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Sample records for e7 expression reduces

  1. Decreased Migration of Langerhans Precursor-Like Cells in Response to Human Keratinocytes Expressing HPV-16 E6/E7 is Related to Reduced Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-3Alpha Production

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    high-risk human papillomavirus ( HPV ) types, particularly type 16 and 18, contributes to 90% of cervical cancer cases. HPV infects cutaneous or mucosal...been implicated in cervical/ anogenital cancer and oral squamous cell carcinomas (41). The mucosal lesions caused by HPVs often resolve over time, and a...Decreased Migration of Langerhans Precursor-Like Cells in Response to Human Keratinocytes Expressing HPV -16 E6/E7 is Related to Reduced Macrophage

  2. Role of WDHD1 in Human Papillomavirus-Mediated Oncogenesis Identified by Transcriptional Profiling of E7-Expressing Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yunying; Zhang, Qishu; Gao, Ge; Zhang, Xiaoli; Liu, Yafei; Yuan, Shoudao

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The E7 oncoprotein of the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) plays a major role in HPV-induced carcinogenesis. E7 abrogates the G1 cell cycle checkpoint and induces genomic instability, but the mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to characterize the transcriptional profile of keratinocytes expressing HPV 16 (HPV-16) E7. At the transcriptome level, 236 genes were differentially expressed between E7 and vector control cells. A subset of the differentially expressed genes, most of them novel to E7-expressing cells, was further confirmed by real-time PCR. Of interest, the activities of multiple transcription factors were altered in E7-expressing cells. Through bioinformatics analysis, pathways altered in E7-expressing cells were investigated. The upregulated genes were enriched in cell cycle and DNA replication, as well as in the DNA metabolic process, transcription, DNA damage, DNA repair, and nucleotide metabolism. Specifically, we focused our studies on the gene encoding WDHD1 (WD repeat and high mobility group [HMG]-box DNA-binding protein), one of the genes that was upregulated in E7-expressing cells. WDHD1 is a component of the replisome that regulates DNA replication. Recent studies suggest that WDHD1 may also function as a DNA replication initiation factor as well as a G1 checkpoint regulator. We found that in E7-expressing cells, the steady-state level of WDHD1 protein was increased along with the half-life. Moreover, downregulation of WDHD1 reduced E7-induced G1 checkpoint abrogation and rereplication, demonstrating a novel function for WDHD1. These studies shed light on mechanisms by which HPV induces genomic instability and have therapeutic implications. IMPORTANCE The high-risk HPV types induce cervical cancer and encode an E7 oncoprotein that plays a major role in HPV-induced carcinogenesis. However, the mechanism by which E7 induces carcinogenesis is not fully understood; specific anti

  3. Intron Definition and a Branch Site Adenosine at nt 385 Control RNA Splicing of HPV16 E6*I and E7 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Ajiro, Masahiko; Jia, Rong; Zhang, Lifang; Liu, Xuefeng; Zheng, Zhi-Ming

    2012-01-01

    HPV16 E6 and E7, two viral oncogenes, are expressed from a single bicistronic pre-mRNA. In this report, we provide the evidence that the bicistronic pre-mRNA intron 1 contains three 5′ splice sites (5′ ss) and three 3′ splice sites (3′ ss) normally used in HPV16+ cervical cancer and its derived cell lines. The choice of two novel alternative 5′ ss (nt 221 5′ ss and nt 191 5′ ss) produces two novel isoforms of E6E7 mRNAs (E6*V and E6*VI). The nt 226 5′ ss and nt 409 3′ ss is preferentially selected over the other splice sites crossing over the intron to excise a minimal length of the intron in RNA splicing. We identified AACAAAC as the preferred branch point sequence (BPS) and an adenosine at nt 385 (underlined) in the BPS as a branch site to dictate the selection of the nt 409 3′ ss for E6*I splicing and E7 expression. Introduction of point mutations into the mapped BPS led to reduced U2 binding to the BPS and thereby inhibition of the second step of E6E7 splicing at the nt 409 3′ ss. Importantly, the E6E7 bicistronic RNA with a mutant BPS and inefficient splicing makes little or no E7 and the resulted E6 with mutations of 91QYNK94 to 91PSFW94 displays attenuate activity on p53 degradation. Together, our data provide structural basis of the E6E7 intron 1 for better understanding of how viral E6 and E7 expression is regulated by alternative RNA splicing. This study elucidates for the first time a mapped branch point in HPV16 genome involved in viral oncogene expression. PMID:23056301

  4. A Non-oncogenic HPV 16 E6/E7 Vaccine Enhances Treatment of HPV Expressing Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wieking, Bryant G.; Vermeer, Daniel W.; Spanos, William C.; Lee, Kimberly M.; Vermeer, Paola; Lee, Walter T.; Xu, Younong; Gabitzsch, Elizabeth S.; Balcaitis, Stephanie; Balint, Joseph P.; Jones, Frank R.; Lee, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the causative factor for greater than 90% of cervical cancers and 25% of head and neck cancers. The incidence of HPV positive (+) head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) has greatly increased in the last 30 years. E6 and E7 are the two key viral oncoproteins that induce and propagate cellular transformation. An immune response generated during cisplatin/radiation therapy improves tumor clearance of HPV(+) cancers. Augmenting this induced response during therapy with an adenoviral HPV16 E6/E7 vaccine improves long term survival in preclinical models. Here we describe the generation of an HPV16 E6/E7 construct, which contains mutations that render E6/E7 non-oncogenic, while preserving antigenicity. These mutations do not allow E6/E7 to degrade p53, pRb, PTPN13, or activate telomerase. Non-oncogenic E6/E7 (E6Δ/E7Δ) expressed as a stable integrant, or in the [E1-, E2b-] adenovirus, lacks the ability to transform human cells while retaining the ability to induce an HPV specific immune response. Moreover, E6Δ/E7Δ plus chemotherapy/radiation statistically enhances clearance of established HPV(+) cancer in vivo. PMID:22918471

  5. The Human Papillomavirus 16 E7 Oncoprotein Attenuates AKT Signaling To Promote Internal Ribosome Entry Site-Dependent Translation and Expression of c-MYC

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Sydney Webb

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT While the role of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) oncoproteins E6 and E7 in targeting p53 and retinoblastoma (Rb) has been intensively studied, how E6 and E7 manipulate cellular signaling cascades to promote the viral life cycle and cancer development is less understood. Keratinocytes containing the episomal HPV-16 genome had decreased activation of AKT, which was phenocopied by HPV-16 E7 expression alone. Attenuation of phosphorylated AKT (pAKT) by E7 was independent of the Rb degradation function of E7 but could be ablated by a missense mutation in the E7 carboxy terminus, H73E, thereby defining a novel structure-function phenotype for E7. Downstream of AKT, reduced phosphorylation of p70 S6K and 4E-BP1 was also observed in E7-expressing keratinocytes, which coincided with an increase in internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-dependent translation that enhanced the expression of several cellular proteins, including MYC, Bax, and the insulin receptor. The decrease in pAKT mediated by E7 is in contrast to the widely observed increase of pAKT in invasive cervical cancers, suggesting that the activation of AKT signaling could be acquired during the progression from initial productive infections to invasive carcinomas. IMPORTANCE HPV causes invasive cervical cancers through the dysregulation of the cell cycle regulators p53 and Rb, which are degraded by the viral oncoproteins E6 and E7, respectively. Signaling cascades contribute to cancer progression and cellular differentiation, and how E6 and E7 manipulate those pathways remains unclear. The phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway regulates cellular processes, including proliferation, cell survival, and cell differentiation. Surprisingly, we found that HPV-16 decreased the phosphorylation of AKT (pAKT) and that this is a function of E7 that is independent of the Rb degradation function. This is in contrast to the observed increase in AKT signaling in nearly 80% of cervical cancers, which typically

  6. Differential gene expression between skin and cervix induced by the E7 oncoprotein in a transgenic mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra Sierra, E; Díaz Chávez, J; Cortés-Malagón, EM; Uribe-Figueroa, L; Hidalgo-Miranda, A; Lambert, PF; Gariglio, P

    2013-01-01

    HPV16 E7 oncoprotein expression in K14E7 transgenic mice induces cervical cancer after 6 months of treatment with the co-carcinogen 17β-estradiol. In untreated mice, E7 also induces skin tumors late in life albeit at low penetrance. These findings indicate that E7 alters cellular functions in cervix and skin so as to predispose these organs to tumorigenesis. Using microarrays, we determined the global genes expression profile in cervical and skin tissue of young adult K14E7 transgenic mice without estrogen treatment. In these tissues, the E7 oncoprotein altered the transcriptional pattern of genes involved in several biological processes including signal transduction, transport, metabolic process, cell adhesion, apoptosis, cell differentiation, immune response and inflammatory response. Among the E7-dysregulated genes were ones not previously known to be involved in cervical neoplasia including DMBT1, GLI1 and 17βHSD2 in cervix, as well as MMP2, 12, 14, 19 and 27 in skin. PMID:22980503

  7. Differential gene expression between skin and cervix induced by the E7 oncoprotein in a transgenic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ibarra Sierra, E; Díaz Chávez, J; Cortés-Malagón, E M; Uribe-Figueroa, L; Hidalgo-Miranda, A; Lambert, P F; Gariglio, P

    2012-11-25

    HPV16 E7 oncoprotein expression in K14E7 transgenic mice induces cervical cancer after 6 months of treatment with the co-carcinogen 17β-estradiol. In untreated mice, E7 also induces skin tumors late in life albeit at low penetrance. These findings indicate that E7 alters cellular functions in cervix and skin so as to predispose these organs to tumorigenesis. Using microarrays, we determined the global genes expression profile in cervical and skin tissue of young adult K14E7 transgenic mice without estrogen treatment. In these tissues, the E7 oncoprotein altered the transcriptional pattern of genes involved in several biological processes including signal transduction, transport, metabolic process, cell adhesion, apoptosis, cell differentiation, immune response and inflammatory response. Among the E7-dysregulated genes were ones not previously known to be involved in cervical neoplasia including DMBT1, GLI1 and 17βHSD2 in cervix, as well as MMP2, 12, 14, 19 and 27 in skin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Suppression of HPV E6 and E7 expression by BAF53 depletion in cervical cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kiwon; Lee, Ah-Young; Kwon, Yunhee Kim

    Highlights: {yields} Integration of HPV into host genome critical for activation of E6 and E7 oncogenes. {yields} BAF53 is essential for higher-order chromatin structure. {yields} BAF53 knockdown suppresses E6 and E7 from HPV integrants, but not from episomal HPVs. {yields} BAF53 knockdown decreases H3K9Ac and H4K12Ac on P105 promoter of integrated HPV 18. {yields} BAF53 knockdown restores the p53-dependent signaling pathway in HeLa and SiHa cells. -- Abstract: Deregulation of the expression of human papillomavirus (HPV) oncogenes E6 and E7 plays a pivotal role in cervical carcinogenesis because the E6 and E7 proteins neutralize p53 and Rb tumor suppressor pathways,more » respectively. In approximately 90% of all cervical carcinomas, HPVs are found to be integrated into the host genome. Following integration, the core-enhancer element and P105 promoter that control expression of E6 and E7 adopt a chromatin structure that is different from that of episomal HPV, and this has been proposed to contribute to activation of E6 and E7 expression. However, the molecular basis underlying this chromatin structural change remains unknown. Previously, BAF53 has been shown to be essential for the integrity of higher-order chromatin structure and interchromosomal interactions. Here, we examined whether BAF53 is required for activated expression of E6 and E7 genes. We found that BAF53 knockdown led to suppression of expression of E6 and E7 genes from HPV integrants in cervical carcinoma cell lines HeLa and SiHa. Conversely, expression of transiently transfected HPV18-LCR-Luciferase was not suppressed by BAF53 knockdown. The level of the active histone marks H3K9Ac and H4K12Ac on the P105 promoter of integrated HPV 18 was decreased in BAF53 knockdown cells. BAF53 knockdown restored the p53-dependent signaling pathway in HeLa and SiHa cells. These results suggest that activated expression of the E6 and E7 genes of integrated HPV is dependent on BAF53-dependent higher

  9. Cigarette Smoking Promotes Infection of Cervical Cells by High-Risk Human Papillomaviruses, but not Subsequent E7 Oncoprotein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Vryzas, Dimos; Chatzaki, Ekaterini; Koch, Isabel; Soutschek, Erwin; Boecher, Oliver; Tsertanidou, Athena; Maglaveras, Nikolaos; Jansen-Duerr, Pidder; Agorastos, Theodoros

    2018-01-01

    Persistent cervical infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses (hrHPVs) is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for the development of cervical cancer. Therefore, there are other co-factors facilitating the hrHPV carcinogenic process, one of which is smoking. To assess the effect of smoking on high-risk (hr) HPV DNA positivity and on the expression of HPV E7 oncoprotein, as a surrogate of persistent hrHPV infection, we used data from women recruited for the PIPAVIR project, which examined the role of E7 protein detection in cervical cancer screening. Women were tested for hrHPV DNA, using Multiplex Genotyping (MPG), and E7 protein, using a novel sandwich ELISA method, and gave information on their smoking habits. Among 1473 women, hrHPV prevalence was 19.1%. The odds ratio (OR) for hrHPV positivity of smokers compared to non-smokers was 1.785 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.365–2.332, p < 0.001). The ORs for E7 positivity, concerning hrHPV positive women, ranged from 0.720 to 1.360 depending on the E7 detection assay used, but this was not statistically significant. Smoking increases the probability of hrHPV infection, and smoking intensity is positively associated to this increase. Smoking is not related to an increased probability of E7 protein positivity for hrHPV positive women. PMID:29385075

  10. The HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein induces centriole multiplication through deregulation of Polo-like kinase 4 expression

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) such as HPV-16 is intimately associated with squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the anogenital tract and a subset of oropharyngeal carcinomas. Such lesions, including pre-invasive precursors, frequently show multipolar mitoses and aneuploidy. The high-risk HPV-16-encoded E7 oncoprotein has been shown to rapidly induce centrosome abnormalities thereby causing the formation of supernumerary mitotic spindle poles and increasing the risk for chromosome missegregation. HPV-16 E7 has been found to rapidly induce centriole overduplication, in part, through the simultaneous formation of more than one daughter centriole at single maternal centrioles (centriole multiplication). The precise molecular mechanism that underlies HPV-16 E7-induced centriole multiplication, however, remains poorly understood. Findings Here, we show that human keratinocytes engineered to stably express the HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein exhibit aberrant Polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4) protein expression at maternal centrioles. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase (qRT-PCR) analysis of these cells revealed an increase of PLK4 mRNA levels compared to control cells. Importantly, the ability of the HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein to induce centriole multiplication was found to correlate with its ability to activate the PLK4 promoter and to up-regulate PLK4 mRNA. Conclusions These results highlight the critical role of PLK4 transcriptional deregulation in centriole multiplication in HPV-16 E7-expressing cells. Our findings encourage further experiments to test transcriptional inhibitors or small molecules targeting PLK4 to prevent centriole abnormalities, mitotic infidelity and malignant progression in HPV-associated neoplasms and other tumors in which PLK4 regulation is disrupted. PMID:21609466

  11. Expression, Polyubiquitination, and Therapeutic Potential of Recombinant E6E7 from HPV16 Antigens Fused to Ubiquitin.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Liliane M Fernandes; Morale, Mirian G; Chaves, Agtha A M; Demasi, Marilene; Ho, Paulo L

    2017-01-01

    Ubiquitin-proteasome system plays an essential role in the immune response due to its involvement in the antigen generation and presentation to CD8 + T cells. Hereby, ubiquitin fused to antigens has been explored as an immunotherapeutic strategy that requires the activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Here we propose to apply this ubiquitin fusion approach to a recombinant vaccine against human papillomavirus 16-infected cells. E6E7 multi-epitope antigen was fused genetically at its N- or C-terminal end to ubiquitin and expressed in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies. The antigens were solubilized using urea and purified by nickel affinity chromatography in denatured condition. Fusion of ubiquitin to E6E7 resulted in marked polyubiquitination in vitro mainly when fused to the E6E7 N-terminal. When tested in a therapeutic scenario, the fusion of ubiquitin to E6E7 reinforced the anti-tumor protection and increased the E6/E7-specific cellular immune responses. Present results encourage the investigation of the adjuvant potential of the ubiquitin fusion to recombinant vaccines requiring CD8 + T cells.

  12. Cervical Cancers Require the Continuous Expression of the Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E7 Oncoprotein Even in the Presence of the Viral E6 Oncoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Jabbar, Sean F.; Park, Soyeong; Schweizer, Johannes; Berard-Bergery, Marthe; Pitot, Henry C.; Lee, Denis; Lambert, Paul F.

    2012-01-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV), such as HPV-16, are etiologic agents of a variety of anogenital and oral malignancies, including nearly all cases of cervical cancer. Cervical cancers arising in transgenic mice that express HPV-16 E7 in an inducible manner require the continuous expression of E7 for their maintenance. However, in HPV-associated cancers in vivo, E6 and E7 invariably are co-expressed. In this study, we investigated whether cervical cancers rely on the continuous expression of E7 in the context of constitutively expressed E6. We placed the inducible HPV-16 E7 transgene onto a background in which HPV-16 E6 was constitutively expressed. In transgenic mice with high-grade cervical dysplastic lesions and cervical cancer, repressing the expression of E7 led to the regression of all cancers and the vast majority of high-grade dysplastic lesions. In addition, cervical cancers were occasionally observed in transgenic mice in which E7 was repressed and then re-expressed. Our findings therefore indicate that even in the presence of constitutively expressed E6, the continuous expression of E7 is required for the maintenance of cervical cancers and most precancerous lesions. These data have important implications for the potential clinical use of drugs designed to inhibit the expression and/or function of E7 to treat HPV-associated cancers. PMID:22700879

  13. HPV16-E7 Expression in skin induces TSLP secretion, type 2 ILC infiltration and atopic dermatitis-like lesions

    PubMed Central

    Bergot, Anne-Sophie; Monnet, Nastasia; Tran, Le Son; Mittal, Deepak; Al-Kouba, Jane; Steptoe, Raymond J.; Grimbaldeston, Michele A.; Frazer, Ian H.; Wells, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common pruritic and inflammatory skin disorder with unknown etiology. Most commonly occurring during early childhood, atopic dermatitis is associated with eczematous lesions and lichenification, in which the epidermis becomes hypertrophied resulting in thickening of the skin. In this study, we report an atopic dermatitis-like pathophysiology results in a murine model following the expression of the high-risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16 oncoprotein E7 in keratinocytes under the Keratin 14 promoter. We show that HPV 16 E7 expression in the skin is associated with skin thickening, acanthosis and light spongiosis. Locally, HPV 16 E7 expressing skin secreted high levels of TSLP and contained increased numbers of ILCs. High levels of circulating IgE were associated with increased susceptibility to skin allergy in a model of cutaneous challenge, and to airway bronchiolar inflammation, enhanced airway goblet cell metaplasia and mucus production in a model of atopic march. Surprisingly, skin pathology occurred independently of T-cells and mast cells. Thus, our findings suggest that the expression of a single HPV oncogene in the skin can drive the onset of atopic dermatitis-like pathology through the induction of TSLP and type 2 ILC infiltration. PMID:25601274

  14. Cervical cancers require the continuous expression of the human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein even in the presence of the viral E6 oncoprotein.

    PubMed

    Jabbar, Sean F; Park, Soyeong; Schweizer, Johannes; Berard-Bergery, Marthe; Pitot, Henry C; Lee, Denis; Lambert, Paul F

    2012-08-15

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV), such as HPV-16, are etiologic agents of a variety of anogenital and oral malignancies, including nearly all cases of cervical cancer. Cervical cancers arising in transgenic mice that express HPV-16 E7 in an inducible manner require the continuous expression of E7 for their maintenance. However, in HPV-associated cancers in vivo, E6 and E7 invariably are coexpressed. In this study, we investigated whether cervical cancers rely on the continuous expression of E7 in the context of constitutively expressed E6. We placed the inducible HPV-16 E7 transgene onto a background in which HPV-16 E6 was constitutively expressed. In transgenic mice with high-grade cervical dysplastic lesions and cervical cancer, repressing the expression of E7 led to the regression of all cancers and the vast majority of high-grade dysplastic lesions. In addition, cervical cancers were occasionally observed in transgenic mice in which E7 was repressed and then reexpressed. Our findings indicate that even in the presence of constitutively expressed E6, the continuous expression of E7 is required for the maintenance of cervical cancers and most precancerous lesions. These data have important implications for the potential clinical use of drugs designed to inhibit the expression and/or function of E7 to treat HPV-associated cancers. ©2012 AACR.

  15. Primary human cervical carcinoma cells require human papillomavirus E6 and E7 expression for ongoing proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Magaldi, Thomas G.; Almstead, Laura L.; Bellone, Stefania; Prevatt, Edward G.; Santin, Alessandro D.; DiMaio, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Repression of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncogenes in established cervical carcinoma cell lines causes senescence due to reactivation of cellular tumor suppressor pathways. Here, we determined whether ongoing expression of HPV16 or HPV18 oncogenes is required for the proliferation of primary human cervical carcinoma cells in serum-free conditions at low passage number after isolation from patients. We used an SV40 viral vector expressing the bovine papillomavirus E2 protein to repress E6 and E7 in these cells. To enable efficient SV40 infection and E2 gene delivery, we first incubated the primary cervical cancer cells with the ganglioside GM1, a cell-surface receptor for SV40 limiting in these cells. Repression of HPV in primary cervical carcinoma cells caused them to undergo senescence, but the E2 protein had little effect on HPV-negative primary cells. These data suggest that E6 and E7 dependence is an inherent property of human cervical cancer cells. PMID:22056390

  16. Loss of Dependence on Continued Expression of the Human Papillomavirus 16 E7 Oncogene in Cervical Cancers and Precancerous Lesions Arising in Fanconi Anemia Pathway-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soyeong; Park, Jung Wook; Pitot, Henry C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT   Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare genetic disorder caused by defects in DNA damage repair. FA patients often develop squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) at sites where high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are known to cause cancer, including the cervix. However, SCCs found in human FA patients are often HPV negative, even though the majority of female FA patients with anogenital cancers had preexisting HPV-positive dysplasia. We hypothesize that HPVs contribute to the development of SCCs in FA patients but that the continued expression of HPV oncogenes is not required for the maintenance of the cancer state because FA deficiency leads to an accumulation of mutations in cellular genes that render the cancer no longer dependent upon viral oncogenes. We tested this hypothesis, making use of Bi-L E7 transgenic mice in which we temporally controlled expression of HPV16 E7, the dominant viral oncogene in HPV-associated cancers. As seen before, the persistence of cervical neoplastic disease was highly dependent upon the continued expression of HPV16 E7 in FA-sufficient mice. However, in mice with FA deficiency, cervical cancers persisted in a large fraction of the mice after HPV16 E7 expression was turned off, indicating that these cancers had escaped from their dependency on E7. Furthermore, the severity of precancerous lesions also failed to be reduced significantly in the mice with FA deficiency upon turning off expression of E7. These findings confirm our hypothesis and may explain the fact that, while FA patients have a high frequency of infections by HPVs and HPV-induced precancerous lesions, the cancers are frequently HPV negative. Importance   Fanconi anemia (FA) patients are at high risk for developing squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) at sites where high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) frequently cause cancer. Yet these SCCs are often HPV negative. FA patients have a genetic defect in their capacity to repair damaged DNA. HPV oncogenes cause an

  17. Loss of Dependence on Continued Expression of the Human Papillomavirus 16 E7 Oncogene in Cervical Cancers and Precancerous Lesions Arising in Fanconi Anemia Pathway-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Soyeong; Park, Jung Wook; Pitot, Henry C; Lambert, Paul F

    2016-05-17

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare genetic disorder caused by defects in DNA damage repair. FA patients often develop squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) at sites where high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are known to cause cancer, including the cervix. However, SCCs found in human FA patients are often HPV negative, even though the majority of female FA patients with anogenital cancers had preexisting HPV-positive dysplasia. We hypothesize that HPVs contribute to the development of SCCs in FA patients but that the continued expression of HPV oncogenes is not required for the maintenance of the cancer state because FA deficiency leads to an accumulation of mutations in cellular genes that render the cancer no longer dependent upon viral oncogenes. We tested this hypothesis, making use of Bi-L E7 transgenic mice in which we temporally controlled expression of HPV16 E7, the dominant viral oncogene in HPV-associated cancers. As seen before, the persistence of cervical neoplastic disease was highly dependent upon the continued expression of HPV16 E7 in FA-sufficient mice. However, in mice with FA deficiency, cervical cancers persisted in a large fraction of the mice after HPV16 E7 expression was turned off, indicating that these cancers had escaped from their dependency on E7. Furthermore, the severity of precancerous lesions also failed to be reduced significantly in the mice with FA deficiency upon turning off expression of E7. These findings confirm our hypothesis and may explain the fact that, while FA patients have a high frequency of infections by HPVs and HPV-induced precancerous lesions, the cancers are frequently HPV negative. IMPORTANCE  : Fanconi anemia (FA) patients are at high risk for developing squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) at sites where high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) frequently cause cancer. Yet these SCCs are often HPV negative. FA patients have a genetic defect in their capacity to repair damaged DNA. HPV oncogenes cause an accumulation of DNA

  18. Eradication of large tumors expressing human papillomavirus E7 protein by therapeutic vaccination with E7 fused to the extra domain a from fibronectin.

    PubMed

    Mansilla, Cristina; Berraondo, Pedro; Durantez, Maika; Martínez, Marta; Casares, Noelia; Arribillaga, Laura; Rudilla, Francesc; Fioravanti, Jessica; Lozano, Teresa; Villanueva, Lorea; Sarobe, Pablo; Borrás, Francisco; Leclerc, Claude; Prieto, Jesús; Lasarte, Juan José

    2012-08-01

    Cervical carcinoma is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide. It is well established that chronic infection of the genital tract by various mucosatropic human papillomavirus (HPV) types causes cervical cancer. Cellular immunity to E7 protein from HPV (HPVE7) has been associated with clinical and cytologic resolution of HPV-induced lesions. Thus, we decided to test if targeting of HPVE7 to dendritic cells using a fusion protein containing the extra domain A (EDA) from fibronectin, a natural ligand for TLR4, and HPVE7 (EDA-HPVE7) might be an efficient vaccine for the treatment of cervical carcinoma. We found that EDA-HPVE7 fusion protein was efficiently captured by bone marrow derived dendritic cells in vitro and induced their maturation, with the upregulation of maturation markers and the production of IL-12. Immunization of mice with EDA-HPVE7 fusion protein induced antitumor CD8(+) T cell responses in the absence of additional adjuvants. Repeated intratumoral administration of EDA-HPVE7 in saline was able to cure established TC-1 tumors of 5-7 mm in diameter. More importantly, intravenous injection with EDA-HPVE7 in combination with the TLR ligand polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (pIC), or with low doses of cyclophosphamide and the TLR9 ligand CpG-B complexed in cationic lipids, were able to eradicate large established TC-1 tumors (1.2 cm in diameter). Thus, therapeutic vaccination with EDA-HPVE7 fusion protein may be effective in the treatment of human cervical carcinoma. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  19. Expression of LIGHT/TNFSF14 Combined with Vaccination against Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E7 Induces Significant Tumor Regression

    PubMed Central

    Kanodia, Shreya; Da Silva, Diane M.; Karamanukyan, Tigran; Bogaert, Lies; Fu, Yang-Xin; Kast, W. Martin

    2010-01-01

    LIGHT, a ligand for the lymphotoxin-beta receptor, establishes lymphoid-like tissues inside tumor sites and recruits naïve T-cells into the tumor. However, whether these infiltrating T-cells are specific for tumor antigens is not known. We hypothesized that therapy with LIGHT can expand functional tumor-specific CD8+ T-cells that can be boosted using HPV16E6E7-Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Replicon Particles (HPV16-VRP) and that this combined therapy can eradicate HPV16-induced tumors. Our data show that forced expression of LIGHT in tumors results in an increase in expression of interferon gamma (IFNg) and chemottractant cytokines such as IL-1a, MIG and MIP-2 within the tumor and that this tumor microenvironment correlates with an increase in frequency of tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T-cells. Forced expression of LIGHT also results in the expansion of functional T-cells that recognize multiple tumor-antigens, including HPV16 E7, and these T-cells prevent the outgrowth of tumors upon secondary challenge. Subsequent boosting of E7-specific T-cells by vaccination with HPV16-VRP significantly increases their frequency in both the periphery and the tumor, and leads to the eradication of large well-established tumors, for which either treatment alone is not successful. These data establish the safety of Ad-LIGHT as a therapeutic intervention in pre-clinical studies and suggest that patients with HPV16+ tumors may benefit from combined immunotherapy with LIGHT and antigen-specific vaccination. PMID:20460520

  20. Evidence for Alteration of EZH2, BMI1, and KDM6A and Epigenetic Reprogramming in Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E6/E7-Expressing Keratinocytes ▿

    PubMed Central

    Hyland, Paula L.; McDade, Simon S.; McCloskey, Rachel; Dickson, Glenda J.; Arthur, Ken; McCance, Dennis J.; Patel, Daksha

    2011-01-01

    A number of epigenetic alterations occur in both the virus and host cellular genomes during human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated carcinogenesis, and investigations of such alterations, including changes in chromatin proteins and histone modifications, have the potential to lead to therapeutic epigenetic reversion. We report here that transformed HPV16 E6/E7-expressing primary human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) (E6/E7 cells) demonstrate increased expression of the PRC2 methyltransferase EZH2 at both the mRNA and protein levels but do not exhibit the expected increase in trimethylated H3K27 (H3K27me3) compared to normal keratinocytes. In contrast, these cells show a reduction in global H3K27me3 levels in vitro, as well as upregulation of the KDM6A demethylase. We further show for the first time that transformation with the HPV16 E6 and E7 oncogenes also results in an increase in phosphorylated EZH2 serine 21 (P-EZH2-Ser21), mediated by active Akt, and in a downregulation of the PRC1 protein BMI1 in these cells. High-grade squamous cervical intraepithelial lesions also showed a loss of H3K27me3 in the presence of increased expression of EZH2. Correlating with the loss of H3K27me3, E6/E7 cells exhibited derepression of specific EZH2-, KMD6A-, and BMI1-targeted HOX genes. These results suggest that the observed reduction in H3K27me3 may be due to a combination of reduced activities/levels of specific polycomb proteins and increases in demethylases. The dysregulation of multiple chromatin proteins resulting in the loss of global H3K27me3 and the transcriptional reprogramming in HPV16 E6/E7-infected cells could provide an epigenetic signature associated with risk and/or progression of HPV16-associated cancers, as well as the potential for epigenetic reversion in the future. PMID:21865393

  1. Evidence for alteration of EZH2, BMI1, and KDM6A and epigenetic reprogramming in human papillomavirus type 16 E6/E7-expressing keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Hyland, Paula L; McDade, Simon S; McCloskey, Rachel; Dickson, Glenda J; Arthur, Ken; McCance, Dennis J; Patel, Daksha

    2011-11-01

    A number of epigenetic alterations occur in both the virus and host cellular genomes during human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated carcinogenesis, and investigations of such alterations, including changes in chromatin proteins and histone modifications, have the potential to lead to therapeutic epigenetic reversion. We report here that transformed HPV16 E6/E7-expressing primary human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) (E6/E7 cells) demonstrate increased expression of the PRC2 methyltransferase EZH2 at both the mRNA and protein levels but do not exhibit the expected increase in trimethylated H3K27 (H3K27me3) compared to normal keratinocytes. In contrast, these cells show a reduction in global H3K27me3 levels in vitro, as well as upregulation of the KDM6A demethylase. We further show for the first time that transformation with the HPV16 E6 and E7 oncogenes also results in an increase in phosphorylated EZH2 serine 21 (P-EZH2-Ser21), mediated by active Akt, and in a downregulation of the PRC1 protein BMI1 in these cells. High-grade squamous cervical intraepithelial lesions also showed a loss of H3K27me3 in the presence of increased expression of EZH2. Correlating with the loss of H3K27me3, E6/E7 cells exhibited derepression of specific EZH2-, KMD6A-, and BMI1-targeted HOX genes. These results suggest that the observed reduction in H3K27me3 may be due to a combination of reduced activities/levels of specific polycomb proteins and increases in demethylases. The dysregulation of multiple chromatin proteins resulting in the loss of global H3K27me3 and the transcriptional reprogramming in HPV16 E6/E7-infected cells could provide an epigenetic signature associated with risk and/or progression of HPV16-associated cancers, as well as the potential for epigenetic reversion in the future.

  2. The HPV16 E7 oncoprotein increases the expression of Oct3/4 and stemness-related genes and augments cell self-renewal

    SciTech Connect

    Organista-Nava, Jorge; Gómez-Gómez, Yazmín

    Oct3/4 is a transcription factor involved in maintenance of the pluripotency and self-renewal of stem cells. The E7 oncoprotein and 17β-estradiol (E{sub 2}) are key factors in cervical carcinogenesis. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of the HPV16 E7 oncoprotein and E{sub 2} on the expression pattern of Oct3/4, Sox2, Nanog and Fgf4. We also determined whether the E7 oncoprotein is associated with cell self-renewal. The results showed that Oct3/4, Sox2, Nanog and Fgf4 were upregulated by the E7 oncoprotein in vivo and in vitro and implicate E{sub 2} in the upregulation of these factors inmore » vivo. We also demonstrated that E7 is involved in cell self-renewal, suggesting that the HPV16 E7 oncoprotein upregulates Oct3/4, Sox2, Nanog and Fgf4 expression to maintain the self-renewal capacity of cancer stem cells. -- Graphical abstract: The HPV16 E7 oncoprotein and 17β-estradiol are involved in the upregulation of Oct3/4, Sox2, Nanog and Fgf4 expression to maintain the self-renewal ability of cancer stem cells in cervical cancer. - Highlights: •The HPV16 E7 oncoprotein enhances cellular proliferation and dedifferentiation. •The E7 oncoprotein induces stemness-related genes expression in vivo and in vitro. •The 17β-estradiol induces stemness-related genes expression in vivo. •The HPV16 E7 oncoprotein is involved in the cell self-renewal of cancer cells.« less

  3. [Construction and eukaryotic expression of PVAX1-hPV58mE6E7fcGB composite gene vaccine].

    PubMed

    Wang, He; Yu, Jiyun; Li, Li

    2013-10-01

    To construct and express a composite gene vaccine for human papillomavirus 58(HPV58)-associated cervical cancer, we inserted HPV58mE6E7 fusion gene into pCI-Fc-GPI eukaryotic expression vector, constructing a recombinant plasmid named pCI-sig-HPV58mE6E7-Fc-GPI. Then we further inserted fragment of sig-HPV58mE6E7Fc-GPI into the novel vaccine vector PVAX1-IRES-GM/B7, constructing PVAX1-HPV58mE6E7FcGB composite gene vaccine. PVAX1-HPV58mE6E7FcGB vaccine was successfully constructed and identified by restriction endonuclease and sequencing analysis. Eukaryotic expression of fusion antigen sig-HPV58mE6E7-Fc-GPI and molecular ad-juvant GM-CSF and B7. 1 were proved to be realized at the same time by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. So PVAX1-HPV58mE6E7FcGB can be taken as a candidate of therapeutic vaccine for HPV58-associated tumors and their precancerous transformations.

  4. HPV-16 E7 expression up-regulates phospholipase D activity and promotes rapamycin resistance in a pRB-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Rabachini, Tatiana; Boccardo, Enrique; Andrade, Rubiana; Perez, Katia Regina; Nonogaki, Suely; Cuccovia, Iolanda Midea; Villa, Luisa Lina

    2018-04-27

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the main risk factor for the development and progression of cervical cancer. HPV-16 E6 and E7 expression is essential for induction and maintenance of the transformed phenotype. These oncoproteins interfere with the function of several intracellular proteins, including those controlling the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in which Phospolipase D (PLD) and Phosphatidic acid (PA) play a critical role. PLD activity was measured in primary human keratinocytes transduced with retroviruses expressing HPV-16 E6, E7 or E7 mutants. The cytostatic effect of rapamycin, a well-known mTOR inhibitor with potential clinical applications, was evaluated in monolayer and organotypic cultures. HPV-16 E7 expression in primary human keratinocytes leads to an increase in PLD expression and activity. Moreover, this activation is dependent on the ability of HPV-16 E7 to induce retinoblastoma protein (pRb) degradation. We also show that cells expressing HPV-16 E7 or silenced for pRb acquire resistance to the antiproliferative effect of rapamycin. This is the first indication that HPV oncoproteins can affect PLD activity. Since PA can interfere with the ability of rapamycin to bind mTOR, the use of combined strategies to target mTOR and PLD activity might be considered to treat HPV-related malignancies.

  5. Alpha-linolenic acid regulates Cox2/VEGF/MAP kinase pathway and decreases the expression of HPV oncoproteins E6/E7 through restoration of p53 and Rb expression in human cervical cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Rashmi; Mansara, Prakash; Kaul-Ghanekar, Ruchika

    2016-03-01

    Cervical cancer represents the largest cause of mortality in women worldwide. In our previous report, we have shown how alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), an omega-3 fatty acid, regulated the growth of cervical cancer cells. The present study aimed to explore mechanistic details for the anticancer activity of ALA in cervical cancer cell lines, SiHa and HeLa. ALA significantly modulated the growth kinetics of the cells and reduced cell migration with concomitant decrease in the expression of VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 proteins. Besides this, ALA significantly decreased the expression of phosphorylated p38, pERK1/2, c-JUN, NFκB, and COX2, proteins. Most importantly, ALA reduced the expression of HPV onco-proteins E6 and E7, resulting into restoration of expression of tumor suppressor proteins, p53 and Rb. These results suggested that ALA could be explored for its therapeutic potential in cervical cancer.

  6. The HPV16 E7 oncoprotein increases the expression of Oct3/4 and stemness-related genes and augments cell self-renewal.

    PubMed

    Organista-Nava, Jorge; Gómez-Gómez, Yazmín; Ocadiz-Delgado, Rodolfo; García-Villa, Enrique; Bonilla-Delgado, José; Lagunas-Martínez, Alfredo; Tapia, Jesús Santa-Olalla; Lambert, Paul F; García-Carrancá, Alejandro; Gariglio, Patricio

    2016-12-01

    Oct3/4 is a transcription factor involved in maintenance of the pluripotency and self-renewal of stem cells. The E7 oncoprotein and 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) are key factors in cervical carcinogenesis. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of the HPV16 E7 oncoprotein and E 2 on the expression pattern of Oct3/4, Sox2, Nanog and Fgf4. We also determined whether the E7 oncoprotein is associated with cell self-renewal. The results showed that Oct3/4, Sox2, Nanog and Fgf4 were upregulated by the E7 oncoprotein in vivo and in vitro and implicate E 2 in the upregulation of these factors in vivo. We also demonstrated that E7 is involved in cell self-renewal, suggesting that the HPV16 E7 oncoprotein upregulates Oct3/4, Sox2, Nanog and Fgf4 expression to maintain the self-renewal capacity of cancer stem cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Methylation-specific digital karyotyping of HPV16E6E7-expressing human keratinocytes identifies novel methylation events in cervical carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Steenbergen, Renske D M; Ongenaert, Maté; Snellenberg, Suzanne; Trooskens, Geert; van der Meide, Wendy F; Pandey, Deeksha; Bloushtain-Qimron, Noga; Polyak, Kornelia; Meijer, Chris J L M; Snijders, Peter J F; Van Criekinge, Wim

    2013-09-01

    Transformation of epithelial cells by high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) types can lead to anogenital carcinomas, particularly cervical cancer, and oropharyngeal cancers. This process is associated with DNA methylation alterations, often affecting tumour suppressor gene expression. This study aimed to comprehensively unravel genome-wide DNA methylation events linked to a transforming hrHPV-infection, which is driven by deregulated expression of the viral oncogenes E6 and E7 in dividing cells. Primary human keratinocytes transduced with HPV16E6E7 and their untransduced counterparts were subjected to methylation-specific digital karyotyping (MSDK) to screen for genome-wide DNA-methylation changes at different stages of HPV-induced transformation. Integration of the obtained methylation profiles with genome-wide gene expression patterns of cervical carcinomas identified 34 genes with increased methylation in HPV-transformed cells and reduced expression in cervical carcinomas. For 12 genes (CLIC3, CREB3L1, FAM19A4, LFNG, LHX1, MRC2, NKX2-8, NPTX-1, PHACTR3, PRDM14, SOST and TNFSF13) specific methylation in HPV-containing cell lines was confirmed by semi-quantitative methylation-specific PCR. Subsequent analysis of FAM19A4, LHX1, NKX2-8, NPTX-1, PHACTR3 and PRDM14 in cervical tissue specimens showed increasing methylation levels for all genes with disease progression. All six genes were frequently methylated in cervical carcinomas, with highest frequencies (up to 100%) seen for FAM19A4, PHACTR3 and PRDM14. Analysis of hrHPV-positive cervical scrapes revealed significantly increased methylation levels of the latter three genes in women with high-grade cervical disease compared to controls. In conclusion, MSDK analysis of HPV16-transduced keratinocytes at different stages of HPV-induced transformation resulted in the identification of novel DNA methylation events, involving FAM19A4, LHX1, NKX2-8, PHACTR3 and PRDM14 genes in cervical carcinogenesis. These genes may

  8. Disruption of the G1/S Transition in Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E7-Expressing Human Cells Is Associated with Altered Regulation of Cyclin E

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Larry G.; Demers, G. William; Galloway, Denise A.

    1998-01-01

    The development of neoplasia frequently involves inactivation of the p53 and retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor pathways and disruption of cell cycle checkpoints that monitor the integrity of replication and cell division. The human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) oncoproteins, E6 and E7, have been shown to bind p53 and Rb, respectively. To further delineate the mechanisms by which E6 and E7 affect cell cycle control, we examined various aspects of the cell cycle machinery. The low-risk HPV-6 E6 and E7 proteins did not cause any significant change in the levels of cell cycle proteins analyzed. HPV-16 E6 resulted in very low levels of p53 and p21 and globally elevated cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity. In contrast, HPV-16 E7 had a profound effect on several aspects of the cell cycle machinery. A number of cyclins and CDKs were elevated, and despite the elevation of the levels of at least two CDK inhibitors, p21 and p16, CDK activity was globally increased. Most strikingly, cyclin E expression was deregulated both transcriptionally and posttranscriptionally and persisted at high levels in S and G2/M. Transit through G1 was shortened by the premature activation of cyclin E-associated kinase activity. Elevation of cyclin E levels required both the CR1 and CR2 domains of E7. These data suggest that cyclin E may be a critical target of HPV-16 E7 in the disruption of G1/S cell cycle progression and that the ability of E7 to regulate cyclin E involves activities in addition to the release of E2F. PMID:9444990

  9. Some novel insights on HPV16 related cervical cancer pathogenesis based on analyses of LCR methylation, viral load, E7 and E2/E4 expressions.

    PubMed

    Das Ghosh, Damayanti; Bhattacharjee, Bornali; Sen, Shrinka; Premi, Laikangbam; Mukhopadhyay, Indranil; Chowdhury, Rahul Roy; Roy, Sudipta; Sengupta, Sharmila

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to decipher the interdependent roles of (i) methylation within E2 binding site I and II (E2BS-I/II) and replication origin (nt 7862) in the long control region (LCR), (ii) expression of viral oncogene E7, (iii) expression of the transcript (E7-E1/E4) that encodes E2 repressor protein and (iv) viral load, in human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) related cervical cancer (CaCx) pathogenesis. The results revealed over-representation (p<0.001) of methylation at nucleotide 58 of E2BS-I among E2-intact CaCx cases compared to E2-disrupted cases. Bisulphite sequencing of LCR revealed overrepresentation of methylation at nucleotide 58 or other CpGs in E2BS-I/II, among E2-intact cases than E2-disrupted cases and lack of methylation at replication origin in case of both. The viral transcript (E7-E1/E4) that produces the repressor E2 was analyzed by APOT (amplification of papillomavirus oncogenic transcript)-coupled-quantitative-RT-PCR (of E7 and E4 genes) to distinguish episomal (pure or concomitant with integrated) from purely integrated viral genomes based on the ratio, E7 C(T)/E4 C(T). Relative quantification based on comparative C(T) (threshold cycle) method revealed 75.087 folds higher E7 mRNA expression in episomal cases over purely integrated cases. Viral load and E2 gene copy numbers were negatively correlated with E7 C(T) (p = 0.007) and E2 C(T) (p<0.0001), respectively, each normalized with ACTB C(T), among episomal cases only. The k-means clustering analysis considering E7 C(T) from APOT-coupled-quantitative-RT-PCR assay, in conjunction with viral load, revealed immense heterogeneity among the HPV16 positive CaCx cases portraying integrated viral genomes. The findings provide novel insights into HPV16 related CaCx pathogenesis and highlight that CaCx cases that harbour episomal HPV16 genomes with intact E2 are likely to be distinct biologically, from the purely integrated viral genomes in terms of host genes and/or pathways involved in cervical

  10. The expression of miR-21 and miR-143 is deregulated by the HPV16 E7 oncoprotein and 17β-estradiol.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gómez, Yazmín; Organista-Nava, Jorge; Ocadiz-Delgado, Rodolfo; García-Villa, Enrique; Leyva-Vazquez, Marco Antonio; Illades-Aguiar, Berenice; Lambert, Paul F; García-Carrancá, Alejandro; Gariglio, Patricio

    2016-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate their target mRNAs at a posttranscriptional level, thereby affecting crucial processes in cancer development. However, little is known about the molecular events that control expression of miRNAs in cervical cancer (CC). HPV16 E7 oncoprotein in conjunction with estrogen are sufficient to produce high grade cervical dysplasia and invasive cervical malignancies in a mouse model. In the present study, we determined the potential role that the E7 oncoprotein and 17β-estradiol (E2) play in the deregulation of miR-21 and miR-143 expression levels by these two risk factors. We found that, while the expression of miR-21 was upregulated and the expression of miR-143 was downregulated by the HPV16 E7 oncoprotein in vivo, and in vitro and that E2 treatment is also implicated in the deregulation of these important miRNAs in vivo. Sustained upregulation of miR-21 resulted in suppression of PTEN expression, and repression of miR-143 increased the mRNA and protein levels from Bcl-2. These results suggested that HPV type 16 E7 oncoprotein and E2 play an important role in regulating miR-21 and miR-143 expression. We have observed similar results in CC patients containing HPV16 sequences, suggesting that these miRNAs could serve as diagnostic biomarkers in CC. The present study highlights the roles of miRNAs in cervical tissue and implicates these important molecules in cervical carcinogenesis.

  11. Targeting the Human Papillomavirus E6 and E7 Oncogenes through Expression of the Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1 E2 Protein Stimulates Cellular Motility▿†

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Monique A.; Morreale, Richard J.; Akunuru, Shailaja; Kofron, Matthew; Zheng, Yi; Wells, Susanne I.

    2011-01-01

    Expression of the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncogenes is essential for the initiation and maintenance of cervical cancer. The repression of both was previously shown to result in activation of their respective tumor suppressor targets, p53 and pRb, and subsequent senescence induction in cervical cancer cells. Consequently, viral oncogene suppression is a promising approach for the treatment of HPV-positive tumors. One well-established method of E6/E7 repression involves the reexpression of the viral E2 protein which is usually deleted in HPV-positive cancer cells. Here, we show that, surprisingly, bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1) E2 but not RNA interference-mediated E6/E7 repression in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells stimulates cellular motility and invasion. Migration correlated with the dynamic formation of cellular protrusions and was dependent upon cell-to-cell contact. While E2-expressing migratory cells were senescent, migration was not a general feature of cellular senescence or cell cycle arrest and was specifically observed in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells. Interestingly, E2-expressing cells not only were themselves motile but also conferred increased motility to admixed HeLa cervical cancer cells. Together, our data suggest that repression of the viral oncogenes by E2 stimulates the motility of E6/E7-targeted cells as well as adjacent nontargeted cancer cells, thus raising the possibility that E2 expression may unfavorably increase the local invasiveness of HPV-positive tumors. PMID:21835799

  12. Wogonin induces apoptosis by suppressing E6 and E7 expressions and activating intrinsic signaling pathways in HPV-16 cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Man Sub; Bak, Yesol; Park, Yun Sun; Lee, Dong Hun; Kim, Jung Hee; Kang, Jeong Woo; Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Yoon, Do Young

    2013-08-01

    Wogonin is a flavonoid compound extracted from Scutellaria baicalensis and is well known as a benzodiazepine receptor ligand with anxiolytic effects. Many recent studies have demonstrated that wogonin modulates angiogenesis, proliferation, invasion, and tumor progress in various cancer tissues. We further explored the mechanism of action of wogonin on cervical cancer cells that contain or lack human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA. Wogonin was cytotoxic to HPV 16 (+) cervical cancer cells, SiHa and CaSki, but not to HPV-negative cells. We demonstrated that wogonin induced apoptosis by suppressing the expressions of the E6 and E7 viral oncogenes in HPV-infected cervical cancer CaSki and SiHa cells. The modulation of p53 and protein retinoblastoma (pRb) were also triggered by the suppression of E6 and E7 expressions. However, p53 was not altered in HPV-negative cervical cancer C33A cells. Moreover, wogonin modulated the mitochondrial membrane potential and the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic factors such as Bax and Bcl-2. Wogonin also provoked the cleavage of caspase-3, caspase-9, and poly ADP ribose polymerase. After transfection of siRNAs to target E6 and E7, additional restoration of p53 and pRb was not induced, but processing of caspases and PARP was increased compared with wogonin treatment alone. Together, our findings demonstrated that wogonin effectively promotes apoptosis by downregulating E6 and E7 expressions and promoting intrinsic apoptosis in human cervical cancer cells.

  13. UV Radiation Activates Toll-Like Receptor 9 Expression in Primary Human Keratinocytes, an Event Inhibited by Human Papillomavirus 38 E6 and E7 Oncoproteins.

    PubMed

    Pacini, Laura; Ceraolo, Maria Grazia; Venuti, Assunta; Melita, Giusi; Hasan, Uzma A; Accardi, Rosita; Tommasino, Massimo

    2017-10-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) types belonging to the beta genus of the HPV phylogenetic tree synergize with UV radiation in the development of skin cancer. Accordingly, the E6 and E7 oncoproteins from some beta HPV types are able to deregulate pathways related to immune response and cellular transformation. Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), in addition to playing a role in innate immunity, has been shown to be involved in the cellular stress response. Using primary human keratinocytes as experimental models, we have shown that UV irradiation (and other cellular stresses) activates TLR9 expression. This event is closely linked to p53 activation. Silencing the expression of p53 or deleting its encoding gene affected the activation of TLR9 expression after UV irradiation. Using various strategies, we have also shown that the transcription factors p53 and c-Jun are recruited onto a specific region of the TLR9 promoter after UV irradiation. Importantly, the E6 and E7 oncoproteins from beta HPV38, by inducing the accumulation of the p53 antagonist ΔNp73α, prevent the UV-mediated recruitment of these transcription factors onto the TLR9 promoter, with subsequent impairment of TLR9 gene expression. This study provides new insight into the mechanism that mediates TLR9 upregulation in response to cellular stresses. In addition, we show that HPV38 E6 and E7 are able to interfere with this mechanism, providing another explanation for the possible cooperation of beta HPV types with UV radiation in skin carcinogenesis. IMPORTANCE Beta HPV types have been suggested to act as cofactors in UV-induced skin carcinogenesis by altering several cellular mechanisms activated by UV radiation. We show that the expression of TLR9, a sensor of damage-associated molecular patterns produced during cellular stress, is activated by UV radiation in primary human keratinocytes (PHKs). Two transcription factors known to be activated by UV radiation, p53

  14. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase regulates vascular endothelial growth factor expression via human papillomavirus oncogene E7 in HPV-18-positive cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Cui, Jinquan

    2015-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection induces chronic and precancerous lesions and results in invasive cervical cancer. Human telomerase as well as inflammatory and angiogenic factors such as telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) could play a role in regulating HPV-induced cervical cancer. This study investigated underlying molecular events in HPV-induced HPV-positive cervical cancer through hTERT and VEGF in vitro. Expressions of hTERT, a rate-limiting subunit of telomerase, and VEGF mRNA and proteins were, respectively, assessed by qRT-PCR, ELISA, and TRAP-ELISA in HPV-positive tissue samples and cervical cancer cell lines. To assess hTERT and VEGF secretion, hTERT overexpression and knockdown were conducted in HPV-18-positive Hela cells by hTERT cDNA and shRNA transfection, respectively. Then, the effect of HPV E6 and E7 on VEGF expressions was assessed in HPV-negative cervical cancer cells. Data have shown that VEGF expression levels are associated with hTERT expressions and telomerase activity in HPV-positive cervical cancer tissues and cells. Knockdown of hTERT expression down-regulated VEGF expressions, whereas overexpression of hTERT up-regulated VEGF expressions in HPV-18-positive Hela cells. Furthermore, HPV E7 oncoprotein was necessary for hTERT to up-regulate VEGF expressions in HPV-negative cervical cancer cells. Data from this current study indicate that HPV oncoproteins up-regulated hTERT and telomerase activity and in turn promoted VEGF expressions, which could be a key mechanism for HPV-induced cervical cancer development and progression.

  15. E6 and E7 oncogene expression by human papilloma virus (HPV) and the aggressive behavior of recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis (RLP).

    PubMed

    Shehata, Bahig M; Otto, Kristen J; Sobol, Steven E; Stockwell, Christina A; Foulks, Cora; Lancaster, Wayne; Gregoire, Lucie; Hill, Charles E

    2008-01-01

    Recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis (RLP), a chronic disease associated with human papilloma virus (HPV), requires serial surgical procedures for debulking, resulting in debilitating long-term dysphonia, laryngeal scarring, and rarely malignant degeneration. Human papilloma virus 11 tumors have been widely accepted as more aggressive than HPV 6 tumors; however, the clinical course has been difficult to predict at disease onset, and the biologic mediators of proliferation have not been well characterized. A retrospective case review of 43 patients (4 months to 10 years at diagnosis) was performed on children treated for recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis. Patient charts were reviewed for demographic information, age at RLP diagnosis, approximate frequency of surgical intervention, and absolute number of surgical procedures performed. Human papilloma virus subtyping was performed. Expression analysis of the HPV-encoded E6 and E7 oncogenes was performed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Fourteen patients had subtype 11 (33%) and 29 patients had subtype 6 (67%). As expected, HPV 11 patients showed a more aggressive clinical course than HPV 6 patients. However, 38% of patients with subtype 6 (11 patients) followed a clinical course that mirrored the more severe subtype 11 patients. These patients expressed the disease at a younger age (P < 0.0002) and showed higher levels of E6 and E7 oncogenes compared to the patients with the more indolent course. Although HPV subtype and early onset of RLP are well characterized prognostic factors, our study documents the significance of E6 and E7 oncogene expression as potential biologic mediators of proliferation and thereby clinical behavior.

  16. Regression of Established Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV-16) Immortalized Tumors In Vivo by Vaccinia Viruses Expressing Different Forms of HPV-16 E7 Correlates with Enhanced CD8+ T-Cell Responses That Home to the Tumor Site

    PubMed Central

    Lamikanra, Abigail; Pan, Zhen-Kun; Isaacs, Stuart N.; Wu, Tzyy-Choou; Paterson, Yvonne

    2001-01-01

    Using vaccinia virus as a live vector, we show that the expression of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E7 fused to a nonhemolytic portion of the Listeria monocytogenes virulence factor, listeriolysin O (LLO), induces an immune response that causes the regression of established HPV-16 immortalized tumors in C57BL/6 mice. The vaccinia virus construct expressing LLO fused to E7 (VacLLOE7) was compared with two previously described vaccinia virus constructs: one that expresses unmodified E7 (VacE7) and another that expresses E7 in a form designed to direct it to intracellular lysosomal compartments and improve major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted responses (VacSigE7LAMP-1). C57BL/6 mice bearing established HPV-16 immortalized tumors of 5 or 8 mm were treated with each of these vaccines. Fifty percent of the mice treated with VacLLOE7 remained tumor free 2 months after tumor inoculation, whereas 12 to 25% of the mice were tumor free after treatment with VacSigE7LAMP-1 (depending on the size of the tumor). No mice were tumor free in the group given VacE7. Compared to VacE7, VacSigE7LAMP-1 and VacLLOE7 resulted in increased numbers of H2-Db-specific tetramer-positive CD8+ T cells in mouse spleens that produced gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor alpha upon stimulation with RAHYNIVTF peptide. In addition, the highest frequency of tetramer-positive T cells was seen in the tumor sites of mice treated with VacLLOE7. An increased efficiency of E7-specific lysis by splenocytes from mice immunized with VacLLOE7 was also observed. These results indicate that the fusion of E7 with LLO not only enhances antitumor therapy by improving the tumoricidal function of E7-specific CD8+ T cells but may also increase the number of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in the tumor, the principle site of antigen expression. PMID:11559797

  17. Interferon-β induced microRNA-129-5p down-regulates HPV-18 E6 and E7 viral gene expression by targeting SP1 in cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiarong; Li, Shuangdi; Yan, Qin; Chen, Xiaoyue; Yang, Yixia; Liu, Xuelian; Wan, Xiaoping

    2013-01-01

    Infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cancer. Down-regulation of E6 and E7 expression may be responsible for the positive clinical outcomes observed with IFN treatment, but the molecular basis has not been well determined. As miRNAs play an important role in HPV induced cervical carcinogenesis, we hypothesize that IFN-β can regulate the expressions of specific miRNAs in cervical cancer cells, and that these miRNAs can mediate E6 and E7 expression, thus modulate their oncogenic potential. In this study, we found that miR-129-5p to be a candidate IFN-β inducible miRNA. MiR-129-5p levels gradually decrease with the development of cervical intraepithelial lesions. Manipulation of miR-129-5p expression in Hela cells modulates HPV-18 E6 and E7 viral gene expression. Exogenous miR-129-5p inhibits cell proliferation in Hela cells, promotes apoptosis and blocks cell cycle progression in Hela cells. SP1 is a direct target of miR-129-5p in Hela cells. This study is the first report of a cellular miRNA with anti-HPV activity and provides new insights into regulatory mechanisms between the HPV and the IFN system in host cells at the miRNA level.

  18. Biosynthesis of the Cyanogenic Glucosides Linamarin and Lotaustralin in Cassava: Isolation, Biochemical Characterization, and Expression Pattern of CYP71E7, the Oxime-Metabolizing Cytochrome P450 Enzyme1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Morant, Anne Vinther; Morant, Marc; Jensen, Niels Bjerg; Olsen, Carl Erik; Kannangara, Rubini; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Bak, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a eudicotyledonous plant that produces the valine- and isoleucine-derived cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralin with the corresponding oximes and cyanohydrins as key intermediates. CYP79 enzymes catalyzing amino acid-to-oxime conversion in cyanogenic glucoside biosynthesis are known from several plants including cassava. The enzyme system converting oxime into cyanohydrin has previously only been identified in the monocotyledonous plant great millet (Sorghum bicolor). Using this great millet CYP71E1 sequence as a query in a Basic Local Alignment Search Tool-p search, a putative functional homolog that exhibited an approximately 50% amino acid sequence identity was found in cassava. The corresponding full-length cDNA clone was obtained from a plasmid library prepared from cassava shoot tips and was assigned CYP71E7. Heterologous expression of CYP71E7 in yeast afforded microsomes converting 2-methylpropanal oxime (valine-derived oxime) and 2-methylbutanal oxime (isoleucine-derived oxime) to the corresponding cyanohydrins, which dissociate into acetone and 2-butanone, respectively, and hydrogen cyanide. The volatile ketones were detected as 2.4-dinitrophenylhydrazone derivatives by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A KS of approximately 0.9 μm was determined for 2-methylbutanal oxime based on substrate-binding spectra. CYP71E7 exhibits low specificity for the side chain of the substrate and catalyzes the conversion of aliphatic and aromatic oximes with turnovers of approximately 21, 17, 8, and 1 min−1 for the oximes derived from valine, isoleucine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine, respectively. A second paralog of CYP71E7 was identified by database searches and showed approximately 90% amino acid sequence identity. In tube in situ polymerase chain reaction showed that in nearly unfolded leaves, the CYP71E7 paralogs are preferentially expressed in specific cells in the endodermis and in most cells in the first cortex cell

  19. Developmental Hypothyroidism Reduces the Expression of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Disruption of thyroid hormone (TH) is a known effect of environmental contaminants. Neurotrophins including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) have been implicated in brain dysfunction resulting from severe developmental TH insufficiency. Neurotrophins are also implicated in activity-dependent plasticity, a process critical for appropriate use-dependent connectivity in the developing brain and for memory formation in the adult. This study examined activity-induced expression of neurotrophin gene products in the hippocampus using the long-term potentiation (LTP) after developmental hypothyroidism induced by propylthiouracil (PTU). Pregnant rats were exposed to PTU (0 or I0ppm) via the drinking water from early gestation to weaning. Adult male offspring were anesthetized with urethane and implanted with electrodes in the dentate gyrus (00) and perforant path (PP). LTP was induced by PP stimulation and responses from 00 were monitored at 15m intervals until sacrifice of the animals 5 h later. The 00 was dissected from the stimulated and nonstimulated hemispheres for rtPCR analysis of the neurotrophins Bdnf, Ngf, Ntf3 and related genes Egrl, Arc, Klf9. We found no PTU-induced difference in basal levels of expression of any of these genes in the nonstimulated 00. LTP increased expression of Bdnf, Ngf, Arc and Klj9 in the control DG, and reduced expression of Ntf3. LTP in DG from PTU animals failed to increase expression of Bdnf,

  20. Tobacco exposure results in increased E6 and E7 oncogene expression, DNA damage and mutation rates in cells maintaining episomal human papillomavirus 16 genomes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lanlan; Griego, Anastacia M; Chu, Ming; Ozbun, Michelle A

    2014-10-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infections are necessary but insufficient agents of cervical and other epithelial cancers. Epidemiological studies support a causal, but ill-defined, relationship between tobacco smoking and cervical malignancies. In this study, we used mainstream tobacco smoke condensate (MSTS-C) treatments of cervical cell lines that maintain either episomal or integrated HPV16 or HPV31 genomes to model tobacco smoke exposure to the cervical epithelium of the smoker. MSTS-C exposure caused a dose-dependent increase in viral genome replication and correspondingly higher early gene transcription in cells with episomal HPV genomes. However, MSTS-C exposure in cells with integrated HR-HPV genomes had no effect on genome copy number or early gene transcription. In cells with episomal HPV genomes, the MSTS-C-induced increases in E6 oncogene transcription led to decreased p53 protein levels and activity. As expected from loss of p53 activity in tobacco-exposed cells, DNA strand breaks were significantly higher but apoptosis was minimal compared with cells containing integrated viral genomes. Furthermore, DNA mutation frequencies were higher in surviving cells with HPV episomes. These findings provide increased understanding of tobacco smoke exposure risk in HPV infection and indicate tobacco smoking acts more directly to alter HR-HPV oncogene expression in cells that maintain episomal viral genomes. This suggests a more prominent role for tobacco smoke in earlier stages of HPV-related cancer progression. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Immortalization of Human Fetal Hepatocyte by Ectopic Expression of Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase, Human Papilloma Virus (E7) and Simian Virus 40 Large T (SV40 T) Antigen Towards Bioartificial Liver Support.

    PubMed

    Giri, Shibashish; Bader, Augustinus

    2014-09-01

    Generation of genetically stable and non-tumoric immortalization cell line from primary cells would be enormously useful for research and therapeutic purposes, but progress towards this goal has so far been limited. It is now universal acceptance that immortalization of human fetal hepatocytes based on recent advances of telomerase biology and oncogene, lead to unlimited population doubling could be the possible source for bioartificial liver device. Immortalization of human fetal hepatocytes cell line by ectopic expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), human papilloma virus gene (E7) and simian virus 40 large T (SV40 T) antigens is main goal of present study. We used an inducible system containing human telomerase and E7, both of which are cloned into responder constructs controlled by doxycycline transactivator. We characterized the immortalized human fetal hepatocyte cells by analysis of green fluorescent cells (GFP) positive cells using flow cytometry (FACs) cell sorting and morphology, proliferative rate and antigen expression by immunohistochemical analysis. In addition to we analysized lactate formation, glucose consumption, albumin secretion and urea production of immortalized human fetal hepatocyte cells. After 25 attempts for transfection of adult primary hepatocytes by human telomerase and E7 to immortalize them, none of the transfection systems resulted in the production of a stable, proliferating cell line. Although the transfection efficiency was more than 70% on the first day, the vast majority of the transfected hepatocytes lost their signal within the first 5-7 days. The remaining transfected hepatocytes persisted for 2-4 weeks and divided one or two times without forming a clone. After 10 attempts of transfection human fetal hepatocytes using the same transfection system, we obtained one stable human fetal hepatocytes cell line which was able albumin secretion urea production and glucose consumption. We established a

  2. Monitoring HPV-16 E7 phosphorylation events

    SciTech Connect

    Nogueira, Marcela O.; Hošek, Tomáš; Calçada, Eduar

    HPV-16 E7 is one of the key proteins that, by interfering with the host metabolism through many protein-protein interactions, hijacks cell regulation and contributes to malignancy. Here we report the high resolution investigation of the CR3 region of HPV-16 E7, both as an isolated domain and in the full-length protein. This opens the way to the atomic level study of the many interactions in which HPV-16 E7 is involved. Along these lines we show here the effect of one of the key post-translational modifications of HPV-16 E7, the phosphorylation by casein kinase II.

  3. Emotional facial expressions reduce neural adaptation to face identity.

    PubMed

    Gerlicher, Anna M V; van Loon, Anouk M; Scholte, H Steven; Lamme, Victor A F; van der Leij, Andries R

    2014-05-01

    In human social interactions, facial emotional expressions are a crucial source of information. Repeatedly presented information typically leads to an adaptation of neural responses. However, processing seems sustained with emotional facial expressions. Therefore, we tested whether sustained processing of emotional expressions, especially threat-related expressions, would attenuate neural adaptation. Neutral and emotional expressions (happy, mixed and fearful) of same and different identity were presented at 3 Hz. We used electroencephalography to record the evoked steady-state visual potentials (ssVEP) and tested to what extent the ssVEP amplitude adapts to the same when compared with different face identities. We found adaptation to the identity of a neutral face. However, for emotional faces, adaptation was reduced, decreasing linearly with negative valence, with the least adaptation to fearful expressions. This short and straightforward method may prove to be a valuable new tool in the study of emotional processing.

  4. E6/E7 oncoproteins of high risk HPV-16 upregulate MT1-MMP, MMP-2 and MMP-9 and promote the migration of cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dingjun; Ye, Mei; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    E6 and E7 of high risk human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) were reported to correlate with the cervical cancer (CC). And the presence of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has also been indicated to be associated with CC. The present study investigated the expression of MMPs (MT1-MMP, MMP-2 and MMP-9) in CC cells with HPV16-E6/E7 oncoprotein(s) negative or positive, and then determined the regulation of HPV16-E6/E7 oncoproteins on the expression of MMPs (MT1-MMP, MMP-2 and MMP-9) and the migration of cervical cancer Caski and SiHa cells with RNAi technology. It was demonstrated that the overexpression or the knockdown of HPV16-E6/E7 promoted or reduced MT1-MMP, MMP-2 and MMP-9 in CC cells. And the HPV16-E6, -E7 or -E6E7 influenced the migration of CC cells. The overexpression or the knockdown of them promoted or inhibited the migration of C33A or Caski/SiHa cells. Moreover, the chemical inhibition of MMP-2 or MMP-9 significantly reduced the migration of CC Caski or SiHa cells. Our results demonstrated that the E6-HPV16 or E7-HPV16 promoted the activity of MMP-2/9, and contributed to the migration of cervical cells.

  5. Reduced opsin gene expression in a cave-dwelling fish

    PubMed Central

    Tobler, Michael; Coleman, Seth W.; Perkins, Brian D.; Rosenthal, Gil G.

    2010-01-01

    Regressive evolution of structures associated with vision in cave-dwelling organisms is the focus of intense research. Most work has focused on differences between extreme visual phenotypes: sighted, surface animals and their completely blind, cave-dwelling counterparts. We suggest that troglodytic systems, comprising multiple populations that vary along a gradient of visual function, may prove critical in understanding the mechanisms underlying initial regression in visual pathways. Gene expression assays of natural and laboratory-reared populations of the Atlantic molly (Poecilia mexicana) revealed reduced opsin expression in cave-dwelling populations compared with surface-dwelling conspecifics. Our results suggest that the reduction in opsin expression in cave-dwelling populations is not phenotypically plastic but reflects a hardwired system not rescued by exposure to light during retinal ontogeny. Changes in opsin gene expression may consequently represent a first evolutionary step in the regression of eyes in cave organisms. PMID:19740890

  6. Reduced Ang2 expression in aging endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hohensinner, P.J., E-mail: philipp.hohensinner@meduniwien.ac.at; Ebenbauer, B.; Ludwig Boltzmann Cluster for Cardiovascular Research, Vienna

    Aging endothelial cells are characterized by increased cell size, reduced telomere length and increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines. In addition, we describe here that aging reduces the migratory distance of endothelial cells. Furthermore, we observe an increase of the quiescence protein Ang1 and a decrease of the endothelial activation protein Ang2 upon aging. Supplementing Ang2 to aged endothelial cells restored their migratory capacity. We conclude that aging shifts the balance of the Ang1/Ang2 network favouring a quiescent state. Activation of endothelial cells in aging might be necessary to enhance wound healing capacities. -- Highlights: •Endothelial cells display signs of agingmore » before reaching proliferative senescence. •Aging endothelial cells express more angiopoietin 1 and less angiopoietin 2 than young endothelial cells. •Migratory capacity is reduced in aging endothelial cells.« less

  7. HPV-16 E6/E7 promotes cell migration and invasion in cervical cancer via regulating cadherin switch in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dongxiao; Zhou, Jiansong; Wang, Fenfen; Shi, Haiyan; Li, Yang; Li, Baohua

    2015-12-01

    Cadherin switch, as a key hallmark of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), is characterized by reduced E-cadherin expression and increased N-cadherin or P-cadherin expression, and has been implicated in many aggressive tumors, but the importance and regulatory mechanism of cadherin switch in cervical cancer have not been investigated. Our study aimed to explore the role of cadherin switch by regulation of HPV-16 E6/E7 in progression and metastasis of cervical cancer. The expressions of E-cadherin and P-cadherin were examined by immunohistochemical staining in 40 cases of high-grade cervical lesions with HPV-16 infection only in which HPV-16 E6 and E7 expression had been detected using qRT-PCR method. Through modulating E6 and E7 expression using HPV-16 E6/E7 promoter-targeting siRNAs or expressed vector in vitro, cell growth, migration, and invasion were separately tested by MTT, wound-healing and transwell invasion assays, as well as the expressions of these cadherins by western blot analyses. Finally, the expressions of these cadherins in cancerous tissues of BALB/c-nu mouse model inoculated with the stable HPV-16 E6/E7 gene silencing Siha and Caski cells were also measured by immunohistochemical staining. Pearson correlation coefficient analyses showed the strongly inverse correlation of E-cadherin expression and strongly positive correlation of P-cadherin expression with E6/E7 level in 40 cases of high-grade cervical lesions. Furthermore, the modulation of HPV-16 E6/E7 expression remarkably influenced cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, as well as the protein levels of E-cadherin and P-cadherin in cervical cell lines. Finally, the reduction of HPV-16 E6/E7 expression led to up-regulated expression of E-cadherin and down-regulated expression of P-cadherin in BALB/c-nu mouse model in vivo assay. Our results unraveled the possibility that HPV-16 E6/E7 could promote cell invasive potential via regulating cadherin switching, and consequently contribute

  8. Human Papillomavirus Type 18 E6 and E7 Genes Integrate into Human Hepatoma Derived Cell Line Hep G2

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Tianzhong; Su, Zhongjing; Chen, Ling; Liu, Shuyan; Zhu, Ningxia; Wen, Lifeng; Yuan, Yan; Lv, Leili; Chen, Xiancai; Huang, Jianmin; Chen, Haibin

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Human papillomaviruses have been linked causally to some human cancers such as cervical carcinoma, but there is very little research addressing the effect of HPV infection on human liver cells. We chose the human hepatoma derived cell line Hep G2 to investigate whether HPV gene integration took place in liver cells as well. Methods We applied PCR to detect the possible integration of HPV genes in Hep G2 cells. We also investigated the expression of the integrated E6 and E7 genes by using RT-PCR and Western blotting. Then, we silenced E6 and E7 expression and checked the cell proliferation and apoptosis in Hep G2 cells. Furthermore, we analyzed the potential genes involved in cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory pathways. Finally, we used in situ hybridization to detect HPV 16/18 in hepatocellular carcinoma samples. Results Hep G2 cell line contains integrated HPV 18 DNA, leading to the expression of the E6 and E7 oncogenic proteins. Knockdown of the E7 and E6 genes expression reduced cell proliferation, caused the cell cycle arrest at the S phase, and increased apoptosis. The human cell cycle and apoptosis real-time PCR arrays analysis demonstrated E6 and E7-mediated regulation of some genes such as Cyclin H, UBA1, E2F4, p53, p107, FASLG, NOL3 and CASP14. HPV16/18 was found in only 9% (9/100) of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Conclusion Our investigations showed that HPV 18 E6 and E7 genes can be integrated into the Hep G2, and we observed a low prevalence of HPV 16/18 in hepatocellular carcinoma samples. However, the precise risk of HPV as causative agent of hepatocellular carcinoma needs further study. PMID:22655088

  9. Tinkertoys for the E 7 theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacaltana, Oscar; Distler, Jacques; Trimm, Anderson; Zhu, Yinan

    2018-05-01

    We classify the class S theories of type E 7. These are four-dimensional N=2 superconformal field theories arising from the compactification of the E 7 (2, 0) theory on a punctured Riemann surface, C. The classification is given by listing all 3-punctured spheres ("fixtures"), and connecting cylinders, which can arise in a pants-decomposition of C. We find exactly 11,000 fixtures with three regular punctures, and an additional 48 with one "irregular puncture" (in the sense used in our previous works). To organize this large number of theories, we have created a web application at https://golem.ph.utexas.edu/class-S/E7/. Among these theories, we find 10 new ones with a simple exceptional global symmetry group, as well as a new rank-2 SCFT and several new rank-3 SCFTs. As an application, we study the strong-coupling limit of the E 7 gauge theory with 3 hypermultiplets in the 56. Using our results, we also verify recent conjectures that the T 2 compactification of certain 6 d (1, 0) theories can alternatively be realized in class S as fixtures in the E 7 or E 8 theories.

