-(4-cyanobenzylidene)-5-(4-dimethylaminobenzylidene)cyclopentanone (I) and (2E,5E)-2-benzylidene-5-cinnamylidenecyclopentanone (II) are presented, compared to the gas phase structures calculated using density functional theory, and discussed in the context of the photophysical behavior exhibited by I and II. Compound I crystallizes in the triclinic space group P 1 bar with a = 6.8743(2) Å, b = 8.8115(2) Å, c = 14.9664(4) Å, α = 77.135(2)°, β = 81.351(2)°, γ = 80.975(2)°, and Z = 2, and exhibits a planar structure. Compound II crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c with a = 33.4281(10) Å, b = 11.9668(4) Å, c = 7.8031(2) Å, β = 92.785(2)°, and Z = 8, and adopts a nonplanar structure in the solid state and calculated structure.

  2. Accelerated HIV testing for PMTCT in maternity and labour wards is vital to capture mothers at a critical point in the programme at district level in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Beltman, J J; Fitzgerald, M; Buhendwa, L; Moens, M; Massaquoi, M; Kazima, J; Alide, N; van Roosmalen, J

    2010-11-01

    Round the clock (24 hours×7 days) HIV testing is vital to maintain a high prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) coverage for women delivering in district health facilities. PMTCT coverage increases when most of the pregnant women will have their HIV status tested. Therefore routine offering of HIV testing should be integrated and seen as a part of comprehensive antenatal care. For women who miss antenatal care and deliver in a health facility without having had their HIV status tested, the labour and maternity ward could still serve as other entry points.

  3. Applying the Manning equation to determine the critical distance in non-point source pollution using remotely sensed data and cartographic modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Lília M.; Santos, Nádia A. P.; Maillard, Philippe

    2013-10-01

    Non-point source pollution (NPSP) is perhaps the leading cause of water quality problems and one of the most challenging environmental issues given the difficulty of modeling and controlling it. In this article, we applied the Manning equation, a hydraulic concept, to improve models of non-point source pollution and determine its influence as a function of slope - land cover roughness for runoff to reach the stream. In our study the equation is somewhat taken out of its usual context to be applies to the flow of an entire watershed. Here a digital elevation model (DEM) from the SRTM satellite was used to compute the slope and data from the RapidEye satellite constellation was used to produce a land cover map later transformed into a roughness surface. The methodology is applied to a 1433 km2 watershed in Southeast Brazil mostly covered by forest, pasture, urban and wetlands. The model was used to create slope buffer of varying width in which the proportions of land cover and roughness coefficient were obtained. Next we correlated these data, through regression, with four water quality parameters measured in situ: nitrate, phosphorous, faecal coliform and turbidity. We compare our results with the ones obtained by fixed buffer. It was found that slope buffer outperformed fixed buffer with higher coefficients of determination up to 15%.

  4. E 5 decay from the J π = 11 / 2 - isomer in Ba 137

    SciT

    Moran, K.; McCutchan, E. A.; Lister, C. J.

    2014-10-01

    A new gamma-decay branch has been found from the well-known 661.659(3)-keV J(pi) = 11/2(-), T-1/2 = 2.552(1) min isomer in Ba-137 which is populated in the beta decay of Cs-137. The new 377.9(3)-keV gamma ray connects the isomer to the low-lying 283.5 keV, J(pi) = 1/2(-) state. It is of near-pure E5 character. The decay has a gamma branching ratio (Br-gamma = Gamma(gamma)/Gamma(tot)) of 1.12(9) x 10(-7). The new decay has a B(E5) of 0.71(6) W.u. [ B(E5) down arrow= 6.5(6) x 10(5) e(2) fm(10)], a value consistent with other "single-particle" E5 decays in the region. The new decay branchmore » is of topical interest, as it competes with the much-sought "two-photon" second-order electromagnetic decay from this state.« less

  5. Solutions for correlations along the coexistence curve and at the critical point of a kagomé lattice gas with three-particle interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, J. H.; Muttalib, K. A.; Tanaka, T.

    2008-01-01

    We consider a two-dimensional (d=2) kagomé lattice gas model with attractive three-particle interactions around each triangular face of the kagomé lattice. Exact solutions are obtained for multiparticle correlations along the liquid and vapor branches of the coexistence curve and at criticality. The correlation solutions are also determined along the continuation of the curvilinear diameter of the coexistence region into the disordered fluid region. The method generates a linear algebraic system of correlation identities with coefficients dependent only upon the interaction parameter. Using a priori knowledge of pertinent solutions for the density and elementary triplet correlation, one finds a closed and linearly independent set of correlation identities defined upon a spatially compact nine-site cluster of the kagomé lattice. Resulting exact solution curves of the correlations are plotted and discussed as functions of the temperature and are compared with corresponding results in a traditional kagomé lattice gas having nearest-neighbor pair interactions. An example of application for the multiparticle correlations is demonstrated in cavitation theory.

  6. Scaling behavior near the itinerant ferromagnetic quantum critical point (FQCP) of NiCoCrx for 0.8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sales, Brian; Jin, Ke; Bei, Hongbin; Nichols, John; Chisholm, Matthew; May, Andrew; McGuire, Michael

    Low temperature magnetization, resistivity and heat capacity data are reported for the concentrated solid solution NiCoCrx as a function of temperature and magnetic field. In the quantum critical region the low field (0.001-0.01 T) magnetic susceptibility, Chi, diverges as T- 1 / 2 and the magnetization data exhibits T/B scaling from 0.001 2 Tesla, the crossover temperature from the QC to Fermi liquid regime is no longer linear in B, and is better described by B0.75. This scaling behavior is particularly accurate in describing the normalized magnetoresistance data [Rho(B,T)-Rho(0,T)]/T, which is equivalent to the ratio of relaxation rates associated with magnetic field and temperature TauT/TauB. The location of the QCP is sensitive to the composition x and the strain generated during synthesis. These medium-entropy alloys are interesting model systems to explore the role of chemical disorder at FQCP. Research supported by the DOE Office of Science, Materials Science and Engineering Division, and the Energy Dissipation to Defect Evolution EFRC.

  7. Critical Information at Critical Moments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fierman, Ben; Thrower, Raymond H., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    On a daily basis, administrators are reminded of the potential, perhaps the likelihood, of violence or natural crises on their campuses. Comprehensive studies have been conducted and point to recommendations and best practices for planning, preparing, responding to, and recovering from critical incidents. The International Association of Campus…

  8. A critical evaluation of two point-of-use water treatment technologies: can they provide water that meets WHO drinking water guidelines?

    PubMed

    Murphy, Heather M; McBean, Edward A; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow

    2010-12-01

    Point-of-use (POU) technologies have been proposed as solutions for meeting the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for safe water. They reduce the risk of contamination between the water source and the home, by providing treatment at the household level. This study examined two POU technologies commonly used around the world: BioSand and ceramic filters. While the health benefits in terms of diarrhoeal disease reduction have been fairly well documented for both technologies, little research has focused on the ability of these technologies to treat other contaminants that pose health concerns, including the potential for formation of contaminants as a result of POU treatment. These technologies have not been rigorously tested to see if they meet World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water guidelines. A study was developed to evaluate POU BioSand and ceramic filters in terms of microbiological and chemical quality of the treated water. The following parameters were monitored on filters in rural Cambodia over a six-month period: iron, manganese, fluoride, nitrate, nitrite and Escherichia coli. The results revealed that these technologies are not capable of consistently meeting all of the WHO drinking water guidelines for these parameters.

  9. Simulation of the Chang'E-5 mission contribution in lunar long wavelength gravity field improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jianguo; Yang, Xuan; Ping, Jinsong; Ye, Mao; Liu, Shanhong; Jin, Weitong; Li, Fei; Barriot, Jean-Pierre

    2018-06-01

    The precision of lunar gravity field estimation has improved by means of three to five orders of magnitude since the successful GRAIL lunar mission. There are still discrepancies however, in the low degree coefficients and long wavelength components of the solutions developed by two space research centers (JPL and GSFC). These discrepancies hint at the possibilities for improving the accuracy in the long wavelength part of the lunar gravity field. In the near future, China will launch the Chang'E-5 lunar mission. In this sample-return mission, there will be a chance to do KBRR measurements between an ascending module and an orbiting module. These two modules will fly around lunar at an inclination of ˜49 degrees, with an orbital height of 100 km and an inter-satellite distance of 200 km. In our research, we simulated the contribution of the KBRR tracking mode for different GRAIL orbital geometries. This analysis indicated possible deficiencies in the low degree coefficient solutions for the polar satellite-to-satellite tracking mode at various orbital heights. We also investigated the potential contributions of the KBRR to the Chang'E-5 mission goal of lunar gravity field recovery, especially in the long wavelength component. Potential improvements were assessed using various power spectrums of the lunar gravity field models. In addition, we also investigated possible improvements in solving lunar tidal Love number K2. These results may assist the implementation of the Chang'E-5 mission.

  10. DALI: Defining Antibiotic Levels in Intensive care unit patients: a multi-centre point of prevalence study to determine whether contemporary antibiotic dosing for critically ill patients is therapeutic.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jason A; De Waele, Jan J; Dimopoulos, George; Koulenti, Despoina; Martin, Claude; Montravers, Philippe; Rello, Jordi; Rhodes, Andrew; Starr, Therese; Wallis, Steven C; Lipman, Jeffrey

    2012-07-06

    The clinical effects of varying pharmacokinetic exposures of antibiotics (antibacterials and antifungals) on outcome in infected critically ill patients are poorly described. A large-scale multi-centre study (DALI Study) is currently underway describing the clinical outcomes of patients achieving pre-defined antibiotic exposures. This report describes the protocol. DALI will recruit over 500 patients administered a wide range of either beta-lactam or glycopeptide antibiotics or triazole or echinocandin antifungals in a pharmacokinetic point-prevalence study. It is anticipated that over 60 European intensive care units (ICUs) will participate. The primary aim will be to determine whether contemporary antibiotic dosing for critically ill patients achieves plasma concentrations associated with maximal activity. Secondary aims will compare antibiotic pharmacokinetic exposures with patient outcome and will describe the population pharmacokinetics of the antibiotics included. Various subgroup analyses will be conducted to determine patient groups that may be at risk of very low or very high concentrations of antibiotics. The DALI study should inform clinicians of the potential clinical advantages of achieving certain antibiotic pharmacokinetic exposures in infected critically ill patients.

  11. Analysis for orbital rendezvous of Chang'E-5 using SBI technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.; Shan, Q.; Li, P.

    2016-12-01

    Chang'E-5 will be launched in later 2017/early 2018 using a new generation rocket from Wenchang satellite launch center, Hainan, China. It is a lunar sampling return mission, and it is the first time for China to carry out orbital rendezvous and docking in the Moon. How to achieve orbital rendezvous successfully in the Moon is very important in Chang'E-5 mission. Orbital rendezvous will be implemented between an orbiter and an ascender 200 km above the Moon. The ground tracking techniques include range, Doppler and VLBI, and they will be used to track the orbiter and the ascender when the ascender is about 70 km farther away from the orbiter. Later the ascender will approach the orbiter automatically. As a successful example, in Chang'E-3, the differential phase delay (delta delay) data between the rover and the lander are obtained with a random error of about 1 ps, and the relative position of the rover is determined with an accuracy of several meters by using same beam VLBI (SBI) technique. Here the application of the SBI technique for Chang'E-5 orbital rendezvous is discussed. SBI technique can be used to track the orbiter and the ascender simultaneously when they are in the same beam. Delta delay of the two probes can be derived, and the measurement accuracy is much higher than that of the traditional VLBI data because of the cancelation of common errors. Theoretically it can result in a more accurate relative orbit between the two probes. In the simulation, different strategies are discussed to analyze the contribution of SBI data to the orbit accuracy improvement especially relative orbit between the orbiter and ascender. The simulation results show that the relative position accuracy of the orbiter and ascender can reach about 1 m with delta delay data of 10 ps.

  12. Chang’E-5T Orbit Determination Using Onboard GPS Observations

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xing; Geng, Tao; Li, Wenwen; Zhao, Qile; Xie, Xin

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) has played an important role in Space Service Volume, the region enclosing the altitudes above 3000 km up to 36,000 km. As an in-flight test for the feasibility as well as for the performance of GNSS-based satellite orbit determination (OD), the Chinese experimental lunar mission Chang’E-5T had been equipped with an onboard high-sensitivity GNSS receiver with GPS and GLONASS tracking capability. In this contribution, the 2-h onboard GPS data are evaluated in terms of tracking performance as well as observation quality. It is indicated that the onboard receiver can track 7–8 GPS satellites per epoch on average and the ratio of carrier to noise spectral density (C/N0) values are higher than 28 dB-Hz for 90% of all the observables. The C1 code errors are generally about 4.15 m but can be better than 2 m with C/N0 values over 36 dB-Hz. GPS-based Chang’E-5T OD is performed and the Helmert variance component estimation method is investigated to determine the weights of code and carrier phase observations. The results reveal that the orbit consistency is about 20 m. OD is furthermore analyzed with GPS data screened out according to different C/N0 thresholds. It is indicated that for the Chang’E-5T, the precision of OD is dominated by the number of observed satellite. Although increased C/N0 thresholds can improve the overall data quality, the available number of GPS observations is greatly reduced and the resulting orbit solution is poor. PMID:28587174

  13. Chang'E-5T Orbit Determination Using Onboard GPS Observations.

    PubMed

    Su, Xing; Geng, Tao; Li, Wenwen; Zhao, Qile; Xie, Xin

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) has played an important role in Space Service Volume, the region enclosing the altitudes above 3000 km up to 36,000 km. As an in-flight test for the feasibility as well as for the performance of GNSS-based satellite orbit determination (OD), the Chinese experimental lunar mission Chang'E-5T had been equipped with an onboard high-sensitivity GNSS receiver with GPS and GLONASS tracking capability. In this contribution, the 2-h onboard GPS data are evaluated in terms of tracking performance as well as observation quality. It is indicated that the onboard receiver can track 7-8 GPS satellites per epoch on average and the ratio of carrier to noise spectral density (C/N0) values are higher than 28 dB-Hz for 90% of all the observables. The C1 code errors are generally about 4.15 m but can be better than 2 m with C/N0 values over 36 dB-Hz. GPS-based Chang'E-5T OD is performed and the Helmert variance component estimation method is investigated to determine the weights of code and carrier phase observations. The results reveal that the orbit consistency is about 20 m. OD is furthermore analyzed with GPS data screened out according to different C/N0 thresholds. It is indicated that for the Chang'E-5T, the precision of OD is dominated by the number of observed satellite. Although increased C/N0 thresholds can improve the overall data quality, the available number of GPS observations is greatly reduced and the resulting orbit solution is poor.

  14. Principal component analysis for fermionic critical points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Natanael C.; Hu, Wenjian; Bai, Z. J.; Scalettar, Richard T.; Singh, Rajiv R. P.

    2017-11-01

    We use determinant quantum Monte Carlo (DQMC), in combination with the principal component analysis (PCA) approach to unsupervised learning, to extract information about phase transitions in several of the most fundamental Hamiltonians describing strongly correlated materials. We first explore the zero-temperature antiferromagnet to singlet transition in the periodic Anderson model, the Mott insulating transition in the Hubbard model on a honeycomb lattice, and the magnetic transition in the 1/6-filled Lieb lattice. We then discuss the prospects for learning finite temperature superconducting transitions in the attractive Hubbard model, for which there is no sign problem. Finally, we investigate finite temperature charge density wave (CDW) transitions in the Holstein model, where the electrons are coupled to phonon degrees of freedom, and carry out a finite size scaling analysis to determine Tc. We examine the different behaviors associated with Hubbard-Stratonovich auxiliary field configurations on both the entire space-time lattice and on a single imaginary time slice, or other quantities, such as equal-time Green's and pair-pair correlation functions.

