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Sample records for e6 expressing cells

  1. HPV16 E6 regulates annexin 1 (ANXA1) protein expression in cervical carcinoma cell lines

    SciT

    Calmon, Marilia Freitas; Sichero, Laura; Boccardo, Enrique

    Annexin 1 (ANXA1) is a substrate for E6AP mediated ubiquitylation. It has been hypothesized that HPV 16 E6 protein redirects E6AP away from ANXA1, increasing its stability and possibly contributing to viral pathogenesis. We analyzed ANXA1 expression in HPV-positive and negative cervical carcinoma-derived cells, in cells expressing HPV-16 oncogenes and in cells transduced with shRNA targeting E6AP. We observed that ANXA1 protein expression increased in HPV-16-positive tumor cells, in keratinocytes expressing HPV-16 E6wt (wild-type) or E6/E7 and C33 cells expressing HPV-16 E6wt. ANXA1 protein expression decreased in cells transfected with E6 Dicer-substrate RNAs (DsiRNA) and C33 cells cotransduced with HPV-16more » E6wt and E6AP shRNA. Moreover, colony number and proliferation rate decreased in HPV16-positive cells transduced with ANXA1 shRNA. We observed that in cells infected with HPV16, the E6 binds to E6AP to degrade p53 and upregulate ANXA1. We suggest that ANXA1 may play a role in HPV-mediated carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • ANXA1 upregulation requires the presence of E6 and E6AP and is dependent on E6 integrity. • E6 binds to E6AP to degrade p53 and upregulate ANXA1 in cells infected with HPV16. • ANXA1 plays a role in cell proliferation in HPV-positive cervical cells.« less

  2. Suppression of HPV E6 and E7 expression by BAF53 depletion in cervical cancer cells

    SciT

    Lee, Kiwon; Lee, Ah-Young; Kwon, Yunhee Kim

    Highlights: {yields} Integration of HPV into host genome critical for activation of E6 and E7 oncogenes. {yields} BAF53 is essential for higher-order chromatin structure. {yields} BAF53 knockdown suppresses E6 and E7 from HPV integrants, but not from episomal HPVs. {yields} BAF53 knockdown decreases H3K9Ac and H4K12Ac on P105 promoter of integrated HPV 18. {yields} BAF53 knockdown restores the p53-dependent signaling pathway in HeLa and SiHa cells. -- Abstract: Deregulation of the expression of human papillomavirus (HPV) oncogenes E6 and E7 plays a pivotal role in cervical carcinogenesis because the E6 and E7 proteins neutralize p53 and Rb tumor suppressor pathways,more » respectively. In approximately 90% of all cervical carcinomas, HPVs are found to be integrated into the host genome. Following integration, the core-enhancer element and P105 promoter that control expression of E6 and E7 adopt a chromatin structure that is different from that of episomal HPV, and this has been proposed to contribute to activation of E6 and E7 expression. However, the molecular basis underlying this chromatin structural change remains unknown. Previously, BAF53 has been shown to be essential for the integrity of higher-order chromatin structure and interchromosomal interactions. Here, we examined whether BAF53 is required for activated expression of E6 and E7 genes. We found that BAF53 knockdown led to suppression of expression of E6 and E7 genes from HPV integrants in cervical carcinoma cell lines HeLa and SiHa. Conversely, expression of transiently transfected HPV18-LCR-Luciferase was not suppressed by BAF53 knockdown. The level of the active histone marks H3K9Ac and H4K12Ac on the P105 promoter of integrated HPV 18 was decreased in BAF53 knockdown cells. BAF53 knockdown restored the p53-dependent signaling pathway in HeLa and SiHa cells. These results suggest that activated expression of the E6 and E7 genes of integrated HPV is dependent on BAF53-dependent higher

  3. Primary human cervical carcinoma cells require human papillomavirus E6 and E7 expression for ongoing proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Magaldi, Thomas G.; Almstead, Laura L.; Bellone, Stefania; Prevatt, Edward G.; Santin, Alessandro D.; DiMaio, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Repression of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncogenes in established cervical carcinoma cell lines causes senescence due to reactivation of cellular tumor suppressor pathways. Here, we determined whether ongoing expression of HPV16 or HPV18 oncogenes is required for the proliferation of primary human cervical carcinoma cells in serum-free conditions at low passage number after isolation from patients. We used an SV40 viral vector expressing the bovine papillomavirus E2 protein to repress E6 and E7 in these cells. To enable efficient SV40 infection and E2 gene delivery, we first incubated the primary cervical cancer cells with the ganglioside GM1, a cell-surface receptor for SV40 limiting in these cells. Repression of HPV in primary cervical carcinoma cells caused them to undergo senescence, but the E2 protein had little effect on HPV-negative primary cells. These data suggest that E6 and E7 dependence is an inherent property of human cervical cancer cells. PMID:22056390

  4. Raman chemical mapping reveals site of action of HIV protease inhibitors in HPV16 E6 expressing cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Jarvis, Roger M; Allwood, J William; Batman, Gavin; Moore, Rowan E; Marsden-Edwards, Emma; Hampson, Lynne; Hampson, Ian N; Goodacre, Royston

    2010-12-01

    It has been shown that the HIV protease inhibitors indinavir and lopinavir may have activity against the human papilloma virus (HPV) type 16 inhibiting HPV E6-mediated proteasomal degradation of p53 in cultured cervical carcinoma cells. However, their mode and site of action is unknown. HPV-negative C33A cervical carcinoma cells and the same cells stably transfected with E6 (C33AE6) were exposed to indinavir and lopinavir at concentrations of 1 mM and 30 μM, respectively. The intracellular distribution of metabolites and metabolic changes induced by these treatments were investigated by Raman microspectroscopic imaging combined with the analysis of cell fractionation products by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). A uniform cellular distribution of proteins was found in drug-treated cells irrespective of cell type. Indinavir was observed to co-localise with nucleic acid in the nucleus, but only in E6 expressing cells. Principal components analysis (PCA) score maps generated on the full Raman hypercube and the corresponding PCA loadings plots revealed that the majority of metabolic variations influenced by the drug exposure within the cells were associated with changes in nucleic acids. Analysis of cell fractionation products by LC-MS confirmed that the level of indinavir in nuclear extracts was approximately eight-fold greater than in the cytoplasm. These data demonstrate that indinavir undergoes enhanced nuclear accumulation in E6-expressing cells, which suggests that this is the most likely site of action for this compound against HPV.

  5. Changes in global gene expression profiles induced by HPV 16 E6 oncoprotein variants in cervical carcinoma C33-A cells

    SciT

    Zacapala-Gómez, Ana Elvira, E-mail: zak_ana@yahoo.com.mx; Del Moral-Hernández, Oscar, E-mail: odelmoralh@gmail.com; Villegas-Sepúlveda, Nicolás, E-mail: nvillega@cinvestav.mx

    We analyzed the effects of the expression of HPV 16 E6 oncoprotein variants (AA-a, AA-c, E-A176/G350, E-C188/G350, E-G350), and the E-Prototype in global gene expression profiles in an in vitro model. E6 gene was cloned into an expression vector fused to GFP and was transfected in C33-A cells. Affymetrix GeneChip Human Transcriptome Array 2.0 platform was used to analyze the expression of over 245,000 coding transcripts. We found that HPV16 E6 variants altered the expression of 387 different genes in comparison with E-Prototype. The altered genes are involved in cellular processes related to the development of cervical carcinoma, such asmore » adhesion, angiogenesis, apoptosis, differentiation, cell cycle, proliferation, transcription and protein translation. Our results show that polymorphic changes in HPV16 E6 natural variants are sufficient to alter the overall gene expression profile in C33-A cells, explaining in part the observed differences in oncogenic potential of HPV16 variants. - Highlights: • Amino acid changes in HPV16 E6 variants modulate the transciption of specific genes. • This is the first comparison of global gene expression profile of HPV 16 E6 variants. • Each HPV 16 E6 variant appears to have its own molecular signature.« less

  6. Expression of the cervical carcinoma expressed PCNA regulatory (CCEPR) long noncoding RNA is driven by the human papillomavirus E6 protein and modulates cell proliferation independent of PCNA.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Surendra; Munger, Karl

    2018-05-01

    Modulation of expression of noncoding RNAs is an important aspect of the oncogenic activities of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 proteins. While HPV E6/E7-mediated alterations of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been studied in detail there are fewer reports on HPV-mediated dysregulation of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). The cervical carcinoma expressed PCNA regulatory (CCEPR) lncRNA is highly expressed in cervical cancers and expression correlates with tumor size and patient outcome. We report that CCEPR is a nuclear lncRNA and that HPV16 E6 oncogene expression causes increased CCEPR expression through a mechanism that is not directly dependent on TP53 inactivation. CCEPR depletion in cervical carcinoma cell lines reduces viability, while overexpression enhances viability. In contrast to what was published and inspired its designation, there is no evidence for PCNA mRNA stabilization, and hence CCEPR likely functions through a different mechanism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. High E6 Gene Expression Predicts for Distant Metastasis and Poor Survival in Patients With HPV-Positive Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciT

    Khwaja, Shariq S.; Baker, Callie; Haynes, Wesley

    Purpose: Patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)–positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) have a favorable prognosis. As a result, de-escalation clinical trials are under way. However, approximately 10% of patients will experience distant recurrence even with standard-of-care treatment. Here, we sought to identify novel biomarkers to better risk-stratify HPV-positive patients with OPSCC. Methods and Materials: Gene expression profiling by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed on HPV-positive OPSCC primary tumor specimens from patients with and without distant metastasis (DM). Results: RNA-seq analysis of 39 HPV-positive OPSCC specimens revealed that patients with DM had 2-fold higher E6 genemore » expression levels than did patients without DM (P=.029). This observation was confirmed in a validation cohort comprising 93 patients with HPV-positive OPSCC. The mean normalized E6 expression level in the 17 recurring primary specimens was 13 ± 2 compared with 8 ± 1 in the remaining 76 nonrecurring primaries (P=.001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis established an E6 expression level of 7.3 as a cutoff for worse recurrence-free survival (RFS). Patients from this cohort with high E6 gene expression (E6-high) (n=51, 55%) had more cancer-related deaths (23% vs 2%, P<.001) and DM (26% vs 5%, P<.001) than did patients with low E6 gene expression (E6-low) (n=42, 45%). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that E6-high had worse RFS (95% vs 69%, P=.004) and cancer-specific survival (97% vs 79%, P=.007). E6-high maintained statistical significance in multivariate regression models balancing surgery, chemotherapy, nodal stage, and smoking status. Gene set enrichment analysis demonstrated that tumors with high E6 expression were associated with P53, epidermal growth factor receptor, activating transcription factor-2, and transforming growth factor-β signaling pathways. Conclusion: High E6 gene

  8. Wogonin induces apoptosis by suppressing E6 and E7 expressions and activating intrinsic signaling pathways in HPV-16 cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Man Sub; Bak, Yesol; Park, Yun Sun; Lee, Dong Hun; Kim, Jung Hee; Kang, Jeong Woo; Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Yoon, Do Young

    2013-08-01

    Wogonin is a flavonoid compound extracted from Scutellaria baicalensis and is well known as a benzodiazepine receptor ligand with anxiolytic effects. Many recent studies have demonstrated that wogonin modulates angiogenesis, proliferation, invasion, and tumor progress in various cancer tissues. We further explored the mechanism of action of wogonin on cervical cancer cells that contain or lack human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA. Wogonin was cytotoxic to HPV 16 (+) cervical cancer cells, SiHa and CaSki, but not to HPV-negative cells. We demonstrated that wogonin induced apoptosis by suppressing the expressions of the E6 and E7 viral oncogenes in HPV-infected cervical cancer CaSki and SiHa cells. The modulation of p53 and protein retinoblastoma (pRb) were also triggered by the suppression of E6 and E7 expressions. However, p53 was not altered in HPV-negative cervical cancer C33A cells. Moreover, wogonin modulated the mitochondrial membrane potential and the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic factors such as Bax and Bcl-2. Wogonin also provoked the cleavage of caspase-3, caspase-9, and poly ADP ribose polymerase. After transfection of siRNAs to target E6 and E7, additional restoration of p53 and pRb was not induced, but processing of caspases and PARP was increased compared with wogonin treatment alone. Together, our findings demonstrated that wogonin effectively promotes apoptosis by downregulating E6 and E7 expressions and promoting intrinsic apoptosis in human cervical cancer cells.

  9. Tobacco exposure results in increased E6 and E7 oncogene expression, DNA damage and mutation rates in cells maintaining episomal human papillomavirus 16 genomes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lanlan; Griego, Anastacia M; Chu, Ming; Ozbun, Michelle A

    2014-10-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infections are necessary but insufficient agents of cervical and other epithelial cancers. Epidemiological studies support a causal, but ill-defined, relationship between tobacco smoking and cervical malignancies. In this study, we used mainstream tobacco smoke condensate (MSTS-C) treatments of cervical cell lines that maintain either episomal or integrated HPV16 or HPV31 genomes to model tobacco smoke exposure to the cervical epithelium of the smoker. MSTS-C exposure caused a dose-dependent increase in viral genome replication and correspondingly higher early gene transcription in cells with episomal HPV genomes. However, MSTS-C exposure in cells with integrated HR-HPV genomes had no effect on genome copy number or early gene transcription. In cells with episomal HPV genomes, the MSTS-C-induced increases in E6 oncogene transcription led to decreased p53 protein levels and activity. As expected from loss of p53 activity in tobacco-exposed cells, DNA strand breaks were significantly higher but apoptosis was minimal compared with cells containing integrated viral genomes. Furthermore, DNA mutation frequencies were higher in surviving cells with HPV episomes. These findings provide increased understanding of tobacco smoke exposure risk in HPV infection and indicate tobacco smoking acts more directly to alter HR-HPV oncogene expression in cells that maintain episomal viral genomes. This suggests a more prominent role for tobacco smoke in earlier stages of HPV-related cancer progression. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Alpha-linolenic acid regulates Cox2/VEGF/MAP kinase pathway and decreases the expression of HPV oncoproteins E6/E7 through restoration of p53 and Rb expression in human cervical cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Rashmi; Mansara, Prakash; Kaul-Ghanekar, Ruchika

    2016-03-01

    Cervical cancer represents the largest cause of mortality in women worldwide. In our previous report, we have shown how alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), an omega-3 fatty acid, regulated the growth of cervical cancer cells. The present study aimed to explore mechanistic details for the anticancer activity of ALA in cervical cancer cell lines, SiHa and HeLa. ALA significantly modulated the growth kinetics of the cells and reduced cell migration with concomitant decrease in the expression of VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 proteins. Besides this, ALA significantly decreased the expression of phosphorylated p38, pERK1/2, c-JUN, NFκB, and COX2, proteins. Most importantly, ALA reduced the expression of HPV onco-proteins E6 and E7, resulting into restoration of expression of tumor suppressor proteins, p53 and Rb. These results suggested that ALA could be explored for its therapeutic potential in cervical cancer.

  11. HPV16 E6 Promotes Breast Cancer Proliferation via Upregulation of COX-2 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y. Z.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Wang, J. Q.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Breast cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. It has been indicated that human papillomaviruses 16 (HPV16) might participate in the pathogenesis and development of breast cancer. However, the detected rate of HPV16 varies with region. We will investigate HPV16 E6 expression in North China and explore the effects and mechanism of HPV16 E6 on breast cancer proliferation in this study. Methods. The expressions of HPV16 E6 and COX-2 in paraffin-embedded tissues of the invasive ductal breast cancer were detected by qPCR and IHC. The effects of HPV16 E6 on breast cancer proliferation were determined by function studies. The mechanism of HPV16 E6 in promoting breast cancer proliferation was explored by Western blot and Dual-Luciferase Reporter Assay. Results. HPV16 E6 was positive in 28% invasive ductal breast carcinoma in North China; HPV16 E6 promoted breast cancer proliferation. Inhibition of COX-2 by siCOX-2 or Celecoxib attenuated the proliferation of breast cancer cells with HPV16 E6 expression; and the upregulation of COX-2 could be suppressed by the inhibition of NF-κB activity. Conclusion. HPV16 E6 promotes breast cancer proliferation by activation of NF-κB signaling pathway and increase of COX-2 expression. COX-2 will be a potential target for HPV16 E6-associated breast cancer. PMID:29250535

  12. Interferon-β induced microRNA-129-5p down-regulates HPV-18 E6 and E7 viral gene expression by targeting SP1 in cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiarong; Li, Shuangdi; Yan, Qin; Chen, Xiaoyue; Yang, Yixia; Liu, Xuelian; Wan, Xiaoping

    2013-01-01

    Infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cancer. Down-regulation of E6 and E7 expression may be responsible for the positive clinical outcomes observed with IFN treatment, but the molecular basis has not been well determined. As miRNAs play an important role in HPV induced cervical carcinogenesis, we hypothesize that IFN-β can regulate the expressions of specific miRNAs in cervical cancer cells, and that these miRNAs can mediate E6 and E7 expression, thus modulate their oncogenic potential. In this study, we found that miR-129-5p to be a candidate IFN-β inducible miRNA. MiR-129-5p levels gradually decrease with the development of cervical intraepithelial lesions. Manipulation of miR-129-5p expression in Hela cells modulates HPV-18 E6 and E7 viral gene expression. Exogenous miR-129-5p inhibits cell proliferation in Hela cells, promotes apoptosis and blocks cell cycle progression in Hela cells. SP1 is a direct target of miR-129-5p in Hela cells. This study is the first report of a cellular miRNA with anti-HPV activity and provides new insights into regulatory mechanisms between the HPV and the IFN system in host cells at the miRNA level.

  13. Human papillomavirus type 16 E6 suppresses microRNA-23b expression in human cervical cancer cells through DNA methylation of the host gene C9orf3.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Chi Lam Au; Tsang, Tsun Yee; Yau, Pak Lun; Kwok, Tim Tak

    2017-02-14

    Oncogenic protein E6 of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) is believed to involve in the aberrant methylation in cervical cancer as it upregulates DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) through tumor suppressor p53. In addition, DNA demethylating agent induces the expression of one of the HPV-16 E6 regulated microRNAs (miRs), miR-23b, in human cervical carcinoma SiHa cells. Thus, the importance of DNA methylation and miR-23b in HPV-16 E6 associated cervical cancer development is investigated. In the present study, however, it is found that miR-23b is not embedded in any typical CpG island. Nevertheless, a functional CpG island is predicted in the promoter region of C9orf3, the host gene of miR-23b, and is validated by methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite genomic sequencing analyses. Besides, c-MET is confirmed to be a target gene of miR-23b. Silencing of HPV-16 E6 is found to increase the expression of miR-23b, decrease the expression of c-MET and thus induce the apoptosis of SiHa cells through the c-MET downstream signaling pathway. Taken together, the tumor suppressive miR-23b is epigenetically inactivated through its host gene C9orf3 and this is probably a critical pathway during HPV-16 E6 associated cervical cancer development.

  14. Decreased Migration of Langerhans Precursor-Like Cells in Response to Human Keratinocytes Expressing HPV-16 E6/E7 is Related to Reduced Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-3Alpha Production

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    high-risk human papillomavirus ( HPV ) types, particularly type 16 and 18, contributes to 90% of cervical cancer cases. HPV infects cutaneous or mucosal...been implicated in cervical/ anogenital cancer and oral squamous cell carcinomas (41). The mucosal lesions caused by HPVs often resolve over time, and a...Decreased Migration of Langerhans Precursor-Like Cells in Response to Human Keratinocytes Expressing HPV -16 E6/E7 is Related to Reduced Macrophage

  15. Radioimmunotherapy with an antibody to HPV16 E6 oncoprotein is effective in experimental cervical tumor expressing low levels of E6

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zewei; Wang, Xing Guo; Einstein, Mark H; Goldberg, Gary L; Casadevall, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose HPV16 is associated with ∼50% of all cervical cancers worldwide. The E6 and E7 genes of oncogenic HPV types, such as HPV16, are necessary for the HPV transforming function and tumorogenesis making them ideal targets for novel treatments. Radioimmunotherapy employs systemically administered radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind to tumor-associated antigens. Previously we demonstrated in mice that radioimmunotherapy targeting viral antigens with mAb to HPV16 E6 suppressed CasKi cervical tumors expressing high levels of E6 (∼600 copies of HPV per cell). However, that study opened the question whether radioimmunotherapy can suppress the growth of cervical tumors with low E6 and E7 expression, such as may be seen in patients. Experimental Design We evaluated the expression of E6 in patients' tumors and in the SiHa cell line expressing low levels of E6 and E7 (1–2 copies of HPV per cell) and found them comparable. We initiated SiHa tumors in nude mice, radiolabeled C1P5 mAb to E6 with a beta-emitter 188-Rhenium (188Re) and treated tumor-bearing mice with: (1) 200 µCi 188Re-C1P5 alone; (2) proteasome inhibitor MG132 alone; (3) MG132 followed by 200 µCi 188Re-C1P5; (4) unlabeled C1P5; (5) 200 µCi 188Re-18B7 (isotype-matching control mAb); (6) no treatment. 188Re-C1P5 alone and in combination with MG-132 significantly retarded tumor growth compared to all control groups. Conclusions Our data demonstrate the possibility to suppress tumor growth by targeting viral antigens even in cervical tumors with low E6 expression and provide additional evidence for the potential usefulness of radioimmunotherapy targeting HPV-related antigens in the clinic. PMID:20861673

  16. Oxytocin stimulates cell proliferation in vaginal cell line Vk2E6E7.

    PubMed

    Kallak, Theodora K; Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin

    2017-03-01

    Objective During and after menopause, the symptoms of vaginal atrophy cause great discomfort and necessitate effective treatment options. Currently, vaginally applied oxytocin is being investigated as a treatment for the symptoms of vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women. To clarify the mechanisms behind oxytocins effects on vaginal atrophy, the present study investigated the effects of oxytocin on cell proliferation in the cells of the Vk2E6E7 line, a non-tumour vaginal cell line. The study also compared the effects of oxytocin with those of estradiol (E2). Study design The effects of both oxytocin and E2 on the proliferation of Vk2E6E7 cells were investigated using Cell Proliferation ELISA BrdU Colorimetric Assay. The expression of both oxytocin and oxytocin receptor was studied in Vk2E6E7 cells using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescent staining. Main outcome measures Cell proliferation and gene expression. Results Oxytocin increased cell proliferation both time dependently and dose dependently. This differed from the effect pattern observed in cells treated with E2. In addition, in oxytocin-treated cells, the oxytocin receptor was found to be co-localized with caveolin-1, indicating pro-proliferative signalling within the cell. Conclusions Oxytocin stimulates cell proliferation and the co-localization of oxytocin receptor with caveolin-1 in oxytocin-treated cells, supporting the role of oxytocin signalling in cell proliferation. In addition, these findings suggest that increased cell proliferation is one mechanism by which local vaginal oxytocin treatment increases vaginal thickness and relieves vaginal symptoms in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy.

  17. C33-A cells transfected with E6*I or E6*II the short forms of HPV-16 E6, displayed opposite effects on cisplatin-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Vaisman, Carolina E; Del Moral-Hernandez, Oscar; Moreno-Campuzano, Samadhi; Aréchaga-Ocampo, Elena; Bonilla-Moreno, Raul; Garcia-Aguiar, Israel; Cedillo-Barron, Leticia; Berumen, Jaime; Nava, Porfirio; Villegas-Sepúlveda, Nicolas

    2018-03-02

    The HPV-16 E6/E7 bicistronic immature transcript produces 4 mature RNAs: the unspliced HPV-16 E6/E7 pre-mRNA product and 3 alternatively spliced mRNAs. The 3 spliced mRNAs encode short forms of the E6 oncoprotein, namely E6*I, E6*II and E6^E7. In this study we showed that transfection of C-33A cells with monocistronic constructs of these cDNAs fused to GFP, produced different effects on apoptosis, after the treatment with cisplatin. Transfection of C-33A cells with the full-length E6-GFP oncoprotein resulted in a 50% decrease in cell death, while the transfection with the E6*I-GFP construct showed only a 25% of diminution of cell death, compared to the control cells. Transfection with the E6^E7-GFP or E7-GFP construct had no effect on the number of the apoptotic cells, compared with control cells. Conversely, transfection with the E6*II construct resulted in higher cell death than the control cells. Taken together, these results suggested that E6*I or E6*II, the short forms of HPV-16 E6, displayed opposite effects on cisplatin-induced apoptosis, when transfected in C-33A cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Profiles of cell proliferation and apoptosis in the mouse epithelial regeneration model K6b-E6/E7].

    PubMed

    Bonilla-Delgado, José; Rodríguez-Uribe, Genaro; Cortés-Malagón, Enoc Mariano; Sierra Martínez, Mónica; Acosta-Altamirano, Gustavo; Gariglio-Vidal, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    Mammals have limited epithelial regeneration capacity. The K6b-E6/E7 mice model has been described as useful for the study of epithelial regeneration. The objective of this study is to compare the expression of E6/E7 oncogenes with those of cell proliferation and apoptosis during epithelization. The hypothesis of this study is that alterations in cell proliferation and apoptosis in K6b-E6/E7 mice will only occur during epithelization. Deep 2 mm punches were performed in the middle of transgenic and control mice's ears. A biopsy was collected from the epithelization zone 72 hours and 2 weeks post-injury. Assays for cell proliferation and apoptosis were carried out by immunohistochemistry and TUNEL techniques, respectively. RT-PCR in situ was performed to compare E6/E7 expressions in the areas studied. Transgenic strain K6b-E6/E7 presented more proliferative cells and less apoptotic cells in epithelizated zones. This effect was limited to suprabasal stratum only, and correlates with E6/E7 oncogenes expression. Two weeks post-injury, cell proliferation and apoptosis were similar in both samples as the E6/E7 expression went down. K6b-E6/E7 mouse model is useful for epithelial regeneration. Its mechanisms should be considered for the treatment of deep wounds.

  19. A Non-oncogenic HPV 16 E6/E7 Vaccine Enhances Treatment of HPV Expressing Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wieking, Bryant G.; Vermeer, Daniel W.; Spanos, William C.; Lee, Kimberly M.; Vermeer, Paola; Lee, Walter T.; Xu, Younong; Gabitzsch, Elizabeth S.; Balcaitis, Stephanie; Balint, Joseph P.; Jones, Frank R.; Lee, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the causative factor for greater than 90% of cervical cancers and 25% of head and neck cancers. The incidence of HPV positive (+) head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) has greatly increased in the last 30 years. E6 and E7 are the two key viral oncoproteins that induce and propagate cellular transformation. An immune response generated during cisplatin/radiation therapy improves tumor clearance of HPV(+) cancers. Augmenting this induced response during therapy with an adenoviral HPV16 E6/E7 vaccine improves long term survival in preclinical models. Here we describe the generation of an HPV16 E6/E7 construct, which contains mutations that render E6/E7 non-oncogenic, while preserving antigenicity. These mutations do not allow E6/E7 to degrade p53, pRb, PTPN13, or activate telomerase. Non-oncogenic E6/E7 (E6Δ/E7Δ) expressed as a stable integrant, or in the [E1-, E2b-] adenovirus, lacks the ability to transform human cells while retaining the ability to induce an HPV specific immune response. Moreover, E6Δ/E7Δ plus chemotherapy/radiation statistically enhances clearance of established HPV(+) cancer in vivo. PMID:22918471

  20. Expression of the highly conserved vaccinia virus E6 protein is required for virion morphogenesis

    SciT

    Resch, Wolfgang; Weisberg, Andrea S.; Moss, Bernard, E-mail: bmoss@nih.go

    2009-04-10

    The vaccinia virus E6R gene (VACVWR062) is conserved in all members of the poxvirus family and encodes a protein associated with the mature virion. We confirmed this association and provided evidence for an internal location. An inducible mutant that conditionally expresses E6 was constructed. In the absence of inducer, plaque formation and virus production were severely inhibited in several cell lines, whereas some replication occurred in others. This difference could be due to variation in the stringency of repression, since we could not isolate a stable deletion mutant even in the more 'permissive' cells. Under non-permissive conditions, viral late proteinsmore » were synthesized but processing of core proteins was inefficient, indicative of an assembly block. Transmission electron microscopy of sections of cells infected with the mutant in the absence of inducer revealed morphogenetic defects with crescents and empty immature virions adjacent to dense inclusions of viroplasm. Mature virions were infrequent and cores appeared to have lucent centers.« less

  1. The E6 and E7 genes of human papillomavirus type 6 have weak immortalizing activity in human epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Halbert, C L; Demers, G W; Galloway, D A

    1992-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the E7 gene of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 or 18 alone was sufficient for immortalization of human foreskin epithelial cells (HFE) and that the efficiency was increased in cooperation with the respective E6 gene, whereas the HPV6 E6 or E7 gene was not active in HFE. To detect weak immortalizing activities of the HPV6 genes, cells were infected with recombinant retroviruses containing HPV genes, alone and in homologous and heterologous combinations. The HPV6 genes, alone or together (HPV6 E6 plus HPV6 E7), were not able to immortalize cells. However the HPV6 E6 gene, in concert with HPV16 E7, increased the frequency of immortalization threefold over that obtained with HPV16 E7 alone. Interestingly, 6 of 20 clones containing the HPV16 E6 gene and the HPV6 E7 gene were immortalized, whereas neither gene alone was sufficient. Thus, the HPV6 E6 and E7 genes have weak immortalizing activities which can be detected in cooperation with the more active transforming genes of HPV16. Acute expression of the HPV6 and HPV16 E6 and E7 genes revealed that only HPV16 E7 was able to stimulate the proliferation of cells in organotypic culture, resulting in increased expression of the proliferative cell nuclear antigen and the formation of a disorganized epithelial layer. Additionally, combinations of genes that immortalized HFE cells (HPV16 E6 plus HPV16 E7, HPV16 E6 plus HPV6 E7, and HPV6 E6 plus HPV16 E7) also stimulated proliferation. Images PMID:1312623

  2. Expression, Polyubiquitination, and Therapeutic Potential of Recombinant E6E7 from HPV16 Antigens Fused to Ubiquitin.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Liliane M Fernandes; Morale, Mirian G; Chaves, Agtha A M; Demasi, Marilene; Ho, Paulo L

    2017-01-01

    Ubiquitin-proteasome system plays an essential role in the immune response due to its involvement in the antigen generation and presentation to CD8 + T cells. Hereby, ubiquitin fused to antigens has been explored as an immunotherapeutic strategy that requires the activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Here we propose to apply this ubiquitin fusion approach to a recombinant vaccine against human papillomavirus 16-infected cells. E6E7 multi-epitope antigen was fused genetically at its N- or C-terminal end to ubiquitin and expressed in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies. The antigens were solubilized using urea and purified by nickel affinity chromatography in denatured condition. Fusion of ubiquitin to E6E7 resulted in marked polyubiquitination in vitro mainly when fused to the E6E7 N-terminal. When tested in a therapeutic scenario, the fusion of ubiquitin to E6E7 reinforced the anti-tumor protection and increased the E6/E7-specific cellular immune responses. Present results encourage the investigation of the adjuvant potential of the ubiquitin fusion to recombinant vaccines requiring CD8 + T cells.

  3. Human papillomavirus 16 E6 modulates the expression of miR-496 in oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Mason, Dayna; Zhang, Xiaoying; Marques, Tânia Monteiro; Rose, Barbara; Khoury, Samantha; Hill, Meredith; Deutsch, Fiona; Lyons, J Guy; Gama-Carvalho, Margarida; Tran, Nham

    2018-06-20

    Human papillomavirus (HPV), notably type 16, is a risk factor for up to 75% of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). It has been demonstrated that small non-coding RNAs known as microRNAs play a vital role in the cellular transformation process. In this study, we used an LNA array to further investigate the impact of HPV16 on the expression of microRNAs in oropharyngeal (tonsillar) cancer. A number of miRNAs were found to be deregulated, with miR-496 showing a four-fold decrease. Over-expression of the high risk E6 oncoprotein down-regulated miR-496, impacting upon the post-transcriptional control of the transcription factor E2F2. These HPV specific miRNAs were integrated with the HPV16 interactome to identify possible mechanistic pathways. These analyses provide insights into novel molecular interactions between HPV16 and miRNAs in oropharyngeal cancers. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Human Papillomavirus Type 18 E6 and E7 Genes Integrate into Human Hepatoma Derived Cell Line Hep G2

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Tianzhong; Su, Zhongjing; Chen, Ling; Liu, Shuyan; Zhu, Ningxia; Wen, Lifeng; Yuan, Yan; Lv, Leili; Chen, Xiancai; Huang, Jianmin; Chen, Haibin

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Human papillomaviruses have been linked causally to some human cancers such as cervical carcinoma, but there is very little research addressing the effect of HPV infection on human liver cells. We chose the human hepatoma derived cell line Hep G2 to investigate whether HPV gene integration took place in liver cells as well. Methods We applied PCR to detect the possible integration of HPV genes in Hep G2 cells. We also investigated the expression of the integrated E6 and E7 genes by using RT-PCR and Western blotting. Then, we silenced E6 and E7 expression and checked the cell proliferation and apoptosis in Hep G2 cells. Furthermore, we analyzed the potential genes involved in cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory pathways. Finally, we used in situ hybridization to detect HPV 16/18 in hepatocellular carcinoma samples. Results Hep G2 cell line contains integrated HPV 18 DNA, leading to the expression of the E6 and E7 oncogenic proteins. Knockdown of the E7 and E6 genes expression reduced cell proliferation, caused the cell cycle arrest at the S phase, and increased apoptosis. The human cell cycle and apoptosis real-time PCR arrays analysis demonstrated E6 and E7-mediated regulation of some genes such as Cyclin H, UBA1, E2F4, p53, p107, FASLG, NOL3 and CASP14. HPV16/18 was found in only 9% (9/100) of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Conclusion Our investigations showed that HPV 18 E6 and E7 genes can be integrated into the Hep G2, and we observed a low prevalence of HPV 16/18 in hepatocellular carcinoma samples. However, the precise risk of HPV as causative agent of hepatocellular carcinoma needs further study. PMID:22655088

  5. Human papillomavirus E6 protein enriches the CD55(+) population in cervical cancer cells, promoting radioresistance and cancer aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    Leung, Thomas Ho-Yin; Tang, Hermit Wai-Man; Siu, Michelle Kwan-Yee; Chan, David Wai; Chan, Karen Kar-Loen; Cheung, Annie Nga-Yin; Ngan, Hextan Yuen-Sheung

    2018-02-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 protein plays a crucial role in the development of cervical cancer. Subpopulations of cells that reside within tumours are responsible for tumour resistance to cancer therapy and recurrence. However, the identity of such cells residing in cervical cancer and their relationship with the HPV-E6 protein have not been identified. Here, we isolated sphere-forming cells, which showed self-renewal ability, from primary cervical tumours. Gene expression profiling revealed that cluster of differentiation (CD) 55 was upregulated in primary cervical cancer sphere cells. Flow-cytometric analysis detected abundant CD55(+) populations among a panel of HPV-positive cervical cancer cell lines, whereas few CD55(+) cells were found in HPV-negative cervical cancer and normal cervical epithelial cell lines. The CD55(+) subpopulation isolated from the C33A cell line showed significant sphere-forming ability and enhanced tumourigenicity, cell migration, and radioresistance. In contrast, the suppression of CD55 in HPV-positive CaSki cells inhibited tumourigenicity both in vitro and in vivo, and sensitized cells to radiation treatment. In addition, ectopic expression of the HPV-E6 protein in HPV-negative cervical cancer cells dramatically enriched the CD55(+) subpopulation. CRISPR/Cas9 knockout of CD55 in an HPV-E6-overexpressing stable clone abolished the tumourigenic effects of the HPV-E6 protein. Taken together, our data suggest that HPV-E6 protein expression enriches the CD55(+) population, which contributes to tumourigenicity and radioresistance in cervical cancer cells. Targeting CD55 via CRISPR/Cas9 may represent a novel avenue for developing new strategies and effective therapies for the treatment of cervical cancer. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John

  6. NF-Y loss triggers p53 stabilization and apoptosis in HPV18-positive cells by affecting E6 transcription.

    PubMed

    Benatti, Paolo; Basile, Valentina; Dolfini, Diletta; Belluti, Silvia; Tomei, Margherita; Imbriano, Carol

    2016-07-19

    The expression of the high risk HPV18 E6 and E7 oncogenic proteins induces the transformation of epithelial cells, through the disruption of p53 and Rb function. The binding of cellular transcription factors to cis-regulatory elements in the viral Upstream Regulatory Region (URR) stimulates E6/E7 transcription. Here, we demonstrate that the CCAAT-transcription factor NF-Y binds to a non-canonical motif within the URR and activates viral gene expression. In addition, NF-Y indirectly up-regulates HPV18 transcription through the transactivation of multiple cellular transcription factors. NF-YA depletion inhibits the expression of E6 and E7 genes and re-establishes functional p53. The activation of p53 target genes in turn leads to apoptotic cell death. Finally, we show that NF-YA loss sensitizes HPV18-positive cells toward the DNA damaging agent Doxorubicin, via p53-mediated transcriptional response.

  7. Immortalization of human prostate epithelial cells by HPV 16 E6/E7 open reading frames.

    PubMed

    Choo, C K; Ling, M T; Chan, K W; Tsao, S W; Zheng, Z; Zhang, D; Chan, L C; Wong, Y C

    1999-08-01

    The exact pathogenesis for prostate cancer is not known. Progress made in prostate cancer research has been slow, largely due to the lack of suitable in vitro models. Here, we report our work on the immortalization of a human prostate epithelial cell line and show that it can be used as a model to study prostate tumorigenesis. Replication-defective retrovirus harboring the human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 E6 and E7 open reading frames was used to infect primary human prostate epithelial cells. Polymerase chain reaction, followed by Southern hybridization for the HPV 16 E6/E7, Western blot for prostatic acid phosphatase, telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay for telomerase activity, two-dimensional gels for cytokeratins, and cytogenetic analysis were undertaken to characterized the infected cells. The retrovirus-infected cell line, HPr-1, continued to grow in culture for more than 80 successive passages. Normal primary cells failed to proliferate after passage 6. HPr-1 cells bore close resemblance to normal primary prostate epithelial cells, both morphologically and biochemically. However, they possessed telomerase activity and proliferated indefinitely. Cytogenetic analysis of HPr-1 cells revealed a human male karyotype with clonal abnormalities and the appearance of multiple double minutes. The HPr-1 cells expressed prostatic acid phosphatase and cytokeratins K8 and K18, proving that they were prostate epithelial cells. They were benign in nude mice tumor formation and soft agar colony formation assay. The HPr-1 cell line is an in vitro representation of early prostate neoplastic progression. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. HPV 5 and 8 E6 Expression Reduces ATM Protein Levels and Attenuates LINE-1 Retrotransposition

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Nicholas A.; Gasior, Stephen L.; Faber, Zachary J.; Howie, Heather L.; Deininger, Prescott L.; Galloway, Denise A.

    2013-01-01

    The expression of the E6 protein from certain members of the HPV genus β (β HPV 5 and 8 E6) can disrupt p53 signaling by diminishing the steady state levels of two p53 modifying enzymes, ATR and p300. Here, we show that β-HPV 5 and 8 E6 are also capable of reducing the steady state levels of another p53 modifying enzyme, ATM, and as a result restrict LINE-1 retrotransposition. Furthermore, we show that the reduction of both ATM and LINE-1 retrotransposition is dependent upon the ability of β-HPV 8 E6 to bind and degrade p300. We use inhibitors and dominant negative mutants to confirm that ATM is needed for efficient LINE-1 retrotransposition. Furthermore, neither sensitivity to LINE-1 expression nor LINE-1 induced DSB formation is altered in an ATM deficient background. Together, these data illustrate the broad impact some β-HPVs have on DNA damage signaling by promoting p300 degradation. PMID:23706308

  9. Targeting of HPV-16+ Epithelial Cancer Cells by TCR Gene Engineered T Cells Directed against E6.

    PubMed

    Draper, Lindsey M; Kwong, Mei Li M; Gros, Alena; Stevanović, Sanja; Tran, Eric; Kerkar, Sid; Raffeld, Mark; Rosenberg, Steven A; Hinrichs, Christian S

    2015-10-01

    The E6 and E7 oncoproteins of HPV-associated epithelial cancers are in principle ideal immunotherapeutic targets, but evidence that T cells specific for these antigens can recognize and kill HPV(+) tumor cells is limited. We sought to determine whether TCR gene engineered T cells directed against an HPV oncoprotein can successfully target HPV(+) tumor cells. T-cell responses against the HPV-16 oncoproteins were investigated in a patient with an ongoing 22-month disease-free interval after her second resection of distant metastatic anal cancer. T cells genetically engineered to express an oncoprotein-specific TCR from this patient's tumor-infiltrating T cells were tested for specific reactivity against HPV(+) epithelial tumor cells. We identified, from an excised metastatic anal cancer tumor, T cells that recognized an HLA-A*02:01-restricted epitope of HPV-16 E6. The frequency of the dominant T-cell clonotype from these cells was approximately 400-fold greater in the patient's tumor than in her peripheral blood. T cells genetically engineered to express the TCR from this clonotype displayed high avidity for an HLA-A*02:01-restricted epitope of HPV-16, and they showed specific recognition and killing of HPV-16(+) cervical, and head and neck cancer cell lines. These findings demonstrate that HPV-16(+) tumors can be targeted by E6-specific TCR gene engineered T cells, and they provide the foundation for a novel cellular therapy directed against HPV-16(+) malignancies, including cervical, oropharyngeal, anal, vulvar, vaginal, and penile cancers. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Identification of RNA Aptamers that Internalize into HPV-16 E6/E7 Transformed Tonsillar Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gourronc, Francoise A.; Rockey, William M.; Thiel, William H.; Giangrande, Paloma H.; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J.

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) associated oropharyngeal cancers are on a significant increase and better therapeutic strategies are needed. The HPV-16 oncogenes E6 and E7 are expressed in HPV-associated cancers and are able to transform human tonsillar epithelial cells (HTECs). We used cell-SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) to select for RNA aptamers that entered into HPV-16 E6/E7-HTECs. After 12 rounds of cell-SELEX, a pool of aptamers was obtained that had significantly greater internalization capacity (~5-fold) into E6/E7-HTECs as compared to primary HTECs or fibroblasts. Analysis of individual aptamers from the pool indicated variable internalization into E6/E7-HTECs (1 to 8-fold as compared to a negative control). Most of the individual aptamers internalized into E6/E7 and primary HTECs with similar efficiency, while one aptamer exhibited ~3-fold better internalization into E6/E7-HTECs. Aptamers that internalize into cells may be useful for delivering therapeutic agents to HPV-16 associated malignancies. PMID:24074596

  11. HPV8-E6 Interferes with Syntenin-2 Expression through Deregulation of Differentiation, Methylation and Phosphatidylinositide-Kinase Dependent Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Marx, Benjamin; Miller-Lazic, Daliborka; Doorbar, John; Majewski, Slawomir; Hofmann, Kay; Hufbauer, Martin; Akgül, Baki

    2017-01-01

    The E6 oncoproteins of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) of genus alpha contain a short peptide sequence at the carboxy-terminus, the PDZ binding domain, with which they interact with the corresponding PDZ domain of cellular proteins. Interestingly, E6 proteins from papillomaviruses of genus beta (betaPV) do not encode a comparable PDZ binding domain. Irrespective of this fact, we previously showed that the E6 protein of HPV8 (betaPV type) could circumvent this deficit by targeting the PDZ protein Syntenin-2 through transcriptional repression (Lazic et al., 2012). Despite its high binding affinity to phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P 2 ), very little is known about Syntenin-2. This study aimed to extend the knowledge on Syntenin-2 and how its expression is controlled. We now identified that Syntenin-2 is expressed at high levels in differentiating and in lower amounts in keratinocytes cultured in serum-free media containing low calcium concentration. HPV8-E6 led to a further reduction of Syntenin-2 expression only in cells cultured in low calcium. In the skin of patients suffering from Epidermodysplasia verruciformis, who are predisposed to betaPV infection, Syntenin-2 was expressed in differentiating keratinocytes of non-lesional skin, but was absent in virus positive squamous tumors. Using 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine, which causes DNA demethylation, Syntenin-2 transcription was profoundly activated and fully restored in the absence and presence of HPV8-E6, implicating that E6 mediated repression of Syntenin-2 transcription is due to promoter hypermethylation. Since Syntenin-2 binds to PI(4,5)P 2 , we further tested whether the PI(4,5)P 2 metabolic pathway might govern Syntenin-2 expression. PI(4,5)P 2 is generated by the activity of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-5-kinase type I (PIP5KI) or phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate-4-kinase type II (PIP4KII) isoforms α, β and γ. Phosphatidylinositide kinases have recently been identified as regulators

  12. Production of Human Papilloma Virus Type 16 E6 Oncoprotein as a Recombinant Protein in Eukaryotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mirshahabi, H; Soleimanjahi, H; Pourpak, Z; Meshkat, Z; Hassan, ZM

    2012-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is one of the most important and widespread cancer which affects women. There are several causes of cervical cancer; among them HPV types 16 and 18 are the most prominent ones which are recurrent and persistent infections. These genotypes are currently about 70% of cervical cancer causes in developing countries. Due to the importance of these viruses in cervical cancer, we pioneered the production of Human Papilloma Virus type16 E6 oncoprotein as a recombinant protein in order to develop a vaccine. Two HPV oncoproteins, E6 and E7, are consistently expressed in HPV-associated cancer cells and are responsible for malignant transformation. These oncogenic proteins represent ideal target antigens for developing vaccine and immunotherapeutic strategies against HPV-associated neoplasm. Methods In the present study, the cloned E6-oncoprotein of HPV16 in pTZ57R/T-E6 vector was used to produce professional expression vector. The target gene was subcloned in a eukaryotic expression vector. The pcDNA3-E6 vector was propagated in E.coli strain DH5α and transfected into CHO cells 72 hours post-transfection. Results The transfected cells were harvested; mRNA detection and the interest protein production were confirmed by western blot analysis using specific anti E6 monoclonal antibody. Conclusion HPV16-E6 target protein recognized by specific antibody could be an appropriate form of protein, which can be used for further studies. Due to potential effect of this protein, its DNA construction can be used for DNA vaccine in future studies. PMID:25780534

  13. Dual expression of Epstein-Barr virus, latent membrane protein-1 and human papillomavirus-16 E6 transform primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts through NF-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Shimabuku, Tetsuya; Tamanaha, Ayumi; Kitamura, Bunta; Tanabe, Yasuka; Tawata, Natsumi; Ikehara, Fukino; Arakaki, Kazunari; Kinjo, Takao

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) infections in patients with oral cancer in Okinawa, southwest islands of Japan, has led to the hypothesis that carcinogenesis is related to EBV and HPV co-infection. To explore the mechanisms of transformation induced by EBV and HPV co-infection, we analyzed the transformation of primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) expressing EBV and HPV-16 genes, alone or in combination. Expression of EBV latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1) alone or in combination with HPV-16 E6 increased cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis, whereas single expression of EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1), or HPV-16 E6 did not. Co-expression of LMP-1 and E6 induced anchorage-independent growth and tumor formation in nude mice, whereas expression of LMP-1 alone did not. Although the singular expression of these viral genes showed increased DNA damage and DNA damage response (DDR), co-expression of LMP-1 and E6 did not induce DDR, which is frequently seen in cancer cells. Furthermore, co-expression of LMP-1 with E6 increased NF-κB signaling, and the knockdown of LMP-1 or E6 in co-expressing cells decreased cell proliferation, anchorage independent growth, and NF-κB activation. These data suggested that expression of individual viral genes is insufficient for inducing transformation and that co-expression of LMP-1 and E6, which is associated with suppression of DDR and increased NF-κB activity, lead to transformation. Our findings demonstrate the synergistic effect by the interaction of oncogenes from different viruses on the transformation of primary MEFs.

  14. Biological characterization of bovine mammary epithelial cell lines immortalized by HPV16 E6/E7 and SV40T.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Kang; Lin, Miao; Zhao, Qian-Ming; Zhan, Jin-Shun; Zhao, Guo-Qi

    2016-10-01

    Primary bovine mammary epithelial cells are not ideal models for long-term studies, because primary cells undergo a limited number of proliferations in vitro and enter into a growth-arrest stage called cell replicative senescence; we therefore must establish the immortalized bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) in vitro. More importantly, the mechanisms of the relationship between immortalized and apoptotic cell remain unknown in BMECs. We therefore sought to elucidate the mechanisms of which immortalized cells escape the pathway of apoptotic signal. These cells were successfully immortalized without any signs of senescence. The maximum number of BMEC and E6E7 immortalized cells were reached after 6 d of culture. At this point, there were significantly more E6E7 immortalized cells than primary BMECs (P < 0.01). The population-doubling times of the E6E7 and SV40T immortalized cells were lowest at 48 and 72 h. We failed to detect the expression of the epithelial cell marker E-cadherin in BMECs; however, immortalized cells had low expression of E-cadherin. The expression of β-catenin was markedly expressed in immortalized cells than in BMECs (P < 0.01). Caspase-3, caspase-9, and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) were detected; however, the cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP was not observed. Our data demonstrate that the expressions of caspase-9, caspase-3, and PARP are not sufficient for the apoptosis of immortalized cells and suggest that E-cadherin and β-catenin might be an important indicator of the development of cancer.

  15. Proteomic identification of E6AP as a molecular target of tamoxifen in MCF7 cells.

    PubMed

    Lochab, Savita; Pal, Pooja; Kanaujiya, Jitendra K; Tripathi, Shashi B; Kapoor, Isha; Bhatt, Madan L B; Sanyal, Sabyasachi; Behre, Gerhard; Trivedi, Arun K

    2012-05-01

    Tamoxifen (Tam) is most widely used selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) for treatment of hormone-responsive breast cancer. Despite being regularly used in clinical therapy for breast cancer since 1971, the mechanism of Tam action remains largely unclear. In order to gain insights into Tam-mediated antibreast cancer actions, we applied 2DE and MS based proteomics approach to identify target proteins of Tam. We identified E6-associated protein, i.e. E6AP (UBE3A) among others to be regulated by Tam that otherwise is upregulated in breast tumors. We confirmed our 2DE finding by immunoblotting and further show that Tam leads to inhibition of E6AP expression presumably by promoting its autoubiquitination, which is coupled with nuclear export and subsequent proteasome-mediated degradation. Furthermore, we show that Tam- and siE6AP-mediated inhibition of E6AP leads to enhanced G0-G1 growth arrest and apoptosis, which is also evident from significant upregulation of cytochrome-c, Bax, p21, and PARP cleavage. Taken together, our data suggest that, Tam-targeted E6AP inhibition is in fact required for Tam-mediated antibreast cancer actions. Thus, E6AP may be a therapeutic target in breast cancer. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-18 E6 oncoprotein interferes with the epithelial cell polarity Par3 protein.

    PubMed

    Facciuto, Florencia; Bugnon Valdano, Marina; Marziali, Federico; Massimi, Paola; Banks, Lawrence; Cavatorta, Ana Laura; Gardiol, Daniela

    2014-05-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the principal risk factor for the development of cervical cancer. The HPV E6 oncoprotein has the ability to target and interfere with several PSD-95/DLG/ZO-1 (PDZ) domain-containing proteins that are involved in the control of cell polarity. This function can be significant for E6 oncogenic activity because a deficiency in cell polarisation is a marker of tumour progression. The establishment and control of polarity in epithelial cells depend on the correct asymmetrical distribution of proteins and lipids at the cell borders and on specialised cell junctions. In this report, we have investigated the effects of HPV E6 protein on the polarity machinery, with a focus on the PDZ partitioning defective 3 (Par3) protein, which is a key component of tight junctions (TJ) and the polarity network. We demonstrate that E6 is able to bind and induce the mislocalisation of Par3 protein in a PDZ-dependent manner without significant reduction in Par3 protein levels. In addition, the high-risk HPV-18 E6 protein promotes a delay in TJ formation when analysed by calcium switch assays. Taken together, the data presented in this study contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanism by which HPVs induce the loss of cell polarity, with potential implications for the development and progression of HPV-associated tumours. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. E6D25E, HPV16 Asian variant shows specific proteomic pattern correlating in cells transformation and suppressive innate immune response

    SciT

    Chopjitt, Peechanika; Pientong, Chamsai; Sunthamala, Nuchsupha

    HPV16 Asian variant (HPV16As) containing E6D25E oncogene, is commonly associated with cervical cancers of Asian populations. To explore a mechanism of E6D25E oncoprotein in carcinogenesis, we compared protein profiles in human keratinocytes expressing E6D25E with E6 of HPV16 prototype (E6Pro). A human cervical keratinocyte cell line, HCK1T, was transduced with retroviruses containing E6D25E or E6Pro genes. Biological properties of E6D25E or E6Pro transduced HCK1T cells were characterized. Protein profiles of the transduced HCK1T cells were analyzed using 2D-PAGE and characterized by mass spectrometry and western blotting. Reactomes of modulated proteins were analyzed by using the Reactome Knowledgebase. The E6D25E andmore » E6Pro oncoproteins were comparable for their abilities to degrade p53 and suppress the induction of p21, and induce cell proliferation. Interestingly, the protein profiles of the HCK1T cells transduced with E6D25E showed specific proteomic patterns different from those with E6Pro. Among altered proteins, more than 1.5-fold up- or down- regulation was observed in E6D25E-expressing cells for gp96 and keratin7 which involved in activation of TLR signaling and transformation of squamocolumnar junction cells, respectively. This report describes new cellular proteins specifically targeted by E6D25E oncoprotein that may contribute to impair immune response against viral infection and cell transformation associated with oncogenic property of HPV16As variant. - Highlights: • E6D25E HPV16 specifically modulates protein profile of human keratinocytes. • E6D25E HPV16 modulates protein profile which involves in TLR signalling and transformation of squamocolumnar junction cells. • E6D25E oncoprotein may correlate to impair of immune response against viral infection and cells transformation.« less

  18. [Influence of physiologic 17 beta-estradiol concentrations on gene E6 expression in HVP type 18 in vitro].

    PubMed

    Dziubińska-Parol, Izabella; Gasowska, Urszula; Rzymowska, Jolanta; Kwaśniewska, Anna

    2003-09-01

    Many recent studies indicate that long term use of contraceptives is a strong risk factor in the development of cervical cancer. Steroid hormones, in persistent papilloma virus infection act on various levels, one of them is enhancing transforming activity of the virus. The aim of the study was to estimate if physiological concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol could influence expression of viral transforming genes. HeLa cell lines were incubated with three different physiological concentrations and and on the third day of incubation the level of E6 gene expression was determined. Results show no differences in expression between the control culter, and cultures incubated with physiological concentrations. It indicates that normal levels of 17 beta-estradiol don't play role in transforming process but it also shows need to analyse higher levels of hormones by quantitative analyses in prospective studies.

  19. Intron Definition and a Branch Site Adenosine at nt 385 Control RNA Splicing of HPV16 E6*I and E7 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Ajiro, Masahiko; Jia, Rong; Zhang, Lifang; Liu, Xuefeng; Zheng, Zhi-Ming

    2012-01-01

    HPV16 E6 and E7, two viral oncogenes, are expressed from a single bicistronic pre-mRNA. In this report, we provide the evidence that the bicistronic pre-mRNA intron 1 contains three 5′ splice sites (5′ ss) and three 3′ splice sites (3′ ss) normally used in HPV16+ cervical cancer and its derived cell lines. The choice of two novel alternative 5′ ss (nt 221 5′ ss and nt 191 5′ ss) produces two novel isoforms of E6E7 mRNAs (E6*V and E6*VI). The nt 226 5′ ss and nt 409 3′ ss is preferentially selected over the other splice sites crossing over the intron to excise a minimal length of the intron in RNA splicing. We identified AACAAAC as the preferred branch point sequence (BPS) and an adenosine at nt 385 (underlined) in the BPS as a branch site to dictate the selection of the nt 409 3′ ss for E6*I splicing and E7 expression. Introduction of point mutations into the mapped BPS led to reduced U2 binding to the BPS and thereby inhibition of the second step of E6E7 splicing at the nt 409 3′ ss. Importantly, the E6E7 bicistronic RNA with a mutant BPS and inefficient splicing makes little or no E7 and the resulted E6 with mutations of 91QYNK94 to 91PSFW94 displays attenuate activity on p53 degradation. Together, our data provide structural basis of the E6E7 intron 1 for better understanding of how viral E6 and E7 expression is regulated by alternative RNA splicing. This study elucidates for the first time a mapped branch point in HPV16 genome involved in viral oncogene expression. PMID:23056301

  20. Photochemical Targeting Of Phagocytic Trabecular Meshwork Cells Using Chlorin E6 Coupled Microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latina, M. A.; Kobsa, P. H.; Rakestraw, S. L.; Crean, E. A.; Hasan, T.; Yarmush, M. L.

    1989-03-01

    We have investigated a novel and efficient delivery system utilizing photosensitizer-coupled-latex microspheres to photochemically target and kill phagocytic trabecular meshwork (TM) cells. TM cells are the most actively phagocytic cells within the anterior chamber of the eye and are located within an optically accessible discrete band. This delivery system, along with the property of cell photocytosis, will achieve double selectivity by combining preferential localization of the photosensitizer to the target cells with spatial localization of illumination on the target cells. All experiments were performed with preconfluent bovine TM cells, 3rd to 4th passage, plated in 15 mm wells. Chlorin e6 monoethylene diamine monoamide was conjugated to the surface of 1.0 Am MX Duke Scientific fluorescent latex microspheres. Spectroscopic analysis revealed an average of 1.3 x 10 -17 moles of chlorin e6 per microsphere. TM cells were incubated for 18 hours with 5 x 10 7 microspheres/ml in MEM with 10% FCS, washed with MEM, and irradiated through fresh media using an argon-pumped dye laser emitting .2 W at 660 nm. A dose-survival study indicated that energy doses of 10 J/cm2 or greater resulted in greater than 95% cell death as determined by ethidium bromide exclusion. Cell death could be demonstrated as early as 4 hours post-irradiation. TM cells incubated with a solution of chlorin e6 at a concentration equal to that conjugated to the microspheres showed no cell death. Unirradiated controls also showed no cell death.

  1. E6/E7 oncoproteins of high risk HPV-16 upregulate MT1-MMP, MMP-2 and MMP-9 and promote the migration of cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dingjun; Ye, Mei; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    E6 and E7 of high risk human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) were reported to correlate with the cervical cancer (CC). And the presence of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has also been indicated to be associated with CC. The present study investigated the expression of MMPs (MT1-MMP, MMP-2 and MMP-9) in CC cells with HPV16-E6/E7 oncoprotein(s) negative or positive, and then determined the regulation of HPV16-E6/E7 oncoproteins on the expression of MMPs (MT1-MMP, MMP-2 and MMP-9) and the migration of cervical cancer Caski and SiHa cells with RNAi technology. It was demonstrated that the overexpression or the knockdown of HPV16-E6/E7 promoted or reduced MT1-MMP, MMP-2 and MMP-9 in CC cells. And the HPV16-E6, -E7 or -E6E7 influenced the migration of CC cells. The overexpression or the knockdown of them promoted or inhibited the migration of C33A or Caski/SiHa cells. Moreover, the chemical inhibition of MMP-2 or MMP-9 significantly reduced the migration of CC Caski or SiHa cells. Our results demonstrated that the E6-HPV16 or E7-HPV16 promoted the activity of MMP-2/9, and contributed to the migration of cervical cells.

  2. Transcription of the cottontail rabbit papillomavirus early region and identification of two E6 polypeptides in COS-7 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, M S; Wettstein, F O

    1987-01-01

    Cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) early proteins are present at very low levels in virus-induced tumors and cannot be detected by immunological methods. Furthermore, cells in culture are not readily transformed by the virus. To overcome these difficulties in identifying and characterizing the putative transforming protein(s) coded by the E6 open reading frame, the early cottontail rabbit papillomavirus region was expressed under the control of the late simian virus 40 promoter. Mapping of the transcripts in transiently transfected COS-7 cells indicated that transcription was initiated in the late region of simian virus 40. Two E6-coded polypeptides were identified, representing translation products initiated at the first and second AUG codons. Images PMID:3039182

  3. Inactivation of p53 Rescues the Maintenance of High Risk HPV DNA Genomes Deficient in Expression of E6

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Laurel D.; Rivera Cardona, Jessenia; Lambert, Paul F.

    2013-01-01

    The human papillomavirus DNA genome undergoes three distinct stages of replication: establishment, maintenance and amplification. We show that the HPV16 E6 protein is required for the maintenance of the HPV16 DNA genome as an extrachromosomal, nuclear plasmid in its natural host cell, the human keratinocyte. Based upon mutational analyses, inactivation of p53 by E6, but not necessarily E6-mediated degradation of p53, was found to correlate with the ability of E6 to support maintenance of the HPV16 genome as a nuclear plasmid. Inactivation of p53 with dominant negative p53 rescued the ability of HPV16 E6STOP and E6SAT mutant genomes to replicate as extrachromosomal genomes, though not to the same degree as observed for the HPV16 E6 wild-type (WT) genome. Inactivation of p53 also rescued the ability of HPV18 and HPV31 E6-deficient genomes to be maintained at copy numbers comparable to that of HPV18 and HPV31 E6WT genomes at early passages, though upon further passaging copy numbers for the HPV18 and 31 E6-deficient genomes lessened compared to that of the WT genomes. We conclude that inactivation of p53 is necessary for maintenance of HPV16 and for HPV18 and 31 to replicate at WT copy number, but that additional functions of E6 independent of inactivating p53 must also contribute to the maintenance of these genomes. Together these results suggest that re-activation of p53 may be a possible means for eradicating extrachromosomal HPV16, 18 or 31 genomes in the context of persistent infections. PMID:24204267

  4. Human papillomavirus oncogenic E6 protein regulates human β-defensin 3 (hBD3) expression via the tumor suppressor protein p53

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Hong; Wang, Liming; Jin, Jessica; Ghosh, Santosh K.; Kawsar, Hameem I.; Zender, Chad; Androphy, Elliot J.; Weinberg, Aaron; McCormick, Thomas S.; Jin, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Human β-defensin-3 (hBD3) is an epithelial cell-derived innate immune regulatory molecule overexpressed in oral dysplastic lesions and fosters a tumor-promoting microenvironment. Expression of hBD3 is induced by the epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway. Here we describe a novel pathway through which the high-risk human papillomavirus type-16 (HPV-16) oncoprotein E6 induces hBD3 expression in mucosal keratinocytes. Ablation of E6 by siRNA induces the tumor suppressor p53 and diminishes hBD3 in HPV-16 positive CaSki cervical cancer cells and UM-SCC-104 head and neck cancer cells. Malignant cells in HPV-16-associated oropharyngeal cancer overexpress hBD3. HPV-16 E6 induces hBD3 mRNA expression, peptide production and gene promoter activity in mucosal keratinocytes. Reduction of cellular levels of p53 stimulates hBD3 expression, while activation of p53 by doxorubicin inhibits its expression in primary oral keratinocytes and CaSki cells, suggesting that p53 represses hBD3 expression. A p53 binding site in the hBD3 gene promoter has been identified by using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). In addition, the p63 protein isoform ΔNp63α, but not TAp63, stimulated transactivation of the hBD3 gene and was co-expressed with hBD3 in head and neck cancer specimens. Therefore, high-risk HPV E6 oncoproteins may stimulate hBD3 expression in tumor cells to facilitate tumorigenesis of HPV-associated head and neck cancer. PMID:27034006

  5. Targeting the Human Papillomavirus E6 and E7 Oncogenes through Expression of the Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1 E2 Protein Stimulates Cellular Motility▿†

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Monique A.; Morreale, Richard J.; Akunuru, Shailaja; Kofron, Matthew; Zheng, Yi; Wells, Susanne I.

    2011-01-01

    Expression of the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncogenes is essential for the initiation and maintenance of cervical cancer. The repression of both was previously shown to result in activation of their respective tumor suppressor targets, p53 and pRb, and subsequent senescence induction in cervical cancer cells. Consequently, viral oncogene suppression is a promising approach for the treatment of HPV-positive tumors. One well-established method of E6/E7 repression involves the reexpression of the viral E2 protein which is usually deleted in HPV-positive cancer cells. Here, we show that, surprisingly, bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1) E2 but not RNA interference-mediated E6/E7 repression in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells stimulates cellular motility and invasion. Migration correlated with the dynamic formation of cellular protrusions and was dependent upon cell-to-cell contact. While E2-expressing migratory cells were senescent, migration was not a general feature of cellular senescence or cell cycle arrest and was specifically observed in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells. Interestingly, E2-expressing cells not only were themselves motile but also conferred increased motility to admixed HeLa cervical cancer cells. Together, our data suggest that repression of the viral oncogenes by E2 stimulates the motility of E6/E7-targeted cells as well as adjacent nontargeted cancer cells, thus raising the possibility that E2 expression may unfavorably increase the local invasiveness of HPV-positive tumors. PMID:21835799

  6. HPV-16 E6/E7 promotes cell migration and invasion in cervical cancer via regulating cadherin switch in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dongxiao; Zhou, Jiansong; Wang, Fenfen; Shi, Haiyan; Li, Yang; Li, Baohua

    2015-12-01

    Cadherin switch, as a key hallmark of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), is characterized by reduced E-cadherin expression and increased N-cadherin or P-cadherin expression, and has been implicated in many aggressive tumors, but the importance and regulatory mechanism of cadherin switch in cervical cancer have not been investigated. Our study aimed to explore the role of cadherin switch by regulation of HPV-16 E6/E7 in progression and metastasis of cervical cancer. The expressions of E-cadherin and P-cadherin were examined by immunohistochemical staining in 40 cases of high-grade cervical lesions with HPV-16 infection only in which HPV-16 E6 and E7 expression had been detected using qRT-PCR method. Through modulating E6 and E7 expression using HPV-16 E6/E7 promoter-targeting siRNAs or expressed vector in vitro, cell growth, migration, and invasion were separately tested by MTT, wound-healing and transwell invasion assays, as well as the expressions of these cadherins by western blot analyses. Finally, the expressions of these cadherins in cancerous tissues of BALB/c-nu mouse model inoculated with the stable HPV-16 E6/E7 gene silencing Siha and Caski cells were also measured by immunohistochemical staining. Pearson correlation coefficient analyses showed the strongly inverse correlation of E-cadherin expression and strongly positive correlation of P-cadherin expression with E6/E7 level in 40 cases of high-grade cervical lesions. Furthermore, the modulation of HPV-16 E6/E7 expression remarkably influenced cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, as well as the protein levels of E-cadherin and P-cadherin in cervical cell lines. Finally, the reduction of HPV-16 E6/E7 expression led to up-regulated expression of E-cadherin and down-regulated expression of P-cadherin in BALB/c-nu mouse model in vivo assay. Our results unraveled the possibility that HPV-16 E6/E7 could promote cell invasive potential via regulating cadherin switching, and consequently contribute

  7. E6 and E7 gene silencing results in decreased methylation of tumor suppressor genes and induces phenotype transformation of human cervical carcinoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Long, Jia; Shen, Danbei; Zhou, Wuqing; Zhou, Qiyan; Yang, Jia; Jiang, Mingjun

    2015-01-01

    In SiHa and CaSki cells, E6 and E7-targeting shRNA specifically and effectively knocked down human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 E6 and E7 at the transcriptional level, reduced the E6 and E7 mRNA levels by more than 80% compared with control cells that expressed a scrambled-sequence shRNA. E6 and E7 repression resulted in down-regulation of DNA methyltransferase mRNA and protein expression, decreased DNA methylation and increased mRNA expression levels of tumor suppressor genes, induced a certain apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in E6 and E7 shRNA-infected SiHa and CaSki cells compared with the uninfected cells. Repression of E6 and E7 oncogenes resulted in restoration of DNA methyltransferase suppressor pathways and induced apoptosis in HPV16-positive cervical carcinoma cell lines. Our findings suggest that the potential carcinogenic mechanism of HPV16 through influencing DNA methylation pathway to activate the development of cervical cancer exist, and maybe as a candidate therapeutic strategy for cervical and other HPV-associated cancers. PMID:26329329

  8. Papillomavirus E6 oncoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Vande Pol, Scott B.; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J.