  10. Reduced Ang2 expression in aging endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hohensinner, P J; Ebenbauer, B; Kaun, C; Maurer, G; Huber, K; Wojta, J

    2016-06-03

    Aging endothelial cells are characterized by increased cell size, reduced telomere length and increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines. In addition, we describe here that aging reduces the migratory distance of endothelial cells. Furthermore, we observe an increase of the quiescence protein Ang1 and a decrease of the endothelial activation protein Ang2 upon aging. Supplementing Ang2 to aged endothelial cells restored their migratory capacity. We conclude that aging shifts the balance of the Ang1/Ang2 network favouring a quiescent state. Activation of endothelial cells in aging might be necessary to enhance wound healing capacities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tungstate Reduces the Expression of Gluconeogenic Enzymes in STZ Rats

    PubMed Central

    Calbó, Joaquim; Domínguez, Jorge; Guinovart, Joan J.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Oral administration of sodium tungstate has shown hyperglycemia-reducing activity in several animal models of diabetes. We present new insights into the mechanism of action of tungstate. Methods We studied protein expression and phosphorylation in the liver of STZ rats, a type I diabetes model, treated with sodium tungstate in the drinking water (2 mg/ml) and in primary cultured-hepatocytes, through Western blot and Real Time PCR analysis. Results Tungstate treatment reduces the expression of gluconeogenic enzymes (PEPCK, G6Pase, and FBPase) and also regulates transcription factors accountable for the control of hepatic metabolism (c-jun, c-fos and PGC1α). Moreover, ERK, p90rsk and GSK3, upstream kinases regulating the expression of c-jun and c-fos, are phosphorylated in response to tungstate. Interestingly, PKB/Akt phosphorylation is not altered by the treatment. Several of these observations were reproduced in isolated rat hepatocytes cultured in the absence of insulin, thereby indicating that those effects of tungstate are insulin-independent. Conclusions Here we show that treatment with tungstate restores the phosphorylation state of various signaling proteins and changes the expression pattern of metabolic enzymes. PMID:22905122

  12. Tungstate reduces the expression of gluconeogenic enzymes in STZ rats.

    PubMed

    Nocito, Laura; Zafra, Delia; Calbó, Joaquim; Domínguez, Jorge; Guinovart, Joan J

    2012-01-01

    Oral administration of sodium tungstate has shown hyperglycemia-reducing activity in several animal models of diabetes. We present new insights into the mechanism of action of tungstate. We studied protein expression and phosphorylation in the liver of STZ rats, a type I diabetes model, treated with sodium tungstate in the drinking water (2 mg/ml) and in primary cultured-hepatocytes, through Western blot and Real Time PCR analysis. Tungstate treatment reduces the expression of gluconeogenic enzymes (PEPCK, G6Pase, and FBPase) and also regulates transcription factors accountable for the control of hepatic metabolism (c-jun, c-fos and PGC1α). Moreover, ERK, p90rsk and GSK3, upstream kinases regulating the expression of c-jun and c-fos, are phosphorylated in response to tungstate. Interestingly, PKB/Akt phosphorylation is not altered by the treatment. Several of these observations were reproduced in isolated rat hepatocytes cultured in the absence of insulin, thereby indicating that those effects of tungstate are insulin-independent. Here we show that treatment with tungstate restores the phosphorylation state of various signaling proteins and changes the expression pattern of metabolic enzymes.

  13. Human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein mediates CCNA1 promoter methylation.

    PubMed

    Chalertpet, Kanwalat; Pakdeechaidan, Watcharapong; Patel, Vyomesh; Mutirangura, Apiwat; Yanatatsaneejit, Pattamawadee

    2015-10-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) oncoproteins drive distinctive promoter methylation patterns in cancer. However, the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. Cyclin A1 (CCNA1) promoter methylation is strongly associated with HPV-associated cancer. CCNA1 methylation is found in HPV-associated cervical cancers, as well as in head and neck squamous cell cancer. Numerous pieces of evidence suggest that E7 may drive CCNA1 methylation. First, the CCNA1 promoter is methylated in HPV-positive epithelial lesions after transformation. Second, the CCNA1 promoter is methylated at a high level when HPV is integrated into the human genome. Finally, E7 has been shown to interact with DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1). Here, we sought to determine the mechanism by which E7 increases methylation in cervical cancer by using CCNA1 as a gene model. We investigated whether E7 induces CCNA1 promoter methylation, resulting in the loss of expression. Using both E7 knockdown and overexpression approaches in SiHa and C33a cells, our data showed that CCNA1 promoter methylation decreases with a corresponding increase in expression in E7 siRNA-transfected cells. By contrast, CCNA1 promoter methylation was augmented with a corresponding reduction in expression in E7-overexpressing cells. To confirm whether the binding of the E7-Dnmt1 complex to the CCNA1 promoter induced methylation and loss of expression, ChIP assays were carried out in E7-, del CR3-E7 and vector control-overexpressing C33a cells. The data showed that E7 induced CCNA1 methylation by forming a complex with Dnmt1 at the CCNA1 promoter, resulting in the subsequent reduction of expression in cancers. It is interesting to further explore the genome-wide mechanism of E7 oncoprotein-mediated DNA methylation. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  14. E6^E7, a Novel Splice Isoform Protein of Human Papillomavirus 16, Stabilizes Viral E6 and E7 Oncoproteins via HSP90 and GRP78

    PubMed Central

    Ajiro, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Transcripts of human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) E6 and E7 oncogenes undergo alternative RNA splicing to produce multiple splice isoforms. However, the importance of these splice isoforms is poorly understood. Here we report a critical role of E6^E7, a novel isoform containing the 41 N-terminal amino acid (aa) residues of E6 and the 38 C-terminal aa residues of E7, in the regulation of E6 and E7 stability. Through mass spectrometric analysis, we identified that HSP90 and GRP78, which are frequently upregulated in cervical cancer tissues, are two E6^E7-interacting proteins responsible for the stability and function of E6^E7, E6, and E7. Although GRP78 and HSP90 do not bind each other, GRP78, but not HSP90, interacts with E6 and E7. E6^E7 protein, in addition to self-binding, interacts with E6 and E7 in the presence of GRP78 and HSP90, leading to the stabilization of E6 and E7 by prolonging the half-life of each protein. Knocking down E6^E7 expression in HPV16-positive CaSki cells by a splice junction-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) destabilizes E6 and E7 and prevents cell growth. The same is true for the cells with a GRP78 knockdown or in the presence of an HSP90 inhibitor. Moreover, mapping and alignment analyses for splicing elements in 36 alpha-HPVs (α-HPVs) suggest the possible expression of E6^E7 mostly by other oncogenic or possibly oncogenic α-HPVs (HPV18, -30, -31, -39, -42, -45, -56, -59, -70, and -73). HPV18 E6^E7 is detectable in HPV18-positive HeLa cells and HPV18-infected raft tissues. All together, our data indicate that viral E6^E7 and cellular GRP78 or HSP90 might be novel targets for cervical cancer therapy. PMID:25691589

  15. Refractive indices of liquid crystal E7 depending on temperature and wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Mingjian; Li, Shuguang; Jing, Xili; Chen, Hailiang

    2017-11-01

    The dependence of refractive indices of liquid crystal (LC) on temperature is represented by the Haller approximation model, and its dependence on the wavelength is expressed by the extended Cauchy model. We derived the refractive indices expressions of nematic LC E7 depending on temperature and wavelength simultaneously by combining these two models. Based on the obtained expressions, one can acquire the refractive indices of E7 at arbitrary temperature and wavelengths. The birefringence, variation rate of refractive indices, macroscopic order parameter Q, and orientational order parameter ⟨P2⟩ of E7 were then discussed based on the expressions.

  16. E6 and E7 gene silencing results in decreased methylation of tumor suppressor genes and induces phenotype transformation of human cervical carcinoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Long, Jia; Shen, Danbei; Zhou, Wuqing; Zhou, Qiyan; Yang, Jia; Jiang, Mingjun

    2015-01-01

    In SiHa and CaSki cells, E6 and E7-targeting shRNA specifically and effectively knocked down human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 E6 and E7 at the transcriptional level, reduced the E6 and E7 mRNA levels by more than 80% compared with control cells that expressed a scrambled-sequence shRNA. E6 and E7 repression resulted in down-regulation of DNA methyltransferase mRNA and protein expression, decreased DNA methylation and increased mRNA expression levels of tumor suppressor genes, induced a certain apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in E6 and E7 shRNA-infected SiHa and CaSki cells compared with the uninfected cells. Repression of E6 and E7 oncogenes resulted in restoration of DNA methyltransferase suppressor pathways and induced apoptosis in HPV16-positive cervical carcinoma cell lines. Our findings suggest that the potential carcinogenic mechanism of HPV16 through influencing DNA methylation pathway to activate the development of cervical cancer exist, and maybe as a candidate therapeutic strategy for cervical and other HPV-associated cancers. PMID:26329329

  17. Adenovirus-mediated transfer of HPV 16 E6/E7 antisense RNA combined with cisplatin inhibits cellular growth and induces apoptosis in HPV-positive head and neck cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Yasutaka; Otsuki, Naoki; Kubo, Mie; Kitamoto, Junko; Takata, Eri; Saito, Hiroki; Kosaka, Kyoko; Morishita, Naoya; Uehara, Natsumi; Shirakawa, Toshiro; Nibu, Ken-Ich

    2018-05-24

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been identified as an etiologic factor of head and neck cancers (HNCs). We explored the potential use of antisense HPV RNA transcripts for gene therapy and its effect in combination with cisplatin (CDDP) for HPV-positive HNCs. We introduced the antisense RNA transcripts of the E6 and E7 genes of HPV type 16 into UM-SCC-47 cells harboring HPV 16 and YCU-T892 cells that were HPV-negative using a recombinant adenoviral vector, Ad-E6/E7-AS. We then analyzed the effects of the introduction of Ad-E7-AS on cell and tumor growth and the synergistic effect with CDDP in vitro and in vivo. After infection of Ad-E6/E7-AS, the cellular growth of UM-SCC-47 cells were suppressed, but not that of YCU-T892 cells. E7 protein expression was suppressed, and p53 and pRb protein expression increased after infection of Ad-E7-AS. Cell growth and tumorigenicity were greatly suppressed in combination with CDDP compared with Ad-E7-AS or CDDP treatment alone in vitro. Ad-E7-AS combined with CDDP treatment significantly reduced the volumes of established subcutaneous tumors. Transfection with HPV 16 E7 antisense RNA combined with CDDP treatment might be a potentially useful approach to the therapy of HPV 16-positive HNC.

  18. Cooperative transformation and coexpression of bovine papillomavirus type 1 E5 and E7 proteins.

    PubMed

    Bohl, J; Hull, B; Vande Pol, S B

    2001-01-01

    Productively infected bovine fibropapillomas were examined for bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) E7 localization. BPV-1 E7 was observed in the cytoplasm of basal and lower spinous epithelial cells, coexpressed in the cytoplasm of basal cells with the E5 oncoprotein. E7 was also observed in nucleoli throughout the basal and spinous layers but not in the granular cell layer. Ectopic expression of E7 in cultured epithelial cells gave rise to localization similar to that seen in productive fibropapillomas, with cytoplasmic and nucleolar expression observed. Consistent with the coexpression of E7 and E5 in basal keratinocytes, BPV-1 E7 cooperated with E5 as well as E6 in an anchorage independence transformation assay. While E5 is expressed in both basal and superficial differentiating keratinocytes, BPV-1 E7 is only observed in basal and lower spinous epithelial cells. Therefore, BPV-1 E7 may serve to modulate the cellular response of basal epithelial cells to E5 expression.

  19. Low- and high-risk human papillomavirus E7 proteins regulate p130 differently

    SciTech Connect

    Barrow-Laing, Lisa; Chen Wei; Roman, Ann, E-mail: aroman@iupui.ed

    2010-05-10

    The E7 protein of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR HPVs) targets pRb family members (pRb, p107 and p130) for degradation; low-risk (LR) HPV E7 only targets p130 for degradation. The effect of HR HPV 16 E7 and LR HPV 6 E7 on p130 intracellular localization and half-life was examined. Nuclear/cytoplasmic fractionation and immunofluorescence showed that, in contrast to control and HPV 6 E7-expressing cells, a greater amount of p130 was present in the cytoplasm in the presence of HPV 16 E7. The half-life of p130, relative to control cells, was decreased in the cytoplasm in the presence of HPV 6 E7more » or HPV 16 E7, but only decreased by HPV 6 E7 in the nucleus. Inhibition of proteasomal degradation extended the half-life of p130, regardless of intracellular localization. These results suggest that there may be divergent mechanisms by which LR and HR HPV E7 target p130 for degradation.« less

  20. Astaxanthin reduces matrix metalloproteinase expression in human chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Ping; Xiong, Yan; Shi, Yong-Xiang; Hu, Peng-Fei; Bao, Jia-Peng; Wu, Li-Dong

    2014-03-01

    Astaxanthin is a red carotenoid pigment which exerts multiple biological activities. However, little is known about the effects of astaxanthin on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in OA. The present study investigated the effects of astaxanthin on MMPs in human chondrocytes. Human chondrocytes were pretreated with astaxanthin at 1, 10 or 50μM, then, cells were stimulated with IL-1β (10ng/ml) for 24h. MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-13 were observed. We found that astaxanthin reduced the expression of MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-13 as well as the phosphorylation of two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) (p38 and ERK1/2) in IL-1β-stimulated chondrocytes. Astaxanthin also blocked the IκB-α degradation. These results suggest that astaxanthin may be beneficial in the treatment of OA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Expressive writing as a brief intervention for reducing drinking intentions.

    PubMed

    Young, Chelsie M; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Neighbors, Clayton

    2013-12-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of expressive writing in reducing drinking behavior. We expected that students prompted to write about negative drinking experiences would show greater decreases in future drinking intentions compared to the neutral and the positive writing conditions. We also expected that decreases in drinking intentions following the writing prompts might differ based on current drinking and AUDIT scores. Participants included 200 (76% female) undergraduates who completed measures of their current drinking behavior. They were then randomly assigned to either write about: a time when they had a lot to drink that was a good time (Positive); a time when they had a lot to drink that was a bad time (Negative); or their first day of college (Neutral), followed by measures assessing intended drinking over the next three months. Results revealed that participants intended to drink significantly fewer drinks per week and engage in marginally fewer heavy drinking occasions after writing about a negative drinking occasion when compared to control. Interactions provided mixed findings suggesting that writing about a positive event was associated with higher drinking intentions for heavier drinkers. Writing about a negative event was associated with higher intentions among heavier drinkers, but lower intentions among those with higher AUDIT scores. This research builds on previous expressive writing interventions by applying this technique to undergraduate drinkers. Preliminary results provide some support for this innovative strategy but also suggest the need for further refinement, especially with heavier drinkers. © 2013.

  2. Expressive Writing as a Brief Intervention for Reducing Drinking Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Young, Chelsie M.; Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of expressive writing in reducing drinking behavior. We expected that students prompted to write about negative drinking experiences would show greater decreases in future drinking intentions compared to the neutral and the positive writing conditions. We also expected that decreases in drinking intentions following the writing prompts might differ based on current drinking and AUDIT scores. Participants included 200 (76% female) undergraduates who completed measures of their current drinking behavior. They were then randomly assigned to either write about: a time when they had a lot to drink that was a good time (Positive); a time when they had a lot to drink that was a bad time (Negative); or their first day of college (Neutral), followed by measures assessing intended drinking over the next three months. Results revealed that participants intended to drink significantly fewer drinks per week and engage in marginally fewer heavy drinking occasions after writing about a negative drinking occasion when compared to control. Interactions provided mixed findings suggesting that writing about a positive event was associated with higher drinking intentions for heavier drinkers. Writing about a negative event was associated with higher intentions among heavier drinkers, but lower intentions among those with higher AUDIT scores. This research builds on previous expressive writing interventions by applying this technique to undergraduate drinkers. Preliminary results provide some support for this innovative strategy but also suggest the need for further refinement, especially with heavier drinkers. PMID:24064189

  3. Enhanced immunogenicity of HPV 16 E7 fusion proteins in DNA vaccination.

    PubMed

    Michel, Nico; Osen, Wolfram; Gissmann, Lutz; Schumacher, Ton N M; Zentgraf, Hanswalter; Müller, Martin

    2002-03-01

    DNA vaccination is a promising approach for inducing both humoral and cellular immune responses. For immunotherapy of HPV-16-associated diseases the E7 protein is considered a prime candidate, as it is expressed in all HPV-16-positive tumors. Unfortunately, the E7 protein is a very poor inducer of a cytotoxic T-cell response, when being used as antigen in DNA vaccination. Here we demonstrate that after fusion to protein export/import signals such as the herpes simplex virus ferry protein VP22, E7 can translocate in vitro from VP22-E7-expressing cells to neighboring cells that do not carry the VP22-E7 gene. In vivo, the VP22-E7 fusion shows significantly increased efficiency in inducing a cytotoxic T-cell response. Our data suggest that the export function of VP22 plays a major role in this phenomenon, since VP22 can be replaced by classical protein export signals, without impairing the induction of the E7-specific cellular immune response. However, all E7 fusion constructs showed significantly elevated protein steady-state levels, which might also account for the observed boost in immunogenicity. (C)2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  4. Chronic sleep deprivation markedly reduces coagulation factor VII expression

    PubMed Central

    Pinotti, Mirko; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Frigato, Elena; Branchini, Alessio; Cavallari, Nicola; Baba, Kenkichi; Contreras-Alcantara, Susana; Ehlen, J. Christopher; Bernardi, Francesco; Paul, Ketema N.; Tosini, Gianluca

    2010-01-01

    Chronic sleep loss, a common feature of human life in industrialized countries, is associated to cardiovascular disorders. Variations in functional parameters of coagulation might contribute to explain this relationship. By exploiting the mouse model and a specifically designed protocol, we demonstrated that seven days of partial sleep deprivation significantly decreases (−30.5%) the thrombin generation potential in plasma evaluated upon extrinsic (TF/FVIIa pathway) but not intrinsic activation of coagulation. This variation was consistent with a decrease (−49.8%) in the plasma activity levels of factor VII (FVII), the crucial physiologicalal trigger of coagulation, which was even more pronounced at the liver mRNA level (−85.7%). The recovery in normal sleep conditions for three days completely restored thrombin generation and FVII activity in plasma. For the first time, we demonstrate that chronic sleep deprivation on its own reduces, in a reversible manner, the FVII expression levels, thus influencing the TF/FVIIa activation pathway efficiency. PMID:20418241

  5. The combinational effect of E6/E7 siRNA and anti-miR-182 on apoptosis induction in HPV16-positive cervical cells.

    PubMed

    Javadi, Hamidreza; Lotfi, Abbas Sahebghadam; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Mehrani, Hossein; Amani, Jafar; Soheili, Zahra Soheila; Hojati, Zahra; Kamali, Mehdi

    2018-06-06

    In the present research, we assumed that reducing the amounts of E6 and E7 oncoproteins by a specific siRNA sequence and recovering p53 and RB proteins, along with the recovery of the FOXO1 protein by applying anti-miR-182, would increase apoptosis and reduce proliferation rate in cancer cells. The HPV16-positive CaSki cervical cancer cell line was used. 48 hours after transfection of siRNA for targeting E6 and E7 oncoproteins and anti-miR-182, expression of its cellular targets p53, p21 and FOXO1 was assessed by real-time PCR, western blot analysis and immunocytofluorescence staining. In all treatments, apoptosis rate and viability were evaluated using Annexin-V-FITC apoptosis detection kits and MTT assays, respectively. Among the designed siRNAs, E6-1 and E7-2 proved the most effective in reducing E6 and E7 expressions by increasing the apoptotic rates to 12.4% and 16%, respectively, after 48 hours. Also, using anti-miR-182 increased apoptotic rate to 12.7% 48 hours after transfection of cervical cancer cells. The combinational use of either E6-1 or E7-2 siRNAs with anti-miR-182 resulted in a rise in apoptosis to 19.3% and 26%, respectively, higher than those obtained from the individual application of either without anti-miR-182. The simultaneous use of siRNA E6-1 and siRNA E7-2 with cisplatin increased sensitivity to cisplatin and reduced the viability of the cancer cells as compared to the use of cisplatin alone. The simultaneous use of cisplatin and anti-miR-182 had no considerable effect on viability or apoptosis rate compared to cisplatin alone.

  6. Reduced Insulin Receptor Expression Enhances Proximal Tubule Gluconeogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Gaurav; Shankar, Kripa; Makhija, Ekta; Gaikwad, Anil; Ecelbarger, Carolyn; Mandhani, Anil; Srivastava, Aneesh; Tiwari, Swasti

    2017-02-01

    Reduced insulin receptor protein levels have been reported in the kidney cortex from diabetic humans and animals. We recently reported that, targeted deletion of insulin receptor (IR) from proximal tubules (PT) resulted in hyperglycemia in non-obese mice. To elucidate the mechanism, we examined human proximal tubule cells (hPTC) and C57BL/6 mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD, 60% fat for 20 weeks). Immunoblotting revealed a significantly lower protein level of IR in HFD compare to normal chow diet (NCD). Furthermore, a blunted rise in p-AKT 308 levels in the kidney cortex of HFD mice was observed in response to acute insulin (0.75 IU/kg body weight, i.p) relative to NCD n = 8/group, P < 0.05). Moreover, we found significantly higher transcript levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK, a key gluconeogenic enzyme) in the kidney cortex from HFD, relative to mice on NCD. The higher level of PEPCK in HFD was confirmed by immunoblotting. However, no significant differences were observed in cortical glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) or fructose-1,6, bisphosphosphatase (FBPase) enzyme transcript levels. Furthermore, we demonstrated insulin inhibited glucose production in hPTC treated with cyclic AMP and dexamethasone (cAMP/DEXA) to stimulate gluconeogenesis. Transcript levels of the gluconeogenic enzyme PEPCK were significantly increased in cAMP/DEXA-stimulated hPTC cells (n = 3, P < 0.05), and insulin attenuated this upregulation Furthermore, the effect of insulin on cAMP/DEXA-induced gluconeogenesis and PEPCK induction was significantly attenuated in IR (siRNA) silenced hPTC (n = 3, P < 0.05). Overall the above data indicate a direct role for IR expression as a determinant of PT-gluconeogenesis. Thus reduced insulin signaling of the proximal tubule may contribute to hyperglycemia in the metabolic syndrome via elevated gluconeogenesis. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 276-285, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. [Experimental study on carcinogenesis by human papillomavirus type 8 E7 gene].

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, T

    1994-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) 5 and HPV8 are often detected in skin cancers developed in patients suffering from epidermodysplasia verruciformis, as well as in skin cancers developed in immunosuppressed patients. In the present study, in order to examine the transforming activity of the HPV8E7 gene, the HPV8E7 and HPV8E6/E7 genes were cloned into the expression vector (pcD2-Y), under the SV40 enhancer/promoter to construct pcD2-8E7 and pcD2-8E6/E7, respectively. The E7 and E6/E7 genes of genital high-risk HPV16 were also cloned into pcD2-Y to construct pcD2-16E7 and pcD2-16E6/E7, respectively. They were tested for their ability to collaboratively transform primary rat embryo fibroblasts (REFs) with activated H-ras gene. Transfection experiments of REFs having an activated H-ras gene revealed that pcD2-8E7, as well as pcD2-16E7 and pcD2-16E6/E7, induced transformation of cells in G418-resistant colonies at efficiencies of 11.9%, 43.0% and 53.0%, respectively. Transformed cell lines induced by activated H-ras gene and pcD2-8E7 or pcD2-16E7 were named 8RE and 16RE cell lines, respectively. Tumor induction in syngeneic newborn rats by injected the 8RE cells was higher than that of the 16RE cells. In cytological and histological examination, the 8RE cell lines and their induced tumors were different from the 16RE cell lines and their induced tumors. The 8RE cell lines showed the characteristic transformation with efficient growth ability on plastic and colony formation in 0.3% soft agar. These results support the hypothesis that the HPV8E7 gene plays an important role in the carcinogenesis of skin cancers.

  8. Codon Optimization of the Human Papillomavirus E7 Oncogene Induces a CD8+ T Cell Response to a Cryptic Epitope Not Harbored by Wild-Type E7

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Felix K. M.; Wilde, Susanne; Voigt, Katrin; Kieback, Elisa; Mosetter, Barbara; Schendel, Dolores J.; Uckert, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Codon optimization of nucleotide sequences is a widely used method to achieve high levels of transgene expression for basic and clinical research. Until now, immunological side effects have not been described. To trigger T cell responses against human papillomavirus, we incubated T cells with dendritic cells that were pulsed with RNA encoding the codon-optimized E7 oncogene. All T cell receptors isolated from responding T cell clones recognized target cells expressing the codon-optimized E7 gene but not the wild type E7 sequence. Epitope mapping revealed recognition of a cryptic epitope from the +3 alternative reading frame of codon-optimized E7, which is not encoded by the wild type E7 sequence. The introduction of a stop codon into the +3 alternative reading frame protected the transgene product from recognition by T cell receptor gene-modified T cells. This is the first experimental study demonstrating that codon optimization can render a transgene artificially immunogenic through generation of a dominant cryptic epitope. This finding may be of great importance for the clinical field of gene therapy to avoid rejection of gene-corrected cells and for the design of DNA- and RNA-based vaccines, where codon optimization may artificially add a strong immunogenic component to the vaccine. PMID:25799237

  9. Reduced Expression of SARM in Mouse Spleen during Polymicrobial Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yu; Zou, Lin; Cen, Dongzhi; Chao, Wei; Chen, Dunjin

    2016-12-01

    Objective Immune dysfunction, including prominent apoptosis of immune cells and decreased functioning of the remaining immune cells, plays a central role in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Sterile α and HEAT/armadillo motif-containing protein (SARM) is implicated in the regulation of immune cell apoptosis. This study aimed to elucidate SARM contributes to sepsis-induced immune cell death and immunosuppression. Methods A mouse model of polymicrobial sepsis was generated by cecum ligation and puncture (CLP). SARM gene and protein expression, caspase 3 cleavage and intracellular ATP production were measured in the mouse spleens. Results CLP-induced polymicrobial sepsis specifically attenuated both the gene and protein expression of SARM in the spleens. Moreover, the attenuation of SARM expression synchronized with splenocyte apoptosis, as evidenced by increased caspase 3 cleavage and ATP depletion. Conclusions These findings suggest that SARM is a potential regulator of sepsis-induced splenocyte apoptosis.

  10. Reduced glucocorticoid receptor expression predicts bladder tumor recurrence and progression.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Hitoshi; Kawahara, Takashi; Zheng, Yichun; Netto, George J; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2014-08-01

    To assess the levels of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression in bladder tumors because the status and its prognostic value remain largely unknown. We immunohistochemically stained for GR in bladder tumor and matched non-neoplastic bladder tissue specimens. Overall, GR was positive in 129 (87%) of 149 urothelial tumors, which was significantly (P=.026) lower than in non-neoplastic urothelium (90 [96%] of 94). Forty-two (79%) of 53 low-grade tumors vs 45 (47%) of 96 high-grade carcinomas (P<.001) and 61 (73%) of 84 non-muscle-invasive (NMI) tumors vs 26 (40%) of 65 muscle-invasive (MI) carcinomas (P<.001) were moderately to strongly immunoreactive for GR. Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests revealed that loss or weak positivity of GR significantly or marginally correlated with recurrence of NMI tumors (P=.025), progression of MI tumors (P=.082), and cancer-specific survival of MI tumors (P=.067). Multivariate analysis identified low GR expression as a strong predictor for recurrence of NMI tumors (P=.034). GR expression was downregulated in bladder tumors compared with nonneoplastic bladder tumors and in high-grade/MI tumors compared with low-grade/NMI tumors. Decreased expression of GR, as an independent prognosticator, predicted recurrence of NMI tumors. These results support experimental evidence suggesting an inhibitory role of GR signals in bladder cancer outgrowth. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  11. Reduced immunohistochemical expression of adhesion molecules in vitiligo skin biopsies.

    PubMed

    Reichert Faria, Adriane; Jung, Juliana Elizabeth; Silva de Castro, Caio César; de Noronha, Lucia

    2017-03-01

    Because defects in adhesion impairment seem to be involved in the etiopathogenesis of vitiligo, this study aimed to compare the immunohistochemical expression of several adhesion molecules in the epidermis of vitiligo and non lesional vitiligo skin. Sixty-six specimens of lesional and non lesional skin from 33 volunteers with vitiligo were evaluated by immunohistochemistry using anti-beta-catenin, anti-E-cadherin, anti-laminin, anti-beta1 integrin, anti-collagen IV, anti-ICAM-1 and anti-VCAM-1 antibodies. Biopsies of vitiligo skin demonstrated a significant reduction in the expression of laminin and integrin. The average value of the immunohistochemically positive reaction area of the vitiligo specimens was 3053.2μm 2 , compared with the observed value of 3431.8μm 2 in non vitiligo skin (p=0.003) for laminin. The immuno-positive area was 7174.6μm 2 (vitiligo) and 8966.7μm 2 (non lesional skin) for integrin (p=0.042). A reduction in ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in the basal layer of the epidermis in vitiligo samples was also observed (p=0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). However, no significant differences were observed with respect to the expression of beta-catenin, E-cadherin, and collagen IV between vitiligo and non lesional skin. Our results suggest that an impairment in adhesion exists in vitiligo skin, which is supported by the diminished immunohistochemical expression of laminin, beta1 integrin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. The human papillomavirus type 58 E7 oncoprotein modulates cell cycle regulatory proteins and abrogates cell cycle checkpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Weifang; Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong; Li Jing

    2010-02-05

    HPV type 58 (HPV-58) is the third most common HPV type in cervical cancer from Eastern Asia, yet little is known about how it promotes carcinogenesis. In this study, we demonstrate that HPV-58 E7 significantly promoted the proliferation and extended the lifespan of primary human keratinocytes (PHKs). HPV-58 E7 abrogated the G1 and the postmitotic checkpoints, although less efficiently than HPV-16 E7. Consistent with these observations, HPV-58 E7 down-regulated the cellular tumor suppressor pRb to a lesser extent than HPV-16 E7. Similar to HPV-16 E7 expressing PHKs, Cdk2 remained active in HPV-58 E7 expressing PHKs despite the presence of elevatedmore » levels of p53 and p21. Interestingly, HPV-58 E7 down-regulated p130 more efficiently than HPV-16 E7. Our study demonstrates a correlation between the ability of down-regulating pRb/p130 and abrogating cell cycle checkpoints by HPV-58 E7, which also correlates with the biological risks of cervical cancer progression associated with HPV-58 infection.« less

  13. Reduced expression of CD45 Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatase Pr

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-08

    H S /D T R A on A ugust 19, 2009 w w w .jbc.org D ow nloaded from PTP1B , CD45, TCPTP, LMPTP-A, LMPTP-B, MEG1, MEG2, HePTP, PTP), three belong to...the dual specificity phosphatase VHR or the protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B . Given these FIGURE 5. Mice expressing intermediate CD45 levels survive

  14. Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing bacteriophage endolysins reduce Lactobacillus contamination during fermentation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One of the challenges facing the fuel ethanol industry is the management of bacterial contamination during fermentation. Lactobacillus species are the predominant contaminants that decrease the profitability of biofuel production by reducing ethanol yields and causing “stuck” fermentations, which i...

  15. [Profiles of cell proliferation and apoptosis in the mouse epithelial regeneration model K6b-E6/E7].

    PubMed

    Bonilla-Delgado, José; Rodríguez-Uribe, Genaro; Cortés-Malagón, Enoc Mariano; Sierra Martínez, Mónica; Acosta-Altamirano, Gustavo; Gariglio-Vidal, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    Mammals have limited epithelial regeneration capacity. The K6b-E6/E7 mice model has been described as useful for the study of epithelial regeneration. The objective of this study is to compare the expression of E6/E7 oncogenes with those of cell proliferation and apoptosis during epithelization. The hypothesis of this study is that alterations in cell proliferation and apoptosis in K6b-E6/E7 mice will only occur during epithelization. Deep 2 mm punches were performed in the middle of transgenic and control mice's ears. A biopsy was collected from the epithelization zone 72 hours and 2 weeks post-injury. Assays for cell proliferation and apoptosis were carried out by immunohistochemistry and TUNEL techniques, respectively. RT-PCR in situ was performed to compare E6/E7 expressions in the areas studied. Transgenic strain K6b-E6/E7 presented more proliferative cells and less apoptotic cells in epithelizated zones. This effect was limited to suprabasal stratum only, and correlates with E6/E7 oncogenes expression. Two weeks post-injury, cell proliferation and apoptosis were similar in both samples as the E6/E7 expression went down. K6b-E6/E7 mouse model is useful for epithelial regeneration. Its mechanisms should be considered for the treatment of deep wounds.

  16. Reduced Pms2 expression in non-neoplastic flat mucosa from patients with colon cancer correlates with reduced apoptosis competence.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Harris; Prasad, Anil; Holubec, Hana; Bernstein, Carol; Payne, Claire M; Ramsey, Lois; Dvorakova, Katerina; Wilson, Megan; Warneke, James A; Garewal, Harinder

    2006-06-01

    Pms2 protein is a component of the DNA mismatch repair complex responsible both for post-replication correction of DNA nucleotide mispairs and for early steps in apoptosis. Germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes give rise to hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer, which accounts for about 4% of colon cancers. However, little is known about the expression of mismatch repair proteins in relation to sporadic colon cancer, which accounts for the great majority of colon cancers. Multiple samples were taken from the non-neoplastic flat mucosa of colon resections from patients with no colonic neoplasia, a tubulovillous adenoma, or an adenocarcinoma. Expression of Pms2 was assessed using semiquantitative immunohistochemistry. Apoptosis was assessed in polychrome-stained epoxy sections using morphologic criteria. Samples from patients without colonic neoplasia had moderate to strong staining for Pms2 in cell nuclei at the base of crypts, while samples from 2 of the 3 colons with a tubulovillous adenoma, and from 6 of the 10 colons with adenocarcinomas, showed reduced Pms2 expression. Samples from patients with an adenocarcinoma that had reduced Pms2 expression also exhibited reduced apoptosis capability in nearby tissue samples, evidenced when this paired tissue was stressed ex vivo with bile acid. Reduced Pms2 expression in the colonic mucosa may be an early step in progression to colon cancer. This reduction may cause decreased mismatch repair, increased genetic instability, and/or reduced apoptotic capability. Immunohistochemical determination of reduced Pms2 expression, upon further testing, may prove to be a promising early biomarker of risk of progression to malignancy.

  17. The E6 and E7 genes of human papillomavirus type 6 have weak immortalizing activity in human epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Halbert, C L; Demers, G W; Galloway, D A

    1992-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the E7 gene of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 or 18 alone was sufficient for immortalization of human foreskin epithelial cells (HFE) and that the efficiency was increased in cooperation with the respective E6 gene, whereas the HPV6 E6 or E7 gene was not active in HFE. To detect weak immortalizing activities of the HPV6 genes, cells were infected with recombinant retroviruses containing HPV genes, alone and in homologous and heterologous combinations. The HPV6 genes, alone or together (HPV6 E6 plus HPV6 E7), were not able to immortalize cells. However the HPV6 E6 gene, in concert with HPV16 E7, increased the frequency of immortalization threefold over that obtained with HPV16 E7 alone. Interestingly, 6 of 20 clones containing the HPV16 E6 gene and the HPV6 E7 gene were immortalized, whereas neither gene alone was sufficient. Thus, the HPV6 E6 and E7 genes have weak immortalizing activities which can be detected in cooperation with the more active transforming genes of HPV16. Acute expression of the HPV6 and HPV16 E6 and E7 genes revealed that only HPV16 E7 was able to stimulate the proliferation of cells in organotypic culture, resulting in increased expression of the proliferative cell nuclear antigen and the formation of a disorganized epithelial layer. Additionally, combinations of genes that immortalized HFE cells (HPV16 E6 plus HPV16 E7, HPV16 E6 plus HPV6 E7, and HPV6 E6 plus HPV16 E7) also stimulated proliferation. Images PMID:1312623

  18. Isolation and characterization of an RNA aptamer for the HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein.

    PubMed

    Toscano-Garibay, Julia D; Benítez-Hess, María L; Alvarez-Salas, Luis M

    2011-02-01

    Cervical cancer is a common neoplastic disease affecting women worldwide. Expression of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E6/E7 genes is frequently associated with cervical cancer, representing ideal targets for diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Aptamers are oligonucleotide ligands capable of binding with high affinity and specificity to relevant markers in therapeutics and disease detection. The aim of the study was to isolate an RNA aptamer specific for the HPV-16 E7 protein. Aptamers were selected from a randomized oligonucleotide library using a modified SELEX method and recombinant HPV-16 E7 protein. Isolated aptamers were cloned and sequenced for in silico analysis. Interaction and electromobility shift assays (EMSA) were performed to establish aptamer specificity and affinity for E7. RNase footprinting and serial deletions of the aptamer and the E7 protein were made to characterize the aptamer-protein complex. Sandwich slot-blot assays were used for K(D) determination. After several rounds of SELEX, an aptamer (G5α3N.4) exhibited specificity for E7 using cell-free and protein extracts. G5α3N.4 binding yielded a K(D) comparable to aptamers directed to other small targets. Enzymatic and genetic analysis of G5α3N.4 binding showed a secondary structure with two stem-loop domains joined by single-stranded region contacting E7 in a clamp-like manner. The G5α3N.4 aptamer also produced specific complexes in HPV-positive cervical carcinoma cells. The affinity and specificity of G5α3N.4 binding domains for the HPV-16 E7 protein may be used for the detection of papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer. Copyright © 2011 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dominant Role of HPV16 E7 in Anal Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Marie K.; Pitot, Henry C.; Liem, Amy; Lambert, Paul F.

    2011-01-01

    Ninety percent of anal cancer is associated with human papilloma viruses (HPVs). Using our previously established HPV transgenic mouse model for anal cancer, we tested the role of the individual oncogenes E6 and E7. K14E6 and K14E7 transgenic mice were treated with dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) to the anal canal and compared to matched nontransgenic and doubly transgenic K14E6/E7 mice. K14E7 and K14E6/E7 transgenic mice developed anal tumors (papillomas, atypias and carcinomas combined) at significantly higher rates (88% and 100%, respectively) than either K14E6 or NTG mice (18% and 19%, respectively). Likewise, K14E7 and K14E6/E7 transgenic mice developed frank cancer (carcinomas) at significantly higher rates (85% and 85%, respectively) than either K14E6 or NTG mice (18% and 10%, respectively). These findings indicate that E7 is the more potent oncogene in anal cancer caused by HPVs. PMID:21999991

  20. Dominant role of HPV16 E7 in anal carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Marie K; Pitot, Henry C; Liem, Amy; Lambert, Paul F

    2011-12-20

    Ninety percent of anal cancer is associated with human papilloma viruses (HPVs). Using our previously established HPV transgenic mouse model for anal cancer, we tested the role of the individual oncogenes E6 and E7. K14E6 and K14E7 transgenic mice were treated with dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) to the anal canal and compared to matched nontransgenic and doubly transgenic K14E6/E7 mice. K14E7 and K14E6/E7 transgenic mice developed anal tumors (papillomas, atypias and carcinomas combined) at significantly higher rates (88% and 100%, respectively) than either K14E6 or NTG mice (18% and 19%, respectively). Likewise, K14E7 and K14E6/E7 transgenic mice developed frank cancer (carcinomas) at significantly higher rates (85% and 85%, respectively) than either K14E6 or NTG mice (18% and 10%, respectively). These findings indicate that E7 is the more potent oncogene in anal cancer caused by HPVs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Face in profile view reduces perceived facial expression intensity: an eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kun; Shaw, Heather

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies measuring the facial expressions of emotion have focused primarily on the perception of frontal face images. As we frequently encounter expressive faces from different viewing angles, having a mechanism which allows invariant expression perception would be advantageous to our social interactions. Although a couple of studies have indicated comparable expression categorization accuracy across viewpoints, it is unknown how perceived expression intensity and associated gaze behaviour change across viewing angles. Differences could arise because diagnostic cues from local facial features for decoding expressions could vary with viewpoints. Here we manipulated orientation of faces (frontal, mid-profile, and profile view) displaying six common facial expressions of emotion, and measured participants' expression categorization accuracy, perceived expression intensity and associated gaze patterns. In comparison with frontal faces, profile faces slightly reduced identification rates for disgust and sad expressions, but significantly decreased perceived intensity for all tested expressions. Although quantitatively viewpoint had expression-specific influence on the proportion of fixations directed at local facial features, the qualitative gaze distribution within facial features (e.g., the eyes tended to attract the highest proportion of fixations, followed by the nose and then the mouth region) was independent of viewpoint and expression type. Our results suggest that the viewpoint-invariant facial expression processing is categorical perception, which could be linked to a viewpoint-invariant holistic gaze strategy for extracting expressive facial cues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Immunization with mutant HPV16 E7 protein inhibits the growth of TC-1 cells in tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Li; Ma, Zhong-Liang; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Jing

    2015-04-01

    Two human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 oncogenic proteins, E6 and E7, are co-expressed in the majority of HPV16-induced cervical cancer cells. Thus, the E6 and E7 proteins are good targets for developing therapeutic vaccines for cervical cancer. In the present study, immunization with the mutant non-transforming HPV16 E7 (mE7) protein was demonstrated to inhibit the growth of TC-1 cells in the TC-1 mouse model. The HPV16 mE7 gene was amplified by splicing overlap extension polymerase chain reaction using pET-28a(+)-E7 as a template, and the gene was cloned into pET-28a(+) to form pET-28a(+)-mE7. Compared with the E7 protein, mE7 lacks amino acid residues 94-98, and at residue 24, there is a Cys to Gly substitution. pET-28a(+)-mE7 was then introduced into Escherichia coli Rosetta. The expression of mE7 was induced by isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside. The mE7 protein was purified using Ni-NTA agarose and detected by SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis. In the tumor prevention model, no tumor was detected in the mice vaccinated with the mE7 protein. After 40 days, the tumor-free mice and control mice were challenged with 2×10 5 TC-1 cells. All control mice developed tumors six days later, but mE7 immunized mice were tumor free until 90 days. In the tumor therapy model, the TC-1 cells were initially injected subcutaneously, and the mice were subsequently vaccinated. Vaccination against the mE7 protein may significantly inhibit TC-1 cell growth compared to the control. These results demonstrated that immunization with the HPV16 mE7 protein elicited a long-term protective immunity against TC-1 tumor growth and generated a significant inhibition of TC-1 growth in a TC-1 mouse model.

  3. The clinical value of HPV E6/E7 and STAT3 mRNA detection in cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yibing; Shen, Zongji

    2018-05-01

    To explore the value of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) mRNA detection in the screening of cervical lesions. 192 patients with abnormal ThinPrep cytology test (TCT) results and/or high-risk HPV infection were screened to identify possible cervical lesions in cases. Diagnoses were confirmed by histopathology. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed to detect and qualify the mRNAs of HPV E6/E7, STAT3, and Survivin in cervical exfoliated cells. In addition, the performance of separate and combined mRNA detection methods were compared with TCT, HR-HPV DNA schemes respectively. 1. Compared with HPVE6/E7 and STAT3 mRNA methods, Survivin mRNA assay had poor specificity (Sp), Youden index (YI) and concordance rate. 2. HPV E6/E7, STAT3, and STAT3 + HR-HPV methods had the best Sp, concordance rate and positive predictive value (PPV) for cervical lesions screening and atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) triage. For screening of high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or greater (HSILs+), no difference was observed in the Se of mRNA detection methods in comparison with that of TCT, HR-HPV and TCT + HR-HPV, whereas the false positive rate (FPR) decreased by 41.48%/55.99%/17.19% and the colposcopy referral rate reduced by about 20.00%/25.00%/11.17%. For triage of women with ASCUS, no difference was observed in the Se of mRNA detection methods as compared to that of HR-HPV (χ 2  = 1.05, P > 0.75), while the FPR decreased by 45.83%/37.50%/41.66% and the colposcopy referral rate reduced by 32.42%/22.60%/25.28%, respectively. The Se, YI, and PPV of the combined methods increased in comparison to each method alone. 3. Compared with the TCT + HR-HPV method, HPV E6/E7 + STAT3 method had perfect Sp (95.92%) and PPV (95.40%) for screening HSILs+, the FPR and colposcopy referral rate decreased by 31.06% and 22.48% respectively. 1. The expression of HPV E6/E

  4. Human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins act synergistically to cause head and neck cancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Jabbar, Sean; Strati, Katerina; Shin, Myeong Kyun; Pitot, Henry C; Lambert, Paul F

    2010-11-10

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) contribute to cervical and other anogenital cancers, and they are also linked etiologically to a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). We previously established a model for HPV-associated HNSCC in which we treated transgenic mice expressing the papillomaviral oncoproteins with the chemical carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO). We found that the HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein was highly potent in causing HNSCC, and its dominance masked any potential oncogenic contribution of E6, a second papillomaviral oncoprotein commonly expressed in human cancers. In the current study, we shortened the duration of treatment with 4-NQO to reduce the incidence of cancers and discovered a striking synergy between E6 and E7 in causing HNSCC. Comparing the oncogenic properties of wild-type versus mutant E6 genes in this model for HNSCC uncovered a role for some but not other cellular targets of E6 previously shown to contribute to cervical cancer. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E6 and E7 Oncoproteins Act Synergistically to Cause Head and Neck Cancer in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jabbar, Sean; Strati, Katerina; Shin, Myeong Kyun; Pitot, Henry C.; Lambert, Paul F.

    2010-01-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) contribute to cervical and other anogenital cancers, and they are also linked etiologically to a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). We previously established a model for HPV-associated HNSCC in which we treated transgenic mice expressing the papillomaviral oncoproteins with the chemical carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO). We found that the HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein was highly potent in causing HNSCC, and its dominance masked any potential oncogenic contribution of E6, a second papillomaviral oncoprotein commonly expressed in human cancers. In the current study, we shortened the duration of treatment with 4-NQO to reduce the incidence of cancers and discovered a striking synergy between E6 and E7 in causing HNSCC. Comparing the oncogenic properties of wild-type versus mutant E6 genes in this model for HNSCC uncovered a role for some but not other cellular targets of E6 previously shown to contribute to cervical cancer. PMID:20797753

  6. Cross-talk Signaling between HER3 and HPV16 E6 and E7 Mediates Resistance to PI3K Inhibitors in Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Brand, Toni M; Hartmann, Stefan; Bhola, Neil E; Li, Hua; Zeng, Yan; O'Keefe, Rachel A; Ranall, Max V; Bandyopadhyay, Sourav; Soucheray, Margaret; Krogan, Nevan J; Kemp, Carolyn; Duvvuri, Umamaheswar; LaVallee, Theresa; Johnson, Daniel E; Ozbun, Michelle A; Bauman, Julie E; Grandis, Jennifer R

    2018-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 is implicated in approximately 75% of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) that arise in the oropharynx, where viral expression of the E6 and E7 oncoproteins promote cellular transformation, tumor growth, and maintenance. An important oncogenic signaling pathway activated by E6 and E7 is the PI3K pathway, a key driver of carcinogenesis. The PI3K pathway is also activated by mutation or amplification of PIK3CA in over half of HPV(+) HNSCC. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of PI3K-targeted therapies in HPV(+) HNSCC preclinical models and report that HPV(+) cell line- and patient-derived xenografts are resistant to PI3K inhibitors due to feedback signaling emanating from E6 and E7. Receptor tyrosine kinase profiling indicated that PI3K inhibition led to elevated expression of the HER3 receptor, which in turn increased the abundance of E6 and E7 to promote PI3K inhibitor resistance. Targeting HER3 with siRNA or the mAb CDX-3379 reduced E6 and E7 abundance and enhanced the efficacy of PI3K-targeted therapies. Together, these findings suggest that cross-talk between HER3 and HPV oncoproteins promotes resistance to PI3K inhibitors and that cotargeting HER3 and PI3K may be an effective therapeutic strategy in HPV(+) tumors. Significance: These findings suggest a new therapeutic combination that may improve outcomes in HPV(+) head and neck cancer patients. Cancer Res; 78(9); 2383-95. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Reduced COX-2 expression in aged mice is associated with impaired fracture healing.

    PubMed

    Naik, Amish A; Xie, Chao; Zuscik, Michael J; Kingsley, Paul; Schwarz, Edward M; Awad, Hani; Guldberg, Robert; Drissi, Hicham; Puzas, J Edward; Boyce, Brendan; Zhang, Xinping; O'Keefe, Regis J

    2009-02-01

    The cellular and molecular events responsible for reduced fracture healing with aging are unknown. Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), the inducible regulator of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) synthesis, is critical for normal bone repair. A femoral fracture repair model was used in mice at either 7-9 or 52-56 wk of age, and healing was evaluated by imaging, histology, and gene expression studies. Aging was associated with a decreased rate of chondrogenesis, decreased bone formation, reduced callus vascularization, delayed remodeling, and altered expression of genes involved in repair and remodeling. COX-2 expression in young mice peaked at 5 days, coinciding with the transition of mesenchymal progenitors to cartilage and the onset of expression of early cartilage markers. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry showed that COX-2 is expressed primarily in early cartilage precursors that co-express col-2. COX-2 expression was reduced by 75% and 65% in fractures from aged mice compared with young mice on days 5 and 7, respectively. Local administration of an EP4 agonist to the fracture repair site in aged mice enhanced the rate of chondrogenesis and bone formation to levels observed in young mice, suggesting that the expression of COX-2 during the early inflammatory phase of repair regulates critical subsequent events including chondrogenesis, bone formation, and remodeling. The findings suggest that COX-2/EP4 agonists may compensate for deficient molecular signals that result in the reduced fracture healing associated with aging.

  8. In vitro biological activities of the E6 and E7 genes vary among human papillomaviruses of different oncogenic potential.

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, M S; Vass, W C; Lowy, D R; Schiller, J T

    1991-01-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) and HPV-18 are often detected in cervical carcinomas, while HPV-6, although frequently present in benign genital lesions, is only rarely present in cancers of the cervix. Therefore, infections with HPV-16 and HPV-18 are considered high risk and infection with HPV-6 is considered low risk. We found, by using a heterologous promoter system, that expression of the E7 transforming protein differs between high- and low-risk HPVs. In high-risk HPV-16, E7 is expressed from constructs containing the complete upstream E6 open reading frame. In contrast, HPV-6 E7 was efficiently translated only when E6 was deleted. By using clones in which the coding regions of HPV-6, HPV-16, and HPV-18 E7s were preceded by identical leader sequences, we found that the ability of the E7 gene products to induce anchorage-independent growth in rodent fibroblasts correlated directly with the oncogenic association of the HPV types. By using an immortalization assay of normal human keratinocytes that requires complementation of E6 and E7, we found that both E6 and E7 of HPV-18 could complement the corresponding gene from HPV-16. However, neither E6 nor E7 from HPV-6 was able to substitute for the corresponding gene of HPV-16 or HPV-18. Our results suggest that multiple factors, including lower intrinsic biological activity of E6 and E7 and differences in the regulation of their expression, account for the low activity of HPV-6, in comparison with HPV-16 and HPV-18, in in vitro assays. These same factors may, in part, account for the apparent difference in oncogenic potential between these viruses. Images PMID:1845889

  9. Application of glycine reduces arsenic accumulation and toxicity in Oryza sativa L. by reducing the expression of silicon transporter genes.

    PubMed

    Kumar Dubey, Arvind; Kumar, Navin; Ranjan, Ruma; Gautam, Ambedkar; Pande, Veena; Sanyal, Indraneel; Mallick, Shekhar

    2018-02-01

    The present study was intended to investigate the role of amino acid glycine in detoxification of As in Oryza sativa L. The growth parameters such as, shoot length and fresh weight were decreased during As(III) and As(V) toxicity. However, the application of glycine recovered the growth parameters against As stress. The application of glycine reduced the As accumulation in all the treatments, and it was more effective against As(III) treatment and reduced the accumulation by 68% in root and 71% in shoot. Similarly, the translocation of As from root to shoot, was higher against As(III) and As(V) treatments, whereas, reduced upon glycine application. The translocation of Fe and Na was also affected by As, which was lower under As(III) and As(V) treatments. However, the application of glycine significantly enhanced the translocation of Fe and Na in the shoot. Besides, the expression of lower silicon transporters i.e. Lsi-1 and Lsi-2 was observed to be significantly suppressed in the root with the application of glycine against As treatment. Similarly, the expression of three GRX and two GST gene isoforms were found to be significantly increased with glycine application. Simultaneously, the activities of antioxidant enzymes i.e. l-arginine dependent NOS, SOD, NTR and GRX were found to be significantly enhanced in the presence of glycine. Increased activities of antioxidant enzymes coincided with the decreased level of TBARS and H 2 O 2 in rice seedlings. Overall, the results suggested that the application of glycine reduces As accumulation through suppressing the gene expression of lower silicon transporters and ameliorates As toxicity by enhancing antioxidants defense mechanism in rice seedlings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Natural and synthetic STAT3 inhibitors reduce hepcidin expression in differentiated mouse hepatocytes expressing the active phosphorylated STAT3 form.

    PubMed

    Fatih, Nadia; Camberlein, Emilie; Island, Marie Laure; Corlu, Anne; Abgueguen, Emmanuelle; Détivaud, Lénaïck; Leroyer, Patricia; Brissot, Pierre; Loréal, Olivier

    2010-05-01

    During the inflammatory process, hepcidin overexpression favours the development of anaemia of chronic diseases which represents the second most common form of anaemia worldwide. The identification of therapeutic agents decreasing hepcidin expression is therefore an important goal. The aim of this study was to target the STAT3 signalling involved in the development of increased hepcidin expression related to chronic inflammation. In a co-culture model associating mouse hepatocytes and rat liver epithelial cells, the mRNA levels of hepcidin1, albumin, aldolase B, Cyp3a4, Stat3, Smad4 and iron regulatory genes were measured by real-time PCR. STAT3 and phosphorylated SMAD1/5/8 proteins were analysed by Western blot. At variance of hepatocyte pure culture, co-culture provided high levels of hepcidin1 mRNA, reaching 400% of the freshly isolated hepatocyte values after 6 days of culture. Hepcidin expression was associated with the maintenance of hepatocyte phenotype, STAT3 phosphorylation and functional BMP/SMAD pathway. Stat3 siRNAs inhibited the hepcidin1 mRNA expression. STAT3 inhibitors, including curcumin, AG490 and a peptide (PpYLKTK), reduced hepcidin1 mRNA expression even when cells were additionally exposed to IL-6. Hepcidin1 mRNA was expressed at high levels by hepatocytes in the co-culture model, and STAT3 pathway activation was controlled through STAT3 inhibitors. Such inhibitors could be useful to prevent anaemia related to hepcidin overexpression during chronic inflammation.

  11. Immunomodulatory activity of a plant extract containing human papillomavirus 16-E7 protein in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Di Bonito, P; Grasso, F; Mangino, G; Massa, S; Illiano, E; Franconi, R; Fanales-Belasio, E; Falchi, M; Affabris, E; Giorgi, C

    2009-01-01

    This study reports the immunomodulatory activity on human monocyte derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) of a vaccine preparation shown to be effective against an HPV16-related tumour in an animal model. The vaccine is composed of extract from Nicotiana benthamiana leaves containing HPV16 E7 protein expressed by a potato virus X-derived vector (NbPVX-E7). The effect of the extract was evaluated on MDDC differentiation and maturation by monitoring the phenotypic expression of specific markers. The results show that NbPVX-E7 does not induce monocyte differentiation to dendritic cells, but does induce MDDC maturation. Plant extract does not influence MDDC-uptake of E7-FITC while it significantly improves the Ovalbumin-FITC uptake, considered as a model antigen. Importantly, NbPVX-E7-pulsed MDDCs/PBMCs are able to prime human blood-derived lymphocytes from healthy individuals to induce HPV16 E7-specific cytotoxic activity. This is a propaedeutic study for a possible use of E7-containing plant extract in human immunotherapy of HPV-related lesions.

  12. Antitumor HPV E7-specific CTL activity elicited by in vivo engineered exosomes produced through DNA inoculation.

    PubMed

    Di Bonito, Paola; Chiozzini, Chiara; Arenaccio, Claudia; Anticoli, Simona; Manfredi, Francesco; Olivetta, Eleonora; Ferrantelli, Flavia; Falcone, Emiliana; Ruggieri, Anna; Federico, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    We recently proved that exosomes engineered in vitro to deliver high amounts of HPV E7 upon fusion with the Nef mut exosome-anchoring protein elicit an efficient anti-E7 cytotoxic T lymphocyte immune response. However, in view of a potential clinic application of this finding, our exosome-based immunization strategy was faced with possible technical difficulties including industrial manufacturing, cost of production, and storage. To overcome these hurdles, we designed an as yet unproven exosome-based immunization strategy relying on delivery by intramuscular inoculation of a DNA vector expressing Nef mut fused with HPV E7. In this way, we predicted that the expression of the Nef mut /E7 vector in muscle cells would result in a continuous source of endogenous (ie, produced by the inoculated host) engineered exosomes able to induce an E7-specific immune response. To assess this hypothesis, we first demonstrated that the injection of a Nef mut /green fluorescent protein-expressing vector led to the release of fluorescent exosomes, as detected in plasma of inoculated mice. Then, we observed that mice inoculated intramuscularly with a vector expressing Nef mut /E7 developed a CD8 + T-cell immune response against both Nef and E7. Conversely, no CD8 + T-cell responses were detected upon injection of vectors expressing either the wild-type Nef isoform of E7 alone, most likely a consequence of their inefficient exosome incorporation. The production of immunogenic exosomes in the DNA-injected mice was formally demonstrated by the E7-specific CD8 + T-cell immune response we detected in mice inoculated with exosomes isolated from plasma of mice inoculated with the Nef mut /E7 vector. Finally, we provide evidence that the injection of Nef mut /E7 DNA led to the generation of effective antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes whose activity was likely part of the potent, therapeutic antitumor effect we observed in mice implanted with TC-1 tumor cells. In summary, we established

  13. Inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation by sulforaphane reduces adhesion molecule expression in vascular endothelial cell.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young S; Kim, Chan H; Ha, Tae S; Ahn, Hee Y

    2015-11-18

    Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) play key roles in the initiation of vascular inflammation. In this study, we explored whether sulforaphane, a dietary phytochemical, can inhibit the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the mechanisms involved. Sulforaphane prevented the LPS-mediated increase in ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression, (P < 0.01) in HUVEC. Sulforaphane also prevented the LPS-mediated increase in the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) (P < 0.01). Stattic, a STAT3 inhibitor, reduced the LPS-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, and STAT3 phosphorylation (P < 0.01). STAT3 small interfering RNA treatment reduced the LPS-induced expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and STAT3 (P < 0.01). Sulforaphane reduced LPS-mediated THP-1 monocyte adhesion to HUVEC (P < 0.01). In C57BL/6 mice, injection of LPS increased aortic ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression, and this effect was prevented by sulforaphane. These data provide insight into the mechanism through which sulforaphane partly reduces the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 on the vascular wall by inhibiting STAT3 phosphorylation.

  14. CPT-11-Induced Delayed Diarrhea Develops via Reduced Aquaporin-3 Expression in the Colon

    PubMed Central

    Kon, Risako; Tsubota, Yuika; Minami, Moe; Kato, Saki; Matsunaga, Yukari; Kimura, Hiroshi; Murakami, Yuta; Fujikawa, Tetsuya; Sakurai, Ryoya; Tomimoto, Rei; Machida, Yoshiaki; Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

    2018-01-01

    While irinotecan (CPT-11) has a potent anti-cancer effect, it also causes serious diarrhea as an adverse reaction. In this study, we analyzed the pathogenic mechanism of CPT-11-induced delayed diarrhea by focusing on water channel aquaporin-3 (AQP3) in the colon. When rats received CPT-11, the expression level of AQP3 was reduced during severe diarrhea. It was found that the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and the loss of crypt cells were increased in the colon when CPT-11 was administered. When celecoxib, an anti-inflammatory drug, was concomitantly administered, both the diarrhea and the reduced expression of AQP3 induced by CPT-11 were suppressed. The inflammation in the rat colon during diarrhea was caused via activated macrophage by CPT-11. These results showed that when CPT-11 is administered, the expression level of AQP3 in the colon is reduced, resulting in delayed diarrhea by preventing water transport from the intestinal tract. It was also suggested that the reduced expression of AQP3 might be due to the inflammation that occurs following the loss of colonic crypt cells and to the damage caused by the direct activation of macrophages by CPT-11. Therefore, it was considered that anti-inflammatory drugs that suppress the reduction of AQP3 expression could prevent CPT-11-induced delayed diarrhea. PMID:29316651

  15. CPT-11-Induced Delayed Diarrhea Develops via Reduced Aquaporin-3 Expression in the Colon.

    PubMed

    Kon, Risako; Tsubota, Yuika; Minami, Moe; Kato, Saki; Matsunaga, Yukari; Kimura, Hiroshi; Murakami, Yuta; Fujikawa, Tetsuya; Sakurai, Ryoya; Tomimoto, Rei; Machida, Yoshiaki; Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

    2018-01-06

    While irinotecan (CPT-11) has a potent anti-cancer effect, it also causes serious diarrhea as an adverse reaction. In this study, we analyzed the pathogenic mechanism of CPT-11-induced delayed diarrhea by focusing on water channel aquaporin-3 (AQP3) in the colon. When rats received CPT-11, the expression level of AQP3 was reduced during severe diarrhea. It was found that the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and the loss of crypt cells were increased in the colon when CPT-11 was administered. When celecoxib, an anti-inflammatory drug, was concomitantly administered, both the diarrhea and the reduced expression of AQP3 induced by CPT-11 were suppressed. The inflammation in the rat colon during diarrhea was caused via activated macrophage by CPT-11. These results showed that when CPT-11 is administered, the expression level of AQP3 in the colon is reduced, resulting in delayed diarrhea by preventing water transport from the intestinal tract. It was also suggested that the reduced expression of AQP3 might be due to the inflammation that occurs following the loss of colonic crypt cells and to the damage caused by the direct activation of macrophages by CPT-11. Therefore, it was considered that anti-inflammatory drugs that suppress the reduction of AQP3 expression could prevent CPT-11-induced delayed diarrhea.

  16. The specific social costs of expressive negative symptoms in schizophrenia: reduced smiling predicts interactional outcome.

    PubMed

    Riehle, M; Mehl, S; Lincoln, T M

    2018-04-17

    We tested whether people with schizophrenia and prominent expressive negative symptoms (ENS) show reduced facial expressions in face-to-face social interactions and whether this expressive reduction explains negative social evaluations of these persons. We compared participants with schizophrenia with high ENS (n = 18) with participants with schizophrenia with low ENS (n = 30) and with healthy controls (n = 39). Participants engaged in an affiliative role-play that was coded for the frequency of positive and negative facial expression and rated for social performance skills and willingness for future interactions with the respective role-play partner. Participants with schizophrenia with high ENS showed significantly fewer positive facial expressions than those with low ENS and controls and were also rated significantly lower on social performance skills and willingness for future interactions. Participants with schizophrenia with low ENS did not differ from controls on these measures. The group difference in willingness for future interactions was significantly and independently mediated by the reduced positive facial expressions and social performance skills. Reduced facial expressiveness in schizophrenia is specifically related to ENS and has negative social consequences. These findings highlight the need to develop aetiological models and targeted interventions for ENS and its social consequences. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Cyclosporin A reduces expression of adhesion molecules in the kidney of rats with chronic serum sickness

    PubMed Central

    Rincón, J; Parra, G; Quiroz, Y; Benatuil, L; Rodríguez-Iturbe, B

    2000-01-01

    Treatment with cyclosporin A (CsA) improves proteinuria and reduces renal cellular infiltration in chronic serum sickness (CSS). We examined if these effects were associated with a reduced renal expression of CD54 and its ligands, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and MHC class II molecules. We studied two groups of rats in which CSS was induced by daily injections of ovalbumin (OVA): a group treated with CsA (OVA.CsA group, n = 11) and a group that received no treatment (OVA.CSS group, n = 11). An additional group of five rats (control group) received only phosphate buffer. Immunostaining techniques were used to follow CSS and to study the expression of CD54, CD18, CD11b/c, IFN-γ, TNF-α and MHC class molecules. Proteinuria (mg/24 h) was reduced from 248·2 ± 73·1 (OVA.CCS group) to 14·5 ± 13·1 with CsA treatment (P < 0·0001). The renal expression of CD54 and its ligands (CD18 and CD11b/c) was reduced by 50% to 75%. Correspondingly, there was a 60% to 85% reduction in the number of infiltrating leucocytes. The number of cells expressing TNF-α, IFN-γ and MHC II molecules was also reduced. CsA reduces expression of CD54 and its ligands. This effect is associated with a reduction of cellular infiltration, IFN-γ, TNF-α-producing cells and with MHC II expression in the kidney. These findings suggest that expression of adhesion molecules plays a critical role in CSS and underline the importance of cellular immunity in this experimental model. PMID:10931158

  18. Expression of beta-dystroglycan is reduced or absent in many human carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Cross, S S; Lippitt, J; Mitchell, A; Hollingsbury, F; Balasubramanian, S P; Reed, M W R; Eaton, C; Catto, J W; Hamdy, F; Winder, S J

    2008-11-01

    Dystroglycan is an important structural and signalling protein that is expressed in most human cells. alpha-Dystroglycan has been investigated and found to be reduced in human cancers, but there is only one published study on the expression of beta-dystroglycan in human cancer and that was only on small numbers of breast and prostatic cancers. The aim was to conduct a comprehensive immunohistochemical survey of the expression of beta-dystroglycan in normal human tissues and common cancers. Triplicate tissue microarrays of 681 samples of normal human tissues and common cancers were stained using an antibody directed against the cytoplasmic component of beta-dystroglycan. beta-Dystroglycan was strongly expressed at the intercellular junctions and basement membranes of all normal human epithelia. Expression of beta-dystroglycan was absent or markedly reduced in 100% of oesophageal adenocarcinomas, 97% of colonic cancers, 100% of transitional cell carcinomas of the urothelium and 94% of breast cancers. In the breast cancers, the only tumours that showed any retention of beta-dystroglycan expression were small low-grade oestrogen receptor-positive tumours. The only cancers that showed retention of beta-dystroglycan expression were cutaneous basal cell carcinomas. There is loss or marked reduction of beta-dystroglycan expression (by immunohistochemistry) in the vast majority of human cancers surveyed. Since beta-dystroglycan is postulated to have a tumour suppressor effect, this loss may have important functional significance.

  19. [Curcumine inhibits migration and invasion of hepatic stellate cells by reducing MMP-2 expression and activity].

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian-xian; Zhu, Bao-he; He, De; Huang, Lin; Hu, Ke; Huang, Bo

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the molecular mechanism of the inhibitory effect of curcumine on the migration and invasion of hepatic stellate cells (HSC). Rat hepatic stellate cells were cultured and activated with ConA. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression and activity was determined by Western blot and gelatin zymography. Migration and invasion of HSC was assessed by wound healing assay and modified Boyden chamber assay. Curcumine reduced the level and activity of MMP-2 expression in activated HSC in a dose-dependent manner. When treated with 25, 50 or 100 micromol/L curcumine, the expression of MMP-2 was reduced by 21.8%+/-5.1%, 65.5%+/-9.2% or 87.9%+/-11.5% (P < 0.05), and the activity of MMP-2 was also significantly reduced by curcumine. Migration and invasion of activated HSC was also inhibited by curcumine in a dose-dependent way. When treated with 25, 50 or 100 micromol/L curcumine, the migration of activated HSC was reduced by 27.5%+/-5.8%, 54.4%+/-7.6% or 67.1%+/-9.3% (P < 0.05), and the invasion of activated HSC was also significantly reduced by curcumine. Curcumine inhibits migration and invasion of activated HSC by reducing MMP-2 expression and activity.

  20. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus mutants expressing reduced susceptibility to common house-cleaners

    PubMed Central

    Davis, A.O.; O’Leary, J.O.; Muthaiyan, A.; Langevin, M.J.; Delgado, A.; Abalos, A.T.; Fajardo, A.R.; Marek, J.; Wilkinson, B.J.; Gustafson, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To characterize mutants of Staphylococcus aureus expressing reduced susceptibility to house cleaners (HC), assess the impact of the alternative sigma factor SigB on HC susceptibility, and determine the MIC of clinical methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) to a HC. Methods and Results Susceptibility to HC, HC components, H2O2, vancomycin and oxacillin and physiological parameters were determined for HC-reduced susceptibility (HCRS) mutants, parent strain COL and COLsigB::kan. HCRS mutants selected with three HC expressed reduced susceptibility to multiple HC, HC components, H2O2 and vancomycin. Two unique HCRS mutants also lost the methicillin resistance determinant. In addition, all HCRS mutants exhibited better growth at two temperatures, and one HCRS mutant expressed reduced carotenoid production. COLsigB::kan demonstrated increased susceptibility to all HC and many HC components. sigB operon mutations were not detected in one HCRS mutant background. Of 76 clinical MRSA, 20 exhibited reduced susceptibility to a HC. Conclusions HCRS mutants demonstrate altered susceptibility to multiple antimicrobials. While sigB is required for full HC resistance, one HCRS mechanism does not involve sigB operon mutations. Clinical MRSA expressing reduced susceptibility to a common HC were detected. Significance and Impact of the Study This study suggests that HCRS mutants are not protected against, nor selected by, practical HC concentrations. PMID:15659191

  1. Reduced Smad4 expression and DNA topoisomerase inhibitor chemosensitivity in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ziemke, Michael; Patil, Tejas; Nolan, Kyle; Tippimanchai, Darinee; Malkoski, Stephen P

    2017-07-01

    Smad4 is a tumor suppressor that transduces transforming growth factor beta signaling and regulates genomic stability. We previously found that Smad4 knockdown in vitro inhibited DNA repair and increased sensitivity to DNA topoisomerase inhibitors. In this study, we assessed the association between reduced Smad4 expression and DNA topoisomerase inhibitor sensitivity in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and evaluated the relationship between genomic alterations of Smad4 and molecular alterations in DNA repair molecules. We retrospectively identified NSCLC patients who received etoposide or gemcitabine. Chemotherapeutic response was quantified by RECIST 1.1 criteria and Smad4 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Relationships between Smad4 mutation and DNA repair molecule mutations were evaluated using publically available datasets. We identified 28 individuals who received 30 treatments with gemcitabine or etoposide containing regimens for NSCLC. Reduced Smad4 expression was seen in 13/28 patients and was not associated with significant differences in clinical or pathologic parameters. Patients with reduced Smad4 expression had a larger response to DNA topoisomerase inhibitor containing regimens then patients with high Smad4 expression (-25.7% vs. -6.8% in lesion size, p=0.03); this relationship was more pronounced with gemcitabine containing regimens. The overall treatment response was higher in patients with reduced Smad4 expression (8/14 vs 2/16 p=0.02). Analysis of data from The Cancer Genome Atlas revealed that Smad4 mutation or homozygous loss was mutually exclusive with genomic alterations in DNA repair molecules. Reduced Smad4 expression may predict responsiveness to regimens that contain DNA topoisomerase inhibitors. That Smad4 signaling alterations are mutually exclusive with alterations in DNA repair machinery is consistent with an important role of Smad4 in regulating DNA repair. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  2. Cluster Intradermal DNA Vaccination Rapidly Induces E7-specific CD8+ T Cell Immune Responses Leading to Therapeutic Antitumor Effects

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Shiwen; Trimble, Cornelia; Alvarez, Ronald D.; Huh, Warner K.; Lin, Zhenhua; Monie, Archana; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T.-C.

    2010-01-01

    Intradermal administration of DNA vaccines via a gene gun represents a feasible strategy to deliver DNA directly into the professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the skin. This helps to facilitate the enhancement of DNA vaccine potency via strategies that modify the properties of APCs. We have previously demonstrated that DNA vaccines encoding human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E7 antigen linked to calreticulin (CRT) are capable of enhancing the E7-specific CD8+ T cell immune responses and antitumor effects against E7-expressing tumors. It has also been shown that cluster (short-interval) DNA vaccination regimen generates potent immune responses in a minimal timeframe. Thus, in the current study we hypothesize that the cluster intradermal CRT/E7 DNA vaccination will generate significant antigen-specific CD8+ T cell infiltrates in E7-expressing tumors in tumor-bearing mice, leading to an increase in apoptotic tumor cell death. We found that cluster intradermal CRT/E7 DNA vaccination is capable of rapidly generating a significant number of E7-specific CD8+ T cells, resulting in significant therapeutic antitumor effects in vaccinated mice. We also observed that cluster intradermal CRT/E7 DNA vaccination in the presence of tumor generates significantly higher E7-specific CD8+ T cell immune responses in the systemic circulation as well as in the tumors. In addition, this vaccination regimen also led to significantly lower levels of CD4+Foxp3+ T regulatory cells and myeloid suppressor cells compared to vaccination with CRT DNA in peripheral blood and in tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, resulting in an increase in apoptotic tumor cell death. Thus, our study has significant potential for future clinical translation. PMID:18401437

  3. STAT3 Knockdown Reduces Pancreatic Cancer Cell Invasiveness and Matrix Metalloproteinase-7 Expression in Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ke jian; Wu, Wei dong; Jiang, Tao; Cao, Jun; Feng, Zhen zhong; Qiu, Zheng jun

    2011-01-01

    Aims Transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) plays an important role in tumor cell invasion and metastasis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of STAT3 knockdown in nude mouse xenografts of pancreatic cancer cells and underlying gene expression. Methods A STAT3 shRNA lentiviral vector was constructed and infected into SW1990 cells. qRT-PCR and western immunoblot were performed to detect gene expression. Nude mouse xenograft assays were used to assess changes in phenotypes of these stable cells in vivo. HE staining was utilized to evaluate tumor cell invasion and immunohistochemistry was performed to analyze gene expression. Results STAT3 shRNA successfully silenced expression of STAT3 mRNA and protein in SW1990 cells compared to control cells. Growth rate of the STAT3-silenced tumor cells in nude mice was significantly reduced compared to in the control vector tumors and parental cells-generated tumors. Tumor invasion into the vessel and muscle were also suppressed in the STAT3-silenced tumors compared to controls. Collagen IV expression was complete and continuous surrounding the tumors of STAT3-silenced SW1990 cells, whereas collagen IV expression was incomplete and discontinuous surrounding the control tumors. Moreover, microvessel density was significantly lower in STAT3-silenced tumors than parental or control tumors of SW1990 cells. In addition, MMP-7 expression was reduced in STAT3-silenced tumors compared to parental SW1990 xenografts and controls. In contrast, expression of IL-1β and IgT7α was not altered. Conclusion These data clearly demonstrate that STAT3 plays an important role in regulation of tumor growth, invasion, and angiogenesis, which could be act by reducing MMP-7 expression in pancreatic cancer cells. PMID:21991388

  4. Mechanical Loading of Articular Cartilage Reduces IL-1-Induced Enzyme Expression

    PubMed Central

    Torzilli, P. A.; Bhargava, M.; Chen, C. T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Exposure of articular cartilage to interleukin-1 (IL-1) results in increased synthesis of matrix degrading enzymes. Previously mechanical load applied together with IL-1 stimulation was found to reduce aggrecan cleavage by ADAMTS-4 and 5 and MMP-1, -3, -9, and -13 and reduce proteoglycan loss from the extracellular matrix. To further delineate the inhibition mechanism the gene expression of ADAMTS-4 and 5; MMP-1, -3, -9, and -13; and TIMP-1, -2, and -3 were measured. Design: Mature bovine articular cartilage was stimulated with a 0.5 MPa compressive stress and 10 ng/ml of IL-1α for 3 days and then allowed to recover without stimulation for 1 additional day. The media was assayed for proteoglycan content on a daily basis, while chondrocyte gene expression (mRNA) was measured during stimulation and 1 day of recovery. Results: Mechanical load alone did not change the gene expression for ADAMTS, MMP, or TIMP. IL-1 caused an increase in gene expression for all enzymes after 1 day of stimulation while not affecting the TIMP levels. Load applied together with IL-1 decreased the expression levels of ADAMTS-4 and -5 and MMP-1 and -3 and increased TIMP-3 expression. Conclusions: A mechanical load appears to modify cartilage degradation by IL-1 at the cellular level by reducing mRNA. PMID:22039566

  5. Endothelial microparticles reduce ICAM-1 expression in a microRNA-222-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Felix; Yang, Xiaoyan; Baumann, Katharina; Przybilla, David; Schmitz, Theresa; Flender, Anna; Paul, Kathrin; Alhusseiny, Adil; Nickenig, Georg; Werner, Nikos

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial microparticles (EMP) are released from activated or apoptotic endothelial cells (ECs) and can be taken up by adjacent ECs, but their effect on vascular inflammation after engulfment is largely unknown. We sought to determine the role of EMP in EC inflammation. In vitro, EMP treatment significantly reduced tumour necrosis factor-α-induced endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 expression on mRNA and protein level, whereas there was no effect on vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression. Reduced ICAM-1 expression after EMP treatment resulted in diminished monocyte adhesion in vitro. In vivo, systemic treatment of ApoE−/− mice with EMP significantly reduced murine endothelial ICAM-1 expression. To explore the underlying mechanisms, Taqman microRNA array was performed and microRNA (miR)-222 was identified as the strongest regulated miR between EMP and ECs. Following experiments demonstrated that miR-222 was transported into recipient ECs by EMP and functionally regulated expression of its target protein ICAM-1 in vitro and in vivo. After simulating diabetic conditions, EMP derived from glucose-treated ECs contained significantly lower amounts of miR-222 and showed reduced anti-inflammatory capacity in vitro and in vivo. Finally, circulating miR-222 level was diminished in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) compared to patients without CAD. EMPs promote anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo by reducing endothelial ICAM-1 expression via the transfer of functional miR-222 into recipient cells. In pathological hyperglycaemic conditions, EMP-mediated miR-222-dependent anti-inflammatory effects are reduced. PMID:26081516

  6. Endothelial microparticles reduce ICAM-1 expression in a microRNA-222-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Felix; Yang, Xiaoyan; Baumann, Katharina; Przybilla, David; Schmitz, Theresa; Flender, Anna; Paul, Kathrin; Alhusseiny, Adil; Nickenig, Georg; Werner, Nikos

    2015-09-01

    Endothelial microparticles (EMP) are released from activated or apoptotic endothelial cells (ECs) and can be taken up by adjacent ECs, but their effect on vascular inflammation after engulfment is largely unknown. We sought to determine the role of EMP in EC inflammation. In vitro, EMP treatment significantly reduced tumour necrosis factor-α-induced endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 expression on mRNA and protein level, whereas there was no effect on vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression. Reduced ICAM-1 expression after EMP treatment resulted in diminished monocyte adhesion in vitro. In vivo, systemic treatment of ApoE-/- mice with EMP significantly reduced murine endothelial ICAM-1 expression. To explore the underlying mechanisms, Taqman microRNA array was performed and microRNA (miR)-222 was identified as the strongest regulated miR between EMP and ECs. Following experiments demonstrated that miR-222 was transported into recipient ECs by EMP and functionally regulated expression of its target protein ICAM-1 in vitro and in vivo. After simulating diabetic conditions, EMP derived from glucose-treated ECs contained significantly lower amounts of miR-222 and showed reduced anti-inflammatory capacity in vitro and in vivo. Finally, circulating miR-222 level was diminished in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) compared to patients without CAD. EMPs promote anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo by reducing endothelial ICAM-1 expression via the transfer of functional miR-222 into recipient cells. In pathological hyperglycaemic conditions, EMP-mediated miR-222-dependent anti-inflammatory effects are reduced. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  7. Intestinal inflammation reduces expression of DRA, a transporter responsible for congenital chloride diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Yang, H; Jiang, W; Furth, E E; Wen, X; Katz, J P; Sellon, R K; Silberg, D G; Antalis, T M; Schweinfest, C W; Wu, G D

    1998-12-01

    The pathogenesis of diarrhea in intestinal inflammatory states is a multifactorial process involving the effects of inflammatory mediators on epithelial transport function. The effect of colonic inflammation on the gene expression of DRA (downregulated in adenoma), a chloride-sulfate anion transporter that is mutated in patients with congenital chloridorrhea, was examined in vivo as well as in an intestinal epithelial cell line. DRA mRNA expression was diminished five- to sevenfold in the HLA-B27/beta2m transgenic rat compared with control. In situ hybridization showed that DRA, which is normally expressed in the upper crypt and surface epithelium of the colon, was dramatically reduced in the surface epithelium of the HLA-B27/beta2m transgenic rat, the interleukin-10 (IL-10) knockout mouse with spontaneous colitis, and in patients with ulcerative colitis. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that mRNA expression of DRA reflected that of protein expression in vivo. IL-1beta reduced DRA mRNA expression in vitro by inhibiting gene transcription. The loss of transport function in the surface epithelium of the colon by attenuation of transporter gene expression, perhaps inhibited at the level of gene transcription by proinflammatory cytokines, may play a role in the pathogenesis of diarrhea in colitis.