  15. The phase transitions between Z n × Z n bosonic topological phases in 1 + 1D, and a constraint on the central charge for the critical points between bosonic symmetry protected topological phases

    DOE PAGES

    Tsui, Lokman; Huang, Yen-Ta; Jiang, Hong-Chen; ...

    2017-03-27

    The study of continuous phase transitions triggered by spontaneous symmetry breaking has brought revolutionary ideas to physics. Recently, through the discovery of symmetry protected topological phases, it is realized that continuous quantum phase transition can also occur between states with the same symmetry but different topology. Here in this paper we study a specific class of such phase transitions in 1+1 dimensions – the phase transition between bosonic topological phases protected by Z n × Z n. We find in all cases the critical point possesses two gap opening relevant operators: one leads to a Landau-forbidden symmetry breaking phase transitionmore » and the other to the topological phase transition. We also obtained a constraint on the central charge for general phase transitions between symmetry protected bosonic topological phases in 1+1D.« less

  16. The phase transitions between Z n × Z n bosonic topological phases in 1 + 1D, and a constraint on the central charge for the critical points between bosonic symmetry protected topological phases

    SciT

    Tsui, Lokman; Huang, Yen-Ta; Jiang, Hong-Chen

    The study of continuous phase transitions triggered by spontaneous symmetry breaking has brought revolutionary ideas to physics. Recently, through the discovery of symmetry protected topological phases, it is realized that continuous quantum phase transition can also occur between states with the same symmetry but different topology. Here in this paper we study a specific class of such phase transitions in 1+1 dimensions – the phase transition between bosonic topological phases protected by Z n × Z n. We find in all cases the critical point possesses two gap opening relevant operators: one leads to a Landau-forbidden symmetry breaking phase transitionmore » and the other to the topological phase transition. We also obtained a constraint on the central charge for general phase transitions between symmetry protected bosonic topological phases in 1+1D.« less

  17. Evidence for a liquid-liquid critical point in supercooled water within the E3B3 model and a possible interpretation of the kink in the homogeneous nucleation line

    SciT

    Ni, Yicun; Skinner, J. L.

    2016-06-07

    Supercooled water exhibits many thermodynamic anomalies, and several scenarios have been proposed to interpret them, among which the liquid-liquid critical point (LLCP) hypothesis is the most commonly discussed. We investigated Widom lines and the LLCP of deeply supercooled water, by using molecular dynamics simulation with a newly reparameterized water model that explicitly includes three-body interactions. Seven isobars are studied from ambient pressure to 2.5 kbar, and Widom lines are identified by calculating maxima in the coefficient of thermal expansion and the isothermal compressibility (both with respect to temperature). From these data we estimate that the LLCP of the new watermore » model is at 180 K and 2.1 kbar. The oxygen radial distribution function is calculated along the 2 kbar isobar. It shows a steep change in the height of its second peak between 180 and 185 K, which indicates a transition between the high-density liquid and low-density liquid phases and which is consistent with the ascribed location of the critical point. The good agreement of the height of the second peak of the radial distribution function between simulation and experiment at 1 bar, as a function of temperature, supports the validity of the model. The location of the LLCP within the model is close to the kink in the experimental homogeneous nucleation line. We use existing experimental data to argue that the experimental LLCP is at 168 K and 1.95 kbar and speculate how this LLCP and its Widom line might be responsible for the kink in the homogeneous nucleation line.« less

  18. [Management of inpatient glucose in non-critical care setting: impact of a proactive intervention based on a point-of-care of system with remote viewing of capillary blood glucose].

    PubMed

    Amor, Antonio J; Ríos, Paola A; Graupera, Iolanda; Conget, Ignacio; Esmatjes, Enric; Comallonga, Teresa; Vidal, Josep

    2014-05-06

    The management of hyperglycemia in conventional wards is suboptimal. The objective of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of a proactive intervention supported by point-of-care system with remote viewing of capillary blood glucose (CBG) on glycemic control as compared to usual care in non-critical surgical patients. Two sequential periods of 2 months were defined. In the first phase (control, CPh), in which the surgical team was in charge of glycemic control, capillary glucose levels were recorded by StatStrip(®) system, and endocrinological support was provided upon surgeons request. In a second phase (intervention, IPh), the endocrinologist proceeded based on remotely-viewed CBG values. We compared the use of basal-bolus therapy and the degree of glycemic control between the 2 study periods. The IPh was associated with greater use of basal-bolus regimens (21.4 vs. 58.3%; P=.003). The average CBG during the CPh was 161 ± 64 vs. 142 ± 48 mg/dL during the IPh (P<.001). The IPh was associated with an increased frequency of CBG determinations between 70-140 mg/dL (CPh: 41.8 vs. IPh: 52.5%; P<.001), lower frequency of ≥ 250 mg/dL CBG determinations (CPh: 9 vs. IPh: 3.5%; P<.001), with no increase in the frequency of hypoglycemia (CPh: 3 vs. IPh: 3.7%; P=.39). A proactive endocrine intervention facilitated by a point-of-care system with remote viewing of CBG is associated with improved glycemic control in non-critical patients, without any further increase in the number of hypoglycaemic recordings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. Critical Viscosity of Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. Because xenon near the critical point will collapse under its own weight, experiments on Earth (green line) are limited as they get closer (toward the left) to the critical point. CVX in the microgravity of space (red line) moved into unmeasured territory that scientists had not been able to reach.

  20. Analyses of variant human papillomavirus type-16 E5 proteins for their ability to induce mitogenesis of murine fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Rahul; Mant, Christine A; Kell, Barbara; Cason, John; Bible, Jon M

    2006-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E5 protein co-operates with epidermal growth factor to stimulate mitogenesis of murine fibroblasts. Currently, little is known about which viral amino acids are involved in this process. Using sequence variants of HPV-16 E5 we have investigated their effects upon E5 transcription, cell-cycling and cell-growth of murine fibroblasts. Results We demonstrate that: (i) introduction of Thr64 into the reference E5 sequence of HPV-16 abrogates mitogenic activity: both were poorly transcribed in NIH-3T3 cells; (ii) substitution of Leu44Val65 or, Thr37Leu44Val65 into the HPV-16 E5 reference backbone resulted in high transcription in NIH-3T3 cells, enhanced cell-cycle progression and high cell-growth; and, (iii) inclusion of Tyr8 into the Leu44Val65 backbone inhibited E5 induced cell-growth and repression of p21 expression, despite high transcription levels. Conclusion The effects of HPV-16 E5 variants upon mitosis help to explain why Leu44Val65 HPV-16 E5 variants are most prevalent in 'wild' pathogenic viral populations in the UK. PMID:16899131

  1. Human papillomavirus E5 oncoproteins bind the A4 endoplasmic reticulum protein to regulate proliferative ability upon differentiation

    SciT

    Kotnik Halavaty, Katarina; Regan, Jennifer; Mehta, Kavi

    2014-03-15

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) infect stratified epithelia and link their life cycles to epithelial differentiation. The HPV E5 protein plays a role in the productive phase of the HPV life cycle but its mechanism of action is still unclear. We identify a new binding partner of E5, A4, using a membrane-associated yeast-two hybrid system. The A4 protein co-localizes with HPV 31 E5 in perinuclear regions and forms complexes with E5 and Bap31. In normal keratinocytes, A4 is found primarily in basal cells while in HPV positive cells high levels of A4 are seen in both undifferentiated and differentiated cells. Reduction ofmore » A4 expression by shRNAs, enhanced HPV genome amplification and increased cell proliferation ability following differentiation but this was not seen in cells lacking E5. Our studies suggest that the A4 protein is an important E5 binding partner that plays a role in regulating cell proliferation ability upon differentiation. - Highlights: • A4 associates with HPV 31 E5 proteins. • A4 is localized to endoplasmic reticulum. • HPV proteins induce A4 expression in suprabasal layers of stratified epithelium. • E5 is important for proliferation ability of differentiating HPV positive cells.« less

  2. Identification of amino acids in the transmembrane and juxtamembrane domains of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor required for productive interaction with the bovine papillomavirus E5 protein.

    PubMed

    Petti, L M; Reddy, V; Smith, S O; DiMaio, D

    1997-10-01

    The bovine papillomavirus E5 protein forms a stable complex with the cellular platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) beta receptor, resulting in receptor activation and cell transformation. Amino acids in both the putative transmembrane domain and extracytoplasmic carboxyl-terminal domain of the E5 protein appear important for PDGF receptor binding and activation. Previous analysis indicated that the transmembrane domain of the receptor was also required for complex formation and receptor activation. Here we analyzed receptor chimeras and point mutants to identify specific amino acids in the PDGF beta receptor required for productive interaction with the E5 protein. These receptor mutants were analyzed in murine Ba/F3 cells, which do not express endogenous receptor. Our results confirmed the importance of the transmembrane domain of the receptor for complex formation, receptor tyrosine phosphorylation, and mitogenic signaling in response to the E5 protein and established that the threonine residue in this domain is required for these activities. In addition, a positive charge in the extracellular juxtamembrane domain of the receptor was required for E5 interaction and signaling, whereas replacement of the wild-type lysine with either a neutral or acidic amino acid inhibited E5-induced receptor activation and transformation. All of the receptor mutants defective for activation by the E5 protein responded to acute treatment with PDGF and to stable expression of v-Sis, a form of PDGF. The required juxtamembrane lysine and transmembrane threonine are predicted to align precisely on the same face of an alpha helix packed in a left-handed coiled-coil geometry. These results establish that the E5 protein and v-Sis recognize distinct binding sites on the PDGF beta receptor and further clarify the nature of the interaction between the viral transforming protein and its cellular target.

  3. Tipping Point

    ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... TV falls with about the same force as child falling from the third story of a building. ...

  4. Critical fluid light scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammon, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    The objective is to measure the decay rates of critical density fluctuations in a simple fluid (xenon) very near its liquid-vapor critical point using laser light scattering and photon correlation spectroscopy. Such experiments were severely limited on Earth by the presence of gravity which causes large density gradients in the sample when the compressibility diverges approaching the critical point. The goal is to measure fluctuation decay rates at least two decades closer to the critical point than is possible on earth, with a resolution of 3 microK. This will require loading the sample to 0.1 percent of the critical density and taking data as close as 100 microK to the critical temperature. The minimum mission time of 100 hours will allow a complete range of temperature points to be covered, limited by the thermal response of the sample. Other technical problems have to be addressed such as multiple scattering and the effect of wetting layers. The experiment entails measurement of the scattering intensity fluctuation decay rate at two angles for each temperature and simultaneously recording the scattering intensities and sample turbidity (from the transmission). The analyzed intensity and turbidity data gives the correlation length at each temperature and locates the critical temperature. The fluctuation decay rate data from these measurements will provide a severe test of the generalized hydrodynamic theories of transport coefficients in the critical regions. When compared to equivalent data from binary liquid critical mixtures they will test the universality of critical dynamics.

  5. Quantification and role of organic acids in cucumber root exudates in Trichoderma harzianum T-E5 colonization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengge; Meng, Xiaohui; Yang, Xingming; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong

    2014-10-01

    The ability to colonize on plant roots is recognized as one of the most important characteristics of the beneficial fungi Trichoderma spp. The aim of this study is to prove that the utilization of organic acids is a major trait of Trichoderma harzianum T-E5 for colonization of cucumber roots. A series experiments in split-root hydroponic system and in vitro were designed to demonstrate the association between the utilization of organic acids and T-E5 colonization on cucumber roots. In the split-root hydroponic system, inoculation with T-E5 (T) significantly increased the biomass of cucumber plants compared with CK (non-inoculation with T-E5). The T-E5 hyphae densely covering the cucumber root surface were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Three organic acids (oxalic acid, malic acid and citric acid) were identified from both the CK and T treatments by HPLC and LC/ESI-MS procedures. The amounts of oxalic acid and malic acid in T were significantly higher than those in CK. All the organic acids exhibited different and significant stimulation effects on the mycelial growth and conidial germination of T-E5 in vitro. An additional hydroponic experiment demonstrated the positive effects of organic acids on the T-E5 colonization of cucumber roots. In conclusion, the present study revealed that certain organic acids could be used as nutritional sources for Trichoderma harzianum T-E5 to reinforce its population on cucumber roots. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in bulk ZrT e5 single crystals: Evidence for a weak topological insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Bin-Bin; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Kai-Wen; Li, Xiang-Bing; Yao, Shu-Hua; Chen, Y. B.; Zhou, Jian; Zhang, Shan-Tao; Lu, Ming-Hui; Li, Shao-Chun; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2018-03-01

    The study of ZrT e5 crystals is revived because of the recent theoretical prediction of topological phase in bulk ZrT e5 . However, the current conclusions for the topological character of bulk ZrT e5 are quite contradictory. To resolve this puzzle, we here identify the Berry phase on both b - and c planes of high-quality ZrT e5 crystals by the Shubnikov-de-Hass (SdH) oscillation under tilted magnetic field at 2 K. The angle-dependent SdH oscillation frequency, both on b - and c planes of ZrT e5 , demonstrates the two-dimensional feature. However, phase analysis of SdH verifies that a nontrivial π-Berry phase is observed in the c -plane SdH oscillation, but not in the b -plane one. Compared to bulk Fermi surface predicted by the first-principle calculation, the two-dimensional-like behavior of SdH oscillation measured at b plane comes from the bulk electron. Based on these analyses, it is suggested that bulk ZrT e5 at low temperature (˜2 K) belongs to a weak topological insulator, rather than Dirac semimetal or strong topological insulator as reported previously.

  7. (E)-5-[2-(methoxycarbonyl)ethenyl]cytidine as a chemical actinometer for germicidal UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chengyue; Fang, Shiyue; Bergstrom, Donald E; Blatchley, Ernest R

    2005-05-15

    (E)-5-[2-(Methoxycarbonyl)ethenyl]cytidine (S) was examined for use as a chemical actinometer for germicidal UV radiation. Its photoproduct, 3-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-2,7-dioxopyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine (P), is strongly fluorescent with excitation and emission maxima at 330 and 385 nm, respectively. Experiments were conducted to characterize the dynamic behavior of aqueous solutions of S and P when subjected to UV radiation. UV sources used for these experiments included a low-pressure mercury lamp, a XeBr excimer lamp, and a KrCI excimer lamp; all three sources were mounted in collimating devices to provide incident beams that could be easily and accurately characterized by radiometry. These three sources each yielded essentially monochromatic outputwith characteristic wavelengths of 254, 282, and 222 nm, respectively. At practical concentrations, it was found that the absorbance of the actinometer solution was neither high enough to make the actinometer solutions optically opaque nor low enough to be optically transparent to UV. In addition, the photoproduct displayed a molar absorption coefficient that was similar in magnitude to that of the parent compound, thereby resulting in competitive absorption of UV energy between Sand Pduring irradiation. For purposes of evaluation of the results of irradiation, a mathematical model was developed to accountforthe nonideal optical characteristics of the system. The model is based on a description of local photochemical kinetics; predictions of overall reactor performance were developed by spatial and temporal integration of model results. The model was used to analyze the dynamic behavior of actinometer solutions during UV irradiation and to estimate the quantum yield for photoproduction of Pfrom S. This modeling approach is potentially applicable to other photochemical processes in which multiple compounds are present that absorb photoactive radiation; however, general application of this modeling approach to photochemical

  8. Stress-Induced Accumulation of DcAOX1 and DcAOX2a Transcripts Coincides with Critical Time Point for Structural Biomass Prediction in Carrot Primary Cultures (Daucus carota L.)