    2013-01-01

    Papillomaviruses induce benign and malignant epithelial tumors, and the viral E6 oncoprotein is essential for full transformation. E6 contributes to transformation by associating with cellular proteins, docking on specific acidic LXXLL peptide motifs found on the associated cellular proteins. This review examines insights from recent studies of human and animal E6 proteins that determine the three-dimensional structure of E6 when bound to acidic LXXLL peptides. The structure of E6 is related to recent advances in the purification and identification of E6 associated protein complexes. These E6 protein-complexes, together with other proteins that bind to E6, alter a broad array of biological outcomes including modulation of cell survival, cellular transcription, host cell differentiation, growth factor dependence, DNA damage responses, and cell cycle progression. PMID:23711382

  9. The Human Papillomavirus E6 Oncogene Represses a Cell Adhesion Pathway and Disrupts Focal Adhesion through Degradation of TAp63β upon Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Ben Khalifa, Youcef; Teissier, Sébastien; Tan, Meng-Kwang Marcus; Phan, Quang Tien; Daynac, Mathieu; Wong, Wei Qi; Thierry, Françoise

    2011-01-01

    Cervical carcinomas result from cellular transformation by the human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncogenes which are constitutively expressed in cancer cells. The E6 oncogene degrades p53 thereby modulating a large set of p53 target genes as shown previously in the cervical carcinoma cell line HeLa. Here we show that the TAp63β isoform of the p63 transcription factor is also a target of E6. The p63 gene plays an essential role in skin homeostasis and is expressed as at least six isoforms. One of these isoforms, ΔNp63α, has been found overexpressed in squamous cell carcinomas and is shown here to be constitutively expressed in Caski cells associated with HPV16. We therefore explored the role of p63 in these cells by performing microarray analyses after repression of endogenous E6/E7 expression. Upon repression of the oncogenes, a large set of p53 target genes was found activated together with many p63 target genes related to cell adhesion. However, through siRNA silencing and ectopic expression of various p63 isoforms we demonstrated that TAp63β is involved in activation of this cell adhesion pathway instead of the constitutively expressed ΔNp63α and β. Furthermore, we showed in cotransfection experiments, combined with E6AP siRNA silencing, that E6 induces an accelerated degradation of TAp63β although not through the E6AP ubiquitin ligase used for degradation of p53. Repression of E6 transcription also induces stabilization of endogenous TAp63β in cervical carcinoma cells that lead to an increased concentration of focal adhesions at the cell surface. Consequently, TAp63β is the only p63 isoform suppressed by E6 in cervical carcinoma as demonstrated previously for p53. Down-modulation of focal adhesions through disruption of TAp63β therefore appears as a novel E6-dependent pathway in transformation. These findings identify a major physiological role for TAp63β in anchorage independent growth that might represent a new critical pathway in human

  10. A novel intracellular antibody against the E6 oncoprotein impairs growth of human papillomavirus 16-positive tumor cells in mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Amici, Carla; Visintin, Michela; Verachi, Francesca; Paolini, Francesca; Percario, Zulema; Di Bonito, Paola; Mandarino, Angela; Affabris, Elisabetta; Venuti, Aldo; Accardi, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) expressed as “intracellular antibodies” (intrabodies) can target intracellular antigens to hamper their function efficaciously and specifically. Here we use an intrabody targeting the E6 oncoprotein of Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) to address the issue of a non-invasive therapy for HPV cancer patients. A scFv against the HPV16 E6 was selected by Intracellular Antibody Capture Technology and expressed as I7nuc in the nucleus of HPV16-positive SiHa, HPV-negative C33A and 293T cells. Colocalization of I7nuc and recombinant E6 was observed in different cell compartments, obtaining evidence of E6 delocalization ascribable to I7nuc. In SiHa cells, I7nuc expressed by pLNCX retroviral vector was able to partially inhibit degradation of the main E6 target p53, and induced p53 accumulation in nucleus. When analyzing in vitro activity on cell proliferation and survival, I7nuc was able to decrease growth inducing late apoptosis and necrosis of SiHa cells. Finally, I7nuc antitumor activity was demonstrated in two pre-clinical models of HPV tumors. C57BL/6 mice were injected subcutaneously with HPV16-positive TC-1 or C3 tumor cells, infected with pLNCX retroviral vector expressing or non-expressing I7nuc. All the mice injected with I7nuc-expressing cells showed a clear delay in tumor onset; 60% and 40% of mice receiving TC-1 and C3 cells, respectively, remained tumor-free for 17 weeks of follow-up, whereas 100% of the controls were tumor-bearing 20 days post-inoculum. Our data support the therapeutic potential of E6-targeted I7nuc against HPV tumors. PMID:26788990

  11. The Human Papillomavirus E6 Oncogene Dysregulates the Cell Cycle and Contributes to Cervical Carcinogenesis through Two Independent Activities

    PubMed Central

    Shai, Anny; Brake, Tiffany; Somoza, Chamorro; Lambert, Paul F.

    2010-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of death due to cancer among women worldwide. Using transgenic mice to dissect the contributions of the human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 E6 and E7 oncogenes in cervical cancer, E7 was identified previously to be the dominant oncogene. Specifically, when treated with exogenous estrogen for 6 months, E7 transgenic mice developed cancer throughout the reproductive tract, but E6 transgenic mice did not. E6 contributed to carcinogenesis of the reproductive tract, as E6/E7 double transgenic mice treated for 6 months with estrogen developed larger cancers than E7 transgenic mice. In the current study, we investigated whether the E6 oncogene alone could cooperate with estrogen to induce cervical cancer after an extended estrogen treatment period of 9 months. We found that the E6 oncogene synergizes with estrogen to induce cervical cancer after 9 months, indicating that E6 has a weaker but detectable oncogenic potential in the reproductive tract compared with the E7 oncogene. Using transgenic mice that express mutant forms of HPV16 E6, we determined that the interactions of E6 with cellular α-helix and PDZ partners correlate with its ability to induce cervical carcinogenesis. In analyzing the tumors arising in E6 transgenic mice, we learned that E6 induces expression of the E2F-responsive genes, Mcm7 and cyclin E, in the absence of the E7 oncogene. E6 also prevented the expression of p16 in tumors of the reproductive tract through a mechanism mediated by the interaction of E6 with α-helix partners. PMID:17308103

  12. Identification of host transcriptional networks showing concentration-dependent regulation by HPV16 E6 and E7 proteins in basal cervical squamous epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stephen P.; Scarpini, Cinzia G.; Groves, Ian J.; Odle, Richard I.; Coleman, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Development of cervical squamous cell carcinoma requires increased expression of the major high-risk human-papillomavirus (HPV) oncogenes E6 and E7 in basal cervical epithelial cells. We used a systems biology approach to identify host transcriptional networks in such cells and study the concentration-dependent changes produced by HPV16-E6 and -E7 oncoproteins. We investigated sample sets derived from the W12 model of cervical neoplastic progression, for which high quality phenotype/genotype data were available. We defined a gene co-expression matrix containing a small number of highly-connected hub nodes that controlled large numbers of downstream genes (regulons), indicating the scale-free nature of host gene co-expression in W12. We identified a small number of ‘master regulators’ for which downstream effector genes were significantly associated with protein levels of HPV16 E6 (n = 7) or HPV16 E7 (n = 5). We validated our data by depleting E6/E7 in relevant cells and by functional analysis of selected genes in vitro. We conclude that the network of transcriptional interactions in HPV16-infected basal-type cervical epithelium is regulated in a concentration-dependent manner by E6/E7, via a limited number of central master-regulators. These effects are likely to be significant in cervical carcinogenesis, where there is competitive selection of cells with elevated expression of virus oncoproteins. PMID:27457222

  13. Retinol as a micronutrients related to cervical local immunity: The expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha specifically stimulated with E6 epitope of human papillomavirus type-16 and ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T cell in natural history of cervical cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utami, T. W.; Aziz, M. F.; Ibrahim, F.; Andrijono

    2017-08-01

    Retinol is one of the antioxidant micronutrients that plays essential roles in the immune system, by preventing the persistence of modulating CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and cytokines production. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-α) is an acute pro-inflammatory cytokine which has many crucial roles in controlling HPV. In contrast, when persistent infection occurs, TNF-α induces carcinogenesis. The ratio of CD4+ cells to CD8+ T cells and adequate TNF-α production in acute HPV infection are key points for clearance. The aim of this research is to analyze the sufficiency level of retinol deposit, the expression of TNF-α, and the ratio of CD4+: CD8+ T cells in a normal cervix, clearance and persistent HPV subclinical infection, and cervical cancer group. The sufficiency level of retinol deposit was analyzed from peripheral blood using the ELISA method. The cervico-vaginal secretions, which were incubated for 24 hours, were stimulated specifically by E6 epitope HPV type-16, measuring TNF-α expression semi-quantitatively by the ELISpot method and CD4+/CD8+ T cells quantitatively by flowcytometry method. The sufficient level of retinol deposit in a normal cervix, clearance HPV subclinical infection, persistent, and cervical cancer group was 85%, 75% (OR 1.89), 33.3% (OR 11.33), and 75% (OR 1.89), respectively. The expression of TNF-α in normal cervix group was 10%, while for cervical cancer it was 75% (OR 27.00; p < 0.001). There was no expression in clearance and persistent HPV subclinical infection groups. A high ratio of CD4+: CD8+ T cells in the normal cervix and cervical cancer group was 10% and 25% (OR 0.33). There was no high ratio of CD4+: CD8+ T cells in clearance (OR 1.22) and persistent (OR 0.95) HPV subclinical infection groups. This study was able to prove that the normal cervix group has the highest retinol deposit sufficiency level and the cervical cancer group has the highest TNF-α expression (OR 27; p < 0.001). The lowest of retinol deposit sufficiency

  14. Sonoporation of Cervical Carcinoma Cells Affected with E6-Oncoprotein for the Treatment of Uterine Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curiel, Laura; Lee, Kyle; Pichardo, Samuel; Zehbe, Ingeborg

    2010-03-01

    Cervical cancer has been identified as the third leading cause of average years of life lost per person dying of cancer. Since essentially all cervical cancers contain copies of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA, we propose a treatment that targets HPV-infected cells using strategies that re-introduce normal functions into the infected cells while sparing healthy cells. We propose the use of focused ultrasound in combination with microbubbles as means to deliver antibodies against the E6 protein present only in HPV positive cells. We conducted in vitro studies with cell cultures of SiHa cervical carcinoma cells seeded into Opticell™ chambers. An in-house ultrasound excitation apparatus was used to control and explore the optimal acoustic parameters in order to maximize delivery. We first validated the possibility of delivering the EX-EGFP-M02 vector (Genecopoeia) into the cells; 1.2 μL of activated microbubbles (Definity®) and 50 μg of the vector were mixed in media and then injected into the Opticell™ chamber. We used 32 μs pulses at a central frequency of 930 KHz with a repetition frequency of 1.5 kHz and total exposure duration of 30 s; six pressure values were tested (0 to 1 MPa). Fluorescence imaging was used to determine the levels of intracellular proteins and assess delivery. The delivery of an anti-α-Tubulin antibody was next tested and confirmed that the delivery into HPV16 positive cells was successful.

  15. Enhanced degradation of p53 protein in HPV-6 and BPV-1 E6-immortalized human mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Band, V; Dalal, S; Delmolino, L; Androphy, E J

    1993-01-01

    Normal mammary epithelial cells are efficiently immortalized by the E6 gene of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16, a virus commonly associated with cervical cancers. Surprisingly, introduction of the E6 gene from HPV-6, which is rarely found in cervical cancer, or bovine papillomavirus (BPV)-1, into normal mammary cells resulted in the generation of immortal cell lines. The establishment of HPV-6 and BPV-1 E6-immortalized cells was less efficient and required a longer period in comparison to HPV-16 E6. These HPV-6- and BPV-1 E6-immortalized cells demonstrated dramatically reduced levels of p53 protein by immunoprecipitation. While the half-life of p53 protein in normal mammary epithelial cells was approximately 3 h, it was reduced to approximately 15 min in all the E6-immortalized cells. These results demonstrate that the E6 genes of both high-risk and low-risk papilloma viruses immortalize human mammary epithelial cells and induce a marked degradation of p53 protein in vivo. Images PMID:8387914

  16. Novel action modality of the diterpenoid anisomelic acid causes depletion of E6 and E7 viral oncoproteins in HPV-transformed cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Paul, Preethy; Rajendran, Senthil Kumar; Peuhu, Emilia; Alshatwi, Ali A; Akbarsha, Mohammad A; Hietanen, Sakari; Eriksson, John E

    2014-05-15

    Cervical cancer, the second most common malignancy among women, is mainly caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. In HPV-positive cervical cancer cells, the activity of p53 and the induction of p21 are inhibited by the HPV oncoproteins E6 and E7. Therefore, blocking the activity of E6 and E7 would serve as an important therapeutic target in these cancer cells. In this study, anisomelic acid (AA), a natural compound belonging to the same diterpenoid family of bioactive compounds as taxol, was found to deplete the E6 and E7 proteins in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells. Consequently, p53 and the p53-responsive gene, p21, were dramatically induced, leading to G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest. AA-mediated cell cycle arrest and p21 expression were canceled when p53 was down-regulated by p53-shRNA. AA also induced p53-independent intrinsic apoptosis by depletion of the cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 (cIAP2) whose proteosomal degradation is inhibited by E6. The in ovo chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay showed that anisomelic acid inhibited the tumor growth of the cervical cancer SiHa cells. AA is revealed to hold a novel action modality based on specific targeting of the HPV oncoproteins, which restores p53-mediated growth arrest and induces apoptosis by terminating E6-mediated cIAP2 stabilization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Suppression of Innate Immune Response by Primary Human Keratinocytes Expressing HPV-16 E6 and E7

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    respectively. High-risk HPVs have been correlated with at least 90% of cervical cancers and more than 50% of other anogenital cancers (113). 10 An in vitro...substantiated by the lack of p53 mutations discovered in HPV -related cancers . Through the binding and degradation of p53, E6 can drive cells with chromosomal...of class I molecules and accessory proteins, such as TAP-1, are down-regulated in HPV infections and cervical cancers [reviewed in (71, 108

  18. Transforming properties of Felis catus papillomavirus type 2 E6 and E7 putative oncogenes in vitro and their transcriptional activity in feline squamous cell carcinoma in vivo

    SciT

    Altamura, Gennaro, E-mail: gennaro.altamura@unina.it; Corteggio, Annunziata, E-mail: ancorteg@unina.it; Pacini, Laura, E-mail: PaciniL@students.iarc.fr

    Felis catus papillomavirus type 2 (FcaPV2) DNA is found in feline cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs); however, its biological properties are still uncharacterized. In this study, we successfully expressed FcaPV2 E6 and E7 putative oncogenes in feline epithelial cells and demonstrated that FcaPV2 E6 binds to p53, impairing its protein level. In addition, E6 and E7 inhibited ultraviolet B (UVB)-triggered accumulation of p53, p21 and pro-apoptotic markers such as Cleaved Caspase3, Bax and Bak, suggesting a synergistic action of the virus with UV exposure in tumour pathogenesis. Furthermore, FcaPV2 E7 bound to feline pRb and impaired pRb levels, resulting inmore » upregulation of the downstream pro-proliferative genes Cyclin A and Cdc2. Importantly, we demonstrated mRNA expression of FcaPV2 E2, E6 and E7 in feline SCC samples, strengthening the hypothesis of a causative role in the development of feline SCC. - Highlights: • FcaPV2 E6 binds to and deregulates feline p53 protein. • FcaPV2 E7 binds to and deregulates feline pRb protein. • FcaPV2 oncogenes inhibit UVB-induced apoptosis. • FcaPV2 E6E7 and E7 increase the lifespan of primary cells. • FcaPV2 E2, E6 and E7 are expressed at the mRNA level in feline SCC in vivo.« less

  19. The tumor affinity of chlorin e6 and its sonodynamic effects on non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bei; Zheng, Ruinian; Liu, Duan; Li, Baofeng; Lin, Jinrong; Zhang, Weimin

    2013-03-01

    Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) is a promising new approach for cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the tumor affinity of chlorin e6, a photosensitizer, and its sonodynamic effects on NSCLC. Human lung adenocarcinoma cells SPCA-1 and mice bearing SPCA-1 tumor xenograft were exposed to ultrasound in the presence or absence of chlorin e6. Chlorin e6 distribution was detected by laser scan confocal microscope. Cell apoptosis and necrosis were studied by flow cytometry analysis. Tumor size and weight were measured after different treatments. The concentration of chlorin e6 in tumor tissue was remarkably higher than that in normal muscle near tumor, and the difference was greatest at 18h (the fluorescence intensity was 5.38-fold higher in tumor than in muscle, P<0.05). In vivo, ultrasound (0.4-1.6W/cm(2)) or chlorin e6 (10-40mg/kg) alone had no remarkable anti-tumor effects, but the combination of ultrasound (1.6W/cm(2)) with chlorin e6 (SDT) hampered tumor growth significantly (P<0.05). Intraperitoneal injection of 40mg/kg chlorin e6 exerted no notable side effect on blood, liver and kidney function. Flow cytometry analysis showed that chlorin e6-mediated sonodynamic effect was mainly through the induction of cell necrosis. Chlorin e6 is a promising sonosensitizer and chlorin e6-mediated SDT may provide a new approach for NSCLC therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Activation of Wnt signaling pathway by human papillomavirus E6 and E7 oncogenes in HPV16-positive oropharyngeal squamous carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Rampias, Theodore; Boutati, Eleni; Pectasides, Eirini; Sasaki, Clarence; Kountourakis, Panteleimon; Weinberger, Paul; Psyrri, Amanda

    2010-03-01

    We sought to determine the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncogenes in nuclear beta-catenin accumulation, a hallmark of activated canonical Wnt signaling pathway. We used HPV16-positive oropharyngeal cancer cell lines 147T and 090, HPV-negative cell line 040T, and cervical cell lines SiHa (bearing integrated HPV16) and HeLa (bearing integrated HPV18) to measure the cytoplasmic and nuclear beta-catenin levels and the beta-catenin/Tcf transcriptional activity before and after E6/E7 gene silencing. Repression of HPV E6 and E7 genes induced a substantial reduction in nuclear beta-catenin levels. Luciferase assay showed that transcriptional activation of Tcf promoter by beta-catenin was lower after silencing. The protein levels of beta-catenin are tightly regulated by the ubiquitin/proteasome system. We therefore performed expression analysis of regulators of beta-catenin degradation and nuclear transport and showed that seven in absentia homologue (Siah-1) mRNA and protein levels were substantially upregulated after E6/E7 repression. Siah-1 protein promotes the degradation of beta-catenin through the ubiquitin/proteasome system. To determine whether Siah-1 is important for the proteasomal degradation of beta-catenin in HPV16-positive oropharyngeal cancer cells, we introduced a Siah-1 expression vector into 147T and 090 cells and found substantial reduction of endogenous beta-catenin in these cells. Thus, E6 and E7 are involved in beta-catenin nuclear accumulation and activation of Wnt signaling in HPV-induced cancers. In addition, we show the significance of the endogenous Siah-1-dependent ubiquitin/proteasome pathway for beta-catenin degradation and its regulation by E6/E7 viral oncoproteins in HPV16-positive oropharyngeal cancer cells.

  1. Long (27-nucleotides) small inhibitory RNAs targeting E6 protein eradicate effectively the cervical cancer cells harboring human papilloma virus.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jun Sik; Lee, Shin-Wha; Kim, Yong-Man; Kim, Dongho; Kim, Dae-Yeon; Kim, Young-Tak

    2015-05-01

    This study was to identify small inhibitory RNAs (siRNAs) that are effective in inhibiting growth of cervical cancer cell lines harboring human papilloma virus (HPV) and to examine how siRNAs interact with interferon beta (IFN-β) and thimerosal. The HPV18-positive HeLa and C-4I cell lines were used. Four types of siRNAs were designed according to their target (both E6 and E7 vs. E6 only) and sizes (21- vs. 27-nucleotides); Ex-18E6/21, Ex-18E6/27, Sp-18E6/21, and Sp-18E6/27. Each siRNA-transfected cells were cultured with or without IFN-b and thimerosal and their viability was measured. The viabilities of HPV18-positive tumor cells were reduced by 21- and 27-nucleotide siRNAs in proportion to the siRNA concentrations. Of the two types of siRNAs, the 27-nucleotide siRNA constructs showed greater inhibitory efficacy. Sp-18E6 siRNAs, which selectively downregulates E6 protein only, were more effective than the E6- and E7-targeting Ex-18E6 siRNAs. siRNAs and IFN-β showed the synergistic effect to inhibit HeLa cell survival and the effect was proportional to both siRNA and IFN-β concentrations. Thimerosal in the presence of siRNA exerted a dose-dependent inhibition of C-4I cell survival. Finally, co-treatment with siRNA, IFN-β, and thimerosal induced the most profound decrease in the viability of both cell lines. Long (27-nucleotides) siRNAs targeting E6-E7 mRNAs effectively reduce the viability of HPV18-positive cervical cancer cells and show the synergistic effect in combination with IFN-b and thimerosal. It is necessary to find the rational design of siRNAs and effective co-factors to eradicate particular cervical cancer.

  2. Evidence for Alteration of EZH2, BMI1, and KDM6A and Epigenetic Reprogramming in Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E6/E7-Expressing Keratinocytes ▿

    PubMed Central

    Hyland, Paula L.; McDade, Simon S.; McCloskey, Rachel; Dickson, Glenda J.; Arthur, Ken; McCance, Dennis J.; Patel, Daksha

    2011-01-01

    A number of epigenetic alterations occur in both the virus and host cellular genomes during human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated carcinogenesis, and investigations of such alterations, including changes in chromatin proteins and histone modifications, have the potential to lead to therapeutic epigenetic reversion. We report here that transformed HPV16 E6/E7-expressing primary human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) (E6/E7 cells) demonstrate increased expression of the PRC2 methyltransferase EZH2 at both the mRNA and protein levels but do not exhibit the expected increase in trimethylated H3K27 (H3K27me3) compared to normal keratinocytes. In contrast, these cells show a reduction in global H3K27me3 levels in vitro, as well as upregulation of the KDM6A demethylase. We further show for the first time that transformation with the HPV16 E6 and E7 oncogenes also results in an increase in phosphorylated EZH2 serine 21 (P-EZH2-Ser21), mediated by active Akt, and in a downregulation of the PRC1 protein BMI1 in these cells. High-grade squamous cervical intraepithelial lesions also showed a loss of H3K27me3 in the presence of increased expression of EZH2. Correlating with the loss of H3K27me3, E6/E7 cells exhibited derepression of specific EZH2-, KMD6A-, and BMI1-targeted HOX genes. These results suggest that the observed reduction in H3K27me3 may be due to a combination of reduced activities/levels of specific polycomb proteins and increases in demethylases. The dysregulation of multiple chromatin proteins resulting in the loss of global H3K27me3 and the transcriptional reprogramming in HPV16 E6/E7-infected cells could provide an epigenetic signature associated with risk and/or progression of HPV16-associated cancers, as well as the potential for epigenetic reversion in the future. PMID:21865393

  3. Evidence for alteration of EZH2, BMI1, and KDM6A and epigenetic reprogramming in human papillomavirus type 16 E6/E7-expressing keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Hyland, Paula L; McDade, Simon S; McCloskey, Rachel; Dickson, Glenda J; Arthur, Ken; McCance, Dennis J; Patel, Daksha

    2011-11-01

    A number of epigenetic alterations occur in both the virus and host cellular genomes during human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated carcinogenesis, and investigations of such alterations, including changes in chromatin proteins and histone modifications, have the potential to lead to therapeutic epigenetic reversion. We report here that transformed HPV16 E6/E7-expressing primary human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) (E6/E7 cells) demonstrate increased expression of the PRC2 methyltransferase EZH2 at both the mRNA and protein levels but do not exhibit the expected increase in trimethylated H3K27 (H3K27me3) compared to normal keratinocytes. In contrast, these cells show a reduction in global H3K27me3 levels in vitro, as well as upregulation of the KDM6A demethylase. We further show for the first time that transformation with the HPV16 E6 and E7 oncogenes also results in an increase in phosphorylated EZH2 serine 21 (P-EZH2-Ser21), mediated by active Akt, and in a downregulation of the PRC1 protein BMI1 in these cells. High-grade squamous cervical intraepithelial lesions also showed a loss of H3K27me3 in the presence of increased expression of EZH2. Correlating with the loss of H3K27me3, E6/E7 cells exhibited derepression of specific EZH2-, KMD6A-, and BMI1-targeted HOX genes. These results suggest that the observed reduction in H3K27me3 may be due to a combination of reduced activities/levels of specific polycomb proteins and increases in demethylases. The dysregulation of multiple chromatin proteins resulting in the loss of global H3K27me3 and the transcriptional reprogramming in HPV16 E6/E7-infected cells could provide an epigenetic signature associated with risk and/or progression of HPV16-associated cancers, as well as the potential for epigenetic reversion in the future.

  4. Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E6 Induces Self-Ubiquitination of the E6AP Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Wynn H.; Beaudenon, Sylvie L.; Talis, Andrea L.; Huibregtse, Jon M.; Howley, Peter M.

    2000-01-01

    The E6 protein of the high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) and the cellular ubiquitin-protein ligase E6AP form a complex which causes the ubiquitination and degradation of p53. We show here that HPV16 E6 promotes the ubiquitination and degradation of E6AP itself. The half-life of E6AP is shorter in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells than in HPV-negative cervical cancer cells, and E6AP is stabilized in HPV-positive cancer cells when expression of the viral oncoproteins is repressed. Expression of HPV16 E6 in cells results in a threefold decrease in the half-life of transfected E6AP. E6-mediated degradation of E6AP requires (i) the binding of E6 to E6AP, (ii) the catalytic activity of E6AP, and (iii) activity of the 26S proteasome, suggesting that E6-E6AP interaction results in E6AP self-ubiquitination and degradation. In addition, both in vitro and in vivo experiments indicate that E6AP self-ubiquitination results primarily from an intramolecular transfer of ubiquitin from the active-site cysteine to one or more lysine residues; however, intermolecular transfer can also occur in the context of an E6-mediated E6AP multimer. Finally, we demonstrate that an E6 mutant that is able to immortalize human mammary epithelial cells but is unable to degrade p53 retains its ability to bind and degrade E6AP, raising the possibility that E6-mediated degradation of E6AP contributes to its ability to transform mammalian cells. PMID:10864652

  5. Human papillomavirus (HPV) oncoprotein E6 facilitates Calcineurin-Nuclear factor for activated T cells 2 (NFAT2) signaling to promote cellular proliferation in cervical cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ram, Babul Moni; Dolpady, Jayashree; Kulkarni, Rakesh; Usha, R; Bhoria, Usha; Poli, Usha Rani; Islam, Mojahidul; Trehanpati, Nirupma; Ramakrishna, Gayatri

    2018-01-01

    The calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, and development in diverse cell types and organ systems. Deregulation of calcineurin-NFAT signaling has been reported in leukaemias and few solid tumors such as breast and colon. In the present study, we found elevated calcineurin protein levels and phosphatase activity in cervical cancer cell lines and depletion of the same attenuated cell proliferation. Additionally, nuclear levels of NFAT2, a downstream target of calcineurin, viz, was found elevated in human papillomavirus (HPV) infected cells, HeLa and SiHa, compared to the HPV negative cells, HaCaT and C33A, indicative of its higher DNA binding activity. The nuclear levels of both NFAT1 and NFAT3 remain unaltered implicating they have little role in cervical carcinogenesis. Similar to the in vitro studies, the HPV infected human squamous cell carcinoma specimens showed higher NFAT2 levels compared to the normal cervical epithelium. Depletion of NFAT2 by RNAi attenuated growth of SiHa cells. Overexpression of HPV16 oncoproteins viz, E6 and E7 increased NFAT2 expression levels and DNA binding activity, while knockdown of E6 by RNAi decreased the same. Briefly, we now report an activation of calcineurin-NFAT2 axis in cervical cancer and a novel role of HPV oncoprotein in facilitating NFAT2 dependent cell proliferation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The combinational effect of E6/E7 siRNA and anti-miR-182 on apoptosis induction in HPV16-positive cervical cells.

    PubMed

    Javadi, Hamidreza; Lotfi, Abbas Sahebghadam; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Mehrani, Hossein; Amani, Jafar; Soheili, Zahra Soheila; Hojati, Zahra; Kamali, Mehdi

    2018-06-06

    In the present research, we assumed that reducing the amounts of E6 and E7 oncoproteins by a specific siRNA sequence and recovering p53 and RB proteins, along with the recovery of the FOXO1 protein by applying anti-miR-182, would increase apoptosis and reduce proliferation rate in cancer cells. The HPV16-positive CaSki cervical cancer cell line was used. 48 hours after transfection of siRNA for targeting E6 and E7 oncoproteins and anti-miR-182, expression of its cellular targets p53, p21 and FOXO1 was assessed by real-time PCR, western blot analysis and immunocytofluorescence staining. In all treatments, apoptosis rate and viability were evaluated using Annexin-V-FITC apoptosis detection kits and MTT assays, respectively. Among the designed siRNAs, E6-1 and E7-2 proved the most effective in reducing E6 and E7 expressions by increasing the apoptotic rates to 12.4% and 16%, respectively, after 48 hours. Also, using anti-miR-182 increased apoptotic rate to 12.7% 48 hours after transfection of cervical cancer cells. The combinational use of either E6-1 or E7-2 siRNAs with anti-miR-182 resulted in a rise in apoptosis to 19.3% and 26%, respectively, higher than those obtained from the individual application of either without anti-miR-182. The simultaneous use of siRNA E6-1 and siRNA E7-2 with cisplatin increased sensitivity to cisplatin and reduced the viability of the cancer cells as compared to the use of cisplatin alone. The simultaneous use of cisplatin and anti-miR-182 had no considerable effect on viability or apoptosis rate compared to cisplatin alone.

  7. Human Papillomavirus E6E7-Mediated Adenovirus Cell Killing: Selectivity of Mutant Adenovirus Replication in Organotypic Cultures of Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Balagué, Cristina; Noya, Francisco; Alemany, Ramon; Chow, Louise T.; Curiel, David T.

    2001-01-01

    Replication-competent adenoviruses are being investigated as potential anticancer agents. Exclusive virus replication in cancer cells has been proposed as a safety trait to be considered in the design of oncolytic adenoviruses. From this perspective, we have investigated several adenovirus mutants for their potential to conditionally replicate and promote the killing of cells expressing human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncoproteins, which are present in a high percentage of anogenital cancers. For this purpose, we have employed an organotypic model of human stratified squamous epithelium derived from primary keratinocytes that have been engineered to express HPV-18 oncoproteins stably. We show that, whereas wild-type adenovirus promotes a widespread cytopathic effect in all infected cells, E1A- and E1A/E1B-deleted adenoviruses cause no deleterious effect regardless of the coexpression of HPV18 E6E7. An adenovirus deleted in the CR2 domain of E1A, necessary for binding to the pRB family of pocket proteins, shows no selectivity of replication as it efficiently kills all normal and E6E7-expressing keratinocytes. Finally, an adenovirus mutant deleted in the CR1 and CR2 domains of E1A exhibits preferential replication and cell killing in HPV E6E7-expressing cultures. We conclude that the organotypic keratinocyte culture represents a distinct model to evaluate adenovirus selectivity and that, based on this model, further modifications of the adenovirus genome are required to restrict adenovirus replication to tumor cells. PMID:11462032

  8. Flavonol and imidazole derivatives block HPV16 E6 activities and reactivate apoptotic pathways in HPV+ cells

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, C-H; Filippova, M; Krstenansky, J L; Duerksen-Hughes, P J

    2016-01-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs) cause nearly all cases of cervical cancer, as well as approximately 30% of head and neck cancers. HPV 16 E6, one of two major viral oncogenes, protects cells from apoptosis by binding to and accelerating the degradation of several proteins important in apoptotic signaling, including caspase 8 and p53. We proposed that blocking the interactions between HPV E6 and its partners using small molecules had the potential to re-sensitize HPV+ cells to apoptosis. To test this idea, we screened libraries of small molecules for candidates that could block E6/caspase 8 binding and identified several candidates from different chemical classes. We tested hits for dose-dependency and specificity in vitro and for toxicity in a cell-based assay and then used this information to select the two best candidates for further testing: myricetin, a flavonol, and spinacine, an imidazole amino-acid derivative of histidine. Both compounds clearly inhibited the ability of E6 to bind in vitro to both caspase 8 and E6AP, the protein that mediates p53 degradation. In addition, both compounds were able to increase the level of caspase 8 and p53 in SiHa cervical cancer cells, resulting in an increase of caspase 3/7 activity. Finally, both myricetin and spinacine sensitized HPV+ cervical and oral cancer cells, but not HPV− cervical and oral cancer cells, to apoptosis induced by the cancer-specific ligand TRAIL, as well as the chemotherapeutic agents doxorubicin and cisplatin. New therapies based on this work may improve treatment for HPV+ cancer patients. PMID:26794656

  9. Role of ubiquitin and the HPV E6 oncoprotein in E6AP-mediated ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Franziska; Schneider, Daniel; Barbic, Tanja; Sladewska-Marquardt, Anna; Kühnle, Simone; Marx, Andreas; Scheffner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Deregulation of the ubiquitin ligase E6 associated protein (E6AP) encoded by the UBE3A gene has been associated with three different clinical pictures. Hijacking of E6AP by the E6 oncoprotein of distinct human papillomaviruses (HPV) contributes to the development of cervical cancer, whereas loss of E6AP expression or function is the cause of Angelman syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder, and increased expression of E6AP has been involved in autism spectrum disorders. Although these observations indicate that the activity of E6AP has to be tightly controlled, only little is known about how E6AP is regulated at the posttranslational level. Here, we provide evidence that the hydrophobic patch of ubiquitin comprising Leu-8 and Ile-44 is important for E6AP-mediated ubiquitination, whereas it does not affect the catalytic properties of the isolated catalytic HECT domain of E6AP. Furthermore, we show that the HPV E6 oncoprotein rescues the disability of full-length E6AP to use a respective hydrophobic patch mutant of ubiquitin for ubiquitination and that it stimulates E6AP-mediated ubiquitination of Ring1B, a known substrate of E6AP, in vitro and in cells. Based on these data, we propose that E6AP exists in at least two different states, an active and a less active or latent one, and that the activity of E6AP is controlled by noncovalent interactions with ubiquitin and allosteric activators such as the HPV E6 oncoprotein. PMID:26216987

  10. ABCG2-mediated suppression of chlorin e6 accumulation and photodynamic therapy efficiency in glioblastoma cell lines can be reversed by KO143.

    PubMed

    Abdel Gaber, Sara A; Müller, Patricia; Zimmermann, Wolfgang; Hüttenberger, Dirk; Wittig, Rainer; Abdel Kader, Mahmoud H; Stepp, Herbert

    2018-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of malignant brain tumors is a promising adjunct to standard treatment, especially if tumor stem cells thought to be responsible for tumor progression and therapy resistance were also susceptible to this kind of treatment. However, some photosensitizers have been reported to be substrates of ABCG2, one of the membrane transporters mediating resistance to chemotherapy. Here we investigate, whether inhibition of ABCG2 can restore sensitivity to photosensitizer chlorin e6-mediated PDT. Accumulation of chlorin e6 in wild type U87 and doxycycline-inducible U251 glioblastoma cells with or without induction of ABCG2 expression or ABCG2 inhibition by KO143 was analyzed using flow cytometry. In U251 cells, ABCG2 was inducible by doxycycline after stable transfection with a tet-on expression plasmid. Tumor sphere cultivation under low attachment conditions was used to enrich for cells with stem cell-like properties. PDT was done on monolayer cell cultures by irradiation with laser light at 665nm. Elevated levels of ABCG2 in U87 cells grown as tumor spheres or in U251 cells after ABCG2 induction led to a 6-fold lower accumulation of chlorin e6 and the light dose needed to reduce cell viability by 50% (LD50) was 2.5 to 4-fold higher. Both accumulation and PDT response can be restored by KO143, an efficient non-toxic inhibitor of ABCG2. Glioblastoma stem cells might escape phototoxic destruction by ABCG2-mediated reduction of photosensitizer accumulation. Inhibition of ABCG2 during photosensitizer accumulation and irradiation promises to restore full susceptibility of this crucial tumor cell population to photodynamic treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cervical Cancer Stem Cells Selectively Overexpress HPV Oncoprotein E6 that Controls Stemness and Self-Renewal through Upregulation of HES1.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Abhishek; Vishnoi, Kanchan; Mahata, Sutapa; Verma, Gaurav; Srivastava, Yogesh; Masaldan, Shashank; Roy, Bal Gangadhar; Bharti, Alok C; Das, Bhudev C

    2016-08-15

    Perturbation of keratinocyte differentiation by E6/E7 oncoproteins of high-risk human papillomaviruses that drive oncogenic transformation of cells in squamocolumnar junction of the uterine cervix may confer "stem-cell like" characteristics. However, the crosstalk between E6/E7 and stem cell signaling during cervical carcinogenesis is not well understood. We therefore examined the role of viral oncoproteins in stem cell signaling and maintenance of stemness in cervical cancer. Isolation and enrichment of cervical cancer stem-like cells (CaCxSLCs) was done from cervical primary tumors and cancer cell lines by novel sequential gating using a set of functional and phenotypic markers (ABCG2, CD49f, CD71, CD133) in defined conditioned media for assessing sphere formation and expression of self-renewal and stemness markers by FACS, confocal microscopy, and qRT-PCR. Differential expression level and DNA-binding activity of Notch1 and its downstream targets in CaCxSLCs as well as silencing of HPVE6/Hes1 by siRNA was evaluated by gel retardation assay, FACS, immunoblotting, and qRT-PCR followed by in silico and in vivo xenograft analysis. CaCxSLCs showed spheroid-forming ability, expressed self-renewal and stemness markers Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, Lrig1, and CD133, and selectively overexpressed E6 and HES1 transcripts in both cervical primary tumors and cancer cell lines. The enriched CaCxSLCs were highly tumorigenic and did recapitulate primary tumor histology in nude mice. siRNA silencing of HPVE6 or Hes1 abolished sphere formation, downregulated AP-1-STAT3 signaling, and induced redifferentiation. Our findings suggest the possible mechanism by which HPVE6 potentially regulate and maintain stem-like cancer cells through Hes1. Clin Cancer Res; 22(16); 4170-84. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Resveratrol and Pterostilbene Exhibit Anticancer Properties Involving the Downregulation of HPV Oncoprotein E6 in Cervical Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Kaushiki; AlSharif, Dina; Mazza, Christina; Syar, Palwasha; Al Sharif, Mohamed; Fata, Jimmie E

    2018-02-21

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women living in developing countries. Due to a lack of affordable effective therapy, research into alternative anticancer compounds with low toxicity such as dietary polyphenols has continued. Our aim is to determine whether two structurally similar plant polyphenols, resveratrol and pterostilbene, exhibit anticancer and anti-HPV (Human papillomavirus) activity against cervical cancer cells. To determine anticancer activity, extensive in vitro analyses were performed. Anti-HPV activity, through measuring E6 protein levels, subsequent downstream p53 effects, and caspase-3 activation, were studied to understand a possible mechanism of action. Both polyphenols are effective agents in targeting cervical cancer cells, having low IC50 values in the µM range. They decrease clonogenic survival, reduce cell migration, arrest cells at the S-phase, and reduce the number of mitotic cells. These findings were significant, with pterostilbene often being more effective than resveratrol. Resveratrol and to a greater extent pterostilbene downregulates the HPV oncoprotein E6, induces caspase-3 activation, and upregulates p53 protein levels. Results point to a mechanism that may involve the downregulation of the HPV E6 oncoprotein, activation of apoptotic pathways, and re-establishment of functional p53 protein, with pterostilbene showing greater efficacy than resveratrol.

  13. Selective p300 inhibitor C646 inhibited HPV E6-E7 genes, altered glucose metabolism and induced apoptosis in cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    He, Hongpeng; Lai, Yongwei; Hao, Yunpeng; Liu, Yupeng; Zhang, Zijiang; Liu, Xiang; Guo, Chenhong; Zhang, Mengmeng; Zhou, Hao; Wang, Nan; Luo, Xue-Gang; Huo, Lihong; Ma, Wenjian; Zhang, Tong-Cun

    2017-10-05

    High risk HPV infection is a causative factor of cervical cancer. The constitutive expression of HPV E6-E7 genes is important for the maintenance of cancer phenotypes. The cellular transcription co-activator p300 plays a crucial role in the regulation of HPV genes thus it was targeted for the inhibition of HPV-associated cervical cancer. In the present study, HPV positive cervical cells were treated with C646, a selective inhibitor of p300, to investigate its influence on HPV E6-E7 expression and cancer cell growth. Results of RT-qPCR, Western-blot and promoter activity assays showed that C646 inhibited the transcription of HPV E6-E7, which was accompanied with the accumulation of p53 protein. Meanwhile, cell proliferation was suppressed, glucose metabolism was disrupted and apoptosis was induced via the intrinsic pathway. Generally, the anti-cervical cancer potential of C646 was demonstrated and a novel mechanism was proposed in this study. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Involvement of aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling in the development of small cell lung cancer induced by HPV E6/E7 oncoproteins

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lung cancers consist of four major types that and for clinical-pathological reasons are often divided into two broad categories: small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). All major histological types of lung cancer are associated with smoking, although the association is stronger for SCLC and squamous cell carcinoma than adenocarcinoma. To date, epidemiological studies have identified several environmental, genetic, hormonal and viral factors associated with lung cancer risk. It has been estimated that 15-25% of human cancers may have a viral etiology. The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a proven cause of most human cervical cancers, and might have a role in other malignancies including vulva, skin, oesophagus, head and neck cancer. HPV has also been speculated to have a role in the pathogenesis of lung cancer. To validate the hypothesis of HPV involvement in small cell lung cancer pathogenesis we performed a gene expression profile of transgenic mouse model of SCLC induced by HPV-16 E6/E7 oncoproteins. Methods Gene expression profile of SCLC has been performed using Agilent whole mouse genome (4 × 44k) representing ~ 41000 genes and mouse transcripts. Samples were obtained from two HPV16-E6/E7 transgenic mouse models and from littermate's normal lung. Data analyses were performed using GeneSpring 10 and the functional classification of deregulated genes was performed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (Ingenuity® Systems, http://www.ingenuity.com). Results Analysis of deregulated genes induced by the expression of E6/E7 oncoproteins supports the hypothesis of a linkage between HPV infection and SCLC development. As a matter of fact, comparison of deregulated genes in our system and those in human SCLC showed that many of them are located in the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Signal transduction pathway. Conclusions In this study, the global gene expression of transgenic mouse model of SCLC induced by HPV-16 E6/E7 oncoproteins led us

  15. [Construction and eukaryotic expression of PVAX1-hPV58mE6E7fcGB composite gene vaccine].

    PubMed

    Wang, He; Yu, Jiyun; Li, Li

    2013-10-01

    To construct and express a composite gene vaccine for human papillomavirus 58(HPV58)-associated cervical cancer, we inserted HPV58mE6E7 fusion gene into pCI-Fc-GPI eukaryotic expression vector, constructing a recombinant plasmid named pCI-sig-HPV58mE6E7-Fc-GPI. Then we further inserted fragment of sig-HPV58mE6E7Fc-GPI into the novel vaccine vector PVAX1-IRES-GM/B7, constructing PVAX1-HPV58mE6E7FcGB composite gene vaccine. PVAX1-HPV58mE6E7FcGB vaccine was successfully constructed and identified by restriction endonuclease and sequencing analysis. Eukaryotic expression of fusion antigen sig-HPV58mE6E7-Fc-GPI and molecular ad-juvant GM-CSF and B7. 1 were proved to be realized at the same time by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. So PVAX1-HPV58mE6E7FcGB can be taken as a candidate of therapeutic vaccine for HPV58-associated tumors and their precancerous transformations.

  16. E6 and E7 Antibody Levels Are Potential Biomarkers of Recurrence in Patients with Advanced-Stage Human Papillomavirus-Positive Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Spector, Matthew E; Sacco, Assuntina G; Bellile, Emily; Taylor, Jeremy M G; Jones, Tamara; Sun, Kan; Brown, William C; Birkeland, Andrew C; Bradford, Carol R; Wolf, Gregory T; Prince, Mark E; Moyer, Jeffrey S; Malloy, Kelly; Swiecicki, Paul; Eisbruch, Avraham; McHugh, Jonathan B; Chepeha, Douglas B; Rozek, Laura; Worden, Francis P

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: There is a paucity of biomarkers to predict failure in human papillomavirus-positive (HPV + ) oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) following curative therapy. E6/E7 viral oncoproteins are constitutively expressed in HPV + tumors and highly immunogenic, resulting in readily detected serum antibodies. The purpose of this study is to determine whether serum E6 and E7 antibody levels can potentially serve as a biomarker of recurrence in patients with HPV+OPSCC. Experimental Design: We evaluated E6/E7 antibody levels in patients with previously untreated, advanced stage (III, IVa-b), HPV+OPSCC receiving definitive chemoradiation under a uniform protocol from 2003 to 2010. Baseline and longitudinal serum samples were obtained from our archived repository. E6/E7 serum levels were measured using a glutathione- S -transferase capture ELISA and quantified by approximating the area under the dilution curve, and were analyzed using ANOVA and linear mixed model for longitudinal analysis. Results: We compared 22 HPV+OPSCC patients who developed recurrence with 30 patients who remained disease-free. There were no differences in T classification, N classification, disease subsite, or smoking status between the groups. In a longitudinal analysis, recurrent patients had significantly higher E6 and E7 serum antibody levels than the nonrecurrent patients over the follow-up period ( P = 0.02 and P = 0.002, respectively). Patients who recurred had a lower clearance of E7 antibody than patients who remained disease-free ( P = 0.0016). Conclusions: Patients with HPV+OPSCC whose disease recurs have a lower clearance of E6 and E7 antibodies than patients who do not have recurrence. The ratio of E7 antibody at disease recurrence compared with baseline is potentially a clinically significant measurement of disease status in HPV+OPSCC. Clin Cancer Res; 23(11); 2723-9. ©2016 AACR . ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Cervical Cancers Require the Continuous Expression of the Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E7 Oncoprotein Even in the Presence of the Viral E6 Oncoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Jabbar, Sean F.; Park, Soyeong; Schweizer, Johannes; Berard-Bergery, Marthe; Pitot, Henry C.; Lee, Denis; Lambert, Paul F.

    2012-01-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV), such as HPV-16, are etiologic agents of a variety of anogenital and oral malignancies, including nearly all cases of cervical cancer. Cervical cancers arising in transgenic mice that express HPV-16 E7 in an inducible manner require the continuous expression of E7 for their maintenance. However, in HPV-associated cancers in vivo, E6 and E7 invariably are co-expressed. In this study, we investigated whether cervical cancers rely on the continuous expression of E7 in the context of constitutively expressed E6. We placed the inducible HPV-16 E7 transgene onto a background in which HPV-16 E6 was constitutively expressed. In transgenic mice with high-grade cervical dysplastic lesions and cervical cancer, repressing the expression of E7 led to the regression of all cancers and the vast majority of high-grade dysplastic lesions. In addition, cervical cancers were occasionally observed in transgenic mice in which E7 was repressed and then re-expressed. Our findings therefore indicate that even in the presence of constitutively expressed E6, the continuous expression of E7 is required for the maintenance of cervical cancers and most precancerous lesions. These data have important implications for the potential clinical use of drugs designed to inhibit the expression and/or function of E7 to treat HPV-associated cancers. PMID:22700879

  18. Glucocorticoid regulation of a novel HPV-E6-p53-miR-145 pathway modulates invasion and therapy resistance of cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ming; Du, Libin; Liu, Dan; Qian, Lu; Hu, Meiru; Yu, Ming; Yang, Zhengyan; Zhao, Mingzhen; Chen, Changguo; Guo, Liang; Wang, Lina; Song, Lun; Ma, Yuanfang; Guo, Ning

    2012-10-01

    Glucocorticoids are stress-responsive neuroendocrine mediators and play an important role in malignant progression, especially in solid tumours. We demonstrate a novel mechanism by which glucocorticoids modulate p53-dependent miR-145 expression in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells through induction of E6 proteins. We found that expression of miR-145 was reduced in cervical cancer tissues. Cortisol induced HPV-E6 expression and suppressed p53 and miR-145 in cervical cancer cells. MiR-145 expression in cervical cancer cells was wild-type p53-dependent, and cortisol-induced down-regulation of miR-145 expression prevented chemotherapy-induced apoptosis, whereas over-expression of miR-145 enhanced sensitivity to mitomycin and reversed the chemoresistance induced by glucocorticoids. We also show that miR-145 augments the effects of p53 by suppressing the inhibitors of p53 in cervical cancer cells, suggesting that miR-145 plays a role in p53 tumour suppression. Finally, we demonstrate that miR-145 inhibits both the motility and invasion of cervical cancer cells. Our findings identify a novel pathway through which the neuroendocrine macroenvironment affects cervical tumour growth, invasion and therapy resistance and show that miR-145 may serve as a target for cervical cancer therapy. Copyright © 2012 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2012 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Cervical cancers require the continuous expression of the human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein even in the presence of the viral E6 oncoprotein.

    PubMed

    Jabbar, Sean F; Park, Soyeong; Schweizer, Johannes; Berard-Bergery, Marthe; Pitot, Henry C; Lee, Denis; Lambert, Paul F

    2012-08-15

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV), such as HPV-16, are etiologic agents of a variety of anogenital and oral malignancies, including nearly all cases of cervical cancer. Cervical cancers arising in transgenic mice that express HPV-16 E7 in an inducible manner require the continuous expression of E7 for their maintenance. However, in HPV-associated cancers in vivo, E6 and E7 invariably are coexpressed. In this study, we investigated whether cervical cancers rely on the continuous expression of E7 in the context of constitutively expressed E6. We placed the inducible HPV-16 E7 transgene onto a background in which HPV-16 E6 was constitutively expressed. In transgenic mice with high-grade cervical dysplastic lesions and cervical cancer, repressing the expression of E7 led to the regression of all cancers and the vast majority of high-grade dysplastic lesions. In addition, cervical cancers were occasionally observed in transgenic mice in which E7 was repressed and then reexpressed. Our findings indicate that even in the presence of constitutively expressed E6, the continuous expression of E7 is required for the maintenance of cervical cancers and most precancerous lesions. These data have important implications for the potential clinical use of drugs designed to inhibit the expression and/or function of E7 to treat HPV-associated cancers. ©2012 AACR.

  20. Methylation-specific digital karyotyping of HPV16E6E7-expressing human keratinocytes identifies novel methylation events in cervical carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Steenbergen, Renske D M; Ongenaert, Maté; Snellenberg, Suzanne; Trooskens, Geert; van der Meide, Wendy F; Pandey, Deeksha; Bloushtain-Qimron, Noga; Polyak, Kornelia; Meijer, Chris J L M; Snijders, Peter J F; Van Criekinge, Wim

    2013-09-01

    Transformation of epithelial cells by high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) types can lead to anogenital carcinomas, particularly cervical cancer, and oropharyngeal cancers. This process is associated with DNA methylation alterations, often affecting tumour suppressor gene expression. This study aimed to comprehensively unravel genome-wide DNA methylation events linked to a transforming hrHPV-infection, which is driven by deregulated expression of the viral oncogenes E6 and E7 in dividing cells. Primary human keratinocytes transduced with HPV16E6E7 and their untransduced counterparts were subjected to methylation-specific digital karyotyping (MSDK) to screen for genome-wide DNA-methylation changes at different stages of HPV-induced transformation. Integration of the obtained methylation profiles with genome-wide gene expression patterns of cervical carcinomas identified 34 genes with increased methylation in HPV-transformed cells and reduced expression in cervical carcinomas. For 12 genes (CLIC3, CREB3L1, FAM19A4, LFNG, LHX1, MRC2, NKX2-8, NPTX-1, PHACTR3, PRDM14, SOST and TNFSF13) specific methylation in HPV-containing cell lines was confirmed by semi-quantitative methylation-specific PCR. Subsequent analysis of FAM19A4, LHX1, NKX2-8, NPTX-1, PHACTR3 and PRDM14 in cervical tissue specimens showed increasing methylation levels for all genes with disease progression. All six genes were frequently methylated in cervical carcinomas, with highest frequencies (up to 100%) seen for FAM19A4, PHACTR3 and PRDM14. Analysis of hrHPV-positive cervical scrapes revealed significantly increased methylation levels of the latter three genes in women with high-grade cervical disease compared to controls. In conclusion, MSDK analysis of HPV16-transduced keratinocytes at different stages of HPV-induced transformation resulted in the identification of novel DNA methylation events, involving FAM19A4, LHX1, NKX2-8, PHACTR3 and PRDM14 genes in cervical carcinogenesis. These genes may

  1. Modulation of basal cell fate during productive and transforming HPV-16 infection is mediated by progressive E6-driven depletion of Notch.

    PubMed

    Kranjec, Christian; Holleywood, Christina; Libert, Diane; Griffin, Heather; Mahmood, Radma; Isaacson, Erin; Doorbar, John

    2017-08-01

    In stratified epithelia such as the epidermis, homeostasis is maintained by the proliferation of cells in the lower epithelial layers and the concomitant loss of differentiated cells from the epithelial surface. These differentiating keratinocytes progressively stratify and form a self-regenerating multi-layered barrier that protects the underlying dermis. In such tissue, the continual loss and replacement of differentiated cells also limits the accumulation of oncogenic mutations within the tissue. Inactivating mutations in key driver genes, such as TP53 and NOTCH1, reduce the proportion of differentiating cells allowing for the long-term persistence of expanding mutant clones in the tissue. Here we show that through the expression of E6, HPV-16 prevents the early fate commitment of human keratinocytes towards differentiation and confers a strong growth advantage to human keratinocytes. When E6 is expressed either alone or with E7, it promotes keratinocyte proliferation at high cell densities, through the combined inactivation of p53 and Notch1. In organotypic raft culture, the activity of E6 is restricted to the basal layer of the epithelium and is enhanced during the progression from productive to abortive or transforming HPV-16 infection. Consistent with this, the expression of p53 and cleaved Notch1 becomes progressively more disrupted, and is associated with increased basal cell density and reduced commitment to differentiation. The expression of cleaved Notch1 is similarly disrupted also in HPV-16-positive cervical lesions, depending on neoplastic grade. When taken together, these data depict an important role of high-risk E6 in promoting the persistence of infected keratinocytes in the basal and parabasal layers through the inactivation of gene products that are commonly mutated in non-HPV-associated neoplastic squamous epithelia. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great

  2. Identification and characterization of enhancer agonist human cytotoxic T-cell epitopes of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) E6/E7

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Kwong Y.; Fantini, Massimo; Fernando, Romaine I.; Palena, Claudia; David, Justin M.; Hodge, James W.; Gabitzsch, Elizabeth S.; Jones, Frank R.; Schlom, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with the etiology of cervical carcinoma, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and several other cancer types. Vaccines directed against HPV virus-like particles and coat proteins have been extremely successful in the prevention of cervical cancer through the activation of host HPV-specific antibody responses; however, HPV-associated cancers remain a major public health problem. The development of a therapeutic vaccine will require the generation of T-cell responses directed against early HPV proteins (E6/E7) expressed in HPV-infected tumor cells. Clinical studies using various vaccine platforms have demonstrated that both HPV-specific human T cells can be generated and patient benefit can be achieved. However, no HPV therapeutic vaccine has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration to date. One method of enhancing the potential efficacy of a therapeutic vaccine is the generation of agonist epitopes. We report the first description of enhancer cytotoxic T lymphocyte agonist epitopes for HPV E6 and E7. While the in silico algorithm revealed six epitopes with potentially improved binding to human leukocyte antigen–A2 allele (HLA-A2)–Class I, 5/6 demonstrated enhanced binding to HLA-Class I in cell-based assays and only 3/6 had a greater ability to activate HPV-specific T cells which could lyse tumor cells expressing native HPV, compared to their native epitope counterparts. These agonist epitopes have potential for use in a range of HPV therapeutic vaccine platforms and for use in HPV-specific adoptive T- or natural killer–cell platforms. PMID:28389098

  3. HPV positive neuroendocrine cervical cancer cells are dependent on Myc but not E6/E7 viral oncogenes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hang; Krawczyk, Ewa; Blancato, Jan; Albanese, Christopher; Zhou, Dan; Wang, Naidong; Paul, Siddartha; Alkhilaiwi, Faris; Palechor-Ceron, Nancy; Dakic, Aleksandra; Fang, Shuang; Choudhary, Sujata; Hou, Tung-Wei; Zheng, Yun-Ling; Haddad, Bassem R; Usuda, Yukari; Hartmann, Dan; Symer, David; Gillison, Maura; Agarwal, Seema; Wangsa, Danny; Ried, Thomas; Liu, Xuefeng; Schlegel, Richard

    2017-04-05

    Using conditional cell reprogramming, we generated a stable cell culture of an extremely rare and aggressive neuroendocrine cervical cancer. The cultured cells contained HPV-16, formed colonies in soft agar and rapidly produced tumors in immunodeficient mice. The HPV-16 genome was integrated adjacent to the Myc gene, both of which were amplified 40-fold. Analysis of RNA transcripts detected fusion of the HPV/Myc genes, arising from apparent microhomologous recombination. Spectral karyotyping (SKY) and fluorescent-in-situ hybridization (FISH) demonstrated coordinate localization and translocation of the amplified Myc and HPV genes on chromosomes 8 and 21. Similar to the primary tumor, tumor cell cultures expressed very high levels of the Myc protein and, in contrast to all other HPV-positive cervical cancer cell lines, they harbored a gain-of-function mutation in p53 (R273C). Unexpectedly, viral oncogene knockdown had no effect on the growth of the cells, but it did inhibit the proliferation of a conventional HPV-16 positive cervical cancer cell line. Knockdown of Myc, but not the mutant p53, significantly inhibited tumor cell proliferation. On the basis of these data, we propose that the primary driver of transformation in this aggressive cervical cancer is not HPV oncogene expression but rather the overexpression of Myc.

  4. Bortezomib sensitises TRAIL-resistant HPV-positive head and neck cancer cells to TRAIL through a caspase-dependent, E6-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Bullenkamp, J; Raulf, N; Ayaz, B; Walczak, H; Kulms, D; Odell, E; Thavaraj, S; Tavassoli, M

    2014-10-23

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is causative for a new and increasing form of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). Although localised HPV-positive cancers have a favourable response to radio-chemotherapy (RT/CT), the impact of HPV in advanced or metastatic HNSCC remains to be defined and targeted therapeutics need to be tested for cancers resistant to RT/CT. To this end, we investigated the sensitivity of HPV-positive and -negative HNSCC cell lines to TRAIL (tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand), which induces tumour cell-specific apoptosis in various cancer types. A clear correlation was observed between HPV positivity and resistance to TRAIL compared with HPV-negative head and neck cancer cell lines. All TRAIL-resistant HPV-positive cell lines tested were sensitised to TRAIL-induced cell death by treatment with bortezomib, a clinically approved proteasome inhibitor. Bortezomib-mediated sensitisation to TRAIL was associated with enhanced activation of caspase-8, -9 and -3, elevated membrane expression levels of TRAIL-R2, cytochrome c release and G2/M arrest. Knockdown of caspase-8 significantly blocked cell death induced by the combination therapy, whereas the BH3-only protein Bid was not required for induction of apoptosis. XIAP depletion increased the sensitivity of both HPV-positive and -negative cells to TRAIL alone or in combination with bortezomib. In contrast, restoration of p53 following E6 knockdown in HPV-positive cells had no effect on their sensitivity to either single or combination therapy, suggesting a p53-independent pathway for the observed response. In summary, bortezomib-mediated proteasome inhibition sensitises previously resistant HPV-positive HNSCC cells to TRAIL-induced cell death through a mechanism involving both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis. The cooperative effect of these two targeted anticancer agents therefore represents a promising treatment strategy for RT/CT-resistant HPV

  5. Valproic acid exhibits different cell growth arrest effect in three HPV-positive/negative cervical cancer cells and possibly via inducing Notch1 cleavage and E6 downregulation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shuyu; Yang, Yue; Lv, Jingyi; Sun, Lichun; Liu, Mingqiu

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the effect of valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, and the mechanism of VPA-induced growth inhibition on three cervical cancer cell lines with different molecular and genetic background. We found that VPA induced proliferation suppression, cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in all tested cell lines, with an increase of Notch1 active form ICN1 as a tumor suppressor and its target gene HES1. Noteworthy, blocking of Notch signaling with DAPT resulted in growth inhibition in ICN1-overexpressing CaSki and HT-3 cells. Thus, endogenous Notch signaling may be necessary for survival of ICN1-overexpressing cervical cancer cell lines. Furthermore, G1 phase arrest was induced in HeLa and CaSki cells by VPA while G2 phase arrest was induced in HT-3 cells, suggesting different mechanism in this cycle arrest. We also found VPA suppressed oncogene E6 in a Notch-independent manner, and induced significant apoptosis in E6-overexpressing HPV positive CaSki cells. Cell morphological change was also observed in HeLa and HT-3 cell lines after VPA treatment with an upregulation of EMT transcription factor Snail1. Notch signaling inhibitor DAPT partly reversed VPA-induced Snail1 upregulation in HeLa cells. This discovery supports that VPA may induce EMT at least partly via Notch activation.

  6. [Experimental studies of using real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and RT-PCR to detect E6 and E7 genes of human papillomavirus type 16 in cervical carcinoma cell lines].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue-yue; Peng, Zhi-lan; Liu, Shan-ling; He, Bing; Hu, Min

    2007-06-01

    To establish a method of using real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and RT-PCR to detect the E6 and E7 genes of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16). Plasmids containing HPV-16 E6 or E7 were used to generate absolute standard curves. Three cervical carcinoma cell lines CaSki, SiHa and HeLa were tested by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and RT-PCR analyses for the expressions of HPV-16 E6 and E7. The correlation coefficients of standard curves were larger than 0. 99, and the PCR efficiency was more than 90%. The relative levels of HPV-16 E6 and E7 DNA and RNA were CaSki>SiHa>HeLa cell. HPV-16 E6 and E7 quantum by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and RT-PCR analyses may serve as a reliable and sensitive tool. This study provides the possibility of further researches on the relationship between HPV-16 E6 or E7 copy number and cervical carcinoma.

  7. UV Radiation Activates Toll-Like Receptor 9 Expression in Primary Human Keratinocytes, an Event Inhibited by Human Papillomavirus 38 E6 and E7 Oncoproteins.

    PubMed

    Pacini, Laura; Ceraolo, Maria Grazia; Venuti, Assunta; Melita, Giusi; Hasan, Uzma A; Accardi, Rosita; Tommasino, Massimo

    2017-10-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) types belonging to the beta genus of the HPV phylogenetic tree synergize with UV radiation in the development of skin cancer. Accordingly, the E6 and E7 oncoproteins from some beta HPV types are able to deregulate pathways related to immune response and cellular transformation. Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), in addition to playing a role in innate immunity, has been shown to be involved in the cellular stress response. Using primary human keratinocytes as experimental models, we have shown that UV irradiation (and other cellular stresses) activates TLR9 expression. This event is closely linked to p53 activation. Silencing the expression of p53 or deleting its encoding gene affected the activation of TLR9 expression after UV irradiation. Using various strategies, we have also shown that the transcription factors p53 and c-Jun are recruited onto a specific region of the TLR9 promoter after UV irradiation. Importantly, the E6 and E7 oncoproteins from beta HPV38, by inducing the accumulation of the p53 antagonist ΔNp73α, prevent the UV-mediated recruitment of these transcription factors onto the TLR9 promoter, with subsequent impairment of TLR9 gene expression. This study provides new insight into the mechanism that mediates TLR9 upregulation in response to cellular stresses. In addition, we show that HPV38 E6 and E7 are able to interfere with this mechanism, providing another explanation for the possible cooperation of beta HPV types with UV radiation in skin carcinogenesis. IMPORTANCE Beta HPV types have been suggested to act as cofactors in UV-induced skin carcinogenesis by altering several cellular mechanisms activated by UV radiation. We show that the expression of TLR9, a sensor of damage-associated molecular patterns produced during cellular stress, is activated by UV radiation in primary human keratinocytes (PHKs). Two transcription factors known to be activated by UV radiation, p53

  8. E6 and E7 oncogene expression by human papilloma virus (HPV) and the aggressive behavior of recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis (RLP).

    PubMed

    Shehata, Bahig M; Otto, Kristen J; Sobol, Steven E; Stockwell, Christina A; Foulks, Cora; Lancaster, Wayne; Gregoire, Lucie; Hill, Charles E

    2008-01-01

    Recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis (RLP), a chronic disease associated with human papilloma virus (HPV), requires serial surgical procedures for debulking, resulting in debilitating long-term dysphonia, laryngeal scarring, and rarely malignant degeneration. Human papilloma virus 11 tumors have been widely accepted as more aggressive than HPV 6 tumors; however, the clinical course has been difficult to predict at disease onset, and the biologic mediators of proliferation have not been well characterized. A retrospective case review of 43 patients (4 months to 10 years at diagnosis) was performed on children treated for recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis. Patient charts were reviewed for demographic information, age at RLP diagnosis, approximate frequency of surgical intervention, and absolute number of surgical procedures performed. Human papilloma virus subtyping was performed. Expression analysis of the HPV-encoded E6 and E7 oncogenes was performed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Fourteen patients had subtype 11 (33%) and 29 patients had subtype 6 (67%). As expected, HPV 11 patients showed a more aggressive clinical course than HPV 6 patients. However, 38% of patients with subtype 6 (11 patients) followed a clinical course that mirrored the more severe subtype 11 patients. These patients expressed the disease at a younger age (P < 0.0002) and showed higher levels of E6 and E7 oncogenes compared to the patients with the more indolent course. Although HPV subtype and early onset of RLP are well characterized prognostic factors, our study documents the significance of E6 and E7 oncogene expression as potential biologic mediators of proliferation and thereby clinical behavior.

  9. HPV16 E6 and E7 proteins induce a chronic oxidative stress response via NOX2 that causes genomic instability and increased susceptibility to DNA damage in head and neck cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Marullo, Rossella; Werner, Erica; Zhang, Hongzheng; Chen, Georgia Z.; Shin, Dong M.; Doetsch, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of a subgroup of head and neck cancer characterized by an intrinsic radiosensitivity. HPV initiates cellular transformation through the activity of E6 and E7 proteins. E6 and E7 expression is necessary but not sufficient to transform the host cell, as genomic instability is required to acquire the malignant phenotype in HPV-initiated cells. This study reveals a key role played by oxidative stress in promoting genomic instability and radiosensitivity in HPV-positive head and neck cancer. By employing an isogenic human cell model, we observed that expression of E6 and E7 is sufficient to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in head and neck cancer cells. E6/E7-induced oxidative stress is mediated by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases (NOXs) and causes DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations. This mechanism for genomic instability distinguishes HPV-positive from HPV-negative tumors, as we observed NOX-induced oxidative stress in HPV-positive but not HPV-negative head and neck cancer cells. We identified NOX2 as the source of HPV-induced oxidative stress as NOX2 silencing significantly reduced ROS generation, DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations in HPV-positive cells. Due to their state of chronic oxidative stress, HPV-positive cells are more susceptible to DNA damage induced by ROS and ionizing radiation (IR). Furthermore, exposure to IR results in the formation of complex lesions in HPV-positive cells as indicated by the higher amount of chromosomal breakage observed in this group of cells. These results reveal a novel mechanism for sustaining genomic instability in HPV-positive head and neck tumors and elucidate its contribution to their intrinsic radiosensitivity. PMID:26354779

  10. Mitotic control of human papillomavirus genome-containing cells is regulated by the function of the PDZ-binding motif of the E6 oncoprotein.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Elizabeth K; Delury, Craig P; Davies, Nicholas J; Weston, Christopher J; Miah, Mohammed A L; Banks, Lawrence; Parish, Joanna L; Higgs, Martin R; Roberts, Sally

    2017-03-21

    The function of a conserved PDS95/DLG1/ZO1 (PDZ) binding motif (E6 PBM) at the C-termini of E6 oncoproteins of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types contributes to the development of HPV-associated malignancies. Here, using a primary human keratinocyte-based model of the high-risk HPV18 life cycle, we identify a novel link between the E6 PBM and mitotic stability. In cultures containing a mutant genome in which the E6 PBM was deleted there was an increase in the frequency of abnormal mitoses, including multinucleation, compared to cells harboring the wild type HPV18 genome. The loss of the E6 PBM was associated with a significant increase in the frequency of mitotic spindle defects associated with anaphase and telophase. Furthermore, cells carrying this mutant genome had increased chromosome segregation defects and they also exhibited greater levels of genomic instability, as shown by an elevated level of centromere-positive micronuclei. In wild type HPV18 genome-containing organotypic cultures, the majority of mitotic cells reside in the suprabasal layers, in keeping with the hyperplastic morphology of the structures. However, in mutant genome-containing structures a greater proportion of mitotic cells were retained in the basal layer, which were often of undefined polarity, thus correlating with their reduced thickness. We conclude that the ability of E6 to target cellular PDZ proteins plays a critical role in maintaining mitotic stability of HPV infected cells, ensuring stable episome persistence and vegetative amplification.