  8. Reduced GNG2 expression levels in mouse malignant melanomas and human melanoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Yajima, Ichiro; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Takahashi, Hiro; Funasaka, Yoko; Suzuki, Tamio; Kato, Masashi

    2012-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G protein is composed of a Gα-subunit and a Gβγ-dimer. Previous studies have revealed that Gβγ-dimers including the Gγ2 subunit (Gng2/GNG2) are associated with cell proliferation, differentiation, invasion and angiogenesis. At present, however, there is no information on the expression level of Gng2/GNG2 alone in any kind of tumor. In this study, we performed DNA microarray analysis in a benign melanocytic tumor and a malignant melanoma from RET-transgenic mice (RET-mice). Gng2 transcript expression levels in a malignant melanoma were less than 1/10 of the level in a benign tumor. The difference in Gng2 transcript expression levels between benign tumors and malignant melanomas was greatest among all of the G protein γ subunits examined in this study. Moreover, protein expression levels of Gng2 were decreased in malignant melanomas compared with those in benign melanocytic tumors in RET-mice. Analysis of human malignant melanomas also showed reduced GNG2 protein expression levels in five human malignant melanoma cell lines compared with the expression levels in normal human epithelial melanocytes (NHEM). Thus, we demonstrated for the first time that Gng2/GNG2 expression levels are reduced in malignant melanoma, suggesting that GNG2 could be a novel biomarker for malignant melanoma. PMID:22679562

  9. Modulation of DNA methylation by human papillomavirus E6 and E7 oncoproteins in cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Prakriti; Ganguly, Pooja; Ganguly, Niladri

    2018-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are double stranded circular DNA viruses that infect cutaneous and mucosal epithelial cells. Almost 99% of cervical cancer has a HPV infection. The early oncoproteins E6 and E7 are important in this cellular transformation process. Epigenetic mechanisms have long been known to result in decisive alterations in DNA, leading to alterations in DNA-protein interactions, alterations in chromatin structure and compaction and significant alterations in gene expression. The enzymes responsible for these epigenetic modifications are DNA methyl transferases (DNMTs), histone acetylases and deacetylases. Epigenetics has an important role in cancer development by modifying the cellular micro environment. In this review, the authors discuss the role of HPV oncoproteins E6 and E7 in modulating the epigenetic mechanisms inside the host cell. The oncoproteins induce the expression of DNMTs which lead to aberrant DNA methylations and disruption of the normal epigenetic processes. The E7 oncoprotein may additionally directly bind and induce methyl transferase activity of the enzyme. These modulations lead to altered gene expression levels, particularly the genes involved in apoptosis, cell cycle and cell adhesion. In addition, the present review discusses how epigenetic mechanisms may be targeted for possible therapeutic interventions for HPV mediated cervical cancer. PMID:29285184

  10. Globalization and sustainable development an E7 point of view

    SciTech Connect

    Strassburg, W.

    1998-07-01

    The energy sector is a crucial feedstock to economic development. One example of this industry sector's contribution towards sustainable development is the so-called E7 initiative on sustainable energy development of some of the biggest electric utilities. E7 members from Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan and the US are demonstrating the functioning of the requested globally synchronized approach between developed and developing countries. E7 members focus their activities on (1) the efficient use of primary energy resources, (2) maximizing the use of renewable energy resources, (3) maximizing efficiency in the generation, delivery, and use of electricity, (4) minimizing environmental impacts ofmore » energy production and use and, (5) implementing innovative options to promote win-win benefits for the environment and the economy through their network of expertise on a pro bono basis. A main emphasis lies in the consistent Joint Implementation given the fact that innovative and efficient Green House Gas reduction measures will be the core of future E7 activities. Especially commercial projects will provide valuable contributions to Green House Gas reductions as well as to economic development of the recipient country. Other instruments, such Emission Trading and Clean Development Mechanism will have to be investigated appropriately in terms of their practicability for Green House Gas reductions so that their will be a notification by the international climate protection regime. Therefore Emission Trading and Clean Development Mechanism are of importance for E7 members' future operations, too. With respect to Sustainable Development industry, energy and environmental policy in leading industry countries must be more closely aligned to a global approach than has so far been the case. The electricity sector is called on to make a major contribution.« less

  11. Reduced expression of IQGAP2 and higher expression of IQGAP3 correlates with poor prognosis in cancers.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh; Hassan, Md Khurshidul; Pattnaik, Niharika; Mohapatra, Nachiketa; Dixit, Manjusha

    2017-01-01

    IQGAPs is a family of proteins which comprises three members, in humans. The expression pattern and role of IQGAP1 has been well established in many cancers, whereas those of IQGAP2 and IQGAP3, have mostly remained unexplored. We used available large datasets, to explore the pan-cancer status of these two genes in-silico. Here we have analysed their mRNA expression and correlation with survivability in eight different cancers, including lung, breast, gastric, brain, colorectal, prostate, liver and kidney cancers and, their subtypes. The mRNA expression of IQGAP2 and IQGAP3 in individual cancers were analysed in two different publicly available databases viz. Oncomine and TCGA. The prognostic value of these genes in lung, breast and gastric cancer was analysed using Kaplan-Meier Plotter database, whereas for brain, colorectal, liver, prostate and kidney cancers, SurvExpress database was used. These results were validated by immunohistochemistry in cancer tissues (stomach, prostate, brain, colorectal). Moreover, we did IQGAP2 and IQGAP3 genomic alteration and, promoter methylation analysis using cBioportal and Wanderer web tool, respectively. Most of the cancer types (lung, breast, prostate, brain, gastric, liver, kidney and colorectal) showed increased IQGAP3 mRNA expression. In contrast, the IQGAP2 transcript levels were reduced across different cancers viz. lung, breast, gastric, liver, kidney and colorectal cancer. IQGAP2 expression correlated positively with survivability, on the contrary, IQGAP3 expression levels correlated inversely with survivability, in most of the cancers. Collectively, enhanced IQGAP3 and reduced IQGAP2 levels were frequently observed in multiple cancers with the former predicting poor survivability and the later opposite. Methylation pattern was significantly altered in most of the cancer types. We found copy no. variation and mutations in specific cancers, for IQGAP2 and IQGAP3. Our in-vivo (IHC) data confirmed the in-silico findings

  12. Reduced expression of IQGAP2 and higher expression of IQGAP3 correlates with poor prognosis in cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dinesh; Hassan, Md. Khurshidul; Pattnaik, Niharika; Mohapatra, Nachiketa

    2017-01-01

    IQGAPs is a family of proteins which comprises three members, in humans. The expression pattern and role of IQGAP1 has been well established in many cancers, whereas those of IQGAP2 and IQGAP3, have mostly remained unexplored. We used available large datasets, to explore the pan-cancer status of these two genes in-silico. Here we have analysed their mRNA expression and correlation with survivability in eight different cancers, including lung, breast, gastric, brain, colorectal, prostate, liver and kidney cancers and, their subtypes. The mRNA expression of IQGAP2 and IQGAP3 in individual cancers were analysed in two different publicly available databases viz. Oncomine and TCGA. The prognostic value of these genes in lung, breast and gastric cancer was analysed using Kaplan-Meier Plotter database, whereas for brain, colorectal, liver, prostate and kidney cancers, SurvExpress database was used. These results were validated by immunohistochemistry in cancer tissues (stomach, prostate, brain, colorectal). Moreover, we did IQGAP2 and IQGAP3 genomic alteration and, promoter methylation analysis using cBioportal and Wanderer web tool, respectively. Most of the cancer types (lung, breast, prostate, brain, gastric, liver, kidney and colorectal) showed increased IQGAP3 mRNA expression. In contrast, the IQGAP2 transcript levels were reduced across different cancers viz. lung, breast, gastric, liver, kidney and colorectal cancer. IQGAP2 expression correlated positively with survivability, on the contrary, IQGAP3 expression levels correlated inversely with survivability, in most of the cancers. Collectively, enhanced IQGAP3 and reduced IQGAP2 levels were frequently observed in multiple cancers with the former predicting poor survivability and the later opposite. Methylation pattern was significantly altered in most of the cancer types. We found copy no. variation and mutations in specific cancers, for IQGAP2 and IQGAP3. Our in-vivo (IHC) data confirmed the in-silico findings

  13. Modulation of Mcl-1 expression reduces age-related cochlear degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei Ping; Xu, Yang; Guo, Wei Wei; Liu, Hui Zhan; Hu, Bo Hua

    2013-01-01

    Mcl-1 is an anti-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family that modulates apoptosis-related signaling pathways and promotes cell survival. We have previously demonstrated a reduction of Mcl-1 expression in aging cochleae. To investigate whether restoring Mcl-1 expression would reduce aging-related cochlear degeneration, we developed a rat model of Mcl-1 overexpression. A plasmid encoding human Mcl-1/enhanced green fluorescent protein was applied to the round window of the cochlea. This in vivo treatment transfected both the sensory and supporting cells of the cochlear sensory epithelium and enhanced Mcl-1 expression at both the mRNA and the protein level. The upregulation of Mcl-1 expression reduced the progression of age-related cochlear dysfunction and sensory cell death. Furthermore, the transfection of Mcl-1 exerted its protective effect by suppressing cochlear apoptosis at the mitochondrial level. This study demonstrates that the genetic modulation of Mcl-1 expression reduces the progression of age-related cochlear degeneration. PMID:23790646

  14. GEC-targeted HO-1 expression reduces proteinuria in glomerular immune injury.

    PubMed

    Duann, Pu; Lianos, Elias A

    2009-09-01

    Induction of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is a key defense mechanism against oxidative stress. Compared with tubules, glomeruli are refractory to HO-1 upregulation in response to injury. This can be a disadvantage as it may be associated with insufficient production of cytoprotective heme-degradation metabolites. We, therefore, explored whether 1) targeted HO-1 expression can be achieved in glomeruli without altering their physiological integrity and 2) this expression reduces proteinuria in immune injury induced by an anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody (Ab). We employed a 4.125-kb fragment of a mouse nephrin promoter downstream to which a FLAG-tagged hHO-1 cDNA sequence was inserted and subsequently generated transgenic mice from the FVB/N parental strain. There was a 16-fold higher transgene expression in the kidney than nonspecific background (liver) while the transprotein immunolocalized in glomerular epithelial cells (GEC). There was no change in urinary protein excretion, indicating that GEC-targeted HO-1 expression had no effect on glomerular protein permeability. Urinary protein excretion in transgenic mice with anti-GBM Ab injury (days 3 and 6) was significantly lower compared with wild-type controls. There was no significant change in renal expression levels of profibrotic (TGF-beta1) or anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines in transgenic mice with anti-GBM Ab injury. These observations indicate that GEC-targeted HO-1 expression does not alter glomerular physiological integrity and reduces proteinuria in glomerular immune injury.

  15. GEC-targeted HO-1 expression reduces proteinuria in glomerular immune injury

    PubMed Central

    Duann, Pu; Lianos, Elias A.

    2009-01-01

    Induction of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is a key defense mechanism against oxidative stress. Compared with tubules, glomeruli are refractory to HO-1 upregulation in response to injury. This can be a disadvantage as it may be associated with insufficient production of cytoprotective heme-degradation metabolites. We, therefore, explored whether 1) targeted HO-1 expression can be achieved in glomeruli without altering their physiological integrity and 2) this expression reduces proteinuria in immune injury induced by an anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody (Ab). We employed a 4.125-kb fragment of a mouse nephrin promoter downstream to which a FLAG-tagged hHO-1 cDNA sequence was inserted and subsequently generated transgenic mice from the FVB/N parental strain. There was a 16-fold higher transgene expression in the kidney than nonspecific background (liver) while the transprotein immunolocalized in glomerular epithelial cells (GEC). There was no change in urinary protein excretion, indicating that GEC-targeted HO-1 expression had no effect on glomerular protein permeability. Urinary protein excretion in transgenic mice with anti-GBM Ab injury (days 3 and 6) was significantly lower compared with wild-type controls. There was no significant change in renal expression levels of profibrotic (TGF-β1) or anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines in transgenic mice with anti-GBM Ab injury. These observations indicate that GEC-targeted HO-1 expression does not alter glomerular physiological integrity and reduces proteinuria in glomerular immune injury. PMID:19587144

  16. Reduced expression levels of PTEN are associated with decreased sensitivity of HCC827 cells to icotinib.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yang; Zhang, Yanjun; Nan, Kejun; Liang, Xuan

    2017-05-01

    The clinical resistance of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has been linked to EGFR T790M resistance mutations or MET amplifications. Additional mechanisms underlying EGFR-TKI drug resistance remain unclear. The present study demonstrated that icotinib significantly inhibited the proliferation and increased the apoptosis rate of HCC827 cells; the cellular mRNA and protein expression levels of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) were also significantly downregulated. To investigate the effect of PTEN expression levels on the sensitivity of HCC827 cells to icotinib, PTEN expression was silenced using a PTEN-specific small interfering RNA. The current study identified that the downregulation of PTEN expression levels may promote cellular proliferation in addition to decreasing the apoptosis of HCC827 cells, and may reduce the sensitivity of HCC827 cells to icotinib. These results suggested that reduced PTEN expression levels were associated with the decreased sensitivity of HCC827 cells to icotinib. Furthermore, PTEN expression levels may be a useful marker for predicting icotinib resistance and elucidating the resistance mechanisms underlying EGFR-mutated NSCLC.

  17. Reduced expression levels of PTEN are associated with decreased sensitivity of HCC827 cells to icotinib

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Yang; Zhang, Yanjun; Nan, Kejun; Liang, Xuan

    2017-01-01

    The clinical resistance of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has been linked to EGFR T790M resistance mutations or MET amplifications. Additional mechanisms underlying EGFR-TKI drug resistance remain unclear. The present study demonstrated that icotinib significantly inhibited the proliferation and increased the apoptosis rate of HCC827 cells; the cellular mRNA and protein expression levels of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) were also significantly downregulated. To investigate the effect of PTEN expression levels on the sensitivity of HCC827 cells to icotinib, PTEN expression was silenced using a PTEN-specific small interfering RNA. The current study identified that the downregulation of PTEN expression levels may promote cellular proliferation in addition to decreasing the apoptosis of HCC827 cells, and may reduce the sensitivity of HCC827 cells to icotinib. These results suggested that reduced PTEN expression levels were associated with the decreased sensitivity of HCC827 cells to icotinib. Furthermore, PTEN expression levels may be a useful marker for predicting icotinib resistance and elucidating the resistance mechanisms underlying EGFR-mutated NSCLC. PMID:28521430

  18. An Acceptance-Based Psychoeducation Intervention to Reduce Expressed Emotion in Relatives of Bipolar Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisner, Lori R.; Johnson, Sheri L.

    2008-01-01

    Expressed emotion (EE) is a robust predictor of outcome in bipolar disorder. Despite decades of research, interventions to reduce EE levels have had only modest effects. This study used an expanded model of EE to develop an intervention. Research has demonstrated a strong link between attributions and EE in families of patients with psychiatric…

  19. Angiotensin II Reduces Food Intake by Altering Orexigenic Neuropeptide Expression in the Mouse Hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Tadashi; Semprun-Prieto, Laura; Wainford, Richard D.; Sukhanov, Sergiy; Kapusta, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II), which is elevated in many chronic disease states such as end-stage renal disease and congestive heart failure, induces cachexia and skeletal muscle wasting by increasing muscle protein breakdown and reducing food intake. Neurohormonal mechanisms that mediate Ang II-induced appetite suppression are unknown. Consequently, we examined the effect of Ang II on expression of genes regulating appetite. Systemic Ang II (1 μg/kg · min) infusion in FVB mice rapidly reduced hypothalamic expression of neuropeptide Y (Npy) and orexin and decreased food intake at 6 h compared with sham-infused controls but did not change peripheral leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, glucagon-like peptide, peptide YY, or cholecystokinin levels. These effects were completely blocked by the Ang II type I receptor antagonist candesartan or deletion of Ang II type 1a receptor. Ang II markedly reduced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an enzyme that is known to regulate Npy expression. Intracerebroventricular Ang II infusion (50 ng/kg · min) caused a reduction of food intake, and Ang II dose dependently reduced Npy and orexin expression in the hypothalamus cultured ex vivo. The reduction of Npy and orexin in hypothalamic cultures was completely prevented by candesartan or the AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside. Thus, Ang II type 1a receptor-dependent Ang II signaling reduces food intake by suppressing the hypothalamic expression of Npy and orexin, likely via AMPK dephosphorylation. These findings have major implications for understanding mechanisms of cachexia in chronic disease states such as congestive heart failure and end-stage renal disease, in which the renin-angiotensin system is activated. PMID:22234465

  20. Hypothermia reduces VEGF-165 expression, but not osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells under hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Bakker, Astrid D.; Hogervorst, Jolanda M. A.; Nolte, Peter A.; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke

    2017-01-01

    Cryotherapy is successfully used in the clinic to reduce pain and inflammation after musculoskeletal damage, and might prevent secondary tissue damage under the prevalent hypoxic conditions. Whether cryotherapy reduces mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) number and differentiation under hypoxic conditions, causing impaired callus formation is unknown. We aimed to determine whether hypothermia modulates proliferation, apoptosis, nitric oxide production, VEGF gene and protein expression, and osteogenic/chondrogenic differentiation of human MSCs under hypoxia. Human adipose MSCs were cultured under hypoxia (37°C, 1% O2), hypothermia and hypoxia (30°C, 1% O2), or control conditions (37°C, 20% O2). Total DNA, protein, nitric oxide production, alkaline phosphatase activity, gene expression, and VEGF protein concentration were measured up to day 8. Hypoxia enhanced KI67 expression at day 4. The combination of hypothermia and hypoxia further enhanced KI67 gene expression compared to hypoxia alone, but was unable to prevent the 1.2-fold reduction in DNA amount caused by hypoxia at day 4. Addition of hypothermia to hypoxic cells did not alter the effect of hypoxia alone on BAX-to-BCL-2 ratio, alkaline phosphatase activity, gene expression of SOX9, COL1, or osteocalcin, or nitric oxide production. Hypothermia decreased the stimulating effect of hypoxia on VEGF-165 gene expression by 6-fold at day 4 and by 2-fold at day 8. Hypothermia also decreased VEGF protein expression under hypoxia by 2.9-fold at day 8. In conclusion, hypothermia decreased VEGF-165 gene and protein expression, but did not affect differentiation, or apoptosis of MSCs cultured under hypoxia. These in vitro results implicate that hypothermia treatment in vivo, applied to alleviate pain and inflammation, is not likely to harm early stages of callus formation. PMID:28166273

  1. A Complex Interaction Between Reduced Reelin Expression and Prenatal Organophosphate Exposure Alters Neuronal Cell Morphology.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Brian R; Ross, Brennan; Chou, Joan Wang; Khankan, Rana; Khialeeva, Elvira; Bui, Kimberly; Carpenter, Ellen M

    2016-06-01

    Genetic and environmental factors are both likely to contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders including schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders, and major depressive disorders. Prior studies from our laboratory and others have demonstrated that the combinatorial effect of two factors-reduced expression of reelin protein and prenatal exposure to the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos oxon-gives rise to acute biochemical effects and to morphological and behavioral phenotypes in adolescent and young adult mice. In the current study, we examine the consequences of these factors on reelin protein expression and neuronal cell morphology in adult mice. While the cell populations that express reelin in the adult brain appear unchanged in location and distribution, the levels of full length and cleaved reelin protein show persistent reductions following prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos oxon. Cell positioning and organization in the hippocampus and cerebellum are largely normal in animals with either reduced reelin expression or prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos oxon, but cellular complexity and dendritic spine organization is altered, with a skewed distribution of immature dendritic spines in adult animals. Paradoxically, combinatorial exposure to both factors appears to generate a rescue of the dendritic spine phenotypes, similar to the mitigation of behavioral and morphological changes observed in our prior study. Together, our observations support an interaction between reelin expression and chlorpyrifos oxon exposure that is not simply additive, suggesting a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors in regulating brain morphology. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Shear stress reduces protease activated receptor-1 expression in human endothelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, K. T.; Eskin, S. G.; Patterson, C.; Runge, M. S.; McIntire, L. V.

    2001-01-01

    Shear stress has been shown to regulate several genes involved in the thrombotic and proliferative functions of endothelial cells. Thrombin receptor (protease-activated receptor-1: PAR-1) increases at sites of vascular injury, which suggests an important role for PAR-1 in vascular diseases. However, the effect of shear stress on PAR-1 expression has not been previously studied. This work investigates effects of shear stress on PAR-1 gene expression in both human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs). Cells were exposed to different shear stresses using a parallel plate flow system. Northern blot and flow cytometry analysis showed that shear stress down-regulated PAR-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels in both HUVECs and HMECs but with different thresholds. Furthermore, shear-reduced PAR-1 mRNA was due to a decrease of transcription rate, not increased mRNA degradation. Postshear stress release of endothelin-1 in response to thrombin was reduced in HUVECs and HMECs. Moreover, inhibitors of potential signaling pathways applied during shear stress indicated mediation of the shear-decreased PAR-1 expression by protein kinases. In conclusion, shear stress exposure reduces PAR-1 gene expression in HMECs and HUVECs through a mechanism dependent in part on protein kinases, leading to altered endothelial cell functional responses to thrombin.

  3. Effect of Antenatal Expression of Breast Milk at Term in Reducing Breast Feeding Failures.

    PubMed

    Singh, G; Chouhan, R; Sidhu, K

    2009-04-01

    Though breast feeding is natural, during the first 2-3 days, when enough breast milk is not available with mother, she may introduce bottle feeding erroneously for improving nutrition to her baby. We studied the effect of antenatal expression of breast milk at term in reducing breast feeding failure as compared to conventional method of initiation of breast feeding. A prospective study was carried out in 180 booked cases at term. Daily expression of breast milk at least once a day after 37 weeks of pregnancy was introduced in randomly selected 90 pregnant ladies. Prior examination was done to exclude any inverted or cracked nipples and appropriate treatment instituted. The study group who expressed breast milk daily after 37 weeks did not find it difficult to initiate breast feeding after vaginal or cesarean delivery. Sufficient milk started flowing within half an hour of initiation of breast feeding in most 85 (94.4%) subjects of study group as compared to 63 (70%) patients of control group, which was statistically significant. There was no increase in any delivery complication. There were two partial breast feeding failures in control group but none in study group. Daily antenatal breast milk expression after 37 completed weeks of pregnancy significantly reduced the time for establishing full breast feeding and reduced breast feeding failures.

  4. Reduced retinoids and retinoid receptors' expression in pancreatic cancer: A link to patient survival.

    PubMed

    Bleul, Tim; Rühl, Ralph; Bulashevska, Svetlana; Karakhanova, Svetlana; Werner, Jens; Bazhin, Alexandr V

    2015-09-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) represents one of the deadliest cancers in the world. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is the major physiologically active form of vitamin A, regulating expression of many genes. Disturbances of vitamin A metabolism are prevalent in some cancer cells. The main aim of this work was to investigate deeply the components of retinoid signaling in PDAC compared to in the normal pancreas and to prove the clinical importance of retinoid receptor expression. For the study, human tumor tissues obtained from PDAC patients and murine tumors from the orthotopic Panc02 model were used for the analysis of retinoids, using high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and real-time RT-PCR gene expression analysis. Survival probabilities in univariate analysis were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazards model was used for the multivariate analysis. In this work, we showed for the first time that the ATRA and all-trans retinol concentration is reduced in PDAC tissue compared to their normal counterparts. The expression of RARα and β as well as RXRα and β are down-regulated in PDAC tissue. This reduced expression of retinoid receptors correlates with the expression of some markers of differentiation and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition as well as of cancer stem cell markers. Importantly, the expression of RARα and RXRβ is associated with better overall survival of PDAC patients. Thus, reduction of retinoids and their receptors is an important feature of PDAC and is associated with worse patient survival outcomes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Methamphetamine reduces expression of caveolin-1 in the dorsal striatum: implication for dysregulation of neuronal function

    PubMed Central

    Somkuwar, Sucharita S.; Fannon, McKenzie J.; Head, Brian P.; Mandyam, Chitra D.

    2016-01-01

    Role of striatal dopamine D1 receptors (D1Rs) in methamphetamine (Meth) taking and seeking is recognized from contingent Meth self-administration studies. For example, Meth increases levels of D1Rs in the dorsal striatum in animal models of Meth addiction, and blockade of striatal D1Rs decreased responding for Meth and reduced Meth priming-induced drug seeking. However, the mechanism underlying enhanced expression of striatal D1Rs in animals self-administering Meth is unknown and is hypothesized to involve maladaptive intracellular signal transduction mechanism via hyperphosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). D1Rs are predominantly localized to detergent-resistant membrane/lipid raft fractions (MLR fraction), and in vitro studies indicate that D1R signaling and recycling is regulated by the MLR-resident protein caveolin-1 (Cav-1), in an endocytotic-dependent manner. Notably, expression of Cav-1 is inversely regulated by ERK1/2 activation, suggesting a signaling interplay among D1Rs, ERK1/2 and Cav-1. We therefore evaluated the effects of extended access Meth self-administration on expression of striatal D1Rs, activated ERK1/2 and Cav-1. We first report that Cav-1 is heavily expressed in neurons located in the dorsal striatum. We also report that extended access Meth produces compulsive-like unregulated intake of the drug, and these behavioral outcomes are associated with enhanced expression of D1Rs, increased activity of ERK1/2, and reduced Cav-1 expression in the dorsal striatum. These data suggest a possible cellular mechanism that involves Cav-1 regulation of D1R expression in response to escalated Meth intake, and how this response of altered D1Rs and enhanced ERK1/2 activation to Meth self-administration contributes to contingent-related processes such as addiction. PMID:27138644

  6. Rare TREM2 variants associated with Alzheimer's disease display reduced cell surface expression.

    PubMed

    Sirkis, Daniel W; Bonham, Luke W; Aparicio, Renan E; Geier, Ethan G; Ramos, Eliana Marisa; Wang, Qing; Karydas, Anna; Miller, Zachary A; Miller, Bruce L; Coppola, Giovanni; Yokoyama, Jennifer S

    2016-09-02

    Rare variation in TREM2 has been associated with greater risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). TREM2 encodes a cell surface receptor expressed on microglia and related cells, and the R47H variant associated with AD appears to affect the ability of TREM2 to bind extracellular ligands. In addition, other rare TREM2 mutations causing early-onset neurodegeneration are thought to impair cell surface expression. Using a sequence kernel association (SKAT) analysis in two independent AD cohorts, we found significant enrichment of rare TREM2 variants not previously characterized at the protein level. Heterologous expression of the identified variants showed that novel variants S31F and R47C displayed significantly reduced cell surface expression. In addition, we identified rare variant R136Q in a patient with language-predominant AD that also showed impaired surface expression. The results suggest rare TREM2 variants enriched in AD may be associated with altered TREM2 function and that AD risk may be conferred, in part, from altered TREM2 surface expression.

  7. Reduced GABAA receptor α6 expression in the trigeminal ganglion alters inflammatory TMJ hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Jyoti; Vinothini, Priya; Reuben, Jayne; Bellinger, Larry L.; Ailing, Li; Peng, Yuan B.; Kramer, Phillip R.

    2012-01-01

    Trigeminal ganglia neurons express the GABAA receptor subunit alpha 6 (Gabrα6) but the role of this particular subunit in orofacial hypersensitivity is unknown. In this report the function of Gabrα6 was tested by reducing its expression in the trigeminal ganglia and measuring the effect of this reduction on inflammatory temporomandibular joint (TMJ) hypersensitivity. Gabrα6 expression was reduced by infusing the trigeminal ganglia of male Sprague Dawley rats with small interfering RNA (siRNA) having homology to either the Gabrα6 gene (Gabrα6 siRNA) or no known gene (control siRNA). Sixty hours after siRNA infusion the rats received a bilateral TMJ injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant to induce an inflammatory response. Hypersensitivity was then quantitated by measuring meal duration, which lengthens when hypersensitivity increases. Neuronal activity in the trigeminal ganglia was also measured by quantitating the amount of phosphorylated ERK. Rats in a different group that did not have TMJ inflammation had an electrode placed in the spinal cord at the level of C1 sixty hours after siRNA infusion to record extracellular electrical activity of neurons that responded to TMJ stimulation. Our results show that Gabrα6 was expressed in both neurons and satellite glia of the trigeminal ganglia and that Gabrα6 positive neurons within the trigeminal ganglia have afferents in the TMJ. Gabrα6 siRNA infusion reduced Gabrα6 gene expression by 30% and significantly lengthened meal duration in rats with TMJ inflammation. Gabrα6 siRNA infusion also significantly increased p-ERK expression in the trigeminal ganglia of rats with TMJ inflammation and increased electrical activity in the spinal cord of rats without TMJ inflammation. These results suggest that maintaining Gabrα6 expression was necessary to inhibit primary sensory afferents in the trigeminal pathway and reduce inflammatory orofacial nociception. PMID:22521829

  8. Reduced mycorrhizal colonization (rmc) tomato mutant lacks expression of SymRK signaling pathway genes

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Aswathy; Bhargava, Sujata

    2012-01-01

    Comparison of the expression of 13 genes involved in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis was performed in a wild type tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv 76R) and its reduced mycorrhizal colonization mutant rmc in response to colonization with Glomus fasiculatum. Four defense-related genes were induced to a similar extent in the mutant and wild type AM colonized plants, indicating a systemic response to AM colonization. Genes related to nutrient exchange between the symbiont partners showed higher expression in the AM roots of wild type plants than the mutant plants, which correlated with their arbuscular frequency. A symbiosis receptor kinase that is involved in both nodulation and AM symbiosis was not expressed in the rmc mutant. The fact that some colonization was observed in rmc was suggestive of the existence of an alternate colonization signaling pathway for AM symbiosis in this mutant. PMID:23221680

  9. Increased SHP-1 Protein Expression by High Glucose Levels Reduces Nephrin Phosphorylation in Podocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Denhez, Benoit; Lizotte, Farah; Guimond, Marie-Odile; Jones, Nina; Takano, Tomoko; Geraldes, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Nephrin, a critical podocyte membrane component that is reduced in diabetic nephropathy, has been shown to activate phosphotyrosine signaling pathways in human podocytes. Nephrin signaling is important to reduce cell death induced by apoptotic stimuli. We have shown previously that high glucose level exposure and diabetes increased the expression of SHP-1, causing podocyte apoptosis. SHP-1 possesses two Src homology 2 domains that serve as docking elements to dephosphorylate tyrosine residues of target proteins. However, it remains unknown whether SHP-1 interacts with nephrin and whether its elevated expression affects the nephrin phosphorylation state in diabetes. Here we show that human podocytes exposed to high glucose levels exhibited elevated expression of SHP-1, which was associated with nephrin. Coexpression of nephrin-CD16 and SHP-1 reduced nephrin tyrosine phosphorylation in transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells. A single tyrosine-to-phenylalanine mutation revealed that rat nephrin Tyr1127 and Tyr1152 are required to allow SHP-1 interaction with nephrin. Overexpression of dominant negative SHP-1 in human podocytes prevented high glucose-induced reduction of nephrin phosphorylation. In vivo, immunoblot analysis demonstrated that nephrin expression and phosphorylation were decreased in glomeruli of type 1 diabetic Akita mice (Ins2+/C96Y) compared with control littermate mice (Ins2+/+), and this was associated with elevated SHP-1 and cleaved caspase-3 expression. Furthermore, immunofluorescence analysis indicated increased colocalization of SHP-1 with nephrin in diabetic mice compared with control littermates. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that high glucose exposure increases SHP-1 interaction with nephrin, causing decreased nephrin phosphorylation, which may, in turn, contribute to diabetic nephropathy. PMID:25404734

  10. Reduced Cx43 expression triggers increased fibrosis due to enhanced fibroblast activity.

    PubMed

    Jansen, John A; van Veen, Toon A B; de Jong, Sanne; van der Nagel, Roel; van Stuijvenberg, Leonie; Driessen, Helen; Labzowski, Ronald; Oefner, Carolin M; Bosch, Astrid A; Nguyen, Tri Q; Goldschmeding, Roel; Vos, Marc A; de Bakker, Jacques M T; van Rijen, Harold V M

    2012-04-01

    Arrhythmogenic ventricular remodeling is hallmarked by both reduced gap junction expression and increased collagen deposition. We hypothesized that reduced connexin43 (Cx43) expression is responsible for enhanced fibrosis in the remodeled heart, resulting in an arrhythmogenic substrate. Therefore, we investigated the effect of normal or reduced Cx43 expression on the formation of fibrosis in a physiological (aging) and pathophysiological (transverse aortic constriction [TAC]) mouse model. The Cx43(fl/fl) and Cx43(CreER(T)/fl) mice were aged 18 to 21 months or, at the age of 3 months, either TAC or sham operated and euthanized after 16 weeks. Epicardial activation mapping of the right and left ventricles was performed on Langendorff perfused hearts. Sustained ventricular arrhythmias were induced in 0 of 11 aged Cx43(fl/fl) and 10 of 15 Cx43(Cre-ER(T)/fl) mice (P<0.01). Cx43 expression was reduced by half in aged Cx43(CreER(T)/fl) compared with aged Cx43(fl/fl) mice, whereas collagen deposition was significantly increased from 1.1±0.2% to 7.4±1.3%. Aged Cx43(CreER(T)/fl) mice with arrhythmias had significantly higher levels of fibrosis and conduction heterogeneity than aged Cx43(CreER(T)/fl) mice without arrhythmias. The TAC operation significantly increased fibrosis in control compared with sham (4.0±1.2% versus 0.4±0.06%), but this increase was significantly higher in Cx43(CreER(T)/fl) mice (10.8±1.4%). Discoidin domain receptor 2 expression was unchanged, but procollagen peptide I and III expression and collagen type 1α2 mRNA levels were higher in TAC-operated Cx43HZ mice. Reduced cellular coupling results in more excessive collagen deposition during aging or pressure overload in mice due to enhanced fibroblast activity, leading to increased conduction in homogeneity and proarrhythmia.

  11. Elimination of Kalrn expression in POMC cells reduces anxiety-like behavior and contextual fear learning.

    PubMed

    Mandela, Prashant; Yan, Yan; LaRese, Taylor; Eipper, Betty A; Mains, Richard E

    2014-07-01

    Kalirin, a Rho GDP/GTP exchange factor for Rac1 and RhoG, is known to play an essential role in the formation and maintenance of excitatory synapses and in the secretion of neuropeptides. Mice unable to express any of the isoforms of Kalrn in cells that produce POMC at any time during development (POMC cells) exhibited reduced anxiety-like behavior and reduced acquisition of passive avoidance behavior, along with sex-specific alteration in the corticosterone response to restraint stress. Strikingly, lack of Kalrn expression in POMC cells closely mimicked the effects of global Kalrn knockout on anxiety-like behavior and passive avoidance conditioning without causing the other deficits noted in Kalrn knockout mice. Our data suggest that deficits in excitatory inputs onto POMC neurons are responsible for the behavioral phenotypes observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Elimination of Kalrn Expression in POMC Cells Reduces Anxiety-Like Behavior and Contextual Fear Learning

    PubMed Central

    Mandela, Prashant; Yan, Yan; LaRese, Taylor; Eipper, Betty A.; Mains, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Kalirin, a Rho GDP/GTP exchange factor for Rac1 and RhoG, is known to play an essential role in the formation and maintenance of excitatory synapses and in the secretion of neuropeptides. Mice unable to express any of the isoforms of Kalrn in cells that produce POMC at any time during development (POMC cells) exhibited reduced anxiety-like behavior and reduced acquisition of passive avoidance behavior, along with sex-specific alteration in the corticosterone response to restraint stress. Strikingly, lack of Kalrn expression in POMC cells closely mimicked the effects of global Kalrn knockout on anxiety-like behavior and passive avoidance conditioning without causing the other deficits noted in Kalrn knockout mice. Our data suggest that deficits in excitatory inputs onto POMC neurons are responsible for the behavioral phenotypes observed. PMID:25014196

  13. Histone deacetylase inhibitors suppress ABO transcription in vitro, leading to reduced expression of the antigens.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoichiro; Kubo, Rieko; Sano, Rie; Nakajima, Tamiko; Takahashi, Keiko; Kobayashi, Momoko; Handa, Hiroshi; Tsukada, Junichi; Kominato, Yoshihiko

    2017-03-01

    The ABO system is of fundamental importance in the fields of transfusion and transplantation and has apparent associations with certain diseases, including cardiovascular disorders. ABO expression is reduced in the late phase of erythroid differentiation in vitro, whereas histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are known to promote cell differentiation. Therefore, whether or not HDACIs could reduce the amount of ABO transcripts and A or B antigens is an intriguing issue. Quantitative polymerase chain reactions were carried out for the ABO transcripts in erythroid-lineage K562 and epithelial-lineage KATOIII cells after incubation with HDACIs, such as sodium butyrate, panobinostat, vorinostat, and sodium valproate. Flow cytometric analysis was conducted to evaluate the amounts of antigen in KATOIII cells treated with panobinostat. Quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays and luciferase assays were performed on both cell types to examine the mechanisms of ABO suppression. HDACIs reduced the ABO transcripts in both K562 and KATOIII cells, with panobinostat exerting the most significant effect. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated a decrease in B-antigen expression on panobinostat-treated KATOIII cells. ChIP assays indicated that panobinostat altered the modification of histones in the transcriptional regulatory regions of ABO, and luciferase assays demonstrated reduced activity of these elements. ABO transcription seems to be regulated by an epigenetic mechanism. Panobinostat appears to suppress ABO transcription, reducing the amount of antigens on the surface of cultured cells. © 2016 AABB.

  14. Reduced Expression of CD45 Protein-tyrosine Phosphatase Provides Protection against Anthrax Pathogenesis*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Panchal, Rekha G.; Ulrich, Ricky L.; Bradfute, Steven B.; Lane, Douglas; Ruthel, Gordon; Kenny, Tara A.; Iversen, Patrick L.; Anderson, Arthur O.; Gussio, Rick; Raschke, William C.; Bavari, Sina

    2009-01-01

    The modulation of cellular processes by small molecule inhibitors, gene inactivation, or targeted knockdown strategies combined with phenotypic screens are powerful approaches to delineate complex cellular pathways and to identify key players involved in disease pathogenesis. Using chemical genetic screening, we tested a library of known phosphatase inhibitors and identified several compounds that protected Bacillus anthracis infected macrophages from cell death. The most potent compound was assayed against a panel of sixteen different phosphatases of which CD45 was found to be most sensitive to inhibition. Testing of a known CD45 inhibitor and antisense phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers targeting CD45 also protected B. anthracis-infected macrophages from cell death. However, reduced CD45 expression did not protect anthrax lethal toxin (LT) treated macrophages, suggesting that the pathogen and independently added LT may signal through distinct pathways. Subsequent, in vivo studies with both gene-targeted knockdown of CD45 and genetically engineered mice expressing reduced levels of CD45 resulted in protection of mice after infection with the virulent Ames B. anthracis. Intermediate levels of CD45 expression were critical for the protection, as mice expressing normal levels of CD45 or disrupted CD45 phosphatase activity or no CD45 all succumbed to this pathogen. Mechanism-based studies suggest that the protection provided by reduced CD45 levels results from regulated immune cell homeostasis that may diminish the impact of apoptosis during the infection. To date, this is the first report demonstrating that reduced levels of host phosphatase CD45 modulate anthrax pathogenesis. PMID:19269962

  15. Identification of RNA Aptamers that Internalize into HPV-16 E6/E7 Transformed Tonsillar Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gourronc, Francoise A.; Rockey, William M.; Thiel, William H.; Giangrande, Paloma H.; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J.

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) associated oropharyngeal cancers are on a significant increase and better therapeutic strategies are needed. The HPV-16 oncogenes E6 and E7 are expressed in HPV-associated cancers and are able to transform human tonsillar epithelial cells (HTECs). We used cell-SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) to select for RNA aptamers that entered into HPV-16 E6/E7-HTECs. After 12 rounds of cell-SELEX, a pool of aptamers was obtained that had significantly greater internalization capacity (~5-fold) into E6/E7-HTECs as compared to primary HTECs or fibroblasts. Analysis of individual aptamers from the pool indicated variable internalization into E6/E7-HTECs (1 to 8-fold as compared to a negative control). Most of the individual aptamers internalized into E6/E7 and primary HTECs with similar efficiency, while one aptamer exhibited ~3-fold better internalization into E6/E7-HTECs. Aptamers that internalize into cells may be useful for delivering therapeutic agents to HPV-16 associated malignancies. PMID:24074596

  16. Reduced expression of G protein-coupled receptor kinases in schizophrenia but not in schizoaffective disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bychkov, ER; Ahmed, MR; Gurevich, VV; Benovic, JL; Gurevich, EV

    2011-01-01

    Alterations of multiple G protein-mediated signaling pathways are detected in schizophrenia. G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) and arrestins terminate signaling by G protein-coupled receptors exerting powerful influence on receptor functions. Modifications of arrestin and/or GRKs expression may contribute to schizophrenia pathology. Cortical expression of arrestins and GRKs was measured postmortem in control and subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Additionally, arrestin/GRK expression was determined in elderly patients with schizophrenia and age-matched control. Patients with schizophrenia, but not schizoaffective disorder, displayed reduced concentration of arrestin and GRK mRNAs and GRK3 protein. Arrestins and GRK significantly decreased with age. In elderly patients, GRK6 was reduced, with other GRKs and arrestins unchanged. Reduced cortical concentration of GRKs in schizophrenia (resembling that in aging) may result in altered G protein-dependent signaling, thus contributing to prefrontal deficits in schizophrenia. The data suggest distinct molecular mechanisms underlying schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. PMID:21784156

  17. Inhibition of GSK3β-mediated BACE1 expression reduces Alzheimer-associated phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Philip T.T.; Wu, Yili; Zou, Haiyan; Wang, Ruitao; Zhou, Weihui; Kinoshita, Ayae; Zhang, Mingming; Yang, Yi; Cai, Fang; Woodgett, James; Song, Weihong

    2012-01-01

    Deposition of amyloid β protein (Aβ) to form neuritic plaques in the brain is the pathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Aβ is generated from sequential cleavages of the β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) by the β- and γ-secretases, and β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is the β-secretase essential for Aβ generation. Previous studies have indicated that glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) may play a role in APP processing by modulating γ-secretase activity, thereby facilitating Aβ production. There are two highly conserved isoforms of GSK3: GSK3α and GSK3β. We now report that specific inhibition of GSK3β, but not GSK3α, reduced BACE1-mediated cleavage of APP and Aβ production by decreasing BACE1 gene transcription and expression. The regulation of BACE1 gene expression by GSK3β was dependent on NF-κB signaling. Inhibition of GSK3 signaling markedly reduced Aβ deposition and neuritic plaque formation, and rescued memory deficits in the double transgenic AD model mice. These data provide evidence for regulation of BACE1 expression and AD pathogenesis by GSK3β and that inhibition of GSK3 signaling can reduce Aβ neuropathology and alleviate memory deficits in AD model mice. Our study suggests that interventions that specifically target the β-isoform of GSK3 may be a safe and effective approach for treating AD. PMID:23202730

  18. Excessive fluoride reduces Foxo1 expression in dental epithelial cells of the rat incisor.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jianghong; Ruan, Jianping; Gao, Liping

    2014-10-01

    Enamel fluorosis is characterized by hypomineralization, and forkhead box O1 (Foxo1) is essential for mouse enamel biomineralization. This study investigated the effect of fluoride on Foxo1 expression and its implications for enamel fluorosis. Mandibular incisors were extracted from Sprague Dawley rats treated for 3 months with water containing 0, 50, or 100 p.p.m. F⁻. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize and quantify FOXO1 expression in dental epithelial layer cells of the incisors. The effect of fluoride on expression of Foxo1, kallikrein-4 (Klk4), and amelotin (Amtn) mRNAs was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR, and western blotting was used to measure total and nuclear FOXO1 protein levels in mature dental epithelial cells. The results revealed that nuclear FOXO1 was mainly localized in the transition and the mature ameloblasts and exhibited weaker expression in the rats exposed to fluoride. In addition to the reduced levels of Foxo1, Klk4, and AmtnmRNAs, the protein levels of total and nuclearFOXO1 were decreased in the mature dental epithelial cells exposed to fluoride. Thus, excessive fluoride may have an effect on the expression levels of Foxo1 in dental epithelial cells and thereby affect hypomineralization of the enamel during fluorosis. © 2014 Eur J Oral Sci.

  19. Psoriatic T cells reduce epidermal turnover time and affect cell proliferation contributed from differential gene expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Junqin; Li, Xinhua; Hou, Ruixia; Liu, Ruifeng; Zhao, Xincheng; Dong, Feng; Wang, Chunfang; Yin, Guohua; Zhang, Kaiming

    2015-09-01

    Psoriasis is mediated primarily by T cells, which reduce epidermal turnover time and affect keratinocyte proliferation. We aimed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEG) in T cells from normal, five pairs of monozygotic twins concordant or discordant for psoriasis, to determine whether these DEG may account for the influence to epidermal turnover time and keratinocyte proliferation. The impact of T cells on keratinocyte proliferation and epidermal turnover time were investigated separately by immunohistochemistry and cultured with (3) H-TdR. mRNA expression patterns were investigated by RNA sequencing and verified by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. After co-culture with psoriatic T cells, the expression of Ki-67, c-Myc and p53 increased, while expression of Bcl-2 and epidermal turnover time decreased. There were 14 DEG which were found to participate in the regulation of cell proliferation or differentiation. Psoriatic T cells exhibited the ability to decrease epidermal turnover time and affect keratinocyte proliferation because of the differential expression of PPIL1, HSPH1, SENP3, NUP54, FABP5, PLEKHG3, SLC9A9 and CHCHD4. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  20. PSCA expression is associated with favorable tumor features and reduced PSA recurrence in operated prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Marie-Christine; Göbel, Cosima; Kluth, Martina; Bernreuther, Christian; Sauer, Charlotte; Schroeder, Cornelia; Möller-Koop, Christina; Hube-Magg, Claudia; Lebok, Patrick; Burandt, Eike; Sauter, Guido; Simon, Ronald; Huland, Hartwig; Graefen, Markus; Heinzer, Hans; Schlomm, Thorsten; Heumann, Asmus

    2018-05-31

    Prostate Stem Cell Antigen (PSCA) is frequently expressed in prostate cancer but its exact function is unclear. To clarify contradictory findings on the prognostic role of PSCA expression, a tissue microarray containing 13,665 prostate cancers was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. PSCA staining was absent in normal epithelial and stromal cells of the prostate. Membranous and cytoplasmic PSCA staining was seen in 53.7% of 9642 interpretable tumors. Staining was weak in 22.4%, moderate in 24.5% and strong in 6.8% of tumors. PSCA expression was associated with favorable pathological and clinical tumor features: Early pathological tumor stage (p < 0.0001), low Gleason grade (p < 0.0001), absence of lymph node metastasis (p < 0.0001), low pre-operative PSA level (p = 0.0118), negative surgical margin (p < 0.0001) and reduced PSA recurrence (p < 0.0001). PSCA expression was an independent predictor of prognosis in multivariate analysis (hazard ratio 0.84, p < 0.0001). The absence of statistical relationship to TMPRSS2:ERG fusion status, chromosomal deletion or high tumor cell proliferation argues against a major role of PSCA for regulation of cell cycle or genomic integrity. PSCA expression is linked to favorable prognosis. PSCA measurement is a candidate for inclusion in multi-parametric prognostic prostate cancer tests.

  1. Oxidative stress reduces trophoblast FOXO1 and integrin β3 expression that inhibits cell motility.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chie-Pein; Chen, Cheng-Yi; Wu, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Chia-Yu

    2018-06-08

    Preeclampsia is a serious pregnancy complication associated with placental oxidative stress and impaired trophoblast migration. The mechanism of defective trophoblast migration remains unknown. Forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) is a transcription factor. Integrin β3 is involved in cell motility. We hypothesized that FOXO1 mediates expression of trophoblast integrin β3, which could be impaired by oxidative stress and have implications in preeclampsia. The expressions of FOXO1 and integrin β3 were significantly reduced in preeclamptic placentas (n = 15) compared to that of controls (n = 15; p < 0.01). HTR-8/SVneo and JEG-3 trophoblasts were transfected to express wild-type FOXO1-WT or constitutively-expressed nuclear mutant form, FOXO1-AAA. The FOXO1 in HTR-8/SVneo and 3A-Sub-E trophoblasts was silenced by small interfering RNA. AKT-mediated phosphorylation inactivated FOXO1, but FOXO1-AAA was not phosphorylated. The expression of trophoblast integrin β3 was significantly elevated by FOXO1 overexpression and inhibited by FOXO1 knockdown. FOXO1 regulates integrin β3 at the transcriptional level via binding to the putative FOXO1 response element site between position -1154 to -1139 (TGAGATGTTTTGAAAG) in HTR-8/SVneo trophoblasts. The level of phosphorylated FOXO1 was decreased, and the FOXO1 level was increased in trophoblasts treated with AKT inhibitor MK2206, leading to upregulation of integrin β3. The capabilities of trophoblast adhesion and migration were enhanced by FOXO1-overexpression or MK2206, and inhibited by silencing FOXO1 or oxidative stress with H 2 O 2 . These results suggest that FOXO1 enhances trophoblast integrin β3 expression, and mediates cell adhesion and migration. By affecting the expression of FOXO1 and cell motility in trophoblasts, oxidative stress plays a role in the development of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Gestational Protein Restriction Reduces Expression of Hsd17b2 in Rat Placental Labyrinth1

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Haijun; Yallampalli, Uma; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Accumulating evidence strongly supports the premise that testosterone may be a key player in fetal programming on hypertension. Studies have shown that gestational protein restriction doubles the plasma testosterone levels in pregnant rats. In this study, we hypothesized that elevated testosterone levels in response to gestational protein restriction were caused by enhanced expression of steroidogenic enzymes or impaired expression of Hsd17b2, a known testosterone inactivator that converts testosterone to androstenedione in placenta. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal (20% protein, control; n = 10) or a low-protein diet (6% protein, PR; n = 10) from Day 1 of pregnancy until killed at Days 14, 18, or 21. Junctional (JZ) and labyrinth (LZ) zones of placenta were collected for expression assay on steroidogenic genes (Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, Cyp17a1, Hsd17b2, and Srd5a1) by real-time PCR. The main findings include the following: 1) expressions of Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, and Cyp17a1 in JZ were not affected by diet but were affected by day of pregnancy; 2) expression of Hsd17b2 in both female and male JZs was remarkably increased by PR at Days 18 and 21 of pregnancy; 3) expressions of Hsd17b2 were reduced by PR in both female and male LZ at Day 18 of pregnancy and in female LZ at Day 21 of pregnancy; and 4) expression of Srd5a1in LZ was not affected by day of pregnancy, gender, or diet. These results indicate that in response to gestational protein restriction, Hsd17b2 may be a key regulator of testosterone levels and associated activities in placental zones, apparently in a paradoxical manner. PMID:22837477

  3. Reduced Dermatopontin Expression Is a Molecular Link Between Uterine Leiomyomas and Keloids

    PubMed Central

    Catherino, William H.; Leppert, Phyllis C.; Stenmark, Matthew H.; Payson, Mark; Potlog-Nahari, Clariss; Nieman, Lynnette K.; Segars, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are prevalent estrogen-responsive clonal tumors, but the specific genetic alterations that contribute to their development have not been elucidated. To identify genes involved in the formation of leiomyomas, we used global expression profiling to compare clonal tumors with normal myometrium. Contrary to expectation, genes involved in estrogen action were not differentially expressed between leiomyoma and normal myometrium. Genes encoding extracellular-matrix proteins were prominently featured, suggesting their involvement in formation of a myofibroblast phenotype. Analysis of the extracellular matrix in the leiomyomas revealed a disordered collagen fibril orientation. Expression of the collagen-binding protein dermatopontin was found to be consistently decreased in leiomyoma by both reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time RT-PCR (mean underexpression = 9.41-fold) regardless of leiomyoma size, leiomyoma location, patient race, and patient age. This expression pattern was observed in 11 subjects and a total of 23 leiomyoma: myometrium pairs. Decreased expression of dermatopontin was also associated with keloid formation, a fibrotic disease that shares epidemiologic similarities with leiomyoma. Immunohistochemical studies of leiomyomas and keloids demonstrated reduced levels of dermatopontin in both tissues. In addition, ultrastructural analysis revealed that the orientation of the collagen fibrils in the keloid tissues strongly resembled that in the leiomyomas. Reduction in dermatopontin was associated with an increase in transforming growth factor–β3 (TGFB3) mRNA levels in leiomyomas, whereas other genes involved in dermatopontin signaling were not differentially expressed. These findings suggest that leiomyoma development involves a myofibroblast cell phenotype characterized by dysregulation of genes encoding extracellular-matrix proteins. In particular, decreased expression of dermatopontin represents a

  4. TMEM106B expression is reduced in Alzheimer’s disease brains

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction TMEM106B is a transmembrane glycoprotein of unknown function located within endosome/lysosome compartments expressed ubiquitously in various cell types. Previously, the genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified a significant association of TMEM106B single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with development of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitinated TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43)-positive inclusions (FTLD-TDP), particularly in the patients exhibiting the progranulin (PGRN) gene (GRN) mutations. Recent studies indicate that TMEM106B plays a pathological role in various neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, at present, the precise levels of TMEM106B expression in AD brains remain unknown. Methods By quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR (qPCR), western blot and immunohistochemistry, we studied TMEM106B and PGRN expression levels in a series of AD and control brains, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, multiple system atrophy and non-neurological cases. Results In AD brains, TMEM106B mRNA and protein levels were significantly reduced, whereas PGRN mRNA levels were elevated, compared with the levels in non-AD brains. In all brains, TMEM106B was expressed in the majority of cortical neurons, hippocampal neurons, and some populations of oligodendrocytes, reactive astrocytes and microglia with the location in the cytoplasm. In AD brains, surviving neurons expressed intense TMEM106B immunoreactivity, while senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and the perivascular neuropil, almost devoid of TMEM106B, intensely expressed PGRN. Conclusions We found an inverse relationship between TMEM106B (downregulation) and PGRN (upregulation) expression levels in AD brains, suggesting a key role of TMEM106B in the pathological processes of AD. PMID:24684749

  5. Reduced expression of TGF beta is associated with advanced disease in transitional cell carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Coombs, L. M.; Pigott, D. A.; Eydmann, M. E.; Proctor, A. J.; Knowles, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    The gene structure and expression of the related peptide regulatory factors TGF beta 1 and TGF beta 2 were studied in a panel of seven urothelial carcinoma cell lines and 40 transitional cell carcinomas. The latter comprised 15 grade 1, 18 grade 2 and 5 grade 3 tumours and two cases of carcinoma in situ. Control tissues included ten matched 'field' biopsies and 17 other biopsies including 11 biopsies of macroscopically normal urothelium, two of which were from patients with no history of bladder cancer. No amplification of rearrangements of either TGF beta 1 or TGF beta 2 were detected in any sample. A complex pattern of expression or the two genes was found in the urothelial cell lines. High, but variable levels of the 2.5 kb TGF beta 1 transcript were detected and lower and more variable levels of the three (4.1 kb, 5.1 kb and 6.5 kb) transcripts of TGF beta 2 were detected. Although those cell lines expressing most TGF beta 1 tended to express less TGF beta 2 transcript there was no clear-cut relationship. In comparison, no TGF beta 2 transcript was identified in any primary transitional cell carcinoma or control tissue. Markedly reduced or undetectable levels of TGF beta 1 transcript were detected in 4/15 (26%) grade 1, 5/18 (28%) grade 2 and 3/5 (60%) grade 3 tumours. There was no clear relationship to tumour stage, lymphocytic infiltration or stromal content of the tumours. Clinical review one year after the 2 year period of tumour collection showed that 6/9 (66%) of patients with tumours with reduced levels of transcript had died or had disease which was not controllable by local resection and 3/9 (33%) had developed tumour re-occurrences. In comparison, in the group with normal levels of expression of TGF beta 1, 3/18 (17%) had disease which was not controllable by local means, 9/18 (50%) had tumour re-occurrence and 6/18 (33%) had no evidence of disease. The association of reduced expression of TGF beta 1 and advanced disease was statistically significant

  6. Expression of a bacterial 3-dehydroshikimate dehydratase reduces lignin content and improves biomass saccharification efficiency.

    PubMed

    Eudes, Aymerick; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Baidoo, Edward E K; George, Anthe; Liang, Yan; Yang, Fan; Singh, Seema; Keasling, Jay D; Simmons, Blake A; Loqué, Dominique

    2015-12-01

    Lignin confers recalcitrance to plant biomass used as feedstocks in agro-processing industries or as source of renewable sugars for the production of bioproducts. The metabolic steps for the synthesis of lignin building blocks belong to the shikimate and phenylpropanoid pathways. Genetic engineering efforts to reduce lignin content typically employ gene knockout or gene silencing techniques to constitutively repress one of these metabolic pathways. Recently, new strategies have emerged offering better spatiotemporal control of lignin deposition, including the expression of enzymes that interfere with the normal process for cell wall lignification. In this study, we report that expression of a 3-dehydroshikimate dehydratase (QsuB from Corynebacterium glutamicum) reduces lignin deposition in Arabidopsis cell walls. QsuB was targeted to the plastids to convert 3-dehydroshikimate - an intermediate of the shikimate pathway - into protocatechuate. Compared to wild-type plants, lines expressing QsuB contain higher amounts of protocatechuate, p-coumarate, p-coumaraldehyde and p-coumaryl alcohol, and lower amounts of coniferaldehyde, coniferyl alcohol, sinapaldehyde and sinapyl alcohol. 2D-NMR spectroscopy and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (pyro-GC/MS) reveal an increase of p-hydroxyphenyl units and a reduction of guaiacyl units in the lignin of QsuB lines. Size-exclusion chromatography indicates a lower degree of lignin polymerization in the transgenic lines. Therefore, our data show that the expression of QsuB primarily affects the lignin biosynthetic pathway. Finally, biomass from these lines exhibits more than a twofold improvement in saccharification efficiency. We conclude that the expression of QsuB in plants, in combination with specific promoters, is a promising gain-of-function strategy for spatiotemporal reduction of lignin in plant biomass. © 2015 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The

  7. Expression of a bacterial 3-dehydroshikimate dehydratase reduces lignin content and improves biomass saccharification efficiency

    DOE PAGES

    Eudes, Aymerick; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Baidoo, Edward E. K.; ...

    2015-01-13

    Lignin confers recalcitrance to plant biomass used as feedstocks in agro-processing industries or as source of renewable sugars for the production of bioproducts. The metabolic steps for the synthesis of lignin building blocks belong to the shikimate and phenylpropanoid pathways. Genetic engineering efforts to reduce lignin content typically employ gene knockout or gene silencing techniques to constitutively repress one of these metabolic pathways. Recently, new strategies have emerged offering better spatiotemporal control of lignin deposition, including the expression of enzymes that interfere with the normal process for cell wall lignification. In this study, we report that expression of a 3-dehydroshikimatemore » dehydratase (QsuB from Corynebacterium glutamicum) reduces lignin deposition in Arabidopsis cell walls. QsuB was targeted to the plastids to convert 3-dehydroshikimate – an intermediate of the shikimate pathway – into protocatechuate. Compared to wild-type plants, lines expressing QsuB contain higher amounts of protocatechuate, p-coumarate, p-coumaraldehyde and p-coumaryl alcohol, and lower amounts of coniferaldehyde, coniferyl alcohol, sinapaldehyde and sinapyl alcohol. 2D-NMR spectroscopy and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (pyro-GC/MS) reveal an increase of p-hydroxyphenyl units and a reduction of guaiacyl units in the lignin of QsuB lines. Size-exclusion chromatography indicates a lower degree of lignin polymerization in the transgenic lines. Therefore, our data show that the expression of QsuB primarily affects the lignin biosynthetic pathway. Finally, biomass from these lines exhibits more than a twofold improvement in saccharification efficiency. We conclude that the expression of QsuB in plants, in combination with specific promoters, is a promising gain-of-function strategy for spatiotemporal reduction of lignin in plant biomass.« less

  8. Deletion of Tsc2 in Nociceptors Reduces Target Innervation, Ion Channel Expression, and Sensitivity to Heat

    PubMed Central

    Carlin, Dan; Golden, Judith P.; Monk, Kelly R.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is known to regulate cellular growth pathways, and its genetic activation is sufficient to enhance regenerative axon growth following injury to the central or peripheral nervous systems. However, excess mTORC1 activation may promote innervation defects, and mTORC1 activity mediates injury-induced hypersensitivity, reducing enthusiasm for the pathway as a therapeutic target. While mTORC1 activity is required for full expression of some pain modalities, the effects of pathway activation on nociceptor phenotypes and sensory behaviors are currently unknown. To address this, we genetically activated mTORC1 in mouse peripheral sensory neurons by conditional deletion of its negative regulator Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 (Tsc2). Consistent with the well-known role of mTORC1 in regulating cell size, soma size and axon diameter of C-nociceptors were increased in Tsc2-deleted mice. Glabrous skin and spinal cord innervation by C-fiber neurons were also disrupted. Transcriptional profiling of nociceptors enriched by fluorescence-associated cell sorting (FACS) revealed downregulation of multiple classes of ion channels as well as reduced expression of markers for peptidergic nociceptors in Tsc2-deleted mice. In addition to these changes in innervation and gene expression, Tsc2-deleted mice exhibited reduced noxious heat sensitivity and decreased injury-induced cold hypersensitivity, but normal baseline sensitivity to cold and mechanical stimuli. Together, these data show that excess mTORC1 activity in sensory neurons produces changes in gene expression, neuron morphology and sensory behavior. PMID:29766046

  9. Oligodendrocyte gene expression is reduced by and influences effects of chronic social stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Cathomas, F; Azzinnari, D; Bergamini, G; Sigrist, H; Buerge, M; Hoop, V; Wicki, B; Goetze, L; Soares, S; Kukelova, D; Seifritz, E; Goebbels, S; Nave, K-A; Ghandour, M S; Seoighe, C; Hildebrandt, T; Leparc, G; Klein, H; Stupka, E; Hengerer, B; Pryce, C R

    2018-03-22

    Oligodendrocyte gene expression is downregulated in stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression. In mice, chronic social stress (CSS) leads to depression-relevant changes in brain and emotional behavior, and the present study shows the involvement of oligodendrocytes in this model. In C57BL/6 (BL/6) mice, RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) was conducted with prefrontal cortex, amygdala and hippocampus from CSS and controls; a gene enrichment database for neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes was used to identify cell origin of deregulated genes, and cell deconvolution was applied. To assess the potential causal contribution of reduced oligodendrocyte gene expression to CSS effects, mice heterozygous for the oligodendrocyte gene cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (Cnp1) on a BL/6 background were studied; a 2 genotype (wildtype, Cnp1 +/- ) × 2 environment (control, CSS) design was used to investigate effects on emotional behavior and amygdala microglia. In BL/6 mice, in prefrontal cortex and amygdala tissue comprising gray and white matter, CSS downregulated expression of multiple oligodendroycte genes encoding myelin and myelin-axon-integrity proteins, and cell deconvolution identified a lower proportion of oligodendrocytes in amygdala. Quantification of oligodendrocyte proteins in amygdala gray matter did not yield evidence for reduced translation, suggesting that CSS impacts primarily on white matter oligodendrocytes or the myelin transcriptome. In Cnp1 mice, social interaction was reduced by CSS in Cnp1 +/- mice specifically; using ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (IBA1) expression, microglia activity was increased additively by Cnp1 +/- and CSS in amygdala gray and white matter. This study provides back-translational evidence that oligodendrocyte changes are relevant to the pathophysiology and potentially the treatment of stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural

  10. Human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein engages but does not abrogate the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Yueyang; Munger, Karl, E-mail: kmunger@rics.bwh.harvard.edu

    2012-10-10

    The mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) ensures faithful chromosome segregation during mitosis by censoring kinetochore-microtubule interactions. It is frequently rendered dysfunctional during carcinogenesis causing chromosome missegregation and genomic instability. There are conflicting reports whether the HPV16 E7 oncoprotein drives chromosomal instability by abolishing the SAC. Here we report that degradation of mitotic cyclins is impaired in cells with HPV16 E7 expression. RNAi-mediated depletion of Mad2 or BubR1 indicated the involvement of the SAC, suggesting that HPV16 E7 expression causes sustained SAC engagement. Mutational analyses revealed that HPV16 E7 sequences that are necessary for retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein binding as wellmore » as sequences previously implicated in binding the nuclear and mitotic apparatus (NuMA) protein and in delocalizing dynein from the mitotic spindle contribute to SAC engagement. Importantly, however, HPV16 E7 does not markedly compromise the SAC response to microtubule poisons.« less

  11. Immortalization of normal human embryonic fibroblasts by introduction of either the human papillomavirus type 16 E6 or E7 gene alone.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Akito; Kumakura, Shin-ichi; Uchida, Minoru; Barrett, J Carl; Tsutsui, Takeki

    2003-09-01

    The ability of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E6 or E7 gene to induce immortalization of normal human embryonic fibroblast WHE-7 cells was examined. WHE-7 cells at 9 population doublings (PD) were infected with retrovirus vectors encoding either HPV-16 E6 or E7 alone or both E6 and E7 (E6/E7). One of 4 isolated clones carrying E6 alone became immortal and is currently at >445 PD. Four of 4 isolated clones carrying E7 alone escaped from crisis and are currently at >330 PD. Three of 5 isolated clones carrying E6/E7 were also immortalized and are currently at >268 PD. The immortal clone carrying E6 only and 2 of the 3 immortal clones carrying E6/E7 expressed a high level of E6 protein, and all the immortal clones carrying E7 alone and the other immortal clone carrying E6/E7 expressed a high level of E7 protein when compared to their mortal or precrisis clones. The immortal clones expressing a high level of E6 or E7 protein were positive for telomerase activity or an alternative mechanism of telomere maintenance, respectively, known as ALT (alternative lengthening of telomeres). All the mortal or precrisis clones were negative for both phenotypes. All the immortal clones exhibited abrogation of G1 arrest after DNA damage by X-ray irradiation. The expression of INK4a protein (p16(INK4a)) was undetectable in the E6-infected mortal and immortal clones, whereas Rb protein (pRb) was hyperphosphorylated only in the immortal clone. The p16(INK4a) protein was overexpressed in all the E7-infected immortal clones and their clones in the pre-crisis period as well as all the E6/E7-infected mortal and immortal clones, but the pRb expression was downregulated in all of these clones. These results demonstrate for the first time to our knowledge that HPV-16 E6 or E7 alone can induce immortalization of normal human embryonic fibroblasts. Inactivation of p16(INK4a)/pRb pathways in combination with activation of a telomere maintenance mechanism is suggested to be necessary for

  12. Reduced SIRT1 expression correlates with enhanced oxidative stress in compensated and decompensated heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Akkafa, Feridun; Halil Altiparmak, Ibrahim; Erkus, Musluhittin Emre; Aksoy, Nurten; Kaya, Caner; Ozer, Ahmet; Sezen, Hatice; Oztuzcu, Serdar; Koyuncu, Ismail; Umurhan, Berrin

    2015-01-01

    Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) is a longevity factor in mammals initiating the cell survival mechanisms, and preventing ischemic injury in heart. In the etiopathogenesis of heart failure (HF), impairment in cardiomyocyte survival is a notable factor. Oxidative stress comprises a critical impact on cardiomyocyte lifespan in HF. The aim of the present study was to investigate SIRT1 expression in patients with compensated (cHF) and decompensated HF (dHF), and its correlation with oxidative stress. SIRT1 expression in peripheral leukocytes was examined using quantitative RT-PCR in 163 HF patients and 84 controls. Serum total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) were measured via colorimetric assays, and oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated. Lipid parameters were also determined by routine laboratory methods. SIRT1 mRNA expression was significantly downregulated in HF with more robust decrease in dHF (p=0.002, control vs cHF; p<0.001, control vs dHF). Markedly increased oxidative stress defined as elevated TOS, OSI and low TAS levels were detected in HF patients comparing with the controls (TAS; p=0.010, control vs cHF, p=0.045 control vs dHF, TOS; p=0.004 control vs cHF; p<0.001 control vs dHF, OSI; p<0.001 for both comparisons, respectively). With SIRT1 expression levels, TAS, TOS, OSI, and high density lipoprotein levels in cHF and dHF were determined correlated. SIRT1 expression were significantly reduced in both HF subtypes, particularly in dHF. SIRT1 expression was correlated with the oxidant levels and antioxidant capacity. Data suggest that SIRT1 may have a significant contribution in regulation of oxidant/antioxidant balance in HF etiology and compensation status. PMID:26233702

  13. Reduced TH expression and α-synuclein accumulation contribute towards nigrostriatal dysfunction in experimental hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Isabel; Bodega, Guillermo; Rubio, Miguel; Fernández, Benjamín

    2017-01-01

    The present work examines α-synuclein expression in the nigrostriatal system of a rat chronic hepatic encephalopathy model induced by portacaval anastomosis (PCA). There is evidence that dopaminergic dysfunction in disease conditions is strongly associated with such expression. Possible relationships among dopaminergic neurons, astroglial cells and α-synuclein expression were sought. Brain tissue samples from rats at 1 and 6 months post-PCA, and controls, were analysed immunohistochemically using antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), α-synuclein, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ubiquitin (Ub). In the control rats, TH immunoreactivity was detected in the neuronal cell bodies and processes in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). A dense TH-positive network of neurons was also seen in the striatum. In the PCA-exposed rats, however, a reduction in TH-positive neurons was seen at both 1 and 6 months in the SNc, as well as a reduction in TH-positive fibres in the striatum. This was coincident with the appearance of α-synuclein-immunoreactive neurons in the SNc; some of the TH-positive neurons also showed α-synuclein immunoreactivity. In addition, α-synuclein accumulation was seen in the SNc and striatum at both 1 and 6 months post-PCA, whereas α-synuclein was only mildly expressed in the nigrostriatal pathway of the controls. Astrogliosis was also seen following PCA, as revealed by increased GFAP expression from 1 month to 6 months post-PCA in both the SN and striatum. The astroglial activation level in the SN paralleled the reduced neuronal expression of TH throughout PCA exposure. α-synuclein accumulation following PCA may induce dopaminergic dysfunction via the downregulation of TH, as well as astroglial activation.