    PubMed Central

    Campos, M. Doroteia; Nogales, Amaia; Cardoso, Hélia G.; Kumar, Sarma R.; Nobre, Tânia; Sathishkumar, Ramalingam; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Stress-adaptive cell plasticity in target tissues and cells for plant biomass growth is important for yield stability. In vitro systems with reproducible cell plasticity can help to identify relevant metabolic and molecular events during early cell reprogramming. In carrot, regulation of the central root meristem is a critical target for yield-determining secondary growth. Calorespirometry, a tool previously identified as promising for predictive growth phenotyping has been applied to measure the respiration rate in carrot meristem. In a carrot primary culture system (PCS), this tool allowed identifying an early peak related with structural biomass formation during lag phase of growth, around the 4th day of culture. In the present study, we report a dynamic and correlated expression of carrot AOX genes (DcAOX1 and DcAOX2a) during PCS lag phase and during exponential growth. Both genes showed an increase in transcript levels until 36 h after explant inoculation, and a subsequent down-regulation, before the initiation of exponential growth. In PCS growing at two different temperatures (21°C and 28°C), DcAOX1 was also found to be more expressed in the highest temperature. DcAOX genes’ were further explored in a plant pot experiment in response to chilling, which confirmed the early AOX transcript increase prior to the induction of a specific anti-freezing gene. Our findings point to DcAOX1 and DcAOX2a as being reasonable candidates for functional marker development related to early cell reprogramming. While the genomic sequence of DcAOX2a was previously described, we characterize here the complete genomic sequence of DcAOX1. PMID:26858746

  9. The Impact of Divorce Among Marines, E-5 and Below, on Unit Operational Readiness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-12

    marital benefits.”lxxvi Marine Corps Colonel Stephen Newman of the Navy Department’s Government Appellate Division mostly agrees. While he points...however, according to Colonel Margolin and Colonel Newman , could be subject to challenge since US v. Hoard does not specifically address whether or not...Stability,” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Vol. 36, No. 3 (Sep., 1997), 390, and Annette Mahoney , “Religion in Families, 1999-2009: A

  10. Fusarium oxysporum induces the production of proteins and volatile organic compounds by Trichoderma harzianum T-E5.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengge; Yang, Xingming; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong

    2014-10-01

    Trichoderma species have been used widely as biocontrol agents for the suppression of soil-borne pathogens. However, some antagonistic mechanisms of Trichoderma are not well characterized. In this study, a series of laboratory experiments were designed to characterize the importance of mycoparasitism, exoenzymes, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by Trichoderma harzianum T-E5 for the control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC). We further tested whether these mechanisms were inducible and upregulated in presence of FOC. The results were as follows: T-E5 heavily parasitized FOC by coiling and twisting the entire mycelium of the pathogen in dual cultures. T-E5 growing medium conditioned with deactivated FOC (T2) showed more proteins and higher cell wall-degrading enzyme activities than T1, suggesting that FOC could induce the upregulation of exoenzymes. The presence of deactivated FOC (T2') also resulted in the upregulation of VOCs that five and eight different types T-E5-derived VOCs were identified from T1' and T2', respectively. Further, the excreted VOCs in T2' showed significantly higher antifungal activities against FOC than T1'. In conclusion, mycoparasitism of T-E5 against FOC involved mycelium contact and the production of complex extracellular substances. Together, these data provide clues to help further clarify the interactions between these fungi. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Critical incidents].

    PubMed

    Scheidegger, D

    2005-03-01

    In medicine real severe mishaps are rare. On the other hand critical incidents are frequent. Anonymous critical incident reporting systems allow us to learn from these mishaps. This learning process will make our daily clinical work safer Unfortunately, before these systems can be used efficiently our professional culture has to be changed. Everyone in medicine has to admit that errors do occur to see the need for an open discussion. If we really want to learn from errors, we cannot punish the individual, who reported his or her mistake. The interest is primarily in what has happened and why it has happened and not who has committed this mistake. The cause for critical incidents in medicine is in over 80% the human factor Poor communication, work under enormous stress, conflicts and hierarchies are the main cause. This has been known for many years, therefore have already 15 years ago high-tech industries, like e.g. aviation, started to invest in special courses on team training. Medicine is a typical profession were until now only the individual performance decided about the professional career Communication, conflict management, stress management, decision making, risk management, team and team resource management were subjects that have never been taught during our preor postgraduate education. These points are the most important ones for an optimal teamwork. A multimodular course designed together with Swissair (Human Aspect Development medical, HADmedical) helps to cover, as in aviation, the soft factor and behavioural education in medicine and to prepare professionals in health care to work as a real team.

  12. How critical is chronic critical leg ischaemia?

    PubMed

    Kroese, A J; Stranden, E

    1998-01-01

    "Critical" according to the Oxford dictionary means: a "turning point" where an acute change for better or worse may be anticipated. Thus, the meaning of the word "critical" complies with its use in relation to ischaemia. We don't really know, prospectively, what will happen to the critically ischaemic limb, whether it will improve or worsen. The answer to the question "How critical is critical leg ischaemia (CLI)?" must be: "We don't know!" The addition of ankle systolic pressure as an objective haemodynamic measurement has not made the definition of the Second European Consensus Group significantly better than the original Fontaine classification, grade III and IV. For clinical practice the Fontaine classification will be sufficient. For scientific purposes macro- and microcirculatory assessments and information about the patient's risk profile should be added.

  13. Point Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    O and N(B) < - a.s. for each BEMA. (ii) N(U Bn) = N(Bn) a.s. for any disjoint BI.B 2 .. in ’ R . n n The random variable N(A) represents the number...P(N’(B) = 0). B E o . (C) If (v.X1 X2 ....) (v.Xi.X .. ). then N d N’. The converse is true when E = R + or R and the X ’s are the ordered T ’s.+ n n... R + that are continuous and such that (x: f(x)> O ) is a bounded set. Theorem 1.4. Suppose N and N’ are point processes on E. The following statements

  14. Purification through Emotions: The Role of Shame in Plato's "Sophist" 230B4-E5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candiotto, Laura

    2018-01-01

    This article proposes an analysis of Plato's "Sophist" (230b4--e5) that underlines the bond between the logical and the emotional components of the Socratic "elenchus", with the aim of depicting the social valence of this philosophical practice. The use of emotions characterizing the 'elenctic' method described by Plato is…

  15. A novel interplanetary optical navigation algorithm based on Earth-Moon group photos by Chang'e-5T1 probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Yanlong; Zhang, Qiang; Ding, Chibiao; Tang, Geshi; Wang, Hang; Qiu, Rujin; Liang, Libo; Yin, Hejun

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents an interplanetary optical navigation algorithm based on two spherical celestial bodies. The remarkable characteristic of the method is that key navigation parameters can be estimated depending entirely on known sizes and ephemerides of two celestial bodies, especially positioning is realized through a single image and does not rely on traditional terrestrial radio tracking any more. Actual Earth-Moon group photos captured by China's Chang'e-5T1 probe were used to verify the effectiveness of the algorithm. From 430,000 km away from the Earth, the camera pointing accuracy reaches 0.01° (one sigma) and the inertial positioning error is less than 200 km, respectively; meanwhile, the cost of the ground control and human resources are greatly reduced. The algorithm is flexible, easy to implement, and can provide reference to interplanetary autonomous navigation in the solar system.

  16. Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulnix, Jennifer Wilson

    2012-01-01

    As a philosophy professor, one of my central goals is to teach students to think critically. However, one difficulty with determining whether critical thinking can be taught, or even measured, is that there is widespread disagreement over what critical thinking actually is. Here, I reflect on several conceptions of critical thinking, subjecting…

  17. Critical Care

    MedlinePlus

    Critical care helps people with life-threatening injuries and illnesses. It might treat problems such as complications from surgery, ... attention by a team of specially-trained health care providers. Critical care usually takes place in an ...

  18. Critical Viscosity of Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. Shear thirning will cause a normally viscous fluid -- such as pie filling or whipped cream -- to deform and flow more readily under high shear conditions. In shear thinning, a pocket of fluid will deform and move one edge forward, as depicted here.

  19. Frustration and quantum criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vojta, Matthias

    2018-06-01

    This review article is devoted to the interplay between frustrated magnetism and quantum critical phenomena, covering both theoretical concepts and ideas as well as recent experimental developments in correlated-electron materials. The first part deals with local-moment magnetism in Mott insulators and the second part with frustration in metallic systems. In both cases, frustration can either induce exotic phases accompanied by exotic quantum critical points or lead to conventional ordering with unconventional crossover phenomena. In addition, the competition of multiple phases inherent to frustrated systems can lead to multi-criticality.

  20. Critically Thinking about Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissberg, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author states that "critical thinking" has mesmerized academics across the political spectrum and that even high school students are now being called upon to "think critically." He furthers adds that it is no exaggeration to say that "critical thinking" has quickly evolved into a scholarly…

  1. How Critical Is Critical Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ryan D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent educational discourse is full of references to the value of critical thinking as a 21st-century skill. In music education, critical thinking has been discussed in relation to problem solving and music listening, and some researchers suggest that training in critical thinking can improve students' responses to music. But what exactly is…

  2. Critical Thinking vs. Critical Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Howard A.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores four kinds of critical thinking. The first is found in Socratic dialogues, which employ critical thinking mainly to reveal logical fallacies in common opinions, thus cleansing superior minds of error and leaving philosophers free to contemplate universal verities. The second is critical interpretation (hermeneutics) which…

  3. Quantum Critical Higgs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellazzini, Brando; Csáki, Csaba; Hubisz, Jay; Lee, Seung J.; Serra, Javi; Terning, John

    2016-10-01

    The appearance of the light Higgs boson at the LHC is difficult to explain, particularly in light of naturalness arguments in quantum field theory. However, light scalars can appear in condensed matter systems when parameters (like the amount of doping) are tuned to a critical point. At zero temperature these quantum critical points are directly analogous to the finely tuned standard model. In this paper, we explore a class of models with a Higgs near a quantum critical point that exhibits non-mean-field behavior. We discuss the parametrization of the effects of a Higgs emerging from such a critical point in terms of form factors, and present two simple realistic scenarios based on either generalized free fields or a 5D dual in anti-de Sitter space. For both of these models, we consider the processes g g →Z Z and g g →h h , which can be used to gain information about the Higgs scaling dimension and IR transition scale from the experimental data.

  4. HPV16 early gene E5 specifically reduces miRNA-196a in cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chanzhen; Lin, Jianfei; Li, Lianqin; Zhang, Yonggang; Chen, Weiling; Cao, Zeyi; Zuo, Huancong; Chen, Chunling; Kee, Kehkooi

    2015-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16, which is responsible for greater than 50% of cervical cancer cases, is the most prevalent and lethal HPV type. However, the molecular mechanisms of cervical carcinogenesis remain elusive, particularly the early steps of HPV infection that may transform normal cervical epithelium into a pre-neoplastic state. Here, we report that a group of microRNAs (microRNAs) were aberrantly decreased in HPV16-positive normal cervical tissues, and these groups of microRNAs are further reduced in cervical carcinoma. Among these miRNAs, miR196a expression is the most reduced in HPV16-infected tissues. Interestingly, miR196a expression is low in HPV16-positive cervical cancer cell lines but high in HPV16-negative cervical cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we found that only HPV16 early gene E5 specifically down-regulated miRNA196a in the cervical cancer cell lines. In addition, HoxB8, a known miR196a target gene, is up-regulated in the HPV16 cervical carcinoma cell line but not in HPV18 cervical cancer cell lines. Various doses of miR196a affected cervical cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis. Altogether, these results suggested that HPV16 E5 specifically down-regulates miR196a upon infection of the human cervix and initiates the transformation of normal cervix cells to cervical carcinoma. PMID:25563170

  5. Atomistic insights into the nanosecond long amorphization and crystallization cycle of nanoscale G e2S b2T e5 : An ab initio molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branicio, Paulo S.; Bai, Kewu; Ramanarayan, H.; Wu, David T.; Sullivan, Michael B.; Srolovitz, David J.

    2018-04-01

    The complete process of amorphization and crystallization of the phase-change material G e2S b2T e5 is investigated using nanosecond ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Varying the quench rate during the amorphization phase of the cycle results in the generation of a variety of structures from entirely crystallized (-0.45 K/ps) to entirely amorphized (-16 K/ps). The 1.5-ns annealing simulations indicate that the crystallization process depends strongly on both the annealing temperature and the initial amorphous structure. The presence of crystal precursors (square rings) in the amorphous matrix enhances nucleation/crystallization kinetics. The simulation data are used to construct a combined continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) and temperature-time-transformation (TTT) diagram. The nose of the CCT-TTT diagram corresponds to the minimum time for the onset of homogenous crystallization and is located at 600 K and 70 ps. That corresponds to a critical cooling rate for amorphization of -4.5 K/ps. The results, in excellent agreement with experimental observations, suggest that a strategy that utilizes multiple quench rates and annealing temperatures may be used to effectively optimize the reversible switching speed and enable fast and energy-efficient phase-change memories.

  6. Critical Viscosity of Xenon investigators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Dr. Robert F. Berg (right), principal investigator and Dr. Micheal R. Moldover (left), co-investigator, for the Critical Viscosity of Xenon (CVX/CVX-2) experiment. They are with the National Institutes of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD. The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. Although it does not easily combine with other chemicals, its viscosity at the critical point can be used as a model for a range of chemicals.

  7. Procalcitonin as a biomarker for severe Plasmodium falciparum disease: a critical appraisal of a semi-quantitative point-of-care test in a cohort of travellers with imported malaria.

    PubMed

    Hesselink, Dennis A; Burgerhart, Jan-Steven; Bosmans-Timmerarends, Hanna; Petit, Pieter; van Genderen, Perry J J

    2009-09-01

    Imported malaria occurs as a relatively rare event in developed countries. As a consequence, most clinicians have little experience in making clinical assessments of disease severity and decisions regarding the need for parenteral therapy or high-level monitoring. In this study, the diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin (PCT) for severe Plasmodium falciparum disease was assessed in a cohort of 100 consecutive travellers with various species of imported malaria. In all patients, PCT was measured on admission with a semi-quantitative 'point-of-care' test. Patients with severe P. falciparum malaria had significantly higher median PCT levels on admission as compared with patients with uncomplicated P. falciparum disease. In addition, PCT levels in patients with non-falciparum malaria were also higher compared with patients with non-severe falciparum malaria but lower compared with severe P. falciparum malaria. At a cut-off point of 10 ng/mL, PCT had a sensitivity of 0,67 and a specificity of 0,94 for severe falciparum disease. However, at lower cut-off points the specificity and positive predictive value were rather poor although the sensitivity and negative predictive value remained high. Potential drawbacks in the interpretation of elevated PCT levels on admission may be caused by infections with non-falciparum species and by concomitant bacterial infections. Semi-quantitative determination of PCT on admission is of limited use in the initial clinical assessment of disease severity in travellers with imported malaria, especially in settings with limited experience with the treatment of malaria.