  11. Adenovirus-mediated transfer of HPV 16 E6/E7 antisense RNA combined with cisplatin inhibits cellular growth and induces apoptosis in HPV-positive head and neck cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Yasutaka; Otsuki, Naoki; Kubo, Mie; Kitamoto, Junko; Takata, Eri; Saito, Hiroki; Kosaka, Kyoko; Morishita, Naoya; Uehara, Natsumi; Shirakawa, Toshiro; Nibu, Ken-Ich

    2018-05-24

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been identified as an etiologic factor of head and neck cancers (HNCs). We explored the potential use of antisense HPV RNA transcripts for gene therapy and its effect in combination with cisplatin (CDDP) for HPV-positive HNCs. We introduced the antisense RNA transcripts of the E6 and E7 genes of HPV type 16 into UM-SCC-47 cells harboring HPV 16 and YCU-T892 cells that were HPV-negative using a recombinant adenoviral vector, Ad-E6/E7-AS. We then analyzed the effects of the introduction of Ad-E7-AS on cell and tumor growth and the synergistic effect with CDDP in vitro and in vivo. After infection of Ad-E6/E7-AS, the cellular growth of UM-SCC-47 cells were suppressed, but not that of YCU-T892 cells. E7 protein expression was suppressed, and p53 and pRb protein expression increased after infection of Ad-E7-AS. Cell growth and tumorigenicity were greatly suppressed in combination with CDDP compared with Ad-E7-AS or CDDP treatment alone in vitro. Ad-E7-AS combined with CDDP treatment significantly reduced the volumes of established subcutaneous tumors. Transfection with HPV 16 E7 antisense RNA combined with CDDP treatment might be a potentially useful approach to the therapy of HPV 16-positive HNC.

  12. Involvement of Novel Multifunction Steroid Hormone Receptor Coactivator, E6-Associated Protein, in Prostate Gland Tumorigenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    identified as an E3 ligase which promotes the degradation of p53 during HPV infection in cervical carcinoma cells . However, this effect is E6 dependent, as...LNCaP cells . In this report I have provided evidence that E6-AP plays a vital role in the prostate gland growth and prostate cancer cell proliferation...E6-AP by itself can modulate p53 levels in prostate cancer cells independent of E6. Our data also indicates that over expression of E6-AP could

  13. MG132 plus apoptosis antigen-1 (APO-1) antibody cooperate to restore p53 activity inducing autophagy and p53-dependent apoptosis in HPV16 E6-expressing keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Lagunas-Martínez, Alfredo; García-Villa, Enrique; Arellano-Gaytán, Magaly; Contreras-Ochoa, Carla O; Dimas-González, Jisela; López-Arellano, María E; Madrid-Marina, Vicente; Gariglio, Patricio

    2017-01-01

    The E6 oncoprotein can interfere with the ability of infected cells to undergo programmed cell death through the proteolytic degradation of proapoptotic proteins such as p53, employing the proteasome pathway. Therefore, inactivation of the proteasome through MG132 should restore the activity of several proapoptotic proteins. We investigated whether in HPV16 E6-expressing keratinocytes (KE6 cells), the restoration of p53 levels mediated by MG132 and/or activation of the CD95 pathway through apoptosis antigen-1 (APO-1) antibody are responsible for the induction of apoptosis. We found that KE6 cells underwent apoptosis mainly after incubation for 24 h with MG132 alone or APO-1 plus MG132. Both treatments activated the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways. Autophagy was also activated, principally by APO-1 plus MG132. Inhibition of E6-mediated p53 proteasomal degradation by MG132 resulted in the elevation of p53 protein levels and its phosphorylation in Ser46 and Ser20; the p53 protein was localized mainly at nucleus after treatment with MG132 or APO-1 plus MG132. In addition, induction of its transcriptional target genes such as p21, Bax and TP53INP was observed 3 and 6 h after treatment. Also, LC3 mRNA was induced after 3 and 6 h, which correlates with lipidation of LC3B protein and induction of autophagy. Finally, using pifithrin alpha we observed a decrease in apoptosis induced by MG132, and by APO-1 plus MG132, suggesting that restoration of APO-1 sensitivity occurs in part through an increase in both the levels and the activity of p53. The use of small molecules to inhibit the proteasome pathway might permit the activation of cell death, providing new opportunities for CC treatment.

  14. Sensitivity and specificity of antibodies against HPV16 E6 and other early proteins for the detection of HPV16-driven oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Holzinger, Dana; Wichmann, Gunnar; Baboci, Lorena; Michel, Angelika; Höfler, Daniela; Wiesenfarth, Manuel; Schroeder, Lea; Boscolo-Rizzo, Paolo; Herold-Mende, Christel; Dyckhoff, Gerhard; Boehm, Andreas; Del Mistro, Annarosa; Bosch, Franz X; Dietz, Andreas; Pawlita, Michael; Waterboer, Tim

    2017-06-15

    To determine the sensitivity and specificity of HPV16 serology as diagnostic marker for HPV16-driven oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), 214 HNSCC patients from Germany and Italy with fresh-frozen tumor tissues and sera collected before treatment were included in this study. Hundred and twenty cancer cases were from the oropharynx and 94 were from head and neck cancer regions outside the oropharynx (45 oral cavity, 12 hypopharynx and 35 larynx). Serum antibodies to early (E1, E2, E6 and E7) and late (L1) HPV16 proteins were analyzed by multiplex serology and were compared to tumor HPV RNA status as the gold standard. A tumor was defined as HPV-driven in the presence of HPV16 DNA and HPV16 transformation-specific RNA transcript patterns (E6*I, E1 ∧ E4 and E1C). Of 120 OPSCC, 66 (55%) were HPV16-driven. HPV16 E6 seropositivity was the best predictor of HPV16-driven OPSCC (diagnostic accuracy 97% [95%CI 92-99%], Cohen's kappa 0.93 [95%CI 0.8-1.0]). Of the 66 HPV-driven OPSCC, 63 were HPV16 E6 seropositive, compared to only one (1.8%) among the 54 non-HPV-driven OPSCC, resulting in a sensitivity of 96% (95%CI 88-98) and a specificity of 98% (95%CI 90-100). Of 94 HNSCC outside the oropharynx, six (6%) were HPV16-driven. In these patients, HPV16 E6 seropositivity had lower sensitivity (50%, 95%CI 19-81), but was highly specific (100%, 95%CI 96-100). In conclusion, HPV16 E6 seropositivity appears to be a highly reliable diagnostic marker for HPV16-driven OPSCC with very high sensitivity and specificity, but might be less sensitive for HPV16-driven HNSCC outside the oropharynx. © 2017 UICC.

  15. E2/E6 ratio and L1 immunoreactivity as biomarkers to determine HPV16-positive high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (CIN2 and 3) and cervical squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Objective Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 is the most carcinogenic HPV genotype. We investigated if HPV16 L1 capsid protein and E2/E6 ratio, evaluated by cervical cytology, may be used as biomarkers of ≥cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2 lesions. Methods Cervical specimens were obtained from 226 patients with HPV16 single infection. Using cytology specimen, L1 capsid protein and E2/E6 ratio were detected and the results were compared with those of the conventional histologic analysis of cervical tissues (CIN1–3 and squamous cell carcinoma [SCC]) to evaluate the association. Results The L1 positivity of CIN2/3 was significantly lower than that of normal cervical tissue (p<0.001) and SCC demonstrated significantly lower L1 positivity than CIN1 (p<0.001). The mean E2/E6 ratios of specimens graded as SCC (0.356) and CIN2/3 (0.483) were significantly lower than those of specimens graded as CIN1 (0.786) and normal (0.793) (p<0.05). We observed that area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for E2/E6 ratio (0.844; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.793–0.895) was higher than that for L1 immunochemistry (0.636; 95% CI=0.562–0.711). A combination of E2/E6 ratio and L1 immunocytochemistry analyses showed the highest AUC (0.871; 95% CI=0.826–0.917) for the prediction of ≥CIN2 lesions. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first study to validate HPV L1 capsid protein expression and decreased HPV E2/E6 ratio as valuable predictive markers of ≥CIN2 cervical lesions. Cervical cytology may be analyzed longitudinally on an outpatient basis with noninvasive procedures as against invasive conventional histologic analysis. PMID:29400024

  16. The PDZ Ligand Domain of the Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E6 Protein Is Required for E6's Induction of Epithelial Hyperplasia In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Marie L.; Nguyen, Minh M.; Lee, Denis; Griep, Anne E.; Lambert, Paul F.

    2003-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the causative agent of warts. Infections with high-risk HPVs are associated with anogenital and head and neck cancers. One of the viral genes responsible for HPV's oncogenic activity is E6. Mice expressing the HPV-16 E6 protein in their epidermis (K14E6WT) develop epithelial hyperplasia and squamous carcinomas. Numerous cellular proteins interact with E6, some of which can be grouped based on common amino acid motifs in their E6-binding domains. One such group, the PDZ partners, including hDLG, hSCRIBBLE, MUPP1, and MAGI, bind to the carboxy-terminal four amino acids of E6 through their PDZ domains. E6's interaction with the PDZ partners leads to their degradation. Additionally, E6's binding to PDZ proteins has been correlated with its ability to transform baby rat kidney cells in tissue culture and to confer tumorigenicity onto cells in xenograft experiments. To address whether the ability of E6 to bind PDZ domain partners is necessary for E6 to confer epithelial hyperproliferation in vivo, we generated transgenic mice that express in stratified squamous epithelia a mutant of E6 lacking the last six amino acids at its carboxyl terminus, E6Δ146-151, from the human keratin 14 (K14) promoter. The K14E6Δ146-151 mice exhibit a radiation response similar to that of the K14E6WT mice, demonstrating that this protein, as predicted, retains an ability to inactivate p53. However, the K14E6Δ146-151 mice fail to display epithelial hyperplasia. These results indicate that an interaction of E6 with PDZ partners is necessary for its induction of epithelial hyperplasia. PMID:12768014

  17. Successful treatment with allogeneic stem cell transplantation followed by DLI and TKIs for e6a2 BCR-ABL-positive acute myeloid leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Yasuhiko; Nishiwaki, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Takumi; Onodera, Koichi; Goto, Tatsunori; Sato, Takahiko; Kamoshita, Sonoko; Kawashima, Naomi; Seto, Aika; Okuno, Shingo; Yamamoto, Satomi; Iwasaki, Toshihiro; Ozawa, Yukiyasu; Miyamura, Koichi; Akatsuka, Yoshiki; Sugiura, Isamu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Patients with the e6a2 BCR-ABL transcript, 1 of the atypical transcripts, have been reported to have a poor prognosis, and allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) can be considered as additional therapy. However, long-term survival after ASCT for this disease is rare. Patient concerns: This report concerns a 55-year-old female patient with e6a2 BCR-ABL-positive acute myeloid leukemia including the outcome of ASCT followed by donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI). Diagnoses: The breakpoint was confirmed by direct sequencing. Her minimal residual disease could be detected by nested reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction using primers for the minor BCR-ABL (e1a2) transcript. Interventions: Treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and ASCT followed by DLI. Outcomes: Despite multiple cytogenetic and molecular relapses after ASCT, she remains in molecular remission at 46 months after ASCT. Lessons: This case indicates the efficacy of the combination of the graft-versus-leukemia effect and TKIs for e6a2 BCR-ABL-positive acute leukemia. When the Philadelphia chromosome with an unusual chromosomal breakpoint is suggested, we should clarify the breakpoint because that information can aid molecular assessments and decisions to provide an additional or alternative therapy. PMID:29390324

  18. Association of papillomavirus E6 proteins with either MAML1 or E6AP clusters E6 proteins by structure, function, and evolutionary relatedness

    PubMed Central

    Brimer, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Papillomavirus E6 proteins bind to LXXLL peptide motifs displayed on targeted cellular proteins. Alpha genus HPV E6 proteins associate with the cellular ubiquitin ligase E6AP (UBE3A), by binding to an LXXLL peptide (ELTLQELLGEE) displayed by E6AP, thereby stimulating E6AP ubiquitin ligase activity. Beta, Gamma, and Delta genera E6 proteins bind a similar LXXLL peptide (WMSDLDDLLGS) on the cellular transcriptional co-activator MAML1 and thereby repress Notch signaling. We expressed 45 different animal and human E6 proteins from diverse papillomavirus genera to ascertain the overall preference of E6 proteins for E6AP or MAML1. E6 proteins from all HPV genera except Alpha preferentially interacted with MAML1 over E6AP. Among animal papillomaviruses, E6 proteins from certain ungulate (SsPV1 from pigs) and cetacean (porpoises and dolphins) hosts functionally resembled Alpha genus HPV by binding and targeting the degradation of E6AP. Beta genus HPV E6 proteins functionally clustered with Delta, Pi, Tau, Gamma, Chi, Mu, Lambda, Iota, Dyokappa, Rho, and Dyolambda E6 proteins to bind and repress MAML1. None of the tested E6 proteins physically and functionally interacted with both MAML1 and E6AP, indicating an evolutionary split. Further, interaction of an E6 protein was insufficient to activate degradation of E6AP, indicating that E6 proteins that target E6AP co-evolved to separately acquire both binding and triggering of ubiquitin ligase activation. E6 proteins with similar biological function clustered together in phylogenetic trees and shared structural features. This suggests that the divergence of E6 proteins from either MAML1 or E6AP binding preference is a major event in papillomavirus evolution. PMID:29281732

  19. Reynosin protects against neuronal toxicity in dopamine-induced SH-SY5Y cells and 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats as models of Parkinson's disease: Reciprocal up-regulation of E6-AP and down-regulation of α-synuclein.

    PubMed

    Ham, Ahrom; Kim, Dong-Woo; Kim, Kyeong Ho; Lee, Sung-Jin; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon; Mar, Woongchon

    2013-08-02

    Aggregation of α-synuclein (ASYN) is considered a major determinant of neuronal loss in Parkinson's disease (PD). E6-associated protein (E6-AP), an E3 ubiquitin protein ligase, has been known to promote the degradation of α-synuclein. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the sesquiterpene lactone reynosin on dopamine (DA)-induced neuronal toxicity and regulation of E6-associated protein and α-synuclein proteins in both in vitro and in vivo models of Parkinson's disease. Usi"ng flow cytometry and western blot analysis, we determined that reynosin significantly protected both against cell death from dopamine-induced toxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and against the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cells in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats (a rodent Parkinson's disease model system). In addition, reynosin made up-regulation of E6-associated protein expression and down-regulation of the over-expression of α-synuclein protein in both dopamine-treated SH-SY5Y cells and 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats. These results suggest that the protective effect of reynosin against dopamine-induced neuronal cell death may be due to the reciprocal up-regulation of E6-associated protein and down-regulation of α-synuclein protein expression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. In vitro evaluation of the viability of vaginal cells (VK2/E6E7) and probiotic Lactobacillus species in lemon juice.

    PubMed

    Anukam, Kingsley C; Reid, Gregor

    2009-03-01

    Women, especially in developing countries, most often bear the brunt of HIV infections. The continued lack of viable vaccines and microbicides has made some women resort to using natural products such as lemon or lime juice to avoid infection. Few in vitro studies have been done on the effect of lemon juice on vaginal cells and lactobacilli that constitute the major microbiota in healthy women. The objective of the present study was to evaluate in vitro the effect of lemon juice on the viability of vaginal cells (VK2/E6E7) and vaginal Lactobacillus species. Vaginal cells were exposed to different concentrations (0-30%) of lemon juice at pH 2.3 and 4.5 for 10 min. Viability was determined by staining the cells with propidium iodide and analysing them by flow cytometry. Lactobacillus organisms were dispensed into microplates with vaginally defined medium + peptone (VDMP) containing different concentrations of lemon juice ranging from 0 to 100%. Lemon juice at pH 2.3 had a significant (P = 0.03) toxic effect on the vaginal cell line used. At 30% concentration, the vaginal cells were practically non-viable, typified by a 95% loss of viability, whereas at pH 4.5 there was only 5% cell loss. Lemon juice had varying growth inhibitory effects on the Lactobacillus species tested. At pH 4.5 and using 10-30% lemon juice, there was a stimulatory growth effect on certain Lactobacillus species. Lemon juice (20-30%) at pH 2.3 was highly toxic to VK2/E6E7 cells, and at pH 4.5 there was no significant effect on the viability of the cells within 10 min. Lemon juice above 10% at pH 2.3 was found to be detrimental to the growth of vaginal lactobacilli. Although lemon juice may be useful in other applications, its use in the vaginal region should be discouraged.

  1. E6^E7, a Novel Splice Isoform Protein of Human Papillomavirus 16, Stabilizes Viral E6 and E7 Oncoproteins via HSP90 and GRP78

    PubMed Central

    Ajiro, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Transcripts of human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) E6 and E7 oncogenes undergo alternative RNA splicing to produce multiple splice isoforms. However, the importance of these splice isoforms is poorly understood. Here we report a critical role of E6^E7, a novel isoform containing the 41 N-terminal amino acid (aa) residues of E6 and the 38 C-terminal aa residues of E7, in the regulation of E6 and E7 stability. Through mass spectrometric analysis, we identified that HSP90 and GRP78, which are frequently upregulated in cervical cancer tissues, are two E6^E7-interacting proteins responsible for the stability and function of E6^E7, E6, and E7. Although GRP78 and HSP90 do not bind each other, GRP78, but not HSP90, interacts with E6 and E7. E6^E7 protein, in addition to self-binding, interacts with E6 and E7 in the presence of GRP78 and HSP90, leading to the stabilization of E6 and E7 by prolonging the half-life of each protein. Knocking down E6^E7 expression in HPV16-positive CaSki cells by a splice junction-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) destabilizes E6 and E7 and prevents cell growth. The same is true for the cells with a GRP78 knockdown or in the presence of an HSP90 inhibitor. Moreover, mapping and alignment analyses for splicing elements in 36 alpha-HPVs (α-HPVs) suggest the possible expression of E6^E7 mostly by other oncogenic or possibly oncogenic α-HPVs (HPV18, -30, -31, -39, -42, -45, -56, -59, -70, and -73). HPV18 E6^E7 is detectable in HPV18-positive HeLa cells and HPV18-infected raft tissues. All together, our data indicate that viral E6^E7 and cellular GRP78 or HSP90 might be novel targets for cervical cancer therapy. PMID:25691589

  2. Human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E 7 proteins alter NF-kB in cultured cervical epithelial cells and inhibition of NF-kB promotes cell growth and immortalization

    SciT

    Vandermark, Erik R.; Deluca, Krysta A.; Gardner, Courtney R.

    2012-03-30

    The NF-kB family of transcription factors regulates important biological functions including cell growth, survival and the immune response. We found that Human Papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E7 and E6/E7 proteins inhibited basal and TNF-alpha-inducible NF-kB activity in human epithelial cells cultured from the cervical transformation zone, the anatomic region where most cervical cancers develop. In contrast, HPV-16 E6 regulated NF-kB in a cell type- and cell growth-dependent manner. NF-kB influenced immortalization of cervical cells by HPV16. Inhibition of NF-kB by an IkB alpha repressor mutant increased colony formation and immortalization by HPV-16. In contrast, activation of NF-kB by constitutive expressionmore » of p65 inhibited proliferation and immortalization. Our results suggest that inhibition of NF-kB by HPV-16 E6/E7 contributes to immortalization of cells from the cervical transformation zone.« less

  3. The synergistic transactivation of the hepatitis B viral (HBV) pregenomic promoter by the E6 protein of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16 E6) with HBV X protein was mediated through the AP1 site of E element in the enhancer I (EnI) in human liver cell.

    PubMed

    Lee, D H; Choi, B H; Rho, H M

    1999-11-01

    Infection by HBV of a cell already infected with other viral species or vice versa has been suggested as being involved in hepatocellular carcinoma. Using the CAT assay method, we investigated the interactive roles of HBx and potentially oncogenic and transactivating viral early proteins such as Ad5 E1A, HPV-16 E6, and SV40 T ag. In the presence of HBx, only HPV-16 E6 showed significant synergistic transactivation of EnI. We further investigated the function of the HPV-16 E6 using deletion, heterologous promoter, and mutation analyses on the EnI promoter. The results showed that the synergistic effect was mediated through the AP1 site of the E element in EnI by the direct activation of AP1 and support the idea that the infection by HBV of the cell with other viral species such as HPV-16 could increase the transcription activity of the HBV and other oncogenes containing an AP1 site in the promoter. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  4. The Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E6 Gene Alone Is Sufficient To Induce Carcinomas in Transgenic Animals

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shiyu; Pitot, Henry C.; Lambert, Paul F.

    1999-01-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the causative agents of certain human cancers. HPV type 16 (HPV16) is the papillomavirus most frequently associated with cervical cancer in women. The E6 and E7 genes of HPV are expressed in cells derived from these cancers and can transform cells in tissue culture. Animal experiments have demonstrated that E6 and E7 together cause tumors. We showed previously that E6 and E7 together or E7 alone could induce skin tumors in mice when these genes were expressed in the basal epithelia of the skin. In this study, we investigated the role that the E6 gene plays in carcinogenesis. We generated K14E6 transgenic mice, in which the HPV16 E6 gene was directed in its expression by the human keratin 14 promoter (hK14) to the basal layer of the epidermis. We found that E6 induced cellular hyperproliferation and epidermal hyperplasia and caused skin tumors in adult mice. Interestingly, the tumors derived from E6 were mostly malignant, as opposed to the tumors from E7 mice, which were mostly benign. This result leads us to hypothesize that E6 may contribute differently than E7 to HPV-associated carcinogenesis; whereas E7 primarily contributes to the early stages of carcinogenesis that lead to the formation of benign tumors, E6 primarily contributes to the late stages of carcinogenesis that lead to malignancy. PMID:10364340

  5. Telomerase activation by the E6 gene product of human papillomavirus type 16.

    PubMed

    Klingelhutz, A J; Foster, S A; McDougall, J K

    1996-03-07

    Activation of telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein complex that synthesizes telomere repeat sequences, is linked to cell immortalization and is characteristic of most cell lines and tumours. Here we show that expression of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E6 protein activates telomerase in early-passage human keratinocytes and mammary epithelial cells. This activation was observed in cells pre-crisis, that is, before they became immortal, and occurred within one passage of retroviral infection with vectors expressing HPV-16 E6. Studies using HPV-16 E6 mutants showed that there was no correlation between the ability of the mutants to activate telomerase and their ability to target p53 for degradation, suggesting that telomerase activation by HPV-16 E6 is p53 independent. Keratinocytes expressing wild-type HPV-16 E6 have an extended lifespan, but do not become immortal, indicating that telomerase activation and E6-mediate degradation of p53 are insufficient for their immortalization. These results show that telomerase activation is an intrinsic, but insufficient, component of transformation by HPV.

  6. Cutaneous Papillomavirus E6 oncoproteins associate with MAML1 to repress transactivation and NOTCH signaling

    PubMed Central

    Brimer, Nicole; Lyons, Charles; Wallberg, Annika E.; Vande Pol, Scott B.

    2011-01-01

    Papillomavirus E6 oncoproteins associate with LXXLL motifs on target cellular proteins to alter their function. Using a proteomic approach, we found the E6 oncoproteins of cutaneous papillomaviruses Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1 (BE6) and HPV types 1 and 8 (1E6 and 8E6) associated with the MAML1 transcriptional co-activator. All three E6 proteins bind to an acidic LXXLL motif at the carboxy-terminus of MAML1 and repress transactivation by MAML1. MAML1 is best known as the co-activator and effector of NOTCH induced transcription, and BPV-1 E6 represses synthetic NOTCH responsive promoters, endogenous NOTCH responsive promoters, and is found in a complex with MAML1 in stably transformed cells. BPV-1 induced papillomas show characteristics of repressed NOTCH signal transduction, including suprabasal expression of integrins, talin, and basal type keratins, and delayed expression of the NOTCH dependent HES1 transcription factor. These observations give rise to a model whereby papillomavirus oncoproteins including BPV-1 E6 and the cancer associated HPV-8 E6 repress Notch induced transcription, thereby delaying keratinocyte differentiation. PMID:22249263

  7. E6-associated protein is required for human papillomavirus type 16 E6 to cause cervical cancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Shai, Anny; Pitot, Henry C; Lambert, Paul F

    2010-06-15

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) cause certain anogenital and head and neck cancers. E6, one of three potent HPV oncogenes that contribute to the development of these malignancies, is a multifunctional protein with many biochemical activities. Among these activities are its ability to bind and inactivate the cellular tumor suppressor p53, induce expression of telomerase, and bind to various other proteins, including Bak, E6BP1, and E6TP1, and proteins that contain PDZ domains, such as hScrib and hDlg. Many of these activities are thought to contribute to the role of E6 in carcinogenesis. The interaction of E6 with many of these cellular proteins, including p53, leads to their destabilization. This property is mediated at least in part through the ability of E6 to recruit the ubiquitin ligase E6-associated protein (E6AP) into complexes with these cellular proteins, resulting in their ubiquitin-mediated degradation by the proteasome. In this study, we address the requirement for E6AP in mediating acute and oncogenic phenotypes of E6, including induction of epithelial hyperplasia, abrogation of DNA damage response, and induction of cervical cancer. Loss of E6AP had no discernible effect on the ability of E6 to induce hyperplasia or abrogate DNA damage responses, akin to what we had earlier observed in the mouse epidermis. Nevertheless, in cervical carcinogenesis studies, there was a complete loss of the oncogenic potential of E6 in mice nulligenic for E6AP. Thus, E6AP is absolutely required for E6 to cause cervical cancer.

  8. COP9 signalosome subunit 6 (CSN6) regulates E6AP/UBE3A in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shujun; Fang, Lekun; Phan, Liem Minh; Qdaisat, Aiham; Yeung, Sai-Ching J; Lee, Mong-Hong

    2015-09-29

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in women. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the major cause in almost 99.7% of cervical cancer. E6 oncoprotein of HPV and E6-associated protein (E6AP) are critical in causing p53 degradation and malignancy. Understanding the E6AP regulation is critical to develop treating strategy for cervical cancer patients. The COP9 signalosome subunit 6 (CSN6) is involved in ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. We found that both CSN6 and E6AP are overexpressed in cervical cancer. We characterized that CSN6 associated with E6AP and stabilized E6AP expression by reducing E6AP poly-ubiquitination, thereby regulating p53 activity in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Mechanistic studies revealed that CSN6-E6AP axis can be regulated by EGF/Akt signaling. Furthermore, inhibition of CSN6-E6AP axis hinders cervical cancer growth in mice. Taken together, our results indicate that CSN6 is a positive regulator of E6AP and is important for cervical cancer development.

  9. E6AP is Required for Human Papillomavirus type 16 E6 to Cause Cervical Cancer in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shai, Anny; Pitot, Henry C.; Lambert, Paul F.

    2010-01-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses cause certain anogenital and head and neck cancers. E6, one of three potent HPV oncogenes that contribute to the development of these malignancies, is a multifunctional protein with many biochemical activities. Among these activities are its ability to bind and inactivate the cellular tumor suppressor p53, induce expression of telomerase, and bind to various other proteins including Bak, E6BP1, E6TP1, and proteins that contain PDZ domains such as hScrib and hDlg. Many of these activities are thought to contribute to E6’s role in carcinogenesis. E6’s interaction with many of these cellular proteins, including p53, leads to their destabilization. This property is mediated at least in part through E6’s ability to recruit the ubiquitin ligase, E6AP into complexes with these cellular proteins resulting in their ubiquitin–mediated degradation by the proteasome. In this study, we address the requirement for E6AP in mediating E6's acute and oncogenic phenotypes, including induction of epithelial hyperplasia, abrogation of DNA damage response and induction of cervical cancer. Loss of E6AP had no discernable effect on E6's ability to induce hyperplasia or abrogate DNA damage responses, akin to what we had earlier observed in the mouse epidermis. Nevertheless, in cervical carcinogenesis studies, there was a complete loss of E6’s oncogenic potential in mice nulligenic for E6AP. Thus, E6AP is absolutely required for E6 to cause cervical cancer. PMID:20530688

  10. Adenovirus type 5 E1A and E6 proteins of low-risk cutaneous beta-human papillomaviruses suppress cell transformation through interaction with FOXK1/K2 transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Komorek, Jessica; Kuppuswamy, Mohan; Subramanian, T; Vijayalingam, S; Lomonosova, Elena; Zhao, Ling-Jun; Mymryk, Joe S; Schmitt, Kimberly; Chinnadurai, G

    2010-03-01

    The adenovirus (Adv) oncoprotein E1A stimulates cell proliferation and inhibits differentiation. These activities are primarily linked to the N-terminal region (exon 1) of E1A, which interacts with multiple cellular protein complexes. The C terminus (exon 2) of E1A antagonizes these processes, mediated in part through interaction with C-terminal binding proteins 1 and 2 (CtBP1/2). To identify additional cellular E1A targets that are involved in the modulation of E1A C-terminus-mediated activities, we undertook tandem affinity purification of E1A-associated proteins. Through mass spectrometric analysis, we identified several known E1A-interacting proteins as well as novel E1A targets, such as the forkhead transcription factors, FOXK1/K2. We identified a Ser/Thr-containing sequence motif in E1A that mediated interaction with FOXK1/K2. We demonstrated that the E6 proteins of two beta-human papillomaviruses (HPV14 and HPV21) associated with epidermodysplasia verruciformis also interacted with FOXK1/K2 through a motif similar to that of E1A. The E1A mutants deficient in interaction with FOXK1/K2 induced enhanced cell proliferation and oncogenic transformation. The hypertransforming activity of the mutant E1A was suppressed by HPV21 E6. An E1A-E6 chimeric protein containing the Ser/Thr domain of the E6 protein in E1A interacted efficiently with FOXK1/K2 and inhibited cell transformation. Our results suggest that targeting FOXK1/K2 may be a common mechanism for certain beta-HPVs and Adv5. E1A exon 2 mutants deficient in interaction with the dual-specificity kinases DYRK1A/1B and their cofactor HAN11 also induced increased cell proliferation and transformation. Our results suggest that the E1A C-terminal region may suppress cell proliferation and oncogenic transformation through interaction with three different cellular protein complexes: FOXK1/K2, DYRK(1A/1B)/HAN11, and CtBP1/2.

  11. Novel drug form of chlorin e6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abakumova, O. Y.; Baum, Rudolf P.; Ermakova, Natalia Y.; Gradyushko, A. T.; Guseva-Donskaya, T. N.; Karmenyan, Artashes V.; Koraboyev, U. M.; Laptev, V. P.; Mechkov, V. M.; Mikhailova, L. M.; Panferova, N. G.; Rebeko, Aleksei G.; Reshetnickov, Andrei V.; Ryabov, M. V.; Stranadko, Eugeny P.; Tsvetkova, Tatyana A.; Zhukova, O. S.

    1999-12-01

    A novel stable water-soluble form of well known photosensitizer chlorin e6 named `Photodithazine' has been obtained from Spirulina Platensis cyanobacteria as a noncovalent complex with N-methyl-D-glucosamine, and its biological characteristics evaluate, which proved to be as follows: in vitro photocytotoxicity was 1 (mu) M (EC50) as determined by the extent of DNA synthesis inhibition in CaOv cells after irradiation with 650 - 900 nm light, and 5 (mu) M (EC65) as determined using MTT test on PC12 cells after irradiation with 670 nm laser light at the doses of 15 and 20 J/cm2, respectively, with Al-sulfophthalocyanine `Photosense' (Russia; oligomerized hematoporphyrin-IX mixture `Photogen', Russia) being used as permitted reference drugs.

  12. HPV-18 E6 mutants reveal p53 modulation of viral DNA amplification in organotypic cultures

    PubMed Central

    Kho, Eun-Young; Wang, Hsu-Kun; Banerjee, N. Sanjib; Broker, Thomas R.; Chow, Louise T.

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) amplify in differentiated strata of a squamous epithelium. The HPV E7 protein destabilizes the p130/retinoblastoma susceptibility protein family of tumor suppressors and reactivates S-phase reentry, thereby facilitating viral DNA amplification. The high-risk HPV E6 protein destabilizes the p53 tumor suppressor and many other host proteins. However, the critical E6 targets relevant to viral DNA amplification have not been identified, because functionally significant E6 mutants are not stably maintained in transfected cells. Using Cre-loxP recombination, which efficiently generates HPV genomic plasmids in transfected primary human keratinocytes, we have recapitulated a highly productive infection of HPV-18 in organotypic epithelial cultures. By using this system, we now report the characterization of four HPV-18 E6 mutations. An E6 null mutant accumulated high levels of p53 and amplified very poorly. p53 siRNA or ectopic WT E6 partially restored amplification, whereas three missense E6 mutations that did not effectively destabilize p53 complemented the null mutant poorly. Unexpectedly, in cis, two of the missense mutants amplified, albeit to a lower extent than the WT and only in cells with undetectable p53. These observations and others implicate p53 and additional host proteins in regulating viral DNA amplification and also suggest an inhibitory effect of E6 overexpression. We show that high levels of viral DNA amplification are critical for late protein expression and report several previously undescribed viral RNAs, including bicistronic transcripts predicted to encode E5 and L2 or an alternative form of E1^E4 and L1. PMID:23572574

  13. The clinical application of HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing in triaging women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or low-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion Pap smear: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Zhu, Yuanhang; Bai, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoan; Ren, Chenchen

    2017-01-01

    The aim is to evaluate the clinical application value and correlation with cervical lesions' progression of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA test in women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS/borderline) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs/mild dyskaryosis) cytological abnormalities. A meta-analysis was conduct by searching China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1979-2016), Wanfang Date (1998-2016), VIP (1989-2016), PubMed (1950-2016), Web of Science (1950-2016) and Elsevier Science Direct (1998-2016), for studies on effect of HPV E6/E7 mRNA detection in women with ASCUS/LSIL/dyskaryosis. Study selection and appraisal were conducted independently by three authors, according to inclusive and exclusive criteria. Then, a meta-analysis was performed using the RevMan4.2 software. The subgroups analysis was conducted according to women's initial HPV DNA test results. Six articles with a total of 1024 subjects were included in the study. It was concluded that a positive HPV E6/E7 mRNA tested result have a higher risk of progressing to CIN2+ in future 2 years than a negative result. The pooled relative risk (RR) is 3.08, (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.57-6.07, P < 0.05). The same situation was also observed in the subgroup of HPV DNA tested positive group and HPV DNA tested unlimited group. The pooled RR value of the two subgroups was, respectively, 1.98, (95% CI = 1.19-1.19, P < 0.05) and 7.58, (95% CI = 3.64-3.64, P < 0.05). A positive HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing result suggested the women with ASCUS, or LSIL Pap smear was in a truly dangerous position, which is an adverse prognostic factor. It suggested that cervical lesions stay in a progressing status and these women should be referred for colposcopy and strengthen follow-up promptly. Whereas, women with a negative HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing result can increase follow-up interval, by comprehensively considering their situation, thus, avoiding unnecessary colposcopy and

  14. Internalization of aggregated photosensitizers by tumor cells: subcellular time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy on derivatives of pyropheophorbide-a ethers and chlorin e6 under femtosecond one- and two-photon excitations.

    PubMed

    Kelbauskas, L; Dietel, W

    2002-12-01

    Amphiphilic sensitizers self-associate in aqueous environments and form aggregated species that exhibit no or only negligible photodynamic activity. However, amphiphilic photosensitizers number among the most potent agents of photodynamic therapy. The processes by which these sensitizers are internalized into tumor cells have yet to be fully elucidated and thus remain the subject of debate. In this study the uptake of photosensitizer aggregates into tumor cells was examined directly using subcellular time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy with a high temporal resolution (20-30 ps) and high sensitivity (time-correlated single-photon counting). The investigations were performed on selected sensitizers that exhibit short fluorescence decay times (< 50 ps) in aggregated form. Derivatives of pyropheophorbide-a ether and chlorin e6 with varying lipophilicity were used for the study. The characteristic fluorescence decay times and spectroscopic features of the sensitizer aggregates measured in aqueous solution also could be observed in A431 human endothelial carcinoma cells administered with these photosensitizers. This shows that tumor cells can internalize sensitizers in aggregated form. Uptake of aggregates and their monomerization inside cells were demonstrated directly for the first time by means of fluorescence lifetime imaging with a high temporal resolution. Internalization of the aggregates seems to be endocytosis mediated. The degree of their monomerization in tumor cells is strongly influenced by the lipophilicity of the compounds.

  15. Involvement of Novel Multifunction Steroid Hormone Receptor Coactivator, E6-Associated Protein, in Prostate Gland Tumorigenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    HPV infection in cervical carcinoma cells . However, this effect is E6 dependent, as p53 could only be degraded by the formation of E6 and E6-AP...and prostate cancer cell proliferation. E6-AP by itself can modulate p53 levels in prostate cancer cells independent of E6. Our data also indicates...p53 levels in prostate glands and prostate cancer cells : E6-AP was initially identified as an E3 ligase which promotes the degradation of p53 during

  16. Development of anti-E6 pegylated lipoplexes for mucosal application in the context of cervical preneoplastic lesions.

    PubMed

    Lechanteur, Anna; Furst, Tania; Evrard, Brigitte; Delvenne, Philippe; Hubert, Pascale; Piel, Géraldine

    2015-04-10

    Cervical cancer induced by human papillomavirus (HPV) is the fourth highest mortality causing cancer in women despite the use of prophylactic vaccines. E6 targeting represents an attractive strategy to treat this cancer. Indeed, oncoprotein E6 is produced by keratinocytes infected by HPV and is partially responsible for carcinogenesis. E6 interferes with the apoptosis process in stressed cells by degradation of p53 tumor suppressor gene. Our strategy consists in using E6 siRNA complexed with pegylated lipoplexes. The addition of hydrophilic polymer around the nanoparticles is crucial to use them by vaginal application on account of cervicovaginal mucus. Physicochemical characteristics were evaluated and in vitro assays were performed to evaluate transfection potential, E6 mRNA extinction and p53 re-expression. Cationic liposomes DOTAP/Cholesterol/DOPE 1/0.75/0.5 (N/P 2.5) with or without 50% DSPE-PEG2000 and associated with siE6 have demonstrated good physicochemical characteristics in terms of complexation, size, surface charge and stability. Both lipoplexes have been tested on CaSki cell line (HPV 16+) with 50 nM and 100 nM of siE6. Lipoplexes formulations induce 30-40% of E6 mRNA extinction and induce the re-expression of p53. In conclusion, pegylated anti-E6 lipoplexes have demonstrated their efficiency to cross the cellular membrane and to release siRNA into the cytoplasm confirmed by final p53 protein production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Human papillomavirus 16E6 and NFX1-123 potentiate notch signaling and differentiation without activating cellular arrest

    SciT

    Vliet-Gregg, Portia A.; Hamilton, Jennifer R.; Katzenellenbogen, Rachel A., E-mail: rkatzen@uw.edu

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) oncoproteins bind host cell proteins to dysregulate and uncouple apoptosis, senescence, differentiation, and growth. These pathways are important for both the viral life cycle and cancer development. HR HPV16 E6 (16E6) interacts with the cellular protein NFX1-123, and they collaboratively increase the growth and differentiation master regulator, Notch1. In 16E6 expressing keratinocytes (16E6 HFKs), the Notch canonical pathway genes Hes1 and Hes5 were increased with overexpression of NFX1-123, and their expression was directly linked to the activation or blockade of the Notch1 receptor. Keratinocyte differentiation genes Keratin 1 and Keratin 10 were also increased, butmore » in contrast their upregulation was only indirectly associated with Notch1 receptor stimulation and was fully unlinked to growth arrest, increased p21{sup Waf1/CIP1}, or decreased proliferative factor Ki67. This leads to a model of 16E6, NFX1-123, and Notch1 differently regulating canonical and differentiation pathways and entirely uncoupling cellular arrest from increased differentiation. - Highlights: • 16E6 and NFX1-123 increased the Notch canonical pathway through Notch1. • 16E6 and NFX1-123 increased the differentiation pathway indirectly through Notch1. • 16E6 and NFX1-123 increased differentiation gene expression without growth arrest. • Increased NFX1-123 with 16E6 may create an ideal cellular phenotype for HPV.« less

  18. Human papillomavirus 16 E2-, E6- and E7-specific T-cell responses in children and their mothers who developed incident cervical intraepithelial neoplasia during a 14-year follow-up of the Finnish Family HPV cohort.

    PubMed

    Koskimaa, Hanna-Mari; Paaso, Anna E; Welters, Marij J P; Grénman, Seija E; Syrjänen, Kari J; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; Syrjänen, Stina M

    2014-02-13

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has traditionally been regarded as a sexually transmitted disease (STD), but recent evidence implicates that an infected mother can transmit HPV to her newborn during pregnancy, at delivery, perinatal period or later. Given the lack of any studies on HPV-specific immune responses in children, we conducted HPV16-specific cell-mediated immune (CMI) monitoring of the mother-child pairs with known oral and genital HPV follow-up (FU) data since the delivery. In the Finnish Family HPV Study, 10 out of 331 mothers developed incident cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) during their 14-year FU. Our hypothesis according to the common dogma is that there is no HPV16 specific immune response in offspring of the CIN mother as she/he has not started the sexual life yet. We used overlapping 30-35 mer peptides covering the entire HPV16 E2, E6 and E7 protein sequences. Assays for lymphocyte proliferation capacity, cytokine production and HPV16-specific Foxp3 + CD25 + CD4+ regulatory T-cells were performed. HPV16-specific proliferative T-cell responses were broader in children than in their mothers. Nine of 10 children had responses against both E2 peptide pools compared to only 4 of the 10 mothers. Six of the 10 children and only 2 mothers displayed reactivity to E6 and/or E7. The cytokine levels of IL-2 (p = 0.023) and IL-5 (p = 0.028) induced by all peptide pools, were also higher among children than their mothers. The children of the mothers with incident CIN3 had significantly higher IFN-γ (p = 0.032) and TNF-α (p = 0.008) levels than other children. Our study is the first to show that also children could have HPV-specific immunity. These data indicate that the children have circulating HPV16-specific memory T-cells which might have been induced by previous HPV16 exposure or ongoing HPV 16 infection.

  19. Human papillomavirus 16 E2-, E6- and E7-specific T-cell responses in children and their mothers who developed incident cervical intraepithelial neoplasia during a 14-year follow-up of the Finnish Family HPV cohort

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has traditionally been regarded as a sexually transmitted disease (STD), but recent evidence implicates that an infected mother can transmit HPV to her newborn during pregnancy, at delivery, perinatal period or later. Given the lack of any studies on HPV-specific immune responses in children, we conducted HPV16-specific cell-mediated immune (CMI) monitoring of the mother-child pairs with known oral and genital HPV follow-up (FU) data since the delivery. In the Finnish Family HPV Study, 10 out of 331 mothers developed incident cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) during their 14-year FU. Our hypothesis according to the common dogma is that there is no HPV16 specific immune response in offspring of the CIN mother as she/he has not started the sexual life yet. Methods We used overlapping 30–35 mer peptides covering the entire HPV16 E2, E6 and E7 protein sequences. Assays for lymphocyte proliferation capacity, cytokine production and HPV16-specific Foxp3 + CD25 + CD4+ regulatory T-cells were performed. Results HPV16-specific proliferative T-cell responses were broader in children than in their mothers. Nine of 10 children had responses against both E2 peptide pools compared to only 4 of the 10 mothers. Six of the 10 children and only 2 mothers displayed reactivity to E6 and/or E7. The cytokine levels of IL-2 (p = 0.023) and IL-5 (p = 0.028) induced by all peptide pools, were also higher among children than their mothers. The children of the mothers with incident CIN3 had significantly higher IFN-γ (p = 0.032) and TNF-α (p = 0.008) levels than other children. Conclusions Our study is the first to show that also children could have HPV-specific immunity. These data indicate that the children have circulating HPV16-specific memory T-cells which might have been induced by previous HPV16 exposure or ongoing HPV 16 infection. PMID:24524328

  20. The human papillomavirus type 16 E6 oncoprotein activates mTORC1 signaling and increases protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Spangle, Jennifer M; Münger, Karl

    2010-09-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase acts as a cellular rheostat that integrates signals from a variety of cellular signal transduction pathways that sense growth factor and nutrient availability as well as intracellular energy status. It was previously reported that the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) E6 oncoprotein may activate the S6 protein kinase (S6K) through binding and E6AP-mediated degradation of the mTOR inhibitor tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) (Z. Lu, X. Hu, Y. Li, L. Zheng, Y. Zhou, H. Jiang, T. Ning, Z. Basang, C. Zhang, and Y. Ke, J. Biol. Chem. 279:35664-35670, 2004; L. Zheng, H. Ding, Z. Lu, Y. Li, Y. Pan, T. Ning, and Y. Ke, Genes Cells 13:285-294, 2008). Our results confirmed that HPV16 E6 expression causes an increase in mTORC1 activity through enhanced phosphorylation of mTOR and activation of downstream signaling pathways S6K and eukaryotic initiation factor binding protein 1 (4E-BP1). However, we did not detect a decrease in TSC2 levels in HPV16 E6-expressing cells. We discovered, however, that HPV16 E6 expression causes AKT activation through the upstream kinases PDK1 and mTORC2 under conditions of nutrient deprivation. We show that HPV16 E6 expression causes an increase in protein synthesis by enhancing translation initiation complex assembly at the 5' mRNA cap and an increase in cap-dependent translation. The increase in cap-dependent translation likely results from HPV16 E6-induced AKT/mTORC1 activation, as the assembly of the translation initiation complex and cap-dependent translation are rapamycin sensitive. Lastly, coexpression of the HPV16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins does not affect HPV16 E6-induced activation of mTORC1 and cap-dependent translation. HPV16 E6-mediated activation of mTORC1 signaling and cap-dependent translation may be a mechanism to promote viral replication under conditions of limited nutrient supply in differentiated, HPV oncoprotein-expressing proliferating cells.

  1. Immortalization of normal human embryonic fibroblasts by introduction of either the human papillomavirus type 16 E6 or E7 gene alone.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Akito; Kumakura, Shin-ichi; Uchida, Minoru; Barrett, J Carl; Tsutsui, Takeki

    2003-09-01

    The ability of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E6 or E7 gene to induce immortalization of normal human embryonic fibroblast WHE-7 cells was examined. WHE-7 cells at 9 population doublings (PD) were infected with retrovirus vectors encoding either HPV-16 E6 or E7 alone or both E6 and E7 (E6/E7). One of 4 isolated clones carrying E6 alone became immortal and is currently at >445 PD. Four of 4 isolated clones carrying E7 alone escaped from crisis and are currently at >330 PD. Three of 5 isolated clones carrying E6/E7 were also immortalized and are currently at >268 PD. The immortal clone carrying E6 only and 2 of the 3 immortal clones carrying E6/E7 expressed a high level of E6 protein, and all the immortal clones carrying E7 alone and the other immortal clone carrying E6/E7 expressed a high level of E7 protein when compared to their mortal or precrisis clones. The immortal clones expressing a high level of E6 or E7 protein were positive for telomerase activity or an alternative mechanism of telomere maintenance, respectively, known as ALT (alternative lengthening of telomeres). All the mortal or precrisis clones were negative for both phenotypes. All the immortal clones exhibited abrogation of G1 arrest after DNA damage by X-ray irradiation. The expression of INK4a protein (p16(INK4a)) was undetectable in the E6-infected mortal and immortal clones, whereas Rb protein (pRb) was hyperphosphorylated only in the immortal clone. The p16(INK4a) protein was overexpressed in all the E7-infected immortal clones and their clones in the pre-crisis period as well as all the E6/E7-infected mortal and immortal clones, but the pRb expression was downregulated in all of these clones. These results demonstrate for the first time to our knowledge that HPV-16 E6 or E7 alone can induce immortalization of normal human embryonic fibroblasts. Inactivation of p16(INK4a)/pRb pathways in combination with activation of a telomere maintenance mechanism is suggested to be necessary for

  2. Alternative Z ' bosons in E 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, Eduardo; Erler, Jens

    2015-10-01

    We classify the quantum numbers of the extra U(1)' symmetries contained in E 6. In particular, we categorize the cases with rational charges and present the full list of models which arise from the chains of the maximal subgroups of E 6. As an application, the classification allows us to determine all embeddings of the Standard Model fermions in all possible decompositions of the fundamental representation of E 6 under its maximal subgroups. From this we find alternative chains of subgroups for Grand Unified Theories. We show how many of the known models including some new ones appear in alternative breaking patterns. We also use low energy constraints coming from parity-violating asymmetry measurements and atomic parity non-conservation to set limits on the E 6 motivated parameter space for a Z ' boson mass of 1.2 TeV. We include projected limits for the present and upcoming QWEAK, MOLLER and SOLID experiments.

  3. Dark matter in E 6 Grand unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwichtenberg, Jakob

    2018-02-01

    We discuss fermionic dark matter in non-supersymmetric E 6 Grand Unification. The fundamental representation of E 6 contains, in addition to the standard model fermions, exotic fermions and we argue that one of them is a viable, interesting dark matter candidate. Its stability is guaranteed by a discrete remnant symmetry, which is an unbroken subgroup of the E 6 gauge symmetry. We compute the symmetry breaking scales and the effect of possible threshold corrections by solving the renormalization group equations numerically after imposing gauge coupling unification. Since the Yukawa couplings of the exotic and the standard model fermions have a common origin, the mass of the dark matter particles is constrained. We find a mass range of 3 · 109 GeV ≲ m DM ≲ 1 · 1013 GeV for our E 6 dark matter candidate, which is within the reach of next-generation direct detection experiments.

  4. The Role of E6 Spliced Isoforms (E6*) in Human Papillomavirus-Induced Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Olmedo-Nieva, Leslie; Muñoz-Bello, J. Omar; Contreras-Paredes, Adriana

    2018-01-01

    Persistent infections with High Risk Human Papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs) are the main cause of cervical cancer development. The E6 and E7 oncoproteins of HR-HPVs are derived from a polycistronic pre-mRNA transcribed from an HPV early promoter. Through alternative splicing, this pre-mRNA produces a variety of E6 spliced transcripts termed E6*. In pre-malignant lesions and HPV-related cancers, different E6/E6* transcriptional patterns have been found, although they have not been clearly associated to cancer development. Moreover, there is a controversy about the participation of E6* proteins in cancer progression. This review addresses the regulation of E6 splicing and the different functions that have been found for E6* proteins, as well as their possible role in HPV-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:29346309

  5. Immunogold-agglutination assay for direct detection of HPV-16 E6 and L1 proteins from clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Bhattarakosol, Parvapan; Plaignam, Kamolwan; Sereemaspun, Amornpun

    2018-05-01

    HPV-16 infection is the most common cause of cervical cancer. As HPV-16 transforms the cell, E6 oncoprotein is over-expressed. Therefore, molecular detection of HPV-16 E6 mRNA is now being used for diagnosis and prediction of cancer development. Besides detecting E6 mRNA, a rapid lateral flow detecting the E6 protein using enzyme immunoassay is also now on market with a sensitivity of 53.5% for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)-3 or more severe (CIN-3+). Here, an immunogold-agglutination assay was developed to detect not only HPV-16 E6 protein but also L1, a major capsid protein found in the productive stage of the virus. Evaluation of this test using HPV-16 DNA positive cervical samples showed that the HPV-16 E6 immunogold-agglutination assay results correlated well with the progression of the cervical lesions, i.e., 10.34% of CIN-1, 68.75% of CIN-3 and 80% of cancer (CaCx) and none for healthy normal samples. Interestingly, the HPV-16 L1 protein was found in most of the cases with cancer indicating the possibility of virion production. Immunogold-agglutination assay for E6 protein is simpler, easier to be performed with a sensitivity of 73.1% for CIN-3+ suggesting a good method for laboratory diagnostic use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Exogenous ACE2 Expression Allows Refractory Cell Lines To Support Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Mossel, Eric C.; Huang, Cheng; Narayanan, Krishna; Makino, Shinji; Tesh, Robert B.; Peters, C. J.

    2005-01-01

    Of 30 cell lines and primary cells examined, productive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (Urbani strain) (SARS-CoV) infection after low-multiplicity inoculation was detected in only six: three African green monkey kidney epithelial cell lines (Vero, Vero E6, and MA104), a human colon epithelial line (CaCo-2), a porcine kidney epithelial line [PK(15)], and mink lung epithelial cells (Mv 1 Lu). SARS-CoV produced a lytic infection in Vero, Vero E6, and MA104 cells, but there was no visible cytopathic effect in Caco-2, Mv 1 Lu, or PK(15) cells. Multistep growth kinetics were identical in Vero E6 and MA104 cells, with maximum titer reached 24 h postinoculation (hpi). Virus titer was maximal 96 hpi in CaCo-2 cells, and virus was continually produced from infected CaCo-2 cells for at least 6 weeks after infection. CaCo-2 was the only human cell type of 13 tested that supported efficient SARS-CoV replication. Expression of the SARS-CoV receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), resulted in SARS-CoV replication in all refractory cell lines examined. Titers achieved were variable and dependent upon the method of ACE2 expression. PMID:15731278

  7. Rescue of p53 function by small-molecule RITA in cervical carcinoma by blocking E6-mediated degradation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Carolyn Ying; Szekely, Laszlo; Bao, Wenjie; Selivanova, Galina

    2010-04-15

    Proteasomal degradation of p53 by human papilloma virus (HPV) E6 oncoprotein plays a pivotal role in the survival of cervical carcinoma cells. Abrogation of HPV-E6-dependent p53 destruction can therefore be a good strategy to combat cervical carcinomas. Here, we show that a small-molecule reactivation of p53 and induction of tumor cell apoptosis (RITA) is able to induce the accumulation of p53 and rescue its tumor suppressor function in cells containing high-risk HPV16 and HPV18 by inhibiting HPV-E6-mediated proteasomal degradation. RITA blocks p53 ubiquitination by preventing p53 interaction with E6-associated protein, required for HPV-E6-mediated degradation. RITA activates the transcription of proapoptotic p53 targets Noxa, PUMA, and BAX, and repressed the expression of pro-proliferative factors CyclinB1, CDC2, and CDC25C, resulting in p53-dependent apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Importantly, RITA showed substantial suppression of cervical carcinoma xenografts in vivo. These results provide a proof of principle for the treatment of cervical cancer in a p53-dependent manner by using small molecules that target p53. (c)2010 AACR.

  8. Modulation of DNA methylation by human papillomavirus E6 and E7 oncoproteins in cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Prakriti; Ganguly, Pooja; Ganguly, Niladri

    2018-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are double stranded circular DNA viruses that infect cutaneous and mucosal epithelial cells. Almost 99% of cervical cancer has a HPV infection. The early oncoproteins E6 and E7 are important in this cellular transformation process. Epigenetic mechanisms have long been known to result in decisive alterations in DNA, leading to alterations in DNA-protein interactions, alterations in chromatin structure and compaction and significant alterations in gene expression. The enzymes responsible for these epigenetic modifications are DNA methyl transferases (DNMTs), histone acetylases and deacetylases. Epigenetics has an important role in cancer development by modifying the cellular micro environment. In this review, the authors discuss the role of HPV oncoproteins E6 and E7 in modulating the epigenetic mechanisms inside the host cell. The oncoproteins induce the expression of DNMTs which lead to aberrant DNA methylations and disruption of the normal epigenetic processes. The E7 oncoprotein may additionally directly bind and induce methyl transferase activity of the enzyme. These modulations lead to altered gene expression levels, particularly the genes involved in apoptosis, cell cycle and cell adhesion. In addition, the present review discusses how epigenetic mechanisms may be targeted for possible therapeutic interventions for HPV mediated cervical cancer. PMID:29285184

  9. IFN-β antiproliferative effect and miRNA regulation in Human Papilloma Virus E6- and E7-transformed keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Chiantore, Maria Vincenza; Mangino, Giorgio; Iuliano, Marco; Zangrillo, Maria Simona; De Lillis, Ilaria; Vaccari, Gabriele; Accardi, Rosita; Tommasino, Massimo; Fiorucci, Gianna; Romeo, Giovanna

    2017-01-01

    Human Papilloma Viruses (HPVs) are the causative agents of cervical cancer although other types of cancers are associated with HPV infection. Type I Interferons can interfere with HPV E6- and/or E7-dependent transformation and can affect microRNA (miRNA) expression. Cancer cells show a specific pattern of miRNA expression and HPVs are able to modulate miRNAs expressed in infected cells. Keratinocytes transduced with E6 and E7 from mucosal HPV-16 or cutaneous HPV-38 (K16 and K38) were studied to analyze the involvement of HPV oncoproteins in the anti-proliferative activity of IFN-β. In view of our previous data showing senescence induction by the cytokine in K38 cells, we observe that IFN-β treatment leads to p53-indipendent apoptosis in K16 cells whereas induces senescence in K16 cells if E6 is silenced and p53 expression is restored. The levels of selected miRNAs, deregulated in K16 and K38 cells, can be modulated by IFN-β when E6 and E7 proteins of HPV-16, but not HPV-38, are expressed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Human Papillomavirus E6/E7-Specific siRNA Potentiates the Effect of Radiotherapy for Cervical Cancer in Vitro and in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hun Soon; Rajasekaran, Nirmal; Song, Sang Yong; Kim, Young Deug; Hong, Sungyoul; Choi, Hyuck Jae; Kim, Young Seok; Choi, Jong-Sun; Choi, Yoon-La; Shin, Young Kee

    2015-01-01

    The functional inactivation of TP53 and Rb tumor suppressor proteins by the HPV-derived E6 and E7 oncoproteins is likely an important step in cervical carcinogenesis. We have previously shown siRNA technology to selectively silence both E6/E7 oncogenes and demonstrated that the synthetic siRNAs could specifically block its expression in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells. Herein, we investigated the potentiality of E6/E7 siRNA candidates as radiosensitizers of radiotherapy for the human cervical carcinomas. HeLa and SiHa cells were transfected with HPV E6/E7 siRNA; the combined cytotoxic effect of E6/E7 siRNA and radiation was assessed by using the cell viability assay, flow cytometric analysis and the senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) assay. In addition, we also investigated the effect of combined therapy with irradiation and E6/E7 siRNA intravenous injection in an in vivo xenograft model. Combination therapy with siRNA and irradiation efficiently retarded tumor growth in established tumors of human cervical cancer cell xenografted mice. In addition, the chemically-modified HPV16 and 18 E6/E7 pooled siRNA in combination with irradiation strongly inhibited the growth of cervical cancer cells. Our results indicated that simultaneous inhibition of HPV E6/E7 oncogene expression with radiotherapy can promote potent antitumor activity and radiosensitizing activity in human cervical carcinomas. PMID:26035754

  11. [Expression of cell adhesion molecules in acute leukemia cell].

    PubMed

    Ju, Xiaoping; Peng, Min; Xu, Xiaoping; Lu, Shuqing; Li, Yao; Ying, Kang; Xie, Yi; Mao, Yumin; Xia, Fang

    2002-11-01

    To investigate the role of cell adhesion molecule in the development and extramedullary infiltration (EI) of acute leukemia. The expressions of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) gene, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) genes in 25 acute leukemia patients bone marrow cells were detected by microarray and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The expressions of NCAM, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 gene were significantly higher in acute leukemia cells and leukemia cells with EI than in normal tissues and leukemia cells without EI, respectively, both by cDNA microarray and by RT-PCR. The cDNA microarray is a powerful technique in analysis of acute leukemia cells associated genes. High expressions of cell adhesion molecule genes might be correlated with leukemia pathogenesis and infiltration of acute leukemia cell.

  12. Molecular expression in transfected corneal endothelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fan; Miao, Zhuang; Lu, Chengwei; Hao, Jilong

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the capability of human corneal endothelial cells serving as immunological cells. Expression of HLA-DP, -DQ, -DR, CD40, CD80, and CD86 was determined by immunohistochemical methods. Meanwhile, purified peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cocultured with human corneal endothelial cells which were pre-treated with and without -IFN respectively, activation of lymphocytes was determined by FACS analysis. In coculture system, T lymphocyte was activated by corneal endothelial cells, HLA-DP, -DQ, -DR and CD40 expression were increased by - IFN induction. Costimulatory molecular CD80 was shown on the endothelial cells. Human corneal endothelial cells were assumed to be involved in the corneal transplantation rejection process as potential antigen presenting cells.

  13. Vertebrate Cells Express Protozoan Antigen after Hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, Mark St. J.; Dvorak, James A.

    1980-04-01

    Epimastigotes, the invertebrate host stage of Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan parasite causing Chagas' disease in man, were fused with vertebrate cells by using polyethylene glycol. Hybrid cells were selected on the basis of T. cruzi DNA complementation of biochemical deficiencies in the vertebrate cells. Some clones of the hybrid cells expressed T. cruzi-specific antigen. It might be possible to use selected antigens obtained from the hybrids as vaccines for immunodiagnosis or for elucidation of the pathogenesis of Chagas' disease.

  14. The High-Risk Human Papillomavirus E6 Oncogene Exacerbates the Negative Effect of Tryptophan Starvation on the Development of Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Sherchand, Shardulendra P.; Ibana, Joyce A.; Zea, Arnold H.; Quayle, Alison J.; Aiyar, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular pathogen that requires specific essential nutrients from the host cell, one of which is the amino acid tryptophan. In this context interferon gamma (IFNγ) is the major host protective cytokine against chlamydial infections because it induces the expression of the host enzyme, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1, that degrades tryptophan, thereby restricting bacterial replication. The mechanism by which IFNγ acts has been dissected in vitro using epithelial cell-lines such as HeLa, HEp-2, or the primary-like endocervical cell-line A2EN. All these cell-lines express the high-risk human papillomavirus oncogenes E6 & E7. While screening cell-lines to identify those suitable for C. trachomatis co-infections with other genital pathogens, we unexpectedly found that tryptophan starvation did not completely block chlamydial development in cell-lines that were HR-HPV negative, such as C33A and 293. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that HR-HPV oncogenes modulate the effect of tryptophan starvation on chlamydial development by comparing chlamydial development in HeLa and C33A cell-lines that were both derived from cervical carcinomas. Our results indicate that during tryptophan depletion, unlike HeLa, C33A cells generate sufficient intracellular tryptophan via proteasomal activity to permit C. trachomatis replication. By generating stable derivatives of C33A that expressed HPV16 E6, E7 or E6 & E7, we found that E6 expression alone was sufficient to convert C33A cells to behave like HeLa during tryptophan starvation. The reduced tryptophan levels in HeLa cells have a biological consequence; akin to the previously described effect of IFNγ, tryptophan starvation protects C. trachomatis from clearance by doxycycline in HeLa but not C33A cells. Curiously, when compared to the known Homo sapiens proteome, the representation of tryptophan in the HR-HPV E6 & E6AP degradome is substantially lower, possibly providing a mechanism that

  15. IAA8 expression during vascular cell differentiation

    Andrew T. Groover; Amy Pattishall; Alan M. Jones

    2003-01-01

    We report the characterization of a member of the auxin-induced IAA gene family from zinnia, designated zIAA8, which is expressed by mesophyll cells differentiating as tracheary elements in vitro. Transcription of zIAA8 is upregulated within 3 h after cell isolation in inductive medium,...

  16. Expression cloning of human B cell immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Wardemann, Hedda; Kofer, Juliane

    2013-01-01

    The majority of lymphomas originate from B cells at the germinal center stage or beyond. Preferential selection of B cell clones by a limited set of antigens has been suggested to drive lymphoma development. However, little is known about the specificity of the antibodies expressed by lymphoma cells, and the role of antibody-specificity in lymphomagenesis remains elusive. Here, we describe a strategy to characterize the antibody reactivity of human B cells. The approach allows the unbiased characterization of the human antibody repertoire on a single cell level through the generation of recombinant monoclonal antibodies from single primary human B cells of defined origin. This protocol offers a detailed description of the method starting from the flow cytometric isolation of single human B cells, to the RT-PCR-based amplification of the expressed Igh, Igκ, and Igλ chain genes, and Ig gene expression vector cloning for the in vitro production of monoclonal antibodies. The strategy may be used to obtain information on the clonal evolution of B cell lymphomas by single cell Ig gene sequencing and on the antibody reactivity of human lymphoma B cells.

  17. Human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins act synergistically to cause head and neck cancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Jabbar, Sean; Strati, Katerina; Shin, Myeong Kyun; Pitot, Henry C; Lambert, Paul F

    2010-11-10

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) contribute to cervical and other anogenital cancers, and they are also linked etiologically to a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). We previously established a model for HPV-associated HNSCC in which we treated transgenic mice expressing the papillomaviral oncoproteins with the chemical carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO). We found that the HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein was highly potent in causing HNSCC, and its dominance masked any potential oncogenic contribution of E6, a second papillomaviral oncoprotein commonly expressed in human cancers. In the current study, we shortened the duration of treatment with 4-NQO to reduce the incidence of cancers and discovered a striking synergy between E6 and E7 in causing HNSCC. Comparing the oncogenic properties of wild-type versus mutant E6 genes in this model for HNSCC uncovered a role for some but not other cellular targets of E6 previously shown to contribute to cervical cancer. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E6 and E7 Oncoproteins Act Synergistically to Cause Head and Neck Cancer in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jabbar, Sean; Strati, Katerina; Shin, Myeong Kyun; Pitot, Henry C.; Lambert, Paul F.

    2010-01-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) contribute to cervical and other anogenital cancers, and they are also linked etiologically to a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). We previously established a model for HPV-associated HNSCC in which we treated transgenic mice expressing the papillomaviral oncoproteins with the chemical carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO). We found that the HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein was highly potent in causing HNSCC, and its dominance masked any potential oncogenic contribution of E6, a second papillomaviral oncoprotein commonly expressed in human cancers. In the current study, we shortened the duration of treatment with 4-NQO to reduce the incidence of cancers and discovered a striking synergy between E6 and E7 in causing HNSCC. Comparing the oncogenic properties of wild-type versus mutant E6 genes in this model for HNSCC uncovered a role for some but not other cellular targets of E6 previously shown to contribute to cervical cancer. PMID:20797753

  19. Tattoo Delivery of a Semliki Forest Virus-Based Vaccine Encoding Human Papillomavirus E6 and E7

    PubMed Central

    van de Wall, Stephanie; Walczak, Mateusz; van Rooij, Nienke; Hoogeboom, Baukje-Nynke; Meijerhof, Tjarko; Nijman, Hans W.; Daemen, Toos

    2015-01-01

    The skin is an attractive organ for immunization because of the presence of antigen-presenting cells. Intradermal delivery via tattooing has demonstrated superior vaccine immunogenicity of DNA vaccines in comparison to conventional delivery methods. In this study, we explored the efficacy of tattoo injection of a tumor vaccine based on recombinant Semliki Forest virus replicon particles (rSFV) targeting human papillomavirus (HPV). Tattoo injection of rSFV particles resulted in antigen expression in both the skin and draining lymph nodes. In comparison with intramuscular injection, the overall antigen expression determined at the site of administration and draining lymph nodes was 10-fold lower upon tattoo injection. Delivery of SFV particles encoding the E6 and E7 antigens of human papillomavirus type 16 (SFVeE6,7) via tattooing resulted in HPV-specific cytotoxic T cells and in vivo therapeutic antitumor response. Strikingly, despite the observed lower overall transgene expression, SFVeE6,7 delivered via tattoo injection resulted in higher or equal levels of immune responses as compared to intramuscular injection. The intrinsic immunogenic potential of tattooing provides a benefit for immunotherapy based on an alphavirus. PMID:26343186

  20. Tattoo Delivery of a Semliki Forest Virus-Based Vaccine Encoding Human Papillomavirus E6 and E7.

    PubMed

    van de Wall, Stephanie; Walczak, Mateusz; van Rooij, Nienke; Hoogeboom, Baukje-Nynke; Meijerhof, Tjarko; Nijman, Hans W; Daemen, Toos

    2015-03-24

    The skin is an attractive organ for immunization because of the presence of antigen-presenting cells. Intradermal delivery via tattooing has demonstrated superior vaccine immunogenicity of DNA vaccines in comparison to conventional delivery methods. In this study, we explored the efficacy of tattoo injection of a tumor vaccine based on recombinant Semliki Forest virus replicon particles (rSFV) targeting human papillomavirus (HPV). Tattoo injection of rSFV particles resulted in antigen expression in both the skin and draining lymph nodes. In comparison with intramuscular injection, the overall antigen expression determined at the site of administration and draining lymph nodes was 10-fold lower upon tattoo injection. Delivery of SFV particles encoding the E6 and E7 antigens of human papillomavirus type 16 (SFVeE6,7) via tattooing resulted in HPV-specific cytotoxic T cells and in vivo therapeutic antitumor response. Strikingly, despite the observed lower overall transgene expression, SFVeE6,7 delivered via tattoo injection resulted in higher or equal levels of immune responses as compared to intramuscular injection. The intrinsic immunogenic potential of tattooing provides a benefit for immunotherapy based on an alphavirus.

  1. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Priming plus Papillomavirus E6 DNA Vaccination: Effects on Papilloma Formation and Regression in the Cottontail Rabbit Papillomavirus-Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Leachman, Sancy A.; Tigelaar, Robert E.; Shlyankevich, Mark; Slade, Martin D.; Irwin, Michele; Chang, Ed; Wu, T. C.; Xiao, Wei; Pazhani, Sundaram; Zelterman, Daniel; Brandsma, Janet L.