  14. Blood-Gene Expression Reveals Reduced Circadian Rhythmicity in Individuals Resistant to Sleep Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Arnardottir, Erna S.; Nikonova, Elena V.; Shockley, Keith R.; Podtelezhnikov, Alexei A.; Anafi, Ron C.; Tanis, Keith Q.; Maislin, Greg; Stone, David J.; Renger, John J.; Winrow, Christopher J.; Pack, Allan I.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To address whether changes in gene expression in blood cells with sleep loss are different in individuals resistant and sensitive to sleep deprivation. Design: Blood draws every 4 h during a 3-day study: 24-h normal baseline, 38 h of continuous wakefulness and subsequent recovery sleep, for a total of 19 time-points per subject, with every 2-h psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) assessment when awake. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: Fourteen subjects who were previously identified as behaviorally resistant (n = 7) or sensitive (n = 7) to sleep deprivation by PVT. Intervention: Thirty-eight hours of continuous wakefulness. Measurements and Results: We found 4,481 unique genes with a significant 24-h diurnal rhythm during a normal sleep-wake cycle in blood (false discovery rate [FDR] < 5%). Biological pathways were enriched for biosynthetic processes during sleep. After accounting for circadian effects, two genes (SREBF1 and CPT1A, both involved in lipid metabolism) exhibited small, but significant, linear changes in expression with the duration of sleep deprivation (FDR < 5%). The main change with sleep deprivation was a reduction in the amplitude of the diurnal rhythm of expression of normally cycling probe sets. This reduction was noticeably higher in behaviorally resistant subjects than sensitive subjects, at any given P value. Furthermore, blood cell type enrichment analysis showed that the expression pattern difference between sensitive and resistant subjects is mainly found in cells of myeloid origin, such as monocytes. Conclusion: Individual differences in behavioral effects of sleep deprivation are associated with differences in diurnal amplitude of gene expression for genes that show circadian rhythmicity. Citation: Arnardottir ES, Nikonova EV, Shockley KR, Podtelezhnikov AA, Anafi RC, Tanis KQ, Maislin G, Stone DJ, Renger JJ, Winrow CJ, Pack AI. Blood-gene expression reveals reduced circadian rhythmicity in individuals resistant to

  15. Dietary lufenuron reduces egg hatch and influences protein expression in the fruit fly Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Chang, Chiou Ling; Geib, Scott; Cho, Il Kyu; Li, Qing X; Stanley, David

    2014-08-01

    Lufenuron (LFN), a chitin synthase inhibitor, impacts the fertility of Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, B. cucurbitae, and B. latifrons. We posed the hypothesis that LFN curtails egg hatch in the solanaceous fruit fly, B. latifrons. In this study, newly emerged virgin adults were sexed and fed for 12 days with varying concentrations of LFN-laced agar diets until sexual maturation. Eggs were collected from 12-d-old adults and the egg hatch was assessed. Egg hatch decreased in adults reared on LFN-treated diets. LFN-treated media did not influence fertility after one gender was reared on experimental and the other on control media before mating. Exposure to LFN-treated medium after mating led to reduced egg hatch. We infer that LFN is not a permanent sterilant, and reduced egg hatch depends on continuous exposure to dietary LFN after mating. Proteomic analysis identified two differentially expressed proteins, a pheromone binding protein and a chitin binding protein, between adults maintained on LFN-treated and control diets. Expression of two genes encoding chitin synthase 2, and chitin binding protein, was altered in adults exposed to dietary LFN. LFN treatments also led to increased expression of two odorant binding proteins one in females and one in males. We surmise these data support our hypothesis and provide insight into LFN actions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Drought response transcriptomes are altered in poplar with reduced tonoplast sucrose transporter expression

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Liang-Jiao; Frost, Christopher J.; Tsai, Chung-Jui

    Transgenic Populus tremula x alba (717-1B4) plants with reduced expression of a tonoplast sucrose efflux transporter, PtaSUT4, exhibit reduced shoot growth compared to wild type (WT) under sustained mild drought. The present study was undertaken to determine whether SUT4-RNAi directly or indirectly altered poplar predisposition and/or response to changes in soil water availability. While sucrose and hexose levels were constitutively elevated in shoot organs, expression responses to drought were most altered in the root tips of SUT4-RNAi plants. Prior to any drought treatment, constitutively elevated transcript levels of abscisic acid biosynthetic genes and bark/vegetative storage proteins suggested altered metabolism inmore » root tips of RNAi plants. Stronger drought-stimulation of stress-inducible genes encoding late-embryogenesis-abundant proteins in transgenic roots was consistent with increased vulnerability to soil drying. Transcript evidence suggested an RNAi effect on intercellular water trafficking by aquaporins in stem xylem during soil drying and recovery. Co-expression network analysis predicted altered integration of abscisic acid sensing/signaling with ethylene and jasmonate sensing/signaling in RNAi compared to WT roots. The overall conclusion is that steepened shoot-root sugar gradient in RNAi plants increased sensitivity of root tips to decreasing soil water availability.« less

  17. Drought response transcriptomes are altered in poplar with reduced tonoplast sucrose transporter expression

    DOE PAGES

    Xue, Liang-Jiao; Frost, Christopher J.; Tsai, Chung-Jui; ...

    2016-09-19

    Transgenic Populus tremula x alba (717-1B4) plants with reduced expression of a tonoplast sucrose efflux transporter, PtaSUT4, exhibit reduced shoot growth compared to wild type (WT) under sustained mild drought. The present study was undertaken to determine whether SUT4-RNAi directly or indirectly altered poplar predisposition and/or response to changes in soil water availability. While sucrose and hexose levels were constitutively elevated in shoot organs, expression responses to drought were most altered in the root tips of SUT4-RNAi plants. Prior to any drought treatment, constitutively elevated transcript levels of abscisic acid biosynthetic genes and bark/vegetative storage proteins suggested altered metabolism inmore » root tips of RNAi plants. Stronger drought-stimulation of stress-inducible genes encoding late-embryogenesis-abundant proteins in transgenic roots was consistent with increased vulnerability to soil drying. Transcript evidence suggested an RNAi effect on intercellular water trafficking by aquaporins in stem xylem during soil drying and recovery. Co-expression network analysis predicted altered integration of abscisic acid sensing/signaling with ethylene and jasmonate sensing/signaling in RNAi compared to WT roots. The overall conclusion is that steepened shoot-root sugar gradient in RNAi plants increased sensitivity of root tips to decreasing soil water availability.« less

  18. Reduced myelin basic protein and actin-related gene expression in visual cortex in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Paul R; Eastwood, Sharon L; Harrison, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    Most brain gene expression studies of schizophrenia have been conducted in the frontal cortex or hippocampus. The extent to which alterations occur in other cortical regions is not well established. We investigated primary visual cortex (Brodmann area 17) from the Stanley Neuropathology Consortium collection of tissue from 60 subjects with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression, or controls. We first carried out a preliminary array screen of pooled RNA, and then used RT-PCR to quantify five mRNAs which the array identified as differentially expressed in schizophrenia (myelin basic protein [MBP], myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein [MOG], β-actin [ACTB], thymosin β-10 [TB10], and superior cervical ganglion-10 [SCG10]). Reduced mRNA levels were confirmed by RT-PCR for MBP, ACTB and TB10. The MBP reduction was limited to transcripts containing exon 2. ACTB and TB10 mRNAs were also decreased in bipolar disorder. None of the transcripts were altered in subjects with major depression. Reduced MBP mRNA in schizophrenia replicates findings in other brain regions and is consistent with oligodendrocyte involvement in the disorder. The decreases in expression of ACTB, and the actin-binding protein gene TB10, suggest changes in cytoskeletal organisation. The findings confirm that the primary visual cortex shows molecular alterations in schizophrenia and extend the evidence for a widespread, rather than focal, cortical pathophysiology.

  19. Methamphetamine reduces expression of caveolin-1 in the dorsal striatum: Implication for dysregulation of neuronal function.

    PubMed

    Somkuwar, Sucharita S; Fannon, McKenzie J; Head, Brian P; Mandyam, Chitra D

    2016-07-22

    Role of striatal dopamine D1 receptors (D1Rs) in methamphetamine (Meth) taking and seeking is recognized from contingent Meth self-administration studies. For example, Meth increases levels of D1Rs in the dorsal striatum in animal models of Meth addiction, and blockade of striatal D1Rs decreased responding for Meth and reduced Meth priming-induced drug seeking. However, the mechanism underlying enhanced expression of striatal D1Rs in animals self-administering Meth is unknown and is hypothesized to involve maladaptive intracellular signal transduction mechanism via hyperphosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). D1Rs are predominantly localized to detergent-resistant membrane/lipid raft fractions (MLR fraction), and in vitro studies indicate that D1R signaling and recycling is regulated by the MLR-resident protein caveolin-1 (Cav-1), in an endocytotic-dependent manner. Notably, expression of Cav-1 is inversely regulated by ERK1/2 activation, suggesting a signaling interplay among D1Rs, ERK1/2 and Cav-1. We therefore evaluated the effects of extended access Meth self-administration on expression of striatal D1Rs, activated ERK1/2 and Cav-1. We first report that Cav-1 is heavily expressed in neurons located in the dorsal striatum. We also report that extended access Meth produces compulsive-like unregulated intake of the drug, and these behavioral outcomes are associated with enhanced expression of D1Rs, increased activity of ERK1/2, and reduced Cav-1 expression in the dorsal striatum. These data suggest a possible cellular mechanism that involves Cav-1 regulation of D1R expression in response to escalated Meth intake, and how this response of altered D1Rs and enhanced ERK1/2 activation to Meth self-administration contributes to contingent-related processes such as addiction. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nandrolone reduces activation of Notch signaling in denervated muscle associated with increased Numb expression

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xin-Hua; Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029; Yao, Shen

    2011-10-14

    Highlights: {yields} Nerve transection increased Notch signaling in paralyzed muscle. {yields} Nandrolone prevented denervation-induced Notch signaling. {yields} Nandrolone induced the expression of an inhibitor of the Notch signaling, Numb. {yields} Reduction of denervation-induced Notch signaling by nandrolone is likely through upregulation of Numb. -- Abstract: Nandrolone, an anabolic steroid, slows denervation-atrophy in rat muscle. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this effect are not well understood. Androgens and anabolic steroids activate Notch signaling in animal models of aging and thereby mitigate sarcopenia. To explore the molecular mechanisms by which nandrolone prevents denervation-atrophy, we investigated the effects of nandrolone on Notch signalingmore » in denervated rat gastrocnemius muscle. Denervation significantly increased Notch activity reflected by elevated levels of nuclear Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and expression of Hey1 (a Notch target gene). Activation was greatest at 7 and 35 days after denervation but remained present at 56 days after denervation. Activation of Notch in denervated muscle was prevented by nandrolone associated with upregulated expression of Numb mRNA and protein. These data demonstrate that denervation activates Notch signaling, and that nandrolone abrogates this response associated with increased expression of Numb, suggesting a potential mechanism by which nandrolone reduces denervation-atrophy.« less

  1. Expression of Arabidopsis Hexokinase in Citrus Guard Cells Controls Stomatal Aperture and Reduces Transpiration.

    PubMed

    Lugassi, Nitsan; Kelly, Gilor; Fidel, Lena; Yaniv, Yossi; Attia, Ziv; Levi, Asher; Alchanatis, Victor; Moshelion, Menachem; Raveh, Eran; Carmi, Nir; Granot, David

    2015-01-01

    Hexokinase (HXK) is a sugar-phosphorylating enzyme involved in sugar-sensing. It has recently been shown that HXK in guard cells mediates stomatal closure and coordinates photosynthesis with transpiration in the annual species tomato and Arabidopsis. To examine the role of HXK in the control of the stomatal movement of perennial plants, we generated citrus plants that express Arabidopsis HXK1 (AtHXK1) under KST1, a guard cell-specific promoter. The expression of KST1 in the guard cells of citrus plants has been verified using GFP as a reporter gene. The expression of AtHXK1 in the guard cells of citrus reduced stomatal conductance and transpiration with no negative effect on the rate of photosynthesis, leading to increased water-use efficiency. The effects of light intensity and humidity on stomatal behavior were examined in rooted leaves of the citrus plants. The optimal intensity of photosynthetically active radiation and lower humidity enhanced stomatal closure of AtHXK1-expressing leaves, supporting the role of sugar in the regulation of citrus stomata. These results suggest that HXK coordinates photosynthesis and transpiration and stimulates stomatal closure not only in annual species, but also in perennial species.

  2. Expression of Arabidopsis Hexokinase in Citrus Guard Cells Controls Stomatal Aperture and Reduces Transpiration

    PubMed Central

    Lugassi, Nitsan; Kelly, Gilor; Fidel, Lena; Yaniv, Yossi; Attia, Ziv; Levi, Asher; Alchanatis, Victor; Moshelion, Menachem; Raveh, Eran; Carmi, Nir; Granot, David

    2015-01-01

    Hexokinase (HXK) is a sugar-phosphorylating enzyme involved in sugar-sensing. It has recently been shown that HXK in guard cells mediates stomatal closure and coordinates photosynthesis with transpiration in the annual species tomato and Arabidopsis. To examine the role of HXK in the control of the stomatal movement of perennial plants, we generated citrus plants that express Arabidopsis HXK1 (AtHXK1) under KST1, a guard cell-specific promoter. The expression of KST1 in the guard cells of citrus plants has been verified using GFP as a reporter gene. The expression of AtHXK1 in the guard cells of citrus reduced stomatal conductance and transpiration with no negative effect on the rate of photosynthesis, leading to increased water-use efficiency. The effects of light intensity and humidity on stomatal behavior were examined in rooted leaves of the citrus plants. The optimal intensity of photosynthetically active radiation and lower humidity enhanced stomatal closure of AtHXK1-expressing leaves, supporting the role of sugar in the regulation of citrus stomata. These results suggest that HXK coordinates photosynthesis and transpiration and stimulates stomatal closure not only in annual species, but also in perennial species. PMID:26734024

  3. FGF-23 transgenic mice demonstrate hypophosphatemic rickets with reduced expression of sodium phosphate cotransporter type IIa.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Takashi; Urakawa, Itaru; Yamazaki, Yuji; Hasegawa, Hisashi; Hino, Rieko; Yoneya, Takashi; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Fujita, Toshiro; Fukumoto, Seiji; Yamashita, Takeyoshi

    2004-02-06

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 was identified as a causative factor of tumor-induced osteomalacia and also as a responsible gene for autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets. To clarify the pathophysiological roles of FGF-23 in these diseases, we generated its transgenic mice. The transgenic mice expressing human FGF-23 reproduced the common clinical features of these diseases such as hypophosphatemia probably due to increased renal phosphate wasting, inappropriately low serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D level, and rachitic bone. The renal phosphate wasting in the transgenic mice was accompanied by the reduced expression of sodium phosphate cotransporter type IIa in renal proximal tubules. These results reinforce the notion that the excessive action of FGF-23 plays a causative role in the development of several hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia.

  4. Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression is reduced in cystic fibrosis murine and human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, T J; Drumm, M L

    1998-01-01

    It has been reported that exhaled nitric oxide levels are reduced in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. We have examined the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the airways by immunostaining and found that iNOS is constitutively expressed in the airway epithelia of non-CF mouse and human tissues but essentially absent in the epithelium of CF airways. We explored potential consequences of lost iNOS expression and found that iNOS inhibition significantly increases mouse nasal trans-epithelial potential difference, and hindered the ability of excised mouse lungs to prevent growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The absence of continuous nitric oxide production in epithelial cells of CF airways may play a role in two CF-associated characteristics: hyperabsorption of sodium and susceptibility to bacterial infections. PMID:9739054

  5. Stable Toll-Like Receptor 10 Knockdown in THP-1 Cells Reduces TLR-Ligand-Induced Proinflammatory Cytokine Expression.

    PubMed

    Le, Hai Van; Kim, Jae Young

    2016-06-01

    Toll-like receptor 10 (TLR10) is the only orphan receptor whose natural ligand and function are unknown among the 10 human TLRs. In this study, to test whether TLR10 recognizes some known TLR ligands, we established a stable TLR10 knockdown human monocytic cell line THP-1 using TLR10 short hairpin RNA lentiviral particle and puromycin selection. Among 60 TLR10 knockdown clones that were derived from each single transduced cell, six clones were randomly selected, and then one of those clones, named E7, was chosen for the functional study. E7 exhibited approximately 50% inhibition of TLR10 mRNA and protein expression. Of all the TLRs, only the expression of TLR10 changed significantly in this cell line. Additionally, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced macrophage differentiation of TLR10 knockdown cells was not affected in the knockdown cells. When exposed to TLR ligands, such as synthetic diacylated lipoprotein (FSL-1), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and flagellin, significant induction of proinflammatory cytokine gene expression including Interleukin-8 (IL-8), Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 20 (CCL20) expression, was found in the control THP-1 cells, whereas the TLR10 knockdown cells exhibited a significant reduction in the expression of IL-8, IL-1β, and CCL20. TNF-α was the only cytokine for which the expression did not decrease in the TLR10 knockdown cells from that measured in the control cells. Analysis of putative binding sites for transcription factors using a binding-site-prediction program revealed that the TNF-α promoter does not have putative binding sites for AP-1 or c-Jun, comprising a major transcription factor along with NF-κB for TLR signaling. Our results suggest that TLR10 is involved in the recognition of FSL-1, LPS, and flagellin and TLR-ligand-induced expression of TNF-α does not depend on TLR10.

  6. Connective tissue growth factor linked to the E7 tumor antigen generates potent antitumor immune responses mediated by an antiapoptotic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Cheng, W-F; Chang, M-C; Sun, W-Z; Lee, C-N; Lin, H-W; Su, Y-N; Hsieh, C-Y; Chen, C-A

    2008-07-01

    A novel method for generating an antigen-specific cancer vaccine and immunotherapy has emerged using a DNA vaccine. However, antigen-presenting cells (APCs) have a limited life span, which hinders their long-term ability to prime antigen-specific T cells. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has a role in cell survival. This study explored the intradermal administration of DNA encoding CTGF with a model tumor antigen, human papilloma virus type 16 E7. Mice vaccinated with CTGF/E7 DNA exhibited a dramatic increase in E7-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell precursors. They also showed an impressive antitumor effect against E7-expressing tumors compared with mice vaccinated with the wild-type E7 DNA. The delivery of DNA encoding CTGF and E7 or CTGF alone could prolong the survival of transduced dendritic cells (DCs) in vivo. In addition, CTGF/E7-transduced DCs could enhance a higher number of E7-specific CD8(+) T cells than E7-transduced DCs. By prolonging the survival of APCs, DNA vaccine encoding CTGF linked to a tumor antigen represents an innovative approach to enhance DNA vaccine potency and holds promise for cancer prophylaxis and immunotherapy.

  7. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) Inhibits Podocyte uPAR Expression and Reduces Proteinuria

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuangxin; Xie, Shaoting; Yang, Yun; Ma, Juan; Deng, Yujun; Wang, Wenjian; Xu, Lixia; Li, Ruizhao; Zhang, Li; Yu, Chunping; Shi, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Background Accumulating studies have demonstrated that 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)2D3) reduces proteinuria and protects podocytes from injury. Recently, urokinase receptor (uPAR) and its soluble form have been shown to cause podocyte injury and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Here, our findings showed that 1,25(OH)2D3 did inhibit podocyte uPAR expression and attenuate proteinuria and podocyte injury. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, the antiproteinuric effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 was examined in the lipopolysaccharide mice model of transient proteinuria (LPS mice) and in the 5/6 nephrectomy rat FSGS model(NTX rats). uPAR protein expression were tested by flow cytometry, immune cytochemistry and western blot analysis, and uPAR mRNA expression by real-time quantitative PCR in cultured podocytes and kidney glomeruli isolated from mice and rats. Podocyte motility was observed by transwell migration assay and wound healing assay. Podocyte foot processes effacement was identified by transmission electron microscopy. We found that 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibited podocyte uPAR mRNA and protein synthesis in LPS-treated podocytes, LPS mice and NTX rats, along with 1,25(OH)2D3 reducing proteinuria in NTX rats and LPS mice.1,25(OH)2D3 reduced glomerulosclerosis in NTX rats and alleviated podocyte foot processes effacement in LPS mice. Transwell migration assay and wound healing assay showed that LPS-induced podocyte motility, irrespective of random or directed motility, were substantially reduced by 1,25(OH)2D3. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrated that 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibited podocyte uPAR expression in vitro and in vivo, which may be an unanticipated off target effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 and explain its antiproteinuric effect in the 5/6 nephrectomy rat FSGS model and the LPS mouse model of transient proteinuria. PMID:23741418

  8. Losartan reduced connexin43 expression in left ventricular myocardium of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Li-li; Chen, Hong-juan; Chen, Jun-zhu; Yu, Min; Ni, Yun-lan; Zhang, Wei-fang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist losartan on myocardium connexin43 (Cx43) gap junction (GJ) expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and investigate possible mechanisms. Methods: Sixteen 9-week-old male SHRs and 8 age-matched male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were included in this study. SHRs were randomly divided into two groups to receive losartan at 30 mg/(kg·d) by oral gavage once daily for 8 weeks (SHR-L) or vehicle (0.9% saline) to act as controls (SHR-V); WKY rats receiving vehicle for 8 weeks served as normotensive controls. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed and the hearts were removed. Expressions of Cx43 and nuclear factor-kappaB p65 (NF-κB p65) proteins in all three groups were observed and further investigations on the effect of angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist losartan (30 mg/(kg·d), 8 weeks) on Cx43 expression were conducted with Western blot and immunohistochemistry. NF-κB p65 protein in nuclear extracts was determined by Western blot. Results: Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy was prominent in SHRs, Cx43 and NF-κB p65 protein expressions were obviously upregulated and Cx43 distribution was dispersed over the cell surface. Treatment with losarton reduced the over-expressions of Cx43 and NF-κB p65 in LV myocardium. The distribution of Cx43 gap junction also became much regular and confined to intercalated disk after losartan treatment. Conclusion: Cx43 level was upregulated in LV myocardium of SHR during early stage of hypertrophy. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist losartan prevented Cx43 gap junction remodeling in hypertrophied left ventricles, possibly through the NF-κB pathway. PMID:18543397

  9. Metformin Reduces Hepatic Expression of SIRT3, the Mitochondrial Deacetylase Controlling Energy Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Buler, Marcin; Aatsinki, Sanna-Mari; Izzi, Valerio; Hakkola, Jukka

    2012-01-01

    Metformin inhibits ATP production in mitochondria and this may be involved in the anti-hyperglycemic effects of the drug. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is a mitochondrial protein deacetylase that regulates the function of the electron transport chain and maintains basal ATP yield. We hypothesized that metformin treatment could diminish mitochondrial ATP production through downregulation of SIRT3 expression. Glucagon and cAMP induced SIRT3 mRNA in mouse primary hepatocytes. Metformin prevented SIRT3 induction by glucagon. Moreover, metformin downregulated constitutive expression of SIRT3 in primary hepatocytes and in the liver in vivo. Estrogen related receptor alpha (ERRα) mediates regulation of Sirt3 gene by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α). ERRα mRNA expression was regulated in a similar manner as SIRT3 mRNA by glucagon, cAMP and metformin. However, a higher metformin concentration was required for downregulation of ERRα than SIRT3. ERRα siRNA attenuated PGC-1α mediated induction of SIRT3, but did not affect constitutive expression. Overexpression of the constitutively active form of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) induced SIRT3 mRNA, indicating that the SIRT3 downregulation by metformin is not mediated by AMPK. Metformin reduced the hepatocyte ATP level. This effect was partially counteracted by SIRT3 overexpression. Furthermore, metformin decreased mitochondrial SIRT3 protein levels and this was associated with enhanced acetylation of several mitochondrial proteins. However, metformin increased mitochondrial mass in hepatocytes. Altogether, our results indicate that metformin attenuates mitochondrial expression of SIRT3 and suggest that this mechanism is involved in regulation of energy metabolism by metformin in the liver and may contribute to the therapeutic action of metformin. PMID:23166782

  10. Adiponectin expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue is reduced in women with cellulite.

    PubMed

    Emanuele, Enzo; Minoretti, Piercarlo; Altabas, Karmela; Gaeta, Elio; Altabas, Velimir

    2011-04-01

    Cellulite, which appears as orange peel-type or cottage cheese-like dimpling of the skin on the thighs and buttocks, is a complex, multifactorial, cosmetic disorder of the subcutaneous fat layer and the overlying superficial skin. Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone mainly produced by subcutaneous fat that shows important protective anti-inflammatory and vasodilatory effects. We hypothesized that adiponectin expressed in the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) might play a role in the pathogenesis of cellulite. We reasoned that a reduction in the expression of adiponectin - a humoral vasodilator - in the SAT of cellulite areas might contribute to the altered microcirculation frequently found in these regions. A total of 15 lean (body mass index [BMI] < 25 kg/m(2) ) women with cellulite and 15 age- and BMI-matched women without cellulite participated in this study. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to assess adiponectin gene expression. Plasma adiponectin levels were measured using a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit. Adiponectin mRNA expression in the SAT of the gluteal region was significantly lower in areas with cellulite compared with those without (12.6 ± 3.1 AU versus 16.6 ± 4.1 AU; P=0.006). However, plasma adiponectin levels did not differ between women with (20.3 ± 7.3 μg/ml) and without (19.3 ± 6.1 μg/ml) cellulite (P=0.69). Adiponectin expression is significantly reduced in the SAT in areas affected by cellulite. Our findings provide novel insights into the nature of cellulite and may give clues to the treatment of this cosmetic issue. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

  11. Long-term spironolactone treatment reduces coronary TRPC expression, vasoconstriction, and atherosclerosis in metabolic syndrome pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Wennan; Chen, Xingjuan; Riley, Ashley M; Hiett, S Christopher; Temm, Constance J; Beli, Eleni; Long, Xin; Chakraborty, Saikat; Alloosh, Mouhamad; White, Fletcher A; Grant, Maria B; Sturek, Michael; Obukhov, Alexander G

    2017-09-01

    Coronary transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channel expression is elevated in metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, differential contribution of TRPCs to coronary pathology in MetS is not fully elucidated. We investigated the roles of TRPC1 and TRPC6 isoforms in coronary arteries of MetS pigs and determined whether long-term treatment with a mineralocorticoid receptor inhibitor, spironolactone, attenuates coronary TRPC expression and associated dysfunctions. MetS coronary arteries exhibited significant atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, and increased histamine-induced contractions. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that TRPC6 immunostaining was significantly greater in the medial layer of MetS pig coronary arteries compared to that in Lean pigs, whereas little TRPC6 immunostaining was found in atheromas. Conversely, TRPC1 immunostaining was weak in the medial layer but strong in MetS atheromas, where it was predominantly localized to macrophages. Spironolactone treatment significantly decreased coronary TRPC expression and dysfunctions in MetS pigs. In vivo targeted delivery of the dominant-negative (DN)-TRPC6 cDNA to the coronary wall reduced histamine-induced calcium transients in the MetS coronary artery medial layer, implying a role for TRPC6 in mediating calcium influx in MetS coronary smooth muscles. Monocyte adhesion was increased in Lean pig coronary arteries cultured in the presence of aldosterone; and spironolactone antagonized this effect, suggesting that coronary mineralocorticoid receptor activation may regulate macrophage infiltration. TRPC1 expression in atheroma macrophages was associated with advanced atherosclerosis, whereas medial TRPC6 upregulation correlated with increased histamine-induced calcium transients and coronary contractility. We propose that long-term spironolactone treatment may be a therapeutic strategy to decrease TRPC expression and coronary pathology associated with MetS.

  12. Oxytocin stimulates cell proliferation in vaginal cell line Vk2E6E7.

    PubMed

    Kallak, Theodora K; Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin

    2017-03-01

    Objective During and after menopause, the symptoms of vaginal atrophy cause great discomfort and necessitate effective treatment options. Currently, vaginally applied oxytocin is being investigated as a treatment for the symptoms of vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women. To clarify the mechanisms behind oxytocins effects on vaginal atrophy, the present study investigated the effects of oxytocin on cell proliferation in the cells of the Vk2E6E7 line, a non-tumour vaginal cell line. The study also compared the effects of oxytocin with those of estradiol (E2). Study design The effects of both oxytocin and E2 on the proliferation of Vk2E6E7 cells were investigated using Cell Proliferation ELISA BrdU Colorimetric Assay. The expression of both oxytocin and oxytocin receptor was studied in Vk2E6E7 cells using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescent staining. Main outcome measures Cell proliferation and gene expression. Results Oxytocin increased cell proliferation both time dependently and dose dependently. This differed from the effect pattern observed in cells treated with E2. In addition, in oxytocin-treated cells, the oxytocin receptor was found to be co-localized with caveolin-1, indicating pro-proliferative signalling within the cell. Conclusions Oxytocin stimulates cell proliferation and the co-localization of oxytocin receptor with caveolin-1 in oxytocin-treated cells, supporting the role of oxytocin signalling in cell proliferation. In addition, these findings suggest that increased cell proliferation is one mechanism by which local vaginal oxytocin treatment increases vaginal thickness and relieves vaginal symptoms in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy.

  13. Tumor targeting RGD conjugated bio-reducible polymer for VEGF siRNA expressing plasmid delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Ah; Nam, Kihoon; Kim, Sung Wan

    2014-01-01

    Targeted delivery of therapeutic genes to the tumor site is critical for successful and safe cancer gene therapy. The arginine grafted bio-reducible poly (cystamine bisacrylamide-diaminohexane, CBA-DAH) polymer (ABP) conjugated poly (amido amine) (PAMAM), PAM-ABP (PA) was designed previously as an efficient gene delivery carrier. To achieve high efficacy in cancer selective delivery, we developed the tumor targeting bio-reducible polymer, PA-PEG1k-RGD, by conjugating cyclic RGDfC (RGD) peptides, which bind αvβ3/5 integrins, to the PAM-ABP using polyethylene glycol (PEG,1kDa) as a spacer. Physical characterization showed nanocomplex formation with bio-reducible properties between PA-PEG1k-RGD and plasmid DNA (pDNA). In transfection assays, PA-PEG1k-RGD showed significantly higher transfection efficiency in comparison with PAM-ABP or PA-PEG1k-RGD in αvβ3/5 positive MCF7 breast cancer and PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells. The targeting ability of PA-PEG1k-RGD was further established using a competition assay. To confirm the therapeutic effect, the VEGF siRNA expressing plasmid was constructed and then delivered into cancer cells using PA-PEG1k-RGD. PA-PEG1k-RGD showed 20-59% higher cellular uptake rate into MCF7 and PANC-1 than that of non-targeted polymers. In addition, MCF7 and PANC-1 cancer cells transfected with PA-PEG1k-RGD/pshVEGF complexes had significantly decreased VEGF gene expression (51-71%) and cancer cell viability (35-43%) compared with control. These results demonstrate that a tumor targeting bio-reducible polymer with an anti-angiogenic therapeutic gene could be used for efficient and safe cancer gene therapy. PMID:24894645

  14. Reduced Plasma HDL Cholesterol in Hyperthyroid Mice Coincides with Decreased Hepatic ABCA1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    TANCEVSKI, IVAN; WEHINGER, ANDREAS; DEMETZ, EGON; ELLER, PHILIPP; DUWENSEE, KRISTINA; HUBER, JULIA; HOCHEGGER, KATHRIN; SCHGOER, WILFRIED; FIEVET, CATHERINE; STELLAARD, FRANS; RUDLING, MATS; PATSCH, JOSEF R.; RITSCH, ANDREAS

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of severe hyperthyroidism on plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Recently, it was shown in mice that increasing doses of triiodothyronine (T3) upregulate hepatic expression of scavenger receptor-BI (SR-BI), resulting in increased clearance of plasma HDL-C. Here we show that severe hyperthyroidism in mice did not affect hepatic expression of SR-BI, but reduced hepatic expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1), accompanied by a 40%-reduction of HDL-C. Sterol content of bile, liver and feces was markedly increased, accompanied by upregulation of hepatic CYP7A1, and ATP-binding cassette half-transporter ABCG5, which is known to promote biliary sterol secretion upon dimerization with ABCG8. Both control and hyperthyroid mice exerted identical plasma clearance of intravenously injected [3H] HDL-C, supporting the view that severe hyperthyroidism does not affect HDL-C clearance, but rather its formation via hepatic ABCA1. PMID:18388200

  15. Agmatine attenuates brain edema through reducing the expression of aquaporin-1 after cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Hwan; Lee, Yong Woo; Park, Kyung Ah; Lee, Won Taek; Lee, Jong Eun

    2010-01-01

    Brain edema is frequently shown after cerebral ischemia. It is an expansion of brain volume because of increasing water content in brain. It causes to increase mortality after stroke. Agmatine, formed by the decarboxylation of -arginine by arginine decarboxylase, has been shown to be neuroprotective in trauma and ischemia models. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of agmatine for brain edema in ischemic brain damage and to evaluate the expression of aquaporins (AQPs). Results showed that agmatine significantly reduced brain swelling volume 22 h after 2 h middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice. Water content in brain tissue was clearly decreased 24 h after ischemic injury by agmatine treatment. Blood–brain barrier (BBB) disruption was diminished with agmatine than without. The expressions of AQPs-1 and -9 were well correlated with brain edema as water channels, were significantly decreased by agmatine treatment. It can thus be suggested that agmatine could attenuate brain edema by limitting BBB disruption and blocking the accumulation of brain water content through lessening the expression of AQP-1 after cerebral ischemia. PMID:20029450

  16. Influences of Reduced Expression of Maternal Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 on Embryonic Development

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajeet P.; Castranio, Trisha; Scott, Greg; Guo, Dayong; Harris, Marie A.; Ray, Manas; Harris, Stephan E.; Mishina, Yuji

    2009-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) was originally found by its osteoinductive ability, and recent genetic analyses have revealed that it plays critical roles during early embryogenesis, cardiogenesis, decidualization as well as skeletogenesis. During a course of evaluation of the conditional allele for Bmp2, we found that the presence of a neo cassette, a selection marker needed for gene targeting events in embryonic stem cells, in the 3’ untranslated region of exon 3 of Bmp2, reduced the expression levels of Bmp2 both in embryonic and maternal tissues. Some of the embryos that were genotyped as transheterozygous for the floxed allele with the neo cassette over the conventional null allele (fn/−) showed a lethal phenotype including defects in cephalic neural tube closure and ventral abdominal wall closure. Embryos exhibiting these abnormalities were increased when genotypes of the pregnant females were different; when expression levels of Bmp2 in maternal tissues were lower, a larger proportion of fn/− embryos exhibit these abnormalities. These results suggest that the expression levels of Bmp2 together in both in embryonic and maternal tissues influence the normal neural tube closure and body wall closure with different thresholds. PMID:18769073

  17. Reduced angiogenic factor expression in intrauterine fetal growth restriction using semiquantitative immunohistochemistry and digital image analysis.

    PubMed

    Alahakoon, Thushari I; Zhang, Weiyi; Arbuckle, Susan; Zhang, Kewei; Lee, Vincent

    2018-05-01

    To localize, quantify and compare angiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), placental growth factor (PlGF), as well as their receptors fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor (Flt-1) and kinase insert domain receptor (KDR) in the placentas of normal pregnancy and complications of preeclampsia (PE), intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR) and PE + IUGR. In a prospective cross-sectional case-control study, 30 pregnant women between 24-40 weeks of gestation, were recruited into four clinical groups. Representative placental samples were stained for VEGF, PlGF, Flt-1 and KDR. Analysis was performed using semiquantitative methods and digital image analysis. The overall VEGF and Flt-1 were strongly expressed and did not show any conclusive difference in the expression between study groups. PlGF and KDR were significantly reduced in expression in the placentas from pregnancies complicated by IUGR compared with normal and preeclamptic pregnancies. The lack of PlGF and KDR may be a cause for the development of IUGR and may explain the loss of vasculature and villous architecture in IUGR. Automated digital image analysis software is a viable alternative method to the manual reading of placental immunohistochemical staining. © 2018 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. Lack of Adipocyte-Fndc5/Irisin Expression and Secretion Reduces Thermogenesis and Enhances Adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sotelo, D; Roca-Rivada, A; Baamonde, I; Baltar, J; Castro, A I; Domínguez, E; Collado, M; Casanueva, F F; Pardo, M

    2017-11-24

    Irisin is a browning-stimulating molecule secreted from the fibronectin type III domain containing 5 precursor (FNDC5) by muscle tissue upon exercise stimulation. Despite its beneficial role, there is an unmet and clamorous need to discern many essential aspects of this protein and its mechanism of action not only as a myokine but also as an adipokine. Here we contribute to address this topic by revealing the nature and role of FNDC5/irisin in adipose tissue. First, we show that FNDC5/irisin expression and secretion are induced by adipocyte differentiation and confirm its over-secretion by human obese visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissues. Second, we show how secreted factors from human obese VAT and SAT decrease PGC1α, FNDC5 and UCP1 gene expression on differentiating adipocytes; this effect over UCP1 is blunted by blocking irisin in obese secretomes. Finally, by stable gene silencing FNDC5 we reveal that FNDC5-KO adipocytes show reduced UCP1 expression and enhanced adipogenesis.

  19. Nandrolone reduces activation of Notch signaling in denervated muscle associated with increased Numb expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-Hua; Yao, Shen; Qiao, Rui-Fang; Levine, Alice C; Kirschenbaum, Alexander; Pan, Jiangping; Wu, Yong; Qin, Weiping; Bauman, William A; Cardozo, Christopher P

    2011-10-14

    Nandrolone, an anabolic steroid, slows denervation-atrophy in rat muscle. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this effect are not well understood. Androgens and anabolic steroids activate Notch signaling in animal models of aging and thereby mitigate sarcopenia. To explore the molecular mechanisms by which nandrolone prevents denervation-atrophy, we investigated the effects of nandrolone on Notch signaling in denervated rat gastrocnemius muscle. Denervation significantly increased Notch activity reflected by elevated levels of nuclear Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and expression of Hey1 (a Notch target gene). Activation was greatest at 7 and 35 days after denervation but remained present at 56 days after denervation. Activation of Notch in denervated muscle was prevented by nandrolone associated with upregulated expression of Numb mRNA and protein. These data demonstrate that denervation activates Notch signaling, and that nandrolone abrogates this response associated with increased expression of Numb, suggesting a potential mechanism by which nandrolone reduces denervation-atrophy. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Naringenin Inhibits Adipogenesis and Reduces Insulin Sensitivity and Adiponectin Expression in Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Allison J.; Ribnicky, David M.; Stephens, Jacqueline M.

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue development and function are widely studied to examine the relationship between obesity and the metabolic syndrome. It is well documented that the inability of adipose tissue to properly increase its lipid storage capacity during the obese state can lead to metabolic dysfunction. In a blind screen of 425 botanicals, we identified naringenin as an inhibitor of adipocyte differentiation. Naringenin is one of the most abundant citrus flavonoids, and recent studies have demonstrated antihyperlipidemic capabilities. These studies have largely focused on the effects of naringenin on the liver. Our biochemical studies clearly demonstrate that naringenin inhibits adipogenesis and impairs mature fat cell function. Naringenin specifically inhibited adipogenesis in a dose-dependent fashion as judged by examining lipid accumulation and induction of adipocyte marker protein expression. In mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes, naringenin reduced the ability of insulin to induce IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and substantially inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in a dose-dependent manner and over a time frame of 1.5 to 24 hours. Exposure to naringenin also inhibited adiponectin protein expression in mature murine and human adipocytes. Our studies have revealed that naringenin may have a negative impact on adipocyte-related diseases by limiting differentiation of preadipocytes, by significantly inducing insulin resistance, and by decreasing adiponectin expression in mature fat cells. PMID:23983791

  1. Reduced Sympathetic Innervation in Endometriosis is Associated to Semaphorin 3C and 3F Expression.

    PubMed

    Scheerer, Claudia; Frangini, Sergio; Chiantera, Vito; Mechsner, Sylvia

    2017-09-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory disease and one of the most common causes of pelvic pain. The mechanisms underlying pain emergence or chronic inflammation during endometriosis remain unknown. Several chronic inflammatory diseases including endometriosis show reduced amounts of noradrenergic nerve fibers. The source of the affected innervation is still unclear. Semaphorins represent potential elicitors, due to their known role as axonal guidance cues, and are suggested as nerve repellent factors in different chronic inflammatory diseases. Therefore, semaphorins might influence the progress of neuroinflammatory mechanisms during endometriosis. Here, we analyzed the noradrenergic innervation and the expression of the specific semaphorins and receptors possibly involved in the neuroimmunomodulation in endometriosis. Our studies revealed an affected innervation and a significant increase of semaphorins and their receptors in peritoneal endometriotic tissue. Thereby, the expression of the receptors was identified on the membrane of noradrenergic nerve fibers and vessels. Macrophages and activated fibroblasts were found in higher density levels and additionally express semaphorins in peritoneal endometriotic tissue. Inflammation leads to an increased release of immune cells, which secrete a variety of inflammatory factors capable of affecting innervation. Therefore, our data suggests that the chronic inflammatory condition in endometriosis might contribute to the increase of semaphorins, which could possibly affect the innervation in peritoneal endometriosis.

  2. Deletion and reduced expression of the Fanconi anemia FANCA gene in sporadic acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Tischkowitz, M D; Morgan, N V; Grimwade, D; Eddy, C; Ball, S; Vorechovsky, I; Langabeer, S; Stöger, R; Hodgson, S V; Mathew, C G

    2004-03-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive chromosomal instability disorder caused by mutations in one of seven known genes (FANCA,C,D2,E,F,G and BRCA2). Mutations in the FANCA gene are the most prevalent, accounting for two-thirds of FA cases. Affected individuals have greatly increased risks of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This raises the question as to whether inherited or acquired mutations in FA genes might be involved in the development of sporadic AML. Quantitative fluorescent PCR was used to screen archival DNA from sporadic AML cases for FANCA deletions, which account for 40% of FANCA mutations in FA homozygotes. Four heterozygous deletions were found in 101 samples screened, which is 35-fold higher than the expected population frequency for germline FANCA deletions (P<0.0001). Sequencing FANCA in the AML samples with FANCA deletions did not detect mutations in the second allele and there was no evidence of epigenetic silencing by hypermethylation. However, real-time quantitative PCR analysis in these samples showed reduced expression of FANCA compared to nondeleted AML samples and to controls. These findings suggest that gene deletions and reduced expression of FANCA may be involved in the promotion of genetic instability in a subset of cases of sporadic AML.

  3. Increased glial glutamate transporter EAAT2 expression reduces epileptogenic processes following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Qiongman; Takahashi, Kou; Schulte, Delanie; Stouffer, Nathan; Lin, Yuchen; Lin, Chien-liang Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that glutamate plays a crucial role in the initiation of seizures and their propagation; abnormal glutamate release causes synchronous firing of large populations of neurons, leading to seizures. In the present study, we investigated whether enhanced glutamate uptake by increased glial glutamate transporter EAAT2, the major glutamate transporter, could prevent seizure activity and reduce epileptogenic processes. EAAT2 transgenic mice, which have a 1.5-2 fold increase in EAAT2 protein levels as compared to their non-transgenic counterparts, were tested in a pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) model. Several striking phenomena were observed in EAAT2 transgenic mice compared with their non-transgenic littermates. First, the post-SE mortality rate and chronic seizure frequency were significantly decreased. Second, neuronal degeneration in hippocampal subfields after SE were significantly reduced. Third, the SE-induced neurogenesis and mossy fiber sprouting were significantly decreased. The severity of cell loss in epileptic mice was positively correlated with that of mossy fiber sprouting and chronic seizure frequency. Our results suggest that increased EAAT2 expression can protect mice against SE-induced death, neuropathological changes, and chronic seizure development. This study suggests that enhancing EAAT2 protein expression is a potential therapeutic approach. PMID:22513140

  4. Reduced evoked fos expression in activity-related brain regions in animal models of behavioral depression.

    PubMed

    Stone, Eric A; Lehmann, Michael L; Lin, Yan; Quartermain, David

    2007-08-15

    A previous study showed that two mouse models of behavioral depression, immune system activation and depletion of brain monoamines, are accompanied by marked reductions in stimulated neural activity in brain regions involved in motivated behavior. The present study tested whether this effect is common to other depression models by examining the effects of repeated forced swimming, chronic subordination stress or acute intraventricular galanin injection - three additional models - on baseline or stimulated c-fos expression in several brain regions known to be involved in motor or motivational processes (secondary motor, M2, anterior piriform cortex, APIR, posterior cingulate gyrus, CG, nucleus accumbens, NAC). Each of the depression models was found to reduce the fos response stimulated by exposure to a novel cage or a swim stress in all four of these brain areas but not to affect the response of a stress-sensitive region (paraventricular hypothalamus, PVH) that was included for control purposes. Baseline fos expression in these structures was either unaffected or affected in an opposite direction to the stimulated response. Pretreatment with either desmethylimipramine (DMI) or tranylcypromine (tranyl) attenuated these changes. It is concluded that the pattern of a reduced neural function of CNS motor/motivational regions with an increased function of stress areas is common to 5 models of behavioral depression in the mouse and is a potential experimental analog of the neural activity changes occurring in the clinical condition.

  5. Phenanthrene exposure induces cardiac hypertrophy via reducing miR-133a expression by DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lixing; Xi, Zhihui; Wang, Chonggang; Zhang, Youyu; Yang, Zhibing; Zhang, Shiqi; Chen, Yixin; Zuo, Zhenghong

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that there is an emerging link between environmental pollution and cardiac hypertrophy, while the mechanism is unclear. The objective of this study was to examine whether phenanthrene (Phe) could cause cardiac hypertrophy, and elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved. We found that: 1) Phe exposure increased the heart weight and cardiomyocyte size of rats; 2) Phe exposure led to enlarged cell size, and increased protein synthesis in H9C2 cells; 3) Phe exposure induced important markers of cardiac hypertrophy, such as atrial natriuretic peptide, B-type natriuretic peptide, and c-Myc in H9C2 cells and rat hearts; 4) Phe exposure perturbed miR-133a, CdC42 and RhoA, which were key regulators of cardiac hypertrophy, in H9C2 cells and rat hearts; 5) Phe exposure induced DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) in H9C2 cells and rat hearts; 6) Phe exposure led to methylation of CpG sites within the miR-133a locus and reduced miR-133a expression in H9C2 cells; 7) DNMT inhibition and miR-133a overexpression could both alleviate the enlargement of cell size and perturbation of CdC42 and RhoA caused by Phe exposure. These results indicated that Phe could induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in the rat and H9C2 cells. The mechanism might involve reducing miR-133a expression by DNA methylation. PMID:26830171

  6. Reduced GABAA Receptor α6 Expression in The Trigeminal Ganglion Enhanced Myofascial Nociceptive Response

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, P. R.; Bellinger, L. L.

    2013-01-01

    Activation of the GABAA receptor results in inhibition of neuronal activity. One subunit of this multi-subunit receptor termed alpha 6 (Gabrα6) contributed to inflammatory temporomandibular joint (TMJ) nociception but TMJ disorders often include myofascial pain. To address Gabrα6 role in myofascial pain we hypothesized that Gabrα6 has an inhibitory role in myofascial nociceptive responses similar to inflammatory TMJ arthritis. To test this hypothesis a, myofascial nociceptive response was induced by placing a ligature bilaterally on the tendon attachment of the anterior superficial part of a male rat's masseter muscle. Four days after ligature placement Gabrα6 expression was reduced by infusing the trigeminal ganglia (TG) with small interfering RNA (siRNA) having homology to either the Gabrα6 gene (Gabra6 siRNA) or no known gene (control siRNA). After siRNA infusion nociceptive behavioral responses were measured, i.e., feeding behavior and head withdrawal after pressing upon the region above the ligature with von Frey filaments. Neuronal activity in the TG and trigeminal nucleus caudalis and upper cervical region (Vc–C1) was measured by quantitating the amount of phosphorylated extracellular signalregulated kinase (p-ERK). Total Gabrα6 and GABAA receptor contents in the TG and Vc–C1 were determined. Gabrα6 siRNA infusion reduced Gabrα6 and GABAA receptor expression and significantly increased the nociceptive response in both nociceptive assays. Gabra6 siRNA infusion also significantly increased TG p-ERK expression of the ligated rats. From these results we conclude GABAA receptors consisting of the Gabrα6 subunit inhibit TG nociceptive sensory afferents in the trigeminal pathway and have an important role in the regulation of myofascial nociception. PMID:23602886

  7. Chemical Inhibition of Kynureninase Reduces Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quorum Sensing and Virulence Factor Expression.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Stephen H; Bonocora, Richard P; Wade, Joseph T; Musah, Rabi Ann; Cady, Nathaniel C

    2016-04-15

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa utilizes multiple quorum sensing (QS) pathways to coordinate an arsenal of virulence factors. We previously identified several cysteine-based compounds inspired by natural products from the plant Petiveria alliacea which are capable of antagonizing multiple QS circuits as well as reducing P. aeruginosa biofilm formation. To understand the global effects of such compounds on virulence factor production and elucidate their mechanism of action, RNA-seq transcriptomic analysis was performed on P. aeruginosa PAO1 exposed to S-phenyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide, the most potent inhibitor from the prior study. Exposure to this inhibitor down-regulated expression of several QS-regulated virulence operons (e.g., phenazine biosynthesis, type VI secretion systems). Interestingly, many genes that were differentially regulated pertain to the related metabolic pathways that yield precursors of pyochelin, tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, phenazines, and Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS). Activation of the MexT-regulon was also indicated, including the multidrug efflux pump encoded by mexEF-oprN, which has previously been shown to inhibit QS and pathogenicity. Deeper investigation of the metabolites involved in these systems revealed that S-phenyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide has structural similarity to kynurenine, a precursor of anthranilate, which is critical for P. aeruginosa virulence. By supplementing exogenous anthranilate, the QS-inhibitory effect was reversed. Finally, it was shown that S-phenyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide competitively inhibits P. aeruginosa kynureninase (KynU) activity in vitro and reduces PQS production in vivo. The kynurenine pathway has been implicated in P. aeruginosa QS and virulence factor expression; however, this is the first study to show that targeted inhibition of KynU affects P. aeruginosa gene expression and QS, suggesting a potential antivirulence strategy.

  8. Subchronic nandrolone administration reduces cardiac oxidative markers during restraint stress by modulating protein expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Pergolizzi, Barbara; Carriero, Vitina; Abbadessa, Giuliana; Penna, Claudia; Berchialla, Paola; De Francia, Silvia; Bracco, Enrico; Racca, Silvia

    2017-10-01

    Nandrolone decanoate (ND), an anabolic-androgenic steroid prohibited in collegiate and professional sports, is associated with detrimental cardiovascular effects through redox-dependent mechanisms. We previously observed that high-dose short-term ND administration (15 mg/kg for 2 weeks) did not induce left heart ventricular hypertrophy and, paradoxically, improved postischemic response, whereas chronic ND treatment (5 mg/kg twice a week for 10 weeks) significantly reduced the cardioprotective effect of postconditioning, with an increase in infarct size and a decrease in cardiac performance. We wanted to determine whether short-term ND administration could affect the oxidative redox status in animals exposed to acute restraint stress. Our hypothesis was that, depending on treatment schedule, ND may have a double-edged sword effect. Measurement of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal, two oxidative stress markers, in rat plasma and left heart ventricular tissue, revealed that the levels of both markers were increased in animals exposed to restraint stress, whereas no increase in marker levels was noted in animals pretreated with ND, indicating a possible protective action of ND against stress-induced oxidative damage. Furthermore, isolation and identification of proteins extracted from the left heart ventricular tissue samples of rats pretreated or not with ND and exposed to acute stress showed a prevalent expression of enzymes involved in amino acid synthesis and energy metabolism. Among other proteins, peroxiredoxin 6 and alpha B-crystallin, both involved in the oxidative stress response, were predominantly expressed in the left heart ventricular tissues of the ND-pretreated rats. In conclusion, ND seems to reduce oxidative stress by inducing the expression of antioxidant proteins in the hearts of restraint-stressed animals, thus contributing to amelioration of postischemic heart performance.

  9. An Anacardiaceae preparation reduces the expression of inflammation-related genes in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Leiro, J; García, D; Arranz, J A; Delgado, R; Sanmartín, M L; Orallo, F

    2004-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of an aqueous extract of the stem bark of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae; Vimang), which contains a defined mixture of components including polyphenols (principally mangiferin, MA), triterpenes, phytosteroids, fatty acids and microelements, on expression of inflammation mediators in inflammatory murine macrophages after stimulation in vitro with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). In vitro treatment with Vimang at 4 microg/ml reduced levels of NOS-2 mRNA and NOS-2, while treatment at 40 microg/ml also reduced levels of COX-2 mRNA, COX-2, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Results suggested that MA is involved in these effects. In vitro treatment with Vimang at 40 microg/ml also inhibited mRNA levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), but did not affect mRNA levels of IL-6 or tumor growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Extracellular release of TNF-alpha by inflammatory macrophages was inhibited by in vitro treatment with Vimang at the same concentrations that showed inhibition of TNF-alpha mRNA levels. The inhibition of TNF-alpha production appears to be at least partially attributable to MA. Vimang at 4 microg/ml decreased mRNA levels of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) but did not affect expression of the NF-kappaB inhibitor (IkappaB). These data indicate that the potent anti-inflammatory effects of Vimang are due to selective modulation of the expression of inflammation-related genes, leading to attenuation of macrophage activation.

  10. Reduced expression of PARK2 in manganese-exposed smelting workers.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ximin; Luo, Ying; Fan, Qiyuan; Zheng, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Manganese (Mn) is widely used in modern industries. Occupational exposure to Mn is known to cause clinical syndromes similar, but not identical to, Parkinson's disease. This human cohort study was designed to investigate if workers exposed to Mn altered the PARK2 gene expression, leading to Mn-induced neurotoxicity. Workers (n=26) occupationally exposed to Mn were recruited from a Mn-iron (Fe) alloy smelter, and control workers (n=20) without Mn-exposure were from an Fe smelter from Zunyi City in China. Subjects were matched with socioeconomic status and background for environmental factors. Metal concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Total RNA from the blood samples was isolated and analyzed by RT-PCR to quantify PARK2. The data showed that Mn concentrations in plasma, red blood cell (RBC) and saliva, and the cumulative Mn-exposure were about 2.2, 2.0, 1.7 and 3.0 fold higher, respectively, in Mn-exposed workers than those in control subjects (p<0.01). The expression of PARK2 in Mn-exposed workers was significantly decreased by 42% as compared to controls (p<0.01). Linear regression analysis further established that the expression of PARK2 mRNA was inversely correlated with Mn levels in plasma, RBC and saliva, as well as the cumulative Mn exposure (p<0.01). Taken together, it seems likely that Mn exposure among smelters may lead to a reduced expression of PARK2, which may partly explain the Mn-induced Parkinsonian disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Leptin Deficiency and Diet-Induced Obesity Reduce Hypothalamic Kisspeptin Expression in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Christopher S.; Roa, Juan; Augustine, Rachael A.; Grattan, David R.; Anderson, Greg M.

    2011-01-01

    The hormone leptin modulates a diverse range of biological functions, including energy homeostasis and reproduction. Leptin promotes GnRH function via an indirect action on forebrain neurons. We tested whether leptin deficiency or leptin resistance due to a high-fat diet (HFD) can regulate the potent reproductive neuropeptide kisspeptin. In mice with normalized levels of estradiol, leptin deficiency markedly reduced kisspeptin gene expression, particularly in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), and kisspeptin immunoreactive cell numbers in the rostral periventricular region of the third ventricle (RP3V). The HFD model was used to determine the effects of diet-induced obesity and central leptin resistance on kisspeptin cell number and gene expression. DBA/2J mice, which are prone to HFD-induced infertility, showed a marked decrease in kisspeptin expression in both the RP3V and ARC and cell numbers in the RP3V after HFD. This is the first evidence that kisspeptin can be regulated by HFD and/or increased body weight. Next we demonstrated that leptin does not signal (via signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 or 5, or mammalian target of rapamycin) directly on kisspeptin-expressing neurons in the RP3V. Lastly, in leptin receptor-deficient mice, neither GnRH nor kisspeptin neurons were activated during a preovulatory-like GnRH/LH surge induction regime, indicating that leptin's actions on GnRH may be upstream of kisspeptin neurons. These data provide evidence that leptin's effects on reproductive function are regulated by kisspeptin neurons in both the ARC and RP3V, although in the latter site the effects are likely to be indirect. PMID:21325051

  12. Leptin deficiency and diet-induced obesity reduce hypothalamic kisspeptin expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Quennell, Janette H; Howell, Christopher S; Roa, Juan; Augustine, Rachael A; Grattan, David R; Anderson, Greg M

    2011-04-01

    The hormone leptin modulates a diverse range of biological functions, including energy homeostasis and reproduction. Leptin promotes GnRH function via an indirect action on forebrain neurons. We tested whether leptin deficiency or leptin resistance due to a high-fat diet (HFD) can regulate the potent reproductive neuropeptide kisspeptin. In mice with normalized levels of estradiol, leptin deficiency markedly reduced kisspeptin gene expression, particularly in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), and kisspeptin immunoreactive cell numbers in the rostral periventricular region of the third ventricle (RP3V). The HFD model was used to determine the effects of diet-induced obesity and central leptin resistance on kisspeptin cell number and gene expression. DBA/2J mice, which are prone to HFD-induced infertility, showed a marked decrease in kisspeptin expression in both the RP3V and ARC and cell numbers in the RP3V after HFD. This is the first evidence that kisspeptin can be regulated by HFD and/or increased body weight. Next we demonstrated that leptin does not signal (via signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 or 5, or mammalian target of rapamycin) directly on kisspeptin-expressing neurons in the RP3V. Lastly, in leptin receptor-deficient mice, neither GnRH nor kisspeptin neurons were activated during a preovulatory-like GnRH/LH surge induction regime, indicating that leptin's actions on GnRH may be upstream of kisspeptin neurons. These data provide evidence that leptin's effects on reproductive function are regulated by kisspeptin neurons in both the ARC and RP3V, although in the latter site the effects are likely to be indirect.

  13. Reduced expression of IA channels is associated with post-ischemic seizures.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zhigang; Zhang, Hui; Liang, Yanling; Xu, Zao C

    2016-08-01

    Post-stroke seizures are considered as a major cause of epilepsy in adults. The pathophysiologic mechanisms resulting in post-stroke seizures are not fully understood. The present study attempted to reveal a new mechanism underlying neuronal hyperexcitability responsible to the seizure development after ischemic stroke. Transient global ischemia was produced in adult Wistar rats using the 4-vessel occlusion (4-VO) method. The spontaneous behavioral seizures were defined by the Racine scale III-V. The neuronal death in the brain was determined by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The expression levels of A-type potassium channels were analyzed by immunohistochemical staining and western blotting. We found that the incidence of spontaneous behavioral seizures increased according to the severity of ischemia with 0% after 15-min ischemia and ∼50% after 25-min ischemia. All behavioral seizures occurred with 48h after ischemia. Morphological analysis indicated that brain damage was not correlated with behavioral seizures. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the expression levels of the A-type potassium channel subunit Kv4.2 was significantly reduced in ischemic brains with behavioral seizures, but not in ischemic brains without seizures. In addition, rats failing to develop spontaneous behavioral seizures within 2days after ischemia were more sensitive to bicuculline-induced seizures at 2 months after ischemia than control rats. Meanwhile, Kv4.2 expression was decreased in brain at 2 months after ischemia. Our results demonstrated the reduction of Kv4.2 expression might contribute to the development of post-ischemic seizures and long-term increased seizure susceptibility after ischemia. The mechanisms underlying post-stroke seizures and epilepsy is unknown so far. The down-regulation of IA channels may explained the abnormal neuronal hyperexcitability responsible for the seizure development after ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mice with reduced NMDA receptor expression: more consistent with autism than schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Gandal, M J; Anderson, R L; Billingslea, E N; Carlson, G C; Roberts, T P L; Siegel, S J

    2012-08-01

    Reduced NMDA-receptor (NMDAR) function has been implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disease, most strongly in schizophrenia but also recently in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). To determine the direct contribution of NMDAR dysfunction to disease phenotypes, a mouse model with constitutively reduced expression of the obligatory NR1 subunit has been developed and extensively investigated. Adult NR1(neo-/-) mice show multiple abnormal behaviors, including reduced social interactions, locomotor hyperactivity, self-injury, deficits in prepulse inhibition (PPI) and sensory hypersensitivity, among others. Whereas such phenotypes have largely been interpreted in the context of schizophrenia, these behavioral abnormalities are rather non-specific and are frequently present across models of diseases characterized by negative symptom domains. This study investigated auditory electrophysiological and behavioral paradigms relevant to autism, to determine whether NMDAR hypofunction may be more consistent with adult ASD-like phenotypes. Indeed, transgenic mice showed behavioral deficits relevant to all core ASD symptoms, including decreased social interactions, altered ultrasonic vocalizations and increased repetitive behaviors. NMDAR disruption recapitulated clinical endophenotypes including reduced PPI, auditory-evoked response N1 latency delay and reduced gamma synchrony. Auditory electrophysiological abnormalities more closely resembled those seen in clinical studies of autism than schizophrenia. These results suggest that NMDAR hypofunction may be associated with a continuum of neuropsychiatric diseases, including schizophrenia and autism. Neural synchrony abnormalities suggest an imbalance of glutamatergic and GABAergic coupling and may provide a target, along with behavioral phenotypes, for preclinical screening of novel therapeutics. © 2012 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural

  15. Increased Growth of a Newly Established Mouse Epithelial Cell Line Transformed with HPV-16 E7 in Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    He, Lan; Law, Priscilla T Y; Boon, Siaw Shi; Zhang, Chuqing; Ho, Wendy C S; Banks, Lawrence; Wong, C K; Chan, Juliana C N; Chan, Paul K S

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence supports that infection with high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) can interact with host and environmental risk factors to contribute to the development of cervical, oropharyngeal, and other anogenital cancers. In this study, we established a mouse epithelial cancer cell line, designated as Chinese University Papillomavirus-1 (CUP-1), from C57BL/KsJ mice through persistent expression of HPV-16 E7 oncogene. After continuous culturing of up to 200 days with over 60 passages, we showed that CUP-1 became an immortalized and transformed epithelial cell line with continuous E7 expression and persistent reduction of retinoblastoma protein (a known target of E7). This model allowed in-vivo study of interaction between HPV and co-factors of tumorigenesis in syngeneic mice. Diabetes has been shown to increase HPV pathogenicity in different pathological context. Herein, with this newly-established cell line, we uncovered that diabetes promoted CUP-1 xenograft growth in syngeneic db/db mice. In sum, we successfully established a HPV-16 E7 transformed mouse epithelial cell line, which allowed subsequent studies of co-factors in multistep HPV carcinogenesis in an immunocompetent host. More importantly, this study is the very first to demonstrate the promoting effect of diabetes on HPV-associated carcinogenesis in vivo, implicating the importance of cancer surveillance in diabetic environment.

  16. Maillard reaction products enriched food extract reduce the expression of myofibroblast phenotype markers.

    PubMed

    Ruhs, Stefanie; Nass, Norbert; Somoza, Veronika; Friess, Ulrich; Schinzel, Reinhard; Silber, Rolf-Edgar; Simm, Andreas

    2007-04-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGE) are associated with a wide range of degenerative diseases. The present investigation aimed at analysing the influence of AGE containing nutritional extracts on cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) as the major cell type responsible for cardiac fibrosis. Mice CFs were treated with bread crust extract (BCE) which contained significant amounts of a variety of AGE modifications. BCE treatment with up to 30 mg/mL did not impair cell viability. Furthermore, BCE induced a moderate elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and activation of redox sensitive pathways like the p42/44(MAPK), p38(MAPK) and NF-kappaB but did not alter Akt kinase phosphorylation. Expression of smooth muscle alpha-actin and tropomyosin-1, which represent markers for myofibroblast differentiation, was reduced after bread crust treatment. These data suggest a putative antifibrotic effect of melanoidin-rich food.

  17. Ginkgolide B Reduces LOX-1 Expression by Inhibiting Akt Phosphorylation and Increasing Sirt1 Expression in Oxidized LDL-Stimulated Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Beidong; Li, Xingguang; Qi, Ruomei

    2013-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is an important risk factor in the development of atherosclerosis. LOX-1, a lectin-like receptor for ox-LDL, is present primarily on endothelial cells and upregulated by ox-LDL, tumor necrosis factor a, shear stress, and cytokines in atherosclerosis. Recent studies demonstrated that ginkgolide B, a platelet-activating factor receptor antagonist, has antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects on endothelial and nerve cells. The present study investigated the effects of ginkgolide B on LOX-1 expression and the possible mechanism of action. Our results showed that ginkgolide B inhibited LOX-1 and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression in ox-LDL-stimulated endothelial cells through a mechanism associated with the attenuation of Akt activation. Similar data were obtained by silencing Akt and LY294002. We also evaluated Sirt1 and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression. These molecules play a protective role in endothelial cell injury. The results showed that ginkgolide B increased Sirt1 expression in ox-LDL-treated cells. The inhibitory effects of ginkgolide B on LOX-1 and ICAM-1 expression were reduced in Sirt1 siRNA-transfected cells. Nrf2 expression was increased in ox-LDL-treated cells, and ginkgolide B downregulated Nrf2 expression. These results suggest that ginkgolide B reduces Nrf2 expression by inhibiting LOX-1 expression, consequently reducing oxidative stress injury in ox-LDL-stimulated cells. Altogether, these results indicate that the protective effect of ginkgolide B on endothelial cells may be attributable to a decrease in LOX-1 expression and an increase in Sirt1 expression in ox-LDL-stimulated endothelial cells, the mechanism of which is linked to the inhibition of Akt activation. Ginkgolide B may be a multiple-target drug that exerts protective effects in ox-LDL-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells. PMID:24069345

  18. Benefits of expressive writing in reducing test anxiety: A randomized controlled trial in Chinese samples

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Meng

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To explore the effect of expressive writing of positive emotions on test anxiety among senior-high-school students. Methods The Test Anxiety Scale (TAS) was used to assess the anxiety level of 200 senior-high-school students. Seventy-five students with high anxiety were recruited and divided randomly into experimental and control groups. Each day for 30 days, the experimental group engaged in 20 minutes of expressive writing of positive emotions, while the control group was asked to merely write down their daily events. A second test was given after the month-long experiment to analyze whether there had been a reduction in anxiety among the sample. Quantitative data was obtained from TAS scores. The NVivo10.0 software program was used to examine the frequency of particular word categories used in participants’ writing manuscripts. Results Senior-high-school students indicated moderate to high test anxiety. There was a significant difference in post-test results (P < 0.001), with the experimental group scoring obviously lower than the control group. The interaction effect of group and gender in the post-test results was non-significant (P > 0.05). Students’ writing manuscripts were mainly encoded on five code categories: cause, anxiety manifestation, positive emotion, insight and evaluation. There was a negative relation between positive emotion, insight codes and test anxiety. There were significant differences in the positive emotion, anxiety manifestation, and insight code categories between the first 10 days’ manuscripts and the last 10 days’ ones. Conclusions Long-term expressive writing of positive emotions appears to help reduce test anxiety by using insight and positive emotion words for Chinese students. Efficient and effective intervention programs to ease test anxiety can be designed based on this study. PMID:29401473

  19. Expression of Multiple Stress Response Genes by Escherichia Coli Under Modeled Reduced Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukanti, Raja; Leff, Laura G.

    2012-09-01

    Bacteria, in response to changes in their environment, quickly regulate gene expression; hence, transcriptional profiling has been widely used to characterize bacterial responses to various environmental conditions. In this study, we used clinorotation to grow bacteria under low-sedimentation, -shear, and -turbulence conditions (referred to as modeled reduced gravity, MRG, below) which profoundly impacts bacteria including causing elevated resistance to multiple environmental stresses. To explore potential mechanisms behind the multiple stress resistance response to MRG, we assessed expression levels of E. coli genes, using reverse transcription followed by real-time-PCR, involved in specific stress and general stress responses under MRG and normal gravity (NG) in nutritionally rich and minimal media, and during exponential and stationary phases of growth. In addition, growth rates as well as physico-chemical parameters of culture media were examined. Over-expression of stress response genes (csiD, cstA, katE, otsA, treA) occurred under MRG compared to NG controls, but only during the later stages of growth in rich medium demonstrating that bacterial response to MRG varies with growth-medium and -phase. At stationary phase in rich medium under MRG and NG, E. coli had similar growth rates (based on rRNA-leader abundance) and yields (cell mass and numbers); this coupled, with observations of simultaneous induction of starvation response genes (csiD and cstA) suggests the multiple stress resistance phenotype under MRG could be attributable to microzones of nutrient unavailability around cells. Overall, in rich medium, the response resembled the general stress response (GSR) that E. coli develops during stationary phase of growth. Along these same lines, induction of genes coding for GSR was reversed by improving nutritional conditions under MRG. The reversal of GSR under MRG suggests that the multiple stress response exhibited is not specific to MRG but may result

  20. Reduced cortical BDNF expression and aberrant memory in Carf knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Kelli A.; Hutchinson, Ashley N.; Wong-Goodrich, Sarah J.E.; Presby, Matthew M.; Su, Dan; Rodriguiz, Ramona M.; Law, Krystal C.; Williams, Christina L.; Wetsel, William C.; West, Anne E.

    2010-01-01

    Transcription factors are a key point of convergence between the cell-intrinsic and extracellular signals that guide synaptic development and brain plasticity. Calcium-Response Factor (CaRF) is a unique transcription factor first identified as a binding protein for a calcium-response element in the gene encoding Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (Bdnf). We have now generated Carf knockout (KO) mice to characterize the function of this factor in vivo. Intriguingly, Carf KO mice have selectively reduced expression of Bdnf exon IV-containing mRNA transcripts and BDNF protein in the cerebral cortex while BDNF levels in the hippocampus and striatum remain unchanged, implicating CaRF as a brain region-selective regulator of BDNF expression. At the cellular level, Carf KO mice show altered expression of GABAergic proteins at striatal synapses, raising the possibility that CaRF may contribute to aspects of inhibitory synapse development. Carf KO mice show normal spatial learning in the Morris water maze and normal context-dependent fear conditioning. However they have an enhanced ability to find a new platform location on the first day of reversal training in the water maze and they extinguish conditioned fear more slowly than their wildtype (WT) littermates. Finally, Carf KO mice show normal short-term and long-term memory in a novel object recognition task, but exhibit impairments during the remote memory phase of testing. Taken together these data reveal novel roles for CaRF in the organization and/or function of neural circuits that underlie essential aspects of learning and memory. PMID:20519520

  1. Benefits of expressive writing in reducing test anxiety: A randomized controlled trial in Chinese samples.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lujun; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Meng

    2018-01-01

    To explore the effect of expressive writing of positive emotions on test anxiety among senior-high-school students. The Test Anxiety Scale (TAS) was used to assess the anxiety level of 200 senior-high-school students. Seventy-five students with high anxiety were recruited and divided randomly into experimental and control groups. Each day for 30 days, the experimental group engaged in 20 minutes of expressive writing of positive emotions, while the control group was asked to merely write down their daily events. A second test was given after the month-long experiment to analyze whether there had been a reduction in anxiety among the sample. Quantitative data was obtained from TAS scores. The NVivo10.0 software program was used to examine the frequency of particular word categories used in participants' writing manuscripts. Senior-high-school students indicated moderate to high test anxiety. There was a significant difference in post-test results (P < 0.001), with the experimental group scoring obviously lower than the control group. The interaction effect of group and gender in the post-test results was non-significant (P > 0.05). Students' writing manuscripts were mainly encoded on five code categories: cause, anxiety manifestation, positive emotion, insight and evaluation. There was a negative relation between positive emotion, insight codes and test anxiety. There were significant differences in the positive emotion, anxiety manifestation, and insight code categories between the first 10 days' manuscripts and the last 10 days' ones. Long-term expressive writing of positive emotions appears to help reduce test anxiety by using insight and positive emotion words for Chinese students. Efficient and effective intervention programs to ease test anxiety can be designed based on this study.

  2. Mucuna pruriens reduces inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in Parkinsonian mice model.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Satyndra Kumar; Rai, Sachchida Nand; Singh, Surya Pratap

    2017-03-01

    Parkinson's disease is one of the most common neurodegenerative disease found in aged peoples. Plentiful studies are being conducted to find a suitable and effective cure for this disease giving special impetus on use of herbal plants. The study aimed at investigating the effect of ethanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens (Mp) on level of nitric oxide (NO) in paraquat (PQ) induced Parkinson's disease (PD) mouse model and its subsequent contribution to lipid peroxidation. Twenty four Swiss albino mice were divided into three groups; Control, PQ and PQ+Mp. PQ doses were given intraperitoneally, twice in a week and oral dose of ethanolic extract of Mp seed was given for 9 weeks. Nitrite content and lipid peroxidation was measured in all treated groups along with respective controls. RNA was isolated from the nigrostriatal tissue of control and the treated mice and was reverse transcribed into cDNA. PCR was performed to amplify iNOS mRNA and western blot analysis was performed to check its protein level. We had also perfused the mice in all treated group and performed Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and iNOS immunoreactivity in substantia nigra region of mice brain. PQ-treatment increased nitrite content, expression of iNOS and lipid peroxidation compared to respective controls. Mp treatment resulted in a significant attenuation of iNOS expression, nitrite content and lipid peroxidation demonstrating that it reduces nitric oxide in PQ-induced Parkinson's disease. Interestingly; we also observed that mRNA, protein expression and immunoreactivity of iNOS was significantly decreased after Mp treatment and TH immunoreactivity was significantly improved after the treatment of Mp. Our results demonstrated that Mp protects the dopaminergic neurons from the NO injury in substantia nigra. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Kefir reduces insulin resistance and inflammatory cytokine expression in an animal model of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Damiana D; Grześkowiak, Łukasz M; Ferreira, Célia L L F; Fonseca, Ana Carolina M; Reis, Sandra A; Dias, Mariana M; Siqueira, Nathane P; Silva, Leticia L; Neves, Clóvis A; Oliveira, Leandro L; Machado, Alessandra B F; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo G

    2016-08-10

    There is growing evidence that kefir can be a promising tool in decreasing the risk of many diseases, including metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of kefir supplementation in the diet of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) in which MetS was induced with monosodium glutamate (MSG), and to determine its effect on metabolic parameters, inflammatory and oxidation marker expression and glycemic index control. Thirty animals were used in this experiment. For the induction of MetS, twenty two-day-old male SHR received five consecutive intradermal injections of MSG. For the Negative Control, ten newborn male SHR received intradermal injections of saline solution (0.9% saline solution). After weaning, animals received standard diet and water ad libitum until reaching 3 months old, for the development of MetS. They were then divided into three groups (n = 10): negative control (NC, 1 mL saline solution per day), positive control (PC, 1 mL saline solution per day) and the Kefir group (1 mL kefir per day). Feeding was carried out by gavage for 10 weeks and the animals received standard food and water ad libitum. Obesity, insulin resistance, pro- and anti-inflammatory markers, and the histology of pancreatic and adipose tissues were among the main variables evaluated. Compared to the PC group, kefir supplementation reduced plasma triglycerides, liver lipids, liver triglycerides, insulin resistance, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, thoracic circumference, abdominal circumference, products of lipid oxidation, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression (IL-1β) and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine expression (IL-10). The present findings indicate that kefir has the potential to benefit the management of MetS.

  4. Cognitive flexibility impairment and reduced frontal cortex BDNF expression in the ouabain model of mania

    PubMed Central

    Amodeo, Dionisio A.; Grospe, Gena; Zang, Hui; Dwivedi, Yogesh; Ragozzino, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Central infusion of the Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitor, ouabain in rats serves as an animal model of mania because it leads to hyperactivity, as well as reproduces ion dysregulation and reduced BDNF levels similar to that observed in bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder is also associated with cognitive inflexibility and working memory deficits. It is unknown whether ouabain treatment in rats leads to similar cognitive flexibility and working memory deficits. The present study examined the effects of an intracerebral ventricular infusion of ouabain in rats on spontaneous alternation, probabilistic reversal learning and BDNF expression levels in the frontal cortex. Ouabain treatment significantly increased locomotor activity, but did not affect alternation performance in a Y-maze. Ouabain treatment selectively impaired reversal learning in a spatial discrimination task using an 80/20 probabilistic reinforcement procedure. The reversal learning deficit in ouabain-treated rats resulted from an impaired ability to maintain a new choice pattern (increased regressive errors). Ouabain treatment also decreased sensitivity to negative feedback during the initial phase of reversal learning. Expression of BDNF mRNA and protein levels was downregulated in the frontal cortex which also negatively correlated with regressive errors. These findings suggest that the ouabain model of mania may be useful in understanding the neuropathophysiology that contributes to cognitive flexibility deficits and test potential treatments to alleviate cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder. PMID:27267245

  5. Eugenol reduces the expression of virulence-related exoproteins in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jiazhang; Feng, Haihua; Lu, Jing; Xiang, Hua; Wang, Dacheng; Dong, Jing; Wang, Jianfeng; Wang, Xiaoliang; Liu, Juxiong; Deng, Xuming

    2010-09-01

    Eugenol, an essential oil component in plants, has been demonstrated to possess activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. This study examined the influence that subinhibitory concentrations of eugenol may have on the expression of the major exotoxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus. The results from a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) release assay and a hemolysin assay indicated that S. aureus cultured with graded subinhibitory concentrations of eugenol (16 to 128 microg/ml) dose dependently decreased the TNF-inducing and hemolytic activities of culture supernatants. Western blot analysis showed that eugenol significantly reduced the production of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), SEB, and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (the key exotoxins to induce TNF release), as well as the expression of alpha-hemolysin (the major hemolysin to cause hemolysis). In addition, this suppression was also evaluated at the transcriptional level via real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analysis. The transcriptional analysis indicated that 128 microg/ml of eugenol remarkably repressed the transcription of the S. aureus sea, seb, tst, and hla genes. According to these results, eugenol has the potential to be rationally applied on food products as a novel food antimicrobial agent both to inhibit the growth of bacteria and to suppress the production of exotoxins by S. aureus.

  6. HPV 5 and 8 E6 Expression Reduces ATM Protein Levels and Attenuates LINE-1 Retrotransposition

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Nicholas A.; Gasior, Stephen L.; Faber, Zachary J.; Howie, Heather L.; Deininger, Prescott L.; Galloway, Denise A.

    2013-01-01

    The expression of the E6 protein from certain members of the HPV genus β (β HPV 5 and 8 E6) can disrupt p53 signaling by diminishing the steady state levels of two p53 modifying enzymes, ATR and p300. Here, we show that β-HPV 5 and 8 E6 are also capable of reducing the steady state levels of another p53 modifying enzyme, ATM, and as a result restrict LINE-1 retrotransposition. Furthermore, we show that the reduction of both ATM and LINE-1 retrotransposition is dependent upon the ability of β-HPV 8 E6 to bind and degrade p300. We use inhibitors and dominant negative mutants to confirm that ATM is needed for efficient LINE-1 retrotransposition. Furthermore, neither sensitivity to LINE-1 expression nor LINE-1 induced DSB formation is altered in an ATM deficient background. Together, these data illustrate the broad impact some β-HPVs have on DNA damage signaling by promoting p300 degradation. PMID:23706308

  7. Reduced proliferation and osteocalcin expression in osteoblasts of male idiopathic osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Gaspà, Sílvia; Blanch-Rubió, Josep; Ciria-Recasens, Manuel; Monfort, Jordi; Tío, Laura; Garcia-Giralt, Natàlia; Nogués, Xavier; Monllau, Joan C; Carbonell-Abelló, Jordi; Pérez-Edo, Lluis

    2010-03-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD), resulting in increasing susceptibility to bone fractures. In men, it has been related to some diseases and toxic habits, but in some instances the cause of the primary--or idiopathic--osteoporosis is not apparent. In a previous study, our group compared histomorphometric measurements in cortical and cancellous bones from male idiopathic osteoporosis (MIO) patients to those of control subjects and found reduced bone formation without major differences in bone resorption. To confirm these results, this study analyzed the etiology of this pathology, examining the osteoblast behavior in vitro. We compared two parameters of osteoblast activity in MIO patients and controls: osteoblastic proliferation and gene expression of COL1A1 and osteocalcin, in basal conditions and with vitamin D(3) added. All these experiments were performed from a first-passage osteoblastic culture, obtained from osteoblasts that had migrated from the transiliac explants to the plate. The results suggested that the MIO osteoblast has a slower proliferation rate and decreased expression of genes related to matrix formation, probably due to a lesser or slower response to some stimulus. We concluded that, contrary to female osteoporosis, in which loss of BMD is predominantly due to increased resorption, low BMD in MIO seems to be due to an osteoblastic defect.

  8. Bromelain treatment reduces CD25 expression on activated CD4+ T cells in vitro✩

    PubMed Central

    Secor, Eric R.; Singh, Anurag; Guernsey, Linda A.; McNamara, Jeff T.; Zhan, Lijun; Maulik, Nilanjana; Thrall, Roger S.

    2009-01-01

    Bromelain (Br), an extract from pineapple stem with cysteine protease activity, exerts anti-inflammatory effects in a number of inflammatory models. We have previously shown that Br treatment decreased activated CD4+ T cells and has a therapeutic role in an ovalbumin-induced murine model of allergic airway disease. The current study was designed to determine the effect of Br on CD4+ T cell activation, specifically the expression of CD25 in vitro. CD25 is up regulated upon T cell activation, found as a soluble fraction (sCD25) and is a therapeutic target in inflammation, autoimmunity and allergy. Br treatment of anti-CD3 stimulated CD4+ T cells reduced CD25 expression in a dose and time dependent manner. This reduction of CD25 was dependent on the proteolytic action of Br as the addition of E64 (a cysteine protease inhibitor) abrogated this response. The concentration of sCD25 was increased in supernatants of Br treated activated CD4+ T cells as compared to control cells, suggesting that Br proteolytically cleaved cell-surface CD25. This novel mechanism of action identifies how Br may exert its therapeutic benefits in inflammatory conditions. PMID:19162239

  9. Chronic lead exposure reduces doublecortin-expressing immature neurons in young adult guinea pig cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Huang, JuFang; Huang, Kai; Shang, Lei; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Mengqi; Fan, Chun-Ling; Chen, Dan; Yan, Xiaoxin; Xiong, Kun

    2012-07-19

    Chronic lead (Pb) poisoning remains an environmental risk especially for the pediatric population, and it may affect brain development. Immature neurons expressing doublecortin (DCX+) exist around cortical layer II in various mammals, including adult guinea pigs and humans. Using young adult guinea pigs as an experimental model, the present study explored if chronic Pb exposure affects cortical DCX + immature neurons and those around the subventricular and subgranular zones (SVZ, SGZ). Two month-old guinea pigs were treated with 0.2% lead acetate in drinking water for 2, 4 and 6 months. Blood Pb levels in these animals reached 10.27 ± 0.62, 16.25 ± 0.78 and 19.03 ± 0.86 μg/dL at the above time points, respectively, relative to ~3 μg/dL in vehicle controls. The density of DCX + neurons was significantly reduced around cortical layer II, SVZ and SGZ in Pb-treated animals surviving 4 and 6 months relative to controls. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) pulse-chasing studies failed to find cellular colocalization of this DNA synthesis indicator in DCX + cells around layer II in Pb-treated and control animals. These cortical immature neurons were not found to coexist with active caspase-3 or Fluoro-Jade C labeling. Chronic Pb exposure can lead to significant reduction in the number of the immature neurons around cortical layer II and in the conventional neurogenic sites in young adult guinea pigs. No direct evidence could be identified to link the reduced cortical DCX expression with alteration in local neurogenesis or neuronal death.

  10. Reduced O2 concentration during CAM development--its effect on angiogenesis and gene expression in the broiler embryo CAM.

    PubMed

    Druyan, S; Levi, E

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxia during embryogenesis may induce changes in the development of some physiological regulatory systems, thereby causing permanent phenotypic changes in the embryo. Various levels of hypoxia at different time points during embryogenesis were found to affect both anatomical and physiological morphogenesis. These changes and adaptations depended on the timing, intensity, and duration of the hypoxic exposure and, moreover, were regulated by differential expression of developmentally important genes, mostly expressed in a stage- and time-dependent manner. Eggs incubated in a 17%-oxygen atmosphere for 12 h/d from E5 through E12 exhibited a clear and significant increase in the vascular area of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM); an increase that was already significant within 12 h after the end of the 1st hypoxic exposures (E6). We used the combination of the genes, β-actin, RPLP0 and HPRT as a reference for gene expression profiling, in studying the expression levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF1α), vascular endothelial growth factor alpha-2 (VEGF α 2), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (KDR), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2), and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), under normal and hypoxic conditions. In general, expression of all five investigated genes throughout the embryonic day of development had similar patterns of hypoxia-induced alterations. In E5.5 embryos, expression of HIF1α, MMP2, VEGFα2, and KDR was significantly higher in hypoxic embryos than in controls. In E6 embryos expression of HIF1α, VEGFα2, and FGF2 was significantly higher in hypoxic embryos than in controls. From E6.5 onward expression levels of the examined genes did not show any differences between hypoxic and control embryos. It can be concluded that in this experimental model, exposing broiler embryos to 17% O(2) from E5 to E7 induced significant angiogenesis, as expressed by the above genes. Further studies to examine whether this early exposure to hypoxic

  11. MECHANICAL VIBRATION INHIBITS OSTEOCLAST FORMATION BY REDUCING DC-STAMP RECEPTOR EXPRESSION IN OSTEOCLAST PRECURSOR CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, R.N.; Voglewede, P.A.; Liu, D.

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that physical inactivity leads to loss of muscle mass, but it also causes bone loss. Mechanistically, osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption have recently been shown to be regulated by vibration. However, the underlying mechanism behind the inhibition of osteoclast formation is yet unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether mechanical vibration of osteoclast precursor cells affects osteoclast formation by the involvement of fusion-related molecules such as dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), and P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). RAW264.7 (a murine osteoclastic-like cell line) cells were treated with 20 ng/ml receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). For 3 consecutive days, the cells were subjected to 1 hour of mechanical vibration with 20 µm displacement at a frequency of 4 Hz and compared to the control cells that were treated under the same condition but without the vibration. After 5 days of culture, osteoclast formation was determined. Gene expression of DC-STAMP and P2X7R by RAW264.7 cells were determined after 1 hour mechanical vibration, while protein production of the DC-STAMP was determined after 6 hours of post incubation after vibration. As a result, mechanical vibration of RAW264.7 cells inhibited the formation of osteoclasts. Vibration down-regulated DC-STAMP gene expression by 1.6-fold in the presence of RANKL and by 1.4-fold in the absence of RANKL. Additionally, DC-STAMP protein production was also down-regulated by 1.4-fold in the presence of RANKL and by 1.2-fold in the absence of RANKL in RAW264.7 cells in response to mechanical vibration. However, vibration did not affect P2X7R gene expression. Mouse anti-DC-STAMP antibody inhibited osteoclast formation in the absence of vibration. Our results suggest that mechanical vibration of osteoclast precursor cells reduce DC-STAMP expression in osteoclast precursor cells leading to the inhibition of osteoclast formation. PMID:23994170

  12. Expression of proinflammatory, proatherogenic genes is reduced by the Mediterranean diet in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Antonio; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Cruz-Teno, Cristina; Yubero-Serrano, Elena M; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Gutierrez-Mariscal, Francisco M; Lora-Aguilar, Pilar; Rodriguez-Cantalejo, Fernando; Fuentes-Jimenez, Francisco; Tinahones, Francisco Jose; Malagon, Maria M; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Lopez-Miranda, Jose

    2012-08-01

    Ageing is an important determinant of atherosclerosis development rate, mainly by the creation of a chronic low-grade inflammation. Diet, and particularly its fat content, modulates the inflammatory response in the fasting and postprandial states. Our aim was to study the effects of dietary fat on the expression of genes related to inflammation (NF-κB, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), TNF-α and IL-6) and plaque stability (matrix metalloproteinase 9, MMP-9) during the postprandial state of twenty healthy, elderly people who followed three diets for 3 weeks each: (1) Mediterranean diet (Med Diet) enriched in MUFA with virgin olive oil; (2) SFA-rich diet; and (3) low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet enriched in n-3 PUFA (CHO-PUFA diet) by a randomised crossover design. At the end of each period, after a 12-h fast, the subjects received a breakfast with a composition similar to the one when the dietary period ended. In the fasting state, the Med Diet consumption induced a lower gene expression of the p65 subunit of NF-κB compared with the SFA-rich diet (P = 0·019). The ingestion of the Med Diet induced a lower gene postprandial expression of p65 (P = 0·033), MCP-1 (P = 0·0229) and MMP-9 (P = 0·041) compared with the SFA-rich diet, and a lower gene postprandial expression of p65 (P = 0·027) and TNF-α (P = 0·047) compared with the CHO-PUFA diet. Direct plasma quantification mostly reproduced the findings. Our data suggest that consumption of a Med Diet reduces the postprandial inflammatory response in mononuclear cells compared with the SFA-rich and CHO-PUFA diets in elderly people. These findings may be partly responsible for the lower CVD risk found in populations with a high adherence to the Med Diet.

  13. The association of mammalian DREAM complex and HPV16 E7 proteins

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Nurshamimi Nor; Rothan, Hussin A; Yusoff, Mohd Shahrizal Mohd

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian DREAM (Drosophila, RB, E2F, and Myb) complex was discovered in 2004 by several research groups. It was initially identified in Drosophila followed by Caenorhaditis elegans and later in mammalian cells. The composition of DREAM is temporally regulated during cell cycle; being associated with E2F-4 and either p107 or p130 in G0/G1 (repressive DREAM complexes) and with B-myb transcription factor in S/G2 (activator DREAM complex). High risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncoproteins expression are important for malignant transformation of cervical cancer cells. In particular, the E7 of high risk HPV binds to pRB family members (pRB, p107 and p130) for degradation. It has recently been discovered that the p107 and p130 ‘pocket proteins’ are members of mammalian DREAM complexes. With this understanding, we would like to hypothesise the mammalian DREAM complex could plays a critical role for malignant transformation in cervical cancer cells. PMID:26885443

  14. Anethole potentiates dodecanol's fungicidal activity by reducing PDR5 expression in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Ken-Ichi; Ishikura, Takayuki; Jono, Yui; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Ogita, Akira; Kubo, Isao; Tanaka, Toshio

    2017-02-01

    trans-Anethole (anethole), a major component of anise oil, has a broad antimicrobial spectrum and a weaker antimicrobial potency than other available antibiotics. When combined with polygodial, nagilactone E, and n-dodecanol, anethole has been shown to exhibit synergistic antifungal activity against a budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and a human opportunistic pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans. However, the mechanism underlying this synergistic effect of anethole has not been characterized. We studied this mechanism using dodecanol-treated S. cerevisiae cells and focusing on genes related to multidrug efflux. Although dodecanol transiently reduced the number of colony forming units, this recovered to levels similar to those of untreated cells with continued incubation beyond 24h. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed overexpression of an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene, PDR5, in addition to a slight increase in PDR11, PDR12, and PDR15 transcriptions in dodecanol-treated cells. In the presence of anethole, these effects were attenuated and the fungicidal activity of dodecanol was extended. Dodecanol showed longer lasting fungicidal activity against a Δpdr5. In addition, Δpdr3 and Δlge1, lack transcription factors of PDR5 and PDR3, were partly and completely susceptible to dodecanol, respectively. Furthermore, combination of anethole with fluconazole was also found to exhibit synergy on C. albicans. These results indicated that although anethole reduced the transcription of several transporters, PDR5 expression was particularly relevant to dodecanol efflux. Anethole is expected to be a promising candidate drug for the inhibition of efflux by reducing the transcription of several ABC transporters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. BMP15 Mutations Associated With Primary Ovarian Insufficiency Reduce Expression, Activity, or Synergy With GDF9.

    PubMed

    Patiño, Liliana C; Walton, Kelly L; Mueller, Thomas D; Johnson, Katharine E; Stocker, William; Richani, Dulama; Agapiou, David; Gilchrist, Robert B; Laissue, Paul; Harrison, Craig A

    2017-03-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)15 is an oocyte-specific growth factor, which, together with growth differentiation factor (GDF) 9, regulates folliculogenesis and ovulation rate. Multiple mutations in BMP15 have been identified in women with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), supporting a pathogenic role; however, the underlying biological mechanism of many of these mutants remains unresolved. To determine how mutations associated with ovarian dysfunction alter the biological activity of human BMP15. The effects of 10 mutations in BMP15 on protein production, activation of granulosa cells, and synergy with GDF9 were assessed. Sequencing of 35 patients with POI identified both an unrecognized BMP15 variant (c.986G>A, R329H) and a variant (c.581T>C, F194S) previously associated with the condition. Assessing expression and activity of these and 8 other BMP15 mutants identified: (1) multiple variants, including L148P, F194S, and Y235C, with reduced mature protein production; (2) three variants (R138H, A180T, and R329H) with ∼fourfold lower activity than wild-type BMP15; and (3) 3 variants (R68W, F194S, and N196K) with a significantly reduced ability to synergize with GDF9. Mutations in BMP15 associated with POI reduce mature protein production, activity, or synergy with GDF9. The latter effect is perhaps most interesting given that interactions with GDF9 most likely underlie the physiology of BMP15 in the human ovary. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  16. Facial expression coding in children and adolescents with autism: Reduced adaptability but intact norm-based coding.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Gillian; Burton, Nichola; Jeffery, Linda; Read, Ainsley; Taylor, Libby; Ewing, Louise

    2018-05-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can have difficulty recognizing emotional expressions. Here, we asked whether the underlying perceptual coding of expression is disrupted. Typical individuals code expression relative to a perceptual (average) norm that is continuously updated by experience. This adaptability of face-coding mechanisms has been linked to performance on various face tasks. We used an adaptation aftereffect paradigm to characterize expression coding in children and adolescents with autism. We asked whether face expression coding is less adaptable in autism and whether there is any fundamental disruption of norm-based coding. If expression coding is norm-based, then the face aftereffects should increase with adaptor expression strength (distance from the average expression). We observed this pattern in both autistic and typically developing participants, suggesting that norm-based coding is fundamentally intact in autism. Critically, however, expression aftereffects were reduced in the autism group, indicating that expression-coding mechanisms are less readily tuned by experience. Reduced adaptability has also been reported for coding of face identity and gaze direction. Thus, there appears to be a pervasive lack of adaptability in face-coding mechanisms in autism, which could contribute to face processing and broader social difficulties in the disorder. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Pioglitazone inhibits LOX-1 expression in human coronary artery endothelial cells by reducing intracellular superoxide radical generation.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Jawahar L; Hu, Bo; Chen, Jiawei; Li, Dayuan

    2003-12-01

    LOX-1, a novel lectin-like receptor for oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), is expressed in response to ox-LDL, angiotensin II (Ang II), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and other stress stimuli. It is highly expressed in atherosclerotic tissues. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma ligands, such as pioglitazone, exert antiatherosclerotic effects. This study examined the regulation of LOX-1 expression in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) by pioglitazone. Fourth generation HCAECs were treated with ox-LDL, Ang II, or TNF-alpha with or without pioglitazone pretreatment. All 3 stimuli upregulated LOX-1 expression (mRNA and protein). Pioglitazone, in a concentration-dependent manner, reduced LOX-1 expression (P<0.01 versus ox-LDL, Ang II, or TNF-alpha alone). Ox-LDL, Ang II, and TNF-alpha each enhanced intracellular superoxide radical generation, and pioglitazone pretreatment reduced superoxide generation (P<0.01 versus ox-LDL, Ang II, or TNF-alpha). Furthermore, all 3 stimuli upregulated the expression of the transcription factors nuclear factor-kappaB and activator protein-1 (determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay), and pioglitazone pretreatment reduced this expression (P<0.01 versus ox-LDL, Ang II, or TNF-alpha). To determine the biological significance of pioglitazone-mediated downregulation of LOX-1, we studied monocyte adhesion to ox-LDL-treated HCAECs. Pioglitazone reduced the adhesion of monocytes to activated HCAECs in a fashion similar to that produced by antisense to LOX-1 mRNA. These observations suggest that the PPAR-gamma ligand pioglitazone reduces intracellular superoxide radical generation and subsequently reduces the expression of transcription factors, expression of the LOX-1 gene, and monocyte adhesion to activated endothelium. The salutary effect of PPAR-gamma ligands in atherogenesis may involve the inhibition of LOX-1 and the adhesion of monocytes to endothelium.

  18. 42 CFR 52e.7 - What are the terms and conditions of awards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the terms and conditions of awards? 52e.7 Section 52e.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.7 What are the terms...

  19. 42 CFR 52e.7 - What are the terms and conditions of awards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What are the terms and conditions of awards? 52e.7 Section 52e.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.7 What are the terms...

  20. 42 CFR 52e.7 - What are the terms and conditions of awards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What are the terms and conditions of awards? 52e.7 Section 52e.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.7 What are the terms...

  1. 42 CFR 52e.7 - What are the terms and conditions of awards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What are the terms and conditions of awards? 52e.7 Section 52e.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.7 What are the terms...

  2. 42 CFR 52e.7 - What are the terms and conditions of awards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What are the terms and conditions of awards? 52e.7 Section 52e.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.7 What are the terms...

  3. Sarcoidosis Th17 Cells are ESAT-6 Antigen Specific but Demonstrate Reduced IFN-γ Expression

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Bradley W.; Ploetze, Kristen; Isom, Joan; Chambers-Harris, Isfahan; Braun, Nicole A.; Taylor, Thyneice; Abraham, Susamma; Mageto, Yolanda; Culver, Dan A.; Oswald-Richter, Kyra A.; Drake, Wonder P.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. Many patients with sarcoidosis demonstrate antigen-specific immunity to mycobacterial virulence factors. Th-17 cells are crucial to the immune response in granulomatous inflammation, and have recently been shown to be present in greater numbers in the peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid (BALF) of sarcoidosis patients than healthy controls. It is unclear whether Th-17 cells in sarcoidosis are specific for mycobacterial antigens, or whether they have similar functionality to control Th-17 cells. Methods Flow cytometry was used to determine the numbers of Th-17 cells present in the peripheral blood and BALF of patients with sarcoidosis, the percentage of Th-17 cells that were specific to the mycobacterial virulence factor ESAT-6, and as well as to assess IFN-γ expression in Th-17 cells following polyclonal stimulation. Results Patients with sarcoidosis had greater numbers of Th-17 cells in the peripheral blood and BALF than controls and produced significantly more extracellular IL-17A (p=0.03 and p=0.02, respectively). ESAT-6 specific Th-17 cells were present in both peripheral blood and BALF of sarcoidosis patients (p<0.001 and p=0.03, respectively). After polyclonal stimulation, Th-17 cells from sarcoidosis patients produced less IFN-γ than healthy controls. Conclusions Patients with sarcoidosis have mycobacterial antigen-specific Th-17 cells peripherally and in sites of active sarcoidosis involvement. Despite the Th1 immunophenotype of sarcoidosis immunology, the Th-17 cells have reduced IFN-γ expression, compared to healthy controls. This reduction in immunity may contribute to sarcoidosis pathogenesis. PMID:23073617

  4. Double demonstration of oncogenic high risk human papilloma virus DNA and HPV-E7 protein in oral cancers.

    PubMed

    Pannone, G; Santoro, A; Carinci, F; Bufo, P; Papagerakis, S M; Rubini, C; Campisi, G; Giovannelli, L; Contaldo, M; Serpico, R; Mazzotta, M; Lo Muzio, L

    2011-01-01

    Oncogenic HPVs are necessarily involved in cervical cancer but their role in oral carcinogenesis is debated. To detect HPV in oral cancer, 38 cases of formalin fixed-paraffin embedded OSCC were studied by both DNA genotyping (MY09/11 L1 consensus primers in combination with GP5-GP6 primer pair followed by sequencing) and immunohistochemistry (monoclonal Abs against capsid protein and HPV-E7 protein, K1H8 DAKO and clone 8C9 INVITROGEN, respectively). HPV-16 tonsil cancer was used as positive control. The overall prevalence of HPV infection in OSCCs was 10.5%. Amplification of DNA samples showed single HPV DNA infection in 3 cases (HPV16; HPV53; HPV70) and double infection in one case of cheek cancer (HPV31/HPV44). The overall HR-HPV prevalence was 7.5%. E-7 antigen was immunohistochemically detected in all HPV-positive cases. HPV+ OSCC cases showed an overall better outcome than HPV negative oral cancers, as evaluated by Kaplan-Meier curves. HPVs exert their oncogenic role after DNA integration, gene expression of E5, E6 and E7 loci and p53/pRb host proteins suppression. This study showed that HPV-E7 protein inactivating pRb is expressed in oral cancer cells infected by oncogenic HPV other than classical HR-HPV-16/18. Interestingly HPV-70, considered a low risk virus with no definite collocation in oncogenic type category, gives rise to the expression of HPV-E7 protein and inactivate pRb in oral cancer. HPV-70, as proved in current literature, is able to inactivates also p53 protein, promoting cell immortalization. HPV-53, classified as a possible high risk virus, expresses E7 protein in OSCC, contributing to oral carcinogenesis. We have identified among OSCCs, a subgroup characterized by HPV infection (10.5%). Finally, we have proved the oncogenic potential of some HPV virus types, not well known in literature.

  5. Reducing premature KCC2 expression rescues seizure susceptibility and spine morphology in atypical febrile seizures.

    PubMed

    Awad, Patricia N; Sanon, Nathalie T; Chattopadhyaya, Bidisha; Carriço, Josianne Nunes; Ouardouz, Mohamed; Gagné, Jonathan; Duss, Sandra; Wolf, Daniele; Desgent, Sébastien; Cancedda, Laura; Carmant, Lionel; Di Cristo, Graziella

    2016-07-01

    Atypical febrile seizures are considered a risk factor for epilepsy onset and cognitive impairments later in life. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and a history of atypical febrile seizures often carry a cortical malformation. This association has led to the hypothesis that the presence of a cortical dysplasia exacerbates febrile seizures in infancy, in turn increasing the risk for neurological sequelae. The mechanisms linking these events are currently poorly understood. Potassium-chloride cotransporter KCC2 affects several aspects of neuronal circuit development and function, by modulating GABAergic transmission and excitatory synapse formation. Recent data suggest that KCC2 downregulation contributes to seizure generation in the epileptic adult brain, but its role in the developing brain is still controversial. In a rodent model of atypical febrile seizures, combining a cortical dysplasia and hyperthermia-induced seizures (LHS rats), we found a premature and sustained increase in KCC2 protein levels, accompanied by a negative shift of the reversal potential of GABA. In parallel, we observed a significant reduction in dendritic spine size and mEPSC amplitude in CA1 pyramidal neurons, accompanied by spatial memory deficits. To investigate whether KCC2 premature overexpression plays a role in seizure susceptibility and synaptic alterations, we reduced KCC2 expression selectively in hippocampal pyramidal neurons by in utero electroporation of shRNA. Remarkably, KCC2 shRNA-electroporated LHS rats show reduced hyperthermia-induced seizure susceptibility, while dendritic spine size deficits were rescued. Our findings demonstrate that KCC2 overexpression in a compromised developing brain increases febrile seizure susceptibility and contribute to dendritic spine alterations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Transforming properties of Felis catus papillomavirus type 2 E6 and E7 putative oncogenes in vitro and their transcriptional activity in feline squamous cell carcinoma in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Altamura, Gennaro, E-mail: gennaro.altamura@unina.it; Corteggio, Annunziata, E-mail: ancorteg@unina.it; Pacini, Laura, E-mail: PaciniL@students.iarc.fr

    Felis catus papillomavirus type 2 (FcaPV2) DNA is found in feline cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs); however, its biological properties are still uncharacterized. In this study, we successfully expressed FcaPV2 E6 and E7 putative oncogenes in feline epithelial cells and demonstrated that FcaPV2 E6 binds to p53, impairing its protein level. In addition, E6 and E7 inhibited ultraviolet B (UVB)-triggered accumulation of p53, p21 and pro-apoptotic markers such as Cleaved Caspase3, Bax and Bak, suggesting a synergistic action of the virus with UV exposure in tumour pathogenesis. Furthermore, FcaPV2 E7 bound to feline pRb and impaired pRb levels, resulting inmore » upregulation of the downstream pro-proliferative genes Cyclin A and Cdc2. Importantly, we demonstrated mRNA expression of FcaPV2 E2, E6 and E7 in feline SCC samples, strengthening the hypothesis of a causative role in the development of feline SCC. - Highlights: • FcaPV2 E6 binds to and deregulates feline p53 protein. • FcaPV2 E7 binds to and deregulates feline pRb protein. • FcaPV2 oncogenes inhibit UVB-induced apoptosis. • FcaPV2 E6E7 and E7 increase the lifespan of primary cells. • FcaPV2 E2, E6 and E7 are expressed at the mRNA level in feline SCC in vivo.« less

  7. HYDROXYCHLOROQUINE REDUCES BINDING OF ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES TO SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS AND RESTORES ANNEXIN A5 EXPRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao-Xuan; Guller, Seth; Rand, Jacob H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Antibody-mediated disruption of the annexin A5 (AnxA5) anticoagulant shield has been posited to be a thrombogenic mechanism in the antiphospholipid syndrome. We recently showed that the antimalarial drug, hydroxychloroquine, dissociates antiphospholipid immune complexes and restores AnxA5 binding to planar phospholipid bilayer. Using quantitative immunoassays, we demonstrated similar effects on BeWo trophoblasts. We therefore investigated the effects of the drug on localization of AnxA5 in primary cultures of human placental syncytiotrophoblasts (SCTs). Study Laser confocal microscopy with computer-based morphometric analysis was used to localize AnxA5 and antiphospholipid antibodies on SCTs exposed to polyclonal and monoclonal antiphospholipid and control IgGs. Results Hydroxychloroquine reversed the effects of the antiphospholipid antibodies on the SCTs by markedly reducing IgG binding and restoring AnxA5 expression. Conclusions These results provide the first morphologic evidence for this effect of hydroxychloroquine on human placental SCTs and support the possibility of novel treatments that target antiphospholipid antibody binding. PMID:21871597

  8. Metformin reduces total microparticles and microparticles-expressing tissue factor in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Laura M L; Ferreira, Cláudia N; Candido, Ana L; Reis, Fernando M; Sóter, Mirelle O; Sales, Mariana F; Silva, Ieda F O; Nunes, Fernanda F C; Gomes, Karina Braga

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of total microparticles (MPs) and microparticles-expressing tissue factor (TFMPs) in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) who use metformin comparing to those who do not take metformin. We quantified total MPs and TFMPs in the plasma of 50 patients with PCOS-13 of these women used metformin (850 mg 2×/day during at least 6 months) and the other 37 did not. For this purpose, the microparticles (MPs) were purified by differential centrifugation of the plasma and, subsequently, by flow cytometry, using annexin-V and CD142 as markers. Total MPs levels were lower in treated patients (59.58 ± 28.43 MPs/µL) when compared to untreated group (97.32 ± 59.42; p = 0.033). Plasma levels of TFMPs were also significantly lower in the group of patients who used metformin (1.10 ± 0.94 MPs/µL) when compared to untreated patients (2.20 ± 1.42 MPs/µL) (p = 0.003). Considering that metformin reduced the levels of total MPs and TFMPs, our results suggest that this mechanism could be involved in the antithrombotic metformin effect, corroborating with the indication of this drug in the PCOS treatment.

  9. An Acceptance-Based Psychoeducation Intervention to Reduce Expressed Emotion in Relatives of Bipolar Patients

    PubMed Central

    Eisner, Lori R.; Johnson, Sheri L.

    2010-01-01

    Expressed emotion (EE) is a robust predictor of outcome in bipolar disorder. Despite decades of research, interventions to reduce EE levels have had only modest effects. This study used an expanded model of EE to develop an intervention. Research has demonstrated a strong link between attributions and EE in families of patients with psychiatric disorders. There is also substantial research to suggest that anger can drive blaming attributions. Combining these ideas, this study built on previous psychoeducation interventions through the addition of an acceptance component designed to decrease anger and blaming attributions among family members of those with bipolar disorder. Twenty-eight family members attended a 1-day or 2-evening multifamily group workshop and completed a follow-up assessment 1 week later. At follow-up, participants demonstrated more knowledge about bipolar disorder. Anger, blaming attributions, and number of criticisms remained unchanged. Results of this study are consistent with others in that it is difficult to change EE. Implications for future clinical research in this area are addressed. PMID:19027434

  10. Embryo Microinjection of Selenomethionine Reduces Hatchability and Modifies Oxidant Responsive Gene Expression in Zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, J. K.; Janz, D. M.

    2016-05-01

    In previous studies we demonstrated that exposure to selenomethionine (SeMet) causes developmental toxicities in zebrafish (Danio rerio). The objectives of this study were to establish a dose-response relationship for developmental toxicities in zebrafish after embryo microinjection of Se (8, 16 or 32 μg/g dry mass of eggs) in the form of SeMet, and to investigate potential underlying mechanism(s) of SeMet-induced developmental toxicities. A dose-dependent increase in frequencies of mortality and total deformities, and reduced hatchability were observed in zebrafish exposed to excess Se via embryo microinjection. The egg Se concentration causing 20% mortality was then used to investigate transcript abundance of proteins involved in antioxidant protection and methylation. Excess Se exposure modified gene expression of oxidant-responsive transcription factors (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor nrf2a and nrf2b), and enzymes involved in cellular methylation (methionine adenosyltransferase mat1a and mat2ab) in zebrafish larvae. Notably, excess Se exposure up-regulated transcript abundance of aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2 (ahr2), a signalling pathway involved in the toxicity of dioxin-related compounds. Our findings suggest that oxidative stress or modification of methylation, or a combination of these mechanisms, might be responsible for Se-induced developmental toxicities in fishes.

  11. xCT expression reduces the early cell cycle requirement for calcium signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lastro, Michele; Kourtidis, Antonis; Farley, Kate; Conklin, Douglas S.

    2009-01-01

    Calcium has long been recognized as an important regulator of cell cycle transitions although the mechanisms are largely unknown. A functional genomic screen has identified genes involved in the regulation of early cell cycle progression by calcium. These genes when overexpressed confer the ability to bypass the G1/S arrest induced by Ca2+- channel antagonists in mouse fibroblasts. Overexpression of the cystine-glutamate exchanger, xCT, had the greatest ability to evade calcium antagonist-induced cell cycle arrest. xCT carries out the rate limiting step of glutathione synthesis in many cell types and is responsible for the uptake of cystine in most human cancer cell lines. Functional analysis indicates that the cystine uptake activity of xCT overcomes the G1/S arrest induced by Ca2+- channel antagonists by bypassing the requirement for calcium signaling. Since cells overexpressing xCT were found to have increased levels and activity of the AP-1 transcription factor in G1, redox stimulation of AP-1 activity accounts for the observed growth of these cells in the presence of calcium channel antagonists. These results suggest that reduced calcium signaling impairs AP-1 activation and that xCT expression may directly affect cell proliferation. PMID:18054200

  12. Reduced phototropism in pks mutants may be due to altered auxin-regulated gene expression or reduced lateral auxin transport.

    PubMed

    Kami, Chitose; Allenbach, Laure; Zourelidou, Melina; Ljung, Karin; Schütz, Frédéric; Isono, Erika; Watahiki, Masaaki K; Yamamoto, Kotaro T; Schwechheimer, Claus; Fankhauser, Christian

    2014-02-01

    Phototropism allows plants to orient their photosynthetic organs towards the light. In Arabidopsis, phototropins 1 and 2 sense directional blue light such that phot1 triggers phototropism in response to low fluence rates, while both phot1 and phot2 mediate this response under higher light conditions. Phototropism results from asymmetric growth in the hypocotyl elongation zone that depends on an auxin gradient across the embryonic stem. How phototropin activation leads to this growth response is still poorly understood. Members of the phytochrome kinase substrate (PKS) family may act early in this pathway, because PKS1, PKS2 and PKS4 are needed for a normal phototropic response and they associate with phot1 in vivo. Here we show that PKS proteins are needed both for phot1- and phot2-mediated phototropism. The phototropic response is conditioned by the developmental asymmetry of dicotyledonous seedlings, such that there is a faster growth reorientation when cotyledons face away from the light compared with seedlings whose cotyledons face the light. The molecular basis for this developmental effect on phototropism is unknown; here we show that PKS proteins play a role at the interface between development and phototropism. Moreover, we present evidence for a role of PKS genes in hypocotyl gravi-reorientation that is independent of photoreceptors. pks mutants have normal levels of auxin and normal polar auxin transport, however they show altered expression patterns of auxin marker genes. This situation suggests that PKS proteins are involved in auxin signaling and/or lateral auxin redistribution. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. HPV16 E6 and E7 proteins induce a chronic oxidative stress response via NOX2 that causes genomic instability and increased susceptibility to DNA damage in head and neck cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Marullo, Rossella; Werner, Erica; Zhang, Hongzheng; Chen, Georgia Z.; Shin, Dong M.; Doetsch, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of a subgroup of head and neck cancer characterized by an intrinsic radiosensitivity. HPV initiates cellular transformation through the activity of E6 and E7 proteins. E6 and E7 expression is necessary but not sufficient to transform the host cell, as genomic instability is required to acquire the malignant phenotype in HPV-initiated cells. This study reveals a key role played by oxidative stress in promoting genomic instability and radiosensitivity in HPV-positive head and neck cancer. By employing an isogenic human cell model, we observed that expression of E6 and E7 is sufficient to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in head and neck cancer cells. E6/E7-induced oxidative stress is mediated by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases (NOXs) and causes DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations. This mechanism for genomic instability distinguishes HPV-positive from HPV-negative tumors, as we observed NOX-induced oxidative stress in HPV-positive but not HPV-negative head and neck cancer cells. We identified NOX2 as the source of HPV-induced oxidative stress as NOX2 silencing significantly reduced ROS generation, DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations in HPV-positive cells. Due to their state of chronic oxidative stress, HPV-positive cells are more susceptible to DNA damage induced by ROS and ionizing radiation (IR). Furthermore, exposure to IR results in the formation of complex lesions in HPV-positive cells as indicated by the higher amount of chromosomal breakage observed in this group of cells. These results reveal a novel mechanism for sustaining genomic instability in HPV-positive head and neck tumors and elucidate its contribution to their intrinsic radiosensitivity. PMID:26354779

  14. Identification of host transcriptional networks showing concentration-dependent regulation by HPV16 E6 and E7 proteins in basal cervical squamous epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stephen P.; Scarpini, Cinzia G.; Groves, Ian J.; Odle, Richard I.; Coleman, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Development of cervical squamous cell carcinoma requires increased expression of the major high-risk human-papillomavirus (HPV) oncogenes E6 and E7 in basal cervical epithelial cells. We used a systems biology approach to identify host transcriptional networks in such cells and study the concentration-dependent changes produced by HPV16-E6 and -E7 oncoproteins. We investigated sample sets derived from the W12 model of cervical neoplastic progression, for which high quality phenotype/genotype data were available. We defined a gene co-expression matrix containing a small number of highly-connected hub nodes that controlled large numbers of downstream genes (regulons), indicating the scale-free nature of host gene co-expression in W12. We identified a small number of ‘master regulators’ for which downstream effector genes were significantly associated with protein levels of HPV16 E6 (n = 7) or HPV16 E7 (n = 5). We validated our data by depleting E6/E7 in relevant cells and by functional analysis of selected genes in vitro. We conclude that the network of transcriptional interactions in HPV16-infected basal-type cervical epithelium is regulated in a concentration-dependent manner by E6/E7, via a limited number of central master-regulators. These effects are likely to be significant in cervical carcinogenesis, where there is competitive selection of cells with elevated expression of virus oncoproteins. PMID:27457222

  15. High expression of NKG2A/CD94 and low expression of granzyme B are associated with reduced cord blood NK cell activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanyan; Xu, Han; Zheng, Xiaodong; Wei, Haiming; Sun, Rui; Tian, Zhigang

    2007-10-01

    Human umbilical cord blood (CB) has recently been used as a source of stem cells in transplantation. NK cells derived from CB are the key effector cells involved in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and graft-versus-leukemia (GVL). It was reported that the activity of CB NK cells was lower than that of adult peripheral blood (PB) NK cells. In this study, we analyzed the expression of some NK cell receptors and cytotoxicity-related molecules in CB and PB NK cells. The expressions of activating NK receptors, CD16, NKG2D and NKp46, did not show significant difference between CB and PB NK cells. But the expression of inhibitory receptor NKG2A/CD94 was significantly higher on CB NK cells. As to the effector function molecules, granzyme B was expressed significantly lower in CB NK cells, but the expressions of intracellular perforin, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and cell surface FasL and TRAIL did not show difference between CB and PB NK cells. The results indicated that the high expression of NKG2A/CD94 and low expression of granzyme B may be related with the reduced activity of CB NK cells.

  16. Kalanchoe blossfeldiana plants expressing the Arabidopsis etr1-1 allele show reduced ethylene sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Sanikhani, Mohsen; Mibus, Heiko; Stummann, Bjarne M; Serek, Margrethe

    2008-04-01

    Transgenic Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln. with reduced ethylene sensitivity in flowers was obtained by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation using the plasmid pBEO210 containing the mutant ethylene receptor gene etr1-1 from Arabidopsis thaliana under the control of the flower-specific fbp1-promoter from Petunia. Three ethylene-resistent T0 lines, 300, 324 and 331, were selected and analyzed for postharvest-performance and morphological characteristics. Line 324 was found to be infertile and only slightly less ethylene-sensitive than control-plants, but lines 300 and 331 had significantly increased ethylene-resistance and were fertile. These two lines were analyzed for copy-number of the etr1-1 gene by Southern blotting and were crossed with the ethylene-sensitive cultivar 'Celine' to create T1 progeny. Line 300 contains two T-DNA copies per nucleus, one of which is rearranged, and these are unlinked according to segregation data from the crossing to 'Celine' and PCR-analysis of progeny plants. For control plants all flowers were closed after 2 days at 2 microl l(-1 )ethylene, but for line 300 only 33% were closed after 10 days. Line 331 contains three T-DNA copies per nucleus and is more sensitive to ethylene than line 300. In the line 300 the etr1-1 gene was found by RT-PCR to be expressed in petals and stamens but not in carpels and sepals. Both lines 300 and 331, and their progeny, appear morphologically and physiologically identical to control plants except for the higher ethylene resistance. Line 300 and its progeny with only one T-DNA copy have very low ethylene sensitivity and may be useful in future breeding.

  17. Human Papillomavirus E6/E7-Specific siRNA Potentiates the Effect of Radiotherapy for Cervical Cancer in Vitro and in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hun Soon; Rajasekaran, Nirmal; Song, Sang Yong; Kim, Young Deug; Hong, Sungyoul; Choi, Hyuck Jae; Kim, Young Seok; Choi, Jong-Sun; Choi, Yoon-La; Shin, Young Kee

    2015-01-01

    The functional inactivation of TP53 and Rb tumor suppressor proteins by the HPV-derived E6 and E7 oncoproteins is likely an important step in cervical carcinogenesis. We have previously shown siRNA technology to selectively silence both E6/E7 oncogenes and demonstrated that the synthetic siRNAs could specifically block its expression in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells. Herein, we investigated the potentiality of E6/E7 siRNA candidates as radiosensitizers of radiotherapy for the human cervical carcinomas. HeLa and SiHa cells were transfected with HPV E6/E7 siRNA; the combined cytotoxic effect of E6/E7 siRNA and radiation was assessed by using the cell viability assay, flow cytometric analysis and the senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) assay. In addition, we also investigated the effect of combined therapy with irradiation and E6/E7 siRNA intravenous injection in an in vivo xenograft model. Combination therapy with siRNA and irradiation efficiently retarded tumor growth in established tumors of human cervical cancer cell xenografted mice. In addition, the chemically-modified HPV16 and 18 E6/E7 pooled siRNA in combination with irradiation strongly inhibited the growth of cervical cancer cells. Our results indicated that simultaneous inhibition of HPV E6/E7 oncogene expression with radiotherapy can promote potent antitumor activity and radiosensitizing activity in human cervical carcinomas. PMID:26035754

  18. Immortalization of human prostate epithelial cells by HPV 16 E6/E7 open reading frames.

    PubMed

    Choo, C K; Ling, M T; Chan, K W; Tsao, S W; Zheng, Z; Zhang, D; Chan, L C; Wong, Y C

    1999-08-01

    The exact pathogenesis for prostate cancer is not known. Progress made in prostate cancer research has been slow, largely due to the lack of suitable in vitro models. Here, we report our work on the immortalization of a human prostate epithelial cell line and show that it can be used as a model to study prostate tumorigenesis. Replication-defective retrovirus harboring the human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 E6 and E7 open reading frames was used to infect primary human prostate epithelial cells. Polymerase chain reaction, followed by Southern hybridization for the HPV 16 E6/E7, Western blot for prostatic acid phosphatase, telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay for telomerase activity, two-dimensional gels for cytokeratins, and cytogenetic analysis were undertaken to characterized the infected cells. The retrovirus-infected cell line, HPr-1, continued to grow in culture for more than 80 successive passages. Normal primary cells failed to proliferate after passage 6. HPr-1 cells bore close resemblance to normal primary prostate epithelial cells, both morphologically and biochemically. However, they possessed telomerase activity and proliferated indefinitely. Cytogenetic analysis of HPr-1 cells revealed a human male karyotype with clonal abnormalities and the appearance of multiple double minutes. The HPr-1 cells expressed prostatic acid phosphatase and cytokeratins K8 and K18, proving that they were prostate epithelial cells. They were benign in nude mice tumor formation and soft agar colony formation assay. The HPr-1 cell line is an in vitro representation of early prostate neoplastic progression. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Biological characterization of bovine mammary epithelial cell lines immortalized by HPV16 E6/E7 and SV40T.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Kang; Lin, Miao; Zhao, Qian-Ming; Zhan, Jin-Shun; Zhao, Guo-Qi

    2016-10-01

    Primary bovine mammary epithelial cells are not ideal models for long-term studies, because primary cells undergo a limited number of proliferations in vitro and enter into a growth-arrest stage called cell replicative senescence; we therefore must establish the immortalized bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) in vitro. More importantly, the mechanisms of the relationship between immortalized and apoptotic cell remain unknown in BMECs. We therefore sought to elucidate the mechanisms of which immortalized cells escape the pathway of apoptotic signal. These cells were successfully immortalized without any signs of senescence. The maximum number of BMEC and E6E7 immortalized cells were reached after 6 d of culture. At this point, there were significantly more E6E7 immortalized cells than primary BMECs (P < 0.01). The population-doubling times of the E6E7 and SV40T immortalized cells were lowest at 48 and 72 h. We failed to detect the expression of the epithelial cell marker E-cadherin in BMECs; however, immortalized cells had low expression of E-cadherin. The expression of β-catenin was markedly expressed in immortalized cells than in BMECs (P < 0.01). Caspase-3, caspase-9, and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) were detected; however, the cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP was not observed. Our data demonstrate that the expressions of caspase-9, caspase-3, and PARP are not sufficient for the apoptosis of immortalized cells and suggest that E-cadherin and β-catenin might be an important indicator of the development of cancer.

  20. High-Risk Human Papillomaviral Oncogenes E6 and E7 Target Key Cellular Pathways to Achieve Oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yeo-Teh, Nicole S L; Ito, Yoshiaki; Jha, Sudhakar

    2018-06-08

    Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) has been linked to several human cancers, the most prominent of which is cervical cancer. The integration of the viral genome into the host genome is one of the manners in which the viral oncogenes E6 and E7 achieve persistent expression. The most well-studied cellular targets of the viral oncogenes E6 and E7 are p53 and pRb, respectively. However, recent research has demonstrated the ability of these two viral factors to target many more cellular factors, including proteins which regulate epigenetic marks and splicing changes in the cell. These have the ability to exert a global change, which eventually culminates to uncontrolled proliferation and carcinogenesis.

  1. Diabetes mellitus reduces the function and expression of ATP-dependent K⁺ channels in cardiac mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Fancher, Ibra S; Dick, Gregory M; Hollander, John M

    2013-03-28

    Our goal was to determine the effects of type I diabetes mellitus on the function and expression of ATP-dependent K(+) channels in cardiac mitochondria (mitoKATP), composed of a pore-forming subunit (Kir6.1) and a diazoxide-sensitive sulphonylurea receptor (SUR1). We tested the hypothesis that diabetes reduces Kir6.1 and SUR1 expression as well as diazoxide-induced depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). Male FVB mice were made diabetic for 5weeks with multiple low dose injections of streptozotocin. Cardiac mitochondria were separated into two populations: subsarcolemmal mitochondria (SSM) and interfibrillar mitochondria (IFM). mitoKATP expression was determined via Western blot analysis of Kir6.1 and SUR1 proteins. mitoKATP function was determined by measuring ΔΨm with the potentiometric dye rhodamine 123. Diabetes reduced Kir6.1 and SUR1 expression in IFM by over 40% (p<0.05 for both). Similarly, diabetes reduced Kir6.1 expression in SSM by approximately 40% (p<0.05); however, SUR1 expression was unaffected. Opening mitoKATP with diazoxide (100μM) depolarized control IFM ΔΨm by 80% of the valinomycin maximum; diabetic IFM depolarized only 30% (p<0.05). Diazoxide-induced depolarization was much less in SSM (20-30%) and unaffected by diabetes. Our data indicate that diabetes reduces mitoKATP expression and function in IFM. These changes in mitoKATP may provide an opportunity to understand mechanisms leading to diabetic cardiomyopathy and loss of cardioprotective mechanisms in the diabetic heart. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sugar and hexokinase suppress expression of PIP aquaporins and reduce leaf hydraulics that preserves leaf water potential.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Gilor; Sade, Nir; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Lerner, Stephen; Shatil-Cohen, Arava; Yeselson, Yelena; Egbaria, Aiman; Kottapalli, Jayaram; Schaffer, Arthur A; Moshelion, Menachem; Granot, David

    2017-07-01

    Sugars affect central aspects of plant physiology, including photosynthesis, stomatal behavior and the loss of water through the stomata. Yet, the potential effects of sugars on plant aquaporins (AQPs) and water conductance have not been examined. We used database and transcriptional analyses, as well as cellular and whole-plant functional techniques to examine the link between sugar-related genes and AQPs. Database analyses revealed a high level of correlation between the expression of AQPs and that of sugar-related genes, including the Arabidopsis hexokinases 1 (AtHXK1). Increased expression of AtHXK1, as well as the addition of its primary substrate, glucose (Glc), repressed the expression of 10 AQPs from the plasma membrane-intrinsic proteins (PIP) subfamily (PIP-AQPs) and induced the expression of two stress-related PIP-AQPs. The osmotic water permeability of mesophyll protoplasts of AtHXK1-expressing plants and the leaf hydraulic conductance of those plants were significantly reduced, in line with the decreased expression of PIP-AQPs. Conversely, hxk1 mutants demonstrated a higher level of hydraulic conductance, with increased water potential in their leaves. In addition, the presence of Glc reduced leaf water potential, as compared with an osmotic control, indicating that Glc reduces the movement of water from the xylem into the mesophyll. The production of sugars entails a significant loss of water and these results suggest that sugars and AtHXK1 affect the expression of AQP genes and reduce leaf water conductance, to coordinate sugar levels with the loss of water through transpiration. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Design of a colicin E7 based chimeric zinc-finger nuclease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Németh, Eszter; Schilli, Gabriella K.; Nagy, Gábor; Hasenhindl, Christoph; Gyurcsik, Béla; Oostenbrink, Chris

    2014-08-01

    Colicin E7 is a natural bacterial toxin. Its nuclease domain (NColE7) enters the target cell and kills it by digesting the nucleic acids. The HNH-motif as the catalytic centre of NColE7 at the C-terminus requires the positively charged N-terminal loop for the nuclease activity—offering opportunities for allosteric control in a NColE7-based artificial nuclease. Accordingly, four novel zinc finger nucleases were designed by computational methods exploiting the special structural features of NColE7. The constructed models were subjected to MD simulations. The comparison of structural stability and functional aspects showed that these models may function as safely controlled artificial nucleases. This study was complemented by random mutagenesis experiments identifying potentially important residues for NColE7 function outside the catalytic region.

  4. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans regulates the expression of integrins and reduces cell adhesion via integrin α5 in human gingival epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kochi, Shinsuke; Yamashiro, Keisuke; Hongo, Shoichi; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Ugawa, Yuki; Shimoe, Masayuki; Kawamura, Mari; Hirata-Yoshihara, Chiaki; Ideguchi, Hidetaka; Maeda, Hiroshi; Takashiba, Shogo

    2017-12-01

    Gingival epithelial cells form a physiological barrier against bacterial invasion. Excessive bacterial invasion destroys the attachment between the tooth surface and the epithelium, resulting in periodontitis. Integrins play a significant role in cell attachment; therefore, we hypothesized that bacterial infection might decrease the expressions of these integrins in gingival epithelial cells, resulting in reduced cell adhesion. Immortalized human gingival epithelial cells were co-cultured with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Y4 (Aa Y4), and the gene expression levels of IL-8, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and integrins (α2, α3, α5, β4, and β6) were measured using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Expression of PCNA and integrins, except integrin α5, was significantly downregulated, while expression of IL-8 and integrin α5 was significantly upregulated in the cells co-cultured with Aa Y4. The number of adherent cells significantly decreased when co-cultured with Aa Y4, as determined using cell adhesion assays. In the cells co-cultured with Aa Y4 and an integrin α5 neutralizing antibody, there was no effect on the expression of IL-8 and PCNA, while the expressions of integrins α2, α3, β4, and β6, and the number of adherent cells did not decrease. The number of invading bacteria in the cells was reduced in the presence of the antibody and increased in the presence of TLR2/4 inhibitor. Therefore, integrin α5 might be involved in Aa Y4 invasion into gingival epithelial cells, and the resulting signal transduction cascade reduces cell adhesion by decreasing the expression of integrins, while the TLR2/4 signaling cascade regulates IL-8 expression.

  5. Reduced methylation of the thromboxane synthase gene is correlated with its increased vascular expression in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Ahmad A; Strauss, Jerome F; Walsh, Scott W

    2012-06-01

    Preeclampsia is characterized by increased thromboxane and decreased prostacyclin levels, which predate symptoms, and can explain some of the clinical manifestations of preeclampsia, including hypertension and thrombosis. In this study, we examined DNA methylation of the promoter region of the thromboxane synthase gene (TBXAS1) and the expression of thromboxane synthase in systemic blood vessels of normal pregnant and preeclamptic women. Thromboxane synthase is responsible for the synthesis of thromboxane A(2), a potent vasoconstrictor and activator of platelets. We also examined the effect of experimentally induced DNA hypomethylation on the expression of thromboxane synthase in a neutrophil-like cell line (HL-60 cells) and in cultured vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. We found that DNA methylation of the TBXAS1 promoter was decreased and thromboxane synthase expression was increased in omental arteries of preeclamptic women as compared with normal pregnant women. Increased thromboxane synthase expression was observed in vascular smooth muscles cells, endothelial cells, and infiltrating neutrophils. Experimentally induced DNA hypomethylation only increased expression of thromboxane synthase in the neutrophil-like cell line, whereas tumor necrosis factor-α, a neutrophil product, increased its expression in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. Our study suggests that epigenetic mechanisms and release of tumor necrosis factor-α by infiltrating neutrophils could contribute to the increased expression of thromboxane synthase in maternal systemic blood vessels, contributing to the hypertension and coagulation abnormalities associated with preeclampsia.

  6. Reduced miR-300 expression predicts poor prognosis in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    He, F-Y; Liu, H-J; Guo, Q; Sheng, J-L

    2017-02-01

    miR-300 has been demonstrated to play an important role in the progression of several tumors, but its role in tumorigenesis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore miR-300 expression in LSCC patients and analyze its association with clinicopathological factors and prognosis. In the present study, we measured the expression level of miR-300 in LSCC tissues by RT-PCR. Associations between miRNA-300 expressions and various clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed. Patient survival and their differences were determined by Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. The univariate and multivariate analysis were performed using the Cox proportional hazard analysis. miR-300 expression was significantly increased in LSCC tissues compared with that in adjacent non-cancerous tissues (p < 0.01). In addition, lymph node metastasis (p = 0.004) and TNM stage (p = 0.001) were obvious influence factors for the expression of miR-300. More importantly, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that LSCC patients with low miR-300 expression tended to have shorter overall survival (p < 0.001). Finally, multivariate analysis revealed that miR-300 expression was an independent prognostic factor for LSCC patients. Our results pointed to miR-300 as a powerful prognostic marker in LSCC and as a novel target for tumor-suppressive therapy.

  7. Reduced microRNA-188-3p expression contributes to apoptosis of spermatogenic cells in patients with azoospermia.

    PubMed

    Song, Wen-Yan; Meng, Hui; Wang, Xue-Gai; Jin, Hai-Xia; Yao, Gui-Dong; Shi, Sen-Lin; Wu, Liang; Zhang, Xiang-Yang; Sun, Ying-Pu

    2017-02-01

    Human mutL homologl (MLH1) works coordinately in sequential steps to initiate repair of DNA mismatches, and aberrant MLH1 expression is related to spermatogenetic malfunction. In the present study, MLH1 expression in patients with azoospermia was investigated, and moderating effects of miR-188-3p on MLH1 expression and spermatogenesis were identified. Testicular tissues from 16 patients with obstructive azoospermia (OA) and non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA), and tissues of eight healthy patients were collected. Real-time PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining were used to detect MLH1 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay and luciferase reporter assay were performed to evaluate histone acetylation level of miR-188-3p and relationships between miR-188-3p and MLH1. Testicular MLH1 expression at mRNA and protein levels was significantly increased, while miR-188-3p expression was lower in patients with OA and NOA than that in controls. Reduced histone acetylation level of miR-188-3p promoter was observed in patients with azoospermia. Overexpression/inhibition of HDAC1, but not HDAC2, contributed to the significant reduction/increase of miR-188-3p expression. miR-188-3p targeted 3' UTR of MLH1 and regulated MLH1 expression. miR-188-3p inhibitor led to elevation of apoptotic level of spermatogenic cells in mice, while this effect was reversed by si-MLH1. Down-regulation of miR-188-3p by reducing histone acetylation up-regulated MLH1 expression and contributed to promotion of apoptosis in spermatogenic cells, in patients with azoospermia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. PHTHALATE ESTER-INDUCED GUBERNACULAR LESIONS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH REDUCED INSL-3 GENE EXPRESSION IN THE FETAL RAT TESTIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate ester-induced gubernacular ligament lesions are associated with reduced Insl3 gene expression in the fetal rat testis during sexual differentiation.
    VS Wilson, C Lambright, J Furr, J Ostby, C Wood, G Held, LE Gray Jr.
    U.S. EPA, ORD, NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology...

  9. Reduced Chrna7 expression in mice is associated with decreases in hippocampal markers of inhibitory function: implications for neuropsychiatric diseases

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Catherine E.; Yonchek, Joan C.; Schulz, Kalynn M.; Graw, Sharon L.; Stitzel, Jerry; Teschke, Patricia U.; Stevens, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    The α7* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor encoded by CHRNA7 (human)/Chrna7 (mice) regulates the release of both the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in the hippocampal formation. A heterozygous deletion at 15q13.3 containing CHRNA7 is associated with increased risk for schizophrenia, autism and epilepsy. Each of these diseases is characterized by abnormalities in excitatory and inhibitory hippocampal circuit function. Reduced Chrna7 expression results in decreased hippocampal α7* receptor density, abnormal hippocampal auditory sensory processing and increased hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neuron activity in C3H mice heterozygous for a null mutation in Chrna7. These abnormalities demonstrate that decreased Chrna7 expression alters hippocampal inhibitory circuit function. The current study examined the specific impact of reduced Chrna7 expression on hippocampal inhibitory circuits by measuring the levels of GABA, GABAA receptors, the GABA synthetic enzyme glutamate decarboxylase-65 (GAD-65) and the vesicular GABA transporter GAT-1 in wild type (Chrna7 +/+) and heterozygous (Chrna7 +/−) C3H α7 mice of both genders. GAD-65 levels were significantly decreased in male and female heterozygous C3H α7 mice while GABAA receptors were significantly reduced only in male heterozygous C3H α7 mice. No changes in GABA and GAT-1 levels were detected. These data suggest that reduced CHRNA7 expression may contribute to the abnormalities in hippocampal inhibitory circuits observed in schizophrenia, autism and/or epilepsy. PMID:22314319

  10. DNA Methyl Transferase 1 Reduces Expression of SRD5A2 in the Aging Adult Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Rongbin; Wang, Zongwei; Bechis, Seth K.; Otsetov, Alexander G.; Hua, Shengyu; Wu, Shulin; Wu, Chin-Lee; Tabatabaei, Shahin; Olumi, Aria F.

    2016-01-01

    5-α Reductase type 2 (SRD5A2) is a critical enzyme for prostatic development and growth. Inhibition of SRD5A2 by finasteride is used commonly for the management of urinary obstruction caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia. Contrary to common belief, we have found that expression of SRD5A2 is variable and absent in one third of benign adult prostates. In human samples, absent SRD5A2 expression is associated with hypermethylation of the SRD5A2 promoter, and in vitro SRD5A2 promoter activity is suppressed by methylation. We show that methylation of SRD5A2 is regulated by DNA methyltransferase 1, and inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor α, NF-κB, and IL-6 regulate DNA methyltransferase 1 expression and thereby affect SRD5A2 promoter methylation and gene expression. Furthermore, we show that increasing age in mice and humans is associated with increased methylation of the SRD5A2 promoter and concomitantly decreased protein expression. Artificial induction of inflammation in prostate primary epithelial cells leads to hypermethylation of the SRD5A2 promoter and silencing of SRD5A2, whereas inhibition with tumor necrosis factor α inhibitor reactivates SRD5A2 expression. Therefore, expression of SRD5A2 is not static and ubiquitous in benign adult prostate tissues. Methylation and expression of SRD5A2 may be used as a gene signature to tailor therapies for more effective treatment of prostatic diseases. PMID:25700986

  11. Constitutively active RAS signaling reduces 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D-mediated gene transcription in intestinal epithelial cells by reducing vitamin D receptor expression.

    PubMed

    DeSmet, Marsha L; Fleet, James C

    2017-10-01

    High vitamin D status is associated with reduced colon cancer risk but these studies ignore the diversity in the molecular etiology of colon cancer. RAS activating mutations are common in colon cancer and they activate pro-proliferative signaling pathways. We examined the impact of RAS activating mutations on 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH) 2 D)-mediated gene expression in cultured colon and intestinal cell lines. Transient transfection of Caco-2 cells with a constitutively active mutant K-RAS (G12 V) significantly reduced 1,25(OH) 2 D-induced activity of both a human 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 24 hydroxyase (CYP24A1) promoter-luciferase and an artificial 3X vitamin D response element (VDRE) promoter-luciferase reporter gene. Young Adult Mouse Colon (YAMC) and Rat Intestinal Epithelial (RIE) cell lines with stable expression of mutant H-RAS had suppressed 1,25(OH) 2 D-mediated induction of CYP24A1 mRNA. The RAS effects were associated with lower Vitamin D receptor (VDR) mRNA and protein levels in YAMC and RIE cells and they could be partially reversed by VDR overexpression. RAS-mediated suppression of VDR levels was not due to either reduced VDR mRNA stability or increased VDR gene methylation. However, chromatin accessibility to the VDR gene at the proximal promoter (-300bp), an enhancer region at -6kb, and an enhancer region located in exon 3 was significantly reduced in RAS transformed YAMC cells (YAMC-RAS). These data show that constitutively active RAS signaling suppresses 1,25(OH) 2 D-mediated gene transcription in colon epithelial cells by reducing VDR gene transcription but the mechanism for this suppression is not yet known. These data suggest that cancers with RAS-activating mutations may be less responsive to vitamin D mediated treatment or chemoprevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reduced ACTC1 expression might play a role in the onset of congenital heart disease by inducing cardiomyocyte apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hong-Kun; Qiu, Guang-Rong; Li-Ling, Jesse; Xin, Na; Sun, Kai-Lai

    2010-11-01

    The Cardiac α actin 1 gene (ACTC1) has been related to familial atrial septal defects. This study was set to explore a potential role of this gene in the formation of sporadic congenital heart disease (CHD). Assessment of cardiac tissue samples from 33 patients with sporadic CHD (gestational age (GA) 18 weeks-49 months) with real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry has revealed a markedly decreased ACTC1 expression in the majority of samples (78.8%) compared with autopsied normal heart tissue from aged-matched subjects (GA 17 weeks-36 months). Also, as shown by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay, the proportion of apoptotic cardiomyocytes in samples featuring down-regulated ACTC1 expression (Group 1) was significantly greater than those with normal expression (Group 2) and the controls (P<0.01). The proportion of apoptotic cells strongly correlated with the expression of ACTC1 (r=-0.918, P<0.01). A study of 2 essential genes involved in apoptosis, Caspase-3 and Bcl-2, confirmed that the former has significantly increased expression, whilst the latter has decreased expression in Group 1 than in the other groups (P<0.01). Transfection of a small interfering RNA targeting, Actc1 (Actc1-siRNA), to a cardiomyocyte cell line, H9C2, also detected more apoptotic cells. Reduced ACTC1 expression might play a role in the onset of CHD through induction of cardiomyocyte apoptosis.

  13. Reducing expression of synapse-restricting protein Ephexin5 ameliorates Alzheimer’s-like impairment in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sell, Gabrielle L.; Schaffer, Thomas B.; Margolis, Seth S.

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) protein may cause synapse degeneration and cognitive impairment in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) by reactivating expression of the developmental synapse repressor protein Ephexin5 (also known as ARHGEF15). Here, we have reported that Aβ is sufficient to acutely promote the production of Ephexin5 in mature hippocampal neurons and in mice expressing human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP mice), a model for familial AD that produces high brain levels of Aβ. Ephexin5 expression was highly elevated in the hippocampi of human AD patients, indicating its potential relevance to AD. We also observed elevated Ephexin5 expression in the hippocampi of hAPP mice. Removal of Ephexin5 expression eliminated hippocampal dendritic spine loss and rescued AD-associated behavioral deficits in the hAPP mice. Furthermore, selective reduction of Ephexin5 expression using shRNA in the dentate gyrus of presymptomatic adolescent hAPP mice was sufficient to protect these mice from developing cognitive impairment. Thus, pathological elevation of Ephexin5 expression critically drives Aβ-induced memory impairment, and strategies aimed at reducing Ephexin5 levels may represent an effective approach to treating AD. PMID:28346227

  14. Alamandine reduces leptin expression through the c-Src/p38 MAP kinase pathway in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Tsuyoshi; Okajima, Fumikazu; Mogi, Chihiro; Tobo, Ayaka; Tomono, Shoichi; Sato, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and renal dysfunction. Angiotensin 1-7 and alamandine are heptameric renin angiotensin system peptide hormones. Further, alamandine levels increase with renal dysfunction. In the cardiovascular system, angiotensin 1-7 and alamandine produce similar improvements and counterbalance angiotensin II in regulating vascular function. We aimed to determine whether the effect of alamandine on leptin expression and secretion in adipocytes was similar to that of angiotensin 1-7. We studied isolated peri-renal visceral adipose tissue and peri-renal isolated visceral adipocytes from male Wistar rats. Angiotensin II from 0.01 to 10nM had no effect on leptin expression. Angiotensin 1-7 (1 nM) increased leptin secretion and expression, whereas alamandine (1 nM) decreased leptin secretion and expression in adipose tissue and isolated adipocytes and reduced blood leptin levels in vivo. These effects were mediated by Gq, c-Src, p38 mitogen-activated protein, and IκB activation. Additionally, alamandine induced nitric oxide expression via inducible nitric oxidase synthase and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 expression in adipose tissue and isolated adipocytes. Angiotensin 1-7 and alamandine produced opposing effects on leptin expression and secretion in adipose tissue. This result suggests that the action of Mas (angiotensin 1-7 receptor) and Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor D in adipocytes exhibited opposing actions similar to angiotensin II type 1 and type 2 receptors.

  15. Weight-loss changes PPAR expression, reduces atherosclerosis and improves cardiovascular function in obese insulin-resistant mice

    SciTech Connect

    Verreth, Wim; Verhamme, Peter; Pelat, Michael

    2003-09-01

    Weight-loss in obese insulin-resistant, but not in insulin-sensitive, persons reduces CHD risk. It is not known to what extent changes in the adipose gene expression profile are important for reducing CHD risk. We studied the effect of diet restriction-induced weight-loss on gene expression in adipose tissue, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular function in mice with combined leptin and LDL-receptor deficiency. Obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and insulin-resistance are associated with hypertension, impaired left ventricle function and accelerated atherosclerosis in those mice. Diet restriction during 12 weeks caused a 45% weight-loss and changes in the gene expression in adipose tissue of PPARa and PPAR? and ofmore » key genes regulating glucose transport and insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammation, most of which are under the transcriptional control of PPARs. These changes were associated with increased insulin-sensitivity, decreased hypertriglyceridemia, reduced mean 24-hour blood pressure and heart rate, restored circadian variations of blood pressure and heart rate, increased ejection fraction, and reduced atherosclerosis. Thus, induction of PPARa and PPAR? in adipose tissue is a key mechanism for reducing atherosclerosis and improving cardiovascular function resulting from weight-loss. Our observations point to the critical role of PPARs in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular features of the metabolic syndrome.« less

  16. Dienogest reduces proliferation, NGF expression and nerve fiber density in human adenomyosis.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Arisa; Koga, Kaori; Miyashita, Mariko; Makabe, Tomoko; Sue, Fusako; Harada, Miyuki; Hirata, Tetsuya; Hirota, Yasushi; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Osuga, Yutaka

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the in vivo effect of dienogest on proliferation, apoptosis, aromatase expression, vascular density, nerve growth factor (NGF) expression and nerve fiber density in human adenomyosis tissue. Twelve women who underwent hysterectomy for adenomyosis were enrolled. Six patients received dienogest treatment prior to hysterectomy (dienogest group), and age-matched six patients who had not received any hormonal treatment for ≥3 months before surgery (control group). Cell proliferation, vascular and nerve fiber density in adenomyosis tissue were evaluated by staining for Ki67, von Willebrand factor and PGP9.5, respectively. Apoptosis was detected using the TUNEL assay. The expression aromatase and NGF were evaluated by staining for corresponding antibodies. The proportion of Ki67 positive epithelial cells was significantly lower in samples from dienogest-treated patients in comparison with controls (p<0.05). The density of blood vessels in adenomyosis was marginally lower in the dienogest group in comparison with controls but statistical significance was not reached (p=0.07). The intensity of NGF expression and the density of nerve fibers were significantly lower in the dienogest group compared with controls (p<0.05 for both). This study demonstrates that adenomyosis, taken from patients treated with dienogest, shows remarkable histological features, such as reductions in proliferation, NGF expression and nerve fiber density. These findings indicate the impact of dienogest on local histological events, and explains its therapeutic effect on adenomyosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Reduced beta 2-microglobulin mRNA levels in transgenic mice expressing a designed hammerhead ribozyme.

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, S; Hotchkiss, G; Andäng, M; Nyholm, T; Inzunza, J; Jansson, I; Ahrlund-Richter, L

    1994-01-01

    We have generated three artificial hammerhead ribozymes, denoted 'Rz-b', 'Rz-c' and 'Rz-d', with different specificities for exon II of the mouse beta-2-microglobulin (beta 2M) mRNA. In this study we tested for ribozyme mediated reduction of beta 2M mRNA in a cell line and in transgenic mice. Transfections of either of the Rz-b, Rz-c or Rz-d plasmids into a mouse cell-line (NIH/3T3) revealed reductions of beta 2M mRNA substrate in each case. Ribozyme expression in individual transfected clones was accompanied with an up to 80% reduction of beta 2M mRNA levels. Rz-c was selected for a transgenic study. Seven Rz-c transgenic founder animals were identified from which three ribozyme expressing families were established and analysed. Expression of the ribozyme transgene was tested for and detected in lung, kidney and spleen. Expression was accompanied with reduction of the beta 2M mRNA levels of heterozygous (Rz+/-) animals compared to non-transgenic litter mates. The effect was most pronounced in lung with more than 90% beta 2M mRNA reduction in individual mice. In summary, expression of our ribozymes in a cell free system, in a cell-line and in transgenic mice were all accompanied with reductions of beta 2M mRNA levels. Images PMID:8036151

  18. Lipopolysaccharide and cAMP modify placental calcitriol biosynthesis reducing antimicrobial peptides gene expression.

    PubMed

    Olmos-Ortiz, Andrea; García-Quiroz, Janice; Avila, Euclides; Caldiño-Soto, Felipe; Halhali, Ali; Larrea, Fernando; Díaz, Lorenza

    2018-06-01

    Calcitriol, the hormonal form of vitamin D 3 (VD), stimulates placental antimicrobial peptides expression; nonetheless, the regulation of calcitriol biosynthesis in the presence of bacterial products and its consequence on placental innate immunity have scarcely been addressed. We investigated how some bacterial products modify placental VD metabolism and its ability to induce antimicrobial peptides gene expression. Cultured human trophoblasts biosynthesized calcitriol only in the presence of its precursor calcidiol, a process that was inhibited by cyclic-AMP but stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Intracrine calcitriol upregulated cathelicidin, S100A9, and β-defensins (HBDs) gene expression, while LPS further stimulated HBD2 and S100A9. Unexpectedly, LPS significantly repressed cathelicidin basal mRNA levels and drastically diminished calcidiol ability to induce it. Meanwhile, cyclic-AMP, which is used by many microbes to avoid host defenses, suppressed calcitriol biosynthesis, resulting in significant inhibition of most VD-dependent microbicidal peptides gene expression. While LPS stimulated calcitriol biosynthesis, cyclic-AMP inhibited it. LPS downregulated cathelicidin mRNA expression, whereas cyclic-AMP antagonized VD-dependent-upregulation of most antimicrobial peptides. These findings reveal LPS and cyclic-AMP involvement in dampening placental innate immunity, highlighting the importance of cyclic-AMP in the context of placental infection and suggesting its participation to facilitate bacterial survival. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. E6 and E7 Antibody Levels Are Potential Biomarkers of Recurrence in Patients with Advanced-Stage Human Papillomavirus-Positive Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Spector, Matthew E; Sacco, Assuntina G; Bellile, Emily; Taylor, Jeremy M G; Jones, Tamara; Sun, Kan; Brown, William C; Birkeland, Andrew C; Bradford, Carol R; Wolf, Gregory T; Prince, Mark E; Moyer, Jeffrey S; Malloy, Kelly; Swiecicki, Paul; Eisbruch, Avraham; McHugh, Jonathan B; Chepeha, Douglas B; Rozek, Laura; Worden, Francis P

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: There is a paucity of biomarkers to predict failure in human papillomavirus-positive (HPV + ) oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) following curative therapy. E6/E7 viral oncoproteins are constitutively expressed in HPV + tumors and highly immunogenic, resulting in readily detected serum antibodies. The purpose of this study is to determine whether serum E6 and E7 antibody levels can potentially serve as a biomarker of recurrence in patients with HPV+OPSCC. Experimental Design: We evaluated E6/E7 antibody levels in patients with previously untreated, advanced stage (III, IVa-b), HPV+OPSCC receiving definitive chemoradiation under a uniform protocol from 2003 to 2010. Baseline and longitudinal serum samples were obtained from our archived repository. E6/E7 serum levels were measured using a glutathione- S -transferase capture ELISA and quantified by approximating the area under the dilution curve, and were analyzed using ANOVA and linear mixed model for longitudinal analysis. Results: We compared 22 HPV+OPSCC patients who developed recurrence with 30 patients who remained disease-free. There were no differences in T classification, N classification, disease subsite, or smoking status between the groups. In a longitudinal analysis, recurrent patients had significantly higher E6 and E7 serum antibody levels than the nonrecurrent patients over the follow-up period ( P = 0.02 and P = 0.002, respectively). Patients who recurred had a lower clearance of E7 antibody than patients who remained disease-free ( P = 0.0016). Conclusions: Patients with HPV+OPSCC whose disease recurs have a lower clearance of E6 and E7 antibodies than patients who do not have recurrence. The ratio of E7 antibody at disease recurrence compared with baseline is potentially a clinically significant measurement of disease status in HPV+OPSCC. Clin Cancer Res; 23(11); 2723-9. ©2016 AACR . ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. γ-Oryzanol reduces adhesion molecule expression in vascular endothelial cells via suppression of nuclear factor-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Satoshi; Murata, Takahisa; Tsubosaka, Yoshiki; Ushio, Hideki; Hori, Masatoshi; Ozaki, Hiroshi

    2012-04-04

    γ-Oryzanol (γ-ORZ) is a mixture of phytosteryl ferulates purified from rice bran oil. In this study, we examined whether γ-ORZ represents a suppressive effect on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced adhesion molecule expression on vascular endothelium. Treatment with LPS elevated the mRNA expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and E-selectin in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). Pretreatment with γ-ORZ dose-dependently decreased the LPS-mediated expression of these genes. Western blotting also revealed that pretreatment with γ-ORZ dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced VCAM-1 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Consistently, pretreatment with γ-ORZ dose-dependently reduced LPS-induced U937 monocyte adhesion to BAECs. In immunofluorescence, LPS caused nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) nuclear translocation in 40% of BAECs, which indicates NF-κB activation. Pretreatment with γ-ORZ, as well as its components (cycloartenyl ferulate, ferulic acid, or cycloartenol), dose-dependently inhibited LPS-mediated NF-κB activation. Collectively, our results suggested that γ-ORZ reduced LPS-mediated adhesion molecule expression through NF-κB inhibition in vascular endothelium.

  1. Reduced toll-like receptor 4 and substance P gene expression is associated with airway bacterial colonization in children.

    PubMed

    Grissell, Terry V; Chang, Anne B; Gibson, Peter G

    2007-04-01

    Neuro-immune interactions are increasingly relevant to human health and disease. The neuropeptide Substance P also has antibacterial activity and bears similarities to the innate immune antibacterial defensins. This suggests possible co-regulation of neuropeptide and innate immune mediators. In this study, non-bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed on 69 children. BAL was examined for cellular profile, microbiology (bacteria, virus) and gene expression for TLRs 2, 3, 4; chemokine receptors (CCR3, CCR5, CXCR1); neurotrophins and neurokinin genes (TAC1, TAC3, CGRP, NGF). In children with bacterial colonization (n=10) there was an airway inflammatory response with increased BAL neutrophils, IL-8 protein, and CXCR1 expression. Substance P (TAC1) and TLR4 RNA expression were reduced in children with bacterial colonization. TLR3 mRNA was increased in 7.2% (n=5) children with rhinovirus, and there was a non-significant trend to increased TLR2. There is evidence for co-regulation of neurokinin (TAC1) and TLR4 gene expression in airway cells from children with airway bacterial colonization and their reduced expression may be associated with an impaired bacterial clearance. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Reducing acetate excretion from E. coli K-12 by over-expressing the small RNA sgrS

    PubMed Central

    Negrete, Alejandro; Majdalani, Nadim; Phue, Je Nie; Shiloach, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    When exposed to the non-metabolized glucose derivative alpha methyl glucoside, both E. coli K-12 (JM109 and MG1655) and E. coli B (BL21) respond by reducing the concentration of the mRNA of the ptsG gene which is responsible for the biosynthesis of the glucose transporter EIICBglu. This occurs through the over-expression of the non-coding small RNA SgrS, which interacts specifically with the mRNA of the ptsG gene and prevents its translation. However, when these bacteria are exposed to a glucose concentration of 40 g/L, over-expression of SgrS is observed only in E. coli B (BL21). Unlike E. coli K-12 (JM109 and MG1655), which are affected by high glucose concentration and produce higher levels of acetate, E. coli B (BL21) is not affected. Based on this information, it was assumed that over-expression of SgrS enables E. coli B (BL21) to reduce its acetate excretion by controlling the glucose transport. When SgrS was over-expressed in both E. coli K-12 strains from a multicopy plasmid, it was possible to reduce their acetate excretion levels to those seen in E. coli B. This observation opens a new approach towards controlling bacterial metabolism through the use of non-coding RNA. PMID:22107968

  3. Reducing acetate excretion from E. coli K-12 by over-expressing the small RNA SgrS.

    PubMed

    Negrete, Alejandro; Majdalani, Nadim; Phue, Je-Nie; Shiloach, Joseph

    2013-01-25

    When exposed to the nonmetabolized glucose derivative alpha methyl glucoside (αMG), both Escherichia coli K-12 (JM109 and MG1655) and E. coli B (BL21) respond by reducing the concentration of the mRNA of the ptsG gene which is responsible for the biosynthesis of the glucose transporter EIICB(glu). This occurs through the over-expression of the noncoding small RNA SgrS, which interacts specifically with the mRNA of the ptsG gene and prevents its translation. However, when these bacteria are exposed to a glucose concentration of 40 g/L, over-expression of SgrS is observed only in E. coli B (BL21). Unlike E. coli K-12 (JM109 and MG1655), which are affected by high glucose concentration and produce higher levels of acetate, E. coli B (BL21) is not affected. Based on this information, it was assumed that over-expression of SgrS enables E. coli B (BL21) to reduce its acetate excretion by controlling the glucose transport. When SgrS was over-expressed in both E. coli K-12 strains from a multicopy plasmid, it was possible to reduce their acetate excretion levels to those seen in E. coli B. This observation opens a new approach towards controlling bacterial metabolism through the use of noncoding RNA. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Thymoquinone inhibits cancer metastasis by downregulating TWIST1 expression to reduce epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Khan, Md Asaduzzaman; Tania, Mousumi; Wei, Chunli; Mei, Zhiqiang; Fu, Shelly; Cheng, Jingliang; Xu, Jianming; Fu, Junjiang

    2015-08-14

    Proteins that promote epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) are associated with cancer metastasis. Inhibition of EMT regulators may be a promising approach in cancer therapy. In this study, Thymoquinone (TQ) was used to treat cancer cell lines to investigate its effects on EMT-regulatory proteins and cancer metastasis. We show that TQ inhibited cancer cell growth, migration and invasion in a dose-dependent manner. At the molecular level, TQ treatment decreased the transcriptional activity of the TWIST1 promoter and the mRNA expression of TWIST1, an EMT-promoting transcription factor. Accordingly, TQ treatment also decreased the expression of TWIST1-upregulated genes such as N-Cadherin and increased the expression of TWIST1-repressed genes such as E-Cadherin, resulting in a reduction of cell migration and invasion. TQ treatment also inhibited the growth and metastasis of cancer cell-derived xenograft tumors in mice but partially attenuated the migration and invasion in TWIST1-overexpressed cell lines. Furthermore, we found that TQ treatment enhanced the promoter DNA methylation of the TWIST1 gene in BT 549 cells. Together, these results demonstrate that TQ treatment inhibits TWIST1 promoter activity and decreases its expression, leading to the inhibition of cancer cell migration, invasion and metastasis. These findings suggest TQ as a potential small molecular inhibitor of cancer growth and metastasis.

  5. Thymoquinone inhibits cancer metastasis by downregulating TWIST1 expression to reduce epithelial to mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Md. Asaduzzaman; Tania, Mousumi; Wei, Chunli; Mei, Zhiqiang; Fu, Shelly; Cheng, Jingliang; Xu, Jianming; Fu, Junjiang

    2015-01-01

    Proteins that promote epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) are associated with cancer metastasis. Inhibition of EMT regulators may be a promising approach in cancer therapy. In this study, Thymoquinone (TQ) was used to treat cancer cell lines to investigate its effects on EMT-regulatory proteins and cancer metastasis. We show that TQ inhibited cancer cell growth, migration and invasion in a dose-dependent manner. At the molecular level, TQ treatment decreased the transcriptional activity of the TWIST1 promoter and the mRNA expression of TWIST1, an EMT-promoting transcription factor. Accordingly, TQ treatment also decreased the expression of TWIST1-upregulated genes such as N-Cadherin and increased the expression of TWIST1-repressed genes such as E-Cadherin, resulting in a reduction of cell migration and invasion. TQ treatment also inhibited the growth and metastasis of cancer cell-derived xenograft tumors in mice but partially attenuated the migration and invasion in TWIST1-overexpressed cell lines. Furthermore, we found that TQ treatment enhanced the promoter DNA methylation of the TWIST1 gene in BT 549 cells. Together, these results demonstrate that TQ treatment inhibits TWIST1 promoter activity and decreases its expression, leading to the inhibition of cancer cell migration, invasion and metastasis. These findings suggest TQ as a potential small molecular inhibitor of cancer growth and metastasis. PMID:26023736

  6. SRC Inhibition Reduces NR2B Surface Expression and Synaptic Plasticity in the Amygdala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinai, Laleh; Duffy, Steven; Roder, John C.

    2010-01-01

    The Src protein tyrosine kinase plays a central role in the regulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activity by regulating NMDAR subunit 2B (NR2B) surface expression. In the amygdala, NMDA-dependent synaptic plasticity resulting from convergent somatosensory and auditory inputs contributes to emotional memory; however, the role of Src…

  7. E6/E7-P53-POU2F1-CTHRC1 axis promotes cervical cancer metastasis and activates Wnt/PCP pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rong; Lu, Huan; Lyu, Yuan-yuan; Yang, Xiao-mei; Zhu, Lin-yan; Yang, Guang-dong; Jiang, Peng-cheng; Re, Yuan; Song, Wei-wei; Wang, Jin-hao; Zhang, Can-can; Gu, Fei; Luo, Tian-jiao; Wu, Zhi-yong; Xu, Cong-jian

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is an infectious cancer and the most common gynecologic cancer worldwide. E6/E7, the early genes of the high-risk mucosal human papillomavirus type, play key roles in the carcinogenic process of cervical cancer. However, little was known about its roles in modulating tumor microenvironment, particular extracellular matrix (ECM). In this study, we found that E6/E7 could regulate multiple ECM proteins, especially collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 (CTHRC1). CTHRC1 is highly expressed in cervical cancer tissue and serum and closely correlated with clinicopathological parameters. CTHRC1 promotes cervical cancer cell migration and invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo. E6/E7 regulates the expression of CTHRC1 in cervical cancer by E6/E7-p53-POU2F1 (POU class 2 homeobox 1) axis. Futhermore, CTHRC1 activates Wnt/PCP signaling pathway. Take together, E6/E7-p53-POU2F1-CTHRC1 axis promotes cervical cancer cell invasion and metastasis and may act as a potential therapeutic target for interventions against cervical cancer invasion and metastasis. PMID:28303973

  8. Blood-gene expression reveals reduced circadian rhythmicity in individuals resistant to sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Arnardottir, Erna S; Nikonova, Elena V; Shockley, Keith R; Podtelezhnikov, Alexei A; Anafi, Ron C; Tanis, Keith Q; Maislin, Greg; Stone, David J; Renger, John J; Winrow, Christopher J; Pack, Allan I

    2014-10-01

    To address whether changes in gene expression in blood cells with sleep loss are different in individuals resistant and sensitive to sleep deprivation. Blood draws every 4 h during a 3-day study: 24-h normal baseline, 38 h of continuous wakefulness and subsequent recovery sleep, for a total of 19 time-points per subject, with every 2-h psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) assessment when awake. Sleep laboratory. Fourteen subjects who were previously identified as behaviorally resistant (n = 7) or sensitive (n = 7) to sleep deprivation by PVT. Thirty-eight hours of continuous wakefulness. We found 4,481 unique genes with a significant 24-h diurnal rhythm during a normal sleep-wake cycle in blood (false discovery rate [FDR] < 5%). Biological pathways were enriched for biosynthetic processes during sleep. After accounting for circadian effects, two genes (SREBF1 and CPT1A, both involved in lipid metabolism) exhibited small, but significant, linear changes in expression with the duration of sleep deprivation (FDR < 5%). The main change with sleep deprivation was a reduction in the amplitude of the diurnal rhythm of expression of normally cycling probe sets. This reduction was noticeably higher in behaviorally resistant subjects than sensitive subjects, at any given P value. Furthermore, blood cell type enrichment analysis showed that the expression pattern difference between sensitive and resistant subjects is mainly found in cells of myeloid origin, such as monocytes. Individual differences in behavioral effects of sleep deprivation are associated with differences in diurnal amplitude of gene expression for genes that show circadian rhythmicity. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  9. Myelin basic protein priming reduces the expression of Foxp3 in T cells via nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Brahmachari, Saurav; Pahan, Kalipada

    2010-02-15

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a vital role in autoimmune disorders. Among several markers, forkhead box p3 (Foxp3) is the most specific with regard to Treg activity. Therefore, understanding mechanisms that regulate Foxp3 expression is a critical step for unraveling the complicacy of autoimmune pathophysiology. The present study was undertaken to investigate the crosstalk between NO and Tregs. Interestingly, after myelin basic protein (MBP) priming, the expression of Foxp3 decreased in MBP-primed T cells. However, blocking NO either by inhibiting inducible NO synthase with l-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)-lysine hydrochloride or through scavenging with PTIO or by pharmacological drugs, such as pravastatin, sodium benzoate, or gemfibrozil, restored the expression of Foxp3 in MBP-primed T cells. However, this restoration of Foxp3 by pharmacological drugs was reversed by S-nitrosoglutathione, an NO donor. Similarly, NO also decreased the populations of Tregs characterized by CD4(+)CD25(+) and CD25(+)FoxP3(+) phenotypes. We have further confirmed this inverse relationship between NO and Foxp3 by analyzing the mRNA expression of Foxp3 and characterizing CD25(+)FoxP3(+) or CD4(+)Foxp3(+) phenotypes from inducible NO synthase knockout mice. Moreover, this inverse relation between NO and Foxp3 also was observed during priming with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, another target neuroantigen in multiple sclerosis, as well as collagen, a target autoantigen in rheumatoid arthritis. Finally, we demonstrate that NO inhibited the expression of Foxp3 in MBP-primed T cells via soluble guanylyl cyclase-mediated production of cGMP. Taken together, our data imply a novel role of NO in suppressing Foxp3(+) Tregs via the soluble guanylyl cyclase pathway.

  10. The PTPN14 Tumor Suppressor Is a Degradation Target of Human Papillomavirus E7.

    PubMed

    Szalmás, Anita; Tomaić, Vjekoslav; Basukala, Om; Massimi, Paola; Mittal, Suruchi; Kónya, József; Banks, Lawrence

    2017-04-01

    Activation of signaling pathways ensuring cell growth is essential for the proliferative competence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-infected cells. Tyrosine kinases and phosphatases are key regulators of cellular growth control pathways. A recently identified potential cellular target of HPV E7 is the cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPN14, which is a potential tumor suppressor and is linked to the control of the Hippo and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathways. In this study, we show that the E7 proteins of both high-risk and low-risk mucosal HPV types can interact with PTPN14. This interaction is independent of retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and involves residues in the carboxy-terminal region of E7. We also show that high-risk E7 induces proteasome-mediated degradation of PTPN14 in cells derived from cervical tumors. This degradation appears to be independent of cullin-1 or cullin-2 but most likely involves the UBR4/p600 ubiquitin ligase. The degree to which E7 downregulates PTPN14 would suggest that this interaction is important for the viral life cycle and potentially also for the development of malignancy. In support of this we find that overexpression of PTPN14 decreases the ability of HPV-16 E7 to cooperate with activated EJ-ras in primary cell transformation assays. IMPORTANCE This study links HPV E7 to the deregulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase signaling pathways. PTPN14 is classified as a potential tumor suppressor protein, and here we show that it is very susceptible to HPV E7-induced proteasome-mediated degradation. Intriguingly, this appears to use a mechanism that is different from that employed by E7 to target pRb. Therefore, this study has important implications for our understanding of the molecular basis for E7 function and also sheds important light on the potential role of PTPN14 as a tumor suppressor. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Hypoxia/hepatoma dual specific suicide gene expression plasmid delivery using bio-reducible polymer for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Ah; Nam, Kihoon; Lee, Minhyung; Kim, Sung Wan

    2013-10-10

    Gene therapy is suggested as a promising alternative strategy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, also called hepatoma) therapy. To achieve a successful and safe gene therapy, tight regulation of gene expression is required to minimize side-effects in normal tissues. In this study, we developed a novel hypoxia and hepatoma dual specific gene expression vector. The constructed vectors were transfected into various cell lines using bio-reducible polymer, PAM-ABP. First, pAFPS-Luc or pAFPL-Luc vector was constructed with the alpha-fectoprotein (AFP) promoter and enhancer for hepatoma tissue specific gene expression. Then, pEpo-AFPL-Luc was constructed by insertion of the erythropoietin (Epo) enhancer for hypoxic cancer specific gene expression. In vitro transfection assay showed that pEpo-AFPL-Luc transfected hepatoma cell increased gene expression under hypoxic condition. To confirm the therapeutic effect of dual specific vector, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) gene was introduced for cancer cell killing. The pEpo-AFPL-TK was transfected into hepatoma cell lines in the presence of ganciclovir (GCV) pro-drug. Caspase-3/7, MTT and TUNEL assays elucidated that pEpo-AFPL-TK transfected cells showed significant increasing of death rate in hypoxic hepatoma cells compared to controls. Therefore, the hypoxia/hepatoma dual specific gene expression vector with the Epo enhancer and AFP promoter may be useful for hepatoma specific gene therapy. © 2013.

  12. ZEB1 expression is correlated with tumor metastasis and reduced prognosis of breast carcinoma in Asian patients.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Shuai; Liu, Ya-Min; Chen, Xu; Wang, Ya-Wen; Ma, Ran-Ran; Wu, Xiao-Juan; Gao, Peng

    2015-07-01

    Tumor metastasis is one of the key events leading to tumor relapse and poor prognosis. Nowadays, increasing evidences demonstrated that ZEB1 was implicated in human carcinogenesis. However, involvement of ZEB1 deregulation in tumorigenesis in Asian patients with breast carcinoma remains elusive. The present study included 102 Asian patients with breast carcinoma treated by surgery from January of 2005 to December of 2006, and the expression of ZEB1 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. To further assess the prognostic value of ZEB1, Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed. In this study, elevated levels of ZEB1 expression was found in carcinomas with higher aggressive potential. We also correlated expression of ZEB1 with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.021), advanced clinical stage (P = 0.012) in all cases, and high tumor grade (P = 0.047) in invasive ductal carcinoma. Furthermore, our data suggested an elevated level of Ki-67 expression in cases with positive expression of ZEB1. Clinically, reduced overall survival and disease-free survival were observed in cases with positive ZEB1 expression than that in negative cases. Our results correlated ZEB1 with aggressive potentials of breast carcinoma and revealed a possibility for ZEB1 as a prognostic marker in breast carcinoma.

  13. The E7 Open Reading Frame Acts in cis and in trans To Mediate Differentiation-Dependent Activities in the Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Life Cycle▿†

    PubMed Central

    Bodily, Jason M.; Mehta, Kavi P. M.; Cruz, Linda; Meyers, Craig; Laimins, Laimonis A.

    2011-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the causative agents of several important genital and other mucosal cancers. The HPV16 E7 gene encodes a viral oncogene that is necessary for the continued growth of cancer cells, but its role in the normal, differentiation-dependent life cycle of the virus is not fully understood. The function of E7 in the viral life cycle was examined using a series of mutations of E7 created in the context of the complete HPV16 genome. The effect of these E7 mutations on key events of the viral life cycle, including immortalization, episomal maintenance, late promoter activation, and infectious virion synthesis, was examined. Our studies show that the pRb binding domain is indispensable for early viral activities, whereas the C-terminal zinc finger domain contributed primarily to very late events. Mutations of the casein kinase II phosphorylation site caused a complex phenotype involving both the function of E7 protein and a cis element necessary for the activation of the late promoter, identifying for the first time a promoter element important for late promoter function in the context of the viral genome. All mutant genomes tested showed reduced viral titers following growth in organotypic raft cultures. These studies clarify the role of E7 as a regulator of late events in the differentiation-dependent HPV life cycle. PMID:21697473

  14. Reduced frequency of T lymphocytes expressing CTLA-4 in frontotemporal dementia compared to Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Santos, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Torres, Karen C; Lima, Giselle S; Fiamoncini, Carolina M; Mapa, Filipe C; Pereira, Patricia A; Rezende, Vitor B; Martins, Luiza C; Bicalho, Maria A; Moraes, Edgar N; Reis, Helton J; Teixeira, Antonio L; Romano-Silva, Marco A

    2014-01-03

    Studies suggest that inflammation is involved in the neurodegenerative cascade of dementias. Immunological mechanisms may be part of the pathophysiological process in frontotemporal dementia (FTD), but up till now only vague evidence of such mechanisms has been presented. The B7- CD28/CTLA-4 pathway is an important immunological signaling pathway involved in modulation of T cell activation. The aim of this study was to compare the expression of molecules associated with co-stimulatory signaling in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of FTD to Alzheimer disease (AD) and control groups. Our results confirm the previous demonstrated increased expression of CD80 in CD14+ Alzheimer patients T cells but show, for the first time, a reduction in the expression of CTLA-4 in CD4+ FTD cells. As CTLA-4 is the most potent negative regulators of T-cell activation we speculated that peripheral T lymphocytes in FTD are more activated and this could be involved in the neurodegeneration observed in this dementia. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Methylprednisolone Administration Following Spinal Cord Injury Reduces Aquaporin 4 Expression and Exacerbates Edema

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Cruz, Angelina; Reyes-Sánchez, Alejandro; Guizar-Sahagún, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is an incapacitating condition that affects motor, sensory, and autonomic functions. Since 1990, the only treatment administered in the acute phase of SCI has been methylprednisolone (MP), a synthetic corticosteroid that has anti-inflammatory effects; however, its efficacy remains controversial. Although MP has been thought to help in the resolution of edema, there are no scientific grounds to support this assertion. Aquaporin 4 (AQP4), the most abundant component of water channels in the CNS, participates in the formation and elimination of edema, but it is not clear whether the modulation of AQP4 expression by MP plays any role in the physiopathology of SCI. We studied the functional expression of AQP4 modulated by MP following SCI in an experimental model in rats along with the associated changes in the permeability of the blood-spinal cord barrier. We analyzed these effects in male and female rats and found that SCI increased AQP4 expression in the spinal cord white matter and that MP diminished such increase to baseline levels. Moreover, MP increased the extravasation of plasma components after SCI and enhanced tissue swelling and edema. Our results lend scientific support to the increasing motion to avoid MP treatment after SCI. PMID:28572712

  16. Varroa destructor parasitism reduces hemocyte concentrations and prophenol oxidase gene expression in bees from two populations.

    PubMed

    Koleoglu, Gun; Goodwin, Paul H; Reyes-Quintana, Mariana; Hamiduzzaman, Mollah Md; Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto

    2018-04-01

    Circulating hemocytes are responsible for defensive and healing mechanisms in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Parasitism by the mite Varroa destructor and injection of V. destructor homogenate in buffer, but not buffer injection, showed similar reductions in total hemocyte concentrations in both Africanized and European adult honey bees. This indicated that compounds in V. destructor homogenate can have similar effects as V. destructor parasitism and that the response is not solely due to wounding. Samples from honey bees with different hemocyte concentrations were compared for the expression patterns of hemolectin (AmHml), prophenol oxidase (AmPpo), and class C scavenger receptor (AmSRC-C). Of the genes tested, only the expression of AmPpo correlated well with hemocyte counts for all the treatments, indicating that melanization is associated with those responses. Thus, the expression of AmPpo might be a suitable biomarker for hemocyte counts as part of cellular defenses against injection of buffer or mite compounds and V. destructor parasitism and perhaps other conditions involving healing and immunity.

  17. Reducing Ventral Tegmental Dopamine D2 Receptor Expression Selectively Boosts Incentive Motivation

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Johannes W; Roelofs, Theresia J M; Mol, Frédérique M U; Hillen, Anne E J; Meijboom, Katharina E; Luijendijk, Mieneke C M; van der Eerden, Harrie A M; Garner, Keith M; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Adan, Roger A H

    2015-01-01

    Altered mesolimbic dopamine signaling has been widely implicated in addictive behavior. For the most part, this work has focused on dopamine within the striatum, but there is emerging evidence for a role of the auto-inhibitory, somatodendritic dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in addiction. Thus, decreased midbrain D2R expression has been implicated in addiction in humans. Moreover, knockout of the gene encoding the D2R receptor (Drd2) in dopamine neurons has been shown to enhance the locomotor response to cocaine in mice. Therefore, we here tested the hypothesis that decreasing D2R expression in the VTA of adult rats, using shRNA knockdown, promotes addiction-like behavior in rats responding for cocaine or palatable food. Rats with decreased VTA D2R expression showed markedly increased motivation for both sucrose and cocaine under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement, but the acquisition or maintenance of cocaine self-administration were not affected. They also displayed enhanced cocaine-induced locomotor activity, but no change in basal locomotion. This robust increase in incentive motivation was behaviorally specific, as we did not observe any differences in fixed ratio responding, extinction responding, reinstatement or conditioned suppression of cocaine, and sucrose seeking. We conclude that VTA D2R knockdown results in increased incentive motivation, but does not directly promote other aspects of addiction-like behavior. PMID:25735756

  18. HSP70 reduces chronic hypoxia-induced neural suppression via regulating expression of syntaxin.

    PubMed

    Fei, Guanghe; Guo, Conghui; Sun, Hong-Shuo; Feng, Zhong-Ping

    2008-01-01

    Long-term exposure to modest hypoxia conditions may result in neural dysfunction; however, the involvement of presynaptic proteins has not been tested directly. Here, we reported that adult snails, Lymnaea stagnalis, developed a slow righting movement after placement in low O2 (approximately 5%) for 4 days. Semi-quantitative Western blot analysis showed that hypoxia induced heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) up-regulation and a reduction of syntaxin I. The inducible HSP70 occurs within 6 hours preceding the down-regulation of syntaxin I, suggesting that HSP70 may be involved in regulation of syntaxin expression. Injecting directly double-stranded RNAs (dsRNA) into the center ganglia region, we found that dsRNA HSP70, not the scrambled RNA, prevented the hypoxia-induced HSP70 expression, enhanced the hypoxia-dependent down-regulation of syntaxin I, and aggravated motor suppression. We thus provided the first evidence that early induction of HSP70 by chronic hypoxia is critical for maintaining expression levels of presynaptic proteins and neural function. These findings implicate a new molecular mechanism underlying chronic hypoxia-induced neurobehavioral adaptation and impairment.

  19. Overwintering Is Associated with Reduced Expression of Immune Genes and Higher Susceptibility to Virus Infection in Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Steinmann, Nadja; Corona, Miguel; Neumann, Peter; Dainat, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The eusocial honey bee, Apis mellifera, has evolved remarkable abilities to survive extreme seasonal differences in temperature and availability of resources by dividing the worker caste into two groups that differ in physiology and lifespan: summer and winter bees. Most of the recent major losses of managed honey bee colonies occur during the winter, suggesting that winter bees may have compromised immune function and higher susceptibility to diseases. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the expression of eight immune genes and naturally occurring infection levels of deformed wing virus (DWV), one of the most widespread viruses in A. mellifera populations, between summer and winter bees. Possible interactions between immune response and physiological activity were tested by measuring the expression of vitellogenin and methyl farnesoate epoxidase, a gene coding for the last enzyme involved in juvenile hormone biosynthesis. Our data show that high DWV loads in winter bees correlate with reduced expression of genes involved in the cellular immune response and physiological activity and high expression of humoral immune genes involved in antibacterial defense compared with summer bees. This expression pattern could reflect evolutionary adaptations to resist bacterial pathogens and economize energy during the winter under a pathogen landscape with reduced risk of pathogenic viral infections. The outbreak of Varroa destructor infestation could have overcome these adaptations by promoting the transmission of viruses. Our results suggest that reduced cellular immune function during the winter may have increased honey bee’s susceptibility to DWV. These results contribute to our understanding of honey bee colony losses in temperate regions. PMID:26121358

  20. The expression of full length Gp91-phox protein is associated with reduced amphotropic retroviral production.

    PubMed

    Bellantuono, I; Lashford, L S; Rafferty, J A; Fairbairn, L J

    2000-05-01

    As a single gene defect in mature bone marrow cells, chronic granulomatous disease (X-CGD) represents a disorder which may be amenable to gene therapy by the transfer of the missing subunit into hemopoietic stem cells. In the majority of cases lack of Gp91-phox causes the disease. So far, studies involving transfer of Gp91-phox cDNA, including a phase I clinical trial, have yielded disappointing results. Most often, low titers of virus have been reported. In the present study we investigated the possible reasons for low titer amphotropic viral production. To investigate the effect of Gp91 cDNA on the efficiency of retroviral production from the packaging cell line, GP+envAm12, we constructed vectors containing either the native cDNA, truncated versions of the cDNA or a mutated form (LATG) in which the natural translational start codon was changed to a stop codon. Following derivation of clonal packaging cell lines, these were assessed for viral titer by RNA slot blot and analyzed by non-parametrical statistical analysis (Whitney-Mann U-test). An improvement in viral titer of just over two-fold was found in packaging cells containing the start-codon mutant of Gp91 and no evidence of truncated viral RNA was seen in these cells. Further analysis revealed the presence of rearranged forms of the provirus in Gp91-expressing cells, and the production of truncated, unpackaged viral RNA. Protein analysis revealed that LATG-transduced cells did not express full-length Gp91-phox, whereas those containing the wild-type cDNA did. However, a truncated protein was seen in ATG-transduced cells which was also present in wild type cells. No evidence for the presence of a negative transcriptional regulatory element was found from studies with the deletion mutants. A statistically significant effect of protein production on the production of virus from Gp91-expressing cells was found. Our data point to a need to restrict expression of the Gp91-phox protein and its derivatives in order

  1. Metformin reduces the endotoxin-induced down-regulation of apolipoprotein E gene expression in macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Stavri, Simona; Trusca, Violeta G.; Simionescu, Maya

    The atheroprotective role of macrophage-derived apolipoprotein E (apoE) is well known. Our previous reports demonstrated that inflammatory stress down-regulates apoE expression in macrophages, aggravating atherogenesis. Metformin, extensively used as an anti-diabetic drug, has also anti-inflammatory properties, and thus confers vascular protection. In this study, we questioned whether metformin could have an effect on apoE expression in macrophages in normal conditions or under lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced stress. The results showed that metformin slightly increases the apoE expression only at high doses (5–10 mM). Low doses of metformin (1–3 mM) significantly reduce the LPS down-regulatory effect on apoE expression in macrophages. Our experiments demonstrated thatmore » LPS-induced NF-κB binds to the macrophage-specific distal regulatory element of apoE gene, namely to the multienhancer 2 (ME.2) and its 5′-deletion fragments. The NF-κB binding on ME.2 and apoE promoter has a down-regulatory effect. In addition, data revealed that metformin impairs NF-κB nuclear translocation, and thus, improves the apoE levels in macrophages under inflammatory stress. The positive effect of metformin in the inflammatory states, its clinical safety and low cost, make this drug a potential adjuvant in the therapeutic strategies for atherosclerosis. - Highlights: • High doses of metformin slightly increase apoE expression in macrophages. • Low doses of metformin up-regulate apoE gene in endotoxin-stressed macrophages. • Metformin reduces the negative effect of LPS on apoE expression by NF-κB inhibition.« less

  2. Phenobarbital reduces blood glucose and gluconeogenesis through down-regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) gene expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Oda, Hiroaki; Okuda, Yuji; Yoshida, Yukiko; Kimura, Noriko; Kakinuma, Atsushi

    2015-10-23

    The regulatory mechanism of phosphoenolpyruvate carboykinase (GTP) (EC 4.1.1.32) (PEPCK) gene expression and gluconeogenesis by phenobarbital (PB), which is known to induce drug-metabolizing enzymes, was investigated. Higher level of PEPCK mRNA was observed in spherical rat primary hepatocytes on EHS-gel than monolayer hepatocytes on TIC (type I collagen). We found that PB directly suppressed PEPCK gene expression in spherical hepatocytes on EHS-gel, but not in those on TIC. PB strongly suppressed cAMP-dependent induction of PEPCK gene expression. Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT), another gluconeogenic enzyme, was induced by cAMP, but not suppressed by PB. Chronic administration of PB reduced hepatic PEPCK mRNA in streptozotocin-induced diabetic and nondiabetic rats, and PB reduced blood glucose level in diabetic rats. Increased TAT mRNA in diabetic rats was not suppressed by PB. These results indicated that PB-dependent reduction is specific to PEPCK. From pyrvate challenge test, PB suppressed the increased gluconeogenesis in diabetic rats. PEPCK gene promoter activity was suppressed by PB in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, we found that spherical hepatocytes cultured on EHS-gel are capable to respond to PB to suppress PEPCK gene expression. Moreover, our results indicate that hypoglycemic action of PB result from transcriptional repression of PEPCK gene and subsequent suppression of gluconeogenesis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Over-expression of mammalian sialidase NEU3 reduces Newcastle disease virus entry and propagation in COS7 cells.

    PubMed

    Anastasia, Luigi; Holguera, Javier; Bianchi, Anna; D'Avila, Francesca; Papini, Nadia; Tringali, Cristina; Monti, Eugenio; Villar, Enrique; Venerando, Bruno; Muñoz-Barroso, Isabel; Tettamanti, Guido

    2008-03-01

    The paramyxovirus Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) binds to sialic acid-containing glycoconjugates, sialoglycoproteins and sialoglycolipids (gangliosides) of host cell plasma membrane through its hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (sialidase) HN glycoprotein. We hypothesized that the modifications of the cell surface ganglioside pattern determined by over-expression of the mammalian plasma-membrane associated, ganglioside specific, sialidase NEU3 would affect the virus-host cell interactions. Using COS7 cells as a model system, we observed that over-expression of the murine MmNEU3 did not affect NDV binding but caused a marked reduction in NDV infection and virus propagation through cell-cell fusion. Moreover, since GD1a was greatly reduced in COS7 cells following NEU3-over-expression, we added [(3)H]-labelled GD1a to COS7 cells under conditions that block intralysosomal metabolic processing, and we observed a marked increase of GD1a cleavage to GM1 during NDV infection, indicating a direct involvement of the virus sialidase and host cell GD1a in NDV infectivity. Therefore, the decrease of GD1a in COS7 cell membrane upon MmNEU3 over-expression is likely to be instrumental to NDV reduced infection. Evidence was also provided for the preferential association of NDV-HN at 4 degrees C to detergent resistant microdomains (DRMs) of COS7 cells plasma membranes.

  4. Reduced Chrna7 expression in mice is associated with decreases in hippocampal markers of inhibitory function: implications for neuropsychiatric diseases.

    PubMed

    Adams, C E; Yonchek, J C; Schulz, K M; Graw, S L; Stitzel, J; Teschke, P U; Stevens, K E

    2012-04-05

    The α7* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor encoded by CHRNA7 (human)/Chrna7 (mice) regulates the release of both the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA and the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in the hippocampal formation. A heterozygous (Het) deletion at 15q13.3 containing CHRNA7 is associated with increased risk for schizophrenia, autism, and epilepsy. Each of these diseases are characterized by abnormalities in excitatory and inhibitory hippocampal circuit function. Reduced Chrna7 expression results in decreased hippocampal α7* receptor density, abnormal hippocampal auditory sensory processing, and increased hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neuron activity in C3H mice Het for a null mutation in Chrna7. These abnormalities demonstrate that decreased Chrna7 expression alters hippocampal inhibitory circuit function. The current study examined the specific impact of reduced Chrna7 expression on hippocampal inhibitory circuits by measuring the levels of GABA, GABA(A) receptors, the GABA synthetic enzyme l-glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 (GAD-65), and the vesicular GABA transporter 1 (GAT-1) in wild-type (Chrna7 +/+) and Het (Chrna7 +/-) C3H α7 mice of both genders. GAD-65 levels were significantly decreased in male and female Het C3H α7 mice, whereas GABA(A) receptors were significantly reduced only in male Het C3H α7 mice. No changes in GABA and GAT-1 levels were detected. These data suggest that reduced CHRNA7 expression may contribute to the abnormalities in hippocampal inhibitory circuits observed in schizophrenia, autism, and/or epilepsy. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The E7 oncoprotein associates with Mi2 and histone deacetylase activity to promote cell growth.

    PubMed Central

    Brehm, A; Nielsen, S J; Miska, E A; McCance, D J; Reid, J L; Bannister, A J; Kouzarides, T

    1999-01-01

    E7 is the main transforming protein of human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV16) which is implicated in the formation of cervical cancer. The transforming activity of E7 has been attributed to its interaction with the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumour suppressor. However, Rb binding is not sufficient for transformation by E7. Mutations within a zinc finger domain, which is dispensable for Rb binding, also abolish E7 transformation functions. Here we show that HPV16 E7 associates with histone deacetylase in vitro and in vivo, via its zinc finger domain. Using a genetic screen, we identify Mi2beta, a component of the recently identified NURD histone deacetylase complex, as a protein that binds directly to the E7 zinc finger. A zinc finger point mutant which is unable to bind Mi2beta and histone deacetylase but is still able to bind Rb fails to overcome cell cycle arrest in osteosarcoma cells. Our results suggest that the binding to a histone deacetylase complex is an important parameter for the growthpromoting activity of the human papilloma virus E7 protein. This provides the first indication that viral oncoproteins control cell proliferation by targeting deacetylation pathways. PMID:10228159

  6. The E7 oncoprotein associates with Mi2 and histone deacetylase activity to promote cell growth.

    PubMed

    Brehm, A; Nielsen, S J; Miska, E A; McCance, D J; Reid, J L; Bannister, A J; Kouzarides, T

    1999-05-04

    E7 is the main transforming protein of human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV16) which is implicated in the formation of cervical cancer. The transforming activity of E7 has been attributed to its interaction with the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumour suppressor. However, Rb binding is not sufficient for transformation by E7. Mutations within a zinc finger domain, which is dispensable for Rb binding, also abolish E7 transformation functions. Here we show that HPV16 E7 associates with histone deacetylase in vitro and in vivo, via its zinc finger domain. Using a genetic screen, we identify Mi2beta, a component of the recently identified NURD histone deacetylase complex, as a protein that binds directly to the E7 zinc finger. A zinc finger point mutant which is unable to bind Mi2beta and histone deacetylase but is still able to bind Rb fails to overcome cell cycle arrest in osteosarcoma cells. Our results suggest that the binding to a histone deacetylase complex is an important parameter for the growthpromoting activity of the human papilloma virus E7 protein. This provides the first indication that viral oncoproteins control cell proliferation by targeting deacetylation pathways.

  7. Increased Bacterial Load and Expression of Antimicrobial Peptides in Skin of Barrier-Deficient Mice with Reduced Cancer Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Natsuga, Ken; Cipolat, Sara; Watt, Fiona M

    2016-01-01

    Mice lacking three epidermal barrier proteins-envoplakin, periplakin, and involucrin (EPI-/- mice)-have a defective cornified layer, reduced epidermal γδ T cells, and increased dermal CD4(+) T cells. They are also resistant to developing skin tumors. The tumor-protective mechanism involves signaling between Rae-1 expressing keratinocytes and the natural killer group 2D receptor on immune cells, which also plays a role in host defenses against infection. Given the emerging link between bacteria and cancer, we investigated whether EPI-/- mice have an altered skin microbiota. The bacterial phyla were similar in wild-type and EPI-/- skin. However, bacteria were threefold more abundant in EPI-/- skin and penetrated deeper into the epidermis. The major epithelial defense mechanism against bacteria is production of antimicrobial proteins (AMPs). EPI-/- skin exhibited enhanced expression of antimicrobial peptides. However, reducing the bacterial load by antibiotic treatment or breeding mice under specific pathogen-free conditions did not reduce AMP expression or alleviate the abnormalities in T-cell populations. We conclude that the atopic characteristics of EPI-/- skin are a consequence of the defective barrier rather than a response to the increased bacterial load. It is therefore unlikely that the increase in skin microbiota contributes directly to the observed cancer resistance. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Generation of transgenic cattle expressing human β-defensin 3 as an approach to reducing susceptibility to Mycobacterium bovis infection.

    PubMed

    Su, Feng; Wang, Yongsheng; Liu, Guanghui; Ru, Kun; Liu, Xin; Yu, Yuan; Liu, Jun; Wu, Yongyan; Quan, Fusheng; Guo, Zekun; Zhang, Yong

    2016-03-01

    Bovine tuberculosis results from infection with Mycobacterium bovis, a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis family. Worldwide, M. bovis infections result in economic losses in the livestock industry; cattle production is especially hard-hit by this disease. Generating M. bovis-resistant cattle may potentially mitigate the impact of this disease by reducing M. bovis infections. In this study, we used transgenic somatic cell nuclear transfer to generate cattle expressing the gene encoding human β-defensin 3 (HBD3), which confers resistance to mycobacteria in vitro. We first generated alveolar epithelial cells expressing HBD3 under the control of the bovine MUC1 promoter, and confirmed that these cells secreted HBD3 and possessed anti-mycobacterial capacity. We then generated and identified transgenic cattle by somatic cell nuclear transfer. The cleavage and blastocyst formation rates of genetically modified embryos provided evidence that monoclonal transgenic bovine fetal fibroblast cells have an integral reprogramming ability that is similar to that of normal cells. Five genetically modified cows were generated, and their anti-mycobacterial capacities were evaluated. Alveolar epithelial cells and macrophages from these cattle expressed higher levels of HBD3 protein compared with non-transgenic cells and possessed effective anti-mycobacterial capacity. These results suggest that the overall risk of M. bovis infection in transgenic cattle is efficiently reduced, and support the development of genetically modified animals as an effective tool to reduce M. bovis infection. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  9. Abrogation of epithelial BMP2 and BMP4 causes Amelogenesis Imperfecta by reducing MMP20 and KLK4 expression.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaohua; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Hua; Jani, Priyam H; Lu, Yongbo; Wang, Xiaofang; Zhang, Bin; Qin, Chunlin

    2016-05-05

    Amelogenesis Imperfecta (AI) can be caused by the deficiencies of enamel matrix proteins, molecules responsible for the transportation and secretion of enamel matrix components, and proteases processing enamel matrix proteins. In the present study, we discovered the double deletion of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4) in the dental epithelium by K14-cre resulted in hypoplastic enamel and reduced density in X-ray radiography as well as shortened enamel rods under scanning electron microscopy. Such enamel phenotype was consistent with the diagnosis of hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta. Histological and molecular analyses revealed that the removal of matrix proteins in the mutant enamel was drastically delayed, which was coincided with the greatly reduced expression of matrix metalloproteinase 20 (MMP20) and kallikrein 4 (KLK4). Although the expression of multiple enamel matrix proteins was down-regulated in the mutant ameloblasts, the cleavage of ameloblastin was drastically impaired. Therefore, we attributed the AI primarily to the reduction of MMP20 and KLK4. Further investigation found that BMP/Smad4 signaling pathway was down-regulated in the K14-cre;Bmp2(f/f);Bmp4(f/f)ameloblasts, suggesting that the reduced MMP20 and KLK4 expression may be due to the attenuated epithelial BMP/Smad4 signaling.

  10. Abrogation of epithelial BMP2 and BMP4 causes Amelogenesis Imperfecta by reducing MMP20 and KLK4 expression

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiaohua; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Hua; Jani, Priyam H.; Lu, Yongbo; Wang, Xiaofang; Zhang, Bin; Qin, Chunlin

    2016-01-01

    Amelogenesis Imperfecta (AI) can be caused by the deficiencies of enamel matrix proteins, molecules responsible for the transportation and secretion of enamel matrix components, and proteases processing enamel matrix proteins. In the present study, we discovered the double deletion of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4) in the dental epithelium by K14-cre resulted in hypoplastic enamel and reduced density in X-ray radiography as well as shortened enamel rods under scanning electron microscopy. Such enamel phenotype was consistent with the diagnosis of hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta. Histological and molecular analyses revealed that the removal of matrix proteins in the mutant enamel was drastically delayed, which was coincided with the greatly reduced expression of matrix metalloproteinase 20 (MMP20) and kallikrein 4 (KLK4). Although the expression of multiple enamel matrix proteins was down-regulated in the mutant ameloblasts, the cleavage of ameloblastin was drastically impaired. Therefore, we attributed the AI primarily to the reduction of MMP20 and KLK4. Further investigation found that BMP/Smad4 signaling pathway was down-regulated in the K14-cre;Bmp2f/f;Bmp4f/fameloblasts, suggesting that the reduced MMP20 and KLK4 expression may be due to the attenuated epithelial BMP/Smad4 signaling. PMID:27146352

  11. A recombinant isoform of the Ole e 7 olive pollen allergen assembled by de novo mass spectrometry retains the allergenic ability of the natural allergen.

    PubMed

    Oeo-Santos, Carmen; Mas, Salvador; Benedé, Sara; López-Lucendo, María; Quiralte, Joaquín; Blanca, Miguel; Mayorga, Cristobalina; Villalba, Mayte; Barderas, Rodrigo

    2018-06-05

    The allergenic non-specific lipid transfer protein Ole e 7 from olive pollen is a major allergen associated with severe symptoms in areas with high olive pollen levels. Despite its clinical importance, its cloning and recombinant production has been unable by classical approaches. This study aimed at determining by mass-spectrometry based proteomics its complete amino acid sequence for its subsequent expression and characterization. To this end, the natural protein was in-2D-gel tryptic digested, and CID and HCD fragmentation spectra obtained by nLC-MS/MS analyzed using PEAKS software. Thirteen out of the 457 de novo sequenced peptides obtained allowed assembling its full-length amino acid sequence. Then, Ole e 7-encoding cDNA was synthesized and cloned in pPICZαA vector for its expression in Pichia pastoris yeast. The analyses by Circular Dichroism, and WB, ELISA and cell-based tests using sera and blood from olive pollen-sensitized patients showed that rOle e 7 mostly retained the structural, allergenic and antigenic properties of the natural allergen. In summary, rOle e 7 allergen assembled by de novo peptide sequencing by MS behaved immunologically similar to the natural allergen scarcely isolated from pollen. Olive pollen is an important cause of allergy. The non-specific lipid binding protein Ole e 7 is a major allergen with a high incidence and a phenotype associated to severe clinical symptoms. Despite its relevance, its cloning and recombinant expression has been unable by classical techniques. Here, we have inferred the primary amino acid sequence of Ole e 7 by mass-spectrometry. We separated Ole e 7 isolated from pollen by 2DE. After in-gel digestion with trypsin and a direct analysis by nLC-MS/MS in an LTQ-Orbitrap Velos, we got the complete de novo sequenced peptides repertoire that allowed the assembling of the primary sequence of Ole e 7. After its protein expression, purification to homogeneity, and structural and immunological characterization

  12. Unripe Rubus coreanus Miquel suppresses migration and invasion of human prostate cancer cells by reducing matrix metalloproteinase expression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yesl; Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Rubus coreanus Miquel (RCM) is used to promote prostate health and has been shown to have anti-oxidant and anti-carcinogenic activities. However, the effects and mechanisms of RCM on prostate cancer metastasis remain unclear. PC-3 and DU 145 cells were treated with ethanol or water extract of unripe or ripe RCM and examined for cell invasion, migration, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity and expression. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt activities were examined. Unripe RCM extracts exerted significant inhibitory effects on cell migration, invasion, and MMPs activities. A significant reduction in MMPs activities by unripe RCM ethanol extract treatment (UE) was associated with reduction of MMPs expression and induction of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) expression. Furthermore, PI3K/Akt activity was diminished by UE treatment. In this study, we demonstrated that UE decreased metastatic potential of prostate cancer cells by reducing MMPs expression through the suppression of PI3K/Akt phosphorylation, thereby decreasing MMP activity and enhancing TIMPs expression.

  13. Reduced expression of ASS is closely related to clinicopathological features and post-resectional survival of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua; Lin, Ming; Xiong, Fu Xia; Yang, Yu; Nie, Xiu; Zhou, Rou Li

    2010-01-01

    Argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) has previously been proven to be reductively expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and various types of HCC cell lines. Arginine, the product of ASS, has been used as a target in HCC by recombinant human arginase or arginine deiminase, which is now in the phase II clinical trial stage. This study aimed to present the levels of ASS expression in HCCs and its correlation with clinicopathological features and prognosis of HCC patients. Immunohistochemical detection of ASS was performed on samples from 71 patients with HCC. Positive staining was found in 21 HCCs, with a score of 2, as well as in normal liver tissues. Reduced ASS staining was found in 70.4% (50/71) of HCC tissues, including 21 with a score of 0 and 29 with a score of 1. The staining score in cancer tissues was significantly associated with gender, background liver, histopathological differentiation, recurrence, TNM staging and portal vein invasion (P<0.05), but not with age, viral status, tumor size and serum α-fetoprotein level. Patients with a high ASS expression had significantly poorer overall and disease-free survival (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). These data showed that ASS was reductively or negatively expressed in a large portion of HCC, and that ASS levels in HCCs correlated inversely with prognosis. In conclusion, a high expression of ASS may be a novel marker of poor prognosis of patients presenting with HCC.

  14. Does Expressive Writing Reduce Stress and Improve Health for Family Caregivers of Older Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Corey S.; Wiprzycka, Ursula J.; Hasher, Lynn; Goldstein, David

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We examined whether written emotional disclosure reduces stress and improves health outcomes for family caregivers of physically frail and cognitively impaired older adults, as it has been shown to do for certain student and clinical populations. Design and Methods: Primary caregivers of older adults attending a day program were randomly…

  15. Magnesium Sulfate and Betamethasone Reduce NUR77 Expression in a Preterm Labor Mouse Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-29

    Women in preterm labor are commonly treated with magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) and betamethasone (BMTZ) to reduce complications of prematurity including...neurologic injury. MgSO4, however, prevents cerebral palsy in only 1 in 40 women who receive it. Understanding the cellular responses to MgSO4/BMTZ

  16. Ribozyme-mediated cleavage of c-fos mRNA reduces gene expression of DNA synthesis enzymes and metallothionein.

    PubMed Central

    Scanlon, K J; Jiao, L; Funato, T; Wang, W; Tone, T; Rossi, J J; Kashani-Sabet, M

    1991-01-01

    The c-fos gene product Fos has been implicated in many cellular processes, including signal transduction, DNA synthesis, and resistance to antineoplastic agents. A fos ribozyme (catalytic RNA) was designed to evaluate the effects of suppressing Fos protein synthesis on expression of enzymes involved in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and drug resistance. DNA encoding the fos ribozyme (fosRb) was cloned into the pMAMneo expression plasmid, and the resultant vector was transfected into A2780DDP cells resistant to the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin. The parental drug-sensitive A2780S cells were transfected with the pMMV vector containing the c-fos gene. Morphological alterations were accompanied by significant changes in pharmacological sensitivity in both c-fos- and fosRb-transfected cells. pMAMneo fosRb transfectants revealed decreased c-fos gene expression, concomitant with reduced thymidylate (dTMP) synthase, DNA polymerase beta, topoisomerase I, and metallothionein IIA mRNAs. In contrast, c-myc expression was elevated after fos ribozyme action. Insertion of a mutant ribozyme, mainly capable of antisense activity, into A2780DDP cells resulted in smaller reductions in c-fos gene expression and in cisplatin resistance than the active ribozyme. These studies establish a role for c-fos in drug resistance and in mediating DNA synthesis and repair processes by modulating expression of genes such as dTMP synthase, DNA polymerase beta, and topoisomerase I. These studies also suggest the utility of ribozymes in the analysis of cellular gene expression. Images PMID:1660142

  17. Involvement of the PRKCB1 gene in autistic disorder: significant genetic association and reduced neocortical gene expression.

    PubMed

    Lintas, C; Sacco, R; Garbett, K; Mirnics, K; Militerni, R; Bravaccio, C; Curatolo, P; Manzi, B; Schneider, C; Melmed, R; Elia, M; Pascucci, T; Puglisi-Allegra, S; Reichelt, K-L; Persico, A M

    2009-07-01

    Protein kinase C enzymes play an important role in signal transduction, regulation of gene expression and control of cell division and differentiation. The fsI and betaII isoenzymes result from the alternative splicing of the PKCbeta gene (PRKCB1), previously found to be associated with autism. We performed a family-based association study in 229 simplex and 5 multiplex families, and a postmortem study of PRKCB1 gene expression in temporocortical gray matter (BA41/42) of 11 autistic patients and controls. PRKCB1 gene haplotypes are significantly associated with autism (P<0.05) and have the autistic endophenotype of enhanced oligopeptiduria (P<0.05). Temporocortical PRKCB1 gene expression was reduced on average by 35 and 31% for the PRKCB1-1 and PRKCB1-2 isoforms (P<0.01 and <0.05, respectively) according to qPCR. Protein amounts measured for the PKCbetaII isoform were similarly decreased by 35% (P=0.05). Decreased gene expression characterized patients carrying the 'normal' PRKCB1 alleles, whereas patients homozygous for the autism-associated alleles displayed mRNA levels comparable to those of controls. Whole genome expression analysis unveiled a partial disruption in the coordinated expression of PKCbeta-driven genes, including several cytokines. These results confirm the association between autism and PRKCB1 gene variants, point toward PKCbeta roles in altered epithelial permeability, demonstrate a significant downregulation of brain PRKCB1 gene expression in autism and suggest that it could represent a compensatory adjustment aimed at limiting an ongoing dysreactive immune process. Altogether, these data underscore potential PKCbeta roles in autism pathogenesis and spur interest in the identification and functional characterization of PRKCB1 gene variants conferring autism vulnerability.

  18. Dienogest reduces proliferation, aromatase expression and angiogenesis, and increases apoptosis in human endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Mariko; Koga, Kaori; Takamura, Masashi; Izumi, Gentaro; Nagai, Miwako; Harada, Miyuki; Hirata, Tetsuya; Hirota, Yasushi; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Osuga, Yutaka

    2014-09-01

    Dienogest is a novel progestin that is highly selective for progesterone receptors and inhibits endometriosis. However, it remains unknown how the administration of dienogest to patients with endometriosis impacts on their lesion tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo effect of dienogest on endometriosis tissue. We collected endometrioma tissues from patients treated with dienogest (N = 7) or not treated (N = 11, controls). Cell proliferation, aromatase expression and blood vessel density were evaluated by staining for Ki67, aromatase and the von Willebrand factor, respectively. Apoptosis was detected using the TUNEL assay. The proportion of Ki67 and aromatase positive epithelial cells was significantly lower in the dienogest group than in controls (p < 0.05, respectively). The number of TUNEL positive cells was significantly higher in the dienogest group (p < 0.05). The density of blood vessels in endometrioma was marginally lower in the dienogest group compared with controls (p = 0.20). Our study demonstrates that endometrioma taken from patients treated with dienogest show remarkable histological features such as reduction of proliferation, aromatase expression and angiogenesis, and increase of apoptosis. This study clarified the impact of dienogest on local histological events that explain its therapeutic effect on endometriosis.

  19. Overexpression of Glucocorticoid Receptor β Enhances Myogenesis and Reduces Catabolic Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Hinds, Terry D.; Peck, Bailey; Shek, Evan; Stroup, Steven; Hinson, Jennifer; Arthur, Susan; Marino, Joseph S.

    2016-01-01

    Unlike the glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα), GR β (GRβ) has a truncated ligand-binding domain that prevents glucocorticoid binding, implicating GRα as the mediator of glucocorticoid-induced skeletal muscle loss. Because GRβ causes glucocorticoid resistance, targeting GRβ may be beneficial in impairing muscle loss as a result of GRα activity. The purpose of this study was to determine how the overexpression of GRβ affects myotube formation and dexamethasone (Dex) responsiveness. We measured GR isoform expression in C2C12 muscle cells in response to Dex and insulin, and through four days of myotube formation. Next, lentiviral-mediated overexpression of GRβ in C2C12 was performed, and these cells were characterized for cell fusion and myotube formation, as well as sensitivity to Dex via the expression of ubiquitin ligases. GRβ overexpression increased mRNA levels of muscle regulatory factors and enhanced proliferation in myoblasts. GRβ overexpressing myotubes had an increased fusion index. Myotubes overexpressing GRβ had lower forkhead box O3 (Foxo3a) mRNA levels and a blunted muscle atrophy F-box/Atrogen-1 (MAFbx) and muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1) response to Dex. We showed that GRβ may serve as a pharmacological target for skeletal muscle growth and protection from glucocorticoid-induced catabolic signaling. Increasing GRβ levels in skeletal muscle may cause a state of glucocorticoid resistance, stabilizing muscle mass during exposure to high doses of glucocorticoids. PMID:26875982

  20. Overexpression of Glucocorticoid Receptor β Enhances Myogenesis and Reduces Catabolic Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Hinds, Terry D; Peck, Bailey; Shek, Evan; Stroup, Steven; Hinson, Jennifer; Arthur, Susan; Marino, Joseph S

    2016-02-11

    Unlike the glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα), GR β (GRβ) has a truncated ligand-binding domain that prevents glucocorticoid binding, implicating GRα as the mediator of glucocorticoid-induced skeletal muscle loss. Because GRβ causes glucocorticoid resistance, targeting GRβ may be beneficial in impairing muscle loss as a result of GRα activity. The purpose of this study was to determine how the overexpression of GRβ affects myotube formation and dexamethasone (Dex) responsiveness. We measured GR isoform expression in C₂C12 muscle cells in response to Dex and insulin, and through four days of myotube formation. Next, lentiviral-mediated overexpression of GRβ in C₂C12 was performed, and these cells were characterized for cell fusion and myotube formation, as well as sensitivity to Dex via the expression of ubiquitin ligases. GRβ overexpression increased mRNA levels of muscle regulatory factors and enhanced proliferation in myoblasts. GRβ overexpressing myotubes had an increased fusion index. Myotubes overexpressing GRβ had lower forkhead box O3 (Foxo3a) mRNA levels and a blunted muscle atrophy F-box/Atrogen-1 (MAFbx) and muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1) response to Dex. We showed that GRβ may serve as a pharmacological target for skeletal muscle growth and protection from glucocorticoid-induced catabolic signaling. Increasing GRβ levels in skeletal muscle may cause a state of glucocorticoid resistance, stabilizing muscle mass during exposure to high doses of glucocorticoids.

  1. Phenotypical expression of reduced mobility during limb ontogeny in frogs: the knee-joint case

    PubMed Central

    Abdala, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Movement is one of the most important epigenetic factors for normal development of the musculoskeletal system, particularly during genesis and joint development. Studies regarding alterations to embryonic mobility, performed on anurans, chickens and mammals, report important phenotypical similarities as a result of the reduction or absence of this stimulus. The precise stage of development at which the stimulus modification generates phenotypic modifications however, is yet to be determined. In this work we explore whether the developmental effects of abnormal mobility can appear at any time during development or whether they begin to express themselves in particular phases of tadpole ontogeny. We conducted five experiments that showed that morphological abnormalities are not visible until Stages 40–42. Morphology in earlier stages remains normal, probably due to the fact that the bones/muscles/tendons have not yet developed and therefore are not affected by immobilization. These results suggest the existence of a specific period of phenotypical expression in which normal limb movement is necessary for the correct development of the joint tissue framework. PMID:26925340

  2. Gene expression suggests spontaneously hypertensive rats may have altered metabolism and reduced hypoxic tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ritz, Marie-Françoise; Grond-Ginsbach, Caspar; Engelter, Stefan; Lyrer, Philippe

    2012-02-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is an important cause of stroke, cognitive decline and vascular dementia (VaD). It is associated with diffuse white matter abnormalities and small deep cerebral ischemic infarcts. The molecular mechanisms involved in the development and progression of SVD are unclear. As hypertension is a major risk factor for developing SVD, Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) are considered an appropriate experimental model for SVD. Prior work suggested an imbalance between the number of blood microvessels and astrocytes at the level of the neurovascular unit in 2-month-old SHR, leading to neuronal hypoxia in the brain of 9-month-old animals. To identify genes and pathways involved in the development of SVD, we compared the gene expression profile in the cortex of 2 and 9-month-old of SHR with age-matched normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats using microarray-based technology. The results revealed significant differences in expression of genes involved in energy and lipid metabolisms, mitochondrial functions, oxidative stress and ischemic responses between both groups. These results strongly suggest that SHR suffer from chronic hypoxia, and therefore are unable to tolerate ischemia-like conditions, and are more vulnerable to high-energy needs than WKY. This molecular analysis gives new insights about pathways accounting for the development of SVD.

  3. Everolimus immunosuppression reduces the serum expression of fibrosis markers in liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Yunquera, Ainhoa; Ripoll, Cristina; Bañares, Rafael; Puerto, Marta; Rincón, Diego; Yepes, Ismael; Catalina, Vega; Salcedo, Magdalena

    2014-06-24

    To evaluate the expression of serum fibrosis markers in liver transplantation (LT) recipients on everolimus monotherapy compared to patients on an anti-calcineurin regimen. This cross-sectional case-control study included LT patients on everolimus monotherapy (cases) (E) (n = 30) and matched controls on an anti-calcineurin regimen (calcineurin inhibitors, CNI), paired by etiology of liver disease and time since LT (n = 30). Clinical characteristics, blood tests and elastography were collected. Serum levels of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), angiopoietin-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), platelet derived growth factor, amino-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP), hyaluronic acid (HA), VCM-1 (ng/mL), interleukin (IL)-10, interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), vascular endothelial growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) (pg/mL) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of these markers between E and CNI was compared. Stratified analysis was done according to factors that may influence liver fibrosis. Variables are described with medians (interquartillic range) or percentages. A total of 60 patients [age: 59 (49-64), hepatitis C virus (HCV): n = 21 (35%), time from LT: 73 mo (16-105)] were included. Patients had been on everolimus for a median of 15 mo. No differences in inflammatory activity, APRI test or liver elastography were found between the groups. No significant differences were observed between the groups in serum levels of PIIINP, metalloproteinase type = 1, angiopoietin, HGF, IP-10, TNF-α, IL-10 and vascular cell adhesion molecule. Patients on E had a lower expression of TGF-β [E: 12.7 (3.7-133.6), CNI: 152.5 (14.4-333.2), P = 0.009] and HA [E: 702.89 (329.4-838.2), CNI: 1513.6 (691.9-1951.4), P = 0.001] than those on CNI. This difference was maintained in the stratified analysis when recipient age is more than 50 years (TFG-β1: P = 0.06; HA: P = 0.005), in patients without active neoplasia (TFG-β1

  4. Everolimus immunosuppression reduces the serum expression of fibrosis markers in liver transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Yunquera, Ainhoa; Ripoll, Cristina; Bañares, Rafael; Puerto, Marta; Rincón, Diego; Yepes, Ismael; Catalina, Vega; Salcedo, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the expression of serum fibrosis markers in liver transplantation (LT) recipients on everolimus monotherapy compared to patients on an anti-calcineurin regimen. METHODS: This cross-sectional case-control study included LT patients on everolimus monotherapy (cases) (E) (n = 30) and matched controls on an anti-calcineurin regimen (calcineurin inhibitors, CNI), paired by etiology of liver disease and time since LT (n = 30). Clinical characteristics, blood tests and elastography were collected. Serum levels of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), angiopoietin-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), platelet derived growth factor, amino-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP), hyaluronic acid (HA), VCM-1 (ng/mL), interleukin (IL)-10, interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), vascular endothelial growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) (pg/mL) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of these markers between E and CNI was compared. Stratified analysis was done according to factors that may influence liver fibrosis. Variables are described with medians (interquartillic range) or percentages. RESULTS: A total of 60 patients [age: 59 (49-64), hepatitis C virus (HCV): n = 21 (35%), time from LT: 73 mo (16-105)] were included. Patients had been on everolimus for a median of 15 mo. No differences in inflammatory activity, APRI test or liver elastography were found between the groups. No significant differences were observed between the groups in serum levels of PIIINP, metalloproteinase type = 1, angiopoietin, HGF, IP-10, TNF-α, IL-10 and vascular cell adhesion molecule. Patients on E had a lower expression of TGF-β [E: 12.7 (3.7-133.6), CNI: 152.5 (14.4-333.2), P = 0.009] and HA [E: 702.89 (329.4-838.2), CNI: 1513.6 (691.9-1951.4), P = 0.001] than those on CNI. This difference was maintained in the stratified analysis when recipient age is more than 50 years (TFG-β1: P = 0.06; HA: P = 0.005), in patients without

  5. Autism: reduced connectivity between cortical areas involved in face expression, theory of mind, and the sense of self.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Rolls, Edmund T; Gu, Huaguang; Zhang, Jie; Feng, Jianfeng

    2015-05-01

    Whole-brain voxel-based unbiased resting state functional connectivity was analysed in 418 subjects with autism and 509 matched typically developing individuals. We identified a key system in the middle temporal gyrus/superior temporal sulcus region that has reduced cortical functional connectivity (and increased with the medial thalamus), which is implicated in face expression processing involved in social behaviour. This system has reduced functional connectivity with the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which is implicated in emotion and social communication. The middle temporal gyrus system is also implicated in theory of mind processing. We also identified in autism a second key system in the precuneus/superior parietal lobule region with reduced functional connectivity, which is implicated in spatial functions including of oneself, and of the spatial environment. It is proposed that these two types of functionality, face expression-related, and of one's self and the environment, are important components of the computations involved in theory of mind, whether of oneself or of others, and that reduced connectivity within and between these regions may make a major contribution to the symptoms of autism. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  6. Intensive training and reduced volume increases muscle FXYD1 expression and phosphorylation at rest and during exercise in athletes

    PubMed Central

    Thomassen, Martin; Gunnarsson, Thomas P.; Christensen, Peter M.; Pavlovic, Davor; Shattock, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of intensive training in combination with marked reduction in training volume on phospholemman (FXYD1) expression and phosphorylation at rest and during exercise. Eight well-trained cyclists replaced their regular training with speed-endurance training (10–12 × ∼30-s sprints) two or three times per week and aerobic high-intensity training (4–5 × 3–4 min at 90–95% of peak aerobic power output) 1–2 times per week for 7 wk and reduced the training volume by 70%. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and during a repeated high-intensity exercise protocol, and protein expression and phosphorylation were determined by Western blot analysis. Expression of FXYD1 (30%), actin (40%), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) (12%), phospholamban (PLN) (16%), and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) γ/δ (25%) was higher (P < 0.05) than before the training intervention. In addition, after the intervention, nonspecific FXYD1 phosphorylation was higher (P < 0.05) at rest and during exercise, mainly achieved by an increased FXYD1 Ser-68 phosphorylation, compared with before the intervention. CaMKII, Thr-287, and eukaryotic elongation factor 2 Thr-56 phosphorylation at rest and during exercise, overall PKCα/β, Thr-638/641, and mTOR Ser-2448 phosphorylation during repeated intense exercise as well as resting PLN Thr-17 phosphorylation were also higher (P < 0.05) compared with before the intervention period. Thus, a period of high-intensity training with reduced training volume increases expression and phosphorylation levels of FXYD1, which may affect Na+/K+ pump activity and muscle K+ homeostasis during intense exercise. Furthermore, higher expression of CaMKII and PLN, as well as increased phosphorylation of CaMKII Thr-287 may have improved intracellular Ca2+ handling. PMID:26791827

  7. Selected lactic acid-producing bacterial isolates with the capacity to reduce Salmonella translocation and virulence gene expression in chickens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaojian; Brisbin, Jennifer; Yu, Hai; Wang, Qi; Yin, Fugui; Zhang, Yonggang; Sabour, Parviz; Sharif, Shayan; Gong, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics have been used to control Salmonella colonization/infection in chickens. Yet the mechanisms of probiotic effects are not fully understood. This study has characterized our previously-selected lactic acid-producing bacterial (LAB) isolates for controlling Salmonella infection in chickens, particularly the mechanism underlying the control. In vitro studies were conducted to characterize 14 LAB isolates for their tolerance to low pH (2.0) and high bile salt (0.3-1.5%) and susceptibility to antibiotics. Three chicken infection trials were subsequently carried out to evaluate four of the isolates for reducing the burden of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in the broiler cecum. Chicks were gavaged with LAB cultures (10(6-7) CFU/chick) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 1 day of age followed by Salmonella challenge (10(4) CFU/chick) next day. Samples of cecal digesta, spleen, and liver were examined for Salmonella counts on days 1, 3, or 4 post-challenge. Salmonella in the cecum from Trial 3 was also assessed for the expression of ten virulence genes located in its pathogenicity island-1 (SPI-1). These genes play a role in Salmonella intestinal invasion. Tested LAB isolates (individuals or mixed cultures) were unable to lower Salmonella burden in the chicken cecum, but able to attenuate Salmonella infection in the spleen and liver. The LAB treatments also reduced almost all SPI-1 virulence gene expression (9 out of 10) in the chicken cecum, particularly at the low dose. In vitro treatment with the extracellular culture fluid from a LAB culture also down-regulated most SPI-1 virulence gene expression. The possible correlation between attenuation of Salmonella infection in the chicken spleen and liver and reduction of Salmonella SPI-1 virulence gene expression in the chicken cecum by LAB isolates is a new observation. Suppression of Salmonella virulence gene expression in vivo can be one of the strategies for controlling Salmonella infection in chickens.

  8. Intensive training and reduced volume increases muscle FXYD1 expression and phosphorylation at rest and during exercise in athletes.

    PubMed

    Thomassen, Martin; Gunnarsson, Thomas P; Christensen, Peter M; Pavlovic, Davor; Shattock, Michael J; Bangsbo, Jens

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined the effect of intensive training in combination with marked reduction in training volume on phospholemman (FXYD1) expression and phosphorylation at rest and during exercise. Eight well-trained cyclists replaced their regular training with speed-endurance training (10-12 × ∼30-s sprints) two or three times per week and aerobic high-intensity training (4-5 × 3-4 min at 90-95% of peak aerobic power output) 1-2 times per week for 7 wk and reduced the training volume by 70%. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and during a repeated high-intensity exercise protocol, and protein expression and phosphorylation were determined by Western blot analysis. Expression of FXYD1 (30%), actin (40%), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) (12%), phospholamban (PLN) (16%), and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) γ/δ (25%) was higher (P < 0.05) than before the training intervention. In addition, after the intervention, nonspecific FXYD1 phosphorylation was higher (P < 0.05) at rest and during exercise, mainly achieved by an increased FXYD1 Ser-68 phosphorylation, compared with before the intervention. CaMKII, Thr-287, and eukaryotic elongation factor 2 Thr-56 phosphorylation at rest and during exercise, overall PKCα/β, Thr-638/641, and mTOR Ser-2448 phosphorylation during repeated intense exercise as well as resting PLN Thr-17 phosphorylation were also higher (P < 0.05) compared with before the intervention period. Thus, a period of high-intensity training with reduced training volume increases expression and phosphorylation levels of FXYD1, which may affect Na(+)/K(+) pump activity and muscle K(+) homeostasis during intense exercise. Furthermore, higher expression of CaMKII and PLN, as well as increased phosphorylation of CaMKII Thr-287 may have improved intracellular Ca(2+) handling. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Glutamine reduces myocardial cell apoptosis in a rat model of sepsis by promoting expression of heat shock protein 90.

    PubMed

    Li, Wanxia; Tao, Shaoyu; Wu, Qinghua; Wu, Tao; Tao, Ran; Fan, Jun

    2017-12-01

    Myocardial cell injury and cardiac myocyte apoptosis are associated with sepsis. Glutamine (Gln) has been reported to repair myocardial cell injury. The aim of this study was to explore the role of Gln on cardiac myocytes in a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis in Wistar rats. Following induction of sepsis in a CLP rat model, viral encoding heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) gene and Hsp90dsDNA were designed to express and knockdown Hsp90, respectively. Rat cardiac tissues were examined histologically, and apoptosis was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling staining. The expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein, Hsp90, p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis, and p53 was measured by western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Rat cardiac myocyte damage induced by CLP was reduced by Gln treatment and Hsp90 overexpression, and these changes were reversed by Hsp90 knockdown. Bcl-2 expression, Bcl-2-associated X protein, p53, p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis, caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3 activities were significantly upregulated in the CLP model, which were reduced by Gln treatment and Hsp90 overexpression. Gln reduced apoptosis of cardiac myocytes in a rat model of sepsis, by promoting Hsp90 expression. Further studies are needed to determine the possible therapeutic action of Gln in sepsis in human tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Venlafaxine treatment after endothelin-1-induced cortical stroke modulates growth factor expression and reduces tissue damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Zepeda, Rodrigo; Contreras, Valentina; Pissani, Claudia; Stack, Katherine; Vargas, Macarena; Owen, Gareth I; Lazo, Oscar M; Bronfman, Francisca C

    2016-08-01

    Neuromodulators, such as antidepressants, may contribute to neuroprotection by modulating growth factor expression to exert anti-inflammatory effects and to support neuronal plasticity after stroke. Our objective was to study whether early treatment with venlafaxine, a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, modulates growth factor expression and positively contributes to reducing the volume of infarcted brain tissue resulting in increased functional recovery. We studied the expression of BDNF, FGF2 and TGF-β1 by examining their mRNA and protein levels and cellular distribution using quantitative confocal microscopy at 5 days after venlafaxine treatment in control and infarcted brains. Venlafaxine treatment did not change the expression of these growth factors in sham rats. In infarcted rats, BDNF mRNA and protein levels were reduced, while the mRNA and protein levels of FGF2 and TGF-β1 were increased. Venlafaxine treatment potentiated all of the changes that were induced by cortical stroke alone. In particular, increased levels of FGF2 and TGF-β1 were observed in astrocytes at 5 days after stroke induction, and these increases were correlated with decreased astrogliosis (measured by GFAP) and increased synaptophysin immunostaining at twenty-one days after stroke in venlafaxine-treated rats. Finally, we show that venlafaxine reduced infarct volume after stroke resulting in increased functional recovery, which was measured using ladder rung motor tests, at 21 days after stroke. Our results indicate that the early oral administration of venlafaxine positively contributes to neuroprotection during the acute and late events that follow stroke. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Interleukin 1 alpha-induced expression of manganous superoxide dismutase reduces myocardial reperfusion injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Nogae, C; Makino, N; Hata, T; Nogae, I; Takahashi, S; Suzuki, K; Taniguchi, N; Yanaga, T

    1995-10-01

    We investigated the effects of pretreatment with interleukin (IL)-1 alpha on the expression of manganous (Mn) superoxide dismutase (SOD) mRNA and reperfusion-induced arrhythmias and the size of myocardial infarct in rats. Male Wistar rats received 10 mg intraperitoneal injections of human recombinant IL-1 alpha. Their hearts were thereafter isolated at 6, 12, 24, 36 h. A Northern analysis showed that Mn-SOD mRNA was mainly expressed in the heart and slightly in kidney, but not in any other organs. The expression of Mn-SOD mRNA peaked at 6 h after the injection of IL-1 alpha. The Mn-SOD protein content was most increased 12 h after injection. In the isolated heart model, the rats were pretreated with IL-1 alpha 24 h earlier and their hearts were perfused by the Langendorff method. After 20 min of ischemia which was induced by a ligation of a coronary artery, reperfusion-induced arrhythmias were observed. There were no significant differences in the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias between the IL-1 alpha pretreated and the untreated hearts. IL-1 alpha pretreatment significantly reduced the mean duration of the ventricular arrhythmias and also delayed the onset of arrhythmias. The effect of IL-1 alpha pretreatment was also investigated in a 30-min model of ischemia followed by a 3-min reperfusion in anesthetized rats. The infarct size expressed as a percentage of the area at risk was significantly reduced in the IL-1 alpha pretreated hearts compared with the untreated hearts. The left ventricular systolic pressure increased significantly in rat hearts pretreated with IL-1 alpha. Our results therefore showed that the pretreatment with IL-1 alpha induced the overexpression of Mn-SOD mRNA in the rat hearts and also suggested that pretreatment with IL-1 alpha 24 h before ischemia reduced the risk of ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  12. High expression of QSOX1 reduces tumorogenesis, and is associated with a better outcome for breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The gene quiescin/sulfhydryl oxidase 1, QSOX1, encodes an enzyme directed to the secretory pathway and excreted into the extracellular space. QSOX1 participates in the folding and stability of proteins and thus could regulate the biological activity of its substrates in the secretory pathway and/or outside the cell. The involvement of QSOX1 in oncogenesis has been studied primarily in terms of its differential expression in systemic studies. QSOX1 is overexpressed in prostate cancers and in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. In contrast, QSOX1 gene expression is repressed in endothelial tumors. In the present study, we investigated the role of QSOX1 in breast cancer. Methods We analyzed QSOX1 mRNA expression in a cohort of 217 invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast. Moreover, we investigated QSOX1's potential role in regulating tumor growth and metastasis using cellular models in which we overexpressed or extinguished QSOX1 and xenograft experiments. Results We showed that the QSOX1 expression level is inversely correlated to the aggressiveness of breast tumors. Our results show that QSOX1 leads to a decrease in cell proliferation, clonogenic capacities and promotes adhesion to the extracellular matrix. QSOX1 also reduces the invasive potential of cells by reducing cell migration and decreases the activity of the matrix metalloproteinase, MMP-2, involved in these mechanisms. Moreover, in vivo experiments show that QSOX1 drastically reduces the tumor development. Conclusions Together, these results suggest that QSOX1 could be posited as a new biomarker of good prognosis in breast cancer and demonstrate that QSOX1 inhibits human breast cancer tumorogenesis. PMID:23098186

  13. Candida krusei and Candida glabrata reduce the filamentation of Candida albicans by downregulating expression of HWP1 gene.

    PubMed

    de Barros, Patrícia Pimentel; Freire, Fernanda; Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2017-07-01

    Pathogenicity of Candida albicans is associated with its capacity switch from yeast-like to hyphal growth. The hyphal form is capable to penetrate the epithelial surfaces and to damage the host tissues. Therefore, many investigations have focused on mechanisms that control the morphological transitions of C. albicans. Recently, certain studies have showed that non-albicans Candida species can reduce the capacity of C. albicans to form biofilms and to develop candidiasis in animal models. Then, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Candida krusei and Candida glabrata on the morphogenesis of C. albicans. Firstly, the capacity of reference and clinical strains of C. albicans in forming hyphae was tested in vitro. After that, the expression of HWP1 (hyphal wall protein 1) gene was determined by quantitative real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) assay. For both reference and clinical strains, a significant inhibition of the hyphae formation was observed when C. albicans was incubated in the presence of C. krusei or C. glabrata compared to the control group composed only by C. albicans. In addition, the culture mixed of C. albicans-C. krusei or C. albicans-C. glabrata reduced significantly the expression of HWP1 gene of C. albicans in relation to single cultures of this specie. In both filamentation and gene expression assays, C. krusei showed the higher inhibitory activity on the morphogenesis of C. albicans compared to C. glabrata. C. krusei and C. glabrata are capable to reduce the filamentation of C. albicans and consequently decrease the expression of the HWP1 gene.

  14. Reduced Arogenate Dehydratase Expression: Ramifications for Photosynthesis and Metabolism1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Höhner, Ricarda; Ito, Tetsuro; Amakura, Yoshiaki; Weitz, Karl

    2018-01-01

    Arogenate dehydratase (ADT) catalyzes the final step of phenylalanine (Phe) biosynthesis. Previous work showed that ADT-deficient Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants had significantly reduced lignin contents, with stronger reductions in lines that had deficiencies in more ADT isoforms. Here, by analyzing Arabidopsis ADT mutants using our phenomics facility and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics, we describe the effects of the modulation of ADT on photosynthetic parameters and secondary metabolism. Our data indicate that a reduced carbon flux into Phe biosynthesis in ADT mutants impairs the consumption of photosynthetically produced ATP, leading to an increased ATP/ADP ratio, the overaccumulation of transitory starch, and lower electron transport rates. The effect on electron transport rates is caused by an increase in proton motive force across the thylakoid membrane that down-regulates photosystem II activity by the high-energy quenching mechanism. Furthermore, quantitation of secondary metabolites in ADT mutants revealed reduced flavonoid, phenylpropanoid, lignan, and glucosinolate contents, including glucosinolates that are not derived from aromatic amino acids, and significantly increased contents of putative galactolipids and apocarotenoids. Additionally, we used real-time atmospheric monitoring mass spectrometry to compare respiration and carbon fixation rates between the wild type and adt3/4/5/6, our most extreme ADT knockout mutant, which revealed no significant difference in both night- and day-adapted plants. Overall, these data reveal the profound effects of altered ADT activity and Phe metabolism on secondary metabolites and photosynthesis with implications for plant improvement. PMID:29523714

  15. Decreasing the expression of PICALM reduces endocytosis and the activity of β-secretase: implications for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Rhian S; Henson, Alex; Gerrish, Amy; Jones, Lesley; Williams, Julie; Kidd, Emma J

    2016-07-18

    Polymorphisms in the gene for phosphatidylinositol binding clathrin assembly protein (PICALM), an endocytic-related protein, are associated with a small, increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), strongly suggesting that changes in endocytosis are involved in the aetiology of the disease. We have investigated the involvement of PICALM in the processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) to understand how PICALM could be linked to the development of AD. We used siRNA to deplete levels of PICALM, its isoforms and clathrin heavy chain in the human brain-derived H4 neuroglioma cell line that expresses endogenous levels of APP. We then used Western blotting, ELISA and immunohistochemistry to detect intra- and extracellular protein levels of endocytic-related proteins, APP and APP metabolites including β-amyloid (Aβ). Levels of functional endocytosis were quantified using ALEXA 488-conjugated transferrin and flow cytometry as a marker of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). Following depletion of all the isoforms of PICALM by siRNA in H4 cells, levels of intracellular APP, intracellular β-C-terminal fragment (β-CTF) and secreted sAPPβ (APP fragments produced by β-secretase cleavage) were significantly reduced but Aβ40 was not affected. Functional endocytosis was significantly reduced after both PICALM and clathrin depletion, highlighting the importance of PICALM in this process. However, depletion of clathrin did not affect APP but did reduce β-CTF levels. PICALM depletion altered the intracellular distribution of clathrin while clathrin reduction affected the subcellular pattern of PICALM labelling. Both PICALM and clathrin depletion reduced the expression of BACE1 mRNA and PICALM siRNA reduced protein levels. Individual depletion of PICALM isoforms 1 and 2 did not affect APP levels while clathrin depletion had a differential effect on the isoforms, increasing isoform 1 while decreasing isoform 2 expression. The depletion of PICALM in brain

  16. Endothelial Depletion of Acvrl1 in Mice Leads to Arteriovenous Malformations Associated with Reduced Endoglin Expression

    PubMed Central

    Allinson, Kathleen R.; Redgrave, Rachael E.; Zhai, Zhenhua; Oh, S. Paul; Fruttiger, Marcus; Arthur, Helen M.

    2014-01-01

    Rare inherited cardiovascular diseases are frequently caused by mutations in genes that are essential for the formation and/or function of the cardiovasculature. Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia is a familial disease of this type. The majority of patients carry mutations in either Endoglin (ENG) or ACVRL1 (also known as ALK1) genes, and the disease is characterized by arteriovenous malformations and persistent haemorrhage. ENG and ACVRL1 encode receptors for the TGFβ superfamily of ligands, that are essential for angiogenesis in early development but their roles are not fully understood. Our goal was to examine the role of Acvrl1 in vascular endothelial cells during vascular development and to determine whether loss of endothelial Acvrl1 leads to arteriovenous malformations. Acvrl1 was depleted in endothelial cells either in early postnatal life or in adult mice. Using the neonatal retinal plexus to examine angiogenesis, we observed that loss of endothelial Acvrl1 led to venous enlargement, vascular hyperbranching and arteriovenous malformations. These phenotypes were associated with loss of arterial Jag1 expression, decreased pSmad1/5/8 activity and increased endothelial cell proliferation. We found that Endoglin was markedly down-regulated in Acvrl1-depleted ECs showing endoglin expression to be downstream of Acvrl1 signalling in vivo. Endothelial-specific depletion of Acvrl1 in pups also led to pulmonary haemorrhage, but in adult mice resulted in caecal haemorrhage and fatal anaemia. We conclude that during development, endothelial Acvrl1 plays an essential role to regulate endothelial cell proliferation and arterial identity during angiogenesis, whilst in adult life endothelial Acvrl1 is required to maintain vascular integrity. PMID:24896812

  17. Trans-Cinnamaldehyde, Carvacrol, and Eugenol Reduce Campylobacter jejuni Colonization Factors and Expression of Virulence Genes in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Abhinav; Arsi, Komala; Wagle, Basanta R.; Upadhyaya, Indu; Shrestha, Sandip; Donoghue, Ann M.; Donoghue, Dan J.

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major foodborne pathogen that causes severe gastroenteritis in humans characterized by fever, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps. In the human gut, Campylobacter adheres and invades the intestinal epithelium followed by cytolethal distending toxin mediated cell death, and enteritis. Reducing the attachment and invasion of Campylobacter to intestinal epithelium and expression of its virulence factors such as motility and cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) production could potentially reduce infection in humans. This study investigated the efficacy of sub-inhibitory concentrations (SICs, concentration not inhibiting bacterial growth) of three GRAS (generally recognized as safe) status phytochemicals namely trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC; 0.005, 0.01%), carvacrol (CR; 0.001, 0.002%), and eugenol (EG; 0.005, 0.01%) in reducing the attachment, invasion, and translocation of C. jejuni on human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2). Additionally, the effect of these phytochemicals on Campylobacter motility and CDT production was studied using standard bioassays and gene expression analysis. All experiments had duplicate samples and were replicated three times on three strains (wild type S-8, NCTC 11168, 81–176) of C. jejuni. Data were analyzed using ANOVA with GraphPad ver. 6. Differences between the means were considered significantly different at P < 0.05. The majority of phytochemical treatments reduced C. jejuni adhesion, invasion, and translocation of Caco-2 cells (P < 0.05). In addition, the phytochemicals reduced pathogen motility and production of CDT in S-8 and NCTC 11168 (P < 0.05). Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that phytochemicals reduced the transcription of select C. jejuni genes critical for infection in humans (P < 0.05). Results suggest that TC, CR, and EG could potentially be used to control C. jejuni infection in humans. PMID:28487683

  18. Dcx Re-expression Reduces Subcortical Band Heterotopia and Seizure Threshold in an Animal Model of Neuronal Migration Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Manent, Jean-Bernard; Wang, Yu; Chang, YoonJeung; Paramasivam, Murugan; LoTurco, Joseph J

    2009-01-01

    Disorders of neuronal migration can lead to malformations of the cerebral neocortex that greatly increase the risk of seizures. It remains untested whether malformations caused by disorders in neuronal migration can be reduced by reactivating cellular migration, and whether such repair can decrease seizure risk. Here we show, in a rat model of subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) generated by in utero RNAi of Dcx, that aberrantly positioned neurons can be stimulated to migrate by re-expressing Dcx after birth. Re-starting migration in this way both reduces neocortical malformations and restores neuronal patterning. We find further that the capacity to reduce SBH has a critical period in early postnatal development. Moreover, intervention after birth reduces convulsant-induced seizure threshold to levels similar to that of malformation-free controls. These results suggest that disorders of neuronal migration may be eventually treatable by re-engaging developmental programs both to reduce the size of cortical malformations and to reduce seizure risk. PMID:19098909

  19. Papillomavirus E7 Oncoproteins Share Functions with Polyomavirus Small T Antigens

    PubMed Central

    White, Elizabeth A.; Kramer, Rebecca E.; Hwang, Justin H.; Pores Fernando, Arun T.; Naetar, Nana; Hahn, William C.; Roberts, Thomas M.; Schaffhausen, Brian S.; Livingston, David M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many of the small DNA tumor viruses encode transforming proteins that function by targeting critical cellular pathways involved in cell proliferation and survival. In this study, we have examined whether some of the functions of the polyomavirus small T antigens (ST) are shared by the E6 and E7 oncoproteins of two oncogenic papillomaviruses. Using three different assays, we have found that E7 can provide some simian virus 40 (SV40) or murine polyomavirus (PyV) ST functions. Both human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) and bovine papillomavirus (BPV1) E7 proteins are capable of partially substituting for SV40 ST in a transformation assay that also includes SV40 large T antigen, the catalytic subunit of cellular telomerase, and oncogenic Ras. Like SV40 ST, HPV16 E7 has the ability to override a quiescence block induced by mitogen deprivation. Like PyV ST, it also has the ability to inhibit myoblast differentiation. At least two of these activities are dependent upon the interaction of HPV16 E7 with retinoblastoma protein family members. For small T antigens, interaction with PP2A is needed for each of these functions. Even though there is no strong evidence that E6 or E7 share the ability of small T to interact with PP2A, E7 provides these functions related to cellular transformation. IMPORTANCE DNA tumor viruses have provided major insights into how cancers develop. Some viruses, like the human papillomaviruses, can cause cancer directly. Both the papillomaviruses and the polyomaviruses have served as tools for understanding pathways that are often perturbed in cancer. Here, we have compared the functions of transforming proteins from several DNA tumor viruses, including two papillomaviruses and two polyomaviruses. We tested the papillomavirus E6 and E7 oncoproteins in three functional assays and found that E7 can provide some or all of the functions of the SV40 small T antigen, another well-characterized oncoprotein, in two of these assays. In a third assay

  20. Chromosomal breaks at FRA18C: association with reduced DOK6 expression, altered oncogenic signaling and increased gastric cancer survival.

    PubMed

    Leong, Siew Hong; Lwin, Kyaw Myo; Lee, Sze Sing; Ng, Wai Har; Ng, Kia Min; Tan, Soo Yong; Ng, Bee Ling; Carter, Nigel P; Tang, Carol; Lian Kon, Oi

    2017-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements are common in cancer. More than 50% occur in common fragile sites and disrupt tumor suppressors. However, such rearrangements are not known in gastric cancer. Here we report recurrent 18q2 breakpoints in 6 of 17 gastric cancer cell lines. The rearranged chromosome 18, t(9;18), in MKN7 cells was flow sorted and identified by reverse chromosome painting. High-resolution tiling array hybridization mapped breakpoints to DOK6 (docking protein 6) intron 4 in FRA18C (18q22.2) and an intergenic region in 9q22.2. The same rearrangement was detected by FISH in 22% of 99 primary gastric cancers. Intron 4 truncation was associated with reduced DOK6 transcription. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas stomach adenocarcinoma cohort showed significant correlation of DOK6 expression with histological and molecular phenotypes. Multiple oncogenic signaling pathways (gastrin-CREB, NGF-neurotrophin, PDGF, EGFR, ERK, ERBB4, FGFR1, RAS, VEGFR2 and RAF/MAP kinase) known to be active in aggressive gastric cancers were strikingly diminished in gastric cancers with low DOK6 expression. Median survival of patients with low DOK6 -expressing tumors was 2100 days compared with 533 days in patients with high DOK6 -expressing tumors (log-rank P  = 0.0027). The level of DOK6 expression in tumors predicted patient survival independent of TNM stage. These findings point to new functions of human DOK6 as an adaptor that interacts with diverse molecular components of signaling pathways. Our data suggest that DOK6 expression is an integrated biomarker of multiple oncogenic signals in gastric cancer and identify FRA18C as a new cancer-associated fragile site.

  1. Cloning of transgenic tobacco BY-2 cells; an efficient method to analyse and reduce high natural heterogeneity of transgene expression.

    PubMed

    Nocarova, Eva; Fischer, Lukas

    2009-04-22

    Phenotypic characterization of transgenic cell lines, frequently used in plant biology studies, is complicated because transgene expression in individual cells is often heterogeneous and unstable. To identify the sources and to reduce this heterogeneity, we transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) BY-2 cells with a gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) using Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and then introduced a simple cloning procedure to generate cell lines derived from the individual transformed cells. Expression of the transgene was monitored by analysing GFP fluorescence in the cloned lines and also in lines obtained directly after transformation. The majority ( approximately 90%) of suspension culture lines derived from calli that were obtained directly from transformation consisted of cells with various levels of GFP fluorescence. In contrast, nearly 50% of lines generated by cloning cells from the primary heterogeneous suspensions consisted of cells with homogenous GFP fluorescence. The rest of the lines exhibited "permanent heterogeneity" that could not be resolved by cloning. The extent of fluorescence heterogeneity often varied, even among genetically identical clones derived from the primary transformed lines. In contrast, the offspring of subsequent cloning of the cloned lines was uniform, showing GFP fluorescence intensity and heterogeneity that corresponded to the original clone. The results demonstrate that, besides genetic heterogeneity detected in some lines, the primary lines often contained a mixture of epigenetically different cells that could be separated by cloning. This indicates that a single integration event frequently results in various heritable expression patterns, which are probably accidental and become stabilized in the offspring of the primary transformed cells early after the integration event. Because heterogeneity in transgene expression has proven to be a serious problem, it is highly advisable to use transgenes tagged with

  2. A novel thromboxane A2 receptor N42S variant results in reduced surface expression and platelet dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Nisar, Shaista P; Lordkipanidzé, Marie; Jones, Matthew L; Dawood, Ban; Murden, Sherina; Cunningham, Margaret R; Mumford, Andrew D; Wilde, Jonathan T; Watson, Steve P; Mundell, Stuart J; Lowe, Gillian C

    2014-05-05

    A small number of thromboxane receptor variants have been described in patients with a bleeding history that result in platelet dysfunction. We have identified a patient with a history of significant bleeding, who expresses a novel heterozygous thromboxane receptor variant that predicts an asparagine to serine substitution (N42S). This asparagine is conserved across all class A GPCRs, suggesting a vital role for receptor structure and function.We investigated the functional consequences of the TP receptor heterozygous N42S substitution by performing platelet function studies on platelet-rich plasma taken from the patient and healthy controls. We investigated the N42S mutation by expressing the wild-type (WT) and mutant receptor in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells. Aggregation studies showed an ablation of arachidonic acid responses in the patient, whilst there was right-ward shift of the U46619 concentration response curve (CRC). Thromboxane generation was unaffected. Calcium mobilisation studies in cells lines showed a rightward shift of the U46619 CRC in N42S-expressing cells compared to WT. Radioligand binding studies revealed a reduction in BMax in platelets taken from the patient and in N42S-expressing cells, whilst cell studies confirmed poor surface expression. We have identified a novel thromboxane receptor variant, N42S, which results in platelet dysfunction due to reduced surface expression. It is associated with a significant bleeding history in the patient in whom it was identified. This is the first description of a naturally occurring variant that results in the substitution of this highly conserved residue and confirms the importance of this residue for correct GPCR function.

  3. Susceptibility to virus-cell fusion at the plasma membrane is reduced through expression of HIV gp41 cytoplasmic domains

    SciTech Connect

    Malinowsky, Katharina; Department of Virology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 324, D-69120 Heidelberg; Luksza, Julia

    2008-06-20

    The cytoplasmic tail of the HIV transmembrane protein plays an important role in viral infection. In this study we analyzed the role of retroviral cytoplasmic tails in modulating the cytoskeleton and interfering with virus-cell fusion. HeLaP4 cells expressing different HIV cytoplasmic tail constructs showed reduced acetylated tubulin levels whereas the cytoplasmic tail of MLV did not alter microtubule stability indicating a unique function for the lentiviral cytoplasmic tail. The effect on tubulin is mediated through the membrane proximal region of the HIV cytoplasmic tail and was independent of membrane localization. Site-directed mutagenesis identified three motifs in the HIV-2 cytoplasmic tailmore » required to effect the reduction in acetylated tubulin. Both the Yxx{phi} domain and amino acids 21 to 45 of the HIV-2 cytoplasmic tail need to be present to change the level of acetylated tubulin in transfected cells. T-cells stably expressing one HIV-2 cytoplasmic tail derived construct showed also a reduction in acetylated tubulin thus confirming the importance of this effect not only for HeLaP4 and 293T cells. Challenge experiments using transiently transfected HeLaP4 cells and T cells stably expressing an HIV cytoplasmic tail construct revealed both reduced virus-cell fusion and replication of HIV-1{sub NL4.3} compared to control cells. In the virus-cell fusion assay only virions pseudotyped with either HIV or MLV envelopes showed reduced fusion efficiency, whereas VSV-G pseudotyped virions where not affected by the expression of HIV derived cytoplasmic tail constructs, indicating that fusion at the plasma but not endosomal membrane is affected. Overexpression of human histone-deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) and constitutively active RhoA resulted in a reduction of acetylated tubulin and reduced virus-cell fusion as significant as that observed following expression of HIV cytoplasmic tail constructs. Inhibition of HDAC6 showed a strong increase in acetylated tubulin and

  4. Low Density Lipoproteins Promote Unstable Calcium Handling Accompanied by Reduced SERCA2 and Connexin-40 Expression in Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cabello, Nuria; Llach, Anna; Vallmitjana, Alexander; Benítez, Raúl; Badimon, Lina; Cinca, Juan; Llorente-Cortés, Vicenta; Hove-Madsen, Leif

    2013-01-01

    The damaging effects of high plasma levels of cholesterol in the cardiovascular system are widely known, but little attention has been paid to direct effects on cardiomyocyte function. We therefore aimed at testing the hypothesis that Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol affects calcium dynamics and signal propagation in cultured atrial myocytes. For this purpose, mRNA and protein expression levels were determined by real time PCR and western blot analysis, respectively, and intracellular calcium was visualized in fluo-4 loaded atrial HL-1 myocyte cultures subjected to field stimulation. At low stimulation frequencies all cultures had uniform calcium transients at all tested LDL concentrations. However, 500 µg LDL/mL maximally reduced the calcium transient amplitude by 43% from 0.30±0.04 to 0.17±0.02 (p<0.05). Moreover, LDL-cholesterol dose-dependently increased the fraction of alternating and irregular beat-to-beat responses observed when the stimulation interval was shortened. This effect was linked to a concurrent reduction in SERCA2, RyR2, IP3RI and IP3RII mRNA levels. SERCA2 protein levels were also reduced by 43% at 200 µg LDL/mL (p<0.05) and SR calcium loading was reduced by 38±6% (p<0.001). By contrast, HDL-cholesterol had no significant effect on SERCA expression or SR calcium loading. LDL-cholesterol also slowed the conduction velocity of the calcium signal from 3.2+0.2 mm/s without LDL to 1.7±0.1 mm/s with 500 µg LDL/mL (p<0.05). This coincided with a reduction in Cx40 expression (by 44±3%; p<0.05 for mRNA and by 79±2%; p<0.05 for Cx40 protein at 200 µg/ml LDL) whereas the Cx-43 expression did not significantly change. In conclusion, LDL-cholesterol destabilizes calcium handling in cultured atrial myocytes subjected to rapid pacing by reducing SERCA2 and Cx40 expression and by slowing the conduction velocity of the calcium signal. PMID:23516438

  5. Activation of Wnt signaling pathway by human papillomavirus E6 and E7 oncogenes in HPV16-positive oropharyngeal squamous carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Rampias, Theodore; Boutati, Eleni; Pectasides, Eirini; Sasaki, Clarence; Kountourakis, Panteleimon; Weinberger, Paul; Psyrri, Amanda

    2010-03-01

    We sought to determine the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncogenes in nuclear beta-catenin accumulation, a hallmark of activated canonical Wnt signaling pathway. We used HPV16-positive oropharyngeal cancer cell lines 147T and 090, HPV-negative cell line 040T, and cervical cell lines SiHa (bearing integrated HPV16) and HeLa (bearing integrated HPV18) to measure the cytoplasmic and nuclear beta-catenin levels and the beta-catenin/Tcf transcriptional activity before and after E6/E7 gene silencing. Repression of HPV E6 and E7 genes induced a substantial reduction in nuclear beta-catenin levels. Luciferase assay showed that transcriptional activation of Tcf promoter by beta-catenin was lower after silencing. The protein levels of beta-catenin are tightly regulated by the ubiquitin/proteasome system. We therefore performed expression analysis of regulators of beta-catenin degradation and nuclear transport and showed that seven in absentia homologue (Siah-1) mRNA and protein levels were substantially upregulated after E6/E7 repression. Siah-1 protein promotes the degradation of beta-catenin through the ubiquitin/proteasome system. To determine whether Siah-1 is important for the proteasomal degradation of beta-catenin in HPV16-positive oropharyngeal cancer cells, we introduced a Siah-1 expression vector into 147T and 090 cells and found substantial reduction of endogenous beta-catenin in these cells. Thus, E6 and E7 are involved in beta-catenin nuclear accumulation and activation of Wnt signaling in HPV-induced cancers. In addition, we show the significance of the endogenous Siah-1-dependent ubiquitin/proteasome pathway for beta-catenin degradation and its regulation by E6/E7 viral oncoproteins in HPV16-positive oropharyngeal cancer cells.

  6. Chlorella vulgaris reduces the impact of stress on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and brain c-fos expression.

    PubMed

    Souza Queiroz, Julia; Marín Blasco, Ignacio; Gagliano, Humberto; Daviu, Nuria; Gómez Román, Almudena; Belda, Xavier; Carrasco, Javier; Rocha, Michelle C; Palermo Neto, João; Armario, Antonio

    2016-03-01

    Predominantly emotional stressors activate a wide range of brain areas, as revealed by the expression of immediate early genes, such as c-fos. Chlorella vulgaris (CV) is considered a biological response modifier, as demonstrated by its protective activities against infections, tumors and stress. We evaluated the effect of acute pretreatment with CV on the peripheral and central responses to forced swimming stress in adult male rats. Pretreatment with CV produced a significant reduction of stress-related hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activation, demonstrated by decreased corticotrophin releasing factor gene expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and lower ACTH response. Hyperglycemia induced by the stressor was similarly reduced. This attenuated neuroendocrine response to stress occurred in parallel with a diminished c-fos expression in most evaluated areas, including the PVN. The data presented in this study reinforce the usefulness of CV to diminish the impact of stressors, by reducing the HPA response. Although our results suggest a central effect of CV, further studies are necessary to understand the precise mechanisms underpinning this effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Boron toxicity tolerance in barley through reduced expression of the multifunctional aquaporin HvNIP2;1.

    PubMed

    Schnurbusch, Thorsten; Hayes, Julie; Hrmova, Maria; Baumann, Ute; Ramesh, Sunita A; Tyerman, Stephen D; Langridge, Peter; Sutton, Tim

    2010-08-01

    Boron (B) toxicity is a significant limitation to cereal crop production in a number of regions worldwide. Here we describe the cloning of a gene from barley (Hordeum vulgare), underlying the chromosome 6H B toxicity tolerance quantitative trait locus. It is the second B toxicity tolerance gene identified in barley. Previously, we identified the gene Bot1 that functions as an efflux transporter in B toxicity-tolerant barley to move B out of the plant. The gene identified in this work encodes HvNIP2;1, an aquaporin from the nodulin-26-like intrinsic protein (NIP) subfamily that was recently described as a silicon influx transporter in barley and rice (Oryza sativa). Here we show that a rice mutant for this gene also shows reduced B accumulation in leaf blades compared to wild type and that the mutant protein alters growth of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under high B. HvNIP2;1 facilitates significant transport of B when expressed in Xenopus oocytes compared to controls and to another NIP (NOD26), and also in yeast plasma membranes that appear to have relatively high B permeability. We propose that tolerance to high soil B is mediated by reduced expression of HvNIP2;1 to limit B uptake, as well as by increased expression of Bot1 to remove B from roots and sensitive tissues. Together with Bot1, the multifunctional aquaporin HvNIP2;1 is an important determinant of B toxicity tolerance in barley.

  8. Hypoxia reduces the E-cadherin expression and increases OSCC cell migration regardless of the E-cadherin methylation profile.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Patrícia Luciana Batista; Souza, Marcela Gonçalves; Guimarães, Talita Antunes; Santos, Eliane Sobrinho; Farias, Lucyana Conceição; de Carvalho Fraga, Carlos Alberto; Jones, Kimberly Marie; Santos, Sérgio Henrique Souza; de Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista; Guimarães, André Luiz Sena

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate the association between E-cadherin methylation status, hypoxia and OSCC. HaCat and SCC9 cell lines were submitted to hypoxic treatment, followed by methylation profile analysis (MS-PCR) and analysis of the expression of mRNA gene E-cadherin (RT-PCR). Study group samples comprise individuals affected by potentially malignant lesions Potential Malignant Oral Lesion (PMOL, n=18) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, n=28). The control group oral mucosa (OM, n=15) of patients with an oral mucocele. Cell migration ability was evaluated a scratch wound assay in SCC9 and HaCat cell lines RESULTS: E-cadherin mRNA expression in the cell lines SCC9 and HaCat was significantly reduced under hypoxia, regardless of the methylation profile, when compared to the control group. No differences in methylation profile of the E-cadherin were observed among the groups OM, PMOL and OSCC. HaCat and SCC9 presented increases in cell migration rates under hypoxia. The current study demonstrates that hypoxia reduces E-cadherin expression and increase cell migration, regardless of the methylation profile. Additionally, no differences in E-cadherin methylation patterns were observed among OM, PMOL and OSCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Arctigenin reduces blood pressure by modulation of nitric oxide synthase and NADPH oxidase expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Wang, Guoyuan; Yang, Mingguang; Chen, Haining; zhao, Yan; Yang, Shucai; Sun, Changhao

    2015-12-25

    Arctigenin is a bioactive constituent from dried seeds of Arctium lappa L., which was traditionally used as medicine. Arctigenin exhibits various bioactivities, but its effects on blood pressure regulation are still not widely studied. In this study, we investigated antihypertensive effects of arctigenin by long-term treatment in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Arctigenin (50 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered to SHRs or Wistar rats as negative control by oral gavage once a day for total 8 weeks. Nifedipine (3 mg/kg) was used as a positive drug control. After treatment, hemodynamic and physical parameters, vascular reactivity in aorta, the concentration of plasma arctigenin and serum thromboxane B2, NO release and vascular p-eNOS, p-Akt, caveolin-1 protein expression, and vascular superoxide anion generation and p47phox protein expression were detected and analyzed. The results showed that arctigenin significantly reduced systolic blood pressure and ameliorated endothelial dysfunction of SHRs. Arctigenin reduced the levels of thromboxane B2 in plasma and superoxide anion in thoracic aorta of SHRs. Furthermore, arctigenin increased the NO production by enhancing the phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS (Ser 1177), and inhibiting the expression of NADPH oxidase in thoracic aorta of SHRs. Our data suggested that antihypertensive mechanisms of arctigenin were associated with enhanced eNOS phosphorylation and decreased NADPH oxidase-mediated superoxide anion generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Metronidazole reduces the expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes in HepaRG cells and cryopreserved human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Toshiyuki; Endo, Yumiko; Taguchi, Rina; Yatsu, Masami; Ito, Kiyomi

    2015-05-01

    1. Blood levels of S-warfarin have been reported to be increased by concomitant administration of metronidazole (MTZ), an antiprotozoal imidazole derivative. 2. To elucidate the mechanism of this interaction and to identify other possible drug-drug interactions, we conducted an in vitro study with the human hepatoma HepaRG cells and cryopreserved human hepatocytes on the ability of MTZ to reduce the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) as well as nuclear receptors that regulate the expression of these enzymes. 3. HepaRG cells and cryopreserved human hepatocytes were treated with MTZ (20 to 500 µM) and were then analyzed by real-time RT-PCR to determine mRNA levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes and nuclear receptors. 4. In both cells, the expressions of CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP3A4 and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) were decreased by MTZ treatment. Particularly, in HepaRG cells, their mRNA levels were decreased by MTZ treatment in a concentration-dependent manner. 5. Our findings suggest that the interaction between MTZ and S-warfarin may be due to the MTZ-induced down-regulation of CYP2C9, the primary enzyme responsible for S-warfarin hydroxylation, and CAR, which regulates CYP2C9 expression. We also found that MTZ use may alter the disposition of drugs metabolized by the CYP isozymes investigated.

  11. Expression of epicardial adipose tissue thermogenic genes in patients with reduced and preserved ejection fraction heart failure.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Belmonte, Luis M; Moreno-Santos, Inmaculada; Gómez-Doblas, Juan J; García-Pinilla, José M; Morcillo-Hidalgo, Luis; Garrido-Sánchez, Lourdes; Santiago-Fernández, Concepción; Crespo-Leiro, María G; Carrasco-Chinchilla, Fernando; Sánchez-Fernández, Pedro L; de Teresa-Galván, Eduardo; Jiménez-Navarro, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue has been proposed to participate in the pathogenesis of heart failure. The aim of our study was to assess the expression of thermogenic genes (Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α), and PR-domain-missing 16 (PRDM16) in epicardial adipose tissue in patients with heart failure, stablishing the difference according to left ventricular ejection fraction (reduced or preserved). Among the 75 patients in our study, 42.7% (n=32) had reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. UCP1, PGC1α and PRDM16 mRNA in EAT were significantly lower in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Multiple regression analysis showed that age, male gender, body max index, presence of obesity, type-2-diabetes mellitus, hypertension and coronary artery disease and left ventricular ejection fraction were associated with the expression levels of UCP1, PGC1α and PRDM16 mRNA. Thermogenic genes expressions in epicardial adipose tissue (UCP1: OR 0.617, 95%CI 0.103-0.989, p=0.042; PGC1α: OR 0.416, 95%CI 0.171-0.912, p=0.031; PRDM16: OR 0.643, 95%CI 0.116-0.997, p=0.044) were showed as protective factors against the presence of heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, and age (OR 1.643, 95%CI 1.001-3.143, p=0.026), presence of coronary artery disease (OR 6.743, 95%CI 1.932-15.301, p<0.001) and type-2-diabetes mellitus (OR 4.031, 95%CI 1.099-7.231, p<0.001) were associated as risk factors. The adequate expression of thermogenic genes has been shown as possible protective factors against heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, suggesting that a loss of functional epicardial adipose tissue brown-like features would participate in a deleterious manner on heart metabolism. Thermogenic genes could represent a future novel therapeutic target in heart failure.

  12. Reduced H3K27me3 expression in radiation-associated angiosarcoma of the breast.

    PubMed

    Mentzel, Thomas; Kiss, Katalin

    2018-03-01

    The diagnosis of radiation-associated angiosarcoma is challenging and there are overlapping clinicopathological features between radiation-associated benign, atypical and malignant vascular lesions. It has been shown convincingly, that the majority of radiation-associated angiosarcomas are characterised by amplification and subsequent overexpression of MYC in contrast to benign and atypical vascular lesions. Given the fact that epigenetic changes play an important role in carcinogenesis and loss of histone H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) has been found in a number of malignant neoplasms including malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours, especially when associated with previous radiotherapy, we evaluated the immunohistochemical reaction pattern for H3K27me3 in 49 vascular lesions and control cases: normal skin and benign vascular lesions not associated with previous radiotherapy, radiation-associated benign, atypical and malignant vascular lesions and angiosarcomas not associated with previous radiotherapy. We found loss of H3K27me3 expression in most cases of radiation-associated angiosarcomas, whereas endothelial cells in benign and atypical vascular lesions arising after previous radiotherapy stained positively for H3K27me3. The sporadic angiosarcomas stained inconsistently for H3K27me3. Loss of H3K27me3 is typically seen in radiation-associated angiosarcomas, representing an additional diagnostic tool and raises questions in regard to the carcinogenesis of malignant vascular neoplasms.

  13. Intrapartum synthetic oxytocin reduce the expression of primitive reflexes associated with breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Marín Gabriel, Miguel A; Olza Fernández, Ibone; Malalana Martínez, Ana M; González Armengod, Carmen; Costarelli, Valeria; Millán Santos, Isabel; Fernández-Cañadas Morillo, Aurora; Pérez Riveiro, Pilar; López Sánchez, Francisco; García Murillo, Lourdes

    2015-05-01

    Several synthetic peptide manipulations during the time surrounding birth can alter the specific neurohormonal status in the newborn brain. This study is aimed at assessing whether intrapartum oxytocin administration has any effect on primitive neonatal reflexes and determining whether such an effect is dose-dependent. A cohort prospective study was conducted at a tertiary hospital. Mother-infant dyads who received intrapartum oxytocin (n=53) were compared with mother-infant dyads who did not receive intrapartum oxytocin (n=45). Primitive neonatal reflexes (endogenous, antigravity, motor, and rhythmic reflexes) were quantified by analyzing videotaped breastfeeding sessions in a biological nurturing position. Two observers blind to the group assignment and the oxytocin dose analyzed the videotapes and assesed the newborn's state of consciousness according to the Brazelton scale. The release of all rhythmic reflexes (p=0.01), the antigravity reflex (p=0.04), and total primitive neonatal reflexes (p=0.02) in the group exposed to oxytocin was lower than in the group not exposed to oxytocin. No correlations were observed between the dose of oxytocin administered and the percentage of primitive neonatal reflexes released (r=0.03; p=0.82). Intrapartum oxytocin administration might inhibit the expression of several primitive neonatal reflexes associated with breastfeeding. This correlation does not seem to be dose-dependent.

  14. Intrapartum Synthetic Oxytocin Reduce the Expression of Primitive Reflexes Associated with Breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Olza Fernández, Ibone; Malalana Martínez, Ana M.; González Armengod, Carmen; Costarelli, Valeria; Millán Santos, Isabel; Fernández-Cañadas Morillo, Aurora; Pérez Riveiro, Pilar; López Sánchez, Francisco; García Murillo, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aim: Several synthetic peptide manipulations during the time surrounding birth can alter the specific neurohormonal status in the newborn brain. This study is aimed at assessing whether intrapartum oxytocin administration has any effect on primitive neonatal reflexes and determining whether such an effect is dose-dependent. Materials and Methods: A cohort prospective study was conducted at a tertiary hospital. Mother–infant dyads who received intrapartum oxytocin (n=53) were compared with mother–infant dyads who did not receive intrapartum oxytocin (n=45). Primitive neonatal reflexes (endogenous, antigravity, motor, and rhythmic reflexes) were quantified by analyzing videotaped breastfeeding sessions in a biological nurturing position. Two observers blind to the group assignment and the oxytocin dose analyzed the videotapes and assesed the newborn's state of consciousness according to the Brazelton scale. Results: The release of all rhythmic reflexes (p=0.01), the antigravity reflex (p=0.04), and total primitive neonatal reflexes (p=0.02) in the group exposed to oxytocin was lower than in the group not exposed to oxytocin. No correlations were observed between the dose of oxytocin administered and the percentage of primitive neonatal reflexes released (r=0.03; p=0.82). Conclusions: Intrapartum oxytocin administration might inhibit the expression of several primitive neonatal reflexes associated with breastfeeding. This correlation does not seem to be dose-dependent. PMID:25785487

  15. Tachycardia, reduced vagal capacity, and age-dependent ventricular dysfunction arising from diminished expression of the presynaptic choline transporter

    PubMed Central

    English, Brett A.; Appalsamy, Martin; Diedrich, Andre; Ruggiero, Alicia M.; Lund, David; Wright, Jane; Keller, Nancy R.; Louderback, Katherine M.; Robertson, David

    2010-01-01

    Healthy cardiovascular function relies on a balanced and responsive integration of noradrenergic and cholinergic innervation of the heart. High-affinity choline uptake by cholinergic terminals is pivotal for efficient ACh production and release. To date, the cardiovascular impact of diminished choline transporter (CHT) expression has not been directly examined, largely due to the transporter's inaccessibility in vivo. Here, we describe findings from cardiovascular experiments using transgenic mice that bear a CHT genetic deficiency. Whereas CHT knockout (CHT−/−) mice exhibit early postnatal lethality, CHT heterozygous (CHT+/−) mice survive, grow, and reproduce normally and exhibit normal spontaneous behaviors. However, the CHT+/− mouse heart displays significantly reduced levels of high-affinity choline uptake accompanied by significantly reduced levels of ACh. Telemeterized recordings of cardiovascular function in these mice revealed tachycardia and hypertension at rest. After treadmill exercise, CHT+/− mice exhibited slower heart rate recovery, consistent with a diminished cholinergic reserve, a contention validated through direct vagal nerve stimulation. Echocardiographic and histological experiments revealed an age-dependent decrease in fractional shortening, increased left ventricular dimensions, and increased ventricular fibrosis, consistent with ventricular dysfunction. These cardiovascular phenotypes of CHT+/− mice encourage an evaluation of humans bearing reduced CHT expression for their resiliency in maintaining proper heart function as well as risk for cardiovascular disease. PMID:20601463

  16. Tachycardia, reduced vagal capacity, and age-dependent ventricular dysfunction arising from diminished expression of the presynaptic choline transporter.

    PubMed

    English, Brett A; Appalsamy, Martin; Diedrich, Andre; Ruggiero, Alicia M; Lund, David; Wright, Jane; Keller, Nancy R; Louderback, Katherine M; Robertson, David; Blakely, Randy D

    2010-09-01

    Healthy cardiovascular function relies on a balanced and responsive integration of noradrenergic and cholinergic innervation of the heart. High-affinity choline uptake by cholinergic terminals is pivotal for efficient ACh production and release. To date, the cardiovascular impact of diminished choline transporter (CHT) expression has not been directly examined, largely due to the transporter's inaccessibility in vivo. Here, we describe findings from cardiovascular experiments using transgenic mice that bear a CHT genetic deficiency. Whereas CHT knockout (CHT(-/-)) mice exhibit early postnatal lethality, CHT heterozygous (CHT(+/-)) mice survive, grow, and reproduce normally and exhibit normal spontaneous behaviors. However, the CHT(+/-) mouse heart displays significantly reduced levels of high-affinity choline uptake accompanied by significantly reduced levels of ACh. Telemeterized recordings of cardiovascular function in these mice revealed tachycardia and hypertension at rest. After treadmill exercise, CHT(+/-) mice exhibited slower heart rate recovery, consistent with a diminished cholinergic reserve, a contention validated through direct vagal nerve stimulation. Echocardiographic and histological experiments revealed an age-dependent decrease in fractional shortening, increased left ventricular dimensions, and increased ventricular fibrosis, consistent with ventricular dysfunction. These cardiovascular phenotypes of CHT(+/-) mice encourage an evaluation of humans bearing reduced CHT expression for their resiliency in maintaining proper heart function as well as risk for cardiovascular disease.

  17. Sweet Vector for Gene Delivery: the Sugar Decoration of Polyplexes Reduces Cytotoxicity with a Balanced Effect on Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Lindomar J C; Alavarse, Alex C; Carlan da Silva, Maria C; Zilse, Morgana S; Barth, Maitê T; Bellettini, Ismael C; Giacomelli, Fernando C

    2018-02-01

    The use of sugar-functionalized polyplexes as a nonviral gene delivery vector with lower cytotoxicity than the well-known polymeric carrier branched polyethyleneimine (BPEI) is investigated. The substitution of primary amine groups in the BPEI chains with lactose residues leads to larger polyplexes, presumably due to the higher amount of polymer required to complete DNA condensation. Nevertheless, the sugar functionalization substantially reduces the cytotoxicity of the assemblies. The nanocomplexes are taken up by the cells to a greater extent, whereas the levels of gene expression are maintained compared to those obtained using BPEI, which is known for its excellent transfection efficiency. Accordingly, the preparation of lower-cytotoxicity polyplexes while maintaining gene expression, which is highly relevant to the field, is demonstrated. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. β-Subunits Promote the Expression of CaV2.2 Channels by Reducing Their Proteasomal Degradation*

    PubMed Central

    Waithe, Dominic; Ferron, Laurent; Page, Karen M.; Chaggar, Kanchan; Dolphin, Annette C.

    2011-01-01

    The β-subunits of voltage-gated calcium channels regulate their functional expression and properties. Two mechanisms have been proposed for this, an effect on gating and an enhancement of expression. With respect to the effect on expression, β-subunits have been suggested to enhance trafficking by masking an unidentified endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal. Here we have investigated whether, and how, β-subunits affect the level of CaV2.2 channels within somata and neurites of cultured sympathetic neurons. We have used YFP-CaV2.2 containing a mutation (W391A), that prevents binding of β-subunits to its I-II linker and found that expression of this channel was much reduced compared with WT CFP-CaV2.2 when both were expressed in the same neuron. This effect was particularly evident in neurites and growth cones. The difference between the levels of YFP-CaV2.2(W391A) and CFP-CaV2.2(WT) was lost in the absence of co-expressed β-subunits. Furthermore, the relative reduction of expression of CaV2.2(W391A) compared with the WT channel was reversed by exposure to two proteasome inhibitors, MG132 and lactacystin, particularly in the somata. In further experiments in tsA-201 cells, we found that proteasome inhibition did not augment the cell surface CaV2.2(W391A) level but resulted in the observation of increased ubiquitination, particularly of mutant channels. In contrast, we found no evidence for selective retention of CaV2.2(W391A) in the ER, in either the soma or growth cones. In conclusion, there is a marked effect of β-subunits on CaV2.2 expression, particularly in neurites, but our results point to protection from proteasomal degradation rather than masking of an ER retention signal. PMID:21233207

  19. Exposure of articular chondrocytes to wear particles induces phagocytosis, differential inflammatory gene expression, and reduced proliferation.

    PubMed

    Kurdziel, Michael D; Salisbury, Meagan; Kaplan, Lige; Maerz, Tristan; Baker, Kevin C

    2017-07-01

    The production of wear debris particulate remains a concern due to its association with implant failure through complex biologic interactions. In the setting of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA), damage and wear of the components may introduce debris particulate into the adjacent, otherwise, healthy compartment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro effect of polymeric and metallic wear debris particles on cell proliferation, extracellular matrix regulation, and phagocytosis index of normal human articular chondrocytes (nHACs). In culture, nHACs were exposed to both cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (CoCrMo) and polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) wear debris particulate for 3 and 10 days. At 3 days, no significant difference in cell proliferation was found between control cells and cells exposed to both CoCrMo or PMMA particles. However, cell proliferation was significantly decreased for CoCrMo exposed nHACs at both 6 (P < 0.001) and 10 days (P < 0.001) and PMMA at 10 days (P < 0.001). Target gene expression displayed both a time- and material-dependent response to CoCrMo and PMMA particles. Significant differences in COL10A1, ACAN, VCAN, IL-1β, TNF-α, MMP3, ADAMTS1, CASP3, and CASP9 regulation were found between CoCrMo and PMMA exposed nHACs at day 3 with gene regulation returning to near baseline at 10 days. Results from our study indicate a role of wear debris induced cartilage degeneration after exposure to polymeric and metallic wear debris particulate, suggesting an additional pathway of cartilage breakdown, potentially manifesting in traditional clinical symptoms.

  20. Thymine DNA Glycosylase (TDG) is involved in the pathogenesis of intestinal tumors with reduced APC expression.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinfei; Cortellino, Salvatore; Tricarico, Rossella; Chang, Wen-Chi; Scher, Gabrielle; Devarajan, Karthik; Slifker, Michael; Moore, Robert; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Caretti, Elena; Clapper, Margie; Cooper, Harry; Bellacosa, Alfonso

    2017-10-27

    Thymine DNA Glycosylase (TDG) is a base excision repair enzyme that acts as a thymine and uracil DNA N-glycosylase on G:T and G:U mismatches, thus protecting CpG sites in the genome from mutagenesis by deamination. In addition, TDG has an epigenomic function by removing the novel cytosine derivatives 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) generated by Ten-Eleven Translocation (TET) enzymes during active DNA demethylation. We and others previously reported that TDG is essential for mammalian development. However, its involvement in tumor formation is unknown. To study the role of TDG in tumorigenesis, we analyzed the effects of its inactivation in a well-characterized model of tumor predisposition, the Apc Min mouse strain. Mice bearing a conditional Tdg flox allele were crossed with Fabpl ::Cre transgenic mice, in the context of the Apc Min mutation, in order to inactivate Tdg in the small intestinal and colonic epithelium. We observed an approximately 2-fold increase in the number of small intestinal adenomas in the test Tdg -mutant Apc Min mice in comparison to control genotypes (p=0.0001). This increase occurred in female mice, and is similar to the known increase in intestinal adenoma formation due to oophorectomy. In the human colorectal cancer (CRC) TCGA database, the subset of patients with TDG and APC expression in the lowest quartile exhibits an excess of female cases. We conclude that TDG inactivation plays a role in intestinal tumorigenesis initiated by mutation/underexpression of APC . Our results also indicate that TDG may be involved in sex-specific protection from CRC.

  1. Reduced H3K27me3 expression in Merkel cell polyoma virus-positive tumors.

    PubMed

    Busam, Klaus J; Pulitzer, Melissa P; Coit, Daniel C; Arcila, Maria; Leng, Danielle; Jungbluth, Achim A; Wiesner, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, which once metastatic is difficult to treat. Recent mutation analyses of Merkel cell carcinoma revealed a low number of mutations in Merkel cell polyomavirus-associated tumors, and a high number of mutations in virus-negative combined squamous cell and neuroendocrine carcinomas of chronically sun-damaged skin. We speculated that the paucity of mutations in virus-positive Merkel cell carcinoma may reflect a pathomechanism that depends on derangements of chromatin without alterations in the DNA sequence (epigenetic dysregulation). One central epigenetic regulator is the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), which silences genomic regions by trimethylating (me3) lysine (K) 27 of histone H3, and thereby establishes the histone mark H3K27me3. Recent experimental research data demonstrated that PRC2 loss in mice skin results in the formation of Merkel cells. Prompted by these findings, we explored a possible contribution of PRC2 loss in human Merkel cell carcinoma. We examined the immunohistochemical expression of H3K27me3 in 35 Merkel cell carcinomas with pure histological features (22 primary and 13 metastatic lesions) and in 5 combined squamous and neuroendocrine carcinomas of the skin. We found a strong reduction of H3K27me3 staining in tumors with pure histologic features and virus-positive Merkel cell carcinomas. Combined neuroendocrine carcinomas had no or only minimal loss of H3K27me3 labeling. Our findings suggest that a PRC2-mediated epigenetic deregulation may play a role in the pathogenesis of virus-positive Merkel cell carcinomas and in tumors with pure histologic features.

  2. Reduced PU.1 expression underlies aberrant neutrophil maturation and function in β-thalassemia mice and patients.

    PubMed

    Siwaponanan, Panjaree; Siegers, Jurre Ynze; Ghazali, Razi; Ng, Thian; McColl, Bradley; Ng, Garrett Zhen-Wei; Sutton, Philip; Wang, Nancy; Ooi, Isabelle; Thiengtavor, Chayada; Fucharoen, Suthat; Chaichompoo, Pornthip; Svasti, Saovaros; Wijburg, Odilia; Vadolas, Jim

    2017-06-08

    β-Thalassemia is associated with several abnormalities of the innate immune system. Neutrophils in particular are defective, predisposing patients to life-threatening bacterial infections. The molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in impaired neutrophil function remain incompletely defined. We used the Hbb th3/+ β-thalassemia mouse and hemoglobin E (HbE)/β-thalassemia patients to investigate dysregulated neutrophil activity. Mature neutrophils from Hbb th3/+ mice displayed a significant reduction in chemotaxis, opsonophagocytosis, and production of reactive oxygen species, closely mimicking the defective immune functions observed in β-thalassemia patients. In Hbb th3/+ mice, the expression of neutrophil CXCR2, CD11b, and reduced NAD phosphate oxidase components (p22phox, p67phox, and gp91phox) were significantly reduced. Morphological analysis of Hbb th3/+ neutrophils showed that a large percentage of mature phenotype neutrophils (Ly6G hi Ly6C low ) appeared as band form cells, and a striking expansion of immature (Ly6G low Ly6C low ) hyposegmented neutrophils, consisting mainly of myelocytes and metamyelocytes, was noted. Intriguingly, expression of an essential mediator of neutrophil terminal differentiation, the ets transcription factor PU.1, was significantly decreased in Hbb th3/+ neutrophils. In addition, in vivo infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae failed to induce PU.1 expression or upregulate neutrophil effector functions in Hbb th3/+ mice. Similar changes to neutrophil morphology and PU.1 expression were observed in splenectomized and nonsplenectomized HbE/β-thalassemia patients. This study provides a mechanistic insight into defective neutrophil maturation in β-thalassemia patients, which contributes to deficiencies in neutrophil effector functions. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  3. PDE4 inhibition reduces neointima formation and inhibits VCAM-1 expression and histone methylation in an Epac-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Lehrke, Michael; Kahles, Florian; Makowska, Anna; Tilstam, Pathricia V; Diebold, Sebastian; Marx, Judith; Stöhr, Robert; Hess, Katharina; Endorf, Elizabeth B; Bruemmer, Dennis; Marx, Nikolaus; Findeisen, Hannes M

    2015-04-01

    Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) activity mediates cAMP-dependent smooth muscle cell (SMC) activation following vascular injury. In this study we have investigated the effects of specific PDE4 inhibition with roflumilast on SMC proliferation and inflammatory activation in vitro and neointima formation following guide wire-induced injury of the femoral artery in mice in vivo. In vitro, roflumilast did not affect SMC proliferation, but diminished TNF-α induced expression of the vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). Specific activation of the cAMP effector Epac, but not PKA activation mimicked the effects of roflumilast on VCAM-1 expression. Consistently, the reduction of VCAM-1 expression was rescued following inhibition of Epac. TNF-α induced NFκB p65 translocation and VCAM-1 promoter activity were not altered by roflumilast in SMCs. However, roflumilast treatment and Epac activation repressed the induction of the activating epigenetic histone mark H3K4me2 at the VCAM-1 promoter, while PKA activation showed no effect. Furthermore, HDAC inhibition blocked the inhibitory effect of roflumilast on VCAM-1 expression. Both, roflumilast and Epac activation reduced monocyte adhesion to SMCs in vitro. Finally, roflumilast treatment attenuated femoral artery intima-media ratio by more than 50% after 4weeks. In summary, PDE4 inhibition regulates VCAM-1 through a novel Epac-dependent mechanism, which involves regulatory epigenetic components and reduces neointima formation following vascular injury. PDE4 inhibition and Epac activation might represent novel approaches for the treatment of vascular diseases, including atherosclerosis and in-stent restenosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. IFN-β antiproliferative effect and miRNA regulation in Human Papilloma Virus E6- and E7-transformed keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Chiantore, Maria Vincenza; Mangino, Giorgio; Iuliano, Marco; Zangrillo, Maria Simona; De Lillis, Ilaria; Vaccari, Gabriele; Accardi, Rosita; Tommasino, Massimo; Fiorucci, Gianna; Romeo, Giovanna

    2017-01-01

    Human Papilloma Viruses (HPVs) are the causative agents of cervical cancer although other types of cancers are associated with HPV infection. Type I Interferons can interfere with HPV E6- and/or E7-dependent transformation and can affect microRNA (miRNA) expression. Cancer cells show a specific pattern of miRNA expression and HPVs are able to modulate miRNAs expressed in infected cells. Keratinocytes transduced with E6 and E7 from mucosal HPV-16 or cutaneous HPV-38 (K16 and K38) were studied to analyze the involvement of HPV oncoproteins in the anti-proliferative activity of IFN-β. In view of our previous data showing senescence induction by the cytokine in K38 cells, we observe that IFN-β treatment leads to p53-indipendent apoptosis in K16 cells whereas induces senescence in K16 cells if E6 is silenced and p53 expression is restored. The levels of selected miRNAs, deregulated in K16 and K38 cells, can be modulated by IFN-β when E6 and E7 proteins of HPV-16, but not HPV-38, are expressed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Reduced Utilization of Selenium by Naked Mole Rats Due to a Specific Defect in GPx1 Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Kasaikina, Marina V.; Lobanov, Alexei V.; Malinouski, Mikalai Y.; Lee, Byung Cheon; Seravalli, Javier; Fomenko, Dmitri E.; Turanov, Anton A.; Finney, Lydia; Vogt, Stefan; Park, Thomas J.; Miller, Richard A.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2011-01-01

    Naked mole rat (MR) Heterocephalus glaber is a rodent model of delayed aging because of its unusually long life span (>28 years). It is also not known to develop cancer. In the current work, tissue imaging by x-ray fluorescence microscopy and direct analyses of trace elements revealed low levels of selenium in the MR liver and kidney, whereas MR and mouse brains had similar selenium levels. This effect was not explained by uniform selenium deficiency because methionine sulfoxide reductase activities were similar in mice and MR. However, glutathione peroxidase activity was an order of magnitude lower in MR liver and kidney than in mouse tissues. In addition, metabolic labeling of MR cells with 75Se revealed a loss of the abundant glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) band, whereas other selenoproteins were preserved. To characterize the MR selenoproteome, we sequenced its liver transcriptome. Gene reconstruction revealed standard selenoprotein sequences except for GPx1, which had an early stop codon, and SelP, which had low selenocysteine content. When expressed in HEK 293 cells, MR GPx1 was present in low levels, and its expression could be rescued neither by removing the early stop codon nor by replacing its SECIS element. In addition, GPx1 mRNA was present in lower levels in MR liver than in mouse liver. To determine if GPx1 deficiency could account for the reduced selenium content, we analyzed GPx1 knock-out mice and found reduced selenium levels in their livers and kidneys. Thus, MR is characterized by the reduced utilization of selenium due to a specific defect in GPx1 expression. PMID:21372135

  6. Reduced expression of the NMDA receptor-interacting protein SynGAP causes behavioral abnormalities that model symptoms of Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaochuan; Hamilton, Peter J; Reish, Nicholas J; Sweatt, J David; Miller, Courtney A; Rumbaugh, Gavin

    2009-06-01

    Abnormal function of NMDA receptors is believed to be a contributing factor to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. NMDAR subunits and postsynaptic-interacting proteins of these channels are abnormally expressed in some patients with this illness. In mice, reduced NMDAR expression leads to behaviors analogous to symptoms of schizophrenia, but reports of animals with mutations in core postsynaptic density proteins having similar a phenotype have yet to be reported. Here we show that reduced expression of the neuronal RasGAP and NMDAR-associated protein, SynGAP, results in abnormal behaviors strikingly similar to that reported in mice with reduced NMDAR function. SynGAP mutant mice exhibited nonhabituating and persistent hyperactivity that was ameliorated by the antipsychotic clozapine. An NMDAR antagonist, MK-801, induced hyperactivity in normal mice but SynGAP mutants were less responsive, suggesting that NMDAR hypofunction contributes to this behavioral abnormality. SynGAP mutants exhibited enhanced startle reactivity and impaired sensory-motor gating. These mice also displayed a complete lack of social memory and a propensity toward social isolation. Finally, SynGAP mutants had deficits in cued fear conditioning and working memory, indicating abnormal function of circuits that control emotion and choice. Our results demonstrate that SynGAP mutant mice have gross neurological deficits similar to other mouse models of schizophrenia. Because SynGAP interacts with NMDARs, and the signaling activity of this protein is regulated by these channels, our data in dicate that SynGAP lies downstream of NMDARs and is a required intermediate for normal neural circuit function and behavior. Taken together, these data support the idea that schizophrenia may arise from abnormal signaling pathways that are mediated by NMDA receptors.

  7. Ketorolac reduces spinal astrocytic activation and PAR1 expression associated with attenuation of pain after facet joint injury.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ling; Smith, Jenell R; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2013-05-15

    Chronic neck pain affects up to 70% of persons, with the facet joint being the most common source. Intra-articular injection of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ketorolac reduces post-operative joint-mediated pain; however, the mechanism of its attenuation of facet-mediated pain has not been evaluated. Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) has differential roles in pain maintenance depending on the type and location of painful injury. This study investigated if the timing of intra-articular ketorolac injection after painful cervical facet injury affects behavioral hypersensitivity by modulating spinal astrocyte activation and/or PAR1 expression. Rats underwent a painful joint distraction and received an injection of ketorolac either immediately or 1 day later. Separate control groups included injured rats with a vehicle injection at day 1 and sham operated rats. Forepaw mechanical allodynia was measured for 7 days, and spinal cord tissue was immunolabeled for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and PAR1 expression in the dorsal horn on day 7. Ketorolac administered on day 1 after injury significantly reduced allodynia (p=0.0006) to sham levels, whereas injection immediately after the injury had no effect compared with vehicle. Spinal astrocytic activation followed behavioral responses and was significantly decreased (p=0.009) only for ketorolac given at day 1. Spinal PAR1 (p=0.0025) and astrocytic PAR1 (p=0.012) were significantly increased after injury. Paralleling behavioral data, astrocytic PAR1 was returned to levels in sham only when ketorolac was administered on day 1. Yet, spinal PAR1 was significantly reduced (p<0.0001) by ketorolac independent of timing. Spinal astrocyte expression of PAR1 appears to be associated with the maintenance of facet-mediated pain.

  8. Ketorolac Reduces Spinal Astrocytic Activation and PAR1 Expression Associated with Attenuation of Pain after Facet Joint Injury

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ling; Smith, Jenell R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Chronic neck pain affects up to 70% of persons, with the facet joint being the most common source. Intra-articular injection of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ketorolac reduces post-operative joint-mediated pain; however, the mechanism of its attenuation of facet-mediated pain has not been evaluated. Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) has differential roles in pain maintenance depending on the type and location of painful injury. This study investigated if the timing of intra-articular ketorolac injection after painful cervical facet injury affects behavioral hypersensitivity by modulating spinal astrocyte activation and/or PAR1 expression. Rats underwent a painful joint distraction and received an injection of ketorolac either immediately or 1 day later. Separate control groups included injured rats with a vehicle injection at day 1 and sham operated rats. Forepaw mechanical allodynia was measured for 7 days, and spinal cord tissue was immunolabeled for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and PAR1 expression in the dorsal horn on day 7. Ketorolac administered on day 1 after injury significantly reduced allodynia (p=0.0006) to sham levels, whereas injection immediately after the injury had no effect compared with vehicle. Spinal astrocytic activation followed behavioral responses and was significantly decreased (p=0.009) only for ketorolac given at day 1. Spinal PAR1 (p=0.0025) and astrocytic PAR1 (p=0.012) were significantly increased after injury. Paralleling behavioral data, astrocytic PAR1 was returned to levels in sham only when ketorolac was administered on day 1. Yet, spinal PAR1 was significantly reduced (p<0.0001) by ketorolac independent of timing. Spinal astrocyte expression of PAR1 appears to be associated with the maintenance of facet-mediated pain. PMID:23126437

  9. Reduced expression of DNA repair genes and chemosensitivity in 1p19q codeleted lower-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lei; Deng, Lu; Bai, Harrison X; Sun, James; Neale, Natalie; Wu, Jing; Wang, Yinyan; Chang, Ken; Huang, Raymond Y; Zhang, Paul J; Li, Xuejun; Xiao, Bo; Cao, Ya; Tao, Yongguang; Yang, Li

    2018-06-19

    Lower-grade gliomas (LGGs, defined as WHO grades II and III) with 1p19q codeletion have increased chemosensitivity when compared to LGGs without 1p19q codeletion, but the mechanism is currently unknown. RNAseq data from 515 LGG patients in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were analyzed to compare the effect of expression of the 9 DNA repair genes located on chromosome arms 1p and 19q on progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) between patients who received chemotherapy and those who did not. Chemosensitivity of cells with DNA repair genes knocked down was tested using MTS cell proliferation assay in HS683 cell line and U251 cell line. The expression of 9 DNA repair genes on 1p and 19q was significantly lower in 1p19q-codeleted tumors (n = 175) than in tumors without the codeletion (n = 337) (p < 0.001). In LGG patients who received chemotherapy, lower expression of LIG1, POLD1, PNKP, RAD54L and MUTYH was associated with longer PFS and OS. This difference between chemotherapy and non-chemotherapy groups in the association of gene expression with survival was not observed in non-DNA repair genes located on chromosome arms 1p and 19q. MTS assays showed that knockdown of DNA repair genes LIG1, POLD1, PNKP, RAD54L and MUTYH significantly inhibited recovery in response to temozolomide when compared with control group (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that reduced expression of DNA repair genes on chromosome arms 1p and 19q may account for the increased chemosensitivity of LGGs with 1p19q codeletion.

  10. Reduced dopaminergic tone in hypothalamic neural circuits: expression of a "thrifty" genotype underlying the metabolic syndrome?

    PubMed

    Pijl, Hanno

    2003-11-07

    The thrifty genotype hypothesis postulates that the genetically determined ability to grow obese and insulin resistant in times of food abundance confers a survival advantage in times of famine. Obviously, this ability poses a major health threat in modern times, where food is always available in large quantities. In the last 10-15 years, many genes encoding pathways that orchestrate energy balance and fuel flux have been discovered. This paper summarizes the evidence that diminished dopaminergic tone in hypothalamic nuclei contributes to the "thrifty" genotype/phenotype. Reduced dopaminergic neurotransmission in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of seasonally obese animals appears to drive noradrenalin and NPY mediated transmissions in other nuclei to induce the obesity syndrome at the appropriate time of year. Treatment with dopamine D(2) receptor agonists can fully reverse the metabolic syndrome in these animals. Similar mechanisms are operative in non-seasonal obese animal models. In man, treatment with dopamine D(2) receptor antagonists induces obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, whereas dopamine D(2) receptor activation ameliorates the metabolic profile in obese nondiabetic and diabetic humans. Various loss of function mutations of the dopamine D(2) receptor gene are associated with overweight in humans. In concert, the data support the notion that diminution of dopaminergic (dopamine D(2) receptor mediated) transmission in relevant hypothalamic nuclei sets the stage for efficient partitioning of ingested nutrients to contribute to a phenotype that is not so thrifty anymore.

  11. Liver-specific expression of carboxylesterase 1g/esterase-x reduces hepatic steatosis, counteracts dyslipidemia and improves insulin signaling.

    PubMed

    Bahitham, Wesam; Watts, Russell; Nelson, Randal; Lian, Jihong; Lehner, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Ces1g/Es-x deficiency in mice results in weight gain, insulin resistance, fatty liver and hyperlipidemia through upregulation of de novo lipogenesis and oversecretion of triacylglycerol (TG)-rich lipoproteins. Here, we show that restoration of Ces1g/Es-x expression only in the liver significantly reduced hepatic TG concentration accompanied by decreased size of lipid droplets, reduced secretion of very low-density lipoproteins and improved insulin-mediated signal transduction in the liver. Collectively, these results demonstrate that hepatic Ces1g/Es-x plays a critical role in limiting hepatic steatosis, very low-density lipoprotein assembly and in augmenting insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Acute resistance exercise reduces increased gene expression in muscle atrophy of ovariectomised arthritic rats

    PubMed Central

    Furlanetto, Roberto; de Paula Souza, Aletéia; de Oliveira, Anselmo Alves; Nunes, Paulo Ricardo Prado; Michelin, Márcia Antoniazi; Chica, Javier Emilio Lazo; Murta, Eddie Fernando Candido

    2017-01-01

    Objective We studied the effect of resistance exercise (RE) on mRNA levels of atrogin-1, MuRF-1, and myostatin in the gastrocnemius muscle of arthritic rats after loss of ovarian function (LOF). Material and methods Thirty female Wistar rats (nine weeks old, 195.3 ±17.4 grams) were randomly allocated into five groups: control group (CT-Sham; n = 6); group with rheumatoid arthritis (RA; n = 6); group with rheumatoid arthritis subjected to RE (RAEX; n = 6); ovariectomy group with rheumatoid arthritis (RAOV; n = 6); and an ovariectomy group with rheumatoid arthritis subjected to RE (RAOVEX; n = 6). After 15 days of intra-articular injections with Met-BSA the animals were subjected to RE and six hours after workout were euthanised. Results The rheumatoid arthritis provoked reduction in the cross-sectional area (CSA) of muscle fibres, but the CSA was lower in the RAOV when compared to the RA groups. Skeletal muscle atrogin-1 mRNA level was increased in arthritic rats (RA and RAOV), but the atrogin-1 level was higher in RAOV group when compared to other arthritic groups. The Muscle MuRF-1 mRNA level was also increased in the RAOV group. The increased atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 mRNA levels were lower in the RAOVEX group than in the RAOV group. The myostatin mRNA level was similar in all groups, except for the RAOVEX group, in which it was lower than the other groups. Conclusions LOF results in increased loss of skeletal muscle-related ubiquitin ligases (atrogin-1 and MuRF-1). However, the RE reduces the atrogin-1, MuRF-1, and myostatin mRNA levels in muscle of arthritic rats affected by LOF. PMID:28250722

  13. Reduced expression of the epidermal growth factor signaling system in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Armant, D R; Fritz, R; Kilburn, B A; Kim, Y M; Nien, J K; Maihle, N J; Romero, R; Leach, R E

    2015-03-01

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling system regulates trophoblast differentiation, and its disruption could contribute to perinatal disease. We hypothesized that this pathway is altered in preeclampsia, a disorder associated with trophoblast apoptosis and failure to invade and remodel the uterine spiral arteries. Six EGF family peptides and a truncated EGF receptor splice variant (p110/EGFR) were examined using immunohistochemistry in the trophoblast of placentas (N = 76) from women with preeclampsia, and compared to placentas from women of similar gestational age (GA) with preterm labor (PTL) or small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses, as well as normal term placentas. EGF, transforming growth factor-α (TGFA), and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF) were evaluated using ELISA in maternal plasma from another 20 pregnancies with or without preeclampsia. Cell death was evaluated in the HTR-8/SVneo human cytotrophoblast cell line using TUNEL to evaluate the protective effects of EGF peptides. Trophoblast HBEGF, TGFA, and EGF were significantly reduced in preeclampsia compared to PTL and SGA, while p110/EGFR accumulated significantly on the surface of the chorionic villi (p < 0.05). Plasma EGF levels were significantly decreased in preeclamptic patients, compared to non-preeclamptic patients (p < 0.05). HBEGF, EGF, TGFA, epiregulin, and betacellulin each blocked cytotrophoblast cell death in vitro (p < 0.05). Three members of the EGF family are dysregulated in placentas with preeclampsia, whereas p110/EGFR, a potential EGF receptor antagonist, is overexpressed. These findings are consistent with the concept that disruption of the EGF signaling system contributes to aberrant trophoblast development associated with preeclampsia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reduced Expression of the Epidermal Growth Factor Signaling System in Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Armant, D. Randall; FRITZ, Rani; KILBURN, Brian A.; KIM, Yeon Mee; NIEN, Jyh Kae; MAIHLE, Nita J.; ROMERO, Roberto; LEACH, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling system regulates trophoblast differentiation, and its disruption could contribute to perinatal disease. We hypothesized that this pathway is altered in preeclampsia, a disorder associated with trophoblast apoptosis and failure to invade and remodel the uterine spiral arteries. Methods Six EGF family peptides and a truncated EGF receptor splice variant (p110/EGFR) were examined using immunocytochemistry in the trophoblast of placentas (N=76) from women with preeclampsia, and compared to placentas from women of similar gestational age (GA) with preterm labor (PTL) or small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses, as well as normal term placentas. EGF, transforming growth factor-α (TGFA), and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF) were evaluated using ELISA in maternal plasma from another 20 pregnancies with or without preeclampsia. Cell death was evaluated in the HTR-8/SVneo human cytotrophoblast cell line using TUNEL to evaluate the protective effects of EGF peptides. Results Trophoblast HBEGF, TGFA, and EGF were significantly reduced in preeclampsia compared to PTL and SGA, while p110/EGFR accumulated significantly on the surface of the chorionic villi (p<0.05). Plasma EGF levels were significantly decreased in preeclamptic patients, compared to non-preeclamptic patients (p<0.05). HBEGF, EGF, TGFA, epiregulin, and betacellulin each blocked cytotrophoblast cell death in vitro (p< 0.05). Discussion Three members of the EGF family are dysregulated in placentas with preeclampsia, whereas p110/EGFR, a potential EGF receptor antagonist, is overexpressed. These findings are consistent with the concept that disruption of the EGF signaling system contributes to aberrant trophoblast development associated with preeclampsia. PMID:25589361

  15. Acute resistance exercise reduces increased gene expression in muscle atrophy of ovariectomised arthritic rats.

    PubMed

    Furlanetto, Roberto; de Paula Souza, Aletéia; de Oliveira, Anselmo Alves; Nunes, Paulo Ricardo Prado; Michelin, Márcia Antoniazi; Chica, Javier Emilio Lazo; Murta, Eddie Fernando Candido; Orsatti, Fábio Lera

    2016-12-01

    We studied the effect of resistance exercise (RE) on mRNA levels of atrogin-1, MuRF-1, and myostatin in the gastrocnemius muscle of arthritic rats after loss of ovarian function (LOF). Thirty female Wistar rats (nine weeks old, 195.3 ±17.4 grams) were randomly allocated into five groups: control group (CT-Sham; n = 6); group with rheumatoid arthritis (RA; n = 6); group with rheumatoid arthritis subjected to RE (RAEX; n = 6); ovariectomy group with rheumatoid arthritis (RAOV; n = 6); and an ovariectomy group with rheumatoid arthritis subjected to RE (RAOVEX; n = 6). After 15 days of intra-articular injections with Met-BSA the animals were subjected to RE and six hours after workout were euthanised. The rheumatoid arthritis provoked reduction in the cross-sectional area (CSA) of muscle fibres, but the CSA was lower in the RAOV when compared to the RA groups. Skeletal muscle atrogin-1 mRNA level was increased in arthritic rats (RA and RAOV), but the atrogin-1 level was higher in RAOV group when compared to other arthritic groups. The Muscle MuRF-1 mRNA level was also increased in the RAOV group. The increased atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 mRNA levels were lower in the RAOVEX group than in the RAOV group. The myostatin mRNA level was similar in all groups, except for the RAOVEX group, in which it was lower than the other groups. LOF results in increased loss of skeletal muscle-related ubiquitin ligases (atrogin-1 and MuRF-1). However, the RE reduces the atrogin-1, MuRF-1, and myostatin mRNA levels in muscle of arthritic rats affected by LOF.

  16. Morphoproteomics, E6/E7 in-situ hybridization, and biomedical analytics define the etiopathogenesis of HPV-associated oropharyngeal carcinoma and provide targeted therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Brown, Robert E; Naqvi, Syed; McGuire, Mary F; Buryanek, Jamie; Karni, Ron J

    2017-08-17

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as an etiopathogenetic factor in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. The HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes are instrumental in promoting proliferation and blocking differentiation leading to tumorigenesis. Although surgical intervention can remove such tumors, the potential for an etiologic field effect with recurrent disease is real. A downstream effector of E7 oncoprotein, enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), is known to promote proliferation and to pose a block in differentiation and in turn, could lead to HPV-induced malignant transformation. However, the EZH2 pathway is amenable to low toxicity therapies designed to promote differentiation to a more benign state and prevent recurrent disease by inhibiting the incorporation of HPV into the genome. This is the first study using clinical specimens to demonstrate EZH2 protein expression in oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC). The study included eight patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma, confirmed p16INK4a- positive by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The tissue expression of E6/E7 messenger RNA (mRNA) was measured by RNAscope® in-situ hybridization technology. Expression of EZH2, Ki-67, and mitotic indices were assessed by morphoproteomic analysis. Biomedical analytics expanded the results with data from Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) and KEGG databases to construct a molecular network pathway for further insights. Expression of E6 and E7 oncogenes in p16INK4a- positive oropharyngeal carcinoma was confirmed. EZH2 and its correlates, including elevated proliferation index (Ki-67) and mitotic progression were also present. Biomedical analytics validated the relationship between HPV- E6 and E7 and the expression of the EZH2 pathway. There is morphoproteomic and mRNA evidence of the association of p16INK4a-HPV infection with the E6 and E7 oncogenes and the expression of EZH2, Ki-67 and mitotic progression in oropharyngeal carcinoma. The molecular network biology was confirmed by

  17. Branched-chain amino acids reduce hepatic iron accumulation and oxidative stress in hepatitis C virus polyprotein-expressing mice

    PubMed Central

    Korenaga, Masaaki; Nishina, Sohji; Korenaga, Keiko; Tomiyama, Yasuyuki; Yoshioka, Naoko; Hara, Yuichi; Sasaki, Yusuke; Shimonaka, Yasushi; Hino, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) reduce the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with cirrhosis. However, the mechanisms that underlie these effects remain unknown. Previously, we reported that oxidative stress in male transgenic mice that expressed hepatitis C virus polyprotein (HCVTgM) caused hepatic iron accumulation by reducing hepcidin transcription, thereby leading to HCC development. This study investigated whether long-term treatment with BCAA reduced hepatic iron accumulation and oxidative stress in iron-overloaded HCVTgM and in patients with HCV-related advanced fibrosis. Methods Male HCVTgM were fed an excess-iron diet that comprised either casein or 3.0% BCAA, or a control diet, for 6 months. Results For HCVTgM, BCAA supplementation increased the serum hepcidin-25 levels and antioxidant status [ratio of biological antioxidant potential (BAP) relative to derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (dROM)], decreased the hepatic iron contents, attenuated reactive oxygen species generation, and restored mitochondrial superoxide dismutase expression and mitochondrial complex I activity in the liver compared with mice fed the control diet. After 48 weeks of BCAA supplementation in patients with HCV-related advanced fibrosis, BAP/dROM and serum hepcidin-25 increased and serum ferritin decreased compared with the pretreatment levels. Conclusions BCAA supplementation reduced oxidative stress by restoring mitochondrial function and improved iron metabolism by increasing hepcidin-25 in both iron-overloaded HCVTgM and patients with HCV-related advanced fibrosis. These activities of BCAA may partially account for their inhibitory effects on HCC development in cirrhosis patients. PMID:25156780

  18. GENETIC CATHEPSIN B DEFICIENCY REDUCES β-AMYLOID IN TRANSGENIC MICE EXPRESSING HUMAN WILD-TYPE AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN

    PubMed Central

    Hook, Vivian Y. H.; Kindy, Mark; Reinheckel, Thomas; Peters, Christoph; Hook, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Neurotoxic β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides participate in Alzheimer’s disease (AD); therefore, reduction of Aβ generated from APP may provide a therapeutic approach for AD. Gene knockout studies in transgenic mice producing human Aβ may identify targets for reducing Aβ. This study shows that knockout of the cathepsin B gene in mice expressing human wild-type APP (hAPPwt) results in substantial decrease of Aβ40 and Aβ42 by 67% in brain, and decreases levels of the C-terminal β-secretase fragment (CTFβ) derived from APP. In contrast, knockout of cathepsin B in mice expressing hAPP with the rare Swedish (Swe) and Indiana (Ind) mutations had no effect on Aβ. The difference in reduction of Aβ in hAPPwt mice, but not in hAPPSwe/Ind mice, shows that the transgenic model can affect cathepsin B gene knockout results. Since most AD patients express hAPPwt, these data validate cathepsin B as a target for development of inhibitors to lower Aβ in AD. PMID:19501042

  19. Genetic cathepsin B deficiency reduces beta-amyloid in transgenic mice expressing human wild-type amyloid precursor protein.