  8. Critical thinking.

    PubMed

    Price, A; Price, B

    1996-05-01

    Critical thinking is a process applied to midwifery theory, research and experience. It is a positive activity, responsive to context, drawing on negative and positive triggers and emotions to suggest ways of acting in future. Practice-based and reflective midwifery assignments should reflect the midwifery goals of critical thinking. This may require adjustments in assessment criteria and a questioning of standard academic conventions.

  9. Critical periods and amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Daw, N W

    1998-04-01

    During the past 20 years, basic science has shown that there are different critical periods for different visual functions during the development of the visual system. Visual functions processed at higher anatomical levels within the system have a later critical period than functions processed at lower levels. This general principle suggests that treatments for amblyopia should be followed in a logical sequence, with treatment for each visual function to be started before its critical period is over. However, critical periods for some visual functions, such as stereopsis, are not yet fully determined, and the optimal treatment is, therefore, unknown. This article summarizes the current extent of our knowledge and points to the gaps that need to be filled.

  10. 26 CFR 1.1402(e)-5A - Applications for exemption from self-employment taxes filed after December 31, 1986, by ministers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Science practitioners. 1.1402(e)-5A Section 1.1402(e)-5A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE..., by ministers, certain members of religious orders, and Christian Science practitioners. (a) In...), or a Christian Science practitioner who files an application after December 31, 1986, for exemption...

  11. 26 CFR 1.1402(e)-5A - Applications for exemption from self-employment taxes filed after December 31, 1986, by ministers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Science practitioners. 1.1402(e)-5A Section 1.1402(e)-5A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... ministers, certain members of religious orders, and Christian Science practitioners. (a) In general. (1... Christian Science practitioner who files an application after December 31, 1986, for exemption from the tax...

  12. 26 CFR 1.1402(e)-5A - Applications for exemption from self-employment taxes filed after December 31, 1986, by ministers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Science practitioners. 1.1402(e)-5A Section 1.1402(e)-5A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE..., by ministers, certain members of religious orders, and Christian Science practitioners. (a) In...), or a Christian Science practitioner who files an application after December 31, 1986, for exemption...

  13. 26 CFR 1.1402(e)-5A - Applications for exemption from self-employment taxes filed after December 31, 1986, by ministers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Science practitioners. 1.1402(e)-5A Section 1.1402(e)-5A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE..., by ministers, certain members of religious orders, and Christian Science practitioners. (a) In...), or a Christian Science practitioner who files an application after December 31, 1986, for exemption...

  14. 26 CFR 1.1402(e)-5A - Applications for exemption from self-employment taxes filed after December 31, 1986, by ministers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Science practitioners. 1.1402(e)-5A Section 1.1402(e)-5A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE..., by ministers, certain members of religious orders, and Christian Science practitioners. (a) In...), or a Christian Science practitioner who files an application after December 31, 1986, for exemption...

  15. Anomalous Hall hysteresis in T m3F e5O12/Pt with strain-induced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Chi; Sellappan, Pathikumar; Liu, Yawen; Xu, Yadong; Garay, Javier E.; Shi, Jing

    2016-10-01

    We demonstrate robust interface strain-induced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in atomically flat ferrimagnetic insulator T m3F e5O12 (TIG) films grown with pulsed laser deposition on a substituted G d3G a5O12 substrate which maximizes the tensile strain at the interface. In bilayers consisting of Pt and TIG, we observe large squared Hall hysteresis loops over a wide range of thicknesses of Pt at room temperature. When a thin Cu layer is inserted between Pt and TIG, the Hall hysteresis magnitude decays but stays finite as the thickness of Cu increases up to 5 nm. However, if the Cu layer is placed atop Pt instead, the Hall hysteresis magnitude is consistently larger than when the Cu layer with the same thickness is inserted in between for all Cu thicknesses. These results suggest that both the proximity-induced ferromagnetism and spin current contribute to the anomalous Hall effect.

  16. Horizon as critical phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung-Sik

    2016-09-01

    We show that renormalization group flow can be viewed as a gradual wave function collapse, where a quantum state associated with the action of field theory evolves toward a final state that describes an IR fixed point. The process of collapse is described by the radial evolution in the dual holographic theory. If the theory is in the same phase as the assumed IR fixed point, the initial state is smoothly projected to the final state. If in a different phase, the initial state undergoes a phase transition which in turn gives rise to a horizon in the bulk geometry. We demonstrate the connection between critical behavior and horizon in an example, by deriving the bulk metrics that emerge in various phases of the U( N ) vector model in the large N limit based on the holographic dual constructed from quantum renormalization group. The gapped phase exhibits a geometry that smoothly ends at a finite proper distance in the radial direction. The geometric distance in the radial direction measures a complexity: the depth of renormalization group transformation that is needed to project the generally entangled UV state to a direct product state in the IR. For gapless states, entanglement persistently spreads out to larger length scales, and the initial state can not be projected to the direct product state. The obstruction to smooth projection at charge neutral point manifests itself as the long throat in the anti-de Sitter space. The Poincare horizon at infinity marks the critical point which exhibits a divergent length scale in the spread of entanglement. For the gapless states with non-zero chemical potential, the bulk space becomes the Lifshitz geometry with the dynamical critical exponent two. The identification of horizon as critical point may provide an explanation for the universality of horizon. We also discuss the structure of the bulk tensor network that emerges from the quantum renormalization group.

  17. Critical Viscosity of Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. The sample cell at the heart of CVX-2 will sit inside a thermostat providing three layers of insulation. The cell itself comprises a copper body that conducts heat efficiently and smoothes out thermal variations that that would destroy the xenon's uniformity. Inside the cell, the oscillating screen viscometer element is supported between two pairs of electrodes that deflect the screen and then measure screen motion.

  18. Critical Viscosity of Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2001 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. The thermostat for CVX sits inside the white cylinder on a support structure that is placed inside a pressure canister. A similar canister holds the electronics and control systems. The CVX-2 arrangement is identical. The principal investigator is Dr. Robert F. Berg (not shown) of the National Institutes of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD. This is a detail view of MSFC 0100143.

  19. The different clinical effects of anti-BLyS, anti-APRIL and anti-CD20 antibodies point at a critical pathogenic role of γ-herpesvirus infected B cells in the marmoset EAE model.

    PubMed

    Anwar Jagessar, S; Fagrouch, Zahra; Heijmans, Nicole; Bauer, Jan; Laman, Jon D; Oh, Luke; Migone, Thi; Verschoor, Ernst J; 't Hart, Bert A

    2013-06-01

    The robust and rapid clinical effect of depleting anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) in multiple sclerosis (MS) demonstrates a critical pathogenic contribution of B cells. The clinical effect of anti-CD20 mAb has been replicated in a relevant preclinical MS model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus). By contrast, treatment with mAbs against two essential cytokines in B cell activation growth and survival, i.e. BlyS/BAFF and APRIL, was only partially effective. All three mAbs induced depletion of CD20+ B cells from the circulation, albeit with different kinetics and based on distinct mechanisms of action. In the current study we analyzed whether the different clinical effect of anti-CD20 mAb or the anti-BLyS and anti-APRIL mAbs is due to different depletion of B cells infected with the EBV of marmosets, CalHV3. Employing a novel PCR-based assay, half of the colony of group-housed marmosets was tested positive for CalHV3 DNA in secondary lymphoid organs. The same prevalence was observed in placebo-treated monkeys. In marmosets treated with anti-CD20 mAb the load of CalHV3 DNA in lymphoid organs was substantially reduced, while this was not observed in the monkeys treated with anti-BLyS or anti-APRIL mAbs. To examine the pathogenic role of virus-transformed B cells, we infused EBV-transformed B lymphoblastic cell (BLC) lines presenting the immunodominant MOG34-56 peptide. We observed in the recipients of MOG34-56 pulsed BLC, but not in their fraternal siblings infused with non-pulsed BLC, activation of anti-MOG34-56 T cells and meningeal inflammation. Collectively, the data show that among CD20+ B cells, the herpesvirus-transformed subset has a particularly important pathogenic role in the marmoset EAE model.

  20. E5 can be expressed in anal cancer and leads to epidermal growth factor receptor-induced invasion in a human papillomavirus 16-transformed anal epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Wechsler, Erin Isaacson; Tugizov, Sharof; Herrera, Rossana; Da Costa, Maria; Palefsky, Joel M

    2018-05-01

    We detected the first human papillomavirus (HPV)-16-immortalized anal epithelial cell line, known as AKC2 cells to establish an in vitro model of HPV-16-induced anal carcinogenesis. Consistent with detection of E6, E7 and E5 expression in anal cancer biopsies, AKC2 cells expressed high levels of all three HPV oncogenes. Also, similar to findings in anal cancer biopsies, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was overexpressed in AKC2 cells. AKC2 cells exhibited a poorly differentiated and invasive phenotype in three-dimensional raft culture and inhibition of EGFR function abrogated AKC2 invasion. Reducing E5 expression using E5-targeted siRNAs in AKC2 cells led to knockdown of E5 expression, but also HPV-16 E2, E6 and E7 expression. AKC2 cells treated with E5-targeted siRNA had reduced levels of total and phosphorylated EGFR, and reduced invasion. Rescue of E6/E7 expression with simultaneous E5 knockdown confirmed that E5 plays a key role in EGFR overexpression and EGFR-induced invasion.

  1. NULL Convention Floating Point Multiplier

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Seshasayanan

    2015-01-01

    Floating point multiplication is a critical part in high dynamic range and computational intensive digital signal processing applications which require high precision and low power. This paper presents the design of an IEEE 754 single precision floating point multiplier using asynchronous NULL convention logic paradigm. Rounding has not been implemented to suit high precision applications. The novelty of the research is that it is the first ever NULL convention logic multiplier, designed to perform floating point multiplication. The proposed multiplier offers substantial decrease in power consumption when compared with its synchronous version. Performance attributes of the NULL convention logic floating point multiplier, obtained from Xilinx simulation and Cadence, are compared with its equivalent synchronous implementation. PMID:25879069

  2. NULL convention floating point multiplier.

    PubMed

    Albert, Anitha Juliette; Ramachandran, Seshasayanan

    2015-01-01

    Floating point multiplication is a critical part in high dynamic range and computational intensive digital signal processing applications which require high precision and low power. This paper presents the design of an IEEE 754 single precision floating point multiplier using asynchronous NULL convention logic paradigm. Rounding has not been implemented to suit high precision applications. The novelty of the research is that it is the first ever NULL convention logic multiplier, designed to perform floating point multiplication. The proposed multiplier offers substantial decrease in power consumption when compared with its synchronous version. Performance attributes of the NULL convention logic floating point multiplier, obtained from Xilinx simulation and Cadence, are compared with its equivalent synchronous implementation.

  3. OH/H2O Detection Capability Evaluation on Chang'e-5 Lunar Mineralogical Spectrometer (LMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Ren, Xin; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Chunlai; Mu, Lingli; Deng, Liyan

    2016-10-01

    The Chang'e-5 (CE-5) lunar sample return mission is scheduled to launch in 2017 to bring back lunar regolith and drill samples. The Chang'e-5 Lunar Mineralogical Spectrometer (LMS), as one of the three sets of scientific payload installed on the lander, is used to collect in-situ spectrum and analyze the mineralogical composition of the samplingsite. It can also help to select the sampling site, and to compare the measured laboratory spectrum of returned sample with in-situ data. LMS employs acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs) and is composed of a VIS/NIR module (0.48μm-1.45μm) and an IR module (1.4μm -3.2μm). It has spectral resolution ranging from 3 to 25 nm, with a field of view (FOV) of 4.24°×4.24°. Unlike Chang'e-3 VIS/NIR Imaging Spectrometer (VNIS), the spectral coverage of LMS is extended from 2.4μm to 3.2μm, which has capability to identify H2O/OH absorption features around 2.7μm. An aluminum plate and an Infragold plate are fixed in the dust cover, being used as calibration targets in the VIS/NIR and IR spectral range respectively when the dust cover is open. Before launch, a ground verification test of LMS needs to be conducted in order to: 1) test and verify the detection capability of LMS through evaluation on the quality of image and spectral data collected for the simulated lunar samples; and 2) evaluate the accuracy of data processing methods by the simulation of instrument working on the moon. The ground verification test will be conducted both in the lab and field. The spectra of simulated lunar regolith/mineral samples will be collected simultaneously by the LMS and two calibrated spectrometers: a FTIR spectrometer (Model 102F) and an ASD FieldSpec 4 Hi-Res spectrometer. In this study, the results of the LMS ground verification test will be reported, and OH/H2O Detection Capability will be evaluated especially.

  4. Optimal cut points of plasma and urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin for the prediction of acute kidney injury among critically ill adults: retrospective determination and clinical validation of a prospective multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Tecson, Kristen M; Erhardtsen, Elisabeth; Eriksen, Peter M; Gaber, A Osama; Germain, Michael; Golestaneh, Ladan; Lavoria, Maria de Los Angeles; Moore, Linda W; McCullough, Peter A

    2017-07-10

    To determine the optimal threshold of blood and urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) to predict moderate to severe acute kidney injury (AKI) and persistent moderate to severe AKI lasting at least 48 consecutive hours, as defined by an adjudication panel. A multicentre prospective observational study enrolled intensive care unit (ICU) patients and recorded daily ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) plasma, heparin plasma and urine NGAL. We used natural log-transformed NGAL in a logistic regression model to predict stage 2/3 AKI (defined by Kidney Disease International Global Organization). We performed the same analysis using the NGAL value at the start of persistent stage 2/3 AKI. Of 245 subjects, 33 (13.5%) developed stage 2/3 AKI and 25 (10.2%) developed persistent stage 2/3 AKI. Predicting stage 2/3 AKI revealed the optimal NGAL cutoffs in EDTA plasma (142.0 ng/mL), heparin plasma (148.3 ng/mL) and urine (78.0 ng/mL) and yielded the following decision statistics: sensitivity (SN)=78.8%, specificity (SP)=73.0%, positive predictive value (PPV)=31.3%, negative predictive value (NPV)=95.7%, diagnostic accuracy (DA)=73.8% (EDTA plasma); SN=72.7%, SP=73.8%, PPV=30.4%, NPV=94.5%, DA=73.7% (heparin plasma); SN=69.7%, SP=76.8%, PPV=32.9%, NPV=94%, DA=75.8% (urine). The optimal NGAL cutoffs to predict persistent stage 2/3 AKI were similar: 148.3 ng/mL (EDTA plasma), 169.6 ng/mL (heparin plasma) and 79.0 ng/mL (urine) yielding: SN=84.0%, SP=73.5%, PPV=26.6%, NPV=97.6, DA=74.6% (EDTA plasma), SN=84%, SP=76.1%, PPV=26.8%, NPV=96.5%, DA=76.1% (heparin plasma) and SN=75%, SP=75.8%, PPV=26.1, NPV=96.4%, DA=75.7% (urine). Blood and urine NGAL predicted stage 2/3 AKI, as well as persistent 2/3 AKI in the ICU with acceptable decision statistics using a single cut point in each type of specimen. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted

  5. Effect of (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine on several parameters of Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z X; Liu, Y X; Chen, H C; Allaudeen, H S; De Clercq, E

    1984-01-01

    The selective and potent anti-herpesvirus drug, (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (BVdU), has been examined for its inhibitory effects on several parameters of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in the lymphoblastoid cell lines Raji, P3HR-1, B-95-8 and P3 hybrid cells (a human embryo oropharyngeal cell line fused with a nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line). At a dosage of 0.03 to 0.1 mM, BVdU caused a marked inhibition of (i) spontaneous viral capsid antigen (VCA) expression in B-95-8 and P3 hybrid cells, (ii) VCA expression and DNA synthesis in B-95-8 cells induced with croton oil and n-butyrate, (iii) early antigen (EA) expression and DNA synthesis in Raji cells superinfected with EBV, and (iv) VCA expression and DNA synthesis in B-95-8 cells superinfected with EBV. In its inhibitory effects on these various parameters of EBV infection, BVdU appears to be comparable to acyclovir [9-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl)guanine], another selective anti-herpesvirus drug which has been previously recognized as an effective inhibitor of EBV replication.

