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Sample records for e6 transgenic mice

  1. Increased Incidence of Squamous Cell Carcinomas in Mastomys natalensis Papillomavirus E6 Transgenic Mice during Two-Stage Skin Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Helfrich, Iris; Chen, Min; Schmidt, Rainer; Fürstenberger, Gerhard; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Trick, David; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; zur Hausen, Harald; Rösl, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Papillomaviruses cause certain forms of human cancers, most notably carcinomas of the uterine cervix. In contrast to the well-established involvement of papillomavirus infection in the etiology of cervical carcinomas and in carcinomas of a rare hereditary condition, epidermodysplasia verruciformis, a causative role for cutaneous human papillomavirus types in the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer has not been proven. In order to better understand the functions of individual genes of cutaneous papillomavirus types, we generated transgenic mice carrying oncogene E6 of the Mastomys natalensis papillomavirus (MnPV), which causes keratoacanthomas of the skin in its natural host. In the present study, we demonstrate that under conditions of experimental two-stage skin carcinogenesis, fast-paced squamous cell carcinomas develop in nearly 100% of MnPV E6 transgenic mice in comparison to 10% in their nontransgenic littermates (log rank test; P < 0.0001). Therefore, we conclude that the MnPV E6 transgene favors the malignant progression of chemically induced tumors. Whereas an activating H-ras mutation is a consistent feature in benign and malignant tumors in wild-type mice, the majority of papillomas and keratoacanthomas and all squamous cell carcinomas obtained in MnPV E6 transgenic mice contain nonmutated ras alleles. These results indicate that the development of squamous cell carcinomas in MnPV E6 transgenic mice does not depend on an activated H-ras oncogene. PMID:15078961

  2. Gene expression profile of cervical and skin tissues from human papillomavirus type 16 E6 transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Villanueva, D; Diaz-Chavez, J; Uribe-Figueroa, L; Rangel-Escareão, C; Hidalgo-Miranda, A; March-Mifsut, S; Jimenez-Sanchez, G; Lambert, PF; Gariglio, P

    2008-01-01

    Background Although K14E6 transgenic mice develop spontaneous tumors of the skin epithelium, no spontaneous reproductive tract malignancies arise, unless the transgenic mice were treated chronically with 17β-estradiol. These findings suggest that E6 performs critical functions in normal adult cervix and skin, highlighting the need to define E6-controlled transcriptional programs in these tissues. Methods We evaluated the expression profile of 14,000 genes in skin or cervix from young K14E6 transgenic mice compared with nontransgenic. To identify differentially expressed genes a linear model was implemented using R and the LIMMA package. Two criteria were used to select the set of relevant genes. First a set of genes with a Log-odds ≥ 3 were selected. Then, a hierarchical search of genes was based on Log Fold Changes. Results Microarray analysis identified a total of 676 and 1154 genes that were significantly up and down-regulated, respectively, in skin from K14E6 transgenic mice. On the other hand, in the cervix from K14E6 transgenic mice we found that only 97 and 252 genes were significantly up and down-regulated, respectively. One of the most affected processes in the skin from K14E6 transgenic mice was the cell cycle. We also found that skin from transgenic mice showed down-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes and genes related to the immune response. In the cervix of K14E6 transgenic mice, we could not find affected any gene related to the cell cycle and apoptosis pathways but did observe alterations in the expression of immune response genes. Pathways such as angiogenesis, cell junction and epidermis development, also were altered in their gene expression profiles in both tissues. Conclusion Expression of the HPV16 E6 oncoprotein in our model alters expression of genes that fell into several functional groups providing insights into pathways by which E6 deregulate cell cycle progression, apoptosis, the host resistance to infection and immune function

  3. Induction of focal epithelial hyperplasia in tongue of young bk6-E6/E7 HPV16 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Ocadiz-Delgado, Rodolfo; Marroquin-Chavira, Alberto; Hernandez-Mote, Ruth; Valencia, Concepción; Manjarrez-Zavala, M Eugenia; Covarrubias, Luis; Gariglio, Patricio

    2009-08-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity is one of the most common neoplasms in the world. During the past 2 decades, the role of high-risk human papilloma virus (HR-HPV) has been studied and the data supporting HPV as a one of the causative agents in the development and progression of a sub-set of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) has accumulated. In order to investigate the role of HR-HPV oncogene expression in early epithelial alterations in vivo, we produced transgenic mice expressing HPV16 early region genes from the promoter of the bovine keratin 6 gene (Tg[bK6-E6/E7]). In this article, we demonstrate that E6/E7 transgene was abundantly expressed and cellular proliferation was increased in the middle tongue epithelia of transgenic mice, and that in the same region young (27 weeks old) Tg[bK6-E6/E7] mice spontaneously developed histological alterations, mainly focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH).

  4. Tumorigenicity by human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E7 in transgenic mice correlates with alterations in epithelial cell growth and differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Griep, A E; Herber, R; Jeon, S; Lohse, J K; Dubielzig, R R; Lambert, P F

    1993-01-01

    The human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E6 and E7 oncogenes are thought to play a role in the development of most human cervical cancers. These E6 and E7 oncoproteins affect cell growth control at least in part through their association with and inactivation of the cellular tumor suppressor gene products, p53 and Rb. To study the biological activities of the HPV-16 E6 and E7 genes in epithelial cells in vivo, transgenic mice were generated in which expression of E6 and E7 was targeted to the ocular lens. Expression of the transgenes correlated with bilateral microphthalmia and cataracts (100% penetrance) resulting from an efficient impairment of lens fiber cell differentiation and coincident induction of cell proliferation. Lens tumors formed in 40% of adult mice from the mouse lineage with the highest level of E6 and E7 expression. Additionally, when lens cells from neonatal transgenic animals were placed in tissue culture, immortalized cell populations grew out and acquired a tumorigenic phenotype with continuous passage. These observations indicate that genetic changes in addition to the transgenes are likely necessary for tumor formation. These transgenic mice and cell lines provide the basis for further studies into the mechanism of action of E6 and E7 in eliciting the observed pathology and into the genetic alterations required for HPV-16-associated tumor progression. Images PMID:8382301

  5. The HPV16 E6 oncoprotein and UVB irradiation inhibit the tumor suppressor TGFβ pathway in the epidermis of the K14E6 transgenic mouse.

    PubMed

    Popoca-Cuaya, Marco; Diaz-Chavez, Jose; Hernandez-Monge, Jesus; Alvarez-Rios, Elizabeth; Lambert, Paul F; Gariglio, Patricio

    2015-06-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs) are the causative agents of cervical cancer, and they are also associated with a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. In addition, HPVs have also been postulated in the development of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC). In these cancers, the oncogene E6 is best known for its ability to inactivate the tumor suppressor p53 protein. Interestingly, in transgenic mice for HPV16 E6 (K14E6), it was reported that E6 alone induced epithelial hyperplasia and delay in differentiation in skin epidermis independently of p53 inactivation. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) is an important regulator of cell growth/differentiation and apoptosis, and this pathway is often lost during tumorigenesis. Ultraviolet radiation B (UVB) exposure activates diverse cellular responses, including DNA damage and apoptosis. In this study, we investigated whether the E6 oncogene alone or in combination with UVB dysregulate some components of the TGFβ pathway in the epidermis of K14E6 mice. We used 8-day-old K14E6 and non-transgenic mice irradiated and unirradiated with a single dose of UVB. We found that the E6 oncogene and UVB irradiation impair the TGFβ pathway in epidermis of K14E6 mice by downregulation of the TGFβ type II receptor (TβRII). This loss of TβRII prevents downstream activation of Smad2 and target genes as p15, an important regulator of cell cycle progression. In summary, the TGFβ signalling in cells of the epidermis is downregulated in our mouse model by both the E6 oncoprotein and the UVB irradiation.

  6. APP transgenic mice: their use and limitations.

    PubMed

    Balducci, Claudia; Forloni, Gianluigi

    2011-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the most widespread form of dementia. Its histopathological hallmarks include vascular and extracellular β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Gradual decline of cognitive functions linked to progressive synaptic loss makes patients unable to store new information in the earlier stages of the pathology, later becoming completely dependent because they are unable to do even elementary daily life actions. Although more than a hundred years have passed since Alois Alzheimer described the first case of AD, and despite many years of intense research, there are still many crucial points to be discovered in the neuropathological pathway. The development of transgenic mouse models engineered with overexpression of the amyloid precursor protein carrying familial AD mutations has been extremely useful. Transgenic mice present the hallmarks of the pathology, and histological and behavioural examination supports the amyloid hypothesis. As in human AD, extracellular Aβ deposits surrounded by activated astrocytes and microglia are typical features, together with synaptic and cognitive defects. Although animal models have been widely used, they are still being continuously developed in order to recapitulate some missing aspects of the disease. For instance, AD therapeutic agents tested in transgenic mice gave encouraging results which, however, were very disappointing in clinical trials. Neuronal cell death and NFTs typical of AD are much harder to replicate in these mice, which thus offer a fundamental but still imperfect tool for understanding and solving dementia pathology.

  7. Studies of an expanded trinucleotide repeat in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, P.; Wang, S.; Merry, D.

    1994-09-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a progressive motor neuron disease caused by expansion of a trinucleotide repeat in the androgen receptor gene (AR{sup exp}). AR{sup exp} repeats expand further or contract in approximately 25% of transmissions. Analogous {open_quotes}dynamic mutations{close_quotes} have been reported in other expanded trinucleotide repeat disorders. We have been developing a mouse model of this disease using a transgenic approach. Expression of the SBMA AR was documented in transgenic mice with an inducible promoter. No phenotypic effects of transgene expression were observed. We have extended our previous results on stability of the expanded trinucleotide repeat in transgenic mice in two lines carrying AR{sup exp}. Tail DNA was amplified by PCR using primers spanning the repeat on 60 AR{sup exp} transgenic mice from four different transgenic lines. Migration of the PCR product through an acrylamide gel showed no change of the 45 CAG repeat length in any progeny. Similarly, PCR products from 23 normal repeat transgenics showed no change from the repeat length of the original construct. Unlike the disease allele in humans, the expanded repeat AR cDNA in transgenic mice showed no change in repeat length with transmission. The relative stability of CAG repeats seen in the transgenic mice may indicate either differences in the fidelity of replicative enzymes, or differences in error identification and repair between mice and humans. Integration site or structural properties of the transgene itself might also play a role.

  8. Effect of transgene number of spontaneous and radiation-induced micronuclei in lacl transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    O`Loughlin, K.G.; Hamer, J.D.; Winegar, R.A.; Mirsalis, J.C.; Short, J.M.

    1994-12-31

    Lacl transgenic mice are widely used for the measurement of mutations in specific target issues. The lacl transgene is present in mice as 40 tandem repeats; this sequence is homozygous (contained in both copies of chromosome 5) in C57Bl/6 mice, and is hemizygous in B6C3F1 mice. Previous reports have indicated that tandem repeats can produce chromosome instability, fragile sites, and other effects. To determine whether the presence of the transgene effects micronucleus induction we compared the response of nontransgenic (NTR) to hemizygous (HEMI) transgenic B6C3F1 mice and to hemizygous and homozygous (HOMO) transgenic C57Bl/6 mice. Five mice/group were irradiated with 500 cGy from a {sup 137}Cs source. Bone marrow was harvested 24 hr after treatment and 2000 polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) were analyzed per animal. The presence or absence of the lacl transgene had no effect in unirradiated mice on the percent of micronucleated PCE (MN) or on the ratio of PCE to total red blood cells for either strain: B6C3F1 mice had MN frequencies of 0.26% and 0.20% for NTR and HEMI mice, respectively; C57Bl/6 mice had MN frequencies of 0.34%, 0.32%, and 0.38% for NTR, HEMI, and HOMO mice, respectively. Radiation-induced micronucleus frequencies were significantly higher in HEMI lacl B6C3F1 mice (2.85%) than in NTR litter mates (1.59%); the converse was true in C57Bl/6 mice: NTR were 2.45%, HEMI were 1.25%, HOMO were 1.65%. These data suggest that the lacl transgene does not cause chromosome instability as measured by spontaneous micronucleus levels. However, the response of these transgenic mice to a variety of clastogenic agents needs to be investigated before they are integrated into standard in vivo assays for chromosome damage.

  9. Hmga2 promoter analysis in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Schiltz, John F; Rustighi, Alessandra; Tessari, Michela A; Liu, Jun; Braghetta, Paola; Sgarra, Riccardo; Stebel, Marco; Bressan, Giorgio M; Altruda, Fiorella; Giancotti, Vincenzo; Chada, Kiran; Manfioletti, Guidalberto

    2003-10-01

    HMGA2(2) belongs to the high mobility group A (HMGA) family of architectural transcription factors which participate in a wide variety of nuclear processes ranging from transcription to recombination, playing an important role in chromatin remodelling. HMGA2 is expressed during embryogenesis but not by adult somatic tissues, yet it becomes re-expressed following neoplastic transformation. A role in development is underscored by the finding that the inactivation of the Hmga2 gene is responsible for the murine pygmy phenotype. To elucidate mechanisms that control HMGA2 expression, we have previously cloned the gene and identified functional elements involved in its regulation. In this paper, transgenic mice were generated to define genomic regions involved in Hmga2 developmental and tissue-specific transcriptional regulation. A genomic region from -8.1 to -3.7kb upstream from the initiation site has been found to recapitulate most of the spatial and temporal endogenous Hmga2 gene expression. PMID:13679031

  10. Efficient Generation of Mice with Consistent Transgene Expression by FEEST.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; Jiang, Yonghua; Mu, Libing; Liu, Yanbin; Wang, Fengchao; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Aiqun; Tang, Nan; Chen, Ting; Luo, Minmin; Yu, Lei; Gao, Shaorong; Chen, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic mouse models are widely used in biomedical research; however, current techniques for producing transgenic mice are limited due to the unpredictable nature of transgene expression. Here, we report a novel, highly efficient technique for the generation of transgenic mice with single-copy integration of the transgene and guaranteed expression of the gene-of-interest (GOI). We refer to this technique as functionally enriched ES cell transgenics, or FEEST. ES cells harboring an inducible Cre gene enabled the efficient selection of transgenic ES cell clones using hygromycin before Cre-mediated recombination. Expression of the GOI was confirmed by assaying for the GFP after Cre recombination. As a proof-of-principle, we produced a transgenic mouse line containing Cre-activatable tTA (cl-tTA6). This tTA mouse model was able to induce tumor formation when crossed with a transgenic mouse line containing a doxycycline-inducible oncogene. We also showed that the cl-tTA6 mouse is a valuable tool for faithfully recapitulating the clinical course of tumor development. We showed that FEEST can be easily adapted for other genes by preparing a transgenic mouse model of conditionally activatable EGFR L858R. Thus, FEEST is a technique with the potential to generate transgenic mouse models at a genome-wide scale. PMID:26573149

  11. Enhanced human papillomavirus type 8 oncogene expression levels are crucial for skin tumorigenesis in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hufbauer, M.; Lazic, D.; Akguel, B.; Brandsma, J.L.; Pfister, H.; Weissenborn, S.J.

    2010-08-01

    Human papillomavirus 8 (HPV8) is involved in skin cancer development in epidermodysplasia verruciformis patients. Transgenic mice expressing HPV8 early genes (HPV8-CER) developed papillomas, dysplasias and squamous cell carcinomas. UVA/B-irradiation and mechanical wounding of HPV8-CER mouse skin led to prompt papilloma induction in about 3 weeks. The aim of this study was to analyze the kinetics and level of transgene expression in response to skin irritations. Transgene expression was already enhanced 1 to 2 days after UVA/B-irradiation or tape-stripping and maintained during papilloma development. The enhanced transgene expression could be assigned to UVB and not to UVA. Papilloma development was thus always paralleled by an increased transgene expression irrespective of the type of skin irritation. A knock-down of E6 mRNA by tattooing HPV8-E6-specific siRNA led to a delay and a lower incidence of papilloma development. This indicates that the early increase of viral oncogene expression is crucial for induction of papillomatosis.

  12. Enhanced malignant tumorigenesis in Cdk4 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Miliani de Marval, Paula L; Macias, Everardo; Conti, Claudio J; Rodriguez-Puebla, Marcelo L

    2004-03-11

    In a previous study, we reported that overexpression of cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (CDK4) in mouse epidermis results in epidermal hyperplasia, hypertrophy and severe dermal fibrosis. In this study, we have investigated the susceptibility to skin tumor formation by forced expression of CDK4. Skin tumors from transgenic mice showed a dramatic increase in the rate of malignant progression to squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) in an initiation-promotion protocol. Histopathological analysis of papillomas from transgenic mice showed an elevated number of premalignant lesions characterized by dysplasia and marked atypia. Interestingly, transgenic mice also developed tumors in initiated but not promoted skin, demonstrating that CDK4 replaced the action of tumor promoters. These results suggest that expression of cyclin D1 upon ras activation synergizes with CDK4 overexpression. However, cyclin D1 transgenic mice and double transgenic mice for cyclin D1 and CDK4 did not show increased malignant progression in comparison to CDK4 transgenic mice. Biochemical analysis of tumors showed that CDK4 sequesters the CDK2 inhibitors p27Kip1 and p21Cip1, suggesting that indirect activation of CDK2 plays an important role in tumor development. These results indicate that, contrary to the general assumption, the catalytic subunit, CDK4, has higher oncogenic activity than cyclin D1, revealing a potential use of CDK4 as therapeutic target.

  13. Enhanced Malignant Tumorigenesis in Cdk4-Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Miliani de Marval, Paula L.; Macias, Everardo; Conti, Claudio J.; Rodriguez-Puebla, Marcelo L.

    2010-01-01

    In a previous study, we reported that overexpression of CDK4 in mouse epidermis results in epidermal hyperplasia, hypertrophy and severe dermal fibrosis. In this study, we have investigated the susceptibility to skin tumor formation by forced expression of CDK4. Skin tumors from transgenic mice showed a dramatic increase in the rate of malignant progression to squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) in an initiation-promotion protocol. Histopathological analysis of papillomas from transgenic mice showed an elevated number of premalignant lesions characterized by dysplasia and marked atypia. Interestingly, transgenic mice also developed tumors in initiated but not promoted skin, demonstrating that CDK4 replaced the action of tumor promoters. These results suggest that expression of cyclin D1 upon ras activation synergizes with CDK4 overexpression. However, cyclin D1 transgenic mice and double transgenic mice for cyclin D1 and CDK4 did not show increased malignant progression in comparison to CDK4 transgenic mice. Biochemical analysis of tumors showed that CDK4 sequesters the CDK2 inhibitors p27Kip1 and p21Cip1 suggesting that indirect activation of CDK2 plays an important role in tumor development. These results indicate that, contrary to the general assumption, the catalytic subunit, CDK4, has higher oncogenic activity than cyclin D1, revealing a potential use of CDK4 as therapeutic target. PMID:14647432

  14. Can we cure HIV-1-associated nephropathy in transgenic mice?

    PubMed

    Ray, Patricio E

    2012-05-01

    HIV-1-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is a rapidly progressive form of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. HIV transgenic mice can develop a HIVAN-like renal disease. Zhong et al. show that the oral administration of a cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor and a retinoic acid receptor-α agonist can prevent the development of HIVAN in transgenic mice, acting through a cAMP-dependent mechanism that is independent of HIV-1 genes. These findings suggest that endogenous host factors play a critical role in HIVAN.

  15. Can we cure HIV-1 associated nephropathy in transgenic mice?

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Patricio E.

    2012-01-01

    HIV-1 associated nephropathy is a rapidly progressive form of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis typically seen in patients of African ancestry. HIV-transgenic mice can develop an HIVAN-like renal disease. Zhong et al. show that the oral administration of a cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor and a retinoic acid receptor-alpha agonist can prevent the development of HIVAN in transgenic mice, acting through a cAMP dependent mechanism that is independent of HIV-1 genes. These findings suggest that endogenous host factors play a critical role in HIVAN. PMID:22499139

  16. The Human Papillomavirus E6 Oncogene Dysregulates the Cell Cycle and Contributes to Cervical Carcinogenesis through Two Independent Activities

    PubMed Central

    Shai, Anny; Brake, Tiffany; Somoza, Chamorro; Lambert, Paul F.

    2010-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of death due to cancer among women worldwide. Using transgenic mice to dissect the contributions of the human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 E6 and E7 oncogenes in cervical cancer, E7 was identified previously to be the dominant oncogene. Specifically, when treated with exogenous estrogen for 6 months, E7 transgenic mice developed cancer throughout the reproductive tract, but E6 transgenic mice did not. E6 contributed to carcinogenesis of the reproductive tract, as E6/E7 double transgenic mice treated for 6 months with estrogen developed larger cancers than E7 transgenic mice. In the current study, we investigated whether the E6 oncogene alone could cooperate with estrogen to induce cervical cancer after an extended estrogen treatment period of 9 months. We found that the E6 oncogene synergizes with estrogen to induce cervical cancer after 9 months, indicating that E6 has a weaker but detectable oncogenic potential in the reproductive tract compared with the E7 oncogene. Using transgenic mice that express mutant forms of HPV16 E6, we determined that the interactions of E6 with cellular α-helix and PDZ partners correlate with its ability to induce cervical carcinogenesis. In analyzing the tumors arising in E6 transgenic mice, we learned that E6 induces expression of the E2F-responsive genes, Mcm7 and cyclin E, in the absence of the E7 oncogene. E6 also prevented the expression of p16 in tumors of the reproductive tract through a mechanism mediated by the interaction of E6 with α-helix partners. PMID:17308103

  17. Human cone pigment expressed in transgenic mice yields altered vision.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, G H; Fenwick, J C; Calderone, J B; Deeb, S S

    1999-04-15

    Genetically driven alterations in the complement of retinal photopigments are fundamental steps in the evolution of vision. We sought to determine how a newly added photopigment might impact vision by studying a transgenic mouse that expresses a human cone photopigment. Electroretinogram (ERG) measurements indicate that the added pigment works well, significantly changing spectral sensitivity without deleteriously affecting the operation of the native cone pigments. Visual capacities of the transgenic mice were established in behavioral tests. The new pigment was found to provide a significant expansion of the spectral range over which mice can perceive light, thus underlining the immediate utility of acquiring a new photopigment. The transgenic mouse also has the receptor basis for a novel color vision capacity, but tests show that potential was not realized. This failure likely reflects limitations in the organizational arrangement of the mouse retina.

  18. SERPINB3 is associated with longer survival in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Villano, Gianmarco; Ruvoletto, Mariagrazia; Ceolotto, Giulio; Quarta, Santina; Calabrese, Fiorella; Turato, Cristian; Tono, Natascia; Biasiolo, Alessandra; Cattelan, Arianna; Merkel, Carlo; Avogaro, Angelo; Gatta, Angelo; Pontisso, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    The physiological roles of the protease inhibitor SERPINB3 (SB3) are still largely unknown. The study was addressed to assess the biological effects of this serpin in vivo using a SB3 transgenic mouse model. Two colonies of mice (123 transgenic for SB3 and 148 C57BL/6J controls) have been studied. Transgenic (TG) mice showed longer survival than controls and the difference was more remarkable in males than in females (18.5% vs 12.7% life span increase). In TG mice decreased IL-6 in serum and lower p66shc in the liver were observed. In addition, TG males showed higher expression of mTOR in the liver. Liver histology showed age-dependent increase of steatosis and decrease of glycogen storage in both groups and none of the animals developed neoplastic lesions. In conclusion, the gain in life span observed in SB3-transgenic mice could be determined by multiple mechanisms, including the decrease of circulating IL-6 and the modulation of ageing genes in the liver. PMID:24162160

  19. Progressive squamous epithelial neoplasia in K14-human papillomavirus type 16 transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Arbeit, J M; Münger, K; Howley, P M; Hanahan, D

    1994-01-01

    To model human papillomavirus-induced neoplastic progression, expression of the early region of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) was targeted to the basal cells of the squamous epithelium in transgenic mice, using a human keratin 14 (K14) enhancer/promoter. Twenty-one transgenic founder mice were produced, and eight lines carrying either wild-type or mutant HPV16 early regions that did not express the E1 or E2 genes were established. As is characteristic of human cancers, the E6 and E7 genes remained intact in these mutants. The absence of E1 or E2 function did not influence the severity of the phenotype that eventually developed in the transgenic mice. Hyperplasia, papillomatosis, and dysplasia appeared at multiple epidermal and squamous mucosal sites, including ear and truncal skin, face, snout and eyelids, and anus. The ears were the most consistently affected site, with pathology being present in all lines with 100% penetrance. This phenotype also progressed through discernible stages. An initial mild hyperplasia was followed by hyperplasia, which further progressed to dysplasia and papillomatosis. During histopathological progression, there was an incremental increase in cellular DNA synthesis, determined by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation, and a profound perturbation in keratinocyte terminal differentiation, as revealed by immunohistochemistry to K5, K14, and K10 and filaggrin. These K14-HPV16 transgenic mice present an opportunity to study the role of the HPV16 oncogenes in the neoplastic progression of squamous epithelium and provide a model with which to identify genetic and epigenetic factors necessary for carcinogenesis. Images PMID:7515971

  20. Generation and characterization of transgenic mice expressing cobra venom factor.

    PubMed

    Andrä, Jörg; Halter, Roman; Kock, Michael A; Niemann, Heiner; Vogel, Carl-Wilhelm; Paul, Dieter

    2002-10-01

    Cobra venom factor (CVF), the anticomplementary protein in cobra venom, activates the alternative complement pathway, eventually leading to complement consumption. Here, we describe the development of a transgenic mouse model for CVF. We generated a DNA construct containing the full-length cDNA for single-chain pre-pro-CVF. Expression of CVF was controlled by the alpha(1)-antitrypsin promoter to achieve liver-specific expression. Linearized DNA was microinjected into murine ovary cells (strain CD(2)F(1) (BALB/cxDBA/2J)) and the newborn mice were analyzed for stable integration of CVF DNA. After establishing the transgene, mice were propagated in a BALB/c background. The CVF mRNA was detected in the liver and, in some animals, in the kidney. CVF protein was detected in small amounts in the serum. Serum complement hemolytic activity in CVF-transgenic mice was virtually absent. The concentration of plasma C3 was significantly reduced. The CVF-transgenic animals show no unusual phenotype. They provide an animal model to study the effect of long-term complement depletion by continued activation, as well as the role of complement in host immune response and pathogenesis of disease. PMID:12220893

  1. Spi-1/PU.1 transgenic mice develop multistep erythroleukemias.

    PubMed Central

    Moreau-Gachelin, F; Wendling, F; Molina, T; Denis, N; Titeux, M; Grimber, G; Briand, P; Vainchenker, W; Tavitian, A

    1996-01-01

    Insertional mutagenesis of the spi-1 gene is associated with the emergence of malignant proerythroblasts during Friend virus-induced acute erythroleukemia. To determine the role of spi-1/PU.1 in the genesis of leukemia, we generated spi-1 transgenic mice. In one founder line the transgene was overexpressed as an unexpected-size transcript in various mouse tissues. Homozygous transgenic animals gave rise to live-born offspring, but 50% of the animals developed a multistep erythroleukemia within 1.5 to 6 months of birth whereas the remainder survived without evidence of disease. At the onset of the disease, mice became severely anemic. Their hematopoietic tissues were massively invaded with nontumorigenic proerythroblasts that express a high level of Spi-1 protein. These transgenic proerythroblasts are partially blocked in differentiation and strictly dependent on erythropoietin for their proliferation both in vivo and in vitro. A complete but transient regression of the disease was observed after erythrocyte transfusion, suggesting that the constitutive expression of spi-1 is related to the block of the differentiation of erythroid precursors. At relapse, erythropoietin-independent malignant proerythroblasts arose. Growth factor autonomy could be partially explained by the autocrine secretion of erythropoietin; however, other genetic events appear to be necessary to confer the full malignant phenotype. These results reveal that overexpression of spi-1 is essential for malignant erythropoiesis and does not alter other hematopoietic lineages. PMID:8628313

  2. Antiviral immune responses in CTLA4 transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, C; Seiler, P; Lane, P; Zinkernagel, R M

    1997-01-01

    The role of B7 binding CD28 in the regulation of T- and B-cell responses against viral antigens was assessed in transgenic mice expressing soluble CTLA4-Hgamma1 (CTLA4-Ig tg mice) that blocks B7-CD28 interactions. The results indicate that transgenic soluble CTLA4 does not significantly alter cytotoxic T-cell responses against replicating lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) or vaccinia virus but drastically impairs the induction of cytotoxic T-cell responses against abortively replicating vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). While the T-independent neutralizing immunoglobulin M (IgM) responses were within normal ranges, the switch to IgG was reduced 4- to 16-fold after immunization with abortively replicating VSV and more than 30-fold after immunization with an inert VSV glycoprotein antigen in transgenic mice. IgG antibody responses to LCMV, as detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and by neutralizing action, were reduced about 3- to 20-fold and more than 50-fold, respectively. These results suggest that responses in CTLA4-Ig tg mice are mounted according to their independence of T help. While immune responses to nonreplicating or poorly replicating antigens are in general most dependent on T help and B7-CD28 interactions, they are most impaired in CTLA4-Ig tg mice. The results of the present experiments also indicate that highly replicating viruses, because of greater quantities of available antigens and by inducing as-yet-undefined factors and/or cell surface changes, are capable of compensating for the decrease in T help caused by the blocking effects of soluble CTLA4. PMID:9032309

  3. Functional screening of an asthma QTL in YAC transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Symula, Derek J.; Frazer, Kelly A.; Ueda, Yukihiko; Denefle, Patrice; Stevens, Mary E.; Wang, Zhi-En; Locksley, Richard; Rubin, Edward M.

    1999-07-02

    While large numbers of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) contributing to genetically complex conditions have been discovered, few causative genes have been identified. This is mainly due to the large size of QTLs and the subtle connection between genotype and quantitative phenotype associated with these conditions. While large numbers of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) contributing to genetically complex conditions have been discovered, few causative genes have been identified. This is mainly due to the large size of QTLs and the subtle connection between genotype and quantitative phenotype associated with these conditions. To screen for genes contributing to an asthma QTL mapped to human chromosome 5q33, the authors characterized a panel of large-insert 5q31 transgenics based on studies demonstrating that altering gene dosage frequently affects quantitative phenotypes normally influenced by that gene. This panel of human YAC transgenics, propagating a one megabase interva2048 chromosome 5q31 containing 23 genes, was screened for quantitative changes in several asthma-associated phenotypes. Multiple independent transgenic lines with altered IgE response to antigen treatment shared a 180 kb region containing 5 genes, including human interleukin 4 (IL4) and interleukin 13 (IL13), which induce IgE class switching in B cells5. Further analysis of these mice and mice transgenic for only murine Il4 and Il13 demonstrated that moderate changes in murine Il4 and Il13 expression affect asthma-associated phenotypes in vivo. This functional screen of large-insert transgenics enabled them to sift through multiple genes in the 5q3 asthma QTL without prior consideration of assumed individual gene function and identify genes that influence the QTL phenotype in vivo.

  4. Biochemical characteristics of human renin expressed in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Takaori, K; Kim, S; Fukamizu, A; Sagara, M; Hosoi, M; Katsuki, M; Murakami, K; Yamamoto, K

    1993-01-01

    1. Biochemical properties of human renin expressed in transgenic mice (hRN8-12 mice) carrying the human renin gene (Fukamizu et al. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1989; 165: 826-32) were examined. The optimum pH of the enzymic activity against human angiotensinogen was 5.5 for both plasma and renal human renin in the hRN8-12 mice. Plasma concentrations of human active and inactive renin in the plasma of hRN8-12 mice were 16.7 +/- 2.8 and 79.9 +/- 14.0 pmol of angiotensin Ih-1 ml-1, respectively, thereby indicating that the predominant form of plasma human renin is the inactive form, as is the case in humans. 2. The molecular masses of plasma human active and inactive renin and renal human active renin in the hRN8-12 mice were estimated to be 46 kDa, 48 kDa and 44 kDa, respectively, as determined by h.p.l.c. on G3,000SW. 3. Human renin in the hRN8-12 mouse kidney was bound to a concanavalin A-Sepharose column, and was eluted with alpha-methyl-D-mannoside, showing that this renin is glycosylated, as is native human renin. 4. Low sodium treatment of the hRN8-12 mice for 2 weeks increased plasma human active renin, renal human renin and renal human renin mRNA levels by 2.6-, 3.8- and 2.8-fold, respectively. Thus, the biosynthesis and secretion of renal human renin in these transgenic mice are obviously stimulated by sodium depletion.

  5. Chimeric elk/mouse prion proteins in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Tamgüney, Gültekin; Giles, Kurt; Oehler, Abby; Johnson, Natrina L; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2013-02-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer and elk is a highly communicable neurodegenerative disorder caused by prions. Investigations of CWD are hampered by slow bioassays in transgenic (Tg) mice. Towards the development of Tg mice that will be more susceptible to CWD prions, we created a series of chimeric elk/mouse transgenes that encode the N terminus of elk PrP (ElkPrP) up to residue Y168 and the C terminus of mouse PrP (MoPrP) beyond residue 169 (mouse numbering), designated Elk3M(SNIVVK). Between codons 169 and 219, six residues distinguish ElkPrP from MoPrP: N169S, T173N, V183I, I202V, I214V and R219K. Using chimeric elk/mouse PrP constructs, we generated 12 Tg mouse lines and determined incubation times after intracerebral inoculation with the mouse-passaged RML scrapie or Elk1P CWD prions. Unexpectedly, one Tg mouse line expressing Elk3M(SNIVVK) exhibited incubation times of <70 days when inoculated with RML prions; a second line had incubation times of <90 days. In contrast, mice expressing full-length ElkPrP had incubation periods of >250 days for RML prions. Tg(Elk3M,SNIVVK) mice were less susceptible to CWD prions than Tg(ElkPrP) mice. Changing three C-terminal mouse residues (202, 214 and 219) to those of elk doubled the incubation time for mouse RML prions and rendered the mice resistant to Elk1P CWD prions. Mutating an additional two residues from mouse to elk at codons 169 and 173 increased the incubation times for mouse prions to >300 days, but made the mice susceptible to CWD prions. Our findings highlight the role of C-terminal residues in PrP that control the susceptibility and replication of prions.

  6. Chimeric elk/mouse prion proteins in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Tamgüney, Gültekin; Giles, Kurt; Oehler, Abby; Johnson, Natrina L.; DeArmond, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer and elk is a highly communicable neurodegenerative disorder caused by prions. Investigations of CWD are hampered by slow bioassays in transgenic (Tg) mice. Towards the development of Tg mice that will be more susceptible to CWD prions, we created a series of chimeric elk/mouse transgenes that encode the N terminus of elk PrP (ElkPrP) up to residue Y168 and the C terminus of mouse PrP (MoPrP) beyond residue 169 (mouse numbering), designated Elk3M(SNIVVK). Between codons 169 and 219, six residues distinguish ElkPrP from MoPrP: N169S, T173N, V183I, I202V, I214V and R219K. Using chimeric elk/mouse PrP constructs, we generated 12 Tg mouse lines and determined incubation times after intracerebral inoculation with the mouse-passaged RML scrapie or Elk1P CWD prions. Unexpectedly, one Tg mouse line expressing Elk3M(SNIVVK) exhibited incubation times of <70 days when inoculated with RML prions; a second line had incubation times of <90 days. In contrast, mice expressing full-length ElkPrP had incubation periods of >250 days for RML prions. Tg(Elk3M,SNIVVK) mice were less susceptible to CWD prions than Tg(ElkPrP) mice. Changing three C-terminal mouse residues (202, 214 and 219) to those of elk doubled the incubation time for mouse RML prions and rendered the mice resistant to Elk1P CWD prions. Mutating an additional two residues from mouse to elk at codons 169 and 173 increased the incubation times for mouse prions to >300 days, but made the mice susceptible to CWD prions. Our findings highlight the role of C-terminal residues in PrP that control the susceptibility and replication of prions. PMID:23100369

  7. Cutaneous lymphoproliferation and lymphomas in interleukin 7 transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    To investigate the role of interleukin 7 (IL-7) in the development of the lymphoid system, we have generated two lines of transgenic mice carrying an IL-7 cDNA fused to an immunoglobulin heavy chain promoter and enhancer. This transgene is expressed in the bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, and skin provoking a perturbation of T cell development characterized by a marked reduction of CD4+ CD8+ (double- positive) thymocytes. Quite unexpectedly, however, both lines also develop a progressive cutaneous disorder involving a dermal lymphoid infiltrate that results in progressive alopecia, hyperkeratosis, and exfoliation. Although the infiltrate is primarily composed of T lineage cells, its development is not impeded in the athymic nu/nu background. Furthermore, the phenotype can be transmitted horizontally by transplanting lymphoid tissues or skin to syngeneic wild-type mice. Thus, the phenotype is conveyed by skin-homing, mobile cells (presumably the infiltrating lymphocytes) in a cell-autonomous fashion. In addition to the skin phenotype, this transgene also provokes the development of a lymphoproliferative disorder that induces B and T cell lymphomas within the first 4 mo of life. These findings suggest potential physiologic actions of IL-7 in T cell development and in cutaneous immunity. They also demonstrate that IL-7 can act as an oncogene in the living organism. PMID:7678850

  8. Mammary gland tumor formation in transgenic mice overexpressing stromelysin-1

    SciTech Connect

    Sympson, Carolyn J; Bissell, Mina J; Werb, Zena

    1995-06-01

    An intact basement membrane (BM) is essential for the proper function, differentiation and morphology of many epithelial cells. The disruption or loss of this BM occurs during normal development as well as in the disease state. To examine the importance of BM during mammary gland development in vivo, we generated transgenic mice that inappropriately express autoactivating isoforms of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1. The mammary glands from these mice are both functionally and morphologically altered throughout development. We have now documented a dramatic incidence of breast tumors in several independent lines of these mice. These data suggest that overexpression of stromelysin-1 and disruption of the BM may be a key step in the multi-step process of breast cancer.

  9. Acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury in HCV transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Uehara, Takeki; Kosyk, Oksana; Jeannot, Emmanuelle; Bradford, Blair U.; Tech, Katherine; Macdonald, Jeffrey M.; Boorman, Gary A.; Chatterjee, Saurabh; Mason, Ronald P.; Melnyk, Stepan B.; Tryndyak, Volodymyr P.; Pogribny, Igor P.; Rusyn, Ivan

    2013-01-15

    The exact etiology of clinical cases of acute liver failure is difficult to ascertain and it is likely that various co-morbidity factors play a role. For example, epidemiological evidence suggests that coexistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increased the risk of acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury, and was associated with an increased risk of progression to acute liver failure. However, little is known about possible mechanisms of enhanced acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in HCV-infected subjects. In this study, we tested a hypothesis that HCV-Tg mice may be more susceptible to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, and also evaluated the mechanisms of acetaminophen-induced liver damage in wild type and HCV-Tg mice expressing core, E1 and E2 proteins. Male mice were treated with a single dose of acetaminophen (300 or 500 mg/kg in fed animals; or 200 mg/kg in fasted animals; i.g.) and liver and serum endpoints were evaluated at 4 and 24 h after dosing. Our results suggest that in fed mice, liver toxicity in HCV-Tg mice is not markedly exaggerated as compared to the wild-type mice. In fasted mice, greater liver injury was observed in HCV-Tg mice. In fed mice dosed with 300 mg/kg acetaminophen, we observed that liver mitochondria in HCV-Tg mice exhibited signs of dysfunction showing the potential mechanism for increased susceptibility. -- Highlights: ► Acetaminophen-induced liver injury is a significant clinical challenge. ► HCV-infected subjects may be at higher risk for acetaminophen-induced liver injury. ► We used HCV transgenics to test if liver injury due to acetaminophen is exacerbated.

  10. Pancreatic expression of human insulin gene in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Bucchini, D; Ripoche, M A; Stinnakre, M G; Desbois, P; Lorès, P; Monthioux, E; Absil, J; Lepesant, J A; Pictet, R; Jami, J

    1986-04-01

    We have investigated the possibility of obtaining integration and expression of a native human gene in transgenic mice. An 11-kilobase (kb) human chromosomal DNA fragment including the insulin gene (1430 base pairs) was microinjected into fertilized mouse eggs. This fragment was present in the genomic DNA of several developing animals. One transgenic mouse and its progeny were analyzed for expression of the foreign gene. Synthesis and release of human insulin was revealed by detection of the human C-peptide in the plasma and urine. Human insulin mRNA was found in pancreas but not in other tissues. These findings indicate that the 11-kb human DNA fragment carries the sequences necessary for tissue-specific expression of the insulin gene and the human regulatory sequences react to homologous signals in the mouse.

  11. Transgenic mice with overexpression of mutated human optineurin(E50K) in the retina.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingfeng; Xiao, Zheng; Yuan, Huiping; Xue, Fei; Zhu, Yuanmao; Zhou, Xinrong; Yang, Binbin; Sun, Jingbo; Meng, Bo; Sun, Xian; Cheng, Fang

    2012-02-01

    In the present work, Site-directed mutagenesis to insert the Glu50Lys amino acid substitution was achieved by PCR using plasmid pBluescript-OPTN. Mutated human OPTN(E50K) gene-driven mouse c-kit promoter was constructed and confirmed by endonuclease digestion and sequence analysis. Transgenic mice were generated via the microinjection method. PCR and DNA dot blot were used to screen the positive transgenic mice. RT-PCR analyzed the RNA level and location of mutated human OPTN(E50K) mRNA expression in transgenic mice. Western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the level and location of mutated human OPTN(E50K) expression in transgenic mice. A transgenic mouse model with overexpression of mutated human OPTN(E50K) in retina was successfully established. The transgene was integrated and transmitted into the chromosome of transgenic mice. Mutated human OPTN(E50K) gene was controlled by c-kit promoter and expressed in the retina in mice. Mutated human OPTN(E50K) in transgenic mice was higher than that of wild type C57BL/6J mice. Our studies had provided a new transgenic model for investigating the molecular properties of mutated human OPTN(E50K). PMID:21681420

  12. Chronic Activation of FXR in Transgenic Mice Caused Perinatal Toxicity and Sensitized Mice to Cholesterol Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Qiuqiong; Inaba, Yuka; Lu, Peipei; Xu, Meishu; He, Jinhan; Zhao, Yueshui; Guo, Grace L.; Kuruba, Ramalinga; de la Vega, Rona; Evans, Rhobert W.; Li, Song

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4, or NR1H4) is highly expressed in the liver and intestine. Previous reports have suggested beneficial functions of FXR in the homeostasis of bile acids, lipids, and glucose, as well as in promoting liver regeneration and inhibiting carcinogenesis. To investigate the effect of chronic FXR activation in vivo, we generated transgenic mice that conditionally and tissue specifically express the activated form of FXR in the liver and intestine. Unexpectedly, the transgenic mice showed several intriguing phenotypes, including partial neonatal lethality, growth retardation, and spontaneous liver toxicity. The transgenic mice also displayed heightened sensitivity to a high-cholesterol diet-induced hepatotoxicity but resistance to the gallstone formation. The phenotypes were transgene specific, because they were abolished upon treatment with doxycycline to silence the transgene expression. The perinatal toxicity, which can be rescued by a maternal vitamin supplement, may have resulted from vitamin deficiency due to low biliary bile acid output as a consequence of inhibition of bile acid formation. Our results also suggested that the fibroblast growth factor-inducible immediate-early response protein 14 (Fn14), a member of the proinflammatory TNF family, is a FXR-responsive gene. However, the contribution of Fn14 induction in the perinatal toxic phenotype of the transgenic mice remains to be defined. Because FXR is being explored as a therapeutic target, our results suggested that a chronic activation of this nuclear receptor may have an unintended side effect especially during the perinatal stage. PMID:25719402

  13. N-glycans and metastasis in galectin-3 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    More, Shyam K; Srinivasan, Nithya; Budnar, Srikanth; Bane, Sanjay M; Upadhya, Archana; Thorat, Rahul A; Ingle, Arvind D; Chiplunkar, Shubhada V; Kalraiya, Rajiv D

    2015-05-01

    Poly-N-acetyl-lactosamine (polyLacNAc) on N-glycans facilitate lung specific metastasis of melanoma cells by serving as high affinity ligands for galectin-3, expressed in highest amounts in the lungs, on almost all its tissue compartments including on the surface of vascular endothelium. PolyLacNAc not only aids in initial arrest on the organ endothelium but in all the events of extravasation. Inhibition of polyLacNAc synthesis, or competitive inhibition of its interaction with galectin-3 all inhibited these processes and experimental metastasis. Transgenic galectin-3 mice, viz., gal-3(+/+) (wild type), gal-3(+/-) (hemizygous) and gal-3(-/-) (null) have been used to prove that galectin-3/polyLacNAc interactions are indeed critical for lung specific metastasis. Gal-3(+/-) mice which showed <50% expression of galectin-3 on the lungs also showed proportionate decrease in the number of B16F10 melanoma metastatic colonies affirming that galectin-3 and polyLacNAc interactions are indeed key determinants of lung metastasis. However, surprisingly, the number and size of metastatic colonies in gal-3(-/-) mice was very similar as that seen in gal-3(+/+) mice. The levels of lactose binding lectins on the lungs and the transcripts of other galectins (galectin-1, -8 and -9) which are expressed on lungs and have similar sugar binding specificities as galectins-3, remain unchanged in gal-3(+/+) and gal-3(-/-) mice. Further, inhibition of N-glycosylation with Swainsonine (SW) which drastically reduces metastasis of B16F10 cells in gal-3(+/+) mice, did not affect lung metastasis when assessed in gal-3(-/-) mice. Together, these results rule out the possibility of some other galectin taking over the function of galectin-3 in gal-3(-/-) mice. Chimeric mice generated to assess if absence of any effect on metastasis is due to compromised tumor immunity by replacing bone marrow of gal-3(-/-) mice with that from gal-3(+/+) mice, also failed to impact melanoma metastasis. As galectin-3

  14. Expression of a microinjected immunoglobulin gene in the spleen of transgenic mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinster, Ralph L.; Ritchie, Kindred A.; Hammer, Robert E.; O'Brien, Rebecca L.; Arp, Benjamin; Storb, Ursula

    1983-11-01

    Transgenic mice were produced by microinjection of a rearranged, functional immunoglobulin κ gene into fertilized mouse eggs and implantation of the microinjected embryos into foster mothers. Mice that integrated the injected gene were mated and the DNA, RNA and serum κ chains of their offspring were analysed. The data from offspring of three different transgenic mice indicate that the microinjected gene is expressed in the spleen, but not the liver of mice which inherited the injected gene.

  15. Cuprizone-induced demyelination in CNP::GFP transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Silvestroff, Lucas; Bartucci, Sandra; Soto, Eduardo; Gallo, Vittorio; Pasquini, Juana; Franco, Paula

    2010-06-15

    Cuprizone (bis-cyclohexanone oxaldihydrazone) was previously shown to induce demyelination in white matter enriched brain structures. In the present study we used the cuprizone demyelination model in transgenic mice expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the 2'-3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) promoter. The use of these particular transgenic mice allows easy detection of cells belonging to the entire oligodendroglial (OLG) lineage, ranging from OLG precursors to mature myelinating OLGs. We were able to evaluate the precise extent of oligodendroglial cell damage and recovery within the murine adult central nervous system (CNS) after inducing demyelination by acute cuprizone intoxication. A generalized loss of GFP+ cells was observed after cuprizone exposure and correlated with a decline in myelin basic protein (MBP) expression. OLGs were depleted in many brain areas that were previously thought to be unaffected by cuprizone treatment. Thus, in addition to the well-known cuprizone effects on the medial corpus callosum, we also found a loss of GFP+ cells in most brain structures, particularly in the caudatus putamen, cortex, anterior commissure, olfactory bulb, hippocampus, optic chiasm, brainstem, and cingulum. Loss of GFP+ cells was accompanied by extensive astrogliosis and microglial activation, although neurons were not affected. Interestingly, cuprizone-treated animals showed both activation of GFAP expression and a higher proliferation rate in subventricular zone cells. A week after cuprizone removal from the diet, GFP+ oligodendroglial cells began repopulating the damaged structures. GFP expression precedes that of MBP and allows OLG detection before myelin restoration.

  16. Both core and F proteins of hepatitis C virus could enhance cell proliferation in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Wen-Ta; Li, Hui-Chun; Lee, Shen-Kao; Ma, Hsin-Chieh; Yang, Chee-Hing; Chen, Hung-Ling; Lo, Shih-Yen

    2013-05-24

    Highlights: •HCV core and F proteins could induce hepatocyte proliferation in the transgenic mice. •β-Catenin signaling pathway was activated by core protein in the transgenic mice. •β-Catenin signaling pathway was activated by myc-F protein in the transgenic mice. •Expression of SMA protein was enhanced by core but not myc-F protein. -- Abstract: The role of the protein encoded by the alternative open reading frame (ARF/F/core+1) of the Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome in viral pathogenesis remains unknown. The different forms of ARF/F/core+1 protein were labile in cultured cells, a myc-tag fused at the N-terminus of the F protein made it more stable. To determine the role of core and F proteins in HCV pathogenesis, transgenic mice with either protein expression under the control of Albumin promoter were generated. Expression of core protein and F protein with myc tag (myc-F) could be detected by Western blotting analysis in the livers of these mice. The ratio of liver to body weight is increased for both core and myc-F transgenic mice compared to that of wild type mice. Indeed, the proliferating cell nuclear antigen protein, a proliferation marker, was up-regulated in the transgenic mice with core or myc-F protein. Further analyses by microarray and Western blotting suggested that β-catenin signaling pathway was activated by either core or myc-F protein in the transgenic mice. These transgenic mice were further treated with either Diethynitrosamine (a tumor initiator) or Phenobarbital (a tumor promoter). Phenobarbital but not Diethynitrosamine treatment could increase the liver/body weight ratio of these mice. However, no tumor formation was observed in these mice. In conclusion, HCV core and myc-F proteins could induce hepatocyte proliferation in the transgenic mice possibly through β-catenin signaling pathway.

  17. Extra-prostatic Transgene-associated Neoplastic Lesions in Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) Mice

    PubMed Central

    Berman-Booty, Lisa D.; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer M.; Bolon, Brad; Oglesbee, Michael J.; Clinton, Steven K.; Kulp, Samuel K.; Chen, Ching-Shih; La Perle, Krista

    2014-01-01

    Male transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice are frequently used in prostate cancer research because their prostates consistently develop a series of pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions. Disease progression in TRAMP mouse prostates culminates in metastatic, poorly differentiated carcinomas with neuroendocrine features. The androgen dependence of the rat probasin promoter largely limits transgene expression to the prostatic epithelium. However, extra-prostatic transgene-positive lesions have been described in TRAMP mice, including renal tubulo-acinar carcinomas, neuroendocrine carcinomas of the urethra, and phyllodes-like tumors of the seminal vesicle. Here we describe the histologic and immunohistochemical features of two novel extra-prostatic lesions in TRAMP mice: primary anaplastic tumors of uncertain cell origin in the midbrain, and poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas of the submandibular salivary gland. These newly characterized tumors apparently result from transgene expression in extra-prostatic locations rather than representing metastatic prostate neoplasms because lesions were identified in both male and female mice as well as in male TRAMP mice without histologically apparent prostate tumors. In this paper we also calculate the incidences of the urethral carcinomas and renal tubulo-acinar carcinomas, further elucidate the biological behavior of the urethral carcinomas, and demonstrate the critical importance of complete necropsies even when evaluating presumably well characterized phenotypes in genetically engineered mice. PMID:24742627

  18. Extra-prostatic transgene-associated neoplastic lesions in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice.

    PubMed

    Berman-Booty, Lisa D; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer M; Bolon, Brad; Oglesbee, Michael J; Clinton, Steven K; Kulp, Samuel K; Chen, Ching-Shih; La Perle, Krista M D

    2015-02-01

    Male transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice are frequently used in prostate cancer research because their prostates consistently develop a series of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions. Disease progression in TRAMP mouse prostates culminates in metastatic, poorly differentiated carcinomas with neuroendocrine features. The androgen dependence of the rat probasin promoter largely limits transgene expression to the prostatic epithelium. However, extra-prostatic transgene-positive lesions have been described in TRAMP mice, including renal tubuloacinar carcinomas, neuroendocrine carcinomas of the urethra, and phyllodes-like tumors of the seminal vesicle. Here, we describe the histologic and immunohistochemical features of 2 novel extra-prostatic lesions in TRAMP mice: primary anaplastic tumors of uncertain cell origin in the midbrain and poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas of the submandibular salivary gland. These newly characterized tumors apparently result from transgene expression in extra-prostatic locations rather than representing metastatic prostate neoplasms because lesions were identified in both male and female mice and in male TRAMP mice without histologically apparent prostate tumors. In this article, we also calculate the incidences of the urethral carcinomas and renal tubuloacinar carcinomas, further elucidate the biological behavior of the urethral carcinomas, and demonstrate the critical importance of complete necropsies even when evaluating presumably well characterized phenotypes in genetically engineered mice.

  19. Transgenic mice overexpressing reticulon 3 develop neuritic abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiangyou; Shi, Qi; Zhou, Xiangdong; He, Wanxia; Yi, Hong; Yin, Xinghua; Gearing, Marla; Levey, Allan; Yan, Riqiang

    2007-01-01

    Dystrophic neurites are swollen dendrites or axons recognizable near amyloid plaques as a part of important pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We report herein that reticulon 3 (RTN3) is accumulated in a distinct population of dystrophic neurites named as RTN3 immunoreactive dystrophic neurites (RIDNs). The occurrence of RIDNs is concomitant with the formation of high-molecular-weight RTN3 aggregates in brains of AD cases and mice expressing mutant APP. Ultrastructural analysis confirms accumulation of RTN3-containing aggregates in RIDNs. It appears that the protein level of RTN3 governs the formation of RIDNs because transgenic mice expressing RTN3 will develop RIDNs, initially in the hippocampal CA1 region, and later in other hippocampal and cortical regions. Importantly, we show that the presence of dystrophic neurites in Tg-RTN3 mice causes impairments in spatial learning and memory, as well as synaptic plasticity, implying that RIDNs potentially contribute to AD cognitive dysfunction. Together, we demonstrate that aggregation of RTN3 contributes to AD pathogenesis by inducing neuritic dystrophy. Inhibition of RTN3 aggregation is likely a therapeutic approach for reducing neuritic dystrophy. PMID:17476306

  20. Strain-specific regulation of striatal phenotype in Drd2-eGFP BAC transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Chan, C Savio; Peterson, Jayms D; Gertler, Tracy S; Glajch, Kelly E; Quintana, Ruth E; Cui, Qiaoling; Sebel, Luke E; Plotkin, Joshua L; Shen, Weixing; Heiman, Myriam; Heintz, Nathaniel; Greengard, Paul; Surmeier, D James

    2012-07-01

    Mice carrying bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenes have become important tools for neuroscientists, providing a powerful means of dissecting complex neural circuits in the brain. Recently, it was reported that one popular line of these mice--mice possessing a BAC transgene with a D(2) dopamine receptor (Drd2) promoter construct coupled to an enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) reporter--had abnormal striatal gene expression, physiology, and motor behavior. Unlike most of the work using BAC mice, this interesting study relied upon mice backcrossed on the outbred Swiss Webster (SW) strain that were homozygous for the Drd2-eGFP BAC transgene. The experiments reported here were conducted to determine whether mouse strain or zygosity was a factor in the reported abnormalities. As reported, SW mice were very sensitive to transgene expression. However, in more commonly used inbred strains of mice (C57BL/6, FVB/N) that were hemizygous for the transgene, the Drd2-eGFP BAC transgene did not alter striatal gene expression, physiology, or motor behavior. Thus, the use of inbred strains of mice that are hemizygous for the Drd2 BAC transgene provides a reliable tool for studying basal ganglia function.

  1. Overview of mutation assays in transgenic mice for routine testing.

    PubMed

    Gorelick, N J

    1995-01-01

    There is scientific and regulatory interest in using mutation assays in transgenic mice in safety assessments for new chemicals and drugs. Currently these assays are in the process of being validated, and protocols for routine testing are being defined. Some of the issues and results to date with regard to assay validation include reproducibility of the assay results (they are qualitatively reproducible), relevance of the test system (the transgene closely approximates an endogenous mammalian gene as a mutational target for the limited number of compounds tested), and the predictivity of the assay for heritable effects (unknown at this time) or carcinogenicity (the assays show good positive predictivity for carcinogenicity; the negative predictivity of the assay requires further investigation). Definition of appropriate study protocols for routine testing requires that applicable statistical methods are available and that the experimental parameters that affect the detection of mutations are known. Progress made in identifying these parameters is discussed. A proposal is made for the custom design of routine safety studies, which is based on the anticipated use of each individual test agent. A working group has been formed to conduct some of the studies still required for validation of these assays.

  2. Estrogen regulation of the avian transferrin gene in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, R E; Idzerda, R L; Brinster, R L; McKnight, G S

    1986-01-01

    The intact chicken transferrin gene was microinjected into fertilized mouse eggs, and the resulting transgenic animals were used to produce lines of mice containing integrated copies of the chicken gene. The levels of expression of the chicken gene were quantitated in various tissues, and the response of the gene to estrogen stimulation was measured after chronic or acute estrogen exposure. Two of the three mouse lines studied maintained stable levels of expression in successive generations of offspring, and the third line had two- to threefold-higher levels in offspring than in the original parent. In the third line, the original transgenic parent was found to be a mosaic. The chicken transferrin gene was expressed at 10- to 20-fold-higher levels in liver than in any other tissue; however, the levels of chicken transferrin mRNA in kidney were higher than expected, indicating that the tissue specificity was only partial. In all three lines, the foreign gene was induced by estrogen administration. After 10 days of estrogen administration, there was a twofold increase in both transferrin mRNA and transcription of the chicken transferrin gene. A single injection of estradiol led to a fourfold increase in transferrin mRNA synthesis at 4h. As a control the levels of mouse albumin were measured, and both the level of albumin mRNA and its rate of transcription declined about twofold after estrogen administration. Our results indicate that the intact chicken gene with 2.2 kilobases of 5' flanking sequence contains signals for both tissue specificity and steroid regulation that can be recognized in mice. Images PMID:3785157

  3. Copper transport during lactation in transgenic mice expressing the human ATP7A protein

    PubMed Central

    Llanos, Roxana M.; Michalczyk, Agnes A.; Freestone, David J.; Currie, Scott; Linder, Maria C.; Ackland, M. Leigh; Mercer, Julian F.B.

    2008-01-01

    Both copper transporting ATPases, ATP7A and ATP7B, are expressed in mammary epithelial cells but their role in copper delivery to milk has not been clarified. We investigated the role of ATP7A in delivery of copper to milk using transgenic mice that over-express human ATP7A. In mammary gland of transgenic mice, human ATP7A protein was 10- to 20-fold higher than in control mice, and was localized to the basolateral membrane of mammary epithelial cells in lactating mice. The copper concentration in the mammary gland of transgenic dams and stomach contents of transgenic pups was significantly reduced compared to non-transgenic mice. The mRNA levels of endogenous Atp7a, Atp7b, and Ctr1 copper transporters in the mammary gland were not altered by the expression of the ATP7A transgene, and the protein levels of Atp7b and ceruloplasmin were similar in transgenic and non-transgenic mice. These data suggest that ATP7A plays a role in removing excess copper from the mammary epithelial cells rather than supplying copper to milk. PMID:18515074

  4. Decreased triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in transgenic skinny mice overexpressing leptin.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, N; Ogawa, Y; Masuzaki, H; Ebihara, K; Aizawa-Abe, M; Satoh, N; Ishikawa, E; Fujisawa, Y; Kosaki, A; Yamada, K; Kuzuya, H; Nakao, K

    2001-02-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-derived circulating satiety factor with a variety of biological effects. Evidence has accumulated suggesting that leptin may modulate glucose and lipid metabolism. In the present study, we examined lipid metabolism in transgenic skinny mice with elevated plasma leptin concentrations. The plasma concentrations of triglycerides and free fatty acids in transgenic skinny mice were 71.5 (P < 0.01) and 89.1% (P < 0.05) of those in their nontransgenic littermates, respectively. Separation of plasma into lipoprotein classes by ultracentrifugation revealed that very low density lipoprotein-triglyceride concentrations were markedly reduced in transgenic skinny mice relative to the controls. The clearance of triglycerides estimated by a fat-loading test was enhanced in transgenic skinny mice; the triglyceride concentration in transgenic skinny mice 3 h after fat loading was 39.7% (P < 0.05) of that of their nontransgenic littermates. Postheparin plasma lipoprotein lipase activity increased 1.4-fold (P < 0.05) in transgenic skinny mice. Our data demonstrated a significant reduction in plasma triglyceride concentrations, accompanied by increased lipoprotein lipase activity in transgenic skinny mice overexpressing leptin, suggesting that leptin plays a role in long-term triglyceride metabolism.

  5. RNAi-mediated knockdown of IKK1 in transgenic mice using a transgenic construct containing the human H1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Maldonado, Rodolfo; Murillas, Rodolfo; Navarro, Manuel; Page, Angustias; Suarez-Cabrera, Cristian; Alameda, Josefa P; Bravo, Ana; Casanova, M Llanos; Ramirez, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of gene expression through siRNAs is a tool increasingly used for the study of gene function in model systems, including transgenic mice. To achieve perdurable effects, the stable expression of siRNAs by an integrated transgenic construct is necessary. For transgenic siRNA expression, promoters transcribed by either RNApol II or III (such as U6 or H1 promoters) can be used. Relatively large amounts of small RNAs synthesis are achieved when using RNApol III promoters, which can be advantageous in knockdown experiments. To study the feasibility of H1 promoter-driven RNAi-expressing constructs for protein knockdown in transgenic mice, we chose IKK1 as the target gene. Our results indicate that constructs containing the H1 promoter are sensitive to the presence of prokaryotic sequences and to transgene position effects, similar to RNApol II promoters-driven constructs. We observed variable expression levels of transgenic siRNA among different tissues and animals and a reduction of up to 80% in IKK1 expression. Furthermore, IKK1 knockdown led to hair follicle alterations. In summary, we show that constructs directed by the H1 promoter can be used for knockdown of genes of interest in different organs and for the generation of animal models complementary to knockout and overexpression models. PMID:24523631

  6. Hyperlipidemia and cutaneous abnormalities in transgenic mice overexpressing human apolipoprotein C1.

    PubMed

    Jong, M C; Gijbels, M J; Dahlmans, V E; Gorp, P J; Koopman, S J; Ponec, M; Hofker, M H; Havekes, L M

    1998-01-01

    Transgenic mice were generated with different levels of human apolipoprotein C1 (APOC1) expression in liver and skin. At 2 mo of age, serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), and FFA were strongly elevated in APOC1 transgenic mice compared with wild-type mice. These elevated levels of serum cholesterol and TG were due mainly to an accumulation of VLDL particles in the circulation. In addition to hyperlipidemia, APOC1 transgenic mice developed dry and scaly skin with loss of hair, dependent on the amount of APOC1 expression in the skin. Since these skin abnormalities appeared in two independent founder lines, a mutation related to the specific insertion site of the human APOC1 gene as the cause for the phenotype can be excluded. Histopathological analysis of high expressor APOC1 transgenic mice revealed a disorder of the skin consisting of epidermal hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis, and atrophic sebaceous glands lacking sebum. In line with these results, epidermal lipid analysis showed that the relative amounts of the sebum components TG and wax diesters in the epidermis of high expressor APOC1 transgenic mice were reduced by 60 and 45%, respectively. In addition to atrophic sebaceous glands, the meibomian glands were also found to be severely atrophic in APOC1 transgenic mice. High expressor APOC1 transgenic mice also exhibited diminished abdominal adipose tissue stores (a 60% decrease compared with wild-type mice) and a complete deficiency of subcutaneous fat. These results indicate that, in addition to the previously reported inhibitory role of apoC1 on hepatic remnant uptake, overexpression of apoC1 affects lipid synthesis in the sebaceous gland and/or epidermis as well as adipose tissue formation. These APOC1 transgenic mice may serve as an interesting in vivo model for the investigation of lipid homeostasis in the skin.

  7. INCREASED LIVER PATHOLOGY IN HEPATITIS C VIRUS TRANSGENIC MICE EXPRESSING THE HEPATITIS B VIRUS X PROTEIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic mice expressing the full-length HCV coding sequence were crossed with mice that express the HBV X gene-encoded regulatory protein HBx (ATX mice) to test the hypothesis that HBx expression accelerates HCV-induced liver pathogenesis. At 16 months (mo) of age, hepatocellular carcinoma was id...

  8. Hepatocellular alterations and dysregulation of oncogenic pathways in the liver of transgenic mice overexpressing growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Miquet, Johanna G; Freund, Thomas; Martinez, Carolina S; González, Lorena; Díaz, María E; Micucci, Giannina P; Zotta, Elsa; Boparai, Ravneet K; Bartke, Andrzej; Turyn, Daniel; Sotelo, Ana I

    2013-04-01

    Growth hormone (GH) overexpression throughout life in transgenic mice is associated with the development of liver tumors at old ages. The preneoplastic pathology observed in the liver of young adult GH-overexpressing mice is similar to that present in humans at high risk of hepatic cancer. To elucidate the molecular pathogenesis underlying the pro-oncogenic liver pathology induced by prolonged exposure to elevated GH levels, the activation and expression of several components of signal transduction pathways that have been implicated in hepatocellular carcinogenesis were evaluated in the liver of young adult GH-transgenic mice. In addition, males and females were analyzed in parallel in order to evaluate sexual dimorphism. Transgenic mice from both sexes exhibited hepatocyte hypertrophy with enlarged nuclear size and exacerbated hepatocellular proliferation, which were higher in males. Dysregulation of several oncogenic pathways was observed in the liver of GH-overexpressing transgenic mice. Many signaling mediators and effectors were upregulated in transgenic mice compared with normal controls, including Akt2, NFκB, GSK3β, β-catenin, cyclin D1, cyclin E, c-myc, c-jun and c-fos. The molecular alterations described did not exhibit sexual dimorphism in transgenic mice except for higher gene expression and nuclear localization of cyclin D1 in males. We conclude that prolonged exposure to GH induces in the liver alterations in signaling pathways involved in cell growth, proliferation and survival that resemble those found in many human tumors.

  9. The Construction and Expression of Lysine-Rich Gene in the Mammary Gland of Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xin; Zhang, Peng; Song, Guangqi; Chen, Yue; Wang, Zhongwei; Yin, Yupeng; Kong, Delong; Zhang, Sheng; Zhao, Zhihui; Ouyang, Hongsheng

    2012-01-01

    Lysine is the limiting amino acid in cereal grains, which represent a major source of human food and animal feed worldwide, and is considered the most important of the essential amino acids. In this study, β-casein, αS2-casein, and lactotransferrin cDNA clone fragments encoding lysine-rich peptides were fused together to generate a lysine-rich (LR) gene and the mammary gland-specific expression vector pBC1-LR-NEOr was constructed. Transgenic mice were generated by pronuclear microinjection of the linearized expression vectors harboring the LR transgene. The transgenic mice and their offspring were examined using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blotting, reverse transcriptase–PCR, in situ hybridization, and Western blotting techniques. Our results showed that the LR gene was successfully integrated into the mouse genome and was transmitted stably. The specific LR gene expression was restricted to the mammary gland, active alveoli of the transgenic female mice during lactation. The lysine level of the two transgenic lines was significantly higher than that of nontransgenic controls (p<0.05). In addition, the growth performance of transgenic pups was enhanced by directly feeding them the LR protein-enriched transgenic milk. Our results demonstrated that lysine-rich gene was successfully constructed and expressed in mammary gland of transgenic mice. This study will provide a better understanding of how mammary gland expression systems that increase the lysine content of milk can be applied to other mammals, such as cows. PMID:22577831

  10. Enhanced conditioned approach responses in transgenic mice with impaired glucocorticoid receptor function.

    PubMed

    Steckler, T; Holsboer, F

    1999-07-01

    The long-term consequences of impaired glucocorticoid receptor (GR) function on reward-related learning were studied in transgenic mice with impaired GR function in a series of experiments taxing conditioned and unconditioned approach responses to stimuli predictive of food. There was a double-dissociation in that transgenic mice with impaired GR activity showed enhanced conditioned exploration in situations when stimuli predicted reward, while free-feeding food consumption over 24 h was reduced. Previous experiments have shown altered accumbens dopaminergic activity in these animals. In line with these findings, we observed an enhanced behavioural stimulation of transgenic mice following administration of d-amphetamine (2 mg/kg). This suggests that the increase in preparatory responses in transgenic mice may be mediated via an enhanced accumbens dopaminergic activity, possibly secondary to alterations in other brain systems. PMID:10403023

  11. Live imaging of protein kinase activities in transgenic mice expressing FRET biosensors.

    PubMed

    Kamioka, Yuji; Sumiyama, Kenta; Mizuno, Rei; Sakai, Yoshiharu; Hirata, Eishu; Kiyokawa, Etsuko; Matsuda, Michiyuki

    2012-01-01

    Genetically-encoded biosensors based on the principle of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) have been widely used in biology to visualize the spatiotemporal dynamics of signaling molecules. Despite the increasing multitude of these biosensors, their application has been mostly limited to cultured cells with transient biosensor expression, due to particular difficulties in the development of transgenic mice that express FRET biosensors. In this study, we report the efficient generation of transgenic mouse lines expressing heritable and functional biosensors for ERK and PKA. These transgenic mice were created by the cytoplasmic co-injection of Tol2 transposase mRNA and a circular plasmid harbouring Tol2 recombination sites. High expression of the biosensors in a wide range of cell types allowed us to screen newborn mice simply by inspection. Observation of these transgenic mice by two-photon excitation microscopy yielded real-time activity maps of ERK and PKA in various tissues, with greatly improved signal-to-background ratios. Our transgenic mice may be bred into diverse genetic backgrounds; moreover, the protocol we have developed paves the way for the generation of transgenic mice that express other FRET biosensors, with important applications in the characterization of physiological and pathological signal transduction events in addition to drug development and screening.

  12. Bortezomib inhibits hepatitis B virus replication in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Bandi, Prasanthi; Garcia, Mayra L; Booth, Carmen J; Chisari, Francis V; Robek, Michael D

    2010-02-01

    Pharmacological modulation of cellular proteins as a means to block virus replication has been proposed as an alternative antiviral strategy that may be less susceptible than others to the development of viral drug resistance. Recent evidence indicates that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway interacts with different aspects of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) life cycle in cell culture models of virus replication. We therefore examined the effect of proteasome inhibition on HBV replication in vivo using HBV transgenic mice. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (Velcade) inhibits proteasome activity in vivo and is used therapeutically for the clinical treatment of multiple myeloma. We found that a single intravenous dose of 1 mg of bortezomib/kg of body weight reduced virus replication for as long as 6 days. The inhibition of HBV by bortezomib was dose dependent and occurred at a step in replication subsequent to viral RNA and protein expression. The reduction in HBV replication did not result from nonspecific hepatocellular toxicity and was not mediated indirectly through the induction of an intrahepatic interferon response. Thus, pharmacological manipulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway may represent an alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of chronic HBV infection.

  13. Cassette vectors directing expression of T cell receptor genes in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Kouskoff, V; Signorelli, K; Benoist, C; Mathis, D

    1995-03-27

    We describe a pair of cassette vectors that can be used to express rearranged T cell receptor genes in transgenic mice. Short DNA fragments containing rearranged V alpha and V beta segments are readily amplified from T cells and introduced between artificial cloning sites. Transgene-derived mRNAs are transcribed under the control of the natural TCR alpha and -beta promoter/enhancer elements. Using this vector, we have obtained transgenic mouse lines which display transgene-encoded TCR alpha and beta chains on a majority of T cells. PMID:7714342

  14. Allelic exclusion in transgenic mice carrying mutant human IgM genes

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Expression of the membrane-bound version of the human mu chain in transgenic mice results in the allelic exclusion of endogenous mouse Ig heavy chain genes (6). The secreted version of the human Ig transgene has no such effect. F1 hybrid animals that carry transgenes for both secreted and membrane-bound human mu chains produce both forms of the human heavy chain while strongly suppressing endogenous mouse mu expression. The simultaneous expression of the two rearranged transgenes in primary B cells suggests that allelic exclusion operates before the formation of a second functionally rearranged heavy chain gene in vivo. PMID:3133444

  15. Impaired learning-dependent cortical plasticity in Huntington's disease transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Cybulska-Klosowicz, Anita; Mazarakis, Nektarios K; Van Dellen, Anton; Blakemore, Colin; Hannan, Anthony J; Kossut, Malgorzata

    2004-12-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetically transmitted neurodegenerative disorder. The neuropathology in HD is a selective neuronal cell death in several brain regions including cortex. Although changes in synaptic plasticity were shown within the hippocampus and striatum of HD transgenic mice, there are no studies considering neocortical synaptic plasticity abnormalities in HD. We examined the impact of the HD transgene upon learning-dependent plasticity of cortical representational maps. The effect of associative learning, in which stimulation of a row of vibrissae was paired with appetitive stimulus, upon functional representations of vibrissae in the barrel cortex, was investigated with 2-deoxyglucose brain mapping in presymptomatic R6/1 HD mice. In wild-type mice, cortical representation of the row of vibrissae involved in the training was expanded, while in HD mice the representation of this row was not expanded. The results suggest that presymptomatic R6/1 HD transgenic mice show deficits in plasticity of primary somatosensory cortex.

  16. Generating Transgenic Mice by Lentiviral Transduction of Spermatozoa Followed by In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekran, Anil; Casimir, Colin; Dibb, Nick; Readhead, Carol; Winston, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Most transgenic technologies rely on the oocyte as a substrate for genetic modification. Transgenics animals are usually generated by the injection of the gene constructs (including lentiviruses encoding gene constructs or modified embryonic stem cells) into the pronucleus of a fertilized egg followed by the transfer of the injected embryos into the uterus of a foster mother. Male germ cells also have potential as templates for transgenic development. We have previously shown that mature sperm can be utilized as template for lentiviral transduction and as such used to generate transgenic mice efficiently with germ line capabilities. We provide here a detailed protocol that is relatively simple, to establish transgenic mice using lentivirally transduced spermatozoa. This protocol employs a well-established lentiviral gene delivery system (usual for somatic cells) delivering a variety of transgenes to be directly used with sperm, and the subsequent use of these modified sperm in in vitro fertilization studies and embryo transfer into foster female mice, for the establishment of transgenic mice. PMID:27317176

  17. In vivo cII, gpt, and Spi⁻ gene mutation assays in transgenic mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Manjanatha, Mugimane G; Cao, Xuefei; Shelton, Sharon D; Mittelstaedt, Roberta A; Heflich, Robert H

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic mutation assays are used to identify and characterize genotoxic hazards and for determining the mode of action for carcinogens. The three most popular transgenic mutational models are Big Blue® (rats or mice), Muta™ mouse (mice), and gpt-delta (rats or mice). The Big Blue® and Muta™ mouse models use the cII gene as a reporter of mutation whereas gpt-delta rodents use the gpt gene and the red/gam genes (Spi⁻ selection) as mutation reporter genes. Here we describe methodology for conducting mutation assays with these transgenes. Transgenes recovered from tissue DNA are packaged into infectious lambda phage, bacteria are infected with the phage, and cII-mutant and Spi⁻ plaques and gpt-mutant colonies are isolated using selective conditions and quantified. Selected mutants can be further analyzed for identification of small sequence alterations in the cII and gpt genes and large deletions at the Spi⁻ locus.

  18. High Pathogenicity of Wild-Type Measles Virus Infection in CD150 (SLAM) Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sellin, Caroline I.; Davoust, Nathalie; Guillaume, Vanessa; Baas, Dominique; Belin, Marie-Françoise; Buckland, Robin; Wild, T. Fabian; Horvat, Branka

    2006-01-01

    Measles virus (MV) infection causes an acute childhood disease, associated in certain cases with infection of the central nervous system and development of a severe neurological disease. We have generated transgenic mice ubiquitously expressing the human protein SLAM (signaling lymphocytic activation molecule), or CD150, recently identified as an MV receptor. In contrast to all other MV receptor transgenic models described so far, in these mice infection with wild-type MV strains is highly pathogenic. Intranasal infection of SLAM transgenic suckling mice leads to MV spread to different organs and the development of an acute neurological syndrome, characterized by lethargy, seizures, ataxia, weight loss, and death within 3 weeks. In addition, in this model, vaccine and wild-type MV strains can be distinguished by virulence. Furthermore, intracranial MV infection of adult transgenic mice generates a subclinical infection associated with a high titer of MV-specific antibodies in the serum. Finally, to analyze new antimeasles therapeutic approaches, we created a recombinant soluble form of SLAM and demonstrated its important antiviral activity both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our results show the high susceptibility of SLAM transgenic mice to MV-induced neurological disease and open new perspectives for the analysis of the implication of SLAM in the neuropathogenicity of other morbilliviruses, which also use this molecule as a receptor. Moreover, this transgenic model, in allowing a simple readout of the efficacy of an antiviral treatment, provides unique experimental means to test novel anti-MV preventive and therapeutic strategies. PMID:16775330

  19. Stability of transgene methylation patterns in mice: position effects, strain specificity and cellular mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Koetsier, P A; Mangel, L; Schmitz, B; Doerfler, W

    1996-07-01

    The methylation status of a transgene, which carried the adenovirus type 2 E2A late promoter linked to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene, was studied in three transgenic mouse lines (5-8, 7-1 and 8-1). These lines were analysed over a large number of offspring generations beyond the founder animal. In mating experiments, the influence of the parent-of-origin and strain-specific backgrounds on the transgene methylation patterns were assessed and found to have no effect on the pre-established methylation patterns in mouse lines 5-8 and 8-1. The founder animal 7-1 carried two groups of a total of ten transgenes, which were located on two different chromosomes. These arrays of transgenes could be segregated into separate mouse lines 7-1A and 7-1B. The transgenes of 7-1A animals exhibited cellular mosaic methylation patterns that were demethylated in approximately 10% of the offspring in a mixed genetic background. Upon further transmission of these transgenes in a mixed genetic background, the grandparental methylation patterns were reestablished in most progeny. Mating to inbred DBA/2 mice resulted in maintenance of the demethylated pattern or in further demethylation of the transgenes in approximately 50% of the offspring. In contrast, an equal number of transgenic siblings from matings to C57BL/6 mice showed a return to the original methylation pattern. The mosaic methylation status of this locus was apparently controlled by mouse-strain-specific factors. The methylation patterns of the 7-1B transgenes were not cellular mosaic and remained stable in all offspring, as with lines 5-8 and 8-1. Hence, the strain-dependent and cellular mosaic transgene methylation patterns of 7-1A animals were probably a consequence of the chromosomal integration site of the transgenes (position effect).