    PubMed

    Hook, Vivian Y H; Kindy, Mark; Reinheckel, Thomas; Peters, Christoph; Hook, Gregory

    2009-08-21

    Neurotoxic beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptides participate in Alzheimer's disease (AD); therefore, reduction of Abeta generated from APP may provide a therapeutic approach for AD. Gene knockout studies in transgenic mice producing human Abeta may identify targets for reducing Abeta. This study shows that knockout of the cathepsin B gene in mice expressing human wild-type APP (hAPPwt) results in substantial decreases in brain Abeta40 and Abeta42 by 67% and decreases in levels of the C-terminal beta-secretase fragment (CTFbeta) derived from APP. In contrast, knockout of cathepsin B in mice expressing hAPP with the rare Swedish (Swe) and Indiana (Ind) mutations had no effect on Abeta. The difference in reduction of Abeta in hAPPwt mice, but not in hAPPSwe/Ind mice, shows that the transgenic model can affect cathepsin B gene knockout results. Since most AD patients express hAPPwt, these data validate cathepsin B as a target for development of inhibitors to lower Abeta in AD.

  20. Nephrin expression is reduced in human diabetic nephropathy: evidence for a distinct role for glycated albumin and angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Doublier, Sophie; Salvidio, Gennaro; Lupia, Enrico; Ruotsalainen, Vesa; Verzola, Daniela; Deferrari, Giacomo; Camussi, Giovanni

    2003-04-01

    We studied the distribution of nephrin in renal biopsies from 17 patients with diabetes and nephrotic syndrome (7 type 1 and 10 type 2 diabetes), 6 patients with diabetes and microalbuminuria (1 type 1 and 5 type 2 diabetes), and 10 normal subjects. Nephrin expression was semiquantitatively evaluated by measuring immunofluorescence intensity by digital image analysis. We found an extensive reduction of nephrin staining in both type 1 (67 +/- 9%; P < 0.001) and type 2 (65 +/- 10%; P < 0.001) diabetic patients with diabetes and nephrotic syndrome when compared with control subjects. The pattern of staining shifted from punctate/linear distribution to granular. In patients with microalbuminuria, the staining pattern of nephrin also showed granular distribution and reduction intensity of 69% in the patient with type 1 diabetes and of 62 +/- 4% (P < 0.001) in the patients with type 2 diabetes. In vitro studies on human cultured podocytes demonstrated that glycated albumin and angiotensin II reduced nephrin expression. Glycated albumin inhibited nephrin synthesis through the engagement of receptor for advanced glycation end products, whereas angiotensin II acted on cytoskeleton redistribution, inducing the shedding of nephrin. This study indicates that the alteration in nephrin expression is an early event in proteinuric patients with diabetes and suggests that glycated albumin and angiotensin II contribute to nephrin downregulation.

  1. Selected Lactic Acid-Producing Bacterial Isolates with the Capacity to Reduce Salmonella Translocation and Virulence Gene Expression in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaojian; Brisbin, Jennifer; Yu, Hai; Wang, Qi; Yin, Fugui; Zhang, Yonggang; Sabour, Parviz; Sharif, Shayan; Gong, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Background Probiotics have been used to control Salmonella colonization/infection in chickens. Yet the mechanisms of probiotic effects are not fully understood. This study has characterized our previously-selected lactic acid-producing bacterial (LAB) isolates for controlling Salmonella infection in chickens, particularly the mechanism underlying the control. Methodology/Principal Findings In vitro studies were conducted to characterize 14 LAB isolates for their tolerance to low pH (2.0) and high bile salt (0.3–1.5%) and susceptibility to antibiotics. Three chicken infection trials were subsequently carried out to evaluate four of the isolates for reducing the burden of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in the broiler cecum. Chicks were gavaged with LAB cultures (106–7 CFU/chick) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 1 day of age followed by Salmonella challenge (104 CFU/chick) next day. Samples of cecal digesta, spleen, and liver were examined for Salmonella counts on days 1, 3, or 4 post-challenge. Salmonella in the cecum from Trial 3 was also assessed for the expression of ten virulence genes located in its pathogenicity island-1 (SPI-1). These genes play a role in Salmonella intestinal invasion. Tested LAB isolates (individuals or mixed cultures) were unable to lower Salmonella burden in the chicken cecum, but able to attenuate Salmonella infection in the spleen and liver. The LAB treatments also reduced almost all SPI-1 virulence gene expression (9 out of 10) in the chicken cecum, particularly at the low dose. In vitro treatment with the extracellular culture fluid from a LAB culture also down-regulated most SPI-1 virulence gene expression. Conclusions/Significance The possible correlation between attenuation of Salmonella infection in the chicken spleen and liver and reduction of Salmonella SPI-1 virulence gene expression in the chicken cecum by LAB isolates is a new observation. Suppression of Salmonella virulence gene expression in vivo can be one

  2. Reduced expression of selective immune-related genes in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) monocytes exposed to atrazine.

    PubMed

    Kirsten, Karina Schreiner; Canova, Raíssa; Soveral, Lucas de Figueiredo; Friedrich, Maria Tereza; Frandoloso, Rafael; Kreutz, Luiz Carlos

    2017-05-01

    The effect of atrazine (ATZ) and its metabolites on aquatic vertebrate species has been a matter of concern to researchers and environmentalist. In this study we exposed head kidney monocytes to sublethal concentrations of atrazine (1 and 10 μg/ml -1 ), corresponding to 1% and 10% of the LC 50-96h , to evaluate the expression of immune-related genes central to immune stimulation. The mRNA levels of TNF-α, Mieloperoxidase and Mx genes were significantly reduced following 24 h exposure to both concentrations of ATZ. The mRNA levels of iRAK4 were reduced only at the higher ATZ concentration and the mRNA levels of IL-1β were not affected. The results reported here support our previous findings on the immunosuppressive effect of ATZ indicating its potential to interfere with the expression of immune-related genes, and strengthen the need to regulate ATZ usage aiming to preserve animal and human health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Seizure-like activity in a juvenile Angelman syndrome mouse model is attenuated by reducing Arc expression

    PubMed Central

    Mandel-Brehm, Caleigh; Salogiannis, John; Dhamne, Sameer C.; Rotenberg, Alexander; Greenberg, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder arising from loss-of-function mutations in the maternally inherited copy of the UBE3A gene, and is characterized by an absence of speech, excessive laughter, cognitive delay, motor deficits, and seizures. Despite the fact that the symptoms of AS occur in early childhood, behavioral characterization of AS mouse models has focused primarily on adult phenotypes. In this report we describe juvenile behaviors in AS mice that are strain-independent and clinically relevant. We find that young AS mice, compared with their wild-type littermates, produce an increased number of ultrasonic vocalizations. In addition, young AS mice have defects in motor coordination, as well as abnormal brain activity that results in an enhanced seizure-like response to an audiogenic challenge. The enhanced seizure-like activity, but not the increased ultrasonic vocalizations or motor deficits, is rescued in juvenile AS mice by genetically reducing the expression level of the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein, Arc. These findings suggest that therapeutic interventions that reduce the level of Arc expression have the potential to reverse the seizures associated with AS. In addition, the identification of aberrant behaviors in young AS mice may provide clues regarding the neural circuit defects that occur in AS and ultimately allow new approaches for treating this disorder. PMID:25848016

  4. Seizure-like activity in a juvenile Angelman syndrome mouse model is attenuated by reducing Arc expression.

    PubMed

    Mandel-Brehm, Caleigh; Salogiannis, John; Dhamne, Sameer C; Rotenberg, Alexander; Greenberg, Michael E

    2015-04-21

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder arising from loss-of-function mutations in the maternally inherited copy of the UBE3A gene, and is characterized by an absence of speech, excessive laughter, cognitive delay, motor deficits, and seizures. Despite the fact that the symptoms of AS occur in early childhood, behavioral characterization of AS mouse models has focused primarily on adult phenotypes. In this report we describe juvenile behaviors in AS mice that are strain-independent and clinically relevant. We find that young AS mice, compared with their wild-type littermates, produce an increased number of ultrasonic vocalizations. In addition, young AS mice have defects in motor coordination, as well as abnormal brain activity that results in an enhanced seizure-like response to an audiogenic challenge. The enhanced seizure-like activity, but not the increased ultrasonic vocalizations or motor deficits, is rescued in juvenile AS mice by genetically reducing the expression level of the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein, Arc. These findings suggest that therapeutic interventions that reduce the level of Arc expression have the potential to reverse the seizures associated with AS. In addition, the identification of aberrant behaviors in young AS mice may provide clues regarding the neural circuit defects that occur in AS and ultimately allow new approaches for treating this disorder.

  5. Incensole acetate reduces depressive-like behavior and modulates hippocampal BDNF and CRF expression of submissive animals.

    PubMed

    Moussaieff, Arieh; Gross, Moshe; Nesher, Elimelech; Tikhonov, Tatiana; Yadid, Gal; Pinhasov, Albert

    2012-12-01

    Incensole acetate (IA), a constituent of Boswellia resin ('frankincense'), was previously demonstrated to exhibit an antidepressive-like effect in the Forced Swim Test (FST) in mice following single dose administration (50 mg/kg). Here, we show that acute administration of considerably lower dose (10 mg/kg) IA to selectively bred mice, showing prominent submissive behavior, exerted significant antidepressant-like effects in the FST. Furthermore, chronic administration of 1 or 5 mg/kg per day of IA for three consecutive weeks dose- and time-dependently reduced the submissiveness of the mice in the Dominant-Submissive Relationship test, developed to screen the chronic effect of antidepressants. This behavioral effect was concomitant to reduced serum corticosterone levels, dose-dependent down-regulation of corticotropin releasing factor and up-regulation of brain derived neurotrophic factor transcripts IV and VI expression in the hippocampus. These data suggest that IA modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and influences hippocampal gene expression, leading to beneficial behavioral effects supporting its potential as a novel treatment of depressive-like disorders.

  6. The histone acetyltransferase p300 inhibitor C646 reduces pro-inflammatory gene expression and inhibits histone deacetylases

    PubMed Central

    van den Bosch, Thea; Boichenko, Alexander; Leus, Niek G. J.; Eleni Ourailidou, Maria; Wapenaar, Hannah; Rotili, Dante; Mai, Antonello; Imhof, Axel; Bischoff, Rainer; Haisma, Hidde J.; Dekker, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylations are reversible posttranslational modifications of histone and non-histone proteins that play important regulatory roles in signal transduction cascades and gene expression. Lysine acetylations are regulated by histone acetyltransferases as writers and histone deacetylases as erasers. Because of their role in signal transduction cascades, these enzymes are important players in inflammation. Therefore, applications of histone acetyltransferase inhibitors to reduce inflammatory responses are interesting. Among the few histone acetyltransferase inhibitors described, C646 is one of the most potent (Ki of 0.4 μM for histone acetyltransferase p300). C646 was described to regulate the NF-κB pathway; an important pathway in inflammatory responses, which is regulated by acetylation. Interestingly, this pathway has been implicated in asthma and COPD. Therefore we hypothesized that via regulation of the NF-κB signaling pathway, C646 can inhibit pro-inflammatory gene expression, and have potential for the treatment of inflammatory lung diseases. In line with this, here we demonstrate that C646 reduces pro-inflammatory gene expression in RAW264.7 murine macrophages and murine precision-cut lung slices. To unravel its effects on cellular substrates we applied mass spectrometry and found, counterintuitively, a slight increase in acetylation of histone H3. Based on this finding, and structural features of C646, we presumed inhibitory activity of C646 on histone deacetylases, and indeed found inhibition of histone deacetylases from 7 μM and higher concentrations. This indicates that C646 has potential for further development towards applications in the treatment of inflammation, however, its newly discovered lack of selectivity at higher concentrations needs to be taken into account. PMID:26718586

  7. Boron Toxicity Tolerance in Barley through Reduced Expression of the Multifunctional Aquaporin HvNIP2;11[W

    PubMed Central

    Schnurbusch, Thorsten; Hayes, Julie; Hrmova, Maria; Baumann, Ute; Ramesh, Sunita A.; Tyerman, Stephen D.; Langridge, Peter; Sutton, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Boron (B) toxicity is a significant limitation to cereal crop production in a number of regions worldwide. Here we describe the cloning of a gene from barley (Hordeum vulgare), underlying the chromosome 6H B toxicity tolerance quantitative trait locus. It is the second B toxicity tolerance gene identified in barley. Previously, we identified the gene Bot1 that functions as an efflux transporter in B toxicity-tolerant barley to move B out of the plant. The gene identified in this work encodes HvNIP2;1, an aquaporin from the nodulin-26-like intrinsic protein (NIP) subfamily that was recently described as a silicon influx transporter in barley and rice (Oryza sativa). Here we show that a rice mutant for this gene also shows reduced B accumulation in leaf blades compared to wild type and that the mutant protein alters growth of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under high B. HvNIP2;1 facilitates significant transport of B when expressed in Xenopus oocytes compared to controls and to another NIP (NOD26), and also in yeast plasma membranes that appear to have relatively high B permeability. We propose that tolerance to high soil B is mediated by reduced expression of HvNIP2;1 to limit B uptake, as well as by increased expression of Bot1 to remove B from roots and sensitive tissues. Together with Bot1, the multifunctional aquaporin HvNIP2;1 is an important determinant of B toxicity tolerance in barley. PMID:20581256

  8. Hydrocortisone reduces Toll-like receptor 4 expression on peripheral CD14+ monocytes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Bahador; Sohrabi, Bahram; Movassaghpour, Ali Akbar; Mashayekhi, Simin; Garjani, Afagh; Shokri, Mehriar; Pezeshkian, Masoud; Garjani, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from several lines of investigations suggests that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is involved in atherosclerosis as a bridge between innate and acquired immunity. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) can trigger inflammation through activation of human TLR4 (hTLR4) on monocytes. Hydrocortisone as an anti-inflammatory and immuno-suppressant agent has multiple mechanisms of action. In this study, we aimed at assessing the effects of hydrocortisone on monocyte expression and activity of hTLR4 in patients underwent PCI. Blood samples were taken from a total of 71 patients with chronic stable angina who were scheduled for a PCI, before the intervention. Thirty patients received 100 mg hydrocortisone prior to the procedure. Control group was composed of 41 patients underwent PCI without receiving hydrocortisone. Blood collection was repeated 2 and 4 h after PCI. The expression of hTLR4 on the surface of CD14+ monocytes and the serum levels of TNF-α and IL-1β were measured using flowcytometry and Sandwich ELISA. Compared with controls, hydrocortisone significantly reduced monocyte expression of hTLR4 in test group (P<0.01). In addition, it had a significant effect on reduction of serum concentrations of TNF-α and IL-1β in test group in a time-dependent manner (P<0.01). In this study, hydrocortisone was able to reduce the hTLR4/CD14 positive monocytes and its related pro-inflammatory cytokines, thus it can decrease inflammatory responses following PCI.

  9. Therapeutic suppression of translation initiation factor eIF4E expression reduces tumor growth without toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Graff, Jeremy R.; Konicek, Bruce W.; Vincent, Thomas M.; Lynch, Rebecca L.; Monteith, David; Weir, Spring N.; Schwier, Phil; Capen, Andrew; Goode, Robin L.; Dowless, Michele S.; Chen, Yuefeng; Zhang, Hong; Sissons, Sean; Cox, Karen; McNulty, Ann M.; Parsons, Stephen H.; Wang, Tao; Sams, Lillian; Geeganage, Sandaruwan; Douglass, Larry E.; Neubauer, Blake Lee; Dean, Nicholas M.; Blanchard, Kerry; Shou, Jianyong; Stancato, Louis F.; Carter, Julia H.; Marcusson, Eric G.

    2007-01-01

    Expression of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) is commonly elevated in human and experimental cancers, promoting angiogenesis and tumor growth. Elevated eIF4E levels selectively increase translation of growth factors important in malignancy (e.g., VEGF, cyclin D1) and is thereby an attractive anticancer therapeutic target. Yet to date, no eIF4E-specific therapy has been developed. Herein we report development of eIF4E-specific antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) designed to have the necessary tissue stability and nuclease resistance required for systemic anticancer therapy. In mammalian cultured cells, these ASOs specifically targeted the eIF4E mRNA for destruction, repressing expression of eIF4E-regulated proteins (e.g., VEGF, cyclin D1, survivin, c-myc, Bcl-2), inducing apoptosis, and preventing endothelial cells from forming vessel-like structures. Most importantly, intravenous ASO administration selectively and significantly reduced eIF4E expression in human tumor xenografts, significantly suppressing tumor growth. Because these ASOs also target murine eIF4E, we assessed the impact of eIF4E reduction in normal tissues. Despite reducing eIF4E levels by 80% in mouse liver, eIF4E-specific ASO administration did not affect body weight, organ weight, or liver transaminase levels, thereby providing the first in vivo evidence that cancers may be more susceptible to eIF4E inhibition than normal tissues. These data have prompted eIF4E-specific ASO clinical trials for the treatment of human cancers. PMID:17786246

  10. Hydrocortisone Reduces Toll-Like Receptor 4 Expression on Peripheral CD14+ Monocytes in Patients Undergoing Percutanoues Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Bahador; Sohrabi, Bahram; Movassaghpour, Ali Akbar; Mashayekhi, Simin; Garjani, Afagh; Shokri, Mehriar; Pezeshkian, Masoud; Garjani, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Bacground: Evidence from several lines of investigations suggests that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is involved in atherosclerosis as a bridge between innate and acquired immunity. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) can trigger inflammation through activation of human TLR4 (hTLR4) on monocytes. Hydrocortisone as an anti-inflammatory and immuno-suppressant agent has multiple mechanisms of action. In this study, we aimed at assessing the effects of hydrocortisone on monocyte expression and activity of hTLR4 in patients underwent PCI. Methods: Blood samples were taken from a total of 71 patients with chronic stable angina who were scheduled for a PCI, before the intervention. Thirty patients received 100 mg hydrocortisone prior to the procedure. Control group was composed of 41 patients underwent PCI without receiving hydrocortisone. Blood collection was repeated 2 and 4 h after PCI. The expression of hTLR4 on the surface of CD14+ monocytes and the serum levels of TNF-α and IL-1β were measured using flowcytometry and Sandwich ELISA. Results: Compared with controls, hydrocortisone significantly reduced monocyte expression of hTLR4 in test group (P<0.01). In addition, it had a significant effect on reduction of serum concentrations of TNF-α and IL-1β in test group in a time-dependent manner (P<0.01). Conclusion: In this study, hydrocortisone was able to reduce the hTLR4/CD14 positive monocytes and its related pro-inflammatory cytokines, thus it can decrease inflammatory responses following PCI. PMID:24518547

  11. Spexin peptide is expressed in human endocrine and epithelial tissues and reduced after glucose load in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gu, Liping; Ma, Yuhang; Gu, Mingyu; Zhang, Ying; Yan, Shuai; Li, Na; Wang, Yufan; Ding, Xiaoying; Yin, Jiajing; Fan, Nengguang; Peng, Yongde

    2015-09-01

    Spexin mRNA and protein are widely expressed in rat tissues and associate with weight loss in rodents of diet-induced obesity. Its location in endocrine and epithelial cells has also been suggested. Spexin is a novel peptide that involves weight loss in rodents of diet-induced obesity. Therefore, we aimed to examine its expression in human tissues and test whether spexin could have a role in glucose and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The expression of the spexin gene and immunoreactivity in the adrenal gland, skin, stomach, small intestine, liver, thyroid, pancreatic islets, visceral fat, lung, colon, and kidney was higher than that in the muscle and connective tissue. Immunoreactive serum spexin levels were reduced in T2DM patients and correlated with fasting blood glucose (FBG, r=-0.686, P<0.001), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, r=-0.632, P<0.001), triglyceride (TG, r=-0.236, P<0.001) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, r=-0.382, P<0.001). A negative correlation of blood glucose with spexin was observed during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Spexin is intensely expressed in normal human endocrine and epithelial tissues, indicating that spexin may be involved in physiological functions of endocrine and in several other tissues. Circulating spexin levels are low in T2DM patients and negatively related to blood glucose and lipids suggesting that the peptide may play a role in glucose and lipid metabolism in T2DM. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Withaferin-A Reduces Type I Collagen Expression In Vitro and Inhibits Development of Myocardial Fibrosis In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Challa, Azariyas A.; Vukmirovic, Milica; Blackmon, John; Stefanovic, Branko

    2012-01-01

    Type I collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body. Its excessive synthesis results in fibrosis of various organs. Fibrosis is a major medical problem without an existing cure. Excessive synthesis of type I collagen in fibrosis is primarily due to stabilization of collagen mRNAs. We recently reported that intermediate filaments composed of vimentin regulate collagen synthesis by stabilizing collagen mRNAs. Vimentin is a primary target of Withaferin-A (WF-A). Therefore, we hypothesized that WF-A may reduce type I collagen production by disrupting vimentin filaments and decreasing the stability of collagen mRNAs. This study is to determine if WF-A exhibits anti-fibrotic properties in vitro and in vivo and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of its action. In lung, skin and heart fibroblasts WF-A disrupted vimentin filaments at concentrations of 0.5–1.5 µM and reduced 3 fold the half-lives of collagen α1(I) and α2(I) mRNAs and protein expression. In addition, WF-A inhibited TGF-β1 induced phosphorylation of TGF-β1 receptor I, Smad3 phosphorylation and transcription of collagen genes. WF-A also inhibited in vitro activation of primary hepatic stellate cells and decreased their type I collagen expression. In mice, administration of 4 mg/kg WF-A daily for 2 weeks reduced isoproterenol-induced myocardial fibrosis by 50%. Our findings provide strong evidence that Withaferin-A could act as an anti-fibrotic compound against fibroproliferative diseases, including, but not limited to, cardiac interstitial fibrosis. PMID:22900077

  13. Hypothalamic over-expression of VGF in the Siberian hamster increases energy expenditure and reduces body weight gain

    PubMed Central

    Brameld, John M.; Hill, Phil; Cocco, Cristina; Noli, Barbara; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Barrett, Perry; Ebling, Francis J. P.; Jethwa, Preeti H.

    2017-01-01

    VGF (non-acronymic) was first highlighted to have a role in energy homeostasis through experiments involving dietary manipulation in mice. Fasting increased VGF mRNA in the Arc and levels were subsequently reduced upon refeeding. This anabolic role for VGF was supported by observations in a VGF null (VGF-/-) mouse and in the diet-induced and gold-thioglucose obese mice. However, this anabolic role for VGF has not been supported by a number of subsequent studies investigating the physiological effects of VGF-derived peptides. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of TLQP-21 increased resting energy expenditure and rectal temperature in mice and protected against diet-induced obesity. Similarly, ICV infusion of TLQP-21 into Siberian hamsters significantly reduced body weight, but this was due to a decrease in food intake, with no effect on energy expenditure. Subsequently NERP-2 was shown to increase food intake in rats via the orexin system, suggesting opposing roles for these VGF-derived peptides. Thus to further elucidate the role of hypothalamic VGF in the regulation of energy homeostasis we utilised a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector to over-express VGF in adult male Siberian hamsters, thus avoiding any developmental effects or associated functional compensation. Initially, hypothalamic over-expression of VGF in adult Siberian hamsters produced no effect on metabolic parameters, but by 12 weeks post-infusion hamsters had increased oxygen consumption and a tendency to increased carbon dioxide production; this attenuated body weight gain, reduced interscapular white adipose tissue and resulted in a compensatory increase in food intake. These observed changes in energy expenditure and food intake were associated with an increase in the hypothalamic contents of the VGF-derived peptides AQEE, TLQP and NERP-2. The complex phenotype of the VGF-/- mice is a likely consequence of global ablation of the gene and its derived peptides during development, as well

  14. Hypothalamic over-expression of VGF in the Siberian hamster increases energy expenditure and reduces body weight gain.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jo E; Brameld, John M; Hill, Phil; Cocco, Cristina; Noli, Barbara; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Barrett, Perry; Ebling, Francis J P; Jethwa, Preeti H

    2017-01-01

    VGF (non-acronymic) was first highlighted to have a role in energy homeostasis through experiments involving dietary manipulation in mice. Fasting increased VGF mRNA in the Arc and levels were subsequently reduced upon refeeding. This anabolic role for VGF was supported by observations in a VGF null (VGF-/-) mouse and in the diet-induced and gold-thioglucose obese mice. However, this anabolic role for VGF has not been supported by a number of subsequent studies investigating the physiological effects of VGF-derived peptides. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of TLQP-21 increased resting energy expenditure and rectal temperature in mice and protected against diet-induced obesity. Similarly, ICV infusion of TLQP-21 into Siberian hamsters significantly reduced body weight, but this was due to a decrease in food intake, with no effect on energy expenditure. Subsequently NERP-2 was shown to increase food intake in rats via the orexin system, suggesting opposing roles for these VGF-derived peptides. Thus to further elucidate the role of hypothalamic VGF in the regulation of energy homeostasis we utilised a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector to over-express VGF in adult male Siberian hamsters, thus avoiding any developmental effects or associated functional compensation. Initially, hypothalamic over-expression of VGF in adult Siberian hamsters produced no effect on metabolic parameters, but by 12 weeks post-infusion hamsters had increased oxygen consumption and a tendency to increased carbon dioxide production; this attenuated body weight gain, reduced interscapular white adipose tissue and resulted in a compensatory increase in food intake. These observed changes in energy expenditure and food intake were associated with an increase in the hypothalamic contents of the VGF-derived peptides AQEE, TLQP and NERP-2. The complex phenotype of the VGF-/- mice is a likely consequence of global ablation of the gene and its derived peptides during development, as well

  15. Viscous dietary fiber reduces adiposity and plasma leptin and increases muscle expression of fat oxidation genes in rats.

    PubMed

    Islam, Ajmila; Civitarese, Anthony E; Hesslink, Robert L; Gallaher, Daniel D

    2012-02-01

    Dietary interventions that reduce accumulation of body fat are of great interest. Consumption of viscous dietary fibers cause well-known positive metabolic effects, such as reductions in the postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations. However, their effect on body composition and fuel utilization has not been previously studied. To examine this, rats were fed a viscous nonfermentable dietary fiber, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), for 6 weeks. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and fat pad weight. Plasma adipokines, AMP kinase activation, and enzyme and mRNA analysis of key regulators of energetics in liver and soleus muscle were measured. The HPMC diet significantly lowered percent body fat mass and increased percent lean body mass, compared to a cellulose-containing diet (no viscosity). Fasting leptin was reduced 42% and resistin 28% in the HPMC group compared to the cellulose group. Rats fed HPMC had greater activation of AMP kinase in liver and muscle and lower phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) expression in liver. mRNA expression in skeletal muscle was significantly increased for carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B (CPT-1B), PPARγ coactivator 1α, PPARδ and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3), as was citrate synthase (CS) activity, in the HPMC group relative to the cellulose group. These results indicate that viscous dietary fiber preserves lean body mass and reduces adiposity, possibly by increasing mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle, and thus represents a metabolic effect of viscous fiber not previously described. Thus, viscous dietary fiber may be a useful dietary component to assist in reduction of body fat.

  16. Human Papillomavirus E6E7-Mediated Adenovirus Cell Killing: Selectivity of Mutant Adenovirus Replication in Organotypic Cultures of Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Balagué, Cristina; Noya, Francisco; Alemany, Ramon; Chow, Louise T.; Curiel, David T.

    2001-01-01

    Replication-competent adenoviruses are being investigated as potential anticancer agents. Exclusive virus replication in cancer cells has been proposed as a safety trait to be considered in the design of oncolytic adenoviruses. From this perspective, we have investigated several adenovirus mutants for their potential to conditionally replicate and promote the killing of cells expressing human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncoproteins, which are present in a high percentage of anogenital cancers. For this purpose, we have employed an organotypic model of human stratified squamous epithelium derived from primary keratinocytes that have been engineered to express HPV-18 oncoproteins stably. We show that, whereas wild-type adenovirus promotes a widespread cytopathic effect in all infected cells, E1A- and E1A/E1B-deleted adenoviruses cause no deleterious effect regardless of the coexpression of HPV18 E6E7. An adenovirus deleted in the CR2 domain of E1A, necessary for binding to the pRB family of pocket proteins, shows no selectivity of replication as it efficiently kills all normal and E6E7-expressing keratinocytes. Finally, an adenovirus mutant deleted in the CR1 and CR2 domains of E1A exhibits preferential replication and cell killing in HPV E6E7-expressing cultures. We conclude that the organotypic keratinocyte culture represents a distinct model to evaluate adenovirus selectivity and that, based on this model, further modifications of the adenovirus genome are required to restrict adenovirus replication to tumor cells. PMID:11462032

  17. Express

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Express ; CASRN 101200 - 48 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  18. Incongruence Between Observers’ and Observed Facial Muscle Activation Reduces Recognition of Emotional Facial Expressions From Video Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Wingenbach, Tanja S. H.; Brosnan, Mark; Pfaltz, Monique C.; Plichta, Michael M.; Ashwin, Chris

    2018-01-01

    According to embodied cognition accounts, viewing others’ facial emotion can elicit the respective emotion representation in observers which entails simulations of sensory, motor, and contextual experiences. In line with that, published research found viewing others’ facial emotion to elicit automatic matched facial muscle activation, which was further found to facilitate emotion recognition. Perhaps making congruent facial muscle activity explicit produces an even greater recognition advantage. If there is conflicting sensory information, i.e., incongruent facial muscle activity, this might impede recognition. The effects of actively manipulating facial muscle activity on facial emotion recognition from videos were investigated across three experimental conditions: (a) explicit imitation of viewed facial emotional expressions (stimulus-congruent condition), (b) pen-holding with the lips (stimulus-incongruent condition), and (c) passive viewing (control condition). It was hypothesised that (1) experimental condition (a) and (b) result in greater facial muscle activity than (c), (2) experimental condition (a) increases emotion recognition accuracy from others’ faces compared to (c), (3) experimental condition (b) lowers recognition accuracy for expressions with a salient facial feature in the lower, but not the upper face area, compared to (c). Participants (42 males, 42 females) underwent a facial emotion recognition experiment (ADFES-BIV) while electromyography (EMG) was recorded from five facial muscle sites. The experimental conditions’ order was counter-balanced. Pen-holding caused stimulus-incongruent facial muscle activity for expressions with facial feature saliency in the lower face region, which reduced recognition of lower face region emotions. Explicit imitation caused stimulus-congruent facial muscle activity without modulating recognition. Methodological implications are discussed. PMID:29928240

  19. Incongruence Between Observers' and Observed Facial Muscle Activation Reduces Recognition of Emotional Facial Expressions From Video Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Wingenbach, Tanja S H; Brosnan, Mark; Pfaltz, Monique C; Plichta, Michael M; Ashwin, Chris

    2018-01-01

    According to embodied cognition accounts, viewing others' facial emotion can elicit the respective emotion representation in observers which entails simulations of sensory, motor, and contextual experiences. In line with that, published research found viewing others' facial emotion to elicit automatic matched facial muscle activation, which was further found to facilitate emotion recognition. Perhaps making congruent facial muscle activity explicit produces an even greater recognition advantage. If there is conflicting sensory information, i.e., incongruent facial muscle activity, this might impede recognition. The effects of actively manipulating facial muscle activity on facial emotion recognition from videos were investigated across three experimental conditions: (a) explicit imitation of viewed facial emotional expressions (stimulus-congruent condition), (b) pen-holding with the lips (stimulus-incongruent condition), and (c) passive viewing (control condition). It was hypothesised that (1) experimental condition (a) and (b) result in greater facial muscle activity than (c), (2) experimental condition (a) increases emotion recognition accuracy from others' faces compared to (c), (3) experimental condition (b) lowers recognition accuracy for expressions with a salient facial feature in the lower, but not the upper face area, compared to (c). Participants (42 males, 42 females) underwent a facial emotion recognition experiment (ADFES-BIV) while electromyography (EMG) was recorded from five facial muscle sites. The experimental conditions' order was counter-balanced. Pen-holding caused stimulus-incongruent facial muscle activity for expressions with facial feature saliency in the lower face region, which reduced recognition of lower face region emotions. Explicit imitation caused stimulus-congruent facial muscle activity without modulating recognition. Methodological implications are discussed.

  20. 6-Mercaptopurine reduces cytokine and Muc5ac expression involving inhibition of NFκB activation in airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kurakula, Kondababu; Hamers, Anouk A; van Loenen, Pieter; de Vries, Carlie J M

    2015-06-19

    Mucus hypersecretion and excessive cytokine synthesis is associated with many of the pathologic features of chronic airway diseases such as asthma. 6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP) is an immunosuppressive drug that is widely used in several inflammatory disorders. Although 6-MP has been used to treat asthma, its function and mechanism of action in airway epithelial cells is unknown. Confluent NCI-H292 and MLE-12 epithelial cells were pretreated with 6-MP followed by stimulation with TNFα or PMA. mRNA levels of cytokines and mucins were measured by RT-PCR. Western blot analysis was performed to assess the phosphorylation of IκBα and luciferase assays were performed using an NFκB reporter plasmid to determine NFκB activity. Periodic Acid Schiff staining was used to assess the production of mucus. 6-MP displayed no effect on cell viability up to a concentration of 15 μM. RT-PCR analysis showed that 6-MP significantly reduces TNFα- and PMA-induced expression of several proinflammatory cytokines in NCI-H292 and MLE-12 cells. Consistent with this, we demonstrated that 6-MP strongly inhibits TNFα-induced phosphorylation of IκBα and thus attenuates NFκB luciferase reporter activity. In addition, 6-MP decreases Rac1 activity in MLE-12 cells. 6-MP down-regulates gene expression of the mucin Muc5ac, but not Muc2, through inhibition of activation of the NFκB pathway. Furthermore, PMA- and TNFα-induced mucus production, as visualized by Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) staining, is decreased by 6-MP. Our data demonstrate that 6-MP inhibits Muc5ac gene expression and mucus production in airway epithelial cells through inhibition of the NFκB pathway, and 6-MP may represent a novel therapeutic target for mucus hypersecretion in airway diseases.

  1. Calcimimetic R568 inhibits tetrodotoxin-sensitive colonic electrolyte secretion and reduces c-fos expression in myenteric neurons.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiangrong; Tang, Lieqi; Winesett, Steven; Chang, Wenhan; Cheng, Sam Xianjun

    2018-02-01

    Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is expressed on neurons of both submucosal and myenteric plexuses of the enteric nervous system (ENS) and the CaSR agonist R568 inhibited Cl - secretion in intestine. The purpose of this study was to localize the primary site of action of R568 in the ENS and to explore how CaSR regulates secretion through the ENS. Two preparations of rat proximal and distal colon were used. The full-thickness preparation contained both the submucosal and myenteric plexuses, whereas for the "stripped" preparation the myenteric plexus with the muscle layers was removed. Both preparations were mounted onto Ussing chambers and Cl - secretory responses were compared by measuring changes in short circuit current (I sc ). Two tissue-specific CaSR knockouts (i.e., neuron-specific vs. enterocyte-specific) were generated to compare the effect of R568 on expression of c-fos protein in myenteric neurons by immunocytochemistry. In full-thickness colons, tetrodotoxin (TTX) inhibited I sc , both in proximal and distal colons. A nearly identical inhibition was produced by R568. However, in stripped preparations, while the effect of TTX on I sc largely remained, the effect of R568 was nearly completely eliminated. In keeping with this, R568 reduced c-fos protein expression only in myenteric neurons of wild type mice and mutant mice that contained CaSR in neurons (i.e., villin Cre/Casr flox/flox mice), but not in myenteric neurons of nestin Cre/Casr flox/flox mice in which neuronal cell CaSR was eliminated. These results indicate that R568 exerts its anti-secretory effects predominantly via CaSR-mediated inhibition of neuronal activity in the myenteric plexus. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Voluntary wheel running reduces voluntary consumption of ethanol in mice: identification of candidate genes through striatal gene expression profiling

    PubMed Central

    Darlington, Todd M; McCarthy, Riley D; Cox, Ryan J; Miyamoto-Ditmon, Jill; Gallego, Xavier; Ehringer, Marissa A

    2016-01-01

    Hedonic substitution, where wheel running reduces voluntary ethanol consumption has been observed in prior studies. Here we replicate and expand on previous work showing that mice decrease voluntary ethanol consumption and preference when given access to a running wheel. While earlier work has been limited mainly to behavioral studies, here we assess the underlying molecular mechanisms that may account for this interaction. From four groups of female C57BL/6J mice (control, access to two-bottle choice ethanol, access to a running wheel, and access to both two-bottle choice ethanol and a running wheel), mRNA-sequencing of the striatum identified differential gene expression. Many genes in ethanol preference quantitative trait loci were differentially expressed due to running. Furthermore, we conducted Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis and identified gene networks corresponding to each effect behavioral group. Candidate genes for mediating the behavioral interaction between ethanol consumption and wheel running include multiple potassium channel genes, Oprm1, Prkcg, Stxbp1, Crhr1, Gabra3, Slc6a13, Stx1b, Pomc, Rassf5, Polr2a, and Camta2. After observing an overlap of many genes and functional groups previously identified in studies of initial sensitivity to ethanol, we hypothesized that wheel running may induce a change in sensitivity, thereby affecting ethanol consumption. A behavioral study examining Loss of Righting Reflex to ethanol following exercise trended toward supporting this hypothesis. These data provide a rich resource for future studies that may better characterize the observed transcriptional changes in gene networks in response to ethanol consumption and wheel running. PMID:27063791

  3. Chlorella 11-Peptide Inhibits the Production of Macrophage-Induced Adhesion Molecules and Reduces Endothelin-1 Expression and Endothelial Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Mei Fen; Chen, Lih Chi; Cherng, Jong Yuh

    2013-01-01

    The inflammation process in large vessels involves the up-regulation of vascular adhesion molecules such as endothelial cell selectin (E-selectin), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) which are also known as the markers of atherosclerosis. We have reported that Chlorella 11-peptide exhibited effective anti-inflammatory effects. This peptide with an amino sequence Val-Glu-Cys-Tyr-Gly-Pro-Asn-Arg-Pro-Gln-Phe was further examined for its potential in preventing atherosclerosis in this study. In particular, the roles of Chlorella 11-peptide in lowering the production of vascular adhesion molecules, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) and expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1) from endothelia (SVEC4-10 cells) were studied. The production of E-selectin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MCP-1 in SVEC4-10 cells was measured with ELISA. The mRNA expression of ET-1 was analyzed by RT-PCR and agarose gel. Results showed that Chlorella 11-peptide significantly suppressed the levels of E-selectin, ICAM, VCAM, MCP-1 as well as ET-1 gene expression. The inhibition of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 production by Chlorella 11-peptide was reversed in the presence of protein kinase A inhibitor (H89) which suggests that the cAMP pathway was involved in the inhibitory cause of the peptide. In addition, this peptide was shown to reduce the extent of increased intercellular permeability induced by combination of 50% of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 cells medium and 50% normal SEVC cell culture medium (referred to as 50% RAW-conditioned medium). These data demonstrate that Chlorella 11-peptide is a promising biomolecule in preventing chronic inflammatory-related vascular diseases. PMID:24129228

  4. HPV16 E7 Protein and hTERT Proteins Defective for Telomere Maintenance Cooperate to Immortalize Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jonathan; Dakic, Aleksandra; Chen, Renxiang; Palechor-Ceron, Nancy; Dai, Yuhai; Kallakury, Bhaskar; Schlegel, Richard; Liu, Xuefeng

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that wild-type human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) protein can functionally replace the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E6 protein, which cooperates with the viral E7 protein in the immortalization of primary keratinocytes. In the current study, we made the surprising finding that catalytically inactive hTERT (hTERT-D868A), elongation-defective hTERT (hTERT-HA), and telomere recruitment-defective hTERT (hTERT N+T) also cooperate with E7 in mediating bypass of the senescence blockade and effecting cell immortalization. This suggests that hTERT has activities independent of its telomere maintenance functions that mediate transit across this restriction point. Since hTERT has been shown to have a role in gene activation, we performed microarray studies and discovered that E6, hTERT and mutant hTERT proteins altered the expression of highly overlapping sets of cellular genes. Most important, the E6 and hTERT proteins induced mRNA and protein levels of Bmi1, the core subunit of the Polycomb Group (PcG) complex 1. We show further that Bmi1 substitutes for E6 or hTERT in cell immortalization. Finally, tissue array studies demonstrated that expression of Bmi1 increased with the severity of cervical dysplasia, suggesting a potential role in the progression of cervical cancer. Together, these data demonstrate that hTERT has extra-telomeric activities that facilitate cell immortalization and that its induction of Bmi1 is one potential mechanism for mediating this activity. PMID:23592995

  5. Pummelo Protects Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiac Cell Death by Reducing Oxidative Stress, Modifying Glutathione Transferase Expression, and Preventing Cellular Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Chularojmontri, L.; Gerdprasert, O.; Wattanapitayakul, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    Citrus flavonoids have been shown to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks prominently due to their antioxidant effects. Here we investigated the protective effect of pummelo (Citrus maxima, CM) fruit juice in rat cardiac H9c2 cells against doxorubicin (DOX-) induced cytotoxicity. Four antioxidant compositions (ascorbic acid, hesperidin, naringin, and gallic acid) were determined by HPLC. CM significantly increased cardiac cell survival from DOX toxicity as evaluated by MTT assay. Reduction of cellular oxidative stress was monitored by the formation of DCF fluorescent product and total glutathione (GSH) levels. The changes in glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity and expression were determined by enzyme activity assay and Western blot analysis, respectively. Influence of CM on senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity (SA-β-gal) was also determined. The mechanisms of cytoprotection involved reduction of intracellular oxidative stress, maintaining GSH availability, and enhanced GST enzyme activity and expression. DOX-induced cellular senescence was also attenuated by long-term CM treatment. Thus, CM fruit juice can be promoted as functional fruit to protect cells from oxidative cell death, enhance the phase II GSTP enzyme activity, and decrease senescence phenotype population induced by cardiotoxic agent such as DOX. PMID:23401708

  6. Luteolin reduces inflammation in Staphylococcus aureus-induced mastitis by inhibiting NF-kB activation and MMPs expression.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ying-Fang; Xu, Nian-Nian; Sun, Weijing; Zhao, Yifan; Li, Cheng-Ye; Guo, Meng-Yao

    2017-04-25

    Mastitis is a serious and prevalent disease caused by infection by pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanism of luteolin, a natural flavonoid with a wide range of pharmacological activities, in a mouse model of S. aureus mastitis. We also treated cultured mouse mammary epithelial cells (mMECs) with S. aureus and luteolin. Histopathological changes were examined by H&E staining and the levels of inflammatory cytokine proteins were analyzed using ELISAs. We determined mRNA levels with qPCR and the level of NF-κB and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) proteins by Western blotting. The observed histopathological changes showed that luteolin protected mammary glands with S. aureus infection from tissue destruction and inflammatory cell infiltration. Luteolin inhibited the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, all of which were increased with S. aureus infection of mammary tissues and mMECs. S. aureus-induced TLR2 and TLR4 was suppressed by luteolin, as were levels of IκBα and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 were enhanced. These findings suggest luteolin is a potentially effective new treatment to reduce tissue damage and inflammation from S. aureus-induced mastitis.

  7. Aerosol from Tobacco Heating System 2.2 has reduced impact on mouse heart gene expression compared with cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Szostak, Justyna; Boué, Stéphanie; Talikka, Marja; Guedj, Emmanuel; Martin, Florian; Phillips, Blaine; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2017-03-01

    Experimental studies clearly demonstrate a causal effect of cigarette smoking on cardiovascular disease. To reduce the individual risk and population harm caused by smoking, alternative products to cigarettes are being developed. We recently reported on an apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe -/- ) mouse inhalation study that compared the effects of exposure to aerosol from a candidate modified risk tobacco product, Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS2.2), and smoke from the reference cigarette (3R4F) on pulmonary and vascular biology. Here, we applied a transcriptomics approach to evaluate the impact of the exposure to 3R4F smoke and THS2.2 aerosol on heart tissues from the same cohort of mice. The systems response profiles demonstrated that 3R4F smoke exposure led to time-dependent transcriptomics changes (False Discovery Rate (FDR) < 0.05; 44 differentially expressed genes at 3-months; 491 at 8-months). Analysis of differentially expressed genes in the heart tissue indicated that 3R4F exposure induced the downregulation of genes involved in cytoskeleton organization and the contractile function of the heart, notably genes that encode beta actin (Actb), actinin alpha 4 (Actn4), and filamin C (Flnc). This was accompanied by the downregulation of genes related to the inflammatory response. None of these effects were observed in the group exposed to THS2.2 aerosol. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Reduced expression of dermcidin, a peptide active against propionibacterium acnes, in sweat of patients with acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Toshiaki; Yoshino, Takashi; Fujimura, Takao; Arai, Satoru; Mukuno, Akira; Sato, Naoya; Katsuoka, Kensei

    2015-09-01

    Dermcidin (DCD), an antimicrobial peptide with a broad spectrum of activity against bacteria such as Propionibacterum acnes, is expressed constitutively in sweat in the absence of stimulation due to injury or inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between DCD expression and acne vulgaris associated with P. acnes. The antimicrobial activity of recombinant full-length DCD (50 μg/ml) was 97% against Escherichia coli and 100% against Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrobial activity against P. acnes ranged from 68% at 50 μg/ml DCD to 83% at 270 μg/ml DCD. DCD concentration in sweat from patients with acne vulgaris (median 9.8 μg/ml, range 6.9-95.3 μg/ml) was significantly lower than in healthy subjects (median 136.7 μg/ml, range 45.4-201.6 μg/ml) (p = 0.001). DCD demonstrated concentration-dependent, but partial, microbicidal activity against P. acnes. These results suggest that reduced DCD concentration in sweat in patients with inflammatory acne may permit proliferation of P. acnes in pilosebaceous units, resulting in progression of inflammatory acne.

  9. Defective monocyte oxidative burst predicts infection in alcoholic hepatitis and is associated with reduced expression of NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Vergis, Nikhil; Khamri, Wafa; Beale, Kylie; Sadiq, Fouzia; Aletrari, Mina O; Moore, Celia; Atkinson, Stephen R; Bernsmeier, Christine; Possamai, Lucia A; Petts, Gemma; Ryan, Jennifer M; Abeles, Robin D; James, Sarah; Foxton, Matthew; Hogan, Brian; Foster, Graham R; O'Brien, Alastair J; Ma, Yun; Shawcross, Debbie L; Wendon, Julia A; Antoniades, Charalambos G; Thursz, Mark R

    2017-03-01

    In order to explain the increased susceptibility to serious infection in alcoholic hepatitis, we evaluated monocyte phagocytosis, aberrations of associated signalling pathways and their reversibility, and whether phagocytic defects could predict subsequent infection. Monocytes were identified from blood samples of 42 patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis using monoclonal antibody to CD14. Phagocytosis and monocyte oxidative burst (MOB) were measured ex vivo using flow cytometry, luminometry and bacterial killing assays. Defects were related to the subsequent development of infection. Intracellular signalling pathways were investigated using western blotting and PCR. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) was evaluated for its therapeutic potential in reversing phagocytic defects. Paired longitudinal samples were used to evaluate the effect of in vivo prednisolone therapy. MOB, production of superoxide and bacterial killing in response to Escherichia coli were markedly impaired in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. Pretreatment MOB predicted development of infection within two weeks with sensitivity and specificity that were superior to available clinical markers. Accordingly, defective MOB was associated with death at 28 and 90 days. Expression of the gp91 phox subunit of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase was reduced in patients with alcoholic hepatitis demonstrating defective MOB. Monocytes were refractory to IFN-γ stimulation and showed high levels of a negative regulator of cytokine signalling, suppressor of cytokine signalling-1. MOB was unaffected by 7 days in vivo prednisolone therapy. Monocyte oxidative burst and bacterial killing is impaired in alcoholic hepatitis while bacterial uptake by phagocytosis is preserved. Defective MOB is associated with reduced expression of NADPH oxidase in these patients and predicts the development of infection and death. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  10. Cell wall composition and digestibility alterations in Brachypodium distachyon achieved through reduced expression of the UDP-arabinopyranose mutase

    PubMed Central

    Rancour, David M.; Hatfield, Ronald D.; Marita, Jane M.; Rohr, Nicholas A.; Schmitz, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Nucleotide-activated sugars are essential substrates for plant cell-wall carbohydrate-polymer biosynthesis. The most prevalent grass cell wall (CW) sugars are glucose (Glc), xylose (Xyl), and arabinose (Ara). These sugars are biosynthetically related via the UDP–sugar interconversion pathway. We sought to target and generate UDP–sugar interconversion pathway transgenic Brachypodium distachyon lines resulting in CW carbohydrate composition changes with improved digestibility and normal plant stature. Both RNAi-mediated gene-suppression and constitutive gene-expression approaches were performed. CWs from 336 T0 transgenic plants with normal appearance were screened for complete carbohydrate composition. RNAi mutants of BdRGP1, a UDP-arabinopyranose mutase, resulted in large alterations in CW carbohydrate composition with significant decreases in CW Ara content but with minimal change in plant stature. Five independent RNAi-RGP1 T1 plant lines were used for in-depth analysis of plant CWs. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that gene expression levels for BdRGP1, BdRGP2, and BdRGP3 were reduced in RNAi-RGP1 plants to 15–20% of controls. CW Ara content was reduced by 23–51% of control levels. No alterations in CW Xyl and Glc content were observed. Corresponding decreases in CW ferulic acid (FA) and ferulic acid-dimers (FA-dimers) were observed. Additionally, CW p-coumarates (pCA) were decreased. We demonstrate the CW pCA decrease corresponds to Ara-coupled pCA. Xylanase-mediated digestibility of RNAi-RGP1 Brachypodium CWs resulted in a near twofold increase of released total carbohydrate. However, cellulolytic hydrolysis of CW material was inhibited in leaves of RNAi-RGP1 mutants. Our results indicate that targeted manipulation of UDP–sugar biosynthesis can result in biomass with substantially altered compositions and highlights the complex effect CW composition has on digestibility. PMID:26136761

  11. Mao-to Prolongs the Survival of and Reduces TNF-α Expression in Mice with Viral Myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Shijie, Zhu; Moriya, Junji; Yamakawa, Jun’ichi; Chen, Rui; Takahashi, Takashi; Sumino, Hiroyuki; Nakahashi, Takeshi; Iwai, Kunimitsu; Morimoto, Shigeto; Yamaguchi, Nobuo

    2010-01-01

    Goal of this study was to evaluate effects of Mao-to on development of myocarditis induced by encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus in mice. Mice were randomly divided into five groups. Group N included uninfected controls (n = 18), while group A, B and C underwent intraperitoneal injection of EMC virus. Group A was administered oral saline from day 0 to day 4. Group B was administered oral Mao-to (500 mg−1 kg−1 day−1) from day 0 to day 4. Group C was administered Mao-to from day 2 to day 6. Group D was administered Mao-to from day 5 to day 10. Treated mice were followed for survival rates during 2 weeks after infection. Body weight (BW) and organ weights including heart (HW), lungs, thymus and spleen were examined on days 4, 6 and 14. Survival rate of group C (36.4%) was significantly improved compared with group A, B or D (0% of each, P < 0.05). HW and HW/BW ratio in group C was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those in group A, B or D. Viral titers of hearts were significantly different among groups A, B and C. Cardiac expression in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was significantly reduced in group C in comparison with group A, B or D on day 6 by immunohistochemical study. Administration of Mao-to starting on day 2 improves mortality resulting from viral myocarditis in mice with reduced expression of cardiac TNF-α. These findings suggest that timing of Mao-to is crucial for preventing cardiac damage in mice with viral myocarditis. PMID:20671770

  12. Human papillomavirus E6/E7 oncogenes promote mouse ear regeneration by increasing the rate of wound re-epithelization and epidermal growth.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Concepción; Bonilla-Delgado, José; Oktaba, Katarzyna; Ocádiz-Delgado, Rodolfo; Gariglio, Patricio; Covarrubias, Luis

    2008-12-01

    Mammals have limited regeneration capacity. We report here that, in transgenic mice (Tg(bK6-E6/E7)), the expression of the E6/E7 oncogenes of human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV16) under the control of the bovine keratin 6 promoter markedly improves the mouse's capacity to repair portions of the ear after being wounded. Increased repair capacity correlates with an increased number of epidermal proliferating cells. In concordance with the expected effects of the E6 and E7 oncogenes, levels of p53 decreased and those of p16 in epidermal cells increased. In addition, we observed that wound re-epithelization proceeded faster in transgenic than in wild-type animals. After the initial re-epithelization, epidermal cell migration from the intact surrounding tissue appears to be a major contributor to the growing epidermis, especially in the repairing tissue of transgenic mice. We also found that there is a significantly higher number of putative epidermal stem cells in Tg(bK6-E6/E7) than in wild-type mice. Remarkably, hair follicles and cartilage regenerated within the repaired ear tissue, without evidence of tumor formation. We propose that the ability to regenerate ear portions is limited by the capacity of the epidermis to repair itself and grow.

  13. 77 FR 9948 - International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on E7 Studies in Support of Special...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ...] International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on E7 Studies in Support of Special Populations; Geriatrics... in Support of Special Populations: Geriatrics; Questions and Answers.'' The guidance was prepared... well as observers from the World Health Organization, Health Canada, and the European Free Trade Area...

  14. Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) Reduces Cell Growth, Lipid Acquisition and Increases Adiponectin Expression in 3T3-L1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Chia-Rou; Lee, Sea-Ming; Popovich, David G.

    2011-01-01

    An American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) extract (GE) that contained a quantifiable amount of ginsenosides was investigated for the potential to inhibit proliferation, affect the cell cycle, influence lipid acquisition and adiponectin expression in 3T3-L1 cells. Six fingerprint ginsenosides were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography and the respective molecular weights were confirmed by LC-ESI-MS analysis. The extract contained Rg1 (347.3 ± 99.7 μg g−1, dry weight), Re (8280.4 ± 792.3 μg g−1), Rb1 (1585.8 ± 86.8 μg g−1), Rc (32.9 ± 8 μg g−1), Rb2 (62.6 ± 10.6 μg g−1) and Rd (90.4 ± 3.2 μg g−1). The GE had a dose-dependent effect on 3T3-L1 cell growth, the LC50 value was determined to be 40.3 ± 5 μg ml−1. Cell cycle analysis showed modest changes in the cell cycle. No significant changes observed in both G1 and G2/M phases, however there was a significant decrease (P < .05) in the S phase after 24 and 48 h treatment. Apoptotic cells were modest but significantly (P < .05) increased after 48 h (3.2 ± 1.0%) compared to untreated control cells (1.5 ± 0.1%). Lipid acquisition was significantly reduced (P < .05) by 13 and 22% when treated at concentrations of 20.2 and 40.3 μg ml−1 compared to untreated control cells. In relation to adiponectin activation, western blot analysis showed that the protein expression was significantly (P < .05) increased at concentrations tested. A quantified GE reduced the growth of 3T3-L1 cells, down-regulated the accumulation of lipid and up-regulated the expression of adiponectin in the 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell model. PMID:21799682

  15. Molecular mobility of nematic E7 confined to molecular sieves with a low filling degree.

    PubMed

    Brás, A R; Frunza, S; Guerreiro, L; Fonseca, I M; Corma, A; Frunza, L; Dionísio, M; Schönhals, A

    2010-06-14

    The nematic liquid crystalline mixture E7 was confined with similar filling degrees to molecular sieves with constant composition but different pore diameters (from 2.8 to 6.8 nm). Fourier transform infrared analysis proved that the E7 molecules interact via the cyanogroup with the pore walls of the molecular sieves. The molecular dynamics of the system was investigated by broadband dielectric spectroscopy (10(-2)-10(9) Hz) covering a wide temperature range of approximately 200 K from temperatures well above the isotropic-nematic transition down to the glass transition of bulk E7. A variety of relaxation processes is observed including two modes that are located close to the bulk behavior in its temperature dependence. For all confined samples, two relaxation processes, at frequencies lower than the processes observed for the bulk, were detected. At lower temperatures, their relaxation rates have different temperature dependencies whereas at higher temperatures, they seem to collapse into one chart. The temperature dependence of the slowest process (S-process) obeys the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann law indicating a glassy dynamics of the E7 molecules anchored to the pore surface. The pore size dependence of both the Vogel temperature and fragility revealed a steplike transition around 4 nm pore size, which indicates a transition from a strong to a fragile behavior. The process with a relaxation rate in between the bulklike and the S-process (I-process) shows no dependence on the pore size. The agreement of the I-process with the behavior of a 5CB surface layer adsorbed on nonporous silica leads to the assignment of E7 molecules anchored at the outer surface of the microcrystals of the molecular sieves.

  16. Aging Reduces an ERRalpha-Directed Mitochondrial Glutaminase Expression Suppressing Glutamine Anaplerosis and Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tongling; Liu, Renzhong; Fu, Xuekun; Yao, Dongsheng; Yang, Meng; Liu, Qingli; Lu, William W; Wu, Chuanyue; Guan, Min

    2017-02-01

    Aging deteriorates osteogenic capacity of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs), contributing to imbalanced bone remodeling and osteoporosis. Glutaminase (Gls) catabolizes glutamine into glutamate at the first step of mitochondrial glutamine (Gln)-dependent anaplerosis which is essential for MSCs upon osteogenic differentiation. Estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) regulates genes required for mitochondrial function. Here, we found that ERRα and Gls are upregulated by osteogenic induction in human MSCs (hMSCs). In contrast, osteogenic differentiation capacity and glutamine consumption of MSCs, as well as ERRα, Gls and osteogenic marker genes are significantly reduced with age. We demonstrated that ERRα binds to response elements on Gls promoter and affects glutamine anaplerosis through transcriptional induction of Gls. Conversely, mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, ERRα inverse agonist compound 29 or Gls inhibitor BPTES leads to reduced Gln anaplerosis and deteriorated osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Importantly, overexpression of ERRα or Gls restored impairment by these inhibitors. Finally, we proved that compensated ERRα or Gls expression indeed potentiated Gln anaplerosis and osteogenic capability of elderly mice MSCs in vitro. Together, we establish that Gls is a novel ERRα target gene and ERRα/Gls signaling pathway plays an important role in osteogenic differentiation of MSCs, providing new sights into novel regenerative therapeutics development. Our findings suggest that restoring age-related mitochondrial Gln-dependent anaplerosis may be beneficial for degenerative bone disorders such as osteoporosis. Stem Cells 2017;35:411-424. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  17. Reduced expression of fumarate hydratase in clear cell renal cancer mediates HIF-2α accumulation and promotes migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Sudarshan, Sunil; Shanmugasundaram, Karthigayan; Naylor, Susan L; Lin, Shu; Livi, Carolina B; O'Neill, Christine F; Parekh, Dipen J; Yeh, I-Tien; Sun, Lu-Zhe; Block, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Germline mutations of FH, the gene that encodes for the tricarboxylic acid TCA (TCA) cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase, are associated with an inherited form of cancer referred to as Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Cancer (HLRCC). Individuals with HLRCC are predisposed to the development of highly malignant and lethal renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The mechanisms of tumorigenesis proposed have largely focused on the biochemical consequences of loss of FH enzymatic activity. While loss of the tumor suppressor gene von Hippel Lindau (VHL) is thought to be an initiating event for the majority of RCCs, a role for FH in sporadic renal cancer has not been explored. Here we report that FH mRNA and protein expression are reduced in clear cell renal cancer, the most common histologic variant of kidney cancer. Moreover, we demonstrate that reduced FH leads to the accumulation of hypoxia inducible factor- 2α (HIF-2α), a transcription factor known to promote renal carcinogenesis. Finally, we demonstrate that overexpression of FH in renal cancer cells inhibits cellular migration and invasion. These data provide novel insights into the tumor suppressor functions of FH in sporadic kidney cancer.

  18. Engineered outer membrane vesicle is potent to elicit HPV16E7-specific cellular immunity in a mouse model of TC-1 graft tumor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shijie; Huang, Weiwei; Li, Kui; Yao, Yufeng; Yang, Xu; Bai, Hongmei; Sun, Wenjia; Liu, Cunbao; Ma, Yanbing

    2017-01-01

    Currently, therapeutic tumor vaccines under development generally lack significant effects in human clinical trials. Exploring a powerful antigen delivery system is a potential approach to improve vaccine efficacy. We sought to explore engineered bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) as a new vaccine carrier for efficiently delivering tumor antigens and provoking robust antitumor immune responses. First, the tumoral antigen human papillomavirus type 16 early protein E7 (HPV16E7) was presented on Escherichia coli -derived OMVs by genetic engineering methods, acquiring the recombinant OMV vaccine. Second, the ability of recombinant OMVs delivering their components and the model antigen green fluorescent protein to antigen-presenting cells was investigated in the macrophage Raw264.7 cells and in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells in vitro. Third, it was evaluated in TC-1 graft tumor model in mice that the recombinant OMVs displaying HPV16E7 stimulated specific cellular immune response and intervened the growth of established tumor. E. coli DH5α-derived OMVs could be taken up rapidly by dendritic cells, for which vesicle structure has been proven to be important. OMVs significantly stimulated the expression of dendritic cellmaturation markers CD80, CD86, CD83 and CD40. The HPV16E7 was successfully embedded in engineered OMVs through gene recombinant techniques. Subcutaneous immunization with the engineered OMVs induced E7 antigen-specific cellular immune responses, as shown by the increased numbers of interferon-gamma-expressing splenocytes by enzyme-linked immunospot assay and interferon-gamma-expressing CD4 + and CD8 + cells by flow cytometry analyses. Furthermore, the growth of grafted TC-1 tumors in mice was significantly suppressed by therapeutic vaccination. The recombinant E7 proteins presented by OMVs were more potent than those mixed with wild-type OMVs or administered alone for inducing specific cellular immunity and suppressing tumor growth. The results

  19. Tattoo Delivery of a Semliki Forest Virus-Based Vaccine Encoding Human Papillomavirus E6 and E7

    PubMed Central

    van de Wall, Stephanie; Walczak, Mateusz; van Rooij, Nienke; Hoogeboom, Baukje-Nynke; Meijerhof, Tjarko; Nijman, Hans W.; Daemen, Toos

    2015-01-01

    The skin is an attractive organ for immunization because of the presence of antigen-presenting cells. Intradermal delivery via tattooing has demonstrated superior vaccine immunogenicity of DNA vaccines in comparison to conventional delivery methods. In this study, we explored the efficacy of tattoo injection of a tumor vaccine based on recombinant Semliki Forest virus replicon particles (rSFV) targeting human papillomavirus (HPV). Tattoo injection of rSFV particles resulted in antigen expression in both the skin and draining lymph nodes. In comparison with intramuscular injection, the overall antigen expression determined at the site of administration and draining lymph nodes was 10-fold lower upon tattoo injection. Delivery of SFV particles encoding the E6 and E7 antigens of human papillomavirus type 16 (SFVeE6,7) via tattooing resulted in HPV-specific cytotoxic T cells and in vivo therapeutic antitumor response. Strikingly, despite the observed lower overall transgene expression, SFVeE6,7 delivered via tattoo injection resulted in higher or equal levels of immune responses as compared to intramuscular injection. The intrinsic immunogenic potential of tattooing provides a benefit for immunotherapy based on an alphavirus. PMID:26343186

  20. Tattoo Delivery of a Semliki Forest Virus-Based Vaccine Encoding Human Papillomavirus E6 and E7.

    PubMed

    van de Wall, Stephanie; Walczak, Mateusz; van Rooij, Nienke; Hoogeboom, Baukje-Nynke; Meijerhof, Tjarko; Nijman, Hans W; Daemen, Toos

    2015-03-24

    The skin is an attractive organ for immunization because of the presence of antigen-presenting cells. Intradermal delivery via tattooing has demonstrated superior vaccine immunogenicity of DNA vaccines in comparison to conventional delivery methods. In this study, we explored the efficacy of tattoo injection of a tumor vaccine based on recombinant Semliki Forest virus replicon particles (rSFV) targeting human papillomavirus (HPV). Tattoo injection of rSFV particles resulted in antigen expression in both the skin and draining lymph nodes. In comparison with intramuscular injection, the overall antigen expression determined at the site of administration and draining lymph nodes was 10-fold lower upon tattoo injection. Delivery of SFV particles encoding the E6 and E7 antigens of human papillomavirus type 16 (SFVeE6,7) via tattooing resulted in HPV-specific cytotoxic T cells and in vivo therapeutic antitumor response. Strikingly, despite the observed lower overall transgene expression, SFVeE6,7 delivered via tattoo injection resulted in higher or equal levels of immune responses as compared to intramuscular injection. The intrinsic immunogenic potential of tattooing provides a benefit for immunotherapy based on an alphavirus.

  1. Edaravone inhibits pressure overload-induced cardiac fibrosis and dysfunction by reducing expression of angiotensin II AT1 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei-Wei; Bai, Feng; Wang, Jin; Zheng, Rong-Hua; Yang, Li-Wang; James, Erskine A; Zhao, Zhi-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is known to be involved in the progression of ventricular dysfunction and heart failure by eliciting cardiac fibrosis. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate whether treatment with an antioxidant compound, edaravone, reduces cardiac fibrosis and improves ventricular function by inhibiting Ang II AT1 receptor. The study was conducted in a rat model of transverse aortic constriction (TAC). In control, rats were subjected to 8 weeks of TAC. In treated rats, edaravone (10 mg/kg/day) or Ang II AT1 receptor blocker, telmisartan (10 mg/kg/day) was administered by intraperitoneal injection or gastric gavage, respectively, during TAC. Relative to the animals with TAC, edaravone reduced myocardial malonaldehyde level and increased superoxide dismutase activity. Protein level of the AT1 receptor was reduced and the AT2 receptor was upregulated, as evidenced by the reduced ratio of AT1 over AT2 receptor (0.57±0.2 vs 3.16±0.39, p<0.05) and less locally expressed AT1 receptor in the myocardium. Furthermore, the protein level of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 was upregulated. In coincidence with these changes, edaravone significantly decreased the populations of macrophages and myofibroblasts in the myocardium, which were accompanied by reduced levels of transforming growth factor beta 1 and Smad2/3. Collagen I synthesis was inhibited and collagen-rich fibrosis was attenuated. Relative to the TAC group, cardiac systolic function was preserved, as shown by increased left ventricular systolic pressure (204±51 vs 110±19 mmHg, p<0.05) and ejection fraction (82%±3% vs 60%±5%, p<0.05). Treatment with telmisartan provided a comparable level of protection as compared with edaravone in all the parameters measured. Taken together, edaravone treatment ameliorates cardiac fibrosis and improves left ventricular function in the pressure overload rat model, potentially via suppressing the AT1 receptor-mediated signaling pathways. These data indicate that

  2. Edaravone inhibits pressure overload-induced cardiac fibrosis and dysfunction by reducing expression of angiotensin II AT1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Wei; Bai, Feng; Wang, Jin; Zheng, Rong-Hua; Yang, Li-Wang; James, Erskine A; Zhao, Zhi-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is known to be involved in the progression of ventricular dysfunction and heart failure by eliciting cardiac fibrosis. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate whether treatment with an antioxidant compound, edaravone, reduces cardiac fibrosis and improves ventricular function by inhibiting Ang II AT1 receptor. The study was conducted in a rat model of transverse aortic constriction (TAC). In control, rats were subjected to 8 weeks of TAC. In treated rats, edaravone (10 mg/kg/day) or Ang II AT1 receptor blocker, telmisartan (10 mg/kg/day) was administered by intraperitoneal injection or gastric gavage, respectively, during TAC. Relative to the animals with TAC, edaravone reduced myocardial malonaldehyde level and increased superoxide dismutase activity. Protein level of the AT1 receptor was reduced and the AT2 receptor was upregulated, as evidenced by the reduced ratio of AT1 over AT2 receptor (0.57±0.2 vs 3.16±0.39, p <0.05) and less locally expressed AT1 receptor in the myocardium. Furthermore, the protein level of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 was upregulated. In coincidence with these changes, edaravone significantly decreased the populations of macrophages and myofibroblasts in the myocardium, which were accompanied by reduced levels of transforming growth factor beta 1 and Smad2/3. Collagen I synthesis was inhibited and collagen-rich fibrosis was attenuated. Relative to the TAC group, cardiac systolic function was preserved, as shown by increased left ventricular systolic pressure (204±51 vs 110±19 mmHg, p <0.05) and ejection fraction (82%±3% vs 60%±5%, p <0.05). Treatment with telmisartan provided a comparable level of protection as compared with edaravone in all the parameters measured. Taken together, edaravone treatment ameliorates cardiac fibrosis and improves left ventricular function in the pressure overload rat model, potentially via suppressing the AT1 receptor-mediated signaling pathways. These data indicate that

  3. Nifedipine treatment reduces resting calcium concentration, oxidative and apoptotic gene expression, and improves muscle function in dystrophic mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Altamirano, Francisco; Valladares, Denisse; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Casas, Mariana; López, Jose R; Allen, Paul D; Jaimovich, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a recessive X-linked genetic disease, caused by mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin. DMD is characterized in humans and in mdx mice by a severe and progressive destruction of muscle fibers, inflammation, oxidative/nitrosative stress, and cell death. In mdx muscle fibers, we have shown that basal ATP release is increased and that extracellular ATP stimulation is pro-apoptotic. In normal fibers, depolarization-induced ATP release is blocked by nifedipine, leading us to study the potential therapeutic effect of nifedipine in mdx muscles and its relation with extracellular ATP signaling. Acute exposure to nifedipine (10 µM) decreased [Ca(2+)]r, NF-κB activity and iNOS expression in mdx myotubes. In addition, 6-week-old mdx mice were treated with daily intraperitoneal injections of nifedipine, 1 mg/Kg for 1 week. This treatment lowered the [Ca(2+)]r measured in vivo in the mdx vastus lateralis. We demonstrated that extracellular ATP levels were higher in adult mdx flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) fibers and can be significantly reduced after 1 week of treatment with nifedipine. Interestingly, acute treatment of mdx FDB fibers with apyrase, an enzyme that completely degrades extracellular ATP to AMP, reduced [Ca(2+)]r to a similar extent as was seen in FDB fibers after 1-week of nifedipine treatment. Moreover, we demonstrated that nifedipine treatment reduced mRNA levels of pro-oxidative/nitrosative (iNOS and gp91(phox)/p47(phox) NOX2 subunits) and pro-apoptotic (Bax) genes in mdx diaphragm muscles and lowered serum creatine kinase (CK) levels. In addition, nifedipine treatment increased muscle strength assessed by the inverted grip-hanging test and exercise tolerance measured with forced swimming test in mdx mice. We hypothesize that nifedipine reduces basal ATP release, thereby decreasing purinergic receptor activation, which in turn reduces [Ca(2+)]r in mdx skeletal muscle cells. The results in this work open new perspectives

  4. Nifedipine Treatment Reduces Resting Calcium Concentration, Oxidative and Apoptotic Gene Expression, and Improves Muscle Function in Dystrophic mdx Mice

    PubMed Central

    Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Casas, Mariana; López, Jose R.; Allen, Paul D.; Jaimovich, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a recessive X-linked genetic disease, caused by mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin. DMD is characterized in humans and in mdx mice by a severe and progressive destruction of muscle fibers, inflammation, oxidative/nitrosative stress, and cell death. In mdx muscle fibers, we have shown that basal ATP release is increased and that extracellular ATP stimulation is pro-apoptotic. In normal fibers, depolarization-induced ATP release is blocked by nifedipine, leading us to study the potential therapeutic effect of nifedipine in mdx muscles and its relation with extracellular ATP signaling. Acute exposure to nifedipine (10 µM) decreased [Ca2+]r, NF-κB activity and iNOS expression in mdx myotubes. In addition, 6-week-old mdx mice were treated with daily intraperitoneal injections of nifedipine, 1 mg/Kg for 1 week. This treatment lowered the [Ca2+]r measured in vivo in the mdx vastus lateralis. We demonstrated that extracellular ATP levels were higher in adult mdx flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) fibers and can be significantly reduced after 1 week of treatment with nifedipine. Interestingly, acute treatment of mdx FDB fibers with apyrase, an enzyme that completely degrades extracellular ATP to AMP, reduced [Ca2+]r to a similar extent as was seen in FDB fibers after 1-week of nifedipine treatment. Moreover, we demonstrated that nifedipine treatment reduced mRNA levels of pro-oxidative/nitrosative (iNOS and gp91phox/p47phox NOX2 subunits) and pro-apoptotic (Bax) genes in mdx diaphragm muscles and lowered serum creatine kinase (CK) levels. In addition, nifedipine treatment increased muscle strength assessed by the inverted grip-hanging test and exercise tolerance measured with forced swimming test in mdx mice. We hypothesize that nifedipine reduces basal ATP release, thereby decreasing purinergic receptor activation, which in turn reduces [Ca2+]r in mdx skeletal muscle cells. The results in this work open new perspectives towards

  5. Involvement of aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling in the development of small cell lung cancer induced by HPV E6/E7 oncoproteins

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lung cancers consist of four major types that and for clinical-pathological reasons are often divided into two broad categories: small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). All major histological types of lung cancer are associated with smoking, although the association is stronger for SCLC and squamous cell carcinoma than adenocarcinoma. To date, epidemiological studies have identified several environmental, genetic, hormonal and viral factors associated with lung cancer risk. It has been estimated that 15-25% of human cancers may have a viral etiology. The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a proven cause of most human cervical cancers, and might have a role in other malignancies including vulva, skin, oesophagus, head and neck cancer. HPV has also been speculated to have a role in the pathogenesis of lung cancer. To validate the hypothesis of HPV involvement in small cell lung cancer pathogenesis we performed a gene exp