  6. Transforming activity of E5a protein of human papillomavirus type 6 in NIH 3T3 and C127 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, S L; Mounts, P

    1990-07-01

    Human papillomavirus type 6 (HPV-6) is the etiologic agent of genital warts and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. We are investigating the mechanism by which this virus stimulates cell proliferation during infection. In this paper, we report that the E5a gene of HPV-6c, an independent isolate of HPV-11, is capable of transforming NIH 3T3 cells. The E5a open reading frame (ORF) was expressed under the control of the mouse metallothionein promoter in the expression vector pMt.neo.1, which also contains the gene for G418 resistance. Transfected cells were selected for G418 resistance and analyzed for a transformed phenotype. The transformed NIH 3T3 cells overgrew a confluent monolayer, had an accelerated generation time, and were anchorage independent. In contrast, E5a did not induce foci in C127 cells, but C127 cells expressing E5a did form small colonies in suspension. The presence of the 12-kilodalton E5a gene product in the transformed NIH 3T3 cells was shown by immunoprecipitation and was localized predominantly to nuclei by an immunoperoxidase assay. A mutation in the E5a ORF was engineered to terminate translation. This mutant was defective for transformation, demonstrating that translation of the E5a ORF is required for biological activity. This is the first demonstration of a transforming oncogene in HPV-6, and the differential activity of E5a in these two cell lines should facilitate future investigations on the mechanism of transformation.

  7. Strongly extended diffusion length for the nonequilibrium magnons in Y3F e5O12 by photoexcitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. H.; Li, G.; Guo, E. J.; Zhao, Y.; Wang, J. Y.; Zou, L. K.; Yan, H.; Cai, J. W.; Zhang, Z. T.; Wang, M.; Tian, Y. Y.; Zheng, X. L.; Sun, J. R.; Jin, K. X.

    2018-05-01

    Y3F e5O12 (YIG) is known for its long magnon diffusion length. Although it has the known lowest damping rate, an even longer diffusion distance is still highly desired since it may lead to a much more efficient information transmission and processing. While most of previous works focused on the generation and detection of magnons in YIG, here we demonstrate how to depress the damping rate during the diffusion of magnon. By selectively exciting the spin state transition of the Fe ions in YIG, we successfully increase magnon diffusion length by one order of magnitude, i.e., from the previous reported ˜10 μm up to ˜156 μm (for the sample prepared by liquid phase epitaxy) and ˜180 μm (for the sample prepared by pulsed laser deposition) at room temperature. The diffusion length, determined by nonlocal geometry, is ˜30 μm for the magnons induced by visible light and above 150 μm for the laser of 980 nm. In addition to thermal gradient, light excitation affects the electron configuration of the F e3 + ion in YIG. Long-wavelength laser is more effective since it causes a transition of the F e3 + ions in Fe O6 octahedron from a high spin to a low spin state and thus causes a magnon softening which favors a long-distance diffusion. The present work paves the way toward an efficient tuning of magnon transport which is crucially important for magnon spintronics.

  8. NSDC Policy Points. Volume 1, Number 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Staff Development Council, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "NSDC Policy Points" is a newsletter published by the National Staff Development Council (NSDC). This issue of "NSDC Policy Points" discusses why collaborative learning is critical to professional development. Included in this newsletter is an article about team learning in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. [For Volume 1, Number 3 of…

  9. The Bovine Papillomavirus E5 Protein Requires a Juxtamembrane Negative Charge for Activation of the Platelet-Derived Growth Factor β Receptor and Transformation of C127 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Ophir; Kegler-Ebo, Deena; Su, Jennifer; Smith, Steven; DiMaio, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    The bovine papillomavirus E5 gene encodes a 44-amino-acid, homodimeric transmembrane protein that is the smallest known transforming protein. The E5 protein transforms cultured fibroblasts by forming a stable complex with the endogenous platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) β receptor through transmembrane and juxtamembrane interactions, leading to sustained receptor activation. Aspartic acid 33 in the extracellular juxtamembrane region of the E5 protein is important for cell transformation and interaction with the PDGF β receptor. A. N. Meyer et al. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA 91:4634–4638, 1994) speculated that this residue interacted with lysine 499 on the receptor. We constructed E5 mutants containing all possible substitutions at position 33, as well as several double mutants containing substitutions at aspartic acid 33 and at glutamic acid 36, and we examined the ability of these mutants to transform C127 mouse fibroblasts and to bind to and induce activation of the PDGF β receptor. There was an excellent correlation between the transformation activities of the various mutants and their ability to bind to and activate the PDGF β receptor. Analysis of the mutants demonstrated that a juxtamembrane negative charge on the E5 protein was required for cell transformation and for productive interaction with the PDGF β receptor and indicated that aspartic acid 33 was more important for these activities than was glutamic acid 36. These results are consistent with the existence of an essential juxtamembrane salt bridge between lysine 499 on the PDGF β receptor and an acidic residue in the C terminus of the E5 protein and lend support to our proposed model for the complex between the E5 dimer and the PDGF β receptor. PMID:10074180

  10. The bovine papillomavirus E5 protein requires a juxtamembrane negative charge for activation of the platelet-derived growth factor beta receptor and transformation of C127 cells.

    PubMed

    Klein, O; Kegler-Ebo, D; Su, J; Smith, S; DiMaio, D

    1999-04-01

    The bovine papillomavirus E5 gene encodes a 44-amino-acid, homodimeric transmembrane protein that is the smallest known transforming protein. The E5 protein transforms cultured fibroblasts by forming a stable complex with the endogenous platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) beta receptor through transmembrane and juxtamembrane interactions, leading to sustained receptor activation. Aspartic acid 33 in the extracellular juxtamembrane region of the E5 protein is important for cell transformation and interaction with the PDGF beta receptor. A. N. Meyer et al. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA 91:4634-4638, 1994) speculated that this residue interacted with lysine 499 on the receptor. We constructed E5 mutants containing all possible substitutions at position 33, as well as several double mutants containing substitutions at aspartic acid 33 and at glutamic acid 36, and we examined the ability of these mutants to transform C127 mouse fibroblasts and to bind to and induce activation of the PDGF beta receptor. There was an excellent correlation between the transformation activities of the various mutants and their ability to bind to and activate the PDGF beta receptor. Analysis of the mutants demonstrated that a juxtamembrane negative charge on the E5 protein was required for cell transformation and for productive interaction with the PDGF beta receptor and indicated that aspartic acid 33 was more important for these activities than was glutamic acid 36. These results are consistent with the existence of an essential juxtamembrane salt bridge between lysine 499 on the PDGF beta receptor and an acidic residue in the C terminus of the E5 protein and lend support to our proposed model for the complex between the E5 dimer and the PDGF beta receptor.

  11. RELIABLE COMPUTATION OF MIXTURE CRITICAL POINTS. (R826734)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  12. Critical Linguistics: A Starting Point for Oppositional Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janks, Hilary

    This document focuses on specific linguistic features that serve ideological functions in texts written in South Africa from 1985 to 1988. The features examined include: naming; metaphors; old words with new meanings; words becoming tainted; renaming or lexicalization; overlexicalization; strategies for resisting classification; tense and aspect;…

  13. Learning the Critical Points for Addition in Matematika GASING

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siregar, Johannes Hamonangan; Wiyanti, Wiwik; Wakhyuningsih, Nur Safitri; Godjali, Ali

    2014-01-01

    We propose learning Matematika GASING to help students better understand the addition material. Matematika GASING is a way of learning mathematics in an easy, fun and enjoyable fashion. GASING is short for GAmpang, aSyIk, and menyenaNGkan (Bahasa Indonesia for easy, fun and enjoyable). It was originally developed by Prof. Yohanes Surya at the…

  14. SPS antenna pointing control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The pointing control of a microwave antenna of the Satellite Power System was investigated emphasizing: (1) the SPS antenna pointing error sensing method; (2) a rigid body pointing control design; and (3) approaches for modeling the flexible body characteristics of the solar collector. Accuracy requirements for the antenna pointing control consist of a mechanical pointing control accuracy of three arc-minutes and an electronic phased array pointing accuracy of three arc-seconds. Results based on the factors considered in current analysis, show that the three arc-minute overall pointing control accuracy can be achieved in practice.

  15. Critical Thinking, Autonomy and Practical Reason

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuypers, Stefaan E.

    2004-01-01

    This article points out an internal tension, or even conflict, in the conceptual foundations of Harvey Siegel's conception of critical thinking. Siegel justifies critical thinking, or critically rational autonomy, as an educational ideal first and foremost by an appeal to the Kantian principle of respect for persons. It is made explicit that this…

  16. Assessing criticality in seismicity by entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goltz, C.

    2003-04-01

    There is an ongoing discussion whether the Earth's crust is in a critical state and whether this state is permanent or intermittent. Intermittent criticality would allow specification of time-dependent hazard in principle. Analysis of a spatio-temporally evolving synthetic critical point phenomenon and of real seismicity using configurational entropy shows that the method is a suitable approach for the characterisation of critical point dynamics. Results obtained rather support the notion of intermittent criticality in earthquakes. Statistical significance of the findings is assessed by the method of surrogate data.

  17. [Survey of analytical works for drugs at emergency and critical care centers with high-performance instruments provided by the Ministry of Health and Welfare (at present: Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare) in fiscal 1998--continuation of survey with 2008 survey results as point of reference].

    PubMed

    Saito, Takeshi; Tominaga, Aya; Nozawa, Mayu; Unei, Hiroko; Hatano, Yayoi; Fujita, Yuji; Iseki, Ken; Hori, Yasushi

    2013-09-01

    In a 2008 survey of the 73 emergency and critical care centers around the nation that were equipped with the drug and chemical analytical instrument provided by the Ministry of Welfare (currently the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare) in 1998, 36 of those facilities were using the analytical instruments. Of these 36 facilities, a follow-up survey of the 17 facilities that recorded 50 or analyses per year. Responses were gained from 16 of the facilities and we learned that of those, 14 facilities (87.5%) were conducting analyses using the instrument. There was a positive mutual correlation between the annual number of cases of the 14 facilities conducting analyses with the instrument and the number of work hours. Depending on the instrument in use, average analytical instrument parts and maintenance expenses were roughly three million yen and consumables required a maximum three million yen for analysis of 51-200 cases per year. From this, we calculate that such expenses can be covered under the allowed budget for advanced emergency and critical care centers of 5,000 NHI points (1 point = 10 yen). We found there were few facilities using the instrument for all 15 of the toxic substances recommended for testing by the Japanese Society for Clinical Toxicology. There tended to be no use of the analytical instrument for compounds with no toxicology cases. However, flexible responses were noted at each facility in relation to frequently analyzed compounds. It is thought that a reevaluation of compounds subject to analysis is required.

  18. Healthcare Disparities in Critical Illness

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Graciela J.; Martin, Greg S.; Gong, Michelle Ng

    2013-01-01

    Objective To summarize the current literature on racial and gender disparities in critical care and the mechanisms underlying these disparities in the course of acute critical illness. Data Sources MEDLINE search on the published literature addressing racial, ethnic, or gender disparities in acute critical illness such as sepsis, acute lung injury, pneumonia, venous thromboembolism, and cardiac arrest. Study Selection Clinical studies that evaluated general critically ill patient populations in the United States as well as specific critical care conditions were reviewed with a focus on studies evaluating factors and contributors to health disparities. Data Extraction Study findings are presented according to their association with the incidence, clinical presentation, management, and outcomes in acute critical illness. Data Synthesis This review presents potential contributors for racial and gender disparities related to genetic susceptibility, comorbidities, preventive health services, socioeconomic factors, cultural differences, and access to care. The data is organized along the course of acute critical illness. Conclusions The literature to date shows that disparities in critical care are most likely multifactorial involving individual, community, and hospital-level factors at several points in the continuum of acute critical illness. The data presented identify potential targets as interventions to reduce disparities in critical care and future avenues for research. PMID:24121467

  19. Healthcare disparities in critical illness.

    PubMed

    Soto, Graciela J; Martin, Greg S; Gong, Michelle Ng

    2013-12-01

    To summarize the current literature on racial and gender disparities in critical care and the mechanisms underlying these disparities in the course of acute critical illness. MEDLINE search on the published literature addressing racial, ethnic, or gender disparities in acute critical illness, such as sepsis, acute lung injury, pneumonia, venous thromboembolism, and cardiac arrest. Clinical studies that evaluated general critically ill patient populations in the United States as well as specific critical care conditions were reviewed with a focus on studies evaluating factors and contributors to health disparities. Study findings are presented according to their association with the prevalence, clinical presentation, management, and outcomes in acute critical illness. This review presents potential contributors for racial and gender disparities related to genetic susceptibility, comorbidities, preventive health services, socioeconomic factors, cultural differences, and access to care. The data are organized along the course of acute critical illness. The literature to date shows that disparities in critical care are most likely multifactorial involving individual, community, and hospital-level factors at several points in the continuum of acute critical illness. The data presented identify potential targets as interventions to reduce disparities in critical care and future avenues for research.

  20. More practical critical height sampling.

    Thomas B. Lynch; Jeffrey H. Gove

    2015-01-01

    Critical Height Sampling (CHS) (Kitamura 1964) can be used to predict cubic volumes per acre without using volume tables or equations. The critical height is defined as the height at which the tree stem appears to be in borderline condition using the point-sampling angle gauge (e.g. prism). An estimate of cubic volume per acre can be obtained from multiplication of the...

  1. Critical Viscosity of Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of liquid xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. Resembling a tiny bit of window screen, the oscillator at the heart of CVX-2 will vibrate between two pairs of paddle-like electrodes. The slight bend in the shape of the mesh has no effect on the data. What counts are the mesh's displacement in the xenon fluid and the rate at which the displacement dampens. The unit shown here is encased in a small test cell and capped with a sapphire windown to contain the xenon at high pressure.

  2. Criticality in Neuronal Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Nir; Ito, Shinya; Brinkman, Braden A. W.; Shimono, Masanori; Deville, R. E. Lee; Beggs, John M.; Dahmen, Karin A.; Butler, Tom C.

    2012-02-01

    In recent years, experiments detecting the electrical firing patterns in slices of in vitro brain tissue have been analyzed to suggest the presence of scale invariance and possibly criticality in the brain. Much of the work done however has been limited in two ways: 1) the data collected is from local field potentials that do not represent the firing of individual neurons; 2) the analysis has been primarily limited to histograms. In our work we examine data based on the firing of individual neurons (spike data), and greatly extend the analysis by considering shape collapse and exponents. Our results strongly suggest that the brain operates near a tuned critical point of a highly distinctive universality class.

  3. Productive interaction between transmembrane mutants of the bovine papillomavirus E5 protein and the platelet-derived growth factor beta receptor.