  20. Induction of cytotoxic T cells and their antitumor activity in mice transgenic for carcinoembryonic antigen.

    PubMed

    Mizobata, S; Tompkins, K; Simpson, J F; Shyr, Y; Primus, F J

    2000-08-01

    In order to develop immunotherapy strategies that are based on eliciting immune responsiveness to the self-antigen, human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), we examined whether cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity against CEA could be elicited in CEA-transgenic and nontransgenic mice. CEA-transgenic [C57BL/ 6-TGN(CEAGe)18FJP] and nontransgenic mice were primed with CEA-transfected syngeneic fibroblasts in combination with Corynebacterium parvum. Spleen cells from immunized mice were cultured with irradiated syngeneic MC-38 colon carcinoma cells transfected with CEA (MC-38.CEA) as stimulators prior to the measurement of CTL activity. Primed nontransgenic spleen cells showed augmented CTL activity against MC-38.CEA cells as compared with control parental MC-38 cells, nontransfected or transfected with vector only. Moreover, primed CEA transgenic spleen cells showed augmented CTL activity against MC-38.CEA cells that was similar to that observed in nontransgenic mice. All CTL clones derived from either transgenic or nontransgenic mice showed cross-reactivity with MC-38 cells expressing the CEA-related antigen, nonspecific cross-reacting antigen, but not biliary glycoprotein. CEA-specific CTL clones were not identified. Adoptive transfer of cloned CTL resulted in inhibition of MC-38.CEA but not MC-38.BGP tumor growth. Tumor cures were elicited in mice treated with a combination of cloned CTL and cyclophosphamide. Histopathological examination of CEA-expressing colons from either immunized mice or recipients of cloned CTL did not reveal any autoimmune reactions. These studies demonstrate that CTL recognizing cross-reactive class I epitopes on the CEA molecule can be induced in transgenic mice. The expression of these epitopes on tumor cells creates effective targets for CTL in vivo without inducing adverse reactions in CEA-expressing normal tissues. Since anti-CEA CTL have been generated in humans, CEA-transgenic mice may be a useful model to study vaccines that are based

  1. Interleukin-12 inhibits hepatitis B virus replication in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Cavanaugh, V J; Guidotti, L G; Chisari, F V

    1997-01-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a heterodimeric cytokine produced by antigen-presenting cells that has the ability to induce gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) secretion by T and natural killer cells and to generate normal Th1 responses. These properties suggest that IL-12 may play an important role in the immune response to many viruses, including hepatitis B virus (HBV). Recently, we have shown that HBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes inhibit HBV replication in the livers of transgenic mice by a noncytolytic process that is mediated in part by IFN-gamma. In the current study, we demonstrated that the same antiviral response can be initiated by recombinant murine IL-12 and we showed that the antiviral effect of IL-12 extends to extrahepatic sites such as the kidney. Southern blot analyses revealed the complete disappearance of HBV replicative intermediates from liver and kidney tissues at IL-12 doses that induce little or no inflammation in these tissues. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the disappearance of cytoplasmic hepatitis B core antigen from both tissues after IL-12 treatment, suggesting that IL-12 either prevents the assembly or triggers the degradation of the nucleocapsid particles within which HBV replication occurs. Importantly, we demonstrated that although IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and IFN-alpha/beta mRNA are induced in the liver and kidney after IL-12 administration, the antiviral effect of IL-12 is mediated principally by its ability to induce IFN-gamma production in this model. These results suggest that IL-12, through its ability to induce IFN-gamma, probably plays an important role in the antiviral immune response to HBV during natural infection. Further, since relatively nontoxic doses of recombinant IL-12 profoundly inhibit HBV replication in the liver and extrahepatic sites in this model, IL-12 may have therapeutic value as an antiviral agent for the treatment of chronic HBV infection. PMID:9060687

  2. High-level hepatitis B virus replication in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Guidotti, L G; Matzke, B; Schaller, H; Chisari, F V

    1995-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) transgenic mice whose hepatocytes replicate the virus at levels comparable to that in the infected livers of patients with chronic hepatitis have been produced, without any evidence of cytopathology. High-level viral gene expression was obtained in the liver and kidney tissues in three independent lineages. These animals were produced with a terminally redundant viral DNA construct (HBV 1.3) that starts just upstream of HBV enhancer I, extends completely around the circular viral genome, and ends just downstream of the unique polyadenylation site in HBV. In these animals, the viral mRNA is more abundant in centrilobular hepatocytes than elsewhere in the hepatic lobule. High-level viral DNA replication occurs inside viral nucleocapsid particles that preferentially form in the cytoplasm of these centrilobular hepatocytes, suggesting that an expression threshold must be reached for nucleocapsid assembly and viral replication to occur. Despite the restricted distribution of the viral replication machinery in centrilobular cytoplasmic nucleocapsids, nucleocapsid particles are detectable in the vast majority of hepatocyte nuclei throughout the hepatic lobule. The intranuclear nucleocapsid particles are empty, however, suggesting that viral nucleocapsid particle assembly occurs independently in the nucleus and the cytoplasm of the hepatocyte and implying that cytoplasmic nucleocapsid particles do not transport the viral genome across the nuclear membrane into the nucleus during the viral life cycle. This model creates the opportunity to examine the influence of viral and host factors on HBV pathogenesis and replication and to assess the antiviral potential of pharmacological agents and physiological processes, including the immune response. PMID:7666518

  3. Generation and Screening of Transgenic Mice with Neuronal Labeling Controlled by Thy1 Regulatory Elements.

    PubMed

    Marinković, Petar; Godinho, Leanne; Misgeld, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Major progress has been made using in vivo imaging in mice to study mammalian nervous system development, plasticity, and disease. This progress has depended in part on the wide availability of two-photon microscopy, which is capable of penetrating deep into scattering tissue. Equally important, however, is the generation of suitable transgenic mouse models, which provide a "Golgi staining"-like labeling of neurons that is sparse and bright enough for in vivo imaging. Particularly prominent among such transgenic mice are the so-called Thy1-XFP mice (in which XFP stands for any fluorescent protein) that are used in numerous studies, especially to visualize spine plasticity in the cortex and remodeling in peripheral synapses. New generations of Thy1-XFP mice are now being generated at a high rate, and these have allowed previously difficult experiments to become feasible. Moreover, with easy access to core facilities or commercial providers of pronuclear injections, generating simple Thy1 transgenic mice is now a possibility even for small laboratories. In this introduction, we discuss the Thy1 regulatory elements used to generate transgenic lines with neuronal labeling. We provide a brief overview of currently available Thy1 transgenic mice, including lines labeling neuronal organelles or reporting neuronal function. PMID:26430261

  4. Transgenic Mice Expressing Human Transferrin as a Model for Meningococcal Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Zarantonelli, Maria-Leticia; Szatanik, Marek; Giorgini, Dario; Hong, Eva; Huerre, Michel; Guillou, Florian; Alonso, Jean-Michel; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir

    2007-01-01

    The pathogenesis of meningococcal disease is poorly understood due to the lack of a relevant animal model. Moreover, the use of animal models is not optimal as most meningococcal virulence determinants recognize receptors that are specifically expressed in human tissues. One major element of the host specificity is the system of meningococcal iron uptake by transferrin-binding proteins that bind specifically human transferrin but not murine transferrin. We developed a new mouse model for experimental meningococcal infection using transgenic mice expressing human transferrin. Intraperitoneal challenge of transgenic mice induced bacteremia for at least 48 h with an early stage of multiplication, whereas the initial inoculum was rapidly cleared from blood in wild-type mice. Inflammation in the subarachnoidal space with a high influx of polymorphonuclear cells was observed only in transgenic mice. Meningococcal mutants that were unable to use transferrin as a source of iron were rapidly cleared from both wild-type and transgenic mice. Thus, transgenic mice expressing human transferrin may represent an important advance as a new mouse model for in vivo studies of meningococcal virulence and immunogenicity factors. PMID:17893132

  5. Cardiac hypertrophy associated with myeloproliferative neoplasms in JAK2V617F transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are blood malignancies manifested in increased production of red blood cells, white blood cells, and/or platelets. A major molecular lesion associated with the diseases is JAK2V617F, an activation mutation form of tyrosine kinase JAK2. Cardiovascular events represent the leading cause of morbidity and mortality associated MPNs, but the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Methods Previously, we generated JAK2V617F transgenic mice which displayed MPN-like phenotypes. In the present study, we further characterized these mice by analyzing the time course of MPN phenotype development and associated cardiac abnormalities. We performed detailed histochemical staining of cardiac sections. Results JAK2V617F transgenic mice developed cardiomegaly as a subsequent event of increased blood cell production during the course of MPN phenotype development. The cardiomegaly is manifested in increased ventricular wall thickness and enlarged cardiomyocytes. Trichrome and reticulin staining revealed extensive collagen fibrosis in the heart of JAK2V617F transgenic mice. Thrombosis in the coronary artery and inflammatory cell infiltration into cardiac muscle were also observed in JAK2V617F transgenic mice, and the latter event was accompanied by fibrosis. Conclusion JAK2V617F-induced blood disorders have a major impact on heart function and lead to cardiac hypertrophy. JAK2V617F transgenic mice represent an excellent model system to study both hematological malignancies and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24646493

  6. Increased liver pathology in hepatitis C virus transgenic mice expressing the hepatitis B virus X protein

    SciTech Connect

    Keasler, Victor V.; Lerat, Herve; Madden, Charles R.; Finegold, Milton J.; McGarvey, Michael J.; Mohammed, Essam M.A.; Forbes, Stuart J.; Lemon, Stanley M.; Hadsell, Darryl L.; Grona, Shala J.; Hollinger, F. Blaine; Slagle, Betty L. . E-mail: bslagle@bcm.edu

    2006-04-10

    Transgenic mice expressing the full-length HCV coding sequence were crossed with mice that express the HBV X gene-encoded regulatory protein HBx (ATX mice) to test the hypothesis that HBx expression accelerates HCV-induced liver pathogenesis. At 16 months (mo) of age, hepatocellular carcinoma was identified in 21% of HCV/ATX mice, but in none of the single transgenic animals. Analysis of 8-mo animals revealed that, relative to HCV/WT mice, HCV/ATX mice had more severe steatosis, greater liver-to-body weight ratios, and a significant increase in the percentage of hepatocytes staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Furthermore, primary hepatocytes from HCV, ATX, and HCV/ATX transgenic mice were more resistant to fas-mediated apoptosis than hepatocytes from nontransgenic littermates. These results indicate that HBx expression contributes to increased liver pathogenesis in HCV transgenic mice by a mechanism that involves an imbalance in hepatocyte death and regeneration within the context of severe steatosis.

  7. Transgenic mice expressing high plasma concentrations of human apolipoprotein B100 and lipoprotein(a).

    PubMed Central

    Linton, M F; Farese, R V; Chiesa, G; Grass, D S; Chin, P; Hammer, R E; Hobbs, H H; Young, S G

    1993-01-01

    The B apolipoproteins, apo-B48 and apo-B100, are key structural proteins in those classes of lipoproteins considered to be atherogenic [e.g., chylomicron remnants, beta-VLDL, LDL, oxidized LDL, and Lp(a)]. Here we describe the development of transgenic mice expressing high levels of human apo-B48 and apo-B100. A 79.5-kb human genomic DNA fragment containing the entire human apo-B gene was isolated from a P1 bacteriophage library and microinjected into fertilized mouse eggs. 16 transgenic founders expressing human apo-B were generated, and the animals with the highest expression had plasma apo-B100 levels nearly as high as those of normolipidemic humans (approximately 50 mg/dl). The human apo-B100 in transgenic mouse plasma was present largely in lipoproteins of the LDL class as shown by agarose gel electrophoresis, chromatography on a Superose 6 column, and density gradient ultracentrifugation. When the human apo-B transgenic founders were crossed with transgenic mice expressing human apo(a), the offspring that expressed both transgenes had high plasma levels of human Lp(a). Both the human apo-B and Lp(a) transgenic mice will be valuable resources for studying apo-B metabolism and the role of apo-B and Lp(a) in atherosclerosis. Images PMID:8254057

  8. A foreign dihydrofolate reductase gene in transgenic mice acts as a dominant mutation.

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, J W

    1986-01-01

    We have produced 17 lines of transgenic mice by microinjecting a full-length cDNA clone of an altered dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) gene. The protein specified by this gene carries a point mutation which triples its Km for dihydrofolate and reduces substrate turnover 20-fold relative to the wild-type enzyme. Transgenic mice from different pedigrees, several of which carry a single copy of this gene in different integration sites, manifest an array of similar developmental abnormalities including growth stunting, reduced fertility, pigmentation changes, and skeletal defects. These defects appear in animals heterozygous for the foreign gene. RNA analyses demonstrate significant expression of the cDNA in newborn mice and adult tissues. These findings show that the additional dhfr gene exerts its mutational effects in a dominant fashion, and therefore the data indicate that transgenic mice can serve as models for elucidating mechanisms of dominant mutagenesis. Images PMID:3785192

  9. A simplified method to prepare PCR template DNA for screening of transgenic and knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Ren, S; Li, M; Cai, H; Hudgins, S; Furth, P A

    2001-03-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of DNA is the most widely used technique for screening of large numbers of genetically engineered transgenic or knockout mice (Mus musculus). In this report, we present a new DNA preparation procedure for running diagnostic PCR. In this procedure, mouse ear tissue was used directly for PCR after the tissue underwent brief digestion in a solution containing only proteinase K. Using this method, we have successfully screened several lines of single, double, and triple transgenic and knockout mice. The results are reliable and reproducible. The advantage of this new method is that DNA purification by organic extraction or isolation kit was omitted. DNA purification is the limiting factor in terms of time and money when screening transgenic and knockout mice by PCR. In addition, using ear instead of tail tissue can reduce distress of animals because the samples can be obtained when the mice are labeled by ear punch.

  10. Tau overexpression in transgenic mice induces glycogen synthase kinase 3beta and beta-catenin phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Shim, S B; Lim, H J; Chae, K R; Kim, C K; Hwang, D Y; Jee, S W; Lee, S H; Sin, J S; Leem, Y H; Lee, S H; Cho, J S; Lee, H H; Choi, S Y; Kim, Y K

    2007-05-11

    The abnormal phosphorylations of tau, GSK3beta, and beta-catenin have been shown to perform a crucial function in the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The primary objective of the current study was to determine the manner in which overexpressed htau23 interacts and regulates the behavior and phosphorylation characteristics of tau, GSK3beta, and beta-catenin. In order to accomplish this, transgenic mice expressing neuron-specific enolase (NSE)-controlled human wild-type tau (NSE/htau23) were created. Transgenic mice evidenced the following: (i) tendency toward memory impairments at later stages, (ii) dramatic overexpression of the tau transgene, coupled with increased tau phosphorylation and paired helical filaments (PHFs), (iii) high levels of GSK3beta phosphorylation with advanced age, resulting in increases in the phosphorylations of tau and beta-catenin, (iv) an inhibitory effect of lithium on the phosphorylations of tau, GSK3beta, and beta-catenin, but not in the non-transgenic littermate group. Therefore, the overexpression of NSE/htau23 in the brains of transgenic mice induces abnormal phosphorylations of tau, GSK3beta, and beta-catenin, which are ultimately linked to neuronal degeneration in cases of AD. These transgenic mice are expected to prove useful for the development of new drugs for the treatment of AD.

  11. Immune Responses of HIV-1 Tat Transgenic Mice to Mycobacterium Tuberculosis W-Beijing SA161

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Jennifer R; Shang, Shaobin; Shanley, Crystal A; Caraway, Megan L; Henao-Tamayo, Marcela; Chan, Edward D; Basaraba, Randall J; Orme, Ian M; Ordway, Diane J; Flores, Sonia C

    2011-01-01

    Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains among the leading causes of death from an infectious agent in the world and exacerbates disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV infected individuals are prone to lung infections by a variety of microbial pathogens, including M. tuberculosis. While the destruction of the adaptive immune response by HIV is well understood, the actual pathogenesis of tuberculosis in co-infected individuals remains unclear. Tat is an HIV protein essential for efficient viral gene transcription, is secreted from infected cells, and is known to influence a variety of host inflammatory responses. We hypothesize Tat contributes to pathophysiological changes in the lung microenvironment, resulting in impaired host immune responses to infection by M. tuberculosis. Results: Herein, we show transgenic mice that express Tat by lung alveolar cells are more susceptible than non-transgenic control littermates to a low-dose aerosol infection of M. tuberculosis W-Beijing SA161. Survival assays demonstrate accelerated mortality rates of the Tat transgenic mice compared to non-transgenics. Tat transgenic mice also showed poorly organized lung granulomata-like lesions. Analysis of the host immune response using quantitative RT-PCR, flow cytometry for surface markers, and intracellular cytokine staining showed increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lungs, increased numbers of cells expressing ICAM1, increased numbers of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T regulatory cells, and IL-4 producing CD4+ T cells in the Tat transgenics compared to infected non-tg mice. Conclusions: Our data show quantitative differences in the inflammatory response to the SA161 clinical isolate of M. tuberculosis W-Beijing between Tat transgenic and non-transgenic mice, suggesting Tat contributes to the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. PMID:22046211

  12. Somatostatin Receptor 1 and 5 Double Knockout Mice Mimic Neurochemical Changes of Huntington's Disease Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rajput, Padmesh S.; Kharmate, Geetanjali; Norman, Michael; Liu, Shi-He; Sastry, Bhagavatula R.; Brunicardi, Charles F.; Kumar, Ujendra

    2011-01-01

    Background Selective degeneration of medium spiny neurons and preservation of medium sized aspiny interneurons in striatum has been implicated in excitotoxicity and pathophysiology of Huntington's disease (HD). However, the molecular mechanism for the selective sparing of medium sized aspiny neurons and vulnerability of projection neurons is still elusive. The pathological characteristic of HD is an extensive reduction of the striatal mass, affecting caudate putamen. Somatostatin (SST) positive neurons are selectively spared in HD and Quinolinic acid/N-methyl-D-aspartic acid induced excitotoxicity, mimic the model of HD. SST plays neuroprotective role in excitotoxicity and the biological effects of SST are mediated by five somatostatin receptor subtypes (SSTR1-5). Methods and Findings To delineate subtype selective biological responses we have here investigated changes in SSTR1 and 5 double knockout mice brain and compared with HD transgenic mouse model (R6/2). Our study revealed significant loss of dopamine and cAMP regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa (DARPP-32) and comparable changes in SST, N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptors subtypes, calbindin and brain nitric oxide synthase expression as well as in key signaling proteins including calpain, phospho-extracellular-signal-regulated kinases1/2, synapsin-IIa, protein kinase C-α and calcineurin in SSTR1/5−/− and R6/2 mice. Conversely, the expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes, enkephalin and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases were strain specific. SSTR1/5 appears to be important in regulating NMDARs, DARPP-32 and signaling molecules in similar fashion as seen in HD transgenic mice. Conclusions This is the first comprehensive description of disease related changes upon ablation of G- protein coupled receptor gene. Our results indicate that SST and SSTRs might play an important role in regulation of neurodegeneration and targeting this pathway can provide a novel insight in understanding the pathophysiology of

  13. A mutant of human papillomavirus type 16 E6 deficient in binding alpha-helix partners displays reduced oncogenic potential in vivo.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Marie; Song, Shiyu; Liem, Amy; Androphy, Elliot; Liu, Yun; Lambert, Paul F

    2002-12-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are small DNA tumor viruses that are the causative agent of warts and are associated with many anogenital cancers. The viral gene encoding the E6 protein has been found to be involved in HPV oncogenesis. E6 is known to inactivate the cellular tumor suppressor, p53. In addition, E6 has been shown to bind to a variety of other cellular proteins. The focus of this study was to determine what role the interactions of E6 with a subset of cellular proteins which contain a common alpha-helical domain in their E6 binding region (alpha-helix partners) play in E6-mediated phenotypes. We generated transgenic mice expressing a mutant of E6, E6(I128T), which is defective for binding at least a subset of the alpha-helix partners, including E6AP, the ubiquitin ligase that mediates E6-dependent degradation of the p53 protein, to determine whether binding of alpha-helix partners plays a role in E6-mediated activities in vivo. Unlike mice expressing the wild-type E6 (strain K14E6(WT)), the mice expressing E6(I128T) lacked the ability to alter the radiation-induced block to DNA synthesis and promote the formation of benign skin tumors in conjunction with chemical carcinogens. Additionally, they displayed reduced levels of skin hyperplasia, spontaneous skin tumors, and tumor progression activity compared to those of the K14E6(WT) mice. From these results, we conclude that a domain in E6 that mediates alpha-helix partner binding is critical for E6-induced phenotypes in transgenic mice.

  14. Transgenic mice for MTCP1 develop T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Gritti, C; Dastot, H; Soulier, J; Janin, A; Daniel, M T; Madani, A; Grimber, G; Briand, P; Sigaux, F; Stern, M H

    1998-07-15

    T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is a rare form of mature T-cell leukemia associated with chromosomal rearrangements implicating MTCP1 or TCL1 genes. These genes encode two homologous proteins, p13(MTCP1) and p14(TCL1), which share no similarity with other known protein. To determine the oncogenic role of MTCP1, mice transgenic for MTCP1 under the control of CD2 regulatory regions (CD2-p13 mice) were generated. No abnormality was detected during the first year after birth. A late effect of the transgene was searched for in a cohort of 48 CD2-p13 mice aged 15 to 20 months, issued from 3 independent founders. Lymphoid hemopathies, occurring in the three transgenic lines, were characterized by lymphoid cells with an irregular nucleus, a unique and prominent nucleolus, condensed chromatin, a basophilic cytoplasm devoid of granules, and an immunophenotype of mature T cells. The molecular characterization of Tcrb rearrangements demonstrated the monoclonal origin of these populations. Histopathological analysis of the cohort demonstrated early splenic and hepatic infiltrations, whereas lymphocytosis and medullar infiltrations were found infrequently. The engraftment of these proliferations in H2-matched animals demonstrated their malignant nature. Cumulative incidence of the disease at 20 months was 100%, 50%, and 21% in F3, F4, and F7 lines, respectively, and null in the control group. The level of expression of the transgene, as estimated by Western blotting in the transgenic lines correlated with the tumoral incidence, with the highest expression of p13(MTCP1) being found in F3 mice. CD2-p13 transgenic mice developed an hemopathy similar to human T-PLL. These data demonstrate that p13(MTCP1) is an oncoprotein and that CD2-p13 transgenic mice represent the first animal model for mature T-PLL.

  15. Transgenic knockout mice with exclusively human sickle hemoglobinand sickle cell disease

    SciTech Connect

    Paszty, C.; Brion, C.; Manci, E.; Witkowska, E.; Stevens, M.; Narla, M.; Rubin, E.

    1997-06-13

    To create mice expressing exclusively human sicklehemoglobin (HbS), transgenic mice expressing human alpha-, gamma-, andbeta[S]-globin were generated and bred with knockout mice that haddeletions of the murine alpha- and beta-globin genes. These sickle cellmice have the major features (irreversibly sickled red cells, anemia,multiorgan pathology) found in humans with sickle cell disease and, assuch, represent a useful in vivo system to accelerate the development ofimproved therapies for this common genetic disease.

  16. Tobacco smoke as inducer for gas phase-controlled transgene expression in mammalian cells and mice.

    PubMed

    Weber, Wilfried; Spielmann, Manuela; Daoud El-Baba, Marie; Keller, Bettina; Aubel, Dominique; Fussenegger, Martin

    2005-06-30

    Capitalizing on components evolved to metabolize ethanol in Aspergillus nidulans, we previously designed the first molecular gas-gene expression interface using gaseous acetaldehyde as the major inducer. This fungus-derived acetaldehyde-inducible gene regulation (AIR) system operated perfectly and enabled precise and reversible transgene expression dosing in a variety of mammalian cells. We now validate the use of mainstream cigarette smoke typically containing acetaldehyde at regulation-effective nontoxic concentrations as a noninvasive modality to adjust transgene transcription in mammalian cells and mice. Indeed, tobacco smoke-induced expression fine-tuning of AIR-driven transgenes was successful in mammalian cells. Even mice implanted with cells transgenic for AIR-controlled SEAP (human secreted alkaline phosphatase) production showed serum SEAP levels correlating with inhaled tobacco smoke doses. Tobacco smoke-controlled gene expression may foster clinical opportunities as well as advances in understanding smoke-related pathologies.

  17. Overexpression of Thioredoxin in Transgenic Mice Attenuates Focal Ischemic Brain Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Yasushi; Mitsui, Akira; Nishiyama, Akira; Nozaki, Kazuhiko; Sono, Hiroshi; Gon, Yasuhiro; Hashimoto, Nobuo; Yodoi, Junji

    1999-03-01

    Thioredoxin (TRX) plays important biological roles both in intra- and extracellular compartments, including in regulation of various intracellular molecules via thiol redox control. We produced TRX overexpressing mice and confirmed that there were no anatomical and physiological differences between wild-type (WT) mice and TRX transgenic (Tg) mice. In the present study we subjected mice to focal brain ischemia to shed light on the role of TRX in brain ischemic injury. At 24 hr after middle cerebral artery occlusion, infarct areas and volume were significantly smaller in Tg mice than in WT mice. Moreover neurological deficit was ameliorated in Tg mice compared with WT mice. Protein carbonyl content, a marker of cellular protein oxidation, in Tg mice showed less increase than did that of WT mice after the ischemic insult. Furthermore, c-fos expression in Tg mice was stronger than in WT mice 1 hr after ischemia. Our results suggest that transgene expression of TRX decreased ischemic neuronal injury and that TRX and the redox state modified by TRX play a crucial role in brain damage during stroke.

  18. An immunocytochemical and ultrastructural study of adenohypophyses of mice transgenic for human growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Stefaneanu, L; Kovacs, K; Horvath, E; Losinski, N E; Mayerhofer, A; Wagner, T E; Bartke, A

    1990-01-01

    Adenohypophysial morphology in 12 mice transgenic for methallothionein-I-human (h) GH fusion gene was investigated by immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. The sustained oversecretion of hGH stimulated body growth. The pituitary glands of 6-month-old transgenic mice were significantly decreased in weight and showed marked morphological changes in somatotrophs, lactotrophs, corticotrophs, and gonadotrophs. GH-immunoreactive cells were greatly reduced in size and midly decreased in number; by electron microscopy, the organelles implicated in hormone synthesis were inconspicuous in this cell type. Transgenic males were hypoprolactinemic, presumably due to lactogenic activity of hGH in rodents. Their pituitaries displayed few and slender PRL-immunoreactive cells; ultrastructurally, they belonged to immature (type II) lactotrophs. However, in females, PRL-containing cells showed no change in number, size, or distribution compared to controls. Prior biochemical studies demonstrated high blood levels of LH in males. Their pituitaries contained highly active gonadotrophs resembling gonadectomy cells, consistent with the view that these changes are related to PRL-like activity of hGH in mice. In both sexes, stimulated corticotrophs were present. The results indicate that some changes in adenohypophysial cells of mice transgenic for hGH can be attributed to protracted overproduction of the heterologous GH, whereas others can be explained by lactotrophic activity of hGH in mice. The divergent morphological responses of lactotrophs and gonadotrophs in the two sexes may reflect differences in the hormonal regulatory mechanisms between male and female mice. PMID:2104591

  19. Neural differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells isolated from GFP transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimura, Juri; E-mail: juri-f@nms.ac.jp; Ogawa, Rei; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Fukunaga, Yoshitaka; Suzuki, Hidenori

    2005-07-22

    Taking advantage of homogeneously marked cells from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice, we have recently reported that adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) could differentiate into mesenchymal lineages in vitro. In this study, we performed neural induction using ASCs from GFP transgenic mice and were able to induce these ASCs into neuronal and glial cell lineages. Most of the neurally induced cells showed bipolar or multipolar appearance morphologically and expressed neuronal markers. Electron microscopy revealed their neuronal morphology. Some cells also showed glial phenotypes, as shown immunocytochemically. The present study clearly shows that ASCs derived from GFP transgenic mice differentiate into neural lineages in vitro, suggesting that these cells might provide an ideal source for further neural stem cell research with possible therapeutic application for neurological disorders.

  20. APP transgenic mice for modelling behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD)

    PubMed Central

    Lalonde, R.; Fukuchi, K.; Strazielle, C.

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of gene mutations responsible for autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease has enabled researchers to reproduce in transgenic mice several hallmarks of this disorder, notably Aβ accumulation, though in most cases without neurofibrillary tangles. Mice expressing mutated and wild-type APP as well as C-terminal fragments of APP exhibit variations in exploratory activity reminiscent of behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzeimer dementia (BPSD). In particular, open-field, spontaneous alternation, and elevated plus-maze tasks as well as aggression are modified in several APP transgenic mice relative to non-transgenic controls. However, depending on the precise murine models, changes in open-field and elevated plus-maze exploration occur in either direction, either increased or decreased relative to controls. It remains to be determined which neurotransmitter changes are responsible for this variability, in particular with respect to GABA, 5HT, and dopamine. PMID:22373961

  1. Double transgenic mice with type 1 diabetes mellitus develop somatic, metabolic and vascular disorders.

    PubMed

    Radu, D L; Georgescu, Adriana; Stavaru, Crina; Carale, Alina; Popov, Doina

    2004-01-01

    The double transgenic mice (dTg) were obtained by mating: (i) transgenic mice expressing the hemagglutinin of influenza virus under the insulin promoter with (ii) transgenic mice expressing specific T lymphocytes with receptor for the immunodominant epitope of the same virus. In this study we show that dTg mice developed type 1 diabetes mellitus associated with hyperglycemia, low level of plasma insulin, glucosuria, weight loss and approximately 90% mortality (at 3 months biological age). The membrane of red blood cells was more sensitive to osmotic shock in diabetic mice, compared to non-diabetic mice, assessing systemic oxidative stress. Both vasoconstriction and vasorelaxation of the renal arteries decreased significantly in diabetic mice (compared to the control group of non-diabetic mice) related to the phenotypic change of endothelium and smooth muscle cells within the artery wall. This animal model, may be used in developing various strategies to study pancreatic beta-cell function, as well as for a better metabolic control conducting to a reduced risk of vascular complications. PMID:15491510

  2. Expression of SV40 T antigen under control of rabbit uteroglobin promoter in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    DeMayo, F J; Finegold, M J; Hansen, T N; Stanley, L A; Smith, B; Bullock, D W

    1991-08-01

    The rabbit uteroglobin gene is expressed in the lungs and reproductive tracts of male and female rabbits. To examine whether the promoter region of the uteroglobin gene could be used to target a heterologous gene to the lungs of transgenic mice, a fusion gene consisting of 3.3 kb of the 5'-flanking region of the rabbit uteroglobin gene and the large T antigen gene of the SV40 virus was constructed and microinjected into the pronuclei of one-cell mouse embryos. Eleven founder transgenic mice (5 female and 6 male) were generated. Seven of these mice developed bronchioalveolar neoplasms. Four of the founder males also developed primitive undifferentiated urogenital tract tumors. One founder female and one female offspring of a founder male developed glandular paraovarian tumors. Northern analysis revealed that the predominant site of expression of the transgene was the lung. Immunohistochemical staining showed T antigen predominantly in epithelial cells lining the bronchioles, the submucosal glands of the trachea, and the neoplasms. There appeared to be a high level of mosaicism for the transgene in the founder mice, with poor transmission of the transgene to subsequent generations. This suggests that, under the control of the uteroglobin promoter, the T antigen gene may be lethal to the fetus.

  3. Mammary gland-specific expression of biologically active human osteoprotegerin in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yoon-Young; Lee, Chul-Sang

    2013-03-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a secreted glycoprotein that regulates bone resorption by inhibiting differentiation and activation of osteoclast, thereby potentially useful for the treatment of many bone diseases associated with increased bone loss. In this study, we designed a novel cDNA expression cassette by modifying the potent and mammary gland-specific goat β-casein/hGH hybrid gene construct and examined human OPG (hOPG) cDNA expression in transgenic mice. Six transgenic mice all successfully expressed hOPG in their milk at the level of 0.06-2,000 µg/ml. An estimated molecular weight of the milk hOPG was 55 kDa in SDS-PAGE, which is the same as a naturally glycosylated monomer. This hOPG expression was highly specific to the mammary glands of transgenic mice. hOPG mRNA was not detected in any organs analyzed except mammary gland. Functional integrity of milk hOPG was evaluated by TRAP (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase) activity assay in bone marrow cell cultures. OPG ligand (OPG-L) treatment increased TRAP activity by two fold but it was completely abolished by co-treatment with transgenic milk containing hOPG. Taken together, our novel cDNA expression cassette could direct an efficient expression of biologically active hOPG, a potential candidate pharmaceutical for bone diseases, only in the mammary gland of transgenic mice.

  4. Spontaneous diabetes mellitus in transgenic mice expressing human islet amyloid polypeptide.

    PubMed Central

    Janson, J; Soeller, W C; Roche, P C; Nelson, R T; Torchia, A J; Kreutter, D K; Butler, P C

    1996-01-01

    The islet in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is characterized by loss of beta cells and large local deposits of amyloid derived from the 37-amino acid protein, islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP). We have hypothesized that IAPP amyloid forms intracellularly causing beta-cell destruction under conditions of high rates of expression. To test this we developed a homozygous transgenic mouse model with high rates of expression of human IAPP. Male transgenic mice spontaneously developed diabetes mellitus by 8 weeks of age, which was associated with selective beta-cell death and impaired insulin secretion. Small intra- and extracellular amorphous IAPP aggregates were present in islets of transgenic mice during the development of diabetes mellitus. However, IAPP derived amyloid deposits were found in only a minority of islets at approximately 20 weeks of age, notably after development of diabetes mellitus in male transgenic mice. Approximately 20% of female transgenic mice spontaneously developed diabetes mellitus at 30+ weeks of age, when beta-cell degeneration and both amorphous and amyloid deposits of IAPP were present. We conclude that overexpression of human IAPP causes beta-cell death, impaired insulin secretion, and diabetes mellitus. Large deposits of IAPP derived amyloid do not appear to be important in this cytotoxicity, but early, small amorphous intra- and extracellular aggregates of human IAPP were consistently present at the time of beta-cell death and therefore may be the most cytotoxic form of IAPP. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8692984

  5. Transgenic nude mice ubiquitously expressing fluorescent proteins for color-coded imaging of the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a transgenic green fluorescent protein (GFP) nude mouse with ubiquitous GFP expression. The GFP nude mouse was obtained by crossing nontransgenic nude mice with the transgenic C57/B6 mouse in which the β-actin promoter drives GFP expression in essentially all tissues. In the adult mice, many organs brightly expressed GFP, including the spleen, heart, lungs, spleen, pancreas, esophagus, stomach, and duodenum as well as the circulatory system. The liver expressed GFP at a lesser level. The red fluorescent protein (RFP) transgenic nude mouse was obtained by crossing non-transgenic nude mice with the transgenic C57/B6 mouse in which the beta-actin promoter drives RFP (DsRed2) expression in essentially all tissues. In the RFP nude mouse, the organs all brightly expressed RFP, including the heart, lungs, spleen, pancreas, esophagus, stomach, liver, duodenum, the male and female reproductive systems; brain and spinal cord; and the circulatory system, including the heart, and major arteries and veins. The skinned skeleton highly expressed RFP. The bone marrow and spleen cells were also RFP positive. The cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) nude mouse was developed by crossing nontransgenic nude mice with the transgenic CK/ECFP mouse in which the β-actin promoter drives expression of CFP in almost all tissues. In the CFP nude mice, the pancreas and reproductive organs displayed the strongest fluorescence signals of all internal organs, which vary in intensity. The GFP, RFP, and CFP nude mice when transplanted with cancer cells of another color are powerful models for color-coded imaging of the tumor microenvironment (TME) at the cellular level.

  6. Papillomavirus E6 oncoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Vande Pol, Scott B.; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J.

    2013-01-01

    Papillomaviruses induce benign and malignant epithelial tumors, and the viral E6 oncoprotein is essential for full transformation. E6 contributes to transformation by associating with cellular proteins, docking on specific acidic LXXLL peptide motifs found on the associated cellular proteins. This review examines insights from recent studies of human and animal E6 proteins that determine the three-dimensional structure of E6 when bound to acidic LXXLL peptides. The structure of E6 is related to recent advances in the purification and identification of E6 associated protein complexes. These E6 protein-complexes, together with other proteins that bind to E6, alter a broad array of biological outcomes including modulation of cell survival, cellular transcription, host cell differentiation, growth factor dependence, DNA damage responses, and cell cycle progression. PMID:23711382

  7. Novel cell lines derived from transgenic mice expressing recombinant human proteins. Transgenic hepatoma-derived cell lines.

    PubMed

    Perraud, F; Dalemans, W; Ali-Hadji, D; Pavirani, A

    1992-01-01

    We have used transgenic mouse technology to establish immortalized hepatoma cell lines stably secreting heterologous proteins, such as human alpha 1-antitrypsin and human factor IX. Hepatocyte-specific regulatory DNA sequences were used to target both the expression of an onc gene and the gene coding for the human protein to the liver of transgenic mice which eventually developed hepatocellular carcinomas. Tumour cells were subsequently established as permanent cell lines, which maintained a differentiated phenotype under specific culture conditions, being capable of producing biologically active and correctly processed human alpha 1-antitrypsin and factor IX. Moreover, a preliminary analysis has shown that certain cell lines express elevated total cytochrome P450 activity. These cells could therefore represent a useful alternative to the use of animals or primary cultures in drug safety testing. PMID:1369183

  8. Transgenic mice with muscle-specific insulin resistance develop increased adiposity, impaired glucose tolerance, and dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Moller, D E; Chang, P Y; Yaspelkis, B B; Flier, J S; Wallberg-Henriksson, H; Ivy, J L

    1996-06-01

    Impaired skeletal muscle insulin receptor function is a feature of common forms of insulin resistance, including obesity and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. However, the extent to which this defect accounts for impaired muscle glucose disposal or altered in vivo glucose homeostasis remains to be established. We recently showed that transgenic mice that overexpress dominant-negative insulin receptors specifically in striated muscle have a severe defect in muscle insulin receptor-mediated signaling and modest hyperinsulinemia. Here we performed hindlimb perfusion studies to determine the impact of this defect on muscle glucose uptake and metabolism. Maximal rates of insulin-stimulated muscle 3-O-methylglucose transport were reduced by 32-40% in transgenic mice with proportional defects involving total hindlimb [14C]glucose uptake, lactate production, and muscle glycogen synthesis. To address the hypothesis that muscle insulin resistance could promote an increase in the accretion of body fat, carcass analysis was performed using two independent lines of transgenic mice. Although body weights were normal, transgenic mice had a 22-38% increase in body fat, with a reciprocal decrease (10-15%) in body protein. Mean gonadal fat pad weight was also increased in transgenic mice. Skeletal muscle histology and fiber type distribution were not affected. To determine whether muscle-specific insulin resistance was sufficient to cause impaired glucose tolerance, oral glucose tolerance tests were performed with 6-month-old transgenic and control mice. Fasting glucose levels were increased by 25%, and peak values were 22-40% higher in transgenic mice. Transgenic mice also had a 37% decrease in plasma lactate levels and modest increases in levels of plasma triglycerides and FFA (29% and 15%, respectively). We conclude that 1) severe defects in muscle insulin receptor function result in impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and metabolism in this tissue; 2) muscle

  9. Effect of Hypertriglyceridemia on Beta Cell Mass and Function in ApoC3 Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun-Zi; Cheng, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Ting; Lee, Sojin; Yamauchi, Jun; Xiao, Xiangwei; Gittes, George; Qu, Shen; Jiang, Chun-Lei; Dong, H Henry

    2016-07-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia results from increased production and decreased clearance of triglyceride-rich very low-density lipoproteins, a pathological condition that accounts for heightened risk of ischemic vascular diseases in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Despite its intimate association with insulin resistance, whether hypertriglyceridemia constitutes an independent risk for beta cell dysfunction in diabetes is unknown. Answering this fundamental question is stymied by the fact that hypertriglyceridemia is intertwined with hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in obese and diabetic subjects. To circumvent this limitation, we took advantage of apolipoprotein C3 (ApoC3)-transgenic mice, a model with genetic predisposition to hypertriglyceridemia. We showed that ApoC3-transgenic mice, as opposed to age/sex-matched wild-type littermates, develop hypertriglyceridemia with concomitant elevations in plasma cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acid levels. Anti-insulin and anti-glucagon dual immunohistochemistry in combination with morphometric analysis revealed that ApoC3-transgenic and wild-type littermates had similar beta cell and alpha cell masses as well as islet size and architecture. These effects correlated with similar amplitudes of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and similar degrees of postprandial glucose excursion in ApoC3-transgenic versus wild-type littermates. Oil Red O histology did not visualize lipid infiltration into islets, correlating with the lack of ectopic triglyceride and cholesterol depositions in the pancreata of ApoC3-transgenic versus wild-type littermates. ApoC3-transgenic mice, despite persistent hypertriglyceridemia, maintained euglycemia under both fed and fasting conditions without manifestation of insulin resistance and fasting hyperinsulinemia. Thus, hypertriglyceridemia per se is not an independent risk factor for beta cell dysfunction in ApoC3 transgenic mice. PMID:27226540

  10. Tiam1 Transgenic Mice Display Increased Tumor Invasive and Metastatic Potential of Colorectal Cancer after 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Li-Na; Zhang, Qing-Ling; Li, Xin; Hua, Xing; Cui, Yan-Mei; Zhang, Nian-Jie; Liao, Wen-Ting; Ding, Yan-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Background T lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1 (Tiam1) is a potential modifier of tumor development and progression. Our previous study in vitro and in nude mice suggested a promotion role of Tiam1 on invasion and metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC). In the present study, we generated Tiam1/C1199-CopGFP transgenic mice to investigate the tumorigenetic, invasive and metastatic alterations in the colon and rectum of wild-type and Tiam1 transgenic mice under 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) treatment. Methods Transgenic mice were produced by the method of pronuclear microinlectlon. Whole-body fluorescence imaging (Lighttools, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada), PCR, and immunohistochemical techniques (IHC) were applied sequentially to identify the transgenic mice. The carcinogen DMH (20 mg/kg) was used to induce colorectal tumors though intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections once a week for 24 weeks from the age of 4 weeks on Tiam1 transgenic or non-transgenic mice. Results We successfully generated Tiam1/C1199-CopGFP transgenic mice and induced primary tumors in the intestine of both wild type and Tiam1 transgenic mice by DMH treatment. In addition, Tiam1 transgenic mice developed larger and more aggressive neoplasm than wild-type mice. Moreover, immunohistochemical staining revealed that upregulation of Tiam1 was correlated with increased expression of β-Catenin and Vimentin, and downregulation of E-Cadherin in these mice. Conclusions Our study has provided in vivo evidence supporting that Tiam1 promotes invasion and metastasis of CRC, most probably through activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, in a Tiam1 transgenic mouse model. PMID:24069171

  11. Increased ocular levels of IGF-1 in transgenic mice lead to diabetes-like eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Ruberte, Jesús; Ayuso, Eduard; Navarro, Marc; Carretero, Ana; Nacher, Víctor; Haurigot, Virginia; George, Mónica; Llombart, Cristina; Casellas, Alba; Costa, Cristina; Bosch, Assumpció; Bosch, Fatima

    2004-01-01

    IGF-1 has been associated with the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, although its role is not fully understood. Here we show that normoglycemic/normoinsulinemic transgenic mice overexpressing IGF-1 in the retina developed most alterations seen in human diabetic eye disease. A paracrine effect of IGF-1 in the retina initiated vascular alterations that progressed from nonproliferative to proliferative retinopathy and retinal detachment. Eyes from 2-month-old transgenic mice showed loss of pericytes and thickening of basement membrane of retinal capillaries. In mice 6 months and older, venule dilatation, intraretinal microvascular abnormalities, and neovascularization of the retina and vitreous cavity were observed. Neovascularization was consistent with increased IGF-1 induction of VEGF expression in retinal glial cells. In addition, IGF-1 accumulated in aqueous humor, which may have caused rubeosis iridis and subsequently adhesions between the cornea and iris that hampered aqueous humor drainage and led to neovascular glaucoma. Furthermore, all transgenic mice developed cataracts. These findings suggest a role of IGF-1 in the development of ocular complications in long-term diabetes. Thus, these transgenic mice may be used to study the mechanisms that lead to diabetes eye disease and constitute an appropriate model in which to assay new therapies. PMID:15085194

  12. Altered synaptic plasticity in the mossy fibre pathway of transgenic mice expressing mutant amyloid precursor protein

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Aβ peptides derived from the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein are widely believed to play an important role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. A common way to study the impact of these molecules on CNS function is to compare the physiology of transgenic mice that overproduce Aβ with non-transgenic animals. In the hippocampus, this approach has been frequently applied to the investigation of synaptic transmission and plasticity in the perforant and Schaffer collateral commissural pathways, the first and third components of the classical hippocampal trisynaptic circuit, respectively. Similar studies however have not been carried out on the remaining component of the trisynaptic circuit, the mossy fibre pathway. Using transverse hippocampal slices prepared from ~2 year old animals we have compared mossy fibre synaptic function in wild-type mice and their Tg2576 littermates which age-dependently overproduce Aβ. Input-output curves were not altered in slices from Tg2576 mice, but these animals exhibited a significant loss of the prominent frequency-facilitation expressed by the mossy fibre pathway. In addition to this change in short term synaptic plasticity, high frequency stimulation-induced, NMDA-receptor-independent LTP was absent in slices from the transgenic mice. These data represent the first description of functional deficits in the mossy fibre pathway of Aβ-overproducing transgenic mice. PMID:21040543

  13. Tissue kallikrein-binding protein reduces blood pressure in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, L M; Ma, J x; Liang, Y M; Chao, L; Chao, J

    1996-11-01

    The kallikrein-kinin system participates in blood pressure regulation. One of the kallikrein-kinin system components, kallikrein-binding protein, binds to tissue kallikrein and inhibits its activity in vitro. To investigate potential roles of rat kallikrein-binding protein (RKBP) in vivo, we have developed transgenic mice that express an RKBP gene under the control of the mouse metallothionein metal-responsive promoter. Expression of the transgene, RKBP, was detected in the liver, kidney, lung, heart, pancreas, salivary glands, spleen, brain, testis, and adrenal gland at the mRNA and protein levels. Systolic blood pressures of homozygous transgenic mice were 88.5 +/- 0.8 mm Hg (mean +/- S.E., n = 19, P < 0.001) for one line and 88.8 +/- 1.6 mm Hg (mean +/- S.E., n = 19, P < 0.001) for another, as compared with 100.5 +/- 0.8 mm Hg (mean +/- S.E., n = 18) for control mice. Direct blood pressure measurements of these transgenic mice through an arterial cannula showed similar reductions of blood pressure. Intravenous injection of purified RKBP into mice via a catheter produced a dose-dependent reduction of the mean arterial blood pressure. Our findings suggest that RKBP may function as a vasodilator in vivo, independent of regulating the activity of tissue kallikrein. PMID:8910346

  14. [PHARMACOLOGICAL CORRECTION OF APOPTOSIS LEVEL OF CORTICAL NEURONS IN AGED HER2/NEU TRANSGENIC MICE].

    PubMed

    Bazhanova, E D; Kozlova, Yu O; Anisimov, V N; Sukhanov, D S; Teply, D L

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative changes and neuronal death are the basis for development of the nervous system aging. We investigated the mechanism of apoptosis of the sensorimotor cortex neurons of transgenic mice HER2/neu during aging, changes in the cortex function and the participation of exogenous neurometabolites (cytoflavin, piracetam) in regulation of neuronal death and locomotor and psycho-emotional status of mice. The level of apoptosis and expression of apoptosis markers (TUNEL, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting) in HER2/neu transgenic mice as compared to wild type mice (FBV line) were determined. In aging FBV mice the basal activity was shown to decrease and anxiety to increase correlating with the high level of neuronal apoptosis. We identified behavioral characteristics of transgenic HER2/neu mice and found that their low basal activity does not change with aging. Previously we have shown that in this strain of mice the apoptosis level is low, without any age-related changes, due to the suppression, first of all, of the p53-dependent pathway by HER2 (tyrosine kinase receptor) overexpression. Cytoflavin and piracetam were revealed to possess a marked neuroprotective effect, preserving and restoring functions of the nervous system (improving locomotion and psychological status) in both strains of mice. The effect of neurometabolites studied on neuronal apoptosis is ambiguous. In case of its low level it is a moderate stumulation of apoptosis via the external p53-dependent pathways with activation of caspase-3 in transgenic HER2/neu mice with high carcinogenesis level that can possibly prevent tumor development. On the contrary, in old wild-type animals we observed a significant decrease of age-dependent apoptosis level (by stimulating expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1), which prevents neurodegeneration. PMID:27220241

  15. Pathophysiogical role of leptin in lifestyle-related diseases. Studies with transgenic skinny mice overexpressing leptin.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Masuzaki, Hiroaki; Ebihara, Ken; Shintani, Mitsuyo; Aizawa-Abe, Megumi; Miyanaga, Fumiko; Nakao, Kazuwa

    2002-01-01

    Leptin is a major adipocyte-derived hormone that is involved in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. Plasma leptin concentrations are elevated in obese subjects, suggesting its pathophysiological role in obesity-related lifestyle-related diseases. We have recently succeeded in the generation of transgenic skinny mice overexpressing leptin. They exhibit increased glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity accompanied by a significant increase in insulin signaling for glucose utilization in the skeletal muscle and liver. They also show blood pressure elevation through the sympathetic activation. Introduction of the lethal yellow agouti (A(y)) allele into transgenic skinny mice results in late-onset obesity and diabetes with blood pressure elevation similar to those found in nontransgenic agouti mice (A(y)/+ mice). After caloric restriction, blood pressure elevation is reversed but insulin resistance still remains in A(y)/+ mice in parallel with a reduction of plasma leptin concentrations. By contrast, blood pressure elevation is sustained but insulin resistance is reversed in transgenic mice overexpressing leptin with the A(y) allele (Tg/+:A(y)/+ mice), which remain hyperleptinemic. Collectively, our data suggest the pathophysiologic and therapeutic implication of leptin in obesity-related insulin resistance and hypertension.

  16. Electroacupuncture decreases cognitive impairment and promotes neurogenesis in the APP/PS1 transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a severe neurodegenerative disease for which there is currently no effective treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether repeated electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation would improve cognitive function and the pathological features of AD in amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin 1 (PS1) double transgenic mice. Methods Cognitive function of APP/PS1 double transgenic mice was assessed using the Morris water maze test before and after EA treatment. Levels of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) deposits in the hippocampus and cortex were evaluated by immunofluorescence, western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was also examined by immunofluorescence and western blot. The neurogenesis was labeled by the DNA marker bromodeoxyuridine. Results EA stimulation significantly ameliorated the learning and memory deficits of AD mice by shortening escape latency and increasing the time spent in the target zone during the probe test. Additionally, decreased Aβ deposits and increased BDNF expression and neurogenesis in the hippocampus and cortex of EA-treated AD mice were detected. The same change was detected in wild-type mice after EA treatment compared with wild-type mice without EA treatment. Conclusions Repeated EA stimulation may improve cognitive function, attenuate Aβ deposits, up-regulate the expression of BDNF and promote neurogenesis in the APP/PS1 double transgenic mice. This suggests that EA may be a promising treatment for AD. PMID:24447795

  17. Muscle-specific transgenic expression of porcine myostatin propeptide enhances muscle growth in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kaiyun; Li, Zicong; Li, Yang; Zeng, Jinyong; He, Chang; Yang, Jinzeng; Liu, Dewu; Wu, Zhenfang

    2013-10-01

    Myostatin is a well-known negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. Inhibition of myostatin activity results in increased muscle mass. Myostatin propeptide, as a myostatin antagonist, could be applied to promote meat production in livestock such as pigs. In this study, we generated a transgenic mouse model expressing porcine myostatin propeptide under the control of muscle-specific regulatory elements. The mean body weight of transgenic mice from a line expressing the highest level of porcine myostatin propeptide was increased by 5.4 % (P = 0.023) and 3.2 % (P = 0.031) in males and females, respectively, at 8 weeks of age. Weight of carcass, fore limb and hind limb was respectively increased by 6.0 % (P = 0.038), 9.0 % (P = 0.014), 8.7 % (P = 0.036) in transgenic male mice, compared to wild-type male controls at the age of 9 weeks. Similarly, carcass, fore limb and hind limb of transgenic female mice was 11.4 % (P = 0.002), 14.5 % (P = 0.006) and 14.5 % (P = 0.03) respectively heavier than that of wild-type female mice. The mean cross-section area of muscle fiber was increased by 17 % (P = 0.002) in transgenic mice, in comparison with wild-type controls. These results demonstrated that porcine myostatin propeptide is effective in enhancement of muscle growth. The present study provided useful information for future study on generation of transgenic pigs overexpressing porcine myostatin propeptide for improvement of muscle mass.

  18. Expression of Cartilage Developmental Genes in Hoxc8- and Hoxd4-Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Claudia; Kappen, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Hox genes encode transcription factors, which regulate skeletal patterning and chondrocyte differentiation during the development of cartilage, the precursor to mature bone. Overexpression of the homeobox transcription factors Hoxc8 and Hoxd4 causes severe cartilage defects due to delay in cartilage maturation. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and fibroblastic growth factors (FGFs) are known to play important roles in skeletal development and endochondral bone formation and remodeling. In order to investigate whether these molecules are aberrantly expressed in Hoxc8- and/or Hoxd4-transgenic cartilage, we performed quantitative RT-PCR on chondrocytes from Hox-transgenic mice. Gene expression levels of Bmp4, Fgf8, Fgf10, Mmp9, Mmp13, Nos3, Timp3, Wnt3a and Wnt5a were altered in Hoxc8-transgenic chondrocytes, and Fgfr3, Ihh, Mmp8, and Wnt3a expression levels were altered in Hoxd4-transgenic chondrocytes, respectively. Notably, Wnt3a expression was elevated in Hoxc8- and reduced in Hoxd4-transgenic cartilage. These results suggest that both transcription factors affect cartilage maturation through different molecular mechanisms, and provide the basis for future studies into the role of these genes and possible interactions in pathogenesis of cartilage defects in Hoxc8- and Hoxd4-transgenic mice. PMID:20126390

  19. Comparative Analysis of Gastrointestinal Microbiota Between Normal and Caudal-Related Homeobox 2 (Cdx2) Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Hirotsugu; Asahara, Takashi; Chonan, Osamu; Yuki, Norikatsu; Mutoh, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Shunji; Sugano, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Caudal-related homeobox 2 (Cdx2) is expressed in the human intestinal metaplastic mucosa and induces intestinal metaplastic mucosa in the Cdx2 transgenic mouse stomach. Atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia commonly lead to gastric achlorhydria, which predisposes the stomach to bacterial overgrowth. In the present study, we determined the differences in gut microbiota between normal and Cdx2 transgenic mice, using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Methods Twelve normal (control) and 12 Cdx2 transgenic mice were sacrificed, and the gastric, jejunal, ileac, cecal and colonic mucosa, and feces were collected. To quantitate bacterial microbiota, we used real-time qRTPCR with 16S rRNA gene-targeted, species-specific primers. Results The total numbers of bacteria in the gastric, jejunal, ileac, cecal, and colonic mucosa of the Cdx2 transgenic mice were significantly higher than those of the normal mice. The Bacteroides fragilis group and also Prevotella were not detected in the stomach of the normal mice, although they were detected in the Cdx2 transgenic mice. Moreover, the Clostridium coccoides group, Clostridium leptum subgroup, Bacteroides fragilis group, and Prevotella were not detected in the jejunum or ileum of the normal mice, although they were detected in the Cdx2 transgenic mice. The fecal microbiota of the normal mice was similar to that of the Cdx2 transgenic mice. Conclusions Our results showed the differences in composition of gut microbiota between normal and Cdx2 transgenic mice, which may be caused by the development of gastric achlorhydria and intestinal metaplasia in Cdx2 transgenic mice. PMID:25691842

  20. The effects of enhanced zinc on spatial memory and plaque formation in transgenic mice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Linkous, D.H.; Adlard, P.A.; Wanschura, P.B.; Conko, K.M.; Flinn, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable evidence suggesting that metals play a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Reports suggest that elevated dietary metals may both precipitate and potentiate an Alzheimer's disease phenotype. Despite this, there remain few studies that have examined the behavioral consequences of elevated dietary metals in wild type and Alzheimer's disease animals. To further investigate this in the current study, two separate transgenic models of AD (Tg2576 and TgCRND8), together with wild type littermates were administered 10 ppm (0.153 mM) Zn. Tg2576 animals were maintained on a zinc-enriched diet both pre- and postnatally until 11 months of age, while TgCRND8 animals were treated for five months following weaning. Behavioral testing, consisting of "Atlantis" and "moving" platform versions of the Morris water maze, were conducted at the end of the study, and tissues were collected for immunohistochemical analysis of amyloid-β burden. Our data demonstrate that the provision of a zinc-enriched diet potentiated Alzheimer-like spatial memory impairments in the transgenic animals and was associated with reduced hippocampal amyloid-β plaque deposits. Zinc-related behavioral deficits were also demonstrated in wild type mice, which were sometimes as great as those present in the transgenic animals. However, zinc-related cognitive impairments in transgenic mice were greater than the summation of zinc effects in the wild type mice and the transgene effects.

  1. Transgene-Mediated Rescue of Spermatogenesis in Cldn11-Null Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xin; Peppi, Marcello; Vengalil, Matthew J.; Maheras, Kathleen J.; Southwood, Cherie M.; Bradley, Michael; Gow, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Claudins comprise a large family of tight junction (TJ) proteins that are often expressed broadly during development and in adult tissues and constitute the physical barriers that occlude the paracellular space in polarized epithelia. In mouse testis, the integrity of TJs is critical to normal spermatogenesis and is dependent on CLDN11 expression. In the current study, we have generated multiple transgenic mouse lines in which steady-state levels of transgene-derived Cldn11 mRNA are up to fourfold greater than endogenous gene expression. Spermatogenesis in all founder mice harboring two copies of the endogenous Cldn11 gene is normal. These animals breed well, indicating that transgene overexpression, at least at the level of mRNA, is well tolerated by Sertoli cells. In addition, we demonstrate that the promoter/enhancer of the transgene, comprising 5 kb of genomic sequence upstream of exon 1 of the mouse Cldn11 gene, is sufficient to rescue azoospermia in Cldn11-null mice. Finally, using transient transgenic mice, we narrow the location of Sertoli cell-specific cis regulatory elements to a 2-kb region upstream of the Cldn11 transcription start site. Together, these data provide essential information for further investigation of the biological regulation of CLDN11 TJs in the testis. PMID:22378758

  2. Tissue-specific expression of human CD4 in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, F P; Doros, L; Vitale, J; Blackwell, C; Gosselin, J; Snyder, B W; Wadsworth, S C

    1993-05-01

    The gene for the human CD4 glycoprotein, which serves as the receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1, along with approximately 23 kb of sequence upstream of the translational start site, was cloned. The ability of 5' flanking sequences to direct tissue-specific expression was tested in cell culture and in transgenic mice. A 5' flanking region of 6 kb was able to direct transcription of the CD4 gene in NIH 3T3 cells but did not result in detectable expression in the murine T-cell line EL4 or in four lines of transgenic mice. A larger 5' flanking region of approximately 23 kb directed high-level CD4 transcription in the murine T-cell line EL4 and in three independent lines of transgenic mice. Human CD4 expression in all tissues analyzed was tightly correlated with murine CD4 expression; the highest levels of human CD4 RNA expression were found in the thymus and spleen, with relatively low levels detected in other tissues. Expression of human CD4 protein in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was examined by flow cytometry in these transgenic animals and found to be restricted to the murine CD4+ subset of lymphocytes. Human CD4 protein, detected with an anti-human CD4 monoclonal antibody, was present on the surface of 45 to 50% of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells from all transgenic lines. PMID:8474453

  3. Transgenic mice expressing human glucocerebrosidase variants: utility for the study of Gaucher disease.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Angela; Hemmelgarn, Harmony; Melrose, Heather L; Hein, Leanne; Fuller, Maria; Clarke, Lorne A

    2013-08-01

    Gaucher disease is an autosomal recessively inherited storage disorder caused by deficiency of the lysosomal hydrolase, acid β-glucosidase. The disease manifestations seen in Gaucher patients are highly heterogeneous as is the responsiveness to therapy. The elucidation of the precise factors responsible for this heterogeneity has been challenging as the development of clinically relevant animal models of Gaucher disease has been problematic. Although numerous murine models for Gaucher disease have been described each has limitations in their specific utility. We describe here, transgenic murine models of Gaucher disease that will be particularly useful for the study of pharmacological chaperones. We have produced stable transgenic mouse strains that individually express wild type, N370S and L444P containing human acid β-glucosidase and show that each of these transgenic lines rescues the lethal phenotype characteristic of acid β-glucosidase null mice. Both the N370S and L444P transgenic models show early and progressive elevations of tissue sphingolipids with L444P mice developing progressive splenic Gaucher cell infiltration. We demonstrate the potential utility of these new transgenic models for the study of Gaucher disease pathogenesis. In addition, since these mice produce only human enzyme, they are particularly relevant for the study of pharmacological chaperones that are specifically targeted to human acid β-glucosidase and the common mutations underlying Gaucher disease. PMID:23642305

  4. Expression and amplification in transgenic mice of a polyoma virus mutant regulatory region.

    PubMed Central

    Krippl, B; Griep, A E; Mahon, K A; Böhnlein, E; Gruss, P; Westphal, H

    1988-01-01

    Two hybrid gene constructs consisting of wild-type and mutant polyoma regulatory regions fused to a bacterial reporter gene were inserted in the mouse germline. Both transgenes were expressed in a large number of different organs. However, marker gene expression controlled by the polyoma wild-type regulatory region was not detectable in the early embryo and remained low throughout the life of the animal while expression controlled by the polyoma F9-1 mutation was detectable in blastocysts and was significantly higher at later stages of development. The F9-1 hybrid gene was also amplifiable when large T-antigen was supplied in trans to mice or to kidney cells derived from these transgenic mice. Amplification resulted in the appearance of several hundred copies of episomal transgenes and a marked increase of marker gene RNA and protein. Our results suggest that the F9-1 mutation does not alter the target spectrum of gene expression in vivo but does create a more efficient enhancer element in the polyoma early control region. Transgene amplification based upon use of the polyoma regulatory elements may be a means of increasing expression of genes in transgenic mice. Images PMID:2845362

  5. A Cyclosporine-Sensitive Psoriasis-Like Disease Produced in Tie2 Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Voskas, Daniel; Jones, Nina; Van Slyke, Paul; Sturk, Celina; Chang, Wing; Haninec, Alex; Babichev, Yael Olya; Tran, Jennifer; Master, Zubin; Chen, Stephen; Ward, Nicole; Cruz, Maribelle; Jones, Jamie; Kerbel, Robert S.; Jothy, Serge; Dagnino, Lina; Arbiser, Jack; Klement, Giannoula; Dumont, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common, persistent skin disorder characterized by recurrent erythematous lesions thought to arise as a result of inflammatory cell infiltration and activation of keratinocyte proliferation. Unscheduled angiogenic growth has also been proposed to mediate the pathogenesis of psoriasis although the cellular and molecular basis for this response remains unclear. Recently, a role for the angiopoietin signaling system in psoriasis has been suggested by studies that demonstrate an up-regulation of the tyrosine kinase receptor Tie2 (also known as Tek) as well as angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 in human psoriatic lesions. To examine temporal expression of Tie2, we have developed a binary transgenic approach whereby expression of Tie2 can be conditionally regulated by the presence of tetracycline analogs in double-transgenic mice. A psoriasis-like phenotype developed in double-transgenic animals within 5 days of birth and persisted throughout adulthood. The skin of affected mice exhibited many cardinal features of human psoriasis including epidermal hyperplasia, inflammatory cell accumulation, and altered dermal angiogenesis. These skin abnormalities resolved completely with tetracycline-mediated suppression of transgene expression, thereby illustrating a complete dependence on Tie2 signaling for disease maintenance and progression. Furthermore, the skin lesions in double-transgenic mice markedly improved after administration of the immunosuppressive anti-psoriatic agent cyclosporine, thus demonstrating the clinical significance of this new model. PMID:15743796

  6. Anaemia and resistance to malaria in transgenic mice expressing human tumour necrosis factor.

    PubMed Central

    Taverne, J; Sheikh, N; de Souza, J B; Playfair, J H; Probert, L; Kollias, G

    1994-01-01

    Transgenic mice carrying a modified human tumour necrosis factor (huTNF)/beta-globin gene construct linked to the T-cell-specific locus control region of the human CD2 gene express huTNF in their T cells which is released into the circulation and causes the development of a wasting syndrome. We now report that the mice develop anaemia, probably through enhanced erythrophagocytosis rather than inhibition of reticulocyte production. Thus autologous erythrocytes, as well as sheep erythrocytes, were cleared more rapidly from the circulation of transgenic mice than from littermate controls. By contrast, peritoneal macrophages from transgenic mice were less phagocytic in vitro than cells from controls. They also secreted less murine (mu)TNF when stimulated by either bacterial lipopolysaccharide or toxic malarial antigens. The yields of muTNF approached normal levels, however, when these refractory cells from the transgenic mice were stimulated in the presence of a high concentration of indomethacin, suggesting that the production of muTNF was inhibited by enhanced synthesis of prostaglandins. The parasitaemia of transgenic mice infected with Plasmodium yoelii was about 10-fold less at its peak than in controls, although it followed the same time-course, and the multiplication of P. chabaudi was inhibited to an even greater degree. This control of parasitaemia may also be explained by enhancement of macrophage activity, mediated by huTNF acting on the murine p55 receptor, presumably by increasing the removal of parasites by phagocytosis or their killing by toxic products released by the activated macrophages. These observations suggest that a factor in the anaemia of human malaria may be macrophage activation caused by the secretion of TNF that occurs in this disease. PMID:7959874

  7. Search Strategies Used by "APP" Transgenic Mice during Navigation in the Morris Water Maze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janus, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    TgCRND8 mice represent a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, with onset of cognitive impairment and increasing amyloid-[beta] plaques in their brains at 12 weeks of age. In this study, the spatial memory in 25- to 30-week-old TgCRND8 mice was analyzed in two reference and one working memory Morris water maze (MWM) tests. In reference…

  8. Expression of human protamine P1 in sperm of transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrobek, A.J.; Keith, C.; Stilwell, J.; Lowe, X.; Anderson, G.

    1994-12-31

    Transgenic mice were produced by pronuclear injection with DNA constructs containing human protamine P1 cDNA recombined with a murine protamine P1 promoter, and were identified by PCR. Expression of human P1 was investigated using huplm, a monoclonal antibody specific for human P1, applied to murine testicular cells, smears of epididymal sperm, and smears of detergent-isolated sperm nuclei. Various antibodies and nontransgenic littermates were used as controls. Two male founders (T3 and T7) sired more than five generations of transgenic offspring each with continued expression of human P1 in their sperm. Transgenic animals appear of normal fertility with sperm of typical nuclear morphology. The human P1 transgene was expressed postmeioticly in both lines, as expected. Nearly 100% of sperm of T3 and T7 hemizygotes labeled with huplm, consistent with complete diffusion of human P1 protein through the intercellular bridge of spermatogenic cells. Human P1 labeling of sperm nuclei was not visibly affected by sonication or by treatment with the detergent MATAB or the reducing agent DTT. A third founder female (T5) showed a transmission pattern consistent with insertion of the transgene into an X chromosome; her transgenic offspring expressed human P1 in only a small fraction of sperm. Human P1 transgenes may serve as efficient targets for germinal mutations and transgenicmice may provide promising models for investigating the DNA complexes.

  9. Rescue of NGF-deficient mice I: transgenic expression of NGF in skin rescues mice lacking endogenous NGF.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Susan M W; Davis, Brian M; Nishimura, Merry; Albers, Kathryn M; Jones, Marc E; Phillips, Heidi S

    2004-03-30

    Mice lacking a functional NGF gene (ngf-/- mice) have less than one third of the normal complement of sensory neurons, few sympathetic postganglionic neurons and die shortly after birth. We report here that transgenic expression of NGF under control of the K14 keratin promoter can rescue some elements of the peripheral nervous system and restore normal growth and viability to ngf-/- mice. While hybrid transgenic-ngf-/- mice (ngfTKOs) displayed marginal rescue of trigeminal ganglion neurons, the percentage of CGRP-positive neurons was restored to normal. Restoration of CGRP-positive terminals in skin and spinal cord was also found and accompanied by recovery of behavioral responses to noxious stimuli. ngfTKO mice displayed a normal number of superior cervical ganglion neurons and recovery of sympathetic innervation of skin. These results demonstrate that substitution of a functional NGF locus by a transgene directing expression largely to skin can result in normal growth and viability. Thus, the most vital functions of NGF are not dependent on faithful recapitulation of the normal spatiotemporal pattern of gene expression. PMID:15010204

  10. Traumatic Brain Injury Precipitates Cognitive Impairment and Extracellular Aβ Aggregation in Alzheimer's Disease Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Toru; Arendash, Gary W.; Borlongan, Cesar V.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become a signature wound of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Many American soldiers, even those undiagnosed but likely suffering from mild TBI, display Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like cognitive impairments, suggesting a pathological overlap between TBI and AD. This study examined the cognitive and neurohistological effects of TBI in presymptomatic APP/PS1 AD-transgenic mice. AD mice and non-transgenic (NT) mice received an experimental TBI on the right parietal cortex using the controlled cortical impact model. Animals were trained in a water maze task for spatial memory before TBI, and then reevaluated in the same task at two and six weeks post-TBI. The results showed that AD mice with TBI made significantly more errors in the task than AD mice without TBI and NT mice regardless of TBI. A separate group of AD mice and NT mice were evaluated neurohistologically at six weeks after TBI. The number of extracellular beta-amyloid (Aβ)-deposits significantly increased by at least one fold in the cortex of AD mice that received TBI compared to the NT mice that received TBI or the AD and NT mice that underwent sham surgery. A significant decrease in MAP2 positive cells, indicating neuronal loss, was observed in the cortex of both the AD and NT mice that received TBI compared to the AD and NT mice subjected to sham surgery. Similar changes in extracellular Aβ deposits and MAP2 positive cells were also seen in the hippocampus. These results demonstrate for the first time that TBI precipitates cognitive impairment in presymptomatic AD mice, while also confirming extracellular Aβ deposits following TBI. The recognition of this pathological link between TBI and AD should aid in developing novel treatments directed at abrogating cellular injury and extracellular Aβ deposition in the brain. PMID:24223856

  11. Traumatic brain injury precipitates cognitive impairment and extracellular Aβ aggregation in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Tajiri, Naoki; Kellogg, S Leilani; Shimizu, Toru; Arendash, Gary W; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become a signature wound of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Many American soldiers, even those undiagnosed but likely suffering from mild TBI, display Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like cognitive impairments, suggesting a pathological overlap between TBI and AD. This study examined the cognitive and neurohistological effects of TBI in presymptomatic APP/PS1 AD-transgenic mice. AD mice and non-transgenic (NT) mice received an experimental TBI on the right parietal cortex using the controlled cortical impact model. Animals were trained in a water maze task for spatial memory before TBI, and then reevaluated in the same task at two and six weeks post-TBI. The results showed that AD mice with TBI made significantly more errors in the task than AD mice without TBI and NT mice regardless of TBI. A separate group of AD mice and NT mice were evaluated neurohistologically at six weeks after TBI. The number of extracellular beta-amyloid (Aβ)-deposits significantly increased by at least one fold in the cortex of AD mice that received TBI compared to the NT mice that received TBI or the AD and NT mice that underwent sham surgery. A significant decrease in MAP2 positive cells, indicating neuronal loss, was observed in the cortex of both the AD and NT mice that received TBI compared to the AD and NT mice subjected to sham surgery. Similar changes in extracellular Aβ deposits and MAP2 positive cells were also seen in the hippocampus. These results demonstrate for the first time that TBI precipitates cognitive impairment in presymptomatic AD mice, while also confirming extracellular Aβ deposits following TBI. The recognition of this pathological link between TBI and AD should aid in developing novel treatments directed at abrogating cellular injury and extracellular Aβ deposition in the brain. PMID:24223856

  12. Glucocorticoid receptor impairment enhances impulsive responding in transgenic mice performing on a simultaneous visual discrimination task.

    PubMed

    Steckler, T; Sauvage, M; Holsboer, F

    2000-07-01

    Transgenic mice with impaired glucocorticoid receptor (GR) function were tested for their ability to learn and perform a series of simultaneous visual discriminations which allowed a dissociation between accuracy of discrimination from those of motivation and behavioural disinhibition. Animals were first trained on an operant five-choice simultaneous discrimination autoshaping procedure, followed by a continuous reinforcement schedule on that task. Subsequently, the number of choices was limited to two and data were analysed according to the mathematical methods of signal detection theory (SDT). The effects of GR-antisense expression on accuracy when different rates of responding were required were studied under different fixed ratio response requirements (FR1-FR10). Autoshaping was retarded in transgenic animals and accuracy was impaired in both the five-choice and the two-choice discrimination tasks, although transgenic mice showed clear evidence for learning. Under conditions of low response requirements, transgenic mice showed increased response and cognitive biases, but reduced perceptual bias, and a behavioural disinhibition, characterized by a reduction in errors of omission, decreased response latencies and increased number of responses during the inter-trial interval. Increasing the response requirement improved performance in transgenic animals as reflected by enhanced accuracy. Moreover, transgenics were less susceptible to the deleterious effects of higher response requirements, as indicated by relatively unaffected bias measures in this group, while bias increased in controls. These results indicate that altered performance in GR-antisense transgenic animals cannot simply be interpreted as a mnemonic deficit, but that altered motivation and enhanced impulsive responding may account for some of these impairments.

  13. The PHEX transgene corrects mineralization defects in 9-month-old hypophosphatemic mice.

    PubMed

    Boskey, Adele; Frank, Aaron; Fujimoto, Yukiji; Spevak, Lyudmila; Verdelis, Kostas; Ellis, Bruce; Troiano, Nancy; Philbrick, William; Carpenter, Thomas

    2009-02-01

    Hypophosphatemia is an X-linked dominant disorder resulting from a mutation in the PHEX gene. While osteoblast-specific expression of the PHEX transgene has been reported to decrease the phosphate wasting associated with the disease in male hypophosphatemic (HYP) mice, there are reports that the mineralization defect is only partially corrected in young animals. To test the hypothesis that osteoblast-specific expression of the PHEX gene for a longer time would correct the mineralization defect, this study examined the bones of 9-month-old male and female HYP mice and their wild-type controls with or without expression of the transgene under a collagen type I promoter. Serum phosphate levels, alkaline phosphatase activity, and FGF23 levels were also measured. Mineral analyses based on wide-angle X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and FT-IR imaging confirmed the decreased mineral content and increased mineral crystal size in male HYP humerii compared to wild-type males and females with or without the transgene and in female HYP mice with or without the transgene. There was a significant increase in mineral content and a decrease in crystallinity in the HYP males' bones with the transgene, compared to those without. Of interest, expression of the transgene in wild-type animals significantly increased the mineral content in both males and females without having a detectable effect on crystallinity or carbonate content. In contrast to the bones, based on micro-computed tomography and FT-IR imaging, at 9 months there were no significant differences between the HYP and the WT teeth, precluding analysis of the effect of the transgene.

  14. Susceptibility to hepatotoxicity in transgenic mice that express a dominant-negative human keratin 18 mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Ku, N O; Michie, S A; Soetikno, R M; Resurreccion, E Z; Broome, R L; Oshima, R G; Omary, M B

    1996-01-01

    Keratins 8 and 18 (K8/18) are intermediate filament phosphoglycoproteins that are expressed preferentially in simple-type epithelia. We recently described transgenic mice that express point-mutant human K18 (Ku, N.-O., S. Michie, R.G. Oshima, and M.B. Omary. 1995. J. Cell Biol. 131:1303-1314) and develop chronic hepatitis and hepatocyte fragility in association with hepatocyte keratin filament disruption. Here we show that mutant K18 expressing transgenic mice are highly susceptible to hepatotoxicity after acute administration of acetaminophen (400 mg/Kg) or chronic ingestion of griseofulvin (1.25% wt/wt of diet). The predisposition to hepatotoxicity results directly from the keratin mutation since nontransgenic or transgenic mice that express normal human K18 are more resistant. Hepatotoxicity was manifested by a significant difference in lethality, liver histopathology, and biochemical serum testing. Keratin glycosylation decreased in all griseofulvin-fed mice, whereas keratin phosphorylation increased dramatically preferentially in mice expressing normal K18. The phosphorylation increase in normal K18 after griseofulvin feeding appears to involve sites that are different to those that increase after partial hepatectomy. Our results indicate that hepatocyte intermediate filament disruption renders mice highly susceptible to hepatotoxicity, and raises the possibility that K18 mutations may predispose to drug hepatotoxicity. The dramatic phosphorylation increase in nonmutant keratins could provide survival advantage to hepatocytes. PMID:8770877

  15. {alpha}-Lipoic acid prevents lipotoxic cardiomyopathy in acyl CoA-synthase transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Young; Naseem, R. Haris; Park, Byung-Hyun; Garry, Daniel J.; Richardson, James A.; Schaffer, Jean E.; Unger, Roger H. . E-mail: roger.unger@utsouthwestern.edu

    2006-05-26

    {alpha}-Lipoic acid ({alpha}-LA) mimics the hypothalamic actions of leptin on food intake, energy expenditure, and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). To determine if, like leptin, {alpha}-LA protects against cardiac lipotoxicity, {alpha}-LA was fed to transgenic mice with cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of the acyl CoA synthase (ACS) gene. Untreated ACS-transgenic mice died prematurely with increased triacylglycerol content and dilated cardiomyopathy, impaired systolic function and myofiber disorganization, apoptosis, and interstitial fibrosis on microscopy. In {alpha}-LA-treated ACS-transgenic mice heart size, echocardiogram and TG content were normal. Plasma TG fell 50%, hepatic-activated phospho-AMPK rose 6-fold, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c declined 50%, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} cofactor-1{alpha} mRNA rose 4-fold. Since food restriction did not prevent lipotoxicity, we conclude that {alpha}-LA treatment, like hyperleptinemia, protects the heart of ACS-transgenic mice from lipotoxicity.