    2000-01-01

    A cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) E6 DNA vaccine that induces significant protection against CRPV challenge was used in a superior vaccination regimen in which the cutaneous sites of vaccination were primed with an expression vector encoding granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a cytokine that induces differentiation and local recruitment of professional antigen-presenting cells. This treatment induced a massive influx of major histocompatibility complex class II-positive cells. In a vaccination-challenge experiment, rabbit groups were treated by E6 DNA vaccination, GM-CSF DNA inoculation, or a combination of both treatments. After two immunizations, rabbits were challenged with CRPV at low, moderate, and high stringencies and monitored for papilloma formation. As expected, all clinical outcomes were monotonically related to the stringency of the viral challenge. The results demonstrate that GM-CSF priming greatly augmented the effects of CRPV E6 vaccination. First, challenge sites in control rabbits (at the moderate challenge stringency) had a 0% probability of remaining disease free, versus a 50% probability in E6-vaccinated rabbits, and whereas GM-CSF alone had no effect, the interaction between GM-CSF priming and E6 vaccination increased disease-free survival to 67%. Second, the incubation period before papilloma onset was lengthened by E6 DNA vaccination alone or to some extent by GM-CSF DNA inoculation alone, and the combination of treatments induced additive effects. Third, the rate of papilloma growth was reduced by E6 vaccination and, to a lesser extent, by GM-CSF treatment. In addition, the interaction between the E6 and GM-CSF treatments was synergistic and yielded more than a 99% reduction in papilloma volume. Finally, regression occurred among the papillomas that formed in rabbits treated with the E6 vaccine and/or with GM-CSF, with the highest regression frequency occurring in rabbits that received the combination

  2. Embryotrophic factor-3 from human oviductal cells affects the messenger RNA expression of mouse blastocyst.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y L; Lee, K F; Xu, J S; Kwok, K L; Luk, J M; Lee, W M; Yeung, W S B

    2003-02-01

    Our previous results showed that embryotrophic factor-3 (ETF-3) from human oviductal cells increased the size and hatching rate of mouse blastocysts in vitro. The present study investigated the production of ETF-3 by an immortalized human oviductal cell line (OE-E6/E7) and the effects of ETF-3 on the mRNA expression of mouse embryos. The ETF-3 was purified from primary oviductal cell conditioned media using sequential liquid chromatographic systems, and antiserum against ETF-3 was raised. The ETF-3-supplemented Chatot-Ziomek-Bavister medium was used to culture Day 1 MF1 x BALB/c mouse embryos for 4 days. The ETF-3 treatment significantly enhanced the mouse embryo blastulation and hatching rate. The antiserum, at concentrations of 0.03-3%, abolished the embryotrophic effect of ETF-3. Positive ETF-3 immunoreactivity was detected in the primary oviductal cells, OE-E6/E7, and blastocysts derived from ETF-3 treatment. Vero cells (African Green Monkey kidney cell line), fibroblasts, and embryos cultured in control medium did not possess ETF-3 immunoreactivity. The mRNA expression patterns of the treated embryos were studied at the blastocyst stage by mRNA differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR). The DDRT-PCR showed that some of the mRNAs were differentially expressed after ETF-3 treatment. Twelve of the differentially expressed mRNAs that had high homology with cDNA sequences in the GenBank were selected for further characterization. The differential expression of seven of these mRNAs (ezrin, heat shock 70-kDa protein, cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIIa-L precursor, proteinase-activated receptor 2, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2beta, cullin 1, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen) was confirmed by semiquantitative RT-PCR. In conclusion, immortalized oviductal cells produce ETF-3, which influences mRNA expression of mouse blastocyst.

  3. Arsenic trioxide inhibits cell proliferation and human papillomavirus oncogene expression in cervical cancer cells

    SciT

    Wang, Hongtao; Gao, Peng; Zheng, Jie, E-mail: jiezheng54@126.com

    Highlights: • As{sub 2}O{sub 3} inhibits growth of cervical cancer cells and expression of HPV oncogenes in these cells. • HPV-negative cervical cancer cells are more sensitive to As{sub 2}O{sub 3} than HPV-positive cervical cancer cells. • HPV-18 positive cervical cancer cells are more sensitive to As{sub 2}O{sub 3} than HPV-16 positive cancer cells. • Down-regulation of HPV oncogenes by As{sub 2}O{sub 3} is partially due to the diminished AP-1 binding. - Abstract: Arsenic trioxide (As{sub 2}O{sub 3}) has shown therapeutic effects in some leukemias and solid cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms of its anticancer efficacy have not been clearlymore » elucidated, particularly in solid cancers. Our previous data showed that As{sub 2}O{sub 3} induced apoptosis of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 DNA-immortalized human cervical epithelial cells and cervical cancer cells and inhibited the expression of HPV oncogenes in these cells. In the present study, we systemically examined the effects of As{sub 2}O{sub 3} on five human cervical cancer cell lines and explored the possible molecular mechanisms. MTT assay showed that HPV-negative C33A cells were more sensitive to growth inhibition induced by As{sub 2}O{sub 3} than HPV-positive cervical cancer cells, and HPV 18-positive HeLa and C4-I cells were more sensitive to As{sub 2}O{sub 3} than HPV 16-positive CaSki and SiHa cells. After As{sub 2}O{sub 3} treatment, both mRNA and protein levels of HPV E6 and E7 obviously decreased in all HPV positive cell lines. In contrast, p53 and Rb protein levels increased in all tested cell lines. Transcription factor AP-1 protein expression decreased significantly in HeLa, CaSki and C33A cells with ELISA method. These results suggest that As{sub 2}O{sub 3} is a potential anticancer drug for cervical cancer.« less

  4. Single cell gene expression profiling of cortical osteoblast lineage cells.

    PubMed

    Flynn, James M; Spusta, Steven C; Rosen, Clifford J; Melov, Simon

    2013-03-01

    In tissues with complex architectures such as bone, it is often difficult to purify and characterize specific cell types via molecular profiling. Single cell gene expression profiling is an emerging technology useful for characterizing transcriptional profiles of individual cells isolated from heterogeneous populations. In this study we describe a novel procedure for the isolation and characterization of gene expression profiles of single osteoblast lineage cells derived from cortical bone. Mixed populations of different cell types were isolated from adult long bones of C57BL/6J mice by enzymatic digestion, and subsequently subjected to FACS to purify and characterize osteoblast lineage cells via a selection strategy using antibodies against CD31, CD45, and alkaline phosphatase (AP), specific for mature osteoblasts. The purified individual osteoblast lineage cells were then profiled at the single cell level via nanofluidic PCR. This method permits robust gene expression profiling on single osteoblast lineage cells derived from mature bone, potentially from anatomically distinct sites. In conjunction with this technique, we have also shown that it is possible to carry out single cell profiling on cells purified from fixed and frozen bone samples without compromising the gene expression signal. The latter finding means the technique can be extended to biopsies of bone from diseased individuals. Our approach for single cell expression profiling provides a new dimension to the transcriptional profile of the primary osteoblast lineage population in vivo, and has the capacity to greatly expand our understanding of how these cells may function in vivo under normal and diseased states. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Multiple cells express interleukin 17 in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Avadhani, Avadhoot V; Parachuru, Venkata P B; Milne, Trudy; Seymour, Gregory J; Rich, Alison M

    2017-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-17 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine with pro- and antitumour effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and potential sources of IL-17 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Immunohistochemistry was used to label and compare IL-17 + cells in the tissue sections of OSCC and inflammatory controls (IC), n = 14 for both. In OSCC, the comparison was made between the number of IL-17 + cells in the tumoral islands (TI), tumour-stroma interface (TS) and more distant stroma (DS). Cells expressing IL-17 were identified using double-labelling immunofluorescence and examined using laser scanning microscopy. The production of IL-17 from tumour cells was determined in the culture supernatants of OSCC cell lines, SCC4, SCC15 and SCC25, using sandwich ELISA. Significantly more IL-17 + cells were observed in OSCC compared with IC (Mann-Whitney, P < 0.0001). In OSCC, the numbers of IL-17 + cells were not significantly different in three compartments, TI, TS and DS (one-way ANOVA, P > 0.05). However, the TI had significantly fewer IL-17 + cells than the combined stroma (both TS and DS together, Mann-Whitney, P < 0.01). Laser scanning microscopy revealed helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, macrophages and mast cells co-expressed IL-17. ELISA experiments did not detect IL-17 in the supernatants of OSCC cell lines. Although the tumour cells themselves did not express IL-17, a range of cell types did, suggesting multiple cellular sources for IL-17 in OSCC. The spatial distribution of IL-17 + cells suggests specific interactions with cells within the tumour microenvironment, implying that IL-17 + cells are likely to play a role in the pathogenesis of OSCC. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Human Langerhans cells express E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Blauvelt, A; Katz, S I; Udey, M C

    1995-02-01

    Murine Langerhans cells (LC) synthesize and express E-cadherin, a Ca(++)-dependent homophilic cell adhesion molecule that mediates LC-keratinocyte (KC) binding in vitro. In vivo, E-cadherin expression by LC may promote localization and persistence of LC within the epidermis through LC-KC adhesion. In addition, changes in LC E-cadherin expression or affinity may be an important factor in the egress of LC from the epidermis after exposure to antigen. The aim of the present study was to determine if human LC also express E-cadherin. Suction blister roofs were obtained from normal volunteers and epidermal cell (EC) suspensions were prepared by limited trypsinization in the presence of 1 mM Ca++. EC were then incubated with antibodies to E-cadherin and CD1a or HLA-DR, and examined by two-color analytical flow cytometry or immunofluorescence microscopy. Most (82.9% +/- 7.4% [mean +/- SD], range 67-89%, n = 7) freshly prepared human LC expressed E-cadherin, as did the majority of KC. The amount of E-cadherin (as determined by mean fluorescence intensity) expressed by LC and KC was similar. Trypsin/EDTA treatment of freshly prepared EC abrogated expression of E-cadherin by LC and KC, whereas E-cadherin was not degraded by trypsin in the presence of Ca++. LC expressed lower levels of E-cadherin after 3 d in culture. Thus, human LC, like murine LC, express the homophilic adhesion molecule E-cadherin, which may be important in establishing and maintaining interactions between LC and KC in mammalian epidermis.

  7. The vaccinia virus E6 protein influences virion protein localization during virus assembly

    SciT

    Condit, Richard C., E-mail: condit@mgm.ufl.edu; Moussatche, Nissin

    2015-08-15

    Vaccinia virus mutants in which expression of the virion core protein gene E6R is repressed are defective in virion morphogenesis. E6 deficient infections fail to properly package viroplasm into viral membranes, resulting in an accumulation of empty immature virions and large aggregates of viroplasm. We have used immunogold electron microscopy and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy to assess the intracellular localization of several virion structural proteins and enzymes during E6R mutant infections. We find that during E6R mutant infections virion membrane proteins and virion transcription enzymes maintain a normal localization within viral factories while several major core and lateral body proteins accumulatemore » in aggregated virosomes. The results support a model in which vaccinia virions are assembled from at least three substructures, the membrane, the viroplasm and a “pre-nucleocapsid”, and that the E6 protein is essential for maintaining proper localization of the seven-protein complex and the viroplasm during assembly. - Highlights: • Mutation of E6 disrupts association of viral membranes with viral core proteins • Mutation of E6 does not perturb viral membrane biosynthesis • Mutation of E6 does not perturb localization of viral transcription enzymes • Mutation of E6 causes mis-localization and aggregation of viral core proteins • Vaccinia assembly uses three subassemblies: membranes, viroplasm, prenucleocapsid.« less

  8. A high-throughput cellular assay to quantify the p53-degradation activity of E6 from different human papillomavirus types.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, David; Archambault, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    A subset of human papillomaviruses (HPVs), known as the high-risk types, are the causative agents of cervical cancer and other malignancies of the anogenital region and oral mucosa. The capacity of these viruses to induce cancer and to immortalize cells in culture relies in part on a critical function of their E6 oncoprotein, that of promoting the poly-ubiquitination of the cellular tumor suppressor protein p53 and its subsequent degradation by the proteasome. Here, we describe a cellular assay to measure the p53-degradation activity of E6 from different HPV types. This assay is based on a translational fusion of p53 to Renilla luciferase (Rluc-p53) that remains sensitive to degradation by high-risk E6 and whose steady-state levels can be accurately measured in standard luciferase assays. The p53-degradation activity of any E6 protein can be tested and quantified in transiently transfected cells by determining the amount of E6-expression vector required to reduce by half the levels of RLuc-p53 luciferase activity (50 % effective concentration [EC50]). The high-throughput and quantitative nature of this assay makes it particularly useful to compare the p53-degradation activities of E6 from several HPV types in parallel.

  9. Tropomyosin Receptor Kinase A Expression on Merkel Cell Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Wehkamp, Ulrike; Stern, Sophie; Krüger, Sandra; Hauschild, Axel; Röcken, Christoph; Egberts, Friederike

    2017-11-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a malignant neuroendocrine skin tumor frequently associated with the Merkel cell polyomavirus. Immune checkpoint therapy showed remarkable results, although not all patients are responsive to this therapy. Anti-tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA)-targeted treatment has shown promising results in several tumor entities. To determine TrkA expression in MCC as a rationale for potential targeted therapy. This case series study investigated the MCC specimens of 55 patients treated at the Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany, from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2015. Thirty-nine of the 55 samples were suitable for further histopathologic examination. Expression of TrkA was explored by immunohistochemical analysis. Diagnosis of MCC was confirmed by staining positive for cytokeratin 20 (CK20) and synaptophysin. Expression of TrkA on the tumor cells. Specimens of 39 patients (21 women and 18 men; mean [SD] age, 75.0 [7.8] years) underwent immunohistochemical investigation. Thirty-eight of 38 specimens expressed CK20 and synaptophysin on the MCC tumor cells (100% expression). Merkel cell polyomavirus was detected in 32 of 38 specimens (84%). Tropomyosin receptor kinase A was found in all 36 evaluable specimens on the tumor cells; 34 (94%) showed a weak and 2 (6%) showed a strong cytoplasmic expression. In addition, strongly positive perinuclear dots were observed in 30 of 36 specimens (83%). Tropomyosin receptor kinase A was expressed on MCC tumor cells in 100% of evaluable specimens. This result may lead to the exploration of new targeted treatment options in MCC, especially for patients who do not respond to anti-programmed cell death protein 1 treatment.

  10. Tissue factor expression by endothelial cells in sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Solovey, A; Gui, L; Key, N S; Hebbel, R P

    1998-05-01

    The role of the vascular endothelium in activation of the coagulation system, a fundamental homeostatic mechanism of mammalian biology, is uncertain because there is little evidence indicating that endothelial cells in vivo express tissue factor (TF), the system's triggering mechanism. As a surrogate for vessel wall endothelium, we examined circulating endothelial cells (CEC) from normals and patients with sickle cell anemia, a disease associated with activation of coagulation. We find that sickle CEC abnormally express TF antigen (expressed as percent CEC that are TF-positive), with 66+/-13% positive in sickle patients in steady-state, 83+/-19% positive in sickle patients presenting with acute vasoocclusive episodes, and only 10+/-13% positive in normal controls. Repeated samplings confirmed this impression that TF expression is greater when sickle patients develop acute vasoocclusive episodes. Sickle CEC are also positive for TF mRNA, with excellent concurrence between antigen and mRNA expression. The TF expressed on the antigen-positive CEC is functional, as demonstrated by a binding assay for Factor VIIa and a chromogenic assay sensitive to generation of Factor Xa. By establishing that endothelial cells in vivo can express TF, these data imply that the vast endothelial surface area does provide an important pathophysiologic trigger for coagulation activation.

  11. E6/E7-P53-POU2F1-CTHRC1 axis promotes cervical cancer metastasis and activates Wnt/PCP pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rong; Lu, Huan; Lyu, Yuan-yuan; Yang, Xiao-mei; Zhu, Lin-yan; Yang, Guang-dong; Jiang, Peng-cheng; Re, Yuan; Song, Wei-wei; Wang, Jin-hao; Zhang, Can-can; Gu, Fei; Luo, Tian-jiao; Wu, Zhi-yong; Xu, Cong-jian

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is an infectious cancer and the most common gynecologic cancer worldwide. E6/E7, the early genes of the high-risk mucosal human papillomavirus type, play key roles in the carcinogenic process of cervical cancer. However, little was known about its roles in modulating tumor microenvironment, particular extracellular matrix (ECM). In this study, we found that E6/E7 could regulate multiple ECM proteins, especially collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 (CTHRC1). CTHRC1 is highly expressed in cervical cancer tissue and serum and closely correlated with clinicopathological parameters. CTHRC1 promotes cervical cancer cell migration and invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo. E6/E7 regulates the expression of CTHRC1 in cervical cancer by E6/E7-p53-POU2F1 (POU class 2 homeobox 1) axis. Futhermore, CTHRC1 activates Wnt/PCP signaling pathway. Take together, E6/E7-p53-POU2F1-CTHRC1 axis promotes cervical cancer cell invasion and metastasis and may act as a potential therapeutic target for interventions against cervical cancer invasion and metastasis. PMID:28303973

  12. Dental enamel cells express functional SOCE channels

    PubMed Central

    Nurbaeva, Meerim K.; Eckstein, Miriam; Concepcion, Axel R.; Smith, Charles E.; Srikanth, Sonal; Paine, Michael L.; Gwack, Yousang; Hubbard, Michael J.; Feske, Stefan; Lacruz, Rodrigo S.

    2015-01-01

    Dental enamel formation requires large quantities of Ca2+ yet the mechanisms mediating Ca2+ dynamics in enamel cells are unclear. Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) channels are important Ca2+ influx mechanisms in many cells. SOCE involves release of Ca2+ from intracellular pools followed by Ca2+ entry. The best-characterized SOCE channels are the Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels. As patients with mutations in the CRAC channel genes STIM1 and ORAI1 show abnormal enamel mineralization, we hypothesized that CRAC channels might be an important Ca2+ uptake mechanism in enamel cells. Investigating primary murine enamel cells, we found that key components of CRAC channels (ORAI1, ORAI2, ORAI3, STIM1, STIM2) were expressed and most abundant during the maturation stage of enamel development. Furthermore, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) but not ryanodine receptor (RyR) expression was high in enamel cells suggesting that IP3Rs are the main ER Ca2+ release mechanism. Passive depletion of ER Ca2+ stores with thapsigargin resulted in a significant raise in [Ca2+]i consistent with SOCE. In cells pre-treated with the CRAC channel blocker Synta-66 Ca2+ entry was significantly inhibited. These data demonstrate that enamel cells have SOCE mediated by CRAC channels and implicate them as a mechanism for Ca2+ uptake in enamel formation. PMID:26515404

  13. Dental enamel cells express functional SOCE channels.

    PubMed

    Nurbaeva, Meerim K; Eckstein, Miriam; Concepcion, Axel R; Smith, Charles E; Srikanth, Sonal; Paine, Michael L; Gwack, Yousang; Hubbard, Michael J; Feske, Stefan; Lacruz, Rodrigo S

    2015-10-30

    Dental enamel formation requires large quantities of Ca(2+) yet the mechanisms mediating Ca(2+) dynamics in enamel cells are unclear. Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) channels are important Ca(2+) influx mechanisms in many cells. SOCE involves release of Ca(2+) from intracellular pools followed by Ca(2+) entry. The best-characterized SOCE channels are the Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels. As patients with mutations in the CRAC channel genes STIM1 and ORAI1 show abnormal enamel mineralization, we hypothesized that CRAC channels might be an important Ca(2+) uptake mechanism in enamel cells. Investigating primary murine enamel cells, we found that key components of CRAC channels (ORAI1, ORAI2, ORAI3, STIM1, STIM2) were expressed and most abundant during the maturation stage of enamel development. Furthermore, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) but not ryanodine receptor (RyR) expression was high in enamel cells suggesting that IP3Rs are the main ER Ca(2+) release mechanism. Passive depletion of ER Ca(2+) stores with thapsigargin resulted in a significant raise in [Ca(2+)]i consistent with SOCE. In cells pre-treated with the CRAC channel blocker Synta-66 Ca(2+) entry was significantly inhibited. These data demonstrate that enamel cells have SOCE mediated by CRAC channels and implicate them as a mechanism for Ca(2+) uptake in enamel formation.

  14. Cell cycle gene expression under clinorotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemenko, Olga

    2016-07-01

    Cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) are main regulators of the cell cycle of eukaryotes. It's assumes a significant change of their level in cells under microgravity conditions and by other physical factors actions. The clinorotation use enables to determine the influence of gravity on simulated events in the cell during the cell cycle - exit from the state of quiet stage and promotion presynthetic phase (G1) and DNA synthesis phase (S) of the cell cycle. For the clinorotation effect study on cell proliferation activity is the necessary studies of molecular mechanisms of cell cycle regulation and development of plants under altered gravity condition. The activity of cyclin D, which is responsible for the events of the cell cycle in presynthetic phase can be controlled by the action of endogenous as well as exogenous factors, but clinorotation is one of the factors that influence on genes expression that regulate the cell cycle.These data can be used as a model for further research of cyclin - CDK complex for study of molecular mechanisms regulation of growth and proliferation. In this investigation we tried to summarize and analyze known literature and own data we obtained relatively the main regulators of the cell cycle in altered gravity condition.

  15. Cell-Free Optogenetic Gene Expression System.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, Premkumar; Yeoh, Jing Wui; Jayaraman, Sudhaghar; Teh, Ai Ying; Zhang, Jingyun; Poh, Chueh Loo

    2018-04-20

    Optogenetic tools provide a new and efficient way to dynamically program gene expression with unmatched spatiotemporal precision. To date, their vast potential remains untapped in the field of cell-free synthetic biology, largely due to the lack of simple and efficient light-switchable systems. Here, to bridge the gap between cell-free systems and optogenetics, we studied our previously engineered one component-based blue light-inducible Escherichia coli promoter in a cell-free environment through experimental characterization and mathematical modeling. We achieved >10-fold dynamic expression and demonstrated rapid and reversible activation of the target gene to generate oscillatory response. The deterministic model developed was able to recapitulate the system behavior and helped to provide quantitative insights to optimize dynamic response. This in vitro optogenetic approach could be a powerful new high-throughput screening technology for rapid prototyping of complex biological networks in both space and time without the need for chemical induction.

  16. The Asian-American E6 Variant Protein of Human Papillomavirus 16 Alone Is Sufficient To Promote Immortalization, Transformation, and Migration of Primary Human Foreskin Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Niccoli, Sarah; Abraham, Suraj; Richard, Christina

    2012-01-01

    We examined how well the human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 oncogene can function in the absence of the E7 oncogene during the carcinogenic process in human keratinocytes using a common HPV variant strongly associated with cervical cancer: the Asian-American E6 variant (AAE6). This E6 variant is 20 times more frequently detected in cervical cancer than the prototype European E6 variant, as evidenced by independent epidemiological data. Using cell culture and cell-based functional assays, we assessed how this variant can perform crucial carcinogenesis steps compared to the prototype E6 variant. The ability to immortalize and transform primary human foreskin keratinocytes (PHFKs) to acquire resilient phenotypes and the ability to promote cell migration were evaluated. The immortalization capability was assayed based on population doublings, number of passages, surpassing mortality stages 1 and 2, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression, and the ability to overcome G1 arrest via p53 degradation. Transformation and migration efficiency were analyzed using a combination of functional cell-based assays. We observed that either AAE6 or prototype E6 proteins alone were sufficient to immortalize PHFKs, although AAE6 was more potent in doing so. The AAE6 variant protein alone pushed PHFKs through transformation and significantly increased their migration ability over that of the E6 prototype. Our findings are in line with epidemiological data that the AA variant of HPV16 confers an increased risk over the European prototype for cervical cancer, as evidenced by a superior immortalization, transformation, and metastatic potential. PMID:22951839

  17. Human papilloma virus type16 E6 deregulates CHK1 and sensitizes human fibroblasts to environmental carcinogens independently of its effect on p53

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Simpson, Dennis A.; Zhou, Yingchun; Mitra, Amritava; Mitchell, David L.; Cordeiro-Stone, Marila; Kaufmann, William K.

    2015-01-01

    After treatment with ultraviolet radiation (UV), human fibroblasts that express the HPV type 16 E6 oncoprotein display defects in repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, hypersensitivity to inactivation of clonogenic survival and an inability to sustain DNA replication. To determine whether these effects are specific to depletion of p53 or inactivation of its function, fibroblast lines were constructed with ectopic expression of a dominant-negative p53 allele (p53-H179Q) to inactivate function or a short-hairpin RNA (p53-RNAi) to deplete expression of p53. Only the expression of HPV16E6 sensitized fibroblasts to UV or the chemical carcinogen, benzo[a]pyrene diolepoxide I (BPDE). Carcinogen-treated cells expressing p53-H179Q or p53-RNAi were resistant to inactivation of colony formation and did not suffer replication arrest. CHK1 is a key checkpoint kinase in the response to carcinogen-induced DNA damage. Control and p53-RNAi-expressing fibroblasts displayed phosphorylation of Ser345 on CHK1 45–120 min after carcinogen treatment with a return to near baseline phosphorylation by 6 h after treatment. HPV16E6-expressing fibroblasts displayed enhanced and sustained phosphorylation of CHK1. This was associated with enhanced phosphorylation of Thr68 on CHK2 and Ser139 on H2AX, both markers of severe replication stress and DNA double strand breaks. Incubation with the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid produced more phosphorylation of CHK1 in UV-treated HPV16E6-expressing cells than in p53-H179Q-expressing cells suggesting that HPV16E6 may interfere with the recovery of coupled DNA replication at replication forks that are stalled at [6-4]pyrimidine-pyrimidone photoproducts and BPDE-DNA adducts. The results indicate that HPV16E6 targets a protein or proteins other than p53 to deregulate the activity of CHK1 in carcinogen-damaged cells. PMID:19411857

  18. High-Risk Human Papillomaviral Oncogenes E6 and E7 Target Key Cellular Pathways to Achieve Oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yeo-Teh, Nicole S L; Ito, Yoshiaki; Jha, Sudhakar

    2018-06-08

    Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) has been linked to several human cancers, the most prominent of which is cervical cancer. The integration of the viral genome into the host genome is one of the manners in which the viral oncogenes E6 and E7 achieve persistent expression. The most well-studied cellular targets of the viral oncogenes E6 and E7 are p53 and pRb, respectively. However, recent research has demonstrated the ability of these two viral factors to target many more cellular factors, including proteins which regulate epigenetic marks and splicing changes in the cell. These have the ability to exert a global change, which eventually culminates to uncontrolled proliferation and carcinogenesis.

  19. E5 can be expressed in anal cancer and leads to epidermal growth factor receptor-induced invasion in a human papillomavirus 16-transformed anal epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Wechsler, Erin Isaacson; Tugizov, Sharof; Herrera, Rossana; Da Costa, Maria; Palefsky, Joel M

    2018-05-01

    We detected the first human papillomavirus (HPV)-16-immortalized anal epithelial cell line, known as AKC2 cells to establish an in vitro model of HPV-16-induced anal carcinogenesis. Consistent with detection of E6, E7 and E5 expression in anal cancer biopsies, AKC2 cells expressed high levels of all three HPV oncogenes. Also, similar to findings in anal cancer biopsies, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was overexpressed in AKC2 cells. AKC2 cells exhibited a poorly differentiated and invasive phenotype in three-dimensional raft culture and inhibition of EGFR function abrogated AKC2 invasion. Reducing E5 expression using E5-targeted siRNAs in AKC2 cells led to knockdown of E5 expression, but also HPV-16 E2, E6 and E7 expression. AKC2 cells treated with E5-targeted siRNA had reduced levels of total and phosphorylated EGFR, and reduced invasion. Rescue of E6/E7 expression with simultaneous E5 knockdown confirmed that E5 plays a key role in EGFR overexpression and EGFR-induced invasion.

  20. Induction of Tyrosine Phosphorylation of UV-Activated EGFR by the Beta-Human Papillomavirus Type 8 E6 Leads to Papillomatosis.

    PubMed

    Taute, Stefanie; Pfister, Herbert J; Steger, Gertrud

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence is accumulating that beta-human papillomaviruses (HPV) synergize with UV-light in the development of precancerous actinic keratosis, and cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCC), one of the most common cancers in the Caucasian population. We previously demonstrated the tumorigenic activity of beta-HPV type 8 (HPV8) in the skin of transgenic mice and its cooperation with UV-light. Analysis of underlying mechanisms now showed that in keratinocytes expressing the HPV8E6 protein a transient increase of tyrosine phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in response to UV-irradiation occurred, while EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation, i.e., receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-activity was hardly affected in empty vector control cells. FACS and immunofluorescences revealed that the EGFR was internalized into early endosomes in response to UV-exposure in both, HPV8E6 positive and in control cells, yet with a higher rate in the presence of HPV8E6. Moreover, only in HPV8E6 expressing keratinocytes the EGFR was further sorted into CD63+ intraluminal vesicles, indicative for trafficking to late endosomes. The latter requires the ubiquitination of the EGFR, and in correlation, we could show that only in HPV8E6 positive keratinocytes the EGFR was ubiquitinated upon UV-exposure. HPV8E6 and tyrosine phosphorylated EGFR directly interacted which was enhanced by UV-irradiation. The treatment of K14-HPV8E6 transgenic mice with Canertinib, an inhibitor of the RTK-activity of the EGFR, suppressed skin papilloma growth in response to UV-irradiation. This confirms the crucial role of the RTK-activity of the EGFR in HPV8E6 and UV-mediated papillomatosis in transgenic mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HPV8E6 alters the signaling of the UV-activated EGFR and this is a critical step in papilloma formation in response to UV-light in transgenic mice. Our results provide a molecular basis how a beta-HPV type may support early steps of skin tumor

  1. Induction of Tyrosine Phosphorylation of UV-Activated EGFR by the Beta-Human Papillomavirus Type 8 E6 Leads to Papillomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Taute, Stefanie; Pfister, Herbert J.; Steger, Gertrud

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence is accumulating that beta-human papillomaviruses (HPV) synergize with UV-light in the development of precancerous actinic keratosis, and cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCC), one of the most common cancers in the Caucasian population. We previously demonstrated the tumorigenic activity of beta-HPV type 8 (HPV8) in the skin of transgenic mice and its cooperation with UV-light. Analysis of underlying mechanisms now showed that in keratinocytes expressing the HPV8E6 protein a transient increase of tyrosine phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in response to UV-irradiation occurred, while EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation, i.e., receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-activity was hardly affected in empty vector control cells. FACS and immunofluorescences revealed that the EGFR was internalized into early endosomes in response to UV-exposure in both, HPV8E6 positive and in control cells, yet with a higher rate in the presence of HPV8E6. Moreover, only in HPV8E6 expressing keratinocytes the EGFR was further sorted into CD63+ intraluminal vesicles, indicative for trafficking to late endosomes. The latter requires the ubiquitination of the EGFR, and in correlation, we could show that only in HPV8E6 positive keratinocytes the EGFR was ubiquitinated upon UV-exposure. HPV8E6 and tyrosine phosphorylated EGFR directly interacted which was enhanced by UV-irradiation. The treatment of K14-HPV8E6 transgenic mice with Canertinib, an inhibitor of the RTK-activity of the EGFR, suppressed skin papilloma growth in response to UV-irradiation. This confirms the crucial role of the RTK-activity of the EGFR in HPV8E6 and UV-mediated papillomatosis in transgenic mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HPV8E6 alters the signaling of the UV-activated EGFR and this is a critical step in papilloma formation in response to UV-light in transgenic mice. Our results provide a molecular basis how a beta-HPV type may support early steps of skin tumor

  2. Lopinavir up-regulates expression of the antiviral protein ribonuclease L in human papillomavirus-positive cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Batman, Gavin; Oliver, Anthony W; Zehbe, Ingeborg; Richard, Christina; Hampson, Lynne; Hampson, Ian N

    2011-01-01

    We have previously shown that the HIV protease inhibitor lopinavir has selective toxicity against human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive cervical carcinoma cells via an unknown mechanism. SiHa cervical carcinoma cells were stably transfected with the proteasome sensor vector pZsProSensor-1 to confirm lopinavir inhibits the proteasome in these cells. The Panorama Xpress profiler 725 antibody array was then used to analyse specific changes in protein expression in lopinavir-treated versus control untreated SiHa cells followed by PCR and western blotting. Colorimetric growth assays of lopinavir-treated E6/E7 immortalised versus control human keratinocytes were performed. Targeted small interfering RNA gene silencing followed by growth assay comparison of lopinavir-treated/untreated SiHa cells was also used. Lopinavir induced an increase in the fluorescence of pZsProSensor-1 transfected SiHa cells, indicative of proteasomal inhibition. Ribonuclease L (RNASEL) protein was shown to be up-regulated in lopinavir-treated SiHa cells, which was confirmed by PCR and western blot. Targeted silencing of RNASEL reduced the sensitivity of SiHa cells to lopinavir. Selective toxicity against E6/E7 immortalised keratinocytes versus control cells was also seen with lopinavir and was associated with up-regulated RNASEL expression. These data are consistent with the toxicity of lopinavir against HPV-positive cervical carcinoma cells being related to its ability to block viral proteasome activation and induce an up-regulation of the antiviral protein RNASEL. This is supported by the drug's selective toxicity and up-regulation of RNASEL in E6/E7 immortalised keratinocytes combined with the increased resistance to lopinavir observed in SiHa cells following silencing of RNASEL gene expression.

  3. Circular RNA expression in basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sand, Michael; Bechara, Falk G; Sand, Daniel; Gambichler, Thilo; Hahn, Stephan A; Bromba, Michael; Stockfleth, Eggert; Hessam, Schapoor

    2016-05-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs), are nonprotein coding RNAs consisting of a circular loop with multiple miRNA, binding sites called miRNA response elements (MREs), functioning as miRNA sponges. This study was performed to identify differentially expressed circRNAs and their MREs in basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Microarray circRNA expression profiles were acquired from BCC and control followed by qRT-PCR validation. Bioinformatical target prediction revealed multiple MREs. Sequence analysis was performed concerning MRE interaction potential with the BCC miRNome. We identified 23 upregulated and 48 downregulated circRNAs with 354 miRNA response elements capable of sequestering miRNA target sequences of the BCC miRNome. The present study describes a variety of circRNAs that are potentially involved in the molecular pathogenesis of BCC.

  4. Human papillomavirus E6/E7 oncogenes promote mouse ear regeneration by increasing the rate of wound re-epithelization and epidermal growth.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Concepción; Bonilla-Delgado, José; Oktaba, Katarzyna; Ocádiz-Delgado, Rodolfo; Gariglio, Patricio; Covarrubias, Luis

    2008-12-01

    Mammals have limited regeneration capacity. We report here that, in transgenic mice (Tg(bK6-E6/E7)), the expression of the E6/E7 oncogenes of human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV16) under the control of the bovine keratin 6 promoter markedly improves the mouse's capacity to repair portions of the ear after being wounded. Increased repair capacity correlates with an increased number of epidermal proliferating cells. In concordance with the expected effects of the E6 and E7 oncogenes, levels of p53 decreased and those of p16 in epidermal cells increased. In addition, we observed that wound re-epithelization proceeded faster in transgenic than in wild-type animals. After the initial re-epithelization, epidermal cell migration from the intact surrounding tissue appears to be a major contributor to the growing epidermis, especially in the repairing tissue of transgenic mice. We also found that there is a significantly higher number of putative epidermal stem cells in Tg(bK6-E6/E7) than in wild-type mice. Remarkably, hair follicles and cartilage regenerated within the repaired ear tissue, without evidence of tumor formation. We propose that the ability to regenerate ear portions is limited by the capacity of the epidermis to repair itself and grow.

  5. Periapical cytokine expression in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Shirlene Barbosa Pimentel; de Brito, Luciana Carla Neves; Oliveira, Michelle Pimenta; Maciel, Kamilla Faria; Martelli Júnior, Hercílio; Vieira, Leda Quercia; Sobrinho, Antônio Paulino Ribeiro

    2015-03-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is the most prevalent genetic disease worldwide. Patients with SCA exhibit increased levels of proinflammatory mediators as part of a permanently activated immunoinflammatory status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mRNA expression levels of the cytokines interferon (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-17A, IL-10), receptor activator for nuclear factor kappa B ligand, and the chemokines CCL2/MCP-1 and CCL5 in the periapical interstitial fluid from SCA individuals compared with healthy individuals. Samples were collected from 12 teeth of SCA patients and 12 non-SCA patients with apical periodontitis. In addition, 12 teeth were sampled from the periapical region of healthy patients with vital pulp (control). The expression of cytokine mRNA was detected by using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression of mRNA for the Th1-associated cytokines IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, and IL-1β were significantly higher in SCA individuals than in the control individuals (P < .05). Among Th1-associated cytokines, only IFN-γ was significantly increased in non-SCA compared with control patients (vital pulp). The expression of IL-17A mRNA was significant higher in SCA cases than in control samples (P < .05), whereas the IL-10 mRNA expression was significantly increased in SCA and non-SCA individuals when compared with the control group. Similar levels of receptor activator for nuclear factor kappa B ligand, CCL2, and CCL5 mRNA expression were observed in all samples. However, no significant differences were observed in the expression of cytokine or chemokine mRNA between SCA and non-SCA individuals (P > .05). The results were able to demonstrate that SCA patients presented prone proinflammatory ability, despite the fact that any differences in periapical immune responses between SCA and non-SCA individuals were not observed. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  6. Sensitive molecular detection of small nodal metastasis in uterine cervical cancer using HPV16-E6/CK19/MUC1 cancer biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Samouëlian, Vanessa; Mechtouf, Nawel; Leblanc, Eric; Cardin, Guillaume B.; Lhotellier, Valérie; Querleu, Denis; Révillion, Françoise; Rodier, Francis

    2018-01-01

    Metastatic nodal involvement is a critical prognostic factor in uterine cervical cancer (UCC). To improve current methods of detecting UCC metastases in lymph nodes (LNs), we used quantitative PCR (qPCR) to assess mRNA expression of potential metastatic biomarkers. We found that expression of HPV16-E6, cytokeratin19 (CK19), and mucin1 (MUC1) is consistently upregulated in tumors and metastatic tissues, supporting a role for these genes in UCC progression. These putative biomarkers were able to predict the presence of histologically positive metastatic LNs with respective sensitivities and specificities of 82% and 99% (CK19), 76% and 95% (HPV16-E6), and 76% and 78% (MUC1). While the biomarkers failed to detect 1.7% to 2.2% of the histologically positive LNs when used individually, combining CK19 and HPV16-E6 enhanced sensitivity and specificity to 100% and 94%, respectively. To explore the sensitivity of qPCR-based detection of varying proportions of invading HPV16-positive UCC cells, we designed a LN metastasis model that achieved a fresh cell detection limit of 0.008% (1:12500 HPV16-positive to HPV16-negative cells), and a paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed (PEFF) detection limit of 0.02% (1:5000 HPV16-positive to HPV16-negative cells), both of which are within the theoretical detection limit for micrometastasis. Thus, HPV E6/E7 oncogenes may be useful targets for the ultrasensitive detection of nodal involvements like micrometastases in fresh or archived tissue samples. Moreover, our results suggest that the biomarker combination of CK19/HPV-E6 could support a real-time intraoperative strategy for the detection of small, but potentially lethal, metastatic nodal involvements in fresh UCC tissues. PMID:29774091

  7. Sensitive molecular detection of small nodal metastasis in uterine cervical cancer using HPV16-E6/CK19/MUC1 cancer biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Samouëlian, Vanessa; Mechtouf, Nawel; Leblanc, Eric; Cardin, Guillaume B; Lhotellier, Valérie; Querleu, Denis; Révillion, Françoise; Rodier, Francis

    2018-04-24

    Metastatic nodal involvement is a critical prognostic factor in uterine cervical cancer (UCC). To improve current methods of detecting UCC metastases in lymph nodes (LNs), we used quantitative PCR (qPCR) to assess mRNA expression of potential metastatic biomarkers. We found that expression of HPV16-E6, cytokeratin19 (CK19), and mucin1 (MUC1) is consistently upregulated in tumors and metastatic tissues, supporting a role for these genes in UCC progression. These putative biomarkers were able to predict the presence of histologically positive metastatic LNs with respective sensitivities and specificities of 82% and 99% (CK19), 76% and 95% (HPV16-E6), and 76% and 78% (MUC1). While the biomarkers failed to detect 1.7% to 2.2% of the histologically positive LNs when used individually, combining CK19 and HPV16-E6 enhanced sensitivity and specificity to 100% and 94%, respectively. To explore the sensitivity of qPCR-based detection of varying proportions of invading HPV16-positive UCC cells, we designed a LN metastasis model that achieved a fresh cell detection limit of 0.008% (1:12500 HPV16-positive to HPV16-negative cells), and a paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed (PEFF) detection limit of 0.02% (1:5000 HPV16-positive to HPV16-negative cells), both of which are within the theoretical detection limit for micrometastasis. Thus, HPV E6/E7 oncogenes may be useful targets for the ultrasensitive detection of nodal involvements like micrometastases in fresh or archived tissue samples. Moreover, our results suggest that the biomarker combination of CK19/HPV-E6 could support a real-time intraoperative strategy for the detection of small, but potentially lethal, metastatic nodal involvements in fresh UCC tissues.

  8. Gene Expression by Mouse Inner Ear Hair Cells during Development

    PubMed Central

    Scheffer, Déborah I.; Shen, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Hair cells of the inner ear are essential for hearing and balance. As a consequence, pathogenic variants in genes specifically expressed in hair cells often cause hereditary deafness. Hair cells are few in number and not easily isolated from the adjacent supporting cells, so the biochemistry and molecular biology of hair cells can be difficult to study. To study gene expression in hair cells, we developed a protocol for hair cell isolation by FACS. With nearly pure hair cells and surrounding cells, from cochlea and utricle and from E16 to P7, we performed a comprehensive cell type-specific RNA-Seq study of gene expression during mouse inner ear development. Expression profiling revealed new hair cell genes with distinct expression patterns: some are specific for vestibular hair cells, others for cochlear hair cells, and some are expressed just before or after maturation of mechanosensitivity. We found that many of the known hereditary deafness genes are much more highly expressed in hair cells than surrounding cells, suggesting that genes preferentially expressed in hair cells are good candidates for unknown deafness genes. PMID:25904789

  9. Mathematical Modeling of E6-p53 interactions in Cervical Cancer

    PubMed

    Khattak, Faryal; Haseeb, Muhammad; Fazal, Sahar; Bhatti, A I; Ullah, Mukhtar

    2017-04-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women throughout the world. The human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 viral protein plays an essential role in proteasomal degradation of the cancer suppressant protein p53. As a result, p53 negative regulation and apoptosis relevant activities are abrogated, facilitating development of cervical cancer. Methods: A mathematical model of E6-p53 interactions was developed using mathematical laws. In-silico simulations were carried out on CellDesigner and as a test case the small molecule drug RITA was considered for its ability to rescue the functions of tumor suppressor p53 by inhibiting E6 mediated proteasomal degradation. Results: Using a computational model we scrutinized how p53 responds to RITA, and chemical reactions of this small molecule drug were incorporated to perceive the full effects. The evolved strategy allowed the p53 response and rescue of its tumor suppressor function to be delineated, RITA being found to block p53 interactions with E6 associated proteins. Conclusion: We could develop a model of E6-p53 interactions with incorporation of actions of the small molecule drug RITA. Suppression of E6 associated proteins by RITA induces accumulation of tumor suppressant p53. Using CellDesigner to encode the model ensured that it can be easily modified and extended as more data become available. This strategy should play an effective role in the development of therapies against cancer. Creative Commons Attribution License

  10. Mathematical Modeling of E6-p53 interactions in Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Khattak, Faryal; Haseeb, Muhammad; Fazal, Sahar; Bhatti, AI; Ullah, Mukhtar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women throughout the world. The human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 viral protein plays an essential role in proteasomal degradation of the cancer suppressant protein p53. As a result, p53 negative regulation and apoptosis relevant activities are abrogated, facilitating development of cervical cancer. Methods: A mathematical model of E6-p53 interactions was developed using mathematical laws. In-silico simulations were carried out on CellDesigner and as a test case the small molecule drug RITA was considered for its ability to rescue the functions of tumor suppressor p53 by inhibiting E6 mediated proteasomal degradation. Results: Using a computational model we scrutinized how p53 responds to RITA, and chemical reactions of this small molecule drug were incorporated to perceive the full effects. The evolved strategy allowed the p53 response and rescue of its tumor suppressor function to be delineated, RITA being found to block p53 interactions with E6 associated proteins. Conclusion: We could develop a model of E6-p53 interactions with incorporation of actions of the small molecule drug RITA. Suppression of E6 associated proteins by RITA induces accumulation of tumor suppressant p53. Using CellDesigner to encode the model ensured that it can be easily modified and extended as more data become available. This strategy should play an effective role in the development of therapies against cancer. PMID:28547941

  11. A Drosophila Model of HPV E6-Induced Malignancy Reveals Essential Roles for Magi and the Insulin Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Padash Barmchi, Mojgan; Gilbert, Mary; Thomas, Miranda; Banks, Lawrence; Zhang, Bing; Auld, Vanessa J.

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in women worldwide. The causative agents of cervical cancers, high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), cause cancer through the action of two oncoproteins, E6 and E7. The E6 oncoprotein cooperates with an E3 ubiquitin ligase (UBE3A) to target the p53 tumour suppressor and important polarity and junctional PDZ proteins for proteasomal degradation, activities that are believed to contribute towards malignancy. However, the causative link between degradation of PDZ proteins and E6-mediated malignancy is largely unknown. We have developed an in vivo model of HPV E6-mediated cellular transformation using the genetic model organism, Drosophila melanogaster. Co-expression of E6 and human UBE3A in wing and eye epithelia results in severe morphological abnormalities. Furthermore, E6, via its PDZ-binding motif and in cooperation with UBE3A, targets a suite of PDZ proteins that are conserved in human and Drosophila, including Magi, Dlg and Scribble. Similar to human epithelia, Drosophila Magi is a major degradation target. Magi overexpression rescues the cellular abnormalities caused by E6+UBE3A coexpression and this activity of Magi is PDZ domain-dependent. Drosophila p53 was not targeted by E6+UBE3A, and E6+UBE3A activity alone is not sufficient to induce tumorigenesis, which only occurs when E6+UBE3A are expressed in conjunction with activated/oncogenic forms of Ras or Notch. Finally, through a genetic screen we have identified the insulin receptor signaling pathway as being required for E6+UBE3A induced hyperplasia. Our results suggest a highly conserved mechanism of HPV E6 mediated cellular transformation, and establish a powerful genetic model to identify and understand the cellular mechanisms that underlie HPV E6-induced malignancy. PMID:27537218

  12. E6-associated transcription patterns in human papilloma virus 16-positive cervical tissues.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kezhi; Lu, Xulian; Chen, Jun; Zou, Ruanmin; Zhang, Lifang; Xue, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    The change in transcription pattern induced by post-transcriptional RNA splicing is an important mechanism in the regulation of the early gene expression of human papilloma virus (HPV). The present study was conducted to establish a method to specifically amplify HPV-16 E6-associated transcripts. The E6-related transcripts from 63 HPV-16-positive cervical tumor tissue samples were amplified, consisting of eight cases of low-risk intraepithelial lesions, 38 cases of high-risk intraepithelial lesions and 17 cases of cervical cancer (CxCa). The appropriate amplified segments were recovered following agarose gel electrophoresis, and subjected to further sequencing and sequence alignment analysis. Six groups of E6 transcription patterns were identified from HPV-16-positive cervical tumor tissue, including five newly-discovered transcripts. Different HPV-16 E6-associated transcription patterns were detected during the development of CxCa. Over the course of the progression of the low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions to CxCa, the specific HPV-16 E6-associated transcription patterns and the dominant transcripts were all different. As indicated by this study, the transcription pattern of the E6 early gene of HPV-16 was closely associated with the stages of cervical carcinogenesis, and may also be involved in the development of CxCa.

  13. 42 CFR 52e.6 - How will NIH evaluate applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.6 How will NIH... the prevention, diagnosis, or treatment of heart, blood vessel, lung, or blood diseases of children...

  14. 42 CFR 52e.6 - How will NIH evaluate applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.6 How will NIH... the prevention, diagnosis, or treatment of heart, blood vessel, lung, or blood diseases of children...

  15. 42 CFR 52e.6 - How will NIH evaluate applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.6 How will NIH... the prevention, diagnosis, or treatment of heart, blood vessel, lung, or blood diseases of children...

  16. 42 CFR 52e.6 - How will NIH evaluate applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.6 How will NIH... the prevention, diagnosis, or treatment of heart, blood vessel, lung, or blood diseases of children...

  17. 42 CFR 52e.6 - How will NIH evaluate applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.6 How will NIH... the prevention, diagnosis, or treatment of heart, blood vessel, lung, or blood diseases of children...

  18. Computational identification, characterization and validation of potential antigenic peptide vaccines from hrHPVs E6 proteins using immunoinformatics and computational systems biology approaches

    PubMed Central

    Junaid, Muhammad; Kaushik, Aman Chandra; Ali, Arif; Ali, Syed Shujait; Mehmood, Aamir; Wei, Dong-Qing

    2018-01-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (hrHPVs) are the most prevalent viruses in human diseases including cervical cancers. Expression of E6 protein has already been reported in cervical cancer cases, excluding normal tissues. Continuous expression of E6 protein is making it ideal to develop therapeutic vaccines against hrHPVs infection and cervical cancer. Therefore, we carried out a meta-analysis of multiple hrHPVs to predict the most potential prophylactic peptide vaccines. In this study, immunoinformatics approach was employed to predict antigenic epitopes of hrHPVs E6 proteins restricted to 12 Human HLAs to aid the development of peptide vaccines against hrHPVs. Conformational B-cell and CTL epitopes were predicted for hrHPVs E6 proteins using ElliPro and NetCTL. The potential of the predicted peptides were tested and validated by using systems biology approach considering experimental concentration. We also investigated the binding interactions of the antigenic CTL epitopes by using docking. The stability of the resulting peptide-MHC I complexes was further studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The simulation results highlighted the regions from 46–62 and 65–76 that could be the first choice for the development of prophylactic peptide vaccines against hrHPVs. To overcome the worldwide distribution, the predicted epitopes restricted to different HLAs could cover most of the vaccination and would help to explore the possibility of these epitopes for adaptive immunotherapy against HPVs infections. PMID:29715318

  19. Hemoglobin enhances tissue factor expression on human malignant cells.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, F A; Amirkhosravi, A; Amaya, M; Meyer, T; Biggerstaff, J; Desai, H; Francis, J L

    2001-04-01

    Tissue Factor (TF) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that complexes with factor VII/activated factor VII to initiate blood coagulation. TF may be expressed on the surface of various cells including monocytes and endothelial cells. Over-expression of TF in human tumor cell lines promotes metastasis. We recently showed that hemoglobin (Hb) forms a specific complex with TF purified from human malignant melanoma cells and enhances its procoagulant activity (PCA). To further study this interaction, we examined the effect of Hb on the expression of TF on human malignant (TF+) cells and KG1 myeloid leukemia (TF-) cells. Human melanoma A375 and J82 bladder carcinoma cells, which express TF at moderate and relatively high levels, respectively, were incubated with varying concentrations (0-1.5 mg/ml) of Hb. After washing, cells were analyzed for Hb binding and TF expression using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Hb bound to the cells in a concentration-dependent manner, and increased both TF expression and PCA. The human A375 malignant melanoma cells incubated with Hb (1 mg/ml) expressed up to six times more TF antigen than cells without Hb. This increase in TF expression and PCA of intact cells incubated with Hb was significantly inhibited by cycloheximide at a concentration of 10 microg/ml (P < 0.01). An increase in total cellular TF antigen content was demonstrated by specific immunoassay. In contrast, Hb (5 mg/ml) did not induce TF expression and PCA on KG1 cells as determined by flow cytometry and TF (FXAA) activity. We conclude that Hb specifically binds to TF-bearing malignant cells and increases their PCA. This effect seems to be at least partly due to de novo synthesis of TF and increased surface expression. However, the exact mechanism by which Hb binds and upregulates TF expression remains to be determined.

  20. Global gene expression analyses of hematopoietic stem cell-like cell lines with inducible Lhx2 expression

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Karin; Wirta, Valtteri; Dahl, Lina; Bruce, Sara; Lundeberg, Joakim; Carlsson, Leif; Williams, Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    Background Expression of the LIM-homeobox gene Lhx2 in murine hematopoietic cells allows for the generation of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-like cell lines. To address the molecular basis of Lhx2 function, we generated HSC-like cell lines where Lhx2 expression is regulated by a tet-on system and hence dependent on the presence of doxycyclin (dox). These cell lines efficiently down-regulate Lhx2 expression upon dox withdrawal leading to a rapid differentiation into various myeloid cell types. Results Global gene expression of these cell lines cultured in dox was compared to different time points after dox withdrawal using microarray technology. We identified 267 differentially expressed genes. The majority of the genes overlapping with HSC-specific databases were those down-regulated after turning off Lhx2 expression and a majority of the genes overlapping with those defined as late progenitor-specific genes were the up-regulated genes, suggesting that these cell lines represent a relevant model system for normal HSCs also at the level of global gene expression. Moreover, in situ hybridisations of several genes down-regulated after dox withdrawal showed overlapping expression patterns with Lhx2 in various tissues during embryonic development. Conclusion Global gene expression analysis of HSC-like cell lines with inducible Lhx2 expression has identified genes putatively linked to self-renewal / differentiation of HSCs, and function of Lhx2 in organ development and stem / progenitor cells of non-hematopoietic origin. PMID:16600034

  1. Cross-talk Signaling between HER3 and HPV16 E6 and E7 Mediates Resistance to PI3K Inhibitors in Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Brand, Toni M; Hartmann, Stefan; Bhola, Neil E; Li, Hua; Zeng, Yan; O'Keefe, Rachel A; Ranall, Max V; Bandyopadhyay, Sourav; Soucheray, Margaret; Krogan, Nevan J; Kemp, Carolyn; Duvvuri, Umamaheswar; LaVallee, Theresa; Johnson, Daniel E; Ozbun, Michelle A; Bauman, Julie E; Grandis, Jennifer R

    2018-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 is implicated in approximately 75% of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) that arise in the oropharynx, where viral expression of the E6 and E7 oncoproteins promote cellular transformation, tumor growth, and maintenance. An important oncogenic signaling pathway activated by E6 and E7 is the PI3K pathway, a key driver of carcinogenesis. The PI3K pathway is also activated by mutation or amplification of PIK3CA in over half of HPV(+) HNSCC. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of PI3K-targeted therapies in HPV(+) HNSCC preclinical models and report that HPV(+) cell line- and patient-derived xenografts are resistant to PI3K inhibitors due to feedback signaling emanating from E6 and E7. Receptor tyrosine kinase profiling indicated that PI3K inhibition led to elevated expression of the HER3 receptor, which in turn increased the abundance of E6 and E7 to promote PI3K inhibitor resistance. Targeting HER3 with siRNA or the mAb CDX-3379 reduced E6 and E7 abundance and enhanced the efficacy of PI3K-targeted therapies. Together, these findings suggest that cross-talk between HER3 and HPV oncoproteins promotes resistance to PI3K inhibitors and that cotargeting HER3 and PI3K may be an effective therapeutic strategy in HPV(+) tumors. Significance: These findings suggest a new therapeutic combination that may improve outcomes in HPV(+) head and neck cancer patients. Cancer Res; 78(9); 2383-95. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Modeling Bi-modality Improves Characterization of Cell Cycle on Gene Expression in Single Cells

    PubMed Central

    Danaher, Patrick; Finak, Greg; Krouse, Michael; Wang, Alice; Webster, Philippa; Beechem, Joseph; Gottardo, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    Advances in high-throughput, single cell gene expression are allowing interrogation of cell heterogeneity. However, there is concern that the cell cycle phase of a cell might bias characterizations of gene expression at the single-cell level. We assess the effect of cell cycle phase on gene expression in single cells by measuring 333 genes in 930 cells across three phases and three cell lines. We determine each cell's phase non-invasively without chemical arrest and use it as a covariate in tests of differential expression. We observe bi-modal gene expression, a previously-described phenomenon, wherein the expression of otherwise abundant genes is either strongly positive, or undetectable within individual cells. This bi-modality is likely both biologically and technically driven. Irrespective of its source, we show that it should be modeled to draw accurate inferences from single cell expression experiments. To this end, we propose a semi-continuous modeling framework based on the generalized linear model, and use it to characterize genes with consistent cell cycle effects across three cell lines. Our new computational framework improves the detection of previously characterized cell-cycle genes compared to approaches that do not account for the bi-modality of single-cell data. We use our semi-continuous modelling framework to estimate single cell gene co-expression networks. These networks suggest that in addition to having phase-dependent shifts in expression (when averaged over many cells), some, but not all, canonical cell cycle genes tend to be co-expressed in groups in single cells. We estimate the amount of single cell expression variability attributable to the cell cycle. We find that the cell cycle explains only 5%–17% of expression variability, suggesting that the cell cycle will not tend to be a large nuisance factor in analysis of the single cell transcriptome. PMID:25032992

  3. Rethinking cell-cycle-dependent gene expression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Stephen

    2017-11-01

    Three studies of gene expression during the division cycle of Schizosaccharomyces pombe led to the proposal that a large number of genes are expressed at particular times during the S. pombe cell cycle. Yet only a small fraction of genes proposed to be expressed in a cell-cycle-dependent manner are reproducible in all three published studies. In addition to reproducibility problems, questions about expression amplitudes, cell-cycle timing of expression, synchronization artifacts, and the problem with methods for synchronizing cells must be considered. These problems and complications prompt the idea that caution should be used before accepting the conclusion that there are a large number of genes expressed in a cell-cycle-dependent manner in S. pombe.

  4. Pharmacologic suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells expressing chimeric T-cell receptors.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Vallina, L; Yañez, R; Blanco, B; Gil, M; Russell, S J

    2000-04-01

    Adoptive therapy with autologous T cells expressing chimeric T-cell receptors (chTCRs) is of potential interest for the treatment of malignancy. To limit possible T-cell-mediated damage to normal tissues that weakly express the targeted tumor antigen (Ag), we have tested a strategy for the suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells. Jurkat T cells were transduced with an anti-hapten chTCR tinder the control of a tetracycline-suppressible promoter and were shown to respond to Ag-positive (hapten-coated) but not to Ag-negative target cells. The engineered T cells were then reacted with hapten-coated target cells at different effector to target cell ratios before and after exposure to tetracycline. When the engineered T cells were treated with tetracycline, expression of the chTCR was greatly decreased and recognition of the hapten-coated target cells was completely suppressed. Tetracycline-mediated suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells may be a useful strategy to limit the toxicity of the approach to cancer gene therapy.

  5. Characteristics and EGFP expression of goat mammary gland epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Y-M; He, X-Y; Zhang, Y

    2010-12-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to establish a goat mammary gland epithelial (GMGE) cell line, and (ii) to determine if these GMGE cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing following transfection with a reporter gene, enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP). Primary culture of GMGE cells was achieved by outgrowth of migrating cells from the fragments of the mammary gland tissue of a lactating goat. The passage 16 GMGE cells were transfected with EGFP gene using lipofection. The expression of Cell keratins of epithelial cells in GMGE cells was test by immunofluorescence. Βeta-Casein gene mRNA was test for GMGE cells by RT-PCR. The results showed that when grown at low density on a plastic substratum, the GMGE cells formed islands, and when grown to confluency, the cells formed a monolayer and aggregated with the characteristic cobble-stone morphology of epithelial cells. GMGE cells could form dome-like structure which looked like nipple, and the lumen-like structures formed among the cells. Several blister-like structures appeared in the appearance of the cells. The GMGE cells contained different cell types, majority of the cells were short shuttle-like or polygon which were beehive-like. A part of cells were round and flat, a small number of cells were elongated. Some of the GMGE cells contained milk drops. The cell nuclei were round which had 2-4 obvious cores. The expression of Cell keratins demonstrated the property of epithelial cells in GMGE cells by immunofluorescence. The GMGE cells could express transcript encoding a Βeta-Casein protein. EGFP gene was successfully transferred into the GMGE cells, and the transfected cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing. In conclusion, we have established a EGFP gene transfected GMGE (ET-GMGE) cell line and maintained it long-term in culture by continuous subculturing. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Advantages and applications of CAR-expressing natural killer cells

    PubMed Central

    Glienke, Wolfgang; Esser, Ruth; Priesner, Christoph; Suerth, Julia D.; Schambach, Axel; Wels, Winfried S.; Grez, Manuel; Kloess, Stephan; Arseniev, Lubomir; Koehl, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to donor T cells, natural killer (NK) cells are known to mediate anti-cancer effects without the risk of inducing graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). In order to improve cytotoxicity against resistant cancer cells, auspicious efforts have been made with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) expressing T- and NK cells. These CAR-modified cells express antigen receptors against tumor-associated surface antigens, thus redirecting the effector cells and enhancing tumor-specific immunosurveillance. However, many cancer antigens are also expressed on healthy tissues, potentially leading to off tumor/on target toxicity by CAR-engineered cells. In order to control such potentially severe side effects, the insertion of suicide genes into CAR-modified effectors can provide a means for efficient depletion of these cells. While CAR-expressing T cells have entered successfully clinical trials, experience with CAR-engineered NK cells is mainly restricted to pre-clinical investigations and predominantly to NK cell lines. In this review we summarize the data on CAR expressing NK cells focusing on the possible advantage using these short-lived effector cells and discuss the necessity of suicide switches. Furthermore, we address the compliance of such modified NK cells with regulatory requirements as a new field in cellular immunotherapy. PMID:25729364

  7. The Human Papillomavirus Type 8 E6 Protein Interferes with NOTCH Activation during Keratinocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, Jordan M.; Spangle, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous β-human papillomavirus (β-HPV) E6 proteins inhibit NOTCH signaling by associating with the transcriptional coactivator MAML1. NOTCH has tumor suppressor activities in epithelial cells and is activated during keratinocyte differentiation. Here we report that HPV type 8 (HPV8) E6 subverts NOTCH activation during keratinocyte differentiation by inhibiting RBPJ/MAML1 transcriptional activator complexes at NOTCH target DNA. NOTCH inhibition impairs epithelial differentiation and may thus contribute to β-HPV replication and viral oncogenesis. PMID:23365452

  8. Robust Inference of Cell-to-Cell Expression Variations from Single- and K-Cell Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Manikandan; Martins, Andrew J.; Tsang, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying heterogeneity in gene expression among single cells can reveal information inaccessible to cell-population averaged measurements. However, the expression level of many genes in single cells fall below the detection limit of even the most sensitive technologies currently available. One proposed approach to overcome this challenge is to measure random pools of k cells (e.g., 10) to increase sensitivity, followed by computational “deconvolution” of cellular heterogeneity parameters (CHPs), such as the biological variance of single-cell expression levels. Existing approaches infer CHPs using either single-cell or k-cell data alone, and typically within a single population of cells. However, integrating both single- and k-cell data may reap additional benefits, and quantifying differences in CHPs across cell populations or conditions could reveal novel biological information. Here we present a Bayesian approach that can utilize single-cell, k-cell, or both simultaneously to infer CHPs within a single condition or their differences across two conditions. Using simulated as well as experimentally generated single- and k-cell data, we found situations where each data type would offer advantages, but using both together can improve precision and better reconcile CHP information contained in single- and k-cell data. We illustrate the utility of our approach by applying it to jointly generated single- and k-cell data to reveal CHP differences in several key inflammatory genes between resting and inflammatory cytokine-activated human macrophages, delineating differences in the distribution of ‘ON’ versus ‘OFF’ cells and in continuous variation of expression level among cells. Our approach thus offers a practical and robust framework to assess and compare cellular heterogeneity within and across biological conditions using modern multiplexed technologies. PMID:27438699

  9. Side population cells and Bcrp1 expression in lung.

    PubMed

    Summer, Ross; Kotton, Darrell N; Sun, Xi; Ma, Bei; Fitzsimmons, Kathleen; Fine, Alan

    2003-07-01

    Side population (SP) cells are a rare subset of cells found in various tissues that are highly enriched for stem cell activity. SP cells can be isolated by dual-wavelength flow cytometry because of their capacity to efflux Hoechst dye, a process mediated by the ATP-binding cassette transporter breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) 1. By performing flow cytometry of enzymedigested mouse lung stained with Hoechst dye, we found that SP cells comprise 0.03-0.07% of total lung cells and are evenly distributed in proximal and distal lung regions. By RT-PCR, we found that lung SP cells express hepatocyte nuclear factor-3beta, but not thyroid transcription factor-1. Surface marker analysis revealed lung SP cells to be stem cell antigen 1 positive, Bcrp1 positive, lineage marker negative, and heterogeneous at the CD45 locus. As expected, we did not detect lung SP cells in Bcrp1-deficient animals. We, therefore, employed nonisotopic in situ hybridization and immunostaining for Bcrp1 as a strategy to localize these cells in vivo. Expression was observed in distinct lung cell types: bronchial and vascular smooth muscle cells and round cells within the distal air space. We confirmed the expression of Bcrp1 in primary bronchial smooth muscle cell cultures (BSMC) and in lavaged distal airway cells, but neither possessed the capacity to efflux Hoechst dye. In BSMC, Bcrp1 was localized to an intracellular compartment, suggesting that the molecular site of Bcrp1 expression regulates SP phenotype.

  10. Resolving Early Mesoderm Diversification through Single Cell Expression Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Nicola K.; Macaulay, Iain C.; Marioni, John C.; Göttgens, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Summary In mammals, specification of the three major germ layers occurs during gastrulation, when cells ingressing through the primitive streak differentiate into the precursor cells of major organ systems. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear, as numbers of gastrulating cells are very limited. In the E6.5 mouse embryo, cells located at the junction between the extra-embryonic region and the epiblast on the posterior side of the embryo undergo an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and ingress through the primitive streak (PS). Subsequently, cells migrate, either surrounding the prospective ectoderm contributing to the embryo proper, or into the extra-embryonic region to form the yolk sac (YS), umbilical cord and placenta. Fate mapping has shown that mature tissues such as blood and heart originate from specific regions of the pre-gastrula epiblast1 but the plasticity of cells within the embryo and the function of key cell type-specific transcription factors remain unclear. Here we analyse 1,205 cells from the epiblast and nascent Flk1+ mesoderm of gastrulating mouse embryos using single cell RNA-sequencing, representing the first transcriptome-wide in vivo view of early mesoderm formation during mammalian gastrulation. Additionally, using knock-out mice, we study the function of Tal1, a key hematopoietic transcription factor (TF), and demonstrate, contrary to previous studies performed using retrospective assays2,3, that Tal1 knock out does not immediately bias precursor cells towards a cardiac fate. PMID:27383781

  11. Transforming Lepidopteran Insect Cells for Improved Protein Processing and Expression

    The lepidopteran insect cells used with the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) are capable of synthesizing and accurately processing foreign proteins. However, proteins expressed in baculovirus-infected cells often fail to be completely processed, or are not processed in a manner that meet...