    PubMed

    Lai, Char-Chang; Edwards, Anne P B; DiMaio, Daniel

    2005-02-01

    The bovine papillomavirus E5 protein is a 44-amino-acid transmembrane protein that transforms cells by binding to the transmembrane region of the cellular platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) beta receptor, resulting in sustained receptor signaling. However, there are published reports that certain mutants with amino acid substitutions in the membrane-spanning segment of the E5 protein transform cells without activating the PDGF beta receptor. We re-examined several of these transmembrane mutants, and here we present five lines of evidence that these mutants do in fact activate the PDGF beta receptor, resulting in cellular signaling and transformation.

  4. Point-to-Point Multicast Communications Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, Gregory T.; Nakano, Russell; Delagi, Bruce A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a protocol to support point-to-point interprocessor communications with multicast. Dynamic, cut-through routing with local flow control is used to provide a high-throughput, low-latency communications path between processors. In addition multicast transmissions are available, in which copies of a packet are sent to multiple destinations using common resources as much as possible. Special packet terminators and selective buffering are introduced to avoid a deadlock during multicasts. A simulated implementation of the protocol is also described.

  5. Volume 2 - Point Sources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Point source emission reference materials from the Emissions Inventory Improvement Program (EIIP). Provides point source guidance on planning, emissions estimation, data collection, inventory documentation and reporting, and quality assurance/quality contr

  6. Marine Point Forecasts

    with smartphones and other mobile platforms new Marine Point Forecasts are a forecast for a specific maps providing zone/point marine forecasts Mobile, AL Eureka, CA San Francisco, CA Los Angeles, CA San

  7. The End of Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Jo

    2018-01-01

    Have teachers become too dependent on points? This article explores educators' dependency on their points systems, and the ways that points can distract teachers from really analyzing students' capabilities and achievements. Feldman argues that using a more subjective grading system can help illuminate crucial information about students and what…

  8. Point by Point: Adding up Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchionda, Denise

    2010-01-01

    Students often view their course grades as a mysterious equation of teacher-given grades, teacher-given grace, and some other ethereal components based on luck. However, giving students the power to earn points based on numerous daily/weekly assignments and attendance makes the grading process objective and personal, freeing the instructor to…

  9. First University of Michigan Strongarm sounding rocket on launcher at Wallops for test, November 10, 1959E5-188 Shop and Launcher Pictures

    1959-11-10

    L59-7932 First University of Michigan Strongarm sounding rocket on launcher at Wallops for test, November 10, 1959. Photograph published in A New Dimension Wallops Island Flight Test Range: The First Fifteen Years by Joseph Shortal. A NASA publication. Page 701.E5-188 Shop and Launcher Pictures

  10. 26 CFR 1.1402(e)(5)-2 - Optional provisions for certain certificates filed on or before April 17, 1967.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., 1967. (a) In general—(1) General rule. Section 1402(e)(5), as amended by the Social Security Amendments... poverty as a member of such order), or a Christian Science practitioner, who has derived net earnings in... Christian Science practitioner, respectively, and who has reported such earnings as self-employment income...

  11. 47 CFR 51.807 - Arbitration and mediation of agreements by the Commission pursuant to section 252(e)(5) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Arbitration and mediation of agreements by the Commission pursuant to section 252(e)(5) of the Act. 51.807 Section 51.807 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Implementation of Section 252 of the Act § 51.807 Arbitration and mediation of agreements by the Commission...

  12. Telescope pointing for GOPEX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, W. M., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    In order for photons emitted by the GOPEX lasers to be detected by Galileo's camera, the telescopes at Table Mountain Observatory and Starfire Optical Range had to be pointed in the right direction within a tolerance less than the beam divergence. At both sites nearby stars were used as pointing references. The technical challenge was to ensure that the transmission direction and the star positions were specified in exactly the same coordinate system; given this assurance, neither the uncertainty in the star catalog positions nor the difficulty in offset pointing was expected to exceed the pointing error budget. The correctness of the pointing scheme was verified by the success of GOPEX.

  13. Point specificity in acupuncture

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The existence of point specificity in acupuncture is controversial, because many acupuncture studies using this principle to select control points have found that sham acupoints have similar effects to those of verum acupoints. Furthermore, the results of pain-related studies based on visual analogue scales have not supported the concept of point specificity. In contrast, hemodynamic, functional magnetic resonance imaging and neurophysiological studies evaluating the responses to stimulation of multiple points on the body surface have shown that point-specific actions are present. This review article focuses on clinical and laboratory studies supporting the existence of point specificity in acupuncture and also addresses studies that do not support this concept. Further research is needed to elucidate the point-specific actions of acupuncture. PMID:22373514

  14. Critical conditions for rill initiation

    C. Yao; T. Lei; W. J. Elliot; D. K. McCool; J. Zhao; S. Chen

    2008-01-01

    Quantifying critical conditions of rill formation can be useful for a better understanding of soil erosion processes. Current studies lack a consensus and related rationale on how to describe these conditions. This study was based on the concepts that (1) the shear stress available for erosion at any given point is a function of the runoff rate, the slope steepness,...

  15. Critical behavior in the system cyclopentanone + water + secondary butyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, U. Santhi; Unni, P. K. Madhavan

    2018-05-01

    We report detailed measurements of coexistence surface in the ternary system cylcopentanone + water + secondary butyl alcohol. The coexistence surface is seen to have an unusual tunnel like feature and is a potential system in which special critical points such as the Quadruple Critical Point (QCP) could be studied. Analysis of coexistence curves indicates that the system shows 3D-Ising like critical behavior.

  16. Conjugation of (E)-5-[2-(Methoxycarbonyl)ethenyl]cytidine to hydrophilic microspheres: development of a mobile microscale UV light actinometer.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shiyue; Guan, Yousheng; Blatchley, Ernest R; Shen, Chengyue; Bergstrom, Donald E

    2008-03-01

    ( E)-5-[2-(Methoxycarbonyl)ethenyl]cytidine was biotinylated through a diisopropylsilylacetal linkage and attached to the surface of hydrophilic streptavidin-coated microspheres through the high-affinity noncovalent interaction between biotin and streptavidin. The functionalized microspheres form a stable suspension in water. Upon UV irradiation, the nonfluorescent ( E)-5-[2-(methoxycarbonyl)ethenyl]cytidine on the microspheres undergoes photocyclization to produce highly fluorescent 3-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-2,7-dioxopyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine. The fluorescence intensity of the microspheres can be correlated to the particle-specific UV doses applied at different suspension concentrations. The microspheres allow one to measure the UV dose (fluence) distribution in high-throughput water disinfection systems.

  17. The Lagrangian Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linton, J. Oliver

    2017-01-01

    There are five unique points in a star/planet system where a satellite can be placed whose orbital period is equal to that of the planet. Simple methods for calculating the positions of these points, or at least justifying their existence, are developed.

  18. Model Breaking Points Conceptualized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vig, Rozy; Murray, Eileen; Star, Jon R.

    2014-01-01

    Current curriculum initiatives (e.g., National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School Officers 2010) advocate that models be used in the mathematics classroom. However, despite their apparent promise, there comes a point when models break, a point in the mathematical problem space where the model cannot,…

  19. Nickel Curie Point Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiaverina, Chris; Lisensky, George

    2014-01-01

    Ferromagnetic materials such as nickel, iron, or cobalt lose the electron alignment that makes them attracted to a magnet when sufficient thermal energy is added. The temperature at which this change occurs is called the "Curie temperature," or "Curie point." Nickel has a Curie point of 627 K, so a candle flame is a sufficient…

  20. Observation of Weyl points

    copolymers, liquid crystals. Experimental observation of Weyl points First public annoucement on 11 Feburary Vishwanath from University of California, Berkeley. "Experimental Observation of Weyl Semimetals" ; Published by Science on 16 July, 2015. "Experimental observation of Weyl points" Featured on the

  1. Critical N = (1, 1) general massive supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deger, Nihat Sadik; Moutsopoulos, George; Rosseel, Jan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we study the supermultiplet structure of N = (1, 1) General Massive Supergravity at non-critical and critical points of its parameter space. To do this, we first linearize the theory around its maximally supersymmetric AdS3 vacuum and obtain the full linearized Lagrangian including fermionic terms. At generic values, linearized modes can be organized as two massless and 2 massive multiplets where supersymmetry relates them in the standard way. At critical points logarithmic modes appear and we find that in three of such points some of the supersymmetry transformations are non-invertible in logarithmic multiplets. However, in the fourth critical point, there is a massive logarithmic multiplet with invertible supersymmetry transformations.

  2. Point Barrow, Alaska

    2015-09-10

    Point Barrow or Nuvuk, Alaska is the northernmost point of all territory of the United States. It also marks the limit between the Chukchi Sea to the west, and the Beaufort Sea to the east. Archaeological evidence indicates that Point Barrow was occupied about 500 CE, probably as hunting camps for whales. The image covers an area of 32 by 38 km, was acquired July 29, 2015, and is located at 71.6 degrees north, 156.45 degrees west. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19775

  3. Critical Thinking in Nurse Anesthesia Education: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Shari; Mendel, Shaun; Fisher, Rodney; Cooper, Kimball; Fisher, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Critical thinking is pivotal for student success in health professions education. Knowing the critical thinking ability of the learner helps educators tailor curriculum to enhance critical thinking. A quantitative comparative pilot study assessed critical thinking ability for students at two distinct points in a nurse anesthesia program…

  4. Critical issues in telemedicine.

    PubMed

    Bashshur, R L

    1997-01-01

    Critical issues facing the development of telemedicine today are described and analyzed as dilemmas or paradoxes. The technological dilemma involves the difficult choice between using the latest technology regardless of how well it fits specific needs on the one hand, and the reluctance to capitalize on the available technological capability to create efficient and effective organizations for expanding the reach of health care on the other hand. The evaluation paradox points to the disjuncture between policy making requirements and the scientific enterprise. This engenders the difficulty of producing scientifically valid and policy relevant results from programs that have not achieved maturity or a steady state of operation. The contextual hazards of limiting the scope of telemedicine to rural areas are discussed, as well as the potential for creating a second tier of care for the remote and isolated populations. Finally, professional maturation is addressed as it underscores the importance of self regulation and control.

  5. Arctic climate tipping points.

    PubMed

    Lenton, Timothy M

    2012-02-01

    There is widespread concern that anthropogenic global warming will trigger Arctic climate tipping points. The Arctic has a long history of natural, abrupt climate changes, which together with current observations and model projections, can help us to identify which parts of the Arctic climate system might pass future tipping points. Here the climate tipping points are defined, noting that not all of them involve bifurcations leading to irreversible change. Past abrupt climate changes in the Arctic are briefly reviewed. Then, the current behaviour of a range of Arctic systems is summarised. Looking ahead, a range of potential tipping phenomena are described. This leads to a revised and expanded list of potential Arctic climate tipping elements, whose likelihood is assessed, in terms of how much warming will be required to tip them. Finally, the available responses are considered, especially the prospects for avoiding Arctic climate tipping points.

  6. Collinear Points Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Harris S.; Shiflett, Ray C.

    2008-01-01

    Students were asked to find all possible values for A so that the points (1, 2), (5, A), and (A, 7) lie on a straight line. This problem suggests a generalization: Given (x, y), find all values of A so that the points (x, y), (5, A), and (A, 7) lie on a straight line. We find that this question about linear equations must be resolved using the…

  7. Spatializing Critical Education: Progress and Cautions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrare, Joseph J.; Apple, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    Recently critical scholars have shown a renewed interest in spatial relations in educational contexts. In this essay we use selections from Gulson and Symes's edited volume "Spatial theories of education" as a point of departure to examine what spatial analysis can contribute to the critical education traditions. We argue that, when done…

  8. Herbert Marcuse's Critical Theory of the Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Patrick J.

    As a member of the Frankfurt School of critical theory, Herbert Marcuse believed that industrial capitalism and the bureaucratization of society stripped humans of any claims to autonomy and undermined their critical expression with a functional language. However, Marcuse did no more than point an inchoate ideological finger at the production side…

  9. Optimizing Reasonableness, Critical Thinking, and Cyberspace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikuenobe, Polycarp

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the author argues that the quantity, superabundance of information, easy availability, and quick access to information in cyberspace may engender critical thinking and the optimization of reasonableness. This point is different from, but presupposes, the commonplace view that critical thinking abilities, criteria, processes, and…

  10. Critical Viscosity of Xenon team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. The thermostat for CVX sits inside the white cylinder on a support structure (at left) that is placed inside a pressure canister. A similar canister (right) holds the electronics and control systems. The CVX-2 arrangement is identical. The principal investigator is Dr. Robert F. Berg (left) of the National Institutes of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.

  11. Critical Viscosity of Xenon team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. The thermostat for CVX sits inside the white cylinder on a support structure (at left) that is placed inside a pressure canister. A similar canister (right) holds the electronics and control systems. The CVX-2 arrangement is identical. The principal investigator is Dr. Robert F. Berg (not shown) of the National Institutes of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.

  12. Where Is the "Critical" in Critical Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latchaw, Joan S.

    Because it has been overworked, underanalyzed, and undefined, critical thinking has come to mean anything or nothing. The best work on critical thinking imagines it as an act of composing and revising. Definitions of critical thinking have undergone a historical evolution--from general problem-solving "skills" to a complex of…

  13. Critical Thinking in Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Rodney D.

    Critical thinking is often defined as that which a particular instrument measures. The most prominent tests are the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal, the Ennis-Weir Critical Thinking Essay Test, and the Cornell Critical Thinking Tests. Watson and Glaser's (1980) view of critical thinking is "a composite of attitudes, knowledge, and…

  14. SOFIA pointing history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kärcher, Hans J.; Kunz, Nans; Temi, Pasquale; Krabbe, Alfred; Wagner, Jörg; Süß, Martin

    2014-07-01

    The original pointing accuracy requirement of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy SOFIA was defined at the beginning of the program in the late 1980s as very challenging 0.2 arcsec rms. The early science flights of the observatory started in December 2010 and the observatory has reached in the mean time nearly 0.7 arcsec rms, which is sufficient for most of the SOFIA science instruments. NASA and DLR, the owners of SOFIA, are planning now a future 4 year program to bring the pointing down to the ultimate 0.2 arcsec rms. This may be the right time to recall the history of the pointing requirement and its verification and the possibility of its achievement via early computer models and wind tunnel tests, later computer aided end-to-end simulations up to the first commissioning flights some years ago. The paper recollects the tools used in the different project phases for the verification of the pointing performance, explains the achievements and may give hints for the planning of the upcoming final pointing improvement phase.

  15. Teaching Critical Thinking: The Struggle against Dogmatism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottschalk, Cristiane Maria Cornelia

    2018-01-01

    From a Wittgensteinian point of view, my goal is to argue against the idea that teaching critical thinking should have as one of its aims the possibility of changing or adapting our deeply held beliefs. As pointed out by the Austrian philosopher in On Certainty, we have a world-picture which is neither true nor false, but above all, 'it is the…

  16. Critical Materials Institute

    SciT

    King, Alex

    2013-01-09

    Ames Laboratory Director Alex King talks about the goals of the Critical Materials Institute in diversifying the supply of critical materials, developing substitute materials, developing tools and techniques for recycling critical materials, and forecasting materials needs to avoid future shortages.

  17. Critical Materials Institute

    King, Alex

    2017-12-22

    Ames Laboratory Director Alex King talks about the goals of the Critical Materials Institute in diversifying the supply of critical materials, developing substitute materials, developing tools and techniques for recycling critical materials, and forecasting materials needs to avoid future shortages.