  16. Dynamics of behavioral disorders in transgenic mice with modeled Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Semina, I I; Baichurina, A Z; Makarova, E A; Leushina, A V; Kazakevich, Zh V; Gabdrakhmanova, M R; Mukhamed'yarov, M A; Zefirov, A L

    2015-03-01

    Age-related development of behavioral disorders in transgenic mice with modeled Alzheimer's disease carrying V6S3-Tg(APP695)85Dbo Tg(PSENI)85Dbo) genotype was assessed at the age of 7.5, 10 and 20 months in the following tests: open-field, plus maze, T-maze, conditioned passive avoidance response, rotarod, conflict situation with water deprivation, behavioral despair, and arecoline tremor. The main behavioral disorder in transgenic mice at all observation terms was memory impairment in conditioning with positive (but not negative) reinforcement. At the age of 7.5 and 10 months, transgenic mice also showed signs of nonspecific excitement and anxiety, depression-like state, and symptoms of cholinergic deficit. Our results suggest that appropriate age for behavioral tests in studies of effects of potential anti-Alzheimer drugs in transgenic V6S3-Tg(APP695)85Dbo Tg(PSENI)85Dbo) mice is 7.5-10 months.

  17. High levels of ceruloplasmin in the serum of transgenic mice developing hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pousset, D; Piller, V; Bureaud, N; Piller, F

    2001-03-01

    Transgenic mice expressing the Simian virus 40 large T antigen under the control of the liver-specific human antithrombin-III promoter all develop well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma. During tumour development serum ceruloplasmin (Cp) increases gradually until it reaches 30 times control levels in all transgenic mice at 6 months of age. The accumulation of Cp in the serum is due to the increased transcription of the Cp gene as well as to the increase in Cp mRNA stability in the livers of the transgenic mice. One-half of the overproduced Cp is charged with copper and Cp-associated serum oxidase activity increases in parallel with the holo-Cp concentration. Through its ferroxidase activity Cp is involved prominently in iron metabolism. Analysis of copper and iron in serum and liver revealed increased copper levels in the serum of tumour-bearing animals and which increased in parallel with Cp concentration; the amounts of copper in the liver were unchanged. In contrast, serum iron remained constant during tumour development whereas the iron concentration in the livers of the transgenic mice decreased.

  18. Recombinant porcine lactoferrin expressed in the milk of transgenic mice enhances offspring growth performance.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shinn-Chih; Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Yen, Chih-Ching; Kuo, Meng-Fu; Yang, Tien-Shuh; Wang, Shih-Rong; Weng, Chung-Nan; Chen, Chuan-Mu; Cheng, Winston T K

    2007-06-13

    The European Commission has proposed a permanent ban on the use of antibiotics as an ingredient in animal feed to promote growth. Lactoferrin is a globular multifunctional protein that has been shown to play a role in iron absorption and to have antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. Therefore, lactoferrin may serve as a nontherapeutic alternative to antibiotics in livestock husbandry. As a pilot study toward this goal, transgenic mice have been generated harboring a porcine lactoferrin (pLF) gene driven by the mammary gland-specific promoter of the bovine alpha-lactalbumin (alphaLA) gene. The alphaLA-pLF hybrid gene was confirmed to have been successfully integrated and transmitted stably through the germ-line in 9 (5 females and 4 males) of 14 transgenic founders. In the female progenies of six lines analyzed, the transgene copy numbers ranged from 1 to 20 with 1-4 integration sites. Significant levels of pLF protein in milk ranging from 40 to 106 microg/mL with physical characteristics similar to those of native pLF in sow's milk were achieved in three of the transgenic lines obtained. Tissue- and stage-specific pLF expressions were restricted to the mammary gland of the transgenic female mice during lactation. It was further demonstrated that the growth performance of animal pups is enhanced by directly feeding the genetically engineered milk containing enriched pLF protein in transgenic mice. Furthermore, this enhanced growth performance in suckling mice was proportional to the concentration of pLF present in milk. PMID:17489602

  19. APP/PS1 transgenic mice treated with aluminum: an update of Alzheimer's disease model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q L; Jia, L; Jiao, X; Guo, W L; Ji, J W; Yang, H L; Niu, Q

    2012-01-01

    There is still no animal model available that can mimic all the cognitive, behavioral, biochemical, and histopathological abnormalities observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We undertook to consider the interaction between genetic factors, including amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin-1 (PS1), and environmental factors, such as Aluminum (Al) in determining susceptibility outcomes when studying the pathogenesis of AD. In this article, we provide an AD model in APP/PS1 transgenic mice triggered by Al. The animal model was established via intracerebral ventricular microinjection of aluminum chloride once a day for 5 days in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Twenty wild type (WT) mice and 20 APP/PS1 transgenic (TG) mice were separately divided into 2 groups (control and Al group), and a stainless steel injector with stopper was used for microinjection into the left-lateral cerebral ventricle of each mouse. The Morris water maze task was used to evaluate behavioral function of learning and memory ability on the 20th day after the last injection. This AD model's brain was analyzed by: (1) amyloid beta immunohistochemical staining; (2) Tunnel staining; (3) apoptotic rates; (4) caspase-3 gene expression. Here, decrease of cognitive ability and neural cells loss were shown in APP/PS1 transgenic mice exposed to Al, which were more extensive than those in APP/PS1 TG alone and WT mice exposed to Al alone. These findings indicate that there is a close relationship between over-expression of APP and PS1 genes and Al overload. It is also suggested that APP/PS1 TG mice exposed to Al have potential value for improving AD models.

  20. Construct synthetic gene encoding artificial spider dragline silk protein and its expression in milk of transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong-Tao; Fan, Bao-Liang; Yu, Shu-Yang; Huang, Yin-Hua; Zhao, Zhi-Hui; Lian, Zheng-Xing; Dai, Yun-Ping; Wang, Li-Li; Liu, Zhao-Liang; Fei, Jing; Li, Ning

    2007-01-01

    Based on the known partial cDNA sequence of dragline silk protein an artificial gene monomer, a 360 bp sequence, was designed and polymerized to encode an analog of dragline silk protein. Six tandem copies of monomer were cloned into pBC1 vector and microinjected into the pronuclei of fertilized Kunming White eggs. Transgenic mice were screened by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Southern blot which revealed that 10 mice (5 male, 5 female) among 58 mice were transgenic positive. Milk of five F0 mice and eight F1 mice was analyzed by Western blot, and two F0 mice and seven F1 mice expressed recombinant dragline silk protein. In transgenic mice milk a maximum of concentration of recombinant dragline silk protein was 11.7 mg/L by radioimmunoassay. PMID:17364439

  1. Elevated PC responsive B cells and anti-PC antibody production in transgenic mice harboring anti-PC immunoglobulin genes.

    PubMed

    Pinkert, C A; Manz, J; Linton, P J; Klinman, N R; Storb, U

    1989-12-01

    The rearrangement of heavy and light chain immunoglobulin genes is necessary for the production of functional antibody molecules. The myeloma MOPC 167 produces specific antibodies to the antigen phosphorylcholine (PC), which is present on bacterial surfaces, fungi and other environmental contaminants. Rearranged heavy and light chain immunoglobulin genes cloned from MOPC 167 were microinjected into mouse eggs. Within the resulting transgenic mice, expression of the transgenes were limited to lymphoid tissues. Transgenic mice produced elevated levels of anti-PC antibodies constitutively, at 16 days of age, when normal non-transgenic mice were not fully immunocompetent. A triggering antigenic stimulus was not necessary to evoke anti-PC immunoglobulin production. Additionally, the frequency of PC-responsive B cells in these transgenic mice was further increased upon specific immunization.

  2. Comparison of acetaminophen toxicity in primary hepatocytes isolated from transgenic mice with different appolipoprotein E alleles.

    PubMed

    Mezera, V; Kucera, O; Moravcova, A; Peterova, E; Rousar, T; Rychtrmoc, D; Sobotka, O; Cervinkova, Z

    2015-12-01

    The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor, important for combating electrophilic and oxidative stress in the liver and other organs. This encompasses detoxification of hepatotoxic drugs, including acetaminophen (APAP). Recently, an association between apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype and Nrf2 expression was described. We compared the toxicity of APAP on primary culture hepatocytes isolated from transgenic mice carrying two different human ApoE alleles and wild-type controls. The cells were exposed to APAP in concentrations from 0.5 to 4 mM for up to 24 hours. APAP led to a dose-dependent hepatotoxicity from 1 mM after 16 h exposure in all mice tested. The toxicity was higher in hepatocytes isolated from both transgenic strains than in wild-type controls and most pronounced in ApoE3 mice. Concurrently, there was a decline in mitochondrial membrane potential, especially in ApoE3 hepatocytes. The formation of reactive oxygen species was increased after 24 hours with 2.5 mM APAP in hepatocytes of all strains tested, with the highest increase being in the ApoE3 genotype. The activity of caspases 3 and 7 did not differ among groups and was minimal after 24 hour incubation with 4 mM APAP. We observed higher lipid accumulation in hepatocytes isolated from both transgenic strains than in wild-type controls. The expression of Nrf2-dependent genes was higher in ApoE3 than in ApoE4 hepatocytes and some of these genes were induced by APAP treatment. In conclusion, transgenic mice with ApoE4 and ApoE3 alleles displayed higher susceptibility to acute APAP toxicity in vitro than wild-type mice. Of the two transgenic genotypes tested, ApoE3 allele carriers were more prone to injury. PMID:26769836

  3. Comparison of acetaminophen toxicity in primary hepatocytes isolated from transgenic mice with different appolipoprotein E alleles.

    PubMed

    Mezera, V; Kucera, O; Moravcova, A; Peterova, E; Rousar, T; Rychtrmoc, D; Sobotka, O; Cervinkova, Z

    2015-12-01

    The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor, important for combating electrophilic and oxidative stress in the liver and other organs. This encompasses detoxification of hepatotoxic drugs, including acetaminophen (APAP). Recently, an association between apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype and Nrf2 expression was described. We compared the toxicity of APAP on primary culture hepatocytes isolated from transgenic mice carrying two different human ApoE alleles and wild-type controls. The cells were exposed to APAP in concentrations from 0.5 to 4 mM for up to 24 hours. APAP led to a dose-dependent hepatotoxicity from 1 mM after 16 h exposure in all mice tested. The toxicity was higher in hepatocytes isolated from both transgenic strains than in wild-type controls and most pronounced in ApoE3 mice. Concurrently, there was a decline in mitochondrial membrane potential, especially in ApoE3 hepatocytes. The formation of reactive oxygen species was increased after 24 hours with 2.5 mM APAP in hepatocytes of all strains tested, with the highest increase being in the ApoE3 genotype. The activity of caspases 3 and 7 did not differ among groups and was minimal after 24 hour incubation with 4 mM APAP. We observed higher lipid accumulation in hepatocytes isolated from both transgenic strains than in wild-type controls. The expression of Nrf2-dependent genes was higher in ApoE3 than in ApoE4 hepatocytes and some of these genes were induced by APAP treatment. In conclusion, transgenic mice with ApoE4 and ApoE3 alleles displayed higher susceptibility to acute APAP toxicity in vitro than wild-type mice. Of the two transgenic genotypes tested, ApoE3 allele carriers were more prone to injury.

  4. Induction of proteinuria by cannabinoid receptors 1 signaling activation in CB1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yung-Chien; Lei, Chen-Chou; Shih, Ya-Hsueh; Ho, Cheng; Lin, Chun-Liang

    2015-02-01

    Proteinuria is not only a sign of kidney damage but is also involved in the progression of renal disease as an independent pathologic factor. Although patients with mutated type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1) polymorphism are associated with renal microvascular damage, the biologic role of CB1 signaling in proteinuria remains uncharacterized till now. Herein, we investigate whether CB1 participates in glomerular proteinuria in CB1 transgenic mice and treatment with CB1 agonist WIN55212-2 rat, neither of which are diabetic models. The CB1 transgenic mice and rats treated with CB1 agonist WIN55212-2 had higher kidney weight and urinary protein concentrations but not blood glucose levels compared with the wild-type group. A combination of laser-capture microsdissection, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting and immunohistochemical validation revealed that CB1 transgenic mice and rats treated with CB1 agonist WIN55212-2 had higher vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in renal glomeruli than that of the wild-type group. Geneticorpharmacological activation of CB1 by transgenic CB1 mice or treatment with WIN55212-2 reduced nephrin expression in the renal glomeruli compared with that of the wild-type group in the glomerular mesanglium. Taken together, CB1 transgenic mice and rats treated with CB1 agonist WIN55212-2 induced proteinuria with upregulation of CB1 resulting in impaired nephrin expression, by inducing excess VEGF reaction in the renal glomeruli. Genetic and pharmacological manipulation of CB1 signaling revealed VEGF-dependent nephrin depression of glomerulopathy. Controlling CB1 activity can be used an alternative strategy for sustaining renal function in the presence of CB1 activation.

  5. Generation of transgenic mice on an NOD/SCID background using the conventional microinjection technique.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Katsuyoshi; Kubota, Naoto; Saito, Toshiki I; Sasako, Takayoshi; Takizawa, Rumi; Sudo, Katsuko; Kurokawa, Mineo; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2011-04-01

    Humanized mice, which refers to immunodeficient mice repopulated with the human immune system, are powerful tools for study in the field of immunology. It has been difficult, however, to generate these transgenic (Tg) mice directly from such strains as the NOD/SCID mouse. In this study, we describe a method developed by us for the generation of Tg mice on an NOD/SCID background. First, we obtained fertilized eggs efficiently by means of in vitro fertilization (IVF); then, we attempted to generate CAG-EGFP Tg mice on an NOD/SCID background, finding that delayed timing of the microinjection after the IVF improved the time to development of the two-cell-stage embryos and the obtainment of newborns. We successfully generated Tg mice and confirmed the germ-line transmission in the offspring. In conclusion, we established a novel system for directly generating transgenic mice on an NOD/SCID background. This novel system is expected to allow improved efficiency of the generation of humanized mice.

  6. Heme oxygenase-1 is a modulator of inflammation and vaso-occlusion in transgenic sickle mice

    PubMed Central

    Belcher, John D.; Mahaseth, Hemachandra; Welch, Thomas E.; Otterbein, Leo E.; Hebbel, Robert P.; Vercellotti, Gregory M.

    2006-01-01

    Transgenic sickle mice expressing βS hemoglobin have activated vascular endothelium that exhibits enhanced expression of NF-κB and adhesion molecules that promote vascular stasis in sickle, but not in normal, mice in response to hypoxia/reoxygenation. Sickle mice hemolyze rbcs in vivo as demonstrated by increased reticulocyte counts, plasma hemoglobin and bilirubin, and reduced plasma haptoglobin. The heme content is elevated in sickle organs, which promotes vascular inflammation and heme oxygenase-1 expression. Treatment of sickle mice with hemin further increases heme oxygenase-1 expression and inhibits hypoxia/reoxygenation–induced stasis, leukocyte-endothelium interactions, and NF-κB, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 expression. Heme oxygenase inhibition by tin protoporphyrin exacerbates stasis in sickle mice. Furthermore, treatment of sickle mice with the heme oxygenase enzymatic product carbon monoxide or biliverdin inhibits stasis and NF-κB, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 expression. Local administration of heme oxygenase-1 adenovirus to subcutaneous skin increases heme oxygenase-1 and inhibits hypoxia/reoxygenation–induced stasis in the skin of sickle mice. Heme oxygenase-1 plays a vital role in the inhibition of vaso-occlusion in transgenic sickle mice. PMID:16485041

  7. Immune selection of tumor cells in TCR β-chain transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Silaeva, Yulia Yu; Grinenko, Tatyana S; Vagida, Murad S; Kalinina, Anastasia A; Khromykh, Ludmila M; Kazansky, Dmitry B

    2014-10-01

    The concept of immunological surveillance implies that immunogenic variants of tumor cells arising in the organism can be recognized by the immune system. Tumor progression is provided by somatic evolution of tumor cells under the pressure of the immune system. The loss of MHC Class I molecules on the surface of tumor cells is one of the most known outcomes of immune selection. This study developed a model of immune selection based on the immune response of TCR 1d1 single β-chain transgenic B10.D2(R101) (K(d)I(d)D(b)) mice to allogeneic EL4 (H-2(b)) thymoma cells. In wild-type B10.D2(R101) mice, immunization with EL4 cells induced a vigorous CTL response targeted to the H-2K(b) molecule and results in full rejection of the tumor cells. In contrast, transgenic mice developed a compromised proliferative response in mixed-lymphocyte response assays and were unable to reject transplanted allogeneic EL4 cells. During the immune response to EL4 cells, CD8(+) T-lymphocytes with endogenous β-chains accumulated predominantly in the spleen of transgenic mice and only a small part of the T-lymphocytes expressing transgenic β-chains became CD8(+)CD44(+)CD62L(-) effectors. Then, instead of a full elimination of tumor cells as in wild-type mice, a reproducible prolonged equilibrium phase and subsequent escape was observed in transgenic mice that resulted in death of 90% of the mice in 40-60 days after grafting. Prolonged exposure of tumor cells to the pressure of the immune system in transgenic mice in vivo resulted in a stable loss of H-2K(b) molecules on the EL4 cell surface. Genetic manipulation of the T-lymphocyte repertoire was sufficient to reproduce the classic pattern of interactions between tumor cells and the immune system, usually observed in reliable syngeneic models of anti-tumor immunity. This newly-developed model could be used in further studies of immunoregulatory circuits common for transplantational and anti-tumor immune responses.

  8. Fluorescent transgenic mice suitable for multi-color aggregation chimera studies.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Masato; Miura, Hiromi; Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah B; Kimura, Minoru; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Yoshimura, Shinichi; Sato, Masahiro

    2012-11-01

    We recently reported a novel method of mouse transgenesis called Pronuclear Injection-based Targeted Transgenisis (PITT) using which a series of fluorescent transgenic (Tg) mice lines were generated. These lines, unlike those generated using conventional random integration methods, express the transgenes faithfully and reproducibly generation after generation. Because of this superior nature, these lines are ideal for the generation of multi-colored aggregation chimeras that can be used to study cell-cell interactions and lineage analyses in living embryos/organs, where the transgenes can be detected and the clonal origin of a given cell population easily traced by its distinct fluorescence. In this study, to verify if Tg fluorescent mice generated through PITT were suitable for such applications, we sought to generate chimeric blastocysts and chimeric-Tg mice by aggregating two- or three-colored 8-cell embryos. Our analyses using these models led to the following observations. First, we noticed that cell mixing was infrequent during the stages of morula to early blastocyst. Second, chimeric fetuses obtained after aggregation of the two-colored 8-cell embryos exhibited uniform cell mixing. And third, in the organs of adult chimeric mice, the mode of cell distribution could be either clonal or polyclonal, as previously pointed out by others. Implications of our novel and improved Tg-chimeric mice approach for clonal cell lineage and developmental studies are discussed.

  9. Characterization of antiviral activity of entecavir in transgenic mice expressing hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Julander, Justin G; Colonno, Richard J; Sidwell, Robert W; Morrey, John D

    2003-08-01

    Entecavir (ETV), a cyclopentyl guanosine nucleoside analog, was evaluated in transgenic mice expressing hepatitis B virus (HBV). ETV administered orally once daily for 10 days at a dosage of 3.2mg/kg significantly (Pmice from 5.9 to <0.82 pg of HBV DNA per microg of cellular DNA, and from 8.3 to <1.1 pg/microg in male mice. To compare the efficacy of ETV with other compounds previously evaluated in this model and with ETV activities in other animal models, the efficacy of serial one-half log dilutions of ETV were evaluated in both male and female mice to determine the minimal effective dose. End-point titration experiments resulted in a statistically significant HBV DNA reduction in the liver at concentrations of 0.032 and 0.1mg/kg per day in female and male mice, respectively. Viral liver RNA, and serum e (HBeAg), serum surface (HBsAg), and liver core antigens (HBcAg) were not affected by ETV treatment presumably because the antiviral target was viral polymerase activity and the HBV produced from the transgene was not capable of secondary rounds of infection in the mouse. ETV was well tolerated and no morbidity or mortality was observed during the 10-day study. Similar to other animal models, ETV displayed potent anti-HBV activity in this transgenic mouse model.

  10. Enhanced penetration of exogenous EPCs into brains of APP/PS1 transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xiaoyang; Mei, Bin; Zhang, Le; Zhang, Cuntai; Zheng, Miao; Liang, Huifang; Wang, Wei; Zheng, Jie; Ding, Ling; Zheng, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the repair function of exogenous Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) for brain microvascular damage of the APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This study used a density-gradient centrifugation method to isolate mononuclear cells (MNCs) from mouse bone marrow, which were subsequently seeded and cultured. Cells were characterized by morphology and detection of the surface markers CD34 and CD133 at different time points by immunofluorescence (IF) and flow cytometry (FCM). Then, EPCs were transfected with GFP adenoviral vectors (GFP-EPCs). Wild-type (WT) and APP/PS1 transgenic mice both received GFP-EPCs injection through the tail vein, and using a PBS buffer injection as the control. Seven days later, the animals’ brain tissue was isolated. Expression of GFP was detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western-blot (WB), while the fluorescence of GFP within the brains of mice was observed under a fluorescence microscope. Higher mRNA and protein expression of GFP, accompanied with increased green fluorescence, were detected in the brain of GFP-EPCs-injected APP/PS1 mice, as compared with GFP-EPCs-injected WT mice. The results show that the APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model of AD exhibited enhanced penetration of exogenous EPCs into brains than the WT mice. PMID:27186272

  11. Fluorescent transgenic mice suitable for multi-color aggregation chimera studies.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Masato; Miura, Hiromi; Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah B; Kimura, Minoru; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Yoshimura, Shinichi; Sato, Masahiro

    2012-11-01

    We recently reported a novel method of mouse transgenesis called Pronuclear Injection-based Targeted Transgenisis (PITT) using which a series of fluorescent transgenic (Tg) mice lines were generated. These lines, unlike those generated using conventional random integration methods, express the transgenes faithfully and reproducibly generation after generation. Because of this superior nature, these lines are ideal for the generation of multi-colored aggregation chimeras that can be used to study cell-cell interactions and lineage analyses in living embryos/organs, where the transgenes can be detected and the clonal origin of a given cell population easily traced by its distinct fluorescence. In this study, to verify if Tg fluorescent mice generated through PITT were suitable for such applications, we sought to generate chimeric blastocysts and chimeric-Tg mice by aggregating two- or three-colored 8-cell embryos. Our analyses using these models led to the following observations. First, we noticed that cell mixing was infrequent during the stages of morula to early blastocyst. Second, chimeric fetuses obtained after aggregation of the two-colored 8-cell embryos exhibited uniform cell mixing. And third, in the organs of adult chimeric mice, the mode of cell distribution could be either clonal or polyclonal, as previously pointed out by others. Implications of our novel and improved Tg-chimeric mice approach for clonal cell lineage and developmental studies are discussed. PMID:22868913

  12. Autoimmune diabetes can be induced in transgenic major histocompatibility complex class II-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is an autoimmune disease marked by hyperglycemia and mononuclear cell infiltration of insulin- producing beta islet cells. Predisposition to IDDM in humans has been linked to the class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC), and islet cells often become aberrantly class II positive during the course of the disease. We have used two recently described transgenic lines to investigate the role of class II molecules and CD4+ T cells in the onset of autoimmune insulitis. Mice that are class II deficient secondary to a targeted disruption of the A beta b gene were bred to mice carrying a transgene for the lymphocytic choriomenigitis virus (LCMV) glycoprotein (GP) targeted to the endocrine pancreas. Our results indicate that class II-deficient animals with and without the GP transgene produce a normal cytotoxic T lymphocyte response to whole LCMV. After infection with LCMV, GP-transgenic class II-deficient animals develop hyperglycemia as rapidly as their class II-positive littermates. Histologic examination of tissue sections from GP- transgenic class II-deficient animals reveals lymphocytic infiltrates of the pancreatic islets that are distinguishable from those of their class II-positive littermates only by the absence of infiltrating CD4+ T cells. These results suggest that in this model of autoimmune diabetes, CD4+ T cells and MHC class II molecules are not required for the development of disease. PMID:8101862

  13. Hypotension and reduced nitric oxide-elicited vasorelaxation in transgenic mice overexpressing endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Y; Kawashima, S; Hirata, K i; Yamashita, T; Ishida, T; Inoue, N; Sakoda, T; Kurihara, H; Yazaki, Y; Yokoyama, M

    1998-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), constitutively produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), plays a major role in the regulation of blood pressure and vascular tone. We generated transgenic mice overexpressing bovine eNOS in the vascular wall using murine preproendothelin-1 promoter. In transgenic lineages with three to eight transgene copies, bovine eNOS-specific mRNA, protein expression in the particulate fractions, and calcium-dependent NOS activity were confirmed by RNase protection assay, immunoblotting, and L-arginine/citrulline conversion. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that eNOS protein was predominantly localized in the endothelial cells of aorta, heart, and lung. Blood pressure was significantly lower in eNOS-overexpressing mice than in control littermates. In the transgenic aorta, basal NO release (estimated by Nomega-nitro-L-arginine-induced facilitation of the contraction by prostaglandin F2alpha) and basal cGMP levels (measured by enzyme immunoassay) were significantly increased. In contrast, relaxations of transgenic aorta in response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were significantly attenuated, and the reduced vascular reactivity was associated with reduced response of cGMP elevation to these agents as compared with control aortas. Thus, our novel mouse model of chronic eNOS overexpression demonstrates that, in addition to the essential role of eNOS in blood pressure regulation, tonic NO release by eNOS in the endothelium induces the reduced vascular reactivity to NO-mediated vasodilators, providing several insights into the pathogenesis of nitrate tolerance. PMID:9854041

  14. RasGRP1 Transgenic Mice Develop Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinomas in Response to Skin Wounding

    PubMed Central

    Diez, Federico R.; Garrido, Ann A.; Sharma, Amrish; Luke, Courtney T.; Stone, James C.; Dower, Nancy A.; Cline, J. Mark; Lorenzo, Patricia S.

    2009-01-01

    Models of epidermal carcinogenesis have demonstrated that Ras is a critical molecule involved in tumor initiation and progression. Previously, we have shown that RasGRP1 increases the susceptibility of mice to skin tumorigenesis when overexpressed in the epidermis by a transgenic approach, related to its ability to activate Ras. Moreover, RasGRP1 transgenic mice develop spontaneous papillomas and cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas, some of which appear to originate in sites of injury, suggesting that RasGRP1 may be responding to signals generated during the wound-healing process. In this study, we examined the response of the RasGRP1 transgenic animals to full-thickness incision wounding of the skin, and demonstrated that they respond by developing tumors along the wounded site. The tumors did not present mutations in the H-ras gene, but Rasgrp1 transgene dosage correlated with tumor susceptibility and size. Analysis of serum cytokines showed increased levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in transgenic animals after wounding. Furthermore, in vitro experiments with primary keratinocytes showed that granulocyte colony-stimulating factor stimulated Ras activation, although RasGRP1 was dispensable for this effect. Since granulocyte colony-stimulating factor has been recently associated with proliferation of skin cancer cells, our results may help in the elucidation of pathways that activate Ras in the epidermis during tumorigenesis in the absence of oncogenic ras mutations. PMID:19497993

  15. Relationship between expression of epidermal growth factor and simian virus 40 T antigen in a line of transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Lafond, R E; Giammalvo, J T; Norkin, L C

    1995-09-01

    The pattern of expression of the simian virus 40 (SV40) T antigen gene and resultant dysplasia were re-examined in a line of transgenic mice in which the T antigen gene was under the control of the SV40 early promoter. We found that T antigen expression in the kidney, and resulting dysplastic lesions, occurred exclusively in the distal convoluted tubules and the ascending limbs of Henle. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) expression in the kidney of normal mice was similarly immunolocalized. The correlation between high EGF immunoreactivity in normal mouse tissues and T antigen expression in the transgenic counterpart was also seen in the choroid plexus epithelium and in the submandibular glands of male mice. T antigen was not found in the submandibular gland of transgenic females. Similarly, EGF was only rarely detected in the normal female submandibular gland. In contrast to the correlation between T antigen expression in the transgenic mice and EGF expression in the corresponding tissues of the normal mice, within the dysplastic lesions of the transgenic mice EGF expression was severely diminished. Adenocarcinomas of the male submandibular gland from another line of transgenic mice that expresses the Int-1 transgene, showed similarly reduced levels of immunostaining for EGF. Thus, reduced expression of EGF might be a general feature of dysplasia and tumorigenesis in those tissues that normally express EGF.

  16. Visualization of Signaling Molecules During Neutrophil Recruitment in Transgenic Mice Expressing FRET Biosensors.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Rei; Kamioka, Yuji; Sakai, Yoshiharu; Matsuda, Michiyuki

    2016-01-01

    A number of chemical mediators regulate neutrophil recruitment to inflammatory sites either positively or negatively. Although the actions of each chemical mediator on the intracellular signaling networks controlling cell migration have been studied with neutrophils cultured in vitro, how such chemical mediators act cooperatively or counteractively in vivo remains largely unknown. To understand the mechanisms regulating neutrophil recruitment to the inflamed intestine in vivo, we recently generated transgenic mice expressing biosensors based on FRET (Förster resonance energy transfer) and set up two-photon excitation microscopy to observe the gastrointestinal tract in living mice. By measuring FRET in neutrophils, we showed activity changes of protein kinases in the neutrophils recruited to inflamed intestines. In this chapter, we describe the protocol used to visualize the protein kinase activities in neutrophils of the inflamed intestine of transgenic mice expressing the FRET biosensors. PMID:27246030

  17. Visualization of Signaling Molecules During Neutrophil Recruitment in Transgenic Mice Expressing FRET Biosensors.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Rei; Kamioka, Yuji; Sakai, Yoshiharu; Matsuda, Michiyuki

    2016-01-01

    A number of chemical mediators regulate neutrophil recruitment to inflammatory sites either positively or negatively. Although the actions of each chemical mediator on the intracellular signaling networks controlling cell migration have been studied with neutrophils cultured in vitro, how such chemical mediators act cooperatively or counteractively in vivo remains largely unknown. To understand the mechanisms regulating neutrophil recruitment to the inflamed intestine in vivo, we recently generated transgenic mice expressing biosensors based on FRET (Förster resonance energy transfer) and set up two-photon excitation microscopy to observe the gastrointestinal tract in living mice. By measuring FRET in neutrophils, we showed activity changes of protein kinases in the neutrophils recruited to inflamed intestines. In this chapter, we describe the protocol used to visualize the protein kinase activities in neutrophils of the inflamed intestine of transgenic mice expressing the FRET biosensors.

  18. Skeletal Phenotype of Transgenic Mice Expressing the Beta1 Integrin Cytoplasmic Tail In Osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, R. K.; vanderMeulen, M. C. H.; Damsky, D.; Kim, J.-B.; Amblard, D.; Amblard, D.; Nishimura, Y.; Almeida, E.; Iwaniec, U. T.; Wronski, T. J.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    To define the physiologic role of beta1 integrin in bone formation and mechanical loading, transgenic mice were generated by expressing the cytoplasmic tall and transmembrane domain of Beta1 integrin under the control of the osteocalcin promoter. In cultured cells, this truncated fragment of Beta1 can act as a dominant negative. Previously, the matrix of calvariae was shown to be abnormal in transgenic (TG) compared to wildtype (WT) mice. In this study, we analyzed appendicular bone in TG and WT, male and female mice at 14, 35, 63, 90 and 365 days old (n=8-12/gp). To assess beta1 integrin function in mechanical loading, a pilot study using hindlimb unloading by tail suspension was performed. 35d old TG and WT females were hindlimb unloaded for 4 wks (n=3-5). Body mass, bone mineral content, histomorphometric (distal femur) and biomechanical parameters were analyzed. Statistical significance (P less than.05) was defined by ANOVA using the Tukey-Kramer post-hoc test. We confirmed transgene expression by immunoprecipitating then immunoblotting bone lysates using an antibody against the beta1 tail. Body masses of TG mice at 63, 90 and 365d old were greater (16-25%) than WT. Some TG female mice at 365d appeared obese; mean abdominal fat mass was 415% greater in TG than WT mice. Tibiae were longer (5-7%) in TG than WT mice at 63 and 90d. Tibial mineral mass of 35d males was 7% lower in TG than WT mice, but at 63d was 21% higher. The % osteoblast surface in 35d TG mice was 20% higher than WT, and at 63d was 17% lower, while % osteoclast surface did not differ. In 365d mice, cancellous bone volume (125%) and endocortical mineral apposition rate (40%) were greater in TG than WT males but not females. In WT mice, hindlimb unloading caused a reduction in mineral mass of tibiae (-20%) and lumbar vertebrae (-22%) relative to normally loaded controls. Surprisingly, hindlimb unloading also caused a relative reduction (-13%) in humerus mass. The effects of hindlimb unloading on

  19. Regulatory region in choline acetyltransferase gene directs developmental and tissue-specific expression in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Lönnerberg, P; Lendahl, U; Funakoshi, H; Arhlund-Richter, L; Persson, H; Ibáñez, C F

    1995-01-01

    Acetylcholine, one of the main neurotransmitters in the nervous system, is synthesized by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT; acetyl-CoA:choline O-acetyltransferase, EC 2.3.1.6). The molecular mechanisms controlling the establishment, maintenance, and plasticity of the cholinergic phenotype in vivo are largely unknown. A previous report showed that a 3800-bp, but not a 1450-bp, 5' flanking segment from the rat ChAT gene promoter directed cell type-specific expression of a reporter gene in cholinergic cells in vitro. Now we have characterized a distal regulatory region of the ChAT gene that confers cholinergic specificity on a heterologous downstream promoter in a cholinergic cell line and in transgenic mice. A 2342-bp segment from the 5' flanking region of the ChAT gene behaved as an enhancer in cholinergic cells but as a repressor in noncholinergic cells in an orientation-independent manner. Combined with a heterologous basal promoter, this fragment targeted transgene expression to several cholinergic regions of the central nervous system of transgenic mice, including basal forebrain, cortex, pons, and spinal cord. In eight independent transgenic lines, the pattern of transgene expression paralleled qualitatively and quantitatively that displayed by endogenous ChAT mRNA in various regions of the rat central nervous system. In the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord, 85-90% of the transgene expression was targeted to the ventral part of the cord, where cholinergic alpha-motor neurons are located. Transgene expression in the spinal cord was developmentally regulated and responded to nerve injury in a similar way as the endogenous ChAT gene, indicating that the 2342-bp regulatory sequence contains elements controlling the plasticity of the cholinergic phenotype in developing and injured neurons. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7732028

  20. Transcriptional insulation of the human keratin 18 gene in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Neznanov, N; Thorey, I S; Ceceña, G; Oshima, R G

    1993-01-01

    Expression of the 10-kb human keratin 18 (K18) gene in transgenic mice results in efficient and appropriate tissue-specific expression in a variety of internal epithelial organs, including liver, lung, intestine, kidney, and the ependymal epithelium of brain, but not in spleen, heart, or skeletal muscle. Expression at the RNA level is directly proportional to the number of integrated K18 transgenes. These results indicate that the K18 gene is able to insulate itself both from the commonly observed cis-acting effects of the sites of integration and from the potential complications of duplicated copies of the gene arranged in head-to-tail fashion. To begin to identify the K18 gene sequences responsible for this property of transcriptional insulation, additional transgenic mouse lines containing deletions of either the 5' or 3' distal end of the K18 gene have been characterized. Deletion of 1.5 kb of the distal 5' flanking sequence has no effect upon either the tissue specificity or the copy number-dependent behavior of the transgene. In contrast, deletion of the 3.5-kb 3' flanking sequence of the gene results in the loss of the copy number-dependent behavior of the gene in liver and intestine. However, expression in kidney, lung, and brain remains efficient and copy number dependent in these transgenic mice. Furthermore, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene expression is copy number dependent in transgenic mice when the gene is located between the distal 5'- and 3'-flanking sequences of the K18 gene. Each adult transgenic male expressed the thymidine kinase gene in testes and brain and proportionally to the number of integrated transgenes. We conclude that the characteristic of copy number-dependent expression of the K18 gene is tissue specific because the sequence requirements for transcriptional insulation in adult liver and intestine are different from those for lung and kidney. In addition, the behavior of the transgenic thymidine kinase gene in testes and

  1. Differential regulation of host genes including hepatic fatty acid synthase in HBV-transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongmin; Li, Hong; Yang, Yixuan; Li, Sanglin; Ren, Hong; Zhang, Dazhi; Hu, Huaidong

    2013-06-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most common of the hepatitis viruses that cause chronic liver infections in humans, and it is considered to be a major global health problem. To gain a better understanding of HBV pathogenesis, and identify novel putative targets for anti-HBV therapy, this study was designed to elucidate the differential expression of host proteins in liver tissue from HBV-transgenic mice. Liver samples from two groups, (1) HBV-transgenic (Tg) mice, (2) corresponding background normal mice, wild-type (WT) mice, were collected and subjected to iTRAQ and mass spectrometry analysis. In total, 1950 unique proteins were identified, and 68 proteins were found to be differentially expressed in HBV-Tg mice as compared with that in WT mice. Several differentially expressed proteins were further validated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. Furthermore, the association of HBV replication with fatty acid synthase (FASN), one of the highly expressed proteins in HBV-Tg mice, was verified. Silencing of FASN expression in HepG2.2.15 cells suppressed viral replication through the IFN signaling pathway, and some downstream antiviral effectors. The implicated role of FASN in HBV replication provides an opportunity to test existing compounds against FASN for adjuvant therapy and/or treatment of HBV replication. PMID:23675653

  2. Expression of a Chimeric Antigen Receptor in Multiple Leukocyte Lineages in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Carmen S. M.; Westwood, Jennifer A.; Schröder, Jan; Papenfuss, Anthony T.; von Scheidt, Bianca; Moeller, Maria; Devaud, Christel

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified CD8+ T lymphocytes have shown significant anti-tumor effects in the adoptive immunotherapy of cancer, with recent studies highlighting a potential role for a combination of other immune subsets to enhance these results. However, limitations in present genetic modification techniques impose difficulties in our ability to fully explore the potential of various T cell subsets and assess the potential of other leukocytes armed with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). To address this issue, we generated a transgenic mouse model using a pan-hematopoietic promoter (vav) to drive the expression of a CAR specific for a tumor antigen. Here we present a characterization of the immune cell compartment in two unique vav-CAR transgenic mice models, Founder 9 (F9) and Founder 38 (F38). We demonstrate the vav promoter is indeed capable of driving the expression of a CAR in cells from both myeloid and lymphoid lineage, however the highest level of expression was observed in T lymphocytes from F38 mice. Lymphoid organs in vav-CAR mice were smaller and had reduced cell numbers compared to the wild type (WT) controls. Furthermore, the immune composition of F9 mice differed greatly with a significant reduction in lymphocytes found in the thymus, lymph node and spleen of these mice. To gain insight into the altered immune phenotype of F9 mice, we determined the chromosomal integration site of the transgene in both mouse strains using whole genome sequencing (WGS). We demonstrated that compared to the 7 copies found in F38 mice, F9 mice harbored almost 270 copies. These novel vav-CAR models provide a ready source of CAR expressing myeloid and lymphoid cells and will aid in facilitating future experiments to delineate the role for other leukocytes for adoptive immunotherapy against cancer. PMID:26505904

  3. Epidermal Expression of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 is Not a Primary Inducer of Cutaneous Inflammation in Transgenic Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ifor R.; Kupper, Thomas S.

    1994-10-01

    Keratinocytes at sites of cutaneous inflammation have increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), a cytokine-inducible adhesion molecule which binds the leukocyte integrins LFA-1 and Mac-1. Transgenic mice were prepared in which the expression of mouse ICAM-1 was targeted to basal keratinocytes by using the human K14 keratin promoter. The level of constitutive expression attained in the transgenic mice exceeded the peak level of ICAM-1 expression induced on nontransgenic mouse keratinocytes in vitro by optimal combinations of interferon γ and tumor necrosis factor α or in vivo by proinflammatory stimuli such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. In vitro adhesion assays demonstrated that cultured transgenic keratinocytes were superior to normal keratinocytes as a substrate for the LFA-1-dependent binding of mouse T cells, confirming that the transgene-encoded ICAM-1 was expressed in a functional form. However, the high level of constitutive ICAM-1 expression achieved on keratinocytes in vivo in these transgenic mice did not result in additional recruitment of CD45^+ leukocytes into transgenic epidermis, nor did it elicit dermal inflammation. Keratinocyte ICAM-1 expression also did not potentiate contact-hypersensitivity reactions to epicutaneous application of haptens. The absence of a spontaneous phenotype in these transgenic mice was not the result of increased levels of soluble ICAM-1, since serum levels of soluble ICAM-1 were equal in transgenic mice and controls. We conclude that elevated ICAM-1 expression on keratinocytes cannot act independently to influence leukocyte trafficking and elicit cutaneous inflammation.

  4. Hyperplasia and tumours in lung, breast and other tissues in mice carrying a RAR beta 4-like transgene.

    PubMed

    Bérard, J; Gaboury, L; Landers, M; De Repentigny, Y; Houle, B; Kothary, R; Bradley, W E

    1994-12-01

    Transgenic mice were generated which express a truncated nuclear retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR beta), closely resembling the natural isoform RAR beta 4, under the control of the MMTV promoter. The transgene was expressed in salivary gland, testis, lung and mammary tissue in two different lines. At approximately 11-14 months virtually all the transgenic mice showed hyperplasia of the lung alveolar epithelium with an excess of type II pneumocytes. Hyperplasia of the mammary alveoli and terminal ducts was also seen in some females. Salivary glands and some sebaceous glands were hyperplastic in most male transgenic mice, but only rarely in females or in non-transgenics. Primary benign and malignant tumours were more numerous in transgenic mice than in controls, with a total of 23 in 43 mice versus two in 33 non-transgenic animals. Treatment with dexamethasone to increase transgene expression resulted in exaggerated versions of the above phenotypes. Overexpression of RAR beta 4 therefore appears to predispose various tissues to hyperplasia and neoplasia, and this by contrast to the RAR beta 2 isoform, which has tumour suppressor activity. A survey of ratios of RAR beta 4:RAR beta 2 expression in human lung tumour cell lines showed an increase compared with normal lung tissue, suggesting that RAR beta 4 may play a similar role in human tumorigenesis.

  5. Tetracycline-inducible system for regulation of skeletal muscle-specific gene expression in transgenic mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grill, Mischala A.; Bales, Mark A.; Fought, Amber N.; Rosburg, Kristopher C.; Munger, Stephanie J.; Antin, Parker B.

    2003-01-01

    Tightly regulated control of over-expression is often necessary to study one aspect or time point of gene function and, in transgenesis, may help to avoid lethal effects and complications caused by ubiquitous over-expression. We have utilized the benefits of an optimized tet-on system and a modified muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promoter to generate a skeletal muscle-specific, doxycycline (Dox) controlled over-expression system in transgenic mice. A DNA construct was generated in which the codon optimized reverse tetracycline transactivator (rtTA) was placed under control of a skeletal muscle-specific version of the mouse MCK promoter. Transgenic mice containing this construct expressed rtTA almost exclusively in skeletal muscles. These mice were crossed to a second transgenic line containing a bi-directional promoter centered on a tet responder element driving both a luciferase reporter gene and a tagged gene of interest; in this case the calpain inhibitor calpastatin. Compound hemizygous mice showed high level, Dox dependent muscle-specific luciferase activity often exceeding 10,000-fold over non-muscle tissues of the same mouse. Western and immunocytochemical analysis demonstrated similar Dox dependent muscle-specific induction of the tagged calpastatin protein. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness and flexibility of the tet-on system to provide a tightly regulated over-expression system in adult skeletal muscle. The MCKrtTA transgenic lines can be combined with other transgenic responder lines for skeletal muscle-specific over-expression of any target gene of interest.

  6. Extraembryonic expression of the human MHC class I gene HLA-G in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, C.M.; Ehlenfeldt, R.G.; Athanasiou, M.C.; Duvick, L.A.; Orr, H.T. ); Hubert, H.

    1993-09-01

    Trophoblast, the only fetal tissue in direct contact with maternal cells, fails to express the polymorphic HLA class I molecules HLA-A and -B, but does express the nonpolymorphic class I molecule HLA-G. It is thought that HLA-G may provide some of the functions of a class I molecule without stimulating maternal immune rejection of the fetal semiallograft. As a first step in identifying the cis-acting DNA regulatory elements involved in the control of class I expression by extraembryonic tissue, several types of transgenic mice were produced. Two HLA-G genomic fragments were used, 5.7 and 6.0 kb in length. These include the entire HLA-G coding region, 1 kb of 3' flanking sequence, and 1.2 or 1.4 kb of 5' flanking sequence, respectively. A hybrid transgene, HLA-A2/G, was produced by replacing the 5' flanking sequence, first exon, and early first intron of HLA-G with the corresponding elements of HLA-A. Comparison of transgene mRNA expression patterns seen in HLA-A2/G and HLA-G transgenic mice suggests that 5' flanking sequences are largely responsible for the differing patterns of expression typical of the classical class I and HLA-G genes. Studies comparing the extraembryonic HLA-G expression levels of founder embryos transgenic for either the 5.7 - or 6.0-kb HLA-G transgene showed that the 6.0-kb transgene directed HLA-G expression far more efficiently than did the 5.7-kb HLA-G transgene, producing extraembryoinc HLA-G mRNA levels similar to those seen in human extraembryoinic tissues. The results of these studies suggest that the 250-bp fragment present at the extreme 5' end of the 6.0-kb HLA-G transgene and absent from the 5.7-kb HLA-G transgene contains an important positive regulatory element. This 250-bp fragment lies further upstream than any of the previously documented class I regulatory regions and may function as a locus control region.

  7. Transgenic expression of proximal tubule peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha in mice confers protection during acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Shenyang; Nagothu, Kiran K; Desai, Varsha; Lee, Taewon; Branham, William; Moland, Carrie; Megyesi, Judit K; Crew, Mark D; Portilla, Didier

    2009-11-01

    Our previous studies suggest that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) plays a critical role in regulating fatty acid beta-oxidation in kidney tissue and this directly correlated with preservation of kidney morphology and function during acute kidney injury. To further study this, we generated transgenic mice expressing PPARalpha in the proximal tubule under the control of the promoter of KAP2 (kidney androgen-regulated protein 2). Segment-specific upregulation of PPARalpha expression by testosterone treatment of female transgenic mice improved kidney function during cisplatin or ischemia-reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury. Ischemia-reperfusion injury or treatment with cisplatin in wild-type mice caused inhibition of fatty-acid oxidation, reduction of mitochondrial genes of oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial DNA, fatty-acid metabolism, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Similar injury in testosterone-treated transgenic mice resulted in amelioration of these effects. Similarly, there were increases in the levels of 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal-derived lipid peroxidation products in wild-type mice, which were also reduced in the transgenic mice. Similarly, necrosis of the S3 segment was reduced in the two injury models in transgenic mice compared to wild type. Our results suggest proximal tubule PPARalpha activity serves as a metabolic sensor. Its increased expression without the use of an exogenous PPARalpha ligand in the transgenic mice is sufficient to protect kidney function and morphology, and to prevent abnormalities in lipid metabolism associated with acute kidney injury.

  8. Determination of the expression of fish antifreeze protein (AFP) in 7th generation transgenic mice tissues and serum.

    PubMed

    Bagis, Haydar; Tas, Arzu; Kankavi, Orhan

    2008-06-01

    In this study, the presence of antifreeze protein (AFP) gene expression through successive generations in transgenic mice carrying the chimeric gene construct of the coding sequence for the AFP protein from ocean pout was investigated. AFP transgenic hemizygote mice were used for AFP gene expression. AFP genome expressions in transgenic mice were analyzed by Western blotting, and tissue location of AFP protein was shown by immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence techniques. Seventh transgenic mice from the established founders demonstrated the expression of AFP in organs such as the skin, oviduct, lung, kidney and liver tissues and serum except for the heart. Our results demonstrate successful expression of AFP gene products in several tissues and serum of transgenic mice, the association of in vivo expressed AFP protein, for the first time. These results indicate that the coding sequence for the AFP protein gene (ocean pout type III AFP gene) could be integrated and stably transcribed and expressed in the 7th generation of transgenic mice. In conclusion transgenic mouse lines would be a good model for the cryostudy of AFP and for the determination of AFP roles in several organs and tissues.

  9. Chemopreventive effect of Curcuma longa Linn on liver pathology in HBx transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsun; Ha, Hye-Lin; Moon, Hyung-Bae; Lee, Yeon-Weol; Cho, Chong-Kwan; Yoo, Hwa-Seung; Yu, Dae-Yeul

    2011-06-01

    Unlike other forms of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), HCC induced by hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection shows a poor prognosis after conventional therapies. HBV induces liver cirrhosis and HCC. Many researchers have made efforts to find new substances that suppress the activity of HBV. Curcuma longa Linn (CLL) has been used for traditional medicine and food in Asia, especially in India, and has shown chemopreventive effects in a HBV-related in vitro model. This in vivo study was designed to seek the chemopreventive effects of CLL and its mechanisms. CLL mixture concentrated with dextrose water by boiling was lyophilized. CLL extracts were administrated to HBV X protein (HBx) transgenic mice aged 4 weeks for 2 to 4 weeks and aged 6 months for 3 months. After administration, histological changes in the liver tissue and expression of HBx-related genes were investigated. CLL-treated mice showed less visceral fat, a smaller liver/body weight ratio and delayed liver pathogenesis. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression was also increased in CLL-treated HBx transgenic mice, indicating regeneration of damaged liver tissue. CLL treatment decreased expression of HBx and increased p21 and cyclin D1 in livers of HBx transgenic mice. In addition, p-p53 was increased after CLL treatment. These results suggest that CLL can have beneficial effects on the early and late stages of liver pathogenesis, preventing and delaying liver carcinogenesis. This drug should be considered as a potential chemopreventive agent for HBV-related hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:21190953

  10. Chemopreventive effect of Curcuma longa Linn on liver pathology in HBx transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsun; Ha, Hye-Lin; Moon, Hyung-Bae; Lee, Yeon-Weol; Cho, Chong-Kwan; Yoo, Hwa-Seung; Yu, Dae-Yeul

    2011-06-01

    Unlike other forms of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), HCC induced by hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection shows a poor prognosis after conventional therapies. HBV induces liver cirrhosis and HCC. Many researchers have made efforts to find new substances that suppress the activity of HBV. Curcuma longa Linn (CLL) has been used for traditional medicine and food in Asia, especially in India, and has shown chemopreventive effects in a HBV-related in vitro model. This in vivo study was designed to seek the chemopreventive effects of CLL and its mechanisms. CLL mixture concentrated with dextrose water by boiling was lyophilized. CLL extracts were administrated to HBV X protein (HBx) transgenic mice aged 4 weeks for 2 to 4 weeks and aged 6 months for 3 months. After administration, histological changes in the liver tissue and expression of HBx-related genes were investigated. CLL-treated mice showed less visceral fat, a smaller liver/body weight ratio and delayed liver pathogenesis. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression was also increased in CLL-treated HBx transgenic mice, indicating regeneration of damaged liver tissue. CLL treatment decreased expression of HBx and increased p21 and cyclin D1 in livers of HBx transgenic mice. In addition, p-p53 was increased after CLL treatment. These results suggest that CLL can have beneficial effects on the early and late stages of liver pathogenesis, preventing and delaying liver carcinogenesis. This drug should be considered as a potential chemopreventive agent for HBV-related hepatocarcinogenesis.

  11. Selenoprotein-deficient transgenic mice exhibit enhanced exercise-induced muscle growth.

    PubMed

    Hornberger, Troy A; McLoughlin, Thomas J; Leszczynski, Jori K; Armstrong, Dustin D; Jameson, Ruth R; Bowen, Phyllis E; Hwang, Eun-Sun; Hou, Honglin; Moustafa, Mohamed E; Carlson, Bradley A; Hatfield, Dolph L; Diamond, Alan M; Esser, Karyn A

    2003-10-01

    Dietary intake of selenium has been implicated in a wide range of health issues, including aging, heart disease and cancer. Selenium deficiency, which can reduce selenoprotein levels, has been associated with several striated muscle pathologies. To investigate the role of selenoproteins in skeletal muscle biology, we used a transgenic mouse (referred to as i6A-) that has reduced levels of selenoproteins due to the introduction and expression of a dominantly acting mutant form of selenocysteine transfer RNA (tRNA[Ser]Sec). As a consequence, each organ contains reduced levels of most selenoproteins, yet these mice are normal with regard to fertility, overall health, behavior and blood chemistries. In the present study, although skeletal muscles from i6A- mice were phenotypically indistinguishable from those of wild-type mice, plantaris muscles were approximately 50% heavier after synergist ablation, a model of exercise overload. Like muscle in wild-type mice, the enhanced growth in the i6A- mice was completely blocked by inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Muscles of transgenic mice exhibited increased site-specific phosphorylation on both Akt and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6k) (P < 0.05) before ablation, perhaps accounting for the enhanced response to synergist ablation. Thus, a single genetic alteration resulted in enhanced skeletal muscle adaptation after exercise, and this is likely through subtle changes in the resting phosphorylation state of growth-related kinases.

  12. Disrupted pulmonary vascular development and pulmonary hypertension in transgenic mice overexpressing transforming growth factor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Le Cras, Timothy D; Hardie, William D; Fagan, Karen; Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Korfhagen, Thomas R

    2003-11-01

    Pulmonary vascular disease plays a major role in morbidity and mortality in infant and adult lung diseases in which increased levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha and its receptor EGFR have been associated. The aim of this study was to determine whether overexpression of TGF-alpha disrupts pulmonary vascular development and causes pulmonary hypertension. Lung-specific expression of TGF-alpha in transgenic mice was driven with the human surfactant protein (SP)-C promoter. Pulmonary arteriograms and arterial counts show that pulmonary vascular development was severely disrupted in TGF-alpha mice. TGF-alpha mice developed severe pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling characterized by abnormally extensive muscularization of small pulmonary arteries. Pulmonary vascular development was significantly improved and pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling were prevented in bi-transgenic mice expressing both TGF-alpha and a dominant-negative mutant EGF receptor under the control of the SP-C promoter. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A), an important angiogenic factor produced by the distal epithelium, was decreased in the lungs of TGF-alpha adults and in the lungs of infant TGF-alpha mice before detectable abnormalities in pulmonary vascular development. Hence, overexpression of TGF-alpha caused severe pulmonary vascular disease, which was mediated through EGFR signaling in distal epithelial cells. Reductions in VEGF may contribute to the pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular disease in TGF-alpha mice.

  13. In vivo regulation of the heme oxygenase-1 gene in humanized transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junghyun; Zarjou, Abolfazl; Traylor, Amie M.; Bolisetty, Subhashini; Jaimes, Edgar A.; Hull, Travis D.; George, James F.; Mikhail, Fady M.; Agarwal, Anupam

    2012-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in heme degradation producing equimolar amounts of carbon monoxide, iron, and biliverdin. Induction of HO-1 is a beneficial response to tissue injury in diverse animal models of diseases including acute kidney injury. In vitro analysis has shown that the human HO-1 gene is transcriptionally regulated by changes in chromatin conformation but whether such control occurs in vivo is not known. To enable such analysis, we generated transgenic mice, harboring an 87-kb bacterial artificial chromosome expressing human HO-1 mRNA and protein and bred these mice with HO-1 knockout mice to generate humanized BAC transgenic mice. This successfully rescued the phenotype of the knockout mice including reduced birth rates, tissue iron overload, splenomegaly, anemia, leukocytosis, dendritic cell abnormalities and survival after acute kidney injury induced by rhabdomyolysis or cisplatin nephrotoxicity. Transcription factors such as USF1/2, JunB, Sp1, and CTCF were found to associate with regulatory regions of the human HO-1 gene in the kidney following rhabdomyolysis. Chromosome Conformation Capture and ChIP-loop assays confirmed this in the formation of chromatin looping in vivo. Thus, these bacterial artificial chromosome humanized HO-1 mice are a valuable model to study the human HO-1 gene providing insight to the in vivo architecture of the gene in acute kidney injury and other diseases. PMID:22495295

  14. Urinary Bladder Dysfunction in Transgenic Sickle Cell Disease Mice

    PubMed Central

    Claudino, Mário Angelo; Leiria, Luiz Osório Silveira; da Silva, Fábio Henrique; Alexandre, Eduardo Costa; Renno, Andre; Mónica, Fabiola Zakia; de Nucci, Gilberto; Fertrin, Kleber Yotsumoto; Antunes, Edson; Costa, Fernando Ferreira; Franco-Penteado, Carla Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Background Urological complications associated with sickle cell disease (SCD), include nocturia, enuresis, urinary infections and urinary incontinence. However, scientific evidence to ascertain the underlying cause of the lower urinary tract symptoms in SCD is lacking. Objective Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate urinary function, in vivo and ex vivo, in the Berkeley SCD murine model (SS). Methods Urine output was measured in metabolic cage for both wild type and SS mice (25-30 g). Bladder strips and urethra rings were dissected free and mounted in organ baths. In isolated detrusor smooth muscle (DSM), relaxant response to mirabegron and isoproterenol (1nM-10μM) and contractile response to (carbachol (CCh; 1 nM-100μM), KCl (1 mM-300mM), CaCl2 (1μM-100mM), α,β-methylene ATP (1, 3 and 10 μM) and electrical field stimulation (EFS; 1-32 Hz) were measured. Phenylephrine (Phe; 10nM-100μM) was used to evaluate the contraction mechanism in the urethra rings. Cystometry and histomorphometry were also performed in the urinary bladder. Results SS mice present a reduced urine output and incapacity to produce typical bladder contractions and bladder emptying (ex vivo), compared to control animals. In DSM, relaxation in response to a selective β3-adrenergic agonist (mirabegron) and to a non-selective β-adrenergic (isoproterenol) agonist were lower in SS mice. Additionally, carbachol, α, β-methylene ATP, KCl, extracellular Ca2+ and electrical-field stimulation promoted smaller bladder contractions in SS group. Urethra contraction induced by phenylephrine was markedly reduced in SS mice. Histological analyses of SS mice bladder revealed severe structural abnormalities, such as reductions in detrusor thickness and bladder volume, and cell infiltration. Conclusions Taken together, our data demonstrate, for the first time, that SS mice display features of urinary bladder dysfunction, leading to impairment in urinary continence, which may have an important role in

  15. Curcumin improves bone microarchitecture and enhances mineral density in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mao-Wei; Wang, Tong-Hao; Yan, Pei-Pei; Chu, Li-Wei; Yu, Jiang; Gao, Zhi-Da; Li, Yuan-Zhou; Guo, Bao-Lei

    2011-01-15

    Alzheimer's disease and osteoporosis are often observed to co-occur in clinical practice. The present study aimed to evaluate the bone microarchitecture and bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal tibia in APP/PS1 transgenic mice by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and to search for evidence that curcumin can be used to reduce bone mineral losses and treat osteoporosis after senile dementia in these transgenic mice. Three-month-old female mice were divided into the following groups (n=9 per group): wild-type mice (WT group); APP/PS1 transgenic mice (APP group); and APP/PS1 transgenic mice with curcumin treatment (APP+Cur group). Between 9 and 12 months of age, the APP+Cur group were administered curcumin orally (600ppm). CT scans of the proximal tibia were taken at 6, 9 and 12 months. At 6 months, there were little differences in the structural parameters. At 9 months, the APP groups displayed loss of bone volume ratio (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular number (Tb.N) and connectivity density (Conn.D) and increases in trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) and geometric degree of anisotropy (DA) (P<0.05 or P<0.01), with significant changes in the BMD parameters. At 12 months, curcumin treatment led to constant increases in the trabecular bone mass of the metaphysis and clearly improved the BMD. By the same time, we measured the TNF-α and IL-6 in the serum among the different groups at 6, 9 and 12 months by enzyme-linked immunoassay(ELISA). These results suggest that APP/PS1 transgenic mice are susceptible to osteoporosis, and that curcumin can prevent further deterioration of the bone structure and produce beneficial changes in bone turnover. The change of inflammation cytokine, including TNF-α and IL-6, may play an important role in the mechanisms of action of curcumin, but the detail mechanism remains unknown. PMID:20637579

  16. Spontaneous ventricular tachyarrhythmias in β2-adrenoceptor transgenic mice in relation to cardiac interstitial fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, My-Nhan; Kiriazis, Helen; Ruggiero, Diego; Gao, Xiao-Ming; Su, Yidan; Jian, Anne; Han, Li-Ping; McMullen, Julie R; Du, Xiao-Jun

    2015-09-01

    Myocardial fibrosis is regarded as a pivotal proarrhythmic substrate, but there have been no comprehensive studies showing a correlation between the severity of fibrosis and ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTAs). Our purpose was to document this relationship in a transgenic (TG) strain of mice with fibrotic cardiomyopathy. TG mice with cardiac overexpression of β2-adrenoceptors (β2-AR mice) and non-TG (NTG) littermates were studied at 4-12 mo of age. VTA was quantified by ECG telemetry. The effect of pharmacological blockade of β2-ARs on VTA was examined. Myocardial collagen content was determined by hydroxyproline assay. NTG and TG mice displayed circadian variation in heart rate, which was higher in TG mice than in NTG mice (P <0.05). Frequent spontaneous ventricular ectopic beats (VEBs) and ventricular tachycardia (VT) were prominent in TG mice but not present in NTG mice. The frequency of VEB and VT episodes in TG mice increased with age (P < 0.01). Ventricular collagen content was greater in TG mice than in NTG mice (P <0.001) and correlated with age (r = 0.71, P < 0.01). The number of VEBs or VT episodes correlated with age (r = 0.83 and r = 0.73) and the content of total or cross-linked collagen (r = 0.62∼0.66, all P <0.01). While having no effect in younger β2-TG mice, β2-AR blockade reduced the frequency of VTA in old β2-TG mice with more severe fibrosis. In conclusion, β2-TG mice exhibit interstitial fibrosis and spontaneous onset of VTA, becoming more severe with aging. The extent of cardiac fibrosis is a major determinant for both the frequency of VTA and proarrhythmic action of β2-AR activation.

  17. Pathogenesis of axonal dystrophy and demyelination in αA-crystallin-expressing transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Van Rijk, AF; Sweers, MAM; Merkx, GFM; Lammens, M; Bloemendal, H

    2003-01-01

    We recently described a transgenic mouse strain overexpressing hamster αA-crystallin, a small heat shock protein, under direction of the hamster vimentin promoter. As a result myelin was degraded and axonal dystrophy in both central nervous system (especially spinal cord) and peripheral nervous system occurred. Homozygous transgenic mice developed hind limb paralysis after 8 weeks of age and displayed progressive loss of myelin and axonal dystrophy in both the central and peripheral nervous system with ongoing age. Pathologically the phenotype resembled, to a certain extent, neuroaxonal dystrophy. The biochemical findings presented in this paper (activity of the enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and transglutamase, myelin protein zero expression levels and blood sugar levels) confirm this pathology and exclude other putative pathologies like Amyothrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathy. Consequently, an excessive cytoplasmic accumulation of the transgenic protein or a disturbance of the normal metabolism are considered to cause the observed neuropathology. Therefore, extra-ocular αA-crystallin-expressing transgenic mice may serve as a useful animal model to study neuroaxonal dystrophy. PMID:12801283

  18. Breast cancer protein PS2 synthesis in mammary gland of transgenic mice and secretion into milk.

    PubMed

    Tomasetto, C; Wolf, C; Rio, M C; Mehtali, M; LeMeur, M; Gerlinger, P; Chambon, P; Lathe, R

    1989-10-01

    PS2, a small estrogen-inducible secretory polypeptide with structural analogies to a growth factor, is produced by approximately 50% of human breast tumors. The function of PS2 is, however, unknown. To determine whether PS2 may play an autocrine role in the development of mammary tumors we constructed transgenic mice bearing fusion constructs designed to direct the expression of human PS2 in the lactating mammary gland under the control of the whey acidic protein (WAP) promoter. Mouse lines bearing the genomic PS2 gene under the control of the WAP promoter region (WAP-PS2-2) failed to express the transgene. However, mice harboring the fusion construct WAP-PS2-1, in which the PS2 coding sequence is inserted into the 5' untranslated region of the complete WAP gene, were observed to express the transgene. Expression was restricted to the secretory epithelium of the mammary gland during lactation, and PS2 protein was secreted into the milk. Nevertheless, no mammary gland dysplasia was observed, and PS2 expression had no discernable effect upon the physiology and/or development of the suckling young or the transgenic mother. PMID:2481815

  19. Imaging Neural Activity Using Thy1-GCaMP Transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qian; Cichon, Joseph; Wang, Wenting; Qiu, Li; Lee, Seok-Jin R.; Campbell, Nolan R.; DeStefino, Nicholas; Goard, Michael J.; Fu, Zhanyan; Yasuda, Ryohei; Looger, Loren L.; Arenkiel, Benjamin R.; Gan, Wen-Biao; Feng, Guoping

    2014-01-01

    Summary The ability to chronically monitor neuronal activity in the living brain is essential for understanding the organization and function of the nervous system. The genetically encoded green fluorescent protein based calcium sensor GCaMP provides a powerful tool for detecting calcium transients in neuronal somata, processes, and synapses that are triggered by neuronal activities. Here we report the generation and characterization of transgenic mice that express improved GCaMPs in various neuronal subpopulations under the control of the Thy1 promoter. In vitro and in vivo studies show that calcium transients induced by spontaneous and stimulus-evoked neuronal activities can be readily detected at the level of individual cells and synapses in acute brain slices, as well as chronically in awake behaving animals. These GCaMP transgenic mice allow investigation of activity patterns in defined neuronal populations in the living brain, and will greatly facilitate dissecting complex structural and functional relationships of neural networks. PMID:23083733

  20. Expression of the human growth hormone variant gene in cultured fibroblasts and transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Selden, R.F.; Wagner, T.E.; Blethen, S.; Yun, J.S.; Rowe, M.E.; Goodman, H.M. )

    1988-11-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the human growth hormone variant gene, one of the five members of the growth hormone gene family, predicts that it encodes a growth hormone-like protein. As a first step in determining whether this gene is functional in humans, the authors have expressed a mouse methallothionein I/human growth hormone variant fusion gene in mouse L cells and in transgenic mice. The growth hormone variant protein expressed in transiently transfected L cells is distinct from growth hormone itself with respect to reactivity with anti-growth hormone monoclonal antibodies, behavior during column chromatography, and isoelectric point. Transgenic mice expressing the growth hormone variant protein are 1.4- to 1.9-fold larger than nontransgenic controls, suggesting that the protein has growth-promoting properties.

  1. Ecdysone-inducible gene expression in mammalian cells and transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    No, D; Yao, T P; Evans, R M

    1996-01-01

    During metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster, a cascade of morphological changes is triggered by the steroid hormone 20-OH ecdysone via the ecdysone receptor, a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. In this report, we have transferred insect hormone responsiveness to mammalian cells by the stable expression of a modified ecdysone receptor that regulates an optimized ecdysone responsive promoter. Inductions reaching 4 orders of magnitude have been achieved upon treatment with hormone. Transgenic mice expressing the modified ecdysone receptor can activate an integrated ecdysone responsive promoter upon administration of hormone. A comparison of tetracycline-based and ecdysone-based inducible systems reveals the ecdysone regulatory system exhibits lower basal activity and higher inducibility. Since ecdysone administration has no apparent effect on mammals, its use for regulating genes should be excellent for transient inducible expression of any gene in transgenic mice and for gene therapy. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8622939

  2. Lactase gene promoter fragments mediate differential spatial and temporal expression patterns in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi; Maravelias, Charalambos; Sibley, Eric

    2006-04-01

    Lactase gene expression is spatiotemporally regulated during mammalian gut development. We hypothesize that distinct DNA control regions specify appropriate spatial and temporal patterning of lactase gene expression. In order to define regions of the lactase promoter involved in mediating intestine-specific and spatiotemporal restricted expression, transgenic mice harboring 100 bp, 1.3- and 2.0- kb fragments of the 5' flanking region of the rat lactase gene cloned upstream of a luciferase reporter were characterized. The 100-bp lactase promoter-reporter transgenic mouse line expressed maximal luciferase activity in the intestine with a posterior shift in spatial restriction and ectopic expression in the stomach and lung. The temporal pattern of expression mediated by the 1.3-kb promoter?reporter transgene increases with postnatal maturation in contrast with the postnatal decline mediated by the 2.0-kb promoter-reporter transgene and the endogenous lactase gene. The differential transgene expression patterns mediated by the lactase promoter fragments suggests that intestine-specific spatial and temporal control elements reside in distinct regions of the DNA sequences upstream of the lactase gene transcription start-site.

  3. Abnormal differentiation, hyperplasia and embryonic/perinatal lethality in BK5-T/t transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin; Schneider-Broussard, Robin; Hollowell, Debra; McArthur, Mark; Jeter, Collene R.; Benavides, Fernando; DiGiovanni, John; Tang, Dean G.

    2009-01-01

    The cell-of-origin has a great impact on the types of tumors that develop and the stem/progenitor cells have long been considered main targets of malignant transformation. The SV40 large T and small t antigens (T/t), have been targeted to multiple differentiated cellular compartments in transgenic mice. In most of these studies, transgenic animals develop tumors without apparent defects in animal development. In this study, we used the bovine keratin 5 (BK5) promoter to target the T/t antigens to stem/progenitor cell-containing cytokeratin 5 (CK5) cellular compartment. A transgene construct, BK5-T/t, was made and microinjected into the male pronucleus of FVB/N mouse oocytes. After implanting ∼1700 embryos, only 7 transgenics were obtained, including 4 embryos (E9.5, E13, E15, and E20) and 3 postnatal animals, which died at P1, P2, and P18, respectively. Immunohistological analysis revealed aberrant differentiation and prominent hyperplasia in several transgenic CK5 tissues, especially the upper digestive organs (tongue, oral mucosa, esophagus, and forestomach) and epidermis, the latter of which also showed focal dysplasia. Altogether, these results indicate that constitutive expression of the T/t antigens in CK5 cellular compartment results in abnormal epithelial differentiation and leads to embryonic/perinatal animal lethality. PMID:19272531

  4. Attenuated RhoA/Rho-kinase Signaling in the Penis of Transgenic Sickle Cell Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bivalacqua, Trinity J.; Ross, Ashley E.; Strong, Travis D.; Gebska, Milena A.; Musicki, Biljana; Champion, Hunter C.; Burnett, Arthur L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives RhoA and its main downstream effector, Rho-kinase (ROCK) are important in maintaining the penis in the flaccid state. The pathophysiology of Sickle cell disease-associated priapism is not well defined. We hypothesize that RhoA/ROCK vasoconstrictive pathways may be involved in the development of priapism. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate molecular changes in RhoA and ROCK in an established transgenic sickle cell mouse model of priapism. Methods Two groups of mice were utilized: 1) wild type (WT; C57BL/6), and 2) transgenic Sickle cell mice (Sickle). We evaluated RhoA GTPase and total ROCK activities as well as ROCK1 and ROCK2 protein expression in WT and Sickle mice penes. We also evaluated in vivo erectile responses to cavernous nerve stimulation (CNS) and the frequency and duration of spontaneous erections both pre- and post-CNS. Results Sickle mice demonstrated significantly (p<0.05) enhanced erectile responses to CNS and frequency of spontaneous erections both pre- and post-CNS when compared to WT. Sickle mice penes had a significant decline in RhoA GTPase (p<0.01) and total ROCK activities (p<0.05) when compared to WT mice. There was a significant (p<0.05) reduction in ROCK2 protein expression in Sickle mice penes when compared to WT mice protein expression. No change in ROCK1 protein expression was observed in both cohort’s of mice penes. Conclusion These data suggest that Sickle cell disease associated-priapism may be contributed by a lack of RhoA/ROCK mediated vasoconstriction and highlight a novel molecular mechanism in the pathophysiology of priapism. PMID:20538321

  5. Absence of cardiac lipid accumulation in transgenic mice with heart-specific HSL overexpression.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, J; Shen, W J; Nelson, B D; Patel, S; Veerkamp, J H; Selwood, S P; Murphy, G M; Reaven, E; Kraemer, F B

    2001-10-01

    Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) hydrolyzes triglyceride (TG) in adipose tissue. HSL is also expressed in heart. To explore the actions of cardiac HSL, heart-specific, tetracycline (Tc)-controlled HSL-overexpressing mice were generated. Tc-responsive element-HSL transgenic (Tg) mice were generated and crossed with myosin heavy chain (MHC)alpha-tTA Tg mice, which express the Tc-responsive transactivator (tTA) in the heart. The double-Tg mice (MHC-HSL) were maintained with doxycycline (Dox) to suppress Tg HSL. Upon removal of Dox, cardiac HSL activity and protein increased 12- and 8-fold, respectively, and the expression was heart specific. Although cardiac TG content increased twofold in control mice after an overnight fast, it did not increase in HSL-induced mice. Electron microscopy showed numerous lipid droplets in the myocardium of fasted control mice, whereas fasted HSL-induced mice showed virtually no droplets. Microarray analysis showed altered expression of cardiac genes for fatty acid oxidation, transcription factors, signaling molecules, cytoskeletal proteins, and histocompatibility antigens in HSL-induced mice. Thus cardiac HSL plays a role in controlling accumulation of triglyceride droplets and can affect the expression of a number of cardiac genes.

  6. Quetiapine modulates conditioned anxiety and alternation behavior in Alzheimer's transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Tempier, Adrien; He, Jue; Zhu, Shenghua; Zhang, Ruiguo; Kong, Lynda; Tan, Qingrong; Luo, Huanmin; Kong, Jiming; Li, Xin-Min

    2013-02-01

    Quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic drug, is effective in treating the behavioral and psychological symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it is presently unclear whether quetiapine has beneficial effects on memory and whether the effects of quetiapine on psychological symptoms are associated with its effect on memory in AD. The present study was designed to examine the effect of chronic administration of quetiapine on the conditioned (generalized) anxiety that is related to learning experience of open arm exposure in the elevated T-maze (ETM) test in an amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin 1 (PS1) double transgenic mouse model of AD. In a 2nd experiment, the effect of quetiapine on memory per se was investigated in a Y-maze test in AD mice. Non-transgenic and transgenic mice were treated with quetiapine in drinking water from the age of 2 months. After continuous treatment with quetiapine (5 mg/kg/day) for 10 months, mice were tested for conditioned anxiety on the ETM task. After ETM testing, the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neuroprotective protein, was examined by immunohistochemistry in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and hippocampus. In the 2nd experiment, the effect of quetiapine (2.5 or 5 mg/kg/day) on the short-term memory in AD mice was tested in a Y-maze test. After 10 months of administration, quetiapine prevented the decrease of conditioned anxiety and cerebral BDNF in AD mice. In addition, quetiapine also prevented memory impairment in the Y-maze test in AD mice. These findings suggest that the therapeutic mechanism of quetiapine on anxiety in AD may be associated with its beneficial effect on memory and its neuroprotective effect on cerebral BDNF expression.

  7. FHL1 reduces dystrophy in transgenic mice overexpressing FSHD muscular dystrophy region gene 1 (FRG1).

    PubMed

    Feeney, Sandra J; McGrath, Meagan J; Sriratana, Absorn; Gehrig, Stefan M; Lynch, Gordon S; D'Arcy, Colleen E; Price, John T; McLean, Catriona A; Tupler, Rossella; Mitchell, Christina A

    2015-01-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is an autosomal-dominant disease with no effective treatment. The genetic cause of FSHD is complex and the primary pathogenic insult underlying the muscle disease is unknown. Several disease candidate genes have been proposed including DUX4 and FRG1. Expression analysis studies of FSHD report the deregulation of genes which mediate myoblast differentiation and fusion. Transgenic mice overexpressing FRG1 recapitulate the FSHD muscular dystrophy phenotype. Our current study selectively examines how increased expression of FRG1 may contribute to myoblast differentiation defects. We generated stable C2C12 cell lines overexpressing FRG1, which exhibited a myoblast fusion defect upon differentiation. To determine if myoblast fusion defects contribute to the FRG1 mouse dystrophic phenotype, this strain was crossed with skeletal muscle specific FHL1-transgenic mice. We previously reported that FHL1 promotes myoblast fusion in vitro and FHL1-transgenic mice develop skeletal muscle hypertrophy. In the current study, FRG1 mice overexpressing FHL1 showed an improvement in the dystrophic phenotype, including a reduced spinal kyphosis, increased muscle mass and myofiber size, and decreased muscle fibrosis. FHL1 expression in FRG1 mice, did not alter satellite cell number or activation, but enhanced myoblast fusion. Primary myoblasts isolated from FRG1 mice showed a myoblast fusion defect that was rescued by FHL1 expression. Therefore, increased FRG1 expression may contribute to a muscular dystrophy phenotype resembling FSHD by impairing myoblast fusion, a defect that can be rescued by enhanced myoblast fusion via expression of FHL1. PMID:25695429

  8. FHL1 Reduces Dystrophy in Transgenic Mice Overexpressing FSHD Muscular Dystrophy Region Gene 1 (FRG1)

    PubMed Central

    Feeney, Sandra J.; McGrath, Meagan J.; Sriratana, Absorn; Gehrig, Stefan M.; Lynch, Gordon S.; D’Arcy, Colleen E.; Price, John T.; McLean, Catriona A.; Tupler, Rossella; Mitchell, Christina A.