  12. Geometry of the Gene Expression Space of Individual Cells

    PubMed Central

    Korem, Yael; Szekely, Pablo; Hart, Yuval; Sheftel, Hila; Hausser, Jean; Mayo, Avi; Rothenberg, Michael E.; Kalisky, Tomer; Alon, Uri

    2015-01-01

    There is a revolution in the ability to analyze gene expression of single cells in a tissue. To understand this data we must comprehend how cells are distributed in a high-dimensional gene expression space. One open question is whether cell types form discrete clusters or whether gene expression forms a continuum of states. If such a continuum exists, what is its geometry? Recent theory on evolutionary trade-offs suggests that cells that need to perform multiple tasks are arranged in a polygon or polyhedron (line, triangle, tetrahedron and so on, generally called polytopes) in gene expression space, whose vertices are the expression profiles optimal for each task. Here, we analyze single-cell data from human and mouse tissues profiled using a variety of single-cell technologies. We fit the data to shapes with different numbers of vertices, compute their statistical significance, and infer their tasks. We find cases in which single cells fill out a continuum of expression states within a polyhedron. This occurs in intestinal progenitor cells, which fill out a tetrahedron in gene expression space. The four vertices of this tetrahedron are each enriched with genes for a specific task related to stemness and early differentiation. A polyhedral continuum of states is also found in spleen dendritic cells, known to perform multiple immune tasks: cells fill out a tetrahedron whose vertices correspond to key tasks related to maturation, pathogen sensing and communication with lymphocytes. A mixture of continuum-like distributions and discrete clusters is found in other cell types, including bone marrow and differentiated intestinal crypt cells. This approach can be used to understand the geometry and biological tasks of a wide range of single-cell datasets. The present results suggest that the concept of cell type may be expanded. In addition to discreet clusters in gene-expression space, we suggest a new possibility: a continuum of states within a polyhedron, in which the

  13. Fragments of Target Cells are Internalized into Retroviral Envelope Protein-Expressing Cells during Cell-Cell Fusion by Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Izumida, Mai; Kamiyama, Haruka; Suematsu, Takashi; Honda, Eri; Koizumi, Yosuke; Yasui, Kiyoshi; Hayashi, Hideki; Ariyoshi, Koya; Kubo, Yoshinao

    2016-01-01

    Retroviruses enter into host cells by fusion between viral and host cell membranes. Retroviral envelope glycoprotein (Env) induces the membrane fusion, and also mediates cell-cell fusion. There are two types of cell-cell fusions induced by the Env protein. Fusion-from-within is induced by fusion between viral fusogenic Env protein-expressing cells and susceptible cells, and virions induce fusion-from-without by fusion between adjacent cells. Although entry of ecotropic murine leukemia virus (E-MLV) requires host cell endocytosis, the involvement of endocytosis in cell fusion is unclear. By fluorescent microscopic analysis of the fusion-from-within, we found that fragments of target cells are internalized into Env-expressing cells. Treatment of the Env-expressing cells with an endocytosis inhibitor more significantly inhibited the cell fusion than that of the target cells, indicating that endocytosis in Env-expressing cells is required for the cell fusion. The endocytosis inhibitor also attenuated the fusion-from-without. Electron microscopic analysis suggested that the membrane fusion resulting in fusion-from-within initiates in endocytic membrane dents. This study shows that two types of the viral cell fusion both require endocytosis, and provides the cascade of fusion-from-within. PMID:26834711

  14. Diagnostic performance of HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay for detection of cervical high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer among women with ASCUS Papanicolaou smears.

    PubMed

    Ren, Chenchen; Zhu, Yuanhang; Yang, Li; Zhang, Xiaoan; Liu, Ling; Ren, Chunying

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical performance of high risk (HR) HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay in detecting cervical high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer among women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) Papanicolaou (Pap) smears. A total of 160 patients with ASCUS who underwent HR-HPV DNA assay, HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay and colposcopy biopsy at Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, China, from December 2015 to March 2017, were enrolled. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between pathological results with clinical biologic factors. Univariate analysis showed that the qualitative results of HR-HPV DNA, qualitative results of HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA and expression levels of HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA were risk factors of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer (all P < 0.05). Multivariable analysis found that only the expression levels of HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA was associated with high-grade CIN and cervical cancer (OR = 8.971, 95% CI = 2.572-31.289, P = 0.001). An optimal cut-off value of ≥ 558.26 copies/ml was determined using receiver operating characteristic curve, and specificity of cut-off value were higher than E6/E7 mRNA qualitative assay and DNA qualitative assay. HPV E6/E7 mRNA quantitative assay may be a valuable tool in triage of ASCUS pap smears. A high specificity of E6/E7 mRNA quantitative assay as a triage test in women with ASCUS can be translated into a low referral for colposcopy.

  15. Immunofluorescence Technique Using HeLa Cells Expressing Recombinant Nucleoprotein for Detection of Immunoglobulin G Antibodies to Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus

    PubMed Central

    Saijo, Masayuki; Qing, Tang; Niikura, Masahiro; Maeda, Akihiko; Ikegami, Tetsuro; Sakai, Koji; Prehaud, Christophe; Kurane, Ichiro; Morikawa, Shigeru

    2002-01-01

    A HeLa cell line continuously expressing recombinant nucleoprotein (rNP) of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) was established by transfection with an expression vector containing the cDNA of CCHFV NP (pKS336-CCHFV-NP). These cells were used as antigens for indirect immunofluorescence (IF) to detect immunoglobulin G antibodies to CCHFV. The sensitivity and specificity of this IF technique were examined by using serum samples and were compared to those of the IF technique using CCHFV-infected Vero E6 cells (authentic antigen). Staining of the CCHFV rNP expressed in HeLa cells showed a unique granular pattern similar to that of CCHFV-infected Vero E6 cells. Positive staining could easily be distinguished from a negative result. All 13 serum samples determined to be positive by using the authentic antigen were also determined to be positive by using CCHFV rNP-expressing HeLa cells (recombinant antigen). The 108 serum samples determined to be negative by using the authentic antigen were also determined to be negative by using the recombinant antigen. Thus, both the sensitivity and the specificity of this IF technique were 100% compared to the IF with authentic antigen. The novel IF technique using CCHFV rNP-expressing HeLa cells can be used not only for diagnosis of CCHF but also for epidemiological studies on CCHFV infections. PMID:11825944

  16. Correlation of P16 (Ink4a) and CK17 to HPV (16E6+18E6) in Premalignant and Malignant Lesions of Uterine Cervix: A Clinicopathologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Chaloob, Mohammed K.; Hussein, Alaa G.; Qasim, Ban J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: This research was accomplished to evaluate the IHC expression of p16 (ink4a) and CK17 in low grade cervical intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), high grade cervical intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and invasive cervical carcinomas and to assess their correlation to HPV (16E6+18E6). Methods: The study included (127) formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical biopsies; of which 22 cases were chronic cervicitis, 24 cases were LSIL, 28 cases were HSIL and 53 cases were invasive cervical carcinomas. Sections were immunohistochemically stained for p16 (ink4a), CK17 and HPV (16E6+18E6). Results: The study established a highly significant increase in IHC of expression of p16 (ink4a), CK17 and HPV (16E6+18E6) from LSIL through HSIL to invasive carcinomas (P-value˂0.001). There was non-significant association between IHC expression of all makers with age of patients; types, grade and stage of cervical carcinomas (P-value˃0.05). HPV (16E6+18E6) revealed a significantly positive correlation with p16 (ink4a) (P-value˂0.05) and a non- significant correlation with CK17 (P-value˃0.05); in LSIL, HSIL and invasive carcinoma cases. Conclusion: p16 (ink4a) expression directly reflects infection with high risk HPV in cervical lesions and can add a significant diagnostic accuracy in the evaluation of CIN. CK 17 is a good marker of malignant transformation, with increasing in its expression according to the severity of cervical lesions; however, it is not related to HPV infection. Both markers are not related to prognostic variables of patients with cervical carcinoma. PMID:28855930

  17. Gene expression distribution deconvolution in single-cell RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingshu; Huang, Mo; Torre, Eduardo; Dueck, Hannah; Shaffer, Sydney; Murray, John; Raj, Arjun; Li, Mingyao; Zhang, Nancy R

    2018-06-26

    Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) enables the quantification of each gene's expression distribution across cells, thus allowing the assessment of the dispersion, nonzero fraction, and other aspects of its distribution beyond the mean. These statistical characterizations of the gene expression distribution are critical for understanding expression variation and for selecting marker genes for population heterogeneity. However, scRNA-seq data are noisy, with each cell typically sequenced at low coverage, thus making it difficult to infer properties of the gene expression distribution from raw counts. Based on a reexamination of nine public datasets, we propose a simple technical noise model for scRNA-seq data with unique molecular identifiers (UMI). We develop deconvolution of single-cell expression distribution (DESCEND), a method that deconvolves the true cross-cell gene expression distribution from observed scRNA-seq counts, leading to improved estimates of properties of the distribution such as dispersion and nonzero fraction. DESCEND can adjust for cell-level covariates such as cell size, cell cycle, and batch effects. DESCEND's noise model and estimation accuracy are further evaluated through comparisons to RNA FISH data, through data splitting and simulations and through its effectiveness in removing known batch effects. We demonstrate how DESCEND can clarify and improve downstream analyses such as finding differentially expressed genes, identifying cell types, and selecting differentiation markers. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  18. Murine cell glycolipids customization by modular expression of glycosyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Cid, Emili; Yamamoto, Miyako; Buschbeck, Marcus; Yamamoto, Fumiichiro

    2013-01-01

    Functional analysis of glycolipids has been hampered by their complex nature and combinatorial expression in cells and tissues. We report an efficient and easy method to generate cells with specific glycolipids. In our proof of principle experiments we have demonstrated the customized expression of two relevant glycosphingolipids on murine fibroblasts, stage-specific embryonic antigen 3 (SSEA-3), a marker for stem cells, and Forssman glycolipid, a xenoantigen. Sets of genes encoding glycosyltansferases were transduced by viral infection followed by multi-color cell sorting based on coupled expression of fluorescent proteins.

  19. Expression of NK cell receptors on decidual T cells in human pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tilburgs, Tamara; van der Mast, Barbara J; Nagtzaam, Nicole M A; Roelen, Dave L; Scherjon, Sicco A; Claas, Frans H J

    2009-06-01

    Specific receptors enable NK cells to discriminate between cells with normal expression of MHC class I and cells that have low or absent expression of MHC class I molecules. In addition to NK cells, these receptors can be expressed on T cell subsets, mainly on CD8+ T cells but also on gammadeltaTCR+ T cells and CD4+ T cells. Although the function of NK cell receptor expression on T cells is not completely understood, various studies have shown that they are involved in down regulation of T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated activation and influence effector functions, like cytotoxicity and cytokine production. The aim of this study was to analyze expression of NK cell receptors on peripheral blood and decidual T cells during human pregnancy using flow cytometry. We demonstrate that a proportion of decidual T cells express HLA-C specific killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs). Furthermore, a small proportion of decidual T cells express the HLA-E specific CD94-NKG2A inhibitory and CD94-NKG2C activating receptors. Decidual KIR+ and CD94-NKG2+ T cells mainly display a CD3+CD4-CD8- phenotype. However, decidual tissue also contains higher percentages of KIR and CD94-NKG2 expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells compared to peripheral blood. So far, the functional capacities of decidual T cells expressing the NK cell receptors are unknown but NK cell receptor expression on decidual T cells may provide an alternative means by which decidual T cells distinguish self (maternal) cells from allogeneic fetal cells, and act to modulate the decidual immune response.

  20. RNA Expression Profiling Reveals Differentially Regulated Growth Factor and Receptor Expression in Redirected Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Schmucker, Hannah S; Park, Jang Pyo; Coissieux, Marie-May; Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Feltus, F Alex; Booth, Brian W

    2017-05-01

    Tumorigenic cells can be redirected to adopt a normal phenotype when transplanted into cleared mammary fat pads of juvenile female mice in specific ratios with normal epithelial cells. The redirected tumorigenic cells enter stem cell niches and provide progeny that differentiate into all mammary epithelial subtypes. We have developed an in vitro model that mimics the in vivo phenomenon. The shift in phenotype to redirection should be accomplished through a return to a normal gene expression state. To measure this shift, we interrogated the transcriptome of various in vitro model states in search for casual genes. For this study, expression of growth factors, cytokines, and their associated receptors was examined. In all, we queried 251 growth factor and cytokine-related genes. We found numerous growth factor and cytokine genes whose expression levels switched from expression levels seen in cancer cells to expression levels observed in normal cells. The comparisons of gene expression between normal mammary epithelial cells, tumor-derived cells, and redirected cancer cells have revealed insight into active and inactive growth factors and cytokines in cancer cell redirection.

  1. During development intense Sox2 expression marks not only Prox1-expressing taste bud cell but also perigemmal cell lineages.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Ayumi; Miura, Hirohito; Ooki, Makoto; Harada, Shuitsu

    2015-03-01

    Sox2 is proposed to regulate the differentiation of bipotential progenitor cells into taste bud cells. However, detailed expression of Sox2 remains unclear. In this report, Sox2 expression during taste bud development in the fungiform (FF), circumvallate (CV) and soft palate (SP) areas is examined together with Prox1. First, we immunohistochemically checked Prox1 expression in adults and found that almost all taste bud cells are Prox1-positive. During FF development, intense Sox2 expression was restricted to taste bud primordia expressing Prox1 at E12.5. However, at E14.5, Sox2 was intensely expressed outside the developing taste buds resolving to perigemmal Sox2 expression in adults. In the SP, at E14.5, taste bud primordia emerged as Prox1-expressing cell clusters. However, intense Sox2 expression was not restricted to taste bud primordia but was detected widely in the epithelium. During development, Sox2 expression outside developing taste buds was generally down-regulated but was retained in the perigemmal region similarly to that in the FF. In the CV, the initial stage of taste bud development remained unclear because of the lack of taste bud primordia comparable to that in the FF and SP. Here, we show that Prox1-expressing cells appear in the apical epithelium at E12.5, in the inner trench wall at E17.5 and in the outer trench wall at E18.5. Sox2 was again not restricted to developing taste bud cells expressing Prox1 during CV development. The expression patterns support that Sox2 does not serve as a cell fate selector between taste bud cells and surrounding keratinocytes but rather may contribute to them both.

  2. Reconstructing Cell Lineages from Single-Cell Gene Expression Data: A Pilot Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-30

    Reconstructing cell lineages from single- cell gene expression data: a pilot study The goal of this pilot study is to develop novel mathematical...methods, by leveraging tools developed in the bifurcation theory, to infer the underlying cell -state dynamics from single- cell gene expression data. Our...proposed method contains two steps. The first step is to reconstruct the temporal order of the cells from gene expression data, whereas the second

  3. The clinical value of HPV E6/E7 and STAT3 mRNA detection in cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yibing; Shen, Zongji

    2018-05-01

    To explore the value of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) mRNA detection in the screening of cervical lesions. 192 patients with abnormal ThinPrep cytology test (TCT) results and/or high-risk HPV infection were screened to identify possible cervical lesions in cases. Diagnoses were confirmed by histopathology. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed to detect and qualify the mRNAs of HPV E6/E7, STAT3, and Survivin in cervical exfoliated cells. In addition, the performance of separate and combined mRNA detection methods were compared with TCT, HR-HPV DNA schemes respectively. 1. Compared with HPVE6/E7 and STAT3 mRNA methods, Survivin mRNA assay had poor specificity (Sp), Youden index (YI) and concordance rate. 2. HPV E6/E7, STAT3, and STAT3 + HR-HPV methods had the best Sp, concordance rate and positive predictive value (PPV) for cervical lesions screening and atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) triage. For screening of high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or greater (HSILs+), no difference was observed in the Se of mRNA detection methods in comparison with that of TCT, HR-HPV and TCT + HR-HPV, whereas the false positive rate (FPR) decreased by 41.48%/55.99%/17.19% and the colposcopy referral rate reduced by about 20.00%/25.00%/11.17%. For triage of women with ASCUS, no difference was observed in the Se of mRNA detection methods as compared to that of HR-HPV (χ 2  = 1.05, P > 0.75), while the FPR decreased by 45.83%/37.50%/41.66% and the colposcopy referral rate reduced by 32.42%/22.60%/25.28%, respectively. The Se, YI, and PPV of the combined methods increased in comparison to each method alone. 3. Compared with the TCT + HR-HPV method, HPV E6/E7 + STAT3 method had perfect Sp (95.92%) and PPV (95.40%) for screening HSILs+, the FPR and colposcopy referral rate decreased by 31.06% and 22.48% respectively. 1. The expression of HPV E6/E

  4. Determining Physical Mechanisms of Gene Expression Regulation from Single Cell Gene Expression Data.

    PubMed

    Ezer, Daphne; Moignard, Victoria; Göttgens, Berthold; Adryan, Boris

    2016-08-01

    Many genes are expressed in bursts, which can contribute to cell-to-cell heterogeneity. It is now possible to measure this heterogeneity with high throughput single cell gene expression assays (single cell qPCR and RNA-seq). These experimental approaches generate gene expression distributions which can be used to estimate the kinetic parameters of gene expression bursting, namely the rate that genes turn on, the rate that genes turn off, and the rate of transcription. We construct a complete pipeline for the analysis of single cell qPCR data that uses the mathematics behind bursty expression to develop more accurate and robust algorithms for analyzing the origin of heterogeneity in experimental samples, specifically an algorithm for clustering cells by their bursting behavior (Simulated Annealing for Bursty Expression Clustering, SABEC) and a statistical tool for comparing the kinetic parameters of bursty expression across populations of cells (Estimation of Parameter changes in Kinetics, EPiK). We applied these methods to hematopoiesis, including a new single cell dataset in which transcription factors (TFs) involved in the earliest branchpoint of blood differentiation were individually up- and down-regulated. We could identify two unique sub-populations within a seemingly homogenous group of hematopoietic stem cells. In addition, we could predict regulatory mechanisms controlling the expression levels of eighteen key hematopoietic transcription factors throughout differentiation. Detailed information about gene regulatory mechanisms can therefore be obtained simply from high throughput single cell gene expression data, which should be widely applicable given the rapid expansion of single cell genomics.

  5. Quantification of multiple gene expression in individual cells.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, António; Monteiro, Marta; Rocha, Benedita; Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique

    2004-10-01

    Quantitative gene expression analysis aims to define the gene expression patterns determining cell behavior. So far, these assessments can only be performed at the population level. Therefore, they determine the average gene expression within a population, overlooking possible cell-to-cell heterogeneity that could lead to different cell behaviors/cell fates. Understanding individual cell behavior requires multiple gene expression analyses of single cells, and may be fundamental for the understanding of all types of biological events and/or differentiation processes. We here describe a new reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) approach allowing the simultaneous quantification of the expression of 20 genes in the same single cell. This method has broad application, in different species and any type of gene combination. RT efficiency is evaluated. Uniform and maximized amplification conditions for all genes are provided. Abundance relationships are maintained, allowing the precise quantification of the absolute number of mRNA molecules per cell, ranging from 2 to 1.28 x 10(9) for each individual gene. We evaluated the impact of this approach on functional genetic read-outs by studying an apparently homogeneous population (monoclonal T cells recovered 4 d after antigen stimulation), using either this method or conventional real-time RT-PCR. Single-cell studies revealed considerable cell-to-cell variation: All T cells did not express all individual genes. Gene coexpression patterns were very heterogeneous. mRNA copy numbers varied between different transcripts and in different cells. As a consequence, this single-cell assay introduces new and fundamental information regarding functional genomic read-outs. By comparison, we also show that conventional quantitative assays determining population averages supply insufficient information, and may even be highly misleading.

  6. Molecular Probing of the HPV-16 E6 Protein Alpha Helix Binding Groove with Small Molecule Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Rietz, Anne; Petrov, Dino P.; Bartolowits, Matthew; DeSmet, Marsha; Davisson, V. Jo; Androphy, Elliot J.

    2016-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) HPV E6 protein has emerged as a central oncoprotein in HPV-associated cancers in which sustained expression is required for tumor progression. A majority of the E6 protein interactions within the human proteome use an alpha-helix groove interface for binding. The UBE3A/E6AP HECT domain ubiquitin ligase binds E6 at this helix-groove interface. This enables formation of a trimeric complex with p53, resulting in destruction of this tumor suppressor. While recent x-ray crystal structures are useful, examples of small molecule probes that can modulate protein interactions at this interface are limited. To develop insights useful for potential structure-based design of ligands for HPV E6, a series of 2,6-disubstituted benzopyranones were prepared and tested as competitive antagonists of E6-E6AP helix-groove interactions. These small molecule probes were used in both binding and functional assays to evaluate recognition features of the E6 protein. Evidence for an ionic functional group interaction within the helix groove was implicated by the structure-activity among the highest affinity ligands. The molecular topographies of these protein-ligand interactions were evaluated by comparing the binding and activities of single amino acid E6 mutants with the results of molecular dynamic simulations. A group of arginine residues that form a rim-cap over the E6 helix groove offer compensatory roles in binding and recognition of the small molecule probes. The flexibility and impact on the overall helix-groove shape dictated by these residues offer new insights for structure-based targeting of HPV E6. PMID:26915086

  7. Differential marker expression by cultures rich in mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stem cells have properties that make them amenable to therapeutic use. However, the acceptance of mesenchymal stem cells in clinical practice requires standardized techniques for their specific isolation. To date, there are no conclusive marker (s) for the exclusive isolation of mesenchymal stem cells. Our aim was to identify markers differentially expressed between mesenchymal stem cell and non-stem cell mesenchymal cell cultures. We compared and contrasted the phenotype of tissue cultures in which mesenchymal stem cells are rich and rare. By initially assessing mesenchymal stem cell differentiation, we established that bone marrow and breast adipose cultures are rich in mesenchymal stem cells while, in our hands, foreskin fibroblast and olfactory tissue cultures contain rare mesenchymal stem cells. In particular, olfactory tissue cells represent non-stem cell mesenchymal cells. Subsequently, the phenotype of the tissue cultures were thoroughly assessed using immuno-fluorescence, flow-cytometry, proteomics, antibody arrays and qPCR. Results Our analysis revealed that all tissue cultures, regardless of differentiation potential, demonstrated remarkably similar phenotypes. Importantly, it was also observed that common mesenchymal stem cell markers, and fibroblast-associated markers, do not discriminate between mesenchymal stem cell and non-stem cell mesenchymal cell cultures. Examination and comparison of the phenotypes of mesenchymal stem cell and non-stem cell mesenchymal cell cultures revealed three differentially expressed markers – CD24, CD108 and CD40. Conclusion We indicate the importance of establishing differential marker expression between mesenchymal stem cells and non-stem cell mesenchymal cells in order to determine stem cell specific markers. PMID:24304471

  8. CD40 expression in Wehi-164 cell line

    PubMed Central

    Ebadi, Padideh; Pourfathollah, Ali Akbar; Soheili, Zahra Soheila; Moazzeni, Seyed Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    CD40-CD154 interaction is an important process for cellular and humoral immunity regulation and can be effective in the body’s defense against tumors. In the present study, we evaluated the expression of CD40 in Wehi-164 cell line. CD40 expressions on the cell surface and in the cytoplasm were assessed by flow cytometry and intracellular staining assay, respectively. Also, the mRNA expression was identified by real time-PCR. The obtained results showed the high mRNA and cytoplasmic protein expression of CD40 but no surface expression. These results suggest that the Wehi-164 cell line down regulates expression of CD40 on the surface for evasion of immune system. PMID:20496113

  9. CD40 expression in Wehi-164 cell line.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Mohammad Hossein; Ebadi, Padideh; Pourfathollah, Ali Akbar; Soheili, Zahra Soheila; Moazzeni, Seyed Mohammad

    2010-07-01

    CD40-CD154 interaction is an important process for cellular and humoral immunity regulation and can be effective in the body's defense against tumors. In the present study, we evaluated the expression of CD40 in Wehi-164 cell line. CD40 expressions on the cell surface and in the cytoplasm were assessed by flow cytometry and intracellular staining assay, respectively. Also, the mRNA expression was identified by real time-PCR. The obtained results showed the high mRNA and cytoplasmic protein expression of CD40 but no surface expression. These results suggest that the Wehi-164 cell line down regulates expression of CD40 on the surface for evasion of immune system.

  10. [The expression of interferon-lambda1 in CHO cell].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wu-Mei; Ma, Fen-Lian; Zhang, Qian; Zheng, Wen-Zhi; Zheng, Li-Shu

    2013-06-01

    To construct the eukaryotic expression vector PCI-dhfr-lambda1 and PCI-dhfr-SP163-lambda1 which linked the enhancer SP163 with interferon lambda1. Then express the interferon lambda1 in CHO (dhfr-) cells. Using PCR method to introduce the restriction enzyme sites and through the fusion PCR binding the enhancer with the interferon Lambda1. After sequenced, lambda1 and SP163-lambda1 was inserted into PCI-dhfr forming the expression vector PCI-dhfr-lambda1 and PCI-dhfr-SP163-lambda1 which was constructed successfully confirming by sequencing. Then the expressing vectors were transfected into CHO (dhfr-) cells using liposome transfection method and interferon lambda1 protein was assayed with indirect immunofluorescence and Western Blot. Using cytopathic effect inhibition evaluated the antiviral activity of interferon lambda1. Successfully constructing the eukaryotic expression vectors of interferon lambda and the vectors could express interferon lambda1. The result of immunofluorescence showed the enhancer developed the expression of interferon lambda1. Detecting the interferon lambda1 in CHO (dhfr-) cells after transfecting 48 hour using Western Blot. The cytopathic effect inhibition showed the expressed interferon lambda1 has the antiviral activity. Successfully expressed the interferon lambda1 in CHO (dhfr-) cells and the protein possesses antiviral activity, which may supply a valuable basis for building the stable cell line of interferon lambda1.

  11. Single cell gene expression profiling in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, Stephen D; Che, Shaoli; Counts, Scott E; Mufson, Elliott J

    2006-07-01

    Development and implementation of microarray techniques to quantify expression levels of dozens to hundreds to thousands of transcripts simultaneously within select tissue samples from normal control subjects and neurodegenerative diseased brains has enabled scientists to create molecular fingerprints of vulnerable neuronal populations in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related disorders. A goal is to sample gene expression from homogeneous cell types within a defined region without potential contamination by expression profiles of adjacent neuronal subpopulations and nonneuronal cells. The precise resolution afforded by single cell and population cell RNA analysis in combination with microarrays and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based analyses allows for relative gene expression level comparisons across cell types under different experimental conditions and disease progression. The ability to analyze single cells is an important distinction from global and regional assessments of mRNA expression and can be applied to optimally prepared tissues from animal models of neurodegeneration as well as postmortem human brain tissues. Gene expression analysis in postmortem AD brain regions including the hippocampal formation and neocortex reveals selectively vulnerable cell types share putative pathogenetic alterations in common classes of transcripts, for example, markers of glutamatergic neurotransmission, synaptic-related markers, protein phosphatases and kinases, and neurotrophins/neurotrophin receptors. Expression profiles of vulnerable regions and neurons may reveal important clues toward the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of various neurological diseases and aid in identifying rational targets toward pharmacotherapeutic interventions for progressive, late-onset neurodegenerative disorders such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD.

  12. Expression of MIF and CD74 in leukemic cell lines: correlation to DR expression destiny.

    PubMed

    Georgouli, Mirella; Papadimitriou, Lina; Glymenaki, Maria; Patsaki, Valia; Athanassakis, Irene

    2016-06-01

    Invariant chain (Ii) or CD74 is a non-polymorphic glycoprotein, which apart from its role as a chaperone dedicated to MHCII molecules, is known to be a high-affinity receptor for macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). The present study aimed to define the roles of CD74 and MIF in the immune surveillance escape process. Towards this direction, the cell lines HL-60, Raji, K562 and primary pre-B leukemic cells were examined for expression and secretion of MIF. Flow cytometry analysis detected high levels of MIF and intracellular/membrane CD74 expression in all leukemic cells tested, while MIF secretion was shown to be inversely proportional to intracellular HLA-DR (DR) expression. In the MHCII-negative cells, IFN-γ increased MIF expression and induced its secretion in HL-60 and K562 cells, respectively. In K562 cells, CD74 (Iip33Iip35) was shown to co-precipitate with HLA-DOβ (DOβ), inhibiting thus MIF or DR binding. Induced expression of DOα in K562 (DOα-DOβ+) cells in different transfection combinations decreased MIF expression and secretion, while increasing surface DR expression. Thus, MIF could indeed be part of the antigen presentation process.

  13. Reduced Ang2 expression in aging endothelial cells

    SciT

    Hohensinner, P.J., E-mail: philipp.hohensinner@meduniwien.ac.at; Ebenbauer, B.; Ludwig Boltzmann Cluster for Cardiovascular Research, Vienna

    Aging endothelial cells are characterized by increased cell size, reduced telomere length and increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines. In addition, we describe here that aging reduces the migratory distance of endothelial cells. Furthermore, we observe an increase of the quiescence protein Ang1 and a decrease of the endothelial activation protein Ang2 upon aging. Supplementing Ang2 to aged endothelial cells restored their migratory capacity. We conclude that aging shifts the balance of the Ang1/Ang2 network favouring a quiescent state. Activation of endothelial cells in aging might be necessary to enhance wound healing capacities. -- Highlights: •Endothelial cells display signs of agingmore » before reaching proliferative senescence. •Aging endothelial cells express more angiopoietin 1 and less angiopoietin 2 than young endothelial cells. •Migratory capacity is reduced in aging endothelial cells.« less

  14. Nestin-expressing cells in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans.

    PubMed

    Hunziker, E; Stein, M

    2000-04-29

    The pancreatic islets of Langerhans produce several peptide hormones, predominantly the metabolically active hormones insulin and glucagon, which are critical for maintaining normal fuel homeostasis. Some evidence exists that pancreatic endocrine cells turn over at a slow rate and can regenerate in certain conditions. This could be due to the presence of pluripotent cells residing in the pancreas. Recently the intermediate filament protein nestin has been identified to be a marker for a multipotent stem cell in the central nervous system. Given the similarity between the pancreatic islets and neuronal cells, we hypothesized that stem cells expressing nestin might be present in the pancreas. Here we present evidence that a subset of cells in the pancreatic islets express the stem cell marker nestin. These cells might serve as precursors of differentiated pancreatic endocrine cells. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  15. O-linked GlcNAcylation elevated by HPV E6 mediates viral oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qinghua; Zhao, Rui-Xun; Chen, Jianfeng; Li, Yining; Li, Xiang-Dong; Liu, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Wei-Ming; Quan, Cheng-Shi; Wang, Yi-Shu; Zhai, Ying-Xian; Wang, Jian-Wei; Youssef, Mariam; Cui, Rutao; Liang, Jiyong; Genovese, Nicholas; Chow, Louise T; Li, Yu-Lin; Xu, Zhi-Xiang

    2016-08-16

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are causative agents of anogenital cancers and a fraction of head and neck cancers. The mechanisms involved in the progression of HPV neoplasias to cancers remain largely unknown. Here, we report that O-linked GlcNAcylation (O-GlcNAc) and O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) were markedly increased in HPV-caused cervical neoplasms relative to normal cervix, whereas O-GlcNAcase (OGA) levels were not altered. Transduction of HPV16 oncogene E6 or E6/E7 into mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) up-regulated OGT mRNA and protein, elevated the level of O-GlcNAc, and promoted cell proliferation while reducing cellular senescence. Conversely, in HPV-18-transformed HeLa cervical carcinoma cells, inhibition of O-GlcNAc with a low concentration of a chemical inhibitor impaired the transformed phenotypes in vitro. We showed that E6 elevated c-MYC via increased protein stability attributable to O-GlcNAcylation on Thr58. Reduction of HPV-mediated cell viability by a high concentration of O-GlcNAc inhibitor was partially rescued by elevated c-MYC. Finally, knockdown of OGT or O-GlcNAc inhibition in HeLa cells or in TC-1 cells, a mouse cell line transformed by HPV16 E6/E7 and activated K-RAS, reduced c-MYC and suppressed tumorigenesis and metastasis. Thus, we have uncovered a mechanism for HPV oncoprotein-mediated transformation. These findings may eventually aid in the development of effective therapeutics for HPV-associated malignancies by targeting aberrant O-GlcNAc.

  16. O-linked GlcNAcylation elevated by HPV E6 mediates viral oncogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qinghua; Zhao, Rui-Xun; Chen, Jianfeng; Li, Yining; Li, Xiang-Dong; Liu, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Wei-Ming; Quan, Cheng-Shi; Wang, Yi-Shu; Zhai, Ying-Xian; Wang, Jian-Wei; Youssef, Mariam; Cui, Rutao; Liang, Jiyong; Genovese, Nicholas; Chow, Louise T.; Li, Yu-Lin; Xu, Zhi-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are causative agents of anogenital cancers and a fraction of head and neck cancers. The mechanisms involved in the progression of HPV neoplasias to cancers remain largely unknown. Here, we report that O-linked GlcNAcylation (O-GlcNAc) and O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) were markedly increased in HPV-caused cervical neoplasms relative to normal cervix, whereas O-GlcNAcase (OGA) levels were not altered. Transduction of HPV16 oncogene E6 or E6/E7 into mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) up-regulated OGT mRNA and protein, elevated the level of O-GlcNAc, and promoted cell proliferation while reducing cellular senescence. Conversely, in HPV-18–transformed HeLa cervical carcinoma cells, inhibition of O-GlcNAc with a low concentration of a chemical inhibitor impaired the transformed phenotypes in vitro. We showed that E6 elevated c-MYC via increased protein stability attributable to O-GlcNAcylation on Thr58. Reduction of HPV-mediated cell viability by a high concentration of O-GlcNAc inhibitor was partially rescued by elevated c-MYC. Finally, knockdown of OGT or O-GlcNAc inhibition in HeLa cells or in TC-1 cells, a mouse cell line transformed by HPV16 E6/E7 and activated K-RAS, reduced c-MYC and suppressed tumorigenesis and metastasis. Thus, we have uncovered a mechanism for HPV oncoprotein-mediated transformation. These findings may eventually aid in the development of effective therapeutics for HPV-associated malignancies by targeting aberrant O-GlcNAc. PMID:27482104

  17. VISA is Required for B Cell Expression of TLR7

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liang-Guo; Jin, Lei; Zhang, Bi-Cheng; Akerlund, Janie L.; Shu, Hong-Bing; Cambier, John C.

    2011-01-01

    B cells play a critical role in the initialization and development of the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) that is dependent on the expression of the endosomal ssRNA receptor TLR7. Previous studies have established that B cell expression of TLR7 is controlled by the Type I IFN secreted by Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells (PDC). Here we report that VISA, also known as MAVS, IPS-1 and CardIf, essential for RIG-I/MDA5-mediated signaling following sensing of cytosolic RNA, regulate B cell expression of TLR7 and CD23. We found that B cells from VISA−/− mouse express reduced TLR7, but normal basal levels of Type I IFN. We also show that while IFNβ and TLR7 agonists synergize to promote TLR7 expression in VISA−/− B cells, they do not fully complement the defect seen in VISA−/− cells. Cell transfer experiments revealed that the observed effects of VISA−/− are B cell intrinsic. The reduced TLR7 expression in B cells is correlated with impaired TLR7 agonist-induced up-regulation of activation markers CD69 and CD86, cell proliferation, production of IFNα, TNF, IL-12 and NF-κB activation. Finally, studies indicate that genetic background may influence the observed phenotype of our VISA−/− mice, since VISA−/− B cells differ in CD23 and TLR7 expression when on C57BL/6 vs 129Sv-C57BL/6 background. Thus, our findings suggest an unexpected link between VISA-mediated cytosolic RLR signaling and autoimmunity. PMID:22105994

  18. VISA is required for B cell expression of TLR7.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang-Guo; Jin, Lei; Zhang, Bi-Cheng; Akerlund, Linda J; Shu, Hong-Bing; Cambier, John C

    2012-01-01

    B cells play a critical role in the initialization and development of the systemic lupus erythematosus that is dependent on the expression of the endosomal ssRNA receptor TLR7. Previous studies have established that B cell expression of TLR7 is controlled by the type I IFN secreted by plasmacytoid dendritic cells. In this article, we report that VISA, also known as MAVS, IPS-1, and CardIf, essential for RIG-I/MDA5-mediated signaling following sensing of cytosolic RNA, regulate B cell expression of TLR7 and CD23. We found that B cells from a VISA(-/-) mouse express reduced TLR7 but normal basal levels of type I IFN. We also show that although IFN-β and TLR7 agonists synergize to promote TLR7 expression in VISA(-/-) B cells, they do not fully complement the defect seen in VISA(-/-) cells. Cell transfer experiments revealed that the observed effects of VISA(-/-) are B cell intrinsic. The reduced TLR7 expression in B cells is correlated with impaired TLR7 agonist-induced upregulation of activation markers CD69 and CD86, cell proliferation, production of IFN-α, TNF, and IL-12, and NF-κB activation. Finally, studies indicate that genetic background may influence the observed phenotype of our VISA(-/-) mice, because VISA(-/-) B cells differ in CD23 and TLR7 expression when on C57BL/6 versus 129Sv-C57BL/6 background. Thus, our findings suggest an unexpected link between VISA-mediated cytosolic RLR signaling and autoimmunity.

  19. Photodynamic tissue adhesion with chlorin(e6) protein conjugates.

    PubMed

    Khadem, J; Veloso, A A; Tolentino, F; Hasan, T; Hamblin, M R

    1999-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that a photodynamic laser-activated tissue solder would perform better in sealing scleral incisions when the photosensitizer was covalently linked to the protein than when it was noncovalently mixed. Conjugates and mixtures were prepared between the photosensitizer chlorin(e6) and various proteins (albumin, fibrinogen, and gelatin) in different ratios and used to weld penetrating scleral incisions made in human cadaveric eyes. A blue-green (488-514 nm) argon laser activated the adhesive, and the strength of the closure was measured by increasing the intraocular pressure until the wound showed leakage. Both covalent conjugates and noncovalent mixtures showed a light dose-dependent increase in leaking pressure. A preparation of albumin chlorin(e6) conjugate with additional albumin added (2.5 protein to chlorin(e6) molar ratio) showed significantly higher weld strength than other protein conjugates and mixtures. This is the first report of dye-protein conjugates as tissue solders. These conjugates may have applications in ophthalmology.

  20. Morphoproteomics, E6/E7 in-situ hybridization, and biomedical analytics define the etiopathogenesis of HPV-associated oropharyngeal carcinoma and provide targeted therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Brown, Robert E; Naqvi, Syed; McGuire, Mary F; Buryanek, Jamie; Karni, Ron J

    2017-08-17

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as an etiopathogenetic factor in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. The HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes are instrumental in promoting proliferation and blocking differentiation leading to tumorigenesis. Although surgical intervention can remove such tumors, the potential for an etiologic field effect with recurrent disease is real. A downstream effector of E7 oncoprotein, enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), is known to promote proliferation and to pose a block in differentiation and in turn, could lead to HPV-induced malignant transformation. However, the EZH2 pathway is amenable to low toxicity therapies designed to promote differentiation to a more benign state and prevent recurrent disease by inhibiting the incorporation of HPV into the genome. This is the first study using clinical specimens to demonstrate EZH2 protein expression in oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC). The study included eight patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma, confirmed p16INK4a- positive by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The tissue expression of E6/E7 messenger RNA (mRNA) was measured by RNAscope® in-situ hybridization technology. Expression of EZH2, Ki-67, and mitotic indices were assessed by morphoproteomic analysis. Biomedical analytics expanded the results with data from Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) and KEGG databases to construct a molecular network pathway for further insights. Expression of E6 and E7 oncogenes in p16INK4a- positive oropharyngeal carcinoma was confirmed. EZH2 and its correlates, including elevated proliferation index (Ki-67) and mitotic progression were also present. Biomedical analytics validated the relationship between HPV- E6 and E7 and the expression of the EZH2 pathway. There is morphoproteomic and mRNA evidence of the association of p16INK4a-HPV infection with the E6 and E7 oncogenes and the expression of EZH2, Ki-67 and mitotic progression in oropharyngeal carcinoma. The molecular network biology was confirmed by

  1. CD146 Expression Influences Periapical Cyst Mesenchymal Stem Cell Properties.

    PubMed

    Paduano, Francesco; Marrelli, Massimo; Palmieri, Francesca; Tatullo, Marco

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies have identified a new human dental derived progenitor cell population with multi-lineage differentiation potential referred to as human periapical cyst mesenchymal stem cells (hPCy-MSCs). In the present study, we compared two subpopulations of hPCy-MSCs characterised by the low or high expression of CD146 to establish whether this expression can regulate their stem cell properties. Using flow cytometry, we evaluated the stem cell marker profile of hPCy-MSCs during passaging. Furthermore, CD146 Low and CD146 High cells were sorted by magnetic beads and subsequently both cell populations were evaluated for differences in their proliferation, self-renewal, stem cell surface markers, stemness genes expression and osteogenic differentiation potential.We found that hPCy-MSCs possessed a stable expression of several mesenchymal stem cell surface markers, whereas CD146 expression declined during passaging.In addition, sorted CD146 Low cells proliferated significantly faster, displayed higher colony-forming unit-fibroblast capacity and showed higher expression of Klf4 when compared to the CD146 High subset. Significantly, the osteogenic potential of hPCy-MSCs was greater in the CD146 Low than in CD146 High population. These results demonstrate that CD146 is spontaneously downregulated with passaging at both mRNA and protein levels and that the high expression of CD146 reduces the proliferative, self-renewal and osteogenic differentiation potential of hPCy-MSCs. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that changes in the expression of CD146 can influence the stem cell properties of hPCy-MSCs.

  2. Isolation of Oct4-Expressing Extraembryonic Endoderm Precursor Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Debeb, Bisrat G.; Galat, Vasiliy; Epple-Farmer, Jessica; Iannaccone, Steve; Woodward, Wendy A.; Bader, Michael; Iannaccone, Philip; Binas, Bert

    2009-01-01

    Background The extraembryonic endoderm (ExEn) defines the yolk sac, a set of membranes that provide essential support for mammalian embryos. Recent findings suggest that the committed ExEn precursor is present already in the embryonic Inner Cell Mass (ICM) as a group of cells that intermingles with the closely related epiblast precursor. All ICM cells contain Oct4, a key transcription factor that is first expressed at the morula stage. In vitro, the epiblast precursor is most closely represented by the well-characterized embryonic stem (ES) cell lines that maintain the expression of Oct4, but analogous ExEn precursor cell lines are not known and it is unclear if they would express Oct4. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report the isolation and characterization of permanently proliferating Oct4-expressing rat cell lines (“XEN-P cell lines”), which closely resemble the ExEn precursor. We isolated the XEN-P cell lines from blastocysts and characterized them by plating and gene expression assays as well as by injection into embryos. Like ES cells, the XEN-P cells express Oct4 and SSEA1 at high levels and their growth is stimulated by leukemia inhibitory factor, but instead of the epiblast determinant Nanog, they express the ExEn determinants Gata6 and Gata4. Further, they lack markers characteristic of the more differentiated primitive/visceral and parietal ExEn stages, but exclusively differentiate into these stages in vitro and contribute to them in vivo. Conclusions/Significance Our findings (i) suggest strongly that the ExEn precursor is a self-renewable entity, (ii) indicate that active Oct4 gene expression (transcription plus translation) is part of its molecular identity, and (iii) provide an in vitro model of early ExEn differentiation. PMID:19784378

  3. Mutant p53-Expressing Cells Undergo Necroptosis via Cell Competition with the Neighboring Normal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hirotaka; Ishibashi, Kojiro; Mano, Hiroki; Kitamoto, Sho; Sato, Nanami; Hoshiba, Kazuya; Kato, Mugihiko; Matsuzawa, Fumihiko; Takeuchi, Yasuto; Shirai, Takanobu; Ishikawa, Susumu; Morioka, Yuka; Imagawa, Toshiaki; Sakaguchi, Kazuyasu; Yonezawa, Suguru; Kon, Shunsuke; Fujita, Yasuyuki

    2018-06-26

    p53 is a tumor suppressor protein, and its missense mutations are frequently found in human cancers. During the multi-step progression of cancer, p53 mutations generally accumulate at the mid or late stage, but not in the early stage, and the underlying mechanism is still unclear. In this study, using mammalian cell culture and mouse ex vivo systems, we demonstrate that when p53R273H- or p53R175H-expressing cells are surrounded by normal epithelial cells, mutant p53 cells undergo necroptosis and are basally extruded from the epithelial monolayer. When mutant p53 cells alone are present, cell death does not occur, indicating that necroptosis results from cell competition with the surrounding normal cells. Furthermore, when p53R273H mutation occurs within RasV12-transformed epithelia, cell death is strongly suppressed and most of the p53R273H-expressing cells remain intact. These results suggest that the order of oncogenic mutations in cancer development could be dictated by cell competition. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. ALDH isozymes downregulation affects cell growth, cell motility and gene expression in lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Moreb, Jan S; Baker, Henry V; Chang, Lung-Ji; Amaya, Maria; Lopez, M Cecilia; Ostmark, Blanca; Chou, Wayne

    2008-11-24

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes ALDH1A1 and ALDH3A1 are highly expressed in non small cell lung cancer. Neither the mechanisms nor the biologic significance for such over expression have been studied. We have employed oligonucleotide microarrays to analyze changes in gene profiles in A549 lung cancer cell line in which ALDH activity was reduced by up to 95% using lentiviral mediated expression of siRNA against both isozymes (Lenti 1+3). Stringent analysis methods were used to identify gene expression patterns that are specific to the knock down of ALDH activity and significantly different in comparison to wild type A549 cells (WT) or cells similarly transduced with green fluorescent protein (GFP) siRNA. We confirmed significant and specific down regulation of ALDH1A1 and ALDH3A1 in Lenti 1+3 cells and in comparison to 12 other ALDH genes detected. The results of the microarray analysis were validated by real time RT-PCR on RNA obtained from Lenti 1+3 or WT cells treated with ALDH activity inhibitors. Detailed functional analysis was performed on 101 genes that were significantly different (P < 0.001) and their expression changed by > or = 2 folds in the Lenti 1+3 group versus the control groups. There were 75 down regulated and 26 up regulated genes. Protein binding, organ development, signal transduction, transcription, lipid metabolism, and cell migration and adhesion were among the most affected pathways. These molecular effects of the ALDH knock-down are associated with in vitro functional changes in the proliferation and motility of these cells and demonstrate the significance of ALDH enzymes in cell homeostasis with a potentially significant impact on the treatment of lung cancer.

  5. HDAC gene expression in pancreatic tumor cell lines following treatment with the HDAC inhibitors panobinostat (LBH589) and trichostatine (TSA).

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Ouaïssi; Françoise, Silvy; Sofia, Costa Lima; Urs, Giger; Kevin, Zemmour; Bernard, Sastre; Igor, Sielezneff; Anabela, Cordeiro-da-Silva; Dominique, Lombardo; Eric, Mas; Ali, Ouaïssi

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effect of LBH589 and trichostatin (TSA), a standard histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) toward the growth of pancreatic cancer cell lines was studied. Thus, we examined for the first time, the HDAC family gene expression levels before and after drug treatment. Several human pancreatic cancer cell lines (Panc-1, BxPC-3, SOJ-6) and a normal human pancreatic duct immortalized epithelial cell line (HPDE/E6E7) were used as target cells. The cell growth was measured by MTT assay, cell cycle alteration, membrane phosphatidylserine exposure, DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, RT-PCR and Western blots were done using standard methods. The effect of drugs on tumor growth in vivo was studied using subcutaneous xenograft model. Except in the case of certain HDAC gene/tumor cell line couples: (SIRT1/HPDE-SOJ6/TSA- or LBH589-treated cells; LBH589-treated Panc-1 Cells; HDAC2/BxPC-3/LBH589-treated cells or TSA-treated SOJ-6-1 cells), there were no major significant changes of HDACs genes transcription in cells upon drug treatment. However, significant variation in HDACs and SIRTs protein expression levels could be seen among individual cell samples. The in vivo results showed that LBH589 formulation exhibited similar tumor reduction efficacy as the commercial drug gemcitabine. Our data demonstrate that LBH589 induced the death of pancreatic tumor cell by apoptosis. In line with its in vitro activity, LBH589 achieved a significant reduction in tumor growth in BxPC-3 pancreatic tumor cell line subcutaneous xenograft mouse model. Furthermore, exploring the impact of LBH589 on HDACs encoding genes expression revealed for the first time that some of them, depending on the cell line considered, seem to be regulated during translation. Copyright © 2012 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Expression of pleiotrophin in small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, H Q; Wang, J

    2015-01-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a kind of heparin binding growth factor closely related to tumor progression. This study aimed to discuss the significance of the expression of PTN in benign and malignant lung cancer tissues, especially small cell lung cancer. Lung cancer samples were collected for study and lung tissue samples with benign lesions were taken as controls. The expression of PTN was detected using tissue chip combined with the immunohistochemical method, and the differences of small cell lung cancer with non-small cell lung cancer and benign lesion tissue were compared. It was found that PTN expression was mainly located in the cytoplasm and membrane of cells; PTN expression in the lung cancer group was higher than that in the control group (p < 0.01), and PTN expression in the small cell cancer group was higher than that in the squamous carcinoma group and glandular cancer group (p < 0.05). In addition, PTN expression quantity in patients with lung cancer were in close correlation with TNM staging, pathological type and tumor differentiation degree (p < 0.05). PTN was found to express abnormally high in lung cancer, especially small cell lung cancer tissue. PTN is most likely to be a new tumor marker for diagnosis and prognosis of lung cancer.

  7. [Expression of embryonic markers in pterygium derived mesenchymal cells].

    PubMed

    Pascual, G; Montes, M A; Pérez-Rico, C; Pérez-Kohler, B; Bellón, J M; Buján, J

    2010-12-01

    Destruction of the limbal epithelium barrier is the most important mechanism of pterygium formation (conjunctiva proliferation, encroaching onto the cornea). It is thought to arise from activated and proliferating limbal epithelial stem cells. The objective of this study is to evaluate the presence of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells (stem cells) in cultured cells extracted from human pterygium. Cells from 6 human pterygium were isolated by explantation and placed in cultures with amniomax medium. Once the monolayer was reached the cells were seeded onto 24 well microplates. The cells were studied in the second sub-culture. The immunohistochemical expression of different embryonic stem cell markers, OCT3/4 and CD9, was analysed. The differentiated phenotypes were characterised with the monoclonal antibodies anti-CD31, α-actin and vimentin. All the cell populations obtained from pterygium showed vimentin expression. Less than 1% of the cells were positive for CD31 and α-actin markers. The majority of the cell population was positive for OCT3/4 and CD9. The cell population obtained from pterygium expressed mesenchymal cell phenotype and embryonic markers, such us OCT3/4 and CD9. This undifferentiated population could be involved in the large recurrence rate of this type of tissue after surgery. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Apigenin inhibited hypoxia induced stem cell marker expression in a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Ketkaew, Yuwaporn; Osathanon, Thanaphum; Pavasant, Prasit; Sooampon, Sireerat

    2017-02-01

    Cancer stem cells contribute to tumor recurrence, and a hypoxic environment is critical for maintaining cancer stem cells. Apigenin is a natural product with anticancer activity. However, the effect of apigenin on cancer stem cells remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate the effect of apigenin on cancer stem cell marker expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells under hypoxia. We used three head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines; HN-8, HN-30, and HSC-3. The mRNA expression of cancer stem cell markers was determined by semiquantitative RT-PCR and Real-time PCR. The cytotoxic effect of apigenin was determined by MTT colorimetric assay. Flow cytometry was used to reveal the number of cells expressing cancer stem cell surface markers. HN-30 cells, a cancer cell line from the pharynx, showed the greatest response to hypoxia by increasing their expression of CD44, CD105, NANOG, OCT-4, REX-1, and VEGF. Apigenin significantly decreased HN-30 cell viability in dose- and time-dependent manners. In addition, 40μM apigenin significantly down-regulated the mRNA expression of CD44, NANOG, and CD105. Consistent with these results, the hypoxia-induced increase in CD44 + cells, CD105 + cells, and STRO-1 + cells was significantly abolished by apigenin. Apigenin suppresses cancer stem cell marker expression and the number of cells expressing cell surface markers under hypoxia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pinhal, Maria Aparecida Silva; Almeida, Maria Carolina Leal; Costa, Alessandra Scorse; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell; Serrano, Rodrigo Lorenzetti; Machado, Carlos D'Apparecida Santos

    2016-01-01

    Heparanase is an enzyme that cleaves heparan sulfate chains. Oligosaccharides generated by heparanase induce tumor progression. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma comprise types of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Evaluate the glycosaminoglycans profile and expression of heparanase in two human cell lines established in culture, immortalized skin keratinocyte (HaCaT) and squamous cell carcinoma (A431) and also investigate the expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and eyelid skin of individuals not affected by the disease (control). Glycosaminoglycans were quantified by electrophoresis and indirect ELISA method. The heparanase expression was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRTPCR). The A431 strain showed significant increase in the sulfated glycosaminoglycans, increased heparanase expression and decreased hyaluronic acid, comparing to the HaCaT lineage. The mRNA expression of heparanase was significantly higher in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma compared with control skin samples. It was also observed increased heparanase expression in squamous cell carcinoma compared to the Basal cell carcinoma. The glycosaminoglycans profile, as well as heparanase expression are different between HaCaT and A431 cell lines. The increased expression of heparanase in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma suggests that this enzyme could be a marker for the diagnosis of such types of non-melanoma cancers, and may be useful as a target molecule for future alternative treatment.

  10. Interdependence of cell growth and gene expression: origins and consequences.

    PubMed

    Scott, Matthew; Gunderson, Carl W; Mateescu, Eduard M; Zhang, Zhongge; Hwa, Terence

    2010-11-19

    In bacteria, the rate of cell proliferation and the level of gene expression are intimately intertwined. Elucidating these relations is important both for understanding the physiological functions of endogenous genetic circuits and for designing robust synthetic systems. We describe a phenomenological study that reveals intrinsic constraints governing the allocation of resources toward protein synthesis and other aspects of cell growth. A theory incorporating these constraints can accurately predict how cell proliferation and gene expression affect one another, quantitatively accounting for the effect of translation-inhibiting antibiotics on gene expression and the effect of gratuitous protein expression on cell growth. The use of such empirical relations, analogous to phenomenological laws, may facilitate our understanding and manipulation of complex biological systems before underlying regulatory circuits are elucidated.

  11. Expression of checkpoint molecules on myeloid-derived suppressor cells.

    PubMed

    Ballbach, Marlene; Dannert, Angelika; Singh, Anurag; Siegmund, Darina M; Handgretinger, Rupert; Piali, Luca; Rieber, Nikolaus; Hartl, Dominik

    2017-12-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous cell population expanded in cancer, infection and autoimmunity capable of suppressing T-cell functions. Checkpoint inhibitors have emerged as a key therapeutic strategy in immune-oncology. While checkpoint molecules were initially associated with T cell functions, recent evidence suggests a broader expression and function in innate myeloid cells. Previous studies provided first evidence for a potential role for checkpoints on MDSCs, yet the human relevance remained poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the expression and functional relevance of checkpoint molecules in human MDSC-T-cell interactions. Our studies demonstrate that programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is expressed on granulocytic MDSCs upon co-culture with T cells. Transwell experiments showed that cell-to-cell contact was required for MDSC-T-cell interactions and antibody blocking studies showed that targeting PD-L1 partially impaired MDSC-mediated T-cell suppression. Collectively, these studies suggest a role for PD-L1 in human MDSC function and thereby expand the functionality of this checkpoint beyond T cells, which could pave the way for further understanding and therapeutic targeting of PD-1/PD-L1 in innate immune-mediated diseases. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ectopic ERK Expression Induces Phenotypic Conversion of C10 Cells and Alters DNA Methyltransferase Expression

    SciT

    Sontag, Ryan L.; Weber, Thomas J.

    2012-05-04

    In some model systems constitutive extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) activation is sufficient to promote an oncogenic phenotype. Here we investigate whether constitutive ERK expression influences phenotypic conversion in murine C10 type II alveolar epithelial cells. C10 cells were stably transduced with an ERK1-green fluorescent protein (ERK1-GFP) chimera or empty vector and ectopic ERK expression was associated with the acquisition of soft agar focus-forming potential in late passage, but not early passage cells. Late passage ERK1-GFP cells exhibited a significant increase in the expression of DNA methyl transferases (DNMT1 and 3b) and a marked increase in sensitivity to 5-azacytidine (5-azaC)-mediatedmore » toxicity, relative to early passage ERK1-GFP cells and vector controls. The expression of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A (XPA) and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) were significantly increased in late passage cells, suggesting enhanced DNA damage recognition and repair activity which we interpret as a reflection of genomic instability. Phospho-ERK levels were dramatically decreased in late passage ERK1-GFP cells, relative to early passage and vector controls, and phospho-ERK levels were restored by treatment with sodium orthovanadate, indicating a role for phosphatase activity in this response. Collectively these observations suggest that ectopic ERK expression promotes phenotypic conversion of C10 cells that is associated with latent effects on epigenetic programming and phosphatase activities.« less

  13. Automatic Control of Gene Expression in Mammalian Cells.

    PubMed

    Fracassi, Chiara; Postiglione, Lorena; Fiore, Gianfranco; di Bernardo, Diego

    2016-04-15

    Automatic control of gene expression in living cells is paramount importance to characterize both endogenous gene regulatory networks and synthetic circuits. In addition, such a technology can be used to maintain the expression of synthetic circuit components in an optimal range in order to ensure reliable performance. Here we present a microfluidics-based method to automatically control gene expression from the tetracycline-inducible promoter in mammalian cells in real time. Our approach is based on the negative-feedback control engineering paradigm. We validated our method in a monoclonal population of cells constitutively expressing a fluorescent reporter protein (d2EYFP) downstream of a minimal CMV promoter with seven tet-responsive operator motifs (CMV-TET). These cells also constitutively express the tetracycline transactivator protein (tTA). In cells grown in standard growth medium, tTA is able to bind the CMV-TET promoter, causing d2EYFP to be maximally expressed. Upon addition of tetracycline to the culture medium, tTA detaches from the CMV-TET promoter, thus preventing d2EYFP expression. We tested two different model-independent control algorithms (relay and proportional-integral (PI)) to force a monoclonal population of cells to express an intermediate level of d2EYFP equal to 50% of its maximum expression level for up to 3500 min. The control input is either tetracycline-rich or standard growth medium. We demonstrated that both the relay and PI controllers can regulate gene expression at the desired level, despite oscillations (dampened in the case of the PI controller) around the chosen set point.

  14. Langerhans' cell expression of the selectin ligand, sialyl Lewis x.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, E L; Barker, J N; Allen, M H; Chu, A C; Groves, R W; MacDonald, D M

    1994-01-01

    Cellular adhesion molecules play a central role in leucocyte migration through peripheral blood and tissues. A crucial stage in these events in selectin-mediated adhesion involving E-selectin expressed on activated endothelium interacting with a range of carbohydrate ligands expressed by specific subpopulations of leucocytes. As such mechanisms may be relevant to bone marrow-derived dendritic epidermal Langerhans' cell (LC) migration, expression of these carbohydrate ligands was assessed immunocytochemically in whole skin biopsies and in epidermal cell suspensions obtained from adult humans. Double-labelling experiments revealed that sialyl Lewis x, recognized by the monoclonal antibody CSLEX1, was expressed on epidermal LC (n = 9). Furthermore, expression was enhanced at 24 hr following epicutaneous application of antigen and in the inflammatory disorder psoriasis (n = 10). E-selectin was concomitantly strongly expressed on dermal endothelium in psoriasis and allergic contact dermatitis. Intradermal injection of the T-cell-derived cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) led to increased LC expression of sialyl Lewis x. In epidermal cell suspensions, in contrast to keratinocytes, CD1a+ cells expressed sialyl Lewis x, intensity of which was enhanced after 4 days in culture. CSLEX1 staining could be abolished and CD15 (non-sialated Lewis x) expression induced by saponification and treatment with neuraminidase. Expression of other selectin ligands was also examined. While the cutaneous lymphocyte antigen defined by the monoclonal antibody HECA-452 reacted with a small minority of LC, sialyl Lewis a and sulphatide were not expressed under any experimental conditions. These studies indicate that E-selectin-sialyl Lewis x interactions are potentially important in LC migration, both into and out of skin. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7512530

  15. An Exercise to Estimate Differential Gene Expression in Human Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhry, M. Ahmad

    2006-01-01

    The expression of genes in cells of various tissue types varies considerably and is correlated with the function of a particular organ. The pattern of gene expression changes in diseased tissues, in response to therapy or infection and exposure to environmental mutagens, chemicals, ultraviolet light, and ionizing radiation. To better understand…

  16. Retroviral expression screening of oncogenes in natural killer cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Lim; Moriuchi, Ryozo; Osawa, Mitsujiro; Iwama, Atsushi; Makishima, Hideki; Wada, Tomoaki; Kisanuki, Hiroyuki; Kaneda, Ruri; Ota, Jun; Koinuma, Koji; Ishikawa, Madoka; Takada, Shuji; Yamashita, Yoshihiro; Oshimi, Kazuo; Mano, Hiroyuki

    2005-08-01

    Aggressive natural killer cell leukemia (ANKL) is an intractable malignancy that is characterized by the outgrowth of NK cells. To identify transforming genes in ANKL, we constructed a retroviral cDNA expression library from an ANKL cell line KHYG-1. Infection of 3T3 cells with recombinant retroviruses yielded 33 transformed foci. Nucleotide sequencing of the DNA inserts recovered from these foci revealed that 31 of them encoded KRAS2 with a glycine-to-alanine mutation at codon 12. Mutation-specific PCR analysis indicated that the KRAS mutation was present only in KHYG-1 cells, not in another ANKL cell line or in clinical specimens (n=8).

  17. Structure of the E6/E6AP/p53 complex required for HPV-mediated degradation of p53

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Zapien, Denise; Ruiz, Francesc Xavier; Poirson, Juline; Mitschler, André; Ramirez-Ramos, Juan; Forster, Anne; Cousido-Siah, Alexandra; Masson, Murielle; Pol, Scott Vande; Podjarny, Alberto; Travé, Gilles; Zanier, Katia

    2015-01-01

    Summary The p53 pro-apoptotic tumor suppressor is mutated or functionally altered in most cancers. In epithelial tumors induced by “high-risk” mucosal Human Papillomaviruses (hrm-HPVs), including human cervical carcinoma and a growing number of head-and-neck cancers 1, p53 is degraded by the viral oncoprotein E6 2. In this process, E6 binds to a short LxxLL consensus sequence within the cellular ubiquitin ligase E6AP 3. Subsequently, the E6/E6AP heterodimer recruits and degrades p53 4. Neither E6 nor E6AP are separately able to recruit p53 3,5, and the precise mode of assembly of E6, E6AP and p53 is unknown. Here, we solved the crystal structure of a ternary complex comprising full-length HPV16 E6, the LxxLL motif of E6AP and the core domain of p53. The LxxLL motif of E6AP renders the conformation of E6 competent for interaction with p53 by structuring a p53-binding cleft on E6. Mutagenesis of critical positions at the E6-p53 interface disrupts p53 degradation. The E6-binding site of p53 is distal from previously described DNA- and protein-binding surfaces of the core domain. This suggests that, in principle, E6 may avoid competition with cellular factors by targeting both free and bound p53 molecules. The E6/E6AP/p53 complex represents a prototype of viral hijacking of both the ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation pathway and the p53 tumor suppressor pathway. The present structure provides a framework for the design of inhibitory therapeutic strategies against HPV-mediated oncogenesis. PMID:26789255

  18. Modification of Schwann Cell Gene Expression by Electroporation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Aspalter, Manuela; Vyas, Alka; Feiner, Jeffrey; Griffin, John; Brushart, Thomas; Redett, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Clinical outcomes of nerve grafting are often inferior to those of end-to-end nerve repair. This may be due, in part, to the routine use of cutaneous nerve to support motor axon regeneration. In previous work, we have demonstrated that Schwann cells express distinct sensory and motor phenotypes, and that these promote regeneration in a modality-specific fashion. Intra-operative modification of graft Schwann cell phenotype might therefore improve clinical outcomes. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of electroporating genes into intact nerve to modify Schwann cell gene expression. Initial trials established 70 V, 5 ms as optimum electroporation parameters. Intact, denervated, and reinnervated rat tibial nerves were electroporated with the YFP gene and evaluated serially by counting S-100 positive cells that expressed YFP. In intact nerve, a mean of 28% of Schwann cells expressed the gene at 3 days, falling to 20% at 7 days with little expression at later times. There were no significant differences among the three groups at each time period. Electronmicroscopic evaluation of treated, intact nerve revealed only occasional demyelination and axon degeneration. Intraoperative electroporation of nerve graft is thus a practical means of altering Schwann cell gene expression without the risks inherent in viral transfection. PMID:18834904

  19. Neurogenin 3 Expressing Cells in the Human Exocrine Pancreas Have the Capacity for Endocrine Cell Fate

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Danielle L.; O’Driscoll, Marci; Sheets, Timothy P.; Hruban, Ralph H.; Oberholzer, Jose; McGarrigle, James J.; Shamblott, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenin 3 (NGN3) is necessary and sufficient for endocrine differentiation during pancreatic development and is expressed by a population of progenitor cells that give rise exclusively to hormone-secreting cells within islets. NGN3 protein can be detected in the adult rodent pancreas only following certain types of injury, when it is transiently expressed by exocrine cells undergoing reprogramming to an endocrine cell fate. Here, NGN3 protein can be detected in 2% of acinar and duct cells in living biopsies of histologically normal adult human pancreata and 10% in cadaveric biopsies of organ donor pancreata. The percentage and total number of NGN3+ cells increase during culture without evidence of proliferation or selective cell death. Isolation of highly purified and viable NGN3+ cell populations can be achieved based on coexpression of the cell surface glycoprotein CD133. Transcriptome and targeted expression analyses of isolated CD133+ / NGN3+ cells indicate that they are distinct from surrounding exocrine tissue with respect to expression phenotype and Notch signaling activity, but retain high level mRNA expression of genes indicative of acinar and duct cell function. NGN3+ cells have an mRNA expression profile that resembles that of mouse early endocrine progenitor cells. During in vitro differentiation, NGN3+ cells express genes in a pattern characteristic of endocrine development and result in cells that resemble beta cells on the basis of coexpression of insulin C-peptide, chromogranin A and pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1. NGN3 expression in the adult human exocrine pancreas marks a dedifferentiating cell population with the capacity to take on an endocrine cell fate. These cells represent a potential source for the treatment of diabetes either through ex vivo manipulation, or in vivo by targeting mechanisms controlling their population size and endocrine cell fate commitment. PMID:26288179

  20. Recombinant cells that highly express chromosomally-integrated heterologous genes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, L.O.; Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Wood, B.E.

    1998-10-13

    Recombinant host cells are obtained that comprise (A) a heterologous, polypeptide-encoding polynucleotide segment, stably integrated into a chromosome, which is under transcriptional control of an endogenous promoter and (B) a mutation that effects increased expression of the heterologous segment, resulting in enhanced production by the host cells of each polypeptide encoded by that segment, relative to production of each polypeptide by the host cells in the absence of the mutation. The increased expression thus achieved is retained in the absence of conditions that select for cells displaying such increased expression. When the integrated segment comprises, for example, ethanol-production genes from an efficient ethanol producer like Zymomonas mobilis, recombinant Escherichia coli and other enteric bacterial cells within the present invention are capable of converting a wide range of biomass-derived sugars efficiently to ethanol. 13 figs.

  1. Mechanosensory hair cells express two molecularly distinct mechanotransduction channels

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bo; Cunningham, Christopher; Harkins-Perry, Sarah; Coste, Bertrand; Ranade, Sanjeev; Zebarjadi, Navid; Beurg, Maryline; Fettiplace, Robert; Patapoutian, Ardem; Mueller, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Auditory hair cells contain mechanotransduction channels that rapidly open in response to sound-induced vibrations. Surprisingly, we report here that auditory hair cells contain two molecularly distinct mechanotransduction channels. One ion channel is activated by sound and is responsible for sensory transduction. This sensory transduction channel is expressed in hair-cell stereocilia and previous studies show that its activity is affected by mutations in the genes encoding the transmembrane proteins TMHS/LHFPL5, TMIE and TMC1/2. We show here that the second ion channel is expressed at the apical surface of hair cells and contains the Piezo2 protein. The activity of the Piezo2-dependent channel is controlled by the intracellular Ca2+ concentration and can be recorded following disruption of the sensory transduction machinery or more generally by disruption of the sensory epithelium. We thus conclude that hair cells express two molecularly and functionally distinct mechanotransduction channels with different subcellular distribution. PMID:27893727

  2. Recombinant cells that highly express chromosomally-integrated heterologous genes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Wood, Brent E.

    1998-01-01

    Recombinant host cells are obtained that comprise (A) a heterologous, polypeptide-encoding polynucleotide segment, stably integrated into a chromosome, which is under transcriptional control of an endogenous promoter and (B) a mutation that effects increased expression of the heterologous segment, resulting in enhanced production by the host cells of each polypeptide encoded by that segment, relative to production of each polypeptide by the host cells in the absence of the mutation. The increased expression thus achieved is retained in the absence of conditions that select for cells displaying such increased expression. When the integrated segment comprises, for example, ethanol-production genes from an efficient ethanol producer like Zymomonas mobilis, recombinant Escherichia coli and other enteric bacterial cells within the present invention are capable of converting a wide range of biomass-derived sugars efficiently to ethanol.

  3. Recombinant cells that highly express chromosomally-integrated heterologous gene

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Wood, Brent E.

    2007-03-20

    Recombinant host cells are obtained that comprise (A) a heterologous, polypeptide-encoding polynucleotide segment, stably integrated into a chromosome, which is under transcriptional control of an endogenous promoter and (B) a mutation that effects increased expression of the heterologous segment, resulting in enhanced production by the host cells of each polypeptide encoded by that segment, relative to production of each polypeptide by the host cells in the absence of the mutation. The increased expression thus achieved is retained in the absence of conditions that select for cells displaying such increased expression. When the integrated segment comprises, for example, ethanol-production genes from an efficient ethanol producer like Zymomonas mobilis, recombinant Escherichia coli and other enteric bacterial cells within the present invention are capable of converting a wide range of biomass-derived sugars efficiently to ethanol.

  4. Recombinant cells that highly express chromosomally-integrated heterologous genes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Wood, Brent E.