  18. GLAS Spacecraft Pointing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Born, George H.; Gold, Kenn; Ondrey, Michael; Kubitschek, Dan; Axelrad, Penina; Komjathy, Attila

    1998-01-01

    Science requirements for the GLAS mission demand that the laser altimeter be pointed to within 50 m of the location of the previous repeat ground track. The satellite will be flown in a repeat orbit of 182 days. Operationally, the required pointing information will be determined on the ground using the nominal ground track, to which pointing is desired, and the current propagated orbit of the satellite as inputs to the roll computation algorithm developed by CCAR. The roll profile will be used to generate a set of fit coefficients which can be uploaded on a daily basis and used by the on-board attitude control system. In addition, an algorithm has been developed for computation of the associated command quaternions which will be necessary when pointing at targets of opportunity. It may be desirable in the future to perform the roll calculation in an autonomous real-time mode on-board the spacecraft. GPS can provide near real-time tracking of the satellite, and the nominal ground track can be stored in the on-board computer. It will be necessary to choose the spacing of this nominal ground track to meet storage requirements in the on-board environment. Several methods for generating the roll profile from a sparse reference ground track are presented.

  19. Point Intercept (PO)

    John F. Caratti

    2006-01-01

    The FIREMON Point Intercept (PO) method is used to assess changes in plant species cover or ground cover for a macroplot. This method uses a narrow diameter sampling pole or sampling pins, placed at systematic intervals along line transects to sample within plot variation and quantify statistically valid changes in plant species cover and height over time. Plant...

  20. Optical Pointing Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, Joel F.; Metz, Brandon C.

    2010-01-01

    The optical pointing sensor provides a means of directly measuring the relative positions of JPL s Formation Control Testbed (FCT) vehicles without communication. This innovation is a steerable infrared (IR) rangefinder that gives measurements in terms of range and bearing to a passive retroreflector.

  1. [Clinical key points. Gonioscopy].

    PubMed

    Hamard, P

    2007-05-01

    Gonioscopy should be performed in all patients with glaucoma or suspected of having glaucoma. Four points are systematically evaluated: the width of the angle, the degree of trabecular pigmentation, the iridotrabecular appositions or synechia, and the level of iris insertion and the shape of the peripheral iris profile.

  2. The Lagrange Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a derivation of all five Lagrange points by methods accessible to sixth-form students, and provides a further opportunity to match Newtonian gravity with centripetal force. The predictive powers of good scientific theories are also discussed with regard to the philosophy of science. Methods for calculating the positions of the…

  3. Powerpoint: An Overused Technology Deserving of Criticism, but Indispensable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopper, Keith B.; Waugh, Jonathan B.

    2014-01-01

    PowerPoint is roundly reviled and ridiculed, yet this technology enjoys universal popularity. This article reviews the criticisms of PowerPoint and its peer technologies, describes its affordances and advantages, and suggests innovative PowerPoint applications in instruction. Beyond garden-variety applications of PowerPoint, it may also be used to…

  4. Critical phenomena on k -booklets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassberger, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We define a "k -booklet" to be a set of k semi-infinite planes with -∞ critical phenomena: self-avoiding random walks, the Ising model, and percolation. For k =2 , a booklet is equivalent to a single infinite lattice, and for k =1 to a semi-infinite lattice. In both these cases the systems show standard critical phenomena. This is not so for k ≥3 . Self-avoiding walks starting at y =0 show a first-order transition at a shifted critical point, with no power-behaved scaling laws. The Ising model and percolation show hybrid transitions, i.e., the scaling laws of the standard models coexist with discontinuities of the order parameter at y ≈0 , and the critical points are not shifted. In the case of the Ising model, ergodicity is already broken at T =Tc , and not only for T

  5. Review of critical factors for SEA implementation

    SciT

    Zhang Jie, E-mail: jasmine@plan.aau.dk; Christensen, Per; Kornov, Lone

    The implementation process involved in translating Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) intention into action is vital to an effective SEA. Many factors influence implementation and thus the effectiveness of an SEA. Empirical studies have identified and documented some factors influencing the implementation of an SEA. This research is fragmented, however, and it is still not clear what are the most critical factors of effective SEA performance, and how these relate to different stages of the implementation process or other contextual circumstances. The paper takes its point of departure in implementation theory. Firstly, we introduce implementation theory, and then use it inmore » practice to establish a more comprehensive model related to the stages in the implementation process. Secondly, we identify the critical factors in order to see how they are related to the different stages of SEA or are more general in character. Finally we map the different critical factors and how they influence the overall results of an SEA. Based on a literature review, we present a comprehensive picture of the critical factors and where they are found in the process. We conclude that most of the critical factors identified are of a more general character influencing the SEA process as such, while only one out of four of these factors relates to the specific stages of the SEA. Based on this mapping we can sketch a picture of the totality of critical factors. In this study 266 notions of critical factors were identified. Seen at the level of notions of critical factors, only 24% of these relate to specific stages while for 76% the critical factors are of a more general nature. These critical factors interact in complex ways and appear in different combinations in different stages of the implementation process so tracing the cause and effect is difficult. The pervasiveness of contextual and general factors also clearly suggests that there is no single way to put SEA into practice

  6. Secondary Education in a Changing World: Reaching a Turning Point.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Eagan

    1985-01-01

    William Van Til's three proposed scenarios for the future of secondary education are examined 10 years later, and American education is found to have reached a critical point as it goes through a transition from one era to another. (DCS)

  7. Quantum Change Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentís, Gael; Bagan, Emilio; Calsamiglia, John; Chiribella, Giulio; Muñoz-Tapia, Ramon

    2016-10-01

    Sudden changes are ubiquitous in nature. Identifying them is crucial for a number of applications in biology, medicine, and social sciences. Here we take the problem of detecting sudden changes to the quantum domain. We consider a source that emits quantum particles in a default state, until a point where a mutation occurs that causes the source to switch to another state. The problem is then to find out where the change occurred. We determine the maximum probability of correctly identifying the change point, allowing for collective measurements on the whole sequence of particles emitted by the source. Then, we devise online strategies where the particles are measured individually and an answer is provided as soon as a new particle is received. We show that these online strategies substantially underperform the optimal quantum measurement, indicating that quantum sudden changes, although happening locally, are better detected globally.

  8. Point clouds in BIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antova, Gergana; Kunchev, Ivan; Mickrenska-Cherneva, Christina

    2016-10-01

    The representation of physical buildings in Building Information Models (BIM) has been a subject of research since four decades in the fields of Construction Informatics and GeoInformatics. The early digital representations of buildings mainly appeared as 3D drawings constructed by CAD software, and the 3D representation of the buildings was only geometric, while semantics and topology were out of modelling focus. On the other hand, less detailed building representations, with often focus on ‘outside’ representations were also found in form of 2D /2,5D GeoInformation models. Point clouds from 3D laser scanning data give a full and exact representation of the building geometry. The article presents different aspects and the benefits of using point clouds in BIM in the different stages of a lifecycle of a building.

  9. At the Tipping Point

    SciT

    Wiley, H. S.

    There comes a time in every field of science when things suddenly change. While it might not be immediately apparent that things are different, a tipping point has occurred. Biology is now at such a point. The reason is the introduction of high-throughput genomics-based technologies. I am not talking about the consequences of the sequencing of the human genome (and every other genome within reach). The change is due to new technologies that generate an enormous amount of data about the molecular composition of cells. These include proteomics, transcriptional profiling by sequencing, and the ability to globally measure microRNAs andmore » post-translational modifications of proteins. These mountains of digital data can be mapped to a common frame of reference: the organism’s genome. With the new high-throughput technologies, we can generate tens of thousands of data points from each sample. Data are now measured in terabytes and the time necessary to analyze data can now require years. Obviously, we can’t wait to interpret the data fully before the next experiment. In fact, we might never be able to even look at all of it, much less understand it. This volume of data requires sophisticated computational and statistical methods for its analysis and is forcing biologists to approach data interpretation as a collaborative venture.« less

  10. A Critical Humanist Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magill, Kevin; Rodriguez, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    This essay is a critical humanist discussion of curriculum; a departure from the technicist view of education [education meant to support a global capitalist economy] and an analysis of curriculum considering critical humanism, political economy and critical race theory among other modes of critical analysis and inquiry. Our discussion supports a…

  11. Critical Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Word's Worth: A Quarterly Newsletter of the Lifelong Learning Network, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue of a quarterly newsletter focuses on the theme of critical thinking skills. "Critical Thinking Skills: An Interview with Dr. Richard Paul" (Barbara Christopher) is the text of an interview in which the director of research at Sonoma State University's Center for Critical Thinking examines the meaning of critical thinking and…

  12. Gravity Duals of Lifshitz-Like Fixed Points

    SciT

    Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC; Liu, Xiao

    2008-11-05

    We find candidate macroscopic gravity duals for scale-invariant but non-Lorentz invariant fixed points, which do not have particle number as a conserved quantity. We compute two-point correlation functions which exhibit novel behavior relative to their AdS counterparts, and find holographic renormalization group flows to conformal field theories. Our theories are characterized by a dynamical critical exponent z, which governs the anisotropy between spatial and temporal scaling t {yields} {lambda}{sup z}t, x {yields} {lambda}x; we focus on the case with z = 2. Such theories describe multicritical points in certain magnetic materials and liquid crystals, and have been shown to arisemore » at quantum critical points in toy models of the cuprate superconductors. This work can be considered a small step towards making useful dual descriptions of such critical points.« less

  13. Media Criticism Group Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, E. Michele

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To integrate speaking practice with rhetorical theory. Type of speech: Persuasive. Point value: 100 points (i.e., 30 points based on peer evaluations, 30 points based on individual performance, 40 points based on the group presentation), which is 25% of course grade. Requirements: (a) References: 7-10; (b) Length: 20-30 minutes; (c)…

  14. Critical Thinking and the Critical Person.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Richard W.

    The paper's purpose is to clarify and develop some theoretical and practical implications of the concept of critical thinking, and the field of social studies is used as one example of the problem. The work of four leading critical theorists (Robert Ennis, Harvey Siegel, Michael Scriven, and R. S. Peters) is described and a distinction is made…

  15. Simultaneous Overexpression of Functional Human HO-1, E5NT and ENTPD1 Protects Murine Fibroblasts against TNF-α-Induced Injury In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Cinti, Alessandro; De Giorgi, Marco; Chisci, Elisa; Arena, Claudia; Galimberti, Gloria; Farina, Laura; Bugarin, Cristina; Rivolta, Ilaria; Gaipa, Giuseppe; Smolenski, Ryszard Tom; Cerrito, Maria Grazia; Lavitrano, Marialuisa; Giovannoni, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Several biomedical applications, such as xenotransplantation, require multiple genes simultaneously expressed in eukaryotic cells. Advances in genetic engineering technologies have led to the development of efficient polycistronic vectors based on the use of the 2A self-processing oligopeptide. The aim of this work was to evaluate the protective effects of the simultaneous expression of a novel combination of anti-inflammatory human genes, ENTPD1, E5NT and HO-1, in eukaryotic cells. We produced an F2A system-based multicistronic construct to express three human proteins in NIH3T3 cells exposed to an inflammatory stimulus represented by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), a pro-inflammatory cytokine which plays an important role during inflammation, cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis and in the inflammatory response during ischemia/reperfusion injury in several organ transplantation settings. The protective effects against TNF-α-induced cytotoxicity and cell death, mediated by HO-1, ENTPD1 and E5NT genes were better observed in cells expressing the combination of genes as compared to cells expressing each single gene and the effect was further improved by administrating enzymatic substrates of the human genes to the cells. Moreover, a gene expression analyses demonstrated that the expression of the three genes has a role in modulating key regulators of TNF-α signalling pathway, namely Nemo and Tnfaip3, that promoted pro-survival phenotype in TNF-α injured cells. These results could provide new insights in the research of protective mechanisms in transplantation settings. PMID:26513260

  16. Point to point multispectral light projection applied to cultural heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, D.; Alvarez, A.; Canabal, H.; Garcia, A.; Mayorga, S.; Muro, C.; Galan, T.

    2017-09-01

    Use of new of light sources based on LED technology should allow the develop of systems that combine conservation and exhibition requirements and allow to make these art goods available to the next generations according to sustainability principles. The goal of this work is to develop light systems and sources with an optimized spectral distribution for each specific point of the art piece. This optimization process implies to maximize the color fidelity reproduction and the same time to minimize the photochemical damage. Perceived color under these sources will be similar (metameric) to technical requirements given by the restoration team uncharged of the conservation and exhibition of the goods of art. Depending of the fragility of the exposed art objects (i.e. spectral responsivity of the material) the irradiance must be kept under a critical level. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a mathematical model that simulates with enough accuracy both the visual effect of the illumination and the photochemical impact of the radiation. Spectral reflectance of a reference painting The mathematical model is based on a merit function that optimized the individual intensity of the LED-light sources taking into account the damage function of the material and color space coordinates. Moreover the algorithm used weights for damage and color fidelity in order to adapt the model to a specific museal application. In this work we show a sample of this technology applied to a picture of Sorolla (1863-1923) an important Spanish painter title "woman walking at the beach".

  17. Critical indices for reversible gamma-alpha phase transformation in metallic cerium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldatova, E. D.; Tkachenko, T. B.

    1980-08-01

    Critical indices for cerium have been determined within the framework of the pseudobinary solution theory along the phase equilibrium curve, the critical isotherm, and the critical isobar. The results obtained verify the validity of relationships proposed by Rushbrook (1963), Griffiths (1965), and Coopersmith (1968). It is concluded that reversible gamma-alpha transformation in metallic cerium is a critical-type transformation, and cerium has a critical point on the phase diagram similar to the critical point of the liquid-vapor system.

  18. Vernal Point and Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez-Campos, Teodosio; Chavez S, Nadia; Chavez-Sumarriva, Israel

    2014-05-01

    The time scale was based on the internationally recognized formal chronostratigraphical /geochronological subdivisions of time: The Phanerozoic Eonathem/Eon; the Cenozoic Erathem/Era; the Quaternary System/Period; the Pleistocene and Holocene Series/Epoch. The Quaternary was divided into: (1) The Pleistocene that was characterized by cycles of glaciations (intervals between 40,000 and 100,000 years). (2) The Holocene that was an interglacial period that began about 12,000 years ago. It was believed that the Milankovitch cycles (eccentricity, axial tilt and the precession of the equinoxes) were responsible for the glacial and interglacial Holocene periods. The magnetostratigraphic units have been widely used for global correlations valid for Quaternary. The gravitational influence of the sun and moon on the equatorial bulges of the mantle of the rotating earth causes the precession of the earth. The retrograde motion of the vernal point through the zodiacal band is 26,000 years. The Vernal point passes through each constellation in an average of 2000 years and this period of time was correlated to Bond events that were North Atlantic climate fluctuations occurring every ≡1,470 ± 500 years throughout the Holocene. The vernal point retrogrades one precessional degree approximately in 72 years (Gleissberg-cycle) and approximately enters into the Aquarius constellation on March 20, 1940. On earth this entry was verify through: a) stability of the magnetic equator in the south central zone of Peru and in the north zone of Bolivia, b) the greater intensity of equatorial electrojet (EEJ) in Peru and Bolivia since 1940. With the completion of the Holocene and the beginning of the Anthropocene (widely popularized by Paul Crutzen) it was proposed the date of March 20, 1940 as the beginning of the Anthropocene. The date proposed was correlated to the work presented in IUGG (Italy 2007) with the title "Cusco base meridian for the study of geophysical data"; Cusco was

  19. Supplementation of H1N1pdm09 split vaccine with heterologous tandem repeat M2e5x virus-like particles confers improved cross-protection in ferrets.