    2015-01-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is an autosomal-dominant disease with no effective treatment. The genetic cause of FSHD is complex and the primary pathogenic insult underlying the muscle disease is unknown. Several disease candidate genes have been proposed including DUX4 and FRG1. Expression analysis studies of FSHD report the deregulation of genes which mediate myoblast differentiation and fusion. Transgenic mice overexpressing FRG1 recapitulate the FSHD muscular dystrophy phenotype. Our current study selectively examines how increased expression of FRG1 may contribute to myoblast differentiation defects. We generated stable C2C12 cell lines overexpressing FRG1, which exhibited a myoblast fusion defect upon differentiation. To determine if myoblast fusion defects contribute to the FRG1 mouse dystrophic phenotype, this strain was crossed with skeletal muscle specific FHL1-transgenic mice. We previously reported that FHL1 promotes myoblast fusion in vitro and FHL1-transgenic mice develop skeletal muscle hypertrophy. In the current study, FRG1 mice overexpressing FHL1 showed an improvement in the dystrophic phenotype, including a reduced spinal kyphosis, increased muscle mass and myofiber size, and decreased muscle fibrosis. FHL1 expression in FRG1 mice, did not alter satellite cell number or activation, but enhanced myoblast fusion. Primary myoblasts isolated from FRG1 mice showed a myoblast fusion defect that was rescued by FHL1 expression. Therefore, increased FRG1 expression may contribute to a muscular dystrophy phenotype resembling FSHD by impairing myoblast fusion, a defect that can be rescued by enhanced myoblast fusion via expression of FHL1. PMID:25695429

  9. Excessive Growth Hormone Expression in Male GH Transgenic Mice Adversely Alters Bone Architecture and Mechanical Strength

    PubMed Central

    Lim, S. V.; Marenzana, M.; Hopkinson, M.; List, E. O.; Kopchick, J. J.; Pereira, M.; Javaheri, B.; Roux, J. P.; Chavassieux, P.; Korbonits, M.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with acromegaly have a higher prevalence of vertebral fractures despite normal bone mineral density (BMD), suggesting that GH overexpression has adverse effects on skeletal architecture and strength. We used giant bovine GH (bGH) transgenic mice to analyze the effects of high serum GH levels on BMD, architecture, and mechanical strength. Five-month-old hemizygous male bGH mice were compared with age- and sex-matched nontransgenic littermates controls (NT; n=16/group). Bone architecture and BMD were analyzed in tibia and lumbar vertebrae using microcomputed tomography. Femora were tested to failure using three-point bending and bone cellular activity determined by bone histomorphometry. bGH transgenic mice displayed significant increases in body weight and bone lengths. bGH tibia showed decreases in trabecular bone volume fraction, thickness, and number compared with NT ones, whereas trabecular pattern factor and structure model index were significantly increased, indicating deterioration in bone structure. Although cortical tissue perimeter was increased in transgenic mice, cortical thickness was reduced. bGH mice showed similar trabecular BMD but reduced trabecular thickness in lumbar vertebra relative to controls. Cortical BMD and thickness were significantly reduced in bGH lumbar vertebra. Mechanical testing of femora confirmed that bGH femora have decreased intrinsic mechanical properties compared with NT ones. Bone turnover is increased in favor of bone resorption in bGH tibia and vertebra compared with controls, and serum PTH levels is also enhanced in bGH mice. These data collectively suggest that high serum GH levels negatively affect bone architecture and quality at multiple skeletal sites. PMID:25646711

  10. Oval cell proliferation in early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis in simian virus 40 large T transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Bennoun, M.; Rissel, M.; Engelhardt, N.; Guillouzo, A.; Briand, P.; Weber-Benarous, A.

    1993-01-01

    In transgenic mice bearing the Simian Virus 40 large T antigen under the control of the human antithrombin III regulatory sequences, a stepwise progression toward hepatocellular carcinoma is observed. We have used two monoclonal antibodies (A6 and G7) developed against a surface antigen expressed in oval cells from dipin-treated mice, to analyze the emergence of such preneoplastic populations in the livers of antithrombin III Simian Virus 40 T transgenic mice. We show that a unique population of small heterogeneous epithelial cells, which probably corresponds to oval and/or transitional cells according to their morphological features, consistently appears at approximately the 10th week after birth and proliferates thereafter. This oval cell-like population stained positively for A6 and G7 monoclonal antibodies. Furthermore, different subpopulations usually recognized as possible precursors of carcinoma cells including hyperplastic foci and neoplastic nodules as well as carcinoma cells, were also positive for A6 but not G7 monoclonal antibodies. Stimulation of cell proliferation by partial hepatectomy performed at the time of emergence of the oval-like cells resulted in a rapid increase in the number of oval/transitional A6-positive cells. Our findings support the view that a common mechanism may be involved in the development of carcinomas that are induced by chemical carcinogens and in transgenic mice expressing a potent oncogene under the control of a hepatic specific promoter. In addition, our findings demonstrate a specific precursor-product relationship between the appearance of the oval/transitional cells and the development of neoplastic hepatocytes in this transgenic model. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7694468

  11. Tolerance and autoimmunity to a gastritogenic peptide in TCR transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Alderuccio, F; Cataldo, V; van Driel, I R; Gleeson, P A; Toh, B H

    2000-03-01

    The catalytic alpha and glycoprotein beta subunits of the gastric H/K ATPase are major molecular targets in human and mouse autoimmune gastritis. We have previously shown that the H/K ATPase beta subunit is required for the initiation of mouse gastritis and identified a gastritogenic H/K ATPase beta subunit peptide (H/Kbeta253-277). Here we report the generation of MHC class II-restricted TCR transgenic mice using V(alpha)9 and V(beta)8.3 TCR chains with specificity for the gastritogenic H/Kbeta253-277 peptide. We found an 8-fold reduction in CD4(+) T cells in the thymus of the transgenic mice. Despite the reduction in intrathymic CD4(+) T cells, V(beta)8. 3-expressing T cells comprised the majority (>90%) of peripheral spleen and lymph node T cells. These peripheral T cells retained their capacity to proliferate in vitro to the H/Kbeta253-277 peptide. Using the responsive T cells, we have restricted the gastritogenic T cell epitope to H/Kbeta261-274. Despite the capacity of the peripheral T cells to proliferate in vitro to the peptide, the majority ( approximately 80%, 13 of 16) of transgenic mice remained free of gastritis while a minority (20%, three of 16) spontaneously developed an invasive and destructive gastritis. Our results confirm that H/Kbeta261-274 is a gastritogenic peptide. The data also suggest that CD4 T cell tolerance to the gastritogenic peptide in the transgenic mice is maintained by a combination of intrathymic and peripheral tolerance mechanisms.

  12. Compensation of the AKT signaling by ERK signaling in transgenic mice hearts overexpressing TRIM72

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, Young-Mi; Mahoney, Sarah Jane

    2013-06-10

    The AKT and ERK signaling pathways are known to be involved in cell hypertrophy, proliferation, survival and differentiation. Although there is evidence for crosstalk between these two signaling pathways in cellulo, there is less evidence for cross talk in vivo. Here, we show that crosstalk between AKT and ERK signaling in the hearts of TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice (TRIM72-Tg) with alpha-MHC promoter regulates and maintains their heart size. TRIM72, a heart- and skeletal muscle-specific protein, downregulates AKT-mTOR signaling via IRS-1 degradation and reduces the size of rat cardiomyocytes and the size of postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts. TRIM72 expression was upregulated by hypertrophic inducers in cardiomyocytes, while IRS-1 was downregulated by IGF-1. TRIM72 specifically regulated IGF-1-dependent AKT-mTOR signaling, resulting in a reduction of the size of cardiomyocytes. Postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts were smaller than control-treated hearts with inhibition of AKT-mTOR signaling. However, adult TRIM72-Tg hearts were larger than of control despite the suppression of AKT-mTOR signaling. Activation of ERK, PKC-α, and JNK were observed to be elevated in adult TRIM72-Tg, and these signals were mediated by ET-1 via the ET receptors A and B. Altogether, these results suggest that AKT signaling regulates cardiac hypertrophy in physiological conditions, and ERK signaling compensates for the absence of AKT signaling during TRIM72 overexpression, leading to pathological hypertrophy. -- Highlights: • TRIM72 inhibits AKT signaling through ubiquitination of IRS-1 in cardiac cells. • TRIM72 regulates the size of cardiac cells. • TRIM72 regulates size of postnatal TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice hearts. • Adult TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice hearts showed cardiac dysfunction. • Adult TRIM72 transgenic mice hearts showed higher expression of endothelin receptors.

  13. Trichostatin A suppresses lung adenocarcinoma development in Grg1 overexpressing transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ju; Li, Yan; Dong, Fengyun; Li, Liqun; Masuda, Takahiro; Allen, Thaddeus D.; Lobe, Corrinne G.

    2015-08-07

    Trichostatin A (TSA) is a histone deacetylase inhibitor and a potential therapeutic for various malignancies. The in vivo effect of TSA, however, has not been investigated in a transgenic lung cancer model. Previously, we generated transgenic mice with overexpression of Groucho-related-gene 1 (Grg1) and these mice all developed mucinous lung adenocarcinoma. Grg1 is a transcriptional co-repressor protein, the function of which is thought to depend on HDAC activity. However, functions outside the nucleus have also been proposed. We tested the supposition that Grg1-induced tumorigenesis is HDAC-dependent by assaying the therapeutic effect of TSA in the Grg1 transgenic mouse model. We found that TSA significantly inhibited lung tumorigenesis in Grg1 transgenic mice (p < 0.01). TSA did not affect overall Grg1 protein levels, but instead reduced ErbB1 and ErbB2 expression, which are upregulated by Grg1 in the absence of TSA. We confirmed this effect in A549 cells. Furthermore, lapatinib, an inhibitor of both ErbB1 and ErbB2, effectively masked the effect of TSA on the inhibition of A549 cell proliferation and migration, suggesting TSA does work, at least in part, by downregulating ErbB receptors. We additionally found that TSA reduced the expression of VEGF and VEGFR2, but not basic FGF and FGFR1. Our findings indicate that TSA effectively inhibits Grg1-induced lung tumorigenesis through the down-regulation of ErbB1 and ErbB2, as well as reduced VEGF signaling. This suggests TSA and other HDAC inhibitors could have therapeutic value in the treatment of lung cancers with Grg1 overexpression. - Highlights: • TSA suppresses lung tumorigenesis in Grg1 overexpressing transgenic mice. • TSA does not affect overall Grg1 protein levels in the mice and in A549 cells. • TSA reduces ErbB1 and ErbB2 expression in the mice and in A549 cells. • Lapatinib masks TSA-induced inhibition of A549 cell proliferation and migration. • TSA inhibits VEGF signaling, but not basic FGF

  14. Brain beta-amyloid accumulation in transgenic mice expressing mutant superoxide dismutase 1.

    PubMed

    Turner, Bradley J; Li, Qiao-Xin; Laughton, Katrina M; Masters, Colin L; Lopes, Elizabeth C; Atkin, Julie D; Cheema, Surindar S

    2004-12-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in both the deposition and pathogenesis of beta-amyloid (Abeta) protein in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Accordingly, overexpression of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) in neuronal cells and transgenic AD mice reduces Abeta toxicity and accumulation. In contrast, mutations in SOD1 associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) confer enhanced pro-oxidative enzyme activities. We therefore examined whether ALS-linked mutant SOD1 overexpression in motor neuronal cells or transgenic ALS mice modulates Abeta toxicity or its accumulation in the brain. Aggregated, but not freshly solubilised, substrate-bound Abeta peptides induced degenerative morphology and cytotoxicity in motor neuron-like NSC-34 cells. Transfection of NSC-34 cells with human wild-type SOD1 attenuated Abeta-induced toxicity, however this neuroprotective effect was also observed for ALS-linked mutant SOD1. Analysis of the cerebral cortex, brainstem, cerebellum and olfactory bulb from transgenic SOD1G93A mice using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of acid-guanidine extracts revealed age-dependent elevations in Abeta levels, although not significantly different from wild-type mouse brain. In addition, brain amyloid protein precursor (APP) levels remained unaltered as a consequence of mutant SOD1 expression. We therefore conclude that mutant SOD1 overexpression promotes neither Abeta toxicity nor brain accumulation in these ALS models.

  15. ErbB receptor-driven prolactinomas respond to targeted lapatinib treatment in female transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaohai; Kano, Maya; Araki, Takako; Cooper, Odelia; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Tone, Yukiko; Tone, Masahide; Melmed, Shlomo

    2015-01-01

    As ErbB receptors are expressed in prolactinomas and exhibit downstream effects on prolactin (PRL) production and cell proliferation, we generated transgenic mice using a PRL enhancer/promoter expression system to restrict lactotroph-specific expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or human EGFR2 (HER2). EGFR or HER2 transgenic mice developed prolactinomas between 13 and 15 months, and confocal immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis confirmed lactotroph-restricted PRL and EGFR or HER2 coexpression. Circulating PRL levels in EGFR and HER2 transgenic mice were increased 5- and 3.8-fold, respectively. Inhibiting EGFR or HER2 signaling with oral lapatinib (100 mg/kg), a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor for both EGFR and HER2, suppressed circulating PRL by 72% and attenuated tumor PRL expression by 80% and also attenuated downstream tumor EGFR/HER2 signaling. This model demonstrates the role of ErbB receptors underlying prolactinoma tumorigenesis and the feasibility of targeting these receptors for translation to treatment of refractory prolactinomas.

  16. Hybrid voltage sensor imaging of electrical activity from neurons in hippocampal slices from transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongsheng; McMahon, Shane; Zhang, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Gene targeting with genetically encoded optical voltage sensors brings the methods of voltage imaging to genetically defined neurons and offers a method of studying circuit activity in these selected populations. The present study reports the targeting of genetically encoded hybrid voltage sensors (hVOS) to neurons in transgenic mice. The hVOS family of probes employs a membrane-targeted fluorescent protein, which generates voltage-dependent fluorescence changes in the presence of dipicrylamine (DPA) as the result of a voltage-dependent optical interaction between the two molecules. We generated transgenic mice with two different high-performance hVOS probes under control of a neuron-specific thy-1 promoter. Hippocampal slices from these animals present distinct spatial patterns of expression, and electrical stimulation evoked fluorescence changes as high as 3%. Glutamate receptor and Na+ channel antagonists blocked these responses. One hVOS probe tested here harbors an axonal targeting motif (from GAP-43) and shows preferential expression in axons; this probe can thus report axonal voltage changes. Voltage imaging in transgenic mice expressing hVOS probes opens the door to the study of functional activity in genetically defined populations of neurons in intact neural circuits. PMID:22993267

  17. Reversible suppression of an essential gene in adult mice using transgenic RNA interference

    PubMed Central

    McJunkin, Katherine; Mazurek, Anthony; Premsrirut, Prem K.; Zuber, Johannes; Dow, Lukas E.; Simon, Janelle; Stillman, Bruce; Lowe, Scott W.

    2011-01-01

    RNAi has revolutionized loss-of-function genetics by enabling sequence-specific suppression of virtually any gene. Furthermore, tetracycline response elements (TRE) can drive expression of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) for inducible and reversible target gene suppression. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of transgenic inducible RNAi for suppression of essential genes. We set out to directly target cell proliferation by screening an RNAi library against DNA replication factors and identified multiple shRNAs against Replication Protein A, subunit 3 (RPA3). We generated transgenic mice with TRE-driven Rpa3 shRNAs whose expression enforced a reversible cell cycle arrest. In adult mice, the block in cell proliferation caused rapid atrophy of the intestinal epithelium which led to weight loss and lethality within 8–11 d of shRNA induction. Upon shRNA withdrawal, villus atrophy and weight loss were fully reversible. Thus, shRpa3 transgenic mice provide an interesting tool to study tissue maintenance and regeneration. Overall, we have established a robust system that serves the purpose of temperature-sensitive alleles in other model organisms, enabling inducible and reversible suppression of essential genes in a mammalian system. PMID:21482754

  18. Secretion-recapture process of apolipoprotein E in hepatic uptake of chylomicron remnants in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Shimano, H; Namba, Y; Ohsuga, J; Kawamura, M; Yamamoto, K; Shimada, M; Gotoda, T; Harada, K; Yazaki, Y; Yamada, N

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the role of apoE in hepatic uptake of chylomicron remnants, we studied chylomicron metabolism in transgenic mice overexpressing apoE in the liver. Plasma clearance of injected 125I-labeled human chylomicrons was fivefold faster in transgenic mice than in controls. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that apoE was specifically localized at the basolateral surface of hepatocytes from fasted transgenic mice. After injection of a large amount of chylomicrons, the density of the cell surface apoE was markedly reduced and vesicular staining was observed in the cytoplasm, suggesting that the cell surface apoE was used for hepatic endocytosis of chylomicrons and remnants. Polyacrylamide gel analysis of chylomicrons and remnants that had been reisolated from plasma and from liver membrane after the injection of chylomicrons showed the particles to be enriched with apoE mainly after their influx into the liver rather than during their residence in plasma. These results provide strong evidence for the secretion-recapture process of apoE, whereby chylomicron remnants enter the sinusoidal space, acquire apoE molecules, and subsequently are endocytosed. Data from experiments with very low density lipoprotein and LDL showed that this system is specific for chylomicron remnants. Images PMID:8182153

  19. Degeneration of beta-amyloid-associated cholinergic structures in transgenic APP SW mice.

    PubMed

    Lüth, Hans-Joachim; Apelt, Jenny; Ihunwo, Amadi O; Arendt, Thomas; Schliebs, Reinhard

    2003-07-01

    Cholinergic dysfunction is a consistent feature of Alzheimer's disease, and the interrelationship between beta-amyloid deposits, inflammation and early cholinergic cell loss is still not fully understood. To characterize the mechanisms by which beta-amyloid and pro-inflammatory cytokines may exert specific degenerating actions on cholinergic cells ultrastructural investigations by electron microscopy were performed in brain sections from transgenic Tg2576 mice that express the Swedish double mutation of the human amyloid precursor protein and progressively develop beta-amyloid plaques during aging. Both light and electron microscopical investigations of the cerebral cortex of 19-month-old transgenic mice revealed a number of pathological tissue responses in close proximity of beta-amyloid plaques, such as activated microglia, astroglial proliferation, increased number of fibrous astrocytes, brain edema, degeneration of nerve cells, dendrites and axon terminals. Ultrastructural detection of choline acetyl transferase (ChAT)-immunostaining in cerebral cortical sections of transgenic mice clearly demonstrated degeneration of ChAT-immunoreactive fibres in the environment of beta-amyloid plaques and activated glial cells suggesting a role of beta-amyloid and/or inflammation in specific degeneration of cholinergic synaptic structures. PMID:12788508

  20. Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Renin Exhibit Glucose Intolerance and Diet-Genotype Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Sarah J.; Kalupahana, Nishan S.; Soltani-Bejnood, Morvarid; Kim, Jung Han; Saxton, Arnold M.; Wasserman, David H.; De Taeye, Bart; Voy, Brynn H.; Quignard-Boulange, Annie; Moustaid-Moussa, Naima

    2013-01-01

    Numerous animal and clinical investigations have pointed to a potential role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the development of insulin resistance and diabetes in conditions of expanded fat mass. However, the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. We used a transgenic mouse model overexpressing renin in the liver (RenTgMK) to examine the effects of chronic activation of RAS on adiposity and insulin sensitivity. Hepatic overexpression of renin resulted in constitutively elevated plasma angiotensin II (four- to six-fold increase vs. wild-type, WT). Surprisingly, RenTgMK mice developed glucose intolerance despite low levels of adiposity and insulinemia. The transgenics also had lower plasma triglyceride levels. Glucose intolerance in transgenic mice fed a low-fat diet was comparable to that observed in high-fat fed WT mice. These studies demonstrate that overexpression of renin and associated hyperangiotensinemia impair glucose tolerance in a diet-dependent manner and further support a consistent role of RAS in the pathogenesis of diabetes and insulin resistance, independent of changes in fat mass. PMID:23308073

  1. Lysostaphin expression in mammary glands confers protection against staphylococcal infection in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Kerr, D E; Plaut, K; Bramley, A J; Williamson, C M; Lax, A J; Moore, K; Wells, K D; Wall, R J

    2001-01-01

    Infection of the mammary gland, in addition to causing animal distress, is a major economic burden of the dairy industry. Staphylococcus aureus is the major contagious mastitis pathogen, accounting for approximately 15-30% of infections, and has proved difficult to control using standard management practices. As a first step toward enhancing mastitis resistance of dairy animals, we report the generation of transgenic mice that secrete a potent anti-staphylococcal protein into milk. The protein, lysostaphin, is a peptidoglycan hydrolase normally produced by Staphylococcus simulans. When the native form is secreted by transfected eukaryotic cells it becomes glycosylated and inactive. However, removal of two glycosylation motifs through engineering asparagine to glutamine codon substitutions enables secretion of Gln(125,232)-lysostaphin, a bioactive variant. Three lines of transgenic mice, in which the 5'-flanking region of the ovine beta-lactoglobulin gene directed the secretion of Gln(125,232)-lysostaphin into milk, exhibit substantial resistance to an intramammary challenge of 104 colony-forming units (c.f.u.) of S. aureus, with the highest expressing line being completely resistant. Milk protein content and profiles of transgenic and nontransgenic mice are similar. These results clearly demonstrate the potential of genetic engineering to combat the most prevalent disease of dairy cattle.

  2. Antiviral effects of Stichopus japonicus acid mucopolysaccharide on hepatitis B virus transgenic mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Yongning; Li, Wei; Lu, Linlin; Zhou, Li; Victor, David W.; Xuan, Shiying

    2016-08-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a significant global pathogen and efficient cure for HBV patients is still a challenging goal. We previously reported that acidic mucopolysaccharide from stichopus japonicus selenka (SJAMP) could inhibit HBsAg and HBeAg expression in vitro. However, the potential anti-HBV effects of SJAMP in vivo have not yet been explored. In this study, we show that SJAMP exhibits potent anti-HBV activity in HBV transgenic mice in a dose-dependent manner. Specifically, sixty HBV transgenic male BALB/c mice were randomly selected to receive the treatment of PBS, low dose SJAMP (30 mg kg-1), middle dose SJAMP (40 mg kg-1), high dose SJAMP (50 mg kg-1) and IFN (45 IU kg-1) for 30 d. SJAMP treatment suppressed serum HBV-DNA, and liver HBsAg and HBcAg levels in HBV-transgenic mice. The present study highlights the potential application of SJAMP in HBV therapy.

  3. Cardiac Characteristics of Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Refsum Disease Gene-Associated Protein within the Heart.

    PubMed

    Koh, J T; Choi, H H; Ahn, K Y; Kim, J U; Kim, J H; Chun, J Y; Baik, Y H; Kim, K K

    2001-09-01

    Arrhythmia is a common cardiac symptom of Refsum disease. Recently, we identified a novel neuron-specific PAHX-associated protein (PAHX-AP1), which binds to the Refsum disease gene (PAHX). In this report, we developed heart-targeted transgenic (TG) mice under the control of alpha-myosin heavy chain promoter to determine whether cardiac overexpression of PAHX-AP1 provokes cardiac involvement symptoms. Northern and in situ hybridization analyses revealed PAHX-AP1 transcript was overexpressed in TG atrium, especially in the sinoatrial node. TG mice showed tachycardia, and tachyarrhythmia was observed in 20% of TG mice. Isolated TG atria showed higher frequency beating and were more sensitive to aconitine-induced tachyarrhythmia than the wild-type, and 40% of the TG atria showed irregular beating. Action potential duration in TG atrial fiber was shortened much more than the wild-type. Systemic administration of arrhythmogenic agents induced arrhythmia in TG mice, while no arrhythmia with the same dose in nonTG mice. Our results indicate that the chronic atrial tachycardia by overexpressed neuron-specific PAHX-AP1 transgene in atrium may be responsible for the increased susceptibility to arrhythmia.

  4. Behavioral Effects of Chronic Methamphetamine Treatment in HIV-1 gp120 Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Brook L.; Geyer, Mark A.; Buell, Mahalah; Perry, William; Young, Jared W.; Minassian, Arpi

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) dependence is frequently comorbid with HIV infection. Both factors are independently characterized by inhibitory deficits, which may manifest as increased motor activity, inappropriate perseverative behavior, and elevated exploratory responses to novel stimuli, but the effect of combined METH exposure and HIV is not well understood. In this study, we administered a chronic escalation/binge regimen of METH or vehicle treatment to wildtype (WT) or transgenic (tg) mice expressing the HIV-1 gp120 envelope protein and quantified disinhibition during the 7 days following drug withdrawal. We hypothesized that gp120tg mice administered chronic METH would exhibit more pronounced inhibitory deficits compared to vehicle-treated WT or gp120tg animals. Our results showed that METH treatment alone increased novel object interaction while female METH-treated gp120tg mice exhibited the highest level of exploration (holepoking) compared to other female mice. Transgenic mice exhibited fewer rears relative to WT, slightly less locomotion, and also demonstrated a trend towards more perseverative motor patterns. In summary, both METH treatment and gp120 expression may modify inhibition, but such effects are selective and dependent upon variations in age and sex that could impact dopamine and frontostriatal function. These findings illustrate the need to improve our knowledge about the combined effects of HIV and substance use and facilitate improved treatment methods for comorbid disease and drug dependence. PMID:22960458

  5. Behavioral effects of chronic methamphetamine treatment in HIV-1 gp120 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Henry, Brook L; Geyer, Mark A; Buell, Mahalah; Perry, William; Young, Jared W; Minassian, Arpi

    2013-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) dependence is frequently comorbid with HIV infection. Both factors are independently characterized by inhibitory deficits, which may manifest as increased motor activity, inappropriate perseverative behavior, and elevated exploratory responses to novel stimuli, but the effect of combined METH exposure and HIV is not well understood. In this study, we administered a chronic escalation/binge regimen of METH or vehicle treatment to wildtype (WT) or transgenic (tg) mice expressing the HIV-1 gp120 envelope protein and quantified disinhibition during the 7 days following drug withdrawal. We hypothesized that gp120tg mice administered chronic METH would exhibit more pronounced inhibitory deficits compared to vehicle-treated WT or gp120tg animals. Our results showed that METH treatment alone increased novel object interaction while female METH-treated gp120tg mice exhibited the highest level of exploration (holepoking) compared to other female mice. Transgenic mice exhibited fewer rears relative to WT, slightly less locomotion, and also demonstrated a trend toward more perseverative motor patterns. In summary, both METH treatment and gp120 expression may modify inhibition, but such effects are selective and dependent upon variations in age and sex that could impact dopamine and frontostriatal function. These findings illustrate the need to improve our knowledge about the combined effects of HIV and substance use and facilitate improved treatment methods for comorbid disease and drug dependence.

  6. Galantamine attenuates amyloid-β deposition and astrocyte activation in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhaoxuan; Zhao, Lingling; Chen, Xinxin; Cheng, Xiaoying; Zhang, Yan

    2015-12-01

    While galantamine may not provide a cure for Alzheimer's disease (AD), it decelerates the progression and provides symptomatic relief for this disorder. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic galantamine treatment on cognitive performance, Aβ deposition and astrocyte activation in the transgenic APP/PS1 mouse model of AD. Galantamine (5mg/kg, i.p.) or 0.9% saline was administrated twice daily for eight weeks in 10-month-old APP/PS1 mice. In addition a separate group of 10-month old male C57BL/6 wild type mice was included as a reference control. Compared with saline treated APP/PS1 mice, galantamine treated mice exhibited significantly improved escape latencies on Days 6 and 7 of testing (p<0.05) and significantly decreased numbers of platform crossings (p<0.01) as assessed in the Morris water maze. Galantamine reduced the total area of amyloid load within the hippocampus of transgenic APP/PS1 mice, inhibited astrocyte activation as assessed by immunohistochemistry and decreased intracellular TNF-α and IL-6 expression as determined by immunofluorescence. Galantamine failed to alter hippocampal levels of TNF-α and IL-6 as assayed by ELISA. Galantamine may be involved in modifying AD pathophysiological mechanisms by alleviating Aβ deposition and neuroinflammation. The results from this study provide new evidence for use of galantamine in the treatment of AD. PMID:26521029

  7. Lymphocytic infiltration and immune activation in metallothionein promoter-exendin-4 (MT-Exendin) transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Baggio, Laurie L; Holland, Dianne; Wither, Joan; Drucker, Daniel J

    2006-06-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) exhibits considerable potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes because of its effects on stimulation of insulin secretion and the inhibition of gastric emptying, appetite, and glucagon secretion. However, native GLP-1 undergoes rapid enzymatic inactivation, prompting development of long-acting degradation-resistant GLP-1 receptor agonists such as exendin-4 (Ex-4). To study the consequences of sustained exposure to Ex-4, we generated metallothionein promoter-exendin-4 (MT-Exendin) mice that continuously express a proexendin-4 transgene in multiple murine tissues. We now report that MT-Exendin mice develop extensive tissue lymphocytic infiltration with increased numbers of CD4(+) and CD8a(+) cells in the liver and/or kidney and increased numbers of B220(+) cells present in the pancreas and liver. MT-Exendin mice generate antibodies directed against Ex-4, exendin NH(2)-terminal peptide (ENTP), and proexendin-4 as well as antibodies that cross-react with native GLP-1. Furthermore, lymphocytes isolated from MT-Exendin mice proliferate in response to proexendin-4 but not after exposure to Ex-4 or ENTP. These findings demonstrate that expression of a proexendin-4 transgene may be associated with activation of humoral and cellular immune responses in mice.

  8. Development of T cell lymphoma in HTLV-1 bZIP factor and Tax double transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tiejun; Satou, Yorifumi; Matsuoka, Masao

    2014-07-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive T-cell malignancy caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). ATL cells possess a CD4+ CD25+ phenotype, similar to that of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Tax has been reported to play a crucial role in the leukemogenesis of HTLV-1. The HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ), which is encoded by the minus strand of the viral genomic RNA, is expressed in all ATL cases and induces neoplastic and inflammatory disease in vivo. To test whether HBZ and Tax are both required for T cell malignancy, we generated HBZ/Tax double transgenic mice in which HBZ and Tax are expressed exclusively in CD4+ T cells. Survival was much reduced in HBZ/Tax double-transgenic mice compared with wild type littermates. Transgenic expression of HBZ and Tax induced skin lesions and T-cell lymphoma in mice, resembling diseases observed in HTLV-1 infected individuals. However, Tax single transgenic mice did not develop major health problems. In addition, memory CD4+ T cells and Foxp3+ Treg cells counts were increased in HBZ/Tax double transgenic mice, and their proliferation was enhanced. There was very little difference between HBZ single and HBZ/Tax double transgenic mice. Taken together, these results show that HBZ, in addition to Tax, plays a critical role in T-cell lymphoma arising from HTLV-1 infection.

  9. Minimal E6 unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susič, Vasja

    2016-06-01

    A realistic model in the class of renormalizable supersymmetric E6 Grand Unified Theories is constructed. Its matter sector consists of 3 × 27 representations, while the Higgs sector is 27 +27 ¯+35 1'+35 1' ¯+78 . An analytic solution for a Standard Model vacuum is found and the Yukawa sector analyzed. It is argued that if one considers the increased predictability due to only two symmetric Yukawa matrices in this model, it can be considered a minimal SUSY E6 model with this type of matter sector. This contribution is based on Ref. [1].

  10. Cholinotrophic basal forebrain system alterations in 3xTg-AD transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Perez, Sylvia E; He, Bin; Muhammad, Nadeem; Oh, Kwang-Jin; Fahnestock, Margaret; Ikonomovic, Milos D; Mufson, Elliott J

    2011-02-01

    The cholinotrophic system, which is dependent upon nerve growth factor and its receptors for survival, is selectively vulnerable in Alzheimer's disease (AD). But, virtually nothing is known about how this deficit develops in relation to the hallmark lesions of this disease, amyloid plaques and tau containing neurofibrillary tangles. The vast majority of transgenic models of AD used to evaluate the effect of beta amyloid (Aβ) deposition upon the cholinotrophic system over-express the amyloid precursor protein (APP). However, nothing is known about how this system is affected in triple transgenic (3xTg)-AD mice, an AD animal model displaying Aβ plaque- and tangle-like pathology in the cortex and hippocampus, which receive extensive cholinergic innervation. We performed a detailed morphological and biochemical characterization of the cholinotrophic system in young (2-4 months), middle-aged (13-15 months) and old (18-20 months) 3xTg-AD mice. Cholinergic neuritic swellings increased in number and size with age, and were more conspicuous in the hippocampal-subicular complex in aged female than in 3xTg-AD male mice. Stereological analysis revealed a reduction in choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) positive cells in the medial septum/vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca in aged 3xTg-AD mice. ChAT enzyme activity levels decreased significantly in the hippocampus of middle-aged 3xTg-AD mice compared to age-matched non-transgenic (or wild type) mice. ProNGF protein levels increased in the cortex of aged 3xTg-AD mice, whereas TrkA protein levels were reduced in a gender-dependent manner in aged mutant mice. In contrast, p75(NTR) protein cortical levels were stable but increased in the hippocampus of aged 3xTg-AD mice. These data demonstrate that cholinotrophic alterations in 3xTg-AD mice are age- and gender-dependent and more pronounced in the hippocampus, a structure more severely affected by Aβ plaque pathology. PMID:20937383

  11. Hepatocytes proteomic alteration and seroproteome analysis of HBV-transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chen; Wei, Haiming; Sun, Rui; Zhang, Jian; Tian, Zhigang

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis B is the most common and serious liver disease, especially in developing countries. Although HBV pathogenesis has been extensively investigated, the proteomic alteration of hepatocytes during HBV chronic infection is still unclear. Using the purified hepatocytes, we compared the protein profiles by 2-DE and LC-MS between HBV-transgenic (Tg) and corresponding background mice. Twenty-seven altered proteins were identified in hepatocytes from HBV-Tg mice, among which 13 proteins were involved in mitochondrion metabolism pathway including tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and oxidative response; four proteins (SELENBP, SCP2, RGN and PRDX1) were also dramatically changed in liver samples from HBV-infected patients. Important genes (gpx, sod, ogg et al.) correlated to oxidative damage were up-regulated in the liver of HBV-Tg mice. Reactive oxygen species production was significantly increased while ATP production was decreased in liver mitochondria from HBV-Tg mice. Moreover, hepatocytes of HBV-Tg mice were more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death than that of wild-type control. Using 2-D Western blotting analysis, eight hepatocyte proteins were found to react with sera of HBV-Tg mice but not with that of background mice. Interestingly, two (Etfa and Dmgdh) of the eight reactive proteins were overexpressed in HBV-Tg mice. We believe this study is the first proteomic and seroproteome analysis of HBV-infected mammalian hepatocyte and provides insightful links between HBV infection and HBV-induced liver diseases.

  12. Papillomavirus E6 proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Howie, Heather L.; Katzenellenbogen, Rachel A.; Galloway, Denise A.

    2009-02-20

    The papillomaviruses are small DNA viruses that encode approximately eight genes, and require the host cell DNA replication machinery for their viral DNA replication. Thus papillomaviruses have evolved strategies to induce host cell DNA synthesis balanced with strategies to protect the cell from unscheduled replication. While the papillomavirus E1 and E2 genes are directly involved in viral replication by binding to and unwinding the origin of replication, the E6 and E7 proteins have auxillary functions that promote proliferation. As a consequence of disrupting the normal checkpoints that regulate cell cycle entry and progression, the E6 and E7 proteins play a key role in the oncogenic properties of human papillomaviruses with a high risk of causing anogenital cancers (HR HPVs). As a consequence, E6 and E7 of HR HPVs are invariably expressed in cervical cancers. This article will focus on the E6 protein and its numerous activities including inactivating p53, blocking apoptosis, activating telomerase, disrupting cell adhesion, polarity and epithelial differentiation, altering transcription and reducing immune recognition.

  13. Genetic Biomarkers for ALS Disease in Transgenic SOD1G93A Mice

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Ana C.; Manzano, Raquel; Atencia-Cibreiro, Gabriela; Oliván, Sara; Muñoz, María J.; Zaragoza, Pilar; Cordero-Vázquez, Pilar; Esteban-Pérez, Jesús; García-Redondo, Alberto; Osta, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    The pathophysiological mechanisms of both familial and sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) are unknown, although growing evidence suggests that skeletal muscle tissue is a primary target of ALS toxicity. Skeletal muscle biopsies were performed on transgenic SOD1G93A mice, a mouse model of ALS, to determine genetic biomarkers of disease longevity. Mice were anesthetized with isoflurane, and three biopsy samples were obtained per animal at the three main stages of the disease. Transcriptional expression levels of seventeen genes, Ankrd1, Calm1, Col19a1, Fbxo32, Gsr, Impa1, Mef2c, Mt2, Myf5, Myod1, Myog, Nnt, Nogo A, Pax7, Rrad, Sln and Snx10, were tested in each muscle biopsy sample. Total RNA was extracted using TRIzol Reagent according to the manufacturer's protocol, and variations in gene expression were assayed by real-time PCR for all of the samples. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the linear correlation between transcriptional expression levels throughout disease progression and longevity. Consistent with the results obtained from total skeletal muscle of transgenic SOD1G93A mice and 74-day-old denervated mice, five genes (Mef2c, Gsr, Col19a1, Calm1 and Snx10) could be considered potential genetic biomarkers of longevity in transgenic SOD1G93A mice. These results are important because they may lead to the exploration of previously unexamined tissues in the search for new disease biomarkers and even to the application of these findings in human studies. PMID:22412900

  14. Quantitative analysis of lentiviral transgene expression in mice over seven generations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Song, Yong-tao; Liu, Qin; Liu, Cang'e; Wang, Lu-lu; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Xiao-yang; Wu, Jun; Wei, Hong

    2010-10-01

    Lentiviral transgenesis is now recognized as an extremely efficient and cost-effective method to produce transgenic animals. Transgenes delivered by lentiviral vectors exhibited inheritable expression in many species including those which are refractory to genetic modification such as non-human primates. However, epigenetic modification was frequently observed in lentiviral integrants, and transgene expression found to be inversely correlated with methylation density. Recent data showed that about one-third lentiviral integrants exhibited hypermethylation and low expression, but did not demonstrate whether those integrants with high expression could remain constant expression and hypomethylated during long term germline transmission. In this study, using lentiviral eGFP transgenic mice as the experimental animals, lentiviral eGFP expression levels and its integrant numbers in genome were quantitatively analyzed by fluorescent quantitative polymerase-chain reaction (FQ-PCR), using the house-keeping gene ribosomal protein S18 (Rps18) and the single copy gene fatty acid binding protein of the intestine (Fabpi) as the internal controls respectively. The methylation densities of the integrants were quantitatively analyzed by bisulfite sequencing. We found that the lentiviral integrants with high expression exhibited a relative constant expression level per integrant over at least seven generations. Besides, the individuals containing these integrants exhibited eGFP expression levels which were positively and almost linearly correlated with the integrant numbers in their genomes, suggesting that no remarkable position effect on transgene expression of the integrants analyzed was observed. In addition, over seven generations the methylation density of these integrants did not increase, but rather decreased remarkably, indicating that these high expressing integrants were not subjected to de novo methylation during at least seven generations of germline transmission. Taken

  15. Overexpression of Heparanase Lowers the Amyloid Burden in Amyloid-β Precursor Protein Transgenic Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Jendresen, Charlotte B.; Cui, Hao; Zhang, Xiao; Vlodavsky, Israel; Nilsson, Lars N. G.; Li, Jin-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) and HS proteoglycans (HSPGs) colocalize with amyloid-β (Aβ) deposits in Alzheimer disease brain and in Aβ precursor protein (AβPP) transgenic mouse models. Heparanase is an endoglycosidase that specifically degrades the unbranched glycosaminoglycan side chains of HSPGs. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that HS and HSPGs are active participators of Aβ pathogenesis in vivo. We therefore generated a double-transgenic mouse model overexpressing both human heparanase and human AβPP harboring the Swedish mutation (tgHpa*Swe). Overexpression of heparanase did not affect AβPP processing because the steady-state levels of Aβ1–40, Aβ1–42, and soluble AβPP β were the same in 2- to 3-month-old double-transgenic tgHpa*Swe and single-transgenic tgSwe mice. In contrast, the Congo red-positive amyloid burden was significantly lower in 15-month-old tgHpa*Swe brain than in tgSwe brain. Likewise, the Aβ burden, measured by Aβx-40 and Aβx-42 immunohistochemistry, was reduced significantly in tgHpa*Swe brain. The intensity of HS-stained plaques correlated with the Aβx-42 burden and was reduced in tgHpa*Swe mice. Moreover, the HS-like molecule heparin facilitated Aβ1–42-aggregation in an in vitro Thioflavin T assay. The findings suggest that HSPGs contribute to amyloid deposition in tgSwe mice by increasing Aβ fibril formation because heparanase-induced fragmentation of HS led to a reduced amyloid burden. Therefore, drugs interfering with Aβ-HSPG interactions might be a potential strategy for Alzheimer disease treatment. PMID:25548284

  16. Recovery of emotional behaviour in neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) null mutant mice through transgenic expression of NCAM180.

    PubMed

    Stork, O; Welzl, H; Wolfer, D; Schuster, T; Mantei, N; Stork, S; Hoyer, D; Lipp, H; Obata, K; Schachner, M

    2000-09-01

    In the present study we further investigate functions of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in the mature central nervous system and its implications for animal behaviour. To this end we generated transgenic mice expressing the major NCAM isoform with the largest cytoplasmic domain, NCAM180, under control of a promoter for the small form neurofilament gene. Transgenic mice were also bred with mice deficient in endogenous NCAM (Ncam-/- mice) so that effects of NCAM180 could be analysed in the presence and absence of endogenous NCAM. While overexpression of transgenic NCAM180 was without apparent behavioural or morphological effect, its expression in Ncam-/- mice counteracted NCAM ablation-induced aggressive, anxiety-like and antidepressant-like behaviour. It furthermore prevented a hypersensitivity of Ncam-/- mice to the anxiolytic serotonin1A (5-HT1A) receptor agonist buspirone. Such recovery of emotional behaviour and behavioural 5-HT1A response occurred in spite of misdevelopment of the olfactory bulb and hippocampus that is characteristic of Ncam-/- mice, and without an apparent change in the expression of 5-HT1A binding sites in the brain. Hippocampus- and amygdala-dependent learning, though disturbed in Ncam-/- mice, remained unaffected by the transgenic NCAM180. We suggest an involvement of NCAM180-mediated cell recognition processes in the serotonergic modulation of emotional behaviour in adult mice.

  17. Differential effects of enrichment on learning and memory function in NR2B transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Tang, Y P; Wang, H; Feng, R; Kyin, M; Tsien, J Z

    2001-11-01

    It has been known that environmental enrichment leads to better learning and memory in mice. However, the molecular mechanisms are not known. In this study, we used the 10th-12th of the NR2B transgenic (Tg) lines, in which the NMDA receptor function is enhanced via the NR2B subunit transgene in neurons of the forebrain, to test the hypothesis of the involvement of NMDA receptor function in enrichment-induced better learning and memory. Consistent with our previous results, both larger long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus and superior learning and memory were observed in naive NR2B Tg mice even after the 10th-12th generation of breeding. After enrichment, wild-type mice exhibited overall improvement in their performances in contextual and cued conditioning, fear extinctions, and novel object recognition tasks. Interestingly, the same enrichment procedures could not further increase the performance of NR2B Tg mice in contextual conditioning, cued conditioning, or fear extinction, thereby indicating that enhanced NMDA receptor function can occlude these enrichment effects. However, we found that in the novel object recognition task enriched NR2B Tg mice exhibited much longer recognition memory (up to 1 week), compared to that (up to 3 days) in naive NR2B Tg mice. Furthermore, our biochemical experiments showed that enrichment significantly increased protein levels of GluR1, NR2B, and NR2A subunits of glutamate receptors in both wild-type and NR2B Tg mice. Therefore, our results suggest an interactive nature of molecular pathways involved in both environmental and genetic NMDA receptor manipulations for enhancing learning and memory.

  18. Reduced striatal dopamine DA D2 receptor function in dominant-negative GSK-3 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Sintes, Raquel; Bortolozzi, Analia; Artigas, Francesc; Lucas, José J

    2014-09-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine kinase with constitutive activity involved in cellular architecture, gene expression, cell proliferation, fate decision and apoptosis, among others. GSK-3 expression is particularly high in brain where it may be involved in neurological and psychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer׳s disease, bipolar disorder and major depression. A link with schizophrenia is suggested by the antipsychotic drug-induced GSK-3 regulation and by the involvement of the Akt/GSK-3 pathway in dopaminergic neurotransmission. Taking advantage of the previous development of dominant negative GSK-3 transgenic mice (Tg) showing a selective reduction of GSK-3 activity in forebrain neurons but not in dopaminergic neurons, we explored the relationship between GSK-3 and dopaminergic neurotransmission in vivo. In microdialysis experiments, local quinpirole (DA D2-R agonist) in dorsal striatum reduced dopamine (DA) release significantly less in Tg mice than in wild-type (WT) mice. However, local SKF-81297 (selective DA D1-R agonist) in dorsal striatum reduced DA release equally in both control and Tg mice indicating a comparable function of DA D1-R in the direct striato-nigral pathway. Likewise, systemic quinpirole administration - acting preferentially on presynaptic DA D2- autoreceptors to modulate DA release-reduced striatal DA release similarly in both control and Tg mice. Quinpirole reduced locomotor activity and induced c-fos expression in globus pallidus (both striatal DA D2-R-mediated effects) significantly more in WT than in Tg mice. Taking together, the present results show that dominant negative GSK-3 transgenic mice show reduced DA D2-R-mediated function in striatum and further support a link between dopaminergic neurotransmission and GSK-3 activity.

  19. Accelerated puberty and late-onset hypothalamic hypogonadism in female transgenic skinny mice overexpressing leptin.

    PubMed

    Yura, S; Ogawa, Y; Sagawa, N; Masuzaki, H; Itoh, H; Ebihara, K; Aizawa-Abe, M; Fujii, S; Nakao, K

    2000-03-01

    Excess or loss of body fat can be associated with infertility, suggesting that adequate fat mass is essential for proper reproductive function. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that is involved in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure, and its synthesis and secretion are markedly increased in obesity. Short-term administration of leptin accelerates the onset of puberty in normal mice and corrects the sterility of leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. These findings suggest a role for leptin as an endocrine signal between fat depots and the reproductive axis, but the effect of hyperleptinemia on the initiation and maintenance of reproductive function has not been elucidated. To address this issue, we examined the reproductive phenotypes of female transgenic skinny mice with elevated plasma leptin concentrations comparable to those in obese subjects. With no apparent adipose tissue, female transgenic skinny mice exhibit accelerated puberty and intact fertility at younger ages followed by successful delivery of healthy pups. However, at older ages, they develop hypothalamic hypogonadism characterized by prolonged menstrual cycles, atrophic ovary, reduced hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone contents, and poor pituitary luteinizing hormone secretion. This study has demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge that accelerated puberty and late-onset hypothalamic hypogonadism are associated with chronic hyperleptinemia, thereby leading to a better understanding of the pathophysiological and therapeutic implication of leptin.

  20. Inhibition of elastase-pulmonary emphysema in dominant-negative MafB transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Aida, Yasuko; Shibata, Yoko; Abe, Shuichi; Inoue, Sumito; Kimura, Tomomi; Igarashi, Akira; Yamauchi, Keiko; Nunomiya, Keiko; Kishi, Hiroyuki; Nemoto, Takako; Sato, Masamichi; Sato-Nishiwaki, Michiko; Nakano, Hiroshi; Sato, Kento; Kubota, Isao

    2014-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AMs) play important roles in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We previously demonstrated upregulation of the transcription factor MafB in AMs of mice exposed to cigarette smoke. The aim of this study was to elucidate the roles of MafB in the development of pulmonary emphysema. Porcine pancreatic elastase was administered to wild-type (WT) and dominant-negative (DN)-MafB transgenic (Tg) mice in which MafB activity was suppressed only in macrophages. We measured the mean linear intercept and conducted cell differential analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells, surface marker analysis using flow cytometry, and immunohistochemical staining using antibodies to matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-12. Airspace enlargement of the lungs was suppressed significantly in elastase-treated DN-MafB Tg mice compared with treated WT mice. AMs with projected pseudopods were decreased in DN-MafB Tg mice. The number of cells intermediately positive for F4/80 and weakly or intermediately positive for CD11b, which are considered cell subsets of matured AMs, decreased in the BAL of DN-MafB Tg mice. Furthermore, MMP-9 and -12 were significantly downregulated in BAL cells of DN-MafB Tg mice. Because MMPs exacerbate emphysema, MafB may be involved in pulmonary emphysema development through altered maturation of macrophages and MMP expression.

  1. Production of recombinant human proinsulin in the milk of transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xi; Kraft, Jana; Ni, Yingdong; Zhao, Feng-Qi

    2014-01-01

    There is a steady increasing demand for insulin worldwide. Current insulin manufacturing capacities can barely meet this increasing demand. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of producing human proinsulin in the milk of transgenic animals. Four lines of transgenic mice harboring a human insulin cDNA with expression driven by the goat β-casein gene promoter were generated. The expression level of human proinsulin in milk was as high as 8.1 g/L. The expression of the transgene was only detected in the mammary gland during lactation, with higher levels at mid-lactation and lower levels at early and late lactation. The blood glucose and insulin levels and the major milk compositions were unchanged, and the transgenic animals had no apparent health defects. The mature insulin derived from the milk proinsulin retained its biological activity. In conclusion, our study provides supporting evidence to explore the production of high levels of human proinsulin in the milk of dairy animals. PMID:25267062

  2. Neuron-specific expression and physiological regulation of bovine vasopressin transgenes in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Ang, H L; Carter, D A; Murphy, D

    1993-01-01

    We have used transgenic mice to analyse the regulation of the bovine vasopressin (BVP) gene. We find that the restriction of BVP gene expression to anatomically and functionally distinct hypothalamic neuronal groups is achieved, in part, by selective repression. The expression of a 1.25 kb BVP proximal promoter, which on its own confers general expression of a reporter to most peripheral and brain tissues, was limited by sequences in the BVP structural gene to neural cells in the adrenal medulla and brain. Transgene expression in the hypothalamus was shown to be regulated by the physiological stimulus of dehydration in parallel with the endogenous gene. The expression of a larger 13.4 kb BVP transgene, containing 9 kb of 5' upstream sequence, the VP structural gene and 1.5 kb 3' of the transcription unit, was even more restricted and resembles that of the endogenous mouse gene. Hypothalamic expression of the 13.4 kb BVP transgene was regulated appropriately in response to an osmotic challenge. Images PMID:7685275

  3. Lens specific RLIP76 transgenic mice show a phenotype similar to microphthalmia.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Mukesh; Sharma, Rajendra; Yadav, Sushma; Wakamiya, Maki; Chaudhary, Pankaj; Awasthi, Sanjay; Awasthi, Yogesh C

    2014-01-01

    RALBP1/RLIP76 is a ubiquitously expressed protein, involved in promotion and regulation of functions initiated by Ral and R-Ras small GTPases. Presence of multiple domains in its structure enables RLIP76 to be involved in a number of physiological processes such as endocytosis, exocytosis, mitochondrial fission, actin cytoskeleton remodeling, and transport of exogenous and endogenous toxicants. Previously, we have established that RLIP76 provides protection to ocular tissues against oxidative stress by transporting the glutathione-conjugates of the toxic, electrophilic products of lipid peroxidation generated during oxidative stress. Therefore, we developed lens specific RLIP76 transgenic mice (lensRLIP76 Tg) to elucidate the role of RLIP76 in protection against oxidative stress, but these transgenic mice showed impaired lens development and a phenotype with small eyes similar to that observed in microphthalmia. These findings prompted us to investigate the mechanisms via which RLIP76 affects lens and eye development. In the present study, we report engineering of lensRLIP76 Tg mice, characterization of the associated phenotype, and the possible molecular mechanisms that lead to the impaired development of eye and lens in these mice. The results of microarray array analysis indicate that the genes involved in pathways for G-Protein signaling, actin cytoskeleton reorganization, endocytosis, and apoptosis are affected in these transgenic mice. The expression of transcription factors, Pax6, Hsf1, and Hsf4b known to be involved in lens development is down regulated in the lens of these Tg mice. However, the expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps), the downstream targets of Hsfs, is differentially affected in the lens showing down regulation of Hsp27, Hsp40, up regulation of Hsp60, and no effect on Hsp70 and Hsp90 expression. The disruption in the organization of actin cytoskeleton of these Tg mice was associated with the inhibition of the activation of Cdc42 and

  4. Utrophin Up-Regulation by an Artificial Transcription Factor in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mattei, Elisabetta; Corbi, Nicoletta; Di Certo, Maria Grazia; Strimpakos, Georgios; Severini, Cinzia; Onori, Annalisa; Desantis, Agata; Libri, Valentina; Buontempo, Serena; Floridi, Aristide; Fanciulli, Maurizio; Baban, Dilair; Davies, Kay E.; Passananti, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a severe muscle degenerative disease, due to absence of dystrophin. There is currently no effective treatment for DMD. Our aim is to up-regulate the expression level of the dystrophin related gene utrophin in DMD, complementing in this way the lack of dystrophin functions. To this end we designed and engineered several synthetic zinc finger based transcription factors. In particular, we have previously shown that the artificial three zinc finger protein named Jazz, fused with the appropriate effector domain, is able to drive the transcription of a test gene from the utrophin promoter “A”. Here we report on the characterization of Vp16-Jazz-transgenic mice that specifically over-express the utrophin gene at the muscular level. A Chromatin Immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP) demonstrated the effective access/binding of the Jazz protein to active chromatin in mouse muscle and Vp16-Jazz was shown to be able to up-regulate endogenous utrophin gene expression by immunohistochemistry, western blot analyses and real-time PCR. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a transgenic mouse expressing an artificial gene coding for a zinc finger based transcription factor. The achievement of Vp16-Jazz transgenic mice validates the strategy of transcriptional targeting of endogenous genes and could represent an exclusive animal model for use in drug discovery and therapeutics. PMID:17712422

  5. Green Tea Polyphenols Control Dysregulated Glutamate Dehydrogenase in Transgenic Mice by Hijacking the ADP Activation Site

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Changhong; Li, Ming; Chen, Pan; Narayan, Srinivas; Matschinsky, Franz M.; Bennett, Michael J.; Stanley, Charles A.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2012-05-09

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-glutamate and, in animals, is extensively regulated by a number of metabolites. Gain of function mutations in GDH that abrogate GTP inhibition cause the hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndrome (HHS), resulting in increased pancreatic {beta}-cell responsiveness to leucine and susceptibility to hypoglycemia following high protein meals. We have previously shown that two of the polyphenols from green tea (epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin gallate (ECG)) inhibit GDH in vitro and that EGCG blocks GDH-mediated insulin secretion in wild type rat islets. Using structural and site-directed mutagenesis studies, we demonstrate that ECG binds to the same site as the allosteric regulator, ADP. Perifusion assays using pancreatic islets from transgenic mice expressing a human HHS form of GDH demonstrate that the hyperresponse to glutamine caused by dysregulated GDH is blocked by the addition of EGCG. As observed in HHS patients, these transgenic mice are hypersensitive to amino acid feeding, and this is abrogated by oral administration of EGCG prior to challenge. Finally, the low basal blood glucose level in the HHS mouse model is improved upon chronic administration of EGCG. These results suggest that this common natural product or some derivative thereof may prove useful in controlling this genetic disorder. Of broader clinical implication is that other groups have shown that restriction of glutamine catabolism via these GDH inhibitors can be useful in treating various tumors. This HHS transgenic mouse model offers a highly useful means to test these agents in vivo.

  6. A pipeline for the generation of shRNA transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Dow, Lukas E; Premsrirut, Prem K; Zuber, Johannes; Fellmann, Christof; McJunkin, Katherine; Miething, Cornelius; Park, Youngkyu; Dickins, Ross A; Hannon, Gregory J; Lowe, Scott W

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is an extremely effective tool for studying gene function in almost all metazoan and eukaryotic model systems. RNAi in mice, through the expression of short hairpin RNA s (shRNA s), offers something not easily achieved with traditional genetic approaches—inducible and reversible gene silencing. However, technical variability associated with the production of shRNA transgenic strains has so far limited their widespread use. Here we describe a pipeline for the generation of miR30-based shRNA transgenic mice that enables efficient and consistent targeting of doxycycline-regulated, fluorescence-linked shRNA s to the Col1a1 locus. Notably, the protocol details crucial steps in the design and testing of miR30-based shRNA s to maximize the potential for developing effective transgenic strains. In all, this 14-week procedure provides a fast and cost-effective way for any laboratory to investigate gene function in vivo in the mouse. PMID:22301776

  7. Cosmetics-triggered percutaneous remote control of transgene expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Ye, Haifeng; Xie, Mingqi; Daoud El-Baba, Marie; Fussenegger, Martin

    2015-08-18

    Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the rational design of trigger-inducible gene switches that program cellular behavior in a reliable and predictable manner. Capitalizing on genetic componentry, including the repressor PmeR and its cognate operator OPmeR, that has evolved in Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato DC3000 to sense and resist plant-defence metabolites of the paraben class, we have designed a set of inducible and repressible mammalian transcription-control devices that could dose-dependently fine-tune transgene expression in mammalian cells and mice in response to paraben derivatives. With an over 60-years track record as licensed preservatives in the cosmetics industry, paraben derivatives have become a commonplace ingredient of most skin-care products including shower gels, cleansing toners and hand creams. As parabens can rapidly reach the bloodstream of mice following topical application, we used this feature to percutaneously program transgene expression of subcutaneous designer cell implants using off-the-shelf commercial paraben-containing skin-care cosmetics. The combination of non-invasive, transdermal and orthogonal trigger-inducible remote control of transgene expression may provide novel opportunities for dynamic interventions in future gene and cell-based therapies.

  8. The development of transgenic mice for the expression of large amounts of human lysozyme in milk.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaojie; Lin, Yanli; Xi, Yongyi; Shao, Zhenlu; Zhou, Yanrong; Liu, Fang; Chen, Hongxing

    2014-06-01

    Human lysozyme (hLYZ) has important potential applications as antimicrobial medicine and food additive. To develop a robust expression vector that ensures expression of large amounts of hLYZ in milk, here a 26,267 bp chimeric mouse whey acidic protein (mWAP)::hLYZ cassette was constructed and used as a mammary gland-specific expression vector, in which a 3,010 bp genomic sequence in the 24,466 bp mWAP gene locus was substituted by a 4,811 bp genomic sequence of hLYZ, exactly from the start codon to the stop codon. Corresponding transgenic mice were generated, and enzymatically-active hLYZ was expressed at 18.4-35 g l(-1) in the milk of most transgenic mouse lines. Our transgenic mice carrying chimeric mWAP::hLYZ represent a model system for cost-effective production of hLYZ. PMID:24563307

  9. Cosmetics-triggered percutaneous remote control of transgene expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Ye, Haifeng; Xie, Mingqi; Daoud El-Baba, Marie; Fussenegger, Martin

    2015-08-18

    Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the rational design of trigger-inducible gene switches that program cellular behavior in a reliable and predictable manner. Capitalizing on genetic componentry, including the repressor PmeR and its cognate operator OPmeR, that has evolved in Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato DC3000 to sense and resist plant-defence metabolites of the paraben class, we have designed a set of inducible and repressible mammalian transcription-control devices that could dose-dependently fine-tune transgene expression in mammalian cells and mice in response to paraben derivatives. With an over 60-years track record as licensed preservatives in the cosmetics industry, paraben derivatives have become a commonplace ingredient of most skin-care products including shower gels, cleansing toners and hand creams. As parabens can rapidly reach the bloodstream of mice following topical application, we used this feature to percutaneously program transgene expression of subcutaneous designer cell implants using off-the-shelf commercial paraben-containing skin-care cosmetics. The combination of non-invasive, transdermal and orthogonal trigger-inducible remote control of transgene expression may provide novel opportunities for dynamic interventions in future gene and cell-based therapies. PMID:25943548

  10. Utrophin up-regulation by an artificial transcription factor in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Elisabetta; Corbi, Nicoletta; Di Certo, Maria Grazia; Strimpakos, Georgios; Severini, Cinzia; Onori, Annalisa; Desantis, Agata; Libri, Valentina; Buontempo, Serena; Floridi, Aristide; Fanciulli, Maurizio; Baban, Dilair; Davies, Kay E; Passananti, Claudio

    2007-08-22

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a severe muscle degenerative disease, due to absence of dystrophin. There is currently no effective treatment for DMD. Our aim is to up-regulate the expression level of the dystrophin related gene utrophin in DMD, complementing in this way the lack of dystrophin functions. To this end we designed and engineered several synthetic zinc finger based transcription factors. In particular, we have previously shown that the artificial three zinc finger protein named Jazz, fused with the appropriate effector domain, is able to drive the transcription of a test gene from the utrophin promoter "A". Here we report on the characterization of Vp16-Jazz-transgenic mice that specifically over-express the utrophin gene at the muscular level. A Chromatin Immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP) demonstrated the effective access/binding of the Jazz protein to active chromatin in mouse muscle and Vp16-Jazz was shown to be able to up-regulate endogenous utrophin gene expression by immunohistochemistry, western blot analyses and real-time PCR. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a transgenic mouse expressing an artificial gene coding for a zinc finger based transcription factor. The achievement of Vp16-Jazz transgenic mice validates the strategy of transcriptional targeting of endogenous genes and could represent an exclusive animal model for use in drug discovery and therapeutics.

  11. Cosmetics-triggered percutaneous remote control of transgene expression in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Ye, Haifeng; Xie, Mingqi; Daoud El-Baba, Marie; Fussenegger, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the rational design of trigger-inducible gene switches that program cellular behavior in a reliable and predictable manner. Capitalizing on genetic componentry, including the repressor PmeR and its cognate operator OPmeR, that has evolved in Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato DC3000 to sense and resist plant-defence metabolites of the paraben class, we have designed a set of inducible and repressible mammalian transcription-control devices that could dose-dependently fine-tune transgene expression in mammalian cells and mice in response to paraben derivatives. With an over 60-years track record as licensed preservatives in the cosmetics industry, paraben derivatives have become a commonplace ingredient of most skin-care products including shower gels, cleansing toners and hand creams. As parabens can rapidly reach the bloodstream of mice following topical application, we used this feature to percutaneously program transgene expression of subcutaneous designer cell implants using off-the-shelf commercial paraben-containing skin-care cosmetics. The combination of non-invasive, transdermal and orthogonal trigger-inducible remote control of transgene expression may provide novel opportunities for dynamic interventions in future gene and cell-based therapies. PMID:25943548

  12. Green tea polyphenols control dysregulated glutamate dehydrogenase in transgenic mice by hijacking the ADP activation site.

    PubMed

    Li, Changhong; Li, Ming; Chen, Pan; Narayan, Srinivas; Matschinsky, Franz M; Bennett, Michael J; Stanley, Charles A; Smith, Thomas J

    2011-09-30

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-glutamate and, in animals, is extensively regulated by a number of metabolites. Gain of function mutations in GDH that abrogate GTP inhibition cause the hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndrome (HHS), resulting in increased pancreatic β-cell responsiveness to leucine and susceptibility to hypoglycemia following high protein meals. We have previously shown that two of the polyphenols from green tea (epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin gallate (ECG)) inhibit GDH in vitro and that EGCG blocks GDH-mediated insulin secretion in wild type rat islets. Using structural and site-directed mutagenesis studies, we demonstrate that ECG binds to the same site as the allosteric regulator, ADP. Perifusion assays using pancreatic islets from transgenic mice expressing a human HHS form of GDH demonstrate that the hyperresponse to glutamine caused by dysregulated GDH is blocked by the addition of EGCG. As observed in HHS patients, these transgenic mice are hypersensitive to amino acid feeding, and this is abrogated by oral administration of EGCG prior to challenge. Finally, the low basal blood glucose level in the HHS mouse model is improved upon chronic administration of EGCG. These results suggest that this common natural product or some derivative thereof may prove useful in controlling this genetic disorder. Of broader clinical implication is that other groups have shown that restriction of glutamine catabolism via these GDH inhibitors can be useful in treating various tumors. This HHS transgenic mouse model offers a highly useful means to test these agents in vivo.

  13. Transgenic mice support replication of hepatitis delta virus RNA in multiple tissues, particularly in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Polo, J M; Jeng, K S; Lim, B; Govindarajan, S; Hofman, F; Sangiorgi, F; Lai, M M

    1995-01-01

    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is hepatotropic and frequently causes fulminant hepatitis in both human and nonhuman primate hosts. To understand the molecular basis of HDV tissue tropism and the mechanism of pathogenesis, transgenic mice in which replication-competent HDV dimeric RNA is expressed under the control of either liver-specific or universal transcriptional promoters were developed. The expressed RNA replicated efficiently in the liver and several tissues of nonhepatic origin. Surprisingly, maximal replication of HDV RNA occurred in skeletal muscle and was almost 100-fold greater than in the liver. These findings suggest that the hepatotropism of HDV is most likely a receptor-mediated restriction and that muscle-specific factors may facilitate HDV RNA replication. No evidence of cytopathology was apparent in most of the tissues examined, including the liver, supporting the contention that hepatocellular disease is not mediated by direct cytopathological effects associated with HDV RNA replication and gene expression. However, mild muscle atrophy in some of the transgenic mice was noted. Delta antigen was detected in the nuclei of myocytes. Only the small form, not the large form, of delta antigen was detected, suggesting that the RNA editing event which causes the conversion of delta antigen did not occur in transgenic mice. Furthermore, the 0.8-kb antigenomic RNA species, which is postulated to be the mRNA for delta antigen, was not detected in mice. The preferential replication of HDV RNA in skeletal muscle suggests that HDV RNA replication can be facilitated by certain muscle-specific factors. PMID:7609056

  14. Transmissibility of H-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy to Hamster PrP Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroyuki; Masujin, Kentaro; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Two distinct forms of atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathies (H-BSE and L-BSE) can be distinguished from classical (C-) BSE found in cattle based on biochemical signatures of disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc). H-BSE is transmissible to wild-type mice-with infected mice showing a long survival period that is close to their normal lifespan-but not to hamsters. Therefore, rodent-adapted H-BSE with a short survival period would be useful for analyzing H-BSE characteristics. In this study, we investigated the transmissibility of H-BSE to hamster prion protein transgenic (TgHaNSE) mice with long survival periods. Although none of the TgHaNSE mice manifested the disease during their lifespan, PrPSc accumulation was observed in some areas of the brain after the first passage. With subsequent passages, TgHaNSE mice developed the disease with a mean survival period of 220 days. The molecular characteristics of proteinase K-resistant PrPSc (PrPres) in the brain were identical to those observed in first-passage mice. The distribution of immunolabeled PrPSc in the brains of TgHaNSE mice differed between those infected with H-BSE as compared to C-BSE or L-BSE, and the molecular properties of PrPres in TgHaNSE mice infected with H-BSE differed from those of the original isolate. The strain-specific electromobility, glycoform profiles, and proteolytic cleavage sites of H-BSE in TgHaNSE mice were indistinguishable from those of C-BSE, in which the diglycosylated form was predominant. These findings indicate that strain-specific pathogenic characteristics and molecular features of PrPres in the brain are altered during cross-species transmission. Typical H-BSE features were restored after back passage from TgHaNSE to bovinized transgenic mice, indicating that the H-BSE strain was propagated in TgHaNSE mice. This could result from the overexpression of the hamster prion protein. PMID:26466381

  15. Transmissibility of H-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy to Hamster PrP Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroyuki; Masujin, Kentaro; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Two distinct forms of atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathies (H-BSE and L-BSE) can be distinguished from classical (C-) BSE found in cattle based on biochemical signatures of disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc). H-BSE is transmissible to wild-type mice-with infected mice showing a long survival period that is close to their normal lifespan-but not to hamsters. Therefore, rodent-adapted H-BSE with a short survival period would be useful for analyzing H-BSE characteristics. In this study, we investigated the transmissibility of H-BSE to hamster prion protein transgenic (TgHaNSE) mice with long survival periods. Although none of the TgHaNSE mice manifested the disease during their lifespan, PrPSc accumulation was observed in some areas of the brain after the first passage. With subsequent passages, TgHaNSE mice developed the disease with a mean survival period of 220 days. The molecular characteristics of proteinase K-resistant PrPSc (PrPres) in the brain were identical to those observed in first-passage mice. The distribution of immunolabeled PrPSc in the brains of TgHaNSE mice differed between those infected with H-BSE as compared to C-BSE or L-BSE, and the molecular properties of PrPres in TgHaNSE mice infected with H-BSE differed from those of the original isolate. The strain-specific electromobility, glycoform profiles, and proteolytic cleavage sites of H-BSE in TgHaNSE mice were indistinguishable from those of C-BSE, in which the diglycosylated form was predominant. These findings indicate that strain-specific pathogenic characteristics and molecular features of PrPres in the brain are altered during cross-species transmission. Typical H-BSE features were restored after back passage from TgHaNSE to bovinized transgenic mice, indicating that the H-BSE strain was propagated in TgHaNSE mice. This could result from the overexpression of the hamster prion protein.

  16. Use of a 2-aminothiazole to Treat Chronic Wasting Disease in Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Berry, David; Giles, Kurt; Oehler, Abby; Bhardwaj, Sumita; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2015-07-15

    Treatment with the 2-aminothiazole IND24 extended the survival of mice infected with mouse-adapted scrapie but also resulted in the emergence of a drug-resistant prion strain. Here, we determined whether IND24 extended the survival of transgenic mice infected with prions that caused scrapie in sheep or prions that caused chronic wasting disease (CWD; hereafter "CWD prions") in deer, using 2 isolates for each disease. IND24 doubled the incubation times for mice infected with CWD prions but had no effect on the survival of those infected with scrapie prions. Biochemical, neuropathologic, and cell culture analyses were used to characterize prion strain properties following treatment, and results indicated that the CWD prions were not altered by IND24, regardless of survival extension. These results suggest that IND24 may be a viable candidate for treating CWD in infected captive cervid populations and raise questions about why some prion strains develop drug resistance whereas others do not. PMID:26116725

  17. Use of a 2-aminothiazole to Treat Chronic Wasting Disease in Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Berry, David; Giles, Kurt; Oehler, Abby; Bhardwaj, Sumita; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2015-07-15

    Treatment with the 2-aminothiazole IND24 extended the survival of mice infected with mouse-adapted scrapie but also resulted in the emergence of a drug-resistant prion strain. Here, we determined whether IND24 extended the survival of transgenic mice infected with prions that caused scrapie in sheep or prions that caused chronic wasting disease (CWD; hereafter "CWD prions") in deer, using 2 isolates for each disease. IND24 doubled the incubation times for mice infected with CWD prions but had no effect on the survival of those infected with scrapie prions. Biochemical, neuropathologic, and cell culture analyses were used to characterize prion strain properties following treatment, and results indicated that the CWD prions were not altered by IND24, regardless of survival extension. These results suggest that IND24 may be a viable candidate for treating CWD in infected captive cervid populations and raise questions about why some prion strains develop drug resistance whereas others do not.

  18. Atypical scrapie prions from sheep and lack of disease in transgenic mice overexpressing human prion protein.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, Jonathan D F; Joiner, Susan; Linehan, Jacqueline M; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Spiropoulos, John; Simmons, Marion M; Griffiths, Peter C; Groschup, Martin H; Hope, James; Brandner, Sebastian; Asante, Emmanuel A; Collinge, John

    2013-11-01

    Public and animal health controls to limit human exposure to animal prions are focused on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), but other prion strains in ruminants may also have zoonotic potential. One example is atypical/Nor98 scrapie, which evaded statutory diagnostic methods worldwide until the early 2000s. To investigate whether sheep infected with scrapie prions could be another source of infection, we inoculated transgenic mice that overexpressed human prion protein with brain tissue from sheep with natural field cases of classical and atypical scrapie, sheep with experimental BSE, and cattle with BSE. We found that these mice were susceptible to BSE prions, but disease did not develop after prolonged postinoculation periods when mice were inoculated with classical or atypical scrapie prions. These data are consistent with the conclusion that prion disease is less likely to develop in humans after exposure to naturally occurring prions of sheep than after exposure to epizootic BSE prions of ruminants.

  19. Expression of metallothionein-human growth hormone fusion genes in transgenic mice results in disproportionate skeletal gigantism.

    PubMed

    Wolf, E; Rapp, K; Brem, G

    1991-01-01

    Transgenic mice harbouring mouse metallothionein I-human growth hormone (MT-hGH) fusion genes were produced using the microinjection technique. The bones of adult MT-hGH transgenic mice, which continuously expressed high levels of hGH in their serum, and age-matched controls lacking detectable concentrations of hGH were measured microscopically. In addition to analyzing absolute skeletal dimensions, measurements were related to the cube root of the maximum body weight of the same animal. Absolute values obtained from transgenic mice were significantly higher than those obtained from controls for most of the defined measurements. However, the increase in skeletal dimensions was mostly not as pronounced as the increase in body weight and all bones were not affected to the same extent. There was no significant correlation between the serum GH concentration in individual mice and their degree of bony overgrowth. A disproportionate skeletal gigantism in MT-hGH transgenic mice may result from time differences in epiphyseal union of various bones of both sexes as well as differences in mechanical bone loading due to a drastically increased body weight. Individual concentrations of locally produced tissue insulin-like growth factor I (IGF I) might also play a role. Possible effects of these factors are discussed. The results presented in this study show that MT-hGH transgenic mice provide a powerful tool for the investigation of hormonal regulation of bone growth. PMID:1938045

  20. Isoflurane exposure during mid-adulthood attenuates age-related spatial memory impairment in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Su, Diansan; Zhao, Yanxing; Xu, Huan; Wang, Beilei; Chen, Xuemei; Chen, Jie; Wang, Xiangrui

    2012-01-01

    Many in vitro findings suggest that isoflurane exposure might accelerate the process of Alzheimer Disease (AD); however, no behavioral evidence exists to support this theory. In the present study, we hypothesized that exposure of APP/PS1 transgenic mice to isoflurane during mid-adulthood, which is the pre-symptomatic phase of amyloid beta (Abeta) deposition, would alter the progression of AD. Seven-month-old Tg(APPswe,PSEN1dE9)85Dbo/J transgenic mice and their wild-type littermates were exposed to 1.1% isoflurane for 2 hours per day for 5 days. Learning and memory ability was tested 48 hours and 5 months following isoflurane exposure using the Morris Water Maze and Y maze, respectively. Abeta deposition and oligomers in the hippocampus were measured by immunohistochemistry or Elisa 5 months following isoflurane exposure. We found that the performance of both the transgenic and wild-type mice in the Morris Water Maze significantly improved 48 hours following isoflurane exposure. The transgenic mice made significantly fewer discrimination errors in the Y maze following isoflurane exposure, and no differences were found between wild-type littermates 5 months following isoflurane exposure. For the transgenic mice, the Abeta plaque and oligomers in the hippocampus was significantly decreased in the 5 months following isoflurane exposure. In summary, repeated isoflurane exposure during the pre-symptomatic phase not only improved spatial memory in both the APP/PS1 transgenic and wild-type mice shortly after the exposure but also prevented age-related decline in learning and memory and attenuated the Abeta plaque and oligomers in the hippocampus of transgenic mice.

  1. Novel behavioural characteristics of female APPSwe/PS1ΔE9 double transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, David; Low, Jac Kee; Logge, Warren; Garner, Brett; Karl, Tim

    2014-03-01

    Murine models are commonly used to evaluate progression of Alzheimer's disease. APPSwe/PS1ΔE9 (APPxPS1) mice have previously been reported to demonstrate impaired learning and memory in the Morris water maze test. However, this paradigm introduces a variety of behaviours that may confound performance of the mice, thus an alternative was sought. A battery of behavioural tests (light-dark test, elevated plus maze, novel object recognition task, social recognition test, cheeseboard task and prepulse inhibition) was used to investigate various behavioural and cognitive domains with relevance to Alzheimer's disease. We found 9-month old female APPxPS1 mice exhibited impaired spatial memory in the reversal cheeseboard task. In addition, task-dependent hyperlocomotion and anxiolytic-like behaviours were observed in the light-dark test. Female APPxPS1 demonstrated intact object recognition memory and sensorimotor gating was not significantly decreased compared to control mice except for one particular interstimulus interval. The social recognition test failed to detect preference for social novelty in control females. In conclusion, this is the first study to describe a memory deficit in female APPxPS1 mice in the hidden cheeseboard task. Transgenic females also exhibited task-dependent reduction in anxiety behaviours and hyperlocomotion. These novel findings enhance our understanding of the behavioural phenotype of APPxPS1 females and present the cheeseboard as a valid alternative to other established spatial memory tests. Furthermore, the task-dependency of some of our findings suggests that behavioural profiling of APPxPS1 transgenic mice should be assessed using a variety of behavioural paradigms.

  2. Altered temporal patterns of anxiety in aged and amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Bedrosian, Tracy A.; Herring, Kamillya L.; Weil, Zachary M.; Nelson, Randy J.