    2000-08-22

    Recombinant host cells are obtained that comprise (A) a heterologous, polypeptide-encoding polynucleotide segment, stably integrated into a chromosome, which is under transcriptional control of an endogenous promoter and (B) a mutation that effects increased expression of the heterologous segment, resulting in enhanced production by the host cells of each polypeptide encoded by that segment, relative to production of each polypeptide by the host cells in the absence of the mutation. The increased expression thus achieved is retained in the absence of conditions that select for cells displaying such increased expression. When the integrated segment comprises, for example, ethanol-production genes from an efficient ethanol producer like Zymomonas mobilis, recombinant Escherichia coli and other enteric bacterial cells within the present invention are capable of converting a wide range of biomass-derived sugars efficiently to ethanol.

  5. Expression of stanniocalcin 1 in thyroid side population cells and thyroid cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hayase, Suguru; Sasaki, Yoshihito; Matsubara, Tsutomu; Seo, Daekwan; Miyakoshi, Masaaki; Murata, Tsubasa; Ozaki, Takashi; Kakudo, Kennichi; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Ylaya, Kris; Cheng, Sheue-yann; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S; Hewitt, Stephen M; Ward, Jerrold M; Kimura, Shioko

    2015-04-01

    Mouse thyroid side population (SP) cells consist of a minor population of mouse thyroid cells that may have multipotent thyroid stem cell characteristics. However the nature of thyroid SP cells remains elusive, particularly in relation to thyroid cancer. Stanniocalcin (STC) 1 and 2 are secreted glycoproteins known to regulate serum calcium and phosphate homeostasis. In recent years, the relationship of STC1/2 expression to cancer has been described in various tissues. Microarray analysis was carried out to determine genes up- and down-regulated in thyroid SP cells as compared with non-SP cells. Among genes up-regulated, stanniocalcin 1 (STC1) was chosen for study because of its expression in various thyroid cells by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Gene expression analysis revealed that genes known to be highly expressed in cancer cells and/or involved in cancer invasion/metastasis were markedly up-regulated in SP cells from both intact as well as partial thyroidectomized thyroids. Among these genes, expression of STC1 was found in five human thyroid carcinoma-derived cell lines as revealed by analysis of mRNA and protein, and its expression was inversely correlated with the differentiation status of the cells. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated higher expression of STC1 in the thyroid tumor cell line and thyroid tumor tissues from humans and mice. These results suggest that SP cells contain a population of cells that express genes also highly expressed in cancer cells including Stc1, which warrants further study on the role of SP cells and/or STC1 expression in thyroid cancer.

  6. Expression of Stanniocalcin 1 in Thyroid Side Population Cells and Thyroid Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hayase, Suguru; Sasaki, Yoshihito; Matsubara, Tsutomu; Seo, Daekwan; Miyakoshi, Masaaki; Murata, Tsubasa; Ozaki, Takashi; Kakudo, Kennichi; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Ylaya, Kris; Cheng, Sheue-yann; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S.; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Ward, Jerrold M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mouse thyroid side population (SP) cells consist of a minor population of mouse thyroid cells that may have multipotent thyroid stem cell characteristics. However the nature of thyroid SP cells remains elusive, particularly in relation to thyroid cancer. Stanniocalcin (STC) 1 and 2 are secreted glycoproteins known to regulate serum calcium and phosphate homeostasis. In recent years, the relationship of STC1/2 expression to cancer has been described in various tissues. Method: Microarray analysis was carried out to determine genes up- and down-regulated in thyroid SP cells as compared with non-SP cells. Among genes up-regulated, stanniocalcin 1 (STC1) was chosen for study because of its expression in various thyroid cells by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Results: Gene expression analysis revealed that genes known to be highly expressed in cancer cells and/or involved in cancer invasion/metastasis were markedly up-regulated in SP cells from both intact as well as partial thyroidectomized thyroids. Among these genes, expression of STC1 was found in five human thyroid carcinoma–derived cell lines as revealed by analysis of mRNA and protein, and its expression was inversely correlated with the differentiation status of the cells. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated higher expression of STC1 in the thyroid tumor cell line and thyroid tumor tissues from humans and mice. Conclusion: These results suggest that SP cells contain a population of cells that express genes also highly expressed in cancer cells including Stc1, which warrants further study on the role of SP cells and/or STC1 expression in thyroid cancer. PMID:25647164

  7. Ectopic expression of necdin induces differentiation of mouse neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masakatsu; Taniura, Hideo; Yoshikawa, Kazuaki

    2002-11-01

    Necdin is expressed predominantly in postmitotic neurons, and ectopic expression of this protein strongly suppresses cell growth. Necdin has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Prader-Willi syndrome, a human neurodevelopmental disorder associated with genomic imprinting. Here we demonstrate that ectopic expression of necdin induces a neuronal phenotype in neuroblastoma cells. Necdin was undetectable in mouse neuroblastoma N1E-115 cells under undifferentiated and differentiated conditions. N1E-115 cells transfected with necdin cDNA showed morphological differentiation such as neurite outgrowth and expression of the synaptic marker proteins synaptotagmin and synaptophysin. In addition, Western blot analysis of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) family members Rb, p130, and p107 revealed that necdin cDNA transfectants contained an increased level of p130 and a reduced level of p107, a pattern seen in differentiated G(0) cells. The transcription factors E2F1 and E2F4 physically interacted with necdin via their carboxyl-terminal transactivation domains, but only E2F1 abrogated necdin-induced growth arrest and neurite outgrowth of neuroblastoma cells. Overexpression of E2F1 in differentiated N1E-115 cells induced apoptosis, which was antagonized by co-expression of necdin. These results suggest that necdin promotes the differentiation and survival of neurons through its antagonistic interactions with E2F1.

  8. Expression of Cat Podoplanin in Feline Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Itai, Shunsuke; Yamada, Shinji; Kaneko, Mika K; Harada, Hiroyuki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2017-12-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is an aggressive tumor in cats; however, molecular-targeted therapies against this tumor, including antibody therapy, have not been developed. Sensitive and specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against highly expressed membrane proteins are needed to develop antibody therapies. Podoplanin, a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, is expressed in many human malignant tumors, including brain tumor, esophageal cancer, lung cancer, mesothelioma, and oral cancer. Podoplanin binds to C-type lectin-like receptor-2 (CLEC-2) and activates platelet aggregation, which is involved in cancer metastasis. Until now, we have established several mAbs against podoplanin in humans, mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, cattle, and cats. We have reported podoplanin expression in canine melanoma and squamous cell carcinomas using an anti-dog podoplanin mAb PMab-38. In this study, we investigated podoplanin expression in 40 feline squamous cell carcinomas (14 cases of mouth floor, 13 of skin, 9 of ear, and 4 of tongue) by immunohistochemical analysis using an anti-cat podoplanin mAb PMab-52, which we recently developed by cell-based immunization and screening (CBIS) method. Of the total 40 cases, 38 (95%) showed positive staining for PMab-52. In particular, 12 cases (30%) showed a strong membrane-staining pattern of squamous cell carcinoma cells. PMab-52 can be useful for antibody therapy against feline podoplanin-expressing squamous cell carcinomas.

  9. DR-nm23 expression affects neuroblastoma cell differentiation, integrin expression, and adhesion characteristics.

    PubMed

    Amendola, R; Martinez, R; Negroni, A; Venturelli, D; Tanno, B; Calabretta, B; Raschellà, G

    2001-01-01

    Nm23 gene family has been associated with metastasis suppression and differentiation. We studied DR-nm23 during neuroblastoma cells differentiation. DR-nm23 expression increased after retinoic acid induction of differentiation in human cell lines SK-N-SH and LAN-5. In several cell lines, overexpression of DR-nm23 was associated with more differentiated phenotypes. SK-N-SH cells increased vimentin expression, increased deposition of collagen type IV, modulated integrin expression, and underwent growth arrest; the murine neuroblastoma cell line N1E-115 showed neurite outgrowth and a striking enhancement of beta1 integrin expression. Up-regulation of beta1 integrin was specifically responsible for the increase in the adhesion to collagen type I-coated plates. Finally, cells overexpressing DR-nm23 were unable to growth in soft agar. In conclusion, DR-nm23 expression is directly involved in differentiation of neuroblastoma cells, and its ability to affects the adhesion to extracellular substrates and to inhibit growth in soft agar suggests an involvement in the metastatic potential of neuroblastoma.

  10. Amino Acids Regulate Transgene Expression in MDCK Cells

    PubMed Central

    Torrente, Marta; Guetg, Adriano; Sass, Jörn Oliver; Arps, Lisa; Ruckstuhl, Lisa; Camargo, Simone M. R.; Verrey, François

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression and cell growth rely on the intracellular concentration of amino acids, which in metazoans depends on extracellular amino acid availability and transmembrane transport. To investigate the impact of extracellular amino acid concentrations on the expression of a concentrative amino acid transporter, we overexpressed the main kidney proximal tubule luminal neutral amino acid transporter B0AT1-collectrin (SLC6A19-TMEM27) in MDCK cell epithelia. Exogenously expressed proteins co-localized at the luminal membrane and mediated neutral amino acid uptake. However, the transgenes were lost over few cell culture passages. In contrast, the expression of a control transgene remained stable. To test whether this loss was due to inappropriately high amino acid uptake, freshly transduced MDCK cell lines were cultivated either with physiological amounts of amino acids or with the high concentration found in standard cell culture media. Expression of exogenous transporters was unaffected by physiological amino acid concentration in the media. Interestingly, mycoplasma infection resulted in a significant increase in transgene expression and correlated with the rapid metabolism of L-arginine. However, L-arginine metabolites were shown to play no role in transgene expression. In contrast, activation of the GCN2 pathway revealed by an increase in eIF2α phosphorylation may trigger transgene derepression. Taken together, high extracellular amino acid concentration provided by cell culture media appears to inhibit the constitutive expression of concentrative amino acid transporters whereas L-arginine depletion by mycoplasma induces the expression of transgenes possibly via stimulation of the GCN2 pathway. PMID:24797296

  11. Cells differentiated from mouse embryonic stem cells via embryoid bodies express renal marker molecules.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Jan; Steinhoff, Jürgen; Klinger, Matthias; Fricke, Lutz; Rohwedel, Jürgen

    2006-03-01

    Differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells via embryoid bodies (EB) is established as a suitable model to study cellular processes of development in vitro. ES cells are known to be pluripotent because of their capability to differentiate into cell types of all three germ layers including germ cells. Here, we show that ES cells differentiate into renal cell types in vitro. We found that genes were expressed during EB cultivation, which have been previously described to be involved in renal development. Marker molecules characteristic for terminally differentiated renal cell types were found to be expressed predominantly during late stages of EB cultivation, while marker molecules involved in the initiation of nephrogenesis were already expressed during early steps of EB development. On the cellular level--using immunostaining--we detected cells expressing podocin, nephrin and wt-1, characteristic for differentiated podocytes and other cells, which expressed Tamm-Horsfall protein, a marker for distal tubule epithelial cells of kidney tissue. Furthermore, the proximal tubule marker molecules renal-specific oxido reductase, kidney androgen-related protein and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3alpha-hydroxylase were found to be expressed in EBs. In particular, we could demonstrate that cells expressing podocyte marker molecules assemble to distinct ring-like structures within the EBs. Because the differentiation efficiency into these cell types is still relatively low, application of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 in combination with leukaemia inhibitory factor was tested for induction, but did not enhance ES cell-derived renal differentiation in vitro.

  12. Glutathione S-transferase expression and isoenzyme composition during cell differentiation of Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Scharmach, E; Hessel, S; Niemann, B; Lampen, A

    2009-11-30

    The human colon adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2 is frequently used to study human intestinal metabolism and transport of xenobiotica. Previous studies have shown that both Caco-2 cells and human colon cells constitutively express the multigene family of detoxifying enzymes glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), particularly GST alpha and GST pi. GSTs may play a fundamental role in the molecular interplay between phase I, II enzymes and ABC-transporters. The gut fermentation product, butyrate, can modulate the potential for detoxification. The aim of this study was to investigate the basal expression of further cytosolic GSTs in Caco-2 cells during cell differentiation. In addition, a comparison was made with expression levels in MCF-7 and HepG2, two other cell types with barrier functions. Finally, the butyrate-mediated modulation of gene and protein expression was determined by real time PCR and western blot analysis. In Caco-2, gene and protein expression levels of GST alpha increased during cell differentiation. High levels of GSTO1 and GSTP1 were constantly expressed. No expression of GSTM5 and GSTT1 was detected. HepG2 expressed GSTO1 and MCF-7 GSTZ1 most intensively. No expression of GSTA5, GSTM5, or GSTP1 was detected in either cell. Incubation of Caco-2 cells with butyrate (5 mM) significantly induced GSTA1 and GSTM2 in proliferating Caco-2 cells. In differentiated cells, butyrate tended to increase GSTO1 and GSTP1. The results of this study show that a differentiation-dependent expression of GSTs in Caco-2 cells may reflect the in vivo situation and indicate the potential of butyrate to modify intestinal metabolism. GSTA1-A4 have been identified as good markers for cell differentiation. The Caco-2 cell line is a useful model for assessing the potential of food-related substances to modulate the GST expression pattern.

  13. On generalized Melvin solution for the Lie algebra E_6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolokhov, S. V.; Ivashchuk, V. D.

    2017-10-01

    A multidimensional generalization of Melvin's solution for an arbitrary simple Lie algebra G is considered. The gravitational model in D dimensions, D ≥ 4, contains n 2-forms and l ≥ n scalar fields, where n is the rank of G. The solution is governed by a set of n functions H_s(z) obeying n ordinary differential equations with certain boundary conditions imposed. It was conjectured earlier that these functions should be polynomials (the so-called fluxbrane polynomials). The polynomials H_s(z), s = 1,\\ldots ,6, for the Lie algebra E_6 are obtained and a corresponding solution for l = n = 6 is presented. The polynomials depend upon integration constants Q_s, s = 1,\\ldots ,6. They obey symmetry and duality identities. The latter ones are used in deriving asymptotic relations for solutions at large distances. The power-law asymptotic relations for E_6-polynomials at large z are governed by the integer-valued matrix ν = A^{-1} (I + P), where A^{-1} is the inverse Cartan matrix, I is the identity matrix and P is a permutation matrix, corresponding to a generator of the Z_2-group of symmetry of the Dynkin diagram. The 2-form fluxes Φ ^s, s = 1,\\ldots ,6, are calculated.

  14. Natural killer cells attack tumor cells expressing high levels of sialyl Lewis x oligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Ohyama, Chikara; Kanto, Satoru; Kato, Kazunori; Nakano, Osamu; Arai, Yoichi; Kato, Tetsuro; Chen, Shihao; Fukuda, Michiko N.; Fukuda, Minoru

    2002-01-01

    Epithelial carcinoma and leukemia cells express sialyl Lewis x oligosaccharides as tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens. To determine the role of sialyl Lewis x oligosaccharides in tumor dissemination, human melanoma MeWo cells, which do not express sialyl Lewis x, were transfected with α1,3-fucosyltransferase III (FTIII), and cell lines expressing different amounts of sialyl Lewis x were isolated. When these cells were injected into the tail vein of nude mice, cells expressing moderate amounts of sialyl Lewis x (MeWo-FTIII⋅M) produced a significantly greater number of lung tumor foci than did parental MeWo cells. In contrast, cells expressing large amounts of sialyl Lewis x (MeWo-FTIII⋅H) produced few lung tumor foci in nude mice but were highly tumorigenic in beige mice, which have defective natural killer (NK) cells. In vitro assays demonstrated that MeWo-FTIII⋅H cells are much more sensitive to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity than are MeWo-FTIII⋅M cells or parental MeWo cells and the susceptibility of MeWo-FTIII⋅H cells to NK cell-mediated cytolysis can be inhibited by preincubating MeWo-FTIII⋅H cells with anti-sialyl Lewis x antibody. Moreover, we discovered that NK cell-mediated cytolysis of MeWo-FTIII⋅H cells can be inhibited by the addition of an antibody against the NK cell receptor CD94 or sialyl Lewis x oligosaccharides. These results, combined with structural analysis of MeWo-FTIII⋅H cell carbohydrates, indicate that moderate amounts of sialyl Lewis x lead to tumor metastasis, whereas expression of high levels of sialyl Lewis x leads to an NK cell attack on tumor cells, demonstrating that expression of different amounts of sialyl Lewis x results in entirely different biological consequences. PMID:12370411

  15. Expression and purification of recombinant nattokinase in Spodoptera frugiperda cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoxiang; Wang, Xiaoli; Xiong, Shaoling; Zhang, Jing; Cai, Litao; Yang, Yanyan

    2007-10-01

    A recombinant baculovirus, rv-egfp-NK, containing a reporter gene encoding the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), was used to express nattokinase (NK), a fibrinolytic enzyme, in Spodoptera frugiperda (SF-9) cells. The recombinant protein also included a histidine tag for purification using Ni(2+) resins. The recombinant NK, approximately 30 kDa, retained fibrinolytic activity (60 U/ml). The integration of the EGFP expression cassette in the Bac-to-Bac system is thus an effective method for the expression and purification of recombinant NK protein in Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells.

  16. Expression of Tocopherol-Associated Protein in Mast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Teruo; Murakami, Masaru; Funaba, Masayuki

    2004-01-01

    Tocopherol-associated protein (TAP) was expressed in mouse mast cells. TAP was predominantly localized in the cytoplasm, and the subcellular localization was not changed by α-tocopherol. The results suggest that the physiological role of TAP in mast cells is not regulation of tocopherol function but an as-yet-unidentified activity. PMID:15539527

  17. Magnetic field-controlled gene expression in encapsulated cells

    PubMed Central

    Ortner, Viktoria; Kaspar, Cornelius; Halter, Christian; Töllner, Lars; Mykhaylyk, Olga; Walzer, Johann; Günzburg, Walter H.; Dangerfield, John A.; Hohenadl, Christine; Czerny, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Cell and gene therapies have an enormous range of potential applications, but as for most other therapies, dosing is a critical issue, which makes regulated gene expression a prerequisite for advanced strategies. Several inducible expression systems have been established, which mainly rely on small molecules as inducers, such as hormones or antibiotics. The application of these inducers is difficult to control and the effects on gene regulation are slow. Here we describe a novel system for induction of gene expression in encapsulated cells. This involves the modification of cells to express potential therapeutic genes under the control of a heat inducible promoter and the co-encapsulation of these cells with magnetic nanoparticles. These nanoparticles produce heat when subjected to an alternating magnetic field; the elevated temperatures in the capsules then induce gene expression. In the present study we define the parameters of such systems and provide proof-of-principle using reporter gene constructs. The fine-tuned heating of nanoparticles in the magnetic field allows regulation of gene expression from the outside over a broad range and within short time. Such a system has great potential for advancement of cell and gene therapy approaches. PMID:22197778

  18. Reduced Ang2 expression in aging endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hohensinner, P J; Ebenbauer, B; Kaun, C; Maurer, G; Huber, K; Wojta, J

    2016-06-03

    Aging endothelial cells are characterized by increased cell size, reduced telomere length and increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines. In addition, we describe here that aging reduces the migratory distance of endothelial cells. Furthermore, we observe an increase of the quiescence protein Ang1 and a decrease of the endothelial activation protein Ang2 upon aging. Supplementing Ang2 to aged endothelial cells restored their migratory capacity. We conclude that aging shifts the balance of the Ang1/Ang2 network favouring a quiescent state. Activation of endothelial cells in aging might be necessary to enhance wound healing capacities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mucin (MUC1) Expression and Function in Prostate Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    Interactions at the Cell Surface of Mouse Uterine Epithelial Cells and Periimplantation -Stage Embryos. Trophoblast Res., 4:211-241, 1990. 37. Dutt...and Julian, J. Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan Expression by Periimplantation Stage Embryos. Dev. Biol. 155:97-106,1993. 56. Rohde, L.H., and Carson...Modulators of Embryo-Uterine Epithelial Cell Attachment. In: S.K. Dey (ed.), Molecular and Cellular Aspects of Periimplantation Processes, Springer

  20. Spatial reconstruction of single-cell gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Satija, Rahul; Farrell, Jeffrey A; Gennert, David; Schier, Alexander F; Regev, Aviv

    2015-05-01

    Spatial localization is a key determinant of cellular fate and behavior, but methods for spatially resolved, transcriptome-wide gene expression profiling across complex tissues are lacking. RNA staining methods assay only a small number of transcripts, whereas single-cell RNA-seq, which measures global gene expression, separates cells from their native spatial context. Here we present Seurat, a computational strategy to infer cellular localization by integrating single-cell RNA-seq data with in situ RNA patterns. We applied Seurat to spatially map 851 single cells from dissociated zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and generated a transcriptome-wide map of spatial patterning. We confirmed Seurat's accuracy using several experimental approaches, then used the strategy to identify a set of archetypal expression patterns and spatial markers. Seurat correctly localizes rare subpopulations, accurately mapping both spatially restricted and scattered groups. Seurat will be applicable to mapping cellular localization within complex patterned tissues in diverse systems.

  1. Human Papillomavirus Type 18 E6 Protein Binds the Cellular PDZ Protein TIP-2/GIPC, Which Is Involved in Transforming Growth Factor β Signaling and Triggers Its Degradation by the Proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Favre-Bonvin, Arnaud; Reynaud, Caroline; Kretz-Remy, Carole; Jalinot, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Several viral proteins expressed by DNA or RNA transforming viruses have the particular property of binding via their C-terminal end to various cellular proteins with PDZ domains. This study is focused on the PDZ protein TIP-2/GIPC, which was originally identified in two-hybrid screens performed with two different baits: the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax oncoprotein and the regulator of G signaling RGS-GAIP. Further studies have shown that TIP-2/GIPC is also able to associate with the cytoplasmic domains of various transmembrane proteins. In this report we show that TIP-2/GIPC interacts with the E6 protein of human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV-18). This event triggers polyubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation of the cellular protein. In agreement with this observation, silencing of E6 by RNA interference in HeLa cells causes an increase in the intracellular TIP-2/GIPC level. This PDZ protein has been previously found to be involved in transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling by favoring expression of the TGF-β type III receptor at the cell membrane. In line with this activity of TIP-2/GIPC, we observed that depletion of this protein in HeLa cells hampers induction of the Id3 gene by TGF-β treatment and also diminishes the antiproliferative effect of this cytokine. Conversely, silencing of E6 increases the expression of Id3 and blocks proliferation of HeLa cells. These results support the notion that HPV-18 E6 renders cells less sensitive to the cytostatic effect of TGF-β by lowering the intracellular amount of TIP-2/GIPC. PMID:15767424

  2. Can dead bacterial cells be defined and are genes expressed after cell death?

    PubMed

    Trevors, J T

    2012-07-01

    There is a paucity of knowledge on gene expression in dead bacterial cells. Why would this knowledge be useful? The cells are dead. However, the time duration of gene expression following cell death is often unknown, and possibly in the order of minutes. In addition, it is a challenge to determine if bacterial cells are dead, or viable but non-culturable (VBNC), and what is an agreed upon correct definition of dead bacteria. Cells in the bacterial population or community may die at different rates or times and this complicates both the viability and gene expression analysis. In this article, the definition of dead bacterial cells is discussed and its significance in continued gene expression in cells following death. The definition of living and dead has implications for possible, completely, synthetic bacterial cells that may be capable of growth and division. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of allelic expression patterns in clonal somatic cells by single-cell RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Reinius, Björn; Mold, Jeff E; Ramsköld, Daniel; Deng, Qiaolin; Johnsson, Per; Michaëlsson, Jakob; Frisén, Jonas; Sandberg, Rickard

    2016-11-01

    Cellular heterogeneity can emerge from the expression of only one parental allele. However, it has remained controversial whether, or to what degree, random monoallelic expression of autosomal genes (aRME) is mitotically inherited (clonal) or stochastic (dynamic) in somatic cells, particularly in vivo. Here we used allele-sensitive single-cell RNA-seq on clonal primary mouse fibroblasts and freshly isolated human CD8 + T cells to dissect clonal and dynamic monoallelic expression patterns. Dynamic aRME affected a considerable portion of the cells' transcriptomes, with levels dependent on the cells' transcriptional activity. Notably, clonal aRME was detected, but it was surprisingly scarce (<1% of genes) and mainly affected the most weakly expressed genes. Consequently, the overwhelming majority of aRME occurs transiently within individual cells, and patterns of aRME are thus primarily scattered throughout somatic cell populations rather than, as previously hypothesized, confined to patches of clonally related cells.

  4. Single Cell Gene Expression Profiling of Skeletal Muscle-Derived Cells.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Sole; Puri, Pier Lorenzo; Malecova, Barbora

    2017-01-01

    Single cell gene expression profiling is a fundamental tool for studying the heterogeneity of a cell population by addressing the phenotypic and functional characteristics of each cell. Technological advances that have coupled microfluidic technologies with high-throughput quantitative RT-PCR analyses have enabled detailed analyses of single cells in various biological contexts. In this chapter, we describe the procedure for isolating the skeletal muscle interstitial cells termed Fibro-Adipogenic Progenitors (FAPs ) and their gene expression profiling at the single cell level. Moreover, we accompany our bench protocol with bioinformatics analysis designed to process raw data as well as to visualize single cell gene expression data. Single cell gene expression profiling is therefore a useful tool in the investigation of FAPs heterogeneity and their contribution to muscle homeostasis.

  5. T-cell lymphomas associated gene expression signature: Bioinformatics analysis based on gene expression Omnibus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lei-Lei; Xu, Xiao-Yue; Ni, Jie; Zhao, Xia; Zhou, Jian-Wei; Feng, Ji-Feng

    2018-06-01

    Due to the low incidence and the heterogeneity of subtypes, the biological process of T-cell lymphomas is largely unknown. Although many genes have been detected in T-cell lymphomas, the role of these genes in biological process of T-cell lymphomas was not further analyzed. Two qualified datasets were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. The biological functions of differentially expressed genes were evaluated by gene ontology enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis. The network for intersection genes was constructed by the cytoscape v3.0 software. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and log-rank test were employed to assess the association between differentially expressed genes and clinical characters. The intersection mRNAs were proved to be associated with fundamental processes of T-cell lymphoma cells. These intersection mRNAs were involved in the activation of some cancer-related pathways, including PI3K/AKT, Ras, JAK-STAT, and NF-kappa B signaling pathway. PDGFRA, CXCL12, and CCL19 were the most significant central genes in the signal-net analysis. The results of survival analysis are not entirely credible. Our findings uncovered aberrantly expressed genes and a complex RNA signal network in T-cell lymphomas and indicated cancer-related pathways involved in disease initiation and progression, providing a new insight for biotargeted therapy in T-cell lymphomas. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Expression profile of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase and activation of telomerase in human ovarian surface epithelial cells undergoing immortalization.

    PubMed

    Litaker, J R; Pan, J; Cheung, Y; Zhang, D K; Liu, Y; Wong, S C; Wan, T S; Tsao, S W

    1998-11-01

    Senescence is a specific physiological stage of cells characterized by long population doubling time. It accounts for the inability of normal somatic cells to undergo indefinite cell division. As the number of population doublings increase, cell cycle regulatory mechanisms come into play and signal cells to exit the cell cycle and become senescent. Senescence has been implicated in the aging process and may function as a tumor suppressor mechanism in human cells. The ability to measure the degree of cellular senescence is important in understanding the biological processes regulating cell aging and immortalization. Senescent cells exhibit an enzyme termed senescence-associated histochemical staining. Cells immortalized by viral oncogenes often enter a stage of crisis at the early phase of immortalization. The cells at crisis have a long population doubling time. Cells at the crisis stage resemble senescent cells and the expression of SA- beta-Gal may be used to monitor the process of immortalization. In this study the expression profile of SA-beta-Gal was examined in human ovarian surface epithelial cells (HOSE 6-3) undergoing immortalization by the human papilloma viral oncogene E6 and E7 (HPV E6 and E7). Our results showed a low percentage (12.0%) of HOSE 6-3 cells expressing SA-beta-Gal activity at the pre-crisis stage. The percentage of HOSE 6-3 cells expressing SA-beta-Gal activity was highest (39.2%) at the crisis stage. When HOSE 6-3 cells achieved immortalized status there was a sharp decrease in cells (1. 3%) expressing SA-beta-Gal activity. In addition, an inverse relationship between the expression of SA-beta-Gal activity and telomerase activity was noted in cells undergoing immortalization. The results confirm that the SA-beta-Gal enzyme is a good marker for monitoring the population of cells undergoing senescence at different stages of immortalization and that telomerase activation is a characteristic feature of post-crisis cells.

  7. The effect of the colostral cells on gene expression of cytokines in cord blood cells.

    PubMed

    Hrdý, Jiří; Novotná, Olga; Kocourková, Ingrid; Prokešová, Ludmila

    2017-11-01

    Beneficial effect of maternal milk is acknowledged, but there is still question whether maternal milk from allergic mother is as good as from healthy one. In our study, we have assayed the effect of cells from colostrum of healthy and allergic mothers on gene expression of cytokines in cord blood cells of newborns of healthy and allergic mothers. Cytokines typical for Th1 (IL-2, IFN-gamma), Th2 (IL-4, IL-13), Tregs (IL-10, TGF-beta), and IL-8 were followed. We were not able to detect significant influence of colostral cells on gene expression of cytokines in cord blood after 2-day coculture using Transwell system. There was no difference in gene expression of cytokines in nonstimulated cord blood cells of newborns of healthy and allergic mothers, but generally increased gene expression of cytokines except IL-10 and TGF-beta after polyclonal stimulation was detected in cord blood cells of children of allergic mothers. There was no difference in IL-10 expression in stimulated cord blood cells of children of healthy and allergic mothers. Gene expression of TGF-beta was even decreased in stimulated cord blood cells of children of allergic mothers in comparison to healthy ones. We have not observed difference in the capacity of colostral cells of healthy and allergic mothers to influence gene expression of cytokines in cord blood cells, but we have described difference in the reactivity of cord blood cells between children of allergic and healthy mothers.

  8. Solution structure analysis of the HPV16 E6 oncoprotein reveals a self-association mechanism required for E6-mediated degradation of p53

    PubMed Central

    Zanier, Katia; Sidi, Abdellahi ould M’hamed ould; Boulade-Ladame, Charlotte; Rybin, Vladimir; Chappelle, Anne; Atkinson, Andrew; Kieffer, Bruno; Travé, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    The viral oncoprotein E6 is an essential factor for cervical cancers induced by “high-risk” mucosal HPV. Among other oncogenic activities, E6 recruits the ubiquitin ligase E6AP to promote the ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation of p53. E6 is prone to self-association, which long precluded its structural analysis. Here we found that E6 specifically dimerizes through its N-terminal domain and that disruption of the dimer interface strongly increases E6 solubility. This allowed us to raise the first structural data covering the entire HPV16 E6 protein, including the high-resolution NMR structures of the two zinc-binding domains of E6 and a robust data-driven model structure of the N-terminal domain homodimer. Interestingly, homodimer interface mutations that disrupt E6 self-association also inactivate E6-mediated p53 degradation. These data suggest that E6 needs to self-associate via its N-terminal domain to promote the poly-ubiquitination of p53 by E6AP. PMID:22483108

  9. Role of monocyte-lineage cells in prostate cancer cell invasion and tissue factor expression.

    PubMed

    Lindholm, Paul F; Lu, Yi; Adley, Brian P; Vladislav, Tudor; Jovanovic, Borko; Sivapurapu, Neela; Yang, Ximing J; Kajdacsy-Balla, André

    2010-11-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is a cell surface glycoprotein intricately related to blood coagulation and inflammation. This study was performed to investigate the role of monocyte-lineage cells in prostate cancer cell TF expression and cell invasion. Prostate cancer cell invasion was tested with and without added peripheral blood monocytes or human monocyte-lineage cell lines. TF neutralizing antibodies were used to determine the TF requirement for prostate cancer cell invasion activity. Immunohistochemistry was performed to identify prostate tissue CD68 positive monocyte-derived cells and prostate epithelial TF expression. Co-culture of PC-3, DU145, and LNCaP cells with isolated human monocytes significantly stimulated prostate cancer cell invasion activity. TF expression was greater in highly invasive prostate cancer cells and was induced in PC-3, DU145, and LNCaP cells by co-culture with U-937 cells, but not with THP-1 cells. TF neutralizing antibodies inhibited PC-3 cell invasion in co-cultures with monocyte-lineage U-937 or THP-1 cells. Prostate cancer tissues contained more CD68 positive cells in the stroma and epithelium (145 ± 53/mm(2)) than benign prostate (108 ± 31/mm(2)). Samples from advanced stage prostate cancer tended to contain more CD68 positive cells when compared with lower stage lesions. Prostatic adenocarcinoma demonstrated significantly increased TF expression compared with benign prostatic epithelium. This study shows that co-culture with monocyte-lineage cells induced prostate cancer cell invasion activity. PC-3 invasion and TF expression was induced in co-culture with U-937 cells and partially inhibited with TF neutralizing antibodies.

  10. NOS2 expression in glioma cell lines and glioma primary cell cultures: correlation with neurosphere generation and SOX-2 expression.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Paola; Miconi, Gianfranca; Cinque, Benedetta; Lombardi, Francesca; La Torre, Cristina; Dehcordi, Soheila Raysi; Galzio, Renato; Cimini, Annamaria; Giordano, Antonio; Cifone, Maria Grazia

    2017-04-11

    Nitric oxide has been implicated in biology and progression of glioblastoma (GBM) being able to influence the cellular signal depending on the concentration and duration of cell exposure. NOS2 (inducible nitric oxide synthase) have been proposed as a component of molecular profile of several tumors, including glioma, one of the most aggressive primary brain tumor featuring local cancer stem cells responsible for enhanced resistance to therapies and for tumor recurrence. Here, we investigated the NOS2 mRNA expression by reverse transcription-PCR in human glioma primary cultures at several grade of malignancy and glioma stem cell (GSC) derived neurospheres. Glioma cell lines were used as positive controls both in terms of stemness marker expression that of capacity of generating neurospheres. NOS2 expression was detected at basal levels in cell lines and primary cultures and appeared significantly up-regulated in cultures kept in the specific medium for neurospheres. The immunofluorescence analysis of all cell cultures to evaluate the levels of SOX-2, a stemness marker aberrantly up-regulated in GBM, was also performed. The potential correlation between NOS2 expression and ability to generate neurospheres and between NOS2 and SOX-2 levels was also verified. The results show that the higher NOS2 expression is detected in all primary cultures able to arise neurosphere. A high and significant correlation between NOS2 expression and SOX-2 positive cells (%) in all cell cultures maintained in standard conditions has been observed. The results shed light on the potential relevance of NOS2 as a prognostic factor for glioma malignancy and recurrence.

  11. Isolation, characterization and recombinant protein expression in Veggie-CHO: A serum-free CHO host cell line.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, B; Davis, R; Thomas, J; Reddy, P

    1998-11-01

    The dihydrofolate reductase-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cell line, DXB11-CHO, commonly used as a host cell for the production of recombinant proteins requires 7.5% serum-supplementation for optimal growth. Regulatory issues surrounding the use of serum in clinical production processes and the direct and indirect costs of using serum in large-scale production and recovery processes have triggered efforts to derive serum-independent host cell lines. We have successfully isolated a serum-free host that we named Veggie- CHO. Veggie-CHO was generated by adapting DXB11-CHO cells to growth in serum-free media in the absence of exogenous growth factors such as Transferrin and Insulin-like growth factor, which we have previously shown to be essential for growth and viability of DXB11- CHO cells. Veggie-CHO cells have been shown to maintain an average doubling time of 22 hr in continuous growth cultures over a period of three months and have retained the dihydrofolate reductase -deficient phenotype of their parental DXB11-CHO cells. These properties and the stability of its serum-free phenotype have allowed the use of Veggie- CHO as host cells for transfection and amplified expression of recombinant proteins. We describe the derivation a serum-free recombinant cell line with an average doubling time of 20 hr and specific productivity of 2.5 Units recombinant Flt-3L protein per 10e6 cells per day.

  12. Inflammation increases cells expressing ZSCAN4 and progenitor cell markers in the adult pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Sakiko; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Yamamoto, Akiko; Kyokane, Kazuhiro; Niida, Shumpei; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Ko, Minoru S. H.

    2013-01-01

    We have recently identified the zinc finger and SCAN domain containing 4 (Zscan4), which is transiently expressed and regulates telomere elongation and genome stability in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of ZSCAN4 in the adult pancreas and elucidate the role of ZSCAN4 in tissue inflammation and subsequent regeneration. The expression of ZSCAN4 and other progenitor or differentiated cell markers in the human pancreas was immunohistochemically examined. Pancreas sections of alcoholic or autoimmune pancreatitis patients before and under maintenance corticosteroid treatment were used in this study. In the adult human pancreas a small number of ZSCAN4-positive (ZSCAN4+) cells are present among cells located in the islets of Langerhans, acini, ducts, and oval-shaped cells. These cells not only express differentiated cell markers for each compartment of the pancreas but also express other tissue stem/progenitor cell markers. Furthermore, the number of ZSCAN4+ cells dramatically increased in patients with chronic pancreatitis, especially in the pancreatic tissues of autoimmune pancreatitis actively regenerating under corticosteroid treatment. Interestingly, a number of ZSCAN4+ cells in the pancreas of autoimmune pancreatitis returned to the basal level after 1 yr of maintenance corticosteroid treatment. In conclusion, coexpression of progenitor cell markers and differentiated cell markers with ZSCAN4 in each compartment of the pancreas may indicate the presence of facultative progenitors for both exocrine and endocrine cells in the adult pancreas. PMID:23599043

  13. Wnt Responsive Lgr5-Expressing Stem Cells Are Hair Cell Progenitors in the Cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Fuxin; Kempfle, Judith; Edge, Albert S. B.

    2012-01-01

    Auditory hair cells are surrounded on their basolateral aspects by supporting cells, and these two cell types together constitute the sensory epithelium of the organ of Corti, which is the hearing apparatus of the ear. We show here that Lgr5, a marker for adult stem cells, was expressed in a subset of supporting cells in the newborn and adult murine cochlea. Lgr5-expressing supporting cells, sorted by flow cytometry and cultured in a single cell suspension, as compared to unsorted cells, displayed an enhanced capacity for self-renewing neurosphere formation in response to Wnt and were converted to hair cells at a higher (>10-fold) rate. The greater differentiation of hair cell in the neurosphere assay showed that Lgr5-positive cells had the capacity to act as cochlear progenitor cells, and lineage tracing confirmed that Lgr5-expressing cells accounted for the cells that formed neurospheres and differentiated to hair cells. The responsiveness to Wnt of cells with a capacity for division and sensory cell formation suggests a potential route to new hair cell generation in the adult cochlea. PMID:22787049

  14. Disruption of the G1/S Transition in Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E7-Expressing Human Cells Is Associated with Altered Regulation of Cyclin E

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Larry G.; Demers, G. William; Galloway, Denise A.

    1998-01-01

    The development of neoplasia frequently involves inactivation of the p53 and retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor pathways and disruption of cell cycle checkpoints that monitor the integrity of replication and cell division. The human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) oncoproteins, E6 and E7, have been shown to bind p53 and Rb, respectively. To further delineate the mechanisms by which E6 and E7 affect cell cycle control, we examined various aspects of the cell cycle machinery. The low-risk HPV-6 E6 and E7 proteins did not cause any significant change in the levels of cell cycle proteins analyzed. HPV-16 E6 resulted in very low levels of p53 and p21 and globally elevated cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity. In contrast, HPV-16 E7 had a profound effect on several aspects of the cell cycle machinery. A number of cyclins and CDKs were elevated, and despite the elevation of the levels of at least two CDK inhibitors, p21 and p16, CDK activity was globally increased. Most strikingly, cyclin E expression was deregulated both transcriptionally and posttranscriptionally and persisted at high levels in S and G2/M. Transit through G1 was shortened by the premature activation of cyclin E-associated kinase activity. Elevation of cyclin E levels required both the CR1 and CR2 domains of E7. These data suggest that cyclin E may be a critical target of HPV-16 E7 in the disruption of G1/S cell cycle progression and that the ability of E7 to regulate cyclin E involves activities in addition to the release of E2F. PMID:9444990

  15. Human Neural Cells Transiently Express Reelin during Olfactory Placode Development

    PubMed Central

    Antal, M. Cristina; Samama, Brigitte; Ghandour, M. Said; Boehm, Nelly

    2015-01-01

    Reelin, an extracellular glycoprotein is essential for migration and correct positioning of neurons during development. Since the olfactory system is known as a source of various migrating neuronal cells, we studied Reelin expression in the two chemosensory olfactory systems, main and accessory, during early developmental stages of human foetuses/embryos from Carnegie Stage (CS) 15 to gestational week (GW) 14. From CS 15 to CS 18, but not at later stages, a transient expression of Reelin was detected first in the presumptive olfactory and then in the presumptive vomeronasal epithelium. During the same period, Reelin-positive cells detach from the olfactory/vomeronasal epithelium and migrate through the mesenchyme beneath the telencephalon. Dab 1, an adaptor protein of the Reelin pathway, was simultaneously expressed in the migratory mass from CS16 to CS17 and, at later stages, in the presumptive olfactory ensheathing cells. Possible involvements of Reelin and Dab 1 in the peripheral migrating stream are discussed. PMID:26270645

  16. Automation of large scale transient protein expression in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuguang; Bishop, Benjamin; Clay, Jordan E.; Lu, Weixian; Jones, Margaret; Daenke, Susan; Siebold, Christian; Stuart, David I.; Yvonne Jones, E.; Radu Aricescu, A.

    2011-01-01

    Traditional mammalian expression systems rely on the time-consuming generation of stable cell lines; this is difficult to accommodate within a modern structural biology pipeline. Transient transfections are a fast, cost-effective solution, but require skilled cell culture scientists, making man-power a limiting factor in a setting where numerous samples are processed in parallel. Here we report a strategy employing a customised CompacT SelecT cell culture robot allowing the large-scale expression of multiple protein constructs in a transient format. Successful protocols have been designed for automated transient transfection of human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T and 293S GnTI− cells in various flask formats. Protein yields obtained by this method were similar to those produced manually, with the added benefit of reproducibility, regardless of user. Automation of cell maintenance and transient transfection allows the expression of high quality recombinant protein in a completely sterile environment with limited support from a cell culture scientist. The reduction in human input has the added benefit of enabling continuous cell maintenance and protein production, features of particular importance to structural biology laboratories, which typically use large quantities of pure recombinant proteins, and often require rapid characterisation of a series of modified constructs. This automated method for large scale transient transfection is now offered as a Europe-wide service via the P-cube initiative. PMID:21571074

  17. Loss of c-KIT expression in thyroid cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Franceschi, Sara; Lessi, Francesca; Panebianco, Federica; Tantillo, Elena; La Ferla, Marco; Menicagli, Michele; Aretini, Paolo; Apollo, Alessandro; Naccarato, Antonio Giuseppe; Marchetti, Ivo; Mazzanti, Chiara Maria

    2017-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most frequent histologic type of thyroid tumor. Few studies investigated the role of c-KIT expression in thyroid tumors, suggesting a role for this receptor and its ligand in differentiation and growth control of thyroid epithelium and a receptor loss following malignant transformation. We investigated and correlated c-KIT expression levels and two known markers of thyrocytes differentiation, PAX8 and TTF-1, in malignant and benign cytological thyroid samples. Moreover, we performed functional studies on human papillary thyroid carcinoma cell line to associated c-KIT expression to thyrocytes differentiation and tumor proliferation. c-KIT and PAX8 expression resulted higher in benign samples compared to the malignant ones, and the expression levels of these two genes were significantly correlated to each other. We also observed that c-KIT overexpression led to an increase of PAX8 expression level together with a decrease of proliferation. Furthermore, c-KIT overexpressing cells showed a regression of typical morphological features of malignancy. Taken together these results suggest that c-KIT could be involved in the differentiation of thyroid cells and in tumor progression.

  18. Loss of c-KIT expression in thyroid cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Panebianco, Federica; Tantillo, Elena; La Ferla, Marco; Menicagli, Michele; Aretini, Paolo; Apollo, Alessandro; Naccarato, Antonio Giuseppe; Marchetti, Ivo; Mazzanti, Chiara Maria

    2017-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most frequent histologic type of thyroid tumor. Few studies investigated the role of c-KIT expression in thyroid tumors, suggesting a role for this receptor and its ligand in differentiation and growth control of thyroid epithelium and a receptor loss following malignant transformation. We investigated and correlated c-KIT expression levels and two known markers of thyrocytes differentiation, PAX8 and TTF-1, in malignant and benign cytological thyroid samples. Moreover, we performed functional studies on human papillary thyroid carcinoma cell line to associated c-KIT expression to thyrocytes differentiation and tumor proliferation. c-KIT and PAX8 expression resulted higher in benign samples compared to the malignant ones, and the expression levels of these two genes were significantly correlated to each other. We also observed that c-KIT overexpression led to an increase of PAX8 expression level together with a decrease of proliferation. Furthermore, c-KIT overexpressing cells showed a regression of typical morphological features of malignancy. Taken together these results suggest that c-KIT could be involved in the differentiation of thyroid cells and in tumor progression. PMID:28301608

  19. Expression and Function of the Cholinergic System in Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Takeshi; Mashimo, Masato; Moriwaki, Yasuhiro; Misawa, Hidemi; Ono, Shiro; Horiguchi, Kazuhide; Kawashima, Koichiro

    2017-01-01

    T and B cells express most cholinergic system components—e.g., acetylcholine (ACh), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), acetylcholinesterase, and both muscarinic and nicotinic ACh receptors (mAChRs and nAChRs, respectively). Using ChATBAC-eGFP transgenic mice, ChAT expression has been confirmed in T and B cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages. Moreover, T cell activation via T-cell receptor/CD3-mediated pathways upregulates ChAT mRNA expression and ACh synthesis, suggesting that this lymphocytic cholinergic system contributes to the regulation of immune function. Immune cells express all five mAChRs (M1–M5). Combined M1/M5 mAChR-deficient (M1/M5-KO) mice produce less antigen-specific antibody than wild-type (WT) mice. Furthermore, spleen cells in M1/M5-KO mice produce less tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6, suggesting M1/M5 mAChRs are involved in regulating pro-inflammatory cytokine and antibody production. Immune cells also frequently express the α2, α5, α6, α7, α9, and α10 nAChR subunits. α7 nAChR-deficient (α7-KO) mice produce more antigen-specific antibody than WT mice, and spleen cells from α7-KO mice produce more TNF-α and IL-6 than WT cells. This suggests that α7 nAChRs are involved in regulating cytokine production and thus modulate antibody production. Evidence also indicates that nicotine modulates immune responses by altering cytokine production and that α7 nAChR signaling contributes to immunomodulation through modification of T cell differentiation. Together, these findings suggest the involvement of both mAChRs and nAChRs in the regulation of immune function. The observation that vagus nerve stimulation protects mice from lethal endotoxin shock led to the notion of a cholinergic anti-inflammatory reflex pathway, and the spleen is an essential component of this anti-inflammatory reflex. Because the spleen lacks direct vagus innervation, it has been postulated that ACh synthesized by a subset of CD4+ T cells relays

  20. Zfp206 regulates ES cell gene expression and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Walker, Emily; Tamplin, Owen J; Rossant, Janet; Stanford, William L; Hughes, Timothy R

    2006-01-01

    Understanding transcriptional regulation in early developmental stages is fundamental to understanding mammalian development and embryonic stem (ES) cell properties. Expression surveys suggest that the putative SCAN-Zinc finger transcription factor Zfp206 is expressed specifically in ES cells [Zhang,W., Morris,Q.D., Chang,R., Shai,O., Bakowski,M.A., Mitsakakis,N., Mohammad,N., Robinson,M.D., Zirngibl,R., Somogyi,E. et al., (2004) J. Biol., 3, 21; Brandenberger,R., Wei,H., Zhang,S., Lei,S., Murage,J., Fisk,G.J., Li,Y., Xu,C., Fang,R., Guegler,K. et al., (2004) Nat. Biotechnol., 22, 707-716]. Here, we confirm this observation, and we show that ZFP206 expression decreases rapidly upon differentiation of cultured mouse ES cells, and during development of mouse embryos. We find that there are at least six isoforms of the ZFP206 transcript, the longest being predominant. Overexpression and depletion experiments show that Zfp206 promotes formation of undifferentiated ES cell clones, and positively regulates abundance of a very small set of transcripts whose expression is also specific to ES cells and the two- to four-cell stages of preimplantation embryos. This set includes members of the Zscan4, Thoc4, Tcstv1 and eIF-1A gene families, none of which have been functionally characterized in vivo but whose members include apparent transcription factors, RNA-binding proteins and translation factors. Together, these data indicate that Zfp206 is a regulator of ES cell differentiation that controls a set of genes expressed very early in development, most of which themselves appear to be regulators.

  1. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase is dynamically expressed during bone marrow stem cell differentiation into endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenguo; Jiang, Yuehua; Hao, Hong; Gupta, Kalpna; Xu, Jian; Chu, Ling; McFalls, Edward; Zweier, Jay; Verfaillie, Catherine; Bache, Robert J

    2007-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate the developmental expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) during stem cell differentiation into endothelial cells and to examine the functional status of the newly differentiated endothelial cells. Mouse adult multipotent progenitor cells (MAPCs) were used as the source of stem cells and were induced to differentiate into endothelial cells with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in serum-free medium. Expression of eNOS in the cells during differentiation was evaluated with real-time PCR, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, and Western blot analysis. It was found that eNOS, but no other NOS, was present in undifferentiated MAPCs. eNOS expression disappeared in the cells immediately after induction of differentiation. However, eNOS expression reoccurred at day 7 during differentiation. Increasing eNOS mRNA, protein content, and activity were observed in the cells at days 14 and 21 during differentiation. The differentiated endothelial cells formed dense capillary networks on growth factor-reduced Matrigel. VEGF-stimulated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1 and ERK-2 occurred in these cells, which was inhibited by NOS inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that eNOS is present in MAPCs and is dynamically expressed during the differentiation of MAPCs into endothelial cells in vitro.

  2. Endothelial connexin 32 regulates tissue factor expression induced by inflammatory stimulation and direct cell-cell interaction with activated cells.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Takayuki; Akita, Nobuyuki; Hayashi, Tatsuya; Shimaoka, Motomu; Suzuki, Koji

    2014-10-01

    Endothelial cell (EC) interacts with adjacent EC through gap junction, and abnormal expression or function of Cxs is associated with cardiovascular diseases. In patients with endothelial dysfunction, the up-regulation of tissue factor (TF) expression promotes the pathogenic activation of blood coagulation, however the relationship between gap junctions and TF expression in ECs remains uncharacterized. ECs express the gap junction (GJ) proteins connexin32 (Cx32), Cx37, Cx40 and Cx43. We investigated the role of endothelial gap junctions, particularly Cx32, in modulating TF expression during vascular inflammation. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and TF activity was assessed in the presence of GJ blockers and an inhibitory anti-Cx32 monoclonal antibody. Treatment with GJ blockers and anti-Cx32 monoclonal antibody enhanced the TNF-α-induced TF activity and mRNA expression in HUVECs. TNF-α-activated effector HUVECs or mouse MS-1 cells were co-cultured with non-stimulated acceptor HUVECs and TF expression in acceptor HUVECs was detected. Effector EC induced TF expression in adjacent acceptor HUVECs through direct cell-cell interaction. Cell-cell interaction induced TF expression was reduced by anti-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1) monoclonal antibody. Soluble ICAM1-Fc fusion protein promotes TF expression. GJ blockers and anti-Cx32 monoclonal antibody enhanced TF expression induced by cell-cell interaction and ICAM1-Fc treatment. Blockade of endothelial Cx32 increased TF expression induced by TNF-α stimulation and cell-cell interaction which was at least partly dependent upon ICAM1. These results suggest that direct Cx32-mediated interaction modulates TF expression in ECs during vascular inflammation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [6]-Gingerol Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Cell Death of Mutant p53-expressing Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yon Jung; Wen, Jing; Bang, Seungmin; Park, Seung Woo

    2006-01-01

    [6]-Gingerol, a major phenolic compound derived from ginger, has anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities. While several molecular mechanisms have been described to underlie its effects on cells in vitro and in vivo, the underlying mechanisms by which [6]-gingerol exerts anti-tumorigenic effects are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the action of [6]-gingerol on two human pancreatic cancer cell lines, HPAC expressing wild-type (wt) p53 and BxPC-3 expressing mutated p53. We found that [6]-gingerol inhibited the cell growth through cell cycle arrest at G1 phase in both cell lines. Western blot analyses indicated that [6]-gingerol decreased both Cyclin A and Cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) expression. These events led to reduction in Rb phosphorylation followed by blocking of S phase entry. p53 expression was decreased by [6]-gingerol treatment in both cell lines suggesting that the induction of Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21cip1, was p53-independent. [6]-Gingerol induced mostly apoptotic death in the mutant p53-expressing cells, while no signs of early apoptosis were detected in wild type p53-expressing cells and this was related to the increased phosphorylation of AKT. These results suggest that [6]-gingerol can circumvent the resistance of mutant p53-expressing cells towards chemotherapy by inducing apoptotic cell death while it exerts cytostatic effect on wild type p53-expressing cells by inducing temporal growth arrest. PMID:17066513

  4. From single-cell to cell-pool transcriptomes: stochasticity in gene expression and RNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Marinov, Georgi K; Williams, Brian A; McCue, Ken; Schroth, Gary P; Gertz, Jason; Myers, Richard M; Wold, Barbara J

    2014-03-01

    Single-cell RNA-seq mammalian transcriptome studies are at an early stage in uncovering cell-to-cell variation in gene expression, transcript processing and editing, and regulatory module activity. Despite great progress recently, substantial challenges remain, including discriminating biological variation from technical noise. Here we apply the SMART-seq single-cell RNA-seq protocol to study the reference lymphoblastoid cell line GM12878. By using spike-in quantification standards, we estimate the absolute number of RNA molecules per cell for each gene and find significant variation in total mRNA content: between 50,000 and 300,000 transcripts per cell. We directly measure technical stochasticity by a pool/split design and find that there are significant differences in expression between individual cells, over and above technical variation. Specific gene coexpression modules were preferentially expressed in subsets of individual cells, including one enriched for mRNA processing and splicing factors. We assess cell-to-cell variation in alternative splicing and allelic bias and report evidence of significant differences in splice site usage that exceed splice variation in the pool/split comparison. Finally, we show that transcriptomes from small pools of 30-100 cells approach the information content and reproducibility of contemporary RNA-seq from large amounts of input material. Together, our results define an experimental and computational path forward for analyzing gene expression in rare cell types and cell states.

  5. s-SHIP expression identifies a subset of murine basal prostate cells as neonatal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Brocqueville, Guillaume; Chmelar, Renee S.; Bauderlique-Le Roy, Hélène; Deruy, Emeric; Tian, Lu; Vessella, Robert L.; Greenberg, Norman M.; Bourette, Roland P.

    2016-01-01

    Isolation of prostate stem cells (PSCs) is crucial for understanding their biology during normal development and tumorigenesis. In this aim, we used a transgenic mouse model expressing GFP from the stem cell-specific s-SHIP promoter to mark putative stem cells during postnatal prostate development. Here we show that cells identified by GFP expression are present transiently during early prostate development and localize to the basal cell layer of the epithelium. These prostate GFP+ cells are a subpopulation of the Lin− CD24+ Sca-1+ CD49f+ cells and are capable of self-renewal together with enhanced growth potential in sphere-forming assay in vitro, a phenotype consistent with that of a PSC population. Transplantation assays of prostate GFP+ cells demonstrate reconstitution of prostate ducts containing both basal and luminal cells in renal grafts. Altogether, these results demonstrate that s-SHIP promoter expression is a new marker for neonatal basal prostate cells exhibiting stem cell properties that enables PSCs in situ identification and isolation via a single consistent parameter. Transcriptional profiling of these GFP+ neonatal stem cells showed an increased expression of several components of the Wnt signaling pathway. It also identified stem cell regulators with potential applications for further analyses of normal and cancer stem cells. PMID:27081082

  6. Quantifying HER-2 expression on circulating tumor cells by ACCEPT.

    PubMed

    Zeune, Leonie; van Dalum, Guus; Decraene, Charles; Proudhon, Charlotte; Fehm, Tanja; Neubauer, Hans; Rack, Brigitte; Alunni-Fabbroni, Marianna; Terstappen, Leon W M M; van Gils, Stephan A; Brune, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) isolated from blood can be probed for the expression of treatment targets. Immunofluorescence is often used for both the enumeration of CTC and the determination of protein expression levels related to treatment targets. Accurate and reproducible assessment of such treatment target expression levels is essential for their use in the clinic. To enable this, an open source image analysis program named ACCEPT was developed in the EU-FP7 CTCTrap and CANCER-ID programs. Here its application is shown on a retrospective cohort of 132 metastatic breast cancer patients from which blood samples were processed by CellSearch® and stained for HER-2 expression as additional marker. Images were digitally stored and reviewers identified a total of 4084 CTCs. CTC's HER-2 expression was determined in the thumbnail images by ACCEPT. 150 of these images were selected and sent to six independent investigators to score the HER-2 expression with and without ACCEPT. Concordance rate of the operators' scoring results for HER-2 on CTCs was 30% and could be increased using the ACCEPT tool to 51%. Automated assessment of HER-2 expression by ACCEPT on 4084 CTCs of 132 patients showed 8 (6.1%) patients with all CTCs expressing HER-2, 14 (10.6%) patients with no CTC expressing HER-2 and 110 (83.3%) patients with CTCs showing a varying HER-2 expression level. In total 1576 CTCs were determined HER-2 positive. We conclude that the use of image analysis enables a more reproducible quantification of treatment targets on CTCs and leads the way to fully automated and reproducible approaches.

  7. Quantifying HER-2 expression on circulating tumor cells by ACCEPT

    PubMed Central

    van Dalum, Guus; Decraene, Charles; Proudhon, Charlotte; Fehm, Tanja; Neubauer, Hans; Rack, Brigitte; Alunni-Fabbroni, Marianna; Terstappen, Leon W. M. M.; van Gils, Stephan A.; Brune, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) isolated from blood can be probed for the expression of treatment targets. Immunofluorescence is often used for both the enumeration of CTC and the determination of protein expression levels related to treatment targets. Accurate and reproducible assessment of such treatment target expression levels is essential for their use in the clinic. To enable this, an open source image analysis program named ACCEPT was developed in the EU-FP7 CTCTrap and CANCER-ID programs. Here its application is shown on a retrospective cohort of 132 metastatic breast cancer patients from which blood samples were processed by CellSearch® and stained for HER-2 expression as additional marker. Images were digitally stored and reviewers identified a total of 4084 CTCs. CTC’s HER-2 expression was determined in the thumbnail images by ACCEPT. 150 of these images were selected and sent to six independent investigators to score the HER-2 expression with and without ACCEPT. Concordance rate of the operators’ scoring results for HER-2 on CTCs was 30% and could be increased using the ACCEPT tool to 51%. Automated assessment of HER-2 expression by ACCEPT on 4084 CTCs of 132 patients showed 8 (6.1%) patients with all CTCs expressing HER-2, 14 (10.6%) patients with no CTC expressing HER-2 and 110 (83.3%) patients with CTCs showing a varying HER-2 expression level. In total 1576 CTCs were determined HER-2 positive. We conclude that the use of image analysis enables a more reproducible quantification of treatment targets on CTCs and leads the way to fully automated and reproducible approaches. PMID:29084234

  8. Foxc2CreERT2 knock-in mice mark stage-specific Foxc2-expressing cells during mouse organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Amin, Mohammed Badrul; Miura, Naoyuki; Uddin, Mohammad Khaja Mafij; Islam, Mohammod Johirul; Yoshida, Nobuaki; Iseki, Sachiko; Kume, Tsutomu; Trainor, Paul A; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Aoto, Kazushi

    2017-01-01

    Foxc2, a member of the winged helix transcription factor family, is essential for eye, calvarial bone, cardiovascular and kidney development in mice. Nevertheless, how Foxc2-expressing cells and their descendent cells contribute to the development of these tissues and organs has not been elucidated. Here, we generated a Foxc2 knock-in (Foxc2 CreERT2 ) mouse, in which administration of estrogen receptor antagonist tamoxifen induces nuclear translocation of Cre recombinase in Foxc2-expressing cells. By crossing with ROSA-LacZ reporter mice (Foxc2 CreERT2 ; R26R), the fate of Foxc2 positive (Foxc2 + ) cells was analyzed through LacZ staining at various embryonic stages. We found Foxc2 + cell descendants in the supraoccipital and exoccipital bone in E18.5 embryos, when tamoxifen was administered at embryonic day (E) 8.5. Furthermore, Foxc2 + descendant cranial neural crest cells at E8-10 were restricted to the corneal mesenchyme, while Foxc2 + cell derived cardiac neural crest cells at E6-12 were found in the aorta, pulmonary trunk and valves, and endocardial cushions. Foxc2 + cell descendant contributions to the glomerular podocytes in the kidney were also observed following E6.5 tamoxifen treatment. Our results are consistent with previous reports of Foxc2 expression during early embryogenesis and the Foxc2 CreERT2 mouse provides a tool to investigate spatiotemporal roles of Foxc2 and contributions of Foxc2 + expressing cells during mouse embryogenesis. © 2016 Japanese Teratology Society.

  9. Spatial reconstruction of single-cell gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Satija, Rahul; Farrell, Jeffrey A.; Gennert, David; Schier, Alexander F.; Regev, Aviv

    2015-01-01

    Spatial localization is a key determinant of cellular fate and behavior, but spatial RNA assays traditionally rely on staining for a limited number of RNA species. In contrast, single-cell RNA-seq allows for deep profiling of cellular gene expression, but established methods separate cells from their native spatial context. Here we present Seurat, a computational strategy to infer cellular localization by integrating single-cell RNA-seq data with in situ RNA patterns. We applied Seurat to spatially map 851 single cells from dissociated zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos, inferring a transcriptome-wide map of spatial patterning. We confirmed Seurat’s accuracy using several experimental approaches, and used it to identify a set of archetypal expression patterns and spatial markers. Additionally, Seurat correctly localizes rare subpopulations, accurately mapping both spatially restricted and scattered groups. Seurat will be applicable to mapping cellular localization within complex patterned tissues in diverse systems. PMID:25867923

  10. Analysis of allelic expression patterns in clonal somatic cells by single-cell RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Ramsköld, Daniel; Deng, Qiaolin; Johnsson, Per; Michaëlsson, Jakob; Frisén, Jonas; Sandberg, Rickard

    2016-01-01

    Cellular heterogeneity can emerge from the expression of only one parental allele. However, it has remained controversial whether, or to what degree, random monoallelic expression of autosomal genes (aRME) is mitotically inherited (clonal) or stochastic (dynamic) in somatic cells, particularly in vivo. Here, we used allele-sensitive single-cell RNA-seq on clonal primary mouse fibroblasts and in vivo human CD8+ T-cells to dissect clonal and dynamic monoallelic expression patterns. Dynamic aRME affected a considerable portion of the cells’ transcriptomes, with levels dependent on the cells’ transcriptional activity. Importantly, clonal aRME was detected but was surprisingly scarce (<1% of genes) and affected mainly the most low-expressed genes. Consequently, the overwhelming portion of aRME occurs transiently within individual cells and patterns of aRME are thus primarily scattered throughout somatic cell populations rather than, as previously hypothesized, confined to patches of clonally related cells. PMID:27668657

  11. Reduction of CD147 surface expression on primary T cells leads to enhanced cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Biegler, Brian; Kasinrerk, Watchara

    2012-12-01

    CD147 is a ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein that has numerous functional associations in health and disease. However, the molecular mechanisms by which CD147 participates in these processes are unclear. Establishing physiologically relevant silencing of CD147 in primary T cells could provide clues essential for elucidating some aspects of CD147 biology. To date, achieving the knockdown of CD147 in primary T cells has remained elusive. Utilizing RNA interference and the Nucleofector transfection system, we were able to reduce the expression of CD147 in primary T cells. Comparison of basic functions, such as proliferation and CD25 expression, were then made between control populations and populations with reduced expression. Up-regulation of CD147 was found upon T-cell activation, indicating a role in T-cell responses. To better understand the possible importance of this up-regulation, we knocked down the expression of CD147 using RNA interference. When compared to control populations the CD147 knockdown populations exhibited increased proliferation. This alteration of cell proliferation, however, was not linked to a change in CD25 expression. We achieved reduction of CD147 surface expression in primary T cells by siRNA-mediated gene silencing. Our results point to CD147 having a possible negative regulatory role in T cell-mediated immune responses.

  12. Vascular endothelial cells express isoforms of protein kinase A inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Lum, Hazel; Hao, Zengping; Gayle, Dave; Kumar, Priyadarsini; Patterson, Carolyn E; Uhler, Michael D

    2002-01-01

    The expression and function of the endogenous inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKI) in endothelial cells are unknown. In this study, overexpression of rabbit muscle PKI gene into endothelial cells inhibited the cAMP-mediated increase and exacerbated thrombin-induced decrease in endothelial barrier function. We investigated PKI expression in human pulmonary artery (HPAECs), foreskin microvessel (HMECs), and brain microvessel endothelial cells (HBMECs). RT-PCR using specific primers for human PKI alpha, human PKI gamma, and mouse PKI beta sequences detected PKI alpha and PKI gamma mRNA in all three cell types. Sequencing and BLAST analysis indicated that forward and reverse DNA strands for PKI alpha and PKI gamma were of >96% identity with database sequences. RNase protection assays showed protection of the 542 nucleotides in HBMEC and HPAEC PKI alpha mRNA and 240 nucleotides in HBMEC, HPAEC, and HMEC PKI gamma mRNA. Western blot analysis indicated that PKI gamma protein was detected in all three cell types, whereas PKI alpha was found in HBMECs. In summary, endothelial cells from three different vascular beds express PKI alpha and PKI gamma, which may be physiologically important in endothelial barrier function.

  13. Prostate stromal cells express the progesterone receptor to control cancer cell mobility.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Lee, Jennifer Suehyun; Xie, Ning; Li, Estelle; Hurtado-Coll, Antonio; Fazli, Ladan; Cox, Michael; Plymate, Stephen; Gleave, Martin; Dong, Xuesen

    2014-01-01

    Reciprocal interactions between epithelium and stroma play vital roles for prostate cancer development and progression. Enhanced secretions of cytokines and growth factors by cancer associated fibroblasts in prostate tumors create a favorable microenvironment for cancer cells to grow and metastasize. Our previous work showed that the progesterone receptor (PR) was expressed specifically in prostate stromal fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells. However, the expression levels of PR and its impact to tumor microenvironment in prostate tumors are poorly understood. Immunohistochemistry assays are applied to human prostate tissue biopsies. Cell migration, invasion and proliferation assays are performed using human prostate cells. Real-time PCR and ELISA are applied to measure gene expression at molecular levels. Immunohistochemistry assays showed that PR protein levels were decreased in cancer associated stroma when compared with paired normal prostate stroma. Using in vitro prostate stromal cell models, we showed that conditioned media collected from PR positive stromal cells inhibited prostate cancer cell migration and invasion, but had minor suppressive impacts on cancer cell proliferation. PR suppressed the secretion of stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and interlukin-6 (IL-6) by stromal cells independent to PR ligands. Blocking PR expression by siRNA or supplementation of exogenous SDF-1 or IL-6 to conditioned media from PR positive stromal cells counteracted the inhibitory effects of PR to cancer cell migration and invasion. Decreased expression of the PR in cancer associated stroma may contribute to the elevated SDF-1 and IL-6 levels in prostate tumors and enhance prostate tumor progression.

  14. Ebola virus infection induces irregular dendritic cell gene expression.

    PubMed

    Melanson, Vanessa R; Kalina, Warren V; Williams, Priscilla

    2015-02-01

    Filoviruses subvert the human immune system in part by infecting and replicating in dendritic cells (DCs). Using gene arrays, a phenotypic profile of filovirus infection in human monocyte-derived DCs was assessed. Monocytes from human donors were cultured in GM-CSF and IL-4 and were infected with Ebola virus Kikwit variant for up to 48 h. Extracted DC RNA was analyzed on SuperArray's Dendritic and Antigen Presenting Cell Oligo GEArray and compared to uninfected controls. Infected DCs exhibited increased expression of cytokine, chemokine, antiviral, and anti-apoptotic genes not seen in uninfected controls. Significant increases of intracellular antiviral and MHC I and II genes were also noted in EBOV-infected DCs. However, infected DCs failed to show any significant difference in co-stimulatory T-cell gene expression from uninfected DCs. Moreover, several chemokine genes were activated, but there was sparse expression of chemokine receptors that enabled activated DCs to home to lymph nodes. Overall, statistically significant expression of several intracellular antiviral genes was noted, which may limit viral load but fails to stop replication. EBOV gene expression profiling is of vital importance in understanding pathogenesis and devising novel therapeutic treatments such as small-molecule inhibitors.

  15. Norrin expression in endothelial cells in the developing mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hanjae; Jo, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Kim, Jeong Hun

    2013-06-01

    Norrin, a protein that acts on Frizzled-4 receptor, participates in angiogenesis in a variety of contexts through the Wnt-signaling pathway. Specifically, Norrin is found to play a crucial role in retinal vascularization. Norrin's pivotal role in angiogenesis led us to investigate its expression and the primary source in the developing retina. In this study we demonstrate, for the first time, that Norrin protein is expressed along the retinal blood vessels. The expression of Norrin coincided with the pattern of vascular growth in the developing mouse retina, and its expression was identified from the endothelial cells of the retinal capillaries. Furthermore, Norrin was also expressed on endothelial cells of the developing human retina. Given that Norrin is crucial in the normal development and maintenance of ocular capillaries, our finding provides a hint of the involvement of Norrin in the self generative and protective mechanism of the endothelial cells in the developing retina. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. O-GlcNAcylation of NF-κB Promotes Lung Metastasis of Cervical Cancer Cells via Upregulation of CXCR4 Expression.

    PubMed

    Ali, Akhtar; Kim, Sung Hwan; Kim, Min Jun; Choi, Mee Young; Kang, Sang Soo; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Kim, Yoon Sook; Choi, Jun-Young; Choi, Wan Sung

    2017-07-31

    C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) stimulates cancer metastasis. NF-κB regulates CXCR4 expression in cancer cells, and O-GlcNAc modification of NF-κB promotes its transcriptional activity. Here, we determined whether CXCR4 expression is affected by O-GlcNAcylation of NF-κB in lung metastasis of cervical cancer. We found elevated levels of O-linked-N-actylglucosamine transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcylation in cervical cancer cells compared to those in non-malignant epithelial cells and detected increased expression of NF-κB p65 (p65) and CXCR4 in cervical cancer cells. Knockdown of OGT inhibited the O-GlcNAcylation of p65 and decreased CXCR4 expression levels in HeLa cells. Thiamet G treatment increased O-GlcNAcylated p65, which subsequently enhanced CXCR4 expression levels. Inhibition of O-GlcNAcylation by 6-Diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine (DON) treatment decreased p65 activation, eventually inhibiting CXCR4 expression in HeLa cells. Lung tissues from mice engrafted with OGT-knockdown HeLa cells (shOGT) exhibited lower expression of Ki-67 and HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes compared to lung tissues from mice engrafted with control HeLa cells (shCTL). In addition, lung tissues from mice engrafted with shOGT cells exhibited lower p65 and CXCR4 immunoreactivity compared to tissues from mice engrafted with shCTL cells. Taken together, our data suggest that p65 O-GlcNAcylation promotes lung metastasis of cervical cancer cells by activating CXCR4 expression.

  17. L-Dopa decarboxylase expression profile in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chalatsa, Ioanna; Nikolouzou, Eleftheria; Fragoulis, Emmanuel G; Vassilacopoulou, Dido

    2011-02-01

    L-Dopa decarboxylase (DDC) catalyses the decarboxylation of L-Dopa. It has been shown that the DDC gene undergoes alternative splicing within its 5'-untranslated region (UTR), in a tissue-specific manner, generating identical protein products. The employment of two alternative 5'UTRs is thought to be responsible for tissue-specific expression of the human DDC mRNA. In this study, we focused on the investigation of the nature of the mRNA expression in human cell lines of neural and non-neural origin. Our results show the expression of a neural-type DDC mRNA splice variant, lacking exon 3 in all cell lines studied. Co-expression of the full length non-neural DDC mRNA and the neural-type DDC splice variant lacking exon 3 was detected in all cell lines. The alternative DDC protein isoform, Alt-DDC, was detected in SH-SY5Y and HeLa cells. Our findings suggest that the human DDC gene undergoes complex processing, leading to the formation of multiple mRNA isoforms. The study of the significance of this phenomenon of multiple DDC mRNA isoforms could provide us with new information leading to the elucidation of the complex biological pathways that the human enzyme is involved in.

  18. Cell-cell contact regulates gene expression in CDK4-transformed mouse podocytes.

    PubMed

    Sakairi, Toru; Abe, Yoshifusa; Jat, Parmijit S; Kopp, Jeffrey B

    2010-10-01

    We transformed mouse podocytes by ectopic expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4). Compared with podocytes transformed with a thermo-sensitive SV40 large T antigen mutant tsA58U19 (tsT podocytes), podocytes transformed with CDK4 (CDK4 podocytes) exhibited significantly higher expression of nephrin mRNA. Synaptopodin mRNA expression was significantly lower in CDK4 podocytes and in tsT podocytes under growth-permissive conditions (33°C) compared with tsT podocytes under growth-restricted conditions (37°C), which suggests a role for cell cycle arrest in synaptopodin mRNA expression. Confluent CDK4 podocytes showed significantly higher mRNA expression levels for nephrin, synaptopodin, Wilms tumor 1, podocalyxin, and P-cadherin compared with subconfluent cultures. We carried out experiments to clarify roles of various factors in the confluent podocyte cultures; our findings indicate that cell-cell contact promotes expression of five podocyte marker genes studied, that cellular quiescence increases synaptopodin and podocalyxin mRNA expression, and that soluble factors play a role in nephrin mRNA expression. Our findings suggest that CDK4 podocytes are useful tools to study podocyte biology. Furthermore, the role of cell-cell contact in podocyte gene expression may have relevance for podocyte function in vivo.

  19. In vitro biological activities of the E6 and E7 genes vary among human papillomaviruses of different oncogenic potential.

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, M S; Vass, W C; Lowy, D R; Schiller, J T

    1991-01-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) and HPV-18 are often detected in cervical carcinomas, while HPV-6, although frequently present in benign genital lesions, is only rarely present in cancers of the cervix. Therefore, infections with HPV-16 and HPV-18 are considered high risk and infection with HPV-6 is considered low risk. We found, by using a heterologous promoter system, that expression of the E7 transforming protein differs between high- and low-risk HPVs. In high-risk HPV-16, E7 is expressed from constructs containing the complete upstream E6 open reading frame. In contrast, HPV-6 E7 was efficiently translated only when E6 was deleted. By using clones in which the coding regions of HPV-6, HPV-16, and HPV-18 E7s were preceded by identical leader sequences, we found that the ability of the E7 gene products to induce anchorage-independent growth in rodent fibroblasts correlated directly with the oncogenic association of the HPV types. By using an immortalization assay of normal human keratinocytes that requires complementation of E6 and E7, we found that both E6 and E7 of HPV-18 could complement the corresponding gene from HPV-16. However, neither E6 nor E7 from HPV-6 was able to substitute for the corresponding gene of HPV-16 or HPV-18. Our results suggest that multiple factors, including lower intrinsic biological activity of E6 and E7 and differences in the regulation of their expression, account for the low activity of HPV-6, in comparison with HPV-16 and HPV-18, in in vitro assays. These same factors may, in part, account for the apparent difference in oncogenic potential between these viruses. Images PMID:1845889

  20. Cell Surface Expression of Biologically Active Influenza C Virus HEF Glycoprotein Expressed from cDNA

    PubMed Central

    Pekosz, Andrew; Lamb, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    The hemagglutinin, esterase, and fusion (HEF) glycoprotein of influenza C virus possesses receptor binding, receptor destroying, and membrane fusion activities. The HEF cDNAs from influenza C/Ann Arbor/1/50 (HEF-AA) and influenza C/Taylor/1223/47 (HEF-Tay) viruses were cloned and expressed, and transport of HEF to the cell surface was monitored by susceptibility to cleavage by exogenous trypsin, indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, and flow cytometry. Previously it has been found in studies with the C/Johannesburg/1/66 strain of influenza C virus (HEF-JHB) that transport of HEF to the cell surface is severely inhibited, and it is thought that the short cytoplasmic tail, Arg-Thr-Lys, is involved in blocking HEF cell surface expression (F. Oeffner, H.-D. Klenk, and G. Herrler, J. Gen. Virol. 80:363–369, 1999). As the cytoplasmic tail amino acid sequences of HEF-AA and HEF-Tay are identical to that of HEF-JHB, the data indicate that cell surface expression of HEF-AA and HEF-Tay is not inhibited by this amino acid sequence. Furthermore, the abundant cell surface transport of HEF-AA and HEF-Tay indicates that their cell surface expression does not require coexpression of another viral protein. The HEF-AA and HEF-Tay HEF glycoproteins bound human erythrocytes, promoted membrane fusion in a low-pH and trypsin-dependent manner, and displayed esterase activity, indicating that the HEF glycoprotein alone mediates all three known functions at the cell surface. PMID:10482635

  1. COX-2 expression positively correlates with PD-L1 expression in human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Botti, Gerardo; Fratangelo, Federica; Cerrone, Margherita; Liguori, Giuseppina; Cantile, Monica; Anniciello, Anna Maria; Scala, Stefania; D'Alterio, Crescenzo; Trimarco, Chiara; Ianaro, Angela; Cirino, Giuseppe; Caracò, Corrado; Colombino, Maria; Palmieri, Giuseppe; Pepe, Stefano; Ascierto, Paolo Antonio; Sabbatino, Francesco; Scognamiglio, Giosuè

    2017-02-23

    The resistance to PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors for the treatment of melanoma have prompted investigators to implement novel clinical trials which combine immunotherapy with different treatment modalities. Moreover is also important to investigate the mechanisms which regulate the dynamic expression of PD-L1 on tumor cells and PD-1 on T cells in order to identify predictive biomarkers of response. COX-2 is currently investigated as a major player of tumor progression in several type of malignancies including melanoma. In the present study we investigated the potential relationship between COX-2 and PD-L1 expression in melanoma. Tumor samples obtained from primary melanoma lesions and not matched lymph node metastases were analyzed for both PD-L1 and COX-2 expression by IHC analysis. Status of BRAF and NRAS mutations was analyzed by sequencing and PCR. Co-localization of PD-L1 and COX-2 expression was analyzed by double fluorescence staining. Lastly the BRAF V600E A375 and NRAS Q61R SK-MEL-2 melanoma cell lines were used to evaluate the effect of COX-2 inhibition by celecoxib on expression of PD-L1 in vitro. BRAF V600E/V600K and NRAS Q61R/Q61L were detected in 57.8 and 8.9% of the metastatic lesions, and in 65.9 and 6.8% of the primary tumors, respectively. PD-L1 and COX-2 expression were heterogeneously expressed in both primary melanoma lesions and not matched lymph node metastases. A significantly lower number of PD-L1 negative lesions was found in primary tumors as compared to not matched metastatic lesions (P = 0.002). COX-2 expression significantly correlated with PD-L1 expression in both primary (P = 0.001) and not matched metastatic (P = 0.048) lesions. Furthermore, in melanoma tumors, cancer cells expressing a higher levels of COX-2 also co-expressed a higher level of PD-L1. Lastly, inhibition of COX-2 activity by celecoxib down-regulated the expression of PD-L1 in both BRAF V600E A375 and NRAS Q61R SK-MEL-2 melanoma cell lines. COX-2 expression correlates

  2. PTPN6 regulates the cell-surface expression of TRPM4 channels in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Kun; Park, Jung Yeon; Yoo, Jae Cheal; Byun, Eun Hye; Bae, Yeon-Ju; Lee, Young-Sun; Park, Nammi; Kang, Dawon; Han, Jaehee; Park, Jae Yong; Hwang, Eunmi; Hong, Seong-Geun

    2018-06-21

    Transient receptor-potential, cation channel, subfamily M, member 4 (TRPM4) channels regulate a variety of physiological and pathological processes; however, their roles as functional channels under diverse conditions remain unclear. In this study, cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 6 (PTPN6) interacted with TRPM4 channels. We confirmed their interaction by performing co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assays following heterologous PTPN6 and TRPM4 channel expression in HEK293 cells. Furthermore, biomolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) image analysis confirmed TRPM4-PTPN6 binding. In addition, immunoblotting and Co-IP analyses revealed that TRPM4 expression significantly decreased in the membrane fraction of cells after PTPN6 was silenced with a specific short-hairpin RNA (shRNA-PTPN6). In agreement, TRPM4-induced changes in whole-cell currents were not detected in PTPN6-silenced HEK cells, in contrast to cells transfected with a scrambled RNA (scRNA) or in naïve HEK cells. These data suggest that PTPN6 inhibits TRPM4 channel activity by disrupting TRPM4 expression. Furthermore, TRPM4 channels were expressed in the membrane of naïve cells and scRNA transfectants, but not in those of PTPN6-silenced cells. These results indicated that PTPN6 is critically associated with TRPM4 trafficking. This role of PTPN6 in TRPM4 membrane localization was also demonstrated in HeLa cells. TRPM4 overexpression significantly enhanced cell proliferation in untreated HeLa cells, but not in HeLa cells with silenced PTPN6 expression. These findings indicate that PTPN6-dependent TRPM4 expression and trafficking to the plasma membrane is critical for cell proliferation in both HEK293 and HeLa cells. Therefore, PTPN6 is a novel therapeutic target for treating pathologic diseases involving TRPM4.

  3. E6 and E7 Gene Polymorphisms in Human Papillomavirus Types-58 and 33 Identified in Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Qiang; Wang, Tao; Mu, Xuemei; Chenzhang, Yuwei; Cao, Man

    2017-01-01

    Cancer of the cervix is associated with infection by certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV). The gene variants differ in immune responses and oncogenic potential. The E6 and E7 proteins encoded by high-risk HPV play a key role in cellular transformation. HPV-33 and HPV-58 types are highly prevalent among Chinese women. To study the gene intratypic variations, polymorphisms and positive selections of HPV-33 and HPV-58 E6/E7 in southwest China, HPV-33 (E6, E7: n = 216) and HPV-58 (E6, E7: n = 405) E6 and E7 genes were sequenced and compared to others submitted to GenBank. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by Maximum-likelihood and the Kimura 2-parameters methods by MEGA 6 (Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0). The diversity of secondary structure was analyzed by PSIPred software. The selection pressures acting on the E6/E7 genes were estimated by PAML 4.8 (Phylogenetic Analyses by Maximun Likelihood version4.8) software. The positive sites of HPV-33 and HPV-58 E6/E7 were contrasted by ClustalX 2.1. Among 216 HPV-33 E6 sequences, 8 single nucleotide mutations were observed with 6/8 non-synonymous and 2/8 synonymous mutations. The 216 HPV-33 E7 sequences showed 3 single nucleotide mutations that were non-synonymous. The 405 HPV-58 E6 sequences revealed 8 single nucleotide mutations with 4/8 non-synonymous and 4/8 synonymous mutations. Among 405 HPV-58 E7 sequences, 13 single nucleotide mutations were observed with 10/13 non-synonymous mutations and 3/13 synonymous mutations. The selective pressure analysis showed that all HPV-33 and 4/6 HPV-58 E6/E7 major non-synonymous mutations were sites of positive selection. All variations were observed in sites belonging to major histocompatibility complex and/or B-cell predicted epitopes. K93N and R145 (I/N) were observed in both HPV-33 and HPV-58 E6. PMID:28141822

  4. Hepatic oval cells express the hematopoietic stem cell marker Thy-1 in the rat.

    PubMed

    Petersen, B E; Goff, J P; Greenberger, J S; Michalopoulos, G K

    1998-02-01

    Hepatic oval cells (HOC) are a small subpopulation of cells found in the liver when hepatocyte proliferation is inhibited and followed by some type of hepatic injury. HOC can be induced to proliferate using a 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF)/hepatic injury (i.e., CCl4, partial hepatectomy [PHx]) protocol. These cells are believed to be bipotential, i.e., able to differentiate into hepatocytes or bile ductular cells. In the past, isolation of highly enriched populations of these cells has been difficult. Thy-1 is a cell surface marker used in conjunction with CD34 and lineage-specific markers to identify hematopoietic stem cells. Thy-1 antigen is not normally expressed in adult liver, but is expressed in fetal liver, presumably on the hematopoietic cells. We report herein that HOC express high levels of Thy-1. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the cells expressing Thy-1 were indeed oval cells, because they also expressed alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), cytokeratin 19 (CK-19), OC.2, and OV-6, all known markers for oval cell identification. In addition, the Thy-1+ cells were negative for desmin, a marker specific for Ito cells. Using Thy-1 antibody as a new marker for the identification of oval cells, a highly enriched population was obtained. Using flow cytometric methods, we isolated a 95% to 97% pure Thy-1+ oval cell population. Our results indicate that cell sorting using Thy-1 could be an attractive tool for future studies, which would facilitate both in vivo and in vitro studies of HOC.

  5. PROFILES OF GENE EXPRESSION ASSOCIATED WITH TETRACYCLINE OVER EXPRESSION OF HSP70 IN MCF-7 BREAST CANCER CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Profiles of gene expression associated with tetracycline over expression of HSP70 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) protect cells from damage through their function as molecular chaperones. Some cancers reveal high levels of HSP70 expression in asso...

  6. Adult murine CNS stem cells express aquaporin channels.

    PubMed

    La Porta, Caterina A M; Gena, Patrizia; Gritti, Angela; Fascio, Umberto; Svelto, Maria; Calamita, Giuseppe

    2006-02-01

    Fluid homoeostasis is of critical importance in many functions of the CNS (central nervous system) as indicated by the fact that dysregulation of cell volume underlies clinical conditions such as brain oedema and hypoxia. Water balance is also important during neurogenesis as neural stem cells move considerable amounts of water into or out of the cell to rapidly change their volume during differentiation. Consistent with the relevance of water transport in CNS, multiple AQP (aquaporin) water channels have been recognized and partially characterized in brain cell function. However, the presence and distribution of AQPs in CNS stem cells has not yet been assessed. In the present study, we investigate the expression and subcellular localization of AQPs in murine ANSCs (adult neural stem cells). Considerable AQP8 mRNAs were found in ANSCs where, as expected, the transcript of two additional AQPs, AQP4 and AQP9, was also detected. Immunoblotting with subcellular membrane fractions of ANSCs showed predominant expression of AQP8 in the mitochondria-enriched fraction. This result was consistent with the spotted immunoreactivity profile encountered within the ANSCs by confocal immunofluorescence. AQP8 may have a role in mitochondrial volume regulation during ANSC differentiation. Recognition of AQPs in ANSCs is a step forward in our knowledge of water homoeostasis in the CNS and provides useful information for the purposes of stem cell technology.

  7. Single-cell gene expression profiling reveals functional heterogeneity of undifferentiated human epidermal cells

    PubMed Central

    Tan, David W. M.; Jensen, Kim B.; Trotter, Matthew W. B.; Connelly, John T.; Broad, Simon; Watt, Fiona M.

    2013-01-01

    Human epidermal stem cells express high levels of β1 integrins, delta-like 1 (DLL1) and the EGFR antagonist LRIG1. However, there is cell-to-cell variation in the relative abundance of DLL1 and LRIG1 mRNA transcripts. Single-cell global gene expression profiling showed that undifferentiated cells fell into two clusters delineated by expression of DLL1 and its binding partner syntenin. The DLL1+ cluster had elevated expression of genes associated with endocytosis, integrin-mediated adhesion and receptor tyrosine kinase signalling. Differentially expressed genes were not independently regulated, as overexpression of DLL1 alone or together with LRIG1 led to the upregulation of other genes in the DLL1+ cluster. Overexpression of DLL1 and LRIG1 resulted in enhanced extracellular matrix adhesion and increased caveolin-dependent EGFR endocytosis. Further characterisation of CD46, one of the genes upregulated in the DLL1+ cluster, revealed it to be a novel cell surface marker of human epidermal stem cells. Cells with high endogenous levels of CD46 expressed high levels of β1 integrin and DLL1 and were highly adhesive and clonogenic. Knockdown of CD46 decreased proliferative potential and β1 integrin-mediated adhesion. Thus, the previously unknown heterogeneity revealed by our studies results in differences in the interaction of undifferentiated basal keratinocytes with their environment. PMID:23482486

  8. Genus Beta Human Papillomavirus E6 Proteins Vary in Their Effects on the Transactivation of p53 Target Genes

    PubMed Central

    White, Elizabeth A.; Walther, Johanna; Javanbakht, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genus beta human papillomaviruses (beta HPVs) cause cutaneous lesions and are thought to be involved in the initiation of some nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), particularly in patients with the genetic disorder epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV). We have previously reported that at least two of the genus beta HPV E6 proteins bind to and/or increase the steady-state levels of p53 in squamous epithelial cells. This is in contrast to a well-characterized ability of the E6 proteins of cancer-associated HPVs of genus alpha HPV, which inactivate p53 by targeting its ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. In this study, we have investigated the ability of genus beta E6 proteins from eight different HPV types to block the transactivation of p53 target genes following DNA damage. We find that the E6 proteins from diverse beta HPV species and types vary in their capacity to block the induction of MDM2, p21, and proapoptotic genes after genotoxic stress. We conclude that some genus beta HPV E6 proteins inhibit at least some p53 target genes, although perhaps not by the same mechanism or to the same degree as the high-risk genus alpha HPV E6 proteins. IMPORTANCE This study addresses the ability of various human papillomavirus E6 proteins to block the activation of p53-responsive cellular genes following DNA damage in human keratinocytes, the normal host cell for HPVs. The E6 proteins encoded by the high-risk, cancer-associated HPV types of genus alpha HPV have a well-established activity to target p53 degradation and thereby inhibit the response to DNA damage. In this study, we have investigated the ability of genus beta HPV E6 proteins from eight different HPV types to block the ability of p53 to transactivate downstream genes following DNA damage. We find that some, but not all, genus beta HPV E6 proteins can block the transactivation of some p53 target genes. This differential response to DNA damage furthers the understanding of cutaneous HPV biology and may help

  9. Glucose transporters are expressed in taste receptor cells

    PubMed Central

    Merigo, Flavia; Benati, Donatella; Cristofoletti, Mirko; Osculati, Francesco; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    In the intestine, changes of sugar concentration generated in the lumen during digestion induce adaptive responses of glucose transporters in the epithelium. A close matching between the intestinal expression of glucose transporters and the composition and amount of the diet has been provided by several experiments. Functional evidence has demonstrated that the regulation of glucose transporters into enterocytes is induced by the sensing of sugar of the enteroendocrine cells through activation of sweet taste receptors (T1R2 and T1R3) and their associated elements of G-protein-linked signaling pathways (e.g. α-gustducin, phospholipase C β type 2 and transient receptor potential channel M5), which are signaling molecules also involved in the perception of sweet substances in the taste receptor cells (TRCs) of the tongue. Considering this phenotypical similarity between the intestinal cells and TRCs, we evaluated whether the TRCs themselves possess proteins of the glucose transport mechanism. Therefore, we investigated the expression of the typical intestinal glucose transporters (i.e. GLUT2, GLUT5 and SGLT1) in rat circumvallate papillae, using immunohistochemistry, double-labeling immunofluorescence, immunoelectron microscopy and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. The results showed that GLUT2, GLUT5 and SGLT1 are expressed in TRCs; their immunoreactivity was also observed in cells that displayed staining for α-gustducin and T1R3 receptor. The immunoelectron microscopic results confirmed that GLUT2, GLUT5 and SGLT1 were predominantly expressed in cells with ultrastructural characteristics of chemoreceptor cells. The presence of glucose transporters in TRCs adds a further link between chemosensory information and cellular responses to sweet stimuli that may have important roles in glucose homeostasis, contributing to a better understanding of the pathways implicated in glucose metabolism. PMID:21592100

  10. Glucose transporters are expressed in taste receptor cells.

    PubMed

    Merigo, Flavia; Benati, Donatella; Cristofoletti, Mirko; Osculati, Francesco; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2011-08-01

    In the intestine, changes of sugar concentration generated in the lumen during digestion induce adaptive responses of glucose transporters in the epithelium. A close matching between the intestinal expression of glucose transporters and the composition and amount of the diet has been provided by several experiments. Functional evidence has demonstrated that the regulation of glucose transporters into enterocytes is induced by the sensing of sugar of the enteroendocrine cells through activation of sweet taste receptors (T1R2 and T1R3) and their associated elements of G-protein-linked signaling pathways (e.g. α-gustducin, phospholipase C β type 2 and transient receptor potential channel M5), which are signaling molecules also involved in the perception of sweet substances in the taste receptor cells (TRCs) of the tongue. Considering this phenotypical similarity between the intestinal cells and TRCs, we evaluated whether the TRCs themselves possess proteins of the glucose transport mechanism. Therefore, we investigated the expression of the typical intestinal glucose transporters (i.e. GLUT2, GLUT5 and SGLT1) in rat circumvallate papillae, using immunohistochemistry, double-labeling immunofluorescence, immunoelectron microscopy and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. The results showed that GLUT2, GLUT5 and SGLT1 are expressed in TRCs; their immunoreactivity was also observed in cells that displayed staining for α-gustducin and T1R3 receptor. The immunoelectron microscopic results confirmed that GLUT2, GLUT5 and SGLT1 were predominantly expressed in cells with ultrastructural characteristics of chemoreceptor cells. The presence of glucose transporters in TRCs adds a further link between chemosensory information and cellular responses to sweet stimuli that may have important roles in glucose homeostasis, contributing to a better understanding of the pathways implicated in glucose metabolism. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2011

  11. Characterization of TLX expression in neural stem cells and progenitor cells in adult brains.

    PubMed

    Li, Shengxiu; Sun, Guoqiang; Murai, Kiyohito; Ye, Peng; Shi, Yanhong

    2012-01-01

    TLX has been shown to play an important role in regulating the self-renewal and proliferation of neural stem cells in adult brains. However, the cellular distribution of endogenous TLX protein in adult brains remains to be elucidated. In this study, we used immunostaining with a TLX-specific antibody to show that TLX is expressed in both neural stem cells and transit-amplifying neural progenitor cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of adult mouse brains. Then, using a double thymidine analog labeling approach, we showed that almost all of the self-renewing neural stem cells expressed TLX. Interestingly, most of the TLX-positive cells in the SVZ represented the thymidine analog-negative, relatively quiescent neural stem cell population. Using cell type markers and short-term BrdU labeling, we demonstrated that TLX was also expressed in the Mash1+ rapidly dividing type C cells. Furthermore, loss of TLX expression dramatically reduced BrdU label-retaining neural stem cells and the actively dividing neural progenitor cells in the SVZ, but substantially increased GFAP staining and extended GFAP processes. These results suggest that TLX is essential to maintain the self-renewing neural stem cells in the SVZ and that the GFAP+ cells in the SVZ lose neural stem cell property upon loss of TLX expression. Understanding the cellular distribution of TLX and its function in specific cell types may provide insights into the development of therapeutic tools for neurodegenerative diseases by targeting TLX in neural stem/progenitors cells.

  12. Characterization of TLX Expression in Neural Stem Cells and Progenitor Cells in Adult Brains

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shengxiu; Sun, Guoqiang; Murai, Kiyohito; Ye, Peng; Shi, Yanhong

    2012-01-01

    TLX has been shown to play an important role in regulating the self-renewal and proliferation of neural stem cells in adult brains. However, the cellular distribution of endogenous TLX protein in adult brains remains to be elucidated. In this study, we used immunostaining with a TLX-specific antibody to show that TLX is expressed in both neural stem cells and transit-amplifying neural progenitor cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of adult mouse brains. Then, using a double thymidine analog labeling approach, we showed that almost all of the self-renewing neural stem cells expressed TLX. Interestingly, most of the TLX-positive cells in the SVZ represented the thymidine analog-negative, relatively quiescent neural stem cell population. Using cell type markers and short-term BrdU labeling, we demonstrated that TLX was also expressed in the Mash1+ rapidly dividing type C cells. Furthermore, loss of TLX expression dramatically reduced BrdU label-retaining neural stem cells and the actively dividing neural progenitor cells in the SVZ, but substantially increased GFAP staining and extended GFAP processes. These results suggest that TLX is essential to maintain the self-renewing neural stem cells in the SVZ and that the GFAP+ cells in the SVZ lose neural stem cell property upon loss of TLX expression.Understanding the cellular distribution of TLX and its function in specific cell types may provide insights into the development of therapeutic tools for neurodegenerative diseases by targeting TLX in neural stem/progenitors cells. PMID:22952666

  13. Stem Cell-Associated Marker Expression in Canine Hair Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Gerhards, Nora M.; Sayar, Beyza S.; Origgi, Francesco C.; Galichet, Arnaud; Müller, Eliane J.; Welle, Monika M.; Wiener, Dominique J.

    2016-01-01

    Functional hair follicle (HF) stem cells (SCs) are crucial to maintain the constant recurring growth of hair. In mice and humans, SC subpopulations with different biomarker expression profiles have been identified in discrete anatomic compartments of the HF. The rare studies investigating canine HF SCs have shown similarities in biomarker expression profiles to that of mouse and human SCs. The aim of our study was to broaden the current repertoire of SC-associated markers and their expression patterns in the dog. We combined analyses on the expression levels of CD34, K15, Sox9, CD200, Nestin, LGR5 and LGR6 in canine skin using RT-qPCR, the corresponding proteins in dog skin lysates, and their expression patterns in canine HFs using immunohistochemistry. Using validated antibodies, we were able to define the location of CD34, Sox9, Keratin15, LGR5 and Nestin in canine HFs and confirm that all tested biomarkers are expressed in canine skin. Our results show similarities between the expression profile of canine, human and mouse HF SC markers. This repertoire of biomarkers will allow us to conduct functional studies and investigate alterations in the canine SC compartment of different diseases, like alopecia or skin cancer with the possibility to extend relevant findings to human patients. PMID:26739040

  14. Stem Cell-Associated Marker Expression in Canine Hair Follicles.

    PubMed

    Gerhards, Nora M; Sayar, Beyza S; Origgi, Francesco C; Galichet, Arnaud; Müller, Eliane J; Welle, Monika M; Wiener, Dominique J

    2016-03-01

    Functional hair follicle (HF) stem cells (SCs) are crucial to maintain the constant recurring growth of hair. In mice and humans, SC subpopulations with different biomarker expression profiles have been identified in discrete anatomic compartments of the HF. The rare studies investigating canine HF SCs have shown similarities in biomarker expression profiles to that of mouse and human SCs. The aim of our study was to broaden the current repertoire of SC-associated markers and their expression patterns in the dog. We combined analyses on the expression levels of CD34, K15, Sox9, CD200, Nestin, LGR5 and LGR6 in canine skin using RT-qPCR, the corresponding proteins in dog skin lysates, and their expression patterns in canine HFs using immunohistochemistry. Using validated antibodies, we were able to define the location of CD34, Sox9, Keratin15, LGR5 and Nestin in canine HFs and confirm that all tested biomarkers are expressed in canine skin. Our results show similarities between the expression profile of canine, human and mouse HF SC markers. This repertoire of biomarkers will allow us to conduct functional studies and investigate alterations in the canine SC compartment of different diseases, like alopecia or skin cancer with the possibility to extend relevant findings to human patients. © 2016 The Histochemical Society.

  15. Production of stable GFP-expressing neural cells from P19 embryonal carcinoma stem cells.

    PubMed

    Shirzad, Hedayatollah; Esmaeili, Fariba; Bakhshalizadeh, Shabnam; Ebrahimie, Marzieh; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

    2017-04-01

    Murine P19 embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells are convenient to differentiate into all germ layer derivatives. One of the advantages of P19 cells is that the exogenous DNA can be easily inserted into them. Here, at the first part of this study, we generated stable GFP-expressing P19 cells (P19-GFP + ). FACS and western-blot analysis confirmed stable expression of GFP in the cells. We previously demonstrated the efficient induction of neuronal differentiation from mouse ES and EC cells by application of a neuroprotective drug, selegiline In the second part of this study selegiline was used to induce differentiation of P19-GFP + into stable GFP-expressing neuron-like cells. Cresyl violet staining confirmed neuronal morphology of the differentiated cells. Furthermore, real-time PCR and immunoflourescence approved the expression of neuron specific markers. P19-GFP + cells were able to survive, migrate and integrated into host tissues when transplanted to developing chick embryo CNS. The obtained live GFP-expressing cells can be used as an abundant source of developmentally pluripotent material for transplantation studies, investigating the cellular and molecular aspects of early differentiation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Stem cell and neurogenic gene-expression profiles link prostate basal cells to aggressive prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dingxiao; Park, Daechan; Zhong, Yi; Lu, Yue; Rycaj, Kiera; Gong, Shuai; Chen, Xin; Liu, Xin; Chao, Hsueh-Ping; Whitney, Pamela; Calhoun-Davis, Tammy; Takata, Yoko; Shen, Jianjun; Iyer, Vishwanath R.; Tang, Dean G.

    2016-01-01

    The prostate gland mainly contains basal and luminal cells constructed as a pseudostratified epithelium. Annotation of prostate epithelial transcriptomes provides a foundation for discoveries that can impact disease understanding and treatment. Here we describe a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of human benign prostatic basal and luminal epithelial populations using deep RNA sequencing. Through molecular and biological characterizations, we show that the differential gene-expression profiles account for their distinct functional properties. Strikingly, basal cells preferentially express gene categories associated with stem cells, neurogenesis and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) biogenesis. Consistent with this profile, basal cells functionally exhibit intrinsic stem-like and neurogenic properties with enhanced rRNA transcription activity. Of clinical relevance, the basal cell gene-expression profile is enriched in advanced, anaplastic, castration-resistant and metastatic prostate cancers. Therefore, we link the cell-type-specific gene signatures to aggressive subtypes of prostate cancer and identify gene signatures associated with adverse clinical features. PMID:26924072

  17. Stem cell and neurogenic gene-expression profiles link prostate basal cells to aggressive prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dingxiao; Park, Daechan; Zhong, Yi; Lu, Yue; Rycaj, Kiera; Gong, Shuai; Chen, Xin; Liu, Xin; Chao, Hsueh-Ping; Whitney, Pamela; Calhoun-Davis, Tammy; Takata, Yoko; Shen, Jianjun; Iyer, Vishwanath R; Tang, Dean G

    2016-02-29

    The prostate gland mainly contains basal and luminal cells constructed as a pseudostratified epithelium. Annotation of prostate epithelial transcriptomes provides a foundation for discoveries that can impact disease understanding and treatment. Here we describe a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of human benign prostatic basal and luminal epithelial populations using deep RNA sequencing. Through molecular and biological characterizations, we show that the differential gene-expression profiles account for their distinct functional properties. Strikingly, basal cells preferentially express gene categories associated with stem cells, neurogenesis and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) biogenesis. Consistent with this profile, basal cells functionally exhibit intrinsic stem-like and neurogenic properties with enhanced rRNA transcription activity. Of clinical relevance, the basal cell gene-expression profile is enriched in advanced, anaplastic, castration-resistant and metastatic prostate cancers. Therefore, we link the cell-type-specific gene signatures to aggressive subtypes of prostate cancer and identify gene signatures associated with adverse clinical features.

  18. Immortalized bovine mammary epithelial cells express stem cell markers and differentiate in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hu, Han; Zheng, Nan; Gao, Haina; Dai, Wenting; Zhang, Yangdong; Li, Songli; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-08-01

    The bovine mammary epithelial cell is a secretory cell, and its cell number and secretory activity determine milk production. In this study, we immortalized a bovine mammary epithelial cell line by SV40 large T antigen gene using a retrovirus based on Chinese Holstein primary mammary epithelial cells (CMEC) cultured in vitro. An immortalized bovine mammary epithelial cell line surpassed the 50-passage mark and was designated the CMEC-H. The immortalized mammary epithelial cells grew in close contact with each other and exhibited the typical cobblestone morphology characteristic with obvious boundaries. The telomerase expression of CMEC-H has consistently demonstrated the presence of telomerase activity as an immortalized cell line, but the cell line never induced tumor formation in nude mice. CMEC-H expressed epithelial (cytokeratins CK7, CK8, CK18, and CK19), mesenchymal (vimentin), and stem/progenitor (CD44 and p63) cell markers. The induced expression of milk proteins, αS1 -casein, β-casein, κ-casein, and butyrophilin, indicated that CMEC-H maintained the synthesis function of the mammary epithelial cells. The established immortalized bovine mammary epithelial cell line CMEC-H is capable of self-renewal and differentiation and can serve as a valuable reagent for studying the physiological mechanism of the mammary gland. © 2016 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  19. Baculovirus IE2 Stimulates the Expression of Heat Shock Proteins in Insect and Mammalian Cells to Facilitate Its Proper Functioning.

    PubMed

    Tung, Hsuan; Wei, Sung-Chan; Lo, Huei-Ru; Chao, Yu-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Baculoviruses have gained popularity as pest control agents and for protein production in insect systems. These viruses are also becoming popular for gene expression, tissue engineering and gene therapy in mammalian systems. Baculovirus infection triggers a heat shock response, and this response is crucial for its successful infection of host insect cells. However, the viral protein(s) or factor(s) that trigger this response are not yet clear. Previously, we revealed that IE2-an early gene product of the baculovirus-could form unique nuclear bodies for the strong trans-activation of various promoters in mammalian cells. Here, we purified IE2 nuclear bodies from Vero E6 cells and investigated the associated proteins by using mass spectrometry. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) were found to be one of the major IE2-associated proteins. Our experiments show that HSPs are greatly induced by IE2 and are crucial for the trans-activation function of IE2. Interestingly, blocking both heat shock protein expression and the proteasome pathway preserved the IE2 protein and its nuclear body structure, and revived its function. These observations reveal that HSPs do not function directly to assist the formation of the nuclear body structure, but may rather protect IE2 from proteasome degradation. Aside from functional studies in mammalian cells, we also show that HSPs were stimulated and required to determine IE2 protein levels, in insect cells infected with baculovirus. Upon inhibiting the expression of heat shock proteins, baculovirus IE2 was substantially suppressed, resulting in a significantly suppressed viral titer. Thus, we demonstrate a unique feature in that IE2 can function in both insect and non-host mammalian cells to stimulate HSPs, which may be associated with IE2 stabilization and lead to the protection of the its strong gene activation function in mammalian cells. On the other hand, during viral infection in insect cells, IE2 could also strongly stimulate HSPs and

  20. Tangeretin induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through upregulation of PTEN expression in glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li-Li; Wang, Da-Wei; Yu, Xu-Dong; Zhou, Yan-Ling

    2016-07-01

    Tangeretin (TANG), present in peel of citrus fruits, has been shown to various medicinal properties such as chemopreventive and neuroprotective. However, the chemopreventive effect of TANG on glioblastoma cells has not been examined. The present study was designed to explore the anticancer potential of TANG in glioblastoma cells and to investigate the related mechanism. Human glioblastoma U-87MG and LN-18 cells were treated with 45μM concentration of TANG and cell growth was measured by MTT assay. The cell cycle distribution and cell death were measured by flow cytometry. The expression of cell cycle and apoptosis related genes were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR and western blot. The cells treated with TANG were significantly increased cell growth suppression and cell death effects than vehicle treated cells. Further, TANG treatment increases G2/M arrest and apoptosis by modulating PTEN and cell-cycle regulated genes such as cyclin-D and cdc-2 mRNA and protein expressions. Moreover, the ability of TANG to decrease cell growth and to induce cell death was compromised when PTEN was knockdown by siRNA. Taken together, the chemopreventive effect of TANG is associated with regulation of cell-cycle and apoptosis in glioblastoma, thereby attenuating glioblastoma cell growth. Hence, the present findings suggest that TANG may be a therapeutic agent for glioblastoma treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Nuclear orphan receptor TLX affects gene expression, proliferation and cell apoptosis in beta cells

    SciT

    Shi, Xiaoli; Xiong, Xiaokan; Dai, Zhe

    2015-12-04

    Nuclear orphan receptor TLX is an essential regulator of the growth of neural stem cells. However, its exact function in pancreatic islet cells is still unknown. In the present study, gene expression profiling analysis revealed that overexpression of TLX in beta cell line MIN6 causes suppression of 176 genes and upregulation of 49 genes, including a cadre of cell cycle, cell proliferation and cell death control genes, such as Btg2, Ddit3 and Gadd45a. We next examined the effects of TLX overexpression on proliferation, apoptosis and insulin secretion in MIN6 cells. Proliferation analysis using EdU assay showed that overexpression of TLXmore » increased percentage of EdU-positive cells. Cell cycle and apoptosis analysis revealed that overexpression of TLX in MIN6 cells resulted in higher percentage of cells exiting G1 into S-phase, and a 58.8% decrease of cell apoptosis induced by 0.5 mM palmitate. Moreover, TLX overexpression did not cause impairment of insulin secretion. Together, we conclude that TLX is among factors capable of controlling beta cell proliferation and survival, which may serve as a target for the development of novel therapies for diabetes. - Highlights: • TLX overexpression in MIN6 cell causes significant expression changes of 225 genes. • TLX overexpression promotes MIN6 cell proliferation and decreases cell apoptosis. • TLX overexpression does not cause impairment of insulin secretion.« less

  2. Treating B-cell cancer with T cells expressing anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptors.

    PubMed

    Kochenderfer, James N; Rosenberg, Steven A

    2013-05-01

    Most B-cell malignancies express CD19, and a majority of patients with B-cell malignancies are not cured by current standard therapies. Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are fusion proteins consisting of antigen recognition moieties and T-cell activation domains. T cells can be genetically modified to express CARs, and adoptive transfer of anti-CD19 CAR T cells is now being tested in clinical trials. Effective clinical treatment with anti-CD19 CAR T cells was first reported in 2010 after a patient with advanced-stage lymphoma treated at the NCI experienced a partial remission of lymphoma and long-term eradication of normal B cells. Additional patients have subsequently obtained long-term remissions of advanced-stage B-cell malignancies after infusions of anti-CD19 CAR T cells. Long-term eradication of normal CD19(+) B cells from patients receiving infusions of anti-CD19 CAR T cells demonstrates the potent antigen-specific activity of these T cells. Some patients treated with anti-CD19 CAR T cells have experienced acute adverse effects, which were associated with increased levels of serum inflammatory cytokines. Although anti-CD19 CAR T cells are at an early stage of development, the potent antigen-specific activity observed in patients suggests that infusions of anti-CD19 CAR T cells might become a standard therapy for some B-cell malignancies.

  3. Resveratrol Represses Pokemon Expression in Human Glioma Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yutao; Cui, Jiajun; Xue, Feng; Overstreet, Anne-Marie; Zhan, Yiping; Shan, Dapeng; Li, Hui; Li, Hui; Wang, Yongjun; Zhang, Mengmeng; Yu, Chunjiang; Xu, Zhi-Qing David

    2016-03-01

    POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor (Pokemon), an important proto-oncoprotein, is a transcriptional repressor that regulates the expression of many genes and plays an important role in tumorigenesis. Resveratrol (RSV), a natural polyphenolic compound, has many beneficial biological effects on health. In this study, we investigated the role of Pokemon in RSV-induced biological effects and the effect of RSV on the expression of Pokemon in glioma cells. We found that overexpression of Pokemon decreased RSV-induced cell apoptosis, senescence, and anti-proliferative effects. Moreover, we showed that RSV could efficiently decrease the activity of the Pokemon promoter and the expression of Pokemon. Meanwhile, RSV also inhibited Sp1 DNA binding activity to the Pokemon promoter; whereas, it did not influence the expression and nuclear translocation of Sp1. In addition, we found that RSV could increase the recruitment of HDAC1, but decreased p300 to the Pokemon promoter. Taken together, all these results extended our understanding on the anti-cancer mechanism of RSV in glioma cells.

  4. SPARC expression induces cell cycle arrest via STAT3 signaling pathway in medulloblastoma cells

    SciT

    Chetty, Chandramu; Dontula, Ranadheer; Ganji, Purnachandra Nagaraju

    2012-01-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ectopic expression of SPARC impaired cell proliferation in medulloblastoma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SPARC expression induces STAT3 mediated cell cycle arrest in medulloblastoma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SPARC expression significantly inhibited pre-established tumor growth in nude-mice. -- Abstract: Dynamic cell interaction with ECM components has profound influence in cancer progression. SPARC is a component of the ECM, impairs the proliferation of different cell types and modulates tumor cell aggressive features. We previously reported that SPARC expression significantly impairs medulloblastoma tumor growth in vivo. In this study, we demonstrate that expression of SPARC inhibits medulloblastoma cell proliferation. MTT assay indicated a dose-dependent reductionmore » in tumor cell proliferation in adenoviral mediated expression of SPARC full length cDNA (Ad-DsRed-SP) in D425 and UW228 cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed that Ad-DsRed-SP-infected cells accumulate in the G2/M phase of cell cycle. Further, immunoblot and immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that SPARC induced G2/M cell cycle arrest was mediated through inhibition of the Cyclin-B-regulated signaling pathway involving p21 and Cdc2 expression. Additionally, expression of SPARC decreased STAT3 phosphorylation at Tyr-705; constitutively active STAT3 expression reversed SPARC induced G2/M arrest. Ad-DsRed-SP significantly inhibited the pre-established orthotopic tumor growth and tumor volume in nude-mice. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor sections from mice treated with Ad-DsRed-SP showed decreased immunoreactivity for pSTAT3 and increased immunoreactivity for p21 compared to tumor section from mice treated with mock and Ad-DsRed. Taken together our studies further reveal that STAT3 plays a key role in SPARC induced G2/M arrest in medulloblastoma cells. These new findings provide a molecular basis for the mechanistic understanding of

  5. The Expression of BTS-2 Enhances Cell Growth and Invasiveness in Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pham, Quoc Thang; Oue, Naohide; Yamamoto, Yuji; Shigematsu, Yoshinori; Sekino, Yohei; Sakamoto, Naoya; Sentani, Kazuhiro; Uraoka, Naohiro; Tiwari, Mamata; Yasui, Wataru

    2017-06-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most common types of cancer in developed countries. Bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST2) gene, which encodes BST2 transmembrane glycoprotein, is overexpressed in several cancer types. In the present study, we analyzed the expression and function of BST2 in RCC. BST2 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 123 RCC cases. RNA interference was used to inhibit BST2 expression in a RCC cell line. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that 32% of the 123 RCC cases were positive for BST2. BST2 expression was positively associated with tumour stage. Furthermore, BST2 expression was an independent predictor of survival in patients with RCC. BST2 siRNA-transfected Caki-1 cells displayed significantly reduced cell growth and invasive activity relative to negative control siRNA-transfected cells. These results suggest that BST2 plays an important role in the progression of RCC. Because BST2 is expressed on the cell membrane, BST2 is a good therapeutic target for RCC. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  6. Multiple melanocortin receptors are expressed in bone cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhong, Qing; Sridhar, Supriya; Ruan, Ling; Ding, Ke-Hong; Xie, Ding; Insogna, Karl; Kang, Baolin; Xu, Jianrui; Bollag, Roni J.; Isales, Carlos M.

    2005-01-01

    Melanocortin receptors belong to the seven transmembrane domain, G-protein coupled family of receptors. There are five members of this receptor family labeled MC1R-MC5R. These receptors are activated by fragments derived from a larger molecule, proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and include ACTH, alpha beta and gamma-MSH and beta-endorphin. Because of in vitro and in vivo data suggesting direct effects of these POMC molecules on bone and bone turnover, we examined bone and bone derived cells for the presence of the various members of the melanocortin receptor family. We report that the five known melanocortin receptors are expressed to varying degrees in osteoblast-like and osteoclastic cells. POMC fragments increased proliferation and expression of a variety of genes in osteoblastic cells. Furthermore, POMC mRNA was detected in osteoclastic cells. These data demonstrate that POMC-derived peptide hormones acting through high affinity melanocortin receptors have specific effects on bone cells. Thus, in addition to the indirect effects of POMC-derived hormones on bone turnover through their modulation of steroid hormone secretion, POMC fragments may have direct and specific effects on bone cell subpopulations.

  7. Lipopolysaccharide induces autotaxin expression in human monocytic THP-1 cells

    SciT

    Li Song; Zhang Junjie

    2009-01-09

    Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted enzyme with lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD) activity, which converts lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) into lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a bioactive phospholipid involved in numerous biological activities, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. In the present study, we found that bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a well-known initiator of the inflammatory response, induced ATX expression in monocytic THP-1 cells. The activation of PKR, JNK, and p38 MAPK was required for the ATX induction. The LPS-induced ATX in THP-1 cells was characterized as the {beta} isoform. In the presence of LPC, ATX could promote the migrations of THP-1 and Jurkat cells, which wasmore » inhibited by pertussis toxin (PTX), an inhibitor of Gi-mediated LPA receptor signaling. In summary, LPS induces ATX expression in THP-1 cells via a PKR, JNK and p38 MAPK-mediated mechanism, and the ATX induction is likely to enhance immune cell migration in proinflammatory response by regulating LPA levels in the microenvironment.« less

  8. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells Expressing CD44 Are Enriched for Stem Cell-Like Properties

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Elaine Lai-Han; Fiscus, Ronald R.; Tung, James W.; Tin, Vicky Pui-Chi; Cheng, Lik Cheung; Sihoe, Alan Dart-Loon; Fink, Louis M.; Ma, Yupo; Wong, Maria Pik

    2010-01-01

    Background The cancer stem cell theory hypothesizes that cancers are perpetuated by cancer stem cells (CSC) or tumor initiating cells (TIC) possessing self-renewal and other stem cell-like properties while differentiated non-stem/initiating cells have a finite life span. To investigate whether the hypothesis is applicable to lung cancer, identification of lung CSC and demonstration of these capacities is essential. Methodology/Principal Finding The expression profiles of five stem cell markers (CD34, CD44, CD133, BMI1 and OCT4) were screened by flow cytometry in 10 lung cancer cell lines. CD44 was further investigated by testing for in vitro and in vivo tumorigenecity. Formation of spheroid bodies and in vivo tumor initiation ability were demonstrated in CD44+ cells of 4 cell lines. Serial in vivo tumor transplantability in nude mice was demonstrated using H1299 cell line. The primary xenografts initiated from CD44+ cells consisted of mixed CD44+ and CD44− cells in similar ratio as the parental H1299 cell line, supporting in vivo differentiation. Semi-quantitative Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR) showed that both freshly sorted CD44+ and CD44+ cells derived from CD44+-initiated tumors expressed the pluripotency genes OCT4/POU5F1, NANOG, SOX2. These stemness markers were not expressed by CD44− cells. Furthermore, freshly sorted CD44+ cells were more resistant to cisplatin treatment with lower apoptosis levels than CD44− cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of 141 resected non-small cell lung cancers showed tumor cell expression of CD44 in 50.4% of tumors while no CD34, and CD133 expression was observed in tumor cells. CD44 expression was associated with squamous cell carcinoma but unexpectedly, a longer survival was observed in CD44-expressing adenocarcinomas. Conclusion/Significance Overall, our results demonstrated that stem cell-like properties are enriched in CD44-expressing subpopulations of some lung cancer cell lines. Further investigation is required to clarify

  9. Clinicopathologic implication of hepatic progenitor cell marker expression in hepatoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Yun, Woong Jae; Shin, Eun; Lee, Kyoungbun; Jung, Hae Yoen; Kim, Soo Hee; Park, Young-Nyun; Yu, Eunsil; Jang, Ja-June

    2013-09-01

    Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) are thought to play a role in hepatoblastoma, as hepatoblastomas are characterized by an immature histology and a wide variety of cell lineages. We aimed to investigate the extent of expression of HPCs marker and its clinical implication in hepatoblastoma. We collected 61 hepatoblastomas and 9 childhood hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and performed immunohistochemistry for HPC markers, including cytokeratin 19 (CK19), octamer-binding transcription factor 3/4 (Oct-3/4), epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), and delta-like 1 homolog (DLK1). Of the hepatoblastoma samples, 27/61 (44.3%), 21/61 (34.4%), 51/61 (83.6%) and 56/61 (91.8%) exhibited positivity for CK19, Oct-3/4, EpCAM and DLK-1, respectively. For HCCs, the rates of expression were 22.2% (CK19), 77.8% (EpCAM) and 77.8% (DLK-1). Oct-3/4 was not expressed in HCC cells. Hepatoblastomas with a poorly differentiated epithelial component had a higher incidence of CK19 and Oct-3/4 expression than those with a well differentiated epithelial component (p=0.005 and 0.037, respectively). Higher disease stage of hepatoblastoma was correlated with CK19 expression (p=0.043). Oct-3/4-positive hepatoblastomas were associated with short disease-free survival (p=0.035). Both hepatoblastomas and childhood HCCs, therefore, exhibit characteristics of HPCs, and the poor prognosis of patients with Oct-3/4-positive hepatoblastoma suggests that stem-like properties affect hepatoblastoma pathogenicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of space flight exposure on cell growth, tumorigenicity and gene expression in cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Cheng; Li, Yuehui; Zhang, Zhijie; Luo, Chen; Tong, Yongqing; Zhou, Guohua; Xie, Pingli; Hu, Jinyue; Li, Guancheng

    2008-12-01

    It is well recognized that harsh outer space environment, consisting of microgravity and radiation, poses significant health risks for human cells. To investigate potential effects of the space environment exposure on cancer cells we examined the biological changes in Caski cells carried by the "Shen Zhou IV" spaceship. After exposure for 7 days in spaceflight, 1440 survival subclonal cell lines were established and 4 cell lines were screened. 44F10 and 17E3 were selected because of their increased cell proliferation and tumorigenesis, while 48A9 and 31F2 had slower cytological events. Experiments with cell proliferation assay, flow cytometry, soft agar assay, tumorigenesis assay and DNA microarray analysis have shown that selected cell lines presented multiple biological changes in cell morphology, cell growth, tumorigenicity and gene expression. These results suggest that space environment exposure can make significant biological impact on cancer cells and provide an entry point to find the immunological target of tumorigenesis.

  11. Full-length single-cell RNA-seq applied to a viral human cancer: applications to HPV expression and splicing analysis in HeLa S3 cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liang; Zhang, Xiaolong; Zhao, Zhikun; Wang, Ling; Li, Bo; Li, Guibo; Dean, Michael; Yu, Qichao; Wang, Yanhui; Lin, Xinxin; Rao, Weijian; Mei, Zhanlong; Li, Yang; Jiang, Runze; Yang, Huan; Li, Fuqiang; Xie, Guoyun; Xu, Liqin; Wu, Kui; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Jianghao; Wang, Ting; Kristiansen, Karsten; Zhang, Xiuqing; Li, Yingrui; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Hou, Yong; Xu, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Viral infection causes multiple forms of human cancer, and HPV infection is the primary factor in cervical carcinomas. Recent single-cell RNA-seq studies highlight the tumor heterogeneity present in most cancers, but virally induced tumors have not been studied. HeLa is a well characterized HPV+ cervical cancer cell line. We developed a new high throughput platform to prepare single-cell RNA on a nanoliter scale based on a customized microwell chip. Using this method, we successfully amplified full-length transcripts of 669 single HeLa S3 cells and 40 of them were randomly selected to perform single-cell RNA sequencing. Based on these data, we obtained a comprehensive understanding of the heterogeneity of HeLa S3 cells in gene expression, alternative splicing and fusions. Furthermore, we identified a high diversity of HPV-18 expression and splicing at the single-cell level. By co-expression analysis we identified 283 E6, E7 co-regulated genes, including CDC25, PCNA, PLK4, BUB1B and IRF1 known to interact with HPV viral proteins. Our results reveal the heterogeneity of a virus-infected cell line. It not only provides a transcriptome characterization of HeLa S3 cells at the single cell level, but is a demonstration of the power of single cell RNA-seq analysis of virally infected cells and cancers.

  12. Raman microscopy of bladder cancer cells expressing green fluorescent protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandair, Gurjit S.; Han, Amy L.; Keller, Evan T.; Morris, Michael D.

    2016-11-01

    Gene engineering is a commonly used tool in cellular biology to determine changes in function or expression of downstream targets. However, the impact of genetic modulation on biochemical effects is less frequently evaluated. The aim of this study is to use Raman microscopy to assess the biochemical effects of gene silencing on T24 and UMUC-13 bladder cancer cell lines. Cellular biochemical information related to nucleic acid and lipogenic components was obtained from deconvolved Raman spectra. We show that the green fluorescence protein (GFP), the chromophore that served as a fluorescent reporter for gene silencing, could also be detected by Raman microscopy. Only the gene-silenced UMUC-13 cell lines exhibited low-to-moderate GFP fluorescence as determined by fluorescence imaging and Raman spectroscopic studies. Moreover, we show that gene silencing and cell phenotype had a greater effect on nucleic acid and lipogenic components with minimal interference from GFP expression. Gene silencing was also found to perturb cellular protein secondary structure in which the amount of disorderd protein increased at the expense of more ordered protein. Overall, our study identified the spectral signature for cellular GFP expression and elucidated the effects of gene silencing on cancer cell biochemistry and protein secondary structure.

  13. Expression of CDK6 in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed

    Andisheh-Tadbir, Azadeh; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Jeiroodi, Naghmeh

    2018-04-25

    Background: CDK6 is the key factor in regulation of the cell cycle and essential for passage into the G1 phase. It also plays an important role in the development of various tumors. In this cross-sectional study expression of the CDK6 protein in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and healthy oral mucosa of controls was assessed to determine relations with malignant transformation and clinicopathologic factors. Method: A total of 60 samples, 45 from OSCCs and 15 from healthy tissue, underwent immunohistochemistry for CDK6. Nuclear and cytoplasmic staining of keratinocytes was considered as positive and the percentages of positive cells were calculated. Results: Expression of CDK6 was detected in 55.6% of OSCC samples (25 cases) and 13.3% of controls (2 cases), the difference being significant. Mean percentage of CDK6 stained cells was 24.2±29.3 in the OSCC cases and 4.33±2.1 in the control group, again statistically significant. No relationship was detected between CDK6 expression and clinicopathologic factors. Conclusion: Overexpression of CDK6 observed in OSCC points to a role for this protein in oral carcinogenesis. Creative Commons Attribution License

  14. Expression of Plant Receptor Kinases in Tobacco BY-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Hidefumi; Matsubayashi, Yoshikatsu

    2017-01-01

    Although more than 600 single-transmembrane receptor kinase genes have been found in the Arabidopsis genome, only a few of them have known physiological functions, and even fewer plant receptor kinases have known specific ligands. Ligand-binding analysis must be operated using the functionally expressed receptor form. However, the relative abundance of native receptor kinase molecules in the plasma membrane is often quite low. Here, we present a method for stable and functional expression of plant receptor kinases in tobacco BY-2 cells that allows preparation of microsomal fractions containing the receptor. This procedure provides a sufficient amount of receptor proteins while maintaining its ligand-binding activities.

  15. Calpain expression and activity during lens fiber cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    De Maria, Alicia; Shi, Yanrong; Kumar, Nalin M; Bassnett, Steven

    2009-05-15

    In animal models, the dysregulated activity of calcium-activated proteases, calpains, contributes directly to cataract formation. However, the physiological role of calpains in the healthy lens is not well defined. In this study, we examined the expression pattern of calpains in the mouse lens. Real time PCR and Western blotting data indicated that calpain 1, 2, 3, and 7 were expressed in lens fiber cells. Using controlled lysis, depth-dependent expression profiles for each calpain were obtained. These indicated that, unlike calpain 1, 2, and 7, which were most abundant in cells near the lens surface, calpain 3 expression was strongest in the deep cortical region of the lens. We detected calpain activities in vitro and showed that calpains were active in vivo by microinjecting fluorogenic calpain substrates into cortical fiber cells. To identify endogenous calpain substrates, membrane/cytoskeleton preparations were treated with recombinant calpain, and cleaved products were identified by two-dimensional difference electrophoresis/mass spectrometry. Among the calpain substrates identified by this approach was alphaII-spectrin. An antibody that specifically recognized calpain-cleaved spectrin was used to demonstrate that spectrin is cleaved in vivo, late in fiber cell differentiation, at or about the time that lens organelles are degraded. The generation of the calpain-specific spectrin cleavage product was not observed in lens tissue from calpain 3-null mice, indicating that calpain 3 is uniquely activated during lens fiber differentiation. Our data suggest a role for calpains in the remodeling of the membrane cytoskeleton that occurs with fiber cell maturation.

  16. Ductal cancers of the pancreas frequently express markers of gastrointestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sessa, F; Bonato, M; Frigerio, B; Capella, C; Solcia, E; Prat, M; Bara, J; Samloff, I M

    1990-06-01

    It has been found by immunohistochemical staining that antigens normally found in gastric and/or intestinal epithelial cells are expressed in most differentiated duct cell carcinomas of the pancreas. Among 88 such tumors, 93% and 92%, respectively, expressed M1 and cathepsin E, markers of gastric surface-foveolar epithelial cells, 51% expressed pepsinogen II, a marker of gastroduodenal mucopeptic cells, 48% expressed CAR-5, a marker of colorectal epithelial cells, and 35% expressed M3SI, a marker of small intestinal goblet cells. Most of the tumors also expressed normal pancreatic duct antigens; 97% expressed DU-PAN-2, and 59% expressed N-terminus gastrin-releasing peptide. In agreement with these findings, electron microscopy revealed malignant cells with fine structural features of gastric foveolar cells, gastric mucopeptic cells, intestinal goblet cells, intestinal columnar cells, pancreatic duct epithelial cells, and cells with features of more than one cell type. Normal pancreatic duct epithelium did not express any marker of gastrointestinal epithelial cells, whereas such benign lesions as mucinous cell hypertrophy and papillary hyperplasia commonly expressed gut-type antigens but rarely expressed pancreatic duct cell markers. By contrast, lesions characterized by atypical papillary hyperplasia commonly expressed both gastric and pancreatic duct cell markers. Metaplastic pyloric-type glands expressed pepsinogen II and, except for their expression of cathepsin E, were indistinguishable from normal pyloric glands. In marked contrast, the immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features of 14 ductuloacinar cell tumors were those of cells lining terminal ductules, centroacinar cells, and/or acinar cells; none expressed any gut-type antigen. The results indicate that gastrointestinal differentiation is common in both benign and malignant lesions of pancreatic duct epithelium and suggest that duct cell carcinomas are histogenetically related to gastric- and

  17. Lmo2 expression defines tumor cell identity during T-cell leukemogenesis.

    PubMed

    García-Ramírez, Idoia; Bhatia, Sanil; Rodríguez-Hernández, Guillermo; González-Herrero, Inés; Walter, Carolin; González de Tena-Dávila, Sara; Parvin, Salma; Haas, Oskar; Woessmann, Wilhelm; Stanulla, Martin; Schrappe, Martin; Dugas, Martin; Natkunam, Yasodha; Orfao, Alberto; Domínguez, Verónica; Pintado, Belén; Blanco, Oscar; Alonso-López, Diego; De Las Rivas, Javier; Martín-Lorenzo, Alberto; Jiménez, Rafael; García Criado, Francisco Javier; García Cenador, María Begoña; Lossos, Izidore S; Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; Borkhardt, Arndt; Hauer, Julia; Sánchez-García, Isidro

    2018-06-07

    The impact of LMO2 expression on cell lineage decisions during T-cell leukemogenesis remains largely elusive. Using genetic lineage tracing, we have explored the potential of LMO2 in dictating a T-cell malignant phenotype. We first initiated LMO2 expression in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and maintained its expression in all hematopoietic cells. These mice develop exclusively aggressive human-like T-ALL In order to uncover a potential exclusive reprogramming effect of LMO2 in murine hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, we next showed that transient LMO2 expression is sufficient for oncogenic function and induction of T-ALL The resulting T-ALLs lacked LMO2 and its target-gene expression, and histologically, transcriptionally, and genetically similar to human LMO2-driven T-ALL We next found that during T-ALL development, secondary genomic alterations take place within the thymus. However, the permissiveness for development of T-ALL seems to be associated with wider windows of differentiation than previously appreciated. Restricted Cre-mediated activation of Lmo2 at different stages of B-cell development induces systematically and unexpectedly T-ALL that closely resembled those of their natural counterparts. Together, these results provide a novel paradigm for the generation of tumor T cells through reprogramming in vivo and could be relevant to improve the response of T-ALL to current therapies. © 2018 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  18. SATB2 expression increased anchorage-independent growth and cell migration in human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciT

    Wu, Feng; Jordan, Ashley; Kluz, Thomas

    The special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2) is a protein that binds to the nuclear matrix attachment region of the cell and regulates gene expression by altering chromatin structure. In our previous study, we reported that SATB2 gene expression was induced in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells transformed by arsenic, chromium, nickel and vanadium. In this study, we show that ectopic expression of SATB2 in the normal human bronchial epithelial cell-line BEAS-2B increased anchorage-independent growth and cell migration, meanwhile, shRNA-mediated knockdown of SATB2 significantly decreased anchorage-independent growth in Ni transformed BEAS-2B cells. RNA sequencing analyses of SATB2 regulated genes revealedmore » the enrichment of those involved in cytoskeleton, cell adhesion and cell-movement pathways. Our evidence supports the hypothesis that SATB2 plays an important role in BEAS-2B cell transformation. - Highlights: • We performed SATB2 overexpression in the BEAS-2B cell line. • We performed SATB2 knockdown in a Ni transformed BEAS-2B cell line. • SATB2 induced anchorage-independent growth and increased cell migration. • SATB2 knockdown significantly decreased anchorage-independent growth. • We identified alterations in gene involved in cytoskeleton, cell adhesion.« less

  19. Cleavage of HPV-16 E6/E7 mRNA mediated by modified 10-23 deoxyribozymes.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Gutiérrez, Pablo; Alvarez-Salas, Luis M

    2009-09-01

    Deoxyribozymes (DXZs) are small oligodeoxynucleotides capable of mediating phosphodiester bond cleavage of a target RNA in a sequence-specific manner. These molecules are a new generation of artificial catalytic nucleic acids currently used to silence many disease-related genes. The present study describes a DXZ (Dz1023-434) directed against the polycistronic mRNA from the E6 and E7 genes of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16), the main etiological agent of cervical cancer. Dz1023-434 showed efficient cleavage against a bona fide antisense window at nt 410-445 within HPV-16 E6/E7 mRNA even in low [Mg(2+)] conditions. Using a genetic analysis as guidance, we introduced diverse chemical modifications within Dz1023-434 catalytic core to produce a stable locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified DXZ (Dz434-LNA) with significant cleavage activity of full E6/E7 transcripts. Cell culture testing of Dz434-LNA produced a sharp decrement of E6/E7 mRNA levels in HPV-16-positive cells resulting in decreased proliferation and considerable cell death in a specific and dose-dependent manner. No significant effects were observed with inactive or scrambled control DXZs nor from using HPV-negative cells, suggesting catalysis-dependent effect and high specificity. The biological effects of Dz434-LNA suggest a potential use for the treatment of cervical cancer.

  20. 78 FR 42530 - Prospective Grant of an Exclusive License: Human Papillomavirus 16 E2 and E6 Peptides for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... E2. These epitopes generated from amino acid positions 69-77 (ALQAIELQL) and 138-147 (YICEEASVTV... KLPDLCTELX 2 ;, wherein X 2 and X 1 are peptides of 0-11 amino acids in length comprising contiguous HPV 18 E6 amino acid sequences) protein that comprise class I restricted T cell epitopes and methods of...

  1. Amniotic Fluid Cells Show Higher Pluripotency-Related Gene Expression Than Allantoic Fluid Cells.

    PubMed

    Kehl, Debora; Generali, Melanie; Görtz, Sabrina; Geering, Diego; Slamecka, Jaroslav; Hoerstrup, Simon P; Bleul, Ulrich; Weber, Benedikt

    2017-10-01

    Amniotic fluid represents an abundant source of multipotent stem cells, referred as broadly multipotent given their differentiation potential and expression of pluripotency-related genes. However, the origin of this broadly multipotent cellular fraction is not fully understood. Several sources have been proposed so far, including embryonic and extraembryonic tissues. In this regard, the ovine developmental model uniquely allows for direct comparison of fetal fluid-derived cells from two separate fetal fluid cavities, the allantois and the amnion, over the entire duration of gestation. As allantoic fluid mainly collects fetal urine, cells originating from the efferent urinary tract can directly be compared with cells deriving from the extraembryonic amniotic tissues and the fetus. This study shows isolation of cells from the amniotic [ovine amniotic fluid cells (oAFCs)] and allantoic fluid [ovine allantoic fluid cells (oALCs)] in a strictly paired fashion with oAFCs and oALCs derived from the same fetus. Both cell types showed cellular phenotypes comparable to standard mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), with trilineage differentiation potential, and expression of common ovine MSC markers. However, the expression of MSC markers per single cell was higher in oAFCs as measured by flow cytometry. oAFCs exhibited higher proliferative capacities and showed significantly higher expression of pluripotency-related genes OCT4, STAT3, NANOG, and REX1 by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction compared with paired oALCs. No significant decrease of pluripotency-related gene expression was noted over gestation, implying that cells with high differentiation potential may be isolated at the end of pregnancy. In conclusion, this study suggests that cells with highest stem cell characteristics may originate from the fetus itself or the amniotic fetal adnexa rather than from the efferent urinary tract or the allantoic fetal adnexa.

  2. Osteopontin Upregulates the Expression of Glucose Transporters in Osteosarcoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, I-Shan; Yang, Rong-Sen; Fu, Wen-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of bone. Even after the traditional standard surgical therapy, metastasis still occurs in a high percentage of patients. Glucose is an important source of metabolic energy for tumor proliferation and survival. Tumors usually overexpress glucose transporters, especially hypoxia-responsive glucose transporter 1 and glucose transporter 3. Osteopontin, hypoxia-responsive glucose transporter 1, and glucose transporter 3 are overexpressed in many types of tumors and have been linked to tumorigenesis and metastasis. In this study, we investigated the regulation of glucose transporters by osteopontin in osteosarcoma. We observed that both glucose transporters and osteopontin were upregulated in hypoxic human osteosarcoma cells. Endogenously released osteopontin regulated the expression of glucose transporter 1 and glucose transporter 3 in osteosarcoma and enhanced glucose uptake into cells via the αvβ3 integrin. Knockdown of osteopontin induced cell death in 20% of osteosarcoma cells. Phloretin, a glucose transporter inhibitor, also caused cell death by treatment alone. The phloretin-induced cell death was significantly enhanced in osteopontin knockdown osteosarcoma cells. Combination of a low dose of phloretin and chemotherapeutic drugs, such as daunomycin, 5-Fu, etoposide, and methotrexate, exhibited synergistic cytotoxic effects in three osteosarcoma cell lines. Inhibition of glucose transporters markedly potentiated the apoptotic sensitivity of chemotherapeutic drugs in osteosarcoma. These results indicate that the combination of a low dose of a glucose transporter inhibitor with cytotoxic drugs may be beneficial for treating osteosarcoma patients. PMID:25310823

  3. Genetic engineering of human NK cells to express CXCR2 improves migration to renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Veronika; Ligtenberg, Maarten A; Zendehdel, Rosa; Seitz, Christina; Duivenvoorden, Annet; Wennerberg, Erik; Colón, Eugenia; Scherman-Plogell, Ann-Helén; Lundqvist, Andreas

    2017-09-19

    Adoptive natural killer (NK) cell transfer is being increasingly used as cancer treatment. However, clinical responses have so far been limited to patients with hematological malignancies. A potential limiting factor in patients with solid tumors is defective homing of the infused NK cells to the tumor site. Chemokines regulate the migration of leukocytes expressing corresponding chemokine receptors. Various solid tumors, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC), readily secrete ligands for the chemokine receptor CXCR2. We hypothesize that infusion of NK cells expressing high levels of the CXCR2 chemokine receptor will result in increased influx of the transferred NK cells into tumors, and improved clinical outcome in patients with cancer. Blood and tumor biopsies from 14 primary RCC patients were assessed by flow cytometry and chemokine analysis. Primary NK cells were transduced with human CXCR2 using a retroviral system. CXCR2 receptor functionality was determined by Calcium flux and NK cell migration was evaluated in transwell assays. We detected higher concentrations of CXCR2 ligands in tumors compared with plasma of RCC patients. In addition, CXCL5 levels correlated with the intratumoral infiltration of CXCR2-positive NK cells. However, tumor-infiltrating NK cells from RCC patients expressed lower CXCR2 compared with peripheral blood NK cells. Moreover, healthy donor NK cells rapidly lost their CXCR2 expression upon in vitro culture and expansion. Genetic modification of human primary NK cells to re-express CXCR2 improved their ability to specifically migrate along a chemokine gradient of recombinant CXCR2 ligands or RCC tumor supernatants compared with controls. The enhanced trafficking resulted in increased killing of target cells. In addition, while their functionality remained unchanged compared with control NK cells, CXCR2-transduced NK cells obtained increased adhesion properties and formed more conjugates with target cells. To increase the success of NK

  4. Calpain expression in lymphoid cells. Increased mRNA and protein levels after cell activation.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, R V; Goust, J M; Chakrabarti, A K; Barbosa, E; Hogan, E L; Banik, N L

    1995-02-10

    Although calpain is ubiquitously present in human tissues and is thought to play a role in demyelination, its activity is very low in resting normal lymphocytes. To determine the nature of calpain expression at the mRNA and protein levels in human lymphoid cells, we studied human T lymphocytic, B lymphocytic, and monocytic lines as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Stimulation of cells with the phorbol ester phorbol myristate acetate and the calcium ionophore A23187 resulted in increased calpain mRNA and protein expression. Calpain mRNA expression is also increased in human T cells stimulated with anti-CD3. A dissociation between the increases of RNA and protein suggested that calpain could be released from the cells; the subsequent experiments showed its presence in the extracellular environment. 5,6-Dichloro-1b-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole, a reversible inhibitor of mRNA synthesis, reduced calpain mRNA levels by 50-67% and protein levels by 72-91%. Its removal resulted in resumption of both calpain mRNA and protein synthesis. Cycloheximide, a translational inhibitor, reduced calpain protein levels by 77-81% and calpain mRNA levels by 96% in activated THP-1 cells. Interferon-gamma induced calpain mRNA and protein in U-937 and THP-1 cells. Dexamethasone increased mRNA expression in THP-1 cells. Our results indicate that activation of lymphoid cells results in de novo synthesis and secretion of calpain.

  5. The human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 oncoproteins promotes nuclear localization of active caspase 8

    SciT

    Manzo-Merino, Joaquin; Massimi, Paola; Lizano, Marcela, E-mail: lizanosoberon@gmail.com

    The HPV-16 E6 and E6{sup ⁎} proteins have been shown previously to be capable of regulating caspase 8 activity. We now show that the capacity of E6 to interact with caspase 8 is common to diverse HPV types, being also seen with HPV-11 E6, HPV-18 E6 and HPV-18 E6{sup ⁎}. Unlike most E6-interacting partners, caspase 8 does not appear to be a major proteasomal target of E6, but instead E6 appears able to stimulate caspase 8 activation, without affecting the overall apoptotic activity. This would appear to be mediated in part by the ability of the HPV E6 oncoproteins tomore » recruit active caspase 8 to the nucleus. - Highlights: • Multiple HPV E6 oncoproteins interact with the caspase 8 DED domain. • HPV E6 stimulates activation of caspase 8. • HPV E6 promotes nuclear accumulation of caspase 8.« less

  6. Vectorlike particles, Z‧ and Yukawa unification in F-theory inspired E6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karozas, Athanasios; Leontaris, George K.; Shafi, Qaisar

    2018-03-01

    We explore the low energy implications of an F-theory inspired E6 model whose breaking yields, in addition to the MSSM gauge symmetry, a Z‧ gauge boson associated with a U (1) symmetry broken at the TeV scale. The zero mode spectrum of the effective low energy theory is derived from the decomposition of the 27 and 27 ‾ representations of E6 and we parametrise their multiplicities in terms of a minimum number of flux parameters. We perform a two-loop renormalisation group analysis of the gauge and Yukawa couplings of the effective theory model and estimate lower bounds on the new vectorlike particles predicted in the model. We compute the third generation Yukawa couplings in an F-theory context assuming an E8 point of enhancement and express our results in terms of the local flux densities associated with the gauge symmetry breaking. We find that their values are compatible with the ones computed by the renormalisation group equations, and we identify points in the parameter space of the flux densities where the t - b - τ Yukawa couplings unify.

  7. Cell-Type Specific Features of Circular RNA Expression

    PubMed Central

    Salzman, Julia; Chen, Raymond E.; Olsen, Mari N.; Wang, Peter L.; Brown, Patrick O.

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of loci in the human and mouse genomes give rise to circular RNA transcripts; at many of these loci, the predominant RNA isoform is a circle. Using an improved computational approach for circular RNA identification, we found widespread circular RNA expression in Drosophila melanogaster and estimate that in humans, circular RNA may account for 1% as many molecules as poly(A) RNA. Analysis of data from the ENCODE consortium revealed that the repertoire of genes expressing circular RNA, the ratio of circular to linear transcripts for each gene, and even the pattern of splice isoforms of circular RNAs from each gene were cell-type specific. These results suggest that biogenesis of circular RNA is an integral, conserved, and regulated feature of the gene expression program. PMID:24039610

  8. Cell-type specific features of circular RNA expression.

    PubMed

    Salzman, Julia; Chen, Raymond E; Olsen, Mari N; Wang, Peter L; Brown, Patrick O

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of loci in the human and mouse genomes give rise to circular RNA transcripts; at many of these loci, the predominant RNA isoform is a circle. Using an improved computational approach for circular RNA identification, we found widespread circular RNA expression in Drosophila melanogaster and estimate that in humans, circular RNA may account for 1% as many molecules as poly(A) RNA. Analysis of data from the ENCODE consortium revealed that the repertoire of genes expressing circular RNA, the ratio of circular to linear transcripts for each gene, and even the pattern of splice isoforms of circular RNAs from each gene were cell-type specific. These results suggest that biogenesis of circular RNA is an integral, conserved, and regulated feature of the gene expression program.

  9. Interfacial Polymerization for Colorimetric Labeling of Protein Expression in Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lilly, Jacob L.; Sheldon, Phillip R.; Hoversten, Liv J.; Romero, Gabriela; Balasubramaniam, Vivek; Berron, Brad J.

    2014-01-01

    Determining the location of rare proteins in cells typically requires the use of on-sample amplification. Antibody based recognition and enzymatic amplification is used to produce large amounts of visible label at the site of protein expression, but these techniques suffer from the presence of nonspecific reactivity in the biological sample and from poor spatial control over the label. Polymerization based amplification is a recently developed alternative means of creating an on-sample amplification for fluorescence applications, while not suffering from endogenous labels or loss of signal localization. This manuscript builds upon polymerization based amplification by developing a stable, archivable, and colorimetric mode of amplification termed Polymer Dye Labeling. The basic concept involves an interfacial polymer grown at the site of protein expression and subsequent staining of this polymer with an appropriate dye. The dyes Evans Blue and eosin were initially investigated for colorimetric response in a microarray setting, where both specifically stained polymer films on glass. The process was translated to the staining of protein expression in human dermal fibroblast cells, and Polymer Dye Labeling was specific to regions consistent with desired protein expression. The labeling is stable for over 200 days in ambient conditions and is also compatible with modern mounting medium. PMID:25536421

  10. Interfacial polymerization for colorimetric labeling of protein expression in cells.

    PubMed

    Lilly, Jacob L; Sheldon, Phillip R; Hoversten, Liv J; Romero, Gabriela; Balasubramaniam, Vivek; Berron, Brad J

    2014-01-01

    Determining the location of rare proteins in cells typically requires the use of on-sample amplification. Antibody based recognition and enzymatic amplification is used to produce large amounts of visible label at the site of protein expression, but these techniques suffer from the presence of nonspecific reactivity in the biological sample and from poor spatial control over the label. Polymerization based amplification is a recently developed alternative means of creating an on-sample amplification for fluorescence applications, while not suffering from endogenous labels or loss of signal localization. This manuscript builds upon polymerization based amplification by developing a stable, archivable, and colorimetric mode of amplification termed Polymer Dye Labeling. The basic concept involves an interfacial polymer grown at the site of protein expression and subsequent staining of this polymer with an appropriate dye. The dyes Evans Blue and eosin were initially investigated for colorimetric response in a microarray setting, where both specifically stained polymer films on glass. The process was translated to the staining of protein expression in human dermal fibroblast cells, and Polymer Dye Labeling was specific to regions consistent with desired protein expression. The labeling is stable for over 200 days in ambient conditions and is also compatible with modern mounting medium.

  11. Baculovirus-mediated expression of GPCRs in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Saarenpää, Tuulia; Jaakola, Veli-Pekka; Goldman, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a large family of seven transmembrane proteins that influence a considerable number of cellular events. For this reason, they are one of the most studied receptor types for their pharmacological and structural properties. Solving the structure of several GPCR receptor types has been possible using almost all expression systems, including Escherichia coli, yeast, mammalian, and insect cells. So far, however, most of the GPCR structures solved have been done using the baculovirus insect cell expression system. The reason for this is mainly due to cost-effectiveness, posttranslational modification efficiency, and overall effortless maintenance. The system has evolved so much that variables starting from vector type, purification tags, cell line, and growth conditions can be varied and optimized countless ways to suit the needs of new constructs. Here, we present the array of techniques that enable the rapid and efficient optimization of expression steps for maximal protein quality and quantity, including our emendations. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Regulation of cell death and cell survival gene expression during ovarian follicular development and atresia.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jin-Yi; Cheung, Carmen K M; Wang, Yifang; Tsang, Benjamin K

    2003-01-01

    Mammalian ovarian follicular development and atresia is closely regulated by the cross talk of cell death and cell survival signals, which include endocrine hormones (gonadotropins) and intra-ovarian regulators (gonadal steroids, cytokines and growth factors). The fate of the follicle is dependent on a delicate balance in the expression and actions of factors promoting follicular cell proliferation, growth and differentiation and of those inducing programmed cell death (apoptosis). As an important endocrine hormone, FSH binds to its granulosa cell receptors and promotes ovarian follicle survival and growth not only by stimulating proliferation and estradiol secretion of these cells, but also inhibiting the apoptosis by up-regulating the expression of intracellular anti-apoptotic proteins, such as XIAP and FLIP. In addition, intra-ovarian regulators, such as TGF-alpha and TNF-alpha, also play an important role in the control of follicular development and atresia. In response to FSH, Estradiol-17 beta synthesized from the granulosa cells stimulates thecal expression of TGF-alpha, which in turn increases granulosa cell XIAP expression and proliferation. The death receptor and ligand, Fas and Fas ligand, are expressed in granulosa cells following gonadotropin withdrawal, culminating in caspase-mediated apoptosis and follicular atresia. In contrast, TNF-alpha has both survival and pro-apoptotic function in the follicle, depending on the receptor subtype activated, but has been shown to promote granulosa cell survival by increasing XIAP and FLIP expression via the IkappaB-NFkappaB pathway. The pro-apoptotic action of TNF-alpha is mediated through the activation of caspases, via its receptor- (i.e. Caspases-8 and -3) and mitochrondria- (i.e. Caspase-9 and -3) death pathways. In the present manuscript, we have reviewed the actions and interactions of gonadotropins and intra-ovarian regulators in the control of granulosa cell fate and ultimately follicular destiny. We have

  13. Comparative Gene Expression Profiling of Primary and Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Stem Cell-Like Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Czarnecka, Anna M.; Lewicki, Sławomir; Helbrecht, Igor; Brodaczewska, Klaudia; Koch, Irena; Zdanowski, Robert; Król, Magdalena; Szczylik, Cezary

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent advancement in cancer research has shown that tumors are highly heterogeneous, and multiple phenotypically different cell populations are found in a single tumor. Cancer development and tumor growth are driven by specific types of cells—stem cell-like cancer cells (SCLCCs)—which are also responsible for metastatic spread and drug resistance. This research was designed to verify the presence of SCLCCs in renal cell cancer cell lines. Subsequently, we aimed to characterize phenotype and cell biology of CD105+ cells, defined previously as renal cell carcinoma tumor-initiating cells. The main goal of the project was to describe the gene-expression profile of stem cell-like cancer cells of primary tumor and metastatic origin. Materials and Methods Real-time PCR analysis of stemness genes (Oct-4, Nanog and Ncam) and soft agar colony formation assay were conducted to check the stemness properties of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines. FACS analysis of CD105+ and CD133+ cells was performed on RCC cells. Isolated CD105+ cells were verified for expression of mesenchymal markers—CD24, CD146, CD90, CD73, CD44, CD11b, CD19, CD34, CD45, HLA-DR and alkaline phosphatase. Hanging drop assay was used to investigate CD105+ cell-cell cohesion. Analysis of free-floating 3D spheres formed by isolated CD105+ was verified, as spheres have been hypothesized to contain undifferentiated multipotent progenitor cells. Finally, CD105+ cells were sorted from primary (Caki-2) and metastatic (ACHN) renal cell cancer cell lines. Gene-expression profiling of sorted CD105+ cells was performed with Agilent’s human GE 4x44K v2 microarrays. Differentially expressed genes were further categorized into canonical pathways. Network analysis and downstream analysis were performed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Results Metastatic RCC cell lines (ACHN and Caki-1) demonstrated higher colony-forming ability in comparison to primary RCC cell lines. Metastatic RCC cell lines harbor

  14. Deregulation of the CEACAM expression pattern causes undifferentiated cell growth in human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Singer, Bernhard B; Scheffrahn, Inka; Kammerer, Robert; Suttorp, Norbert; Ergun, Suleyman; Slevogt, Hortense

    2010-01-18

    CEACAM1, CEA/CEACAM5, and CEACAM6 are cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family that have been shown to be deregulated in lung cancer and in up to 50% of all human cancers. However, little is known about the functional impact of these molecules on undifferentiated cell growth and tumor progression. Here we demonstrate that cell surface expression of CEACAM1 on confluent A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells plays a critical role in differentiated, contact-inhibited cell growth. Interestingly, CEACAM1-L, but not CEACAM1-S, negatively regulates proliferation via its ITIM domain, while in proliferating cells no CEACAM expression is detectable. Furthermore, we show for the first time that CEACAM6 acts as an inducer of cellular proliferation in A549 cells, likely by interfering with the contact-inhibiting signal triggered by CEACAM1-4L, leading to undifferentiated anchorage-independent cell growth. We also found that A549 cells expressed significant amounts of non-membrane anchored variants of CEACAM5 and CEACAM6, representing a putative source for the increased CEACAM5/6 serum levels frequently found in lung cancer patients. Taken together, our data suggest that post-confluent contact inhibition is established and maintained by CEACAM1-4L, but disturbances of CEACAM1 signalling by CEACAM1-4S and other CEACAMs lead to undifferentiated cell growth and malignant transformation.

  15. New Generation of Photosensitizers: Conjugates of Chlorin e 6 With Diamond Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapina, V. A.; Bushuk, S. B.; Pavich, T. A.; Vorobey, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    Conjugates of chlorin e 6 with diamond nanoparticles were synthesized by two methods. The spectral and luminescent properties of the obtained conjugates were studied. It was shown that chlorin e 6 retained its photosensitizing activity in the conjugate. It was established that chlorin e 6 immobilized directly on diamond nanoparticles had higher photosensitizing activity than that conjugated using a spacer. It was observed that chlorin e 6 in the conjugate had higher photolytic stability than the free form.

  16. Expression of CD105 cancer stem cell marker in three subtypes of renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Saeednejad Zanjani, Leili; Madjd, Zahra; Abolhasani, Maryam; Shariftabrizi, Ahmad; Rasti, Arezoo; Asgari, Mojgan

    2018-01-01

    CD105 is recently described as a cancer stem cell (CSC) marker. The present study was aimed to investigate the expression and prognostic significance of the CSC marker CD105 in different histological subtypes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Expression of CD105 was evaluated using immunohistochemistry in RCC samples on tissue microarrays including clear cell RCCs (ccRCCs), papillary, and chromophobe RCCs. The association between CD105 expression and clinicopathological features as well as survival outcomes was determined. In ccRCC, increased tumoral cytoplasmic and endothelial expression of CD105 were significantly associated with advanced stage, renal vein invasion, and microvascular invasion (MVI). In addition, MVI was associated with a worse overall survival (OS). Moreover, in multivariate analysis tumor stage and nuclear grade were independent prognostic factors for OS both in case of tumoral cytoplasmic and endothelial CD105 expression. Additionally, CD105 expression was found to be a predictor of worse OS in univariate analysis. However, in papillary and chromophobe RCC, no significant association was found between CD105 expression and clinicopathological parameters or prognosis. We showed that CD105 expression was associated with more aggressive tumor behavior, more advanced disease, and worse prognosis in ccRCC but not in the other RCC subtypes.

  17. Bone Marrow Cells Expressing Clara Cell Secretory Protein Increase Epithelial Repair After Ablation of Pulmonary Clara Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bustos, Martha L; Mura, Marco; Marcus, Paula; Hwang, David; Ludkovski, Olga; Wong, Amy P; Waddell, Thomas K

    2013-01-01

    We have previously reported a subpopulation of bone marrow cells (BMC) that express Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP), generally felt to be specific to lung Clara cells. Ablation of lung Clara cells has been reported using a transgenic mouse that expresses thymidine kinase under control of the CCSP promoter. Treatment with ganciclovir results in permanent elimination of CCSP+ cells, failure of airway regeneration, and death. To determine if transtracheal delivery of wild-type bone marrow CCSP+ cells is beneficial after ablation of lung CCSP+ cells, transgenic mice were treated with ganciclovir followed by transtracheal administration of CCSP+ or CCSP− BMC. Compared with mice administered CCSP− cells, mice treated with CCSP+ cells had more donor cells lining the airway epithelium, where they expressed epithelial markers including CCSP. Although donor CCSP+ cells did not substantially repopulate the airway, their administration resulted in increased host ciliated cells, better preservation of airway epithelium, reduction of inflammatory cells, and an increase in animal survival time. Administration of CCSP+ BMC is beneficial after permanent ablation of lung Clara cells by increasing bronchial epithelial repair. Therefore, CCSP+ BMC could be important for treatment of lung diseases where airways re-epithelialization is compromised. PMID:23609017

  18. Regulation of. beta. -cell glucose transporter gene expression

    SciT

    Chen, Ling; Alam, Tausif; Johnson, J.H.

    1990-06-01

    It has been postulated that a glucose transporter of {beta} cells (GLUT-2) may be important in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. To determine whether this transporter is constitutively expressed or regulated, the authors subjected conscious unrestrained Wistar rats to perturbations in glucose homeostasis and quantitated {beta}-cell GLUT-2 mRNA by in situ hybridization. After 3 hr of hypoglycemia, GLUT-2 and proinsulin mRNA signal densities were reduced by 25% of the level in control rats. After 4 days, GLUT-2 and proinsulin mRNA densities were reduced by 85% and 65%, respectively. After 12 days of hypoglycemia, the K{sub m} for 3-O-methyl-D-glucose transport in isolated ratmore » islets, normally 18-20 mM, was 2.5 mM. This provides functional evidence of a profound reduction of high K{sub m} glucose transporter in {beta} cells. In contrast, GLUT-2 was only slightly reduced by hypoglycemia in liver. To determine the effect of prolonged hyperglycemia, they also infused animals with 50% (wt/vol) glucose for 5 days. Hyperglycemic clamping increased GLUT-2 mRNA by 46% whereas proinsulin mRNA doubled. They conclude that GLUT-2 expression in {beta} cells, but not liver, is subject to regulation by certain perturbations in blood glucose homeostasis.« less

  19. Psoriatic T cells reduce epidermal turnover time and affect cell proliferation contributed from differential gene expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Junqin; Li, Xinhua; Hou, Ruixia; Liu, Ruifeng; Zhao, Xincheng; Dong, Feng; Wang, Chunfang; Yin, Guohua; Zhang, Kaiming

    2015-09-01

    Psoriasis is mediated primarily by T cells, which reduce epidermal turnover time and affect keratinocyte proliferation. We aimed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEG) in T cells from normal, five pairs of monozygotic twins concordant or discordant for psoriasis, to determine whether these DEG may account for the influence to epidermal turnover time and keratinocyte proliferation. The impact of T cells on keratinocyte proliferation and epidermal turnover time were investigated separately by immunohistochemistry and cultured with (3) H-TdR. mRNA expression patterns were investigated by RNA sequencing and verified by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. After co-culture with psoriatic T cells, the expression of Ki-67, c-Myc and p53 increased, while expression of Bcl-2 and epidermal turnover time decreased. There were 14 DEG which were found to participate in the regulation of cell proliferation or differentiation. Psoriatic T cells exhibited the ability to decrease epidermal turnover time and affect keratinocyte proliferation because of the differential expression of PPIL1, HSPH1, SENP3, NUP54, FABP5, PLEKHG3, SLC9A9 and CHCHD4. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  20. Understanding development and stem cells using single cell-based analyses of gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pavithra; Tan, Yuqi

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, genome-wide profiling approaches have begun to uncover the molecular programs that drive developmental processes. In particular, technical advances that enable genome-wide profiling of thousands of individual cells have provided the tantalizing prospect of cataloging cell type diversity and developmental dynamics in a quantitative and comprehensive manner. Here, we review how single-cell RNA sequencing has provided key insights into mammalian developmental and stem cell biology, emphasizing the analytical approaches that are specific to studying gene expression in single cells. PMID:28049689

  1. Understanding development and stem cells using single cell-based analyses of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pavithra; Tan, Yuqi; Cahan, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, genome-wide profiling approaches have begun to uncover the molecular programs that drive developmental processes. In particular, technical advances that enable genome-wide profiling of thousands of individual cells have provided the tantalizing prospect of cataloging cell type diversity and developmental dynamics in a quantitative and comprehensive manner. Here, we review how single-cell RNA sequencing has provided key insights into mammalian developmental and stem cell biology, emphasizing the analytical approaches that are specific to studying gene expression in single cells. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Effects of Different Cell-Detaching Methods on the Viability and Cell Surface Antigen Expression of Synovial Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Kunikazu; Ojima, Miyoko; Otabe, Koji; Horie, Masafumi; Koga, Hideyuki; Sekiya, Ichiro; Muneta, Takeshi

    2017-06-09

    Flow cytometric analysis of cell surface antigens is a powerful tool for the isolation and characterization of stem cells residing in adult tissues. In contrast to the collection of hematopoietic stem cells, the process of enzymatic digestion is usually necessary to prepare mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) suspensions, which can influence the expression of cell surface markers. In this study, we examined the effects of various cell-detaching reagents and digestion times on the expression of stem cell-related surface antigens and MSC functions. Human MSCs were detached from dishes using four different reagents: trypsin, TrypLE, collagenase, and a nonenzymatic cell dissociation reagent (C5789; Sigma-Aldrich). Following dissociation reagent incubations ranging from 5 to 120 min, cell surface markers were analyzed by flow cytometry. Trypsin and TrypLE quickly dissociated the cells within 5 min, while collagenase and C5789 required 60 min to obtain maximum cell yields. C5789 significantly decreased cell viability at 120 min. Trypsin treatment significantly reduced CD44+, CD55+, CD73+, CD105+, CD140a+, CD140b+, and CD201+ cell numbers within 30 min. Collagenase treatment reduced CD140a expression by 30 min. In contrast, TrypLE treatment did not affect the expression of any cell surface antigens tested by 30 min. Despite the significant loss of surface antigen expression after 60 min of treatment with trypsin, adverse effects of enzymatic digestion on multipotency of MSCs were limited. Overall, our data indicated that TrypLE is advantageous over other cell dissociation reagents tested for the rapid preparation of viable MSC suspensions.

  3. Cholesterol depletion in cell membranes of human airway epithelial cells suppresses MUC5AC gene expression.

    PubMed

    Song, Kee Jae; Kim, Na Hyun; Lee, Gi Bong; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kwon, Jin Ho; Kim, Kyung-Su

    2013-05-01

    If cholesterol in the cell membrane is depleted by treating cells with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD), the activities of transmembrane receptors are altered in a cell-specific and/or receptor-specific manner. The proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1β is potent inducers of MUC5AC mRNA and protein synthesis in human airway epithelial cells. Cells activated by IL-1β showed increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Thus, we investigated the effects of cholesterol depletion on the expression of MUC5AC in human airway epithelial cells and whether these alterations to MUC5AC expression were related to MAPK activity. After NCI-H292 cells were pretreated with 1% MβCD before adding IL-1β for 24 hours, MUC5AC mRNA expression was determined by reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real time-PCR. Cholesterol depletion by MβCD was measured by modified microenzymatic fluorescence assay and filipin staining. The phosphorylation of IL-1 receptor, ERK and p38 MAPK, was analyzed by western blot. Cholesterol in the cell membrane was significantly depleted by treatment with MβCD on cells. IL-1β-induced MUC5AC mRNA expression was decreased by MβCD and this decrease occurred IL-1-receptor- specifically. Moreover, we have shown that MβCD suppressed the activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK in cells activated with IL-1β. This result suggests that MβCD-mediated suppression of IL-1β-induced MUC5AC mRNA operated via the ERK- and p38 MAPK-dependent pathway. Cholesterol depletion in NCI-H292 cell membrane may be considered an anti-hypersecretory method since it effectively inhibits mucus secretion of respiratory epithelial cells.

  4. Performance benchmarking of four cell-free protein expression systems.

    PubMed

    Gagoski, Dejan; Polinkovsky, Mark E; Mureev, Sergey; Kunert, Anne; Johnston, Wayne; Gambin, Yann; Alexandrov, Kirill

    2016-02-01

    Over the last half century, a range of cell-free protein expression systems based on pro- and eukaryotic organisms have been developed and have found a range of applications, from structural biology to directed protein evolution. While it is generally accepted that significant differences in performance among systems exist, there is a paucity of systematic experimental studies supporting this notion. Here, we took advantage of the species-independent translation initiation sequence to express and characterize 87 N-terminally GFP-tagged human cytosolic proteins of different sizes in E. coli, wheat germ (WGE), HeLa, and Leishmania-based (LTE) cell-free systems. Using a combination of single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy, SDS-PAGE, and Western blot analysis, we assessed the expression yields, the fraction of full-length translation product, and aggregation propensity for each of these systems. Our results demonstrate that the E. coli system has the highest expression yields. However, we observe that high expression levels are accompanied by production of truncated species-particularly pronounced in the case of proteins larger than 70 kDa. Furthermore, proteins produced in the E. coli system display high aggregation propensity, with only 10% of tested proteins being produced in predominantly monodispersed form. The WGE system was the most productive among eukaryotic systems tested. Finally, HeLa and LTE show comparable protein yields that are considerably lower than the ones achieved in the E. coli and WGE systems. The protein products produced in the HeLa system display slightly higher integrity, whereas the LTE-produced proteins have the lowest aggregation propensity among the systems analyzed. The high quality of HeLa- and LTE-produced proteins enable their analysis without purification and make them suitable for analysis of multi-domain eukaryotic proteins. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Prion propagation in cells expressing PrP glycosylation mutants.

    PubMed

    Salamat, Muhammad K; Dron, Michel; Chapuis, Jérôme; Langevin, Christelle; Laude, Hubert

    2011-04-01

    Infection by prions involves conversion of a host-encoded cell surface protein (PrP(C)) to a disease-related isoform (PrP(Sc)). PrP(C) carries two glycosylation sites variably occupied by complex N-glycans, which have been suggested by previous studies to influence the susceptibility to these diseases and to determine characteristics of prion strains. We used the Rov cell system, which is susceptible to sheep prions, to generate a series of PrP(C) glycosylation mutants with mutations at one or both attachment sites. We examined their subcellular trafficking and ability to convert into PrP(Sc) and to sustain stable prion propagation in the absence of wild-type PrP. The susceptibility to infection of mutants monoglycosylated at either site differed dramatically depending on the amino acid substitution. Aglycosylated double mutants showed overaccumulation in the Golgi compartment and failed to be infected. Introduction of an ectopic glycosylation site near the N terminus fully restored cell surface expression of PrP but not convertibility into PrP(Sc), while PrP(C) with three glycosylation sites conferred cell permissiveness to infection similarly to the wild type. In contrast, predominantly aglycosylated molecules with nonmutated N-glycosylation sequons, produced in cells expressing glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchorless PrP(C), were able to form infectious PrP(Sc). Together our findings suggest that glycosylation is important for efficient trafficking of anchored PrP to the cell surface and sustained prion propagation. However, properly trafficked glycosylation mutants were not necessarily prone to conversion, thus making it difficult in such studies to discern whether the amino acid changes or glycan chain removal most influences the permissiveness to prion infection.

  6. CXCR3 surface expression in human airway epithelial cells: cell cycle dependence and effect on cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Mark O; Yang, Yi; Ji, Rong; Reddy, P J; Shahabuddin, Syed; Litvin, Judith; Rogers, Thomas J; Kelsen, Steven G

    2006-05-01

    We recently demonstrated that human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) constitutively express the CXC chemokine receptor CXCR3, which when activated, induces directed cell migration. The present study in HBEC examined the relative expression of the CXCR3 splice variants CXCR3-A and -B, cell cycle dependence of CXCR3 expression, and the effects of the CXCR3 ligand, the interferon-gamma-inducible CXC chemokine I-TAC/CXCL11, on DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. Both CXCR3-A and -B mRNA, assessed by real-time RT-PCR, were expressed in normal HBEC (NHBEC) and the HBEC line 16-HBE. However, CXCR3-B mRNA was 39- and 6-fold greater than CXCR3-A mRNA in NHBEC and 16-HBE, respectively. Although most HBEC (>80%) assessed by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy contained intracellular CXCR3, only a minority (<40%) expressed it on the cell surface. In this latter subset of cells, most (>75%) were in the S + G(2)/M phases of the cell cycle. Stimulation of CXCR3 with I-TAC enhanced thymidine incorporation and cell proliferation and increased p38 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. These data indicate that 1) human airway epithelial cells primarily express CXCR3-B mRNA, 2) surface expression of CXCR3 is largely confined to the S + G(2)/M phases of the cell cycle, and 3) activation of CXCR3 induces DNA synthesis, cell proliferation, and activation of MAPK pathways. We speculate that activation of CXCR3 exerts a mitogenic effect in HBEC, which may be important during airway mucosal injury in obstructive airway diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  7. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase regulates vascular endothelial growth factor expression via human papillomavirus oncogene E7 in HPV-18-positive cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Cui, Jinquan

    2015-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection induces chronic and precancerous lesions and results in invasive cervical cancer. Human telomerase as well as inflammatory and angiogenic factors such as telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) could play a role in regulating HPV-induced cervical cancer. This study investigated underlying molecular events in HPV-induced HPV-positive cervical cancer through hTERT and VEGF in vitro. Expressions of hTERT, a rate-limiting subunit of telomerase, and VEGF mRNA and proteins were, respectively, assessed by qRT-PCR, ELISA, and TRAP-ELISA in HPV-positive tissue samples and cervical cancer cell lines. To assess hTERT and VEGF secretion, hTERT overexpression and knockdown were conducted in HPV-18-positive Hela cells by hTERT cDNA and shRNA transfection, respectively. Then, the effect of HPV E6 and E7 on VEGF expressions was assessed in HPV-negative cervical cancer cells. Data have shown that VEGF expression levels are associated with hTERT expressions and telomerase activity in HPV-positive cervical cancer tissues and cells. Knockdown of hTERT expression down-regulated VEGF expressions, whereas overexpression of hTERT up-regulated VEGF expressions in HPV-18-positive Hela cells. Furthermore, HPV E7 oncoprotein was necessary for hTERT to up-regulate VEGF expressions in HPV-negative cervical cancer cells. Data from this current study indicate that HPV oncoproteins up-regulated hTERT and telomerase activity and in turn promoted VEGF expressions, which could be a key mechanism for HPV-induced cervical cancer development and progression.

  8. Complexity of expression of the intermediate filaments of six new human ovarian carcinoma cell lines: new expression of cytokeratin 20.

    PubMed

    Yanagibashi, T; Gorai, I; Nakazawa, T; Miyagi, E; Hirahara, F; Kitamura, H; Minaguchi, H

    1997-01-01

    Six permanent human ovarian carcinoma cell lines (OVISE, OVTOKO, OVMANA and OVSAYO from clear cell adenocarcinoma, and OVSAHO and OVKATE from serous papillary adenocarcinoma) were established from solid tumours. The cell lines have been in culture for 5-8 years, the passage number varying from 62 to 246. Immunohistochemical analysis has shown that five of the six cell lines express at least six cytokeratin (CK) polypeptides. OVISE and OVSAYO expressed CKs 6, 7, 8, 18, 19 and 15 and/or 16. OVTOKO was positive for CKs 7, 8, 18, 19 and 15 and/or 16. OVSAHO expressed CKs 6, 7, 8, 14, 18, 19 and 15 and/or 16. OVMANA expressed CKs 6, 7, 8, 18, 19, 20 and 15 and/or 16. OVKATE expressed CKs 6, 7, 8, 13, 17, 18, 19, 20 and 15 and/or 16. The expression of CK7, additional expression of vimentin, and clinical and histopathological findings enabled us to confirm that six cell lines had been established from primary ovarian cancers. Two of the six cell lines were positive for CK20, although CK20 was not expressed in the original tumours. The heterotransplanted tumours produced by CK20-positive cells also expressed CK20. This is the first report of ovarian carcinoma cell lines that express CK20 irrespective of their histological type. CK20 has been found in all colon carcinoma cell lines, but only in the mucinous type of ovarian tumours. These new ovarian carcinoma cell lines will therefore provide a relevant experimental system for elucidating the regulatory control mechanisms of intermediate filament expression.

  9. Mash1-expressing cells could differentiate to type III cells in adult mouse taste buds.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Hiroki; Seta, Yuji; Kataoka, Shinji; Nakatomi, Mitsushiro; Toyono, Takashi; Kawamoto, Tatsuo

    2018-03-10

    The gustatory cells in taste buds have been identified as paraneuronal; they possess characteristics of both neuronal and epithelial cells. Like neurons, they form synapses, store and release transmitters, and are capable of generating an action potential. Like epithelial cells, taste cells have a limited life span and are regularly replaced throughout life. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate taste cell genesis and differentiation. In the present study, to begin to understand these mechanisms, we investigated the role of Mash1-positive cells in regulating adult taste bud cell differentiation through the loss of Mash1-positive cells using the Cre-loxP system. We found that the cells expressing type III cell markers-aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), carbonic anhydrase 4 (CA4), glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67), neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25)-were significantly reduced in the circumvallate taste buds after the administration of tamoxifen. However, gustducin and phospholipase C beta2 (PLC beta2)-markers of type II taste bud cells-were not significantly changed in the circumvallate taste buds after the administration of tamoxifen. These results suggest that Mash1-positive cells could be differentiated to type III cells, not type II cells in the taste buds.

  10. Expression of Coxsackievirus and Adenovirus Receptor Separates Hematopoietic and Cardiac Progenitor Cells in Fetal Liver Kinase 1-Expressing Mesoderm

    PubMed Central

    Tashiro, Katsuhisa; Hirata, Nobue; Okada, Atsumasa; Yamaguchi, Tomoko; Takayama, Kazuo; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    In developing embryos or in vitro differentiation cultures using pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), such as embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, fetal liver kinase 1 (Flk1)-expressing mesodermal cells are thought to be a heterogeneous population that includes hematopoietic progenitors, endothelial progenitors, and cardiac progenitors. However, information on cell surface markers for separating these progenitors in Flk1+ cells is currently limited. In the present study, we show that distinct types of progenitor cells in Flk1+ cells could be separated according to the expression of coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR, also known as CXADR), a tight junction component molecule. We found that mouse and human PSC- and mouse embryo-derived Flk1+ cells could be subdivided into Flk1+CAR+ cells and Flk1+CAR− cells. The progenitor cells with cardiac potential were almost entirely restricted to Flk1+CAR+ cells, and Flk1+CAR− cells efficiently differentiated into hematopoietic cells. Endothelial differentiation potential was observed in both populations. Furthermore, from the expression of CAR, Flk1, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFRα), Flk1+ cells could be separated into three populations (Flk1+PDGFRα−CAR− cells, Flk1+PDGFRα−CAR+ cells, and Flk1+PDGFRα+CAR+ cells). Flk1+PDGFRα+ cells and Flk1+PDGFRα− cells have been reported as cardiac and hematopoietic progenitor cells, respectively. We identified a novel population (Flk1+PDGFRα−CAR+ cells) with the potential to differentiate into not only hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells but also cardiomyocytes. Our findings indicate that CAR would be a novel and prominent marker for separating PSC- and embryo-derived Flk1+ mesodermal cells with distinct differentiation potentials. PMID:25762001

  11. Aging: a portrait from gene expression profile in blood cells.

    PubMed

    Calabria, Elisa; Mazza, Emilia Maria Cristina; Dyar, Kenneth Allen; Pogliaghi, Silvia; Bruseghini, Paolo; Morandi, Carlo; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Gelati, Matteo; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Bicciato, Silvio; Schiaffino, Stefano; Schena, Federico; Capelli, Carlo

    2016-08-01

    The availability of reliable biomarkers of aging is important not only to monitor the effect of interventions and predict the timing of pathologies associated with aging but also to understand the mechanisms and devise appropriate countermeasures. Blood cells provide an easily available tissue and gene expression profiles from whole blood samples appear to mirror disease states and some aspects of the aging process itself. We report here a microarray analysis of whole blood samples from two cohorts of healthy adult and elderly subjects, aged 43±3 and 68±4 years, respectively, to monitor gene expression changes in the initial phase of the senescence process. A number of significant changes were found in the elderly compared to the adult group, including decreased levels of transcripts coding for components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, which correlate with a parallel decline in the maximum rate of oxygen consumption (VO2max), as monitored in the same subjects. In addition, blood cells show age-related changes in the expression of several markers of immunosenescence, inflammation and oxidative stress. These findings support the notion that the immune system has a major role in tissue homeostasis and repair, which appears to be impaired since early stages of the aging process.

  12. Dendrimer-driven neurotrophin expression differs in temporal patterns between rodent and human stem cells.

    PubMed

    Shakhbazau, Antos; Shcharbin, Dzmitry; Seviaryn, Ihar; Goncharova, Natalya; Kosmacheva, Svetlana; Potapnev, Mihail; Bryszewska, Maria; Kumar, Ranjan; Biernaskie, Jeffrey; Midha, Rajiv

    2012-05-07

    This study reports the use of a nonviral expression system based on polyamidoamine dendrimers for time-restricted neurotrophin overproduction in mesenchymal stem cells and skin precursor-derived Schwann cells. The dendrimers were used to deliver plasmids for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) expression in both rodent and human stem cells, and the timelines of expression were studied. We have found that, despite the fact that transfection efficiencies and protein expression levels were comparable, dendrimer-driven expression in human mesenchymal stem cells was characterized by a more rapid decline compared to rodent cells. Transient expression systems can be beneficial for some neurotrophins, which were earlier reported to cause unwanted side effects in virus-based long-term expression models. Nonviral neurotrophin expression is a biologically safe and accessible alternative to increase the therapeutic potential of autologous adult stem cells and stem cell-derived functional differentiated cells.

  13. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype expression in avian vestibular hair cells, nerve terminals and ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Li, G Q; Kevetter, G A; Leonard, R B; Prusak, D J; Wood, T G; Correia, M J

    2007-04-25

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are widely expressed in the CNS and peripheral nervous system and play an important role in modulating the cell activity and function. We have shown that the cholinergic agonist carbachol reduces the pigeon's inwardly rectifying potassium channel (pKir2.1) ionic currents in native vestibular hair cells. We have cloned and sequenced pigeon mAChR subtypes M2-M5 and we have studied the expression of all five mAChR subtypes (M1-M5) in the pigeon vestibular end organs (semicircular canal ampullary cristae and utricular maculae), vestibular nerve fibers and the vestibular (Scarpa's) ganglion using tissue immunohistochemistry (IH), dissociated single cell immunocytochemistry (IC) and Western blotting (WB). We found that vestibular hair cells, nerve fibers and ganglion cells each expressed all five (M1-M5) mAChR subtypes. Two of the three odd-numbered mAChRs (M1, M5) were present on the hair cell cilia, supporting cells and nerve terminals. And all three odd numbered mAChRs (M1, M3 and M5) were expressed on cuticular plates, myelin sheaths and Schwann cells. Even-numbered mAChRs were seen on the nerve terminals. M2 was also shown on the cuticular plates and supporting cells. Vestibular efferent fibers and terminals were not identified in our studies. Results from WB of the dissociated vestibular epithelia, nerve fibers and vestibular ganglia were consistent with the results from IH and IC. Our findings suggest that there is considerable co-expression of the subtypes on the neural elements of the labyrinth. Further electrophysiological and pharmacological studies should delineate the mechanisms of action of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors on structures in the labyrinth.

  14. Progressive lentivirus infection induces natural killer cell receptor-expressing B cells in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Manickam, Cordelia; Nwanze, Chiadika; Ram, Daniel R; Shah, Spandan V; Smith, Scott; Jones, Rhianna; Hueber, Brady; Kroll, Kyle; Varner, Valerie; Goepfert, Paul; Jost, Stephanie; Reeves, R Keith

    2018-05-03

    Recently, a seemingly novel innate immune cell subset bearing features of natural killer and B cells was identified in mice. So-called NKB cells appear as first responders to infections, but whether this cell population is truly novel or is in fact a subpopulation of B cells and exists in higher primates remains unclear. The objective of this study was to identify NKB cells in primates and study the impact of HIV/SIV infections. NKB cells were quantified in both naïve and lentivirus infected rhesus macaques and humans by excluding lineage markers (CD3, CD127), and positive Boolean gating for CD20, NKG2A/C and/or NKp46. Additional phenotypic measures were conducted by RNA-probe and traditional flow cytometry. Circulating cytotoxic NKB cells were found at similar frequencies in humans and rhesus macaques (range, 0.01-0.2% of total lymphocytes). NKB cells were notably enriched in spleen (median, 0.4% of lymphocytes), but were otherwise systemically distributed in tonsil, lymph nodes, colon, and jejunum. Expression of immunoglobulins was highly variable, but heavily favoured IgM and IgA rather than IgG. Interestingly, NKB cell frequencies expanded in PBMC and colon during SIV infection, as did IgG expression, but were generally unaltered in HIV-infected humans. These results suggest a cell type expressing both natural killer and B-cell features exists in rhesus macaques and humans and are perturbed by HIV/SIV infection. The full functional niche remains unknown, but the unique phenotype and systemic distribution could make NKB cells unique targets for immunotherapeutics or vaccine strategies.

  15. A proteomic chronology of gene expression through the cell cycle in human myeloid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Ly, Tony; Ahmad, Yasmeen; Shlien, Adam; Soroka, Dominique; Mills, Allie; Emanuele, Michael J; Stratton, Michael R; Lamond, Angus I

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances have enabled the analysis of cellular protein and RNA levels with unprecedented depth and sensitivity, allowing for an unbiased re-evaluation of gene regulation during fundamental biological processes. Here, we have chronicled the dynamics of protein and mRNA expression levels across a minimally perturbed cell cycle in human myeloid leukemia cells using centrifugal elutriation combined with mass spectrometry-based proteomics and RNA-Seq, avoiding artificial synchronization procedures. We identify myeloid-specific gene expression and variations in protein abundance, isoform expression and phosphorylation at different cell cycle stages. We dissect the relationship between protein and mRNA levels for both bulk gene expression and for over ∼6000 genes individually across the cell cycle, revealing complex, gene-specific patterns. This data set, one of the deepest surveys to date of gene expression in human cells, is presented in an online, searchable database, the Encyclopedia of Proteome Dynamics (http://www.peptracker.com/epd/). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01630.001.

  16. HLA-E-expressing pluripotent stem cells escape allogeneic responses and lysis by NK cells

    PubMed Central

    Gornalusse, Germán G.; Hirata, Roli K.; Funk, Sarah; Riolobos, Laura; Lopes, Vanda S.; Manske, Gabriel; Prunkard, Donna; Colunga, Aric G.; Hanafi, Laïla-Aïcha; Clegg, Dennis O.; Turtle, Cameron; Russell, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Polymorphisms in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I genes can cause the rejection of pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived products in allogeneic recipients. Disruption of the Beta-2 Microglobulin (B2M) gene eliminates surface expression of all class I molecules, but leaves the cells vulnerable to lysis by natural killer (NK) cells. Here we show that this ‘missing self’ response can be prevented by forced expression of minimally polymorphic HLA-E molecules. We use adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene editing to knock in HLA-E genes at the B2M locus in human PSCs in a manner that confers inducible, regulated, surface expression of HLA-E single-chain dimers (fused to B2M) or trimers (fused to B2M and a peptide antigen), without surface expression of HLA-A, B or C. These HLA-engineered PSCs and their differentiated derivatives are not recognized as allogeneic by CD8+ T cells, do not bind anti-HLA antibodies, and are resistant to NK-mediated lysis. Our approach provides a potential source of universal donor cells for applications where the differentiated derivatives lack HLA class II expression. PMID:28504668

  17. HLA-E-expressing pluripotent stem cells escape allogeneic responses and lysis by NK cells.

    PubMed

    Gornalusse, Germán G; Hirata, Roli K; Funk, Sarah E; Riolobos, Laura; Lopes, Vanda S; Manske, Gabriel; Prunkard, Donna; Colunga, Aric G; Hanafi, Laïla-Aïcha; Clegg, Dennis O; Turtle, Cameron; Russell, David W

    2017-08-01

    Polymorphisms in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I genes can cause the rejection of pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived products in allogeneic recipients. Disruption of the Beta-2 Microglobulin (B2M) gene eliminates surface expression of all class I molecules, but leaves the cells vulnerable to lysis by natural killer (NK) cells. Here we show that this 'missing-self' response can be prevented by forced expression of minimally polymorphic HLA-E molecules. We use adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene editing to knock in HLA-E genes at the B2M locus in human PSCs in a manner that confers inducible, regulated, surface expression of HLA-E single-chain dimers (fused to B2M) or trimers (fused to B2M and a peptide antigen), without surface expression of HLA-A, B or C. These HLA-engineered PSCs and their differentiated derivatives are not recognized as allogeneic by CD8 + T cells, do not bind anti-HLA antibodies and are resistant to NK-mediated lysis. Our approach provides a potential source of universal donor cells for applications where the differentiated derivatives lack HLA class II expression.

  18. A proteomic chronology of gene expression through the cell cycle in human myeloid leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Tony; Ahmad, Yasmeen; Shlien, Adam; Soroka, Dominique; Mills, Allie; Emanuele, Michael J; Stratton, Michael R; Lamond, Angus I

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances have enabled the analysis of cellular protein and RNA levels with unprecedented depth and sensitivity, allowing for an unbiased re-evaluation of gene regulation during fundamental biological processes. Here, we have chronicled the dynamics of protein and mRNA expression levels across a minimally perturbed cell cycle in human myeloid leukemia cells using centrifugal elutriation combined with mass spectrometry-based proteomics and RNA-Seq, avoiding artificial synchronization procedures. We identify myeloid-specific gene expression and variations in protein abundance, isoform expression and phosphorylation at different cell cycle stages. We dissect the relationship between protein and mRNA levels for both bulk gene expression and for over ∼6000 genes individually across the cell cycle, revealing complex, gene-specific patterns. This data set, one of the deepest surveys to date of gene expression in human cells, is presented in an online, searchable database, the Encyclopedia of Proteome Dynamics (http://www.peptracker.com/epd/). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01630.001 PMID:24596151

  19. Decreased expression of cell adhesion genes in cancer stem-like cells isolated from primary oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Amrendra; Sriram, Harshini; Chandarana, Pinal; Tanavde, Vivek; Kumar, Rekha V; Gopinath, Ashok; Govindarajan, Raman; Ramaswamy, S; Sadasivam, Subhashini

    2018-05-01

    The goal of this study was to isolate cancer stem-like cells marked by high expression of CD44, a putative cancer stem cell marker, from primary oral squamous cell carcinomas and identify distinctive gene expression patterns in these cells. From 1 October 2013 to 4 September 2015, 76 stage III-IV primary oral squamous cell carcinoma of the gingivobuccal sulcus were resected. In all, 13 tumours were analysed by immunohistochemistry to visualise CD44-expressing cells. Expression of CD44 within The Cancer Genome Atlas-Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma RNA-sequencing data was also assessed. Seventy resected tumours were dissociated into single cells and stained with antibodies to CD44 as well as CD45 and CD31 (together referred as Lineage/Lin). From 45 of these, CD44 + Lin - and CD44 - Lin - subpopulations were successfully isolated using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and good-quality RNA was obtained from 14 such sorted pairs. Libraries from five pairs were sequenced and the results analysed using bioinformatics tools. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to experimentally validate the differential expression of selected candidate genes identified from the transcriptome sequencing in the same 5 and an additional 9 tumours. CD44 was expressed on the surface of poorly differentiated tumour cells, and within the The Cancer Genome Atlas-Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma samples, its messenger RNA levels were higher in tumours compared to normal. Transcriptomics revealed that 102 genes were upregulated and 85 genes were downregulated in CD44 + Lin - compared to CD44 - Lin - cells in at least 3 of the 5 tumours sequenced. The upregulated genes included those involved in immune regulation, while the downregulated genes were enriched for genes involved in cell adhesion. Decreased expression of PCDH18, MGP, SPARCL1 and KRTDAP was confirmed by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Lower expression of

  20. Docosahexaenoic acid inhibits IL-6 expression via PPARγ-mediated expression of catalase in cerulein-stimulated pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Eun Ah; Lim, Joo Weon; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2017-07-01

    Cerulein pancreatitis mirrors human acute pancreatitis. In pancreatic acinar cells exposed to cerulein, reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate inflammatory signaling by Janus kinase (JAK) 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3, and cytokine induction. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) acts as an agonist of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), which mediates the expression of some antioxidant enzymes. We hypothesized that DHA may induce PPARγ-target catalase expression and reduce ROS levels, leading to the inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 activation and IL-6 expression in cerulein-stimulated acinar cells. Pancreatic acinar AR42J cells were treated with DHA in the presence or absence of the PPARγ antagonist GW9662, or treated with the PPARγ agonist troglitazone, and then stimulated with cerulein. Expression of IL-6 and catalase, ROS levels, JAK2/STAT3 activation, and nuclear translocation of PPARγ were assessed. DHA suppressed the increase in ROS, JAK2/STAT3 activation, and IL-6 expression induced nuclear translocation of PPARγ and catalase expression in cerulein-stimulated AR42J cells. Troglitazone inhibited the cerulein-induced increase in ROS and IL-6 expression, but induced catalase expression similar to DHA in AR42J cells. GW9662 abolished the inhibitory effect of DHA on cerulein-induced increase in ROS and IL-6 expression in AR42J cells. DHA-induced expression of catalase was suppressed by GW9662 in cerulein-stimulated AR42J cells. Thus, DHA induces PPARγ activation and catalase expression, which inhibits ROS-mediated activation of JAK2/STAT3 and IL-6 expression in cerulein-stimulated pancreatic acinar cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Interleukin-4 induces expression of eotaxin in endometriotic stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Zhuo; Osuga, Yutaka; Hirota, Yasushi; Hirata, Tetsuya; Yoshino, Osamu; Koga, Kaori; Yano, Tetsu; Taketani, Yuji

    2010-06-01

    To study the relationship between eotaxin and interleukin-4 (IL-4) in the pathophysiology of endometriosis. Comparative and laboratory study. University teaching hospital reproductive endocrinology and infertility practice. Ectopic endometrial tissues were collected from women with endometriosis. Ectopic endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) were isolated and cultured with IL-4. Ectopic endometriotic tissues were immunostained for eotaxin and IL-4. Gene expression of eotaxin was determined by standard and real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Secretion of eotaxin from ESC was measured using specific ELISA. The immunostained sections were examined. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) increased mRNA expression and protein secretion of eotaxin from ESC in a dose-dependent manner. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that eotaxin-positive cells colocalized with IL-4-positive cells and accumulated around the blood vessels in the stroma of endometriotic tissue. IL-4 induces eotaxin in ESCs, which might promote angiogenesis and the subsequent development of endometriosis. Copyright (c) 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Investigation of fusion gene expression in HCT116 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanmei; Ren, Juan; Fang, Mengdie; Wang, Xiaoju

    2017-12-01

    Colon cancer is the most common type of gastrointestinal cancer. A number of specific and sensitive biomarkers facilitate the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with colon cancer. Fusion genes are typically identified in cancer and a majority of the newly identified fusion genes are oncogenic in nature. Therefore, fusion genes are potential biomarkers and/or therapy targets in cancer. In the present study, the regulation of specific candidate fusion genes were investigated using Brother of the Regulator of Imprinted Sites (BORIS) in the HCT116 colon cancer cell line, which is a paralog of the fusion gene regulator CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF). The copy number of BORIS increased correspondingly to the progression of colorectal carcinoma from the M0 to the M1a stage. It was identified that EIF3E(e1)-RSPO2(e2) , EIF3E(e1)-RSPO2(e3) , PTPRK(e1)-RSPO3(e2) , PTPRK(e7)-RSPO3(e2), TADA2A-MEF2B and MED13L-CD4 are fusion transcripts present in the transcriptome of the HCT116 colon cancer cell line. CDC42SE2-KIAAO146 is a genomic fusion transcript, which originates from DNA arrangement in HCT116 cells. BORIS suppresses the expression of EIF3E , RSPO2 , PTPRK , RSPO3 , TADA2A and CD4 to inhibit the expression of fusion transcripts in HCT116 cells. It was hypothesized that the fusion transcripts investigated in the present study may not be oncogenic in HCT116 cells. As BORIS is not colorectal carcinoma-specific, the fusion genes investigated may be a biomarker assemblage for monitoring the progression of colorectal carcinoma.

  3. Investigation of fusion gene expression in HCT116 cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanmei; Ren, Juan; Fang, Mengdie; Wang, Xiaoju

    2017-01-01

    Colon cancer is the most common type of gastrointestinal cancer. A number of specific and sensitive biomarkers facilitate the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with colon cancer. Fusion genes are typically identified in cancer and a majority of the newly identified fusion genes are oncogenic in nature. Therefore, fusion genes are potential biomarkers and/or therapy targets in cancer. In the present study, the regulation of specific candidate fusion genes were investigated using Brother of the Regulator of Imprinted Sites (BORIS) in the HCT116 colon cancer cell line, which is a paralog of the fusion gene regulator CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF). The copy number of BORIS increased correspondingly to the progression of colorectal carcinoma from the M0 to the M1a stage. It was identified that EIF3E(e1)-RSPO2(e2), EIF3E(e1)-RSPO2(e3), PTPRK(e1)-RSPO3(e2), PTPRK(e7)-RSPO3(e2), TADA2A-MEF2B and MED13L-CD4 are fusion transcripts present in the transcriptome of the HCT116 colon cancer cell line. CDC42SE2-KIAAO146 is a genomic fusion transcript, which originates from DNA arrangement in HCT116 cells. BORIS suppresses the expression of EIF3E, RSPO2, PTPRK, RSPO3, TADA2A and CD4 to inhibit the expression of fusion transcripts in HCT116 cells. It was hypothesized that the fusion transcripts investigated in the present study may not be oncogenic in HCT116 cells. As BORIS is not colorectal carcinoma-specific, the fusion genes investigated may be a biomarker assemblage for monitoring the progression of colorectal carcinoma. PMID:29181107

  4. Gene expression profiling of dendritic cells by microarray.

    PubMed

    Foti, Maria; Ricciardi-Castagnoli, Paola; Granucci, Francesca

    2007-01-01

    The immune system of vertebrate animals has evolved to respond to different types of perturbations (invading pathogens, stress signals), limiting self-tissue damage. The decision to activate an immune response is made by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that are quiescent until they encounter a foreign microorganism or inflammatory stimuli. Early activated APCs trigger innate immune responses that represent the first line of reaction against invading pathogens to limit the infections. At later times, activated APCs acquire the ability to prime antigen-specific immune responses that clear the infections and give rise to memory. During the immune response self-tissue damage is limited and tolerance to self is maintained through life. Among the cells that constitute the immune system, dendritic cells (DC) play a central role. They are extremely versatile APCs involved in the initiation of both innate and adaptive immunity and also in the differentiation of regulatory T cells required for the maintenance of self-tolerance. How DC can mediate these diverse and almost contradictory functions has recently been investigated. The plasticity of these cells allows them to undergo a complete genetic reprogramming in response to external microbial stimuli with the sequential acquisition of different regulatory functions in innate and adaptive immunity. The specific genetic reprogramming DC undergo upon activation can be easily investigated by using microarrays to perform global gene expression analysis in different conditions.

  5. Glycobiotechnology of the Insect Cell-Baculovirus Expression System Technology.

    PubMed

    Palomares, Laura A; Srivastava, Indresh K; Ramírez, Octavio T; Cox, Manon M J

    2018-06-10

    The insect cell-baculovirus expression system technology (BEST) has a prominent role in producing recombinant proteins to be used as research and diagnostic reagents and vaccines. The glycosylation profile of proteins produced by the BEST is composed predominantly of terminal mannose glycans, and, in Trichoplusia ni cell lines, core α3 fucosylation, a profile different to that in mammals. Insects contain all the enzymatic activities needed for complex N- and O-glycosylation and sialylation, although few reports of complex glycosylation and sialylation by the BEST exist. The insect cell line and culture conditions determine the glycosylation profile of proteins produced by the BEST. The promoter used, dissolved oxygen tension, presence of sugar precursors, bovine serum or hemolymph, temperature, and the time of harvest all influence glycosylation, although more research is needed. The lack of activity of glycosylation enzymes possibly results from the transcription regulation and stress imposed by baculovirus infection. To solve this limitation, the glycosylation pathway of insect cells has been engineered to produce complex sialylated glycans and to eliminate α3 fucosylation, either by generating transgenic cell lines or by using baculovirus vectors. These strategies have been successful. Complex glycosylation, sialylation, and inhibition of α3 fucosylation have been achieved, although the majority of glycans still have terminal mannose residues. The implication of insect glycosylation in the proteins produced by the BEST is discussed. Graphical Abstract.

  6. APOBEC3A Expression in Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Heller, Martina; Prigge, Elena-Sophie; Kaczorowski, Adam; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Hohenfellner, Markus; Duensing, Stefan

    2017-11-23

    APOBECs (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptides) are cytidine deaminases that have been implicated in the host defense against viruses by blocking viral replication. They have also been shown to play a role in genome hypermutation in several human cancers. An APOBEC3 hypermutation signature has been discovered in cervical cancer, which is intimately associated with infection by high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs). At the same time, HPV genomes themselves are subject to DNA editing by APOBECs. Similar to cervical cancer, a proportion of penile squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) is etiologically driven by high-risk HPVs, but very little is known about the role of APOBECs in penile SCC development and progression. A series of 34 penile SCCs was analyzed for the expression of APOBEC3A protein by immunohistochemistry. HPV genotyping was carried out using a bead-based multiplex hybridization assay preceded by BSGP5+6+ primer-based amplification. We found a frequent reduction of APOBEC3A protein expression in the invasive parts of the majority of HPV-negative penile SCCs. In contrast, the majority of HPV-positive penile SCCs retained APOBEC3A expression during malignant progression. Our results suggest that APOBEC3A expression is downregulated during progression towards invasiveness in HPV-negative penile SCC, but maintained in HPV-positive penile SCC. How high-risk HPV-infected tumor cells tolerate high APOBEC3A, which appears to exert tumor suppressive functions in HPV-negative penile SCCs, remains to be elucidated. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Casein gene expression in mouse mammary epithelial cell lines: Dependence upon extracellular matrix and cell type

    SciT

    Medina, D.; Oborn, C.J.; Li, M.L.

    1987-09-01

    The COMMA-D mammary cell line exhibits mammary-specific functional differentiation under appropriate conditions in cell culture. The cytologically heterogeneous COMMA-D parental line and the clonal lines DB-1, TA-5, and FA-1 derived from the COMMA-D parent were examined for similar properties of functional differentiation. In monolayer cell culture, the cell lines DB-1, TA-5, FA-1, and MA-4 were examined for expression of mammary-specific and epithelial-specific proteins by an indirect immunofluorescence assay. The clonal cell lines were relatively homogeneous in their respective staining properties and seemed to represent three subpopulations found in the heterogeneous parental COMMA-D lines. None of the four clonal lines appearedmore » to represent myoepithelial cells. The cell lines were examined for expression of {beta}-casein mRNA in the presence or absence of prolactin. The inducibility of {beta}-casein in the COMMA-D cell line was further enhanced by a reconstituted basement membrane preparation enriched in laminin, collagen IV, and proteoglycans. These results support the hypothesis that the functional response of inducible mammary cell populations is a result of interaction among hormones, multiple extracellular matrix components, and specific cell types.« less

  8. Live-cell monitoring of periodic gene expression in synchronous human cells identifies Forkhead genes involved in cell cycle control

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Gavin D.; Gamsby, Joshua; Martyanov, Viktor; Brooks, Lionel; George, Lacy K.; Mahoney, J. Matthew; Loros, Jennifer J.; Dunlap, Jay C.; Whitfield, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    We developed a system to monitor periodic luciferase activity from cell cycle–regulated promoters in synchronous cells. Reporters were driven by a minimal human E2F1 promoter with peak expression in G1/S or a basal promoter with six Forkhead DNA-binding sites with peak expression at G2/M. After cell cycle synchronization, luciferase activity was measured in live cells at 10-min intervals across three to four synchronous cell cycles, allowing unprecedented resolution of cell cycle–regulated gene expression. We used this assay to screen Forkhead transcription factors for control of periodic gene expression. We confirmed a role for FOXM1 and identified two novel cell cycle regulators, FOXJ3 and FOXK1. Knockdown of FOXJ3 and FOXK1 eliminated cell cycle–dependent oscillations and resulted in decreased cell proliferation rates. Analysis of genes regulated by FOXJ3 and FOXK1 showed that FOXJ3 may regulate a network of zinc finger proteins and that FOXK1 binds to the promoter and regulates DHFR, TYMS, GSDMD, and the E2F binding partner TFDP1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing analysis identified 4329 genomic loci bound by FOXK1, 83% of which contained a FOXK1-binding motif. We verified that a subset of these loci are activated by wild-type FOXK1 but not by a FOXK1 (H355A) DNA-binding mutant. PMID:22740631

  9. Characteristics of allelic gene expression in human brain cells from single-cell RNA-seq data analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dejian; Lin, Mingyan; Pedrosa, Erika; Lachman, Herbert M; Zheng, Deyou

    2017-11-10

    Monoallelic expression of autosomal genes has been implicated in human psychiatric disorders. However, there is a paucity of allelic expression studies in human brain cells at the single cell and genome wide levels. In this report, we reanalyzed a previously published single-cell RNA-seq dataset from several postmortem human brains and observed pervasive monoallelic expression in individual cells, largely in a random manner. Examining single nucleotide variants with a predicted functional disruption, we found that the "damaged" alleles were overall expressed in fewer brain cells than their counterparts, and at a lower level in cells where their expression was detected. We also identified many brain cell type-specific monoallelically expressed genes. Interestingly, many of these cell type-specific monoallelically expressed genes were enriched for functions important for those brain cell types. In addition, function analysis showed that genes displaying monoallelic expression and correlated expression across neuronal cells from different individual brains were implicated in the regulation of synaptic function. Our findings suggest that monoallelic gene expression is prevalent in human brain cells, which may play a role in generating cellular identity and neuronal diversity and thus increasing the complexity and diversity of brain cell functions.

  10. Differentially expressed genes in nonsmall cell lung cancer: expression profiling of cancer-related genes in squamous cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kettunen, Eeva; Anttila, Sisko; Seppänen, Jouni K; Karjalainen, Antti; Edgren, Henrik; Lindström, Irmeli; Salovaara, Reijo; Nissén, Anna-Maria; Salo, Jarmo; Mattson, Karin; Hollmén, Jaakko; Knuutila, Sakari; Wikman, Harriet

    2004-03-01

    The expression patterns of cancer-related genes in 13 cases of squamous cell lung cancer (SCC) were characterized and compared with those in normal lung tissue and 13 adenocarcinomas (AC), the other major type of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). cDNA array was used to screen the gene expression levels and the array results were verified using a real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Thirty-nine percent of the 25 most upregulated and the 25 most downregulated genes were common to SCC and AC. Of these genes, DSP, HMGA1 (alias HMGIY), TIMP1, MIF, CCNB1, TN, MMP11, and MMP12 were upregulated and COPEB (alias CPBP), TYROBP, BENE, BMPR2, SOCS3, TIMP3, CAV1, and CAV2 were downregulated. The expression levels of several genes from distinct protein families (cytokeratins and hemidesmosomal proteins) were markedly increased in SCC compared with AC and normal lung. In addition, several genes, overexpressed in SCC, such as HMGA1, CDK4, IGFBP3, MMP9, MMP11, MMP12, and MMP14, fell into distinct chromosomal loci, which we have detected as gained regions on the basis of comparative genomic hybridization data. Our study revealed new candidate genes involved in NSCLC.

  11. Cell culture density affects the stemness gene expression of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Seong; Lee, Myoung Woo; Lee, Tae-Hee; Sung, Ki Woong; Koo, Hong Hoe; Yoo, Keon Hee

    2017-03-01

    The results of clinical trials using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are controversial due to the heterogeneity of human MSCs and differences in culture conditions. In this regard, it is important to identify gene expression patterns according to culture conditions, and to determine how the cells are expanded and when they should be clinically used. In the current study, stemness gene expression was investigated in adipose tissue-derived MSCs (AT-MSCs) harvested following culture at different densities. AT-MSCs were plated at a density of 200 or 5,000 cells/cm 2 . After 7 days of culture, stemness gene expression was examined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis. The proliferation rate of AT-MSCs harvested at a low density (~50% confluent) was higher than that of AT-MSCs harvested at a high density (~90% confluent). Although there were differences in the expression levels of stemness gene, such as octamer-binding transcription factor 4, nanog homeobox ( Nanog ), SRY-box 2, Kruppel like factor 4, v-myc avian myelocytomatosis