    PubMed

    Music, Nedzad; Reber, Adrian J; Kim, Min-Chul; York, Ian A; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2016-01-20

    Current influenza vaccines induce strain-specific immunity to the highly variable hemagglutinin (HA) protein. It is therefore a high priority to develop vaccines that induce broadly cross-protective immunity to different strains of influenza. Since influenza A M2 proteins are highly conserved among different strains, five tandem repeats of the extracellular peptide of M2 in a membrane-anchored form on virus-like particles (VLPs) have been suggested to be a promising candidate for universal influenza vaccine. In this study, ferrets were intramuscularly immunized with 2009 H1N1 split HA vaccine ("Split") alone, influenza split vaccine supplemented with M2e5x VLP ("Split+M2e5x"), M2e5x VLP alone ("M2e5x"), or mock immunized. Vaccine efficacy was measured serologically and by protection against a serologically distinct viral challenge. Ferrets immunized with Split+M2e5x induced HA strain specific and conserved M2e immunity. Supplementation of M2e5x VLP to split vaccination significantly increased the immunogenicity of split vaccine compared to split alone. The Split+M2e5x ferret group showed evidence of cross-reactive protection, including faster recovery from weight loss, and reduced inflammation, as inferred from changes in peripheral leukocyte subsets, compared to mock-immunized animals. In addition, ferrets immunized with Split+M2e5x shed lower viral nasal-wash titers than the other groups. Ferrets immunized with M2e5x alone also show some protective effects, while those immunized with split vaccine alone induced no protective effects compared to mock-immunized ferrets. These studies suggest that supplementation of split vaccine with M2e5x-VLP may provide broader and improved cross-protection than split vaccine alone. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Supplementation of H1N1pdm09 split vaccine with heterologous tandem repeat M2e5x virus-like particles confers improved cross-protection in ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Music, Nedzad; Reber, Adrian J.; Kim, Min-Chul; York, Ian A.; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2015-01-01

    Current influenza vaccines induce strain-specific immunity to the highly variable hemagglutinin (HA) protein. It is therefore a high priority to develop vaccines that induce broadly cross-protective immunity to different strains of influenza. Since influenza A M2 proteins are highly conserved among different strains, five tandem repeats of the extracellular peptide of M2 in a membrane-anchored form on virus-like particles (VLPs) have been suggested to be a promising candidate for universal influenza vaccine. In this study, ferrets were intramuscularly immunized with 2009 H1N1 split HA vaccine (“Split”) alone, influenza split vaccine supplemented with M2e5x VLP (“Split+M2e5x”), M2e5x VLP alone (“M2e5x”), or mock immunized. Vaccine efficacy was measured serologically and by protection against a serologically distinct viral challenge. Ferrets immunized with Split+M2e5x induced HA strain specific and conserved M2e immunity. Supplementation of M2e5x VLP to split vaccination significantly increased the immunogenicity of split vaccine compared to split alone. The Split+M2e5x ferret group showed evidence of cross-reactive protection, including faster recovery from weight loss, and reduced inflammation, as inferred from changes in peripheral leukocyte subsets, compared to mock-immunized animals. In addition, ferrets immunized with Split+M2e5x shed lower viral nasal-wash titers than the other groups. Ferrets immunized with M2e5x alone also show some protective effects, while those immunized with split vaccine alone induced no protective effects compared to mock-immunized ferrets. These studies suggest that supplementation of split vaccine with M2e5x-VLP may provide broader and improved cross-protection than split vaccine alone. PMID:26709639

  1. Pointing control for LDR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yam, Y.; Briggs, C.

    1988-01-01

    One important aspect of the LDR control problem is the possible excitations of structural modes due to random disturbances, mirror chopping, and slewing maneuvers. An analysis was performed to yield a first order estimate of the effects of such dynamic excitations. The analysis involved a study of slewing jitters, chopping jitters, disturbance responses, and pointing errors, making use of a simplified planar LDR model which describes the LDR dynamics on a plane perpendicular to the primary reflector. Briefly, the results indicate that the command slewing profile plays an important role in minimizing the resultant jitter, even to a level acceptable without any control action. An optimal profile should therefore be studied.

  2. Case management and quality: have we reached a tipping point?

    PubMed

    Dulworth, Sherrie

    2006-01-01

    In The Tipping Point, Malcolm Gladwell describes a phenomenon in which a niche market or fad undergoes transformation into mainstream acceptability, resulting in widespread social change. He concludes that a "tipping point" occurs when a series of small events results in a critical mass of acceptance that produces sudden major changes.

  3. Tipping Points, Great and Small

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Foster

    2010-12-01

    The Forum by Jordan et al. [2010] addressed environmental problems of various scales in great detail, but getting the critical message through to the formulators of public policies requires going back to basics, namely, that exponential growth (of a population, an economy, or most anything else) is not sustainable. When have you heard any politician or economist from anywhere across the ideological spectrum say anything other than that more growth is essential? There is no need for computer models to demonstrate “limits to growth,” as was done in the 1960s. Of course, as one seeks more details, the complexity of modeling will rapidly outstrip the capabilities of both observation and computing. This is common with nonlinear systems, even simple ones. Thus, identifying all possible “tipping points,” as suggested by Jordan et al. [2010], and then stopping just short of them, is impractical if not impossible. The main thing needed to avoid environmental disasters is a bit of common sense.

  4. Statistical aspects of point count sampling

    Barker, R.J.; Sauer, J.R.; Ralph, C.J.; Sauer, J.R.; Droege, S.

    1995-01-01

    The dominant feature of point counts is that they do not census birds, but instead provide incomplete counts of individuals present within a survey plot. Considering a simple model for point count sampling, we demon-strate that use of these incomplete counts can bias estimators and testing procedures, leading to inappropriate conclusions. A large portion of the variability in point counts is caused by the incomplete counting, and this within-count variation can be confounded with ecologically meaningful varia-tion. We recommend caution in the analysis of estimates obtained from point counts. Using; our model, we also consider optimal allocation of sampling effort. The critical step in the optimization process is in determining the goals of the study and methods that will be used to meet these goals. By explicitly defining the constraints on sampling and by estimating the relationship between precision and bias of estimators and time spent counting, we can predict the optimal time at a point for each of several monitoring goals. In general, time spent at a point will differ depending on the goals of the study.

  5. Optimizing Probability of Detection Point Estimate Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshti, Ajay M.

    2017-01-01

    Probability of detection (POD) analysis is used in assessing reliably detectable flaw size in nondestructive evaluation (NDE). MIL-HDBK-18231and associated mh18232POD software gives most common methods of POD analysis. Real flaws such as cracks and crack-like flaws are desired to be detected using these NDE methods. A reliably detectable crack size is required for safe life analysis of fracture critical parts. The paper provides discussion on optimizing probability of detection (POD) demonstration experiments using Point Estimate Method. POD Point estimate method is used by NASA for qualifying special NDE procedures. The point estimate method uses binomial distribution for probability density. Normally, a set of 29 flaws of same size within some tolerance are used in the demonstration. The optimization is performed to provide acceptable value for probability of passing demonstration (PPD) and achieving acceptable value for probability of false (POF) calls while keeping the flaw sizes in the set as small as possible.

  6. 2. HORSESHOE CURVE IN GLACIER POINT ROAD NEAR GLACIER POINT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. HORSESHOE CURVE IN GLACIER POINT ROAD NEAR GLACIER POINT. HALF DOME AT CENTER REAR. LOOKING NNE. GIS N-37 43 44.3 / W-119 34 14.1 - Glacier Point Road, Between Chinquapin Flat & Glacier Point, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  7. HORSESHOE CURVE IN GLACIER POINT ROAD NEAR GLACIER POINT. HALF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HORSESHOE CURVE IN GLACIER POINT ROAD NEAR GLACIER POINT. HALF DOME AT CENTER REAR. SAME VIEW AT CA-157-2. LOOKING NNE. GIS: N-37' 43 44.3 / W-119 34 14.1 - Glacier Point Road, Between Chinquapin Flat & Glacier Point, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  8. Repelling Point Bosons

    SciT

    McGuire, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    There is a body of conventional wisdom that holds that a solvable quantum problem, by virtue of its solvability, is pathological and thus irrelevant. It has been difficult to refute this view owing to the paucity of theoretical constructs and experimental results. Recent experiments involving equivalent ions trapped in a spatial conformation of extreme anisotropic confinement (longitudinal extension tens, hundreds or even thousands of times transverse extension) have modified the view of relevancy, and it is now possible to consider systems previously thought pathological, in particular point Bosons that repel in one dimension. It has been difficult for the experimentalistsmore » to utilize existing theory, mainly due to long-standing theoretical misunderstanding of the relevance of the permutation group, in particular the non-commutativity of translations (periodicity) and transpositions (permutation). This misunderstanding is most easily rectified in the case of repelling Bosons.« less

  9. Point Source All Sky

    2003-03-27

    This panoramic view encompasses the entire sky as seen by Two Micron All-Sky Survey. The measured brightnesses of half a billion stars (points) have been combined into colors representing three distinct wavelengths of infrared light: blue at 1.2 microns, green at 1.6 microns, and red at 2.2 microns. This image is centered on the core of our own Milky Way galaxy, toward the constellation of Sagittarius. The reddish stars seemingly hovering in the middle of the Milky Way's disc -- many of them never observed before -- trace the densest dust clouds in our galaxy. The two faint smudges seen in the lower right quadrant are our neighboring galaxies, the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04250

  10. Education by Criticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Stephen L.

    1986-01-01

    Argues that students should exercise criticism in the classroom, but this criticism should not take the form of mere training in technical skills, indoctrination into a particular conceptual system, or theoretical speculation ungrounded in reality. (SRT)

  11. Clinical review: Medication errors in critical care

    PubMed Central

    Moyen, Eric; Camiré, Eric; Stelfox, Henry Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Medication errors in critical care are frequent, serious, and predictable. Critically ill patients are prescribed twice as many medications as patients outside of the intensive care unit (ICU) and nearly all will suffer a potentially life-threatening error at some point during their stay. The aim of this article is to provide a basic review of medication errors in the ICU, identify risk factors for medication errors, and suggest strategies to prevent errors and manage their consequences. PMID:18373883

  12. Configurational entropy of critical earthquake populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goltz, C.; Böse, M.

    2002-10-01

    We present an approach to describe the evolution of distributed seismicity by configurational entropy. We demonstrate the detection of phase transitions in the sense of a critical point phenomenon in a 2D site-percolation model and in temporal and spatial vicinity to the 1992, M7.3 Landers earthquake in Southern California. Our findings support the assumption of intermittent criticality in the Earth's crust. We also address the potential usefulness of the method for earthquake catalogue declustering.

  13. Creating a Critical Thinker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piergiovanni, Polly R.

    2014-01-01

    A college education is expected to improve students' critical thinking skills. Keeping students active in class--through writing activities and class discussion--has been shown to help students think critically. In this article, creative hands-on activities, which are common in engineering courses, are shown to improve students' critical thinking…

  14. Foundations for Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Trudy; Chun, Marc; Daly, William T.; Harrington, Christine; Tobolowsky, Barbara F.

    2015-01-01

    "Foundations for Critical Thinking" explores the landscape of critical-thinking skill development and pedagogy through foundational chapters and institutional case studies involving a range of students in diverse settings. By establishing a link between active learning and improved critical thinking, this resource encourages all higher…

  15. Reimagining Critical Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rexhepi, Jevdet; Torres, Carlos Alberto

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses Critical Theory, a model of theorizing in the field of the political sociology of education. We argue for a "reimagined" Critical Theory to herald an empowering, liberatory education that fosters curiosity and critical thinking, and a means for successful bottom-up, top-down political engagement. We present arguments…

  16. Reconceptualising Critical Digital Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pangrazio, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    While it has proved a useful concept during the past 20 years, the notion of "critical digital literacy" requires rethinking in light of the fast-changing nature of young people's digital practices. This paper contrasts long-established notions of "critical digital literacy" (based primarily around the critical consumption of…

  17. Critical Approaches to Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bywater, Timothy Robert

    This study deals primarily with recent academically oriented critical material, but it also embraces the range of film criticism that has been written for the mass audience in newspapers and periodicals. The study considers eight types of critical approaches to analyzing film: the journalistic approach, which contains both a reportorial-review and…

  18. Criticality of Adaptive Control Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patzelt, Felix; Pawelzik, Klaus

    2011-12-01

    We show, that stabilization of a dynamical system can annihilate observable information about its structure. This mechanism induces critical points as attractors in locally adaptive control. It also reveals, that previously reported criticality in simple controllers is caused by adaptation and not by other controller details. We apply these results to a real-system example: human balancing behavior. A model of predictive adaptive closed-loop control subject to some realistic constraints is introduced and shown to reproduce experimental observations in unprecedented detail. Our results suggests, that observed error distributions in between the Lévy and Gaussian regimes may reflect a nearly optimal compromise between the elimination of random local trends and rare large errors.

  19. Mobile computing in critical care.

    PubMed

    Lapinsky, Stephen E

    2007-03-01

    Handheld computing devices are increasingly used by health care workers, and offer a mobile platform for point-of-care information access. Improved technology, with larger memory capacity, higher screen resolution, faster processors, and wireless connectivity has broadened the potential roles for these devices in critical care. In addition to the personal information management functions, handheld computers have been used to access reference information, management guidelines and pharmacopoeias as well as to track the educational experience of trainees. They can act as an interface with a clinical information system, providing rapid access to patient information. Despite their popularity, these devices have limitations related to their small size, and acceptance by physicians has not been uniform. In the critical care environment, the risk of transmitting microorganisms by such a portable device should always be considered.

  20. Resistance to fracture of teeth instrumented using novel EndoStar E5 rotary versus ProTaper NEXT and WaveOne file systems

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Ajinkya M.; Pawar, Mansing G.; Thakur, Bhagyashree; Banga, Kulwinder Singh; Luke, Alexander Maniangat

    2018-01-01

    Aim: The current study compared the fracture resistance of samples instrumented by two rotary files and a reciprocating file, obturated with gutta-percha and AH Plus. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 freshly extracted mandibular premolar teeth with single roots and single canals were acquired and decoronated at or below the cementoenamel junction. The samples were randomly divided into four groups (n = 15). Group 1 control (noninstrumented/obturated), and for Groups 2–4 root canal instrumentation was done by EndoStar E5 (EE5), ProTaper NEXT (PTN), and WaveOne, respectively. Following instrumentation, the samples were obturated using gutta-percha cones and AH Plus sealer using lateral compaction. A week later, vertical load was applied to the specimen's canal in each group until fracture. The loads required for fracture were recorded and statistically analyzed. Results: The mean loads required to fracture (Newton; N) for the four groups were; 388.54 (±29.93), 310.35 (±26.05), 328.40 (±20.67), and 278.54 (±34.16). The loads exhibited highly significant difference (P < 0.0001; analysis variance). The following Tukey's post hoc test confirmed, both samples in Groups 2 and 3 required similar loads for fracture (P > 0.05) and significantly higher than Group 4 (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The samples instrumented by EE5 and PTN exhibit similar fracture resistance. PMID:29628648