    2011-01-01

    Both normal aging and dementia are associated with dysregulation of the biological clock, which contributes to disrupted circadian organization of physiology and behavior. Diminished circadian organization in conjunction with the loss of cholinergic input to the cortex likely contributes to impaired cognition and behavior. One especially notable and relatively common circadian disturbance among the aged is “sundowning syndrome,” which is characterized by exacerbated anxiety, agitation, locomotor activity, and delirium during the hours before bedtime. Sundowning has been reported in both dementia patients and cognitively intact elderly individuals living in institutions; however, little is known about temporal patterns in anxiety and agitation, and the neurobiological basis of these rhythms remains unspecified. In the present study, we explored the diurnal pattern of anxiety-like behavior in aged and amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice. We then attempted to treat the observed behavioral disturbances in the aged mice using chronic nightly melatonin treatment. Finally, we tested the hypothesis that time-of-day differences in acetylcholinesterase and choline acetyltransferase expression and general neuronal activation (i.e., c-Fos expression) coincide with the behavioral symptoms. Our results show a temporal pattern of anxiety-like behavior that emerges in elderly mice. This behavioral pattern coincides with elevated locomotor activity relative to adult mice near the end of the dark phase, and with time-dependent changes in basal forebrain acetylcholinesterase expression. Transgenic APP mice show a similar behavioral phenomenon that is not observed among age-matched wild-type mice. These results may have useful applications to the study and treatment of age- and dementia-related circadian behavioral disturbances, namely, sundowning syndrome. PMID:21709248

  3. Transgenic Carrot Expressing Fusion Protein Comprising M. tuberculosis Antigens Induces Immune Response in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Permyakova, Natalia V.; Zagorskaya, Alla A.; Belavin, Pavel A.; Uvarova, Elena A.; Nosareva, Olesya V.; Nesterov, Andrey E.; Novikovskaya, Anna A.; Zav'yalov, Evgeniy L.; Moshkin, Mikhail P.; Deineko, Elena V.

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains one of the major infectious diseases, which continues to pose a major global health problem. Transgenic plants may serve as bioreactors to produce heterologous proteins including antibodies, antigens, and hormones. In the present study, a genetic construct has been designed that comprises the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes cfp10, esat6 and dIFN gene, which encode deltaferon, a recombinant analog of the human γ-interferon designed for expression in plant tissues. This construct was transferred to the carrot (Daucus carota L.) genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This study demonstrates that the fusion protein CFP10-ESAT6-dIFN is synthesized in the transgenic carrot storage roots. The protein is able to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in laboratory animals (mice) when administered either orally or by injection. It should be emphasized that M. tuberculosis antigens contained in the fusion protein have no cytotoxic effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. PMID:25949997

  4. Endogenous galectin-3 expression levels modulate immune responses in galectin-3 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Aparna D; Gude, Rajiv P; Kalraiya, Rajiv D; Chiplunkar, Shubhada V

    2015-12-01

    Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a β-galactoside-binding mammalian lectin, is involved in cancer progression and metastasis. However, there is an unmet need to identify the underlying mechanisms of cancer metastasis mediated by endogenous host galectin-3. Galectin-3 is also known to be an important regulator of immune responses. The present study was aimed at analysing how expression of endogenous galectin-3 regulates host immunity and lung metastasis in B16F10 murine melanoma model. Transgenic Gal-3(+/-) (hemizygous) and Gal-3(-/-) (null) mice exhibited decreased levels of Natural Killer (NK) cells and lower NK mediated cytotoxicity against YAC-1 tumor targets, compared to Gal-3(+/+) (wild-type) mice. On stimulation, Gal-3(+/-) and Gal-3(-/-) mice splenocytes showed increased T cell proliferation than Gal-3(+/+) mice. Intracellular calcium flux was found to be lower in activated T cells of Gal-3(-/-) mice as compared to T cells from Gal-3(+/+) and Gal-3(+/-) mice. In Gal-3(-/-) mice, serum Th1, Th2 and Th17 cytokine levels were found to be lowest, exhibiting dysregulation of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines balance. Marked decrease in serum IFN-γ levels and splenic IFN-γR1 (IFN-γ Receptor 1) expressing T and NK cell percentages were observed in Gal-3(-/-) mice. On recombinant IFN-γ treatment of splenocytes in vitro, Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS) 1 and SOCS3 protein expression was higher in Gal-3(-/-) mice compared to that in Gal-3(+/+) and Gal-3(+/-) mice; suggesting possible attenuation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT) 1 mediated IFN-γ signaling in Gal-3(-/-) mice. The ability of B16F10 melanoma cells to form metastatic colonies in the lungs of Gal-3(+/+) and Gal-3(-/-) mice remained comparable, whereas it was found to be reduced in Gal-3(+/-) mice. Our data indicates that complete absence of endogenous host galectin-3 facilitates lung metastasis of B16F10 cells in mice, which may be contributed by dysregulated immune

  5. Endogenous galectin-3 expression levels modulate immune responses in galectin-3 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Aparna D; Gude, Rajiv P; Kalraiya, Rajiv D; Chiplunkar, Shubhada V

    2015-12-01

    Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a β-galactoside-binding mammalian lectin, is involved in cancer progression and metastasis. However, there is an unmet need to identify the underlying mechanisms of cancer metastasis mediated by endogenous host galectin-3. Galectin-3 is also known to be an important regulator of immune responses. The present study was aimed at analysing how expression of endogenous galectin-3 regulates host immunity and lung metastasis in B16F10 murine melanoma model. Transgenic Gal-3(+/-) (hemizygous) and Gal-3(-/-) (null) mice exhibited decreased levels of Natural Killer (NK) cells and lower NK mediated cytotoxicity against YAC-1 tumor targets, compared to Gal-3(+/+) (wild-type) mice. On stimulation, Gal-3(+/-) and Gal-3(-/-) mice splenocytes showed increased T cell proliferation than Gal-3(+/+) mice. Intracellular calcium flux was found to be lower in activated T cells of Gal-3(-/-) mice as compared to T cells from Gal-3(+/+) and Gal-3(+/-) mice. In Gal-3(-/-) mice, serum Th1, Th2 and Th17 cytokine levels were found to be lowest, exhibiting dysregulation of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines balance. Marked decrease in serum IFN-γ levels and splenic IFN-γR1 (IFN-γ Receptor 1) expressing T and NK cell percentages were observed in Gal-3(-/-) mice. On recombinant IFN-γ treatment of splenocytes in vitro, Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS) 1 and SOCS3 protein expression was higher in Gal-3(-/-) mice compared to that in Gal-3(+/+) and Gal-3(+/-) mice; suggesting possible attenuation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT) 1 mediated IFN-γ signaling in Gal-3(-/-) mice. The ability of B16F10 melanoma cells to form metastatic colonies in the lungs of Gal-3(+/+) and Gal-3(-/-) mice remained comparable, whereas it was found to be reduced in Gal-3(+/-) mice. Our data indicates that complete absence of endogenous host galectin-3 facilitates lung metastasis of B16F10 cells in mice, which may be contributed by dysregulated immune

  6. Transmissibility of H-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy to Hamster PrP Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Hiroyuki; Masujin, Kentaro; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Two distinct forms of atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathies (H-BSE and L-BSE) can be distinguished from classical (C-) BSE found in cattle based on biochemical signatures of disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc). H-BSE is transmissible to wild-type mice—with infected mice showing a long survival period that is close to their normal lifespan—but not to hamsters. Therefore, rodent-adapted H-BSE with a short survival period would be useful for analyzing H-BSE characteristics. In this study, we investigated the transmissibility of H-BSE to hamster prion protein transgenic (TgHaNSE) mice with long survival periods. Although none of the TgHaNSE mice manifested the disease during their lifespan, PrPSc accumulation was observed in some areas of the brain after the first passage. With subsequent passages, TgHaNSE mice developed the disease with a mean survival period of 220 days. The molecular characteristics of proteinase K-resistant PrPSc (PrPres) in the brain were identical to those observed in first-passage mice. The distribution of immunolabeled PrPSc in the brains of TgHaNSE mice differed between those infected with H-BSE as compared to C-BSE or L-BSE, and the molecular properties of PrPres in TgHaNSE mice infected with H-BSE differed from those of the original isolate. The strain-specific electromobility, glycoform profiles, and proteolytic cleavage sites of H-BSE in TgHaNSE mice were indistinguishable from those of C-BSE, in which the diglycosylated form was predominant. These findings indicate that strain-specific pathogenic characteristics and molecular features of PrPres in the brain are altered during cross-species transmission. Typical H-BSE features were restored after back passage from TgHaNSE to bovinized transgenic mice, indicating that the H-BSE strain was propagated in TgHaNSE mice. This could result from the overexpression of the hamster prion protein. PMID:26466381

  7. Dual promoter lentiviral vector generates transgenic mice expressing E2-CSFV glycoprotein in their milk, but impairs early identification of transgenic embryos.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Oliberto Sánchez; Carratalá, Yanet Prieto; Puerta, Silvia Gómez; Pereira, Natalie C Parra; Amarán, Lester Suárez; Chaves, Silvana P Jimenez; Alonso, Jorge R Toledo

    2011-04-15

    Lentiviral vectors containing the green fluorescent protein gene have been successfully used to select transgenic embryos before transfer to a surrogate mother. However, there are apparently no reports regarding early detection of transgenic embryos using a lentiviral vector carrying an additional transcription unit for tissue-specific expression of a valuable protein. In this study, two HIV-based lentiviral vectors were constructed. The first one contained the green fluorescent protein (GFP) coding sequence driven by the early SV40 promoter (Lv-G), whereas the other contained an additional transcription unit for the expression of E2 glycoprotein from classical swine fever virus, driven by a 1.5 kb αS1casein promoter from water buffalo (Lv-αS1cE2hisG). Microinjection of single-cell mouse embryos with Lv-G lentiviral vector rendered embryos which were GFP-positive, beginning at the four-cell stage. Of 33 mice born, 28 (81%) carried the transgene DNA and 15 (55.5%) were GFP-positive. Microinjection of Lv-αS1cE2hisG lentiviral vector yielded 28 mice born; although 24 (85%) carried the transgene DNA, none were GFP-positive, suggesting that the tissue-specific expression cassette interfered with expression of the ubiquitous trancriptional unit. In Lv-αS1cE2hisG transgenic mice, E2his was expressed in milk as a homodimer (at concentrations ≤ 0.422 mg/mL). This was apparently the first report of expression of a recombinant protein in the milk of transgenic animals generated by lentiviral transgenesis.

  8. Homeodomain binding motifs modulate the probability of odorant receptor gene choice in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Vassalli, Anne; Feinstein, Paul; Mombaerts, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Odorant receptor (OR) genes constitute with 1200 members the largest gene family in the mouse genome. A mature olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) is thought to express just one OR gene, and from one allele. The cell bodies of OSNs that express a given OR gene display a mosaic pattern within a particular region of the main olfactory epithelium. The mechanisms and cis-acting DNA elements that regulate the expression of one OR gene per OSN – OR gene choice – remain poorly understood. Here, we describe a reporter assay to identify minimal promoters for OR genes in transgenic mice, which are produced by the conventional method of pronuclear injection of DNA. The promoter transgenes are devoid of an OR coding sequence, and instead drive expression of the axonal marker tau-βgalactosidase. For four mouse OR genes (M71, M72, MOR23, and P3) and one human OR gene (hM72), a mosaic, OSN-specific pattern of reporter expression can be obtained in transgenic mice with contiguous DNA segments of only ∼300 bp that are centered around the transcription start site (TSS). The ∼150 bp region upstream of the TSS contains three conserved sequence motifs, including homeodomain (HD) binding sites. Such HD binding sites are also present in the H and P elements, DNA sequences that are known to strongly influence OR gene expression. When a 19mer encompassing a HD binding site from the P element is multimerized nine times and added upstream of a MOR23 minigene that contains the MOR23 coding region, we observe a dramatic increase in the number of transgene-expressing founders and lines and in the number of labeled OSNs. By contrast, a nine-times multimerized 19mer with a mutant HD binding site does not have these effects. We hypothesize that HD binding sites in the H and P elements and in OR promoters modulate the probability of OR gene choice. PMID:21111823

  9. GFAP expression and social deficits in transgenic mice overexpressing human sAPPα

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Antoinette R; Hou, Huayan; Song, Min; Obregon, Demian F; Portis, Samantha; Barger, Steven; Shytle, Doug; Stock, Saundra; Mori, Takashi; Sanberg, Paul G; Murphy, Tanya; Tan, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Autistic individuals display impaired social interactions and language, and restricted, stereotyped behaviors. Elevated levels of secreted amyloid precursor protein-alpha (sAPPα), the product of α-secretase cleavage of APP, are found in the plasma of some individuals with autism. The sAPPα protein is neurotrophic and neuroprotective and recently showed a correlation to glial differentiation in human neural stem cells (NSCs) via the IL-6 pathway. Considering evidence of gliosis in postmortem autistic brains, we hypothesized that subsets of patients with autism would exhibit elevations in CNS sAPPα and mice generated to mimic this observation would display markers suggestive of gliosis and autism-like behavior. Elevations in sAPPα levels were observed in brains of autistic patients compared to controls. Transgenic mice engineered to overexpress human sAPPα (TgsAPPα mice) displayed hypoactivity, impaired sociability, increased brain glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression, and altered Notch1 and IL-6 levels. NSCs isolated from TgsAPPα mice, and those derived from wild-type mice treated with sAPPα, displayed suppressed β-tubulin III and elevated GFAP expression. These results suggest that elevations in brain sAPPα levels are observed in subsets of individuals with autism and TgsAPPα mice display signs suggestive of gliosis and behavioral impairment. PMID:23840007

  10. GFAP expression and social deficits in transgenic mice overexpressing human sAPPα.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Antoinette R; Hou, Huayan; Song, Min; Obregon, Demian F; Portis, Samantha; Barger, Steven; Shytle, Doug; Stock, Saundra; Mori, Takashi; Sanberg, Paul G; Murphy, Tanya; Tan, Jun

    2013-09-01

    Autistic individuals display impaired social interactions and language, and restricted, stereotyped behaviors. Elevated levels of secreted amyloid precursor protein-alpha (sAPPα), the product of α-secretase cleavage of APP, are found in the plasma of some individuals with autism. The sAPPα protein is neurotrophic and neuroprotective and recently showed a correlation to glial differentiation in human neural stem cells (NSCs) via the IL-6 pathway. Considering evidence of gliosis in postmortem autistic brains, we hypothesized that subsets of patients with autism would exhibit elevations in CNS sAPPα and mice generated to mimic this observation would display markers suggestive of gliosis and autism-like behavior. Elevations in sAPPα levels were observed in brains of autistic patients compared to controls. Transgenic mice engineered to overexpress human sAPPα (TgsAPPα mice) displayed hypoactivity, impaired sociability, increased brain glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression, and altered Notch1 and IL-6 levels. NSCs isolated from TgsAPPα mice, and those derived from wild-type mice treated with sAPPα, displayed suppressed β-tubulin III and elevated GFAP expression. These results suggest that elevations in brain sAPPα levels are observed in subsets of individuals with autism and TgsAPPα mice display signs suggestive of gliosis and behavioral impairment. PMID:23840007

  11. Decreased Plasma Aβ in Hyperlipidemic APPSL Transgenic Mice Is Associated with BBB Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Löffler, Tina; Flunkert, Stefanie; Temmel, Magdalena; Hutter-Paier, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Besides the continued focus on Aβ and Tau in Alzheimer's disease (AD), it is increasingly evident that other pathologic characteristics, such as vascular alterations or inflammation, are associated with AD. Whether these changes are an initial cause for the onset of AD or occur as a result of the disease in late stages is still under debate. In the present study, the impact of the high-fat diet (HFD) induced vascular risk factor hyperlipidemia on Aβ levels and clearance as well as cerebral vasculature and blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity was examined in mice. For this purpose, human APP transgenic (APPSL) and wildtype (WT) mice were fed a HFD for 12 weeks. Plasma and tissues were subsequently investigated for Aβ distribution and concentrations of several vascular markers. Decreased plasma Aβ together with increased levels of insoluble Aβ and amyloid plaques in the brains of HFD fed APPSL mice point toward impaired Aβ clearance due to HFD. Additionally, HFD induced manifold alterations in the cerebral vasculature and BBB integrity exclusively in human APP overexpressing mice but not in wildtype mice. Therefore, HFD appears to enhance Aβ dependent vascular/BBB dysfunction in combination with an increased proportion of cerebral to plasma Aβ in APPSL mice. PMID:27313503

  12. Effects of transgene expression level per cell in mice livers on induction of transgene-specific immune responses after hydrodynamic gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Yin, Y; Takahashi, Y; Hamana, A; Nishikawa, M; Takakura, Y

    2016-07-01

    We previously showed that high and sustained transgene expression of antigenic proteins induced transgene-specific immune responses. In the present study, a detailed relationship between the level of transgene expression per cell and immune response after hydrodynamic gene transfer was investigated. Cypridina luciferase (cLuc), a secretory antigenic reporter protein, was selected as a model antigen, and pROSA-cLuc, a plasmid expressing cLuc, was constructed. A fixed dose (30 μg) of pROSA-cLuc was delivered to mice by a single hydrodynamic injection or three injections at 24-h intervals because the number of cells transfected with plasmids is dependent on the number of hydrodynamic injections. Serum cLuc activity, an indicator of the total amount of cLuc transgene expression, was almost equal between these two groups. In contrast, the high-dose single injection induced higher levels of cLuc-specific humoral and cellular immune responses than the three low-dose injections. Moreover, the serum cLuc activity of the high-dose single injection group began to decline ~10 days after injection, whereas the activity remained constant in the three low-dose injection group. These results indicate that it is preferable to reduce the level of transgene expression per cell to avoid induction of the transgene-specific immune response after hydrodynamic gene transfer. PMID:26966861

  13. Characterization of transgenic mice containing adenovirus early region 3 genomic DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Fejer, G; Gyory, I; Tufariello, J; Horwitz, M S

    1994-01-01

    Human adenoviruses (Ad) contain a complex transcription region (E3) which codes for proteins that interact with several arms of the immune system. However, E3 genes are not essential for replication in tissue culture. An E3-encoded 19,000-molecular-weight (19K) glycoprotein (gp19K) binds to the class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in the endoplasmic reticulum and prevents MHC transport to the cell surface. Three other E3 proteins are involved in the inhibition of apoptosis by tumor necrosis factor alpha. The entire E3 genomic DNA was utilized to produce transgenic mice to study the effect of the E3 proteins on pathogenesis of various infectious agents and to investigate the in vivo synthesis and processing of the multiple E3 mRNAs and proteins. There was basal expression of the E3 promoter in the thymus, kidneys, uterus, and testes and at all levels of the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, the E3 promoter of the transgene could be activated in some other organs, including the liver, by infection of these animals with an E3-deficient Ad (Ad7001) which contains a functional E1A region. Transactivation in vivo could also be demonstrated by infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. There appeared to be differential ratios of expression between several of the E3 mRNAs in transgenic lung fibroblasts and primary kidney cells cultured from the transgenic animals. This observation suggested that there was differential mRNA splicing that was organ specific. These transgenic animals should provide a useful model for studying the effects of the E3 proteins on the immune system and on diseases affected either by control of MHC or by selected functions of tumor necrosis factor that are inhibitable by Ad E3 proteins. Images PMID:8057467

  14. Increased Expression of the Na,K-ATPase alpha4 Isoform Enhances Sperm Motility in Transgenic Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Tamara; Sanchez, Gladis; McDermott, Jeffrey P.; Nguyen, Anh-Nguyet; Kumar, T. Rajendra; Blanco, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    The Na,K-ATPase alpha4 (ATP1A4) isoform is specifically expressed in male germ cells and is highly prevalent in spermatozoa. Although selective inhibition of alpha4 activity with ouabain has been shown to affect sperm motility, a more direct analysis of the role of this isoform in sperm movement has not yet been demonstrated. To establish this, we engineered transgenic mice that express the rat alpha4 isoform fused to green fluorescent protein in male germ cells, under the control of the mouse protamine 1 promoter. We showed that the rat Atp1a4 transgene is expressed in mouse spermatozoa and that it is localized to the sperm flagellum. In agreement with increased expression of the alpha4 isoform, sperm from transgenic mice displayed higher alpha4-specific Na,K-ATPase activity and binding of fluorescently labeled ouabain than wild-type mice. In contrast, expression and activity of ATP1A1 (alpha1), the other Na,K-ATPase alpha isoform present in sperm, remained unchanged. Similar to wild-type mice, mice expressing the alpha4 transgene exhibited normal testis and sperm morphology and no differences in fertility. However, compared to wild-type mice, sperm from transgenic mice displayed plasma membrane hyperpolarization and higher total and progressive motility. Other parameters of motility also increased, including straight-line, curvilinear, and average path velocities and amplitude of lateral head displacement. In addition, sperm from the transgenic mice showed enhanced sperm hyperactive motility, but no changes in progesterone-induced acrosome reaction. Altogether, these results provide new genetic evidence for the role of the ATP1A4 isoform in sperm motility, under both noncapacitating and capacitating conditions. PMID:20826726

  15. Overexpression of IGF-I in skeletal muscle of transgenic mice does not prevent unloading-induced atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. S.; Booth, F. W.; DeMayo, F.; Schwartz, R. J.; Gordon, S. E.; Fiorotto, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the association between local insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) overexpression and atrophy in skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that endogenous skeletal muscle IGF-I mRNA expression would decrease with hindlimb unloading (HU) in mice, and that transgenic mice overexpressing human IGF-I (hIGF-I) specifically in skeletal muscle would exhibit less atrophy after HU. Male transgenic mice and nontransgenic mice from the parent strain (FVB) were divided into four groups (n = 10/group): 1) transgenic, weight-bearing (IGF-I/WB); 2) transgenic, hindlimb unloaded (IGF-I/HU); 3) nontransgenic, weight-bearing (FVB/WB); and 4) nontransgenic, hindlimb unloaded (FVB/HU). HU groups were hindlimb unloaded for 14 days. Body mass was reduced (P < 0.05) after HU in both IGF-I (-9%) and FVB mice (-13%). Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that the relative abundance of mRNA for the endogenous rodent IGF-I (rIGF-I) was unaltered by HU in the gastrocnemius (GAST) muscle of wild-type FVB mice. High-level expression of hIGF-I peptide and mRNA was confirmed in the GAST and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of the transgenic mice. Nevertheless, masses of the GAST and TA muscles were reduced (P < 0.05) in both FVB/HU and IGF-I/HU groups compared with FVB/WB and IGF-I/WB groups, respectively, and the percent atrophy in mass of these muscles did not differ between FVB and IGF-I mice. Therefore, skeletal muscle atrophy may not be associated with a reduction of endogenous rIGF-I mRNA level in 14-day HU mice. We conclude that high local expression of hIGF-I mRNA and peptide in skeletal muscle alone cannot attenuate unloading-induced atrophy of fast-twitch muscle in mice.

  16. Defective renal water handling in transgenic mice over-expressing human CD39/NTPDase1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Morris, Kaiya L; Sparrow, Shannon K; Dwyer, Karen M; Enjyoji, Keiichi; Robson, Simon C; Kishore, Bellamkonda K

    2012-08-01

    Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 hydrolyzes extracellular ATP and ADP to AMP. Previously, we showed that CD39 is expressed at several sites within the kidney and thus may impact the availability of type 2 purinergic receptor (P2-R) ligands. Because P2-Rs appear to regulate urinary concentrating ability, we have evaluated renal water handling in transgenic mice (TG) globally overexpressing hCD39. Under basal conditions, TG mice exhibited significantly impaired urinary concentration and decreased protein abundance of AQP2 in the kidney compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Urinary excretion of total nitrates/nitrites was significantly higher in TG mice, but the excretion of AVP or PGE(2) was equivalent to control WT mice. There were no significant differences in electrolyte-free water clearance or fractional excretion of sodium. Under stable hydrated conditions (gelled diet feeding), the differences between the WT and TG mice were negated, but the decrease in urine osmolality persisted. When water deprived, TG mice failed to adequately concentrate urine and exhibited impaired AVP responses. However, the increases in urinary osmolalities in response to subacute dDAVP or chronic AVP treatment were similar in TG and WT mice. These observations suggest that TG mice have impaired urinary concentrating ability despite normal AVP levels. We also note impaired AVP release in response to water deprivation but that TG kidneys are responsive to exogenous dDAVP or AVP. We infer that heightened nucleotide scavenging by increased levels of CD39 altered the release of endogenous AVP in response to dehydration. We propose that ectonucleotidases and modulated purinergic signaling impact urinary concentration and indicate potential utility of targeted therapy for the treatment of water balance disorders.

  17. RAP-011, an activin receptor ligand trap, increases hemoglobin concentration in hepcidin transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Langdon, Jacqueline M; Barkataki, Sangjucta; Berger, Alan E; Cheadle, Chris; Xue, Qian-Li; Sung, Victoria; Roy, Cindy N

    2015-01-01

    Over expression of hepcidin antimicrobial peptide is a common feature of iron-restricted anemia in humans. We investigated the erythroid response to either erythropoietin or RAP-011, a "murinized" ortholog of sotatercept, in C57BL/6 mice and in hepcidin antimicrobial peptide 1 over expressing mice. Sotatercept, a soluble, activin receptor type IIA ligand trap, is currently being evaluated for the treatment of anemias associated with chronic renal disease, myelodysplastic syndrome, β-thalassemia, and Diamond Blackfan anemia and acts by inhibiting signaling downstream of activin and other Transforming Growth Factor-β superfamily members. We found that erythropoietin and RAP-011 increased hemoglobin concentration in C57BL/6 mice and in hepcidin antimicrobial peptide 1 over expressing mice. While erythropoietin treatment depleted splenic iron stores in C57BL/6 mice, RAP-011 treatment did not deplete splenic iron stores in mice of either genotype. Bone marrow erythroid progenitors from erythropoietin-treated mice exhibited iron-restricted erythropoiesis, as indicated by increased median fluorescence intensity of transferrin receptor immunostaining by flow cytometry. In contrast, RAP-011-treated mice did not exhibit the same degree of iron-restricted erythropoiesis. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that RAP-011 can improve hemoglobin concentration in hepcidin antimicrobial peptide 1 transgenic mice. Our data support the hypothesis that RAP-011 has unique biologic effects which prevent or circumvent depletion of mouse splenic iron stores. RAP-011 may, therefore, be an appropriate therapeutic for trials in human anemias characterized by increased expression of hepcidin antimicrobial peptide and iron-restricted erythropoiesis.

  18. E6 Gamma Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B. Alex; Rae, W. D. M.

    2011-05-06

    Rare electric hexacontatetrapole (E6) transitions are studied in the full (f{sub 7/2},f{sub 5/2},p{sub 3/2},p{sub 1/2}) shell-model basis. Comparison of theory to the results from the gamma decay in {sup 53}Fe and from inelastic electron scattering on {sup 52}Cr provides unique and interesting tests of the valence wavefunctions, the models used for energy density functionals and into the origin of effective charge.

  19. Inhibition of early atherogenesis in transgenic mice by human apolipoprotein AI.

    PubMed

    Rubin, E M; Krauss, R M; Spangler, E A; Verstuyft, J G; Clift, S M

    1991-09-19

    Epidemiological surveys have identified a strong inverse relationship between the amount in the plasma of high density lipoproteins (HDL), apolipoprotein AI (ApoA-I), the major protein component of HDL, and the risk for atherosclerosis in humans. It is not known if this relationship arises from a direct antiatherogenic effect of these plasma components or if it is the result of other factors also associated with increases in ApoA-I and HDL levels. Because some strains of mice are susceptible to diet-induced formation of preatherosclerotic fatty streak lesions, and because of available techniques for the genetic manipulation of this organism, the murine system offers a unique setting in which to investigate the process of early atherogenesis. To test the hypothesis that induction of a high plasma concentration of ApoA-I and HDL would inhibit this process, we studied the effects of atherogenic diets on transgenic mice expressing high amounts of human ApoA-I. We report that transgenic mice with high plasma ApoA-I and HDL levels were significantly protected from the development of fatty streak lesions.

  20. Increased glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in transgenic skinny mice overexpressing leptin.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Y; Masuzaki, H; Hosoda, K; Aizawa-Abe, M; Suga, J; Suda, M; Ebihara, K; Iwai, H; Matsuoka, N; Satoh, N; Odaka, H; Kasuga, H; Fujisawa, Y; Inoue, G; Nishimura, H; Yoshimasa, Y; Nakao, K

    1999-09-01

    Excess of body fat, or obesity, is a major health problem and confers a higher risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, and coronary heart disease. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived satiety factor that plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, and its synthesis and secretion are markedly increased in obese subjects. To explore the metabolic consequences of an increased amount of leptin on a long-term basis in vivo, we generated transgenic skinny mice with elevated plasma leptin concentrations comparable to those in obese subjects. Overexpression of leptin in the liver has resulted in complete disappearance of white and brown adipose tissue for a long period of time in mice. Transgenic skinny mice exhibit increased glucose metabolism accompanied by the activation of insulin signaling in the skeletal muscle and liver. They also show small-sized livers with a marked decrease in glycogen and lipid storage. The phenotypes are in striking contrast to those of recently reported animal models of lipoatrophic diabetes and patients with lipoatrophic diabetes with reduced amount of leptin. The present study provides evidence that leptin is an adipocyte-derived antidiabetic hormone in vivo and suggests its pathophysiologic and therapeutic implications in diabetes.

  1. Transmission and adaptation of chronic wasting disease to hamsters and transgenic mice: evidence for strains.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Gregory J; Raymond, Lynne D; Meade-White, Kimberly D; Hughson, Andrew G; Favara, Cynthia; Gardner, Donald; Williams, Elizabeth S; Miller, Michael W; Race, Richard E; Caughey, Byron

    2007-04-01

    In vitro screening using the cell-free prion protein conversion system indicated that certain rodents may be susceptible to chronic wasting disease (CWD). Therefore, CWD isolates from mule deer, white-tailed deer, and elk were inoculated intracerebrally into various rodent species to assess the rodents' susceptibility and to develop new rodent models of CWD. The species inoculated were Syrian golden, Djungarian, Chinese, Siberian, and Armenian hamsters, transgenic mice expressing the Syrian golden hamster prion protein, and RML Swiss and C57BL10 wild-type mice. The transgenic mice and the Syrian golden, Chinese, Siberian, and Armenian hamsters had limited susceptibility to certain of the CWD inocula, as evidenced by incomplete attack rates and long incubation periods. For serial passages of CWD isolates in Syrian golden hamsters, incubation periods rapidly stabilized, with isolates having either short (85 to 89 days) or long (408 to 544 days) mean incubation periods and distinct neuropathological patterns. In contrast, wild-type mouse strains and Djungarian hamsters were not susceptible to CWD. These results show that CWD can be transmitted and adapted to some species of rodents and suggest that the cervid-derived CWD inocula may have contained or diverged into at least two distinct transmissible spongiform encephalopathy strains.

  2. Decreased nuclear beta-catenin, tau hyperphosphorylation and neurodegeneration in GSK-3beta conditional transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Lucas, J J; Hernández, F; Gómez-Ramos, P; Morán, M A; Hen, R; Avila, J

    2001-01-15

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) has been postulated to mediate Alzheimer's disease tau hyperphosphorylation, beta-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity and presenilin-1 mutation pathogenic effects. By using the tet-regulated system we have produced conditional transgenic mice overexpressing GSK-3beta in the brain during adulthood while avoiding perinatal lethality due to embryonic transgene expression. These mice show decreased levels of nuclear beta-catenin and hyperphosphorylation of tau in hippocampal neurons, the latter resulting in pretangle-like somatodendritic localization of tau. Neurons displaying somatodendritic localization of tau often show abnormal morphologies and detachment from the surrounding neuropil. Reactive astrocytosis and microgliosis were also indicative of neuronal stress and death. This was further confirmed by TUNEL and cleaved caspase-3 immunostaining of dentate gyrus granule cells. Our results demonstrate that in vivo overexpression of GSK-3beta results in neurodegeneration and suggest that these mice can be used as an animal model to study the relevance of GSK-3beta deregulation to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.

  3. Progression and regression of atherosclerosis in APOE3-Leiden transgenic mice: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Gijbels, M J; van der Cammen, M; van der Laan, L J; Emeis, J J; Havekes, L M; Hofker, M H; Kraal, G

    1999-03-01

    Apolipoprotein E3-Leiden (APOE3-Leiden) transgenic mice develop hyperlipidemia and are highly susceptible to diet-induced atherosclerosis. We have studied the progression and regression of atherosclerosis using immunohistochemistry. Female transgenic mice were fed a moderate fat diet to study atherosclerosis over a longer time period. Fatty streaks arose in the intima and consisted of lipid filled macrophages which differed in origin. All macrophages expressed the macrophage scavenger receptor while two thirds expressed sialoadhesin and were positive for an antibody recognizing marginal zone macrophages (MOMA-1). All macrophages were negative for the scavenger receptor MARCO and 50% were positive for CD4. Small fatty streaks contained CD-3 positive T-lymphocytes which were for more than 70% CD4-positive. ICAM-1 was positive both in atherosclerotic and control mice. In early plaques, fibrosis was observed on the luminal and medial site of the foam cells while smooth muscle cells were only observed in the fibrous cap. To study regression, we used a high fat, high cholesterol diet to rapidly induce atherosclerosis (14 weeks). The animals were then fed normal chow. Subsequently, atherosclerosis was assayed over time (4, 8, 16 weeks). Cholesterol levels dropped in 4 weeks to control levels. The animals did not show a significantly decrease in plaque size over time. but the percentage macrophages was significantly smaller in the animals after 4 weeks. In conclusion, the APOE3-Leiden mouse is a useful model to study the progression and regression of atherosclerosis.

  4. Tanshinone IIA Alleviates the AD Phenotypes in APP and PS1 Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fengling; Han, Guosheng; Wu, Kexiang

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic approach for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still deficient. To find active compounds from herbal medicine is of interest in the alleviation of AD symptoms. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of Tanshinone IIA (TIIA) on memory performance and synaptic plasticity in a transgenic AD model at the early phase. 25–100 mg/kg TIIA (intraperitoneal injection, i.p.) was administered to the six-month-old APP and PS1 transgenic mice for 30 consecutive days. After treatment, spatial memory, synaptic plasticity, and related mechanisms were investigated. Our result showed that memory impairment in AD mice was mitigated by 50 and 100 mg/kg TIIA treatments. Hippocampal long-term potentiation was impaired in AD model but rescued by 100 mg/kg TIIA treatment. Mechanically, TIIA treatment reduced the accumulations of beta-amyloid 1–42, C-terminal fragments (CTFs), and p-Tau in the AD model. TIIA did not affect basal BDNF but promoted depolarization-induced BDNF synthesis in the AD mice. Taken together, TIIA repairs hippocampal LTP and memory, likely, through facilitating the clearance of AD-related proteins and activating synaptic BDNF synthesis. TIIA might be a candidate drug for AD treatment. PMID:27274990

  5. Geniposide attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction and memory deficits in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Lv, Cui; Liu, Xiaoli; Liu, Hongjuan; Chen, Tong; Zhang, Wensheng

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction appear early and contribute to the disease progression in Alzheimer's disease (AD), which can be detected extensively in AD patients brains as well as in transgenic AD mice brains. Thus, treatments that result in attenuation of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction may hold potential for AD treatment. Geniposide, a pharmacologically active component purified from gardenia fruit, exhibits anti-oxidative, antiinflammatory and other important therapeutic properties. However, whether geniposide has any protective effect on oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in AD transgenic mouse model has not yet been reported. Here, we demonstrate that intragastric administration of geniposide significantly reduces oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in addition to improving learning and memory in APP/PS1 mice. Geniposide exerts protective effects on mitochondrial dysfunction in APP/PS1 mice through suppressing the mitochondrial oxidative damage and increasing the mitochondrial membrane potential and activity of cytochrome c oxidase. These studies indicate that geniposide may attenuate memory deficits through the suppression of mitochondrial oxidative stress. Thus, geniposide may be a potential therapeutic reagent for halting and preventing AD progress.

  6. Chronic wasting disease prions are not transmissible to transgenic mice overexpressing human prion protein.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Malin K; Al-Doujaily, Huda; Sigurdson, Christina J; Glatzel, Markus; O'Malley, Catherine; Powell, Caroline; Asante, Emmanuel A; Linehan, Jacqueline M; Brandner, Sebastian; Wadsworth, Jonathan D F; Collinge, John

    2010-10-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a prion disease that affects free-ranging and captive cervids, including mule deer, white-tailed deer, Rocky Mountain elk and moose. CWD-infected cervids have been reported in 14 USA states, two Canadian provinces and in South Korea. The possibility of a zoonotic transmission of CWD prions via diet is of particular concern in North America where hunting of cervids is a popular sport. To investigate the potential public health risks posed by CWD prions, we have investigated whether intracerebral inoculation of brain and spinal cord from CWD-infected mule deer transmits prion infection to transgenic mice overexpressing human prion protein with methionine or valine at polymorphic residue 129. These transgenic mice have been utilized in extensive transmission studies of human and animal prion disease and are susceptible to BSE and vCJD prions, allowing comparison with CWD. Here, we show that these mice proved entirely resistant to infection with mule deer CWD prions arguing that the transmission barrier associated with this prion strain/host combination is greater than that observed with classical BSE prions. However, it is possible that CWD may be caused by multiple prion strains. Further studies will be required to evaluate the transmission properties of distinct cervid prion strains as they are characterized.

  7. Characterization of Fam20C expression in odontogenesis and osteogenesis using transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Du, Er-Xia; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Yang, Wu-Chen; Kaback, Deborah; Yee, Siu-Pok; Qin, Chun-Lin; George, Anne; Hao, Jian-Jun

    2015-06-26

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that Fam20C promotes differentiation and mineralization of odontoblasts, ameloblasts, osteoblasts and osteocytes during tooth and bone development. Ablation of the Fam20C gene inhibits bone and tooth growth by increasing fibroblast growth factor 23 in serum and causing hypophosphatemia in conditional knockout mice. However, control and regulation of the expression of Fam20C are still unknown. In this study, we generated a transgenic reporter model which expresses green fluorescence protein (GFP) driven by the Fam20C promoter. Recombineering was used to insert a 16 kb fragment of the mouse Fam20C gene (containing the 15 kb promoter and 1.1 kb of exon 1) into a pBluescript SK vector with the topaz variant of GFP and a bovine growth hormone polyadenylation sequence. GFP expression was subsequently evaluated by histomorphometry on cryosections from E14 to adult mice. Fluorescence was evident in the bone and teeth as early as E17.5. The GFP signal was maintained stably in odontoblasts and osteoblasts until 4 weeks after birth. The expression of GFP was significantly reduced in teeth, alveolar bone and muscle by 8 weeks of age. We also observed colocalization of the GFP signal with the Fam20C antibody in postnatal 1- and 7-day-old animals. Successful generation of Fam20C-GFP transgenic mice will provide a unique model for studying Fam20C gene expression and the biological function of this gene during odontogenesis and osteogenesis.

  8. Sex dimorphisms of crossbridge cycling kinetics in transgenic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mice.

    PubMed

    Birch, Camille L; Behunin, Samantha M; Lopez-Pier, Marissa A; Danilo, Christiane; Lipovka, Yulia; Saripalli, Chandra; Granzier, Henk; Konhilas, John P

    2016-07-01

    Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a disease of the sarcomere and may lead to hypertrophic, dilated, restrictive, and/or arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, congestive heart failure, or sudden cardiac death. We hypothesized that hearts from transgenic HCM mice harboring a mutant myosin heavy chain increase the energetic cost of contraction in a sex-specific manner. To do this, we assessed Ca(2+) sensitivity of tension and crossbridge kinetics in demembranated cardiac trabeculas from male and female wild-type (WT) and HCM hearts at an early time point (2 mo of age). We found a significant effect of sex on Ca(2+) sensitivity such that male, but not female, HCM mice displayed a decrease in Ca(2+) sensitivity compared with WT counterparts. The HCM transgene and sex significantly impacted the rate of force redevelopment by a rapid release-restretch protocol and tension cost by the ATPase-tension relationship. In each of these measures, HCM male trabeculas displayed a gain-of-function when compared with WT counterparts. In addition, cardiac remodeling measured by echocardiography, histology, morphometry, and posttranslational modifications demonstrated sex- and HCM-specific effects. In conclusion, female and male HCM mice display sex dimorphic crossbridge kinetics accompanied by sex- and HCM-dependent cardiac remodeling at the morphometric, histological, and cellular level.

  9. Niacin reduces plasma CETP levels by diminishing liver macrophage content in CETP transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaosha; Wang, Yanan; van der Sluis, Ronald J; van der Hoorn, José W A; Princen, Hans M G; Van Eck, Miranda; Van Berkel, Theo J C; Rensen, Patrick C N; Hoekstra, Menno

    2012-09-15

    The anti-dyslipidemic drug niacin has recently been shown to reduce the hepatic expression and plasma levels of CETP. Since liver macrophages contribute to hepatic CETP expression, we investigated the role of macrophages in the CETP-lowering effect of niacin in mice. In vitro studies showed that niacin does not directly attenuate CETP expression in macrophages. Treatment of normolipidemic human CETP transgenic mice, fed a Western-type diet with niacin for 4 weeks, significantly reduced the hepatic cholesterol concentration (-20%), hepatic CETP gene expression (-20%), and plasma CETP mass (-30%). Concomitantly, niacin decreased the hepatic expression of CD68 (-44%) and ABCG1 (-32%), both of which are specific markers for the hepatic macrophage content. The decrease in hepatic CETP expression was significantly correlated with the reduction of hepatic macrophage markers. Furthermore, niacin attenuated atherogenic diet-induced inflammation in liver, as evident from decreased expression of TNF-alpha (-43%). Niacin similarly decreased the macrophage markers and absolute macrophage content in hyperlipidemic APOE*3-Leiden.CETP transgenic mice on a Western-type diet. In conclusion, niacin decreases hepatic CETP expression and plasma CETP mass by attenuating liver inflammation and macrophage content in response to its primary lipid-lowering effect, rather than by attenuating the macrophage CETP expression level.

  10. Therapeutic effect of the anti-Fas antibody on arthritis in HTLV-1 tax transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, K; Asahara, H; Okamoto, K; Aono, H; Hasunuma, T; Kobata, T; Iwakura, Y; Yonehara, S; Sumida, T; Nishioka, K

    1996-07-15

    We have recently demonstrated Fas-mediated apoptosis in the synovium, of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and suggested that it may be one factor responsible for the regression of RA. To examine whether the induction of apoptosis caused by anti-Fas mAb may play a potential role as a new therapeutic strategy for RA, we investigated the effect of anti-Fas mAb (RK-8) on synovitis in an animal model of RA, the human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1) tax transgenic mice. We report here that administration of anti-Fas mAb into mice intra-articularly improved the paw swelling and arthritis within 48 h. Immunohistochemical study and in vitro culture studies showed that 35% of synovial fibroblasts, 75% of mononuclear cells, and some of polymorphonuclear leukocytes infiltrating in synovium underwent apoptosis by anti-Fas mAb. In situ nick end labeling analysis and electron microscope analysis clearly showed that many cells in synovium were induced apoptosis by anti-Fas mAb administration. However, local administration of anti-Fas mAb did not produce systemic side effects. Results demonstrated that administration of anti-Fas mAb in arthritic joints of the HTLV-1 tax transgenic mice produced improvement of arthritis. These findings suggest that local administration of anti-Fas mAb may represent a useful therapeutic strategy for proliferative synovitis such as RA.

  11. The T cell response of HLA-DR transgenic mice to human myelin basic protein and other antigens in the presence and absence of human CD4

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of HLA class II transgenic mice has progressed in recent years from analysis of single chain HLA class II transgenes with expression of mixed mouse/human heterodimers to double transgenic mice expressing normal human heterodimers. Previous studies have used either HLA transgenic mice in which there is a species-matched interaction with CD4 or mice which lack this interaction. Since both systems are reported to generate HLA-restricted responses, the matter of the requirement for species-matched CD4 remains unclear. We have generated triple transgenic mice expressing three human transgenes, DRA, DRB, and CD4, and compared HLA-restricted responses to peptide between human- CD4+ (Hu-CD4+) and Hu-CD4- littermates. We saw no difference between Hu- CD4+ and Hu-CD4- groups, supporting the notion that for some responses at least the requirement for species-matched CD4 may not be absolute. Evidence for positive selection of mouse T cell receptors in HLA-DR transgenic mice came both from the acquisition of new, HLA-restricted responses to various peptides and from an increased frequency of T cells using the TCR V beta 4 gene segment. An important goal with respect to the analysis of function in HLA transgenic mice is the clarification of mechanisms which underpin the recognition of self- antigens in human autoimmune disease. As a first step towards 'humanized' disease models in HLA transgenic mice, we analyzed the responses of HLA-DR transgenic mice to the human MPB 139-154 peptide which has been implicated as an epitope recognized by T cells of multiple sclerosis patients. We obtained T cell responses to this epitope in transgenic mice but not in nontransgenic controls. This study suggests that HLA transgenic mice will be valuable in the analysis of HLA-restricted T cell epitopes implicated in human disease and possibly in the design of new disease models. PMID:7532684

  12. A soluble form of Siglec-9 provides an antitumor benefit against mammary tumor cells expressing MUC1 in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Tomioka, Yukiko; Morimatsu, Masami; Nishijima, Ken-ichi; Usui, Tatsufumi; Yamamoto, Sayo; Suyama, Haruka; Ozaki, Kinuyo; Ito, Toshihiro; and others

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Tumor-associated antigen MUC1 binds to Siglec-9. • Soluble Siglec-9 reduced proliferation of MUC1-positive tumor in transgenic mice. • Soluble Siglec-9 and MUC1 on tumor cells were colocalized in transgenic mice. • MUC1 expression on tumor cells were reduced in soluble Siglec-9 transgenic mice. - Abstract: Tumor-associated MUC1 binds to Siglec-9, which is expected to mediate tumor cell growth and negative immunomodulation. We hypothesized that a soluble form of Siglec-9 (sSiglec-9) competitively inhibits a binding of MUC1 to its receptor molecules like human Siglec-9, leading to provide antitumor benefit against MUC1-expressing tumor, and generated transgenic mouse lines expressing sSiglec-9 (sSiglec-9 Tg). When mammary tumor cells expressing MUC1 were intraperitoneally transplanted into sSiglec-9 Tg, tumor proliferation was slower with the lower histological malignancy as compared with non-transgenic mice. The sSiglec-9 was detected in the ascites caused by the tumor in the sSiglec-9 Tg, and sSiglec-9 and MUC1 were often colocalized on surfaces of the tumor cells. PCNA immunohistochemistry also revealed the reduced proliferation of the tumor cells in sSiglec-9 Tg. In sSiglec-9 Tg with remarkable suppression of tumor proliferation, MUC1 expressions were tend to be reduced. In the ascites of sSiglec-9 Tg bearing the tumor, T cells were uniformly infiltrated, whereas aggregations of degenerative T cells were often observed in the non-transgenic mice. These results suggest that sSiglec-9 has an antitumor benefit against MUC1-expressing tumor in the transgenic mice, which may avoid the negative immunomodulation and/or suppress tumor-associated MUC1 downstream signal transduction, and subsequent tumor proliferation.

  13. Partial rescue of insulin receptor-deficient mice by transgenic complementation with an activated insulin receptor in the liver.

    PubMed

    Baudry, Anne; Jackerott, Malene; Lamothe, Betty; Kozyrev, Sergey V; Leroux, Loïc; Durel, Béatrice; Saint-Just, Susan; Joshi, Rajiv L

    2002-10-16

    Insulin receptor (IR)-deficient mice develop severe diabetes mellitus, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and liver steatosis and die within 1 week after birth. We examined in this work whether the metabolic phenotype of IR(-/-) mutants could be improved by transgenic complementation with IR selectively in the liver. We first generated transgenic mice expressing a human DNA complementary to RNA encoding a truncated constitutively activated form of IR (IRdelta) under the control of liver-specific phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene promoter. These mice presented more pronounced fasting hypoglycemia and showed slightly improved glucose tolerance as compared to controls. The transgenic mice were crossed with IR(+/-) mutants to generate IR(-/-) mice carrying the PAH-IRDelta transgene. Although such mutants developed glycosuria, DKA was delayed by more than 1 week and survival was prolonged to 8-20 days in approximately 10% of mice. In these partially rescued pups, serum glucose and triglyceride levels were lowered, hepatic glycogen stores were reconstituted and liver steatosis was absent as compared with pups which developed strong DKA and died earlier. Thus, lack of insulin action in the liver is responsible in large part for the metabolic disorders seen in IR(+/-) mice. This study should stimulate interest in therapeutic strategies aimed at improving hepatic function in diabetes.

  14. Multiple Renal Cyst Development but Not Situs Abnormalities in Transgenic RNAi Mice against Inv::GFP Rescue Gene

    PubMed Central

    Kamijho, Yuki; Shiozaki, Yayoi; Sakurai, Eiki; Hanaoka, Kazunori; Watanabe, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    In this study we generated RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene knockdown transgenic mice (transgenic RNAi mice) against the functional Inv gene. Inv mutant mice show consistently reversed internal organs (situs inversus), multiple renal cysts and neonatal lethality. The Inv::GFP-rescue mice, which introduced the Inv::GFP fusion gene, can rescue inv mutant mice phenotypes. This indicates that the Inv::GFP gene is functional in vivo. To analyze the physiological functions of the Inv gene, and to demonstrate the availability of transgenic RNAi mice, we introduced a short hairpin RNA expression vector against GFP mRNA into Inv::GFP-rescue mice and analyzed the gene silencing effects and Inv functions by examining phenotypes. Transgenic RNAi mice with the Inv::GFP-rescue gene (Inv-KD mice) down-regulated Inv::GFP fusion protein and showed hypomorphic phenotypes of inv mutant mice, such as renal cyst development, but not situs abnormalities or postnatal lethality. This indicates that shRNAi-mediated gene silencing systems that target the tag sequence of the fusion gene work properly in vivo, and suggests that a relatively high level of Inv protein is required for kidney development in contrast to left/right axis determination. Inv::GFP protein was significantly down-regulated in the germ cells of Inv-KD mice testis compared with somatic cells, suggesting the existence of a testicular germ cell-specific enhanced RNAi system that regulates germ cell development. The Inv-KD mouse is useful for studying Inv gene functions in adult tissue that are unable to be analyzed in inv mutant mice showing postnatal lethality. In addition, the shRNA-based gene silencing system against the tag sequence of the fusion gene can be utilized as a new technique to regulate gene expression in either in vitro or in vivo experiments. PMID:24586938

  15. Transgenic chicken, mice, cattle, and pig embryos by somatic cell nuclear transfer into pig oocytes.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mukesh Kumar; Das, Ziban Chandra; Heo, Young Tae; Joo, Jin Young; Chung, Hak-Jae; Song, Hyuk; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Lee, Hoon Taek; Ko, Dae Hwan; Uhm, Sang Jun

    2013-08-01

    This study explored the possibility of producing transgenic cloned embryos by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) of cattle, mice, and chicken donor cells into enucleated pig oocytes. Enhanced green florescent protein (EGFP)-expressing donor cells were used for the nuclear transfer. Results showed that the occurrence of first cleavage did not differ significantly when pig, cattle, mice, or chicken cells were used as donor nuclei (p>0.05). However, the rate of blastocyst formation was significantly higher in pig (14.9±2.1%; p<0.05) SCNT embryos than in cattle (6.3±2.5%), mice (4.2±1.4%), or chicken (5.1±2.4%) iSCNT embryos. The iSCNT embryos also contained a significantly less number of cells per blastocyst than those of SCNT pig embryos (p<0.05). All (100%) iSCNT embryos expressed the EGFP gene, as evidenced by the green florescence under ultraviolet (UV) illumination. Microinjection of purified mitochondria from cattle somatic cells into pig oocytes did not have any adverse effect on their postfertilization in vitro development and embryo quality (p>0.05). Moreover, NCSU23 medium, which was designed for in vitro culture of pig embryos, was able to support the in vitro development of cattle, mice, and chicken iSCNT embryos up to the blastocyst stage. Taken together, these data suggest that enucleated pig oocytes may be used as a universal cytoplast for production of transgenic cattle, mice, and chicken embryos by iSCNT. Furthermore, xenogenic transfer of mitochondria to the recipient cytoplast may not be the cause for poor embryonic development of cattle-pig iSCNT embryos.

  16. Assessing the susceptibility of transgenic mice overexpressing deer prion protein to bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Vickery, Christopher M; Lockey, Richard; Holder, Thomas M; Thorne, Leigh; Beck, Katy E; Wilson, Christina; Denyer, Margaret; Sheehan, John; Marsh, Sarah; Webb, Paul R; Dexter, Ian; Norman, Angela; Popescu, Emma; Schneider, Amanda; Holden, Paul; Griffiths, Peter C; Plater, Jane M; Dagleish, Mark P; Martin, Stuart; Telling, Glenn C; Simmons, Marion M; Spiropoulos, John

    2014-02-01

    Several transgenic mouse models have been developed which facilitate the transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids and allow prion strain discrimination. The present study was designed to assess the susceptibility of the prototypic mouse line, Tg(CerPrP)1536(+/-), to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prions, which have the ability to overcome species barriers. Tg(CerPrP)1536(+/-) mice challenged with red deer-adapted BSE resulted in 90% to 100% attack rates, and BSE from cattle failed to transmit, indicating agent adaptation in the deer.

  17. Matrix-attachment regions can impart position-independent regulation of a tissue-specific gene in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    McKnight, R A; Shamay, A; Sankaran, L; Wall, R J; Hennighausen, L

    1992-08-01

    Matrix-attachment regions (MARs) may function as domain boundaries and partition chromosomes into independently regulated units. We have tested whether MAR sequences from the chicken lysozyme locus, the so-called A-elements, can confer position-independent regulation to a whey acidic protein (WAP) transgene in mammary tissue of mice. In the absence of MARs, expression of WAP transgenes was observed in 50% of the lines, and regulation during pregnancy, during lactation, and upon hormonal induction did not mimic that of the endogenous WAP gene and varied with the integration site. In contrast, all 11 lines in which WAP transgenes were juxtaposed to MAR elements showed expression. Accurate position-independent hormonal and developmental regulation was seen in four out of the five lines analyzed. These results indicate that MARs can establish independent genetic domains in transgenic mice. PMID:1495984

  18. Tissue-specific and developmentally regulated expression of a chimeric actin-globin gene in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Shani, M

    1986-01-01

    A chimeric plasmid containing about 2/3 of the rat skeletal muscle actin gene plus 730 base pairs of its 5' flanking sequences fused to the 3' end of a human embryonic globin gene (D. Melloul, B. Aloni, J. Calvo, D. Yaffe, and U. Nudel, EMBO J. 3:983-990, 1984) was inserted into mice by microinjection into fertilized eggs. Eleven transgenic mice carrying the chimeric gene with or without plasmid pBR322 DNA sequences were identified. The majority of these mice transmitted the injected DNA to about 50% of their progeny. However, in transgenic mouse CV1, transmission to progeny was associated with amplification or deletion of the injected DNA sequences, while in transgenic mouse CV4 transmission was distorted, probably as a result of insertional mutagenesis. Tissue-specific expression was dependent on the removal of the vector DNA sequences from the chimeric gene sequences prior to microinjection. None of the transgenic mice carrying the chimeric gene together with plasmid pBR322 sequences expressed the introduced gene in striated muscles. In contrast, the six transgenic mice carrying the chimeric gene sequences alone expressed the inserted gene specifically in skeletal and cardiac muscles. Moreover, expression of the chimeric gene was not only tissue specific, but also developmentally regulated. Similar to the endogenous skeletal muscle actin gene, the chimeric gene was expressed at a relatively high level in cardiac muscle of neonatal mice and at a significantly lower level in adult cardiac muscle. These results indicate that the injected DNA included sufficient cis-acting control elements for its tissue-specific and developmentally regulated expression in transgenic mice. Images PMID:3023942

  19. Morphine Tolerance and Physical Dependence Are Altered in Conditional HIV-1 Tat Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Fitting, Sylvia; Stevens, David L; Khan, Fayez A; Scoggins, Krista L; Enga, Rachel M; Beardsley, Patrick M; Knapp, Pamela E; Dewey, William L; Hauser, Kurt F

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable evidence that chronic opiate use selectively affects the pathophysiologic consequences of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in the nervous system, few studies have examined whether neuro-acquired immune deficiency syndrome (neuroAIDS) might intrinsically alter the pharmacologic responses to chronic opiate exposure. This is an important matter because HIV-1 and opiate abuse are interrelated epidemics, and HIV-1 patients are often prescribed opiates as a treatment of HIV-1-related neuropathic pain. Tolerance and physical dependence are inevitable consequences of frequent and repeated administration of morphine. In the present study, mice expressing HIV-1 Tat in a doxycycline (DOX)-inducible manner [Tat(+)], their Tat(-) controls, and control C57BL/6 mice were chronically exposed to placebo or 75-mg morphine pellets to explore the effects of Tat induction on morphine tolerance and dependence. Antinociceptive tolerance and locomotor activity tolerance were assessed using tail-flick and locomotor activity assays, respectively, and physical dependence was measured with the platform-jumping assay and recording of other withdrawal signs. We found that Tat(+) mice treated with DOX [Tat(+)/DOX] developed an increased tolerance in the tail-flick assay compared with control Tat(-)/DOX and/or C57/DOX mice. Equivalent tolerance was developed in all mice when assessed by locomotor activity. Further, Tat(+)/DOX mice expressed reduced levels of physical dependence to chronic morphine exposure after a 1-mg/kg naloxone challenge compared with control Tat(-)/DOX and/or C57/DOX mice. Assuming the results seen in Tat transgenic mice can be generalized to neuroAIDS, our findings suggest that HIV-1-infected individuals may display heightened analgesic tolerance to similar doses of opiates compared with uninfected individuals and show fewer symptoms of physical dependence.

  20. Elevated Systolic Blood Pressure in Male GH Transgenic Mice Is Age Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Jara, Adam; Benner, Chance M.; Sim, Don; Liu, Xingbo; List, Edward O.; Householder, Lara A.; Berryman, Darlene E.

    2014-01-01

    Acromegaly is associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. Transgenic mice expressing bovine GH (bGH) gene have previously been used to examine the effects of chronic GH stimulation on cardiovascular function. Results concerning systolic blood pressure (SBP) in bGH mice are conflicting. We hypothesized that these discrepancies may be the result of the various ages of the mice used in previous studies. In the current study, SBP was assessed monthly in male bGH mice from 3–12 months of age. Factors known to alter blood pressure were assessed during this time and included: levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and glucose homeostasis markers, and renal levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Beginning at 6 months of age bGH had increased SBP compared with wild-type controls, which remained elevated through 12 months of age. Despite having increased blood pressure and cardiac BNP mRNA, bGH mice had decreased circulating levels of BNP. Additionally, bGH mice had an age-dependent decline in insulin levels. For example, they were hyperinsulinemic at 3 months, but by 11 months of age were hypoinsulinemic relative to wild-type controls. This decrease in insulin was accompanied by improved glucose tolerance at 11 months. Finally, both angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression were severely depressed in kidneys of 11-month-old bGH mice. These results indicate that elevated SBP in bGH mice is dependent on age, independent of insulin resistance, and related to alterations in both the natriuretic peptide and renin-angiotensin systems. PMID:24424040

  1. Elevated systolic blood pressure in male GH transgenic mice is age dependent.

    PubMed

    Jara, Adam; Benner, Chance M; Sim, Don; Liu, Xingbo; List, Edward O; Householder, Lara A; Berryman, Darlene E; Kopchick, John J

    2014-03-01

    Acromegaly is associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. Transgenic mice expressing bovine GH (bGH) gene have previously been used to examine the effects of chronic GH stimulation on cardiovascular function. Results concerning systolic blood pressure (SBP) in bGH mice are conflicting. We hypothesized that these discrepancies may be the result of the various ages of the mice used in previous studies. In the current study, SBP was assessed monthly in male bGH mice from 3-12 months of age. Factors known to alter blood pressure were assessed during this time and included: levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and glucose homeostasis markers, and renal levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Beginning at 6 months of age bGH had increased SBP compared with wild-type controls, which remained elevated through 12 months of age. Despite having increased blood pressure and cardiac BNP mRNA, bGH mice had decreased circulating levels of BNP. Additionally, bGH mice had an age-dependent decline in insulin levels. For example, they were hyperinsulinemic at 3 months, but by 11 months of age were hypoinsulinemic relative to wild-type controls. This decrease in insulin was accompanied by improved glucose tolerance at 11 months. Finally, both angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression were severely depressed in kidneys of 11-month-old bGH mice. These results indicate that elevated SBP in bGH mice is dependent on age, independent of insulin resistance, and related to alterations in both the natriuretic peptide and renin-angiotensin systems. PMID:24424040

  2. Morphogenetic roles of perlecan in the tooth enamel organ: an analysis of overexpression using transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Ida-Yonemochi, Hiroko; Satokata, Ichiro; Ohshima, Hayato; Sato, Toshiya; Yokoyama, Minesuke; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Saku, Takashi

    2011-09-01

    Perlecan, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, is enriched in the intercellular space of the enamel organ. To understand the role of perlecan in tooth morphogenesis, we used a keratin 5 promoter to generate transgenic (Tg) mice that over-express perlecan in epithelial cells, and examined their tooth germs at tissue and cellular levels. Immunohistochemistry showed that perlecan was more strongly expressed in the enamel organ cells of Tg mice than in wild-type mice. Histopathology showed wider intercellular spaces in the stellate reticulum of the Tg molars and loss of cellular polarity in the enamel organ, especially in its cervical region. Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) cells in Tg mice were irregularly aligned due to excessive deposits of perlecan along the inner, as well as on the outer sides of the HERS. Tg molars had dull-ended crowns and outward-curved tooth roots and their enamel was poorly crystallized, resulting in pronounced attrition of molar cusp areas. In Tg mice, expression of integrin β1 mRNA was remarkably higher at E18, while expression of bFGF, TGF-β1, DSPP and Shh was more elevated at P1. The overexpression of perlecan in the enamel organ resulted in irregular morphology of teeth, suggesting that the expression of perlecan regulates growth factor signaling in a stage-dependent manner during each step of the interaction between ameloblast-lineage cells and mesenchymal cells.

  3. An Efficient and Versatile System for Visualization and Genetic Modification of Dopaminergic Neurons in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Edgar R.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims The brain dopaminergic (DA) system is involved in fine tuning many behaviors and several human diseases are associated with pathological alterations of the DA system such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) and drug addiction. Because of its complex network integration, detailed analyses of physiological and pathophysiological conditions are only possible in a whole organism with a sophisticated tool box for visualization and functional modification. Methods & Results Here, we have generated transgenic mice expressing the tetracycline-regulated transactivator (tTA) or the reverse tetracycline-regulated transactivator (rtTA) under control of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) promoter, TH-tTA (tet-OFF) and TH-rtTA (tet-ON) mice, to visualize and genetically modify DA neurons. We show their tight regulation and efficient use to overexpress proteins under the control of tet-responsive elements or to delete genes of interest with tet-responsive Cre. In combination with mice encoding tet-responsive luciferase, we visualized the DA system in living mice progressively over time. Conclusion These experiments establish TH-tTA and TH-rtTA mice as a powerful tool to generate and monitor mouse models for DA system diseases. PMID:26291828

  4. Efficacy of cationic lipid-DNA complexes (CLDC) on hepatitis B virus in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Morrey, John D; Motter, Neil E; Taro, Brandon; Lay, Marla; Fairman, Jeffery

    2008-07-01

    Cationic lipid-DNA (non-coding) complexes (CLDC) are activators of the innate immune response that increase survival of rodents with some acute viral infections and cancers. CLDC were evaluated for their ability to impact viral DNA levels in transgenic mice carrying an infectious clone of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Mice used in the studies were diet-restricted as nursing pups from solid food, because the expression of HBV DNA in the liver was increased above background levels in some mice with this restriction. Survival surgery was performed on these mice to obtain liver biopsies from which to select animals with suitable levels of liver HBV DNA for entry into the experimental protocols. Intravenous administration of 5 microg/mouse of CLDC on days 1, 7 and 13 reduced liver HBV DNA to similar low levels achieved with the positive control, adefovir dipivoxil. In a subsequent experiment, the same treatment schedule was used to determine that the minimal effective CLDC dose was between 0.5 and 0.05 microg/mouse. Selective cytokines were increased in the livers of CLDC-treated compared to placebo-treated mice in a dose-responsive manner. CLDC were effective in reducing liver HBV DNA and could be considered for further evaluation in other hepatitis models. PMID:18358544

  5. Brain trauma in aged transgenic mice induces regression of established abeta deposits.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Y; Reed, L; Nakamura, M; McIntosh, T K; Smith, D H; Saatman, K E; Raghupathi, R; Clemens, J; Saido, T C; Lee, V M; Trojanowski, J Q

    2000-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) increases susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease (AD), but it is not known if TBI affects the progression of AD. To address this question, we studied the neuropathological consequences of TBI in transgenic (TG) mice with a mutant human Abeta precursor protein (APP) mini-gene driven by a platelet-derived (PD) growth factor promoter resulting in overexpression of mutant APP (V717F), elevated brain Abeta levels, and AD-like amyloidosis. Since brain Abeta deposits first appear in 6-month-old TG (PDAPP) mice and accumulate with age, 2-year-old PDAPP and wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to controlled cortical impact (CCI) TBI or sham treatment. At 1, 9, and 16 weeks after TBI, neuron loss, gliosis, and atrophy were most prominent near the CCI site in PDAPP and WT mice. However, there also was a remarkable regression in the Abeta amyloid plaque burden in the hippocampus ipsilateral to TBI compared to the contralateral hippocampus of the PDAPP mice by 16 weeks postinjury. Thus, these data suggest that previously accumulated Abeta plaques resulting from progressive amyloidosis in the AD brain also may be reversible. PMID:10785464

  6. Experimental transmission of h-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy to bovinized transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Okada, H; Masujin, K; Iwamaru, Y; Imamura, M; Matsuura, Y; Mohri, S; Czub, S; Yokoyama, T

    2011-09-01

    To characterize the biological and biochemical properties of H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), a transmission study with a Canadian H-type isolate was performed with bovinized transgenic mice (TgBoPrP), which were inoculated intracerebrally with brain homogenate from cattle with H-type BSE. All mice exhibited characteristic neurologic signs, and the subsequent passage showed a shortened incubation period. The distribution of disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) was determined by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and paraffin-embedded tissue (PET) blot. Biochemical properties and higher molecular weight of the glycoform pattern were well conserved within mice. Immunolabeled granular PrP(Sc), aggregates, and/or plaque-like deposits were mainly detected in the following brain locations: septal nuclei, subcallosal regions, hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, interstitial nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the reticular formation of the midbrain. Weak reactivity was detected by immunohistochemistry and PET blot in the cerebral cortex, most thalamic nuclei, the hippocampus, medulla oblongata, and cerebellum. These findings indicate that the H-type BSE prion has biological and biochemical properties distinct from those of C-type and L-type BSE in TgBoPrP mice, which suggests that TgBoPrP mice constitute a useful animal model to distinguish isolates from BSE-infected cattle.

  7. Comparison of Cbln1 and Cbln2 functions using transgenic and knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Rong, Yongqi; Wei, Peng; Parris, Jennifer; Guo, Hong; Pattarini, Roberto; Correia, Kristen; Li, Leyi; Kusnoor, Sheila V; Deutch, Ariel Y; Morgan, James I

    2012-02-01

    Cerebellin precursor protein 1 (Cbln1) is the prototype of a family of secreted neuronal glycoproteins (Cbln1-4) and its genetic elimination results in synaptic alterations in cerebellum (CB) and striatum. In CB, Cbln1 acts as a bi-functional ligand bridging pre-synaptic β-neurexins on granule cells to post-synaptic Grid2 on Purkinje neurons. Although much is known concerning the action of Cbln1, little is known of the function of its other family members. Here, we show that Cbln1 and Cbln2 have similar binding activities to β-neurexins and Grid2 and the targeted ectopic expression of Cbln2 to Purkinje cells in transgenic mice rescues the cerebellar deficits in Cbln1-null animals: suggesting that the two proteins have redundant function mediated by their common receptor binding properties. Cbln1 and Cbln2 are also co-expressed in the endolysosomal compartment of the thalamic neurons responsible for the synaptic alterations in striatum of Cbln1-null mice. Therefore, to determine whether the two family members have similar functions, we generated Cbln2-null mice. Cbln2-null mice do not show the synaptic alterations evident in striatum of Cbln1-null mice. Thus, Cbln2 can exhibit functional redundancy with Cbln1 in CB but it does not have the same properties as Cbln1 in thalamic neurons, implying one or both utilize different receptors/mechanisms in this brain region.

  8. Increased Infectivity of Anchorless Mouse Scrapie Prions in Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Human Prion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Katie; Meade-White, Kimberly; Striebel, James; Chesebro, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Prion protein (PrP) is found in all mammals, mostly as a glycoprotein anchored to the plasma membrane by a C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) linkage. Following prion infection, host protease-sensitive prion protein (PrPsen or PrPC) is converted into an abnormal, disease-associated, protease-resistant form (PrPres). Biochemical characteristics, such as the PrP amino acid sequence, and posttranslational modifications, such as glycosylation and GPI anchoring, can affect the transmissibility of prions as well as the biochemical properties of the PrPres generated. Previous in vivo studies on the effects of GPI anchoring on prion infectivity have not examined cross-species transmission. In this study, we tested the effect of lack of GPI anchoring on a species barrier model using mice expressing human PrP. In this model, anchorless 22L prions derived from tg44 mice were more infectious than 22L prions derived from C57BL/10 mice when tested in tg66 transgenic mice, which expressed wild-type anchored human PrP at 8- to 16-fold above normal. Thus, the lack of the GPI anchor on the PrPres from tg44 mice appeared to reduce the effect of the mouse-human PrP species barrier. In contrast, neither source of prions induced disease in tgRM transgenic mice, which expressed human PrP at 2- to 4-fold above normal. IMPORTANCE Prion protein (PrP) is found in all mammals, usually attached to cells by an anchor molecule called GPI. Following prion infection, PrP is converted into a disease-associated form (PrPres). While most prion diseases are species specific, this finding is not consistent, and species barriers differ in strength. The amino acid sequence of PrP varies among species, and this variability affects prion species barriers. However, other PrP modifications, including glycosylation and GPI anchoring, may also influence cross-species infectivity. We studied the effect of PrP GPI anchoring using a mouse-to-human species barrier model. Experiments showed that

  9. Dissociated phenotypes in presenilin transgenic mice define functionally distinct γ-secretases

    PubMed Central

    Mastrangelo, Peter; Mathews, Paul M.; Chishti, M. Azhar; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Gu, Yongjun; Yang, Jing; Mazzella, Matthew J.; Coomaraswamy, Janaky; Horne, Patrick; Strome, Bob; Pelly, Heather; Levesque, Georges; Ebeling, Chris; Jiang, Ying; Nixon, Ralph A.; Rozmahel, Richard; Fraser, Paul E.; George-Hyslop, Peter St; Carlson, George A.; Westaway, David

    2005-01-01

    γ-secretase depends on presence of presenilins (PS), Nct, Aph-1, and PEN-2 within a core complex. This endoproteolytic activity cleaves within transmembrane domains of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) and Notch, and familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) mutations in PS1 or PS2 genes shift APP cleavage from production of amyloid-β (Aβ) 40 peptide to greater production of Aβ42. Although studies in PS1/PS2-deficient embryonic cells define overlapping activities for these proteins, in vivo complementation of PS1-deficient animals described here reveals an unexpected spectrum of activities dictated by PS1 and PS2 alleles. Unlike PS1 transgenes, wild-type PS2 transgenes expressed in the mouse CNS support little Aβ40 or Aβ42 production, and FAD PS2 alleles support robust production of only Aβ42. Although wild-type PS2 transgenes failed to rescue Notch-associated skeletal defects in PS1 hypomorphs, a “gained” competence in this regard was apparent for FAD alleles of PS2. The range of discrete and divergent processing activities in mice reconstituted with different PS genes and alleles argues against γ-secretase being a single enzyme with intrinsically relaxed substrate and cleavage site specificities. Instead, our studies define functionally distinct γ-secretase variants. We speculate that extrinsic components, in combination with core complexes, may tailor functional variants of this enzyme to their preferred substrates. PMID:15951428

  10. Targeted overexpression of androgen receptor with a liver-specific promoter in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, B; Song, C S; Jung, M H; Chen, S; Walter, C A; Herbert, D C; Weaker, F J; Mancini, M A; Roy, A K

    1996-01-01

    The rodent liver displays marked age- and sex-dependent changes in androgen sensitivity due to the sexually dimorphic and temporally programmed expression of the androgen receptor (AR) gene. We have altered this normal phenotype by constitutive overexpression of the rat AR transgene in the mouse liver by targeting it via the human phenylalanine hydroxylase (hPAH) gene promoter. These transgenic animals in their heterozygous state produce an approximately 30-fold higher level of the AR in the liver as compared with the nontransgenic control. Androgen inactivation via sulfonation of the hormone by dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase (DST), an androgen-repressible enzyme, also contributes to the age- and sex-dependent regulation of hepatic androgen sensitivity. DST has a broad range of substrate specificity and is responsible for the age- and sex-specific activation of certain polycyclic aromatic hepatocarcinogens as well, by converting them to electrophilic sulfonated derivatives. In the transgenic female, the hepatic expression of DST was approximately 4-fold lower than in normal females, a level comparable to that in normal males. The hPAH-AR mice will serve as a valuable model for studying the sex- and age-invariant expression of liver-specific genes, particularly those involved in the activation of environmental hepatocarcinogens such as the aromatic hydrocarbons. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8570624

  11. miR-483-3p regulates hyperglycaemia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yu; Zhao, Yanli; Liu, Yan; Ma, Ning; Wang, Chuxuan; Zou, Jiaqi; Liu, Zhiyan; Zhou, Zhongqiu; Han, Dong; He, Jun; Sun, Qian; Liu, Yicong; Xu, Changqing; Du, Zhimin; Huang, Hui

    2016-09-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy represents severe heart complications, and is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with diabetes. Although a few microRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in diabetes-related complications, a functional association between miRNAs and cardiac dysfunction in diabetic cardiomyopathy remains to be demonstrated. Our results show that miR-483-3p is upregulated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, and cultured cardiomyocytes mimicking hyperglycemia. Overexpressing miR-483-3p in transgenic mice with diabetes mellitus (DM) exacerbated cardiomyocyte apoptosis by transcriptionally repressing insulin growth factor 1 (IGF1). Therefore, we have uncovered a novel signaling pathway, involving miR-483-3p-IGF1, that promotes myocardial cell apoptosis under high blood-glucose condition. Further, our study indicates that miR-483-3p could be a potential therapeutic target for managing diabetes-associated heart complications. PMID:27346130

  12. Leakage-resistant blood vessels in mice transgenically overexpressing angiopoietin-1.

    PubMed

    Thurston, G; Suri, C; Smith, K; McClain, J; Sato, T N; Yancopoulos, G D; McDonald, D M

    1999-12-24

    Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are endothelial cell-specific growth factors. Direct comparison of transgenic mice overexpressing these factors in the skin revealed that the VEGF-induced blood vessels were leaky, whereas those induced by Ang1 were nonleaky. Moreover, vessels in Ang1-overexpressing mice were resistant to leaks caused by inflammatory agents. Coexpression of Ang1 and VEGF had an additive effect on angiogenesis but resulted in leakage-resistant vessels typical of Ang1. Ang1 therefore may be useful for reducing microvascular leakage in diseases in which the leakage results from chronic inflammation or elevated VEGF and, in combination with VEGF, for promoting growth of nonleaky vessels.

  13. Transgenic Over Expression of Nicotinic Receptor Alpha 5, Alpha 3, and Beta 4 Subunit Genes Reduces Ethanol Intake in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gallego, Xavier; Ruiz, Jessica; Valverde, Olga; Molas, Susanna; Robles, Noemí; Sabrià, Josefa; Crabbe, John C.; Dierssen, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Abuse of alcohol and smoking are extensively co-morbid. Some studies suggest partial commonality of action of alcohol and nicotine mediated through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We tested mice with transgenic over expression of the alpha 5, alpha 3, beta 4 receptor subunit genes, which lie in a cluster on human chromosome 15, that were previously shown to have increased nicotine self-administration, for several responses to ethanol. Transgenic and wild-type mice did not differ in sensitivity to several acute behavioral responses to ethanol. However, transgenic mice drank less ethanol than wild-type in a two-bottle (ethanol vs. water) preference test. These results suggest a complex role for this receptor subunit gene cluster in the modulation of ethanol’s as well as nicotine’s effects. PMID:22459873

  14. Transgenic over expression of nicotinic receptor alpha 5, alpha 3, and beta 4 subunit genes reduces ethanol intake in mice.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Xavier; Ruiz-Medina, Jessica; Valverde, Olga; Molas, Susanna; Robles, Noemí; Sabrià, Josefa; Crabbe, John C; Dierssen, Mara

    2012-05-01

    Abuse of alcohol and smoking are extensively co-morbid. Some studies suggest partial commonality of action of alcohol and nicotine mediated through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We tested mice with transgenic over expression of the alpha 5, alpha 3, beta 4 receptor subunit genes, which lie in a cluster on human chromosome 15, that were previously shown to have increased nicotine self-administration, for several responses to ethanol. Transgenic and wild-type mice did not differ in sensitivity to several acute behavioral responses to ethanol. However, transgenic mice drank less ethanol than wild-type in a two-bottle (ethanol vs. water) preference test. These results suggest a complex role for this receptor subunit gene cluster in the modulation of ethanol's as well as nicotine's effects.

  15. Nucleus-targeted Dmp1 transgene fails to rescue dental defects in Dmp1 null mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shu-Xian; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Hua; Yan, Kevin; Ward, Leanne; Lu, Yong-Bo; Feng, Jian-Quan

    2014-09-01

    Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is essential to odontogenesis. Its mutations in human subjects lead to dental problems such as dental deformities, hypomineralization and periodontal impairment. Primarily, DMP1 is considered as an extracellular matrix protein that promotes hydroxyapatite formation and activates intracellular signaling pathway via interacting with αvβ3 integrin. Recent in vitro studies suggested that DMP1 might also act as a transcription factor. In this study, we examined whether full-length DMP1 could function as a transcription factor in the nucleus and regulate odontogenesis in vivo. We first demonstrated that a patient with the DMP1 M1V mutation, which presumably causes a loss of the secretory DMP1 but does not affect the nuclear translocation of DMP1, shows a typical rachitic tooth defect. Furthermore, we generated transgenic mice expressing (NLS)DMP1, in which the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) entry signal sequence of DMP1 was replaced by a nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequence, under the control of a 3.6 kb rat type I collagen promoter plus a 1.6 kb intron 1. We then crossbred the (NLS)DMP1 transgenic mice with Dmp1 null mice to express the (NLS)DMP1 in Dmp1-deficient genetic background. Although immunohistochemistry demonstrated that (NLS)DMP1 was localized in the nuclei of the preodontoblasts and odontoblasts, the histological, morphological and biochemical analyses showed that it failed to rescue the dental and periodontal defects as well as the delayed tooth eruption in Dmp1 null mice. These data suggest that the full-length DMP1 plays no apparent role in the nucleus during odontogenesis.

  16. Extended lifespan, reduced body size and leg skeletal muscle mass, and decreased mitochondrial function in clk-1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kazuhide; Noda, Yoshihiro; Ohsawa, Ikuroh; Shirasawa, Takuji; Takahashi, Mayumi

    2014-10-01

    Mutational inactivation of clk-1, which encodes an enzyme necessary for the biosynthesis of coenzyme Q (CoQ), extends the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. However, whether mammalian clk-1 regulates the lifespan of mice is not known because clk-1-deficiencies are embryonic lethal. Here, we investigated the lifespan of clk-1 transgenic mice (Tg96/I), which were rescued from embryonic lethality via the transgenic expression of mouse clk-1. Tg96/I mice lived longer and had smaller bodies than wild-type mice, but Tg96/I mice had CoQ levels equivalent to wild-type mice. The small-sized Tg96/I mice exhibited reduced whole-body oxygen consumption (VO2) during the dark period, and lean leg skeletal muscles with reduced mitochondrial VO2 and ATP content compared with wild-type mice. These findings indicate a close relationship between lifespan extension and decreased mitochondrial function, which was induced by the transgenic expression of clk-1, in leg skeletal muscles that exhibit high metabolic activity. PMID:25106098

  17. Growth hormone (GH) binding and effects of GH analogs in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Bartke, A.; Steger, R.W.; Turyn, D.

    1994-12-31

    Overexpression of human (h) or bovine (b) growth hormone (GH) in transgenic mice is associated with marked (2- to 12-fold) and significant increase in hepatic binding of GH and prolactin (PRL). This is due to an increase in the number of GH and PRL receptors (GHR, PRLR) per mg of microsomal protein without changes in binding affinity. Comparison of results obtained in transgenic animals expressing bGH with a mouse metallothionein (MT) or a rat phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) promoter suggests that effects of bGH on hepatic GHR and PRLR do not require GH overexpression during fetal life and, within the dose range tested, the effects on PRLR are not dose dependent. The increase in hepatic GHR was accompanied by significant increases in plasma GH-binding protein (GHBP) and in mean residence time of injected GH. Thus life-long elevation of peripheral GH levels alters the availability of both free GH and GHR. Site-directed in vitro mutagenesis was used to produce hGH and bGH analogs mutated within one of the sites involved in binding to GHR and PRLR. Mutating hGH to produce amino acid identity with bGH at Position 11, 18 (within Helix 1), 57, or 60 (within the loop between Helix 1 and 2) did not affect binding to GHR in vitro, or somatotropic activity in transgenic mice in vivo but reduced lactogenic activity in Nb{sub 2} cells by 22%-45%. Mutations of bGH designed to produce amino acid identity with hGH at one to four of the corresponding positions in the bGH molecule did not interfere with binding to GHR or somatotropic activity in vivo, and failed to produce significant binding to PRLR but resulted in alterations in the effects on the hypothalamic and anterior pituitary function in transgenic mice. Apparently region(s) outside the domains examined are essential for lactogenic activity of hGH, and different portions of the GH molecule are responsible for its diverse actions in vivo. 35 refs.

  18. Piericidin A Aggravates Tau Pathology in P301S Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    De Andrade, Anderson; Respondek, Gesine; Xu, Hong; Rösler, Thomas W.; Salama, Mohamed; Carlsson, Thomas; Yamada, Elizabeth S.; Gad El Hak, Seham A.; Goedert, Michel; Oertel, Wolfgang H.; Höglinger, Günter U.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The P301S mutation in exon 10 of the tau gene causes a hereditary tauopathy. While mitochondrial complex I inhibition has been linked to sporadic tauopathies. Piericidin A is a prototypical member of the group of the piericidins, a class of biologically active natural complex I inhibitors, isolated from streptomyces spp. with global distribution in marine and agricultural habitats. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a pathogenic interaction of the environmental toxin piericidin A and the P301S mutation. Methods Transgenic mice expressing human tau with the P301S-mutation (P301S+/+) and wild-type mice at 12 weeks of age were treated subcutaneously with vehicle (N = 10 P301S+/+, N = 7 wild-type) or piericidin A (N = 9 P301S+/+, N = 9 wild-type mice) at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg/d for a period of 28 days via osmotic minipumps. Tau pathology was measured by stereological counts of cells immunoreative with antibodies against phosphorylated tau (AD2, AT8, AT180, and AT100) and corresponding Western blot analysis. Results Piericidin A significantly increased the number of phospho-tau immunoreactive cells in the cerebral cortex in P301S+/+ mice, but only to a variable and mild extent in wild-type mice. Furthermore, piericidin A led to increased levels of pathologically phosphorylated tau only in P301S+/+ mice. While we observed no apparent cell loss in the frontal cortex, the synaptic density was reduced by piericidin A treatment in P301S+/+ mice. Discussion This study shows that exposure to piericidin A aggravates the course of genetically determined tau pathology, providing experimental support for the concept of gene-environment interaction in the etiology of tauopathies. PMID:25437199

  19. Expression of LIF in transgenic mice results in altered thymic epithelium and apparent interconversion of thymic and lymph node morphologies.

    PubMed Central

    Shen, M M; Skoda, R C; Cardiff, R D; Campos-Torres, J; Leder, P; Ornitz, D M

    1994-01-01

    Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is a cytokine involved in embryonic and hematopoietic development. To investigate the effects of LIF on the lymphoid system, we generated a line of transgenic mice that expresses diffusible LIF protein specifically in T cells. These mice display two categories of phenotype that were not previously attributed to LIF overexpression. First, they display B cell hyperplasia, polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia and mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis, defects similar to those described for transgenic mice overexpressing the functionally related cytokine, interleukin-6. Secondly, the LIF transgenic mice display novel thymic and lymph node abnormalities. In the thymus, cortical CD4+CD8+ lymphocytes are lost, while numerous B cell follicles develop. Peripheral lymph nodes contain a vastly expanded CD4+CD8+ lymphocyte population. Furthermore, the thymic epithelium is profoundly disorganized, suggesting that disruption of stroma-lymphocyte interactions is responsible for many observed defects. Transplantation of transgenic bone marrow into wild type recipients transfers both the thymic and lymph node defects. However, transplantation of wild type marrow into transgenic recipients rescues the lymph node abnormality, but not the thymic defect, indicating the thymic epithelium is irreversibly altered. Our observations are consistent with a role for LIF in maintaining a functional thymic epithelium that will support proper T cell maturation. Images PMID:8137821

  20. Alu sequence involvement in transcriptional insulation of the keratin 18 gene in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Thorey, I S; Ceceña, G; Reynolds, W; Oshima, R G

    1993-01-01

    The human keratin 18 (K18) gene is expressed in a variety of adult simple epithelial tissues, including liver, intestine, lung, and kidney, but is not normally found in skin, muscle, heart, spleen, or most of the brain. Transgenic animals derived from the cloned K18 gene express the transgene in appropriate tissues at levels directly proportional to the copy number and independently of the sites of integration. We have investigated in transgenic mice the dependence of K18 gene expression on the distal 5' and 3' flanking sequences and upon the RNA polymerase III promoter of an Alu repetitive DNA transcription unit immediately upstream of the K18 promoter. Integration site-independent expression of tandemly duplicated K18 transgenes requires the presence of either an 825-bp fragment of the 5' flanking sequence or the 3.5-kb 3' flanking sequence. Mutation of the RNA polymerase III promoter of the Alu element within the 825-bp fragment abolishes copy number-dependent expression in kidney but does not abolish integration site-independent expression when assayed in the absence of the 3' flanking sequence of the K18 gene. The characteristics of integration site-independent expression and copy number-dependent expression are separable. In addition, the formation of the chromatin state of the K18 gene, which likely restricts the tissue-specific expression of this gene, is not dependent upon the distal flanking sequences of the 10-kb K18 gene but rather may depend on internal regulatory regions of the gene. Images PMID:7692231

  1. Unregulated brain iron deposition in transgenic mice over-expressing HMOX1 in the astrocytic compartment.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Zukor, Hillel; Lin, Shih-Hsiung; Liberman, Adrienne; Tavitian, Ayda; Mui, Jeannie; Vali, Hojatollah; Fillebeen, Carine; Pantopoulos, Kostas; Wu, Ting-Di; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Schipper, Hyman M

    2012-10-01

    The mechanisms responsible for pathological iron deposition in the aging and degenerating mammalian CNS remain poorly understood. The stress protein, HO-1 mediates the degradation of cellular heme to biliverdin/bilirubin, free iron, and CO and is up-regulated in the brains of persons with Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. HO-1 induction in primary astroglial cultures promotes deposition of non-transferrin iron, mitochondrial damage and macroautophagy, and predisposes cocultured neuronal elements to oxidative injury. To gain a better appreciation of the role of glial HO-1 in vivo, we probed for aberrant brain iron deposition using Perls' method and dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry in novel, conditional GFAP.HMOX1 transgenic mice that selectively over-express human HO-1 in the astrocytic compartment. At 48 weeks, the GFAP.HMOX1 mice exhibited increased deposits of glial iron in hippocampus and other subcortical regions without overt changes in iron-regulatory and iron-binding proteins relative to age-matched wild-type animals. Dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry revealed abundant FeO⁻ signals in the transgenic, but not wild-type, mouse brain that colocalized to degenerate mitochondria and osmiophilic cytoplasmic inclusions (macroautophagy) documented by TEM. Sustained up-regulation of HO-1 in astrocytes promotes pathological brain iron deposition and oxidative mitochondrial damage characteristic of Alzheimer's disease-affected neural tissues. Curtailment of glial HO-1 hyperactivity may limit iron-mediated cytotoxicity in aging and degenerating neural tissues.

  2. Impaired glucose homeostasis in transgenic mice expressing the human transient neonatal diabetes mellitus locus, TNDM

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dan; Shield, Julian P.H.; Dean, Wendy; Leclerc, Isabelle; Knauf, Claude; Burcelin, Rémy; Rutter, Guy A.; Kelsey, Gavin

    2004-01-01

    Transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (TNDM) is a rare inherited diabetic syndrome apparent in the first weeks of life and again during early adulthood. The relative contributions of reduced islet β cell number and impaired β cell function to the observed hypoinsulinemia are unclear. The inheritance pattern of this imprinted disorder implicates overexpression of one or both genes within the TNDM locus: ZAC, which encodes a proapoptotic zinc finger protein, and HYMAI, which encodes an untranslated mRNA. To investigate the consequences for pancreatic function, we have developed a high-copy transgenic mouse line, TNDM29, carrying the human TNDM locus. TNDM29 neonates display hyperglycemia, and older adults, impaired glucose tolerance. Neonatal hyperglycemia occurs only on paternal transmission, analogous to paternal dependence of TNDM in humans. Embryonic pancreata of TNDM29 mice showed reductions in expression of endocrine differentiation factors and numbers of insulin-staining structures. By contrast, β cell mass was normal or elevated at all postnatal stages, whereas pancreatic insulin content in neonates and peak serum insulin levels after glucose infusion in adults were reduced. Expression of human ZAC and HYMAI in these transgenic mice thus recapitulates key features of TNDM and implicates impaired development of the endocrine pancreas and β cell function in disease pathogenesis. PMID:15286800

  3. High throughput phenotyping of left and right ventricular cardiomyopathy in calcineurin transgene mice.

    PubMed

    Moreth, Kristin; Afonso, Luciana Caminha; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Katus, Hugo A; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Lehman, Lorenz; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Consistent protocols for the assessment of diastolic and systolic cardiac function to assure the comparability of existing data on preclinical models are missing. Calcineurin transgene (CN) mice are a preclinical model for hypertrophic and failing hearts. We aimed at evaluating left and right ventricular structural and functional remodeling in CN hearts with an optimized phenotyping protocol. We developed a protocol using techniques and indices comparable to those from human diagnostics for comprehensive in vivo cardiac screening using high-frequency echocardiography, Doppler, electrocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) techniques. We measured left and right ventricular dimensions and function, pulmonary and mitral flow pattern and the hearts electrophysiology non-invasively in <1 h per mouse. We found severe biventricular dilation and a drastic decline in performance in accordance with a condition of heart failure (HF), diastolic dysfunction and defects in electrical conduction in 8-week-old calcineurin transgenic mice. Echocardiography of the left ventricle was performed with and without anesthesia. In all cases absolute values on echocardiography compared with CMR were smaller for LV dimension and wall thickness, resulting in higher fractional shorting and ejection fraction. The study protocol described here opens opportunities to assess the added value of combined echocardiography, Doppler, CMR and ECG recording techniques for the diagnosis of biventricular cardiac pathologies i.e. of HF and to study symptom occurrence and disease progression non-invasively in high-throughput. Phenotyping CN hearts revealed new symptom occurrence and allowed insights into the diverse phenotype of hypertrophic failing hearts.

  4. Proteomic analysis of liver tissue from HBx-transgenic mice at early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Young; Lee, Phil Young; Shin, Hye-Jun; Kim, Do Hyung; Kang, Sunghyun; Moon, Hyung-Bae; Kang, Sang Won; Kim, Jin-Man; Park, Sung Goo; Park, Byoung Chul; Yu, Dae-Yeul; Bae, Kwang-Hee; Lee, Sang Chul

    2009-11-01

    The hepatitis B virus X-protein (HBx), a multifunctional viral regulator, participates in the viral life cycle and in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We previously reported a high incidence of HCC in transgenic mice expressing HBx. In this study, proteomic analysis was performed to identify proteins that may be involved in hepatocarcinogenesis and/or that could be utilized as early detection biomarkers for HCC. Proteins from the liver tissue of HBx-transgenic mice at early stages of carcinogenesis (dysplasia and hepatocellular adenoma) were separated by 2-DE, and quantitative changes were analyzed. A total of 22 spots displaying significant quantitative changes were identified using LC-MS/MS. In particular, several proteins involved in glucose and fatty acid metabolism, such as mitochondrial 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, intestinal fatty acid-binding protein 2 and cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase, were differentially expressed, implying that significant metabolic alterations occurred during the early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis. The results of this proteomic analysis provide insights into the mechanism of HBx-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis. Additionally, this study identifies possible therapeutic targets for HCC diagnosis and novel drug development for treatment of the disease.

  5. Analysis of the human alpha-globin gene cluster in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, J A; Wells, D J; Whitelaw, E; Vyas, P; Higgs, D R; Wood, W G

    1993-01-01

    A 350-bp segment of DNA associated with an erythroid-specific DNase I-hypersensitive site (HS-40), upstream of the alpha-globin gene cluster, has been identified as the major tissue-specific regulator of the alpha-globin genes. However, this element does not direct copy number-dependent or developmentally stable expression of the human genes in transgenic mice. To determine whether additional upstream hypersensitive sites could provide more complete regulation of alpha gene expression we have studied 17 lines of transgenic mice bearing various DNA fragments containing HSs -33, -10, -8, and -4, in addition to HS -40. Position-independent, high-level expression of the human zeta- and alpha-globin genes was consistently observed in embryonic erythroid cells. However, the additional HSs did not confer copy-number dependence, alter the level of expression, or prevent the variable down-regulation of expression in adults. These results suggest that the region upstream of the human alpha-globin genes is not equivalent to that upstream of the beta locus and that although the two clusters are coordinately expressed, there may be differences in their regulation. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 6 PMID:8248238

  6. Introduction of yeast artificial chromosomes containing mutant human amyloid precursor protein genes into transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Call, L.M.; Lamb, B.T.; Boese, K.F.

    1994-09-01

    Several hypothetical mechanisms have been proposed for the generation and deposition of the amyloid beta (A{beta}) peptide in Alzheimer`s disease (AD). These include overexpression of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene, as suggested by Down Syndrome (DS, trisomy 21), and mutation of APP, as suggested by mutations associated with the presence of disease/amyloid deposition in some cases of familial AD (FAD). Although numerous in vitro studies have lead to certain insights into the molecular basis for amyloid deposition, the mechanisms(s) of amyloidogenesis in vivo remains poorly defined. To examine the effect of FAD mutations on amyloidogenesis in an animal model, we have focused on producing APP YAC transgenic mice containing the human APP gene with FAD mutations. These APP YAC transgenics are being produced by introduction of a 650 kb APP YAC through lipid-mediated transfection of ES cells. This strategy has two principal advantages: the APP genomic sequences contain transcriptional regulatory elements required for proper spatial and temporal expression and contain appropriate splice donor and acceptor sites needed to generate the entire spectrum of alternatively spliced APP transcripts. As a first step, we cloned the genomic regions surrounding APP exons 16 and 17 from an APP YAC sublibrary. Both the Swedish and the 717 mutations were then introduced into exons 16 and 17, respectively, by PCR mutagenesis, and subsequently transferred into the 650 kb APP YAC by a two step gene replacement in yeast. The mutant YACs have been introduced into ES cells, and we have determined that these cells are expressing human mutant APP mRNA and protein. These cells are being used to generate transgenic mice. This paradigm should provide the appropriate test of whether a mutant APP gene is capable of producing AD-like pathology in a mouse model.

  7. C9orf72 BAC Transgenic Mice Display Typical Pathologic Features of ALS/FTD.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Jacqueline G; Bogdanik, Laurent; Muhammad, A K M G; Gendron, Tania F; Kim, Kevin J; Austin, Andrew; Cady, Janet; Liu, Elaine Y; Zarrow, Jonah; Grant, Sharday; Ho, Ritchie; Bell, Shaughn; Carmona, Sharon; Simpkinson, Megan; Lall, Deepti; Wu, Kathryn; Daughrity, Lillian; Dickson, Dennis W; Harms, Matthew B; Petrucelli, Leonard; Lee, Edward B; Lutz, Cathleen M; Baloh, Robert H

    2015-12-01

    Noncoding expansions of a hexanucleotide repeat (GGGGCC) in the C9orf72 gene are the most common cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. Here we report transgenic mice carrying a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) containing the full human C9orf72 gene with either a normal allele (15 repeats) or disease-associated expansion (∼100-1,000 repeats; C9-BACexp). C9-BACexp mice displayed pathologic features seen in C9orf72 expansion patients, including widespread RNA foci and repeat-associated non-ATG (RAN) translated dipeptides, which were suppressed by antisense oligonucleotides targeting human C9orf72. Nucleolin distribution was altered, supporting that either C9orf72 transcripts or RAN dipeptides promote nucleolar dysfunction. Despite early and widespread production of RNA foci and RAN dipeptides in C9-BACexp mice, behavioral abnormalities and neurodegeneration were not observed even at advanced ages, supporting the hypothesis that RNA foci and RAN dipeptides occur presymptomatically and are not sufficient to drive neurodegeneration in mice at levels seen in patients. PMID:26637796

  8. N17 Modifies Mutant Huntingtin Nuclear Pathogenesis and Severity of Disease in HD BAC Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xiaofeng; Cantle, Jeffrey P.; Greiner, Erin R.; Lee, C.Y. Daniel; Barth, Albert M.; Gao, Fuying; Park, Chang Sin; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Sandoval-Miller, Susana; Zhang, Richard L.; Diamond, Marc; Mody, Istvan; Coppola, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The nucleus is a critical subcellular compartment for the pathogenesis of polyglutamine disorders, including Huntington’s disease (HD). Recent studies suggest the first 17-amino-acid domain (N17) of mutant Huntingtin (mHTT) mediates its nuclear exclusion in cultured cells. Here, we test whether N17 could be a molecular determinant of nuclear mHTT pathogenesis in vivo. BAC transgenic mice expressing mHTT lacking the N17 domain (BACHD-ΔN17) show dramatically accelerated mHTT pathology exclusively in the nucleus, which is associated with HD-like transcriptionopathy. Interestingly, BACHD-ΔN17 mice manifest more overt disease-like phenotypes than the original BACHD mice, including body weight loss, movement deficits, robust striatal neuronal loss, and neuroinflammation. Mechanistically, N17 is necessary for nuclear exclusion of small mHTT fragments that are part of nuclear pathology in HD. Together, our study suggests that N17 modifies nuclear pathogenesis and disease severity in HD mice by regulating subcellular localization of known nuclear pathogenic mHTT species. PMID:25661181

  9. Tcf4 transgenic female mice display delayed adaptation in an auditory latent inhibition paradigm.

    PubMed

    Brzózka, M M; Rossner, M J; de Hoz, L

    2016-09-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a severe mental disorder affecting about 1 % of the human population. Patients show severe deficits in cognitive processing often characterized by an improper filtering of environmental stimuli. Independent genome-wide association studies confirmed a number of risk variants for SZ including several associated with the gene encoding the transcription factor 4 (TCF4). TCF4 is widely expressed in the central nervous system of mice and humans and seems to be important for brain development. Transgenic mice overexpressing murine Tcf4 (Tcf4tg) in the adult brain display cognitive impairments and sensorimotor gating disturbances. To address the question of whether increased Tcf4 gene dosage may affect cognitive flexibility in an auditory associative task, we tested latent inhibition (LI) in female Tcf4tg mice. LI is a widely accepted translational endophenotype of SZ and results from a maladaptive delay in switching a response to a previously unconditioned stimulus when this becomes conditioned. Using an Audiobox, we pre-exposed Tcf4tg mice and their wild-type littermates to either a 3- or a 12-kHz tone before conditioning them to a 12-kHz tone. Tcf4tg animals pre-exposed to a 12-kHz tone showed significantly delayed conditioning when the previously unconditioned tone became associated with an air puff. These results support findings that associate TCF4 dysfunction with cognitive inflexibility and improper filtering of sensory stimuli observed in SZ patients. PMID:26404636

  10. Long Term Dantrolene Treatment Reduced Intraneuronal Amyloid in Aged Alzheimer Triple Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunxia; Liang, Ge; Eckenhoff, Maryellen F.; Liu, Weixia; Pickup, Stephen; Meng, Qingcheng; Tian, Yuke; Li, Shitong; Wei, Huafeng

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study suggested that early dantrolene treatment reduced amyloid plaque burden and nearly abolished learning and memory loss in a triple transgenic Alzheimer's disease (3xTg-AD) mouse model. In this study, we investigated the long term treatment of dantrolene on amyloid and tau neuropathology, brain volume and cognitive function in aged 3xTg-AD mice. Fifteen month old 3xTg-AD mice and wild type controls were treated with oral dantrolene (5 mg/kg) or vehicle control twice a week for 6 months. Learning and memory were examined using the Morris Water Maze at 21 and again at 22 months of age. After the behavioral testing, hippocampal and cortical brain volumes were calculated with magnetic resonance imaging and motor function was evaluated using the rotorod. The amyloid burden and tau neurofibrillary tangles in the hippocampus were determined using immunohistochemistry. We found that dantrolene significantly decreased the intraneuronal amyloid accumulation by as much as 76% compared to its corresponding vehicle control, together with a trend to reduce phosphorylated tau in the hippocampus. No significant differences could be detected in hippocampal or cortical brain volume, motor function or cognition among all experimental groups, indicating that the mice were still pre-symptomatic for Alzheimer's disease. Thus, pre-symptomatic and long term dantrolene treatment significantly decreased the intraneuronal amyloid burden in aged 3xTg-AD mice prior to significant changes in brain volume, or cognition. PMID:25650693

  11. Influence of Genetic Background on Apathy-Like Behavior in Triple Transgenic AD Mice.

    PubMed

    Pardossi-Piquard, R; Lauritzen, I; Bauer, C; Sacco, G; Robert, P; Checler, F

    2016-01-01

    Apathy is an early and common neuropsychiatric syndrome in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. In clinical trials, apathy is associated with decreased motor activity that can be monitored by actigraphy. The triple transgenic mouse AD model (3xTgAD) has been shown to recapitulate the biochemical lesions as well as many of the synaptic and cognitive alterations associated with AD. In the present work we found that these mice also develop an early and consistent apathy-like behavior as evidenced by a drastic decrease in spontaneous activity measured by actimetry. We recently established that these mice also display an intraneuronal accumulation of the β-secretase-derived βAPP fragment (C99) appearing early, in absence of Aβ. Interestingly, we found that the apathy-like behavior observed in 3xTgAD mice was temporally associated with C99 accumulation and synaptic alterations. Since it is well known that the genetic background can strongly influence behavior and can induce transcriptional variability in animal models, we decided to determine the influence of genetic background on the above-described alterations. We backcrossed 3xTgAD mice to C57BL/6 and found that the genetic background had no influence on either C99 accumulation or synaptic plasticity alterations, but strongly affected the apathy-like behavior. PMID:27040141

  12. Safflower yellow ameliorates cognition deficits and reduces tau phosphorylation in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Ying-Ying; Zhai, Wei; Shi, Xiao-Meng; Zhang, Lu; Hu, Yan-Li

    2016-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia worldwide, is mainly characterized by the aggregated β-amyloid (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau. Safflower yellow (SY) is a novel water extract of natural safflower and has been suggested to ameliorate memory deficits in several animal models of dementia. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of SY on deficits of learning and memory and hyperphosphorylation of tau in APP/PS1 double transgenic mice. APP/PS1 mice were administered with SY (10, 30, 100 mg/kg) by oral gavage for three months at the age of six months. The ability of learning and memory was investigated using the step-down test and Morris water maze test, and protein level in the brain was evaluated using western blot. Here, we found that SY treatment can improve spatial learning and memory ability, and reduce tau hyperphosphorylation at Ser199, Thr205, Ser396, Ser404 sites in APP/PS1 mice. In addition, the activity the of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK-5) and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), major kinases involved in tau phosphorylation, was siginificantly decreased in APP/PS1 mice by SY treatment. These results support SY can serve as a promising multitarget neuronal therapeutic agent for the treatment of AD.

  13. Extraneural manifestations of prion infection in GPI-anchorless transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Andrew M.; Paulsson, Johan F.; Cruite, Justin; Andaya, Abegail A.; Trifilo, Matthew J.; Oldstone, Michael B.A.

    2011-03-01

    Earlier studies indicated that transgenic (tg) mice engineered to express prion protein (PrP) lacking the glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI{sup -/-}) membrane anchor formed abnormal proteinase-resistant prion (PrPsc) amyloid deposits in their brains and hearts when infected with the RML strain of murine scrapie. In contrast, RML scrapie infection of normal mice with a GPI-anchored PrP did not deposit amyloid with PrPsc in the brain or the heart. Here we report that scrapie-infected GPI{sup -/-} PrP tg mice also deposit PrP and transmissible infectious material in the gut, kidneys, and islets of Langerhans. Similar to previously reported amyloid deposits in the brain and heart, amyloid deposits were found in the gut; however, no amyloid deposited in the islets. By high-resolution electron microscopy, we show PrP is located primarily in {alpha} cells and also {beta} cells. Islets contain abundant insulin and there is no abnormality in glucose metabolism in infected GPI{sup -/-} PrP tg mice.

  14. Organ-targeted mutagenicity of nitrofurantoin in Big Blue transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Quillardet, Philippe; Arrault, Xavier; Michel, Valérie; Touati, Eliette

    2006-09-01

    Nitrofurans are widely used in human medicine, as nitrofurantoin and nifuroxazide, still prescribed for long-term antimicrobial prophylaxis of urinary tract and gastrointestinal infection in humans respectively. Recent experiments in mammals, as well as reports mentioning toxic effects in humans associated with a long-term use, specially in the case of nitrofurantoin, raised the need for reevaluating their genotoxicity. The objective of this study was to determine whether these two compounds induce a mutagenic effect in the Big Blue transgenic mouse mutation assay. Mice were orally treated either with nitrofurantoin or nifuroxazide for five consecutive days and sacrificed 3 weeks later. In order to optimize the genotoxic response, the doses used for each compound were 25-fold higher as the posology in humans. They corresponded to 50% of the highest doses tolerated by mice. The mutant frequency was determined from kidney, lung, bladder, caecum, colon, small intestine, spleen and stomach. A weak mutagenic response of nitrofurantoin-treated mice specifically in the kidney was observed. As in the case of other nitrofuran compounds, the mutation spectra determined from treated samples exhibited slightly more GC-->TA transversions as compared with untreated conditions. These data are relevant to the targeted action of nitrofurantoin as a urinary antimicrobial agent. No significant increase of mutants was detected in the case of nifuroxazide-treated mice whatever the organs analysed. PMID:16895946

  15. Linalool reverses neuropathological and behavioral impairments in old triple transgenic Alzheimer's mice.

    PubMed

    Sabogal-Guáqueta, Angélica Maria; Osorio, Edison; Cardona-Gómez, Gloria Patricia

    2016-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Several types of treatments have been tested to block or delay the onset of the disease, but none have been completely successful. Diet, lifestyle and natural products are currently the main scientific focuses. Here, we evaluate the effects of oral administration of the monoterpene linalool (25 mg/kg), every 48 h for 3 months, on aged (21-24 months old) mice with a triple transgenic model of AD (3xTg-AD) mice. Linalool-treated 3xTg-AD mice showed improved learning and spatial memory and greater risk assessment behavior during the elevated plus maze. Hippocampi and amygdalae from linalool-treated 3xTg-AD mice exhibited a significant reduction in extracellular β-amyloidosis, tauopathy, astrogliosis and microgliosis as well as a significant reduction in the levels of the pro-inflammatory markers p38 MAPK, NOS2, COX2 and IL-1β. Together, our findings suggest that linalool reverses the histopathological hallmarks of AD and restores cognitive and emotional functions via an anti-inflammatory effect. Thus, linalool may be an AD prevention candidate for preclinical studies.

  16. Safflower yellow ameliorates cognition deficits and reduces tau phosphorylation in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Ying-Ying; Zhai, Wei; Shi, Xiao-Meng; Zhang, Lu; Hu, Yan-Li

    2016-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia worldwide, is mainly characterized by the aggregated β-amyloid (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau. Safflower yellow (SY) is a novel water extract of natural safflower and has been suggested to ameliorate memory deficits in several animal models of dementia. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of SY on deficits of learning and memory and hyperphosphorylation of tau in APP/PS1 double transgenic mice. APP/PS1 mice were administered with SY (10, 30, 100 mg/kg) by oral gavage for three months at the age of six months. The ability of learning and memory was investigated using the step-down test and Morris water maze test, and protein level in the brain was evaluated using western blot. Here, we found that SY treatment can improve spatial learning and memory ability, and reduce tau hyperphosphorylation at Ser199, Thr205, Ser396, Ser404 sites in APP/PS1 mice. In addition, the activity the of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK-5) and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), major kinases involved in tau phosphorylation, was siginificantly decreased in APP/PS1 mice by SY treatment. These results support SY can serve as a promising multitarget neuronal therapeutic agent for the treatment of AD. PMID:27311611

  17. Muscle-directed gene therapy for phenylketonuria (PKU): Development of transgenic mice with muscle-specific phenylalanine hydroxylase expression

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, C.O.; Messing, A.; Wolff, J.A.

    1994-09-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an attractive target for gene therapy because of shortcomings in current therapy including lifelong commitment to a difficult and expensive diet, persistent mild cognitive deficits in some children despite adequate dietary therapy, and maternal PKU syndrome. Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) is normally expressed only in liver, but we propose to treat PKU by introducing the gene for PAH into muscle. In order to evaluate both the safety and efficacy of this approach, we have a developed a trangenic mouse which expresses PAH in both cardiac and skeletal muscle. The transgene includes promoter and enhancer sequences from the mouse muscle creatine kinase (MCK) gene fused to the mouse liver PAH cDNA. Mice which have inherited the transgene are healthy, active, and do not exhibit any signs of muscle weakness or wasting. Ectopic PAH expression in muscle is not detrimental to the health, neurologic function, or reproduction of the mice. Pah{sup enu2} hyperphenylalaninemic mice, a model of human PAH deficiency, bred to carry the transgene have substantial PAH expression in cardiac and skeletal muscle but none in liver. Muscle PAH expression alone does not complement the hyperphenylalaninemic phenotype of Pah{sup enu2} mice. However, administration of reduced tetrahydrobiopterin to transgenic Pah{sup enu2} mice is associated with a 25% mean decrease in serum phenylalanine levels. We predict that ectopic expression of PAH in muscle along with adequate muscle supplies of reduced biopterin cofactor will decrease hyperphenylalaninemia in PKU.

  18. Ocular myasthenia gravis induced by human acetylcholine receptor ϵ subunit immunization in HLA DR3 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaorong; Tuzun, Erdem; Saini, Shamsher S; Wang, Jun; Li, Jing; Aguilera-Aguirre, Leopoldo; Huda, Ruksana; Christadoss, Premkumar

    2015-12-01

    Extraocular muscles (EOM) are preferentially involved in myasthenia gravis (MG) and acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody positive MG patients may occasionally present with isolated ocular symptoms. Although experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) induced by whole AChR immunization closely mimics clinical and immunopathological aspects of MG, EOM are usually not affected. We have previously developed an EAMG model, which imitates EOM symptoms of MG by immunization of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) transgenic mice with α or γ-subunits of human AChR (H-AChR). To investigate the significance of the ϵ-subunit in ocular MG, we immunized HLA-DR3 and HLA-DQ8 transgenic mice with recombinant H-AChR ϵ-subunit expressed in Escherichia coli. HLA-DR3 transgenic mice showed significantly higher clinical ocular and generalized MG severity scores and lower grip strength values than HLA-DQ8 mice. H-AChR ϵ-subunit-immunized HLA-DR3 transgenic mice had higher serum anti-AChR antibody (IgG, IgG1, IgG2b, IgG2c and IgM) levels, neuromuscular junction IgG and complement deposit percentages than ϵ-subunit-immunized HLA-DQ8 transgenic mice. Control mice immunized with E. coli extract or complete Freund adjuvant (CFA) did not show clinical and immunopathological features of ocular and generalized EAMG. Lymph node cells of ϵ-subunit-immunized HLA-DR3 mice showed significantly higher proliferative responses than those of ϵ-subunit-immunized HLA-DQ8 mice, crude E. coli extract-immunized and CFA-immunized transgenic mice. Our results indicate that the human AChR ϵ-subunit is capable of inducing myasthenic muscle weakness. Diversity of the autoimmune responses displayed by mice expressing different HLA class II molecules suggests that the interplay between HLA class II alleles and AChR subunits might have a profound impact on the clinical course of MG.

  19. Genome scan identifies a locus affecting gamma-globin expression in human beta-cluster YAC transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, S.D.; Cooper, P.; Fung, J.; Weier, H.U.G.; Rubin, E.M.

    2000-03-01

    Genetic factors affecting post-natal g-globin expression - a major modifier of the severity of both b-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia, have been difficult to study. This is especially so in mice, an organism lacking a globin gene with an expression pattern equivalent to that of human g-globin. To model the human b-cluster in mice, with the goal of screening for loci affecting human g-globin expression in vivo, we introduced a human b-globin cluster YAC transgene into the genome of FVB mice . The b-cluster contained a Greek hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) g allele resulting in postnatal expression of human g-globin in transgenic mice. The level of human g-globin for various F1 hybrids derived from crosses between the FVB transgenics and other inbred mouse strains was assessed. The g-globin level of the C3HeB/FVB transgenic mice was noted to be significantly elevated. To map genes affecting postnatal g-globin expression, a 20 centiMorgan (cM) genome scan of a C3HeB/F VB transgenics [prime] FVB backcross was performed, followed by high-resolution marker analysis of promising loci. From this analysis we mapped a locus within a 2.2 cM interval of mouse chromosome 1 at a LOD score of 4.2 that contributes 10.4% of variation in g-globin expression level. Combining transgenic modeling of the human b-globin gene cluster with quantitative trait analysis, we have identified and mapped a murine locus that impacts on human g-globin expression in vivo.

  20. Characterization of Fam20C expression in odontogenesis and osteogenesis using transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Du, Er-Xia; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Yang, Wu-Chen; Kaback, Deborah; Yee, Siu-Pok; Qin, Chun-Lin; George, Anne; Hao, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that Fam20C promotes differentiation and mineralization of odontoblasts, ameloblasts, osteoblasts and osteocytes during tooth and bone development. Ablation of the Fam20C gene inhibits bone and tooth growth by increasing fibroblast growth factor 23 in serum and causing hypophosphatemia in conditional knockout mice. However, control and regulation of the expression of Fam20C are still unknown. In this study, we generated a transgenic reporter model which expresses green fluorescence protein (GFP) driven by the Fam20C promoter. Recombineering was used to insert a 16 kb fragment of the mouse Fam20C gene (containing the 15 kb promoter and 1.1 kb of exon 1) into a pBluescript SK vector with the topaz variant of GFP and a bovine growth hormone polyadenylation sequence. GFP expression was subsequently evaluated by histomorphometry on cryosections from E14 to adult mice. Fluorescence was evident in the bone and teeth as early as E17.5. The GFP signal was maintained stably in odontoblasts and osteoblasts until 4 weeks after birth. The expression of GFP was significantly reduced in teeth, alveolar bone and muscle by 8 weeks of age. We also observed colocalization of the GFP signal with the Fam20C antibody in postnatal 1- and 7-day-old animals. Successful generation of Fam20C-GFP transgenic mice will provide a unique model for studying Fam20C gene expression and the biological function of this gene during odontogenesis and osteogenesis. PMID:25537657

  1. Characterization of Fam20C expression in odontogenesis and osteogenesis using transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Du, Er-Xia; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Yang, Wu-Chen; Kaback, Deborah; Yee, Siu-Pok; Qin, Chun-Lin; George, Anne; Hao, Jian-Jun

    2015-06-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that Fam20C promotes differentiation and mineralization of odontoblasts, ameloblasts, osteoblasts and osteocytes during tooth and bone development. Ablation of the Fam20C gene inhibits bone and tooth growth by increasing fibroblast growth factor 23 in serum and causing hypophosphatemia in conditional knockout mice. However, control and regulation of the expression of Fam20C are still unknown. In this study, we generated a transgenic reporter model which expresses green fluorescence protein (GFP) driven by the Fam20C promoter. Recombineering was used to insert a 16 kb fragment of the mouse Fam20C gene (containing the 15 kb promoter and 1.1 kb of exon 1) into a pBluescript SK vector with the topaz variant of GFP and a bovine growth hormone polyadenylation sequence. GFP expression was subsequently evaluated by histomorphometry on cryosections from E14 to adult mice. Fluorescence was evident in the bone and teeth as early as E17.5. The GFP signal was maintained stably in odontoblasts and osteoblasts until 4 weeks after birth. The expression of GFP was significantly reduced in teeth, alveolar bone and muscle by 8 weeks of age. We also observed colocalization of the GFP signal with the Fam20C antibody in postnatal 1- and 7-day-old animals. Successful generation of Fam20C-GFP transgenic mice will provide a unique model for studying Fam20C gene expression and the biological function of this gene during odontogenesis and osteogenesis. PMID:25537657

  2. Studies on the correlation with olfactory dysfunction in a transgenic mice model of Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasheed, Ameer; Lee, Ji Hye; Suh, Yoo-Hun; Moon, Cheil

    2013-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressively debilitating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of proteinaceous deposits in the brain. AD often results in olfactory dysfunction and impaired olfactory perceptual acuity may be a potential biomarker for early diagnosis of AD. Until recently, there is no Alzheimer's nanoscope or any other high-end microscope developed to be capable of seeing buried feature of AD clearly. Modern neuroimaging techniques are more effective only after the occurrence of cognitive impairment. Therefore, early detection of Alzheimer's disease is critical in developing effective treatment of AD. H and E (Haematoxyline and Eosin) staining is performed for examining gross morphological changes, while TUNEL (transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling) staining for monitoring neuronal death in the olfactory epithelium (OE). Furthermore, immunohistochemistry and western blot are performed to examine β-amyloid protein expression. AD model animals were Tg2576 (transgenic mice that overexpress a mutated form of the Aβ precursor protein), and 6 month (before onset of AD symptoms) and 14 month (after onset of AD symptoms) old WT (wild type) and transgenic mice were compared in their olfactory system. We found that in OE of Tg2576 mice, thickness and total number of cells were decreased, while the numbers of TUNEL-positive neurons, caspase-3 activation were significantly increased compared with age-matched WT. Our results demonstrate that the olfactory system may get deteriorated before onset of AD symptoms. Our findings imply that an olfactory biopsy could be served as an early and relatively simple diagnostic tool for potential AD patients.

  3. Neuroendocrine and reproductive consequences of overexpression of growth hormone in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Bartke, A; Cecim, M; Tang, K; Steger, R W; Chandrashekar, V; Turyn, D

    1994-09-01

    Availability of recombinant growth hormone (GH) and development of long-acting formulations of this material will undoubtedly lead to widespread use of GH in animal industry and in medicine. GH can act, directly or indirectly, on multiple targets, but its influence on the reproductive system and on the hormonal control of reproduction is poorly understood. Overexpression of GH genes in transgenic animals provides a unique opportunity to study the effects of long-term GH excess. Transgenic mice overexpressing bovine, ovine, or rat GH (hormones with actions closely resembling, if not identical to, those of endogenous [mouse] GH), exhibit enhancement of growth, increased adult body size, and reduced life-span as well as a number of endocrine and reproductive abnormalities. Ectopic overexpression of bovine GH (bGH) driven by metallothionein or phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase promoters is associated with altered activity of hypothalamic neurons which produce somatostatin, loss of adenohypophyseal GH releasing hormone (GHRH) receptors, and suppression of endogenous (mouse) GH release. Elevation of plasma levels of GH (primarily bGH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) in these transgenic mice leads to increases in the number of hepatic GH and prolactin (PRL) receptors, in the serum levels of GH-binding protein (GHBP), in the percent of GHBP complexed with GH, and in the circulating insulin levels. In addition, plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels are elevated. Plasma levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), as well as its synthesis and release, are not consistently affected, but follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels are suppressed, apparently due to pre- and post-translational effects. Pituitary lactotrophs exhibit characteristics of chronic enhancement of secretory activity, and plasma PRL levels are elevated. Prolactin responses to mating or to pharmacological blockade of dopamine synthesis are abnormal. Reproductive life span and

  4. Deglycosylated Anti-Aβ Antibody Dose–Response Effects on Pathology and Memory in APP Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Arnon; Alamed, Jennifer; Ronan, Victoria; Gordon, Marcia N.; Gottschall, Paul E.; Grimm, Jan; Pons, Jaume; Morgan, Dave

    2016-01-01

    Anti-Aβ antibody administration to amyloid-depositing transgenic mice can reverse amyloid pathology and restore memory function. However, in old mice, these treatments also increase vascular leakage and promote formation of vascular amyloid deposits. Deglycosylated antibodies with reduced affinity for Fcγ receptors and complement are associated with reduced vascular amyloid and microhemorrhage while retaining amyloid-clearing and memory-enhancing properties of native intact antibodies. In the current experiment, we investigated the effect of 3, 10, or 30 mg/kg of deglycosylated antibody (D-2H6) on amyloid pathology and cognitive behavior in old Tg2576 mice. We found that low doses of deglycosylated antibody appear more efficacious than higher doses in reducing pathology and memory loss in amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice. These data suggest that excess antibody unbound to antigen can interfere with antibody-mediated Aβ clearance, possibly by saturating the FcRn antibody transporter. PMID:18607758

  5. Transgenic Mice Expressing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in Immune Cells Develop a Severe AIDS-Like Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Zaher; Kay, Denis G.; Cool, Marc; Jothy, Serge; Rebai, Najet; Jolicoeur, Paul

    1998-01-01

    We have constructed transgenic (Tg) mice expressing the entire human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) coding sequences in cells targeted by HIV-1 infection in humans. These Tg mice developed a severe AIDS-like disease leading to early death (<1 month). They developed muscle wasting, severe atrophy and fibrosis of lymphoid organs, tubulointerstitial nephritis, and lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis. In addition the expression of RANTES was increased in various tissues of these Tg mice relative to that in the normal controls. Disease appearance was correlated with the levels of transgene expression. The numerous pathologies observed in these mice are remarkably similar to those observed in human AIDS and, more specifically, in pediatric AIDS. PMID:9420207

  6. [Effect of light deprivation on homeostasis, life span and development of spontaneous tumors in HER-2/neu transgenic mice].

    PubMed

    Baturin, D A; Alimova, I N; Popovich, I G; Zabezhinskiĭ, M A; Semenchenko, A V; Iashin, A I; Anisimov, V N

    2004-01-01

    Twenty five female HER-2/neu transgenic mice (FVB/N), aged 2 months, were surgically deprived of lighting; 30 intact transgenic mice, kept under standard conditions, were in control. Light deprivation was followed by inhibited intake of feed, decreased body mass and delayed age-associated estral disorders, as compared with control. Mean survival rate among experimental mice was higher by 13.5% than in control (p 0.001). Mean life span among the last surviving 10% of the experimental mice was longer than in control by 21.5% while maximum life span--by 21%. Although the number of tumor bearers under 7 months in the study group was twice that in control (p<0.05), they had almost equalized by the end of the experiment. The number of multiple malignancies and the size of tumor and metastases to the lung increased too. PMID:15318708

  7. Cooperation of ETV6/RUNX1 and BCL2 enhances immunoglobulin production and accelerates glomerulonephritis in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Eva; Schlederer, Michaela; Scheicher, Ruth; Horvath, Jaqueline; Aigner, Petra; Schiefer, Ana-Iris; Kain, Renate; Regele, Heinz; Hoermann, Gregor; Steiner, Günter; Kenner, Lukas; Sexl, Veronika; Villunger, Andreas; Moriggl, Richard; Stoiber, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    The t(12;21) translocation generating the ETV6/RUNX1 fusion gene represents the most frequent chromosomal rearrangement in childhood leukemia. Presence of ETV6/RUNX1 alone is usually not sufficient for leukemia onset, and additional genetic alterations have to occur in ETV6/RUNX1-positive cells to cause transformation. We have previously generated an ETV6/RUNX1 transgenic mouse model where the expression of the fusion gene is restricted to CD19-positive B cells. Since BCL2 family members have been proposed to play a role in leukemogenesis, we investigated combined effects of ETV6/RUNX1 with exogenous expression of the antiapoptotic protein BCL2 by crossing ETV6/RUNX1 transgenic animals with Vav-BCL2 transgenic mice. Strikingly, co-expression of ETV6/RUNX1 and BCL2 resulted in significantly shorter disease latency in mice, indicating oncogene cooperativity. This was associated with faster development of follicular B cell lymphoma and exacerbated immune complex glomerulonephritis. ETV6/RUNX1-BCL2 double transgenic animals displayed increased B cell numbers and immunoglobulin titers compared to Vav-BCL2 transgenic mice. This led to pronounced deposition of immune complexes in glomeruli followed by accelerated development of immune complex glomerulonephritis. Thus, our study reveals a previously unrecognized synergism between ETV6/RUNX1 and BCL2 impacting on malignant disease and autoimmunity. PMID:26919255

  8. Transgenic mice expressing a truncated Peromyscus leucopus TNF-alpha gene manifest an arthritis resembling ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Crew, M D; Effros, R B; Walford, R L; Zeller, E; Cheroutre, H; Brahn, E

    1998-04-01

    Several studies have implicated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To elucidate further the role of TNF-alpha in inflammatory arthritis, we generated transgenic mice harboring a truncated Peromyscus leucopus TNF-alpha (Pe-TNF) gene. An arthritic phenotype closely resembling human ankylosing spondylitis was observed only in transgenic lines expressing the Pe-TNF transgene at the mRNA level. We characterized the arthritic phenotype in detail by radiographic and histologic techniques. It consisted of severe axial skeletal kyphosis and ankylosis, accompanied by an inflammatory and fibrotic process at the end plates and enthesis. Peripheral joint lesions were absent in mice expressing the P. leucopus TNF-alpha gene, in contrast to the RA-like phenotype described in transgenic mice expressing a truncated human TNF-alpha gene. The Pe-TNF transgenic mouse model provides a unique opportunity to explore potential mechanisms whereby TNF-alpha may initiate an autoimmune arthritis resembling ankylosing spondylitis.

  9. Cooperation of ETV6/RUNX1 and BCL2 enhances immunoglobulin production and accelerates glomerulonephritis in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Eva; Schlederer, Michaela; Scheicher, Ruth; Horvath, Jaqueline; Aigner, Petra; Schiefer, Ana-Iris; Kain, Renate; Regele, Heinz; Hoermann, Gregor; Steiner, Günter; Kenner, Lukas; Sexl, Veronika; Villunger, Andreas; Moriggl, Richard; Stoiber, Dagmar

    2016-03-15

    The t(12;21) translocation generating the ETV6/RUNX1 fusion gene represents the most frequent chromosomal rearrangement in childhood leukemia. Presence of ETV6/RUNX1 alone is usually not sufficient for leukemia onset, and additional genetic alterations have to occur in ETV6/RUNX1-positive cells to cause transformation. We have previously generated an ETV6/RUNX1 transgenic mouse model where the expression of the fusion gene is restricted to CD19-positive B cells. Since BCL2 family members have been proposed to play a role in leukemogenesis, we investigated combined effects of ETV6/RUNX1 with exogenous expression of the antiapoptotic protein BCL2 by crossing ETV6/RUNX1 transgenic animals with Vav-BCL2 transgenic mice. Strikingly, co-expression of ETV6/RUNX1 and BCL2 resulted in significantly shorter disease latency in mice, indicating oncogene cooperativity. This was associated with faster development of follicular B cell lymphoma and exacerbated immune complex glomerulonephritis. ETV6/RUNX1-BCL2 double transgenic animals displayed increased B cell numbers and immunoglobulin titers compared to Vav-BCL2 transgenic mice. This led to pronounced deposition of immune complexes in glomeruli followed by accelerated development of immune complex glomerulonephritis. Thus, our study reveals a previously unrecognized synergism between ETV6/RUNX1 and BCL2 impacting on malignant disease and autoimmunity. PMID:26919255

  10. Transgenic neuronal expression of proopiomelanocortin attenuates hyperphagic response to fasting and reverses metabolic impairments in leptin-deficient obese mice.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Tooru M; Kelley, Kevin A; Pasinetti, Giulio M; Roberts, James L; Mobbs, Charles V

    2003-11-01

    Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene expression is reduced in many forms of obesity and diabetes, particularly in those attributable to deficiencies in leptin or its receptor. To assess the functional significance of POMC in mediating metabolic phenotypes associated with leptin deficiency, leptin-deficient mice bearing a transgene expressing the POMC gene under control of the neuron-specific enolase promoter were produced. The POMC transgene attenuated fasting-induced hyperphagia in wild-type mice. Furthermore, the POMC transgene partially reversed obesity, hyperphagia, and hypothermia and effectively normalized hyperglycemia, glucosuria, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance in leptin-deficient mice. Effects of the POMC transgene on glucose homeostasis were independent of the partial correction of hyperphagia and obesity. Furthermore, the POMC transgene normalized the profile of hepatic and adipose gene expression associated with gluconeogenesis, glucose output, and insulin sensitivity. These results indicate that central POMC is a key modulator of glucose homeostasis and that agonists of POMC products may provide effective therapy in treating impairments in glucose homeostasis when hypothalamic POMC expression is reduced, as occurs with leptin deficiency, hypothalamic damage, and aging. PMID:14578285

  11. Regulated tissue-specific alternative splicing of enhanced green fluorescent protein transgenes conferred by alpha-tropomyosin regulatory elements in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Peter D; Smith, Christopher W J; Kemp, Paul

    2004-08-27

    The mutually exclusive exons 2 and 3 of alpha-tropomyosin (alphaTM) have been used as a model system for strictly regulated alternative splicing. Exon 2 inclusion is only observed at high levels in smooth muscle (SM) tissues, whereas striated muscle and non-muscle cells use predominantly exon 3. Experiments in cell culture have shown that exon 2 selection results from repression of exon 3 and that this repression is mediated by regulatory elements flanking exon 3. We have now tested the cell culture-derived model in transgenic mice. We show that by harnessing the intronic splicing regulatory elements, expression of an enhanced green fluorescent protein transgene with a constitutively active promoter can be restricted to SM cells. Splicing of both endogenous alphaTM and a series of transgenes carrying regulatory element mutations was analyzed by reverse transcriptasePCR. These studies indicated that although SM-rich tissues are equipped to regulate splicing of high levels of endogenous or transgene alphaTM RNA, other non-SM tissues such as spleen, which express lower amounts of alphaTM, also splice significant proportions of exon 2, and this splicing pattern can be recapitulated by transgenes expressed at low levels. We confirm the importance in vivo of the negatively acting regulatory elements for regulated skipping of exon 3. Moreover, we provide evidence that some of the regulatory factors responsible for exon 3 skipping appear to be titratable, with loss of regulated splicing sometimes being associated with high transgene expression levels. PMID:15194683

  12. Bone turnover in wild type and pleiotrophin-transgenic mice housed for three months in the International Space Station (ISS).

    PubMed

    Tavella, Sara; Ruggiu, Alessandra; Giuliani, Alessandra; Brun, Francesco; Canciani, Barbara; Manescu, Adrian; Marozzi, Katia; Cilli, Michele; Costa, Delfina; Liu, Yi; Piccardi, Federica; Tasso, Roberta; Tromba, Giuliana; Rustichelli, Franco; Cancedda, Ranieri

    2012-01-01

    Bone is a complex dynamic tissue undergoing a continuous remodeling process. Gravity is a physical force playing a role in the remodeling and contributing to the maintenance of bone integrity. This article reports an investigation on the alterations of the bone microarchitecture that occurred in wild type (Wt) and pleiotrophin-transgenic (PTN-Tg) mice exposed to a near-zero gravity on the International Space Station (ISS) during the Mice Drawer System (MDS) mission, to date, the longest mice permanence (91 days) in space. The transgenic mouse strain over-expressing pleiotrophin (PTN) in bone was selected because of the PTN positive effects on bone turnover. Wt and PTN-Tg control animals were maintained on Earth either in a MDS payload or in a standard vivarium cage. This study revealed a bone loss during spaceflight in the weight-bearing bones of both strains. For both Tg and Wt a decrease of the trabecular number as well as an increase of the mean trabecular separation was observed after flight, whereas trabecular thickness did not show any significant change. Non weight-bearing bones were not affected. The PTN-Tg mice exposed to normal gravity presented a poorer trabecular organization than Wt mice, but interestingly, the expression of the PTN transgene during the flight resulted in some protection against microgravity's negative effects. Moreover, osteocytes of the Wt mice, but not of Tg mice, acquired a round shape, thus showing for the first time osteocyte space-related morphological alterations in vivo. The analysis of specific bone formation and resorption marker expression suggested that the microgravity-induced bone loss was due to both an increased bone resorption and a decreased bone deposition. Apparently, the PTN transgene protection was the result of a higher osteoblast activity in the flight mice.

  13. A novel transgenic line of mice exhibiting autosomal recessive male-specific lethality and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Sollars, Vincent E; McEntee, Benjamin J; Engiles, Julie B; Rothstein, Jay L; Buchberg, Arthur M

    2002-10-15

    We have isolated a Meis1a transgenic mouse line exhibiting recessive male-specific lethality and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which coincides with pubescence and is androgen-dependent. The phenotype is due to disruption of an endogenous locus, since other Meis1a transgenic lines do not exhibit these phenotypes. Necropsy analysis revealed hepatic microvesicular steatosis in pubescent male homozygous mice, which is absent in transgenic females. The transgene insertion site was localized to chromosome 1 and further refined by cloning the flanking regions. Sequence analysis shows that the integration site disrupts a putative metallo-beta-lactamase gene with a 21.3 kb deletion encompassing exons 5-7.

  14. Immunization with an HPV-16 L1-based chimeric virus-like particle containing HPV-16 E6 and E7 epitopes elicits long-lasting prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy in an HPV-16 tumor mice model.

    PubMed

    Monroy-García, Alberto; Gómez-Lim, Miguel Angel; Weiss-Steider, Benny; Hernández-Montes, Jorge; Huerta-Yepez, Sara; Rangel-Santiago, Jesús F; Santiago-Osorio, Edelmiro; Mora García, María de Lourdes

    2014-02-01

    HPV L1-based virus-like particles vaccines (VLPs) efficiently induce temporary prophylactic activity through the induction of neutralizing antibodies; however, VLPs that can provide prophylactic as well as therapeutic properties for longer periods of time are needed. For this purpose, we generated a novel HPV 16 L1-based chimeric virus-like particle (cVLP) produced in plants that contains a string of T-cell epitopes from HPV 16 E6 and E7 fused to its C-terminus. In the present study, we analyzed the persistence of specific IgG antibodies with neutralizing activity induced by immunization with these cVLPs, as well as their therapeutic potential in a tumor model of C57BL/6 mice. We observed that these cVLPs induced persistent IgG antibodies for over 12 months, with reactivity and neutralizing activity for VLPs composed of only the HPV-16 L1 protein. Efficient protection for long periods of time and inhibition of tumor growth induced by TC-1 tumor cells expressing HPV-16 E6/E7 oncoproteins, as well as significant tumor reduction (57 %), were observed in mice immunized with these cVLPs. Finally, we discuss the possibility that chimeric particles of the type described in this work may be the basis for developing HPV prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines with high efficacy.

  15. Transgenic expression of the human MRP2 transporter reduces cisplatin accumulation and nephrotoxicity in Mrp2-null mice.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xia; Buckley, Brian; McCandlish, Elizabeth; Goedken, Michael J; Syed, Samira; Pelis, Ryan; Manautou, José E; Aleksunes, Lauren M

    2014-05-01

    The chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin is actively transported into proximal tubules, leading to acute renal injury. Previous studies suggest that the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) transporter may efflux cisplatin conjugates from cells. We sought to determine whether the absence of Mrp2 alters the accumulation and toxicity of platinum in the kidneys of mice and whether transgenic expression of the human MRP2 gene could protect against cisplatin injury in vivo. Plasma, kidneys, and livers from vehicle- and cisplatin-treated wild-type and Mrp2-null mice were collected for quantification of platinum and toxicity. By 24 hours, twofold higher concentrations of platinum were detected in the kidneys and livers of Mrp2-null mice compared with wild types. Enhanced platinum concentrations in Mrp2-null mice were observed in DNA and cytosolic fractions of the kidneys. Four days after cisplatin treatment, more extensive proximal tubule injury was observed in Mrp2-null mice compared with wild-type mice. Kidneys from naive Mrp2-null mice had elevated glutathione S-transferase mRNA levels, which could increase the formation of cisplatin-glutathione conjugates that may be metabolized to toxic thiol intermediates. Transgenic expression of the human MRP2 gene in Mrp2-null mice reduced the accumulation and nephrotoxicity of cisplatin to levels observed in wild-type mice. These data suggest that deficiency in Mrp2 lowers platinum excretion and increases susceptibility to kidney injury, which can be rescued by the human MRP2 ortholog.

  16. Maternal inhibition of hepatitis B surface antigen gene expression in transgenic mice correlates with de novo methylation.

    PubMed

    Hadchouel, M; Farza, H; Simon, D; Tiollais, P; Pourcel, C

    Differential modifications of the genome during gametogenesis result in a functional difference between the paternal and maternal genomes at the moment of fertilization. A possible cause of this imprinting is the methylation of DNA. The insertion of foreign DNA into transgenic mice allows the tagging of regions that are differentially methylated during gametogenesis. We describe here a transgenic mouse strain in which the expression of the hepatitis B surface antigen gene is irreversibly repressed following its passage through the female germ line. This inhibition is accompanied by the methylation of all the HpaII and HhaI sites within the foreign gene, which we have shown to be integrated into a site on chromosome 13. The irreversibility reported here contrasts with what is found with other transgenic mice sequences which are reversibly methylated after passage through the male or female germ line, though in both cases methylation appears to be important in the imprinting process.

  17. Hyperhomocysteinemia promotes inflammatory monocyte generation and accelerates atherosclerosis in transgenic cystathionine β-synthase deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Daqing; Jiang, Xiaohua; Fang, Pu; Yan, Yan; Song, Jian; Gupta, Sapna; Schafer, Andrew I.; Durante, William; Kruger, Warren D.; Yang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Background Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Monocytes display inflammatory and resident subsets, and commit to specific functions in atherogenesis. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that HHcy modulates monocyte heterogeneity and leads to atherosclerosis. Methods and Results We established a novel atherosclerosis susceptible mouse model with both severe HHcy and hypercholesterolemia, in which the mouse cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and apolipoprotein E (apoE) genes are deficient, and an inducible human CBS transgene is introduced to circumvent the neonatal lethality of the CBS deficiency (Tg-hCBS apoE−/− Cbs−/− mice). Severe HHcy accelerated atherosclerosis and inflammatory monocyte/macrophage accumulation in lesions and increased plasma TNFα and MCP-1 levels in Tg-hCBS apoE−/− Cbs−/− mice fed a high fat diet. Furthermore, we characterized monocyte heterogeneity in Tg-hCBS apoE−/− Cbs−/− mice and another severe HHcy mouse model (Tg-S466L Cbs−/−) with a disease relevant mutation (Tg-S466L) that lacks hyperlipidemia. HHcy increased monocyte population and selective expansion of inflammatory Ly-6Chi and Ly-6Cmid monocyte subsets in blood, spleen and bone marrow of Tg-S466L Cbs−/− and Tg-hCBS apoE−/− Cbs−/− mice. These changes were exacerbated in Tg-S466L Cbs−/− mice with aging. Addition of L-homocysteine (100–500 μM), but not L-cysteine, maintained the Ly-6Chi subset and induced the Ly-6Cmid subset in cultured mouse primary splenocytes. Homocysteine-induced differentiation of Ly-6Cmid subset was prevented by catalase plus SOD, and the NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor, apocynin. Conclusions HHcy promotes differentiation of inflammatory monocyte subsets and their accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions via NAD(P)H oxidase-mediated oxidant stress. PMID:19858416

  18. MUC1-specific immune responses in human MUC1 transgenic mice immunized with various human MUC1 vaccines.

    PubMed

    Acres, B; Apostolopoulos, V; Balloul, J M; Wreschner, D; Xing, P X; Ali-Hadji, D; Bizouarne, N; Kieny, M P; McKenzie, I F

    2000-01-01

    Analyses of MUC1-specific cytotoxic T cell precursor (CTLp) frequencies were performed in mice immunized with three different MUC1 vaccine immunotherapeutic agents. Mice were immunized with either a fusion protein comprising MUC1 and glutathione S-transferase (MUC1-GST), MUC1-GST fusion protein coupled to mannan (MFP) or with a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing both MUC1 and interleukin-2. Mouse strain variations in immune responsiveness have been observed with these vaccines. We have constructed mice transgenic for the human MUC1 gene to study MUC1-specific immune responses and the risk of auto-immunity following MUC1 immunization. Transgenic mice immunized with MUC1 were observed to be partially tolerant in that the MUC1-specific antibody response is lower than that observed in syngeneic but non-transgenic mice. However, a significant MUC1-specific CTLp response to all three vaccines was observed, indicating the ability to overcome T cell, but to a lesser extent B cell, tolerance to MUC1 in these mice. Histological analysis indicates no evidence of auto-immunity to the cells expressing the human MUC1 molecule. These results suggest that it is possible to generate an immune response to a cancer-related antigen without damage to normal tissues expressing the antigen. PMID:10630311

  19. Parkinson-like phenotype in insulin-resistant PED/PEA-15 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Perruolo, Giuseppe; Viggiano, Davide; Fiory, Francesca; Cassese, Angela; Nigro, Cecilia; Liotti, Antonietta; Miele, Claudia; Beguinot, Francesco; Formisano, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Neurological abnormalities, such as Parkinson-like disorders (PlD), are often co-morbidities of Type 2 Diabetic (T2D) patients, although the epidemiological link between these two disorders remains controversial. The PED/PEA-15 protein represents a possible candidate linking T2D and PD, because it is increased in subjects with T2D and is highly expressed in the brain. To test this hypothesis, we have analyzed the neurological and neurochemical phenotype of transgenic mice overexpressing PED/PEA-15 (tgPED). These mice develop impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, accompanied by neurological features resembling PlD: feet clasping, slow and delayed locomotor movements in different behavioral tests in absence of clear cognitive deficits, ataxia or anxiety. Morphological analysis of the brains showed selective modifications of metabolic activity in the striatal region. In the same region, we have observed 26% decrease of dopamine fibers, confirmed by immunohistochemistry and Western Blot for tyrosine hydroxylase. Moreover, they also showed 48% reduction of dopamine levels in the striatum. Thus the tgPED mice may represent a genetic animal model of neurological disease linked to T2D. PMID:27426254

  20. Use of a 2-aminothiazole to Treat Chronic Wasting Disease in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Berry, David; Giles, Kurt; Oehler, Abby; Bhardwaj, Sumita; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Prusiner, Stanley B.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment with the 2-aminothiazole IND24 extended the survival of mice infected with mouse-adapted scrapie but also resulted in the emergence of a drug-resistant prion strain. Here, we determined whether IND24 extended the survival of transgenic mice infected with prions that caused scrapie in sheep or prions that caused chronic wasting disease (CWD; hereafter “CWD prions”) in deer, using 2 isolates for each disease. IND24 doubled the incubation times for mice infected with CWD prions but had no effect on the survival of those infected with scrapie prions. Biochemical, neuropathologic, and cell culture analyses were used to characterize prion strain properties following treatment, and results indicated that the CWD prions were not altered by IND24, regardless of survival extension. These results suggest that IND24 may be a viable candidate for treating CWD in infected captive cervid populations and raise questions about why some prion strains develop drug resistance whereas others do not. PMID:26116725

  1. Folic acid administration inhibits amyloid β-peptide accumulation in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Liu, Huan; Yu, Min; Zhang, Xumei; Zhang, Meilin; Wilson, John X; Huang, Guowei

    2015-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with malnutrition, altered one-carbon metabolism and increased hippocampal amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) accumulation. Aberrant DNA methylation may be an epigenetic mechanism that underlies AD pathogenesis. We hypothesized that folic acid acts through an epigenetic gene silencing mechanism to lower Aβ levels in the APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model of AD. APP/PS1 mice were fed either folate-deficient or control diets and gavaged daily with 120 μg/kg folic acid, 13.3mg/kg S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) or both. Examination of the mice after 60 days of treatment showed that serum folate concentration increased with intake of folic acid but not SAM. Folate deficiency lowered endogenous SAM concentration, whereas neither intervention altered S-adenosylhomocysteine concentration. DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity increased with intake of folic acid raised DNMT activity in folate-deficient mice. DNA methylation rate was stimulated by folic acid in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) promoter and in the presenilin 1 (PS1) promoter. Folate deficiency elevated hippocampal APP, PS1 and Aβ protein levels, and these rises were prevented by folic acid. In conclusion, these findings are consistent with a mechanism in which folic acid increases methylation potential and DNMT activity, modifies DNA methylation and ultimately decreases APP, PS1 and Aβ protein levels.

  2. Utilizing GCaMP transgenic mice to monitor endogenous Gq/11-coupled receptors

    PubMed Central

    Partridge, John G.

    2015-01-01

    The family of GCaMPs are engineered proteins that contain Ca2+ binding motifs within a circularly permutated variant of the Aequorea Victoria green fluorescent protein (cp-GFP). The rapidly advancing field of utilizing GCaMP reporter constructs represents a major step forward in our ability to monitor intracellular Ca2+ dynamics. With the use of these genetically encoded Ca2+ sensors, investigators have studied activation of endogenous Gq types of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and subsequent rises in intracellular calcium. Escalations in intracellular Ca2+ from GPCR activation can be faithfully monitored in space and time as an increase in fluorescent emission from these proteins. Further, transgenic mice are now commercially available that express GCaMPs in a Cre recombinase dependent fashion. These GCaMP reporter mice can be bred to distinct Cre recombinase driver mice to direct expression of this sensor in unique populations of cells. Concerning the central nervous system (CNS), sources of calcium influx, including those arising from Gq activation can be observed in targeted cell types like neurons or astrocytes. This powerful genetic method allows simultaneous monitoring of the activity of dozens of cells upon activation of endogenous Gq-coupled GPCRs. Therefore, in combination with pharmacological tools, this strategy of monitoring GPCR activation is amenable to analysis of orthosteric and allosteric ligands of Gq-coupled receptors in their endogenous environments. PMID:25805995

  3. Life Extension Factor Klotho Prevents Mortality and Enhances Cognition in hAPP Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lei; Sanchez, Pascal E.; Worden, Kurtresha; Broestl, Lauren; Johnson, Erik; Ho, Kaitlyn; Yu, Gui-Qiu; Kim, Daniel; Betourne, Alexander; Kuro-o, Makoto; Masliah, Eliezer; Abraham, Carmela R.

    2015-01-01

    Aging is the principal demographic risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disorder. Klotho is a key modulator of the aging process and, when overexpressed, extends mammalian lifespan, increases synaptic plasticity, and enhances cognition. Whether klotho can counteract deficits related to neurodegenerative diseases, such as AD, is unknown. Here we show that elevating klotho expression decreases premature mortality and network dysfunction in human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) transgenic mice, which simulate key aspects of AD. Increasing klotho levels prevented depletion of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) subunits in the hippocampus and enhanced spatial learning and memory in hAPP mice. Klotho elevation in hAPP mice increased the abundance of the GluN2B subunit of NMDAR in postsynaptic densities and NMDAR-dependent long-term potentiation, which is critical for learning and memory. Thus, increasing wild-type klotho levels or activities improves synaptic and cognitive functions, and may be of therapeutic benefit in AD and other cognitive disorders. PMID:25673831

  4. Parkinson-like phenotype in insulin-resistant PED/PEA-15 transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Perruolo, Giuseppe; Viggiano, Davide; Fiory, Francesca; Cassese, Angela; Nigro, Cecilia; Liotti, Antonietta; Miele, Claudia; Beguinot, Francesco; Formisano, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Neurological abnormalities, such as Parkinson-like disorders (PlD), are often co-morbidities of Type 2 Diabetic (T2D) patients, although the epidemiological link between these two disorders remains controversial. The PED/PEA-15 protein represents a possible candidate linking T2D and PD, because it is increased in subjects with T2D and is highly expressed in the brain. To test this hypothesis, we have analyzed the neurological and neurochemical phenotype of transgenic mice overexpressing PED/PEA-15 (tgPED). These mice develop impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, accompanied by neurological features resembling PlD: feet clasping, slow and delayed locomotor movements in different behavioral tests in absence of clear cognitive deficits, ataxia or anxiety. Morphological analysis of the brains showed selective modifications of metabolic activity in the striatal region. In the same region, we have observed 26% decrease of dopamine fibers, confirmed by immunohistochemistry and Western Blot for tyrosine hydroxylase. Moreover, they also showed 48% reduction of dopamine levels in the striatum. Thus the tgPED mice may represent a genetic animal model of neurological disease linked to T2D. PMID:27426254

  5. Erythropoietin and the use of a transgenic model of erythropoietin-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Pichon, Aurélien; Jeton, Florine; El Hasnaoui-Saadani, Raja; Hagström, Luciana; Launay, Thierry; Beaudry, Michèle; Marchant, Dominique; Quidu, Patricia; Macarlupu, Jose-Luis; Favret, Fabrice; Richalet, Jean-Paul; Voituron, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Despite its well-known role in red blood cell production, it is now accepted that erythropoietin (Epo) has other physiological functions. Epo and its receptors are expressed in many tissues, such as the brain and heart. The presence of Epo/Epo receptors in these organs suggests other roles than those usually assigned to this protein. Thus, the aim of this review is to describe the effects of Epo deficiency on adaptation to normoxic and hypoxic environments and to suggest a key role of Epo on main physiological adaptive functions. Our original model of Epo-deficient (Epo-TAgh) mice allowed us to improve our knowledge of the possible role of Epo in O2 homeostasis. The use of anemic transgenic mice revealed Epo as a crucial component of adaptation to hypoxia. Epo-TAgh mice survive well in hypoxic conditions despite low hematocrit. Furthermore, Epo plays a key role in neural control of ventilatory acclimatization and response to hypoxia, in deformability of red blood cells, in cerebral and cardiac angiogenesis, and in neuro- and cardioprotection. PMID:27800506

  6. Environmental enrichment improves cognition in aged Alzheimer's transgenic mice despite stable beta-amyloid deposition.

    PubMed

    Arendash, Gary W; Garcia, Marcos F; Costa, David A; Cracchiolo, Jennifer R; Wefes, Inge M; Potter, H

    2004-08-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) has been shown to improve cognitive performance and brain indices of cognition in normal mice and rats. Because the therapeutic potential of intensive, long-term EE to benefit patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) has yet to be explored, the present study evaluated the effect of long-term EE on cognition in an animal model of AD, the APPsw transgenic mouse. Beginning at 16 months of age, APPsw mice were put into EE or standard housing for 4 months and then tested in four cognitive-based tasks (Morris maze, circular platform, platform recognition, and radial arm water maze) between 20 and 22 months of age. Our results indicate that long-term EE of aged APPsw mice results in global, overall improvement in cognitive function across these tasks without decreasing brain beta-amyloid (A beta) deposition. The results suggest that long-term EE/cognitive stimulation could provide cognitive stabilization or improvement to AD patients through mechanisms independent of A beta deposition and clearance.

  7. Ginsenoside Rd Improves Learning and Memory Ability in APP Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juanfang; Yan, Xiaodong; Li, Ling; Li, Yuan; Zhou, Linfu; Zhang, Xiaohui; Hu, Xinghua; Zhao, Gang

    2015-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complicated neurodegenerative disease which causes memory loss and dementia. Many researchers have revealed the vital roles of β-amyloid proteins (Aβ) in the proceeds of AD. Aβ deposition in AD patients' brains might function as immune stimulus, and inflammation is believed to play an important role in AD pathologically. We experimentally used amyloid β-protein precursor (APP) transgenic (Tg) mice in this study to further clarify the neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rd on AD and its possible mechanisms. It was found that Rd could improve learning and memory ability in APP Tg mice, probably through inhibiting the transcription activity of NFκB. With the activation of the NFκB pathway being suppressed, the reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the generation of protective factors had been increased ultimately. In conclusion, Rd had a neuroprotective effect on APP Tg mice, and it can be used as an alternative drug therapy in AD patients for their memory dysfunction.

  8. [Adrenocortical zonation in human growth hormone gene (hGH) transgenic mice].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, S; Tojo, H; Matsuzawa, A

    1993-04-01

    Adrenocortical zonation was histologically examined in 2 infertile female transgenic (Tg) mice which carried human growth hormone (hGH) gene and had a high circulating level of hGH. The adrenal cortices of Tg mice were characterized by the appearance of hypertrophied zona fasciculata cells with the cytoplasm filled with many lipid droplets even in size, the absence of the distinctive z. reticularis and the persistence of the X zone with nodules in one and without them in the other. The last finding might be explained by the reflection of the strain differences used in Tg mouse construction. It was, however, suggested that the X zone degeneration might not be associated with the adenohypophysis. The changes observed in z. fasciculata cells were interpreted as the effects of ACTH-like function of circulating hGH in addition to the known PRL-like function. The absence of the z. reticularis may be explained by its morphological similarity to z. fasciculata under the effects of the circulating hGH at a high level. In addition to genetic analysis of various inbred strains, Tg mice with ectopic hGH production provide a new methodology in analyzing the mechanism of adrenocortical zone formation.

  9. Increased excitability in tat-transgenic mice: role of tat in HIV-related neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Zucchini, Silvia; Pittaluga, Anna; Brocca-Cofano, Egidio; Summa, Maria; Fabris, Marina; De Michele, Rita; Bonaccorsi, Angela; Busatto, Graziella; Barbanti-Brodano, Giuseppe; Altavilla, Giuseppe; Verlengia, Gianluca; Cifelli, Pierangelo; Corallini, Alfredo; Caputo, Antonella; Simonato, Michele

    2013-07-01

    HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are a major complication of HIV-1 infection. The mechanism(s) underlying HAND are not completely understood but, based on in vitro studies, the HIV-1 Tat protein may play an important role. In this study, the effect of prolonged exposure to endogenously produced Tat in the brain was investigated using a tat-transgenic (TT) mouse model constitutively expressing the HIV-1 tat gene. We found that stimulus-evoked glutamate exocytosis in the hippocampus and cortex was significantly increased in TT as compared with wild-type control (CC) mice, while GABA exocytosis was unchanged in the hippocampus and decreased in the cortex. This suggests that Tat generates a latent hyper-excitability state, which favors the detrimental effects of neurotoxic and/or excitotoxic agents. To challenge this idea, TT mice were tested for susceptibility to kainate-induced seizures and neurodegeneration, and found to exhibit significantly greater responses to the convulsant agent than CC mice. These results support the concept that constitutive expression of tat in the brain generates a latent excitatory state, which may increase the negative effects of damaging insults. These events may play a key role in the development of HAND.

  10. The E1A transcriptional control region is efficiently activated in proliferating tissues of transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Dieckmann, A; Krippl, B

    1994-08-01

    To study the in vivo regulation of the adenovirus E1A transcriptional regulatory region in transgenic mice, we have constructed two hybrid genes in which the viral control element regulates the expression of the CAT and the lacZ reporter gene. The fusion constructs were introduced into the mouse germline. The expression of the transgenes were monitored during embryogenesis and during postnatal development as well as in adult organs. We show that the E1A regulatory region is recognized and activated in undifferentiated cells during early embryonic cleavage, in the morula, in the inner cell mass and in the trophectoderm of the blastocyst. Transcription initiation at the E1A promoter leads to higher marker gene expression in proliferative centers in postimplantation embryos at the beginning of the neural tube closure. Analysing marker gene expression during postnatal development, a correlation of transcriptional activity of the E1A regulatory region and cell proliferation could be demonstrated. The expression profile of the transgene in different adult organs parallels with DNA synthesis. Marker gene expression was high in cells of organs known to have a high mitotic rate, such as the intestine, the stomach, the skin and the bone marrow, whereas little activity of the E1A control region was observed in the post-proliferative brain. These results are consistent with the finding that activation of the viral cis-regulating elements dramatically increased in the kidney after mitotic stimulation by folic acid. These observations strongly suggests a cell cycle regulated expression from the E1A enhancer/promoter in the absence of the E1A autoregulatory proteins in the living animal. PMID:8036008

  11. Intrachoroidal Neovascularization in Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Schwesinger, Catherine; Yee, Charles; Rohan, Richard M.; Joussen, Antonia M.; Fernandez, Antonio; Meyer, Tobias N.; Poulaki, Vassiliki; Ma, Joseph J. K.; Redmond, T. Michael; Liu, Suyan; Adamis, Anthony P.; D’Amato, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    Choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration is a frequent and poorly treatable cause of vision loss in elderly Caucasians. This choroidal neovascularization has been associated with the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In current animal models choroidal neovascularization is induced by subretinal injection of growth factors or vectors encoding growth factors such as VEGF, or by disruption of the Bruch’s membrane/retinal pigment epithelium complex with laser treatment. We wished to establish a transgenic murine model of age-related macular degeneration, in which the overexpression of VEGF by the retinal pigment epithelium induces choroidal neovascularization. A construct consisting of a tissue-specific murine retinal pigment epithelium promoter (RPE65 promoter) coupled to murine VEGF164 cDNA with a rabbit β-globin-3′ UTR was introduced into the genome of albino mice. Transgene mRNA was expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium at all ages peaking at 4 months. The expression of VEGF protein was increased in both the retinal pigment epithelium and choroid. An increase of intravascular adherent leukocytes and vessel leakage was observed. Histopathology revealed intrachoroidal neovascularization that did not penetrate through an intact Bruch’s membrane. These results support the hypothesis that additional insults to the integrity of Bruch’s membrane are required to induce growth of choroidal vessels into the subretinal space as seen in age-related macular degeneration. This model may be useful to screen for inhibitors of choroidal vessel growth. PMID:11238064

  12. Dissection of the locus control function located on the chicken lysozyme gene domain in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Bonifer, C; Yannoutsos, N; Krüger, G; Grosveld, F; Sippel, A E

    1994-01-01

    The entire chicken lysozyme gene locus including all known cis-regulatory sequences and the 5' and 3' matrix attachment sites defining the borders of the DNase I sensitive chromatin domain, is expressed at a high level and independent of its chromosomal position in macrophages of transgenic mice. It was concluded that the lysozyme gene locus carries a locus control function. We analysed several cis-regulatory deletion mutants to investigate their influence on tissue specificity and level of expression. Position independent expression of the gene is lost whenever one of the upstream tissue specific enhancer regions is deleted, although tissue specific expression is usually retained. Deletion of the domain border fragments has no influence on copy number dependency of expression. However, without these regions an increased incidence of ectopic expression is observed. This suggests that the domain border fragments may help to suppress transgene expression in inappropriate tissues. We conclude, that position independent expression of the lysozyme gene is not controlled by a single specific region of the locus but is the result of the concerted action of several tissue specific upstream regulatory DNA elements with the promoter. Images PMID:7937146

  13. Transgenic mice expressing an artificial zinc finger regulator targeting an endogenous gene.

    PubMed

    Passananti, Claudio; Corbi, Nicoletta; Onori, Annalisa; Di Certo, Maria Grazia; Mattei, Elisabetta

    2010-01-01

    Zinc finger (ZF) proteins belonging to the Cys2-His2 class provide a simple and versatile framework to design novel artificial transcription factors (ATFs) targeted to the desired genes. Our work is based on ZF ATFs engineered to up-regulate the expression level of the dystrophin-related gene utrophin in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). In particular, on the basis of the "recognition code" that defines specific rules between zinc finger primary structure and potential DNA-binding sites we engineered and selected a new family of artificial transcription factors, whose DNA-binding domain consists in a three zinc finger peptide called "Jazz." Jazz protein binds specifically the 9 bp DNA sequence (5(')-GCT-GCT-GCG-3(')) present in the promoter region of both the human and mouse utrophin gene. We generated a transgenic mouse expressing Jazz protein fused to the strong transcriptional activation domain VP16 and under the control of the muscle specific promoter of the myosin light chain gene. Vp16-Jazz mice display a strong up-regulation of the utrophin at both mRNA and protein levels. To our knowledge, this represents the first example of a transgenic mouse expressing an artificial gene coding for a zinc finger-based transcription factor.

  14. Methylene Blue Modulates β-Secretase, Reverses Cerebral Amyloidosis, and Improves Cognition in Transgenic Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Takashi; Koyama, Naoki; Segawa, Tatsuya; Maeda, Masahiro; Maruyama, Nobuhiro; Kinoshita, Noriaki; Hou, Huayan; Tan, Jun; Town, Terrence

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) proteolysis is required for production of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides that comprise β-amyloid plaques in the brains of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). Here, we tested whether the experimental agent methylene blue (MB), used for treatment of methemoglobinemia, might improve AD-like pathology and behavioral deficits. We orally administered MB to the aged transgenic PSAPP mouse model of cerebral amyloidosis and evaluated cognitive function and cerebral amyloid pathology. Beginning at 15 months of age, animals were gavaged with MB (3 mg/kg) or vehicle once daily for 3 months. MB treatment significantly prevented transgene-associated behavioral impairment, including hyperactivity, decreased object recognition, and defective spatial working and reference memory, but it did not alter nontransgenic mouse behavior. Moreover, brain parenchymal and cerebral vascular β-amyloid deposits as well as levels of various Aβ species, including oligomers, were mitigated in MB-treated PSAPP mice. These effects occurred with inhibition of amyloidogenic APP proteolysis. Specifically, β-carboxyl-terminal APP fragment and β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 protein expression and activity were attenuated. Additionally, treatment of Chinese hamster ovary cells overexpressing human wild-type APP with MB significantly decreased Aβ production and amyloidogenic APP proteolysis. These results underscore the potential for oral MB treatment against AD-related cerebral amyloidosis by modulating the amyloidogenic pathway. PMID:25157105

  15. Virally mediated optogenetic excitation and inhibition of pain in freely moving non-transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Shrivats Mohan; Montgomery, Kate L.; Towne, Chris; Lee, Soo Yeun; Ramakrishnan, Charu; Deisseroth, Karl; Delp, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    Primary nociceptors are the first neurons involved in the complex processing system that regulates normal and pathological pain1. Our ability to excite and inhibit these neurons has been limited by pharmacological and electrical stimulation constraints; non-invasive excitation and inhibition of these neurons in freely moving non-transgenic animals has not been possible. Here we use an optogenetic2 strategy to bidirectionally control nociceptors of non-transgenic mice. Intra-sciatic nerve injection of adeno-associated viruses encoding an excitatory opsin enabled light-inducible stimulation of acute pain, place aversion, and optogenetically mediated reductions in withdrawal thresholds to mechanical and thermal stimuli. In contrast, viral delivery of an inhibitory opsin enabled light-inducible inhibition of acute pain perception, and reversed mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in a model of neuropathic pain. Light was delivered transdermally enabling these behaviors to be induced in freely moving animals. This approach may have utility in basic and translational pain research, and enable rapid drug screening and testing of newly engineered opsins. PMID:24531797

  16. Focally Elevated Creatine Detected in Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) Transgenic Mice and Alzheimer Disease Brain Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Gallant,M.; Rak, M.; Szeghalmi, A.; Del Bigio, M.; Westaway, D.; Yang, J.; Julian, R.; Gough, K.

    2006-01-01

    The creatine/phosphocreatine system, regulated by creatine kinase, plays an important role in maintaining energy balance in the brain. Energy metabolism and the function of creatine kinase are known to be affected in Alzheimer diseased brain and in cells exposed to the {beta}-amyloid peptide. We used infrared microspectroscopy to examine hippocampal, cortical, and caudal tissue from 21-89-week-old transgenic mice expressing doubly mutant (K670N/M671L and V717F) amyloid precursor protein and displaying robust pathology from an early age. Microcrystalline deposits of creatine, suggestive of perturbed energetic status, were detected by infrared microspectroscopy in all animals with advanced plaque pathology. Relatively large creatine deposits were also found in hippocampal sections from post-mortem Alzheimer diseased human brain, compared with hippocampus from non-demented brain. We therefore speculate that this molecule is a marker of the disease process.

  17. Self-assembling nanofibers improve cognitive impairment in a transgenic mice model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongna; Qu, Tingyu; Yang, Hui; Wei, Lifei; Xie, Zhaohong; Wang, Ping; Bi, Jianzhong

    2013-11-27

    The peptide amphiphile (PA) with a laminin epitope IKVAV (IKVAV-PA) can be trigged into three-dimensional nanostructures in vivo. Application of IKVAV-PA to the injured spinal cord resulted in significant functional improvement in rodents with remarkable axonal regeneration at the lesion site. Here we showed that injection of IKVAV-PA into the hippocampus of a transgenic (Tg) mice model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) significantly improved cognitive impairment, accompanied by an enhanced neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Further examination demonstrated that IKVAV-PA injections also significantly reduced the levels of soluble Aβ1-40, Aβ1-42, and amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques in these brains. Our data suggest that IKVAV-PA may serve as a potential therapeutic intervention for the learning and memory losses in AD.

  18. Expression of Plant Sweet Protein Brazzein in the Milk of Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Sen; Song, Hong; Pang, Daxin; Zou, Qingjian; Li, Li; Yan, Quanmei; Fan, Nana; Zhao, Xiangjie; Yu, Hao; Li, Zhanjun; Wang, Haijun; Gao, Fei; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Lai, Liangxue

    2013-01-01

    Sugar, the most popular sweetener, is essential in daily food. However, excessive sugar intake has been associated with several lifestyle-related diseases. Finding healthier and more economical alternatives to sugars and artificial sweeteners has received increasing attention to fulfill the growing demand. Brazzein, which comes from the pulp of the edible fruit of the African plant Pentadiplandra brazzeana Baill, is a protein that is 2,000 times sweeter than sucrose by weight. Here we report the production of transgenic mice that carry the optimized brazzein gene driven by the goat Beta-casein promoter, which specifically directs gene expression in the mammary glands. Using western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, we confirmed that brazzein could be efficiently expressed in mammalian milk, while retaining its sweetness. This study presents the possibility of producing plant protein–sweetened milk from large animals such as cattle and goats. PMID:24155905

  19. An inbred line of transgenic mice expressing an internally deleted gene for type II procollagen (COL2A1). Young mice have a variable phenotype of a chondrodysplasia and older mice have osteoarthritic changes in joints.

    PubMed Central

    Helminen, H J; Kiraly, K; Pelttari, A; Tammi, M I; Vandenberg, P; Pereira, R; Dhulipala, R; Khillan, J S; Ala-Kokko, L; Hume, E L

    1993-01-01

    Studies were carried out on a line of transgenic mice that expressed an internally deleted COL2A1 gene and developed a phenotype resembling human chondrodysplasias (Vandenberg et al. 1991. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 88:7640-7644. Marked differences in phenotype were observed with propagation of the mutated gene in an inbred strain of mice in that approximately 15% of the transgenic mice had a cleft palate and a lethal phenotype, whereas the remaining mice were difficult to distinguish from normal littermates. 1-d- and 3-mo-old transgenic mice that were viable showed microscopic signs of chondrodysplasia with reduced amounts of collagen fibrils in the cartilage matrix, dilatation of the rough surfaced endoplasmic reticulum in the chondrocytes, and decrease of optical path difference in polarized light microscopy. The transgenic mice also showed signs of disturbed growth as evidenced by lower body weight, lower length and weight of the femur, decreased bone collagen, decreased bone mineral, and decreased resistance of bone to breakage. Comparisons of mice ranging in age from 1 d to 15 mo demonstrated that there was decreasing evidence of a chondrodysplasia as the mice grew older. Instead, the most striking feature in the 15-mo-old mice were degenerative changes of articular cartilage similar to osteoarthritis. Images PMID:8349798

  20. Development of neuroendocrine tumors in the gastrointestinal tract of transgenic mice. Heterogeneity of hormone expression.

    PubMed Central

    Rindi, G.; Grant, S. G.; Yiangou, Y.; Ghatei, M. A.; Bloom, S. R.; Bautch, V. L.; Solcia, E.; Polak, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Expression of hormones in endocrine tumors and derived cell lines of transgenic mice carrying insulin-promoted oncogenes has been investigated by histochemical, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and radioimmunologic means. Tumors of the pancreas, small intestine, mesentery, and liver were examined. Insulin-immunoreactive cells were prevalent in pancreatic tumors, with a significant subpopulation of pancreatic polypeptide-immunoreactive elements. Conventional ultrastructural and immunogold analysis identified insulin-storing beta granules in pancreatic tumor cells. In contrast, the largest immunoreactive subpopulation of intestinal tumors expressed secretin (53% of total cells), followed by proglucagon-related peptides (15%), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (7%), gastrin (7%), pancreatic polypeptide (2%), neurotensin (2%), and somatostatin (1%). No detectable immunoreactivity for either insulin or serotonin was observed. Electron microscopy and immunogold labeling showed that intestinal tumor cells contained secretin-storing S-type granules. Lymph node and liver tumors contained secretin-immunoreactive cells with ultrastructural features similar to those of intestinal tumors. In addition, high levels of circulating insulinlike and secretinlike immunoreactants were detectable. Analogous hormone profiles were identified in tumor cell lines and culture media. Large T-antigen immunoreactivity was detected in all the nuclei of neoplastic cells, as well as in insulin-immunoreactive elements of non-neoplastic islets and pancreatic ducts and in some secretin-immunoreactive cells of small intestinal mucosa. These data indicate that neuroendocrine tumors arise both in beta cell and S-cell subpopulations of transgenic mice. Images Figure 5 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:2162628

  1. Disrupted Differentiation and Oncogenic Transformation of Lymphoid Progenitors in E2A-HLF Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kevin S.; Rhee, Joon Whan; Naumovski, Louie; Cleary, Michael L.

    1999-01-01

    The hepatic leukemia factor (HLF) gene codes for a basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) protein that is disrupted by chromosomal translocations in a subset of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemias. HLF undergoes fusions with the E2A gene, resulting in chimeric E2a-Hlf proteins containing the E2a transactivation domains and the Hlf bZIP DNA binding and dimerization motifs. To investigate the in vivo role of this chimeric bZIP protein in oncogenic transformation, its expression was directed to the lymphoid compartments of transgenic mice. Within the thymus, E2a-Hlf induced profound hypoplasia, premature involution, and progressive accumulation of a T-lineage precursor population arrested at an early stage of maturation. In the spleen, mature T cells were present but in reduced numbers, and they lacked expression of the transgene, suggesting further that E2a-Hlf expression was incompatible with T-cell differentiation. In contrast, mature splenic B cells expressed E2a-Hlf but at lower levels and without apparent adverse or beneficial effects on their survival. Approximately 60% of E2A-HLF mice developed lymphoid malignancies with a mean latency of 10 months. Tumors were monoclonal, consistent with a requirement for secondary genetic events, and displayed phenotypes of either mid-thymocytes or, rarely, B-cell progenitors. We conclude that E2a-Hlf disrupts the differentiation of T-lymphoid progenitors in vivo, leading to profound postnatal thymic depletion and rendering B- and T-cell progenitors susceptible to malignant transformation. PMID:10330184

  2. Silencing Mutant Ataxin-3 Rescues Motor Deficits and Neuropathology in Machado-Joseph Disease Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Onofre, Isabel; Albuquerque, David; Hirai, Hirokazu; Déglon, Nicole; de Almeida, Luís Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) or spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is an autosomal dominantly-inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by the over-repetition of a CAG codon in the MJD1 gene. This expansion translates into a polyglutamine tract that confers a toxic gain-of-function to the mutant protein – ataxin-3, leading to neurodegeneration in specific brain regions, with particular severity in the cerebellum. No treatment able to modify the disease progression is available. However, gene silencing by RNA interference has shown promising results. Therefore, in this study we investigated whether lentiviral-mediated allele-specific silencing of the mutant ataxin-3 gene, after disease onset, would rescue the motor behavior deficits and neuropathological features in a severely impaired transgenic mouse model of MJD. For this purpose, we injected lentiviral vectors encoding allele-specific silencing-sequences (shAtx3) into the cerebellum of diseased transgenic mice expressing the targeted C-variant of mutant ataxin-3 present in 70% of MJD patients. This variation permits to discriminate between the wild-type and mutant forms, maintaining the normal function of the wild-type allele and silencing only the mutant form. Quantitative analysis of rotarod performance, footprint and activity patterns revealed significant and robust alleviation of gait, balance (average 3-fold increase of rotarod test time), locomotor and exploratory activity impairments in shAtx3-injected mice, as compared to control ones injected with shGFP. An important improvement of neuropathology was also observed, regarding the number of intranuclear inclusions, calbindin and DARPP-32 immunoreactivity, fluorojade B and Golgi staining and molecular and granular layers thickness. These data demonstrate for the first time the efficacy of gene silencing in blocking the MJD-associated motor-behavior and neuropathological abnormalities after the onset of the disease, supporting the use of this strategy

  3. Increased astrocyte expression of IL-6 or CCL2 in transgenic mice alters levels of hippocampal and cerebellar proteins

    PubMed Central

    Gruol, Donna L.; Vo, Khanh; Bray, Jennifer G.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging research has identified that neuroimmune factors are produced by cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and play critical roles as regulators of CNS function, directors of neurodevelopment and responders to pathological processes. A wide range of neuroimmune factors are produced by CNS cells, primarily the glial cells, but the role of specific neuroimmune factors and their glial cell sources in CNS biology and pathology have yet to be fully elucidated. We have used transgenic mice that express elevated levels of a specific neuroimmune factor, the cytokine IL-6 or the chemokine CCL2, through genetic modification of astrocyte expression to identify targets of astrocyte produced IL-6 or CCL2 at the protein level. We found that in non-transgenic mice constitutive expression of IL-6 and CCL2 occurs in the two CNS regions studied, the hippocampus and cerebellum, as measured by ELISA. In the CCL2 transgenic mice elevated levels of CCL2 were evident in the hippocampus and cerebellum, whereas in the IL-6 transgenic mice, elevated levels of IL-6 were only evident in the cerebellum. Western blot analysis of the cellular and synaptic proteins in the hippocampus and cerebellum of the transgenic mice showed that the elevated levels of CCL2 or IL-6 resulted in alterations in the levels of specific proteins and that these actions differed for the two neuroimmune factors and for the two brain regions. These results are consistent with cell specific profiles of action for IL-6 and CCL2, actions that may be an important aspect of their respective roles in CNS physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:25177271

  4. Analysis of the effects of overexpression of metallothionein-I in transgenic mice on the reproductive toxicology of cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, T.; Kai Fu; Andrews, G.K.; Enders, G.C.; Palmiter, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    Exposure to low levels of cadmium reduces fertility. In male mice spermatogensis is highly sensitive to cadmium, whereas in females the peri-implantation period of pregnancy is sensitive. To examine the potential roles of the cadmium-binding protein, metallothionein (MT), in the reproductive toxicology of cadmium, we examined a transgenic mouse strain that overexpresses metallothionein-I (MT-I). These mice had dramatically increased steady-state levels of MT-I mRNA and MT in the testes and in the female reproductive tract during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy, and this overexpression occurred in a cell-specific and temporally regulated manner similar to that of the endogenous MT-I gene. Transgenic and control males were injected with cadmium, and the histology of the testes was examined. An injection of 7.5 {mu}mol Cd/Kg had no effect on histology of the testes in either transgenic or control mice. In contrast, an injection of 10 {mu}mol Cd/kg caused rapid changes in the histology of the testes and resulted in pronounced testicular necrosis in both control and transgenic mice. Female transgenic and control mice were mated and then injected with cadmium (30-45 {mu}mol Cd/kg) on the day of blastocyst implantation (day 4). In both of these groups, injection of cadmium reduced pregnancy rate, and no dramatic protection was afforded by maternal and/or embryonic overexpression of MT. Thus, overexpression of MT-I does not significantly protect against either of these cadmium-induced effects on fertility. 65 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Analysis of the effects of overexpression of metallothionein-I in transgenic mice on the reproductive toxicology of cadmium.

    PubMed

    Dalton, T; Fu, K; Enders, G C; Palmiter, R D; Andrews, G K

    1996-01-01

    Exposure to low levels of cadmium reduces fertility. In male mice spermatogenesis is highly sensitive to cadmium, whereas in females the peri-implantation period of pregnancy is sensitive. To examine the potential roles of the cadmium-binding protein, metallothionein (MT), in the reproductive toxicology of cadmium, we examined a transgenic mouse strain that overexpresses metallothionein-I (MT-I). These mice had dramatically increased steady-state levels of MT-I mRNA and MT in the testes and in the female reproductive tract during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy, and this overexpression occurred in a cell-specific and temporally regulated manner similar to that of the endogenous MT-I gene. Transgenic and control males were injected with cadmium, and the histology of the testes was examined. An injection of 7.5 mumol Cd/kg had no effect on histology of the testes in either transgenic or control mice. In contrast, an injection of 10 mumol Cd/kg caused rapid changes in the histology of the testes and resulted in pronounced testicular necrosis in both control and transgenic mice. Female transgenic and control mice were mated and then injected with cadmium (30-45 mumol Cd/kg) on the day of blastocyst implantation (day 4). In both of these groups, injection of cadmium reduced pregnancy rate, and no dramatic protection was afforded by maternal and/or embryonic overexpression of MT. Thus, overexpression of MT-I does not significantly protect against either of these cadmium-induced effects on fertility. PMID:8834864

  6. DHA diet reduces AD pathology in young APPswe/PS1 Delta E9 transgenic mice: possible gender effects.

    PubMed

    Perez, Sylvia E; Berg, Brian M; Moore, Kenneth A; He, Bin; Counts, Scott E; Fritz, Jason J; Hu, Yuan-Shih; Lazarov, Orly; Lah, James J; Mufson, Elliott J

    2010-04-01

    Epidemiological and clinical trial findings suggest that consumption of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) lowers the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We examined the effects of short-term (3 months) DHA enriched diet on plaque deposition and synaptic defects in forebrain of young APPswe/PS1 Delta E9 transgenic (tg) and non-transgenic (ntg) mice. Gas chromatography revealed a significant increase in DHA concomitant with a decrease of arachidonic acid in both brain and liver in mice fed with DHA. Female tg mice consumed relatively more food daily than ntg female mice, independent of diet. Plaque load was significantly reduced in the cortex, ventral hippocampus and striatum of female APPswe/PS1 Delta E9 tg mice on DHA diet compared to female tg mice on control diet. Immunoblot quantitation of the APOE receptor, LR11, which is involved in APP trafficking and A beta production, were unchanged in mice on DHA or control diets. Moreover drebrin levels were significantly increased in the hippocampus of tg mice on the DHA diet. Finally, in vitro DHA treatment prevented amyloid toxicity in cell cultures. Our findings support the concept that increased DHA consumption may play and important role in reducing brain insults in female AD patients. PMID:19859965

  7. Intraductal delivery of adenoviruses targets pancreatic tumors in transgenic Ela-myc mice and orthotopic xenografts.

    PubMed

    José, Anabel; Sobrevals, Luciano; Miguel Camacho-Sánchez, Juan; Huch, Meritxell; Andreu, Núria; Ayuso, Eduard; Navarro, Pilar; Alemany, Ramon; Fillat, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Gene-based anticancer therapies delivered by adenoviruses are limited by the poor viral distribution into the tumor. In the current work we have explored the feasibility of targeting pancreatic tumors through a loco-regional route. We have taken advantage of the ductal network in the pancreas to retrogradelly inject adenoviruses through the common bile duct in two different mouse models of pancreatic carcinogenesis: The transgenic Ela-myc mice that develop mixed neoplasms displaying both acinar-like and duct-like neoplastic cells affecting the whole pancreas; and mice bearing PANC-1 and BxPC-3 orthotopic xenografts that constitute a model of localized human neoplastic tumors. We studied tumor targeting and the anticancer effects of newly thymidine kinase-engineered adenoviruses both in vitro and in vivo, and conducted comparative studies between intraductal or intravenous administration. Our data indicate that the intraductal delivery of adenovirus efficiently targets pancreatic tumors in the two mouse models. The in vivo application of AduPARTKT plus ganciclovir (GCV) treatment induced tumor regression in Ela-myc mice. Moreover, the intraductal injection of ICOVIR15-TKT oncolytic adenoviruses significantly improved mean survival of mice bearing PANC-1 and BxPC-3 pancreatic xenografts from 30 to 52 days and from 20 to 68 days respectively (p less than 0.0001) when combined with GCV. Of notice, both AduPARTKT and ICOVIR15-TKT antitumoral responses were stronger by ductal viral application than intravenously, in line with the 38-fold increase in pancreas transduction observed upon ductal administration. In summary our data show that cytotoxic adenoviruses retrogradelly injected to the pancreas can be a feasible approach to treat localized pancreatic tumors.

  8. Intraductal Delivery of Adenoviruses Targets Pancreatic Tumors in Transgenic Ela-myc Mice and Orthotopic Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    José, Anabel; Sobrevals, Luciano; Camacho-Sánchez, Juan Miguel; Huch, Meritxell; Andreu, Núria; Ayuso, Eduard; Navarro, Pilar; Alemany, Ramon; Fillat, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Gene-based anticancer therapies delivered by adenoviruses are limited by the poor viral distribution into the tumor. In the current work we have explored the feasibility of targeting pancreatic tumors through a loco-regional route. We have taken advantage of the ductal network in the pancreas to retrogradelly inject adenoviruses through the common bile duct in two different mouse models of pancreatic carcinogenesis: The transgenic Ela-myc mice that develop mixed neoplasms displaying both acinar-like and duct-like neoplastic cells affecting the whole pancreas; and mice bearing PANC-1 and BxPC-3 orthotopic xenografts that constitute a model of localized human neoplastic tumors. We studied tumor targeting and the anticancer effects of newly thymidine kinase-engineered adenoviruses both in vitro and in vivo, and conducted comparative studies between intraductal or intravenous administration. Our data indicate that the intraductal delivery of adenovirus efficiently targets pancreatic tumors in the two mouse models. The in vivo application of AduPARTKT plus ganciclovir (GCV) treatment induced tumor regression in Ela-myc mice. Moreover, the intraductal injection of ICOVIR15-TKT oncolytic adenoviruses significantly improved mean survival of mice bearing PANC-1 and BxPC-3 pancreatic xenografts from 30 to 52 days and from 20 to 68 days respectively (p<0.0001) when combined with GCV. Of notice, both AduPARTKT and ICOVIR15-TKT antitumoral responses were stronger by ductal viral application than intravenously, in line with the 38-fold increase in pancreas transduction observed upon ductal administration. In summary our data show that cytotoxic adenoviruses retrogradelly injected to the pancreas can be a feasible approach to treat localized pancreatic tumors. PMID:23328228

  9. Obesity in transgenic female mice with constitutively elevated luteinizing hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Kero, Jukka T; Savontaus, Eriika; Mikola, Maarit; Pesonen, Ullamari; Koulu, Markku; Keri, Ruth A; Nilson, John H; Poutanen, Matti; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T

    2003-10-01

    Transgenic (TG) female mice, expressing a chimeric bovine luteinizing hormone (LH) beta-subunit/human chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunit COOH-terminal extension (bLHbeta-CTP) gene, produce high levels of circulating LH and serve as a model for functional ovarian hyperandrogenism and follicular cysts. We report here that obesity is a typical feature of these female mice. The mean body weight of the bLHbeta-CTP females was significantly higher than in controls at, and beyond 5 wk of age, and at 5 mo, it was 32% increased. At this age, the amount of white adipose tissue in the bLHbeta-CTP females was significantly increased, as reflected by the weight difference of the retroperitoneal fat pad. In addition, the expression of leptin mRNA in white adipose tissue of the TG females was elevated about twofold. Serum leptin and insulin levels, and food intake, were also increased significantly in the TG females. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenic activity, as measured by GDP binding to BAT mitochondria, was reduced (P < 0.05). Ovariectomy at the age of 3 wk totally prevented the development of obesity. In summary, the present results show that intact female bLHbeta-CTP mice are obese, have increased food consumption, and reduced BAT thermogenic activity. The weight gain can be explained partly by elevated androgens but is probably also contributed to the increased adrenal steroidogenesis. Hence, the bLHbeta-CTP mice provide a useful model for studying obesity related to elevated LH secretion, with consequent alterations in ovarian and adrenal function.

  10. Reduced wheel running and blunted effects of voluntary exercise in LPA1-null mice: The importance of assessing the amount of running in transgenic mice studies

    PubMed Central

    Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Rosell-Valle, Cristina; Blanco, Eduardo; Pedraza, Carmen; Chun, Jerold; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez; Estivill-Torrús, Guillermo; Santín, Luis J.

    2014-01-01

    This work was aimed to assess whether voluntary exercise rescued behavioral and hippocampal alterations in mice lacking the lysophosphatidic acid LPA1 receptor (LPA1-null mice), studying the potential relationship between the amount of exercise performed and its effects. Normal and LPA1-null mice underwent 23 days of free wheel running and were tested for open-field behavior and adult hippocampal neurogenesis (cell proliferation, immature neurons, cell survival). Running decreased anxiety-like behavior in both genotypes but increased exploration only in the normal mice. While running affected all neurogenesis-related measures in normal mice (especially in the suprapyramidal blade of the dentate gyrus), only a moderate increase in cell survival was found in the mutants. Importantly, the LPA1-nulls showed notably reduced running. Analysis suggested that defective running in the LPA1-null mice could contribute to explain the scarce benefit of the voluntary exercise treatment. On the other hand, a literature review revealed that voluntary exercise is frequently used to modulate behavior and the hippocampus in transgenic mice, but half of the studies did not assess the quantity of running, overlooking any potential running impairments. This study adds evidence to the relevance of the quantity of exercise performed, emphasizing the importance of its assessment in transgenic mice research. PMID:24055600

  11. Reduced wheel running and blunted effects of voluntary exercise in LPA1-null mice: the importance of assessing the amount of running in transgenic mice studies.

    PubMed

    Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Rosell-Valle, Cristina; Blanco, Eduardo; Pedraza, Carmen; Chun, Jerold; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Estivill-Torrús, Guillermo; Santín, Luis J

    2013-11-01

    This work was aimed to assess whether voluntary exercise rescued behavioral and hippocampal alterations in mice lacking the lysophosphatidic acid LPA1 receptor (LPA1-null mice), studying the potential relationship between the amount of exercise performed and its effects. Normal and LPA1-null mice underwent 23 days of free wheel running and were tested for open-field behavior and adult hippocampal neurogenesis (cell proliferation, immature neurons, cell survival). Running decreased anxiety-like behavior in both genotypes but increased exploration only in the normal mice. While running affected all neurogenesis-related measures in normal mice (especially in the suprapyramidal blade of the dentate gyrus), only a moderate increase in cell survival was found in the mutants. Importantly, the LPA1-nulls showed notably reduced running. Analysis suggested that defective running in the LPA1-null mice could contribute to explain the scarce benefit of the voluntary exercise treatment. On the other hand, a literature review revealed that voluntary exercise is frequently used to modulate behavior and the hippocampus in transgenic mice, but half of the studies did not assess the quantity of running, overlooking any potential running impairments. This study adds evidence to the relevance of the quantity of exercise performed, emphasizing the importance of its assessment in transgenic mice research.

  12. Lymphatic dysfunction in transgenic mice expressing KSHV k-cyclin under the control of the VEGFR-3 promoter.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Makoto; Watanabe, Takahiro; Yang, Aparche; Starost, Matthew F; Kobayashi, Hisataka; Atkins, April M; Borris, Debra L; Hanan, Elisabeth A; Schimel, Daniel; Bryant, Mark A; Roberts, Nicole; Skobe, Mihaela; Staskus, Katherine A; Kaldis, Philipp; Blauvelt, Andrew

    2005-03-15

    Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infects endothelial cells within KS tumors, and these cells express the KSHV latent-cycle gene k-cyclin (kCYC) as well as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR-3), a marker for lymphatic endothelium. To further understand KSHV-mediated pathogenesis, we generated transgenic mice expressing kCYC under the control of the VEGFR-3 promoter. kCYC mRNA and functional protein expression within tissue correlated with VEGFR-3 expression and were most abundantly detected within lung tissue. Clinically, most transgenic mice died within 6 months of age secondary to progressive accumulation of chylous pleural fluid. In skin, edema was detected by magnetic resonance imaging and mice demonstrated persistent erythema of the ears following trauma. Histologically, erythematous skin showed extravasation of erythrocytes and accumulation of erythrocytes within lymphatic lumens. In addition, lymphatic drainage of injected contrast dyes was markedly impaired in transgenic mice. Karyomegaly, a feature observed in kCYC-expressing cells in vitro, was detected in many tissues, and selectively occurred within lymphatic endothelial cells expressing kCYC mRNA by in situ hybridization. In summary, kCYC expression within VEGFR-3+ cells of mice causes marked impairment of lymphatic function. kCYC may contribute to the development of certain clinical and histologic features of KS, including localized edema and retention of extravasated erythrocytes within KS tumors.

  13. Mimp/Mtch2, an Obesity Susceptibility Gene, Induces Alteration of Fatty Acid Metabolism in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tsarfaty, Galia; Kaufman, Dafna; Horev, Judith; Resau, James H.; Tsarfaty, Ilan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Metabolic dysfunctions, such as fatty liver, obesity and insulin resistance, are among the most common contemporary diseases worldwide, and their prevalence is continuously rising. Mimp/Mtch2 is a mitochondrial carrier protein homologue, which localizes to the mitochondria and induces mitochondrial depolarization. Mimp/Mtch2 single-nucleotide polymorphism is associated with obesity in humans and its loss in mice muscle protects from obesity. Our aim was to study the effects of Mimp/Mtch2 overexpression in vivo. Methods Transgenic mice overexpressing Mimp/Mtch2-GFP were characterized and monitored for lipid accumulation, weight and blood glucose levels. Transgenic mice liver and kidneys were used for gene expression analysis. Results Mimp/Mtch2-GFP transgenic mice express high levels of fatty acid synthase and of β-oxidation genes and develop fatty livers and kidneys. Moreover, high-fat diet–fed Mimp/Mtch2 mice exhibit high blood glucose levels. Our results also show that Mimp/Mtch2 is involved in lipid accumulation and uptake in cells and perhaps in human obesity. Conclusions Mimp/Mtch2 alters lipid metabolism and may play a role in the onset of obesity and development of insulin resistance. PMID:27359329

  14. Neonatal motoneurons overexpressing the bcl-2 protooncogene in transgenic mice are protected from axotomy-induced cell death.

    PubMed Central

    Dubois-Dauphin, M; Frankowski, H; Tsujimoto, Y; Huarte, J; Martinou, J C

    1994-01-01

    In vitro, the overexpression of the bcl-2 protooncogene in cultured neurons has been shown to prevent apoptosis induced by neurotrophic factor deprivation. We have generated transgenic mice overexpressing the Bcl-2 protein in neurons, including motoneurons of the facial nucleus. We have tested whether Bcl-2 could protect these motoneurons from experimentally induced cell death in new born mice. To address this question, we performed unilateral lesion of the facial nerve of wild-type and transgenic 2-day-old mice. In wild-type mice, the lesioned nerve and the corresponding motoneuron cell bodies in the facial nucleus underwent rapid degeneration. In contrast, in transgenic mice, facial motoneurons survived axotomy. Not only their cell bodies but also their axons were protected up to the lesion site. These results demonstrate that in vivo Bcl-2 protects neonatal motoneurons from degeneration after axonal injury. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which Bcl-2 prevents neuronal cell death in vivo could lead to the development of strategies for the treatment of motoneuron degenerative diseases. Images PMID:8159744

  15. A single dose of oral DNA immunization delivered by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium down-regulates transgene expression in HBsAg transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bo Jian; Ng, Mun Hon; Chan, Kwok Wah; Tam, Sidney; Woo, Patrick C Y; Ng, Sze Park; Yuen, Kwok Yung

    2002-11-01

    The efficacy of immunization with Salmonella typhimurium aroA to deliver the plasmid pRc/CMV-HBsAg (i.e. an oral DNA vaccine) was compared with that of intramuscular immunization with the same plasmid DNA, and with recombinant HBsAg protein, in a HBsAg transgenic mouse model. A single dose of oral DNA vaccine evoked vigorous Th1 cell and CTL responses and production of IgG2 subclass of anti-HBs after 2 weeks, and this was accompanied by a transient hepatitic flare with elevated alanine aminotransferase in the first 3 weeks. Concomitantly, the level of HBsAg-mRNA in liver tissues decreased by more than fourfold and viral-antigen expression was curtailed markedly in hepatocytes compared with controls. Hepatitic flare subsided after 3 weeks, but suppression of the transgene expression was continued in the absence of overt liver pathology for the remaining duration of the experiment (i.e. 12 weeks), and possibly beyond. The other vaccines could also break immune tolerance, but this was achieved only after repeated booster doses of the respective vaccines, and they did not affect transgene expression, or induce hepatic flare. We previously showed in non-transgenic mice that immunization by the oral DNA vaccine is achieved by an active intestinal infection with a bacterial carrier that is an adept intracellular parasite, and the immune response to the vaccination is orchestrated by phagocytic APC. Our present findings further implicated that the combined effects of an innate and a specific immune response induced by oral DNA vaccination are crucial in down-regulating HBsAg-transgene expression in hepatocytes.

  16. Efficient and specific ribozyme-mediated reduction of bovine alpha-lactalbumin expression in double transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    L'Huillier, P J; Soulier, S; Stinnakre, M G; Lepourry, L; Davis, S R; Mercier, J C; Vilotte, J L

    1996-01-01

    Transgenic mice carrying a bovine alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-lac) specific ribozyme gene under the transcriptional control of the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat were generated and cross-bred with animals that highly express a bovine alpha-lac transgene (0.4 mg of alpha-lac/ml(-1) of milk). The ribozyme contains the hammerhead catalytic domain, flanked by 12-nt sequences complementary to the 3' untranslated region of bovine alpha-lac transcript. High-level expression of the ribozyme gene was detected by Northern blot analysis in the mammary gland of 7-8 day lactating transgenic mice, from 3 of 12 lines analyzed. Heterozygous expression of the ribozyme resulted in a reduction in the levels of the target mRNA to 78, 58, and 50% of that observed in the nonribozyme transgenic littermate controls for three independent lines. The ribozyme-mediated reduction in the levels of the bovine protein paralleled that observed for the mRNA, and was positively correlated with the level of expression of the ribozyme. In nonribozyme expressing transgenic mice, the level of bovine alpha-lac mRNA and protein was not affected. The specificity of this activity is demonstrated by the absence of a reduction in the levels of the endogenous murine alpha-lac mRNA or protein. These results demonstrate the feasibility of ribozyme-mediated down-regulation of highly-expressed transcripts in transgenic animals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8692881

  17. Visualization of the Epiblast and Visceral Endodermal Cells Using Fgf5-P2A-Venus BAC Transgenic Mice and Epiblast Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Khoa, Le Tran Phuc; Azami, Takuya; Tsukiyama, Tomoyuki; Matsushita, Jun; Tsukiyama-Fujii, Setsuko; Takahashi, Satoru; Ema, Masatsugu

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 5 (Fgf5) has been widely used as a marker for the epiblast in the postimplantation embryo and epiblast stem cells (mEpiSCs) in the mouse, making it valuable for study of differentiation of various tissues and epiblast cells in vivo and in vitro. Here, we report for the first time the generation of Fgf5-P2A-Venus BAC transgenic (Tg) mice and show that the BAC Tg can recapitulate endogenous Fgf5 expression in epiblast and visceral endodermal cells of E6.5 and 7.5 embryos. We also show that Fgf5-P2A-Venus BAC Tg mEpiSCs in the undifferentiated state expressed abundant Venus, and upon reprogramming into naïve state, Venus was suppressed. Furthermore, while most Tg mEpiSCs expressed Venus abundantly, surprisingly the Tg mEpiSCs contained a minor subpopulation of Venus-negative cells that were capable of conversion to Venus-positive cells, indicating that even Fgf5 expression shows dynamic heterogeneity in mEpiSCs. Taken together, Fgf5-P2A-Venus BAC Tg mice and mEpiSCs generated in this study will be useful for developmental biology as well as stem cell biology research. PMID:27409080

  18. Visualization of the Epiblast and Visceral Endodermal Cells Using Fgf5-P2A-Venus BAC Transgenic Mice and Epiblast Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tsukiyama, Tomoyuki; Matsushita, Jun; Tsukiyama-Fujii, Setsuko; Takahashi, Satoru; Ema, Masatsugu

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 5 (Fgf5) has been widely used as a marker for the epiblast in the postimplantation embryo and epiblast stem cells (mEpiSCs) in the mouse, making it valuable for study of differentiation of various tissues and epiblast cells in vivo and in vitro. Here, we report for the first time the generation of Fgf5-P2A-Venus BAC transgenic (Tg) mice and show that the BAC Tg can recapitulate endogenous Fgf5 expression in epiblast and visceral endodermal cells of E6.5 and 7.5 embryos. We also show that Fgf5-P2A-Venus BAC Tg mEpiSCs in the undifferentiated state expressed abundant Venus, and upon reprogramming into naïve state, Venus was suppressed. Furthermore, while most Tg mEpiSCs expressed Venus abundantly, surprisingly the Tg mEpiSCs contained a minor subpopulation of Venus-negative cells that were capable of conversion to Venus-positive cells, indicating that even Fgf5 expression shows dynamic heterogeneity in mEpiSCs. Taken together, Fgf5-P2A-Venus BAC Tg mice and mEpiSCs generated in this study will be useful for developmental biology as well as stem cell biology research. PMID:27409080

  19. Visualization of the Epiblast and Visceral Endodermal Cells Using Fgf5-P2A-Venus BAC Transgenic Mice and Epiblast Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Khoa, Le Tran Phuc; Azami, Takuya; Tsukiyama, Tomoyuki; Matsushita, Jun; Tsukiyama-Fujii, Setsuko; Takahashi, Satoru; Ema, Masatsugu

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 5 (Fgf5) has been widely used as a marker for the epiblast in the postimplantation embryo and epiblast stem cells (mEpiSCs) in the mouse, making it valuable for study of differentiation of various tissues and epiblast cells in vivo and in vitro. Here, we report for the first time the generation of Fgf5-P2A-Venus BAC transgenic (Tg) mice and show that the BAC Tg can recapitulate endogenous Fgf5 expression in epiblast and visceral endodermal cells of E6.5 and 7.5 embryos. We also show that Fgf5-P2A-Venus BAC Tg mEpiSCs in the undifferentiated state expressed abundant Venus, and upon reprogramming into naïve state, Venus was suppressed. Furthermore, while most Tg mEpiSCs expressed Venus abundantly, surprisingly the Tg mEpiSCs contained a minor subpopulation of Venus-negative cells that were capable of conversion to Venus-positive cells, indicating that even Fgf5 expression shows dynamic heterogeneity in mEpiSCs. Taken together, Fgf5-P2A-Venus BAC Tg mice and mEpiSCs generated in this study will be useful for developmental biology as well as stem cell biology research.

  20. Long-term cannabidiol treatment prevents the development of social recognition memory deficits in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, David; Spiro, Adena S; Jenner, Andrew M; Garner, Brett; Karl, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Impairments in cognitive ability and widespread pathophysiological changes caused by neurotoxicity, neuroinflammation, oxidative damage, and altered cholesterol homeostasis are associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to reverse cognitive deficits of AD transgenic mice and to exert neuroprotective, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo. Here we evaluate the preventative properties of long-term CBD treatment in male AβPPSwe/PS1ΔE9 (AβPP × PS1) mice, a transgenic model of AD. Control and AD transgenic mice were treated orally from 2.5 months of age with CBD (20 mg/kg) daily for 8 months. Mice were then assessed in the social preference test, elevated plus maze, and fear conditioning paradigms, before cortical and hippocampal tissues were analyzed for amyloid load, oxidative damage, cholesterol, phytosterols, and inflammation. We found that AβPP × PS1 mice developed a social recognition deficit, which was prevented by CBD treatment. CBD had no impact on anxiety or associative learning. The prevention of the social recognition deficit was not associated with any changes in amyloid load or oxidative damage. However, the study revealed a subtle impact of CBD on neuroinflammation, cholesterol, and dietary phytosterol retention, which deserves further investigation. This study is the first to demonstrate CBD's ability to prevent the development of a social recognition deficit in AD transgenic mice. Our findings provide the first evidence that CBD may have potential as a preventative treatment for AD with a particular relevance for symptoms of social withdrawal and facial recognition.

  1. Exposure to 56Fe-particle radiation accelerates electrophysiological alterations in the hippocampus of APP23 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Vlkolinsky, R; Titova, E; Krucker, T; Chi, B B; Staufenbiel, M; Nelson, G A; Obenaus, A

    2010-03-01

    Abstract An unavoidable complication of space travel is exposure to high-charge, high-energy (HZE) particles. In animal studies, exposure of the CNS to HZE-particle radiation leads to neurological alterations similar to those seen in aging or Alzheimer's disease. In this study we examined whether HZE-particle radiation accelerated the age-related neuronal dysfunction that was previously described in transgenic mice overexpressing human amyloid precursor protein (APP). These APP23 transgenic mice exhibit age-related behavioral abnormalities and deficits in synaptic transmission. We exposed 7-week-old APP23 transgenic males to brain-only (56)Fe-particle radiation (600 MeV/nucleon; 1, 2, 4 Gy) and recorded synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices at 2, 6, 9, 14 and 18-24 months. We stimulated Schaeffer collaterals and recorded field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP) and population spikes (PS) in CA1 neurons. Radiation accelerated the onset of age-related fEPSP decrements recorded at the PS threshold from 14 months of age to 9 months and reduced synaptic efficacy. At 9 months, radiation also reduced PS amplitudes. At 6 months, we observed a temporary deficit in paired-pulse inhibition of the PS at 2 Gy. Radiation did not significantly affect survival of APP23 transgenic mice. We conclude that irradiation of the brain with HZE particles accelerates Alzheimer's disease-related neurological deficits.

  2. Targeted expression of SV40 T antigen in the hair follicle of transgenic mice produces an aberrant hair phenotype.

    PubMed

    Keough, R; Powell, B; Rogers, G

    1995-03-01

    Directed expression of SV40 large T antigen (TAg) in transgenic mice can induce tissue-specific tumorigenesis and useful cell lines exhibiting differentiated characteristics can be established from resultant tumor cells. In an attempt to produce an immortalised mouse hair follicle cortical cell line for the study of hair keratin gene control, SV40 TAg expression was targeted to the hair follicles of transgenic mice using a sheep hair gene promoter. Expression of SV40 TAg in the follicle cortex disrupted normal fiber ultrastructure, producing a marked phenotypic effect. Affected hairs were wavy or severely kinked (depending on the severity of the phenotype) producing an appearance ranging from a ruffled coat to a stubble covering the back of the mouse. The transgenic hairs appeared to be weakened at the base of the fibers, leading to premature hair-loss and a thinner pelage, or regions of temporary nudity. No follicle tumors or neoplasia were apparent and immortalisation of cortical cells could not be established in culture. In situ hybridisation studies in the hair follicle using histone H3 as a cell proliferation marker suggested that cell proliferation had ceased prior to commencement of K2.10-TAg expression and was not re-established in the differentiating cortical cells. Hence, TAg was unable to induce cell immortalisation at that stage of cortical cell differentiation. However, transgenic mice developed various other abnormalities including vertebral abnormalities and bladder, liver and intestinal tumors, which resulted in reduced life expectancy.

  3. High-dose 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D supplementation elongates the lifespan of Huntington's disease transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Máté Fort; Török, Rita; Szalárdy, Levente; Sümegi, Evelin; Vécsei, László; Klivényi, Péter

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant progressive neurodegenerative disease, which results in a decreased quality of life and an early death. A high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was first described in a 2013 study in patients with manifest Huntington's disease, where serum vitamin D level was found to be associated with motor capabilities of the patients. Our objective was to investigate the effect of a high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation on a transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease. Our study was performed on N171-82Q Huntington's disease transgenic mice in age- and gender-matched groups. We collected data on the motor state and survival of the mice. The results demonstrate that though vitamin D3 had no effect on the motor performance of transgenic mice, but significantly increased the lifespan of transgenic animals (Kaplan-Meier survival curves: vehicle-supplemented group: 73 (67-94) days vs. vitamin D3-supplemented group: 101 (74-109) days, p=0.048 Mantel-Cox log rank test). Further investigations are needed to determine whether a neuroprotective or a general corroborative effect of vitamin D leads to the measured effect. Our findings support the potential influence of vitamin D deficiency on the disease course and propose that vitamin D may be an effective supplementary treatment to beneficially influence clinical features of Huntington's disease. PMID:27685770

  4. Targeted expression of SV40 T antigen in the hair follicle of transgenic mice produces an aberrant hair phenotype.

    PubMed

    Keough, R; Powell, B; Rogers, G

    1995-03-01

    Directed expression of SV40 large T antigen (TAg) in transgenic mice can induce tissue-specific tumorigenesis and useful cell lines exhibiting differentiated characteristics can be established from resultant tumor cells. In an attempt to produce an immortalised mouse hair follicle cortical cell line for the study of hair keratin gene control, SV40 TAg expression was targeted to the hair follicles of transgenic mice using a sheep hair gene promoter. Expression of SV40 TAg in the follicle cortex disrupted normal fiber ultrastructure, producing a marked phenotypic effect. Affected hairs were wavy or severely kinked (depending on the severity of the phenotype) producing an appearance ranging from a ruffled coat to a stubble covering the back of the mouse. The transgenic hairs appeared to be weakened at the base of the fibers, leading to premature hair-loss and a thinner pelage, or regions of temporary nudity. No follicle tumors or neoplasia were apparent and immortalisation of cortical cells could not be established in culture. In situ hybridisation studies in the hair follicle using histone H3 as a cell proliferation marker suggested that cell proliferation had ceased prior to commencement of K2.10-TAg expression and was not re-established in the differentiating cortical cells. Hence, TAg was unable to induce cell immortalisation at that stage of cortical cell differentiation. However, transgenic mice developed various other abnormalities including vertebral abnormalities and bladder, liver and intestinal tumors, which resulted in reduced life expectancy. PMID:7542671

  5. Chronic administration of R-flurbiprofen attenuates learning impairments in transgenic amyloid precursor protein mice

    PubMed Central

    Kukar, Thomas; Prescott, Sonya; Eriksen, Jason L; Holloway, Vallie; Murphy, M Paul; Koo, Edward H; Golde, Todd E; Nicolle, Michelle M

    2007-01-01

    ability to selectively target Aβ42 production and improve cognitive impairments in transgenic APP mice, as well as promising data from a phase 2 human clinical trial, future studies are needed to investigate the utility of R-flurbiprofen as an AD therapeutic and its possible mechanisms of action. PMID:17650315

  6. Impairment of T cell development and acute inflammatory response in HIV-1 Tat transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Fiume, Giuseppe; Scialdone, Annarita; Albano, Francesco; Rossi, Annalisa; Maria Tuccillo, Franca; Rea, Domenica; Palmieri, Camillo; Caiazzo, Elisabetta; Cicala, Carla; Bellevicine, Claudio; Falcone, Cristina; Vecchio, Eleonora; Pisano, Antonio; Ceglia, Simona; Mimmi, Selena; Iaccino, Enrico; Laurentiis, Annamaria de; Pontoriero, Marilena; Agosti, Valter; Troncone, Giancarlo; Mignogna, Chiara; Palma, Giuseppe; Arra, Claudio; Mallardo, Massimo; Maria Buonaguro, Franco; Scala, Giuseppe; Quinto, Ileana

    2015-01-01

    Immune activation and chronic inflammation are hallmark features of HIV infection causing T-cell depletion and cellular immune dysfunction in AIDS. Here, we addressed the issue whether HIV-1 Tat could affect T cell development and acute inflammatory response by generating a transgenic mouse expressing Tat in lymphoid tissue. Tat-Tg mice showed thymus atrophy and the maturation block from DN4 to DP thymic subpopulations, resulting in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells depletion in peripheral blood. In Tat-positive thymus, we observed the increased p65/NF-κB activity and deregulated expression of cytokines/chemokines and microRNA-181a-1, which are involved in T-lymphopoiesis. Upon LPS intraperitoneal injection, Tat-Tg mice developed an abnormal acute inflammatory response, which was characterized by enhanced lethality and production of inflammatory cytokines. Based on these findings, Tat-Tg mouse could represent an animal model for testing adjunctive therapies of HIV-1-associated inflammation and immune deregulation. PMID:26343909

  7. Non-invasive fluorescent imaging of gliosis in transgenic mice for profiling developmental neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Gideon; Zhang Chunyan; Zhuo Lang . E-mail: lzhuo@ibn.a-star.edu.sg

    2007-05-15

    Gliosis is a universal response of Brain to almost all types of neural insults, including neurotoxicity, neurodegeneration, viral infection, and stroke. A hallmark of gliotic reaction is the up-regulation of the astrocytic biomarker GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein), which often precedes the anatomically apparent damages in Brain. In this study, neonatal transgenic mice at postnatal day (PD) 4 expressing GFP (green fluorescent protein) under the control of a widely used 2.2-kb human GFAP promoter in Brain are treated with two model neurotoxicants, 1-methyl-4(2'-methylphenyl)-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (2'-CH{sub 3}-MPTP), and kainic acid (KA), respectively, to induce gliosis. Here we show that the neurotoxicant-induced acute gliosis can be non-invasively imaged and quantified in Brain of conscious (un-anesthetized) mice in real-time, at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h post-toxicant dosing. Therefore the current methodology could be a useful tool for studying the developmental aspects of neuropathies and neurotoxicity.

  8. Development of Craniofacial Structures in Transgenic Mice with Constitutively Active PTH/PTHrP Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsui, T. W.; Riminucci, M.; Holmbeck, Kenn; Bianco, P.; Robey, P. G.

    2008-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and parathyroid hormone related peptide (PTHrP) regulate calcium homeostasis, and PTHrP further regulates growth and development. A transgenic mouse carrying the constitutively active PTH/PTH-rP receptor (HKrk-H223R) under the control of the mouse bone and odontoblast specific α(I) collagen promoter (Col1-caPPR) has been developed to demonstrate the complex actions of this mutant receptor in hard tissue formation. We have further characterized Col1-caPPR mice abnormalities in the craniofacial region as a function of development. Col1-caPPR mice exhibited a delay in embryonic bone formation, followed by expansion of a number of craniofacial bones including the maxilla and mandible, delay in tooth eruption and teratosis, and a disrupted temporomandibular joint (TMJ). These findings suggest that the Col1-caPPR mouse is a useful model for characterization of the downstream effects of the constitutively active receptor during development and growth, and as a model for development of treatments of human diseases with similar characteristics. PMID:18063434

  9. TCR transgenic mice reveal the impact of type 1 diabetes loci on early and late disease checkpoints.

    PubMed

    Hillhouse, Erin E; Liston, Adrian; Collin, Roxanne; Desautels, Eric; Goodnow, Christopher C; Lesage, Sylvie

    2016-08-01

    Linkage analysis studies for autoimmune diabetes have revealed multiple non-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) chromosomal regions linked to disease susceptibility. To date, more than 20 insulin-dependent diabetes (Idd) loci linked to diabetes susceptibility have been identified in NOD mice and validated via congenic breeding. Importantly, evidence suggests that Idd loci may regulate at least two pathological steps during autoimmune diabetes development, namely the onset of insulitis and the transition from insulitis to overt diabetes. Here we assess the role of various non-MHC Idd diabetes-resistance loci, which have been validated in the non-transgenic setting, on autoimmune diabetes progression in the transgenic setting. Specifically, we generated multiple Idd congenic strains in the 3A9-TCR:insHEL NOD.H2(k) transgenic model and monitored their diabetes incidence. We show that 3A9-TCR:insHEL NOD.H2(k) mice congenic for Idd3 or Idd5 display a reduction in diabetes development, whereas mice congenic for Idd9 or Idd13 exhibit an increase, in comparison with 3A9-TCR:insHEL NOD.H2(k) mice. These results suggest that the presence of the 3A9-TCR and hen egg lysosyme transgenes can offset the regulatory function of certain diabetes-resistance genetic variants contained within the Idd loci, including Idd9 and Idd13. We propose the antigen-specific 3A9-TCR:insHEL transgenic model as a useful tool for the study of the genetics of autoimmune diabetes development. PMID:27046082

  10. Prevention of systemic lupus erythematosus in autoimmune BXSB mice by a transgene encoding I-E alpha chain

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Males from the BXSB murine strain (H-2b) spontaneously develop an autoimmune syndrome with features of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), which results in part from the action of a mutant gene (Yaa) located on the Y chromosome. Like other H-2b mice, the BXSB strain does not express the class II major histocompatibility complex antigen, I-E. Here we report that the expression of I-E (E alpha dE beta b) in BXSB males bearing an E alpha d transgene prevents hypergammaglobulinemia, autoantibody production, and subsequent autoimmune glomerulonephritis. These transgenic mice bear on the majority of their B cells not only I- E molecules, but also an I-E alpha chain-derived peptide presented by a higher number of I-Ab molecules, as recognized by the Y-Ae monoclonal antibody. The I-E+ B cells appear less activated in vivo than the I-E- B cells, a minor population. This limited activation of the I-E+ B cells does not reflect a functional deficiency of this cell population, since it can be stimulated to IgM production in vitro by lipopolysaccharides at an even higher level than the I-E- B cell population. The development of the autoimmune syndrome in the transgenic and nontransgenic bone marrow chimeric mice argues against the possibility that the induction of regulatory T cells or clonal deletion of potential autoreactive T cells as a result of I-E expression is a mechanism of the protection conferred by the E alpha d transgene. We propose a novel mechanism by which the E alpha d transgene protects BXSB mice against SLE: overexpression of I-E alpha chains results in the generation of excessive amounts of a peptide displaying a high affinity to the I-Ab molecule, thereby competing with pathogenic autoantigen-derived peptides for presentation by B lymphocytes and preventing their excessive stimulation. PMID:8376928

  11. Msx2 -/- transgenic mice develop compound amelogenesis imperfecta, dentinogenesis imperfecta and periodental osteopetrosis.

    PubMed

    Aïoub, M; Lézot, F; Molla, M; Castaneda, B; Robert, B; Goubin, G; Néfussi, J R; Berdal, A

    2007-11-01

    The physiological function of the transcription factor Msx2 in tooth and alveolar bone was analysed using a knock-in transgenic mouse line. In this mouse line, the beta-galactosidase gene was used to disrupt Msx2: thus, beta-galactosidase expression was driven by the Msx2 promoter, but Msx2 was not produced. This allowed to monitor Msx2 expression using a beta-galactosidase assay. Msx2 transgenic mice ubiquitously and continuously expressed the mutated Msx2-nlacZ gene in cells of the complex formed by tooth and alveolar bone. Msx2 -/- homozygous mice displayed a wide spectrum of alterations in tooth eruption and morphology as well as dental and periodontal defects from the first post-natal weeks up to 6 months. These defects culminated with the formation of an odontogenic tumour at the mandibular third molar site. This study suggests that bone resorption is a functional target of Msx2 in the alveolar compartment, since Msx2 was expressed in osteoclasts, with the highest expression levels found in the active sites of bone modelling associated with tooth eruption and root elongation. The RANK osteoclast differentiation pathway was affected in microdissected Msx2 -/- mouse alveolar bone (as inferred by RANK ligand mRNA levels) compared to basal bone and wild-type controls. Decreased alveolar osteoclast activity was observed in Msx2 -/- mice, similar to that seen in osteopetrosis, another condition in which osteoclast activity is impaired and odontogenic tumours form. These data suggest a pleiotropic role for Msx2 in oral bone growth from birth until adult homeostasis. RANK pathway appeared to be modulated by Msx2, in addition to the previously reported modulations of BMP4 and laminin5alpha3 in early tooth development. Non-overlapping Msx1 and Msx2 expression patterns suggested that these two homeogenes play non-redundant roles in skeletal growth, with Msx1 targeting basal bone and Msx2 targeting alveolar bone. This study provides a detailed analysis of the phenotype

  12. Effects of anabolic steroids and high-intensity aerobic exercise on skeletal muscle of transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Karina; Campos, Gerson E R; Staron, Robert S; da Cruz-Höfling, Maria Alice

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to shorten recovery time and improve performance, strength and endurance athletes occasionally turn to the illicit use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). This study evaluated the effects of AAS treatment on the muscle mass and phenotypic characteristics of transgenic mice subjected to a high-intensity, aerobic training program (5d/wk for 6 weeks). The transgenic mice (CETP(+/-)LDLr(-/+)) were engineered to exhibit a lipid profile closer to humans. Animals were divided into groups of sedentary (Sed) and/or training (Ex) mice (each treated orally with AAS or gum arabic/vehicle: Sed-C, Sed-M, ex-C, ex-M). The effects of AAS (mesterolone: M) on specific phenotypic adaptations (muscle wet weight, cross-sectional area, and fiber type composition) in three hindlimb muscles (soleus:SOL, tibialis anterior:TA and gastrocnemius:GAS) were assessed. In order to detect subtle changes in fiber type profile, the entire range of fiber types (I, IC, IIAC, IIA, IIAD, IID, IIDB, IIB) was delineated using mATPase histochemistry. Body weight gain occurred throughout the study for all groups. However, the body weight gain was significantly minimized with exercise. This effect was blunted with mesterolone treatment. Both AAS treatment (Sed-M) and high-intensity, aerobic training (ex-C) increased the wet weights of all three muscles and induced differential hypertrophy of pure and hybrid fibers. Combination of AAS and training (ex-M) resulted in enhanced hypertrophy. In the SOL, mesterolone treatment (Sed-M and ex-M) caused dramatic increases in the percentages of fiber types IC, IIAC, IIAD, IID, with concomitant decrease in IIA, but had minimal impact on fiber type percentages in the predominantly fast muscles. Overall, the AAS-induced differential adaptive changes amounted to significant fiber type transformations in the fast-to-slow direction in SOL. AAS treatment had a significant effect on muscle weights and fiber type composition in SOL, TA and GAS which was even

  13. Spontaneous lupus-like syndrome in HLA-DQ2 transgenic mice with a mixed genetic background.

    PubMed

    Rashtak, S; Marietta, E; Cheng, S; Camilleri, M; Pittelkow, M; David, C; Grande, J; Murray, J

    2010-06-01

    To investigate the role of HLA-DQ2 in the pathogenesis of associated immune disorders, we generated transgenic mice that expressed HLA-DQ2 in the absence of endogenous murine class II molecules (AE(0)DQ2). These AE(0)DQ2 mice with a mixed genetic background spontaneously developed skin lesions on their ears, whereas control AE(0)DQ6 genotype control mice (also with a mixed genetic background) did not. The skin lesions were characterized by deep subepidermal blistering with hydropic degeneration and lymphoid infiltration in the subepidermal area as determined by histopathology. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed thick band-like granular deposition of IgG, IgM, and a thin band of IgA deposition along the basement membrane. AE(0)DQ2 mice also developed significant and progressive hematuria and proteinuria as compared with the AE(0)DQ6 mice (p < 0.05). Histopathology showed immune complex deposits in the glomeruli of AE(0)DQ2 mice. Immunofluorescence analysis showed progressive mesangial and capillary wall deposition of IgA, IgM, IgG and C1q in the kidney. With electron microscopy, the deposits showed a 'fingerprint' substructure; and tubuloreticular structures were identified within endothelial cells. Conversely, these changes were not observed in AE(0)DQ6 mice. Serum anti-double stranded (ds)DNA IgM and IgG levels were also significantly elevated among AE(0)DQ2 mice compared with AE(0)DQ6 mice (p < 0.001). In conclusion, AE(0)DQ2 mice spontaneously develop an autoimmune lupus-like syndrome and are useful model for this disease. It remains to be determined whether genetic admixture played a role in the development of this systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome in HLA-DQ2 transgenic mice. Lupus (2010) 19, 815-829.

  14. Estrogen and progesterone receptors have distinct roles in the establishment of the hyperplastic phenotype in PR-A transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Simian, Marina; Bissell, Mina J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Shyamala, Gopalan

    2009-05-11

    Expression of the A and B forms of progesterone receptor (PR) in an appropriate ratio is critical for mammary development. Mammary glands of PR-A transgenic mice, carrying an additional A form of PR as a transgene, exhibit morphological features associated with the development of mammary tumors. Our objective was to determine the roles of estrogen (E) and progesterone (P) in the genesis of mammary hyperplasias/preneoplasias in PR-A transgenics. We subjected PR-A mice to hormonal treatments and analyzed mammary glands for the presence of hyperplasias and used BrdU incorporation to measure proliferation. Quantitative image analysis was carried out to compare levels of latency-associated peptide and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF{beta}1) between PR-A and PR-B transgenics. Basement membrane disruption was examined by immunofluorescence and proteolytic activity by zymography. The hyperplastic phenotype of PR-A transgenics is inhibited by ovariectomy, and is reversed by treatment with E + P. Studies using the antiestrogen ICI 182,780 or antiprogestins RU486 or ZK 98,299 show that the increase in proliferation requires signaling through E/estrogen receptor alpha but is not sufficient to give rise to hyperplasias, whereas signaling through P/PR has little impact on proliferation but is essential for the manifestation of hyperplasias. Increased proliferation is correlated with decreased TGF{beta}1 activation in the PR-A transgenics. Analysis of basement membrane integrity showed loss of laminin-5, collagen III and collagen IV in mammary glands of PR-A mice, which is restored by ovariectomy. Examination of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) showed that total levels of MMP-2 correlate with the steady-state levels of PR, and that areas of laminin-5 loss coincide with those of activation of MMP-2 in PR-A transgenics. Activation of MMP-2 is dependent on treatment with E and P in ovariectomized wild-type mice, but is achieved only by treatment with P in PR-A mice. These data

  15. Expression of human hormone-sensitive lipase in white adipose tissue of transgenic mice increases lipase activity but does not enhance in vitro lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Stéphanie; Tavernier, Geneviève; Tiraby, Claire; Mairal, Aline; Langin, Dominique

    2003-01-01

    Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) catalyzes the hydrolysis of acylglycerols and cholesteryl esters (CEs). The enzyme is highly expressed in adipose tissues (ATs), where it is thought to play an important role in fat mobilization. The purpose of the present work was to study the effect of a physiological increase of HSL expression in vivo. Transgenic mice were produced with a 21 kb human genomic fragment encompassing the exons encoding the adipocyte form of HSL. hHSL mRNA was expressed at 3-fold higher levels than murine HSL mRNA in white adipocytes. Transgene expression was also observed in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and skeletal muscle. The human protein was detected in ATs of transgenic (Tg) mice. The hydrolytic activities against triacylglycerol (TG), diacylglycerol (DG) analog, and CE were increased in transgenic mouse AT. However, cAMP-inducible adipocyte lipolysis was lower in transgenic animals. In the B6CBA genetic background, transgenic mice up to 14 weeks of age showed lower body weight and fat mass. The phenotype was not observed in older animals and in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). In the OF1 genetic background, there was no difference in fat mass of mice fed ad libitum. However, transgenic mice became leaner than their wild-type (WT) littermates after a 4 day calorie restriction. The data show that overexpression of HSL, despite increased lipase activity, does not lead to enhanced lipolysis. PMID:12518034

  16. Decreased glial and synaptic glutamate uptake in the striatum of HIV-1 gp120 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Melendez, Roberto I; Roman, Cristina; Capo-Velez, Coral M; Lasalde-Dominicci, Jose A

    2016-06-01

    The mechanisms leading to the neurocognitive deficits in humans with immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are not well resolved. A number of cell culture models have demonstrated that the HIV-envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120) decreases the reuptake of glutamate, which is necessary for learning, memory, and synaptic plasticity. However, the impact of brain HIV-1 gp120 on glutamate uptake systems in vivo remains unknown. Notably, alterations in brain glutamate uptake systems are implicated in a number of neurodegenerative and neurocognitive disorders. We characterized the kinetic properties of system XAG (sodium-dependent) and systems xc- (sodium-independent) [3H]-L-glutamate uptake in the striatum and hippocampus of HIV-1 gp120 transgenic mice, an established model of HIV neuropathology. We determined the kinetic constant Vmax (maximal velocity) and Km (affinity) of both systems XAG and xc- using subcellular preparations derived from neurons and glial cells. We show significant (30-35 %) reductions in the Vmax of systems XAG and xc- in both neuronal and glial preparations derived from the striatum, but not from the hippocampus of gp120 mice relative to wild-type (WT) controls. Moreover, immunoblot analysis showed that the protein expression of glutamate transporter subtype-1 (GLT-1), the predominant brain glutamate transporter, was significantly reduced in the striatum but not in the hippocampus of gp120 mice. These extensive and region-specific deficits of glutamate uptake likely contribute to the development and/or severity of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Understanding the role of striatal glutamate uptake systems in HIV-1 gp120 may advance the development of new therapeutic strategies to prevent neuronal damage and improve cognitive function in HIV patients. PMID:26567011

  17. Copper and Zinc Metallation Status of Copper Zinc Superoxide Dismutase form Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Transgenic Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lelie, H.L.; Miller, L.; Liba, A.; Bourassa, M.W.; Chattopadhyay, M.; Chan, P.K.; Gralla, E.B.; Borchelt, D.R.; et al

    2010-09-24

    Mutations in the metalloenzyme copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause one form of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and metals are suspected to play a pivotal role in ALS pathology. To learn more about metals in ALS, we determined the metallation states of human wild-type or mutant (G37R, G93A, and H46R/H48Q) SOD1 proteins from SOD1-ALS transgenic mice spinal cords. SOD1 was gently extracted from spinal cord and separated into insoluble (aggregated) and soluble (supernatant) fractions, and then metallation states were determined by HPLC inductively coupled plasma MS. Insoluble SOD1-rich fractions were not enriched in copper and zinc. However, the soluble mutant and WT SOD1s were highly metallated except for the metal-binding-region mutant H46R/H48Q, which did not bind any copper. Due to the stability conferred by high metallation of G37R and G93A, it is unlikely that these soluble SOD1s are prone to aggregation in vivo, supporting the hypothesis that immature nascent SOD1 is the substrate for aggregation. We also investigated the effect of SOD1 overexpression and disease on metal homeostasis in spinal cord cross-sections of SOD1-ALS mice using synchrotron-based x-ray fluorescence microscopy. In each mouse genotype, except for the H46R/H48Q mouse, we found a redistribution of copper between gray and white matters correlated to areas of high SOD1. Interestingly, a disease-specific increase of zinc was observed in the white matter for all mutant SOD1 mice. Together these data provide a picture of copper and zinc in the cell as well as highlight the importance of these metals in understanding SOD1-ALS pathology.

  18. Ectopic expression of the agouti gene in transgenic mice causes obesity, features of type II diabetes, and yellow fur

    SciTech Connect

    Klebig, M.L.; Woychik, R.P.; Wilkinson, J.E.; Geisler, J.G. |

    1995-05-23

    Mice that carry the lethal yellow (A{sup y}) or viable yellow (A{sup vy}) mutation, two dominant mutations of the agouti (a) gene in mouse chromosome 2, exhibit a phenotype that includes yellow fur, marked obesity, a form of type II diabetes associated with insulin resistance, and an increased susceptibility to tumor development. Molecular analyses of these and several other dominant {open_quotes}obese yellow{close_quotes} a-locus mutations suggested that ectopic expression of the normal agouti protein gives rise to this complex pleiotropic phenotype. We have now tested this hypothesis directly by generating transgenic mice that ectopically express an agouti cDNA clone encoding the normal agouti protein in all tissues examined. Transgenic mice of both sexes have yellow fur, become obese, and develop hyperinsulinemia. In addition, male transgenic mice develop hyperglycemia by 12-20 weeks of age. These results demonstrate conclusively that the ectopic agouti expression is responsible for most, if not all, of the phenotypic traits of the dominant, obese yellow mutants. 42 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Tg-SwDI Transgenic Mice Exhibit Novel Alterations in AβPP Processing, Aβ Degradation, and Resilient Amyloid Angiopathy

    PubMed Central

    Van Vickle, Gregory D.; Esh, Chera L.; Daugs, Ian D.; Kokjohn, Tyler A.; Kalback, Walter M.; Patton, R. Lyle; Luehrs, Dean C.; Walker, Douglas G.; Lue, Lih-Fen; Beach, Thomas G.; Davis, Judianne; Van Nostrand, William E.; Castaño, Eduardo M.; Roher, Alex E.

    2008-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular insoluble amyloid, primarily derived from polymerized amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. We characterized the chemical composition of the Aβ peptides deposited in the brain parenchyma and cerebrovascular walls of triple transgenic Tg-SwDI mice that produce a rapid and profuse Aβ accumulation. The processing of the N- and C-terminal regions of mutant AβPP differs substantially from humans because the brain parenchyma accumulates numerous, diffuse, nonfibrillar plaques, whereas the thalamic microvessels harbor overwhelming amounts of compact, fibrillar, thioflavine-S- and apolipoprotein E-positive amyloid deposits. The abundant accretion of vascular amyloid, despite low AβPP transgene expression levels, suggests that inefficient Aβ proteolysis because of conformational changes and dimerization may be key pathogenic factors in this animal model. The disruption of amyloid plaque cores by immunotherapy is accompanied by increased perivascular deposition in both humans and transgenic mice. This analogous susceptibility and response to the disruption of amyloid deposits suggests that Tg-SwDI mice provide an excellent model in which to study the functional aftermath of immunotherapeutic interventions. These mice might also reveal new avenues to promote amyloidogenic AβPP processing and fundamental insights into the faulty degradation and clearance of Aβ in AD, pivotal issues in understanding AD pathophysiology and the assessment of new therapeutic agents. PMID:18599612

  20. Ligand activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ suppresses liver tumorigenesis in hepatitis B transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Balandaram, Gayathri; Kramer, Lance R; Kang, Boo-Hyon; Murray, Iain A; Perdew, Gary H; Gonzalez, Frank J; Peters, Jeffrey M

    2016-07-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ) inhibits steatosis and inflammation, known risk factors for liver cancer. In this study, the effect of ligand activation of PPARβ/δ in modulating liver tumorigenesis in transgenic hepatitis B virus (HBV) mice was examined. Activation of PPARβ/δ in HBV mice reduced steatosis, the average number of liver foci, and tumor multiplicity. Reduced expression of hepatic CYCLIN D1 and c-MYC, tumor necrosis factor alpha (Tnfa) mRNA, serum levels of alanine aminotransaminase, and an increase in apoptotic signaling was also observed following ligand activation of PPARβ/δ in HBV mice compared to controls. Inhibition of Tnfa mRNA expression was not observed in wild-type hepatocytes. Ligand activation of PPARβ/δ inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mRNA expression of Tnfa in wild-type, but not in Pparβ/δ-null Kupffer cells. Interestingly, LPS-induced expression of Tnfa mRNA was also inhibited in Kupffer cells from a transgenic mouse line that expressed a DNA binding mutant form of PPARβ/δ compared to controls. Combined, these results suggest that ligand activation of PPARβ/δ attenuates hepatic tumorigenesis in HBV transgenic mice by inhibiting steatosis and cell proliferation, enhancing hepatocyte apoptosis, and modulating anti-inflammatory activity in Kupffer cells. PMID:27427494

  1. Bovine PrP expression levels in transgenic mice influence transmission characteristics of atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rona; Hart, Patricia; Piccardo, Pedro; Hunter, Nora; Casalone, Cristina; Baron, Thierry; Barron, Rona M

    2012-05-01

    Until recently, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) disease in cattle was thought to be caused by a single agent strain, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) (classical BSE or BSE-C). However, due to the initiation of a large-scale surveillance programme throughout Europe, two atypical BSE strains, bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE, also named BSE-L) and BSE-H have since been discovered. These atypical BSE isolates have been previously transmitted to a range of transgenic mouse models overexpressing PrP from different species at different levels, on a variety of genetic backgrounds. To control for genetic background and expression level in the analysis of these isolates, we performed here a comprehensive comparison of the neuropathological and molecular properties of all three BSE agents (BASE, BSE-C and BSE-H) upon transmission into the same gene-targeted transgenic mouse line expressing the bovine prion protein (Bov6) and a wild-type control of the same genetic background. Significantly, upon challenge with these BSE agents, we found that BASE did not produce shorter survival times in these mice compared with BSE-C, contrary to previous studies using overexpressing bovine transgenic mice. Amyloid plaques were only present in mice challenged with atypical BSE and neuropathological features, including intensity of PrP deposition in the brain and severity of vacuolar degeneration were less pronounced in BASE compared with BSE-C-challenged mice.

  2. Transgenic mice expressing porcine prion protein resistant to classical scrapie but susceptible to sheep bovine spongiform encephalopathy and atypical scrapie.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Herva, María Eugenia; Andréoletti, Olivier; Padilla, Danielle; Lacroux, Caroline; Cassard, Hervé; Lantier, Isabelle; Castilla, Joaquin; Torres, Juan Maria

    2009-08-01

    How susceptible pigs are to infection with sheep prions is unknown. We show, through transmission experiments in transgenic mice expressing porcine prion protein (PrP), that the susceptibility of this mouse model to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) can be enhanced after its passage in ARQ sheep, indicating that the pathogenicity of the BSE agent is modified after passage in sheep. Transgenic mice expressing porcine PrP were, nevertheless, completely resistant to infection with a broad panel of classical scrapie isolates from different sheep PrP genotypes and with different biochemical characteristics. The atypical (Nor98 like) isolate (SC-PS152) was the only scrapie isolate capable of transmission in these mice, although with a marked transmission barrier. Unexpectedly, the atypical scrapie agent appeared to undergo a strain phenotype shift upon transmission to porcine-PrP transgenic mice and acquired new strain properties, suggesting that atypical scrapie agent may exhibit different phenotypes depending on the host cellular PrP or other genetic factors.

  3. Ligand activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ suppresses liver tumorigenesis in hepatitis B transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Balandaram, Gayathri; Kramer, Lance R; Kang, Boo-Hyon; Murray, Iain A; Perdew, Gary H; Gonzalez, Frank J; Peters, Jeffrey M

    2016-07-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ) inhibits steatosis and inflammation, known risk factors for liver cancer. In this study, the effect of ligand activation of PPARβ/δ in modulating liver tumorigenesis in transgenic hepatitis B virus (HBV) mice was examined. Activation of PPARβ/δ in HBV mice reduced steatosis, the average number of liver foci, and tumor multiplicity. Reduced expression of hepatic CYCLIN D1 and c-MYC, tumor necrosis factor alpha (Tnfa) mRNA, serum levels of alanine aminotransaminase, and an increase in apoptotic signaling was also observed following ligand activation of PPARβ/δ in HBV mice compared to controls. Inhibition of Tnfa mRNA expression was not observed in wild-type hepatocytes. Ligand activation of PPARβ/δ inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mRNA expression of Tnfa in wild-type, but not in Pparβ/δ-null Kupffer cells. Interestingly, LPS-induced expression of Tnfa mRNA was also inhibited in Kupffer cells from a transgenic mouse line that expressed a DNA binding mutant form of PPARβ/δ compared to controls. Combined, these results suggest that ligand activation of PPARβ/δ attenuates hepatic tumorigenesis in HBV transgenic mice by inhibiting steatosis and cell proliferation, enhancing hepatocyte apoptosis, and modulating anti-inflammatory activity in Kupffer cells.

  4. Age-dependent neuronal and synaptic degeneration in mice transgenic for the C terminus of the amyloid precursor protein.

    PubMed

    Oster-Granite, M L; McPhie, D L; Greenan, J; Neve, R L

    1996-11-01

    The molecular basis for the degeneration of neurons and the deposition of amyloid in plaques and in the cerebrovasculature in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is incompletely understood. We have proposed that one molecule common to these abnormal processes is a fragment of the Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein (APP) comprising the C-terminal 100 amino acids of this molecule (APP-C100). We tested this hypothesis by creating transgenic mice expressing APP-C100 in the brain. We report here that aging (18-28 month) APP-C100 transgenic mice exhibit profound degeneration of neurons and synapses in Ammon's horn and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation. Of the 106 transgenic mice between 8 and 28 months of age that were examined, all of those older than 18 months displayed severe hippocampal degeneration. The numerous degenerating axonal profiles contained increased numbers of neurofilaments, whorls of membrane, and accumulations of debris resembling secondary lysosomes near the cell body. The dendrites of degenerating granule and pyramidal cells contained disorganized, wavy microtubules. Cerebral blood vessels had thickened refractile basal laminae, and microglia laden with debris lay adjacent to larger venous vessels. Mice transgenic for Flag-APP-C100 (in which the hydrophilic Flag tag was fused to the N terminus of APP-C100) showed a similar degree of neurodegeneration in the hippocampal formation as early as 12 months of age. The 45 control mice displayed only occasional necrotic cells and no extensive cell degeneration in the same brain regions. These findings show that APP-C100 is capable of causing some of the neuropathological features of AD. PMID:8824314

  5. Embryonic Lethality in Homozygous Human Her-2 Transgenic Mice Due to Disruption of the Pds5b Gene

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Carmen S. M.; Sharkey, Janelle; Duscio, Belinda; Venville, Ben; Wei, Wei-Zen; Jones, Richard F.; Slaney, Clare Y.; Mir Arnau, Gisela; Papenfuss, Anthony T.

    2015-01-01

    The development of antigen-targeted therapeutics is dependent on the preferential expression of tumor-associated antigens (TAA) at targetable levels on the tumor. Tumor-associated antigens can be generated de novo or can arise from altered expression of normal basal proteins, such as the up-regulation of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2/ErbB2). To properly assess the development of Her2 therapeutics in an immune tolerant model, we previously generated a transgenic mouse model in which expression of the human Her2 protein was present in both the brain and mammary tissue. This mouse model has facilitated the development of Her2 targeted therapies in a clinically relevant and suitable model. While heterozygous Her2+/- mice appear to develop in a similar manner to wild type mice (Her2-/-), it has proven difficult to generate homozygous Her2+/+ mice, potentially due to embryonic lethality. In this study, we performed whole genome sequencing to determine if the integration site of the Her2 transgene was responsible for this lethality. Indeed, we report that the Her2 transgene had integrated into the Pds5b (precocious dissociation of sisters) gene on chromosome 5, as a 162 copy concatemer. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that Her2+/+ mice, similar to Pds5b-/- mice, are embryonic lethal and confirm the necessity for Pds5b in embryonic development. This study confirms the value of whole genome sequencing in determining the integration site of transgenes to gain insight into associated phenotypes. PMID:26334628

  6. Copper Deficiency in the Lungs of TNF-α Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liu; Geng, Xiangrong; McDermott, Joseph; Shen, Jian; Corbin, Cody; Xuan, Stephanie; Kim, Jae; Zuo, Li; Liu, Zijuan

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is a well-known pro-inflammatory cytokine. Increased expression of Tnf-α is a feature of inflammatory lung diseases, such as asthma, emphysema, fibrosis, and smoking-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Using a mouse line with lung-specific Tnf-α overexpression (SPC-TNF-α) to mimic TNF-α-associated lung diseases, we investigated the role of chronic inflammation in the homeostasis of lung trace elements. We performed a quantitative survey of micronutrients and biometals, including copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se), in the transgenic mice tissues. We also examined the expression of Cu-dependent proteins in the inflammatory lung tissue to determine whether they were affected by the severe Cu deficiency, including cuproenzymes, Cu transporters, and Cu chaperones. We found consistent lung-specific reduction of the metal Cu, with a mean decrease of 70%; however, Zn and Se were unaffected in all other tissues. RT-PCR showed that two Cu enzymes associated with lung pathology were downregulated: amine oxidase, Cu containing 3 (Aoc3) and lysyl oxidase (Lox). Two factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf) and focal adhesion kinase (Fak), related with Cu deficiency treatment, showed decreased expression in the transgenic inflammatory lung. We concluded that Cu deficiency occurs following chronic TNF-α-induced lung inflammation and this likely plays an essential role in the inflammation-induced lung damage. These results suggest the restoration of lung Cu status as a potential strategy in both treatment and prevention of chronic lung inflammation and related disorders. PMID:27378943

  7. Cadmium-induced effects on cellular signaling pathways in the liver of transgenic estrogen reporter mice.

    PubMed

    Ali, Imran; Damdimopoulou, Pauliina; Stenius, Ulla; Adamsson, Annika; Mäkelä, Sari I; Åkesson, Agneta; Berglund, Marika; Håkansson, Helen; Halldin, Krister

    2012-05-01

    Estrogen-like effects of cadmium (Cd) have been reported in several animal studies, and recent epidemiological findings suggest increased risk of hormone-dependent cancers after Cd exposure. The mechanisms underlying these effects are still under investigation. Our aim was to study the effects of Cd on cellular signaling pathways in vivo with special focus on estrogen signaling and to perform benchmark dose analysis on the effects. Transgenic adult ERE-luciferase male mice were exposed subcutaneously to 0.5-500 μg CdCl(2) per kg body weight (bw) or 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) for 3 days. These doses had no effects on organ and bw or testicular histology, indicating subtoxic exposure levels. The transgene luciferase, reporting genomic estrogen response, was significantly increased by EE2 but not by Cd. However, Cd significantly affected kinase phosphorylation and endogenous gene expression. Interestingly, gene expression changes displayed a traditional dose-response relationship, with benchmark dose levels for the expression of Mt1, Mt2, p53, c-fos, and Mdm2 being 92.9, 19.9, 7.6, 259, and 25.9 μg/kg bw, respectively, but changes in kinase phosphorylation were only detected at low exposure levels. Phosphorylation of Erk1/2 was significantly increased even in the lowest dose group, 0.5 μg/kg bw, rendering pErk1/2 a more sensitive sensor of exposure than changes in gene expression. Collectively, our data suggest that the effects triggered by Cd in vivo are markedly concentration dependent. Furthermore, we conclude that the estrogen-like effects of Cd are likely to result from a mechanism different from steroidal estrogens. PMID:22314386

  8. Copper Deficiency in the Lungs of TNF-α Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liu; Geng, Xiangrong; McDermott, Joseph; Shen, Jian; Corbin, Cody; Xuan, Stephanie; Kim, Jae; Zuo, Li; Liu, Zijuan

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is a well-known pro-inflammatory cytokine. Increased expression of Tnf-α is a feature of inflammatory lung diseases, such as asthma, emphysema, fibrosis, and smoking-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Using a mouse line with lung-specific Tnf-α overexpression (SPC-TNF-α) to mimic TNF-α-associated lung diseases, we investigated the role of chronic inflammation in the homeostasis of lung trace elements. We performed a quantitative survey of micronutrients and biometals, including copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se), in the transgenic mice tissues. We also examined the expression of Cu-dependent proteins in the inflammatory lung tissue to determine whether they were affected by the severe Cu deficiency, including cuproenzymes, Cu transporters, and Cu chaperones. We found consistent lung-specific reduction of the metal Cu, with a mean decrease of 70%; however, Zn and Se were unaffected in all other tissues. RT-PCR showed that two Cu enzymes associated with lung pathology were downregulated: amine oxidase, Cu containing 3 (Aoc3) and lysyl oxidase (Lox). Two factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf) and focal adhesion kinase (Fak), related with Cu deficiency treatment, showed decreased expression in the transgenic inflammatory lung. We concluded that Cu deficiency occurs following chronic TNF-α-induced lung inflammation and this likely plays an essential role in the inflammation-induced lung damage. These results suggest the restoration of lung Cu status as a potential strategy in both treatment and prevention of chronic lung inflammation and related disorders. PMID:27378943

  9. Amyloid-β and tau synergistically impair the oxidative phosphorylation system in triple transgenic Alzheimer's disease mice

    PubMed Central

    Rhein, Virginie; Song, Xiaomin; Wiesner, Andreas; Ittner, Lars M.; Baysang, Ginette; Meier, Fides; Ozmen, Laurence; Bluethmann, Horst; Dröse, Stefan; Brandt, Ulrich; Savaskan, Egemen; Czech, Christian; Götz, Jürgen; Eckert, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid-beta (Aβ)-containing plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuron and synapse loss. Tangle formation has been reproduced in P301L tau transgenic pR5 mice, whereas APPswPS2N141I double-transgenic APP152 mice develop Aβ plaques. Cross-breeding generates triple transgenic (tripleAD) mice that combine both pathologies in one model. To determine functional consequences of the combined Aβ and tau pathologies, we performed a proteomic analysis followed by functional validation. Specifically, we obtained vesicular preparations from tripleAD mice, the parental strains, and nontransgenic mice, followed by the quantitative mass-tag labeling proteomic technique iTRAQ and mass spectrometry. Within 1,275 quantified proteins, we found a massive deregulation of 24 proteins, of which one-third were mitochondrial proteins mainly related to complexes I and IV of the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS). Notably, deregulation of complex I was tau dependent, whereas deregulation of complex IV was Aβ dependent, both at the protein and activity levels. Synergistic effects of Aβ and tau were evident in 8-month-old tripleAD mice as only they showed a reduction of the mitochondrial membrane potential at this early age. At the age of 12 months, the strongest defects on OXPHOS, synthesis of ATP, and reactive oxygen species were exhibited in the tripleAD mice, again emphasizing synergistic, age-associated effects of Aβ and tau in perishing mitochondria. Our study establishes a molecular link between Aβ and tau protein in AD pathology in vivo, illustrating the potential of quantitative proteomics. PMID:19897719

  10. Transgenic expression of an expanded (GCG)13 repeat PABPN1 leads to weakness and coordination defects in mice.

    PubMed

    Dion, Patrick; Shanmugam, Vijayalakshmi; Gaspar, Claudia; Messaed, Christiane; Meijer, Inge; Toulouse, André; Laganiere, Janet; Roussel, Julie; Rochefort, Daniel; Laganiere, Simon; Allen, Carol; Karpati, George; Bouchard, Jean-Pierre; Brais, Bernard; Rouleau, Guy A

    2005-04-01

    Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is a late-onset disorder caused by a (GCG)n trinucleotide repeat expansion in the poly(A) binding protein nuclear-1 (PABPN1) gene, which in turn leads to an expanded polyalanine tract in the protein. We generated transgenic mice expressing either the wild type or the expanded form of human PABPN1, and transgenic animals with the expanded form showed clear signs of abnormal limb clasping, muscle weakness, coordination deficits, and peripheral nerves alterations. Analysis of mitotic and postmitotic tissues in those transgenic animals revealed ubiquitinated PABPN1-positive intranuclear inclusions (INIs) in neuronal cells. This latter observation led us to test and confirm the presence of similar INIs in postmortem brain sections from an OPMD patient. Our results indicate that expanded PABPN1, presumably via the toxic effects of its polyalanine tract, can lead to inclusion formation and neurodegeneration in both the mouse and the human.

  11. Over-expression of an endogenous milk protein gene in transgenic mice is associated with impaired mammary alveolar development and a milchlos phenotype.

    PubMed

    Burdon, T; Wall, R J; Shamay, A; Smith, G H; Hennighausen, L

    1991-12-01

    The whey acidic protein (WAP) gene is expressed in mammary epithelial cells at late pregnancy and throughout lactation. We have generated transgenic mice in which a mouse WAP transgene is expressed precociously in pregnancy. From 13 founder mice bearing WAP transgenes, two female founders and the daughters from a male founder failed to lactate and nurture their offspring. We named this phenotype milchlos. Mammary tissue from postpartum milchlos mice was underdeveloped, contained too few alveoli and resembled the glands of non-transgenic mid-pregnant mice. The hypothesis that alveolar development in milchlos mice was functionally arrested in a prelactational state is consistent with low levels of alpha-lactalbumin mRNA, and an unidentified keratin RNA in mammary tissue from postpartum mice. Defects in alveolar function in milchlos mice were detected at mid-pregnancy; in non-transgenic mice, WAP was secreted into the alveolar lumen but remained preferentially in the cytoplasm of the alveolar epithelial cells in the milchlos mice. Since deregulated WAP expression resulted in impaired mammary development, it is possible that WAP plays a regulatory role in the terminal differentiation and development of mammary alveolar cells. PMID:1782141

  12. Disruption of anterior segment development by TGF-beta1 overexpression in the eyes of transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Flügel-Koch, Cassandra; Ohlmann, Andreas; Piatigorsky, Joram; Tamm, Ernst R

    2002-10-01

    Previous experiments showed that transgenic mice expressing a secreted self-activating transforming growth factor (TGF) -beta1 did not show a phenotype in the lens and cornea until postnatal day 21, when anterior subcapsular cataracts, sporadic thickening of the corneal stroma, and thinning of the corneal epithelium were noted (Srinivasan et al., 1998). To examine the effects of higher concentrations of TGF-beta1 on the lens and cornea, we constructed transgenic mice harboring the strong, lens-specific chicken betaB1-crystallin promoter driving an activated porcine TGF-beta1 gene. In contrast to the earlier study, the transgenic mice had microphthalmic eyes with closed eyelids. Already at embryonic day (E) 13.5, the future cornea of the transgenic mice was threefold thicker than that of wild-type littermates due to increased proliferation of corneal stromal mesenchyme cells. Staining of fibronectin and thrombospondin-1 was increased in periocular mesenchyme. At E17.5, the thickened transgenic corneal stroma was vascularized and densely populated by abundant star-shaped, neural cell adhesion molecule-positive cells of mesenchymal appearance surrounded by irregular swirls of collagen and extracellular matrix. The corneal endothelium, anterior chamber, and stroma of iris/ciliary body did not develop, and the transgenic cornea was opaque. Fibronectin, perlecan, and thrombospondin-1 were elevated, whereas type VI collagen decreased in the transgenic corneal stroma. Stromal mesenchyme cells expressed alpha-smooth muscle actin as did lens epithelial cells and cells of the retinal pigmented epithelium. By E17.5, lens fiber cells underwent apoptotic cell death that was followed by apoptosis of the entire anterior lens epithelium between E18.5 and birth. Posteriorly, the vitreous humor was essentially absent; however, the retina appeared relatively normal. Thus, excess TGF-beta1, a mitogen for embryonic corneal mesenchyme, severely disrupts corneal and lens differentiation

  13. Osteoprotegerin-deficient male mice as a model for severe alveolar bone loss: comparison with RANKL-overexpressing transgenic male mice.

    PubMed

    Koide, Masanori; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Ninomiya, Tadashi; Nakamura, Midori; Yasuda, Hisataka; Arai, Yoshinori; Okahashi, Nobuo; Yoshinari, Nobuo; Takahashi, Naoyuki; Udagawa, Nobuyuki

    2013-02-01

    Periodontitis, an inflammatory disease of periodontal tissues, is characterized by excessive alveolar bone resorption. An increase in the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) to osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio is thought to reflect the severity of periodontitis. Here, we examined alveolar bone loss in OPG-deficient (OPG(-/-)) mice and RANKL-overexpressing transgenic (RANKL-Tg) mice. Alveolar bone loss in OPG(-/-) mice at 12 weeks was significantly higher than that in RANKL-Tg mice. OPG(-/-) but not RANKL-Tg mice exhibited severe bone resorption especially in cortical areas of the alveolar bone. An increased number of osteoclasts was observed in the cortical areas in OPG(-/-) but not in RANKL-Tg mice. Immunohistochemical analyses showed many OPG-positive signals in osteocytes but not osteoblasts. OPG-positive osteocytes in the cortical area of alveolar bones and long bones were abundant in both wild-type and RANKL-Tg mice. This suggests the resorption in cortical bone areas to be prevented by OPG produced locally. To test the usefulness of OPG(-/-) mice as an animal model for screening drugs to prevent alveolar bone loss, we administered an antimouse RANKL antibody or risedronate, a bisphosphonate, to OPG(-/-) mice. They suppressed alveolar bone resorption effectively. OPG(-/-) mice are useful for screening therapeutic agents against alveolar bone loss.

  14. HDL from apoA1 transgenic mice expressing the 4WF isoform is resistant to oxidative loss of function[S

    PubMed Central

    Berisha, Stela Z.; Brubaker, Greg; Kasumov, Takhar; Hung, Kimberly T.; DiBello, Patricia M.; Huang, Ying; Li, Ling; Willard, Belinda; Pollard, Katherine A.; Nagy, Laura E.; Hazen, Stanley L.; Smith, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    HDL functions are impaired by myeloperoxidase (MPO), which selectively targets and oxidizes human apoA1. We previously found that the 4WF isoform of human apoA1, in which the four tryptophan residues are substituted with phenylalanine, is resistant to MPO-mediated loss of function. The purpose of this study was to generate 4WF apoA1 transgenic mice and compare functional properties of the 4WF and wild-type human apoA1 isoforms in vivo. Male mice had significantly higher plasma apoA1 levels than females for both isoforms of human apoA1, attributed to different production rates. With matched plasma apoA1 levels, 4WF transgenics had a trend for slightly less HDL-cholesterol versus human apoA1 transgenics. While 4WF transgenics had 31% less reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) to the plasma compartment, equivalent RCT to the liver and feces was observed. Plasma from both strains had similar ability to accept cholesterol and facilitate ex vivo cholesterol efflux from macrophages. Furthermore, we observed that 4WF transgenic HDL was partially (∼50%) protected from MPO-mediated loss of function while human apoA1 transgenic HDL lost all ABCA1-dependent cholesterol acceptor activity. In conclusion, the structure and function of HDL from 4WF transgenic mice was not different than HDL derived from human apoA1 transgenic mice. PMID:25561462

  15. Transforming growth factor-beta and its effect on reepithelialization of partial-thickness ear wounds in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Tredget, Eric B; Demare, Jack; Chandran, Geethan; Tredget, Edward E; Yang, Liju; Ghahary, Aziz

    2005-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is known to affect nearly every aspect of wound repair. Many of the effects have been extensively investigated; however, the primary effect of endogenously derived TGF-beta on wound reepithelialization is still not completely understood. To examine this, two types of wounds were made on a transgenic mouse over-expressing TGF-beta1. Full-thickness back wounds were made to compare the wound healing process in the presence of compensatory healing mechanisms. Superficial partial-thickness ear wounds involving only the epidermis were made to determine the effect of TGF-beta on reepithelialization. In the partial-thickness ear wounds, at later time points, the transgenic group had smaller epithelial gaps than the wild-type mice. A greater number of actively proliferating cells, as determined by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, was also found in the transgenic mice at post-injury day 8. These results show that TGF-beta1 stimulates the rate of reepithelialization at later time points in partial-thickness wounds. However, in the full-thickness back wounds, the transgenic animals exhibited a slower reepithelialization rate at all time points and the number of bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells was fewer. Our findings would suggest that the overexpression of TGF-beta1 speeds the rate of wound closure in partial-thickness wounds by promoting keratinocyte migration. In full-thickness wounds, however, the overexpression of TGF-beta1 slows the rate of wound reepithelialization.

  16. Effects of an inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, desmethylselegiline, trientine, and lipoic acid in transgenic ALS mice.

    PubMed

    Andreassen, O A; Dedeoglu, A; Friedlich, A; Ferrante, K L; Hughes, D; Szabo, C; Beal, M F

    2001-04-01

    The development of transgenic mouse models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) allows the testing of neuroprotective agents. We evaluated the effects of five agents in transgenic mice with the G93A Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase mutation. A novel inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase showed no effects on survival. Desmethylselegiline and CGP3466 are agents that exert antiapoptotic effects in vitro by preventing nuclear translocation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. They had no significant effects on survival in the G93A mice. Trientine, a copper chelator, produced a modest significant increase in survival. Similarly administration of lipoic acid in the diet produced a significant improvement in survival. These results therefore provide evidence for potential therapeutic effects of copper chelators and lipoic acid in the treatment of ALS.

  17. Cardiac overexpression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in transgenic mice prevents cardiac dysfunction and remodeling after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Hajime; Takahashi, Masafumi; Izawa, Atsushi; Ise, Hirohiko; Hongo, Minoru; Kolattukudy, Pappachan E; Ikeda, Uichi

    2006-10-13

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is accompanied by inflammatory responses that lead to the recruitment of leukocytes and subsequent myocardial damage, healing, and scar formation. Because monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) (also known as CCL2) regulates monocytic inflammatory responses, we investigated the effect of cardiac MCP-1 overexpression on left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and remodeling in a murine MI model. Transgenic mice expressing the mouse JE-MCP-1 gene under the control of the alpha-cardiac myosin heavy chain promoter (MHC/MCP-1 mice) were used for this purpose. MHC/MCP-1 mice had reduced infarct area and scar formation and improved LV dysfunction after MI. These mice also showed induction of macrophage infiltration and neovascularization; however, few bone marrow-derived endothelial cells were detected in MHC/MCP-1 mice whose bone marrow was replaced with that of Tie2/LacZ transgenic mice. Flow cytometry analysis showed no increase in endothelial progenitor cells (CD34+/Flk-1+ cells) in MHC/MCP-1 mice. Marked myocardial interleukin (IL)-6 secretion, STAT3 activation, and LV hypertrophy were observed after MI in MHC/MCP-1 mice. Furthermore, cardiac myofibroblasts accumulated after MI in MHC/MCP-1 mice. In vitro experiments revealed that a combination of IL-6 with MCP-1 synergistically stimulated and sustained STAT3 activation in cardiomyocytes. MCP-1, IL-6, and hypoxia directly promoted the differentiation of cardiac fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. Our results suggest that cardiac overexpression of MCP-1 induced macrophage infiltration, neovascularization, myocardial IL-6 secretion, and accumulation of cardiac myofibroblasts, thereby resulting in the prevention of LV dysfunction and remodeling after MI. They also provide a new insight into the role of cardiac MCP-1 in the pathophysiology of MI. PMID:16990567

  18. A Chimeric Cfh Transgene Leads to Increased Retinal Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Accumulation of Activated Subretinal Microglia in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aredo, Bogale; Li, Tao; Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Kaiyan; Wang, Cynthia Xin-Zhao; Gou, Darlene; Zhao, Biren; He, Yuguang; Ufret-Vincenty, Rafael L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Variants of complement factor H (Cfh) affecting short consensus repeats (SCRs) 6 to 8 increase the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Our aim was to explore the effect of expressing a Cfh variant on the in vivo susceptibility of the retina and RPE to oxidative stress and inflammation, using chimeric Cfh transgenic mice (chCfhTg). Methods. The chCfhTg and age-matched C57BL/6J (B6) mice were subjected to oxidative stress by either normal aging, or by exposure to a combination of oral hydroquinone (0.8% HQ) and increased light. Eyes were collected for immunohistochemistry of RPE–choroid flat mounts and of retinal sections, ELISA, electron microscopy, and RPE/microglia gene expression analysis. Results. Aging mice to 2 years led to an increased accumulation of basal laminar deposits, subretinal microglia/macrophages (MG/MΦ) staining for CD16 and for malondialdehyde (MDA), and MDA-modified proteins in the retina in chCfhTg compared to B6 mice. The chCfhTg mice maintained on HQ diet and increased light showed greater deposition of basal laminar deposits, more accumulation of fundus spots suggestive of MG/MΦ, and increased deposition of C3d in the sub-RPE space, compared to controls. In addition, chCfhTg mice demonstrated upregulation of NLRP3, IP-10, CD68, and TREM-2 in the RNA isolates from RPE/MG/MΦ. Conclusions. Expression of a Cfh transgene introducing a variant in SCRs 6 to 8 was sufficient to lead to increased retinal/RPE susceptibility to oxidative stress, a proinflammatory MG/MΦ phenotype, and a proinflammatory RPE/MG/MΦ gene expression profile in a transgenic mouse model. Our data suggest that altered interactions of Cfh with MDA-modified proteins may be relevant in explaining the effects of the Cfh variant. PMID:26030099

  19. Perinatal lethal osteogenesis imperfecta in transgenic mice bearing an engineered mutant pro-alpha 1(I) collagen gene.

    PubMed

    Stacey, A; Bateman, J; Choi, T; Mascara, T; Cole, W; Jaenisch, R

    1988-03-10

    Substitutions of single glycine residues of alpha 1(I) collagen have previously been associated with the inherited disease osteogenesis imperfecta type II. Transgenic mice bearing a mutant alpha 1(I) collagen gene into which specific glycine substitutions have been engineered show a dominant lethal phenotype characteristic of the human disease, and demonstrate that as little as 10% mutant gene expression can disrupt normal collagen function.

  20. Pattern of tau hyperphosphorylation and neurotransmitter markers in the brainstem of senescent tau filament forming transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Morcinek, Kerstin; Köhler, Christoph; Götz, Jürgen; Schröder, Hannsjörg

    2013-02-25

    The early occurrence of brainstem-related symptoms, e.g. gait and balance impairment, apathy and depression in Alzheimer's disease patients suggests brainstem involvement in the initial pathogenesis. To address the question whether tau filament forming mice expressing mutated human tau mirror histopathological changes observed in Alzheimer brainstem, the degree and distribution of neurofibrillary lesions as well as the pattern of cholinergic and monoaminergic neurons were investigated. The expression of the human tau transgene was observed in multiple brainstem nuclei, particularly in the magnocellular reticular formation, vestibular nuclei, cranial nerve motor nuclei, sensory trigeminal nerve nuclei, inferior and superior colliculi, periaqueductal and pontine gray matter, and the red nucleus. Most of the human tau-immunoreactive cell groups also showed tau hyperphosphorylation at the epitopes Thr231/Ser235 and Ser202/Thr205, while abnormal tau phosphorylation at the epitope Ser422 or silver stained structures were almost totally lacking. We found no obvious differences in distribution and density of cholinergic and monoaminergic neurons between tau-transgenic and wild type mice. Although numerous brainstem nuclei in our model expressed human tau protein, the development of neurofibrillary tangles, neuropil threads and ghost tangles was rare and likewise its distribution differed largely from Alzheimer's disease pattern. The number of monoaminergic neurons remained unchanged in the transgenic mice, while monoaminergic nuclei in Alzheimer brainstem showed a distinct neuronal loss. However, the distribution of pretangle-affected neurons in the tau-transgenic mice partly resembled those seen in progressive supranuclear palsy, presenting these animals as a model to examine brainstem pathogenesis of progressive supranuclear palsy. PMID:23261664

  1. Positive and Negative Selection in Transgenic Mice Expressing a T-Cell Receptor Specific for Influenza Nucleoprotein and Endogenous Superantigen

    PubMed Central

    Mamalaki, Clio; Elliott, James; Norton, Trisha; Yannoutsos, Nicholas; Townsend, Alain R.; Chandler, Phillip; Simpson, Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    A transgenic mouse was generated expressing on most (>80%) of thymocytes and peripheral T cells a T-cell receptor isolated from a cytotoxic T-cell clone (F5). This clone is CD8+ and recognizes αα366-374 of the nucleoprotein (NP 366-374) of influenza virus (A/NT/60/68), in the context of Class ,MHC Db (Townsend et al., 1986). The receptor utilizes the Vβ11 and Vα4 gene segments for the β chain and α chain, respectively (Palmer et al., 1989). The usage of Vβ11 makes this TcR reactive to Class II IE molecules and an endogenous ligand recently identified as a product of the endogenous mammary tumour viruses (Mtv) 8, 9, and 11 (Dyson et al., 1991). Here we report the development of F5 transgenic T cells and their function in mice of the appropriate MHC (C57BL/10 H-2b, IE-) or in mice expressing Class II MHC IE (e.g., CBA/Ca H-2k and BALB/c H-2d) and the endogenous Mtv ligands. Positive selection of CD8+ T cells expressing the Vβ11 is seen in C57BL/10 transgenic mice (H-2b). Peripheral T cells from these mice are capable of killing target cells in an antigen-dependent manner after a period of in vitro culture with IL-2. In the presence of Class II MHC IE molecules and the endogenous Mtv ligand, most of the single-positive cells carrying the transgenic T-cell receptor are absent in the thymus. Unexpectedly, CD8+ peripheral T-cells in these (H-2k or H-2d) F5 mice are predominantly Vβ11 positive and also have the capacity to kill targets in an antigen-dependent manner. This is true even following backcrossing of the F5 TcR transgene to H-2d scid/scid mice, in which functional rearrangement of endogenous TcR alpha- and beta-chain genes is impaired. PMID:8281031

  2. Transgenic mice over-expressing human beta-amyloid have functional nicotinic alpha 7 receptors.

    PubMed

    Spencer, J P; Weil, A; Hill, K; Hussain, I; Richardson, J C; Cusdin, F S; Chen, Y H; Randall, A D

    2006-02-01

    A potentially major factor in the development of Alzheimer's disease is the enhanced production of soluble beta-amyloid peptide fragments amyloid beta peptide(1-40) and amyloid beta peptide(1-42). These amyloid peptides are generated by cleavage of the amyloid-precursor protein and aggregate spontaneously to form amyloid plaques, which are a classical pathological hallmark in Alzheimer's disease. Although the precise mechanisms are unknown, it is widely believed that amyloid peptides initiate the degenerative process, resulting in subsequent cognitive decline. One interaction of amyloid beta peptide that may contribute to an impairment of cognition is its high affinity binding to the alpha 7 nicotinic receptor; a receptor shown to be important for cognition in a number of studies. There is some controversy, however, whether amyloid beta peptide inhibits or activates this receptor. We have cloned and stably expressed the human alpha 7 receptor and investigated its interaction with amyloid beta peptide using patch clamp electrophysiology. Human alpha 7 was activated in a concentration-dependent fashion by nicotine, acetylcholine and choline and potently inhibited by methyllycaconitine citrate. The responses were inwardly rectifying and exhibited rapid activation, desensitization and deactivation. Amyloid beta peptide(1-42) antagonized human alpha7 responses in a partially reversible fashion; no agonist effects of amyloid beta peptide(1-42) were detected. A similar inhibition of mouse alpha 7 was also observed. In addition, we have assessed the function of native alpha 7 receptors in hippocampal slices prepared from transgenic mice that over-express human amyloid. Despite this clear inhibition of recombinant receptors, hippocampal GABAergic interneurones in slices from beta-amyloid over-expressing mice still possess alpha 7 receptor-mediated currents.

  3. Reducing Available Soluble β-Amyloid Prevents Progression of Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Julia L.; Prada, Claudia M.; Fine, Sara J.; Garcia-Alloza, Monica; Betensky, Rebecca A.; Arbel-Ornath, Michal; Greenberg, Steven M.; Bacskai, Brian J.; Frosch, Matthew P.

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), the accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the walls of leptomeningeal and cortical blood vessels of the brain, is a major cause of intracerebral hemorrhage and cognitive impairment, and is commonly associated with Alzheimer disease (AD). CAA progression, as measured in transgenic mice by longitudinal imaging with multiphoton microscopy, occurs in a predictable linear manner. The dynamics of Aβ deposition in and clearance from vascular walls and their relationship to the concentration of Aβ in the brain is poorly understood. We manipulated Aβ levels in the brain using 2 approaches: peripheral clearance via administration of the amyloid binding “peripheral sink” protein gelsolin, and direct inhibition of its formation via administration of LY-411575, a small molecule γ-secretase inhibitor. We found that gelsolin and LY-411575 both reduced the rate of CAA progression in Tg2576 mice from untreated rates of 0.58 ± 0.15% and 0.52 ± 0.09% to 0.11 ± 0.18% (p = 0.04) and −0.17 ± 0.09% (p < 0.001) of affected vessel per day, respectively, in the absence of an immune response. CAA progression was also halted when gelsolin was combined with LY-411575 (−0.004 ± 0.10%, p < 0.003). These data suggest that CAA progression can be prevented with non-immune approaches that may reduce the availability of soluble Aβ, but without evidence of substantial amyloid clearance from vessels. PMID:23095848

  4. Progressive inflammatory pathology in the retina of aluminum-fed 5xFAD transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Pogue, A I; Dua, P; Hill, J M; Lukiw, W J

    2015-11-01

    At least 57 murine transgenic models for Alzheimer's disease (Tg-AD) have been developed to overexpress the 42 amino acid amyloid-beta (Aβ42) peptide in the central nervous system (CNS). These 'humanized murine Tg-AD models' have greatly expanded our understanding of the contribution of Aβ42 peptide-mediated pro-inflammatory neuropathology to the AD process. A number of independent laboratories using different amyloid-overexpressing Tg-AD models have shown that supplementation of murine Tg-AD diets and/or drinking water with aluminum significantly enhances Aβ42 peptide-mediated inflammatory pathology and AD-type cognitive change compared to animals receiving control diets. In humans AD-type pathology appears to originate in the limbic system and progressively spreads into primary processing and sensory regions such as the retina. In these studies, for the first time, we assess the propagation of Aβ42 and inflammatory signals into the retina of 5xFAD Tg-AD amyloid-overexpressing mice whose diets were supplemented with aluminum. The two most interesting findings were (1) that similar to other Tg-AD models, there was a significantly accelerated development of Aβ42 and inflammatory pathology in 5xFAD Tg-AD mice fed aluminum; and (2) in aluminum-supplemented animals, markers for inflammatory pathology appeared in both the brain and the retina as evidenced by an evolving presence of Aβ42 peptides, and accompanied by inflammatory markers - cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and C-reactive protein (CRP). The results indicate that in the 5xFAD Tg-AD model aluminum not only enhances an Aβ42-mediated inflammatory degeneration of the brain but also appears to induce AD-type pathology in an anatomically-linked primary sensory area that involves vision.

  5. Development of leukemia in mice transgenic for the tax gene of human T-cell leukemia virus type I.

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, W J; Kimata, J T; Wong, F H; Zutter, M; Ley, T J; Ratner, L

    1995-01-01

    The human T-cell leukemia virus type I Tax protein trans-activates several cellular genes implicated in T-cell replication and activation. To investigate its leukemogenic potential, Tax was targeted to the mature T-lymphocyte compartment in transgenic mice by using the human granzyme B promoter. These mice developed large granular lymphocytic leukemia, demonstrating that expression of Tax in the lymphocyte compartment is sufficient for the development of leukemia. Furthermore, these observations suggest that human T-cell leukemia virus infection may be involved in the development of large granular lymphocytic leukemia. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:7862633

  6. Inflammatory skin disease in transgenic mice that express high levels of interleukin 1 alpha in basal epidermis.

    PubMed Central

    Groves, R W; Mizutani, H; Kieffer, J D; Kupper, T S

    1995-01-01

    Resting epidermal keratinocytes contain large amounts of interleukin 1 (IL-1), but the function of this cytokine in the skin remains unclear. To further define the role of IL-1 in cutaneous biology, we have generated two lines of transgenic mice (TgIL-1.1 and TgIL-1.2) which overexpress IL-1 alpha in basal keratinocytes. There was high-level tissue-specific expression of transgene mRNA and protein and large quantities of IL-1 alpha were liberated into the circulation from epidermis in both lines. TgIL-1.1 mice, which had the highest level of transgene expression, developed a spontaneous skin disease characterized by hair loss, scaling, and focal inflammatory skin lesions. Histologically, nonlesional skin of these animals was characterized by hyperkeratosis and a dermal mononuclear cell infiltrate of macrophage/monocyte lineage. Inflammatory lesions were marked by a mixed cellular infiltrate, acanthosis, and, in some cases, parakeratosis. These findings confirm the concept of IL-1 as a primary cytokine, release of which is able to initiate and localize an inflammatory reaction. Furthermore, these mice provide the first definitive evidence that inflammatory mediators can be released from the epidermis to enter the systemic circulation and thereby influence, in a paracrine or endocrine fashion, a wide variety of other cell types. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8524866

  7. Transgenic mice overexpressing arginase 1 in monocytic cell lineage are affected by lympho-myeloproliferative disorders and disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    PubMed

    Astigiano, Simonetta; Morini, Monica; Damonte, Patrizia; Fraternali Orcioni, Giulio; Cassanello, Michela; Puglisi, Andrea; Noonan, Douglas M; Bronte, Vincenzo; Barbieri, Ottavia

    2015-11-01

    Arginase (ARG) is a metabolic enzyme present in two isoforms that hydrolyze l-arginine to urea and ornithine. In humans, ARG isoform 1 is also expressed in cells of the myeloid lineage. ARG activity promotes tumour growth and inhibits T lymphocyte activation. However, the two ARG transgenic mouse lines produced so far failed to show such effects. We have generated, in two different genetic backgrounds, transgenic mice constitutively expressing ARG1 under the control of the CD68 promoter in macrophages and monocytes. Both heterozygous and homozygous transgenic mice showed a relevant increase in mortality at early age, compared with wild-type siblings (67/267 and 48/181 versus 8/149, respectively, both P < 0.005). This increase was due to high incidence of haematologic malignancies, in particular myeloid leukaemia, myeloid dysplasia, lymphomas and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), diseases that were absent in wild-type mice. Atrophy of lymphoid organs due to reduction in T-cell compartment was also detected. Our results indicate that ARG activity may participate in the pathogenesis of lymphoproliferative and myeloproliferative disorders, suggest the involvement of alterations of L-arginine metabolism in the onset of DIC and confirm a role for the enzyme in regulating T-cell homeostasis.

  8. Tissue-specific, inducible and functional expression of the E alpha d MHC class II gene in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Pinkert, C A; Widera, G; Cowing, C; Heber-Katz, E; Palmiter, R D; Flavell, R A; Brinster, R L

    1985-01-01

    We have introduced the class II E alpha d gene into (C57BL/6 X SJL) F2 mice which do not express their endogenous E alpha gene. The mRNA expression of the E alpha d gene shows the same tissue distribution as the endogenous class II genes except in the case of one mouse, which carried 19 copies of the E alpha d gene. In this mouse expression of E alpha d mRNA was seen in all tissues tested. Expression of the transgene was induced by gamma-interferon in isolated macrophages from the transgenic mice. In addition, fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis, mixed lymphocyte response and antigen-presentation experiments showed that the product of the transferred gene is expressed on the cell surface and functions as a major histocompatibility complex restriction element. Transmission of the gene occurred only with female transgenic mice, all males were infertile or did not transmit the gene, suggesting an effect of the transferred DNA sequence on male reproductive function. Images Fig. 2. PMID:3935430

  9. An Lck-cre transgene accelerates autoantibody production and lupus development in (NZB × NZW)F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Nelson, R K; Gould, K A

    2016-02-01

    Lupus is an autoimmune disease characterized by the development of antinuclear autoantibodies and immune complex-mediated tissue damage. T cells in lupus patients appear to undergo apoptosis at an increased rate, and this enhanced T cell apoptosis has been postulated to contribute to lupus pathogenesis by increasing autoantigen load. However, there is no direct evidence to support this hypothesis. In this study, we show that an Lck-cre transgene, which increases T cell apoptosis as a result of T cell-specific expression of cre recombinase, accelerates the development of autoantibodies and nephritis in lupus-prone (NZB × NZW)F1 mice. Although the enhanced T cell apoptosis in Lck-cre transgenic mice resulted in an overall decrease in the relative abundance of splenic CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, the proportion of activated CD4(+) T cells was increased and no significant change was observed in the relative abundance of suppressive T cells. We postulate that the Lck-cre transgene promoted lupus by enhancing T cell apoptosis, which, in conjunction with the impaired clearance of apoptotic cells in lupus-prone mice, increased the nuclear antigen load and accelerated the development of anti-nuclear autoantibodies. Furthermore, our results also underscore the importance of including cre-only controls in studies using the cre-lox system.

  10. Dominant-negative DISC1 transgenic mice display schizophrenia-associated phenotypes detected by measures translatable to humans.

    PubMed

    Hikida, Takatoshi; Jaaro-Peled, Hanna; Seshadri, Saurav; Oishi, Kenichi; Hookway, Caroline; Kong, Stephanie; Wu, Di; Xue, Rong; Andradé, Manuella; Tankou, Stephanie; Mori, Susumu; Gallagher, Michela; Ishizuka, Koko; Pletnikov, Mikhail; Kida, Satoshi; Sawa, Akira

    2007-09-01

    Here, we report generation and characterization of Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) genetically engineered mice as a potential model for major mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia. DISC1 is a promising genetic risk factor for major mental illnesses. In this transgenic model, a dominant-negative form of DISC1 (DN-DISC1) is expressed under the alphaCaMKII promoter. In vivo MRI of the DN-DISC1 mice detected enlarged lateral ventricles particularly on the left side, suggesting a link to the asymmetrical change in anatomy found in brains of patients with schizophrenia. Furthermore, selective reduction in the immunoreactivity of parvalbumin in the cortex, a marker for an interneuron deficit that may underlie cortical asynchrony, is observed in the DN-DISC1 mice. These results suggest that these transgenic mice may be used as a model for schizophrenia. DN-DISC1 mice also display several behavioral abnormalities, including hyperactivity, disturbance in sensorimotor gating and olfactory-associated behavior, and an anhedonia/depression-like deficit.

  11. Gata3 Hypomorphic Mutant Mice Rescued with a Yeast Artificial Chromosome Transgene Suffer a Glomerular Mesangial Cell Defect.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Takashi; Yu, Lei; Otsuki, Akihito; Ainoya, Keiko; Lim, Kim-Chew; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Engel, James Douglas

    2016-09-01

    GATA3 is a zinc finger transcription factor that plays a crucial role in embryonic kidney development, while its precise functions in the adult kidney remain largely unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that GATA3 is specifically expressed in glomerular mesangial cells and plays a critical role in the maintenance of renal glomerular function. Newly generated Gata3 hypomorphic mutant mice exhibited neonatal lethality associated with severe renal hypoplasia. Normal kidney size was restored by breeding the hypomorphic mutant with a rescuing transgenic mouse line bearing a 662-kb Gata3 yeast artificial chromosome (YAC), and these animals (termed G3YR mice) survived to adulthood. However, most of the G3YR mice showed degenerative changes in glomerular mesangial cells, which deteriorated progressively during postnatal development. Consequently, the G3YR adult mice suffered severe renal failure. We found that the 662-kb Gata3 YAC transgene recapitulated Gata3 expression in the renal tubules but failed to direct sufficient GATA3 activity to mesangial cells. Renal glomeruli of the G3YR mice had significantly reduced amounts of platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), which is known to participate in the development and maintenance of glomerular mesangial cells. These results demonstrate a critical role for GATA3 in the maintenance of mesangial cells and its absolute requirement for prevention of glomerular disease. PMID:27296697

  12. Congenital Hydrocephalus and Abnormal Subcommissural Organ Development in Sox3 Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kristie; Tan, Jacqueline; Morris, Michael B.; Rizzoti, Karine; Hughes, James; Cheah, Pike See; Felquer, Fernando; Liu, Xuan; Piltz, Sandra; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Thomas, Paul Q.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital hydrocephalus (CH) is a life-threatening medical condition in which excessive accumulation of CSF leads to ventricular expansion and increased intracranial pressure. Stenosis (blockage) of the Sylvian aqueduct (Aq; the narrow passageway that connects the third and fourth ventricles) is a common form of CH in humans, although the genetic basis of this condition is unknown. Mouse models of CH indicate that Aq stenosis is associated with abnormal development of the subcommmissural organ (SCO) a small secretory organ located at the dorsal midline of the caudal diencephalon. Glycoproteins secreted by the SCO generate Reissner's fibre (RF), a thread-like structure that descends into the Aq and is thought to maintain its patency. However, despite the importance of SCO function in CSF homeostasis, the genetic program that controls SCO development is poorly understood. Here, we show that the X-linked transcription factor SOX3 is expressed in the murine SCO throughout its development and in the mature organ. Importantly, overexpression of Sox3 in the dorsal diencephalic midline of transgenic mice induces CH via a dose-dependent mechanism. Histological, gene expression and cellular proliferation studies indicate that Sox3 overexpression disrupts the development of the SCO primordium through inhibition of diencephalic roof plate identity without inducing programmed cell death. This study provides further evidence that SCO function is essential for the prevention of hydrocephalus and indicates that overexpression of Sox3 in the dorsal midline alters progenitor cell differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:22291885

  13. Characterization of trans-immortalized hepatic cell lines established from transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Perraud, F; Dalemans, W; Gendrault, J L; Dreyer, D; Ali-Hadji, D; Faure, T; Pavirani, A

    1991-07-01

    Hepato-specific regulatory (promoter/enhancer) DNA sequences were used for targeting the expression of onc genes, such as murine c-myc and Simian Virus 40 T Antigen, to hepatocytes of transgenic mice which subsequently developed hepatocellular carcinomas after a variable period of time (depending on the type of onc gene employed). Several trans-immortalized cell lines were established and compared with respect to the expression of adult hepatic markers and response to growth factors. Despite the morphological differences observed between trans-hepatomas, owing to the expression of the two different onc genes, all tumor-derived cell lines behaved in a comparable fashion during long-term culture displaying an adult hepatic phenotype for at least 40 passages. They differed, however, in response to epidermal growth factor. When the gene coding for human alpha 1-antitrypsin was placed under the control of the same hepato-specific promoter/enhancer, high levels of the human recombinant protein could be harvested from the supernatants of trans-hepatoma-derived cell lines. PMID:1711473

  14. In vivo analysis of mouse gastrin gene regulation in enhanced GFP-BAC transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Takaishi, Shigeo; Shibata, Wataru; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Jin, Guangchun; Yang, Xiangdong; Ericksen, Russell; Dubeykovskaya, Zinaida; Asfaha, Samuel; Quante, Michael; Betz, Kelly S; Shulkes, Arthur; Wang, Timothy C

    2011-02-01

    Gastrin is secreted from a subset of neuroendocrine cells residing in the gastric antrum known as G cells, but low levels are also expressed in fetal pancreas and intestine and in many solid malignancies. Although past studies have suggested that antral gastrin is transcriptionally regulated by inflammation, gastric pH, somatostatin, and neoplastic transformation, the transcriptional regulation of gastrin has not previously been demonstrated in vivo. Here, we describe the creation of an enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter (mGAS-EGFP) mouse using a bacterial artificial chromosome that contains the entire mouse gastrin gene. Three founder lines expressed GFP signals in the gastric antrum and the transitional zone to the corpus. In addition, GFP(+) cells could be detected in the fetal pancreatic islets and small intestinal villi, but not in these organs of the adult mice. The administration of acid-suppressive reagents such as proton pump inhibitor omeprazole and gastrin/CCK-2 receptor antagonist YF476 significantly increased GFP signal intensity and GFP(+) cell numbers in the antrum, whereas these parameters were decreased by overnight fasting, octreotide (long-lasting somatostatin ortholog) infusion, and Helicobacter felis infection. GFP(+) cells were also detected in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and importantly in the colonic tumor cells induced by administration with azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium salt. This transgenic mouse provides a useful tool to study the regulation of mouse gastrin gene in vivo, thus contributing to our understanding of the mechanisms involved in transcriptional control of the gastrin gene.

  15. Different intracellular pathomechanisms produce diverse Myelin Protein Zero neuropathies in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Wrabetz, Lawrence; D'Antonio, Maurizio; Pennuto, Maria; Dati, Gabriele; Tinelli, Elisa; Fratta, Pietro; Previtali, Stefano; Imperiale, Daniele; Zielasek, Jurgen; Toyka, Klaus; Avila, Robin L; Kirschner, Daniel A; Messing, Albee; Feltri, M Laura; Quattrini, Angelo

    2006-02-22

    Missense mutations in 22 genes account for one-quarter of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) hereditary neuropathies. Myelin Protein Zero (MPZ, P0) mutations produce phenotypes ranging from adult demyelinating (CMT1B) to early onset [Déjérine-Sottas syndrome (DSS) or congenital hypomyelination] to predominantly axonal neuropathy, suggesting gain of function mechanisms. To test this directly, we produced mice in which either the MpzS63C (DSS) or MpzS63del (CMT1B) transgene was inserted randomly, so that the endogenous Mpz alleles could compensate for any loss of mutant P0 function. We show that either mutant allele produces demyelinating neuropathy that mimics the corresponding human disease. However, P0S63C creates a packing defect in the myelin sheath, whereas P0S63del does not arrive to the myelin sheath and is instead retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, where it elicits an unfolded protein response (UPR). This is the first evidence for UPR in association with neuropathy and provides a model to determine whether and how mutant proteins can provoke demyelination from outside of myelin. PMID:16495463

  16. Modulating dopamine release by optogenetics in transgenic mice reveals terminal dopaminergic dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yao; Driscoll, Nicolette; Ozden, Ilker; Yu, Zeyang; Nurmikko, Arto V.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Dopamine (DA) release and uptake dynamics in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) have important implications for neurological diseases and mammalian animal behaviors. We demonstrate here the use of cell-type-specific optogenetic targeting in conjunction with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry applied to brain slices prepared from specifically tailored transgenic mice, which conditionally express channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) through dopamine transporter (DAT)-Cre. Terminal dopaminergic dynamics and the direct manipulation of induced DA release level by controlling light intensity, pulse width, and the shape of stimulation waveforms were studied. Effective cell terminal-targeting optogenetic induction of DA release at physiological levels in NAc is demonstrated and discussed. It was found that delivering more light energy by increasing stimulation intensity and length is not the only way to control DA release; the temporal shape of the stimulus waveform at light onset is also critically related to induced DA concentrations. In addition, DA uptake dynamics as well as the recovery of the presynaptic releasable DA pool are studied and modeled. More broadly, our experimental findings provide important further evidence for effectively applying optogenetics to induce neurotransmitter release in the behaviorally relevant region of the brain in a highly cell-type selective context. PMID:26171413

  17. Modulating dopamine release by optogenetics in transgenic mice reveals terminal dopaminergic dynamics.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yao; Driscoll, Nicolette; Ozden, Ilker; Yu, Zeyang; Nurmikko, Arto V

    2015-07-01

    Dopamine (DA) release and uptake dynamics in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) have important implications for neurological diseases and mammalian animal behaviors. We demonstrate here the use of cell-type-specific optogenetic targeting in conjunction with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry applied to brain slices prepared from specifically tailored transgenic mice, which conditionally express channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) through dopamine transporter (DAT)-Cre. Terminal dopaminergic dynamics and the direct manipulation of induced DA release level by controlling light intensity, pulse width, and the shape of stimulation waveforms were studied. Effective cell terminal-targeting optogenetic induction of DA release at physiological levels in NAc is demonstrated and discussed. It was found that delivering more light energy by increasing stimulation intensity and length is not the only way to control DA release; the temporal shape of the stimulus waveform at light onset is also critically related to induced DA concentrations. In addition, DA uptake dynamics as well as the recovery of the presynaptic releasable DA pool are studied and modeled. More broadly, our experimental findings provide important further evidence for effectively applying optogenetics to induce neurotransmitter release in the behaviorally relevant region of the brain in a highly cell-type selective context.

  18. Increased glycogen accumulation in transgenic mice overexpressing glycogen synthase in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Manchester, J; Skurat, A V; Roach, P; Hauschka, S D; Lawrence, J C

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the role of glycogen synthase in controlling glycogen accumulation, we generated three lines of transgenic mice in which the enzyme was overexpressed in skeletal muscle by using promoter-enhancer elements derived from the mouse muscle creatine kinase gene. In all three lines, expression was highest in muscles composed primarily of fast-twitch fibers, such as the gastrocnemius and anterior tibialis. In these muscles, glycogen synthase activity was increased by as much as 10-fold, with concomitant increases (up to 5-fold) in the glycogen content. The uridine diphosphoglucose concentrations were markedly decreased, consistent with the increase in glycogen synthase activity. Levels of glycogen phosphorylase in these muscles increased (up to 3-fold), whereas the amount of the insulin-sensitive glucose transporter 4 either remained unchanged or decreased. The observation that increasing glycogen synthase enhances glycogen accumulation supports the conclusion that the activation of glycogen synthase, as well as glucose transport, contributes to the accumulation of glycogen in response to insulin in skeletal muscle. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8855244

  19. Therapeutic potential of human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells in APP transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Hongliang; Shi, Ke; Zhang, Weijie; Yang, Liang; Yang, Lu; Guan, Fangxia; Yang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the presence of extensive oxidative stress plays an essential role in the initiation and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregation is involved in the elevation of oxidative stress, contributing to mitochondrial dysfunction and lipid peroxidation. In the present study, human placenta amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMMSCs) were intravenously injected into C57BL/6J-APP transgenic mice. hAMMSCs significantly ameliorated spatial learning and memory function, and were associated with a decreased amount of amyloid plaques of the brain. The correlation of oxidative stress with Aβ levels was lower in the hAMMSCs-injected group than in the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-injected group, as indicated by the increased level of antioxidative enzymes and the decreased level of lipid peroxidation product. The glutathione (GSH) level and ratio of GSH to glutathione disulfide were higher in the hAMMSC group than in the PBS group. The superoxide dismutase activity and malonaldehyde level were improved significantly as the level of Aβ decreased, but there was no such trend in the PBS group. As a result, our findings represent evidence that hAMMSC treatment might improve the pathology of AD and memory function through the regulation of oxidative stress. PMID:27588134

  20. Depletion of bitter taste transduction leads to massive spermatid loss in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Zhou, Minliang

    2012-06-01

    Bitter taste perception is an important sensory input warning against the ingestion of toxic and noxious substances. Bitter receptors, a family of ~30 highly divergent G-protein-coupled receptors, are exclusively expressed in taste receptor cells that contain the G-protein α-subunit gustducin, bind to α-gustducin in vitro, and respond to bitter tastes in functional expression assays. We generated a taste receptor type 2 member 5 (T2R5)-Cre/green fluorescent protein reporter transgenic mouse to investigate the tissue distribution of T2R5. Our results showed that Cre gene expression in these mice was faithful to the expression of T2R5 in taste tissue. More surprisingly, immunostaining and X-gal staining revealed T2R5 expression in the testis. Ablation of T2R5 + cells led to a smaller testis and removed the spermatid phase from most of the seminiferous tubules. The entire taste transduction cascade (α-gustducin, Ggamma13, phospholipase Cβ2) was detected in spermatogenesis, whereas transient receptor potential, cation channel subfamily M member 5 (Trpm5), was observed only in the later spermatid phase. In short, our results indicate that the taste transduction cascade may be involved in spermatogenesis. PMID:22266327

  1. Impaired electro-genesis in skeletal muscle fibers of transgenic Alzheimer mice.

    PubMed

    Mukhamedyarov, Marat Alexandrovich; Volkov, Evgeniy Mikhailovich; Khaliullina, Dilyara Fanisovna; Grigoryev, Pavel Nikolaevich; Zefirov, Andrey Lvovich; Palotás, András

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by memory decline, but is often associated with non-cognitive symptoms, including muscular dysfunction. In the majority of cases these motor disturbances are seen when other neuro-degenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease overlap dementia, however these can also be directly related to AD itself. Although the patho-mechanism remains largely unclear, β-amyloid peptide (βAP) is thought to be a key role-player in both the brain and periphery. Here we studied the electro-genesis of skeletal muscle fibers in a mouse transgenic AD model. Membrane potential was recorded by standard electro-physiological techniques. Compared to wild-type rodents, AD mice show severe disturbances in skeletal muscle electro-genesis manifested by significant depolarization of myo-fibers. These changes are not affected by short-term βAP treatment, the mark of a chronic degenerative process in the periphery directly related to AD whereby ion pumps on muscle membranes exhibit reduced activity. This phenomenon may explain ionic imbalance and cellular dysfunction both in the neuro-muscular system and in the brain. The observed motor disturbances might play a key role in impaired activities of daily living, and addressing the muscular patho-physiology could improve quality of life in AD.

  2. Schizophrenia-like features in transgenic mice overexpressing human HO-1 in the astrocytic compartment.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Zukor, Hillel; Lin, Shih-Hsiung; Hascalovici, Jacob; Liberman, Adrienne; Tavitian, Ayda; Mui, Jeannie; Vali, Hojatollah; Tong, Xin-Kang; Bhardwaj, Sanjeev K; Srivastava, Lalit K; Hamel, Edith; Schipper, Hyman M

    2012-08-01

    Delineation of key molecules that act epigenetically to transduce diverse stressors into established patterns of disease would facilitate the advent of preventive and disease-modifying therapeutics for a host of neurological disorders. Herein, we demonstrate that selective overexpression of the stress protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in astrocytes of novel GFAP.HMOX1 transgenic mice results in subcortical oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage/autophagy; diminished neuronal reelin content (males); induction of Nurr1 and Pitx3 with attendant suppression of their targeting miRNAs, 145 and 133b; increased tyrosine hydroxylase and α-synuclein expression with downregulation of the targeting miR-7b of the latter; augmented dopamine and serotonin levels in basal ganglia; reduced D1 receptor binding in nucleus accumbens; axodendritic pathology and altered hippocampal cytoarchitectonics; impaired neurovascular coupling; attenuated prepulse inhibition (males); and hyperkinetic behavior. The GFAP.HMOX1 neurophenotype bears resemblances to human schizophrenia and other neurodevelopmental conditions and implicates glial HO-1 as a prime transducer of inimical (endogenous and environmental) influences on the development of monoaminergic circuitry. Containment of the glial HO-1 response to noxious stimuli at strategic points of the life cycle may afford novel opportunities for the effective management of human neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:22875919

  3. Persistence or loss of preimposed methylation patterns and de novo methylation of foreign DNA integrated in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Lettmann, C; Schmitz, B; Doerfler, W

    1991-01-01

    In cultured mammalian cells, foreign DNA can be integrated into the host genome. Foreign DNA is frequently de novo methylated in specific patterns with successive cell generations. The sequence-specific methylation of promoter sequences in integrated foreign DNA is associated with the long-term inactivation of eukaryotic genes. We have now extended these experiments to studies on transgenic mice. As in previous work, a construct (pAd2E2AL-CAT) has been used which consists of the late E2A promoter of adenovirus type 2 (Ad2) DNA fused to the prokaryotic gene for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT). This construct has been integrated in the non-methylated in the 5'-CCGG-3' premethylated form in the genomes of transgenic mice. DNA from various organs was analyzed by HpaII/MspI cleavage to assess the state of methylation in 5'-CCGG-3' sequences. The results demonstrate that the transgenic construct is in general stable. Non-methylated constructs have remained partly non-methylated for four generations or can become de novo methylated at all or most 5'-CCGG-3' sequences in the founder animal. Preimposed patterns of 5'-CCGG-3' methylation have been preserved for up to four generations beyond the founder animal. In the testes of two different founder animals and two F1 males, the transgenic DNA has become demethylated by an unknown mechanism. In all other organs, the transgenic DNA preserves the preimposed 5'-CCGG-3' methylation pattern. In the experiments performed so far we have not observed differences in the transmission of methylation patterns depending on whether the transgene has been maternally or paternally inherited. The 5'-CCGG-3' premethylated transgene does not catalyze CAT activity in several organs, except in one example of the testes of an animal in which the transgenic construct has become demethylated. In contrast, when the nonmethylated construct has been integrated and remained largely non-methylated, CAT activity has been detected in extracts from

  4. Over-Expression of Porcine Myostatin Missense Mutant Leads to A Gender Difference in Skeletal Muscle Growth between Transgenic Male and Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dezun; Gao, Pengfei; Qian, Lili; Wang, Qingqing; Cai, Chunbo; Jiang, Shengwang; Xiao, Gaojun; Cui, Wentao

    2015-01-01

    Myostatin, a transforming growth factor-β family member, is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development and growth. Piedmontese cattle breeds have a missense mutation, which results in a cysteine to tyrosine substitution in the mature myostatin protein (C313Y). This loss-of-function mutation in myostatin results in a double-muscled phenotype in cattle. Myostatin propeptide is an inhibitor of myostatin activity and is considered a potential agent to stimulate muscle growth in livestock. In this study, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing porcine myostatin missense mutant (pmMS), C313Y, and wild-type porcine myostatin propeptide (ppMS), respectively, to examine their effects on muscle growth in mice. Enhanced muscle growth was observed in both pmMS and ppMS transgenic female mice and also in ppMS transgenic male mice. However, there was no enhanced muscle growth observed in pmMS transgenic male mice. To explore why there is such a big difference in muscle growth between pmMS and ppMS transgenic male mice, the expression level of androgen receptor (AR) mutant AR45 was measured by Western blot. Results indicated that AR45 expression significantly increased in pmMS transgenic male mice while it decreased dramatically in ppMS transgenic male mice. Our data demonstrate that both pmMS and ppMS act as myostatin inhibitors in the regulation of muscle growth, but the effect of pmMS in male mice is reversed by an increased AR45 expression. These results provide useful insight and basic theory to future studies on improving pork quality by genetically manipulating myostatin expression or by regulating myostatin activity. PMID:26305245

  5. Over-Expression of Porcine Myostatin Missense Mutant Leads to A Gender Difference in Skeletal Muscle Growth between Transgenic Male and Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dezun; Gao, Pengfei; Qian, Lili; Wang, Qingqing; Cai, Chunbo; Jiang, Shengwang; Xiao, Gaojun; Cui, Wentao

    2015-08-24

    Myostatin, a transforming growth factor-β family member, is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development and growth. Piedmontese cattle breeds have a missense mutation, which results in a cysteine to tyrosine substitution in the mature myostatin protein (C313Y). This loss-of-function mutation in myostatin results in a double-muscled phenotype in cattle. Myostatin propeptide is an inhibitor of myostatin activity and is considered a potential agent to stimulate muscle growth in livestock. In this study, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing porcine myostatin missense mutant (pmMS), C313Y, and wild-type porcine myostatin propeptide (ppMS), respectively, to examine their effects on muscle growth in mice. Enhanced muscle growth was observed in both pmMS and ppMS transgenic female mice and also in ppMS transgenic male mice. However, there was no enhanced muscle growth observed in pmMS transgenic male mice. To explore why there is such a big difference in muscle growth between pmMS and ppMS transgenic male mice, the expression level of androgen receptor (AR) mutant AR45 was measured by Western blot. Results indicated that AR45 expression significantly increased in pmMS transgenic male mice while it decreased dramatically in ppMS transgenic male mice. Our data demonstrate that both pmMS and ppMS act as myostatin inhibitors in the regulation of muscle growth, but the effect of pmMS in male mice is reversed by an increased AR45 expression. These results provide useful insight and basic theory to future studies on improving pork quality by genetically manipulating myostatin expression or by regulating myostatin activity.

  6. Transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease from humans to transgenic mice expressing chimeric human-mouse prion protein.

    PubMed Central

    Telling, G C; Scott, M; Hsiao, K K; Foster, D; Yang, S L; Torchia, M; Sidle, K C; Collinge, J; DeArmond, S J; Prusiner, S B

    1994-01-01

    Transgenic (Tg) mice were constructed that express a chimeric prion protein (PrP) in which a segment of mouse (Mo) PrP was replaced with the corresponding human (Hu) PrP sequence. The chimeric PrP, designated MHu2MPrP, differs from MoPrP by 9 amino acids between residues 96 and 167. All of the Tg(MHu2M) mice developed neurologic disease approximately 200 days after inoculation with brain homogenates from three patients dying of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Inoculation of Tg(MHu2M) mice with CJD prions produced MHu2MPrPSc (where PrPSc is the scrapie isoform of PrP); inoculation with Mo prions produced Mo-PrPSc. The patterns of MHu2MPrPSc and MoPrPSc accumulation in the brains of Tg(MHu2M) mice were different. About 10% of Tg(HuPrP) mice expressing HuPrP and non-Tg mice developed neurologic disease > 500 days after inoculation with CJD prions. The different susceptibilities of Tg(HuPrP) and Tg(MHu2M) mice to Hu prions indicate that additional species-specific factors are involved in prion replication. Diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of Hu prion diseases should be facilitated by Tg(MHu2M) mice. Images PMID:7937921

  7. Presence of subclinical infection in gene-targeted human prion protein transgenic mice exposed to atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rona; Dobie, Karen; Hunter, Nora; Casalone, Cristina; Baron, Thierry; Barron, Rona M

    2013-12-01

    The transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to humans, leading to variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease has demonstrated that cattle transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) can pose a risk to human health. Until recently, TSE disease in cattle was thought to be caused by a single agent strain, BSE, also known as classical BSE, or BSE-C. However, due to the initiation of a large-scale surveillance programme throughout Europe, two atypical BSE strains, bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE, also named BSE-L) and BSE-H have since been discovered. To model the risk to human health, we previously inoculated these two forms of atypical BSE (BASE and BSE-H) into gene-targeted transgenic (Tg) mice expressing the human prion protein (PrP) (HuTg) but were unable to detect any signs of TSE pathology in these mice. However, despite the absence of TSE pathology, upon subpassage of some BASE-challenged HuTg mice, a TSE was observed in recipient gene-targeted bovine PrP Tg (Bov6) mice but not in HuTg mice. Disease transmission from apparently healthy individuals indicates the presence of subclinical BASE infection in mice expressing human PrP that cannot be identified by current diagnostic methods. However, due to the lack of transmission to HuTg mice on subpassage, the efficiency of mouse-to-mouse transmission of BASE appears to be low when mice express human rather than bovine PrP.

  8. Prolonged ethanol administration depletes mitochondrial DNA in MnSOD-overexpressing transgenic mice, but not in their wild type littermates

    SciTech Connect

    Larosche, Isabelle; Choumar, Amal; Fromenty, Bernard; Letteron, Philippe; Abbey-Toby, Adje; Van Remmen, Holly; Epstein, Charles J.; Richardson, Arlan; Feldmann, Gerard; Pessayre, Dominique; Mansouri, Abdellah

    2009-02-01

    Alcohol consumption increases reactive oxygen species formation and lipid peroxidation, whose products can damage mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and alter mitochondrial function. A possible role of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) on these effects has not been investigated. To test whether MnSOD overexpression modulates alcohol-induced mitochondrial alterations, we added ethanol to the drinking water of transgenic MnSOD-overexpressing (TgMnSOD) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates for 7 weeks. In TgMnSOD mice, alcohol administration further increased the activity of MnSOD, but decreased cytosolic glutathione as well as cytosolic glutathione peroxidase activity and peroxisomal catalase activity. Whereas ethanol increased cytochrome P-450 2E1 and mitochondrial ROS generation in both WT and TgMnSOD mice, hepatic iron, lipid peroxidation products and respiratory complex I protein carbonyls were only increased in ethanol-treated TgMnSOD mice but not in WT mice. In ethanol-fed TgMnSOD mice, but not ethanol-fed WT mice, mtDNA was depleted, and mtDNA lesions blocked the progress of polymerases. The iron chelator, DFO prevented hepatic iron accumulation, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl formation and mtDNA depletion in alcohol-treated TgMnSOD mice. Alcohol markedly decreased the activities of complexes I, IV and V of the respiratory chain in TgMnSOD, with absent or lesser effects in WT mice. There was no inflammation, apoptosis or necrosis, and steatosis was similar in ethanol-treated WT and TgMnSOD mice. In conclusion, prolonged alcohol administration selectively triggers iron accumulation, lipid peroxidation, respiratory complex I protein carbonylation, mtDNA lesions blocking the progress of polymerases, mtDNA depletion and respiratory complex dysfunction in TgMnSOD mice but not in WT mice.

  9. HPV E6, E6AP and cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Beaudenon, Sylvie; Huibregtse, Jon M

    2008-01-01

    Every year, approximately 470,000 new cases of cervical cancer are diagnosed and approximately 230,000 women worldwide die of the disease, with the majority (~80%) of these cases and deaths occurring in developing countries. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the etiological agents in nearly all cases (99.7%) of cervical cancer, and the HPV E6 protein is one of two viral oncoproteins that is expressed in virtually all HPV-positive cancers. E6 hijacks a cellular ubiquitin ligase, E6AP, resulting in the ubiquitylation and degradation of the p53 tumor suppressor, as well as several other cellular proteins. While the recent introduction of prophylactic vaccines against specific HPV types offers great promise for prevention of cervical cancer, there remains a need for therapeutics. Biochemical characterization of E6 and E6AP has suggested approaches for interfering with the activities of these proteins that could be useful for this purpose. Republished from Current BioData's Targeted Proteins database (TPdb; ). PMID:19007434

  10. Gene expression profiling of R6/2 transgenic mice with different CAG repeat lengths reveals genes associated with disease onset and progression in Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Bin; Seredenina, Tamara; Coppola, Giovanni; Kuhn, Alexandre; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Luthi-Carter, Ruth; Thomas, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    R6/2 transgenic mice with expanded CAG repeats (>300) have a surprisingly prolonged disease progression and longer lifespan than prototypical parent R6/2 mice (carrying 150 CAGs), however, the mechanism of this phenotype amelioration is unknown. We compared gene expression profiles in the striatum of R6/2 transgenic mice carrying ~300 CAG repeats (R6/2Q300 transgenic mice), those carrying ~150 CAG repeats (R6/2Q150 transgenic mice) and littermate wt controls in order to identify genes that may play determinant roles in the time course of phenotypic expression in these mice. Of the top genes showing concordant expression changes in the striatum of both R6/2 lines, 85% were decreased in expression, while discordant expression changes were observed mostly for genes upregulated in R6/2Q300 transgenic mice. Upregulated genes in the R6/2Q300 mice were associated with the ubiquitin ligase complex, cell adhesion, protein folding and establishment of protein localization. We qPCR-validated increases in expression of genes related to the latter category, including Lrsam1, Erp29, Nasp, Tap1, Rab9b and Pfdn5 in R6/2Q300 mice, changes that were not observed in R6/2 mice with shorter CAG repeats, even in late stages (i.e. 12 weeks of age). We further tested Lrsam1 and Erp29, the two genes showing the greatest upregulation in R6/2Q300 transgenic mice, for potential neuroprotective effects in primary striatal cultures overexpressing a mutated human huntingtin (htt) fragment. Overexpression of Lrsam1 prevented the loss of NeuN-positive cell bodies in htt171-82Q cultures, concomitant with a reduction of nuclear htt aggregates. Erp29 showed no significant effects in this model. This is consistent with the distinct pattern of htt inclusion localization observed in R6/2Q300 transgenic mice, in which smaller cytoplasmic inclusions represent the major form of insoluble htt in the cell, as opposed to large nuclear inclusions observed in R6/2Q150 transgenic mice. We suggest that the

  11. Cell cycle perturbation in the hepatocytes of HCV core transgenic mice following common bile duct ligation is associated with enhanced p21 expression.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ming-Ling; Chen, Tsung-Hsing; Chang, Ming-Yu; Yeh, Chau-Ting

    2009-03-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein has been reported to alter the cell cycle in vitro, but the data remain inconclusive, and in vitro experiments do not represent precisely events that occur in vivo, which may involve hepatic inflammation or regeneration. A group of double-transgenic mice carrying tetracycline transactivator (tTA) and HCV core that express conditionally the HCV core in the mature liver, and single-transgenic mice carrying only tTA were subjected to sham laparotomy, 43% partial hepatectomy, or common bile duct ligation. The cell cycle markers, including cyclin A, B1, D, E1, Mcm-2, phosphorylated histone 3 protein, Ki67, and p21Waf1/Cip1/Sdi1 (p21), were evaluated in liver samples obtained 3 days after the operation. No significant differences in the levels of any markers were observed between the double- and single-transgenic mice following sham laparotomy. Among the mice that underwent common bile duct ligation, the double-transgenic mice had lower levels of Ki67 (P = 0.0001), higher levels of cyclin D1 (P = 0.0001), and higher levels of p21 expression than the single-transgenic mice. Among those that underwent partial hepatectomy, the double-transgenic mice had higher p21 expression levels, but no significant differences in the levels of any other markers were observed between the double- and single-transgenic mice. It is concluded that the HCV core alters the hepatocyte cell cycle in addition to inducing G1 arrest in vivo after common bile duct ligation, and is associated with enhanced p21 expression. This may account at least partially for the strong association between HCV-related hepatocarcinogenesis and hepatic inflammation/ fibrosis.

  12. Effect of dietary supplementation of dates in Alzheimer's disease APPsw/2576 transgenic mice on oxidative stress and antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Subash, Selvaraju; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Al-Asmi, Abdullah; Al-Adawi, Samir; Vaishnav, Ragini; Guillemin, Gilles J

    2015-08-01

    Oxidative stress may play a key role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology. Changes in the oxidative stress, antioxidants, and membrane-bound enzymes were investigated in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of AD transgenic mice model after long-term dietary supplementation of date palm fruits from Oman. The 4-month-old mice with double Swedish APP mutation (APPsw/Tg2576) were purchased from Taconic Farm, NY, USA; mice were fed two different doses of dates (such as 4 and 2%) or control diet for 15 months and then assessed for the influence of diet on oxidative stress. Significant increase in oxidative stress in terms of enhanced levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonyls and parallel decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes were observed in control diet-treated Tg2576 AD mice. Dates (4 and 2%) treated APPsw/Tg2576 AD mice exhibited significantly attenuated oxidative damage, evidenced by decreased LPO and protein carbonyl levels and restoration in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione, and glutathione reductase). The activities of membrane-bound enzymes (Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and acetyl cholinesterase) were altered in control diet-treated APPsw/Tg2576 AD mice brain regions. Meanwhile, both the percentages of date supplementation were able to restore the activity of enzymes to comparable values observed in controls. In summary, we have shown that chronic dietary supplementation of date palm fruits grown in Oman showed possible beneficial effects concomitant with oxidative stress reduction and increased antioxidant enzymes in AD transgenic mice model. These results warrant further exploration of how anti-reactive oxygen species properties of dates offer such beneficial effects on the AD-like brain.

  13. Liver proteomic response to hypertriglyceridemia in human-apolipoprotein C-III transgenic mice at cellular and mitochondrial compartment levels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is defined as a triglyceride (TG) plasma level exceeding 150 mg/dl and is tightly associated with atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes and acute pancreatitis. The present study was undertaken to investigate the mitochondrial, sub-mitochondrial and cellular proteomic impact of hypertriglyceridemia in the hepatocytes of hypertriglyceridemic transgenic mice (overexpressing the human apolipoproteinC-III). Methods Quantitative proteomics (2D-DIGE) analysis was carried out on both “low-expressor” (LE) and “high-expressor” (HE) mice, respectively exhibiting moderate and severe HTG, to characterize the effect of the TG plasma level on the proteomic response. Results The mitoproteome analysis has revealed a large-scale phenomenon in transgenic mice, i.e. a general down-regulation of matricial proteins and up-regulation of inner membrane proteins. These data also demonstrate that the magnitude of proteomic changes strongly depends on the TG plasma level. Our different analyses indicate that, in HE mice, the capacity of several metabolic pathways is altered to promote the availability of acetyl-CoA, glycerol-3-phosphate, ATP and NADPH for TG de novo biosynthesis. The up-regulation of several cytosolic ROS detoxifying enzymes has also been observed, suggesting that the cytoplasm of HTG mice is subjected to oxidative stress. Moreover, our results suggest that iron over-accumulation takes place in the cytosol of HE mice hepatocytes and may contribute to enhance oxidative stress and to promote cellular proliferation. Conclusions These results indicate that the metabolic response to HTG in human apolipoprotein C-III overexpressing mice may support a high TG production rate and that the cytosol of hepatocytes is subjected to an important oxidative stress, probably as a result of FFA over-accumulation, iron overload and enhanced activity of some ROS-producing catabolic enzymes. PMID:25047818

  14. Redox Proteomic Profiling of Specifically Carbonylated Proteins in the Serum of Triple Transgenic Alzheimer’s Disease Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Liming; Chen, Youjiao; Yang, Aochu; Chen, Cheng; Liao, Liping; Li, Shuiming; Ying, Ming; Tian, Jing; Liu, Qiong; Ni, Jiazuan

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a key event in the onset and progression of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD).