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Sample records for e7-specific immune response

  1. Cluster Intradermal DNA Vaccination Rapidly Induces E7-specific CD8+ T Cell Immune Responses Leading to Therapeutic Antitumor Effects

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Shiwen; Trimble, Cornelia; Alvarez, Ronald D.; Huh, Warner K.; Lin, Zhenhua; Monie, Archana; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T.-C.

    2010-01-01

    Intradermal administration of DNA vaccines via a gene gun represents a feasible strategy to deliver DNA directly into the professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the skin. This helps to facilitate the enhancement of DNA vaccine potency via strategies that modify the properties of APCs. We have previously demonstrated that DNA vaccines encoding human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E7 antigen linked to calreticulin (CRT) are capable of enhancing the E7-specific CD8+ T cell immune responses and antitumor effects against E7-expressing tumors. It has also been shown that cluster (short-interval) DNA vaccination regimen generates potent immune responses in a minimal timeframe. Thus, in the current study we hypothesize that the cluster intradermal CRT/E7 DNA vaccination will generate significant antigen-specific CD8+ T cell infiltrates in E7-expressing tumors in tumor-bearing mice, leading to an increase in apoptotic tumor cell death. We found that cluster intradermal CRT/E7 DNA vaccination is capable of rapidly generating a significant number of E7-specific CD8+ T cells, resulting in significant therapeutic antitumor effects in vaccinated mice. We also observed that cluster intradermal CRT/E7 DNA vaccination in the presence of tumor generates significantly higher E7-specific CD8+ T cell immune responses in the systemic circulation as well as in the tumors. In addition, this vaccination regimen also led to significantly lower levels of CD4+Foxp3+ T regulatory cells and myeloid suppressor cells compared to vaccination with CRT DNA in peripheral blood and in tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, resulting in an increase in apoptotic tumor cell death. Thus, our study has significant potential for future clinical translation. PMID:18401437

  2. Engineered outer membrane vesicle is potent to elicit HPV16E7-specific cellular immunity in a mouse model of TC-1 graft tumor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shijie; Huang, Weiwei; Li, Kui; Yao, Yufeng; Yang, Xu; Bai, Hongmei; Sun, Wenjia; Liu, Cunbao; Ma, Yanbing

    2017-01-01

    Currently, therapeutic tumor vaccines under development generally lack significant effects in human clinical trials. Exploring a powerful antigen delivery system is a potential approach to improve vaccine efficacy. We sought to explore engineered bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) as a new vaccine carrier for efficiently delivering tumor antigens and provoking robust antitumor immune responses. First, the tumoral antigen human papillomavirus type 16 early protein E7 (HPV16E7) was presented on Escherichia coli -derived OMVs by genetic engineering methods, acquiring the recombinant OMV vaccine. Second, the ability of recombinant OMVs delivering their components and the model antigen green fluorescent protein to antigen-presenting cells was investigated in the macrophage Raw264.7 cells and in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells in vitro. Third, it was evaluated in TC-1 graft tumor model in mice that the recombinant OMVs displaying HPV16E7 stimulated specific cellular immune response and intervened the growth of established tumor. E. coli DH5α-derived OMVs could be taken up rapidly by dendritic cells, for which vesicle structure has been proven to be important. OMVs significantly stimulated the expression of dendritic cellmaturation markers CD80, CD86, CD83 and CD40. The HPV16E7 was successfully embedded in engineered OMVs through gene recombinant techniques. Subcutaneous immunization with the engineered OMVs induced E7 antigen-specific cellular immune responses, as shown by the increased numbers of interferon-gamma-expressing splenocytes by enzyme-linked immunospot assay and interferon-gamma-expressing CD4 + and CD8 + cells by flow cytometry analyses. Furthermore, the growth of grafted TC-1 tumors in mice was significantly suppressed by therapeutic vaccination. The recombinant E7 proteins presented by OMVs were more potent than those mixed with wild-type OMVs or administered alone for inducing specific cellular immunity and suppressing tumor growth. The results

  3. Immune response

    MedlinePlus

    Innate immunity; Humoral immunity; Cellular immunity; Immunity; Inflammatory response; Acquired (adaptive) immunity ... normal and usually does not react against them. INNATE IMMUNITY Innate, or nonspecific, immunity is the defense ...

  4. Human papillomavirus 16 E2-, E6- and E7-specific T-cell responses in children and their mothers who developed incident cervical intraepithelial neoplasia during a 14-year follow-up of the Finnish Family HPV cohort.

    PubMed

    Koskimaa, Hanna-Mari; Paaso, Anna E; Welters, Marij J P; Grénman, Seija E; Syrjänen, Kari J; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; Syrjänen, Stina M

    2014-02-13

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has traditionally been regarded as a sexually transmitted disease (STD), but recent evidence implicates that an infected mother can transmit HPV to her newborn during pregnancy, at delivery, perinatal period or later. Given the lack of any studies on HPV-specific immune responses in children, we conducted HPV16-specific cell-mediated immune (CMI) monitoring of the mother-child pairs with known oral and genital HPV follow-up (FU) data since the delivery. In the Finnish Family HPV Study, 10 out of 331 mothers developed incident cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) during their 14-year FU. Our hypothesis according to the common dogma is that there is no HPV16 specific immune response in offspring of the CIN mother as she/he has not started the sexual life yet. We used overlapping 30-35 mer peptides covering the entire HPV16 E2, E6 and E7 protein sequences. Assays for lymphocyte proliferation capacity, cytokine production and HPV16-specific Foxp3 + CD25 + CD4+ regulatory T-cells were performed. HPV16-specific proliferative T-cell responses were broader in children than in their mothers. Nine of 10 children had responses against both E2 peptide pools compared to only 4 of the 10 mothers. Six of the 10 children and only 2 mothers displayed reactivity to E6 and/or E7. The cytokine levels of IL-2 (p = 0.023) and IL-5 (p = 0.028) induced by all peptide pools, were also higher among children than their mothers. The children of the mothers with incident CIN3 had significantly higher IFN-γ (p = 0.032) and TNF-α (p = 0.008) levels than other children. Our study is the first to show that also children could have HPV-specific immunity. These data indicate that the children have circulating HPV16-specific memory T-cells which might have been induced by previous HPV16 exposure or ongoing HPV 16 infection.

  5. Human papillomavirus 16 E2-, E6- and E7-specific T-cell responses in children and their mothers who developed incident cervical intraepithelial neoplasia during a 14-year follow-up of the Finnish Family HPV cohort

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has traditionally been regarded as a sexually transmitted disease (STD), but recent evidence implicates that an infected mother can transmit HPV to her newborn during pregnancy, at delivery, perinatal period or later. Given the lack of any studies on HPV-specific immune responses in children, we conducted HPV16-specific cell-mediated immune (CMI) monitoring of the mother-child pairs with known oral and genital HPV follow-up (FU) data since the delivery. In the Finnish Family HPV Study, 10 out of 331 mothers developed incident cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) during their 14-year FU. Our hypothesis according to the common dogma is that there is no HPV16 specific immune response in offspring of the CIN mother as she/he has not started the sexual life yet. Methods We used overlapping 30–35 mer peptides covering the entire HPV16 E2, E6 and E7 protein sequences. Assays for lymphocyte proliferation capacity, cytokine production and HPV16-specific Foxp3 + CD25 + CD4+ regulatory T-cells were performed. Results HPV16-specific proliferative T-cell responses were broader in children than in their mothers. Nine of 10 children had responses against both E2 peptide pools compared to only 4 of the 10 mothers. Six of the 10 children and only 2 mothers displayed reactivity to E6 and/or E7. The cytokine levels of IL-2 (p = 0.023) and IL-5 (p = 0.028) induced by all peptide pools, were also higher among children than their mothers. The children of the mothers with incident CIN3 had significantly higher IFN-γ (p = 0.032) and TNF-α (p = 0.008) levels than other children. Conclusions Our study is the first to show that also children could have HPV-specific immunity. These data indicate that the children have circulating HPV16-specific memory T-cells which might have been induced by previous HPV16 exposure or ongoing HPV 16 infection. PMID:24524328

  6. Antitumor HPV E7-specific CTL activity elicited by in vivo engineered exosomes produced through DNA inoculation.

    PubMed

    Di Bonito, Paola; Chiozzini, Chiara; Arenaccio, Claudia; Anticoli, Simona; Manfredi, Francesco; Olivetta, Eleonora; Ferrantelli, Flavia; Falcone, Emiliana; Ruggieri, Anna; Federico, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    We recently proved that exosomes engineered in vitro to deliver high amounts of HPV E7 upon fusion with the Nef mut exosome-anchoring protein elicit an efficient anti-E7 cytotoxic T lymphocyte immune response. However, in view of a potential clinic application of this finding, our exosome-based immunization strategy was faced with possible technical difficulties including industrial manufacturing, cost of production, and storage. To overcome these hurdles, we designed an as yet unproven exosome-based immunization strategy relying on delivery by intramuscular inoculation of a DNA vector expressing Nef mut fused with HPV E7. In this way, we predicted that the expression of the Nef mut /E7 vector in muscle cells would result in a continuous source of endogenous (ie, produced by the inoculated host) engineered exosomes able to induce an E7-specific immune response. To assess this hypothesis, we first demonstrated that the injection of a Nef mut /green fluorescent protein-expressing vector led to the release of fluorescent exosomes, as detected in plasma of inoculated mice. Then, we observed that mice inoculated intramuscularly with a vector expressing Nef mut /E7 developed a CD8 + T-cell immune response against both Nef and E7. Conversely, no CD8 + T-cell responses were detected upon injection of vectors expressing either the wild-type Nef isoform of E7 alone, most likely a consequence of their inefficient exosome incorporation. The production of immunogenic exosomes in the DNA-injected mice was formally demonstrated by the E7-specific CD8 + T-cell immune response we detected in mice inoculated with exosomes isolated from plasma of mice inoculated with the Nef mut /E7 vector. Finally, we provide evidence that the injection of Nef mut /E7 DNA led to the generation of effective antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes whose activity was likely part of the potent, therapeutic antitumor effect we observed in mice implanted with TC-1 tumor cells. In summary, we established

  7. Cellular immune responses to HIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMichael, Andrew J.; Rowland-Jones, Sarah L.

    2001-04-01

    The cellular immune response to the human immunodeficiency virus, mediated by T lymphocytes, seems strong but fails to control the infection completely. In most virus infections, T cells either eliminate the virus or suppress it indefinitely as a harmless, persisting infection. But the human immunodeficiency virus undermines this control by infecting key immune cells, thereby impairing the response of both the infected CD4+ T cells and the uninfected CD8+ T cells. The failure of the latter to function efficiently facilitates the escape of virus from immune control and the collapse of the whole immune system.

  8. Immune responses in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.

    1998-01-01

    Space flight has been shown to have profound effects on immunological parameters of humans, monkeys and rodents. These studies have been carried out by a number of different laboratories. Among the parameters affected are leukocyte blastogenesis, natural killer cell activity, leukocyte subset distribution, cytokine production - including interferons and interleukins, and macrophage maturation and activity. These changes start to occur only after a few days space flight, and some changes continue throughout long-term space flight. Antibody responses have received only very limited study, and total antibody levels have been shown to be increased after long-term space flight. Several factors could be involved in inducing these changes. These factors could include microgravity, lack of load-bearing, stress, acceleration forces, and radiation. The mechanism(s) for space flight-induced changes in immune responses remain(s) to be established. Certainly, there can be direct effects of microgravity, or other factors, on cells that play a fundamental role in immune responses. However, it is now clear that there are interactions between the immune system and other physiological systems that could play a major role. For example, changes occurring in calcium use in the musculoskeletal system induced by microgravity or lack of use could have great impact on the immune system. Most of the changes in immune responses have been observed using samples taken immediately after return from space flight. However, there have been two recent studies that have used in-flight testing. Delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to common recall antigens of astronauts and cosmonauts have been shown to be decreased when tested during space flights. Additionally, natural killer cell and blastogenic activities are inhibited in samples taken from rats during space flight. Therefore, it is now clear that events occurring during space flight itself can affect immune responses. The biological

  9. Immune Response to Giardia duodenalis

    PubMed Central

    Faubert, Gaétan

    2000-01-01

    The intestinal protozoan Giardia duodenalis is a widespread opportunistic parasite of humans and animals. This parasite inhabits the upper part of the small intestine and has a direct life cycle. After ingestion of cysts, which are the infective stage, the trophozoites emerge from the cysts in the duodenum and attach to the small intestinal mucosa of the host. Since the migration of trophozoites from the lumen of the intestine into surrounding tissues is an unusual occurrence, the immune response to Giardia remains localized. The identification of antigens that play a role in acquired immunity has been difficult because of the occurrence of antigenic variation and because, Giardia being an ubiquituous organism, it is possible that the antigenic profiles of isolates from different geographic areas will vary. Innate-immunity mechanisms play a role in the control and/or severity of the infection. Both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses play a role in acquired immunity, but the mechanisms involved are unknown. A variety of serological assays have been used to detect circulating antibodies in serum. Because of the biological characteristics of the parasite and the lack of suitable antigens, the sensitivity of serological assays remains poor. On the other hand, detection of antigens in feces of infected patients has met with success. Commercial kits are available, and they are reported to be more sensitive than microscopic examination for the detection of giardiasis on a single specimen. PMID:10627490

  10. Innate Immune Responses to Cryptococcus.

    PubMed

    Heung, Lena J

    2017-09-01

    Cryptococcus species are encapsulated fungi found in the environment that predominantly cause disease in immunocompromised hosts after inhalation into the lungs. Even with contemporary antifungal regimens, patients with cryptococcosis continue to have high morbidity and mortality rates. The development of more effective therapies may depend on our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which the host promotes sterilizing immunity against the fungus. This review will highlight our current knowledge of how Cryptococcus , primarily the species C. neoformans , is sensed by the mammalian host and how subsequent signaling pathways direct the anti-cryptococcal response by effector cells of the innate immune system.

  11. Innate Immune Responses to Cryptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Heung, Lena J.

    2017-01-01

    Cryptococcus species are encapsulated fungi found in the environment that predominantly cause disease in immunocompromised hosts after inhalation into the lungs. Even with contemporary antifungal regimens, patients with cryptococcosis continue to have high morbidity and mortality rates. The development of more effective therapies may depend on our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which the host promotes sterilizing immunity against the fungus. This review will highlight our current knowledge of how Cryptococcus, primarily the species C. neoformans, is sensed by the mammalian host and how subsequent signaling pathways direct the anti-cryptococcal response by effector cells of the innate immune system. PMID:28936464

  12. Innate Immune Responses in Leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Roberta Olmo; Schmitz, Veronica; Silva, Bruno Jorge de Andrade; Dias, André Alves; de Souza, Beatriz Junqueira; de Mattos Barbosa, Mayara Garcia; de Almeida Esquenazi, Danuza; Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes

    2018-01-01

    Leprosy is an infectious disease that may present different clinical forms depending on host immune response to Mycobacterium leprae. Several studies have clarified the role of various T cell populations in leprosy; however, recent evidences suggest that local innate immune mechanisms are key determinants in driving the disease to its different clinical manifestations. Leprosy is an ideal model to study the immunoregulatory role of innate immune molecules and its interaction with nervous system, which can affect homeostasis and contribute to the development of inflammatory episodes during the course of the disease. Macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, and keratinocytes are the major cell populations studied and the comprehension of the complex networking created by cytokine release, lipid and iron metabolism, as well as antimicrobial effector pathways might provide data that will help in the development of new strategies for leprosy management. PMID:29643852

  13. Fetal immune response to chorioamnionitis

    PubMed Central

    Kallapur, Suhas G.; Presicce, Pietro; Rueda, Cesar M.; Jobe, Alan H.; Chougnet, Claire A.

    2014-01-01

    Chorioamnionitis is a frequent cause of preterm birth and is associated with an increased risk for injury responses in the lung, GI tract, brain and other fetal organs. Chorioamnionitis is a polymicrobial non-traditional infectious disease because the organisms causing chorioamnionitis are generally of low virulence and colonize the amniotic fluid often for extended periods, and the host (mother and the fetus) does not have typical infection related symptoms such as fever. In this review, we discuss the effects of chorioamnionitis in experimental animal models that mimic the human disease. Our focus is on the immune changes in multiple fetal organs and the pathogenesis of chorioamnionitis induced injury in different fetal compartments. Since chorioamnionitis disproportionately affects preterm infants, we discuss the relevant developmental context for the immune system. We also provide a clinical context for the fetal responses. PMID:24390922

  14. Immune responses to bioengineered organs

    PubMed Central

    Ochando, Jordi; Charron, Dominique; Baptista, Pedro M.; Uygun, Basak E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Organ donation in the United States registered 9079 deceased organ donors in 2015. This high percentage of donations allowed organ transplantation in 29 851 recipients. Despite increasing numbers of transplants performed in comparison with previous years, the numbers of patients that are in need for a transplant increase every year at a higher rate. This reveals that the discrepancy between the demand and availability of organs remains fundamental problem in organ transplantation. Recent findings Development of bioengineered organs represents a promising approach to increase the pool of organs for transplantation. The technology involves obtaining complex three-dimensional scaffolds that support cellular activity and functional remodeling though tissue recellularization protocols using progenitor cells. This innovative approach integrates cross-thematic approaches from specific areas of transplant immunology, tissue engineering and stem cell biology, to potentially manufacture an unlimited source of donor organs for transplantation. Summary Although bioengineered organs are thought to escape immune recognition, the potential immune reactivity toward each of its components has not been studied in detail. Here, we summarize the host immune response toward different progenitor cells and discuss the potential implications of using nonself biological scaffolds to develop bioengineered organs. PMID:27926545

  15. Eosinophils in mucosal immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Travers, J; Rothenberg, M E

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils, multifunctional cells that contribute to both innate and adaptive immunity, are involved in the initiation, propagation and resolution of immune responses, including tissue repair. They achieve this multifunctionality by expression of a diverse set of activation receptors, including those that directly recognize pathogens and opsonized targets, and by their ability to store and release preformed cytotoxic mediators that participate in host defense, to produce a variety of de novo pleotropic mediators and cytokines and to interact directly and indirectly with diverse cell types, including adaptive and innate immunocytes and structural cells. Herein, we review the basic biology of eosinophils and then focus on new emerging concepts about their role in mucosal immune homeostasis, particularly maintenance of intestinal IgA. We review emerging data about their development and regulation and describe new concepts concerning mucosal eosinophilic diseases. We describe recently developed therapeutic strategies to modify eosinophil levels and function and provide collective insight about the beneficial and detrimental functions of these enigmatic cells. PMID:25807184

  16. EVOLUTION OF THE IMMUNE RESPONSE

    PubMed Central

    Papermaster, Ben W.; Condie, Richard M.; Finstad, Joanne; Good, Robert A.

    1964-01-01

    1. The California hagfish, Eptatretus stoutii, seems to be completely lacking in adaptive immunity: it forms no detectable circulating antibody despite intensive stimulation with a range of antigens; it does not show reactivity to old tuberculin following sensitization with BCG; and gives no evidence of homograft immunity. 2. Studies on the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, have been limited to the response to bacteriophage T2 and hemocyanin in small groups of spawning animals. They suggest that the lamprey may have a low degree of immunologic reactivity. 3. One holostean, the bowfin (Amia calva) and the guitarfish (Rhinobatos productus), an elasmobranch, showed a low level of primary response to phage and hemocyanin. The response is slow and antibody levels low. Both the bowfin and the guitarfish showed a vigorous secondary response to phage, but neither showed much enhancement of reactivity to hemocyanin in the secondary response. The bowfin formed precipitating antibody to hemocyanin, but the guitarfish did not. Both hemagglutinating and precipitating antibody to hemocyanin were also observed in the primary response of the black bass. 4. The bowfin was successfully sensitized to Ascaris antigen, and lesions of the delayed type developed after challenge at varying intervals following sensitization. 5. The horned shark (Heterodontus franciscii) regularly cleared hemocyanin from the circulation after both primary and secondary antigenic stimulation, and regularly formed hemagglutinating antibody, but not precipitating antibody, after both primary and secondary stimulation with this antigen. These animals regularly cleared bacteriophage from the circulation after both the primary and secondary stimulation with bacteriophage T2. Significant but small amounts of antibody were produced in a few animals in the primary response, and larger amounts in the responding animals after secondary antigenic stimulation. 6. Studies by starch gel and immunoelectrophoresis show that

  17. Tilapia show immunization response against Ich

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study compares the immune response of Nile tilapia and red tilapia against parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) using a cohabitation challenge model. Both Nile and red tilapia showed strong immune response post immunization with live Ich theronts by IP injection or immersion. Blood serum...

  18. Toll immune signal activates cellular immune response via eicosanoids.

    PubMed

    Shafeeq, Tahir; Ahmed, Shabbir; Kim, Yonggyun

    2018-07-01

    Upon immune challenge, insects recognize nonself. The recognition signal will propagate to nearby immune effectors. It is well-known that Toll signal pathway induces antimicrobial peptide (AMP) gene expression. Eicosanoids play crucial roles in mediating the recognition signal to immune effectors by enhancing humoral immune response through activation of AMP synthesis as well as cellular immune responses, suggesting a functional cross-talk between Toll and eicosanoid signals. This study tested a cross-talk between these two signals. Two signal transducing factors (MyD88 and Pelle) of Toll immune pathway were identified in Spodoptera exigua. RNA interference (RNAi) of either SeMyD88 or SePelle expression interfered with the expression of AMP genes under Toll signal pathway. Bacterial challenge induced PLA 2 enzyme activity. However, RNAi of these two immune factors significantly suppressed the induction of PLA 2 enzyme activity. Furthermore, RNAi treatment prevented gene expression of cellular PLA 2 . Inhibition of PLA 2 activity reduced phenoloxidase activity and subsequent suppression in cellular immune response measured by hemocyte nodule formation. However, immunosuppression induced by RNAi of Toll signal molecules was significantly reversed by addition of arachidonic acid (AA), a catalytic product of PLA 2 . The addition also significantly reduced the enhanced fungal susceptibility of S. exigua treated by RNAi against two Toll signal molecules. These results indicate that there is a cross-talk between Toll and eicosanoid signals in insect immunity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Immune response in asymptomatic smokers.

    PubMed

    Zeidel, A; Beilin, B; Yardeni, I; Mayburd, E; Smirnov, G; Bessler, H

    2002-09-01

    It has been demonstrated that cigarette smoking affects the immune system. Impairment of alveolar mononuclear cell function, described previously, may contribute to the higher rate of postoperative respiratory infections. However, increased susceptibility of smokers to infections of other origin (e.g. wound-related) implies that tobacco effect is not restricted to the respiratory immune competent cells. The present study was designed to investigate the systemic effect of tobacco smoking as it exerted on blood-derived immune cells. We measured systemic cytotoxic activity of natural killer cells, production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines by blood mononuclear cells and their proliferation in response to mitogens. To minimize the immunosuppressive effect of other smoke-related factors, the smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were excluded from this study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 24 chronic asymptomatic smokers, and 28 controls, age and gender matched, were isolated and incubated in vitro with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or phytohemagglutinin (PHA) to induce secretion of IL-1beta, IL-1ra, IL-6, IL-10, TNFalpha and IL-2, respectively, from mononuclear cells. The level of the cytokines in the supernatants was measured using ELISA kits. The proliferative response to the mitogens PHA and concanavalin A (ConA) was evaluated by 3H-thymidine incorporation and NK cell cytotoxicity by 51Cr release assay. Mononuclear cells from smokers showed increased production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNFalpha and enhanced proliferative response to mitogens as compared to non-smoking population. The secretion of IL-2 and the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-1ra and IL-10 was similar in both groups. NK cell cytotoxic activity was suppressed in the smokers. Cigarette smokers without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exhibit impaired NK cytotoxic activity in peripheral blood and unbalanced systemic production

  20. Immune response during space flight.

    PubMed

    Criswell-Hudak, B S

    1991-01-01

    The health status of an astronaut prior to and following space flight has been a prime concern of NASA throughout the Apollo series of lunar landings, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz Test Projects (ASTP), and the new Spacelab-Shuttle missions. Both humoral and cellular immunity has been studied using classical clinical procedures. Serum proteins show fluctuations that can be explained with adaptation to flight. Conversely, cellular immune responses of lymphocytes appear to be depressed in both in vivo as well as in vitro. If this depression in vivo and in vitro is a result of the same cause, then man's adaptation to outer space living will present interesting challenges in the future. Since the cause may be due to reduced gravity, perhaps the designs of the experiments for space flight will offer insights at the cellular levels that will facilitate development of mechanisms for adaptation. Further, if the aging process is viewed as an adaptational concept or model and not as a disease process then perhaps space flight could very easily interact to supply some information on our biological time clocks.

  1. Immune oncology, immune responsiveness and the theory of everything.

    PubMed

    Turan, Tolga; Kannan, Deepti; Patel, Maulik; Matthew Barnes, J; Tanlimco, Sonia G; Lu, Rongze; Halliwill, Kyle; Kongpachith, Sarah; Kline, Douglas E; Hendrickx, Wouter; Cesano, Alessandra; Butterfield, Lisa H; Kaufman, Howard L; Hudson, Thomas J; Bedognetti, Davide; Marincola, Francesco; Samayoa, Josue

    2018-06-05

    Anti-cancer immunotherapy is encountering its own checkpoint. Responses are dramatic and long lasting but occur in a subset of tumors and are largely dependent upon the pre-existing immune contexture of individual cancers. Available data suggest that three landscapes best define the cancer microenvironment: immune-active, immune-deserted and immune-excluded. This trichotomy is observable across most solid tumors (although the frequency of each landscape varies depending on tumor tissue of origin) and is associated with cancer prognosis and response to checkpoint inhibitor therapy (CIT). Various gene signatures (e.g. Immunological Constant of Rejection - ICR and Tumor Inflammation Signature - TIS) that delineate these landscapes have been described by different groups. In an effort to explain the mechanisms of cancer immune responsiveness or resistance to CIT, several models have been proposed that are loosely associated with the three landscapes. Here, we propose a strategy to integrate compelling data from various paradigms into a "Theory of Everything". Founded upon this unified theory, we also propose the creation of a task force led by the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) aimed at systematically addressing salient questions relevant to cancer immune responsiveness and immune evasion. This multidisciplinary effort will encompass aspects of genetics, tumor cell biology, and immunology that are pertinent to the understanding of this multifaceted problem.

  2. Maternal immunity enhances systemic recall immune responses upon oral immunization of piglets with F4 fimbriae.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ut V; Melkebeek, Vesna; Devriendt, Bert; Goetstouwers, Tiphanie; Van Poucke, Mario; Peelman, Luc; Goddeeris, Bruno M; Cox, Eric

    2015-06-23

    F4 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) cause diarrhoea and mortality in piglets leading to severe economic losses. Oral immunization of piglets with F4 fimbriae induces a protective intestinal immune response evidenced by an F4-specific serum and intestinal IgA response. However, successful oral immunization of pigs with F4 fimbriae in the presence of maternal immunity has not been demonstrated yet. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the effect of maternal immunity on the induction of a systemic immune response upon oral immunization of piglets. Whereas F4-specific IgG and IgA could be induced by oral immunization of pigs without maternal antibodies and by intramuscular immunization of pigs with maternal antibodies, no such response was seen in the orally immunized animals with maternal antibodies. Since maternal antibodies can mask an antibody response, we also looked by ELIspot assays for circulating F4-specific antibody secreting cells (ASCs). Enumerating the F4-specific ASCs within the circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the number of F4-specific IgA ASCs within the circulating IgA(+) B-cells revealed an F4-specific immune response in the orally immunized animals with maternal antibodies. Interestingly, results suggest a more robust IgA booster response by oral immunization of pigs with than without maternal antibodies. These results demonstrate that oral immunization of piglets with F4-specific maternal antibodies is feasible and that these maternal antibodies seem to enhance the secondary systemic immune response. Furthermore, our ELIspot assay on enriched IgA(+) B-cells could be used as a screening procedure to optimize mucosal immunization protocols in pigs with maternal immunity.

  3. Spaceflight and immune responses of Rhesus monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1994-01-01

    Evidence from both human and rodent studies indicates that alterations in immunological parameters occur after space flight. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of space flight on immune responses of Rhesus monkeys. The expected significance of the work is a determination of the range of immunological functions of the Rhesus monkey, a primate similar in many ways to man, affected by space flight. Changes in immune responses that could yield alterations in resistance to infection may be determined as well as the duration of alterations in immune responses. Additional information on the nature of cellular interactions for the generation of immune responses may also be obtained.

  4. Neuropeptide substance P and the immune response.

    PubMed

    Mashaghi, Alireza; Marmalidou, Anna; Tehrani, Mohsen; Grace, Peter M; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; Dana, Reza

    2016-11-01

    Substance P is a peptide mainly secreted by neurons and is involved in many biological processes, including nociception and inflammation. Animal models have provided insights into the biology of this peptide and offered compelling evidence for the importance of substance P in cell-to-cell communication by either paracrine or endocrine signaling. Substance P mediates interactions between neurons and immune cells, with nerve-derived substance P modulating immune cell proliferation rates and cytokine production. Intriguingly, some immune cells have also been found to secrete substance P, which hints at an integral role of substance P in the immune response. These communications play important functional roles in immunity including mobilization, proliferation and modulation of the activity of immune cells. This review summarizes current knowledge of substance P and its receptors, as well as its physiological and pathological roles. We focus on recent developments in the immunobiology of substance P and discuss the clinical implications of its ability to modulate the immune response.

  5. Hallmarks of response to immune checkpoint blockade

    PubMed Central

    Cogdill, Alexandria P; Andrews, Miles C; Wargo, Jennifer A

    2017-01-01

    Unprecedented advances have been made in the treatment of cancer through the use of immune checkpoint blockade, with approval of several checkpoint blockade regimens spanning multiple cancer types. However, responses to this form of therapy are not universal, and insights are clearly needed to identify optimal biomarkers of response and to combat mechanisms of therapeutic resistance. A working knowledge of the hallmarks of cancer yields insight into responses to immune checkpoint blockade, although the focus of this is rather tumour-centric and additional factors are pertinent, including host immunity and environmental influences. Herein, we describe the foundation for pillars and hallmarks of response to immune checkpoint blockade, with a discussion of their relevance to immune monitoring and mechanisms of resistance. Evolution of this understanding will ultimately help guide treatment strategies to enhance therapeutic responses. PMID:28524159

  6. Innate immune response to Burkholderia mallei.

    PubMed

    Saikh, Kamal U; Mott, Tiffany M

    2017-06-01

    Burkholderia mallei is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes the highly contagious and often the fatal disease, glanders. With its high rate of infectivity via aerosol and recalcitrance toward antibiotics, this pathogen is considered a potential biological threat agent. This review focuses on the most recent literature highlighting host innate immune response to B. mallei. Recent studies focused on elucidating host innate immune responses to the novel mechanisms and virulence factors employed by B. mallei for survival. Studies suggest that pathogen proteins manipulate various cellular processes, including host ubiquitination pathways, phagosomal escape, and actin-cytoskeleton rearrangement. Immune-signaling molecules such as Toll-like receptors, nucleotode-binding oligomerization domain, myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88, and proinflammatory cytokines such as interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-α, play key roles in the induction of innate immune responses. Modifications in B. mallei lipopolysaccharide, in particular, the lipid A acyl groups, stimulate immune responses via Toll-like receptor4 activation that may contribute to persistent infection. Mortality is high because of septicemia and immune pathogenesis with B. mallei exposure. An effective innate immune response is critical to controlling the acute phase of the infection. Both vaccination and therapeutic approaches are necessary for complete protection against B. mallei.

  7. Innate immune response to Burkholderia mallei

    PubMed Central

    Saikh, Kamal U.; Mott, Tiffany M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Burkholderia mallei is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes the highly contagious and often the fatal disease, glanders. With its high rate of infectivity via aerosol and recalcitrance toward antibiotics, this pathogen is considered a potential biological threat agent. This review focuses on the most recent literature highlighting host innate immune response to B. mallei. Recent findings Recent studies focused on elucidating host innate immune responses to the novel mechanisms and virulence factors employed by B. mallei for survival. Studies suggest that pathogen proteins manipulate various cellular processes, including host ubiquitination pathways, phagosomal escape, and actin–cytoskeleton rearrangement. Immune-signaling molecules such as Toll-like receptors, nucleotode-binding oligomerization domain, myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88, and proinflammatory cytokines such as interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-α, play key roles in the induction of innate immune responses. Modifications in B. mallei lipopolysaccharide, in particular, the lipid A acyl groups, stimulate immune responses via Toll-like receptor4 activation that may contribute to persistent infection. Summary Mortality is high because of septicemia and immune pathogenesis with B. mallei exposure. An effective innate immune response is critical to controlling the acute phase of the infection. Both vaccination and therapeutic approaches are necessary for complete protection against B. mallei. PMID:28177960

  8. The immune response to human CMV

    PubMed Central

    La Rosa, Corinna; Diamond, Don J

    2012-01-01

    This review will summarize and interpret recent literature regarding the human CMV immune response, which is among the strongest measured and is the focus of attention for numerous research groups. CMV is a highly prevalent, globally occurring infection that rarely elicits disease in healthy immunocompetent hosts. The human immune system is unable to clear CMV infection and latency, but mounts a spirited immune-defense targeting multiple immune-evasion genes encoded by this dsDNA β-herpes virus. Additionally, the magnitude of cellular immune response devoted to CMV may cause premature immune senescence, and the high frequencies of cytolytic T cells may aggravate vascular pathologies. However, uncontrolled CMV viremia and life-threatening symptoms, which occur readily after immunosuppression and in the immature host, clearly indicate the essential role of immunity in maintaining asymptomatic co-existence with CMV. Approaches for harnessing the host immune response to CMV are needed to reduce the burden of CMV complications in immunocompromised individuals. PMID:23308079

  9. Surviving Sepsis: Taming a Deadly Immune Response

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Subscribe August 2014 Print this issue Surviving Sepsis Taming a Deadly Immune Response En español Send ... Mouth? Looking at Lupus Wise Choices Signs of Sepsis Sepsis can be hard to spot, because its ...

  10. Cellular immune response experiment MA-031

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, B. S.

    1976-01-01

    Significant changes in phytohemagglutinin (PHA) lymphocytic responsiveness occurred in the cellular immune response of three astronauts during the 9 day flight of the Apollo Soyuz Test Project. Parameters studied were white blood cell concentrations, lymphocyte numbers, B- and T-lymphocyte distributions in peripheral blood, and lymphocyte responsiveness to PHA, pokeweed mitogen, Concanavalin A, and influenza virus antigen.

  11. Neuropeptide Substance P and the Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Tehrani, Mohsen; Grace, Peter M.; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; Dana, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Substance P is a peptide mainly secreted by neurons and is involved in many biological processes, including nociception and inflammation. Animal models have provided insights into the biology of this peptide and offered compelling evidence for the importance of substance P in cell-to-cell communication by either paracrine or endocrine signaling. Substance P mediates interactions between neurons and immune cells, with nerve-derived substance P modulating immune cell proliferation rates and cytokine production. Intriguingly, some immune cells have also been found to secrete substance P, which hints at an integral role of substance P in the immune response. These communications play important functional roles in immunity including mobilization, proliferation and modulation of activity of immune cells. This Review summarizes current knowledge of substance P and its receptors, as well as its physiological and pathological roles. We focus on recent developments in the immuno-biology of substance P and we discuss the clinical implications of its ability to modulate the immune response. PMID:27314883

  12. Human Immune Response to Dengue Infections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-31

    antigens of all 4 serotypes. These CTL lysed autologous fibroblasts infected with vaccinia-dengue recombinant viruses containing the E, or several non...responses of PBMC from a dengue 4-immune donor to call-free dengue viruses . .. ........... 6 Table 2. Lysis of dengue virus-infected fibroblasts by dengue...4-immune PBMC stimulated with dengue viruses ... ...... 7 Table 3. Inhibition of the lysis of dengue- infected fibroblasts by monoclonal anti-CD8

  13. Human Immune Responses to Dengue Viruses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    ND-R171 381 HUR IMMUNE RESPONSES TO DENGUE VIRUSES (U) 1/1 MASSRCHUSETTS UNIY M9DICAL SCHOOL WORCESTER F R~ ENNIS RUG 94 DRMt17-2-C-2233 UNCLASSIFIED...Responses to Dengue Viruses Annual Report 0(August 1983-July 1984) Francis A. Ennis, M.D. August 1984 Supported by U.S. Army Medical Research and...3M1- NO. SON No. Frederick, Maryland 21701-5012 61102A 61102BSI0 AA 104 11. TITLE Oxkf* Samqy Oao" Human Immune Responses to Dengue Viruses 12. PERSON

  14. Antitumor immune responses mediated by dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Spel, Lotte; Boelens, Jaap-Jan; Nierkens, Stefan; Boes, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are essential for the induction of adaptive immune responses against malignant cells by virtue of their capacity to effectively cross-present exogenous antigens to T lymphocytes. Dying cancer cells are indeed a rich source of antigens that may be harnessed for the development of DC-based vaccines. In particular, malignant cells succumbing to apoptosis, rather than necrosis, appear to release antigens in a manner that allows for the elicitation of adaptive immune responses. In this review, we describe the processes that mediate the cross-presentation of antigens released by apoptotic cancer cells to CD8+ T lymphocytes, resulting in the activation of protective tumor-specific immune responses. PMID:24482744

  15. The immune response to Nipah virus infection.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Joseph; de Wit, Emmie; Feldmann, Heinz; Munster, Vincent J

    2012-09-01

    Nipah virus has recently emerged as a zoonotic agent that is highly pathogenic in humans. Outbreaks have occurred regularly over the last two decades in South and Southeast Asia, where mortality rates reach as high as 100 %. The natural reservoir of Nipah virus has been identified as bats from the Pteropus family, where infection is largely asymptomatic. Human disease is characterized by both respiratory and encephalitic components, and thus far, no effective vaccine or intervention strategies are available. Little is know about how the immune response of either the reservoir host or incidental hosts responds to infection, and how this immune response is either inadequate or might contribute to disease in the dead-end host. Experimental vaccines strategies have given us some insight into the immunological requirements for protection. This review summarizes our current understanding of the immune response to Nipah virus infection and emphasizes the need for further research.

  16. The immune response to Nipah virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Joseph; de Wit, Emmie; Feldmann, Heinz; Munster, Vincent J.

    2012-01-01

    Nipah virus has recently emerged as a zoonotic agent that is highly pathogenic in humans. Outbreaks have occurred regularly over the last two decades in South and Southeast Asia, where mortality rates reach as high as 100%. The natural reservoir of Nipah virus has been identified as bats from the Pteropus family, where infection is largely asymptomatic. Human disease is characterized by both respiratory and encephalitic components, and thus far, no effective vaccine or intervention strategies are available. Little is know about how the immune response of either the reservoir host or incidental hosts responds to infection, and how this immune response is either inadequate or might contribute to disease in the dead-end host. Experimental vaccines strategies have given us some insight into the immunological requirements for protection. This review summarizes our current understanding of the immune response to Nipah virus infection and emphasizes the need for further research. PMID:22669317

  17. Injury-induced immune responses in Hydra.

    PubMed

    Wenger, Yvan; Buzgariu, Wanda; Reiter, Silke; Galliot, Brigitte

    2014-08-01

    The impact of injury-induced immune responses on animal regenerative processes is highly variable, positive or negative depending on the context. This likely reflects the complexity of the innate immune system that behaves as a sentinel in the transition from injury to regeneration. Early-branching invertebrates with high regenerative potential as Hydra provide a unique framework to dissect how injury-induced immune responses impact regeneration. A series of early cellular events likely require an efficient immune response after amputation, as antimicrobial defence, epithelial cell stretching for wound closure, migration of interstitial progenitors toward the wound, cell death, phagocytosis of cell debris, or reconstruction of the extracellular matrix. The analysis of the injury-induced transcriptomic modulations of 2636 genes annotated as immune genes in Hydra identified 43 genes showing an immediate/early pulse regulation in all regenerative contexts examined. These regulations point to an enhanced cytoprotection via ROS signaling (Nrf, C/EBP, p62/SQSMT1-l2), TNFR and TLR signaling (TNFR16-like, TRAF2l, TRAF5l, jun, fos-related, SIK2, ATF1/CREB, LRRC28, LRRC40, LRRK2), proteasomal activity (p62/SQSMT1-l1, Ced6/Gulf, NEDD8-conjugating enzyme Ubc12), stress proteins (CRYAB1, CRYAB2, HSP16.2, DnaJB9, HSP90a1), all potentially regulating NF-κB activity. Other genes encoding immune-annotated proteins such as NPYR4, GTPases, Swap70, the antiproliferative BTG1, enzymes involved in lipid metabolism (5-lipoxygenase, ACSF4), secreted clotting factors, secreted peptidases are also pulse regulated upon bisection. By contrast, metalloproteinases and antimicrobial peptide genes largely follow a context-dependent regulation, whereas the protease inhibitor α2macroglobulin gene exhibits a sustained up-regulation. Hence a complex immune response to injury is linked to wound healing and regeneration in Hydra. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights

  18. Damage signals in the insect immune response

    PubMed Central

    Krautz, Robert; Arefin, Badrul; Theopold, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Insects and mammals share an ancient innate immune system comprising both humoral and cellular responses. The insect immune system consists of the fat body, which secretes effector molecules into the hemolymph and several classes of hemocytes, which reside in the hemolymph and of protective border epithelia. Key features of wound- and immune responses are shared between insect and mammalian immune systems including the mode of activation by commonly shared microbial (non-self) patterns and the recognition of these patterns by dedicated receptors. It is unclear how metazoan parasites in insects, which lack these shared motifs, are recognized. Research in recent years has demonstrated that during entry into the insect host, many eukaryotic pathogens leave traces that alert potential hosts of the damage they have afflicted. In accordance with terminology used in the mammalian immune systems, these signals have been dubbed danger- or damage-associated signals. Damage signals are necessary byproducts generated during entering hosts either by mechanical or proteolytic damage. Here, we briefly review the current stage of knowledge on how wound closure and wound healing during mechanical damage is regulated and how damage-related signals contribute to these processes. We also discuss how sensors of proteolytic activity induce insect innate immune responses. Strikingly damage-associated signals are also released from cells that have aberrant growth, including tumor cells. These signals may induce apoptosis in the damaged cells, the recruitment of immune cells to the aberrant tissue and even activate humoral responses. Thus, this ensures the removal of aberrant cells and compensatory proliferation to replace lost tissue. Several of these pathways may have been co-opted from wound healing and developmental processes. PMID:25071815

  19. Pathogen recognition in the innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Himanshu; Kawai, Taro; Akira, Shizuo

    2009-04-28

    Immunity against microbial pathogens primarily depends on the recognition of pathogen components by innate receptors expressed on immune and non-immune cells. Innate receptors are evolutionarily conserved germ-line-encoded proteins and include TLRs (Toll-like receptors), RLRs [RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene-I)-like receptors] and NLRs (Nod-like receptors). These receptors recognize pathogens or pathogen-derived products in different cellular compartments, such as the plasma membrane, the endosomes or the cytoplasm, and induce the expression of cytokines, chemokines and co-stimulatory molecules to eliminate pathogens and instruct pathogen-specific adaptive immune responses. In the present review, we will discuss the recent progress in the study of pathogen recognition by TLRs, RLRs and NLRs and their signalling pathways.

  20. Human Immune Responses to Dengue Viruses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    0-1 NO- 3K1- INO. "඄o. ________________%______ 61102A 1611025810 AA r104 (U) xvne Im e Seepuses to Donueo viruses If Irms Al. W~al 71W c 4w O PIT(w...HUMAN IMMUNE RESPONSES TO DENGUE VIRUSES . .. .............. Accesion For NTIS CRAM DTIC TAB 0 ANNUAL REPORT Unannounced 0 Justification FRANCIS A...purp6se of this study is to define the Immune responses of humans to dengue viruses . These studies should provide data which will be helpful in

  1. Peroxiredoxin 5 modulates immune response in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Radyuk, Svetlana N.; Michalak, Katarzyna; Klichko, Vladimir I.; Benes, Judith; Orr, William C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Peroxiredoxins are redox-sensing enzymes with multiple cellular functions. Previously, we reported on the potent antioxidant function of Drosophila peroxiredoxin 5 (dPrx5). Studies with mammalian and human cells suggest that peroxiredoxins can modulate immune-related signaling. Methods Survivorship studies and bacteriological analysis were used to determine resistance of flies to fungal and bacterial infections. RT-PCR and immunoblot analyses determined expression of dPrx5 and immunity factors in response to bacterial challenge. Double mutants for dprx5 gene and genes comprising the Imd/Relish and dTak1/Basket branches of the immune signaling pathways were used in epistatic analysis. Results The dprx5 mutant flies were more resistant to bacterial infection than controls, while flies overexpressing dPrx5 were more susceptible. The enhanced resistance to bacteria was accompanied by rapid induction of the Imd-dependent antimicrobial peptides, phosphorylation of the JNK kinase Basket and altered transcriptional profiling of the transient response genes, puckered, ets21C and relish, while the opposite effects were observed in flies over-expressing dPrx5. Epistatic analysis of double mutants, using attacin D and Puckered as read outs of activation of the Imd and JNK pathways, implicated dPrx5 function in the control of the dTak1-JNK arm of immune signaling. Conclusions Differential effects on fly survivorship suggested a trade-off between the antioxidant and immune functions of dPrx5. Molecular and epistatic analyses identified dPrx5 as a negative regulator in the dTak1-JNK arm of immune signaling. General significance Our findings suggest that peroxiredoxins play an important modulatory role in the Drosophila immune response. PMID:20600624

  2. Stress proteins and the immune response.

    PubMed

    Moseley, P

    2000-07-25

    The heat shock or stress response is one of the most highly conserved adaptive responses in nature. In single cell organisms, the stress response confers tolerance to a variety of stresses including hyperthermia, hyperoxia, hypoxia, and other perturbations, which alter protein synthesis. This tolerance phenomenon is also extremely important in the multicellular organism, resulting in not only thermal tolerance, but also resistance to stresses of the whole organism such as ischemia-reperfusion injury. Moreover, recent data indicates that these stress proteins have the ability to modulate the cellular immune response. Although the terms heat shock proteins (HSPs) and stress proteins are often used interchangeably, the term stress proteins includes the HSPs, the glucose-regulated proteins (GRPs) and ubiquitin. The stress proteins may be grouped by molecular weight ranging from the large 110 kDa HSP110 to ubiquitin at 8 kDa. These proteins serve as cellular chaperones, participating in protein synthesis and transport through the various cellular compartments. Because these proteins have unique cellular localizations, the chaperone function of the stress proteins often involves a transfer of peptides between stress proteins as the peptide is moved between cellular compartments. For example, HSP70 is a cytosolic and nuclear chaperone, which is critical for the transfer of cellular peptides in the mitochondrion through a hand-off that involves mitochondrial HSP60 at the inner mitochondrial membrane. Similarly, cytosolic proteins are transferred from HSP70 to gp96 as they move into the endoplasmic reticulum. The central role of the stress proteins in the transfer of peptides through the cell may be responsible for the recently recognized importance of the stress proteins in the modulation of the immune system [Feder, M.E., Hofmann, G.E., 1999. Heat-shock proteins, molecular chaperones, and the stress response: evolutionary and ecological physiology. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 61

  3. Immune Response to Dengue and Zika.

    PubMed

    Ngono, Annie Elong; Shresta, Sujan

    2018-04-26

    Flaviviruses such as dengue (DENV), yellow fever (YFV), West Nile (WNV), and Zika (ZIKV) are human pathogens of global significance. In particular, DENV causes the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral diseases in humans, and ZIKV emerged from obscurity into the spotlight in 2016 as the etiologic agent of congenital Zika syndrome. Owing to the recent emergence of ZIKV as a global pandemic threat, the roles of the immune system during ZIKV infections are as yet unclear. In contrast, decades of DENV research implicate a dual role for the immune system in protection against and pathogenesis of DENV infection. As DENV and ZIKV are closely related, knowledge based on DENV studies has been used to prioritize investigation of ZIKV immunity and pathogenesis, and to accelerate ZIKV diagnostic, therapeutic, and vaccine design. This review discusses the following topics related to innate and adaptive immune responses to DENV and ZIKV: the interferon system as the key mechanism of host defense and viral target for immune evasion, antibody-mediated protection versus antibody-dependent enhancement, and T cell-mediated protection versus original T cell antigenic sin. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate the balance between immune-mediated protection and pathogenesis during DENV and ZIKV infections is critical toward development of safe and effective DENV and ZIKV therapeutics and vaccines.

  4. Immune Response in Mussels To Environmental Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Stephen C.; Facher, Evan

    1997-01-01

    Describes the use of mussels in measuring the extent of chemical contamination and its variation in different coastal regions. Presents an experiment to introduce students to immune response and the effects of environmental pollution on marine organisms. Contains 14 references. (JRH)

  5. Innate Immune Sensing and Response to Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Pulendran, Bali; Maddur, Mohan S.

    2015-01-01

    Influenza viruses pose a substantial threat to human and animal health worldwide. Recent studies in mouse models have revealed an indispensable role for the innate immune system in defense against influenza virus. Recognition of the virus by innate immune receptors in a multitude of cell types activates intricate signaling networks, functioning to restrict viral replication. Downstream effector mechanisms include activation of innate immune cells and, induction and regulation of adaptive immunity. However, uncontrolled innate responses are associated with exaggerated disease, especially in pandemic influenza virus infection. Despite advances in the understanding of innate response to influenza in the mouse model, there is a large knowledge gap in humans, particularly in immunocom-promised groups such as infants and the elderly. We propose here, the need for further studies in humans to decipher the role of innate immunity to influenza virus, particularly at the site of infection. These studies will complement the existing work in mice and facilitate the quest to design improved vaccines and therapeutic strategies against influenza. PMID:25078919

  6. Innate immune sensing and response to influenza.

    PubMed

    Pulendran, Bali; Maddur, Mohan S

    2015-01-01

    Influenza viruses pose a substantial threat to human and animal health worldwide. Recent studies in mouse models have revealed an indispensable role for the innate immune system in defense against influenza virus. Recognition of the virus by innate immune receptors in a multitude of cell types activates intricate signaling networks, functioning to restrict viral replication. Downstream effector mechanisms include activation of innate immune cells and, induction and regulation of adaptive immunity. However, uncontrolled innate responses are associated with exaggerated disease, especially in pandemic influenza virus infection. Despite advances in the understanding of innate response to influenza in the mouse model, there is a large knowledge gap in humans, particularly in immunocompromised groups such as infants and the elderly. We propose here, the need for further studies in humans to decipher the role of innate immunity to influenza virus, particularly at the site of infection. These studies will complement the existing work in mice and facilitate the quest to design improved vaccines and therapeutic strategies against influenza.

  7. Intravital imaging of cutaneous immune responses.

    PubMed

    Nakamizo, Satoshi; Egawa, Gyohei; Bing, Jasmine Tan Kah; Kabashima, Kenji

    2018-05-25

    Various immune cells are present in the skin and modulate the cutaneous immune response. In order to capture such dynamic phenomena, intravital imaging is an important technique and there is a possibility to provide substantial information that is not available using conventional histological analysis. Multiphoton microscope enable direct, three-dimensional, minimally invasive imaging of biological samples with high spatiotemporal resolution, and now become the main method for intravital imaging studies. Here, we will introduce the latest knowledge obtained by intravital imaging of the skin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Innate Immune Response to Burkholderia mallei

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-16

    stimulate immune responses via TLR4 activation that may contribute to persistent infection. Summary Mortality is high due to septicemia and immune...phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate- activated protein kinase (AMPK); regulators of NF-κB signaling pathway (e.g. IκBα, GSK3β, Src, and STAT1) and mitogen... activated protein kinases (e.g. p38, ERK1/2 and c-Myc) (13). The degrees in which target host proteins or processes are modulated correlated to the

  9. Respiratory tract immune response to microbial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, B N

    1982-11-15

    Effective resistance to respiratory tract infection depends principally on specific immunity on mucosal surfaces of the upper or lower respiratory tract. Respiratory tract immune response comprises antibody and cell-mediated systems and may be induced most readily by surface presentation of replicating agents but can result from parenteral or local presentation of highly immunogenic antigens. Upper and lower respiratory tract systems differ in immunologic competence, with the lungs having a greater inventory of protective mechanisms than the trachea or nose. Several effective vaccines have been developed for prevention or modification of respiratory tract diseases.

  10. The innate and adaptive immune response to avian influenza virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Protective immunity against viruses is mediated by the early innate immune responses and later on by the adaptive immune responses. The early innate immunity is designed to contain and limit virus replication in the host, primarily through cytokine and interferon production. Most all cells are cap...

  11. Multiscale modeling of mucosal immune responses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Computational modeling techniques are playing increasingly important roles in advancing a systems-level mechanistic understanding of biological processes. Computer simulations guide and underpin experimental and clinical efforts. This study presents ENteric Immune Simulator (ENISI), a multiscale modeling tool for modeling the mucosal immune responses. ENISI's modeling environment can simulate in silico experiments from molecular signaling pathways to tissue level events such as tissue lesion formation. ENISI's architecture integrates multiple modeling technologies including ABM (agent-based modeling), ODE (ordinary differential equations), SDE (stochastic modeling equations), and PDE (partial differential equations). This paper focuses on the implementation and developmental challenges of ENISI. A multiscale model of mucosal immune responses during colonic inflammation, including CD4+ T cell differentiation and tissue level cell-cell interactions was developed to illustrate the capabilities, power and scope of ENISI MSM. Background Computational techniques are becoming increasingly powerful and modeling tools for biological systems are of greater needs. Biological systems are inherently multiscale, from molecules to tissues and from nano-seconds to a lifespan of several years or decades. ENISI MSM integrates multiple modeling technologies to understand immunological processes from signaling pathways within cells to lesion formation at the tissue level. This paper examines and summarizes the technical details of ENISI, from its initial version to its latest cutting-edge implementation. Implementation Object-oriented programming approach is adopted to develop a suite of tools based on ENISI. Multiple modeling technologies are integrated to visualize tissues, cells as well as proteins; furthermore, performance matching between the scales is addressed. Conclusion We used ENISI MSM for developing predictive multiscale models of the mucosal immune system during gut

  12. Multiscale modeling of mucosal immune responses.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yongguo; Abedi, Vida; Carbo, Adria; Zhang, Xiaoying; Lu, Pinyi; Philipson, Casandra; Hontecillas, Raquel; Hoops, Stefan; Liles, Nathan; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Computational techniques are becoming increasingly powerful and modeling tools for biological systems are of greater needs. Biological systems are inherently multiscale, from molecules to tissues and from nano-seconds to a lifespan of several years or decades. ENISI MSM integrates multiple modeling technologies to understand immunological processes from signaling pathways within cells to lesion formation at the tissue level. This paper examines and summarizes the technical details of ENISI, from its initial version to its latest cutting-edge implementation. Object-oriented programming approach is adopted to develop a suite of tools based on ENISI. Multiple modeling technologies are integrated to visualize tissues, cells as well as proteins; furthermore, performance matching between the scales is addressed. We used ENISI MSM for developing predictive multiscale models of the mucosal immune system during gut inflammation. Our modeling predictions dissect the mechanisms by which effector CD4+ T cell responses contribute to tissue damage in the gut mucosa following immune dysregulation.Computational modeling techniques are playing increasingly important roles in advancing a systems-level mechanistic understanding of biological processes. Computer simulations guide and underpin experimental and clinical efforts. This study presents ENteric Immune Simulator (ENISI), a multiscale modeling tool for modeling the mucosal immune responses. ENISI's modeling environment can simulate in silico experiments from molecular signaling pathways to tissue level events such as tissue lesion formation. ENISI's architecture integrates multiple modeling technologies including ABM (agent-based modeling), ODE (ordinary differential equations), SDE (stochastic modeling equations), and PDE (partial differential equations). This paper focuses on the implementation and developmental challenges of ENISI. A multiscale model of mucosal immune responses during colonic inflammation, including CD4+ T

  13. Malnutrition: Modulator of Immune Responses in Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, Padmapriyadarsini; Saravanan, Natarajan; Bethunaickan, Ramalingam; Tripathy, Srikanth

    2017-01-01

    Nutrition plays a major role in the management of both acute and chronic diseases, in terms of body’s response to the pathogenic organism. An array of nutrients like macro- and micro-nutrients, vitamins, etc., are associated with boosting the host’s immune responses against intracellular pathogens including mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). These nutrients have an immunomodulatory effects in controlling the infection and inflammation process and nutritional deficiency of any form, i.e., malnutrition may lead to nutritionally acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, which greatly increases an individual’s susceptibility to progression of infection to disease. This narrative review looks at the various mechanisms by which nutrition or its deficiency leads to impaired cell mediated and humoral immune responses, which in turn affects the ability of an individual to fight M.tb infection or disease. There is very little evidence in the literature that any specific food on its own or a specific quantity can alter the course of TB disease or be effective in the treatment of malnutrition. Further clinical trials or studies will be needed to recommend and to better understand the link between malnutrition, tuberculosis, and impaired immunity. PMID:29093710

  14. Immune response and immunopathology during toxoplasmosis1

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Christopher D.; Christian, David A.; Hunter, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite of medical and veterinary significance that is able to infect any warm-blooded vertebrate host. In addition to its importance to public health, several inherent features of the biology of T. gondii have made it an important model organism to study host-pathogen interactions. One factor is the genetic tractability of the parasite, which allows studies on the microbial factors that affect virulence and allows the development of tools that facilitate immune studies. Additionally, mice are natural hosts for T. gondii, and the availability of numerous reagents to study the murine immune system makes this an ideal experimental system to understand the functions of cytokines and effector mechanisms involved in immunity to intracellular microorganisms. In this article, we will review current knowledge of the innate and adaptive immune responses required for resistance to toxoplasmosis, the events that lead to the development of immunopathology, and the natural regulatory mechanisms that limit excessive inflammation during this infection. PMID:22955326

  15. [Immune response to live influenza vaccine].

    PubMed

    Naĭkhin, A N; Rekstin, A R; Barantseva, I B; Donina, S A; Desheva, Iu A; Grigor'eva, E P; Kiseleva, I V; Rudenko, L G

    2002-01-01

    Priority data on the induction, by using a Russian live cold-adapted reassortant influenza vaccine (LIV), of the cellular and humoral immunity with regard for attenuation and genetic reassortment of vaccine stains as well as with regard for the age of vaccinated persons and the production of Th1 (IFNY, IL-2) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokine markers in vitro are presented. It was demonstrated in vivo that a pathogenic virus of the A group by far more actively induced the lymphocyte apoptosis as compared with attenuated genetically reassorted stains. Unlike the influenza pathogenic virus, the genetically attenuated and reassorted strain did not produce any negative effects on the induction of cellular immunity. A comparative study of the LIV immunogenic properties in vaccinated persons showed an advantage of LIV over inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in stimulating the cellular and local immunity in the elderly. Unlike IIV, LIV induced an active and balanced immune response developing due to Th1 and Th2 activation. LIV was found to stimulate well enough the production of IFN and IL-2 in both young and old persons.

  16. CELLS INVOLVED IN THE IMMUNE RESPONSE

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Sharwan K.; Richter, Maxwell

    1968-01-01

    Cell suspensions of immune rabbit lymph nodes and spleen were capable of undergoing blastogenesis and mitosis and of incorporating tritiated thymidine when maintained in culture with the specific antigen in vitro. They did not respond to other, non-cross-reacting antigens. The blastogenic response obtained with immune lymph node cells could be correlated with the antibody synthesizing capacity of fragment cultures prepared from the same lymph nodes. Cell suspensions of immune bone marrow responded to non-cross-reacting antigens only whereas cell suspensions of immune thymus, sacculus rotundus, and appendix did not respond when exposed to any of the antigens tested. On the other hand, neither fragments nor cell suspensions prepared from lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus of normal, unimmunized rabbits responded with antibody formation and blastogenesis when exposed to any of the antigens. However, normal bone marrow cells responded with marked blastogenesis and tritiated thymidine uptake. The specificity of this in vitro bone marrow response was demonstrated by the fact that the injection of a protein antigen in vivo resulted in the loss of reactivity by the marrow cell to that particular antigen but not to the other, non-cross-reacting antigens. Furthermore, bone marrow cells of tolerant rabbits failed to respond to the specific antigen in vitro. It was also demonstrated that normal bone marrow cells incubated with antigen are capable of forming antibody which could be detected by the fluorescent antibody technique. This response of the bone marrow cells has been localized to the lymphocyte-rich fraction of the bone marrow. It is concluded that the bone marrow lymphocyte, by virtue of its capacity to react with blastogenesis and mitosis and with antibody formation upon initial exposure to the antigen, a capacity not possessed by lymphocytes of the other lymphoid organs, has a preeminent role in the sequence of cellular events culminating in antibody formation. PMID

  17. Ubiquitination in the antiviral immune response.

    PubMed

    Davis, Meredith E; Gack, Michaela U

    2015-05-01

    Ubiquitination has long been known to regulate fundamental cellular processes through the induction of proteasomal degradation of target proteins. More recently, 'atypical' non-degradative types of polyubiquitin chains have been appreciated as important regulatory moieties by modulating the activity or subcellular localization of key signaling proteins. Intriguingly, many of these non-degradative types of ubiquitination regulate the innate sensing pathways initiated by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), ultimately coordinating an effective antiviral immune response. Here we discuss recent advances in understanding the functional roles of degradative and atypical types of ubiquitination in innate immunity to viral infections, with a specific focus on the signaling pathways triggered by RIG-I-like receptors, Toll-like receptors, and the intracellular viral DNA sensor cGAS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dietary astaxanthin enhances immune response in dogs.

    PubMed

    Chew, Boon P; Mathison, Bridget D; Hayek, Michael G; Massimino, Stefan; Reinhart, Gregory A; Park, Jean Soon

    2011-04-15

    No information is available on the possible role of astaxanthin on immune response in domestic canine. Female Beagle dogs (9-10 mo old; 8.2 ± 0.2 kg body weight) were fed 0, 10, 20 or 40 mg astaxanthin daily and blood sampled on wk 0, 6, 12, and 16 for assessing the following: lymphoproliferation, leukocyte subpopulations, natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity, and concentrations of blood astaxanthin, IgG, IgM and acute phase proteins. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response was assessed on wk 0, 12 and 16. Plasma astaxanthin increased dose-dependently and reached maximum concentrations on wk 6. Dietary astaxanthin enhanced DTH response to vaccine, concanavalin A-induced lymphocyte proliferation (with the 20mg dose at wk 12) and NK cell cytotoxic activity. In addition, dietary astaxanthin increased concentrations of IgG and IgM, and B cell population. Plasma concentrations of C reactive protein were lower in astaxanthin-fed dogs. Therefore, dietary astaxanthin heightened cell-mediated and humoral immune response and reduced DNA damage and inflammation in dogs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Spaceflight and Development of Immune Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1996-01-01

    Evidence from both human and rodent studies has indicated that alterations in immunological parameters occur after space flight. The number of flight experiments has been small, and the full breadth of immunological alterations occurring after space flight remains to be established. Among the major effects on immune responses after space flight that have been reported are: alterations in lymphocyte blastogenesis and natural killer cell activity, alterations in production of cytokines, changes in leukocyte sub-population distribution, and decreases in the ability of bone marrow cells to respond to colony stimulating factors. Changes have been reported in immunological parameters of both humans and rodents. The significance of these alterations in relation to resistance to infection remains to be established. The objective of the studies contained in this project was to determine the effects of space flight on immune responses of pregnant rats and their offspring. The hypothesis was that space flight and the attendant period of microgravity will result in alteration of immunological parameters of both the pregnant rats as well as their offspring carried in utero during the flight. The parameters tested included: production of cytokines, composition of leukocyte sub- populations, response of bone marrow/liver cells to granulocyte/monocyte colony stimulating factor, and leukocyte blastogenesis. Changes in immune responses that could yield alterations in resistance to infection were determined. This yielded useful information for planning studies that could contribute to crew health. Additional information that could eventually prove useful to determine the potential for establishment of a permanent colony in space was obtained.

  20. [Innate immune response to RNA virus infection].

    PubMed

    Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Misako; Seya, Tsukasa

    2011-12-01

    Viral RNA is recognized by RIG-I-like receptors and Toll-like receptors. RIG-I is a cytoplasmic viral RNA sensor. High Mobility Group Box (HMGB) proteins and DExD/H box RNA helicases, such as DDX3 and 60, associate with viral RNA. Those proteins promotes the RIG-I binding to viral RNA. RIG-I triggers the signal via IPS-1 adaptor molecule to induce type I IFN. RIG-I harbors Lys63-linked polyubiquitination by Riplet and TRIM25 ubiquitin ligases. The polyubiquitination is essential for RIG-I-mediated signaling. Toll-like receptors are located in endosome. TLR3 recognizes viral double-stranded RNA, and TLR7 and 8 recognize single-strand RNA. Virus has the ability to suppress these innate immune response. For example, to inhibit RIG-I-mediated signaling, HCV core protein suppresses the function of DDX3. In addition, HCV NS3-4A protein cleaves IPS-1 to inhibit the signal. Molecular mechanism of how viral RNA is recognized by innate immune system will make great progress on our understanding of how virus escapes from host immune system.

  1. GENETIC CONTROL OF THE IMMUNE RESPONSE

    PubMed Central

    Lonai, Peter; McDevitt, Hugh O.

    1974-01-01

    In vitro antigen-induced tritiated thymidine uptake has been used to study the response of sensitized lymphocytes to (T,G)-A--L, (H,G)-A--L, and (Phe,G)-A--L in responder and nonresponder strains of mice. The reaction is T-cell and macrophage dependent. Highly purified T cells (91% Thy 1.2 positive) are also responsive, suggesting that this in vitro lymphocyte transformation system is not B-cell dependent. Lymphocytes from high and low responder mice stimulated in vitro react as responders and nonresponders in a pattern identical to that seen with in vivo immunization. Stimulation occurs only if soluble antigen is added at physiological temperatures; antigen exposure at 4°C followed by washing and incubation at 37°C fails to induce lymphocyte transformation. Stimulation is specific for the immunizing antigen and does not exhibit the serologic cross-reactivity which is characteristic of these three antigens and their respective antisera. The reaction can be inhibited by anti-H-2 sera but not by anti-immunoglobulin sera. The anti-immunoglobulin sera did, however, inhibit lipopolysaccharide or pokeweed mitogen stimulation. These results suggest that the Ir-1A gene(s) are expressed in T cells, and that there are fundamental physiologic differences between T- and B-cell antigen recognition. PMID:4547782

  2. Work stress and innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Boscolo, P; Di Gioacchino, M; Reale, M; Muraro, R; Di Giampaolo, L

    2011-01-01

    Several reports highlight the relationship between blood NK cytotoxic activity and life style. Easy life style, including physical activity, healthy dietary habits as well as good mental health are characterized by an efficient immune response. Life style is related to the type of occupational activity since work has a central part in life either as source of income or contributing to represent the social identity. Not only occupational stress, but also job loss or insecurity are thus considered serious stressful situations, inducing emotional disorders which may affect both neuroendocrine and immune systems; reduced reactivity to mitogens and/or decreased blood NK cytotoxic activity was reported in unemployed workers or in those with a high perception of job insecurity and/or job stress. Although genetic factors have a key role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders, occupational stress (as in night shifts) was reported associated to an increased incidence of autoimmune disorders. Monitoring blood NK response may thus be included in the health programs as an indirect index of stressful job and/or poor lifestyle.

  3. Neuroendocrine and Immune System Responses with Spaceflights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tipton, Charles M.; Greenleaf, John E.; Jackson, Catherine G. R.

    1996-01-01

    Despite the fact that the first human was in space during 1961 and individuals have existed in a microgravity environment for more than a year, there are limited spaceflight data available on the responses of the neuroendocrine and immune systems. Because of mutual interactions between these respective integrative systems, it is inappropriate to assume that the responses of one have no impact on functions of the other. Blood and plasma volume consistently decrease with spaceflight; hence, blood endocrine and immune constituents will be modified by both gravitational and measurement influences. The majority of the in-flight data relates to endocrine responses that influence fluids and electrolytes during the first month in space. Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), aldo-sterone. and anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) appear to be elevated with little change in the atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP). Flight results longer than 60 d show increased ADH variability with elevations in angiotensin and cortisol. Although post-flight results are influenced by reentry and recovery events, ACTH and ADH appear to be consistently elevated with variable results being reported for the other hormones. Limited in-flight data on insulin and growth hormone levels suggest they are not elevated to counteract the loss in muscle mass. Post-flight results from short- and long-term flights indicate that thyroxine and insulin are increased while growth hormone exhibits minimal change. In-flight parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels are variable for several weeks after which they remain elevated. Post-flight PTH was increased on missions that lasted either 7 or 237 d, whereas calcitonin concentrations were increased after 1 wk but decreased after longer flights. Leukocytes are elevated in flights of various durations because of an increase in neutrophils. The majority of post-flight data indicates immunoglobulin concentrations are not significantly changed from pre-flight measurements. However, the numbers of T

  4. Malaria vaccines and human immune responses.

    PubMed

    Long, Carole A; Zavala, Fidel

    2016-08-01

    Despite reductions in malaria episodes and deaths over the past decade, there is still significant need for more effective tools to combat this serious global disease. The positive results with the Phase III trial of RTS,S directed to the circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum have established that a vaccine against malaria can provide partial protection to children in endemic areas, but its limited efficacy and relatively short window of protection mandate that new generations of more efficacious vaccines must be sought. Evidence shows that anti-parasite immune responses can control infection against other stages as well, but translating these experimental findings into vaccines for blood stages has been disappointing and clinical efforts to test a transmission blocking vaccine are just beginning. Difficulties include the biological complexity of the organism with a large array of stage-specific genes many of which in the erythrocytic stages are antigenically diverse. In addition, it appears necessary to elicit high and long-lasting antibody titers, address the redundant pathways of merozoite invasion, and still seek surrogate markers of protective immunity. Most vaccine studies have focused on a single or a few antigens with an apparent functional role, but this is likely to be too restrictive, and broad, multi-antigen, multi-stage vaccines need further investigation. Finally, novel tools and biological insights involving parasite sexual stages and the mosquito vector will provide new avenues for reducing or blocking malaria transmission. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Essential oil of clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) augments the humoral immune response but decreases cell mediated immunity.

    PubMed

    Halder, Sumita; Mehta, Ashish K; Mediratta, Pramod K; Sharma, Krishna K

    2011-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the effect of the essential oil isolated from the buds of Eugenia caryophyllata on some immunological parameters. Humoral immunity was assessed by measuring the hemagglutination titre to sheep red blood cells and delayed type hypersensitivity was assessed by measuring foot pad thickness. Clove oil administration produced a significant increase in the primary as well as secondary humoral immune response. In addition, it also produced a significant decrease in foot pad thickness compared with the control group. Thus, these results suggest that clove oil can modulate the immune response by augmenting humoral immunity and decreasing cell mediated immunity. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Immune Responses to HCV and Other Hepatitis Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Park, Su-Hyung; Rehermann, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Summary Five human hepatitis viruses cause most acute and chronic liver disease worldwide. Over the past 25 years hepatitis C virus (HCV) in particular has received much interest because of its ability to persist in most immunocompetent adults and the lack of a protective vaccine. Here we examine innate and adaptive immune responses to HCV infection. Although HCV activates an innate immune response, it employs an elaborate set of mechanisms to evade interferon (IFN)-based antiviral immunity. By comparing innate and adaptive immune responses to HCV with those to hepatitis A and B viruses, we suggest that prolonged innate immune activation impairs the development of successful adaptive immune responses. Comparative immunology furthermore provides insights into the maintenance of immune protection. We conclude by discussing prospects for an HCV vaccine and future research needs for the hepatitis viruses. PMID:24439265

  7. Population-expression models of immune response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stromberg, Sean P.; Antia, Rustom; Nemenman, Ilya

    2013-06-01

    The immune response to a pathogen has two basic features. The first is the expansion of a few pathogen-specific cells to form a population large enough to control the pathogen. The second is the process of differentiation of cells from an initial naive phenotype to an effector phenotype which controls the pathogen, and subsequently to a memory phenotype that is maintained and responsible for long-term protection. The expansion and the differentiation have been considered largely independently. Changes in cell populations are typically described using ecologically based ordinary differential equation models. In contrast, differentiation of single cells is studied within systems biology and is frequently modeled by considering changes in gene and protein expression in individual cells. Recent advances in experimental systems biology make available for the first time data to allow the coupling of population and high dimensional expression data of immune cells during infections. Here we describe and develop population-expression models which integrate these two processes into systems biology on the multicellular level. When translated into mathematical equations, these models result in non-conservative, non-local advection-diffusion equations. We describe situations where the population-expression approach can make correct inference from data while previous modeling approaches based on common simplifying assumptions would fail. We also explore how model reduction techniques can be used to build population-expression models, minimizing the complexity of the model while keeping the essential features of the system. While we consider problems in immunology in this paper, we expect population-expression models to be more broadly applicable.

  8. Influence of ionizing radiation on the immune response

    SciTech Connect

    Brocadeszaalberg, O.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of ionizing radiation on the immune response are reviewed. Following an introduction on the function of the immune apparatus, the effect of radiation in the different cell types of the immune system is described. The possible consequences of these effects on the prognosis of radiation victims are discussed. (GRA)

  9. Dendritic Cell Immune Responses in HIV-1 Controllers.

    PubMed

    Martin-Gayo, Enrique; Yu, Xu G

    2017-02-01

    Robust HIV-1-specific CD8 T cell responses are currently regarded as the main correlate of immune defense in rare individuals who achieve natural, drug-free control of HIV-1; however, the mechanisms that support evolution of such powerful immune responses are not well understood. Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized innate immune cells critical for immune recognition, immune regulation, and immune induction, but their possible contribution to HIV-1 immune defense in controllers remains ill-defined. Recent studies suggest that myeloid DCs from controllers have improved abilities to recognize HIV-1 through cytoplasmic immune sensors, resulting in more potent, cell-intrinsic type I interferon secretion in response to viral infection. This innate immune response may facilitate DC-mediated induction of highly potent antiviral HIV-1-specific T cells. Moreover, protective HLA class I isotypes restricting HIV-1-specific CD8 T cells may influence DC function through specific interactions with innate myelomonocytic MHC class I receptors from the leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor family. Bi-directional interactions between dendritic cells and HIV-1-specific T cells may contribute to natural HIV-1 immune control, highlighting the importance of a fine-tuned interplay between innate and adaptive immune activities for effective antiviral immune defense.

  10. Immune function trade-offs in response to parasite threats.

    PubMed

    Kirschman, Lucas J; Quade, Adam H; Zera, Anthony J; Warne, Robin W

    2017-04-01

    Immune function is often involved in physiological trade-offs because of the energetic costs of maintaining constitutive immunity and mounting responses to infection. However, immune function is a collection of discrete immunity factors and animals should allocate towards factors that combat the parasite threat with the highest fitness cost. For example, animals on dispersal fronts of expanding population may be released from density-dependent diseases. The costs of immunity, however, and life history trade-offs in general, are often context dependent. Trade-offs are often most apparent under conditions of unusually limited resources or when animals are particularly stressed, because the stress response can shift priorities. In this study we tested how humoral and cellular immune factors vary between phenotypes of a wing dimorphic cricket and how physiological stress influences these immune factors. We measured constitutive lysozyme activity, a humoral immune factor, and encapsulation response, a cellular immune factor. We also stressed the crickets with a sham predator in a full factorial design. We found that immune strategy could be explained by the selective pressures encountered by each morph and that stress decreased encapsulation, but not lysozyme activity. These results suggest a possible trade-off between humoral and cellular immunity. Given limited resources and the expense of immune factors, parasite pressures could play a key factor in maintaining insect polyphenism via disruptive selection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spaceflight and Immune Responses of Rhesus Monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1997-01-01

    In the grant period, we perfected techniques for determination of interleukin production and leukocyte subset analysis of rhesus monkeys. These results are outlined in detail in publication number 2, appended to this report. Additionally, we participated in the ARRT restraint test to determine if restraint conditions for flight in the Space Shuttle could contribute to any effects of space flight on immune responses. All immunological parameters listed in the methods section were tested. Evaluation of the data suggests that the restraint conditions had minimal effects on the results observed, but handling of the monkeys could have had some effect. These results are outlined in detail in manuscript number 3, appended to this report. Additionally, to help us develop our rhesus monkey immunology studies, we carried out preliminary studies in mice to determine the effects of stressors on immunological parameters. We were able to show that there were gender-based differences in the response of immunological parameters to a stressor. These results are outlined in detail in manuscript number 4, appended to this report.

  12. Spaceflight and immune responses of rhesus monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Morton, Darla S.; Swiggett, Jeanene P.; Hakenewerth, Anne M.; Fowler, Nina A.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of restraint on immunological parameters was determined in an 18 day ARRT (adult rhesus restraint test). The monkeys were restrained for 18 days in the experimental station for the orbiting primate (ESOP), the chair of choice for Space Shuttle experiments. Several immunological parameters were determined using peripheral blood, bone marrow, and lymph node specimens from the monkeys. The parameters included: response of bone marrow cells to GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor), leukocyte subset distribution, and production of IFN-a (interferon-alpha) and IFN-gamma (interferon-gamma). The only parameter changed after 18 days of restraint was the percentage of CD8+ T cells. No other immunological parameters showed changes due to restraint. Handling and changes in housing prior to the restraint period did apparently result in some restraint-independent immunological changes. Handling must be kept to a minimum and the animals allowed time to recover prior to flight. All experiments must be carefully controlled. Restraint does not appear to be a major issue regarding the effects of space flight on immune responses.

  13. Immune Response And Anamnestic Immune Response In Children After A 3-Dose Primary Hepatitis B Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad Faheem; Sultan, Muhammad Ashraf; Saleemi, Ahmad Imran

    2016-01-01

    Diseases caused by Hepatitis B virus (HBV) have a worldwide distribution. Pakistan adopted the recommendations of World Health Organization (WHO) for routine universal infant vaccination against hepatitis B in 2002, currently being administered at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age in a combination vaccine. This study was conducted to determine the immune response & anamnestic immune response in children, 9 months-10 years of age, after a 3dose primary Hepatitis B vaccination. This cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Paediatrics, King Edward Medical University/Mayo Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan, from January to June, 2014. A total of 200 children of either sex between the ages of 9 months to 10 years, documented to have received 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccines according to Expanded Program of Immunization (6,10,14 weeks) schedule in infancy, were recruited by consecutive sampling. The level of serum antiHBsAb by ELIZA was measured. Children with antiHBs titers ≥10 mIU/mL were considered to be immune. Those with anti HBsAb levels <10 mIU/mL were offered a booster dose of infant recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. The second serum sample was obtained 21-28 days following the administration of the booster dose and the anamnestic immune response was measured. Data was analysed using SPSS 17 to determine the relation between time interval since last vaccination and antibody titer. Chi square test was applied. Of the 200 children, protective antibody response was found in 58%. Median serological response was 18.60 (range 2.82 - 65.15). Antibody levels were found to have a statistically significant ( pvalue 0.019) negative correlation with the time since last administration of vaccine. A booster dose of Hepatitis B vacci ne was administered to all nonresponders, with each registering a statistically significant (pvalue 0.00) anamnestic response. The vaccination schedule with short dosage interval was unable to provide protection to 42% of the study population

  14. B cell function in the immune response to helminths

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Similar T helper (Th)2-type immune responses are generated against different helminths parasites, but the mechanisms that initiate Th2 immunity, and the specific immune components that mediate protection against these parasites, can vary greatly. B cells are increasingly recognized as important during the Th2-type immune response to helminths, and B cell activation might be a target for effective vaccine development. Antibody production is a function of B cells during helminth infection and understanding how polyclonal and antigen-specific antibodies contribute should provide important insights into how protective immunity develops. In addition, B cells might also contribute to the host response against helminths through antibody-independent functions including, antigen-presentation, as well as regulatory and effector activity. In this review, we examine the role of B cells during Th2-type immune response to these multicellular parasites. PMID:21159556

  15. The unfolded protein response in immunity and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Grootjans, Joep; Kaser, Arthur; Kaufman, Randal J.; Blumberg, Richard S.

    2017-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a highly conserved pathway that allows the cell to manage endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress that is imposed by the secretory demands associated with environmental forces. In this role, the UPR has increasingly been shown to have crucial functions in immunity and inflammation. In this Review, we discuss the importance of the UPR in the development, differentiation, function and survival of immune cells in meeting the needs of an immune response. In addition, we review current insights into how the UPR is involved in complex chronic inflammatory diseases and, through its role in immune regulation, antitumour responses. PMID:27346803

  16. Q fever in pregnant goats: humoral and cellular immune responses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonosis caused by the intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Both humoral and cellular immunity are important in the host defence against intracellular bacteria. Little is known about the immune response to C. burnetii infections in domestic ruminants even though these species are the major source of Q fever in humans. To investigate the goat’s immune response we inoculated groups of pregnant goats via inhalation with a Dutch outbreak isolate of C. burnetii. All animals were successfully infected. Phase 1 and Phase 2 IgM- and IgG-specific antibodies were measured. Cellular immune responses were investigated by interferon-gamma, enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot test (IFN-γ Elispot), lymphocyte proliferation test (LPT) and systemic cytokines. After two weeks post inoculation (wpi), a strong anti-C. burnetii Phase 2 IgM and IgG antibody response was observed while the increase in IgM anti-Phase 1 antibodies was less pronounced. IgG anti-Phase 1 antibodies started to rise at 6 wpi. Cellular immune responses were observed after parturition. Our results demonstrated humoral and cellular immune responses to C. burnetii infection in pregnant goats. Cell-mediated immune responses did not differ enough to distinguish between Coxiella-infected and non-infected pregnant animals, whereas a strong-phase specific antibody response is detected after 2 wpi. This humoral immune response may be useful in the early detection of C. burnetii-infected pregnant goats. PMID:23915213

  17. Effect of antipyretic analgesics on immune responses to vaccination.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Ezzeldin; Moody, M Anthony; Walter, Emmanuel B

    2016-09-01

    While antipyretic analgesics are widely used to ameliorate vaccine adverse reactions, their use has been associated with blunted vaccine immune responses. Our objective was to review literature evaluating the effect of antipyretic analgesics on vaccine immune responses and to highlight potential underlying mechanisms. Observational studies reporting on antipyretic use around the time of immunization concluded that their use did not affect antibody responses. Only few randomized clinical trials demonstrated blunted antibody response of unknown clinical significance. This effect has only been noted following primary vaccination with novel antigens and disappears following booster immunization. The mechanism by which antipyretic analgesics reduce antibody response remains unclear and not fully explained by COX enzyme inhibition. Recent work has focused on the involvement of nuclear and subcellular signaling pathways. More detailed immunological investigations and a systems biology approach are needed to precisely define the impact and mechanism of antipyretic effects on vaccine immune responses.

  18. Effect of antipyretic analgesics on immune responses to vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Ezzeldin; Moody, M. Anthony; Walter, Emmanuel B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT While antipyretic analgesics are widely used to ameliorate vaccine adverse reactions, their use has been associated with blunted vaccine immune responses. Our objective was to review literature evaluating the effect of antipyretic analgesics on vaccine immune responses and to highlight potential underlying mechanisms. Observational studies reporting on antipyretic use around the time of immunization concluded that their use did not affect antibody responses. Only few randomized clinical trials demonstrated blunted antibody response of unknown clinical significance. This effect has only been noted following primary vaccination with novel antigens and disappears following booster immunization. The mechanism by which antipyretic analgesics reduce antibody response remains unclear and not fully explained by COX enzyme inhibition. Recent work has focused on the involvement of nuclear and subcellular signaling pathways. More detailed immunological investigations and a systems biology approach are needed to precisely define the impact and mechanism of antipyretic effects on vaccine immune responses. PMID:27246296

  19. Innate immune response development in nestling tree swallows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stambaugh, T.; Houdek, B.J.; Lombardo, M.P.; Thorpe, P.A.; Caldwell, Hahn D.

    2011-01-01

    We tracked the development of innate immunity in nestling Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and compared it to that of adults using blood drawn from nestlings during days 6, 12, and 18 of the ???20-day nestling period and from adults. Innate immunity was characterized using an in vitro assay of the ability of whole blood to kill Escherichia coli. The ability of whole blood to kill E. coli increased as nestlings matured. Neither this component of innate immunity nor right wing chord length on day18 were as developed as in adults indicating that development of the innate immune system and growth both continued after fledging. Narrow sense heritability analyses suggest that females with strong immune responses produced nestlings with strong immune responses. These data suggest nestling Tree Swallows allocated sufficient energy to support rapid growth to enable fledging by day 18, but that further development of innate immunity occurred post-fledging. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  20. Factors Associated With Pediatrician Responses to Alternative Immunization Schedule Requests.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Salini; Feemster, Kristen A; Buttenheim, Alison; Moser, Charlotte A; Field, Robert I; Mayer, Whitney; Carroll-Scott, Amy

    2018-02-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional online survey among 4 chapters of the American Academy of Pediatrics from July through October 2014 to describe characteristics of pediatricians and practices associated with practice-level responses to alternative immunization schedule requests. Among 374 pediatricians, 58% reported frequent alternative immunization schedule requests and 24% reported feeling comfortable using them. Pediatricians who work in practices that accommodate alternative immunization schedule requests have increased odds of having a high frequency of alternative immunization schedule requests, and beliefs that relationships with families would be negatively affected if they refused requests. Practices that discontinue care to families who request alternative immunization schedules have increased odds of being a private group practice and having a formal office vaccine policy. Pediatricians are frequently asked to use alternative immunization schedules and many are not comfortable using them. Practice-level responses to alternative immunization schedules are associated with characteristics of pediatricians and practices.

  1. Cellular Immune Response to Cytomegalovirus Infection After Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Linnemann, Calvin C.; Kauffman, Carol A.; First, M. Roy; Schiff, Gilbert M.; Phair, John P.

    1978-01-01

    A prospective study of 15 patients who received renal transplants defined the effect of renal transplantation on the cellular immune response to cytomegalovirus infection. Of 15 patients, 14 developed cytomegalovirus infection, usually in the first 2 months after transplantation, and all infections were accompanied by a normal humoral immune response. After the initiation of immunosuppressive therapy and transplantation, there was a general depression of lymphocyte transformation, as reflected in the response to phytohemagglutinin, accompanied by a specific defect in cellular immunity, as indicated by lymphocyte transformation to cytomegalovirus antigen. Eleven patients had cellular immunity to cytomegalovirus before transplantation, and all of these became negative in the first month after transplantation. In subsequent months, only 6 of the 14 study patients with cytomegalovirus infection developed specific cellular immune responses to cytomegalovirus. This occurred most often in patients who had severe febrile illnesses in association with infection. The specific cellular immune response which developed in the posttransplant period did not persist in three of the patients. This study demonstrates the dissociation of the humoral and cellular immune response to cytomegalovirus infection in renal transplant patients and indicates the importance of the loss of cellular immunity in the appearance of infection. Previously infected patients lost their cell-mediated immunity and had reactivation infections despite the presence of serum antibody. PMID:215541

  2. The innate immune response during urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, John David; Schwaderer, Andrew L.; Becknell, Brian; Watson, Joshua; Hains, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Despite its proximity to the fecal flora, the urinary tract is considered sterile. The precise mechanisms by which the urinary tract maintains sterility are not well understood. Host immune responses are critically important in the antimicrobial defense of the urinary tract. During recent years, considerable advances have been made in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying immune homeostasis of the kidney and urinary tract. Dysfunctions in these immune mechanisms may result in acute disease, tissue destruction and overwhelming infection. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the innate immune response in the urinary tract in response to microbial assault. In doing so, we focus on the role of antimicrobial peptides – a ubiquitous component of the innate immune response. PMID:23732397

  3. The innate immune response during urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Spencer, John David; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Becknell, Brian; Watson, Joshua; Hains, David S

    2014-07-01

    Despite its proximity to the fecal flora, the urinary tract is considered sterile. The precise mechanisms by which the urinary tract maintains sterility are not well understood. Host immune responses are critically important in the antimicrobial defense of the urinary tract. During recent years, considerable advances have been made in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying immune homeostasis of the kidney and urinary tract. Dysfunctions in these immune mechanisms may result in acute disease, tissue destruction and overwhelming infection. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the innate immune response in the urinary tract in response to microbial assault. In doing so, we focus on the role of antimicrobial peptides-a ubiquitous component of the innate immune response.

  4. Serum Immune Responses Predict Rapid Disease Progression among Children with Crohn’s Disease: Immune Responses Predict Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Dubinsky, Marla C.; Lin, Ying-Chao; Dutridge, Debra; Picornell, Yoana; Landers, Carol J.; Farrior, Sharmayne; Wrobel, Iwona; Quiros, Antonio; Vasiliauskas, Eric A.; Grill, Bruce; Israel, David; Bahar, Ron; Christie, Dennis; Wahbeh, Ghassan; Silber, Gary; Dallazadeh, Saied; Shah, Praful; Thomas, Danny; Kelts, Drew; Hershberg, Robert M.; Elson, Charles O.; Targan, Stephan R.; Taylor, Kent D.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Yang, Huiying

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM Crohn’s disease (CD) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by diverse clinical phenotypes. Childhood-onset CD has been described as a more aggressive phenotype. Genetic and immune factors may influence disease phenotype and clinical course. We examined the association of immune responses to microbial antigens with disease behavior and prospectively determined the influence of immune reactivity on disease progression in pediatric CD patients. METHODS Sera were collected from 196 pediatric CD cases and tested for immune responses: anti-I2, anti-outer membrane protein C (anti-OmpC), anti-CBir1 flagellin (anti-CBir1), and anti-Saccharomyces-cerevisiae (ASCA) using ELISA. Associations between immune responses and clinical phenotype were evaluated. RESULTS Fifty-eight patients (28%) developed internal penetrating and/or stricturing (IP/S) disease after a median follow-up of 18 months. Both anti-OmpC (p < 0.0006) and anti-I2 (p < 0.003) were associated with IP/S disease. The frequency of IP/S disease increased with increasing number of immune responses (p trend = 0.002). The odds of developing IP/S disease were highest in patients positive for all four immune responses (OR (95% CI): 11 (1.5–80.4); p = 0.03). Pediatric CD patients positive for ≥1 immune response progressed to IP/S disease sooner after diagnosis as compared to those negative for all immune responses (p < 0.03). CONCLUSIONS The presence and magnitude of immune responses to microbial antigens are significantly associated with more aggressive disease phenotypes among children with CD. This is the first study to prospectively demonstrate that the time to develop a disease complication in children is significantly faster in the presence of immune reactivity, thereby predicting disease progression to more aggressive disease phenotypes among pediatric CD patients. PMID:16454844

  5. Dissecting innate immune responses with the tools of systems biology.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kelly D; Bolouri, Hamid

    2005-02-01

    Systems biology strives to derive accurate predictive descriptions of complex systems such as innate immunity. The innate immune system is essential for host defense, yet the resulting inflammatory response must be tightly regulated. Current understanding indicates that this system is controlled by complex regulatory networks, which maintain homoeostasis while accurately distinguishing pathogenic infections from harmless exposures. Recent studies have used high throughput technologies and computational techniques that presage predictive models and will be the foundation of a systems level understanding of innate immunity.

  6. Innate Immune Responses of Drosophila melanogaster Are Altered by Spaceflight

    PubMed Central

    Marcu, Oana; Lera, Matthew P.; Sanchez, Max E.; Levic, Edina; Higgins, Laura A.; Shmygelska, Alena; Fahlen, Thomas F.; Nichol, Helen; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2011-01-01

    Alterations and impairment of immune responses in humans present a health risk for space exploration missions. The molecular mechanisms underpinning innate immune defense can be confounded by the complexity of the acquired immune system of humans. Drosophila (fruit fly) innate immunity is simpler, and shares many similarities with human innate immunity at the level of molecular and genetic pathways. The goals of this study were to elucidate fundamental immune processes in Drosophila affected by spaceflight and to measure host-pathogen responses post-flight. Five containers, each containing ten female and five male fruit flies, were housed and bred on the space shuttle (average orbit altitude of 330.35 km) for 12 days and 18.5 hours. A new generation of flies was reared in microgravity. In larvae, the immune system was examined by analyzing plasmatocyte number and activity in culture. In adults, the induced immune responses were analyzed by bacterial clearance and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of selected genes following infection with E. coli. The RNA levels of relevant immune pathway genes were determined in both larvae and adults by microarray analysis. The ability of larval plasmatocytes to phagocytose E. coli in culture was attenuated following spaceflight, and in parallel, the expression of genes involved in cell maturation was downregulated. In addition, the level of constitutive expression of pattern recognition receptors and opsonins that specifically recognize bacteria, and of lysozymes, antimicrobial peptide (AMP) pathway and immune stress genes, hallmarks of humoral immunity, were also reduced in larvae. In adults, the efficiency of bacterial clearance measured in vivo following a systemic infection with E. coli post-flight, remained robust. We show that spaceflight altered both cellular and humoral immune responses in Drosophila and that the disruption occurs at multiple interacting pathways. PMID:21264297

  7. Immune Response in Thyroid Cancer: Widening the Boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Laura Sterian

    2014-01-01

    The association between thyroid cancer and thyroid inflammation has been repeatedly reported and highly debated in the literature. In fact, both molecular and epidemiological data suggest that these diseases are closely related and this association reinforces that the immune system is important for thyroid cancer progression. Innate immunity is the first line of defensive response. Unlike innate immune responses, adaptive responses are highly specific to the particular antigen that induced them. Both branches of the immune system may interact in antitumor immune response. Major effector cells of the immune system that directly target thyroid cancer cells include dendritic cells, macrophages, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, mast cells, and lymphocytes. A mixture of immune cells may infiltrate thyroid cancer microenvironment and the balance of protumor and antitumor activity of these cells may be associated with prognosis. Herein, we describe some evidences that immune response may be important for thyroid cancer progression and may help us identify more aggressive tumors, sparing the vast majority of patients from costly unnecessary invasive procedures. The future trend in thyroid cancer is an individualized therapy. PMID:25328756

  8. Immunomodulator-based enhancement of anti smallpox immune responses.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Osmarie; Miranda, Eric; Ramírez, Maite; Santos, Saritza; Rivera, Carlos; Vázquez, Luis; Sánchez, Tomás; Tremblay, Raymond L; Ríos-Olivares, Eddy; Otero, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The current live vaccinia virus vaccine used in the prevention of smallpox is contraindicated for millions of immune-compromised individuals. Although vaccination with the current smallpox vaccine produces protective immunity, it might result in mild to serious health complications for some vaccinees. Thus, there is a critical need for the production of a safe virus-free vaccine against smallpox that is available to everyone. For that reason, we investigated the impact of imiquimod and resiquimod (Toll-like receptors agonists), and the codon-usage optimization of the vaccinia virus A27L gene in the enhancement of the immune response, with intent of producing a safe, virus-free DNA vaccine coding for the A27 vaccinia virus protein. We analyzed the cellular-immune response by measuring the IFN-γ production of splenocytes by ELISPOT, the humoral-immune responses measuring total IgG and IgG2a/IgG1 ratios by ELISA, and the TH1 and TH2 cytokine profiles by ELISA, in mice immunized with our vaccine formulation. The proposed vaccine formulation enhanced the A27L vaccine-mediated production of IFN-γ on mouse spleens, and increased the humoral immunity with a TH1-biased response. Also, our vaccine induced a TH1 cytokine milieu, which is important against viral infections. These results support the efforts to find a new mechanism to enhance an immune response against smallpox, through the implementation of a safe, virus-free DNA vaccination platform.

  9. Interplay between behavioural thermoregulation and immune response in mealworms.

    PubMed

    Catalán, Tamara P; Niemeyer, Hermann M; Kalergis, Alexis M; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2012-11-01

    Since the preferential body temperature should positively correlate with physiological performance, behavioural fever should enhance an organism's immune response under an immune challenge. Here we have studied the preferential body temperature (T(p)) and its consequences on immune response performance after an immune challenge in larvae of Tenebrio molitor. We evaluated T(p) and immune responses of larvae following a challenge with various concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and we studied the correlation between T(p) and two immune traits, namely antibacterial and phenoloxidase (PO) activities. Larvae that were immune challenged with higher LPS concentrations (C(50) and C(100)) preferred in average, warmer temperatures than did larvae challenged with lower concentrations (C(0) and C(25)). T(p) of C(25)-C(100) (challenged)-mealworms was 2.3°C higher than of C(0) (control) larvae. At lower LPS concentration immune challenge (C(0) and C(25)) antibacterial activity correlated positively with T(p), but at C(50) and C(100) correlation was lose. PO activity was higher at higher LPS concentration, but its magnitude of response did not correlate with T(p) Our data suggest that behavioural fever may have a positive effect on host performance by enhancing antibacterial response under a low pathogen load situation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Host Immune Response to Influenza A Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyong; Liu, Shasha; Goraya, Mohsan Ullah; Maarouf, Mohamed; Huang, Shile; Chen, Ji-Long

    2018-01-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are contagious pathogens responsible for severe respiratory infection in humans and animals worldwide. Upon detection of IAV infection, host immune system aims to defend against and clear the viral infection. Innate immune system is comprised of physical barriers (mucus and collectins), various phagocytic cells, group of cytokines, interferons (IFNs), and IFN-stimulated genes, which provide first line of defense against IAV infection. The adaptive immunity is mediated by B cells and T cells, characterized with antigen-specific memory cells, capturing and neutralizing the pathogen. The humoral immune response functions through hemagglutinin-specific circulating antibodies to neutralize IAV. In addition, antibodies can bind to the surface of infected cells and induce antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity or complement activation. Although there are neutralizing antibodies against the virus, cellular immunity also plays a crucial role in the fight against IAVs. On the other hand, IAVs have developed multiple strategies to escape from host immune surveillance for successful replication. In this review, we discuss how immune system, especially innate immune system and critical molecules are involved in the antiviral defense against IAVs. In addition, we highlight how IAVs antagonize different immune responses to achieve a successful infection.

  11. Superficial Immunity: Antimicrobial Responses Are More Than Skin Deep.

    PubMed

    Mack, Madison R; Kim, Brian S

    2016-07-19

    The skin barrier is essential for host defense, but how the skin provides protection when the barrier is breached is not well understood. In this issue of Immunity, Gallo and colleagues report that keratinocytes integrate signals from antimicrobial peptides via MAVS signaling to amplify their antiviral immune response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Immune and stress responses in oysters with insights on adaptation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ximing; He, Yan; Zhang, Linlin; Lelong, Christophe; Jouaux, Aude

    2015-09-01

    Oysters are representative bivalve molluscs that are widely distributed in world oceans. As successful colonizers of estuaries and intertidal zones, oysters are remarkably resilient against harsh environmental conditions including wide fluctuations in temperature and salinity as well as prolonged air exposure. Oysters have no adaptive immunity but can thrive in microbe-rich estuaries as filter-feeders. These unique adaptations make oysters interesting models to study the evolution of host-defense systems. Recent advances in genomic studies including sequencing of the oyster genome have provided insights into oyster's immune and stress responses underlying their amazing resilience. Studies show that the oyster genomes are highly polymorphic and complex, which may be key to their resilience. The oyster genome has a large gene repertoire that is enriched for immune and stress response genes. Thousands of genes are involved in oyster's immune and stress responses, through complex interactions, with many gene families expanded showing high sequence, structural and functional diversity. The high diversity of immune receptors and effectors may provide oysters with enhanced specificity in immune recognition and response to cope with diverse pathogens in the absence of adaptive immunity. Some members of expanded immune gene families have diverged to function at different temperatures and salinities or assumed new roles in abiotic stress response. Most canonical innate immunity pathways are conserved in oysters and supported by a large number of diverse and often novel genes. The great diversity in immune and stress response genes exhibited by expanded gene families as well as high sequence and structural polymorphisms may be central to oyster's adaptation to highly stressful and widely changing environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Apoptosis and other immune biomarkers predict influenza vaccine responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Furman, David; Jojic, Vladimir; Kidd, Brian; Shen-Orr, Shai; Price, Jordan; Jarrell, Justin; Tse, Tiffany; Huang, Huang; Lund, Peder; Maecker, Holden T; Utz, Paul J; Dekker, Cornelia L; Koller, Daphne; Davis, Mark M

    2013-04-16

    Despite the importance of the immune system in many diseases, there are currently no objective benchmarks of immunological health. In an effort to identifying such markers, we used influenza vaccination in 30 young (20-30 years) and 59 older subjects (60 to >89 years) as models for strong and weak immune responses, respectively, and assayed their serological responses to influenza strains as well as a wide variety of other parameters, including gene expression, antibodies to hemagglutinin peptides, serum cytokines, cell subset phenotypes and in vitro cytokine stimulation. Using machine learning, we identified nine variables that predict the antibody response with 84% accuracy. Two of these variables are involved in apoptosis, which positively associated with the response to vaccination and was confirmed to be a contributor to vaccine responsiveness in mice. The identification of these biomarkers provides new insights into what immune features may be most important for immune health.

  14. Host Immune Response to Histophilus somni.

    PubMed

    Corbeil, Lynette B

    2016-01-01

    Histophilus somni is known to cause several overlapping syndromes or to be found in genital or upper respiratory carrier states in ruminants. Vaccines have been used for decades, yet efficacy is controversial and mechanisms of protective immunity are not well understood. Since H. somni survives phagocytosis, it has sometimes been considered to be a facultative intercellular parasite, implying that cell-mediated immunity would be critical in protection. However, H. somni not only inhibits phagocyte function, but also is cytotoxic for macrophages. Therefore, it does not live for long periods in healthy phagocytes. Protection of calves against H. somni pneumonia by passive immunization is also evidence that H. somni is more like an extracellular pathogen than an intracellular pathogen. Several studies showed that bovine IgG2 antibodies are more protective than IgG1 antibodies. Even the IgG2 allotypes tend to vary in protection. Of course, antigenic specificity also determines protection. So far, there is most evidence for protection by a 40 K outer membrane protein and by Immunoglobulin binding protein A fibrils. Serology and immunohistochemistry have both been used for immunodiagnosis. Many evasive mechanisms by H. somni have been defined, including decreased phagocyte function, antibodies bound by shed antigens, decreased immune stimulation, and antigenic variation. Interaction of H. somni with other bovine respiratory disease organisms is another layer of pathogenesis. Studies of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and H. somni in calfhood pneumonia revealed an increase in IgE antibodies to H. somni, which were associated with more severe disease of longer duration than with either agent alone. Innate immune mechanisms at the epithelial cell level are also affected by dual infection by BRSV and H. somni as compared to either pathogen alone. Although much more work needs to be done, the complex mechanisms of H. somni immunity are becoming clearer.

  15. Virus-like nanostructures for tuning immune response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammadov, Rashad; Cinar, Goksu; Gunduz, Nuray; Goktas, Melis; Kayhan, Handan; Tohumeken, Sehmus; Topal, Ahmet E.; Orujalipoor, Ilghar; Delibasi, Tuncay; Dana, Aykutlu; Ide, Semra; Tekinay, Ayse B.; Guler, Mustafa O.

    2015-11-01

    Synthetic vaccines utilize viral signatures to trigger immune responses. Although the immune responses raised against the biochemical signatures of viruses are well characterized, the mechanism of how they affect immune response in the context of physical signatures is not well studied. In this work, we investigated the ability of zero- and one-dimensional self-assembled peptide nanostructures carrying unmethylated CpG motifs (signature of viral DNA) for tuning immune response. These nanostructures represent the two most common viral shapes, spheres and rods. The nanofibrous structures were found to direct immune response towards Th1 phenotype, which is responsible for acting against intracellular pathogens such as viruses, to a greater extent than nanospheres and CpG ODN alone. In addition, nanofibers exhibited enhanced uptake into dendritic cells compared to nanospheres or the ODN itself. The chemical stability of the ODN against nuclease-mediated degradation was also observed to be enhanced when complexed with the peptide nanostructures. In vivo studies showed that nanofibers promoted antigen-specific IgG production over 10-fold better than CpG ODN alone. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing the modulation of the nature of an immune response through the shape of the carrier system.

  16. Proteomic contributions to our understanding of vaccine and immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Galassie, Allison C.; Link, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines are one of the greatest public health successes; yet, due to the empirical nature of vaccine design, we have an incomplete understanding of how the genes and proteins induced by vaccines contribute to the development of both protective innate and adaptive immune responses. While the advent of genomics has enabled new vaccine development and facilitated understanding of the immune response, proteomics identifies potentially new vaccine antigens with increasing speed and sensitivity. In addition, as proteomics is complementary to transcriptomic approaches, a combination of both approaches provides a more comprehensive view of the immune response after vaccination via systems vaccinology. This review details the advances that proteomic strategies have made in vaccine development and reviews how proteomics contributes to the development of a more complete understanding of human vaccines and immune responses. PMID:26172619

  17. Overview of the immune response to phytonutrient in poultry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Overview of the immune response to phytonutrient in poultry. Lillehoj, Hyun S. Animal Biosciences and Biotechnology Laboratory, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA Phytochemicals are non-nutritive, plant-derived chemicals, many w...

  18. Transcriptional Profiling of the Immune Response to Marburg Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Connor, John H; Yen, Judy; Caballero, Ignacio S; Garamszegi, Sara; Malhotra, Shikha; Lin, Kenny; Hensley, Lisa; Goff, Arthur J

    2015-10-01

    Marburg virus is a genetically simple RNA virus that causes a severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates. The mechanism of pathogenesis of the infection is not well understood, but it is well accepted that pathogenesis is appreciably driven by a hyperactive immune response. To better understand the overall response to Marburg virus challenge, we undertook a transcriptomic analysis of immune cells circulating in the blood following aerosol exposure of rhesus macaques to a lethal dose of Marburg virus. Using two-color microarrays, we analyzed the transcriptomes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells that were collected throughout the course of infection from 1 to 9 days postexposure, representing the full course of the infection. The response followed a 3-stage induction (early infection, 1 to 3 days postexposure; midinfection, 5 days postexposure; late infection, 7 to 9 days postexposure) that was led by a robust innate immune response. The host response to aerosolized Marburg virus was evident at 1 day postexposure. Analysis of cytokine transcripts that were overexpressed during infection indicated that previously unanalyzed cytokines are likely induced in response to exposure to Marburg virus and further suggested that the early immune response is skewed toward a Th2 response that would hamper the development of an effective antiviral immune response early in disease. Late infection events included the upregulation of coagulation-associated factors. These findings demonstrate very early host responses to Marburg virus infection and provide a rich data set for identification of factors expressed throughout the course of infection that can be investigated as markers of infection and targets for therapy. Marburg virus causes a severe infection that is associated with high mortality and hemorrhage. The disease is associated with an immune response that contributes to the lethality of the disease. In this study, we investigated how the immune cells

  19. Enhancing the Immune Response to Recombinant Plague Antigens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Wakelin. 2003. Effect of priming/booster immunisation protocols on immune response to canine parvovirus peptide induced by vaccination with a chimaeric...onset, the high mortality, and the rapid spread of the disease. Immunization against aerosolized plague presents a particular challenge for vaccine ...homologous boosting at increasing the magnitude and/or duration of the antibody response. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Biological warfare, vaccine , adjuvant

  20. Modeling the interactions between pathogenic bacteria, bacteriophage and immune response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Chung Yin (Joey); Weitz, Joshua S.

    The prevalence of antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria has led to renewed interest in the use of bacteriophage (phage), or virus that infects bacteria, as a therapeutic agent against bacterial infections. However, little is known about the theoretical mechanism by which phage therapy may work. In particular, interactions between the bacteria, the phage and the host immune response crucially influences the outcome of the therapy. Few models of phage therapy have incorporated all these three components, and existing models suffer from unrealistic assumptions such as unbounded growth of the immune response. We propose a model of phage therapy with an emphasis on nonlinear feedback arising from interactions with bacteria and the immune response. Our model shows a synergistic effect between the phage and the immune response which underlies a possible mechanism for phage to catalyze the elimination of bacteria even when neither the immune response nor phage could do so alone. We study the significance of this effect for different parameters of infection and immune response, and discuss its implications for phage therapy.

  1. Measles virus-induced suppression of immune responses.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Diane E

    2010-07-01

    Measles is an important cause of child mortality that has a seemingly paradoxical interaction with the immune system. In most individuals, the immune response is successful in eventually clearing measles virus (MV) infection and in establishing life-long immunity. However, infection is also associated with persistence of viral RNA and several weeks of immune suppression, including loss of delayed type hypersensitivity responses and increased susceptibility to secondary infections. The initial T-cell response includes CD8+ and T-helper 1 CD4+ T cells important for control of infectious virus. As viral RNA persists, there is a shift to a T-helper 2 CD4+ T-cell response that likely promotes B-cell maturation and durable antibody responses but may suppress macrophage activation and T-helper 1 responses to new infections. Suppression of mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation can be induced by lymphocyte infection with MV or by lymphocyte exposure to a complex of the hemagglutinin and fusion surface glycoproteins without infection. Dendritic cells (DCs) are susceptible to infection and can transmit infection to lymphocytes. MV-infected DCs are unable to stimulate a mixed lymphocyte reaction and can induce lymphocyte unresponsiveness through expression of MV glycoproteins. Thus, multiple factors may contribute both to measles-induced immune suppression and to the establishment of durable protective immunity.

  2. Human Immune Response to Dengue Infections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-30

    had been immunized with yellow fever vaccine and later became infected with dengue 3 virus, responded best to dengue 3 antigen but also responded to...effective dengue virus subunit vaccines . We found evidence of marked T cell activation in patients with DHF. T cell activation in patients with DF was similar...Treatment and Control of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland 7. Sabin AB (1952) Research on dengue during World

  3. Evaluation of Mucosal and Systemic Immune Responses Elicited by GPI-0100- Adjuvanted Influenza Vaccine Delivered by Different Immunization Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Heng; Patil, Harshad P.; de Vries-Idema, Jacqueline; Wilschut, Jan; Huckriede, Anke

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines for protection against respiratory infections should optimally induce a mucosal immune response in the respiratory tract in addition to a systemic immune response. However, current parenteral immunization modalities generally fail to induce mucosal immunity, while mucosal vaccine delivery often results in poor systemic immunity. In order to find an immunization strategy which satisfies the need for induction of both mucosal and systemic immunity, we compared local and systemic immune responses elicited by two mucosal immunizations, given either by the intranasal (IN) or the intrapulmonary (IPL) route, with responses elicited by a mucosal prime followed by a systemic boost immunization. The study was conducted in BALB/c mice and the vaccine formulation was an influenza subunit vaccine supplemented with GPI-0100, a saponin-derived adjuvant. While optimal mucosal antibody titers were obtained after two intrapulmonary vaccinations, optimal systemic antibody responses were achieved by intranasal prime followed by intramuscular boost. The latter strategy also resulted in the best T cell response, yet, it was ineffective in inducing nose or lung IgA. Successful induction of secretory IgA, IgG and T cell responses was only achieved with prime-boost strategies involving intrapulmonary immunization and was optimal when both immunizations were given via the intrapulmonary route. Our results underline that immunization via the lungs is particularly effective for priming as well as boosting of local and systemic immune responses. PMID:23936066

  4. Factors that deregulate the protective immune response in tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Pando, Rogelio; Orozco, Hector; Aguilar, Diana

    2009-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic infectious disease which essentially affects the lungs and produces profound abnormalities on the immune system. Although most people infected by the tubercle bacillus (90%) do not develop the disease during their lifetime, when there are alterations in the immune system, such as co-infection with HIV, malnutrition, or diabetes, the risk of developing active disease increases considerably. Interestingly, during the course of active disease, even in the absence of immunosuppressive conditions, there is a profound and prolonged suppression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific protective immune responses. Several immune factors can contribute to downregulate the protective immunity, permitting disease progression. In general, many of these factors are potent anti-inflammatory molecules that are probably overproduced with the intention to protect against tissue damage, but the consequence of this response is a decline in protective immunity facilitating bacilli growth and disease progression. Here the most significant participants in protective immunity are reviewed, in particular the factors that deregulate protective immunity in TB. Their manipulation as novel forms of immunotherapy are also briefly commented.

  5. Characterization of host immune responses in Ebola virus infections.

    PubMed

    Wong, Gary; Kobinger, Gary P; Qiu, Xiangguo

    2014-06-01

    Ebola causes highly lethal hemorrhagic fever in humans with no licensed countermeasures. Its virulence can be attributed to several immunoevasion mechanisms: an early inhibition of innate immunity started by the downregulation of type I interferon, epitope masking and subversion of the adaptive humoural immunity by secreting a truncated form of the viral glycoprotein. Deficiencies in specific and non-specific antiviral responses result in unrestricted viral replication and dissemination in the host, causing death typically within 10 days after the appearance of symptoms. This review summarizes the host immune response to Ebola infection, and highlights the short- and long-term immune responses crucial for protection, which holds implications for the design of future vaccines and therapeutics.

  6. [Effect of vitamine A on mice immune response induced by specific periodontal pathogenic bacteria-immunization].

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiao-Ping; Zhou, Xiao-Jia; Liu, Hong-Li; DU, Li-Li; Toshihisa, Kawai

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamine-A deficiency on the induction of specific periodontal pathogenic bacteria A. actinomycetetemcomitans(Aa) immunization. BALB/c mice were fed with vitamine A-depleted diet or control regular diet throughout the whole experiment period. After 2 weeks, immunized formalin-killed Aa to build immunized models, 6 weeks later, sacrificed to determine specific antibody-IgG, IgM and sub-class IgG antibody titers in serum, and concentration of IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α and RANKL in T cell supernatant were measured by ELISA and T cell proliferation was measured by cintilography. SPSS 11.5 software package was used for statistical analysis. The levels of whole IgG and IgM antibody which were immunized by Aa significantly elevated, non-immune group was unable to produce any antibody. Compared with Aa immunized+RD group, the level of whole IgG in Aa immunized+VAD group was significantly higher (P<0.05); The levels of IgG2a increased obviously, whereas the levels of IgG1 subtype antibody conspicuous decreased, with a significant difference (P<0.05). Aa immunized group could induce body to produce a strong specific T-cell immune response, but Aa immunized+VAD group had a higher T cell proliferate response compared with Aa immunized+RD group, with a statistically significant difference (P<0.05); The expression of RANKL, IFN-γ and TNF-α supernatant increased, while the expression of IL-10 decreased (P<0.05). The lack of vitamin-A diet can increase the immunized mice's susceptibility to periodontal pathogenic bacteria and trigger or aggravate immune inflammatory response. Adequate vitamin A is an important factor in maintaining body health. Supported by Natural Science Foundation of Liaoning Province (Grant No.20092139) and Science and Technology Program of Shenyang Municipality (Grant No.F10-149-9-32).

  7. Modeling Systems-Level Regulation of Host Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Thakar, Juilee; Pilione, Mylisa; Kirimanjeswara, Girish; Harvill, Eric T; Albert, Réka

    2007-01-01

    Many pathogens are able to manipulate the signaling pathways responsible for the generation of host immune responses. Here we examine and model a respiratory infection system in which disruption of host immune functions or of bacterial factors changes the dynamics of the infection. We synthesize the network of interactions between host immune components and two closely related bacteria in the genus Bordetellae. We incorporate existing experimental information on the timing of immune regulatory events into a discrete dynamic model, and verify the model by comparing the effects of simulated disruptions to the experimental outcome of knockout mutations. Our model indicates that the infection time course of both Bordetellae can be separated into three distinct phases based on the most active immune processes. We compare and discuss the effect of the species-specific virulence factors on disrupting the immune response during their infection of naive, antibody-treated, diseased, or convalescent hosts. Our model offers predictions regarding cytokine regulation, key immune components, and clearance of secondary infections; we experimentally validate two of these predictions. This type of modeling provides new insights into the virulence, pathogenesis, and host adaptation of disease-causing microorganisms and allows systems-level analysis that is not always possible using traditional methods. PMID:17559300

  8. A cognitive computational model inspired by the immune system response.

    PubMed

    Abdo Abd Al-Hady, Mohamed; Badr, Amr Ahmed; Mostafa, Mostafa Abd Al-Azim

    2014-01-01

    The immune system has a cognitive ability to differentiate between healthy and unhealthy cells. The immune system response (ISR) is stimulated by a disorder in the temporary fuzzy state that is oscillating between the healthy and unhealthy states. However, modeling the immune system is an enormous challenge; the paper introduces an extensive summary of how the immune system response functions, as an overview of a complex topic, to present the immune system as a cognitive intelligent agent. The homogeneity and perfection of the natural immune system have been always standing out as the sought-after model we attempted to imitate while building our proposed model of cognitive architecture. The paper divides the ISR into four logical phases: setting a computational architectural diagram for each phase, proceeding from functional perspectives (input, process, and output), and their consequences. The proposed architecture components are defined by matching biological operations with computational functions and hence with the framework of the paper. On the other hand, the architecture focuses on the interoperability of main theoretical immunological perspectives (classic, cognitive, and danger theory), as related to computer science terminologies. The paper presents a descriptive model of immune system, to figure out the nature of response, deemed to be intrinsic for building a hybrid computational model based on a cognitive intelligent agent perspective and inspired by the natural biology. To that end, this paper highlights the ISR phases as applied to a case study on hepatitis C virus, meanwhile illustrating our proposed architecture perspective.

  9. A Cognitive Computational Model Inspired by the Immune System Response

    PubMed Central

    Abdo Abd Al-Hady, Mohamed; Badr, Amr Ahmed; Mostafa, Mostafa Abd Al-Azim

    2014-01-01

    The immune system has a cognitive ability to differentiate between healthy and unhealthy cells. The immune system response (ISR) is stimulated by a disorder in the temporary fuzzy state that is oscillating between the healthy and unhealthy states. However, modeling the immune system is an enormous challenge; the paper introduces an extensive summary of how the immune system response functions, as an overview of a complex topic, to present the immune system as a cognitive intelligent agent. The homogeneity and perfection of the natural immune system have been always standing out as the sought-after model we attempted to imitate while building our proposed model of cognitive architecture. The paper divides the ISR into four logical phases: setting a computational architectural diagram for each phase, proceeding from functional perspectives (input, process, and output), and their consequences. The proposed architecture components are defined by matching biological operations with computational functions and hence with the framework of the paper. On the other hand, the architecture focuses on the interoperability of main theoretical immunological perspectives (classic, cognitive, and danger theory), as related to computer science terminologies. The paper presents a descriptive model of immune system, to figure out the nature of response, deemed to be intrinsic for building a hybrid computational model based on a cognitive intelligent agent perspective and inspired by the natural biology. To that end, this paper highlights the ISR phases as applied to a case study on hepatitis C virus, meanwhile illustrating our proposed architecture perspective. PMID:25003131

  10. Agouron and immune response to commercialize remune immune-based treatment.

    PubMed

    James, J S

    1998-06-19

    Agouron Pharmaceuticals agreed in June to collaborate with The Immune Response Corporation on the final development and marketing of an immune-based treatment for HIV. Remune, the vaccine developed by Dr. Jonas Salk, is currently in Phase III randomized trials with 2,500 patients, and the trials are expected to be completed in April 1999. Immune-based treatments have been difficult to test, as there is no surrogate marker, like viral load, to determine if the drug is working. Agouron agreed to participate in the joint venture after reviewing encouraging results from preliminary trials in which remune was taken in combination with highly active antiretroviral drugs.

  11. Effect of adjuvants and route of immunizations on the immune response to recombinant plague antigens

    PubMed Central

    Uddowla, Sabena; Freytag, Lucy C.; Clements, John D.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we compare four different adjuvants, LT(R192G), CpG ODN, MPL®TDM and alum, for their ability to affect the magnitude, distribution, and duration of antibody responses against F1-V, the lead-candidate antigen for the next generation vaccine against plague, in a murine model. In addition, three different routes of immunization – intranasal (IN), transcutaneous (TC), and subcutaneous (SC), were compared with each adjuvant. Since aerosol exposure to biological warfare agents is of primary concern, both serum and bronchioalveolar lavage (BAL) were analyzed for antigen-specific antibody responses. The most significant findings of the study reported here are that 1) the adjuvant influences the Type 1/Type 2 balance of the antibody response in both the serum and BAL, 2) mucosal immunization is not necessary to obtain F1-V-specific BAL responses, 3) non-traditional adjuvants such as LT(R192G) work when delivered SC, 4) the route of immunization affects the magnitude of the immune response, and 5) F1-V is highly immunogenic by some routes even in the absence of an exogenously applied adjuvant. These studies provide important insights into the influence of different classes of adjuvants on the immune outcome in biodefense vaccines and for development of new generation vaccines against other pathogens as well. PMID:17933440

  12. Immunomodulator-Based Enhancement of Anti Smallpox Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Osmarie; Miranda, Eric; Ramírez, Maite; Santos, Saritza; Rivera, Carlos; Vázquez, Luis; Sánchez, Tomás; Tremblay, Raymond L.; Ríos-Olivares, Eddy; Otero, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background The current live vaccinia virus vaccine used in the prevention of smallpox is contraindicated for millions of immune-compromised individuals. Although vaccination with the current smallpox vaccine produces protective immunity, it might result in mild to serious health complications for some vaccinees. Thus, there is a critical need for the production of a safe virus-free vaccine against smallpox that is available to everyone. For that reason, we investigated the impact of imiquimod and resiquimod (Toll-like receptors agonists), and the codon-usage optimization of the vaccinia virus A27L gene in the enhancement of the immune response, with intent of producing a safe, virus-free DNA vaccine coding for the A27 vaccinia virus protein. Methods We analyzed the cellular-immune response by measuring the IFN-γ production of splenocytes by ELISPOT, the humoral-immune responses measuring total IgG and IgG2a/IgG1 ratios by ELISA, and the TH1 and TH2 cytokine profiles by ELISA, in mice immunized with our vaccine formulation. Results The proposed vaccine formulation enhanced the A27L vaccine-mediated production of IFN-γ on mouse spleens, and increased the humoral immunity with a TH1-biased response. Also, our vaccine induced a TH1 cytokine milieu, which is important against viral infections. Conclusion These results support the efforts to find a new mechanism to enhance an immune response against smallpox, through the implementation of a safe, virus-free DNA vaccination platform. PMID:25875833

  13. Balancing Immune Protection and Immune Pathology by CD8+ T-Cell Responses to Influenza Infection

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Susu; Thomas, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) is a significant human pathogen causing annual epidemics and periodic pandemics. CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immunity contributes to the clearance of virus-infected cells, and CTL immunity targeting the conserved internal proteins of IAVs is a key protection mechanism when neutralizing antibodies are absent during heterosubtypic IAV infection. However, CTL infiltration into the airways, its cytotoxicity, and the effects of produced proinflammatory cytokines can cause severe lung tissue injury, thereby contributing to immunopathology. Studies have discovered complicated and exquisite stimulatory and inhibitory mechanisms that regulate CTL magnitude and effector activities during IAV infection. Here, we review the state of knowledge on the roles of IAV-specific CTLs in immune protection and immunopathology during IAV infection in animal models, highlighting the key findings of various requirements and constraints regulating the balance of immune protection and pathology involved in CTL immunity. We also discuss the evidence of cross-reactive CTL immunity as a positive correlate of cross-subtype protection during secondary IAV infection in both animal and human studies. We argue that the effects of CTL immunity on protection and immunopathology depend on multiple layers of host and viral factors, including complex host mechanisms to regulate CTL magnitude and effector activity, the pathogenic nature of the IAV, the innate response milieu, and the host historical immune context of influenza infection. Future efforts are needed to further understand these key host and viral factors, especially to differentiate those that constrain optimally effective CTL antiviral immunity from those necessary to restrain CTL-mediated non-specific immunopathology in the various contexts of IAV infection, in order to develop better vaccination and therapeutic strategies for modifying protective CTL immunity. PMID:26904022

  14. The immune response against Candida spp. and Sporothrix schenckii.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Álvarez, José A; Pérez-García, Luis A; Flores-Carreón, Arturo; Mora-Montes, Héctor M

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is the main causative agent of systemic candidiasis, a condition with high mortality rates. The study of the interaction between C. albicans and immune system components has been thoroughly studied and nowadays there is a model for the anti-C. albicans immune response; however, little is known about the sensing of other pathogenic species of the Candida genus. Sporothrix schenckii is the causative agent of sporotrichosis, a subcutaneous mycosis, and thus far there is limited information about its interaction with the immune system. In this paper, we review the most recent information about the immune sensing of species from genus Candida and S. schenckii. Thoroughly searches in scientific journal databases were performed, looking for papers addressing either Candida- or Sporothrix-immune system interactions. There is a significant advance in the knowledge of non-C. albicans species of Candida and Sporothrix immune sensing; however, there are still relevant points to address, such as the specific contribution of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) for sensing by different immune cells and the immune receptors involved in such interactions. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012). Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Chitin and Its Effects on Inflammatory and Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Elieh Ali Komi, Daniel; Sharma, Lokesh; Dela Cruz, Charles S

    2018-04-01

    Chitin, a potential allergy-promoting pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP), is a linear polymer composed of N-acetylglucosamine residues which are linked by β-(1,4)-glycosidic bonds. Mammalians are potential hosts for chitin-containing protozoa, fungi, arthropods, and nematodes; however, mammalians themselves do not synthetize chitin and thus it is considered as a potential target for recognition by mammalian immune system. Chitin is sensed primarily in the lungs or gut where it activates a variety of innate (eosinophils, macrophages) and adaptive immune cells (IL-4/IL-13 expressing T helper type-2 lymphocytes). Chitin induces cytokine production, leukocyte recruitment, and alternative macrophage activation. Intranasal or intraperitoneal administration of chitin (varying in size, degree of acetylation and purity) to mice has been applied as a routine approach to investigate chitin's priming effects on innate and adaptive immunity. Structural chitin present in microorganisms is actively degraded by host true chitinases, including acidic mammalian chitinases and chitotriosidase into smaller fragments that can be sensed by mammalian receptors such as FIBCD1, NKR-P1, and RegIIIc. Immune recognition of chitin also involves pattern recognition receptors, mainly via TLR-2 and Dectin-1, to activate immune cells to induce cytokine production and creation of an immune network that results in inflammatory and allergic responses. In this review, we will focus on various immunological aspects of the interaction between chitin and host immune system such as sensing, interactions with immune cells, chitinases as chitin degrading enzymes, and immunologic applications of chitin.

  16. A modified live canine parvovirus vaccine. II. Immune response.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, L E; Joubert, J C; Pollock, R V

    1983-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of an attenuated canine parvovirus (A-CPV) vaccine was evaluated in both experimental and in field dogs. After parenteral vaccination, seronegative dogs developed hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody titers as early as postvaccination (PV) day 2. Maximal titers occurred within 1 week. Immunity was associated with the persistence of HI antibody titers (titers greater than 80) that endured at least 2 years. Immune dogs challenged with virulent CPV did not shed virus in their feces. The A-CPV vaccine did not cause illness alone or in combination with living canine distemper (CD) and canine adenovirus type-2 (CAV-2) vaccines, nor did it interfere with the immune response to the other viruses. A high rate (greater than 98%) of immunity was engendered in seronegative pups. In contrast, maternal antibody interfered with the active immune response to the A-CPV. More than 95% of the dogs with HI titers less than 10 responded to the vaccine, but only 50% responded when titers were approximately 20. No animal with a titer greater than 80 at the time of vaccination became actively immunized. Susceptibility to virulent CPV during that period when maternal antibody no longer protects against infection, but still prevents active immunization, is the principal cause of vaccinal failure in breeding kennels where CPV is present. Reduction, but not complete elimination, of CPV disease in large breeding kennels occurred within 1-2 months of instituting an A-CPV vaccination program.

  17. Mitigation of Inflammatory Immune Responses with Hydrophilic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Bowen; Xie, Jingyi; Yuan, Zhefan; Jain, Priyesh; Lin, Xiaojie; Wu, Kan; Jiang, Shaoyi

    2018-04-16

    While hydrophobic nanoparticles (NPs) have been long recognized to boost the immune activation, whether hydrophilic NPs modulate an immune system challenged by immune stimulators and how their hydrophilic properties may affect the immune response is still unclear. To answer this question, three polymers, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), poly(sulfobetaine) (PSB) and poly(carboxybetaine) (PCB), which are commonly considered hydrophilic, are studied in this work. For comparison, nanogels with uniform size and homogeneous surface functionalities were made from these polymers. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and an LPS-induced lung inflammation murine model were used to investigate the influence of nanogels on the immune system. Results show that the treatment of hydrophilic nanogels attenuated the immune responses elicited by LPS both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we found that PCB nanogels, which have the strongest hydration and the lowest non-specific protein binding, manifested the best performance in alleviating the immune activation, followed by PSB and PEG nanogels. This reveals that the immunomodulatory effect of hydrophilic materials is closely related to their hydration characteristics and their ability to resist non-specific binding in complex media. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. [Bone marrow stromal damage mediated by immune response activity].

    PubMed

    Vojinović, J; Kamenov, B; Najman, S; Branković, Lj; Dimitrijević, H

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this work was to estimate influence of activated immune response on hematopoiesis in vitro, using the experimental model of BCG immunized BALB/c mice and in patients with chronic immunoactivation: long-lasting infections, autoimmunity or malignancy. We correlated changes in long term bone marrow cultures (Dexter) and NBT reduction with appearance of anemia in patients and experimental model of immunization by BCG. Increased spontaneous NBT reduction pointed out role of macrophage activation in bone marrow stroma damage. Long-term bone marrow cultures showed reduced number of hematopoietic cells, with predomination of fibroblasts and loss of fat cells. This results correlated with anemia and leucocytosis with stimulated myelopoiesis in peripheral blood. Activation of immune response, or acting of any agent that directly changes extracellular matrix and cellularity of bone marrow, may result in microenviroment bone marrow damage that modify hematopoiesis.

  19. Induction of pneumococcal polysaccharide-specific mucosal immune responses by oral immunization.

    PubMed

    VanCott, J L; Kobayashi, T; Yamamoto, M; Pillai, S; McGhee, J R; Kiyono, H

    1996-04-01

    Liposome and cholera toxin (CT) are considered to be effective antigen delivery vehicles and adjuvants for mucosal vaccines. The effect of these antigen delivery systems on adjuvant responses to mucosally administered pneumococcal polysaccharide (Pnup) was investigated in this study. Both mucosal (e.g. oral) and systemic (i.p.) immunization of mice with purified preparations of Pnup type 23F induced antigen-specific IgM responses in sera. Interestingly, oral immunization of as little as 10 micrograms of Pnup type 23F was sufficient to induce systemic IgM responses. Pnup-specific IgM antibodies peaked by day 7 and no booster responses were evident after a second dose on day 14. In order to examine whether IgG and IgA Pnup-specific immune responses are induced by mucosal immunization, the mucosal adjuvant CT was mixed with Pnup type 23 as an oral vaccine. Co-oral administration of CT and Pnup type 23F resulted in the induction of Pnup-specific faecal IgA antibodies. These results were confirmed by detecting antigen-specific IgA-spot-forming cells in mononuclear cell suspensions prepared from the intestine of immunized mice. These findings suggest that oral immunization with Pnup in the presence of mucosal adjuvants, such as CT, could induce Pnup-specific IgA responses whereas Pnup alone did not. In an attempt to further enhance antigen-specific antibody responses, Pnup type 23F was encapsulated in liposomes and used as mucosal vaccine. However, immunogenicity of Pnup was not improved.

  20. The nature of immune responses to urinary tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Soman N.; Miao, Yuxuan

    2016-01-01

    The urinary tract is constantly exposed to microorganisms that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract, but generally the urinary tract resists infection by gut microorganisms. This resistance to infection is mainly ascribed to the versatility of the innate immune defences in the urinary tract as the adaptive immune responses are limited, particularly when only the lower urinary tract is infected. In recent years, as the strengths and weaknesses of the immune system of the urinary tract have emerged and as the virulence attributes of uropathogens are recognized, several potentially effective and unconventional strategies to contain or prevent urinary tract infections have emerged. PMID:26388331

  1. Spectroscopic techniques to study the immune response in human saliva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nepomnyashchaya, E.; Savchenko, E.; Velichko, E.; Bogomaz, T.; Aksenov, E.

    2018-01-01

    Studies of the immune response dynamics by means of spectroscopic techniques, i.e., laser correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy, are described. The laser correlation spectroscopy is aimed at measuring sizes of particles in biological fluids. The fluorescence spectroscopy allows studying of the conformational and other structural changings in immune complex. We have developed a new scheme of a laser correlation spectrometer and an original signal processing algorithm. We have suggested a new fluorescence detection scheme based on a prism and an integrating pin diode. The developed system based on the spectroscopic techniques allows studies of complex process in human saliva and opens some prospects for an individual treatment of immune diseases.

  2. Modulation of Human Immune Response by Fungal Biocontrol Agents

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinovas, Cibele; de Oliveira Mendes, Tiago A.; Vannier-Santos, Marcos A.; Lima-Santos, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Although the vast majority of biological control agents is generally regarded as safe for humans and environment, the increased exposure of agriculture workers, and consumer population to fungal substances may affect the immune system. Those compounds may be associated with both intense stimulation, resulting in IgE-mediated allergy and immune downmodulation induced by molecules such as cyclosporin A and mycotoxins. This review discusses the potential effects of biocontrol fungal components on human immune responses, possibly associated to infectious, inflammatory diseases, and defective defenses. PMID:28217107

  3. SUMO-Enriched Proteome for Drosophila Innate Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Handu, Mithila; Kaduskar, Bhagyashree; Ravindranathan, Ramya; Soory, Amarendranath; Giri, Ritika; Elango, Vijay Barathi; Gowda, Harsha; Ratnaparkhi, Girish S.

    2015-01-01

    Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) modification modulates the expression of defense genes in Drosophila, activated by the Toll/nuclear factor-κB and immune-deficient/nuclear factor-κB signaling networks. We have, however, limited understanding of the SUMO-modulated regulation of the immune response and lack information on SUMO targets in the immune system. In this study, we measured the changes to the SUMO proteome in S2 cells in response to a lipopolysaccharide challenge and identified 1619 unique proteins in SUMO-enriched lysates. A confident set of 710 proteins represents the immune-induced SUMO proteome and analysis suggests that specific protein domains, cellular pathways, and protein complexes respond to immune stress. A small subset of the confident set was validated by in-bacto SUMOylation and shown to be bona-fide SUMO targets. These include components of immune signaling pathways such as Caspar, Jra, Kay, cdc42, p38b, 14-3-3ε, as well as cellular proteins with diverse functions, many being components of protein complexes, such as prosß4, Rps10b, SmD3, Tango7, and Aats-arg. Caspar, a human FAF1 ortholog that negatively regulates immune-deficient signaling, is SUMOylated at K551 and responds to treatment with lipopolysaccharide in cultured cells. Our study is one of the first to describe SUMO proteome for the Drosophila immune response. Our data and analysis provide a global framework for the understanding of SUMO modification in the host response to pathogens. PMID:26290570

  4. SUMO-Enriched Proteome for Drosophila Innate Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Handu, Mithila; Kaduskar, Bhagyashree; Ravindranathan, Ramya; Soory, Amarendranath; Giri, Ritika; Elango, Vijay Barathi; Gowda, Harsha; Ratnaparkhi, Girish S

    2015-08-18

    Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) modification modulates the expression of defense genes in Drosophila, activated by the Toll/nuclear factor-κB and immune-deficient/nuclear factor-κB signaling networks. We have, however, limited understanding of the SUMO-modulated regulation of the immune response and lack information on SUMO targets in the immune system. In this study, we measured the changes to the SUMO proteome in S2 cells in response to a lipopolysaccharide challenge and identified 1619 unique proteins in SUMO-enriched lysates. A confident set of 710 proteins represents the immune-induced SUMO proteome and analysis suggests that specific protein domains, cellular pathways, and protein complexes respond to immune stress. A small subset of the confident set was validated by in-bacto SUMOylation and shown to be bona-fide SUMO targets. These include components of immune signaling pathways such as Caspar, Jra, Kay, cdc42, p38b, 14-3-3ε, as well as cellular proteins with diverse functions, many being components of protein complexes, such as prosß4, Rps10b, SmD3, Tango7, and Aats-arg. Caspar, a human FAF1 ortholog that negatively regulates immune-deficient signaling, is SUMOylated at K551 and responds to treatment with lipopolysaccharide in cultured cells. Our study is one of the first to describe SUMO proteome for the Drosophila immune response. Our data and analysis provide a global framework for the understanding of SUMO modification in the host response to pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Handu et al.

  5. Control of epithelial immune-response genes and implications for airway immunity and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Holtzman, M J; Look, D C; Sampath, D; Castro, M; Koga, T; Walter, M J

    1998-01-01

    A major goal of our research is to understand how immune cells (especially T cells) infiltrate the pulmonary airway during host defense and inflammatory disease (especially asthma). In that context, we have proposed that epithelial cells lining the airway provide critical biochemical signals for immune-cell influx and activation and that this epithelial-immune cell interaction is a critical feature of airway inflammation and hyperreactivity. In this brief report, we describe our progress in defining a subset of epithelial immune-response genes the expression of which is coordinated for viral defense both directly in response to replicating virus and indirectly under the control of a specific interferon-gamma signal transduction pathway featuring the Stat1 transcription factor as a critical relay signal between cytoplasm and nucleus. Unexpectedly, the same pathway is also activated during asthmatic airway inflammation in a setting where there is no apparent infection and no increase in interferon-gamma levels. The findings provide the first evidence of an overactive Stat1-dependent gene network in asthmatic airways and a novel molecular link between mucosal immunity and inflammation. The findings also offer the possibility that overactivity of Stat1-dependent genes might augment a subsequent T helper cell (Th1)-type response to virus or might combine with a heightened Th2-type response to allergen to account for more severe exacerbations of asthma.

  6. Characterization of the immune response of domestic fowl following immunization with proteins extracted from Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    Harrington, David; Din, Hatem Mohi El; Guy, Jonathan; Robinson, Karen; Sparagano, Olivier

    2009-03-23

    Dermanyssus gallinae is the most significant ectoparasite of European poultry egg laying production systems due to high costs of control and associated production losses as well as adverse effects on bird welfare. In this study, soluble proteins were extracted from unfed D. gallinae (DGE) using a urea-based detergent and ultra-filtration, passed through a 0.22 microm filter and blended aseptically with adjuvant. One group of laying hens was immunized with DGE and adjuvant (Montanide ISA 50 V) whilst another group (Control) received physiological saline and adjuvant. All birds were immunized on two occasions, 21 days apart. Antibody response to immunization was determined by ELISA and western blotting using immunoglobulins (Igs) extracted from egg yolk. DGE immunization of hens resulted in a significant (P<0.05) IgY response compared to controls, although there was no significant difference in IgM response between treatments. A number of proteins were identified by western blotting using IgY antibodies from DGE immunized birds, most prominently at 40 and 230kDa. Analysis of proteins from approximately corresponding bands on SDS-PAGE confirmed the identity of tropomyosin, whilst other proteins showed high sequence homology with myosin and actin from other arachnid and insect species. Immunization of hens with DGE resulted in a 50.6% increase in mite mortality (P<0.001) 17h after feeding when tested by an in vitro mite feeding model. Data in this study demonstrate that somatic antigens from D. gallinae can be used to stimulate a protective immune response in laying hens. Further work is needed to identify other proteins of interest that could confer higher protection against D. gallinae, as well as optimization of the vaccination and in vitro testing protocol.

  7. Assessment of the innate immune response in the periparturient cow.

    PubMed

    Trevisi, Erminio; Minuti, Andrea

    2018-02-01

    The transition period is the most critical phase in the life of high yielding dairy cows. Within a few weeks, cows are submitted to many challenges (physiological, nutritional, psychological, management) that require prompt and effective adaptive responses. The immune system is involved in this process, and many changes of the cow's immune system components have been observed around calving. Cows are considered to be immunosuppressed in late lactation, and available data suggest that the immune system is dysregulated around parturition. Significant attention has been focused on modification of cellular functions (e.g. the reduction of phagocytosis and diapedesis), but growing interest concerns the components of the innate immune system, which often exhibits increased responses such as susceptibility to inflammatory events and the related acute phase response (APR). Systemic inflammation plays a significant role in early lactation, affects many liver functions and has been associated with the impairment of cow performance (i.e. reduced feed intake, milk yield, fertility, welfare). The assessment of variations in immune-metabolic indices offers opportunities to predict the onset of the health troubles and to anticipate the proper therapies needed to guarantee health, good welfare and fertility in the following lactation. The frequency of diseases (metabolic and infectious) before calving is rare, but several clues suggest that various metabolic and immune variations can begin during the dry period. Interesting preliminary results encourage this perspective and possible candidates are suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Selection for avian immune response: a commercial breeding company challenge.

    PubMed

    Fulton, J E

    2004-04-01

    Selection for immune function in the commercial breeding environment is a challenging proposition for commercial breeding companies. Immune response is only one of many traits that are under intensive selection, thus selection pressure needs to be carefully balanced across multiple traits. The selection environment (single bird cages, biosecure facilities, controlled environment) is a very different environment than the commercial production facilities (multiple bird cages, potential disease exposure, variable environment) in which birds are to produce. The testing of individual birds is difficult, time consuming, and expensive. It is essential that the results of any tests be relevant to actual disease or environmental challenge in the commercial environment. The use of genetic markers as indicators of immune function is being explored by breeding companies. Use of genetic markers would eliminate many of the limitations in enhancing immune function currently encountered by commercial breeding companies. Information on genetic markers would allow selection to proceed without subjecting breeding stock to disease conditions and could be done before production traits are measured. These markers could be candidate genes with known interaction or involvement with disease pathology or DNA markers that are closely linked to genetic regions that influence the immune response. The current major limitation to this approach is the paucity of mapped chicken immune response genes and the limited number of DNA markers mapped on the chicken genome. These limitations should be eliminated once the chicken genome is sequenced.

  9. Innate immune responses of temperamental and calm cattle after transportation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective was to investigate measures of cellular innate immune responses among calm and temperamental Brahman bulls in response to handling and transportation. Sixteen Brahman bulls (344 ± 37 days of age; 271.6 ± 45.5 kg BW) classified as either calm (n = 8) or temperamental (n = 8) were loaded...

  10. Arginine and Citrulline and the Immune Response in Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Wijnands, Karolina A.P.; Castermans, Tessy M.R.; Hommen, Merel P.J.; Meesters, Dennis M.; Poeze, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    Arginine, a semi-essential amino acid is an important initiator of the immune response. Arginine serves as a precursor in several metabolic pathways in different organs. In the immune response, arginine metabolism and availability is determined by the nitric oxide synthases and the arginase enzymes, which convert arginine into nitric oxide (NO) and ornithine, respectively. Limitations in arginine availability during inflammatory conditions regulate macrophages and T-lymfocyte activation. Furthermore, over the past years more evidence has been gathered which showed that arginine and citrulline deficiencies may underlie the detrimental outcome of inflammatory conditions, such as sepsis and endotoxemia. Not only does the immune response contribute to the arginine deficiency, also the impaired arginine de novo synthesis in the kidney has a key role in the eventual observed arginine deficiency. The complex interplay between the immune response and the arginine-NO metabolism is further underscored by recent data of our group. In this review we give an overview of physiological arginine and citrulline metabolism and we address the experimental and clinical studies in which the arginine-citrulline NO pathway plays an essential role in the immune response, as initiator and therapeutic target. PMID:25699985

  11. A basic mathematical model of the immune response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, H.; Zaenker, K. S.; an der Heiden, U.

    1995-03-01

    Interaction of the immune system with a target population of, e.g., bacteria, viruses, antigens, or tumor cells must be considered as a dynamic process. We describe this process by a system of two ordinary differential equations. Although the model is strongly idealized it demonstrates how the combination of a few proposed nonlinear interaction rules between the immune system and its targets are able to generate a considerable variety of different kinds of immune responses, many of which are observed both experimentally and clinically. In particular, solutions of the model equations correspond to states described by immunologists as ``virgin state,'' ``immune state'' and ``state of tolerance.'' The model successfully replicates the so-called primary and secondary response. Moreover, it predicts the existence of a threshold level for the amount of pathogen germs or of transplanted tumor cells below which the host is able to eliminate the infectious organism or to reject the tumor graft. We also find a long time coexistence of targets and immune competent cells including damped and undamped oscillations of both. Plausibly the model explains that if the number of transformed cells or pathogens exeeds definable values (poor antigenicity, high reproduction rate) the immune system fails to keep the disease under control. On the other hand, the model predicts apparently paradoxical situations including an increased chance of target survival despite enhanced immune activity or therapeutically achieved target reduction. A further obviously paradoxical behavior consists of a positive effect for the patient up to a complete cure by adding an additional target challenge where the benefit of the additional targets depends strongly on the time point and on their amount. Under periodically pulsed stimulation the model may show a chaotic time behavior of both target growth and immune response.

  12. Stress and Neuroendocrine Regulation of Immune Responses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-20

    in spleen and thymus weights, and in T- cell responsivity to mitogens following * , rief periods of restraint or electric footshock, especially with...antigen (NDV), in addition to the previously * reported increases in plasma corticosterone . The cerebral responses are particularly i-vident in...hypophysectomized mice. in which we do not observe substantial increases in * lasma corticosterone . We have not observed consistent changes in cerebral amines

  13. [Human milk, immune responses and health effects].

    PubMed

    Løland, Beate Fossum; Baerug, Anne B; Nylander, Gro

    2007-09-20

    Besides providing optimal nutrition to infants, human milk contains a multitude of immunological components. These components are important for protection against infections and also support the development and maturation of the infant's own immune system. This review focuses on the function of some classical immunocomponents of human milk. Relevant studies are presented that describe health benefits of human milk for the child and of lactation for the mother. Relevant articles were found mainly by searching PubMed. Humoral and cellular components of human milk confer protection against infections in the respiratory--, gastrointestinal--and urinary tract. Human milk also protects premature children from neonatal sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. There is evidence that human milk may confer long-term benefits such as lower risk of certain autoimmune diseases, inflammatory bowel disease and probably some malignancies. Human milk possibly affects components of the metabolic syndrome. Recent studies demonstrate long-term health benefits of lactation also for the mother. A reduced incidence of breast cancer is best documented. An increasing number of studies indicate protection against ovarian cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and type II diabetes.

  14. Kill: boosting HIV-specific immune responses.

    PubMed

    Trautmann, Lydie

    2016-07-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that purging the latent HIV reservoir in virally suppressed individuals will require both the induction of viral replication from its latent state and the elimination of these reactivated HIV-infected cells ('Shock and Kill' strategy). Boosting potent HIV-specific CD8 T cells is a promising way to achieve an HIV cure. Recent studies provided the rationale for developing immune interventions to increase the numbers, function and location of HIV-specific CD8 T cells to purge HIV reservoirs. Multiple approaches are being evaluated including very early suppression of HIV replication in acute infection, adoptive cell transfer, therapeutic vaccination or use of immunomodulatory molecules. New assays to measure the killing and antiviral function of induced HIV-specific CD8 T cells have been developed to assess the efficacy of these new approaches. The strategies combining HIV reactivation and immunobased therapies to boost HIV-specific CD8 T cells can be tested in in-vivo and in-silico models to accelerate the design of new clinical trials. New immunobased strategies are explored to boost HIV-specific CD8 T cells able to purge the HIV-infected cells with the ultimate goal of achieving spontaneous control of viral replication without antiretroviral treatment.

  15. Kill: Boosting HIV-specific immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Trautmann, Lydie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Increasing evidences suggest that purging the latent HIV reservoir in virally-suppressed individuals will require both the induction of viral replication from its latent state and the elimination of these reactivated HIV infected cells (“Shock and Kill” strategy). Boosting potent HIV-specific CD8 T cells is a promising way to achieve an HIV cure. Recent findings Recent studies provided the rationale for developing immune interventions to increase the numbers, function and location of HIV-specific CD8 T cells to purge HIV reservoirs. Multiple approaches are being evaluated including very early suppression of HIV replication in acute infection, adoptive cell transfer, therapeutic vaccination or use of immunomodulatory molecules. New assays to measure the killing and antiviral function of induced HIV-specific CD8 T cells have been developed to assess the efficacy of these new approaches. The strategies combining HIV reactivation and immunobased therapies to boost HIV-specific CD8 T cells can be tested in in vivo and in silico models to accelerate the design of new clinical trials. Summary New immunobased strategies are explored to boost HIV-specific CD8 T cells able to purge the HIV-infected cells with the ultimate goal of achieving spontaneous control of viral replication without antiretroviral treatment. PMID:27054280

  16. Bacterial Outer Membrane Vesicles Induce Plant Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Bahar, Ofir; Mordukhovich, Gideon; Luu, Dee Dee; Schwessinger, Benjamin; Daudi, Arsalan; Jehle, Anna Kristina; Felix, Georg; Ronald, Pamela C

    2016-05-01

    Gram-negative bacteria continuously pinch off portions of their outer membrane, releasing membrane vesicles. These outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are involved in multiple processes including cell-to-cell communication, biofilm formation, stress tolerance, horizontal gene transfer, and virulence. OMVs are also known modulators of the mammalian immune response. Despite the well-documented role of OMVs in mammalian-bacterial communication, their interaction with plants is not well studied. To examine whether OMVs of plant pathogens modulate the plant immune response, we purified OMVs from four different plant pathogens and used them to treat Arabidopsis thaliana. OMVs rapidly induced a reactive oxygen species burst, medium alkalinization, and defense gene expression in A. thaliana leaf discs, cell cultures, and seedlings, respectively. Western blot analysis revealed that EF-Tu is present in OMVs and that it serves as an elicitor of the plant immune response in this form. Our results further show that the immune coreceptors BAK1 and SOBIR1 mediate OMV perception and response. Taken together, our results demonstrate that plants can detect and respond to OMV-associated molecules by activation of their immune system, revealing a new facet of plant-bacterial interactions.

  17. Probiotics, antibiotics and the immune responses to vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Praharaj, Ira; John, Sushil M.; Bandyopadhyay, Rini; Kang, Gagandeep

    2015-01-01

    Orally delivered vaccines have been shown to perform poorly in developing countries. There are marked differences in the structure and the luminal environment of the gut in developing countries resulting in changes in immune and barrier function. Recent studies using newly developed technology and analytic methods have made it increasingly clear that the intestinal microbiota activate a multitude of pathways that control innate and adaptive immunity in the gut. Several hypotheses have been proposed for the underperformance of oral vaccines in developing countries, and modulation of the intestinal microbiota is now being tested in human clinical trials. Supplementation with specific strains of probiotics has been shown to have modulatory effects on intestinal and systemic immune responses in animal models and forms the basis for human studies with vaccines. However, most studies published so far that have evaluated the immune response to vaccines in children and adults have been small and results have varied by age, antigen, type of antibody response and probiotic strain. Use of anthelminthic drugs in children has been shown to possibly increase immunogenicity following oral cholera vaccination, lending further support to the rationale for modulation of the immune response to oral vaccination through the intestinal microbiome. PMID:25964456

  18. Probiotics, antibiotics and the immune responses to vaccines.

    PubMed

    Praharaj, Ira; John, Sushil M; Bandyopadhyay, Rini; Kang, Gagandeep

    2015-06-19

    Orally delivered vaccines have been shown to perform poorly in developing countries. There are marked differences in the structure and the luminal environment of the gut in developing countries resulting in changes in immune and barrier function. Recent studies using newly developed technology and analytic methods have made it increasingly clear that the intestinal microbiota activate a multitude of pathways that control innate and adaptive immunity in the gut. Several hypotheses have been proposed for the underperformance of oral vaccines in developing countries, and modulation of the intestinal microbiota is now being tested in human clinical trials. Supplementation with specific strains of probiotics has been shown to have modulatory effects on intestinal and systemic immune responses in animal models and forms the basis for human studies with vaccines. However, most studies published so far that have evaluated the immune response to vaccines in children and adults have been small and results have varied by age, antigen, type of antibody response and probiotic strain. Use of anthelminthic drugs in children has been shown to possibly increase immunogenicity following oral cholera vaccination, lending further support to the rationale for modulation of the immune response to oral vaccination through the intestinal microbiome. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Drosophila blood cells and their role in immune responses.

    PubMed

    Vlisidou, Isabella; Wood, Will

    2015-04-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has been extensively used to study the humoral arm of innate immunity because of the developmental and functional parallels with mammalian innate immunity. However, the fly cellular response to infection is far less understood. Investigative work on Drosophila haemocytes, the immunosurveillance cells of the insect, has revealed that they fulfil roles similar to mammalian monocytes and macrophages. They respond to wound signals and orchestrate the coagulation response. In addition, they phagocytose and encapsulate invading pathogens, and clear up apoptotic bodies controlling inflammation. This review briefly describes the Drosophila haematopoietic system and discusses what is currently known about the contribution of haemocytes to the immune response upon infection and wounding, during all stages of development. © 2015 FEBS.

  20. Marburg virus survivor immune responses are Th1 skewed with limited neutralizing antibody responses.

    PubMed

    Stonier, Spencer W; Herbert, Andrew S; Kuehne, Ana I; Sobarzo, Ariel; Habibulin, Polina; Dahan, Chen V Abramovitch; James, Rebekah M; Egesa, Moses; Cose, Stephen; Lutwama, Julius Julian; Lobel, Leslie; Dye, John M

    2017-09-04

    Until recently, immune responses in filovirus survivors remained poorly understood. Early studies revealed IgM and IgG responses to infection with various filoviruses, but recent outbreaks have greatly expanded our understanding of filovirus immune responses. Immune responses in survivors of Ebola virus (EBOV) and Sudan virus (SUDV) infections have provided the most insight, with T cell responses as well as detailed antibody responses having been characterized. Immune responses to Marburg virus (MARV), however, remain almost entirely uncharacterized. We report that immune responses in MARV survivors share characteristics with EBOV and SUDV infections but have some distinct differences. MARV survivors developed multivariate CD4 + T cell responses but limited CD8 + T cell responses, more in keeping with SUDV survivors than EBOV survivors. In stark contrast to SUDV survivors, rare neutralizing antibody responses in MARV survivors diminished rapidly after the outbreak. These results warrant serious consideration for any vaccine or therapeutic that seeks to be broadly protective, as different filoviruses may require different immune responses to achieve immunity. © 2017 Stonier et al.

  1. Immunosuppressive activity of tilmicosin on the immune responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Guan, Shuang; Song, Yu; Guo, Weixiao; Chu, Xiao; Zhang, Xiaozhe; Wang, Dacheng; Lu, Jing; Deng, Xuming

    2011-06-01

    Tilmicosin, a semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic that is only used in the veterinary clinic, was evaluated for its immunosuppressive activity on the immune responses to ovalbumin (OVA) in mice. Tilmicosin suppressed concanavalin A (Con A)- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated splenocyte proliferation in vitro. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with OVA on day 1 and 4. Beginning on the day of boosting immunization, the mice were administered intraperitoneally with tilmicosin at a single dose of 10, 30, and 90 mg/kg for 10 consecutive days. On day 14, blood samples were collected for measuring specific total-immunoglobulin G (total-IgG), IgG1, IgG2b, and splenocytes were harvested for determining lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-4 production. The results demonstrated that tilmicosin could significantly suppress Con A-induced splenocyte proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, decrease LPS-and OVA-induced splenocyte proliferation only at high concentration, produced less IL-2, IL-4, and IFN-γ as compared to the control in the OVA-immunized mice. Moreover, the OVA-specific IgG, IgG1, and IgG2b levels in the OVA-immunized mice were reduced by tilmicosin. These results suggest that tilmicosin could suppress the cellular and humoral immune response in mice.

  2. Acquired immunity to amyloodiniosis is associated with an antibody response.

    PubMed

    Cobb, C S; Levy, M G; Noga, E J

    1998-10-08

    The dinoflagellate Amyloodinium ocellatum, which causes amyloodiniosis or 'marine velvet disease', is one of the most serious ectoparasitic diseases plaguing warmwater marine fish culture worldwide. We report that tomato clownfish Amphiprion frenatus develop strong immunity to Amyloodinium ocellatum infection following repeated nonlethal challenges and that specific antibodies are associated with this response. Reaction of immune fish antisera against dinospore and trophont-derived antigens in Western blots indicated both shared and stage-specific antibody-antigen reactions. A mannan-binding-protein affinity column was used to isolate IgM-like antibody from A. frenatus serum. The reduced Ig consisted of one 70 kD heavy chain and one 32 kD light chain with an estimated molecular weight of 816 kD for the native molecule. Immunoglobulin (Ig) isolated from immune but not non-immune fish serum significantly inhibited parasite infectivity in vitro. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using polyclonal rabbit antibody produced against affinity-purified A. frenatus Ig. Anti-Amyloodinium serum antibody was not always detectable in immune fish, although serum antibody titers in immune fish increased after repeated exposure to the parasite. These results suggest that there may be a localized antibody response in skin/gill epithelial tissue, although antibody was rarely detected in skin mucus.

  3. Suppressive influences in the immune response to cancer.

    PubMed

    Bronte, Vincenzo; Mocellin, Simone

    2009-01-01

    Although much evidence has been gathered demonstrating that immune effectors can play a significant role in controlling tumor growth under natural conditions or in response to therapeutic manipulation, it is clear that malignant cells do evade immune surveillance in most cases. Considering that anticancer active specific immunotherapy seems to have reached a plateau of results and that currently no vaccination regimen is indicated as a standard anticancer therapy, the dissection of the molecular events underlying tumor immune escape is the necessary condition to make anticancer vaccines a therapeutic weapon effective enough to be implemented in the routine clinical setting. Recent years have witnessed significant advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying tumor immune escape. These mechanistic insights are fostering the development of rationally designed therapeutics aimed to revert the immunosuppressive circuits that undermine an effective antitumor immune response. In this review, the best characterized mechanisms that allow cancer cells to evade immune surveillance are overviewed and the most debated controversies constellating this complex field are highlighted.

  4. Escaping Deleterious Immune Response in Their Hosts: Lessons from Trypanosomatids

    PubMed Central

    Geiger, Anne; Bossard, Géraldine; Sereno, Denis; Pissarra, Joana; Lemesre, Jean-Loup; Vincendeau, Philippe; Holzmuller, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The Trypanosomatidae family includes the genera Trypanosoma and Leishmania, protozoan parasites displaying complex digenetic life cycles requiring a vertebrate host and an insect vector. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Leishmania spp. are important human pathogens causing human African trypanosomiasis (HAT or sleeping sickness), Chagas’ disease, and various clinical forms of Leishmaniasis, respectively. They are transmitted to humans by tsetse flies, triatomine bugs, or sandflies, and affect millions of people worldwide. In humans, extracellular African trypanosomes (T. brucei) evade the hosts’ immune defenses, allowing their transmission to the next host, via the tsetse vector. By contrast, T. cruzi and Leishmania sp. have developed a complex intracellular lifestyle, also preventing several mechanisms to circumvent the host’s immune response. This review seeks to set out the immune evasion strategies developed by the different trypanosomatids resulting from parasite–host interactions and will focus on: clinical and epidemiological importance of diseases; life cycles: parasites–hosts–vectors; innate immunity: key steps for trypanosomatids in invading hosts; deregulation of antigen-presenting cells; disruption of efficient specific immunity; and the immune responses used for parasite proliferation. PMID:27303406

  5. Immune Responses in Rhinovirus-Induced Asthma Exacerbations.

    PubMed

    Steinke, John W; Borish, Larry

    2016-11-01

    Acute asthma exacerbations are responsible for urgent care visits and hospitalizations; they interfere with school and work productivity, thereby driving much of the morbidity and mortality associated with asthma. Approximately 80 to 85 % of asthma exacerbations in children, adolescents, and less frequently adults are associated with viral upper respiratory tract viral infections, and rhinovirus (RV) accounts for ∼60-70 % of these virus-associated exacerbations. Evidence suggests that it is not the virus itself but the nature of the immune response to RV that drives this untoward response. In particular, evidence supports the concept that RV acts to exacerbate an ongoing allergic inflammatory response to environmental allergens present at the time of the infection. The interaction of the ongoing IgE- and T cell-mediated response to allergen superimposed on the innate and adaptive immune responses to the virus and how this leads to triggering of an asthma exacerbation is discussed.

  6. Intestinal infection with Trichinella spiralis induces distinct, regional immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Blum, L.K.; Mohanan, S.; Fabre, M.V.; Yafawi, R.E.; Appleton, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate differences between the small and large intestines (SI and LI) with regard to colonization and immunity during infection with Trichinella spiralis. In orally infected C57BL/6 mice, the gender ratios of worms differed among the SI, cecum, and LI. Mucosal mastocytosis developed in the SI but not in the LI, consistent with reduced IL-9 and IL-13 production by explants from the LI. Despite these differences, worms were cleared at the same rate from both sites. Furthermore, IL-10 production was reduced in the LI, yet it was instrumental in limiting local inflammation. Finally, passive immunization of rat pups with tyvelose-specific antibodies effectively cleared fist-stage larvae from all intestinal regions. We conclude that despite regional differences in immune responsiveness and colonization, immune mechanisms that clear T. spiralis operate effectively throughout the intestinal tract. PMID:23465441

  7. Genetics of immune recognition and response in Drosophila host defense.

    PubMed

    Ligoxygakis, Petros

    2013-01-01

    Due to the evolutionary conservation of innate immune mechanisms, Drosophila has been extensively used as a model for the dissection in genetic terms of innate host immunity to infection. Genetic screening in fruit flies has set the stage for the pathways and systems required for responding to immune challenge and the dynamics of the progression of bacterial and fungal infection. In addition, fruit flies have been used as infection models to dissect host-pathogen interactions from both sides of this equation. This chapter describes our current understanding of the genetics of the fruit fly immune response and summarizes the most important findings in this area during the past decade. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Interference of Aspergillus fumigatus with the immune response.

    PubMed

    Heinekamp, Thorsten; Schmidt, Hella; Lapp, Katrin; Pähtz, Vera; Shopova, Iordana; Köster-Eiserfunke, Nora; Krüger, Thomas; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Brakhage, Axel A

    2015-03-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprotrophic filamentous fungus and also the most prevalent airborne fungal pathogen of humans. Depending on the host's immune status, the variety of diseases caused by A. fumigatus ranges from allergies in immunocompetent hosts to life-threatening invasive infections in patients with impaired immunity. In contrast to the majority of other Aspergillus species, which are in most cases nonpathogenic, A. fumigatus features an armory of virulence determinants to establish an infection. For example, A. fumigatus is able to evade the human complement system by binding or degrading complement regulators. Furthermore, the fungus interferes with lung epithelial cells, alveolar macrophages, and neutrophil granulocytes to prevent killing by these immune cells. This chapter summarizes the different strategies of A. fumigatus to manipulate the immune response. We also discuss the potential impact of recent advances in immunoproteomics to improve diagnosis and therapy of an A. fumigatus infection.

  9. Mucosal immune response to poliovirus vaccines in childhood.

    PubMed

    Ogra, P L

    1984-01-01

    Comparative evaluation of the systemic and secretory antibody response to live attenuated (oral) poliovirus vaccine ( OPV ) or inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) has suggested that both vaccines are highly effective in inducing seroconversion and in preventing paralytic poliomyelitis. However, parenteral immunization with IPV does not appear to be highly effective in inducing secretory antibody response in the nasopharynx or alimentary tract during primary immunization. Reimmunization with IPV in subjects previously primed with parenterally administered IPV appears to result in a mild booster effect on the development of secretory antibody response. More significantly, rechallenge by the oral route with OPV in IPV-primed subjects resulted in a marked enhancement of secretory antibody response. In general, no suppression of systemic or secretory response to poliovirus was observed with either form ( OPV vs. IPV) or with route of immunization. These observations are discussed in relation to the immune response observed with other mucosally or parenterally administered antigens. Their implications in the development of oral tolerance are briefly reviewed.

  10. Nanotechnology, neuromodulation & the immune response: discourse, materiality & ethics.

    PubMed

    Fins, Joseph J

    2015-04-01

    Drawing upon the American Pragmatic tradition in philosophy and the more recent work of philosopher Karen Barad, this paper examines how scientific problems are both obscured, and resolved by our use of language describing the natural world. Using the example of the immune response engendered by neural implants inserted in the brain, the author explains how this discourse has been altered by the advent of nanotechnology methods and devices which offer putative remedies that might temper the immune response in the central nervous system. This emergent nanotechnology has altered this problem space and catalyzed one scientific community to acknowledge a material reality that was always present, if not fully acknowledged.

  11. Interplay of parasite-driven immune responses and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Zaccone, Paola; Burton, Oliver T; Cooke, Anne

    2008-01-01

    As more facts emerge regarding the ways in which parasite-derived molecules modulate the host immune response, it is possible to envisage how a lack of infection by agents that once infected humans commonly might contribute to the rise in autoimmune disease. Through effects on cells of both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune response, parasites can orchestrate a range of outcomes that are beneficial not only to parasites, in terms of facilitating their life cycles, but also to their host, in limiting pathology.

  12. Onchocerciasis modulates the immune response to mycobacterial antigens

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, G R; Boussinesq, M; Coulson, T; Elson, L; Nutman, T; Bradley, J E

    1999-01-01

    Chronic helminth infection induces a type-2 cellular immune response. In contrast to this, mycobacterial infections commonly induce a type-1 immune response which is considered protective. Type-2 responses and diminished type-1 responses to mycobacteria have been previously correlated with active infection states such as pulmonary tuberculosis and lepromatous leprosy. The present study examines the immune responses of children exposed to both the helminth parasite Onchocerca volvulus and the mycobacterial infections, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. leprae. Proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and production of IL-4 in response to both helminth and mycobacterial antigen (PPD) decreased dramatically with increasing microfilarial (MF) density. Although interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production strongly correlated with cellular proliferation, it was surprisingly not related to MF density for either antigen. IL-4 production in response to helminth antigen and PPD increased with ascending children's age. IFN-γ and cellular proliferation to PPD were not related to age, but in response to helminth antigen were significantly higher in children of age 9–12 years than children of either the younger age group (5–8 years) or the older group (13–16 years). Thus, there was a MF density-related down-regulation of cellular responsiveness and age-related skewing toward type 2 which was paralleled in response to both the helminth antigen and PPD. This parasite-induced immunomodulation of the response to mycobacteria correlates with a previous report of doubled incidence of lepromatous leprosy in onchocerciasis hyperendemic regions. Moreover, this demonstration that helminth infection in humans can modulate the immune response to a concurrent infection or immunological challenge is of critical importance to future vaccination strategies. PMID:10469056

  13. Immune response in the lungs following oral immunization with bacterial lysates of respiratory pathogens.

    PubMed Central

    Ruedl, C; Frühwirth, M; Wick, G; Wolf, H

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the local immune response of the BALB/c mouse respiratory tract after oral immunization with a bacterial lysate of seven common respiratory pathogens. After two immunization on five consecutive days, we examined the immunoglobulin (immunoglobulin G [IgG], IgM, and IgA) secretion rates of cells isolated from the lungs and compared them with those of spleen cells of orally immunized and nonimmunized animals by using a new test system based on time-resolved fluorescence. The procedure followed the principle of the classical ELISPOT test with nitrocellulose-bottomed microtiter plates, but europium (Eu3+)-linked streptavidin rather than enzyme-conjugated streptavidin was used, with the advantage of quantifying secreted immunoglobulins instead of detecting single antibody-secreting cells. Lymphocytes isolated from the lungs of treated animals revealed significant increases in total and antigen-specific IgA synthesis compared with the rates of the controls, whereas IgG and IgM production rates showed no remarkable differences. In addition, the sera of treated mice revealed higher antigen-specific IgA titers but not increased IgM and IgG levels. We conclude that priming the gut-associated lymphoid tissue with bacterial antigens of pneumotropic microorganisms can elicit an enhanced IgA response in a distant mucosal effector site, such as the respiratory tract, according to the concept of a common mucosa-associated immune system. PMID:7496936

  14. Immune Responses and Protection of Aotus Monkeys Immunized with Irradiated Plasmodium vivax Sporozoites

    PubMed Central

    Jordán-Villegas, Alejandro; Perdomo, Anilza Bonelo; Epstein, Judith E.; López, Jesús; Castellanos, Alejandro; Manzano, María R.; Hernández, Miguel A.; Soto, Liliana; Méndez, Fabián; Richie, Thomas L.; Hoffman, Stephen L.; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates

    2011-01-01

    A non-human primate model for the induction of protective immunity against the pre-erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium vivax malaria using radiation-attenuated P. vivax sporozoites may help to characterize protective immune mechanisms and identify novel malaria vaccine candidates. Immune responses and protective efficacy induced by vaccination with irradiated P. vivax sporozoites were evaluated in malaria-naive Aotus monkeys. Three groups of six monkeys received two, five, or ten intravenous inoculations, respectively, of 100,000 irradiated P. vivax sporozoites; control groups received either 10 doses of uninfected salivary gland extract or no inoculations. Immunization resulted in the production low levels of antibodies that specifically recognized P. vivax sporozoites and the circumsporozoite protein. Additionally, immunization induced low levels of antigen-specific IFN-γ responses. Intravenous challenge with viable sporozoites resulted in partial protection in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that the Aotus monkey model may be able to play a role in preclinical development of P. vivax pre-erythrocytic stage vaccines. PMID:21292877

  15. Immune response in the lungs following oral immunization with bacterial lysates of respiratory pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ruedl, C; Frühwirth, M; Wick, G; Wolf, H

    1994-03-01

    We have investigated the local immune response of the BALB/c mouse respiratory tract after oral immunization with a bacterial lysate of seven common respiratory pathogens. After two immunization on five consecutive days, we examined the immunoglobulin (immunoglobulin G [IgG], IgM, and IgA) secretion rates of cells isolated from the lungs and compared them with those of spleen cells of orally immunized and nonimmunized animals by using a new test system based on time-resolved fluorescence. The procedure followed the principle of the classical ELISPOT test with nitrocellulose-bottomed microtiter plates, but europium (Eu3+)-linked streptavidin rather than enzyme-conjugated streptavidin was used, with the advantage of quantifying secreted immunoglobulins instead of detecting single antibody-secreting cells. Lymphocytes isolated from the lungs of treated animals revealed significant increases in total and antigen-specific IgA synthesis compared with the rates of the controls, whereas IgG and IgM production rates showed no remarkable differences. In addition, the sera of treated mice revealed higher antigen-specific IgA titers but not increased IgM and IgG levels. We conclude that priming the gut-associated lymphoid tissue with bacterial antigens of pneumotropic microorganisms can elicit an enhanced IgA response in a distant mucosal effector site, such as the respiratory tract, according to the concept of a common mucosa-associated immune system.

  16. Leptospirosis in human: Biomarkers in host immune responses.

    PubMed

    Vk, Chin; Ty, Lee; Wf, Lim; Ywy, Wan Shahriman; An, Syafinaz; S, Zamberi; A, Maha

    2018-03-01

    Leptospirosis remains one of the most widespread zoonotic diseases caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira, which accounts for high morbidity and mortality globally. Leptospiral infections are often found in tropical and subtropical regions, with people exposed to contaminated environments or animal reservoirs are at high risk of getting the infection. Leptospirosis has a wide range of clinical manifestations with non-specific signs and symptoms and often misdiagnosed with other acute febrile illnesses at early stage of infection. Despite being one of the leading causes of zoonotic morbidity worldwide, there is still a gap between pathogenesis and human immune responses during leptospiral infection. It still remains obscure whether the severity of the infection is caused by the pathogenic properties of the Leptospira itself, or it is a consequence of imbalance host immune factors. Hence, in this review, we seek to summarize the past and present milestone findings on the biomarkers of host immune response aspects during human leptospiral infection, including cytokine and other immune mediators. A profound understanding of the interlink between virulence factors and host immune responses during human leptospirosis is imperative to identify potential biomarkers for diagnostic and prognostic applications as well as designing novel immunotherapeutic strategies in future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. The host immune response to gastrointestinal nematode infection in sheep.

    PubMed

    McRae, K M; Stear, M J; Good, B; Keane, O M

    2015-12-01

    Gastrointestinal nematode infection represents a major threat to the health, welfare and productivity of sheep populations worldwide. Infected lambs have a reduced ability to absorb nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in morbidity and occasional mortality. The current chemo-dominant approach to nematode control is considered unsustainable due to the increasing incidence of anthelmintic resistance. In addition, there is growing consumer demand for food products from animals not subjected to chemical treatment. Future mechanisms of nematode control must rely on alternative, sustainable strategies such as vaccination or selective breeding of resistant animals. Such strategies take advantage of the host's natural immune response to nematodes. The ability to resist gastrointestinal nematode infection is considered to be dependent on the development of a protective acquired immune response, although the precise immune mechanisms involved in initiating this process remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, current knowledge on the innate and acquired host immune response to gastrointestinal nematode infection in sheep and the development of immunity is reviewed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A humoral immune response confers protection against Haemophilus ducreyi infection.

    PubMed

    Cole, Leah E; Toffer, Kristen L; Fulcher, Robert A; San Mateo, Lani R; Orndorff, Paul E; Kawula, Thomas H

    2003-12-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi is the etiologic agent of the sexually transmitted genital ulcer disease chancroid. Neither naturally occurring chancroid nor experimental infection with H. ducreyi results in protective immunity. Likewise, a single inoculation of H. ducreyi does not protect pigs against subsequent infection. Accordingly, we used the swine model of chancroid infection to examine the impact of multiple inoculations on a host's immune response. After three successive inoculations with H. ducreyi, pigs developed a modestly protective immune response evidenced by the decreased recovery of viable bacteria from lesions. All lesions biopsied 2 days after the first and second inoculations contained viable H. ducreyi cells, yet only 55% of the lesions biopsied 2 days after the third inoculation did. Nearly 90% of the lesions biopsied 7 days after the first inoculation contained viable H. ducreyi cells, but this percentage dropped to only 16% after the third inoculation. Between the first and third inoculations, the average recovery of CFU from lesions decreased approximately 100-fold. The reduced recovery of bacteria corresponded directly with a fivefold increase in H. ducreyi-specific antibody titers and the emergence of bactericidal activity. These immune sera were protective when administered to naïve pigs prior to challenge with H. ducreyi. These data suggest that pigs mount an effective humoral immune response to H. ducreyi after multiple exposures to the organism.

  19. Photodynamic therapy for cancer and activation of immune response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mroz, Pawel; Huang, Ying-Ying; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-02-01

    Anti-tumor immunity is stimulated after PDT for cancer due to the acute inflammatory response, exposure and presentation of tumor-specific antigens, and induction of heat-shock proteins and other danger signals. Nevertheless effective, powerful tumor-specific immune response in both animal models and also in patients treated with PDT for cancer, is the exception rather than the rule. Research in our laboratory and also in others is geared towards identifying reasons for this sub-optimal immune response and discovering ways of maximizing it. Reasons why the immune response after PDT is less than optimal include the fact that tumor-antigens are considered to be self-like and poorly immunogenic, the tumor-mediated induction of CD4+CD25+foxP3+ regulatory T-cells (T-regs), that are able to inhibit both the priming and the effector phases of the cytotoxic CD8 T-cell anti-tumor response and the defects in dendritic cell maturation, activation and antigen-presentation that may also occur. Alternatively-activated macrophages (M2) have also been implicated. Strategies to overcome these immune escape mechanisms employed by different tumors include combination regimens using PDT and immunostimulating treatments such as products obtained from pathogenic microorganisms against which mammals have evolved recognition systems such as PAMPs and toll-like receptors (TLR). This paper will cover the use of CpG oligonucleotides (a TLR9 agonist found in bacterial DNA) to reverse dendritic cell dysfunction and methods to remove the immune suppressor effects of T-regs that are under active study.

  20. [Some aspects of immune response in toxoplasmosis].

    PubMed

    Dziubek, Z; Zarnowska, H; Basiak, W; Górski, A; Kajfasz, P

    2001-01-01

    The study was performed to determine cell-mediated and humoral responses related to the clinical course of disease in adults with different forms of toxoplasmosis. The cellular response was estimated by blastogenic transformation of T-lymphocytes induced by OKT3 mitogenic stimulus, as well as by a specific soluble toxoplasmic antigen. The phenotype analysis of T-lymphocytes was performed using monoclonal antibody on FACS flow cytometer. The humoral response was examined by determining the levels of toxoplasma-specific IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies and total serum immunoglobulins. Significant disruption of the cell-mediated response was not observed (T-lymphocyte proliferation test). In the group of patients with lymphadenopathy, an increased proportion of CD8+ lymphocytes was only noted in the first month of the disease, although enlargement of the cervical lymph nodes was observed for up to a year. The individuals in question were found to have IgA antibodies against the p30 antigen of T. gondii, mainly in the period of disease up to 7 months. The proportion of CD4+ lymphocytes was sub-normal in all patients of this group who were studied in the first two months of the disease, and in most of those studied later. Three out of 14 patients with the ocular form of toxoplasmosis only had recent foci of inflammation in the retina, and were also found to have specific IgM. These patients had depressed CD4+ levels, and showed no reaction from CD8+ lymphocytes. Sub-normal CD4+ population could have been the cause of the weak stimulation of CD8+ cells and an expression of this is the long course of disease. Sub-normal CD4+ cells may be also results the suppressing effect of the parasite.

  1. The host immune response to Clostridium difficile infection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common infectious cause of healthcare-acquired diarrhoea. Outcomes of C. difficile colonization are varied, from asymptomatic carriage to fulminant colitis and death, due in part to the interplay between the pathogenic virulence factors of the bacterium and the counteractive immune responses of the host. Secreted toxins A and B are the major virulence factors of C. difficile and induce a profound inflammatory response by intoxicating intestinal epithelial cells causing proinflammatory cytokine release. Host cell necrosis, vascular permeability and neutrophil infiltration lead to an elevated white cell count, profuse diarrhoea and in severe cases, dehydration, hypoalbuminaemia and toxic megacolon. Other bacterial virulence factors, including surface layer proteins and flagella proteins, are detected by host cell surface signal molecules that trigger downstream cell-mediated immune pathways. Human studies have identified a role for serum and faecal immunoglobulin levels in protection from disease, but the recent development of a mouse model of CDI has enabled studies into the precise molecular interactions that trigger the immune response during infection. Key effector molecules have been identified that can drive towards a protective anti-inflammatory response or a damaging proinflammatory response. The limitations of current antimicrobial therapies for CDI have led to the development of both active and passive immunotherapies, none of which have, as yet been formally approved for CDI. However, recent advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of host immune protection against CDI may provide an exciting opportunity for novel therapeutic developments in the future. PMID:25165542

  2. Cytomegalovirus infection enhances the immune response to influenza.

    PubMed

    Furman, David; Jojic, Vladimir; Sharma, Shalini; Shen-Orr, Shai S; Angel, Cesar J L; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Kidd, Brian A; Maecker, Holden T; Concannon, Patrick; Dekker, Cornelia L; Thomas, Paul G; Davis, Mark M

    2015-04-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a β-herpesvirus present in a latent form in most people worldwide. In immunosuppressed individuals, CMV can reactivate and cause serious clinical complications, but the effect of the latent state on healthy people remains elusive. We undertook a systems approach to understand the differences between seropositive and negative subjects and measured hundreds of immune system components from blood samples including cytokines and chemokines, immune cell phenotyping, gene expression, ex vivo cell responses to cytokine stimuli, and the antibody response to seasonal influenza vaccination. As expected, we found decreased responses to vaccination and an overall down-regulation of immune components in aged individuals regardless of CMV status. In contrast, CMV-seropositive young adults exhibited enhanced antibody responses to influenza vaccination, increased CD8(+) T cell sensitivity, and elevated levels of circulating interferon-γ compared to seronegative individuals. Experiments with young mice infected with murine CMV also showed significant protection from an influenza virus challenge compared with uninfected animals, although this effect declined with time. These data show that CMV and its murine equivalent can have a beneficial effect on the immune response of young, healthy individuals, which may explain the ubiquity of CMV infection in humans and many other species. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Verification of immune response optimality through cybernetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Batt, B C; Kompala, D S

    1990-02-09

    An immune response cascade that is T cell independent begins with the stimulation of virgin lymphocytes by antigen to differentiate into large lymphocytes. These immune cells can either replicate themselves or differentiate into plasma cells or memory cells. Plasma cells produce antibody at a specific rate up to two orders of magnitude greater than large lymphocytes. However, plasma cells have short life-spans and cannot replicate. Memory cells produce only surface antibody, but in the event of a subsequent infection by the same antigen, memory cells revert rapidly to large lymphocytes. Immunologic memory is maintained throughout the organism's lifetime. Many immunologists believe that the optimal response strategy calls for large lymphocytes to replicate first, then differentiate into plasma cells and when the antigen has been nearly eliminated, they form memory cells. A mathematical model incorporating the concept of cybernetics has been developed to study the optimality of the immune response. Derived from the matching law of microeconomics, cybernetic variables control the allocation of large lymphocytes to maximize the instantaneous antibody production rate at any time during the response in order to most efficiently inactivate the antigen. A mouse is selected as the model organism and bacteria as the replicating antigen. In addition to verifying the optimal switching strategy, results showing how the immune response is affected by antigen growth rate, initial antigen concentration, and the number of antibodies required to eliminate an antigen are included.

  4. Adjuvant effects of saponins on animal immune responses*

    PubMed Central

    Rajput, Zahid Iqbal; Hu, Song-hua; Xiao, Chen-wen; Arijo, Abdullah G.

    2007-01-01

    Vaccines require optimal adjuvants including immunopotentiator and delivery systems to offer long term protection from infectious diseases in animals and man. Initially it was believed that adjuvants are responsible for promoting strong and sustainable antibody responses. Now it has been shown that adjuvants influence the isotype and avidity of antibody and also affect the properties of cell-mediated immunity. Mostly oil emulsions, lipopolysaccharides, polymers, saponins, liposomes, cytokines, ISCOMs (immunostimulating complexes), Freund’s complete adjuvant, Freund’s incomplete adjuvant, alums, bacterial toxins etc., are common adjuvants under investigation. Saponin based adjuvants have the ability to stimulate the cell mediated immune system as well as to enhance antibody production and have the advantage that only a low dose is needed for adjuvant activity. In the present study the importance of adjuvants, their role and the effect of saponin in immune system is reviewed. PMID:17323426

  5. Influence of bedding type on mucosal immune responses.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Amy N; Clark, Stephanie E; Talham, Gwen; Sidelsky, Michael G; Coffin, Susan E

    2002-10-01

    The mucosal immune system interacts with the external environment. In the study reported here, we found that bedding materials can influence the intestinal immune responses of mice. We observed that mice housed on wood, compared with cotton bedding, had increased numbers of Peyer's patches (PP) visible under a dissecting microscope. In addition, culture of lymphoid organs revealed increased production of total and virus-specific IgA by PP and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) lymphocytes from mice housed on wood, compared with cotton bedding. However, bedding type did not influence serum virus-specific antibody responses. These observations indicate that bedding type influences the intestinal immune system and suggest that this issue should be considered by mucosal immunologists and personnel at animal care facilities.

  6. Antimicrobial autophagy: a conserved innate immune response in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Moy, Ryan H; Cherry, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved degradative pathway that has rapidly emerged as a critical component of immunity and host defense. Studies have implicated autophagy genes in restricting the replication of a diverse array of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses and protozoans. However, in most cases, the in vivo role of antimicrobial autophagy against pathogens has been undefined. Drosophila provides a genetically tractable model system that can be easily adapted to study autophagy in innate immunity, and recent studies in flies have demonstrated that autophagy is an essential antimicrobial response against bacteria and viruses in vivo. These findings reveal striking conservation of antimicrobial autophagy between flies and mammals, and in particular, the role of pathogen-associated pattern recognition in triggering this response. This review discusses our current understanding of antimicrobial autophagy in Drosophila and its potential relevance to human immunity. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Ubiquitin enzymes in the regulation of immune responses.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Petra; Versteeg, Gijs A; Ikeda, Fumiyo

    2017-08-01

    Ubiquitination plays a central role in the regulation of various biological functions including immune responses. Ubiquitination is induced by a cascade of enzymatic reactions by E1 ubiquitin activating enzyme, E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, and E3 ubiquitin ligase, and reversed by deubiquitinases. Depending on the enzymes, specific linkage types of ubiquitin chains are generated or hydrolyzed. Because different linkage types of ubiquitin chains control the fate of the substrate, understanding the regulatory mechanisms of ubiquitin enzymes is central. In this review, we highlight the most recent knowledge of ubiquitination in the immune signaling cascades including the T cell and B cell signaling cascades as well as the TNF signaling cascade regulated by various ubiquitin enzymes. Furthermore, we highlight the TRIM ubiquitin ligase family as one of the examples of critical E3 ubiquitin ligases in the regulation of immune responses.

  8. Ubiquitin enzymes in the regulation of immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Ebner, Petra; Versteeg, Gijs A.; Ikeda, Fumiyo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Ubiquitination plays a central role in the regulation of various biological functions including immune responses. Ubiquitination is induced by a cascade of enzymatic reactions by E1 ubiquitin activating enzyme, E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, and E3 ubiquitin ligase, and reversed by deubiquitinases. Depending on the enzymes, specific linkage types of ubiquitin chains are generated or hydrolyzed. Because different linkage types of ubiquitin chains control the fate of the substrate, understanding the regulatory mechanisms of ubiquitin enzymes is central. In this review, we highlight the most recent knowledge of ubiquitination in the immune signaling cascades including the T cell and B cell signaling cascades as well as the TNF signaling cascade regulated by various ubiquitin enzymes. Furthermore, we highlight the TRIM ubiquitin ligase family as one of the examples of critical E3 ubiquitin ligases in the regulation of immune responses. PMID:28524749

  9. Immune responses to invasive aspergillosis: new understanding and therapeutic opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Hohl, Tobias M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Invasive aspergillosis is a worldwide disease that primarily affects immune-compromised patients, agricultural workers with corneal abrasions, individuals with structural lung disease, and patients with primary immune deficiency. The critical function of the immune system is to prevent the germination of airborne conidia into tissue-invasive hyphae. This review covers recent advances that shape our understanding of anti-Aspergillus immunity at the molecular and cellular level. Recent findings Host defense against conidia and hyphae occurs via distinct molecular mechanisms that involve intracellular and extracellular killing pathways, as well as cooperation between different myeloid cell subsets. The strength and efficacy of the host response is shaped by the tissue microenvironment. In preclinical models of disease, host immune augmentation strategies have yielded benefits, yet translating these insights into therapeutic strategies in humans remains challenging. Summary Although advances in early diagnostic strategies and in antifungal drugs have ameliorated clinical outcomes of invasive aspergillosis, further improvements depend on gaining deeper insight into and translating advances in anti-Aspergillus immunity. PMID:28509673

  10. Repurposing Ospemifene for Potentiating an Antigen-Specific Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Chiao-Jung; Wurz, Gregory T.; Lin, Yi-Chen; Vang, Daniel P.; Phong, Brian; DeGregorio, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Ospemifene, an estrogen receptor agonist/antagonist approved for treatment of dyspareunia and vaginal dryness in postmenopausal women, has potential new indications as an immune modulator. The overall objective of the present series of preclinical studies was to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of ospemifene in combination with a peptide cancer vaccine. Methods Immune regulating effects, mechanism of action and structure activity relationships of ospemifene and related compounds were evaluated by examining expression of T cell activating cytokines in vitro, and antigen-specific immune response and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity in vivo. The effects of ospemifene (OSP) on the immune response to a peptide cancer vaccine (PV) were evaluated following chronic [control (n=22); OSP 50 mg/kg (n=16); PV (n=6); OSP+PV (n=11)], intermittent [control (n=10); OSP 10 and 50 mg/kg (n=11); PV (n=11); combination treatment (n=11 each dose)] and pretreatment [control; OSP 100 mg/kg; PV 100 µg; combination treatment (n=8 all groups)] ospemifene oral dosing schedules in a total of 317 mixed-sex tumor-bearing and non-tumor-bearing mice. Results The results showed that ospemifene induced expression of the key TH1 cytokines interferon gamma and interleukin-2 in vitro, which may be mediated by stimulating T cells through phosphoinositide 3-kinase and calmodulin signaling pathways. In combination with an antigen-specific peptide cancer vaccine, ospemifene increased antigen-specific immune response and increased cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity in tumor-bearing and non-tumor-bearing mice. The pretreatment, intermittent, and chronic dosing schedules of ospemifene activate naïve T cells, modulate antigen-induced tolerance and reduce tumor-associated, pro-inflammatory cytokines, respectively. Conclusions Taken together, ospemifene’s dose response and schedule-dependent immune modulating activity offers a method of tailoring and augmenting the efficacy of previously failed

  11. Radiation, Inflammation, and Immune Responses in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Multhoff, Gabriele; Radons, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inflammation has emerged as one of the hallmarks of cancer. Inflammation also plays a pivotal role in modulating radiation responsiveness of tumors. As discussed in this review, ionizing radiation (IR) leads to activation of several transcription factors modulating the expression of numerous mediators in tumor cells and cells of the microenvironment promoting cancer development. Novel therapeutic approaches thus aim to interfere with the activity or expression of these factors, either in single-agent or combinatorial treatment or as supplements of the existing therapeutic concepts. Among them, NF-κB, STAT-3, and HIF-1 play a crucial role in radiation-induced inflammatory responses embedded in a complex inflammatory network. A great variety of classical or novel drugs including nutraceuticals such as plant phytochemicals have the capacity to interfere with the inflammatory network in cancer and are considered as putative radiosensitizers. Thus, targeting the inflammatory signaling pathways induced by IR offers the opportunity to improve the clinical outcome of radiation therapy by enhancing radiosensitivity and decreasing putative metabolic effects. Since inflammation and sex steroids also impact tumorigenesis, a therapeutic approach targeting glucocorticoid receptors and radiation-induced production of tumorigenic factors might be effective in sensitizing certain tumors to IR. PMID:22675673

  12. Cocoa Diet and Antibody Immune Response in Preclinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Camps-Bossacoma, Mariona; Massot-Cladera, Malen; Abril-Gil, Mar; Franch, Angels; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J.; Castell, Margarida

    2017-01-01

    The ability of cocoa to interact with the immune system in vitro and in vivo has been described. In the latter context, a cocoa-enriched diet in healthy rats was able to modify the immune system’s functionality. This fact could be observed in the composition and functionality of lymphoid tissues, such as the thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes. Consequently, immune effector mechanisms, such as antibody synthesis, were modified. A cocoa-enriched diet in young rats was able to attenuate the serum levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgM, and IgA and also the intestinal IgM and IgA secretion. Moreover, in immunized rats, the intake of cocoa decreased specific IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2c, and IgM concentrations in serum. This immune-regulator potential was then tested in disease models in which antibodies play a pathogenic role. A cocoa-enriched diet was able to partially prevent the synthesis of autoantibodies in a model of autoimmune arthritis in rats and was also able to protect against IgE and T helper 2-related antibody synthesis in two rat models of allergy. Likewise, a cocoa-enriched diet prevented an oral sensitization process in young rats. In this review, we will focus on the influence of cocoa on the acquired branch of the immune function. Therefore, we will focus on how a cocoa diet influences lymphocyte function both in the systemic and intestinal immune system. Likewise, its potential role in preventing some antibody-induced immune diseases is also included. Although further studies must characterize the particular cocoa components responsible for such effects and nutritional studies in humans need to be carried out, cocoa has potential as a nutraceutical agent in some hypersensitivity status. PMID:28702458

  13. Cocoa Diet and Antibody Immune Response in Preclinical Studies.

    PubMed

    Camps-Bossacoma, Mariona; Massot-Cladera, Malen; Abril-Gil, Mar; Franch, Angels; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Castell, Margarida

    2017-01-01

    The ability of cocoa to interact with the immune system in vitro and in vivo has been described. In the latter context, a cocoa-enriched diet in healthy rats was able to modify the immune system's functionality. This fact could be observed in the composition and functionality of lymphoid tissues, such as the thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes. Consequently, immune effector mechanisms, such as antibody synthesis, were modified. A cocoa-enriched diet in young rats was able to attenuate the serum levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgM, and IgA and also the intestinal IgM and IgA secretion. Moreover, in immunized rats, the intake of cocoa decreased specific IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2c, and IgM concentrations in serum. This immune-regulator potential was then tested in disease models in which antibodies play a pathogenic role. A cocoa-enriched diet was able to partially prevent the synthesis of autoantibodies in a model of autoimmune arthritis in rats and was also able to protect against IgE and T helper 2-related antibody synthesis in two rat models of allergy. Likewise, a cocoa-enriched diet prevented an oral sensitization process in young rats. In this review, we will focus on the influence of cocoa on the acquired branch of the immune function. Therefore, we will focus on how a cocoa diet influences lymphocyte function both in the systemic and intestinal immune system. Likewise, its potential role in preventing some antibody-induced immune diseases is also included. Although further studies must characterize the particular cocoa components responsible for such effects and nutritional studies in humans need to be carried out, cocoa has potential as a nutraceutical agent in some hypersensitivity status.

  14. [Immune response of Hansen's disease. Review].

    PubMed

    Rada, Elsa; Aranzazu, Nacarid; Convit, Jacinto

    2009-12-01

    Hansen's disease presents a wide spectrum of clinical and histopathological manifestations that reflect the nature of the immunological response of the host towards diverse Mycobacterium leprae components. The immunological system, composed by both innate and adaptive immunology, offers protection towards infections of various etiologies, among them bacterial. Bacteria, of course, have developed multiple strategies for evading host defenses, based on either very complex or simple mechanisms, but with a single purpose: to "resist" host attacks and to be able to survive. We have tried to summarize some recent studies in Hansen's disease, with more emphasis in the inmunology area. We think that in the future, all illnesses should also be very strongly related to other important aspects such as the social, environmental and economic, and whose development is not solved in a laboratory.

  15. Nitric oxide and redox mechanisms in the immune response

    PubMed Central

    Wink, David A.; Hines, Harry B.; Cheng, Robert Y. S.; Switzer, Christopher H.; Flores-Santana, Wilmarie; Vitek, Michael P.; Ridnour, Lisa A.; Colton, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    The role of redox molecules, such as NO and ROS, as key mediators of immunity has recently garnered renewed interest and appreciation. To regulate immune responses, these species trigger the eradication of pathogens on the one hand and modulate immunosuppression during tissue-restoration and wound-healing processes on the other. In the acidic environment of the phagosome, a variety of RNS and ROS is produced, thereby providing a cauldron of redox chemistry, which is the first line in fighting infection. Interestingly, fluctuations in the levels of these same reactive intermediates orchestrate other phases of the immune response. NO activates specific signal transduction pathways in tumor cells, endothelial cells, and monocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. As ROS can react directly with NO-forming RNS, NO bioavailability and therefore, NO response(s) are changed. The NO/ROS balance is also important during Th1 to Th2 transition. In this review, we discuss the chemistry of NO and ROS in the context of antipathogen activity and immune regulation and also discuss similarities and differences between murine and human production of these intermediates. PMID:21233414

  16. Radiation induces an antitumour immune response to mouse melanoma.

    PubMed

    Perez, Carmen A; Fu, Allie; Onishko, Halina; Hallahan, Dennis E; Geng, Ling

    2009-12-01

    Irradiation of cancer cells can cause immunogenic death. We used mouse models to determine whether irradiation of melanoma can enhance the host antitumour immune response and function as an effective vaccination strategy, and investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in this radiation-induced response. For in vivo studies, C57BL6/J mice and the B16F0 melanoma cell line were used in a lung metastasis model, intratumoural host immune activation assays, and tumour growth delay studies. In vitro studies included a dendritic cell (DC) phagocytosis assay, detection of cell surface exposure of the protein calreticulin (CRT), and small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated depletion of CRT cellular levels. Irradiation of cutaneous melanomas prior to their resection resulted in more than 20-fold reduction in lung metastases after systemic challenge with untreated melanoma cells. A syngeneic vaccine derived from irradiated melanoma cells also induced adaptive immune response markers in irradiated melanoma implants. Our data indicate a trend for radiation-induced increase in melanoma cell surface exposure of CRT, which is involved in the enhanced phagocytic activity of DC against irradiated melanoma cells (VIACUC). The present study suggests that neoadjuvant irradiation of cutaneous melanoma tumours prior to surgical resection can stimulate an endogenous anti-melanoma host immune response.

  17. A multiherbal formulation influencing immune response in vitro.

    PubMed

    Menghini, L; Leporini, L; Scanu, N; Pintore, G; Ferrante, C; Recinella, L; Orlando, G; Vacca, M; Brunetti, L

    2012-02-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of phytocomplexes of Uncaria, Shiitake and Ribes in terms of viability and inflammatory response on immune cell-derived cultures. Standardized extracts of Uncaria, Shitake and Ribes and their commercial formulation were tested on cell lines PBMC, U937 and macrophage. The activity was evaluated in terms of cell viability (MTT test), variations of oxidative marker release (ROS and PGE2) and modulatory effects on immune response (gene expression of IL-6, IL-8 and TNFα, RT-PCR). Cell viability was not affected by extracts, except subtle variations observed only at higher doses (>250 µg/mL). The extract mixture was well tolerated, with no effects on cell viability up to doses of 500 µg/mL. Pre-treatment of macrophages with subtoxic doses of the extracts reduced the basal release of oxidative markers and enhanced the cell response to exogenous oxidant stimulation, as revealed by ROS and PGE2 release reduction. The same treatment on macrophage resulted in a selective modulation of the immune response, as shown by an increase of IL-6 mRNA and, partially, IL-8 mRNA, while a reduction was observed for TNFα mRNA. Data confirm that extracts and their formulations can act as regulator of the immune system with mechanisms involving the oxidative stress and the release of selected proinflammatory cytokines.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF ALLERGIC IMMUNE RESPONSES TO INDOOR AIR FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are using a mouse model to assess immune and inflammatory responses as well as changes in respiratory function and pathology characteristic of allergic asthma to fungal extracts M. anisopliae (MACA), S. chartarum (SCE), and P. chrysogenum (PCE). This model will be useful to a...

  19. The Modulation of Adaptive Immune Responses by Bacterial Zwitterionic Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Tom Li; Groneck, Laura; Kalka-Moll, Wiltrud Maria

    2010-01-01

    The detection of pathogen-derived molecules as foreign particles by adaptive immune cells triggers T and B lymphocytes to mount protective cellular and humoral responses, respectively. Recent immunological advances elucidated that proteins and some lipids are the principle biological molecules that induce protective T cell responses during microbial infections. Polysaccharides are important components of microbial pathogens and many vaccines. However, research concerning the activation of the adaptive immune system by polysaccharides gained interest only recently. Traditionally, polysaccharides were considered to be T cell-independent antigens that did not directly activate T cells or induce protective immune responses. Here, we review several recent advances in “carbohydrate immunobiology”. A group of bacterial polysaccharides that are known as “zwitterionic polysaccharides (ZPSs)” were recently identified as potent immune modulators. The immunomodulatory effect of ZPSs required antigen processing and presentation by antigen presenting cells, the activation of CD4 T cells and subpopulations of CD8 T cells and the modulation of host cytokine responses. In this review, we also discuss the potential use of these unique immunomodulatory ZPSs in new vaccination strategies against chronic inflammatory conditions, autoimmunity, infectious diseases, allergies and asthmatic conditions. PMID:21234388

  20. Allatotropin: A pleiotropic neuropeptide that elicits mosquito immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Zavaleta, Minerva; Brito, Kevin; Herrera-Ortiz, Antonia; Ons, Sheila; Noriega, Fernando G.

    2017-01-01

    Allatotropins (AT) are neuropeptides with pleotropic functions on a variety of insect tissues. They affect processes such as juvenile hormone biosynthesis, cardiac rhythm, oviduct and hindgut contractions, nutrient absorption and circadian cycle. The present work provides experimental evidence that AT elicits immune responses in two important mosquito disease vectors, Anopheles albimanus and Aedes aegypti. Hemocytes and an immune-competent mosquito cell line responded to AT by showing strong morphological changes and increasing bacterial phagocytic activity. Phenoloxidase activity in hemolymph was also increased in Ae. aegypti mosquitoes treated with AT but not in An. albimanus, suggesting differences in the AT-dependent immune activation in the two species. In addition, two important insect immune markers, nitric oxide levels and expression of antimicrobial peptide genes, were increased in An. albimanus guts after AT treatment. AT conjugated to quantum dot nanocrystals (QDots) specifically labeled hemocytes in vivo in both mosquito species, implying molecular interactions between AT and hemocytes. The results of our studies suggest a new role for AT in the modulation of the immune response in mosquitoes. PMID:28426765

  1. Glassy Dynamics in the Adaptive Immune Response Prevents Autoimmune Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jun; Deem, Michael

    2006-03-01

    The immune system normally protects the human host against death by infection. However, when an immune response is mistakenly directed at self antigens, autoimmune disease can occur. We describe a model of protein evolution to simulate the dynamics of the adaptive immune response to antigens. Computer simulations of the dynamics of antibody evolution show that different evolutionary mechanisms, namely gene segment swapping and point mutation, lead to different evolved antibody binding affinities. Although a combination of gene segment swapping and point mutation can yield a greater affinity to a specific antigen than point mutation alone, the antibodies so evolved are highly cross-reactive and would cause autoimmune disease, and this is not the chosen dynamics of the immune system. We suggest that in the immune system a balance has evolved between binding affinity and specificity in the mechanism for searching the amino acid sequence space of antibodies. Our model predicts that chronic infection may lead to autoimmune disease as well due to cross-reactivity and suggests a broad distribution for the time of onset of autoimmune disease due to chronic exposure. The slow search of antibody sequence space by point mutation leads to the broad of distribution times.

  2. Allatotropin: A pleiotropic neuropeptide that elicits mosquito immune responses.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martínez, Salvador; Sánchez-Zavaleta, Minerva; Brito, Kevin; Herrera-Ortiz, Antonia; Ons, Sheila; Noriega, Fernando G

    2017-01-01

    Allatotropins (AT) are neuropeptides with pleotropic functions on a variety of insect tissues. They affect processes such as juvenile hormone biosynthesis, cardiac rhythm, oviduct and hindgut contractions, nutrient absorption and circadian cycle. The present work provides experimental evidence that AT elicits immune responses in two important mosquito disease vectors, Anopheles albimanus and Aedes aegypti. Hemocytes and an immune-competent mosquito cell line responded to AT by showing strong morphological changes and increasing bacterial phagocytic activity. Phenoloxidase activity in hemolymph was also increased in Ae. aegypti mosquitoes treated with AT but not in An. albimanus, suggesting differences in the AT-dependent immune activation in the two species. In addition, two important insect immune markers, nitric oxide levels and expression of antimicrobial peptide genes, were increased in An. albimanus guts after AT treatment. AT conjugated to quantum dot nanocrystals (QDots) specifically labeled hemocytes in vivo in both mosquito species, implying molecular interactions between AT and hemocytes. The results of our studies suggest a new role for AT in the modulation of the immune response in mosquitoes.

  3. Ebola haemorrhagic fever virus: pathogenesis, immune responses, potential prevention.

    PubMed

    Marcinkiewicz, Janusz; Bryniarski, Krzysztof; Nazimek, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Ebola zoonotic RNA filovirus represents human most virulent and lethal pathogens, which induces acute hemorrhagic fever and death within few days in a range of 60-90% of symptomatic individuals. Last outbreak in 2014 in West Africa caused panic that Ebola epidemic can be spread to other continents. Number of deaths in late December reached almost 8,000 individuals out of more than 20,000 symptomatic patients. It seems that only a coordinated international response could counteract the further spread of Ebola. Major innate immunity mechanisms against Ebola are associated with the production of interferons, that are inhibited by viral proteins. Activation of host NK cells was recognized as a leading immune function responsible for recovery of infected people. Uncontrolled cell infection by Ebola leads to an impairment of immunity with cytokine storm, coagulopathy, systemic bleeding, multi-organ failure and death. Tested prevention strategies to induce antiviral immunity include: i. recombinant virus formulations (vaccines); ii. cocktail of monoclonal antibodies (serotherapy); iii. alternative RNA-interference-based antiviral methods. Maintaining the highest standards of aseptic and antiseptic precautions is equally important. Present brief review summarizes a current knowledge concerning pathogenesis of Ebola hemorrhagic disease and the virus interaction with the immune system and discusses recent advances in prevention of Ebola infection by vaccination and serotherapy.

  4. Ecosystem and immune systems: Hierarchial response provides resilience against invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.

    2001-01-01

    Janssen (2001) provides the stimulus for thoughtful comparison and consideration of the ranges of responses exhibited by immune systems and ecological systems in the face of perturbations such as biological invasions. It may indeed be informative to consider the similarities of the responses to invasions exhibited by immune systems and ecological systems. Clearly, both types of systems share a general organizational structure with all other complex hierarchical systems. Their organization provides these systems with resilience. However, when describing the response of ecological-economic systems to invasions, Janssen emphasizes the human-economic response. I would like to expand on his comparison by focusing on how resilience is maintained in complex systems under the threat of invasion.

  5. Humoural immune response and pathological analysis in patients with false immune diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, X; Zhang, J; Feng, X; Chen, X; Yin, S; Wen, H; Zheng, S

    2014-01-01

    The patients with false immune diagnosis of hydatid disease were investigated for the humoural immune response to analyse the possible reasons and mechanism leading to false immune diagnosis. Two hundred and thirty-nine patients with nature-unknown cysts and 30 healthy controls were detected by immunological assays (four hydatid antigen-based immunogold filtration assay and enzyme-linked immune absorbent assay) and ultrasound. Sensitivity of and specificity of immunological assay and ultrasound were calculated, respectively. The serological diagnosis was compared with surgical pathology to screen the patients with false immune diagnosis for the immunoglobulin measurement and pathological analysis. The history and cyst characteristics were also reviewed. The results indicate the immunoglobulin has little influence on false immunodiagnosis. The false-negative immunodiagnosis was caused by the cysts' inactive status while the false positive caused by previous rupture, antigen cross-reaction. The clinical diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis requires a combination of immunodiagnosis and ultrasonography, which is the necessary complementary confirmation. PMID:24372157

  6. CELLS INVOLVED IN THE IMMUNE RESPONSE

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Nabih I.; Richter, Maxwell

    1969-01-01

    Rabbits were made immunologically tolerant to either human serum albumin or bovine gamma globulin by the neonatal administration of antigen. At 10 wk of age, they were challenged with the tolerogenic antigen and found to be non-responsive. However, these tolerant rabbits could respond with humoral antibody formation directed toward the tolerogenic antigen if they were treated with normal, allogeneic bone marrow or bone marrow obtained from a rabbit made tolerant toward a different antigen. They were incapable of responding if they were given bone marrow obtained from a rabbit previously made tolerant to the tolerogenic antigen. Irradiated rabbits were unable to respond if treated with tolerant bone marrow, but could respond well if given normal bone marrow. Since it has previously been demonstrated that the antibody-forming cell, in an irradiated recipient of allogeneic bone marrow, is of recipient and not donor origin, the data presented strongly indicate that the unresponsive cell in the immunologically tolerant rabbit is the antigen-reactive cell. PMID:4183777

  7. Immune Response to Electromagnetic Fields through Cybernetic Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Godina-Nava, J. J.; Segura, M. A. Rodriguez; Cadena, S. Reyes

    We study the optimality of the humoral immune response through a mathematical model, which involves the effect of electromagnetic fields over the large lymphocytes proliferation. Are used the so called cybernetic variables in the context of the matching law of microeconomics or mathematical psychology, to measure the large lymphocytes population and to maximize the instantaneous antibody production rate in time during the immunologic response in order to most efficiently inactivate the antigen.

  8. Immune Response to Electromagnetic Fields through Cybernetic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godina-Nava, J. J.; Segura, M. A. Rodríguez; Cadena, S. Reyes; Sierra, L. C. Gaitán

    2008-08-01

    We study the optimality of the humoral immune response through a mathematical model, which involves the effect of electromagnetic fields over the large lymphocytes proliferation. Are used the so called cybernetic variables in the context of the matching law of microeconomics or mathematical psychology, to measure the large lymphocytes population and to maximize the instantaneous antibody production rate in time during the immunologic response in order to most efficiently inactivate the antigen.

  9. Immunization with Brucella VirB Proteins Reduces Organ Colonization in Mice through a Th1-Type Immune Response and Elicits a Similar Immune Response in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Pollak, Cora N.; Wanke, María Magdalena; Estein, Silvia M.; Delpino, M. Victoria; Monachesi, Norma E.; Comercio, Elida A.; Fossati, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    VirB proteins from Brucella spp. constitute the type IV secretion system, a key virulence factor mediating the intracellular survival of these bacteria. Here, we assessed whether a Th1-type immune response against VirB proteins may protect mice from Brucella infection and whether this response can be induced in the dog, a natural host for Brucella. Splenocytes from mice immunized with VirB7 or VirB9 responded to their respective antigens with significant and specific production of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), whereas interleukin-4 (IL-4) was not detected. Thirty days after an intraperitoneal challenge with live Brucella abortus, the spleen load of bacteria was almost 1 log lower in mice immunized with VirB proteins than in unvaccinated animals. As colonization reduction seemed to correlate with a Th1-type immune response against VirB proteins, we decided to assess whether such a response could be elicited in the dog. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from dogs immunized with VirB proteins (three subcutaneous doses in QuilA adjuvant) produced significantly higher levels of IFN-γ than cells from control animals upon in vitro stimulation with VirB proteins. A skin test to assess specific delayed-type hypersensitivity was positive in 4 out of 5 dogs immunized with either VirB7 or VirB9. As both proteins are predicted to locate in the outer membrane of Brucella organisms, the ability of anti-VirB antibodies to mediate complement-dependent bacteriolysis of B. canis was assessed in vitro. Sera from dogs immunized with either VirB7 or VirB9, but not from those receiving phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), produced significant bacteriolysis. These results suggest that VirB-specific responses that reduce organ colonization by Brucella in mice can be also elicited in dogs. PMID:25540276

  10. Immunization with Brucella VirB proteins reduces organ colonization in mice through a Th1-type immune response and elicits a similar immune response in dogs.

    PubMed

    Pollak, Cora N; Wanke, María Magdalena; Estein, Silvia M; Delpino, M Victoria; Monachesi, Norma E; Comercio, Elida A; Fossati, Carlos A; Baldi, Pablo C

    2015-03-01

    VirB proteins from Brucella spp. constitute the type IV secretion system, a key virulence factor mediating the intracellular survival of these bacteria. Here, we assessed whether a Th1-type immune response against VirB proteins may protect mice from Brucella infection and whether this response can be induced in the dog, a natural host for Brucella. Splenocytes from mice immunized with VirB7 or VirB9 responded to their respective antigens with significant and specific production of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), whereas interleukin-4 (IL-4) was not detected. Thirty days after an intraperitoneal challenge with live Brucella abortus, the spleen load of bacteria was almost 1 log lower in mice immunized with VirB proteins than in unvaccinated animals. As colonization reduction seemed to correlate with a Th1-type immune response against VirB proteins, we decided to assess whether such a response could be elicited in the dog. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from dogs immunized with VirB proteins (three subcutaneous doses in QuilA adjuvant) produced significantly higher levels of IFN-γ than cells from control animals upon in vitro stimulation with VirB proteins. A skin test to assess specific delayed-type hypersensitivity was positive in 4 out of 5 dogs immunized with either VirB7 or VirB9. As both proteins are predicted to locate in the outer membrane of Brucella organisms, the ability of anti-VirB antibodies to mediate complement-dependent bacteriolysis of B. canis was assessed in vitro. Sera from dogs immunized with either VirB7 or VirB9, but not from those receiving phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), produced significant bacteriolysis. These results suggest that VirB-specific responses that reduce organ colonization by Brucella in mice can be also elicited in dogs. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. RNA Editing, ADAR1, and the Innate Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingde; Li, Xiaoni; Qi, Ruofan; Billiar, Timothy

    2017-01-18

    RNA editing, particularly A-to-I RNA editing, has been shown to play an essential role in mammalian embryonic development and tissue homeostasis, and is implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases including skin pigmentation disorder, autoimmune and inflammatory tissue injury, neuron degeneration, and various malignancies. A-to-I RNA editing is carried out by a small group of enzymes, the adenosine deaminase acting on RNAs (ADARs). Only three members of this protein family, ADAR1-3, exist in mammalian cells. ADAR3 is a catalytically null enzyme and the most significant function of ADAR2 was found to be in editing on the neuron receptor GluR-B mRNA. ADAR1, however, has been shown to play more significant roles in biological and pathological conditions. Although there remains much that is not known about how ADAR1 regulates cellular function, recent findings point to regulation of the innate immune response as an important function of ADAR1. Without appropriate RNA editing by ADAR1, endogenous RNA transcripts stimulate cytosolic RNA sensing receptors and therefore activate the IFN-inducing signaling pathways. Overactivation of innate immune pathways can lead to tissue injury and dysfunction. However, obvious gaps in our knowledge persist as to how ADAR1 regulates innate immune responses through RNA editing. Here, we review critical findings from ADAR1 mechanistic studies focusing on its regulatory function in innate immune responses and identify some of the important unanswered questions in the field.

  12. Host Immune Status and Response to Hepatitis E Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Krain, Lisa J.; Nelson, Kenrad E.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Hepatitis E virus (HEV), identified over 30 years ago, remains a serious threat to life, health, and productivity in developing countries where access to clean water is limited. Recognition that HEV also circulates as a zoonotic and food-borne pathogen in developed countries is more recent. Even without treatment, most cases of HEV-related acute viral hepatitis (with or without jaundice) resolve within 1 to 2 months. However, HEV sometimes leads to acute liver failure, chronic infection, or extrahepatic symptoms. The mechanisms of pathogenesis appear to be substantially immune mediated. This review covers the epidemiology of HEV infection worldwide, the humoral and cellular immune responses to HEV, and the persistence and protection of antibodies produced in response to both natural infection and vaccines. We focus on the contributions of altered immune states (associated with pregnancy, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], and immunosuppressive agents used in cancer and transplant medicine) to the elevated risks of chronic infection (in immunosuppressed/immunocompromised patients) and acute liver failure and mortality (among pregnant women). We conclude by discussing outstanding questions about the immune response to HEV and interactions with hormones and comorbid conditions. These questions take on heightened importance now that a vaccine is available. PMID:24396140

  13. Ocular surgical models for immune and angiogenic responses

    PubMed Central

    Inomata, Takenori; Mashaghi, Alireza; Di Zazzo, Antonio; Dana, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Corneal transplantation serves as a reproducible and simple surgical model to study mechanisms regulating immunity and angiogenesis. The simplicity of the model allows for systematic analysis of different mechanisms involved in immune and angiogenic privilege and their failures. This protocol describes how to induce neovessels and inflammation in an actively regulated avascular and immune-privileged site. This involves placing intra-stromal corneal sutures for two weeks, disrupting the privileges, and performing corneal transplantation subsequently. Privileged and non-privileged recipient responses to donor cornea can be compared to identify key immunological mechanisms that underlie angiogenesis and graft rejection. This protocol can also be adapted to the growing repertoire of genetic models available in the mouse, and is a valuable tool to elucidate molecular mechanisms mediating acceptance or failure of corneal graft. The model could be used to assess the potential of therapeutic molecules to enhance graft survival in vivo. PMID:26550579

  14. Administration of HPV DNA vaccine via electroporation elicits the strongest CD8+ T cell immune responses compared to intramuscular injection and intradermal gene gun delivery

    PubMed Central

    Best, Simon R.; Peng, Shiwen; Juang, Chi-Mou; Hung, Chien-Fu; Hannaman, Drew; Saunders, John R.; Wu, T.-C.; Pai, Sara I.

    2009-01-01

    DNA vaccines are an attractive approach to eliciting antigen-specific immunity. Intracellular targeting of tumor antigens through its linkage to immunostimulatory molecules such as calreticulin (CRT) can improve antigen processing and presentation through the MHC Class I pathway and increase cytotoxic CD8+ T cell production. However, even with these enhancements, the efficacy of such immunotherapeutic strategies is dependent on the identification of an effective route and method of DNA administration. Electroporation and gene gun-mediated particle delivery are leading methods of DNA vaccine delivery that can generate protective and therapeutic levels of immune responses in experimental models. In this study, we perform a head-to-head comparison of three methods of vaccination – conventional intramuscular injection, electroporation mediated intramuscular delivery, and epidermal gene gun-mediated particle delivery - in the ability to generate antigen specific cytotoxic CD8+ T cell responses as well as anti-tumor immune responses against an HPV-16 E7 expressing tumor cell line using the pNGVL4a-CRT/E7(detox) DNA vaccine. Vaccination via electroporation generated the highest number of E7-specific cytotoxic CD8+ T cells, which correlated to improved outcomes in the treatment of growing tumors. In addition, we demonstrate that electroporation results in significantly higher levels of circulating protein compared to gene gun or intramuscular vaccination, which likely enhances calreticulin’s role as a local tumor anti-angiogenesis agent. We conclude that electroporation is a promising method for delivery of HPV DNA vaccines and should be considered for DNA vaccine delivery in human clinical trials. PMID:19622402

  15. Genomics of immune response to typhoid and cholera vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Partha P.

    2015-01-01

    Considerable variation in antibody response (AR) was observed among recipients of an injectable typhoid vaccine and an oral cholera vaccine. We sought to find whether polymorphisms in genes of the immune system, both innate and adaptive, were associated with the observed variation in response. For both vaccines, we were able to discover and validate several polymorphisms that were significantly associated with immune response. For the typhoid vaccines, these polymorphisms were on genes that belonged to pathways of polysaccharide recognition, signal transduction, inhibition of T-cell proliferation, pro-inflammatory signalling and eventual production of antimicrobial peptides. For the cholera vaccine, the pathways included epithelial barrier integrity, intestinal homeostasis and leucocyte recruitment. Even though traditional wisdom indicates that both vaccines should act as T-cell-independent antigens, our findings reveal that the vaccines induce AR using different pathways. PMID:25964454

  16. No apparent cost of evolved immune response in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vanika; Venkatesan, Saudamini; Chatterjee, Martik; Syed, Zeeshan A; Nivsarkar, Vaishnavi; Prasad, Nagaraj G

    2016-04-01

    Maintenance and deployment of the immune system are costly and are hence predicted to trade-off with other resource-demanding traits, such as reproduction. We subjected this longstanding idea to test using laboratory experimental evolution approach. In the present study, replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster were subjected to three selection regimes-I (Infection with Pseudomonas entomophila), S (Sham-infection with MgSO4 ), and U (Unhandled Control). After 30 generations of selection flies from the I regime had evolved better survivorship upon infection with P. entomophila compared to flies from U and S regimes. However, contrary to expectations and previous reports, we did not find any evidence of trade-offs between immunity and other life history related traits, such as longevity, fecundity, egg hatchability, or development time. After 45 generations of selection, the selection was relaxed for a set of populations. Even after 15 generations, the postinfection survivorship of populations under relaxed selection regime did not decline. We speculate that either there is a negligible cost to the evolved immune response or that trade-offs occur on traits such as reproductive behavior or other immune mechanisms that we have not investigated in this study. Our research suggests that at least under certain conditions, life-history trade-offs might play little role in maintaining variation in immunity. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Phenytoin promotes Th2 type immune response in mice

    PubMed Central

    Okada, K; Sugiura, T; Kuroda, E; Tsuji, S; Yamashita, U

    2001-01-01

    The effects of chronic administration of phenytoin, a common anticonvulsive drug, on immune responses were studied in mice. Anti-keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) IgE antibody response after KLH-immunization was enhanced in phenytoin-treated mice. Proliferative responses of spleen cells induced with KLH, concanavalin A (ConA), lipopolysaccharide and anti-CD3 antibody were reduced in phenytoin-treated mice. Accessory function of spleen adherent cells on ConA-induced T cell proliferative response was reduced in phenytoin-treated mice. KLH-induced IL-4 production of spleen cells was enhanced, while IFN-γ production was reduced in phenytoin-treated mice. In addition, production of IL-1α, but not IL-6 and IL-12 by spleen adherent cells from phenytoin-treated mice was reduced. Natural killer cell activity was reduced in phenytoin-treated mice. These results suggest that phenytoin treatment preferentially induces a Th2 type response. We also observed that plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels were increased in phenytoin-treated mice, and speculated that phenytoin might act directly and indirectly, through HPA axis activation, on the immune system to modulate Th1/Th2 balance. PMID:11472401

  18. Radiation-induced immune responses: mechanisms and therapeutic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hoibin; Bok, Seoyeon; Hong, Beom-Ju; Choi, Hyung-Seok; Ahn, G-One

    2016-09-01

    Recent advancement in the radiotherapy technology has allowed conformal delivery of high doses of ionizing radiation precisely to the tumors while sparing large volume of the normal tissues, which have led to better clinical responses. Despite this technological advancement many advanced tumors often recur and they do so within the previously irradiated regions. How could tumors recur after receiving such high ablative doses of radiation? In this review, we outlined how radiation can elicit anti-tumor responses by introducing some of the cytokines that can be induced by ionizing radiation. We then discuss how tumor hypoxia, a major limiting factor responsible for failure of radiotherapy, may also negatively impact the anti-tumor responses. In addition, we highlight how there may be other populations of immune cells including regulatory T cells (Tregs), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) that can be recruited to tumors interfering with the anti-tumor immunity. Finally, the impact of irradiation on tumor hypoxia and the immune responses according to different radiotherapy regimen is also delineated. It is indeed an exciting time to see that radiotherapy is being combined with immunotherapy in the clinic and we hope that this review can add an excitement to the field.

  19. Innate immune responses following Kawasaki disease and toxic shock syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Messina, Nicole; Germano, Susie; Bonnici, Rhian; Freyne, Bridget; Cheung, Michael; Goldsmith, Greta; Kollmann, Tobias R.; Levin, Michael; Burgner, David; Curtis, Nigel

    2018-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Kawasaki disease (KD) remains unknown and there is accumulating evidence for the importance of the innate immune system in initiating and mediating the host inflammatory response. We compared innate immune responses in KD and toxic shock syndrome (TSS) participants more than two years after their acute illness with control participants to investigate differences in their immune phenotype. Toxic shock syndrome shares many clinical features with KD; by including both disease groups we endeavoured to explore changes in innate immune responses following acute inflammatory illnesses more broadly. We measured the in vitro production of interferon (IFN)-γ, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), and IL-10 following whole blood stimulation with toll-like receptor and inflammasome ligands in 52 KD, 20 TSS, and 53 control participants in a case-control study. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and unstimulated cytokine concentrations. Compared to controls, KD participants have reduced IL-1ra production in response to stimulation with double stranded RNA (geometric mean ratio (GMR) 0.37, 95% CI 0.15, 0.89, p = 0.03) and increased IL-6 production in response to incubation with Lyovec™ (GMR 5.48, 95% CI 1.77, 16.98, p = 0.004). Compared to controls, TSS participants have increased IFN-γ production in response to peptidoglycan (GMR 4.07, 95% CI 1.82, 9.11, p = 0.001), increased IL-1β production to lipopolysaccharide (GMR 1.64, 95% CI 1.13, 2.38, p = 0.01) and peptidoglycan (GMR 1.61, 95% CI 1.11, 2.33, p = 0.01), and increased IL-6 production to peptidoglycan (GMR 1.45, 95% CI 1.10, 1.92, p = 0.01). Years following the acute illness, individuals with previous KD or TSS exhibit a pro-inflammatory innate immune phenotype suggesting a possible underlying immunological susceptibility or innate immune memory. PMID:29447181

  20. Innate immune responses following Kawasaki disease and toxic shock syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Katherine Y H; Messina, Nicole; Germano, Susie; Bonnici, Rhian; Freyne, Bridget; Cheung, Michael; Goldsmith, Greta; Kollmann, Tobias R; Levin, Michael; Burgner, David; Curtis, Nigel

    2018-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Kawasaki disease (KD) remains unknown and there is accumulating evidence for the importance of the innate immune system in initiating and mediating the host inflammatory response. We compared innate immune responses in KD and toxic shock syndrome (TSS) participants more than two years after their acute illness with control participants to investigate differences in their immune phenotype. Toxic shock syndrome shares many clinical features with KD; by including both disease groups we endeavoured to explore changes in innate immune responses following acute inflammatory illnesses more broadly. We measured the in vitro production of interferon (IFN)-γ, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), and IL-10 following whole blood stimulation with toll-like receptor and inflammasome ligands in 52 KD, 20 TSS, and 53 control participants in a case-control study. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and unstimulated cytokine concentrations. Compared to controls, KD participants have reduced IL-1ra production in response to stimulation with double stranded RNA (geometric mean ratio (GMR) 0.37, 95% CI 0.15, 0.89, p = 0.03) and increased IL-6 production in response to incubation with Lyovec™ (GMR 5.48, 95% CI 1.77, 16.98, p = 0.004). Compared to controls, TSS participants have increased IFN-γ production in response to peptidoglycan (GMR 4.07, 95% CI 1.82, 9.11, p = 0.001), increased IL-1β production to lipopolysaccharide (GMR 1.64, 95% CI 1.13, 2.38, p = 0.01) and peptidoglycan (GMR 1.61, 95% CI 1.11, 2.33, p = 0.01), and increased IL-6 production to peptidoglycan (GMR 1.45, 95% CI 1.10, 1.92, p = 0.01). Years following the acute illness, individuals with previous KD or TSS exhibit a pro-inflammatory innate immune phenotype suggesting a possible underlying immunological susceptibility or innate immune memory.

  1. Immune response to measles vaccine in Peruvian children.

    PubMed Central

    Bautista-López, N. L.; Vaisberg, A.; Kanashiro, R.; Hernández, H.; Ward, B. J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the immune response in Peruvian children following measles vaccination. METHODS: Fifty-five Peruvian children received Schwarz measles vaccine (about 10(3) plaque forming units) at about 9 months of age. Blood samples were taken before vaccination, then twice after vaccination: one sample at between 1 and 4 weeks after vaccination and the final sample 3 months post vaccination for evaluation of immune cell phenotype and lymphoproliferative responses to measles and non-measles antigens. Measles-specific antibodies were measured by plaque reduction neutralization. FINDINGS: The humoral response developed rapidly after vaccination; only 4 of the 55 children (7%) had plaque reduction neutralization titres <200 mlU/ml 3 months after vaccination. However, only 8 out of 35 children tested (23%) had lymphoproliferative responses to measles antigens 3-4 weeks after vaccination. Children with poor lymphoproliferative responses to measles antigens had readily detectable lymphoproliferative responses to other antigens. Flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells revealed diffuse immune system activation at the time of vaccination in most children. The capacity to mount a lymphoproliferative response to measles antigens was associated with expression of CD45RO on CD4+ T-cells. CONCLUSION: The 55 Peruvian children had excellent antibody responses after measles vaccination, but only 23% (8 out of 35) generated detectable lymphoproliferative responses to measles antigens (compared with 55-67% in children in the industrialized world). This difference may contribute to the less than uniform success of measles vaccination programmes in the developing world. PMID:11731811

  2. Predictors of responses to immune checkpoint blockade in advanced melanoma.

    PubMed

    Jacquelot, N; Roberti, M P; Enot, D P; Rusakiewicz, S; Ternès, N; Jegou, S; Woods, D M; Sodré, A L; Hansen, M; Meirow, Y; Sade-Feldman, M; Burra, A; Kwek, S S; Flament, C; Messaoudene, M; Duong, C P M; Chen, L; Kwon, B S; Anderson, A C; Kuchroo, V K; Weide, B; Aubin, F; Borg, C; Dalle, S; Beatrix, O; Ayyoub, M; Balme, B; Tomasic, G; Di Giacomo, A M; Maio, M; Schadendorf, D; Melero, I; Dréno, B; Khammari, A; Dummer, R; Levesque, M; Koguchi, Y; Fong, L; Lotem, M; Baniyash, M; Schmidt, H; Svane, I M; Kroemer, G; Marabelle, A; Michiels, S; Cavalcanti, A; Smyth, M J; Weber, J S; Eggermont, A M; Zitvogel, L

    2017-09-19

    Immune checkpoint blockers (ICB) have become pivotal therapies in the clinical armamentarium against metastatic melanoma (MMel). Given the frequency of immune related adverse events and increasing use of ICB, predictors of response to CTLA-4 and/or PD-1 blockade represent unmet clinical needs. Using a systems biology-based approach to an assessment of 779 paired blood and tumor markers in 37 stage III MMel patients, we analyzed association between blood immune parameters and the functional immune reactivity of tumor-infiltrating cells after ex vivo exposure to ICB. Based on this assay, we retrospectively observed, in eight cohorts enrolling 190 MMel patients treated with ipilimumab, that PD-L1 expression on peripheral T cells was prognostic on overall and progression-free survival. Moreover, detectable CD137 on circulating CD8 + T cells was associated with the disease-free status of resected stage III MMel patients after adjuvant ipilimumab + nivolumab (but not nivolumab alone). These biomarkers should be validated in prospective trials in MMel.The clinical management of metastatic melanoma requires predictors of the response to checkpoint blockade. Here, the authors use immunological assays to identify potential prognostic/predictive biomarkers in circulating blood cells and in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes from patients with resected stage III melanoma.

  3. Responses of innate immune cells to group A Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Fieber, Christina; Kovarik, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS), also called Streptococcus pyogenes, is a Gram-positive beta-hemolytic human pathogen which causes a wide range of mostly self-limiting but also several life-threatening diseases. Innate immune responses are fundamental for defense against GAS, yet their activation by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and GAS-derived pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) is incompletely understood. In recent years, the use of animal models together with the powerful tools of human molecular genetics began shedding light onto the molecular mechanisms of innate immune defense against GAS. The signaling adaptor MyD88 was found to play a key role in launching the immune response against GAS in both humans and mice, suggesting that PRRs of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family are involved in sensing this pathogen. The specific TLRs and their ligands have yet to be identified. Following GAS recognition, induction of cytokines such as TNF and type I interferons (IFNs), leukocyte recruitment, phagocytosis, and the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been recognized as key events in host defense. A comprehensive knowledge of these mechanisms is needed in order to understand their frequent failure against GAS immune evasion strategies. PMID:25325020

  4. Myeloid IKKβ Promotes Antitumor Immunity by Modulating CCL11 and the Innate Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jinming; Hawkins, Oriana E.; Barham, Whitney; Gilchuk, Pavlo; Boothby, Mark; Ayers, Gregory D.; Joyce, Sebastian; Karin, Michael; Yull, Fiona E.; Richmond, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Myeloid cells are capable of promoting or eradicating tumor cells and the nodal functions that contribute to their different roles are still obscure. Here, we show that mice with myeloid-specific genetic loss of the NF-κB pathway regulatory kinase IKKβ exhibit more rapid growth of cutaneous and lung melanoma tumors. In a BRAFV600E/PTEN−/− allograft model, IKKβ loss in macrophages reduced recruitment of myeloid cells into the tumor, lowered expression of MHC class II molecules, and enhanced production of the chemokine CCL11, thereby negatively regulating dendritic-cell maturation. Elevated serum and tissue levels of CCL11 mediated suppression of dendritic-cell differentiation/maturation within the tumor microenvironment, skewing it toward a Th2 immune response and impairing CD8+ T cell–mediated tumor cell lysis. Depleting macrophages or CD8+ T cells in mice with wild-type IKKβ myeloid cells enhanced tumor growth, where the myeloid cell response was used to mediate antitumor immunity against melanoma tumors (with less dependency on a CD8+ T-cell response). In contrast, myeloid cells deficient in IKKβ were compromised in tumor cell lysis, based on their reduced ability to phagocytize and digest tumor cells. Thus, mice with continuous IKKβ signaling in myeloid-lineage cells (IKKβCA) exhibited enhanced antitumor immunity and reduced melanoma outgrowth. Collectively, our results illuminate new mechanisms through which NF-κB signaling in myeloid cells promotes innate tumor surveillance. PMID:25336190

  5. The Immune Response in Measles: Virus Control, Clearance and Protective Immunity.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Diane E

    2016-10-12

    Measles is an acute systemic viral infection with immune system interactions that play essential roles in multiple stages of infection and disease. Measles virus (MeV) infection does not induce type 1 interferons, but leads to production of cytokines and chemokines associated with nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) signaling and activation of the NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein (NLRP3) inflammasome. This restricted response allows extensive virus replication and spread during a clinically silent latent period of 10-14 days. The first appearance of the disease is a 2-3 day prodrome of fever, runny nose, cough, and conjunctivitis that is followed by a characteristic maculopapular rash that spreads from the face and trunk to the extremities. The rash is a manifestation of the MeV-specific type 1 CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T cell adaptive immune response with lymphocyte infiltration into tissue sites of MeV replication and coincides with clearance of infectious virus. However, clearance of viral RNA from blood and tissues occurs over weeks to months after resolution of the rash and is associated with a period of immunosuppression. However, during viral RNA clearance, MeV-specific antibody also matures in type and avidity and T cell functions evolve from type 1 to type 2 and 17 responses that promote B cell development. Recovery is associated with sustained levels of neutralizing antibody and life-long protective immunity.

  6. A mouse model with age-dependent immune response and immune-tolerance for HBV infection.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xuerui; Yuan, Youcheng; Li, Na; Yi, Lu; Wang, Cuiling; Qi, Ying; Gong, Liang; Liu, Guangze; Kong, Xiangping

    2018-02-01

    Viral clearance of human HBV infection largely depends on the age of exposure. Thus, a mouse model with age-dependent immune response and immune-tolerance for HBV infection was established. HBVRag1 mice were generated by crossing Rag1 -/- mice with HBV-Tg mice. Following adoptive transfer of splenocytes adult (8-9 weeks old) and young (3 weeks old) HBVRag1 mice were named as HBVRag-ReA and HBVRag-ReY mice respectively. The biochemical parameters that were associated with viral load and immune function, as well as the histological evaluation of the liver tissues between the two mouse models were detected. The immune tolerance of HBVRag-ReY mice that were reconstituted at the early stages of life was evaluated by quantitative hepatitis B core antibody assay, adoptive transfer, and modulation of gut microbiota with the addition of antibiotics. HBVRag-ReA mice indicated apparent hepatocytes damage, clearance of HBsAg and production of HBsAb and HBcAb. HBVRag-ReY mice did not develop ALT elevation, and produced HBcAb and HBsAg. A higher number of hepatic CD8 + T and B cells promoted clearance of HBsAg in HBVRag-ReA mice following 30 days of lymphocyte transfer. In contrast to HBVRag-ReA mice, HBVRag-ReY mice exhibited higher levels of Th1/Th2 cytokines. HBVRag-ReY mice exhibited significantly higher (P < .01, approximately 10-fold) serum quantitative anti-HBc levels than HBV-Tg mice, which might be similar to the phase of immune clearance and immune tolerance in human HBV infection. Furthermore, the age-related tolerance in HBVRag-ReY mice that were sensitive to antibiotic treatment was different from that noted in HBV-Tg mice. GS-9620 could inhibit the production of HBsAg, whereas HBV vaccination could induce sustained seroconversion in HBVRag-ReY mice with low levels of HBsAg. The present study described a mouse model with age-dependent immunity and immune-tolerance for HBV infection in vivo, which may mimic chronic HBV infection in humans. Copyright © 2017

  7. Early-life inflammation, immune response and ageing.

    PubMed

    Khan, Imroze; Agashe, Deepa; Rolff, Jens

    2017-03-15

    Age-related diseases are often attributed to immunopathology, which results in self-damage caused by an inappropriate inflammatory response. Immunopathology associated with early-life inflammation also appears to cause faster ageing, although we lack direct experimental evidence for this association. To understand the interactions between ageing, inflammation and immunopathology, we used the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor as a study organism. We hypothesized that phenoloxidase, an important immune effector in insect defence, may impose substantial immunopathological costs by causing tissue damage to Malpighian tubules (MTs; functionally equivalent to the human kidney), in turn accelerating ageing. In support of this hypothesis, we found that RNAi knockdown of phenoloxidase (PO) transcripts in young adults possibly reduced inflammation-induced autoreactive tissue damage to MTs, and increased adult lifespan. Our work thus suggests a causative link between immunopathological costs of early-life inflammation and faster ageing. We also reasoned that if natural selection weakens with age, older individuals should display increased immunopathological costs associated with an immune response. Indeed, we found that while old infected individuals cleared infection faster than young individuals, possibly they also displayed exacerbated immunopathological costs (larger decline in MT function) and higher post-infection mortality. RNAi-mediated knockdown of PO response partially rescued MTs function in older beetles and resulted in increased lifespan after infection. Taken together, our data are consistent with a direct role of immunopathological consequences of immune response during ageing in insects. Our work is also the first report that highlights the pervasive role of tissue damage under diverse contexts of ageing and immune response. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Early-life inflammation, immune response and ageing

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Age-related diseases are often attributed to immunopathology, which results in self-damage caused by an inappropriate inflammatory response. Immunopathology associated with early-life inflammation also appears to cause faster ageing, although we lack direct experimental evidence for this association. To understand the interactions between ageing, inflammation and immunopathology, we used the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor as a study organism. We hypothesized that phenoloxidase, an important immune effector in insect defence, may impose substantial immunopathological costs by causing tissue damage to Malpighian tubules (MTs; functionally equivalent to the human kidney), in turn accelerating ageing. In support of this hypothesis, we found that RNAi knockdown of phenoloxidase (PO) transcripts in young adults possibly reduced inflammation-induced autoreactive tissue damage to MTs, and increased adult lifespan. Our work thus suggests a causative link between immunopathological costs of early-life inflammation and faster ageing. We also reasoned that if natural selection weakens with age, older individuals should display increased immunopathological costs associated with an immune response. Indeed, we found that while old infected individuals cleared infection faster than young individuals, possibly they also displayed exacerbated immunopathological costs (larger decline in MT function) and higher post-infection mortality. RNAi-mediated knockdown of PO response partially rescued MTs function in older beetles and resulted in increased lifespan after infection. Taken together, our data are consistent with a direct role of immunopathological consequences of immune response during ageing in insects. Our work is also the first report that highlights the pervasive role of tissue damage under diverse contexts of ageing and immune response. PMID:28275145

  9. IL-2 infusion abrogates humoral immune responses in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, D J; Prentice, H G; Heslop, H E; Bello, C; Brenner, M K

    1992-01-01

    Although IL-2 infusion enhances cell-mediated cytotoxicity in patients with neoplastic disease, administration is paradoxically associated with a modest fall in total serum IgG and an increased risk of infection. We now show that the adverse effects of IL-2 infusion on the humoral immune system are substantial. Although IL-2 induces the B cell growth and differentiating factors IL-4 and IL-6, infusion abrogates primary antibody responses entirely and reduces secondary antibody responses 50-fold following antigen challenge. There is no evidence of the generation of cells with suppressive activity on B cells but IL-2 increases the ratio of circulating virgin:memory cells. These results may help to explain the increased rate of bacterial infection in patients receiving IL-2. As IL-2 plays a central role in the generation of an immune response, the finding that it is also sufficiently immunosuppressive to inhibit primary- and secondary-type antibody responses suggests that exploration of the underlying mechanisms may provide insights into immune system homeostasis and may offer new approaches to therapeutic immunosuppression. Images Fig. 1 PMID:1544235

  10. Tailoring the Immune Response via Customization of Pathogen Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Runco, Lisa M; Stauft, Charles B; Coleman, J Robert

    2014-01-01

    The majority of studies focused on the construction and reengineering of bacterial pathogens have mainly relied on the knocking out of virulence factors or deletion/mutation of amino acid residues to then observe the microbe's phenotype and the resulting effect on the host immune response. These knockout bacterial strains have also been proposed as vaccines to combat bacterial disease. Theoretically, knockout strains would be unable to cause disease since their virulence factors have been removed, yet they could induce a protective memory response. While knockout strains have been valuable tools to discern the role of virulence factors in host immunity and bacterial pathogenesis, they have been unable to yield clinically relevant vaccines. The advent of synthetic biology and enhanced user-directed gene customization has altered this binary process of knockout, followed by observation. Recent studies have shown that a researcher can now tailor and customize a given microbe's gene expression to produce a desired immune response. In this commentary, we highlight these studies as a new avenue for controlling the inflammatory response as well as vaccine development.

  11. Tailoring the Immune Response via Customization of Pathogen Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Runco, Lisa M.; Stauft, Charles B.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of studies focused on the construction and reengineering of bacterial pathogens have mainly relied on the knocking out of virulence factors or deletion/mutation of amino acid residues to then observe the microbe's phenotype and the resulting effect on the host immune response. These knockout bacterial strains have also been proposed as vaccines to combat bacterial disease. Theoretically, knockout strains would be unable to cause disease since their virulence factors have been removed, yet they could induce a protective memory response. While knockout strains have been valuable tools to discern the role of virulence factors in host immunity and bacterial pathogenesis, they have been unable to yield clinically relevant vaccines. The advent of synthetic biology and enhanced user-directed gene customization has altered this binary process of knockout, followed by observation. Recent studies have shown that a researcher can now tailor and customize a given microbe's gene expression to produce a desired immune response. In this commentary, we highlight these studies as a new avenue for controlling the inflammatory response as well as vaccine development. PMID:24719769

  12. Anti-tumor immune response after photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mroz, Pawel; Castano, Ana P.; Wu, Mei X.; Kung, Andrew L.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2009-06-01

    Anti-tumor immunity is stimulated after PDT due a number of factors including: the acute inflammatory response caused by PDT, release of antigens from PDT-damaged tumor cells, priming of the adaptive immune system to recognize tumor-associated antigens (TAA), and induction of heat-shock proteins. The induction of specific CD8+ T-lymphocyte cells that recognize major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) restricted epitopes of TAAs is a highly desirable goal in cancer therapy as it would allow the treatment of tumors that may have already metastasized. The PDT killed tumor cells may be phagocytosed by dendritic cells (DC) that then migrate to draining lymph nodes and prime naÃve T-cells that recognize TAA epitopes. We have carried out in vivo PDT with a BPD-mediated vascular regimen using a pair of BALB/c mouse colon carcinomas: CT26 wild type expressing the naturally occurring retroviral antigen gp70 and CT26.CL25 additionally expressing beta-galactosidase (b-gal) as a model tumor rejection antigen. PDT of CT26.CL25 cured 100% of tumors but none of the CT26WT tumors (all recurred). Cured CT26.CL25 mice were resistant to rechallenge. Moreover mice with two bilateral CT26.CL25 tumors that had only one treated with PDT demonstrated spontaneous regression of 70% of untreated contralateral tumors. T-lymphocytes were isolated from lymph nodes of PDT cured mice that recognized a particular peptide specific to b-gal antigen. T-lymphocytes from LN were able to kill CT26.CL25 target cells in vitro but not CT26WT cells as shown by a chromium release assay. CT26.CL25 tumors treated with PDT and removed five days later had higher levels of Th1 cytokines than CT26 WT tumors showing a higher level of immune response. When mice bearing CT26WT tumors were treated with a regimen of low dose cyclophosphamide (CY) 2 days before, PDT led to 100% of cures (versus 0% without CY) and resistance to rechallenge. Low dose CY is thought to deplete regulatory T-cells (Treg, CD4+CD25+foxp

  13. Adaptive Immune Responses following Senecavirus A Infection in Pigs.

    PubMed

    Maggioli, Mayara F; Lawson, Steve; de Lima, Marcelo; Joshi, Lok R; Faccin, Tatiane C; Bauermann, Fernando V; Diel, Diego G

    2018-02-01

    Senecavirus A (SVA), an emerging picornavirus of swine, causes vesicular disease (VD) that is clinically indistinguishable from foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in pigs. Many aspects of SVA interactions with the host and the host immune responses to infection, however, remain unknown. In the present study, humoral and cellular immune responses to SVA were evaluated following infection in pigs. We show that SVA infection elicited an early and robust virus-neutralizing (VN) antibody response, which coincided and was strongly correlated with VP2- and VP3-specific IgM responses. Notably, the neutralizing antibody (NA) responses paralleled the reduction of viremia and resolution of the disease. Analysis of the major porcine T-cell subsets revealed that during the acute/clinical phase of SVA infection (14 days postinfection [p.i.]), T-cell responses were characterized by an increased frequency of αβ T cells, especially CD4 + T cells, which were first detected by day 7 p.i. and increased in frequency until day 14 p.i. Additionally, the frequency of CD8 + and double-positive CD4 + CD8 + T cells (effector/memory T cells) expressing interferon gamma (IFN-γ) or proliferating in response to SVA antigen stimulation increased after day 10 p.i. Results presented here show that SVA elicits B- and T-cell activation early upon infection, with IgM antibody levels being correlated with early neutralizing activity against the virus and peak B- and T-cell responses paralleling clinical resolution of the disease. The work provides important insights into the immunological events that follow SVA infection in the natural host. IMPORTANCE Senecavirus A (SVA) has recently emerged in swine, causing outbreaks of vesicular disease (VD) in major swine-producing countries around the world, including the United States, Brazil, China, Thailand, and Colombia. Notably, SVA-induced disease is clinically indistinguishable from other high-consequence VDs of swine, such as FMD, swine vesicular disease

  14. Immune responses in humans after 60 days of confinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, D. A.; Peres, C.; Sonnenfeld, G.; Tkackzuk, J.; Arquier, M.; Mauco, G.; Ohayon, E.

    1995-01-01

    A confinement experiment in a normobaric diving chamber was undertaken to better understand the effect of confinement and isolation on human psychology and physiology. Pre- and postconfinement blood samples were obtained from four test subjects and control donors to analyze immune responses. No modification in the levels of CD2+, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD19+, and CD56+ cells was observed after confinement. Mitogen-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin-2 receptor expression were not altered significantly. Whole blood interferon-alpha and gamma-induction and plasma cortisol levels were also unchanged, as was natural killer cell activity. These data suggest that in humans, no specific components of the immune response are affected by a 2-month isolation and confinement of a small group.

  15. Curcumin prevents human dendritic cell response to immune stimulants

    PubMed Central

    Shirley, Shawna A.; Montpetit, Alison J.; Lockey, R.F.; Mohapatra, Shyam S.

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin, a compound found in the Indian spice turmeric, has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, though the mechanism remains unclear. Dendritic cells (DCs) are important to generating an immune response and the effect of curcumin on human DCs has not been explored. The role curcumin in the DC response to bacterial and viral infection was investigated in vitro using LPS and Poly I:C as models of infection. CD14+ monocytes, isolated from human peripheral blood, were cultured in GM-CSF- and IL-4-supplemented medium to generate immature DCs. Cultures were incubated with curcumin, stimulated with LPS or Poly I:C and functional assays were performed. Curcumin prevents DCs from responding to immunostimulants and inducing naïve CD4+ T cell proliferation by blocking maturation marker, cytokine and chemokine expression and reducing both migration and endocytosis. These data suggest a therapeutic role for curcumin as an immune suppressant. PMID:18639521

  16. [T-lymphocytes--do they control rheumatic immune responses?].

    PubMed

    Wagner, U; Schulze-Koops, H

    2005-09-01

    T cells, in particular CD4(+) T cells, have been implicated in mediating many aspects of rheumatoid inflammation. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), CD4(+) T cells display various functional abnormalities in the synovium as well as in the peripheral circulation. Current evidence suggests, however, that the role of CD4(+) T cells in the development of rheumatoid inflammation exceeds that of activated pro-inflammatory effector T cells that drive the chronic autoimmune response. Subsets of CD4(+) T cells with regulatory capacity, such as CD25(+) Tregs, have been identified in mice and man, and recent observations suggest that in RA, the function of these regulatory T cells is severely impaired. Thus, in RA, defective regulatory immune mechanisms might allow the breakdown of peripheral tolerance, following which the detrimental CD4(+) T-cell-driven immune response evolves and proceeds to chronic inflammation. Here, we review the functional abnormalities and the contribution of different T-cell subsets to rheumatoid inflammation.

  17. Intersections between immune responses and morphological regulation in plants.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Naoyuki; Tasaka, Masao

    2010-06-01

    Successful plant pathogens have developed strategies to interfere with the defence mechanisms of their host plants through evolution. Conversely, host plants have evolved systems to counteract pathogen attack. Some pathogens induce pathogenic symptoms on plants that include morphological changes in addition to interference with plant growth. Recent studies, based on molecular biology and genetics using Arabidopsis thaliana, have revealed that factors derived from pathogens can modulate host systems and/or host factors that play important roles in the morphological regulation of host plants. Other reports, meanwhile, have shown that factors known to have roles in plant morphology also function in plant immune responses. Evolutionary conservation of these factors and systems implies that host-pathogen interactions and the evolution they drive have yielded tight links between morphological processes and immune responses. In this review, recent findings about these topics are introduced and discussed.

  18. Affective immunology: where emotions and the immune response converge.

    PubMed

    D'Acquisto, Fulvio

    2017-03-01

    Affect and emotion are defined as "an essential part of the process of an organism's interaction with stimuli." Similar to affect, the immune response is the "tool" the body uses to interact with the external environment. Thanks to the emotional and immunological response, we learn to distinguish between what we like and what we do not like, to counteract a broad range of challenges, and to adjust to the environment we are living in. Recent compelling evidence has shown that the emotional and immunological systems share more than a similarity of functions. This review article will discuss the crosstalk between these two systems and the need for a new scientific area of research called affective immunology. Research in this field will allow a better understanding and appreciation of the immunological basis of mental disorders and the emotional side of immune diseases.

  19. Curcumin prevents human dendritic cell response to immune stimulants

    SciTech Connect

    Shirley, Shawna A.; Montpetit, Alison J.; Lockey, R.F.

    2008-09-26

    Curcumin, a compound found in the Indian spice turmeric, has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, though the mechanism remains unclear. Dendritic cells (DCs) are important to generating an immune response and the effect of curcumin on human DCs has not been explored. The role curcumin in the DC response to bacterial and viral infection was investigated in vitro using LPS and Poly I:C as models of infection. CD14{sup +} monocytes, isolated from human peripheral blood, were cultured in GM-CSF- and IL-4-supplemented medium to generate immature DCs. Cultures were incubated with curcumin, stimulated with LPS or Poly I:C and functional assays weremore » performed. Curcumin prevents DCs from responding to immunostimulants and inducing CD4{sup +} T cell proliferation by blocking maturation marker, cytokine and chemokine expression and reducing both migration and endocytosis. These data suggest a therapeutic role for curcumin as an immune suppressant.« less

  20. Immune response profiling in early rheumatoid arthritis: discovery of a novel interaction of treatment response with viral immunity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction It remains challenging to predict the outcomes of therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The objective of this study was to identify immune response signatures that correlate with clinical treatment outcomes in patients with RA. Methods A cohort of 71 consecutive patients with early RA starting treatment with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) was recruited. Disease activity at baseline and after 21 to 24 weeks of follow-up was measured using the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28). Immune response profiling was performed by analyzing multi-cytokine production from peripheral blood cells following incubation with a panel of stimuli, including a mixture of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lysates. Profiles identified via principal components analysis (PCA) for each stimulus were then correlated with the ΔDAS28 from baseline to follow-up. A clinically meaningful improvement in the DAS28 was defined as a decrease of ≥1.2. Results A profile of T-cell cytokines (IL-13, IL-4, IL-5, IL-2, IL-12, and IFN-γ) produced in response to CMV/EBV was found to correlate with the ΔDAS28 from baseline to follow-up. At baseline, a higher magnitude of the CMV/EBV immune response profile predicted inadequate DAS28 improvement (mean PCA-1 scores: 65.6 versus 50.2; P = 0.029). The baseline CMV/EBV response was particularly driven by IFN-γ (P = 0.039) and IL-4 (P = 0.027). Among patients who attained clinically meaningful DAS28 improvement, the CMV/EBV PCA-1 score increased from baseline to follow-up (mean +11.6, SD 25.5), whereas among patients who responded inadequately to DMARD therapy, the CMV/EBV PCA-1 score decreased (mean -12.8, SD 25.4; P = 0.002). Irrespective of the ΔDAS28, methotrexate use was associated with up-regulation of the CMV/EBV response. The CMV/EBV profile was associated with positive CMV IgG (P <0.001), but not EBV IgG (P = 0.32), suggesting this response was related to

  1. Enhancement of Immune Memory Responses to Respiratory Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-08-01

    Unlimited Distribution 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Maintenance of long - term immunological memory against pathogens is crucial for the rapid...highly expressed in memory B cells in mice, and Atg7 is required for maintenance of long - term memory B cells needed to protect against influenza...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0360 TITLE: Enhancement of Immune Memory Responses to Respiratory Infection PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORs: Dr Min Chen PhD

  2. Host Immune Responses That Promote Initial HIV Spread

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    exposure to virus and peak viremia. The vaginal mucosa is the most common site of infection and vaccine strategies focus mainly on promoting...spread to the lymph node specifically in the acute phase, i.e., upon vaginal inoculation. The resulting mathematical model is based on mechanistic...for early immune response to SIV and HIV infection are generally assumed to be similar and are described as follows. Virus enters the vaginal lumen and

  3. Immune responses of poultry to Newcastle disease virus.

    PubMed

    Kapczynski, Darrell R; Afonso, Claudio L; Miller, Patti J

    2013-11-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) remains a constant threat to poultry producers worldwide, in spite of the availability and global employment of ND vaccinations since the 1950s. Strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) belong to the order Mononegavirales, family Paramyxoviridae, and genus Avulavirus, are contained in one serotype and are also known as avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1). They are pleomorphic in shape and are single-stranded, non-segmented, negative sense RNA viruses. The virus has been reported to infect most orders of birds and thus has a wide host range. Isolates are characterized by virulence in chickens and the presence of basic amino acids at the fusion protein cleavage site. Low virulent NDV typically produce subclinical disease with some morbidity, whereas virulent isolates can result in rapid, high mortality of birds. Virulent NDV are listed pathogens that require immediate notification to the Office of International Epizootics and outbreaks typically result in trade embargos. Protection against NDV is through the use of vaccines generated with low virulent NDV strains. Immunity is derived from neutralizing antibodies formed against the viral hemagglutinin and fusion glycoproteins, which are responsible for attachment and spread of the virus. However, new techniques and technologies have also allowed for more in depth analysis of the innate and cell-mediated immunity of poultry to NDV. Gene profiling experiments have led to the discovery of novel host genes modulated immediately after infection. Differences in virus virulence alter host gene response patterns have been demonstrated. Furthermore, the timing and contributions of cell-mediated immune responses appear to decrease disease and transmission potential. In view of recent reports of vaccine failure from many countries on the ability of classical NDV vaccines to stop spread of disease, renewed interest in a more complete understanding of the global immune response of poultry to NDV will be

  4. Assessing humoral and cell-mediated immune response in Hawaiian green turtles, Chelonia mydas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Balazs, George H.; Rameyer, Robert; Chang, S.P.; Berestecky, J.

    2000-01-01

    Seven immature green turtles, Chelonia mydas, captured from Kaneohe Bay on the island of Oahu were used to evaluate methods for assessing their immune response. Two turtles each were immunized intramuscularly with egg white lysozyme (EWL) in Freund’s complete adjuvant, Gerbu, or ISA-70; a seventh turtle was immunized with saline only and served as a control. Humoral immune response was measured with an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cell-mediated immune response was measured using in vitro cell proliferation assays (CPA) using whole blood or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM) cultured with concanavalin A (ConA), phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), or soluble egg EWL antigen. All turtles, except for one immunized with Gerbu and the control, produced a detectable humoral immune response by 6 weeks which persisted for at least 14 weeks after a single immunization. All turtles produced an anamnestic humoral immune response after secondary immunization. Antigen specific cell-mediated immune response in PBM was seen in all turtles either after primary or secondary immunization, but it was not as consistent as humoral immune response; antigen specific cell-mediated immune response in whole blood was rarely seen. Mononuclear cells had significantly higher stimulation indices than whole blood regardless of adjuvant, however, results with whole blood had lower variability. Both Gerbu and ISA-70 appeared to potentiate the cell-mediated immune response when PBM or whole blood were cultured with PHA. This is the first time cell proliferation assays have been compared between whole blood and PBM for reptiles. This is also the first demonstration of antigen specific cell-mediated response in reptiles. Cell proliferation assays allowed us to evaluate the cell-mediated immune response of green turtles. However, CPA may be less reliable than ELISA for detecting antigen specific immune response. Either of the three adjuvants appears suitable to safely elicit a

  5. Tailored immune responses: novel effector helper T cell subsets in protective immunity.

    PubMed

    Kara, Ervin E; Comerford, Iain; Fenix, Kevin A; Bastow, Cameron R; Gregor, Carly E; McKenzie, Duncan R; McColl, Shaun R

    2014-02-01

    Differentiation of naïve CD4⁺ cells into functionally distinct effector helper T cell subsets, characterised by distinct "cytokine signatures," is a cardinal strategy employed by the mammalian immune system to efficiently deal with the rapidly evolving array of pathogenic microorganisms encountered by the host. Since the T(H)1/T(H)2 paradigm was first described by Mosmann and Coffman, research in the field of helper T cell biology has grown exponentially with seven functionally unique subsets having now been described. In this review, recent insights into the molecular mechanisms that govern differentiation and function of effector helper T cell subsets will be discussed in the context of microbial infections, with a focus on how these different helper T cell subsets orchestrate immune responses tailored to combat the nature of the pathogenic threat encountered.

  6. Strategies to potentiate immune response after photodynamic therapy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamblin, Michael R.

    2017-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used as a cancer therapy for forty years but has not yet advanced to a mainstream cancer treatment. Although PDT has been shown to be an efficient photochemical way to destroy local tumors by a combination of non-toxic dyes and harmless visible light, it is its additional effects in mediating the stimulation of the host immune system that gives PDT a great potential to become more widely used. Although the stimulation of tumor-specific cytotoxic T-cells that can destroy distant tumor deposits after PDT has been reported in some animal models, it remains the exception rather than the rule. This realization has prompted several investigators to test various combination approaches that could potentiate the immune recognition of tumor antigens that have been released after PDT. Some of these combination approaches use immunostimulants including various microbial preparations that activate Toll-like receptors and other receptors for pathogen associated molecular patterns. Other approaches use cytokines and growth factors whether directly administered or genetically encoded. A promising approach targets regulatory T-cells. We believe that by understanding the methods employed by tumors to evade immune response and neutralizing them, more precise ways of potentiating PDT-induced immunity can be devised.

  7. Injury and immune response: applying the danger theory to mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-García, Miguel; Recio-Tótoro, Benito; Claudio-Piedras, Fabiola; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto

    2014-01-01

    The insect immune response can be activated by the recognition of both non-self and molecular by-products of tissue damage. Since pathogens and tissue damage usually arise at the same time during infection, the specific mechanisms of the immune response to microorganisms, and to tissue damage have not been unraveled. Consequently, some aspects of damage caused by microorganisms in vector-borne arthropods have been neglected. We herein reassess the Anopheles–Plasmodium interaction, incorporating Matzinger’s danger/damage hypothesis and George Salt’s injury assumptions. The invasive forms of the parasite cross the peritrophic matrix and midgut epithelia to reach the basal lamina and differentiate into an oocyst. The sporozoites produced in the oocyst are released into the hemolymph, and from there enter the salivary gland. During parasite development, wounds to midgut tissue and the basement membrane are produced. We describe the response of the different compartments where the parasite interacts with the mosquito. In the midgut, the response includes the expression of antimicrobial peptides, production of reactive oxygen species, and possible activation of midgut regenerative cells. In the basal membrane, wound repair mainly involves the production of molecules and the recruitment of hemocytes. We discuss the susceptibility to damage in tissues, and how the place and degree of damage may influence the differential response and the expression of damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Knowledge about damage caused by parasites may lead to a deeper understanding of the relevance of tissue damage and the immune response it generates, as well as the origins and progression of infection in this insect–parasite interaction. PMID:25250040

  8. Maternal immune status in pregnancy is related to offspring's immune responses and atopy risk.

    PubMed

    Herberth, G; Hinz, D; Röder, S; Schlink, U; Sack, U; Diez, U; Borte, M; Lehmann, I

    2011-08-01

    The influence of maternal immune responses in pregnancy on children's immune competence and the development of atopic diseases later in life are poorly understood. To determine potential maternal effects on the maturation of children's immune system and resulting disease risks, we analysed immune responses in mother-child pairs in a prospective birth cohort study. Within the Lifestyle and Environmental factors and their Influence on Newborns Allergy risk (LINA) study, concentrations of Th1/Th2/Th17 and inflammatory cytokines/chemokines as well as IgE were measured in phytohemagglutinin and lipopolysaccharide stimulated maternal blood in the 34th week of gestation and in corresponding children's blood at birth and 1 year after (n = 353 mother-child pairs). Information on atopic outcomes during the first year of life was obtained from questionnaires. Concentrations of inflammatory markers, excepting TNF-α, were manifold higher in cord blood samples compared with maternal blood. Th1/Th2 cytokines were lower in children's blood with a Th2 bias at birth. Maternal inflammatory parameters (MCP-1, IL-10, TNF-α) in pregnancy showed an association with corresponding cytokines blood levels in children at the age of one. High maternal IgE concentrations in pregnancy were associated with increased children's IgE at birth and at the age of one, whereas children's atopic dermatitis (AD) was determined by maternal AD. Maternal inflammatory cytokines during pregnancy correlate with children's corresponding cytokines at the age of one but are not related to IgE or AD. While maternal IgE predicts children's IgE, AD in children is only associated with maternal disease. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in DNA immunized mink challenged with wild-type canine distemper virus.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Line; Søgaard, Mette; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Jensen, Tove Dannemann; Aasted, Bent; Blixenkrone-Møller, Merete

    2009-07-30

    The aim of the study was to investigate the different phases of the immune response after DNA immunization with the hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein genes from canine distemper virus (CDV). Although attenuated live CDV vaccines have effectively reduced the incidence of disease, canine distemper is still a problem worldwide. The broad host range of CDV creates a constant viral reservoir among wildlife animals. Our results demonstrated early humoral and cell-mediated immune responses (IFN-gamma) in DNA vaccinated mink compared to mock-vaccinated mink after challenge with a Danish wild-type CDV. The DNA vaccine-induced immunity protected the natural host against disease development.

  10. The Ocular Conjunctiva as a Mucosal Immunization Route: A Profile of the Immune Response to the Model Antigen Tetanus Toxoid

    PubMed Central

    Belij, Sandra; Marinkovic, Emilija; Stojicevic, Ivana; Montanaro, Jacqueline; Stein, Elisabeth; Bintner, Nora; Stojanovic, Marijana

    2013-01-01

    Background In a quest for a needle-free vaccine administration strategy, we evaluated the ocular conjunctiva as an alternative mucosal immunization route by profiling and comparing the local and systemic immune responses to the subcutaneous or conjunctival administration of tetanus toxoid (TTd), a model antigen. Materials and methods BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were immunized either subcutaneously with TTd alone or via the conjunctiva with TTd alone, TTd mixed with 2% glycerol or TTd with merthiolate-inactivated whole-cell B. pertussis (wBP) as adjuvants. Mice were immunized on days 0, 7 and 14 via both routes, and an evaluation of the local and systemic immune responses was performed two weeks after the last immunization. Four weeks after the last immunization, the mice were challenged with a lethal dose (2 × LD50) of tetanus toxin. Results The conjunctival application of TTd in BALB/c mice induced TTd-specific secretory IgA production and skewed the TTd-specific immune response toward a Th1/Th17 profile, as determined by the stimulation of IFNγ and IL-17A secretion and/or the concurrent pronounced reduction of IL-4 secretion, irrespective of the adjuvant. In conjunctivaly immunized C57BL/6 mice, only TTd administered with wBP promoted the establishment of a mixed Th1/Th17 TTd-specific immune response, whereas TTd alone or TTd in conjunction with glycerol initiated a dominant Th1 response against TTd. Immunization via the conjunctiva with TTd plus wBP adjuvant resulted in a 33% survival rate of challenged mice compared to a 0% survival rate in non-immunized animals (p<0.05). Conclusion Conjunctival immunization with TTd alone or with various adjuvants induced TTd-specific local and systemic immune responses, predominantly of the Th1 type. The strongest immune responses developed in mice that received TTd together with wBP, which implies that this alternative route might tailor the immune response to fight intracellular bacteria or viruses more effectively. PMID

  11. The ocular conjunctiva as a mucosal immunization route: a profile of the immune response to the model antigen tetanus toxoid.

    PubMed

    Barisani-Asenbauer, Talin; Inic-Kanada, Aleksandra; Belij, Sandra; Marinkovic, Emilija; Stojicevic, Ivana; Montanaro, Jacqueline; Stein, Elisabeth; Bintner, Nora; Stojanovic, Marijana

    2013-01-01

    In a quest for a needle-free vaccine administration strategy, we evaluated the ocular conjunctiva as an alternative mucosal immunization route by profiling and comparing the local and systemic immune responses to the subcutaneous or conjunctival administration of tetanus toxoid (TTd), a model antigen. BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were immunized either subcutaneously with TTd alone or via the conjunctiva with TTd alone, TTd mixed with 2% glycerol or TTd with merthiolate-inactivated whole-cell B. pertussis (wBP) as adjuvants. Mice were immunized on days 0, 7 and 14 via both routes, and an evaluation of the local and systemic immune responses was performed two weeks after the last immunization. Four weeks after the last immunization, the mice were challenged with a lethal dose (2 × LD50) of tetanus toxin. The conjunctival application of TTd in BALB/c mice induced TTd-specific secretory IgA production and skewed the TTd-specific immune response toward a Th1/Th17 profile, as determined by the stimulation of IFNγ and IL-17A secretion and/or the concurrent pronounced reduction of IL-4 secretion, irrespective of the adjuvant. In conjunctivaly immunized C57BL/6 mice, only TTd administered with wBP promoted the establishment of a mixed Th1/Th17 TTd-specific immune response, whereas TTd alone or TTd in conjunction with glycerol initiated a dominant Th1 response against TTd. Immunization via the conjunctiva with TTd plus wBP adjuvant resulted in a 33% survival rate of challenged mice compared to a 0% survival rate in non-immunized animals (p<0.05). Conjunctival immunization with TTd alone or with various adjuvants induced TTd-specific local and systemic immune responses, predominantly of the Th1 type. The strongest immune responses developed in mice that received TTd together with wBP, which implies that this alternative route might tailor the immune response to fight intracellular bacteria or viruses more effectively.

  12. Transcriptomics of the Vaccine Immune Response: Priming With Adjuvant Modulates Recall Innate Responses After Boosting.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Francesco; Pettini, Elena; Kazmin, Dmitri; Ciabattini, Annalisa; Fiorino, Fabio; Gilfillan, Gregor D; Evenroed, Ida M; Andersen, Peter; Pozzi, Gianni; Medaglini, Donata

    2018-01-01

    Transcriptomic profiling of the immune response induced by vaccine adjuvants is of critical importance for the rational design of vaccination strategies. In this study, transcriptomics was employed to profile the effect of the vaccine adjuvant used for priming on the immune response following re-exposure to the vaccine antigen alone. Mice were primed with the chimeric vaccine antigen H56 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis administered alone or with the CAF01 adjuvant and boosted with the antigen alone. mRNA sequencing was performed on blood samples collected 1, 2, and 7 days after priming and after boosting. Gene expression analysis at day 2 after priming showed that the CAF01 adjuvanted vaccine induced a stronger upregulation of the innate immunity modules compared with the unadjuvanted formulation. The immunostimulant effect of the CAF01 adjuvant, used in the primary immunization, was clearly seen after a booster immunization with a low dose of antigen alone. One day after boost, we observed a strong upregulation of multiple genes in blood of mice primed with H56 + CAF01 compared with mice primed with the H56 alone. In particular, blood transcription modules related to innate immune response, such as monocyte and neutrophil recruitment, activation of antigen-presenting cells, and interferon response were activated. Seven days after boost, differential expression of innate response genes faded while a moderate differential expression of T cell activation modules was appreciable. Indeed, immunological analysis showed a higher frequency of H56-specific CD4+ T cells and germinal center B cells in draining lymph nodes, a strong H56-specific humoral response and a higher frequency of antibody-secreting cells in spleen of mice primed with H56 + CAF01. Taken together, these data indicate that the adjuvant used for priming strongly reprograms the immune response that, upon boosting, results in a stronger recall innate response essential for shaping the downstream

  13. The transition between immune and disease states in a cellular automaton model of clonal immune response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezzi, Michele; Celada, Franco; Ruffo, Stefano; Seiden, Philip E.

    1997-02-01

    In this paper we extend the Celada-Seiden (CS) model of the humoral immune response to include infections virus and killer T cells (cellular response). The model represents molecules and cells with bitstrings. The response of the system to virus involves a competition between the ability of the virus to kill the host cells and the host's ability to eliminate the virus. We find two basins of attraction in the dynamics of this system, one is identified with disease and the other with the immune state. There is also an oscillating state that exists on the border of these two stable states. Fluctuations in the population of virus or antibody can end the oscillation and drive the system into one of the stable states. The introduction of mechanisms of cross-regulation between the two responses can bias the system towards one of them. We also study a mean field model, based on coupled maps, to investigate virus-like infections. This simple model reproduces the attractors for average populations observed in the cellular automaton. All the dynamical behavior connected to spatial extension is lost, as is the oscillating feature. Thus the mean field approximation introduced with coupled maps destroys oscillations.

  14. DNA and protein co-immunization improves the magnitude and longevity of humoral immune responses in macaques.

    PubMed

    Jalah, Rashmi; Kulkarni, Viraj; Patel, Vainav; Rosati, Margherita; Alicea, Candido; Bear, Jenifer; Yu, Lei; Guan, Yongjun; Shen, Xiaoying; Tomaras, Georgia D; LaBranche, Celia; Montefiori, David C; Prattipati, Rajasekhar; Pinter, Abraham; Bess, Julian; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Reed, Steven G; Sardesai, Niranjan Y; Venzon, David J; Valentin, Antonio; Pavlakis, George N; Felber, Barbara K

    2014-01-01

    We tested the concept of combining DNA with protein to improve anti-HIV Env systemic and mucosal humoral immune responses. Rhesus macaques were vaccinated with DNA, DNA&protein co-immunization or DNA prime followed by protein boost, and the magnitude and mucosal dissemination of the antibody responses were monitored in both plasma and mucosal secretions. We achieved induction of robust humoral responses by optimized DNA vaccination delivered by in vivo electroporation. These responses were greatly increased upon administration of a protein boost. Importantly, a co-immunization regimen of DNA&protein injected in the same muscle at the same time induced the highest systemic binding and neutralizing antibodies to homologous or heterologous Env as well as the highest Env-specific IgG in saliva. Inclusion of protein in the vaccine resulted in more immunized animals with Env-specific IgG in rectal fluids. Inclusion of DNA in the vaccine significantly increased the longevity of systemic humoral immune responses, whereas protein immunization, either as the only vaccine component or as boost after DNA prime, was followed by a great decline of humoral immune responses overtime. We conclude that DNA&protein co-delivery in a simple vaccine regimen combines the strength of each vaccine component, resulting in improved magnitude, extended longevity and increased mucosal dissemination of the induced antibodies in immunized rhesus macaques.

  15. Engineering Immunity: Modulating Dendritic Cell Subsets and Lymph Node Response to Direct Immune-polarization and Vaccine Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Leleux, Jardin; Atalis, Alexandra; Roy, Krishnendu

    2017-01-01

    While successful vaccines have been developed against many pathogens, there are still many diseases and pathogenic infections that are highly evasive to current vaccination strategies. Thus, more sophisticated approaches to control the type and quality of vaccine-induced immune response must be developed. Dendritic cells (DCs) are the sentinels of the body and play a critical role in immune response generation and direction by bridging innate and adaptive immunity. It is now well recognized that DCs can be separated into many subgroups, each of which has a unique function. Better understanding of how various DC subsets, in lymphoid organs and in the periphery, can be targeted through controlled delivery; and how these subsets modulate and control the resulting immune response could greatly enhance our ability to develop new, effective vaccines against complex diseases. In this review, we provide an overview of DC subset biology and discuss current immunotherapeutic strategies that utilize DC targeting to modulate and control immune responses. PMID:26489733

  16. Multi-scale modeling of the CD8 immune response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbarroux, Loic; Michel, Philippe; Adimy, Mostafa; Crauste, Fabien

    2016-06-01

    During the primary CD8 T-Cell immune response to an intracellular pathogen, CD8 T-Cells undergo exponential proliferation and continuous differentiation, acquiring cytotoxic capabilities to address the infection and memorize the corresponding antigen. After cleaning the organism, the only CD8 T-Cells left are antigen-specific memory cells whose role is to respond stronger and faster in case they are presented this very same antigen again. That is how vaccines work: a small quantity of a weakened pathogen is introduced in the organism to trigger the primary response, generating corresponding memory cells in the process, giving the organism a way to defend himself in case it encounters the same pathogen again. To investigate this process, we propose a non linear, multi-scale mathematical model of the CD8 T-Cells immune response due to vaccination using a maturity structured partial differential equation. At the intracellular scale, the level of expression of key proteins is modeled by a delay differential equation system, which gives the speeds of maturation for each cell. The population of cells is modeled by a maturity structured equation whose speeds are given by the intracellular model. We focus here on building the model, as well as its asymptotic study. Finally, we display numerical simulations showing the model can reproduce the biological dynamics of the cell population for both the primary response and the secondary responses.

  17. Multi-scale modeling of the CD8 immune response

    SciTech Connect

    Barbarroux, Loic, E-mail: loic.barbarroux@doctorant.ec-lyon.fr; Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 36 avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully; Michel, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.michel@ec-lyon.fr

    During the primary CD8 T-Cell immune response to an intracellular pathogen, CD8 T-Cells undergo exponential proliferation and continuous differentiation, acquiring cytotoxic capabilities to address the infection and memorize the corresponding antigen. After cleaning the organism, the only CD8 T-Cells left are antigen-specific memory cells whose role is to respond stronger and faster in case they are presented this very same antigen again. That is how vaccines work: a small quantity of a weakened pathogen is introduced in the organism to trigger the primary response, generating corresponding memory cells in the process, giving the organism a way to defend himself inmore » case it encounters the same pathogen again. To investigate this process, we propose a non linear, multi-scale mathematical model of the CD8 T-Cells immune response due to vaccination using a maturity structured partial differential equation. At the intracellular scale, the level of expression of key proteins is modeled by a delay differential equation system, which gives the speeds of maturation for each cell. The population of cells is modeled by a maturity structured equation whose speeds are given by the intracellular model. We focus here on building the model, as well as its asymptotic study. Finally, we display numerical simulations showing the model can reproduce the biological dynamics of the cell population for both the primary response and the secondary responses.« less

  18. Pulmonary arterial remodeling induced by a Th2 immune response

    PubMed Central

    Daley, Eleen; Emson, Claire; Guignabert, Christophe; de Waal Malefyt, Rene; Louten, Jennifer; Kurup, Viswanath P.; Hogaboam, Cory; Taraseviciene-Stewart, Laimute; Voelkel, Norbert F.; Rabinovitch, Marlene; Grunig, Ekkehard; Grunig, Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial remodeling characterized by increased vascular smooth muscle density is a common lesion seen in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a deadly condition. Clinical correlation studies have suggested an immune pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial remodeling, but experimental proof has been lacking. We show that immunization and prolonged intermittent challenge via the airways with either of two different soluble antigens induced severe muscularization in small- to medium-sized pulmonary arteries. Depletion of CD4+ T cells, antigen-specific T helper type 2 (Th2) response, or the pathogenic Th2 cytokine interleukin 13 significantly ameliorated pulmonary arterial muscularization. The severity of pulmonary arterial muscularization was associated with increased numbers of epithelial cells and macrophages that expressed a smooth muscle cell mitogen, resistin-like molecule α, but surprisingly, there was no correlation with pulmonary hypertension. Our data are the first to provide experimental proof that the adaptive immune response to a soluble antigen is sufficient to cause severe pulmonary arterial muscularization, and support the clinical observations in pediatric patients and in companion animals that muscularization represents one of several injurious events to the pulmonary artery that may collectively contribute to PAH. PMID:18227220

  19. Redox rhythm reinforces the circadian clock to gate immune response.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mian; Wang, Wei; Karapetyan, Sargis; Mwimba, Musoki; Marqués, Jorge; Buchler, Nicolas E; Dong, Xinnian

    2015-07-23

    Recent studies have shown that in addition to the transcriptional circadian clock, many organisms, including Arabidopsis, have a circadian redox rhythm driven by the organism's metabolic activities. It has been hypothesized that the redox rhythm is linked to the circadian clock, but the mechanism and the biological significance of this link have only begun to be investigated. Here we report that the master immune regulator NPR1 (non-expressor of pathogenesis-related gene 1) of Arabidopsis is a sensor of the plant's redox state and regulates transcription of core circadian clock genes even in the absence of pathogen challenge. Surprisingly, acute perturbation in the redox status triggered by the immune signal salicylic acid does not compromise the circadian clock but rather leads to its reinforcement. Mathematical modelling and subsequent experiments show that NPR1 reinforces the circadian clock without changing the period by regulating both the morning and the evening clock genes. This balanced network architecture helps plants gate their immune responses towards the morning and minimize costs on growth at night. Our study demonstrates how a sensitive redox rhythm interacts with a robust circadian clock to ensure proper responsiveness to environmental stimuli without compromising fitness of the organism.

  20. The regulation of autoreactive B cells during innate immune responses.

    PubMed

    Vilen, Barbara J; Rutan, Jennifer A

    2008-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) highlights the dangers of dysregulated B cells and the importance of initiating and maintaining tolerance. In addition to central deletion, receptor editing, peripheral deletion, receptor revision, anergy, and indifference, we have described a new mechanism of B cell tolerance wherein dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages (MPhis) regulate autoreactive B cells during innate immune responses. In part, DCs and MPhis repress autoreactive B cells by releasing IL-6 and soluble CD40L (sCD40L). This mechanism is selective in that IL-6 and sCD40L do not affect Ig secretion by naïve cells during innate immune responses, allowing immunity in the absence of autoimmunity. In lupus-prone mice, DCs and MPhis are defective in secretion of IL-6 and sCD40L and cannot effectively repress autoantibody secretion suggesting that defects in DC/MPhi-mediated tolerance may contribute to the autoimmune phenotype. Further, these studies suggest that reconstituting DCs and MPhis in SLE patients might restore regulation of autoreactive B cells and provide an alternative to immunosuppressive therapies.

  1. Paramyxovirus activation and inhibition of innate immune responses.

    PubMed

    Parks, Griffith D; Alexander-Miller, Martha A

    2013-12-13

    Paramyxoviruses represent a remarkably diverse family of enveloped nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses, some of which are the most ubiquitous disease-causing viruses of humans and animals. This review focuses on paramyxovirus activation of innate immune pathways, the mechanisms by which these RNA viruses counteract these pathways, and the innate response to paramyxovirus infection of dendritic cells (DC). Paramyxoviruses are potent activators of extracellular complement pathways, a first line of defense that viruses must face during natural infections. We discuss mechanisms by which these viruses activate and combat complement to delay neutralization. Once cells are infected, virus replication drives type I interferon (IFN) synthesis that has the potential to induce a large number of antiviral genes. Here we describe four approaches by which paramyxoviruses limit IFN induction: by limiting synthesis of IFN-inducing aberrant viral RNAs, through targeted inhibition of RNA sensors, by providing viral decoy substrates for cellular kinase complexes, and through direct blocking of the IFN promoter. In addition, paramyxoviruses have evolved diverse mechanisms to disrupt IFN signaling pathways. We describe three general mechanisms, including targeted proteolysis of signaling factors, sequestering cellular factors, and upregulation of cellular inhibitors. DC are exceptional cells with the capacity to generate adaptive immunity through the coupling of innate immune signals and T cell activation. We discuss the importance of innate responses in DC following paramyxovirus infection and their consequences for the ability to mount and maintain antiviral T cells. © 2013.

  2. Paramyxovirus Activation and Inhibition of Innate Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Griffith D.; Alexander-Miller, Martha A.

    2014-01-01

    Paramyxoviruses represent a remarkably diverse family of enveloped nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses, some of which are the most ubiquitous disease-causing viruses of humans and animals. This review focuses on paramyxovirus activation of innate immune pathways, the mechanisms by which these RNA viruses counteract these pathways, and the innate response to paramyxovirus infection of dendritic cells (DC). Paramyxoviruses are potent activators of extracellular complement pathways, a first line of defense that viruses must face during natural infections. We discuss mechanisms by which these viruses activate and combat complement to delay neutralization. Once cells are infected, virus replication drives type I interferon (IFN) synthesis that has the potential to induce a large number of antiviral genes. Here we describe four approaches by which paramyxoviruses limit IFN induction: by limiting synthesis of IFN-inducing aberrant viral RNAs, through targeted inhibition of RNA sensors, by providing viral decoy substrates for cellular kinase complexes, and through direct blocking of the IFN promoter. In addition, paramyxoviruses have evolved diverse mechanisms to disrupt IFN signaling pathways. We describe three general mechanisms, including targeted proteolysis of signaling factors, sequestering cellular factors, and upregulation of cellular inhibitors. DC are exceptional cells with the capacity to generate adaptive immunity through the coupling of innate immune signals and T cell activation. We discuss the importance of innate responses in DC following paramyxovirus infection and their consequences for the ability to mount and maintain antiviral T cells. PMID:24056173

  3. Helminth Infections: Recognition and Modulation of the Immune Response by Innate Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Motran, Claudia Cristina; Silvane, Leonardo; Chiapello, Laura Silvina; Theumer, Martin Gustavo; Ambrosio, Laura Fernanda; Volpini, Ximena; Celias, Daiana Pamela; Cervi, Laura

    2018-01-01

    The survival of helminths in the host over long periods of time is the result of a process of adaptation or dynamic co-evolution between the host and the parasite. However, infection with helminth parasites causes damage to the host tissues producing the release of danger signals that induce the recruitment of various cells, including innate immune cells such as macrophages (Mo), dendritic cells (DCs), eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells. In this scenario, these cells are able to secrete soluble factors, which orchestrate immune effector mechanisms that depend on the different niches these parasites inhabit. Here, we focus on recent advances in the knowledge of excretory-secretory products (ESP), resulting from helminth recognition by DCs and Mo. Phagocytes and other cells types such as innate lymphocyte T cells 2 (ILC2), when activated by ESP, participate in an intricate cytokine network to generate innate and adaptive Th2 responses. In this review, we also discuss the mechanisms of innate immune cell-induced parasite killing and the tissue repair necessary to assure helminth survival over long periods of time. PMID:29670630

  4. Stimulation of dendritic cells enhances immune response after photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mroz, Pawel; Castano, Ana P.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2009-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the administration of photosensitizers followed by illumination of the primary tumor with red light producing reactive oxygen species that cause vascular shutdown and tumor cell necrosis and apoptosis. Anti-tumor immunity is stimulated after PDT due to the acute inflammatory response, priming of the immune system to recognize tumor-associated antigens (TAA). The induction of specific CD8+ Tlymphocyte cells that recognize major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) restricted epitopes of TAAs is a highly desirable goal in cancer therapy. The PDT killed tumor cells may be phagocytosed by dendritic cells (DC) that then migrate to draining lymph nodes and prime naÃve T-cells that recognize TAA epitopes. This process is however, often sub-optimal, in part due to tumor-induced DC dysfunction. Instead of DC that can become mature and activated and have a potent antigen-presenting and immune stimulating phenotype, immature dendritic cells (iDC) are often found in tumors and are part of an immunosuppressive milieu including regulatory T-cells and immunosuppressive cytokines such as TGF-beta and IL10. We here report on the use of a potent DC activating agent, an oligonucleotide (ODN) that contains a non-methylated CpG motif and acts as an agonist of toll like receptor (TLR) 9. TLR activation is a danger signal to notify the immune system of the presence of invading pathogens. CpG-ODN (but not scrambled non-CpG ODN) increased bone-marrow DC activation after exposure to PDT-killed tumor cells, and significantly increased tumor response to PDT and mouse survival after peri-tumoral administration. CpG may be a valuable immunoadjuvant to PDT especially for tumors that produce DC dysfunction.

  5. The Lung Immune Response to Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (Lung Immunity to NTHi)

    PubMed Central

    King, Paul T.; Sharma, Roleen

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is divided into typeable or nontypeable strains based on the presence or absence of a polysaccharide capsule. The typeable strains (such as type b) are an important cause of systemic infection, whilst the nontypeable strains (designated as NTHi) are predominantly respiratory mucosal pathogens. NTHi is present as part of the normal microbiome in the nasopharynx, from where it may spread down to the lower respiratory tract. In this context it is no longer a commensal and becomes an important respiratory pathogen associated with a range of common conditions including bronchitis, bronchiectasis, pneumonia, and particularly chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. NTHi induces a strong inflammatory response in the respiratory tract with activation of immune responses, which often fail to clear the bacteria from the lung. This results in recurrent/persistent infection and chronic inflammation with consequent lung pathology. This review will summarise the current literature about the lung immune response to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, a topic that has important implications for patient management. PMID:26114124

  6. Murine immune responses to oral BCG immunization in the presence or absence of prior BCG sensitization.

    PubMed

    Cross, Martin L; Lambeth, Matthew R; Aldwell, Frank E

    2010-02-01

    Oral delivery of live Mycobacterium bovis BCG in a lipid matrix invokes cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses in mice and consequent protection against pulmonary challenge with virulent mycobacteria. To investigate the influence of prior BCG sensitization on oral vaccine efficacy, we assessed CMI responses and BCG colonization of the alimentary tract lymphatics 5 months after oral vaccination, in both previously naive mice and in mice that had been sensitized to BCG by injection 6 months previously. CMI responses did not differ significantly between mice that received subcutaneous BCG followed by oral BCG and those that received either injected or oral BCG alone. In vivo BCG colonization was predominant in the mesenteric lymph nodes after oral vaccination; this colonizing ability was not influenced by prior BCG sensitization. From this murine model study, we conclude that although prior parenteral-route BCG sensitization does not detrimentally affect BCG colonization after oral vaccination, there is no significant immune-boosting effect of the oral vaccine either.

  7. Differential cellular immune response of Galleria mellonella to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Arteaga Blanco, Luis Andrés; Crispim, Josicelli Souza; Fernandes, Kenner Morais; de Oliveira, Leandro Licursi; Pereira, Monalessa Fábia; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira

    2017-10-01

    In the present work, we have investigate the cellular immune response of Galleria mellonella larvae against three strains of the gram-negative bacterium Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae: low-virulence (780), high-virulence (1022) and the serotype 8 reference strain (R8). Prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, oenocytoids and spherulocytes were distinguished according to their size and morphology, their molecular markers and dye-staining properties and their role in the immune response. Total hemocyte count, differential hemocyte count, lysosome activity, autophagic response, cell viability and caspase-3 activation were determined in circulating hemocytes of naive and infected larvae. The presence of the autophagosome protein LC3 A/B within the circulating hemocytes of G. mellonella was dependent on and related to the infecting A. pleuropneumoniae strain and duration of infection. Hemocytes treated with the high-virulence strain expressed higher levels of LC3 A/B, whereas treatment with the low-virulence strain induced lower expression levels of this protein in the cells. Moreover, our results showed that apoptosis in circulating hemocytes of G. mellonella larvae after exposure to virulent bacterial strains occurred simultaneously with excessive cell death response induced by stress and subsequent caspase-3 activation.

  8. Effects of chemotherapy on immune responses in dogs with cancer.

    PubMed

    Walter, Claudia U; Biller, Barbara J; Lana, Susan E; Bachand, Annette M; Dow, Steven W

    2006-01-01

    Chemotherapy is assumed to be immunosuppressive; yet to the authors' knowledge, the effects of common chemotherapy protocols on adaptive immune responses in dogs with cancer have not been fully evaluated. Therefore, a study was conducted to evaluate the effects of 2 common chemotherapy protocols on T- and B-cell numbers and humoral immune responses to de novo vaccination in dogs with cancer. Twenty-one dogs with cancer (12 with lymphoma, 9 with osteosarcoma) were enrolled in a prospective study to assess effects of doxorubicin versus multi-drug chemotherapy on adaptive immunity. Numbers of circulating T and B cells were assessed by flow cytometry, and antibody responses to de novo vaccination were assessed before, during, and after chemotherapy. The T- and B-cell numbers before treatment also were compared with those of healthy, age-matched, control dogs. Prior to treatment, dogs with cancer had significantly fewer (P < .05) CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells than did healthy dogs. Doxorubicin treatment did not cause a significant decrease in T- or B-cell numbers, whereas treatment with combination chemotherapy caused a significant and persistent decrease in B-cell numbers. Antibody titers after vaccination were not significantly different between control and chemotherapy-treated dogs. These findings suggest that chemotherapy may have less impact on T-cell numbers and ability to mount antibody responses in dogs with cancer than was previously anticipated, though dogs with lymphoma or osteosarcoma appear to be relatively T-cell deficient before initiation of chemotherapy.

  9. Muscles provide protection during microbial infection by activating innate immune response pathways in Drosophila and zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Arunita; Roy, Debasish; Patnaik, Esha; Nongthomba, Upendra

    2016-06-01

    Muscle contraction brings about movement and locomotion in animals. However, muscles have also been implicated in several atypical physiological processes including immune response. The role of muscles in immunity and the mechanism involved has not yet been deciphered. In this paper, using Drosophila indirect flight muscles (IFMs) as a model, we show that muscles are immune-responsive tissues. Flies with defective IFMs are incapable of mounting a potent humoral immune response. Upon immune challenge, the IFMs produce anti-microbial peptides (AMPs) through the activation of canonical signaling pathways, and these IFM-synthesized AMPs are essential for survival upon infection. The trunk muscles of zebrafish, a vertebrate model system, also possess the capacity to mount an immune response against bacterial infections, thus establishing that immune responsiveness of muscles is evolutionarily conserved. Our results suggest that physiologically fit muscles might boost the innate immune response of an individual. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Feliform carnivores have a distinguished constitutive innate immune response

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Sonja K.; Wachter, Bettina; Aschenborn, Ortwin H. K.; Thalwitzer, Susanne; Melzheimer, Jörg; Hofer, Heribert; Czirják, Gábor Á.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Determining the immunological phenotype of endangered and threatened populations is important to identify those vulnerable to novel pathogens. Among mammals, members of the order Carnivora are particularly threatened by diseases. We therefore examined the constitutive innate immune system, the first line of protection against invading microbes, of six free-ranging carnivore species; the black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas), the brown hyena (Hyena brunnea), the caracal (Caracal caracal), the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), the leopard (Panthera pardus) and the lion (Panthera leo) using a bacterial killing assay. The differences in immune responses amongst the six species were independent of their foraging behaviour, body mass or social organisation but reflected their phylogenetic relatedness. The bacterial killing capacity of black-backed jackals, a member of the suborder Caniformia, followed the pattern established for a wide variety of vertebrates. In contrast, the five representatives of the suborder Feliformia demonstrated a killing capacity at least an order of magnitude higher than any species reported previously, with a particularly high capacity in caracals and cheetahs. Our results suggest that the immunocompetence of threatened felids such as the cheetah has been underestimated and its assessment ought to consider both innate and adaptive components of the immune system. PMID:27044323

  11. Feliform carnivores have a distinguished constitutive innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Sonja K; Wachter, Bettina; Aschenborn, Ortwin H K; Thalwitzer, Susanne; Melzheimer, Jörg; Hofer, Heribert; Czirják, Gábor Á

    2016-05-15

    Determining the immunological phenotype of endangered and threatened populations is important to identify those vulnerable to novel pathogens. Among mammals, members of the order Carnivora are particularly threatened by diseases. We therefore examined the constitutive innate immune system, the first line of protection against invading microbes, of six free-ranging carnivore species; the black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas), the brown hyena (Hyena brunnea), the caracal (Caracal caracal), the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), the leopard (Panthera pardus) and the lion (Panthera leo) using a bacterial killing assay. The differences in immune responses amongst the six species were independent of their foraging behaviour, body mass or social organisation but reflected their phylogenetic relatedness. The bacterial killing capacity of black-backed jackals, a member of the suborder Caniformia, followed the pattern established for a wide variety of vertebrates. In contrast, the five representatives of the suborder Feliformia demonstrated a killing capacity at least an order of magnitude higher than any species reported previously, with a particularly high capacity in caracals and cheetahs. Our results suggest that the immunocompetence of threatened felids such as the cheetah has been underestimated and its assessment ought to consider both innate and adaptive components of the immune system. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Humoral and Cellular Immune Response in Canine Hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Miller, J; Popiel, J; Chełmońska-Soyta, A

    2015-07-01

    Hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrine diseases in dogs and is generally considered to be autoimmune in nature. In human hypothyroidism, the thyroid gland is destroyed by both cellular (i.e. autoreactive helper and cytotoxic T lymphocytes) and humoral (i.e. autoantibodies specific for thyroglobulin, thyroxine and triiodothyronine) effector mechanisms. Other suggested factors include impaired peripheral immune suppression (i.e. the malfunction of regulatory T cells) or an additional pro-inflammatory effect of T helper 17 lymphocytes. The aim of this study was to evaluate immunological changes in canine hypothyroidism. Twenty-eight clinically healthy dogs, 25 hypothyroid dogs without thyroglobulin antibodies and eight hypothyroid dogs with these autoantibodies were enrolled into the study. There were alterations in serum proteins in hypothyroid dogs compared with healthy controls (i.e. raised concentrations of α-globulins, β2- and γ-globulins) as well as higher concentration of acute phase proteins and circulating immune complexes. Hypothyroid animals had a lower CD4:CD8 ratio in peripheral blood compared with control dogs and diseased dogs also had higher expression of interferon γ (gene and protein expression) and CD28 (gene expression). Similar findings were found in both groups of hypothyroid dogs. Canine hypothyroidism is therefore characterized by systemic inflammation with dominance of a cellular immune response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Outcome Prediction in Mathematical Models of Immune Response to Infection.

    PubMed

    Mai, Manuel; Wang, Kun; Huber, Greg; Kirby, Michael; Shattuck, Mark D; O'Hern, Corey S

    2015-01-01

    Clinicians need to predict patient outcomes with high accuracy as early as possible after disease inception. In this manuscript, we show that patient-to-patient variability sets a fundamental limit on outcome prediction accuracy for a general class of mathematical models for the immune response to infection. However, accuracy can be increased at the expense of delayed prognosis. We investigate several systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) that model the host immune response to a pathogen load. Advantages of systems of ODEs for investigating the immune response to infection include the ability to collect data on large numbers of 'virtual patients', each with a given set of model parameters, and obtain many time points during the course of the infection. We implement patient-to-patient variability v in the ODE models by randomly selecting the model parameters from distributions with coefficients of variation v that are centered on physiological values. We use logistic regression with one-versus-all classification to predict the discrete steady-state outcomes of the system. We find that the prediction algorithm achieves near 100% accuracy for v = 0, and the accuracy decreases with increasing v for all ODE models studied. The fact that multiple steady-state outcomes can be obtained for a given initial condition, i.e. the basins of attraction overlap in the space of initial conditions, limits the prediction accuracy for v > 0. Increasing the elapsed time of the variables used to train and test the classifier, increases the prediction accuracy, while adding explicit external noise to the ODE models decreases the prediction accuracy. Our results quantify the competition between early prognosis and high prediction accuracy that is frequently encountered by clinicians.

  14. Yersinia type III effectors perturb host innate immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Pha, Khavong; Navarro, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    The innate immune system is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Innate immune cells recognize molecular patterns from the pathogen and mount a response to resolve the infection. The production of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species, phagocytosis, and induced programmed cell death are processes initiated by innate immune cells in order to combat invading pathogens. However, pathogens have evolved various virulence mechanisms to subvert these responses. One strategy utilized by Gram-negative bacterial pathogens is the deployment of a complex machine termed the type III secretion system (T3SS). The T3SS is composed of a syringe-like needle structure and the effector proteins that are injected directly into a target host cell to disrupt a cellular response. The three human pathogenic Yersinia spp. (Y. pestis, Y. enterocolitica, and Y. pseudotuberculosis) are Gram-negative bacteria that share in common a 70 kb virulence plasmid which encodes the T3SS. Translocation of the Yersinia effector proteins (YopE, YopH, YopT, YopM, YpkA/YopO, and YopP/J) into the target host cell results in disruption of the actin cytoskeleton to inhibit phagocytosis, downregulation of proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine production, and induction of cellular apoptosis of the target cell. Over the past 25 years, studies on the Yersinia effector proteins have unveiled tremendous knowledge of how the effectors enhance Yersinia virulence. Recently, the long awaited crystal structure of YpkA has been solved providing further insights into the activation of the YpkA kinase domain. Multisite autophosphorylation by YpkA to activate its kinase domain was also shown and postulated to serve as a mechanism to bypass regulation by host phosphatases. In addition, novel Yersinia effector protein targets, such as caspase-1, and signaling pathways including activation of the inflammasome were identified. In this review, we summarize the recent discoveries made on Yersinia

  15. Impaired local immune response in vitamin A-deficient rats.

    PubMed Central

    Sirisinha, S; Darip, M D; Moongkarndi, P; Ongsakul, M; Lamb, A J

    1980-01-01

    The functional integrity of the local immune system in vitamin A-deficient (A-) rats was investigated. Secretory IgA levels in the intestinal fluid of A- rats were significantly lower than in controls. This and the decrease in intensity of immunofluorescent staining for secretory component (SC) in the intestinal cells was related to the duration of vitamin A deprivation. IgG levels in the intestinal fluid, and serum IgA and IgG levels were unaffected in deficiency. Moreover, when the response of animals to DNP50-BGG was evaluated, the local anti-DNP response in the intestine was markedly depressed. These defects may result from impaired synthesis of SC by epithelial cells. On the other hand, the serum antibody response in deficient animals was not noticeably different from that of the controls; if any, htere was a slight reduction in the affinity of antibody. PMID:7389210

  16. The changing shape of vaccination: improving immune responses through geometrical variations of a microdevice for immunization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crichton, Michael Lawrence; Muller, David Alexander; Depelsenaire, Alexandra Christina Isobel; Pearson, Frances Elizabeth; Wei, Jonathan; Coffey, Jacob; Zhang, Jin; Fernando, Germain J. P.; Kendall, Mark Anthony Fernance

    2016-06-01

    Micro-device use for vaccination has grown in the past decade, with the promise of ease-of-use, painless application, stable solid formulations and greater immune response generation. However, the designs of the highly immunogenic devices (e.g. the gene gun, Nanopatch or laser adjuvantation) require significant energy to enter the skin (30-90 mJ). Within this study, we explore a way to more effectively use energy for skin penetration and vaccination. These modifications change the Nanopatch projections from cylindrical/conical shapes with a density of 20,000 per cm2 to flat-shaped protrusions at 8,000 per cm2, whilst maintaining the surface area and volume that is placed within the skin. We show that this design results in more efficient surface crack initiations, allowing the energy to be more efficiently be deployed through the projections into the skin, with a significant overall increase in penetration depth (50%). Furthermore, we measured a significant increase in localized skin cell death (>2 fold), and resultant infiltrate of cells (monocytes and neutrophils). Using a commercial seasonal trivalent human influenza vaccine (Fluvax 2014), our new patch design resulted in an immune response equivalent to intramuscular injection with approximately 1000 fold less dose, while also being a practical device conceptually suited to widespread vaccination.

  17. High-resolution definition of humoral immune response correlates of effective immunity against HIV.

    PubMed

    Alter, Galit; Dowell, Karen G; Brown, Eric P; Suscovich, Todd J; Mikhailova, Anastassia; Mahan, Alison E; Walker, Bruce D; Nimmerjahn, Falk; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris; Ackerman, Margaret E

    2018-03-26

    Defining correlates of immunity by comprehensively interrogating the extensive biological diversity in naturally or experimentally protected subjects may provide insights critical for guiding the development of effective vaccines and antibody-based therapies. We report advances in a humoral immunoprofiling approach and its application to elucidate hallmarks of effective HIV-1 viral control. Systematic serological analysis for a cohort of HIV-infected subjects with varying viral control was conducted using both a high-resolution, high-throughput biophysical antibody profiling approach, providing unbiased dissection of the humoral response, along with functional antibody assays, characterizing antibody-directed effector functions such as complement fixation and phagocytosis that are central to protective immunity. Profiles of subjects with varying viral control were computationally analyzed and modeled in order to deconvolute relationships among IgG Fab properties, Fc characteristics, and effector functions and to identify humoral correlates of potent antiviral antibody-directed effector activity and effective viral suppression. The resulting models reveal multifaceted and coordinated contributions of polyclonal antibodies to diverse antiviral responses, and suggest key biophysical features predictive of viral control. © 2018 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  18. Serum and mucosal immune responses to an inactivated influenza virus vaccine induced by epidermal powder immunization.

    PubMed

    Chen, D; Periwal, S B; Larrivee, K; Zuleger, C; Erickson, C A; Endres, R L; Payne, L G

    2001-09-01

    Both circulating and mucosal antibodies are considered important for protection against infection by influenza virus in humans and animals. However, current inactivated vaccines administered by intramuscular injection using a syringe and needle elicit primarily circulating antibodies. In this study, we report that epidermal powder immunization (EPI) via a unique powder delivery system elicits both serum and mucosal antibodies to an inactivated influenza virus vaccine. Serum antibody responses to influenza vaccine following EPI were enhanced by codelivery of cholera toxin (CT), a synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide containing immunostimulatory CpG motifs (CpG DNA), or the combination of these two adjuvants. In addition, secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) antibodies were detected in the saliva and mucosal lavages of the small intestine, trachea, and vaginal tract, although the titers were much lower than the IgG titers. The local origin of the sIgA antibodies was further shown by measuring antibodies released from cultured tracheal and small intestinal fragments and by detecting antigen-specific IgA-secreting cells in the lamina propria using ELISPOT assays. EPI with a single dose of influenza vaccine containing CT or CT and CpG DNA conferred complete protection against lethal challenges with an influenza virus isolated 30 years ago, whereas a prime and boost immunizations were required for protection in the absence of an adjuvant. The ability to elicit augmented circulating antibody and mucosal antibody responses makes EPI a promising alternative to needle injection for administering vaccines against influenza and other diseases.

  19. Oxygenated drinking water enhances immune activity in pigs and increases immune responses of pigs during Salmonella typhimurium infection.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bock-Gie; Lee, Jin-A; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2012-12-01

    It has been considered that drinking oxygenated water improves oxygen availability, which may increase vitality and improve immune functions. The present study evaluated the effects of oxygenated drinking water on immune function in pigs. Continuous drinking of oxygenated water markedly increased peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation, interleukin-1β expression level and the CD4(+):CD8(+) cell ratio in pigs. During Salmonella Typhimurium infection, total leukocytes and relative cytokines expression levels were significantly increased in pigs consuming oxygenated water compared with pigs consuming tap water. These findings suggest that oxygenated drinking water enhances immune activity in pigs and increases immune responses of pigs during S. Typhimurium Infection.

  20. Phosphatidylserine Exposure Controls Viral Innate Immune Responses by Microglia.

    PubMed

    Tufail, Yusuf; Cook, Daniela; Fourgeaud, Lawrence; Powers, Colin J; Merten, Katharina; Clark, Charles L; Hoffman, Elizabeth; Ngo, Alexander; Sekiguchi, Kohei J; O'Shea, Clodagh C; Lemke, Greg; Nimmerjahn, Axel

    2017-02-08

    Microglia are the intrinsic immune sentinels of the central nervous system. Their activation restricts tissue injury and pathogen spread, but in some settings, including viral infection, this response can contribute to cell death and disease. Identifying mechanisms that control microglial responses is therefore an important objective. Using replication-incompetent adenovirus 5 (Ad5)-based vectors as a model, we investigated the mechanisms through which microglia recognize and respond to viral uptake. Transgenic, immunohistochemical, molecular-genetic, and fluorescence imaging approaches revealed that phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) exposure on the outer leaflet of transduced cells triggers their engulfment by microglia through TAM receptor-dependent mechanisms. We show that inhibition of phospholipid scramblase 1 (PLSCR1) activity reduces intracellular calcium dysregulation, prevents PtdSer externalization, and enables months-long protection of vector-transduced, transgene-expressing cells from microglial phagocytosis. Our study identifies PLSCR1 as a potent target through which the innate immune response to viral vectors, and potentially other stimuli, may be controlled. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Innate and adaptive immune responses to cell death

    PubMed Central

    Rock, Kenneth L.; Lai, Jiann-Jyh; Kono, Hajime

    2011-01-01

    Summary The immune system plays an essential role in protecting the host against infections and to accomplish this task has evolved mechanisms to recognize microbes and destroy them. In addition, it monitors the health of cells and responds to ones that have been injured and die, even if this occurs under sterile conditions. This process is initiated when dying cells expose intracellular molecules that can be recognized by cells of the innate immune system. As a consequence of this recognition, dendritic cells are activated in ways that help to promote T-cell responses to antigens associated with the dying cells. In addition, macrophages are stimulated to produce the cytokine interleukin-1 that then acts on radioresistant parenchymal cells in the host in ways that drive a robust inflammatory response. In addition to dead cells, a number of other sterile particles and altered physiological states can similarly stimulate an inflammatory response and do so through common pathways involving the inflammasome and interleukin-1. These pathways underlie the pathogenesis of a number of diseases. PMID:21884177

  2. Gelam Honey Scavenges Peroxynitrite During the Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Kassim, Mustafa; Mansor, Marzida; Suhaimi, Anwar; Ong, Gracie; Yusoff, Kamaruddin Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Monocytes and macrophages are part of the first-line defense against bacterial, fungal, and viral infections during host immune responses; they express high levels of proinflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic molecules, including nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, and their reaction product peroxynitrite. Peroxynitrite is a short-lived oxidant and a potent inducer of cell death. Honey, in addition to its well-known sweetening properties, is a natural antioxidant that has been used since ancient times in traditional medicine. We examined the ability of Gelam honey, derived from the Gelam tree (Melaleuca spp.), to scavenge peroxynitrite during immune responses mounted in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 when stimulated with lipopolysaccharide/interferon-γ (LPS/IFN-γ) and in LPS-treated rats. Gelam honey significantly improved the viability of LPS/IFN-γ-treated RAW 264.7 cells and inhibited nitric oxide production—similar to the effects observed with an inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (1400W). Furthermore, honey, but not 1400W, inhibited peroxynitrite production from the synthetic substrate 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) and prevented the peroxynitrite-mediated conversion of dihydrorhodamine 123 to its fluorescent oxidation product rhodamine 123. Honey inhibited peroxynitrite synthesis in LPS-treated rats. Thus, honey may attenuate inflammatory responses that lead to cell damage and death, suggesting its therapeutic uses for several inflammatory disorders. PMID:23109904

  3. Zika virus vaccines: immune response, current status, and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Richner, Justin M; Diamond, Michael S

    2018-05-09

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is the most recent mosquito-transmitted virus to cause a global health crisis following its entrance into a naïve population in the Western Hemisphere. Once the ZIKV outbreak began investigators rapidly established small and large animal models of pathogenesis, developed a number candidate vaccines using different platforms, and defined mechanisms of protection. In this review, we characterize the adaptive immune response elicited by ZIKV infections and vaccines, the status of ongoing clinical trials in humans, and discuss future challenges within the field. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Immune Response to Mycobacterial Infection: Lessons from Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Rovina, Nikoletta; Panagiotou, Marios; Koulouris, Nikolaos G.

    2013-01-01

    Detecting and treating active and latent tuberculosis are pivotal elements for effective infection control; yet, due to their significant inherent limitations, the diagnostic means for these two stages of tuberculosis (TB) to date remain suboptimal. This paper reviews the current diagnostic tools for mycobacterial infection and focuses on the application of flow cytometry as a promising method for rapid and reliable diagnosis of mycobacterial infection as well as discrimination between active and latent TB: it summarizes diagnostic biomarkers distinguishing the two states of infection and also features of the distinct immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) at certain stages of infection as revealed by flow cytometry to date. PMID:24376464

  5. Immune response to mycobacterial infection: lessons from flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Rovina, Nikoletta; Panagiotou, Marios; Pontikis, Konstantinos; Kyriakopoulou, Magdalini; Koulouris, Nikolaos G; Koutsoukou, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    Detecting and treating active and latent tuberculosis are pivotal elements for effective infection control; yet, due to their significant inherent limitations, the diagnostic means for these two stages of tuberculosis (TB) to date remain suboptimal. This paper reviews the current diagnostic tools for mycobacterial infection and focuses on the application of flow cytometry as a promising method for rapid and reliable diagnosis of mycobacterial infection as well as discrimination between active and latent TB: it summarizes diagnostic biomarkers distinguishing the two states of infection and also features of the distinct immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) at certain stages of infection as revealed by flow cytometry to date.

  6. The Systemic and Pulmonary Immune Response to Staphylococcal Enterotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Ménoret, Antoine; Ngoi, Soo-Mun; Vella, Anthony T.

    2010-01-01

    In response to environmental cues the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus synthesizes and releases proteinaceous enterotoxins. These enterotoxins are natural etiologic entities of severe food poisoning, toxic shock syndrome, and acute diseases. Staphylococcal enterotoxins are currently listed as Category B Bioterrorism Agents by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. They are associated with respiratory illnesses, and may contribute to exacerbation of pulmonary disease. This likely stems from the ability of Staphylococcal enterotoxins to elicit powerful episodes of T cell stimulation resulting in release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here, we discuss the role of the immune system and potential mechanisms of disease initiation and progression. PMID:22069664

  7. Immune response and histology of humoral rejection in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    González-Molina, Miguel; Ruiz-Esteban, Pedro; Caballero, Abelardo; Burgos, Dolores; Cabello, Mercedes; Leon, Miriam; Fuentes, Laura; Hernandez, Domingo

    2016-01-01

    The adaptive immune response forms the basis of allograft rejection. Its weapons are direct cellular cytotoxicity, identified from the beginning of organ transplantation, and/or antibodies, limited to hyperacute rejection by preformed antibodies and not as an allogenic response. This resulted in allogenic response being thought for decades to have just a cellular origin. But the experimental studies by Gorer demonstrating tissue damage in allografts due to antibodies secreted by B lymphocytes activated against polymorphic molecules were disregarded. The special coexistence of binding and unbinding between antibodies and antigens of the endothelial cell membranes has been the cause of the delay in demonstrating the humoral allogenic response. The endothelium, the target tissue of antibodies, has a high turnover, and antigen-antibody binding is non-covalent. If endothelial cells are attacked by the humoral response, immunoglobulins are rapidly removed from their surface by shedding and/or internalization, as well as degrading the components of the complement system by the action of MCP, DAF and CD59. Thus, the presence of complement proteins in the membrane of endothelial cells is transient. In fact, the acute form of antibody-mediated rejection was not demonstrated until C4d complement fragment deposition was identified, which is the only component that binds covalently to endothelial cells. This review examines the relationship between humoral immune response and the types of acute and chronic histological lesion shown on biopsy of the transplanted organ. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Immune response to 60-day head-down bed rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jinping; Guo, Aihua; Zhong, Ping; Zhang, Hongyu; Wu, Feng; Wan, Yumin; Bai, Yanqiang; Chen, Shanguang; Li, Yinghui

    Introduction: Exposure of humans to spaceflight has resulted in disregulation of the immune system. Head-down bed rest (HDBR) has been extensively used as an earth-bound analog to study physiologic effects mimicking those occurring in weightlessness during spaceflight. It is uncertain how a prolonged period of bed rest affect human immune responses. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 60-day HDBR on immune function and EB virus reactivation in seven male volunteers. Methods: There were seven healthy male volunteers who were subjected to HDBR for 60d. Immunological parameters including leukocyte subset distribution, lymphocyte proliferation to mitogens, secreted cytokine profiles and EB virus reactivation were monitored. Results: Total WBC conunts increased significantly 10d post-HDBR as compared with pre-HDBR. At the same time, the relative percentage of neutrophils was also higher than pre-HDBR but not significant. MFI of CD11b in neutrophils was reduced obviously at thd end of HDBR. T Lymphocyte proliferations to PHA reduced at HDBR 30, HDBR 60 and 10d post-HDBR while IL-2 production decreased significantly at the same time. IFN-and IL-4 production trended to decrease at HDBR 30 and HDBR 60. The relative percentage of T lymphocyte subset, B lymphocyte and NK cells were not altered. EBV EA (early antigen) were negative and EBV VCA titers had no changes through HDBR. Conclusion: The results indicate that several immunological parameters (mainly cellular immunity) are altered significantly by prolonged HDBR, and these changes were similar to those happened in spaceflight.

  9. Innate immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing and other genotypes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chongzhen; Peyron, Pascale; Mestre, Olga; Kaplan, Gilla; van Soolingen, Dick; Gao, Qian; Gicquel, Brigitte; Neyrolles, Olivier

    2010-10-25

    As a species, Mycobacterium tuberculosis is more diverse than previously thought. In particular, the Beijing family of M. tuberculosis strains is spreading and evaluating throughout the world and this is giving rise to public health concerns. Genetic diversity within this family has recently been delineated further and a specific genotype, called Bmyc10, has been shown to represent over 60% of all Beijing clinical isolates in several parts of the world. How the host immune system senses and responds to various M. tuberculosis strains may profoundly influence clinical outcome and the relative epidemiological success of the different mycobacterial lineages. We hypothesised that the success of the Bmyc10 group may, at least in part, rely upon its ability to alter innate immune responses and the secretion of cytokines and chemokines by host phagocytes. We infected human macrophages and dendritic cells with a collection of genetically well-defined M. tuberculosis clinical isolates belonging to various mycobacterial families, including Beijing. We analyzed cytokine and chemokine secretion on a semi-global level using antibody arrays allowing the detection of sixty-five immunity-related soluble molecules. Our data indicate that Beijing strains induce significantly less interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), IL-10 and GRO-α than the H37Rv reference strain, a feature that is variously shared by other modern and ancient M. tuberculosis families and which constitutes a signature of the Beijing family as a whole. However, Beijing strains did not differ relative to each other in their ability to modulate cytokine secretion. Our results confirm and expand upon previous reports showing that M. tuberculosis Beijing strains in general are poor in vitro cytokine inducers in human phagocytes. The results suggest that the epidemiological success of the Beijing Bmyc10 is unlikely to rely upon any specific ability of this group of strains to impair anti-mycobacterial innate

  10. The responses of immune cells to iron oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yaolin; Sherwood, Jennifer A; Lackey, Kimberly H; Qin, Ying; Bao, Yuping

    2016-04-01

    Immune cells play an important role in recognizing and removing foreign objects, such as nanoparticles. Among various parameters, surface coatings of nanoparticles are the first contact with biological system, which critically affect nanoparticle interactions. Here, surface coating effects on nanoparticle cellular uptake, toxicity and ability to trigger immune response were evaluated on a human monocyte cell line using iron oxide nanoparticles. The cells were treated with nanoparticles of three types of coatings (negatively charged polyacrylic acid, positively charged polyethylenimine and neutral polyethylene glycol). The cells were treated at various nanoparticle concentrations (5, 10, 20, 30, 50 μg ml(-1) or 2, 4, 8, 12, 20 μg cm(-2)) with 6 h incubation or treated at a nanoparticle concentration of 50 μg ml(-1) (20 μg cm(-2)) at different incubation times (6, 12, 24, 48 or 72 h). Cell viability over 80% was observed for all nanoparticle treatment experiments, regardless of surface coatings, nanoparticle concentrations and incubation times. The much lower cell viability for cells treated with free ligands (e.g. ~10% for polyethylenimine) suggested that the surface coatings were tightly attached to the nanoparticle surfaces. The immune responses of cells to nanoparticles were evaluated by quantifying the expression of toll-like receptor 2 and tumor necrosis factor-α. The expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and toll-like receptor 2 were not significant in any case of the surface coatings, nanoparticle concentrations and incubation times. These results provide useful information to select nanoparticle surface coatings for biological and biomedical applications. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Differential Immune Microenvironments and Response to Immune Checkpoint Blockade among Molecular Subtypes of Murine Medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Pham, Christina D; Flores, Catherine; Yang, Changlin; Pinheiro, Elaine M; Yearley, Jennifer H; Sayour, Elias J; Pei, Yanxin; Moore, Colin; McLendon, Roger E; Huang, Jianping; Sampson, John H; Wechsler-Reya, Robert; Mitchell, Duane A

    2016-02-01

    Despite significant strides in the identification and characterization of potential therapeutic targets for medulloblastoma, the role of the immune system and its interplay with the tumor microenvironment within these tumors are poorly understood. To address this, we adapted two syngeneic animal models of human Sonic Hedgehog (SHH)-driven and group 3 medulloblastoma for preclinical evaluation in immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice. Multicolor flow cytometric analyses were used to phenotype and characterize immune infiltrating cells within established cerebellar tumors. We observed significantly higher percentages of dendritic cells, infiltrating lymphocytes, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and tumor-associated macrophages in murine SHH model tumors compared with group 3 tumors. However, murine group 3 tumors had higher percentages of CD8(+) PD-1(+) T cells within the CD3 population. PD-1 blockade conferred superior antitumor efficacy in animals bearing intracranial group 3 tumors compared with SHH group tumors, indicating that immunologic differences within the tumor microenvironment can be leveraged as potential targets to mediate antitumor efficacy. Further analysis of anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody localization revealed binding to PD-1(+) peripheral T cells, but not tumor infiltrating lymphocytes within the brain tumor microenvironment. Peripheral PD-1 blockade additionally resulted in a marked increase in CD3(+) T cells within the tumor microenvironment. This is the first immunologic characterization of preclinical models of molecular subtypes of medulloblastoma and demonstration that response to immune checkpoint blockade differs across subtype classification. Our findings also suggest that effective anti-PD-1 blockade does not require that systemically administered antibodies penetrate the brain tumor microenvironment. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Differential immune microenvironments and response to immune checkpoint blockade amongst molecular subtypes of murine medulloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Christina D.; Flores, Catherine; Yang, Changlin; Pinheiro, Elaine M.; Yearley, Jennifer H.; Sayour, Elias J.; Pei, Yanxin; Moore, Colin; McLendon, Roger E.; Huang, Jianping; Sampson, John H.; Wechsler-Reya, Robert; Mitchell, Duane A.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Despite significant strides in the identification and characterization of potential therapeutic targets for medulloblastoma (MB), the role of the immune system and its interplay with the tumor microenvironment within these tumors are poorly understood. To address this, we adapted two syngeneic animal models of human Sonic Hedgehog (SHH)-driven and Group 3 MB for preclinical evaluation in immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice. METHODS AND RESULTS Multicolor flow cytometric analyses were used to phenotype and characterize immune infiltrating cells within established cerebellar tumors. We observed significantly higher percentages of dendritic cells, infiltrating lymphocytes, myeloid derived suppressor cells and tumor-associated macrophages in murine SHH model tumors compared with Group 3 tumors. However, murine Group 3 tumors had higher percentages of CD8+ PD-1+ T cells within the CD3 population. PD-1 blockade conferred superior antitumor efficacy in animals bearing intracranial Group 3 tumors compared to SHH group tumors, indicating that immunologic differences within the tumor microenvironment can be leveraged as potential targets to mediate antitumor efficacy. Further analysis of anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody localization revealed binding to PD-1+ peripheral T cells, but not tumor infiltrating lymphocytes within the brain tumor microenvironment. Peripheral PD-1 blockade additionally resulted in a marked increase in CD3+ T cells within the tumor microenvironment. CONCLUSIONS This is the first immunologic characterization of preclinical models of molecular subtypes of MB and demonstration that response to immune checkpoint blockade differs across subtype classification. Our findings also suggest that effective anti-PD-1 blockade does not require that systemically administered antibodies penetrate the brain tumor microenvironment. PMID:26405194

  13. Immunobiography and the Heterogeneity of Immune Responses in the Elderly: A Focus on Inflammaging and Trained Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Franceschi, Claudio; Salvioli, Stefano; Garagnani, Paolo; de Eguileor, Magda; Monti, Daniela; Capri, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Owing to its memory and plasticity, the immune system (IS) is capable of recording all the immunological experiences and stimuli it was exposed to. The combination of type, dose, intensity, and temporal sequence of antigenic stimuli that each individual is exposed to has been named “immunobiography.” This immunological history induces a lifelong continuous adaptation of the IS, which is responsible for the capability to mount strong, weak or no response to specific antigens, thus determining the large heterogeneity of immunological responses. In the last years, it is becoming clear that memory is not solely a feature of adaptive immunity, as it has been observed that also innate immune cells are provided with a sort of memory, dubbed “trained immunity.” In this review, we discuss the main characteristics of trained immunity as a possible contributor to inflammaging within the perspective of immunobiography, with particular attention to the phenotypic changes of the cell populations known to be involved in trained immunity. In conclusion, immunobiography emerges as a pervasive and comprehensive concept that could help in understanding and interpret the individual heterogeneity of immune responses (to infections and vaccinations) that becomes particularly evident at old age and could affect immunosenescence and inflammaging. PMID:28861086

  14. Interleukin-33, friend and foe in type-2 immune responses.

    PubMed

    Hardman, Clare; Ogg, Graham

    2016-10-01

    IL-33 is the most recent addition to the IL-1 cytokine family, identified in 2005 as the ligand of T1/ST2 and inducer of type-2 immune responses. IL-33 has been implicated in a wide range of disease settings, in anti-inflammatory responses and homeostasis, and thus signalling must be strictly regulated. Altered gene expression, post-translational modification, decoy receptor, and receptor signalling are all modulatory mechanisms used to control the IL-33 pathway. Understanding both the genetic and post-translational factors influencing IL-33 activity will be critical for provision of safe effective treatment of type-2 disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biomimetic Antigenic Nanoparticles Elicit Controlled Protective Immune Response to Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Dustin P.; Rynda-Apple, Agnieszka; Harmsen, Ann L.; Harmsen, Allen G.; Douglas, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Here we present a biomimetic strategy towards nanoparticle design for controlled immune response through encapsulation of conserved internal influenza proteins on the interior of virus like particles (VLPs) to direct CD8+ cytotoxic T cell protection. Programmed encapsulation and sequestration of the conserved nucleoprotein (NP) from influenza on the interior of a VLP, derived from the bacteriophage P22, results in a vaccine that provides multi-strain protection against 100 times lethal doses of influenza in an NP specific CD8+ T cell-dependent manner. VLP assembly and encapsulation of the immunogenic NP cargo protein is the result of a genetically programmed self-assembly making this strategy amendable to the quick production of vaccines to rapidly emerging pathogens. Addition of adjuvants or targeting molecules were not required for eliciting the protective response. PMID:23540530

  16. Redirecting the Immune Response: Role of Adoptive T Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dardalhon, Valérie; Michelini, Rodrigo Hess; Loisel-Meyer, Severine

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Adoptive T cell therapy is aimed at overcoming constraints of the endogenous immune response. In patients with malignancies, this approach is based on the possibility of administering sufficient numbers of tumor-reactive lymphocytes under conditions in which they will promote a therapeutic response. Although this strategy is potentially applicable to a vast number of malignancies, its efficacy, to date, has been limited. This is likely related to several factors including an insufficient persistence and reactivation of infused cells, insufficient tumor infiltration, and the presence of an immunosuppressive environment. Here, we review the importance of pretransplantation host conditioning and posttransplantation strategies that have been shown to contribute to the therapeutic efficacy of infused T lymphocytes. PMID:20201627

  17. Neonate intestinal immune response to CpG oligodeoxynucleotide stimulation.

    PubMed

    Lacroix-Lamandé, Sonia; Rochereau, Nicolas; Mancassola, Roselyne; Barrier, Mathieu; Clauzon, Amandine; Laurent, Fabrice

    2009-12-14

    The development of mucosal vaccines is crucial to efficiently control infectious agents for which mucosae are the primary site of entry. Major drawbacks of these protective strategies are the lack of effective mucosal adjuvant. Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides that contain several unmethylated cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG-ODN) motifs are now recognized as promising adjuvants displaying mucosal adjuvant activity through direct activation of TLR9-expressing cells. However, little is known about the efficacy of these molecules in stimulating the intestinal immune system in neonates. First, newborn mice received CpG-ODN orally, and the intestinal cytokine and chemokine response was measured. We observed that oral administration of CpG-ODN induces CXC and CC chemokine responses and a cellular infiltration in the intestine of neonates as detected by immunohistochemistry. We next compared the efficiency of the oral route to intraperitoneal administration in stimulating the intestinal immune responses of both adults and neonates. Neonates were more responsive to TLR9-stimulation than adults whatever the CpG-ODN administration route. Their intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) indirectly responded to TLR9 stimulation and contributed to the CXC chemokine response, whereas other TLR9-bearing cells of the lamina-propria produced CC chemokines and Th1-type cytokines. Moreover, we showed that the intestine of adult exhibited a significantly higher level of IL10 at homeostasis than neonates, which might be responsible for the unresponsiveness to TLR9-stimulation, as confirmed by our findings in IL10-deficient mice. This is the first report that deciphers the role played by CpG-ODN in the intestine of neonates. This work clearly demonstrates that an intraperitoneal administration of CpG-ODN is more efficient in neonates than in adults to stimulate an intestinal chemokine response due to their lower IL-10 intestinal level. In addition we report the efficiency of the oral route at

  18. Hsp70 Regulates Immune Response in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Mansilla, M. José; Costa, Carme; Eixarch, Herena; Tepavcevic, Vanja; Castillo, Mireia; Martin, Roland; Lubetzki, Catherine; Aigrot, Marie-Stéphane; Montalban, Xavier; Espejo, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Heat shock protein (Hsp)70 is one of the most important stress-inducible proteins. Intracellular Hsp70 not only mediates chaperone-cytoprotective functions but can also block multiple steps in the apoptosis pathway. In addition, Hsp70 is actively released into the extracellular milieu, thereby promoting innate and adaptive immune responses. Thus, Hsp70 may be a critical molecule in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis and a potential target in this disease due to its immunological and cytoprotective functions. To investigate the role of Hsp70 in MS pathogenesis, we examined its immune and cytoprotective roles using both in vitro and in vivo experimental procedures. We found that Hsp70.1-deficient mice were more resistant to developing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) compared with their wild-type (WT) littermates, suggesting that Hsp70.1 plays a critical role in promoting an effective myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-specific T cell response. Conversely, Hsp70.1-deficient mice that developed EAE showed an increased level of autoreactive T cells to achieve the same production of cytokines compared with the WT mice. Although a neuroprotective role of HSP70 has been suggested, Hsp70.1-deficient mice that developed EAE did not exhibit increased demyelination compared with the control mice. Accordingly, Hsp70 deficiency did not influence the vulnerability to apoptosis of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) in culture. Thus, the immunological role of Hsp70 may be relevant in EAE, and specific therapies down-regulating Hsp70 expression may be a promising approach to reduce the early autoimmune response in MS patients. PMID:25153885

  19. Early life socioeconomic position and immune response to persistent infections among elderly Latinos.

    PubMed

    Meier, Helen C S; Haan, Mary N; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F; Simanek, Amanda M; Dowd, Jennifer B; Aiello, Allison E

    2016-10-01

    Persistent infections, such as cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), and Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), are common in the U.S. but their prevalence varies by socioeconomic status. It is unclear if early or later life socioeconomic position (SEP) is a more salient driver of disparities in immune control of these infections. Using data from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging, we examined whether early or later life SEP was the strongest predictor of immune control later in life by contrasting two life course models, the critical period model and the chain of risk model. Early life SEP was measured as a latent variable, derived from parental education and occupation, and food availability. Indicators for SEP in later life included education level and occupation. Individuals were categorized by immune response to each pathogen (seronegative, low, medium and high) with increasing immune response representing poorer immune control. Cumulative immune response was estimated using a latent profile analysis with higher total immune response representing poorer immune control. Structural equation models were used to examine direct, indirect and total effects of early life SEP on each infection and cumulative immune response, controlling for age and gender. The direct effect of early life SEP on immune response was not statistically significant for the infections or cumulative immune response. Higher early life SEP was associated with lower immune response for T. gondii, H. pylori and cumulative immune response through pathways mediated by later life SEP. For CMV, higher early life SEP was both directly associated and partially mediated by later life SEP. No association was found between SEP and HSV-1. Findings from this study support a chain of risk model, whereby early life SEP acts through later life SEP to affect immune response to persistent infections in older age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  20. Characterization and role of the immune response during ligament healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, Connie S.

    inflammation and stimulating remodeling. IL-4 dose- and time-dependently stimulated early ligament regeneration but was unable to maintain the response during later healing. In summary, this work demonstrated the association between the immune cells and ligament healing, indicating a potential for obtaining a more regenerative response by modulating the immune response in a time, dose, and spatial manner.

  1. GSL-enriched membrane microdomains in innate immune responses.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Hitoshi; Ogawa, Hideoki; Takamori, Kenji; Iwabuchi, Kazuhisa

    2013-06-01

    Many pathogens target glycosphingolipids (GSLs), which, together with cholesterol, GPI-anchored proteins, and various signaling molecules, cluster on host cell membranes to form GSL-enriched membrane microdomains (lipid rafts). These GSL-enriched membrane microdomains may therefore be involved in host-pathogen interactions. Innate immune responses are triggered by the association of pathogens with phagocytes, such as neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells. Phagocytes express a diverse array of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), which sense invading microorganisms and trigger pathogen-specific signaling. PRRs can recognize highly conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns expressed on microorganisms. The GSL lactosylceramide (LacCer, CDw17), which binds to various microorganisms, including Candida albicans, is expressed predominantly on the plasma membranes of human mature neutrophils and forms membrane microdomains together with the Src family tyrosine kinase Lyn. These LacCer-enriched membrane microdomains can mediate superoxide generation, migration, and phagocytosis, indicating that LacCer functions as a PRR in innate immunity. Moreover, the interactions of GSL-enriched membrane microdomains with membrane proteins, such as growth factor receptors, are important in mediating the physiological properties of these proteins. Similarly, we recently found that interactions between LacCer-enriched membrane microdomains and CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1, CR3, or αMβ2-integrin) are significant for neutrophil phagocytosis of non-opsonized microorganisms. This review describes the functional role of LacCer-enriched membrane microdomains and their interactions with CD11b/CD18.

  2. Immune response in pemphigus and beyond: progresses and emerging concepts.

    PubMed

    Di Zenzo, Giovanni; Amber, Kyle T; Sayar, Beyza S; Müller, Eliane J; Borradori, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) and pemphigus foliaceus (PF) are two severe autoimmune bullous diseases of the mucosae and/or skin associated with autoantibodies directed against desmoglein (Dsg) 3 and/or Dsg1. These two desmosomal cadherins, typifying stratified epithelia, are components of cell adhesion complexes called desmosomes and represent extra-desmosomal adhesion receptors. We herein review the advances in our understanding of the immune response underlying pemphigus, including human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class II-associated genetic susceptibility, characteristics of pathogenic anti-Dsg antibodies, antigenic mapping studies as well as findings about Dsg-specific B and T cells. The pathogenicity of anti-Dsg autoantibodies has been convincingly demonstrated. Disease activity and clinical phenotype correlate with anti-Dsg antibody titers and profile while passive transfer of anti-Dsg IgG from pemphigus patients' results in pemphigus-like lesions in neonatal and adult mice. Finally, adoptive transfer of splenocytes from Dsg3-knockout mice immunized with murine Dsg3 into immunodeficient mice phenotypically recapitulates PV. Although the exact pathogenic mechanisms leading to blister formation have not been fully elucidated, intracellular signaling following antibody binding has been found to be necessary for inducing cell-cell dissociation, at least for PV. These new insights not only highlight the key role of Dsgs in maintenance of tissue homeostasis but are expected to progressively change pemphigus management, paving the way for novel targeted immunologic and pharmacologic therapies.

  3. Immune Response to Marburg Virus Angola Infection in Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Lisa; Qiu, Xiangguo; Melito, P Leno; Williams, Kinola J N; Feldmann, Friederike; Feldmann, Heinz; Jones, Steven M; Alimonti, Judie B

    2015-10-01

    The 2005 outbreak of Marburg virus (MARV) infection in Angola was the most lethal MARV infection outbreak in history, with a case-fatality rate (90%) similar to that for Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) infection. However, very little is known about the pathogenicity of MARV Angola, as few studies have been conducted to date. Therefore, the immune response was examined in MARV Angola-infected nonhuman primates. Cynomolgus macaques were infected with MARV Angola and monitored for survival. The effect of MARV Angola on the immune system was examined by immunophenotyping whole-blood and by analyzing cytokine and chemokine levels in plasma and spleen specimens, using flow cytometry. The prominent clinical findings were rapid onset of disease and death (mean time after infection, 6.7 days), fever, depression, anorexia, petechial rash, and lymphopenia. Specifically, T, B, and natural killer cells were severely depleted in the blood by day 6. The typical cytokine storm was present, with levels of interferon γ, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 6, and CCL2 rising in the blood early during infection. MARV Angola displayed the same virulence and disease pathology as EBOV. MARV Angola appears to cause a more rapid onset and severe outcome of infection than other MARV strains. © Crown copyright 2015.

  4. T-cell-mediated immune response to respiratory coronaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Channappanavar, Rudragouda; Zhao, Jincun; Perlman, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Emerging respiratory coronaviruses such as the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) pose potential biological threats to humans. SARS and MERS are manifested as severe atypical pneumonia associated with high morbidity and mortality in humans. The majority of studies carried out in SARS-CoV-infected humans and animals attribute a dysregulated/exuberant innate response as a leading contributor to SARS-CoV-mediated pathology. A decade after the 2002–2003 SARS epidemic, we do not have any approved preventive or therapeutic agents available in case of re-emergence of SARS-CoV or other related viruses. A strong neutralizing antibody response generated against the spike (S) glycoprotein of SARS-CoV is completely protective in the susceptible host. However, neutralizing antibody titers and the memory B cell response are short-lived in SARS-recovered patients and the antibody will target primary homologous strain. Interestingly, the acute phase of SARS in humans is associated with a severe reduction in the number of T cells in the blood. Surprisingly, only a limited number of studies have explored the role of the T cell-mediated adaptive immune response in respiratory coronavirus pathogenesis. In this review, we discuss the role of anti-virus CD4 and CD8 T cells during respiratory coronavirus infections with a special emphasis on emerging coronaviruses. PMID:24845462

  5. How sex and age affect immune responses, susceptibility to infections, and response to vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Giefing-Kröll, Carmen; Berger, Peter; Lepperdinger, Günter; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix

    2015-01-01

    Do men die young and sick, or do women live long and healthy? By trying to explain the sexual dimorphism in life expectancy, both biological and environmental aspects are presently being addressed. Besides age-related changes, both the immune and the endocrine system exhibit significant sex-specific differences. This review deals with the aging immune system and its interplay with sex steroid hormones. Together, they impact on the etiopathology of many infectious diseases, which are still the major causes of morbidity and mortality in people at old age. Among men, susceptibilities toward many infectious diseases and the corresponding mortality rates are higher. Responses to various types of vaccination are often higher among women thereby also mounting stronger humoral responses. Women appear immune-privileged. The major sex steroid hormones exhibit opposing effects on cells of both the adaptive and the innate immune system: estradiol being mainly enhancing, testosterone by and large suppressive. However, levels of sex hormones change with age. At menopause transition, dropping estradiol potentially enhances immunosenescence effects posing postmenopausal women at additional, yet specific risks. Conclusively during aging, interventions, which distinctively consider the changing level of individual hormones, shall provide potent options in maintaining optimal immune functions. PMID:25720438

  6. Probiotics and Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses in Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    Premature infants are at increased risk for morbidity and mortality due to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and sepsis. Probiotics decrease the risk of NEC and death in premature infants; however, mechanisms of action are unclear. A wide variety of probiotic species have been evaluated for potential beneficial properties in vitro, in animal models, and in clinical trials of premature infants. Although there is variation by species and even strain, common mechanisms of protection include attenuation of intestinal inflammation, apoptosis, dysmotility, permeability, supplanting other gut microbes through production of bacteriocins, and more effective use of available nutrients. Here, we review the most promising probiotics and what is known about their impact on the innate and adaptive immune response. PMID:28966796

  7. Staphylococcus aureus synthesizes adenosine to escape host immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Thammavongsa, Vilasack; Kern, Justin W.; Missiakas, Dominique M.

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus infects hospitalized or healthy individuals and represents the most frequent cause of bacteremia, treatment of which is complicated by the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus. We examined the ability of S. aureus to escape phagocytic clearance in blood and identified adenosine synthase A (AdsA), a cell wall–anchored enzyme that converts adenosine monophosphate to adenosine, as a critical virulence factor. Staphylococcal synthesis of adenosine in blood, escape from phagocytic clearance, and subsequent formation of organ abscesses were all dependent on adsA and could be rescued by an exogenous supply of adenosine. An AdsA homologue was identified in the anthrax pathogen, and adenosine synthesis also enabled escape of Bacillus anthracis from phagocytic clearance. Collectively, these results suggest that staphylococci and other bacterial pathogens exploit the immunomodulatory attributes of adenosine to escape host immune responses. PMID:19808256

  8. Immune responses in dogs with cutaneous adverse food reactions.

    PubMed

    Veenhof, E Z; Knol, E F; Willemse, T; Rutten, V P M G

    2012-06-01

    Adverse food reactions (AFR) in dogs are reactions due to apparently harmless food antigens, with an unknown aetiology, i.e. immunopathogenesis. Despite the entry of food allergens via the intestinal tract, in the majority of dogs with AFR, clinical symptoms are only associated with the skin (CAFR). In the present review, factors are presented of relevance in triggering the differentiation of naive T cells into effector T cell types and the role of these T cell types in allergy. More specifically, the allergic immune responses in intestine and skin are discussed in this article as well as the potential pathways, e.g. homing of antigen presenting cells or allergen-induced T cells to the skin, of induction of cutaneous symptoms.

  9. Role of thymus-eicosanoids in the immune response.

    PubMed

    Juzan, M; Hostein, I; Gualde, N

    1992-08-01

    The present review deals with the role(s) of thymus-eicosanoids in the immune response. It reports the production of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid by cells of the thymus microenvironment and the role(s) of these eicosanoids in the differentiation and the maturation of immature T-cells. The possibility that these products may be involved in tolerance to self is discussed. Briefly, it is likely that cells from the monocyte-macrophage lineage which constitute a part of the thymus microenvironment could contribute to the education of immature thymocytes by both presenting self-antigens and producing eicosanoids. Tolerance to self might result from PGE2-driven apoptosis and/or LTB4-induced generation of suppressor cells.

  10. Viral evasion of DNA-stimulated innate immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Maria H; Paludan, Søren R

    2017-01-01

    Cellular sensing of virus-derived nucleic acids is essential for early defenses against virus infections. In recent years, the discovery of DNA sensing proteins, including cyclic GMP–AMP synthase (cGAS) and gamma-interferon-inducible protein (IFI16), has led to understanding of how cells evoke strong innate immune responses against incoming pathogens carrying DNA genomes. The signaling stimulated by DNA sensors depends on the adaptor protein STING (stimulator of interferon genes), to enable expression of antiviral proteins, including type I interferon. To facilitate efficient infections, viruses have evolved a wide range of evasion strategies, targeting host DNA sensors, adaptor proteins and transcription factors. In this review, the current literature on virus-induced activation of the STING pathway is presented and we discuss recently identified viral evasion mechanisms targeting different steps in this antiviral pathway. PMID:26972769

  11. Immune and clinical response to honeybee venom in beekeepers.

    PubMed

    Matysiak, Jan; Matysiak, Joanna; Bręborowicz, Anna; Kycler, Zdzisława; Dereziński, Paweł; Kokot, Zenon J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess immune response to honeybee venom in relation to the degree of exposure, time after a sting and clinical symptoms. Fifty-four volunteers were divided into 2 groups: beekeepers and a control group. The serum levels of total IgE (tIgE), bee venom-specific IgE (venom sIgE), phospholipase A2-specific IgE (phospholipase A2 sIgE), tryptase and venom-specific IgG4 (venom sIgG4) were determined. In beekeepers, diagnostic tests were performed within 3 hours following a sting and were repeated after a minimum of 6 weeks from the last sting. In individuals from the control group, the tests were performed only once, without a sting. The tests showed significant differences in venom sIgE (beekeepers' median = 0.34 kUA/l, control group median = 0.29 kUA/l), baseline serum tryptase (beekeepers' median = 4.25 µg/l, control group median = 2.74 µg/l) and sIgG4 (beekeepers' median = 21.2 mgA/l, control group median = 0.14 mgA/l), confirming higher levels of the tested substances in the beekeepers than in the control group. A significant positive correlation was observed between phospholipase A2 sIgE concentration and severity of clinical symptoms after a sting in the group of beekeepers. It was also demonstrated that the clinical symptoms after a sting became less severe with increasing age of the beekeepers. The differences in the immune response to a bee sting between the beekeepers and individuals not exposed to bees were probably due to the high exposure of the beekeepers to honeybee venom allergens. This may suggest a different approach to the bee venom allergy diagnostic tests in this occupational group.

  12. Oral immunization of mice with transgenic tomato fruit expressing respiratory syncytial virus-F protein induces a systemic immune response.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, J S; Krasnyanski, S F; Domier, L L; Korban, S S; Osadjan, M D; Buetow, D E

    2000-04-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most important pathogens of infancy and early childhood. Here a fruit-based edible subunit vaccine against RSV was developed by expressing the RSV fusion (F) protein gene in transgenic tomato plants. The F-gene was expressed in ripening tomato fruit under the control of the fruit-specific E8 promoter. Oral immunization of mice with ripe transgenic tomato fruits led to the induction of both serum and mucosal RSV-F specific antibodies. The ratio of immunoglobulin subclasses produced in response to immunization suggested that a type 1 T-helper cell immune response was preferentially induced. Serum antibodies showed an increased titer when the immunized mice were exposed to inactivated RSV antigen.

  13. Immune Response in Microgravity: Genetic Basis and Countermeasure Development Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risin, Diana; Ward, Nancy E.; Risin, Semyon A.; Pellis, Neal R.

    2006-01-01

    Impairment of the immunity in astronauts and cosmonauts even in shortterm flights is a recognized risk. Longterm orbital space missions and anticipated interplanetary flights increase the concern for more pronounced effects on the immune system with potential clinical consequences. Studies in true and modeled microgravity (MG) have demonstrated that MG directly affects numerous lymphocyte functions. The purpose of this study was to screen for genes involved in lymphocytes response to modeled microgravity (MMG) that could explain the functional and structural changes observed earlier. The microgravity-induced changes in gene expression were analyzed by microarray DNA chip technology. CD3and IL2activated Tcells were cultured in 1g (static) and modeled microgravity (NASA Rotating Wall Vessel bioreactor) conditions for 24 hours. Total RNA was extracted using the RNeasy isolation kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA). Microarray experiments were performed utilizing Affymetrix Gene Chips (U133A), allowing testing for 18,400 human genes. To decrease the biological variation and aid in detecting microgravity-associated changes, experiments were performed in triplicate using cells obtained from three different donors. Exposure to modeled microgravity resulted in alteration of 89 genes, 10 of which were upregulated and 79 down-regulated. Altered genes were categorized by their function, structural role and by association with metabolic and regulatory pathways. A large proportion was found to be involved in fundamental cellular processes: signal transduction, DNA repair, apoptosis, and multiple metabolic pathways. There was a group of genes directly related to immune and inflammatory responses (IL7R, granulysin, proteasome activator subunit 2, peroxiredoxin 4, HLADRA, lymphocyte antigen 75, IL18R and DOCK2 genes). Among these genes only one (IL7R) was upregulated, the rest were downregulated. The upregulation of the IL7 receptor gene was confirmed by RT PCR. Three genes with altered

  14. Evasion of adaptive and innate immune response mechanisms by γ-herpesviruses

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Pinghui; Moses, Ashlee; Früh, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    γ-Herpesviral immune evasion mechanisms are optimized to support the acute, lytic and the longterm, latent phase of infection. During acute infection, specific immune modulatory proteins limit, but also exploit, the antiviral activities of cell intrinsic innate immune responses as well as those of innate and adaptive immune cells. During latent infection, a restricted gene expression program limits immune targeting and cis-acting mechanisms to reduce the antigen presentation as well as antigenicity of latency-associated proteins. Here, we will review recent progress in our understanding of γ-herpesviral immune evasion strategies. PMID:23735334

  15. Sex-specific consequences of an induced immune response on reproduction in a moth.

    PubMed

    Barthel, Andrea; Staudacher, Heike; Schmaltz, Antje; Heckel, David G; Groot, Astrid T

    2015-12-16

    Immune response induction benefits insects in combatting infection by pathogens. However, organisms have a limited amount of resources available and face the dilemma of partitioning resources between immunity and other life-history traits. Since males and females differ in their life histories, sex-specific resource investment strategies to achieve an optimal immune response following an infection can be expected. We investigated immune response induction of females and males of Heliothis virescens in response to the entomopathogenic bacterium Serratia entomophila, and its effects on mating success and the female sexual signal. We found that females had higher expression levels of immune-related genes after bacterial challenge than males. However, males maintained a higher baseline expression of immune-related genes than females. The increased investment in immunity of female moths was negatively correlated with mating success and the female sexual signal. Male mating success was unaffected by bacterial challenge. Our results show that the sexes differed in their investment strategies: females invested in immune defense after a bacterial challenge, indicating facultative immune deployment, whereas males had higher baseline immunity than females, indicating immune maintenance. Interestingly, these differences in investment were reflected in the mate choice assays. As female moths are the sexual signallers, females need to invest resources in their attractiveness. However, female moths appeared to invest in immunity at the cost of reproductive effort.

  16. Contributions of immune responses to developmental resistance in Lymantria dispar challenged with baculovirus

    Treesearch

    James McNeil; Diana Cox-Foster; James Slavicek; Kelli Hoover

    2010-01-01

    How the innate immune system functions to defend insects from viruses is an emerging field of study. We examined the impact of melanized encapsulation, a component of innate immunity that integrates both cellular and humoral immune responses, on the success of the baculovirus Lymantria dispar multiple nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) in its...

  17. Phylogeny of Immune Recognition: Processing and Presentation of Structurally Defined Proteins in Channel Catfish Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Vallejo, Abbe N.; Miller, Norman W.

    1991-01-01

    This work was undertaken to investigate whether or not antigen processing and presentation are important in channel catfish in vitro secondary immune responses elicited with structurally defined proteins, namely, pigeon heart cytochrome C (pCytC), hen egg lysozyme, and horse myoglobin. The use of in vitro antigen-pulsed and fixed B cells or monocytes as antigen presenting cells (APC) resulted in autologous peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) responding with vigorous proliferation and antibody production in vitro. In addition, several long-term catfish monocyte lines have been found to function as efficient APC with autologous but not allogeneic responders. Subsequent separation of the responding PBL into sIg- (T-cell-enriched) and B (sIg+) cell subsets showed that both underwent proliferative responses to antigen-pulsed and fixed APC. Moreover, allogeneic cells used as APC were found to induce only strong mixed leukocyte reactions without specific in vitro antibody production. Initial attempts at identifying the immunogenic region(s) of the protein antigens for catfish indicated there are two such regions for pCytC, namely, peptides 66-80 and 81-104. PMID:1668258

  18. Different protein of Echinococcus granulosus stimulates dendritic induced immune response.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yana; Wang, Qiang; Lv, Shiyu; Zhang, Shengxiang

    2015-06-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a chronic infectious disease that results from a host/parasite interaction. Vaccination with ferritin derived from Echinococcus granulosus is a potential preventative treatment. To understand whether ferritin is capable of inducing a host immune response, we investigated the response of dendritic cells (DCs) to both recombinant ferritin protein and the hydatid fluid (HF) of E. granulosus. We evaluated the immunomodulatory potential of these antigens by performing, immunocytochemistry, electron microscopy and in vivo imaging of monocyte-derived murine DCs. During antigen stimulation of DCs, ferritin cause DCs maturation and induced higher levels of surface marker expression and activated T-cell proliferation and migration. On contrary, HF failed to induce surface marker expression and to stimulate T-cell proliferation. In response to HF, DCs produced interleukin-6 (IL-6), but no IL-12 and IL-10. DCs stimulated with ferritin produced high levels of cytokines. Overall, HF appears to induce host immunosuppression in order to ensure parasite survival via inhibits DC maturation and promotes Th2-dependent secretion of cytokines. Although ferritin also promoted DC maturation and cytokine release, it also activates CD4+T-cell proliferation, but regard of the mechanism of the Eg.ferritin induce host to eradicate E. granulosus were not clear.

  19. Sub-meninges implantation reduces immune response to neural implants.

    PubMed

    Markwardt, Neil T; Stokol, Jodi; Rennaker, Robert L

    2013-04-15

    Glial scar formation around neural interfaces inhibits their ability to acquire usable signals from the surrounding neurons. To improve neural recording performance, the inflammatory response and glial scarring must be minimized. Previous work has indicated that meningeally derived cells participate in the immune response, and it is possible that the meninges may grow down around the shank of a neural implant, contributing to the formation of the glial scar. This study examines whether the glial scar can be reduced by placing a neural probe completely below the meninges. Rats were implanted with sets of loose microwire implants placed either completely below the meninges or implanted conventionally with the upper end penetrating the meninges, but not attached to the skull. Histological analysis was performed 4 weeks following surgical implantation to evaluate the glial scar. Our results found that sub-meninges implants showed an average reduction in reactive astrocyte activity of 63% compared to trans-meninges implants. Microglial activity was also reduced for sub-meninges implants. These results suggest that techniques that isolate implants from the meninges offer the potential to reduce the encapsulation response which should improve chronic recording quality and stability. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Sub-meninges Implantation Reduces Immune Response to Neural Implants

    PubMed Central

    Markwardt, Neil T.; Stokol, Jodi; Rennaker, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Glial scar formation around neural interfaces inhibits their ability to acquire usable signals from the surrounding neurons. To improve neural recording performance, the inflammatory response and glial scarring must be minimized. Previous work has indicated that meningeally derived cells participate in the immune response, and it is possible that the meninges may grow down around the shank of a neural implant, contributing to the formation of the glial scar. This study examines whether the glial scar can be reduced by placing a neural probe completely below the meninges. Rats were implanted with sets of loose microwire implants placed either completely below the meninges or implanted conventionally with the upper end penetrating the meninges, but not attached to the skull. Histological analysis was performed 4 weeks following surgical implantation to evaluate the glial scar. Our results found that sub-meninges implants showed an average reduction in reactive astrocyte activity of 63% compared to trans-meninges implants. Microglial activity was also reduced for sub-meninges implants. These results suggest that techniques that isolate implants from the meninges offer the potential to reduce the encapsulation response which should improve chronic recording quality and stability. PMID:23370311

  1. Profound impairment of adaptive immune responses by alkylating chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Litterman, Adam J.; Zellmer, David M.; Grinnen, Karen L.; Hunt, Matthew A.; Dudek, Arkadiusz Z.; Salazar, Andres M.; Ohlfest, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer vaccines have overall had a record of failure as an adjuvant therapy for malignancies that are treated with alkylating chemotherapy, and the contribution of standard treatment to that failure remains unclear. Vaccines aim to harness the proliferative potential of the immune system by expanding a small number of tumor-specific lymphocytes into a large number of anti-tumor effectors. Clinical trials are often conducted after treatment with alkylating chemotherapy, given either as standard therapy or for immunomodulatory effect. There is mounting evidence for synergy between chemotherapy and adoptive immunotherapy or vaccination against self-antigens; however, the impact of chemotherapy on lymphocytes primed against tumor neo-antigens remains poorly defined. We report here that clinically relevant dosages of standard alkylating chemotherapies such as temozolomide and cyclophosphamide significantly inhibit the proliferative abilities of lymphocytes in mice. This proliferative impairment was long lasting and led to quantitative and qualitative defects in B and T cell responses to neo-antigen vaccines. High affinity responder lymphocytes receiving the strongest proliferative signals from vaccines experienced the greatest DNA damage responses, skewing the response toward lower affinity responders with inferior functional characteristics. Together these defects lead to inferior efficacy and overall survival in murine tumor models treated by neo-antigen vaccines. These results suggest that clinical protocols for cancer vaccines should be designed to avoid exposing responder lymphocytes to alkylating chemotherapy. PMID:23686484

  2. Seasonal changes in the relationship between ornamentation and immune response in red jungle fowl

    PubMed Central

    Zuk, M.; Johnsen, T. S.

    1998-01-01

    Resistance to disease is frequently suggested to be important in mate choice, but information about how immune status can be conveyed is lacking. During the breeding season, male red jungle fowl with large combs, a sexually selected trait, have lower levels of lymphocytes, but greater cell-mediated immunity, indicated by a cutaneous hypersensitivity response. Before the breeding season, however, both cell-mediated immunity and proportion of lymphocytes are positively correlated with comb length. Cell-mediated immunity is particularly important to jungle fowl during the breeding season, because the likelihood of injury during sexual competition is high and cell-mediated immunity is essential for healing wounds and resisting infection. This seasonal change in one aspect of immunity but not another suggests that the birds adaptively maintain certain immune system abilities, and that it can be misleading to use a single aspect of immune response in evaluating immunocompetence.

  3. Treatment with proteasome inhibitor bortezomib enhances antigen-specific CD8+ T cell-mediated antitumor immunity induced by DNA vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Chih Wen; Monie, Archana; Wu, Chao-Yi; Huang, Bruce; Wang, Mei-Cheng; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T.-C.

    2008-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop new innovative therapies for the control of cancer. Antigen-specific immunotherapy and the employment of proteasome inhibitors have emerged as two potentially plausible approaches for the control of cancer. In the current study, we explored the combination of the DNA vaccine encoding calreticulin (CRT) linked to human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E7 antigen (CRT/E7) with the proteasome inhibitor; bortezomib for their ability to generate E7-specific immune responses and antitumor effects in vaccinated mice. We found that the combination of treatment with bortezomib and CRT/E7(detox) DNA generated more potent E7-specific CD8+ T cell immune responses and better therapeutic effects against TC-1 tumors in tumor bearing mice compared to monotherapy. Furthermore, we found that treatment with bortezomib led to increased apoptosis of TC-1 tumor cells and could render the TC-1 tumor cells more susceptible to lysis by E7-specific CTLs. Our data has significant implications for future clinical translation. PMID:18542898

  4. Strain difference in the immune response to hydralazine in inbred guinea-pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ellman, L.; Inman, J.; Green, Ira

    1971-01-01

    Guinea-pigs were immunized with hydralazine in Freund's complete adjuvant. A marked strain difference in the immune response involving both anti-hydralazine antibody and delayed hypersensitivity to hydralazine was observed in different strains of guinea-pigs: Hartley guinea-pigs and inbred strain 13 guinea-pigs were able to mount a vigorous immune response to the drug while inbred strain 2 guinea-pigs appeared to be `low or non-responders'. This difference could not be explained in terms of metabolism of the drug in that no differences in acetylation were observed. Breeding studies suggest that immune responsiveness to hydralazine is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. The immune response to hydralazine may be controlled by a `specific immune response gene' which appears not to be linked to the major strain 13 histocompatibility gene. Anti-nuclear and anti-DNA antibodies could not be demonstrated at a time when the animals manifested a strong immune response to hydralazine. Thus, the development of auto-immune phenomena does not appear to be related to the development of an immune response to the drug in short term immunization. Hydralazine-protein conjugates were synthesized, radio-iodinated and used in a Farr technique for the measurement of anti-hydralazine antibody. These techniques for the assay of anti-hydralazine antibodies may be useful in clinical investigations. Imagesp933-a PMID:5316639

  5. Comparison of the humoral and cellular immune responses between body and head lice following bacterial challenge.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju Hyeon; Min, Jee Sun; Kang, Jae Soon; Kwon, Deok Ho; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Strycharz, Joseph; Koh, Young Ho; Pittendrigh, Barry Robert; Clark, J Marshall; Lee, Si Hyeock

    2011-05-01

    The differences in the immune response between body lice, Pediculus humanus humanus, and head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, were investigated initially by measuring the proliferation rates of two model bacteria, a Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and a Gram-negative Escherichia coli, following challenge by injection. Body lice showed a significantly reduced immune response compared to head lice particularly to E. coli at the early stage of the immune challenge. Annotation of the body louse genome identified substantially fewer immune-related genes compared with other insects. Nevertheless, all required genetic components of the major immune pathways, except for the immune deficiency (Imd) pathway, are still retained in the body louse genome. Transcriptional profiling of representative genes involved in the humoral immune response, following bacterial challenge, revealed that both body and head lice, regardless of their developmental stages, exhibited an increased immune response to S. aureus but little to E. coli. Head lice, however, exhibited a significantly higher phagocytotic activity against E. coli than body lice, whereas the phagocytosis against S. aureus differed only slightly between body and head lice. These findings suggest that the greater immune response in head lice against E. coli is largely due to enhanced phagocytosis and not due to differences in the humoral immune response. The reduced phagocytotic activity in body lice could be responsible, in part, for their increased vector competence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Discovery of stimulation-responsive immune enhancers with CRISPR activation

    PubMed Central

    Simeonov, Dimitre R.; Gowen, Benjamin G.; Boontanrart, Mandy; Roth, Theodore L.; Gagnon, John D.; Mumbach, Maxwell R.; Satpathy, Ansuman T.; Lee, Youjin; Bray, Nicolas L.; Chan, Alice Y.; Lituiev, Dmytro S.; Nguyen, Michelle L.; Gate, Rachel E.; Subramaniam, Meena; Li, Zhongmei; Woo, Jonathan M.; Mitros, Therese; Ray, Graham J.; Curie, Gemma L.; Naddaf, Nicki; Chu, Julia S.; Ma, Hong; Boyer, Eric; Van Gool, Frederic; Huang, Hailiang; Liu, Ruize; Tobin, Victoria R.; Schumann, Kathrin; Daly, Mark J.; Farh, Kyle K; Ansel, K. Mark; Ye, Chun J.; Greenleaf, William J.; Anderson, Mark S.; Bluestone, Jeffrey A.; Chang, Howard Y.; Corn, Jacob E.; Marson, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The majority of genetic variants associated with common human diseases map to enhancers, non-coding elements that shape cell-type-specific transcriptional programs and responses to extracellular cues1–3. Systematic mapping of functional enhancers and their biological contexts is required to understand the mechanisms by which variation in non-coding genetic sequences contributes to disease. Functional enhancers can be mapped by genomic sequence disruption4–6, but this approach is limited to the subset of enhancers that are necessary in the particular cellular context being studied. We hypothesized that recruitment of a strong transcriptional activator to an enhancer would be sufficient to drive target gene expression, even if that enhancer was not currently active in the assayed cells. Here we describe a discovery platform that can identify stimulus-responsive enhancers for a target gene independent of stimulus exposure. We used tiled CRISPR activation (CRISPRa)7 to synthetically recruit a transcriptional activator to sites across large genomic regions (more than 100 kilobases) surrounding two key autoimmunity risk loci, CD69 and IL2RA. We identified several CRISPRa-responsive elements with chromatin features of stimulus-responsive enhancers, including an IL2RA enhancer that harbours an autoimmunity risk variant. Using engineered mouse models, we found that sequence perturbation of the disease-associated Il2ra enhancer did not entirely block Il2ra expression, but rather delayed the timing of gene activation in response to specific extracellular signals. Enhancer deletion skewed polarization of naive T cells towards a pro-inflammatory T helper (TH17) cell state and away from a regulatory T cell state. This integrated approach identifies functional enhancers and reveals how non-coding variation associated with human immune dysfunction alters context-specific gene programs. PMID:28854172

  7. Discovery of stimulation-responsive immune enhancers with CRISPR activation.

    PubMed

    Simeonov, Dimitre R; Gowen, Benjamin G; Boontanrart, Mandy; Roth, Theodore L; Gagnon, John D; Mumbach, Maxwell R; Satpathy, Ansuman T; Lee, Youjin; Bray, Nicolas L; Chan, Alice Y; Lituiev, Dmytro S; Nguyen, Michelle L; Gate, Rachel E; Subramaniam, Meena; Li, Zhongmei; Woo, Jonathan M; Mitros, Therese; Ray, Graham J; Curie, Gemma L; Naddaf, Nicki; Chu, Julia S; Ma, Hong; Boyer, Eric; Van Gool, Frederic; Huang, Hailiang; Liu, Ruize; Tobin, Victoria R; Schumann, Kathrin; Daly, Mark J; Farh, Kyle K; Ansel, K Mark; Ye, Chun J; Greenleaf, William J; Anderson, Mark S; Bluestone, Jeffrey A; Chang, Howard Y; Corn, Jacob E; Marson, Alexander

    2017-09-07

    The majority of genetic variants associated with common human diseases map to enhancers, non-coding elements that shape cell-type-specific transcriptional programs and responses to extracellular cues. Systematic mapping of functional enhancers and their biological contexts is required to understand the mechanisms by which variation in non-coding genetic sequences contributes to disease. Functional enhancers can be mapped by genomic sequence disruption, but this approach is limited to the subset of enhancers that are necessary in the particular cellular context being studied. We hypothesized that recruitment of a strong transcriptional activator to an enhancer would be sufficient to drive target gene expression, even if that enhancer was not currently active in the assayed cells. Here we describe a discovery platform that can identify stimulus-responsive enhancers for a target gene independent of stimulus exposure. We used tiled CRISPR activation (CRISPRa) to synthetically recruit a transcriptional activator to sites across large genomic regions (more than 100 kilobases) surrounding two key autoimmunity risk loci, CD69 and IL2RA. We identified several CRISPRa-responsive elements with chromatin features of stimulus-responsive enhancers, including an IL2RA enhancer that harbours an autoimmunity risk variant. Using engineered mouse models, we found that sequence perturbation of the disease-associated Il2ra enhancer did not entirely block Il2ra expression, but rather delayed the timing of gene activation in response to specific extracellular signals. Enhancer deletion skewed polarization of naive T cells towards a pro-inflammatory T helper (T H 17) cell state and away from a regulatory T cell state. This integrated approach identifies functional enhancers and reveals how non-coding variation associated with human immune dysfunction alters context-specific gene programs.

  8. Discovery of stimulation-responsive immune enhancers with CRISPR activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonov, Dimitre R.; Gowen, Benjamin G.; Boontanrart, Mandy; Roth, Theodore L.; Gagnon, John D.; Mumbach, Maxwell R.; Satpathy, Ansuman T.; Lee, Youjin; Bray, Nicolas L.; Chan, Alice Y.; Lituiev, Dmytro S.; Nguyen, Michelle L.; Gate, Rachel E.; Subramaniam, Meena; Li, Zhongmei; Woo, Jonathan M.; Mitros, Therese; Ray, Graham J.; Curie, Gemma L.; Naddaf, Nicki; Chu, Julia S.; Ma, Hong; Boyer, Eric; van Gool, Frederic; Huang, Hailiang; Liu, Ruize; Tobin, Victoria R.; Schumann, Kathrin; Daly, Mark J.; Farh, Kyle K.; Ansel, K. Mark; Ye, Chun J.; Greenleaf, William J.; Anderson, Mark S.; Bluestone, Jeffrey A.; Chang, Howard Y.; Corn, Jacob E.; Marson, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    The majority of genetic variants associated with common human diseases map to enhancers, non-coding elements that shape cell-type-specific transcriptional programs and responses to extracellular cues. Systematic mapping of functional enhancers and their biological contexts is required to understand the mechanisms by which variation in non-coding genetic sequences contributes to disease. Functional enhancers can be mapped by genomic sequence disruption, but this approach is limited to the subset of enhancers that are necessary in the particular cellular context being studied. We hypothesized that recruitment of a strong transcriptional activator to an enhancer would be sufficient to drive target gene expression, even if that enhancer was not currently active in the assayed cells. Here we describe a discovery platform that can identify stimulus-responsive enhancers for a target gene independent of stimulus exposure. We used tiled CRISPR activation (CRISPRa) to synthetically recruit a transcriptional activator to sites across large genomic regions (more than 100 kilobases) surrounding two key autoimmunity risk loci, CD69 and IL2RA. We identified several CRISPRa-responsive elements with chromatin features of stimulus-responsive enhancers, including an IL2RA enhancer that harbours an autoimmunity risk variant. Using engineered mouse models, we found that sequence perturbation of the disease-associated Il2ra enhancer did not entirely block Il2ra expression, but rather delayed the timing of gene activation in response to specific extracellular signals. Enhancer deletion skewed polarization of naive T cells towards a pro-inflammatory T helper (TH17) cell state and away from a regulatory T cell state. This integrated approach identifies functional enhancers and reveals how non-coding variation associated with human immune dysfunction alters context-specific gene programs.

  9. Role of muscarinic receptors in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    Razani-Boroujerdi, Seddigheh; Behl, Muskaan; Hahn, Fletcher F.; Pena-Philippides, Juan Carlos; Hutt, Julie; Sopori, Mohan L.

    2008-01-01

    Leukocytes contain both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors, and while activation of nicotinic receptors suppresses immune/inflammatory responses, the role of muscarinic receptors in immunity is unclear. We examined the effects of a muscarinic receptor antagonist (atropine) and agonist (oxotremorine), administered chronically through miniosmotic pumps, on immune/inflammatory responses in the rat. Results show that while oxotremorine stimulated, atropine inhibited the antibody and T-cell proliferative responses. Moreover, atropine also suppressed the turpentine-induced leukocytic infiltration and tissue injury, and inhibited chemotaxis of leukocytes toward neutrophil and monocyte/lymphocyte chemoattractants. Thus, activation of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors has opposite effects on the immune/inflammatory responses. PMID:18190972

  10. Dynamic of Immune Response induced in Hepatitis B Surface Antigen-transgenic Mice Immunized with a Novel Therapeutic Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Freya M Freyre; Blanco, Aracelys; Trujillo, Heidy; Hernández, Dunia; García, Daymir; Alba, José S; Abad, Matilde López; Merino, Nelson; Lobaina, Yadira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The development of therapeutic vaccines against chronic hepatitis B requires the capacity of the formulation to subvert a tolerated immune response as well as the evaluation of histopathological damage resulting from the treatment. In the present study, the dynamicity of induced immune response to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was evaluated in transgenic mice that constitutively express the HBsAg gene (HBsAg-tg mice). After immunization with a vaccine candidate containing both surface (HBsAg) and core (HBcAg) antigens of hepatitis B virus (HBV), the effect of vaccination on clearance of circulating HBsAg and the potential histological alterations were examined. Transgenic (tg) and non-transgenic (Ntg) mice were immunized by intranasal (IN) and subcutaneous (SC) routes simultaneously. A control group received phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) by IN route and aluminum by SC route. Positive responses, at both humoral and cellular levels, were obtained after five immunizations in HBsAg-tg mice. Such responses were delayed and of lower intensity in tg mice, compared to vaccinated Ntg mice. Serum IgG response was characterized by a similar IgG subclass pattern. Even when HBsAg-specific CD8+ T cell responses were clearly detectable by gamma-interferon ELISPOT assay, histopathological alterations were not detected in any organ, including the liver and kidneys. Our study demonstrated, that it is possible to subvert the immune tolerance against HBsAg in tg mice, opening a window for new studies to optimize the schedule, dose, and formulation to improve the immune response to the therapeutic vaccine candidate. These results can be considered a safety proof to support clinical developments for the formulation under study. How to cite this article Freyre FM, Blanco A, Trujillo H, Hernández D, García D, Alba JS, Lopez M, Merino N, Lobaina Y, Aguilar JC. Dynamic of Immune Response induced in Hepatitis B Surface Antigen-transgenic Mice Immunized with a Novel

  11. Polar Lipids of Burkholderia pseudomallei Induce Different Host Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mercedes; Mima, Naoko; Trunck, Lily A.; Schweizer, Herbert P.; Bowen, Richard A.; Dascher, Kyle; Mwangi, Waithaka; Eckstein, Torsten M.

    2013-01-01

    Melioidosis is a disease in tropical and subtropical regions of the world that is caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. In endemic regions the disease occurs primarily in humans and goats. In the present study, we used the goat as a model to dissect the polar lipids of B. pseudomallei to identify lipid molecules that could be used for adjuvants/vaccines or as diagnostic tools. We showed that the lipidome of B. pseudomallei and its fractions contain several polar lipids with the capacity to elicit different immune responses in goats, namely rhamnolipids and ornithine lipids which induced IFN-γ, whereas phospholipids and an undefined polar lipid induced strong IL-10 secretion in CD4+ T cells. Autologous T cells co-cultured with caprine dendritic cells (cDCs) and polar lipids of B. pseudomallei proliferated and up-regulated the expression of CD25 (IL-2 receptor) molecules. Furthermore, we demonstrated that polar lipids were able to up-regulate CD1w2 antigen expression in cDCs derived from peripheral blood monocytes. Interestingly, the same polar lipids had only little effect on the expression of MHC class II DR antigens in the same caprine dendritic cells. Finally, antibody blocking of the CD1w2 molecules on cDCs resulted in decreased expression for IFN-γ by CD4+ T cells. Altogether, these results showed that polar lipids of B. pseudomallei are recognized by the caprine immune system and that their recognition is primarily mediated by the CD1 antigen cluster. PMID:24260378

  12. Host immune response in returning travellers infected with malaria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    . Conclusion Significantly higher levels of IL-12 (p40) and lower levels of EGF in CB travellers may serve as useful prognostic markers of disease severity and help guide clinical management upon return. IL-6 and M-CSF in older adults and MCP-1, IL-12 (p40) and M-CSF for P. vivax infected patients may also prove useful in understanding age-associated and species-specific host immune responses, as could the species-specific differences in Ang-2. Regional differences in host immune response to malaria infection within the same species may speak to unique strains circulating in parts of West Africa. PMID:22554058

  13. Host immune response in returning travellers infected with malaria.

    PubMed

    MacMullin, Gregory; Mackenzie, Ronald; Lau, Rachel; Khang, Julie; Zhang, Haibo; Rajwans, Nimerta; Liles, W Conrad; Pillai, Dylan R

    2012-05-03

    ) and lower levels of EGF in CB travellers may serve as useful prognostic markers of disease severity and help guide clinical management upon return. IL-6 and M-CSF in older adults and MCP-1, IL-12 (p40) and M-CSF for P. vivax infected patients may also prove useful in understanding age-associated and species-specific host immune responses, as could the species-specific differences in Ang-2. Regional differences in host immune response to malaria infection within the same species may speak to unique strains circulating in parts of West Africa.

  14. The Receptor That Tames the Innate Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Brines, Michael; Cerami, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Tissue injury, hypoxia and significant metabolic stress activate innate immune responses driven by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and other proinflammatory cytokines that typically increase damage surrounding a lesion. In a compensatory protective response, erythropoietin (EPO) is synthesized in surrounding tissues, which subsequently triggers antiinflammatory and antiapoptotic processes that delimit injury and promote repair. What we refer to as the sequelae of injury or disease are often the consequences of this intentionally discoordinated, primitive system that uses a “scorched earth” strategy to rid the invader at the expense of a serious lesion. The EPO-mediated tissue-protective system depends on receptor expression that is upregulated by inflammation and hypoxia in a distinctive temporal and spatial pattern. The tissue-protective receptor (TPR) is generally not expressed by normal tissues but becomes functional immediately after injury. In contrast to robust and early receptor expression within the immediate injury site, EPO production is delayed, transient and relatively weak. The functional EPO receptor that attenuates tissue injury is distinct from the hematopoietic receptor responsible for erythropoiesis. On the basis of current evidence, the TPR is composed of the β common receptor subunit (CD131) in combination with the same EPO receptor subunit that is involved in erythropoiesis. Additional receptors, including that for the vascular endothelial growth factor, also appear to be a component of the TPR in some tissues, for example, the endothelium. The discoordination of the EPO response system and its relative weakness provide a window of opportunity to intervene with the exogenous ligand. Recently, molecules were designed that preferentially activate only the TPR and thus avoid the potential adverse consequences of activating the hematopoietic receptor. On administration, these agents successfully substitute for a relative deficiency of EPO

  15. The receptor that tames the innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Brines, Michael; Cerami, Anthony

    2012-05-09

    Tissue injury, hypoxia and significant metabolic stress activate innate immune responses driven by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and other proinflammatory cytokines that typically increase damage surrounding a lesion. In a compensatory protective response, erythropoietin (EPO) is synthesized in surrounding tissues, which subsequently triggers antiinflammatory and antiapoptotic processes that delimit injury and promote repair. What we refer to as the sequelae of injury or disease are often the consequences of this intentionally discoordinated, primitive system that uses a "scorched earth" strategy to rid the invader at the expense of a serious lesion. The EPO-mediated tissue-protective system depends on receptor expression that is upregulated by inflammation and hypoxia in a distinctive temporal and spatial pattern. The tissue-protective receptor (TPR) is generally not expressed by normal tissues but becomes functional immediately after injury. In contrast to robust and early receptor expression within the immediate injury site, EPO production is delayed, transient and relatively weak. The functional EPO receptor that attenuates tissue injury is distinct from the hematopoietic receptor responsible for erythropoiesis. On the basis of current evidence, the TPR is composed of the β common receptor subunit (CD131) in combination with the same EPO receptor subunit that is involved in erythropoiesis. Additional receptors, including that for the vascular endothelial growth factor, also appear to be a component of the TPR in some tissues, for example, the endothelium. The discoordination of the EPO response system and its relative weakness provide a window of opportunity to intervene with the exogenous ligand. Recently, molecules were designed that preferentially activate only the TPR and thus avoid the potential adverse consequences of activating the hematopoietic receptor. On administration, these agents successfully substitute for a relative deficiency of EPO

  16. The effect of silicone-gel on the immune response.

    PubMed

    Naim, J O; Lanzafame, R J; van Oss, C J

    1995-01-01

    Silicone materials have been used in medical applications for at least 30 years. Despite this long history of use the question whether silicones can mediate an immunological reaction that may be detrimental to the host remains unanswered. Most studies on the biocompatability of silicones conclude that silicones are chemically stable compounds, which however are often capable of eliciting a benign chronic inflammatory response. Recently, our laboratory has conducted a series of animal experiments aimed at determining the immunological adjuvancy potential of silicone-gel taken from commercial breast implants. Our previous studies have indicated that silicone-gel is a potent humoral (antibody) adjuvant. Our present studies have found that silicone-gel is capable of eliciting auto-antibodies to rat thyroglobulin and bovine collagen II. However this immune response did not produce any histological evidence of thyroiditis or arthritis. Theories to explain why silicone-gel behaves as an adjuvant are discussed along with discussion of the hypothesis on the desirability of replacing silicone-gel with a more hydrophilic material in bioimplants.

  17. Immune response to recombinant Escherichia coli Iss protein in poultry.

    PubMed

    Lynne, Aaron M; Foley, Steven L; Nolan, Lisa K

    2006-06-01

    Colibacillosis accounts for significant losses to the poultry industry, and control efforts are hampered by limited understanding of the mechanisms used by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) to cause disease. We have found that the presence of the increased serum survival gene (iss) is strongly associated with APEC but not with commensal E. coli, making iss, and the protein it encodes (Iss), candidate targets of colibacillosis control procedures. To assess the potential of Iss to elicit a protective response in chickens against APEC challenge, Iss fusion proteins were produced and administered subcutaneously to four groups of 2-wk-old specific-pathogen-free leghorn chickens. At 4 wk postimmunization, birds were challenged with APEC from serogroups 02 and 078 via intramuscular injection. At 2 wk postchallenge, birds were necropsied, and lesions consistent with colibacillosis were scored. Also, sera were collected from the birds pre- and postimmunization, and antibody titers to Iss were determined. Immunized birds produced a humoral response to Iss, and they had significantly lower lesion scores than the unimmunized control birds following challenge with both APEC strains. Birds that received the smallest amount of immunogen had the lowest lesion scores. Although further study will be needed to confirm the value of Iss as an immunoprotective antigen, these preliminary data suggest that Iss may have the potential to elicit significant protection in birds against heterologous E. coli challenge.

  18. Healthcare Worker Occupation and Immune Response to Pneumocystis jirovecii

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Kieran R.; Jarlsberg, Leah G.; Koch, Judy V.; Swartzman, Alexandra; Roth, Brenna M.; Walzer, Peter D.; Huang, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    The reservoir and mode of transmission of Pneumocystis jirovecii remain uncertain. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 126 San Francisco General Hospital staff in clinical (n = 103) and nonclinical (n = 23) occupations to assess whether occupational exposure was associated with immune responses to P. jirovecii. We examined antibody levels by ELISA for 3 overlapping fragments that span the P. jirovecii major surface glycoprotein (Msg): MsgA, MsgB, and MsgC1. Clinical occupation participants had higher geometric mean antibody levels to MsgC1 than did nonclinical occupation participants (21.1 vs. 8.2, p = 0.004); clinical occupation was an independent predictor of higher MsgC1 antibody levels (parameter estimate = 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.29–1.48, p = 0.003). In contrast, occupation was not significantly associated with antibody responses to either MsgA or MsgB. Healthcare workers may have occupational exposure to P. jirovecii. Humans may be a reservoir for P. jirovecii and may transmit it from person to person. PMID:19861050

  19. Movement Limitation and Immune Responses of Rhesus Monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Morton, Darla S.; Swiggett, Jeanene P.; Hakenewerth, Anne M.; Fowler, Nina A.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of restraint on immunological parameters was determined in an 18 day ARRT (adult rhesus restraint test). The monkeys were restrained for 18 days in the experimental station for the orbiting primate (ESOP), the chair of choice for Space Shuttle experiments. Several immunological parameters were determined using peripheral blood, bone marrow, and lymph node specimens from the monkeys. The parameters included: response of bone marrow cells to GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor), leukocyte subset distribution, and production of IFN-alpha (interferon-alpha) and IFN-gamma (interferon-gamma). The only parameter changed after 18 days of restraint was the percentage of CDB+ T cells. No other immunological parameters showed changes due to restraint. Handling and changes in housing prior to the restraint period did apparently result in some restraint-independent immunological changes. Handling must be kept to a minimum and the animals allowed time to recover prior to flight. All experiments must be carefully controlled. Restraint does not appear to be a major issue regarding the effects of space flight on immune responses.

  20. Immune responses to implants - a review of the implications for the design of immunomodulatory biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Franz, Sandra; Rammelt, Stefan; Scharnweber, Dieter; Simon, Jan C

    2011-10-01

    A key for long-term survival and function of biomaterials is that they do not elicit a detrimental immune response. As biomaterials can have profound impacts on the host immune response the concept emerged to design biomaterials that are able to trigger desired immunological outcomes and thus support the healing process. However, engineering such biomaterials requires an in-depth understanding of the host inflammatory and wound healing response to implanted materials. One focus of this review is to outline the up-to-date knowledge on immune responses to biomaterials. Understanding the complex interactions of host response and material implants reveals the need for and also the potential of "immunomodulating" biomaterials. Based on this knowledge, we discuss strategies of triggering appropriate immune responses by functional biomaterials and highlight recent approaches of biomaterials that mimic the physiological extracellular matrix and modify cellular immune responses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dichotomy of protective cellular immune responses to human visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, E A G; Ayed, N B; Musa, A M; Ibrahim, M E; Mukhtar, M M; Zijlstra, E E; Elhassan, I M; Smith, P G; Kieny, P M; Ghalib, H W; Zicker, F; Modabber, F; Elhassan, A M

    2005-01-01

    Healing/protective responses in human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are associated with stimulation/production of Th1 cytokines, such as interferon IFN-γ, and conversion in the leishmanin skin test (LST). Such responses were studied for 90 days in 44 adult healthy volunteers from VL non-endemic areas, with no past history of VL/cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and LST non-reactivity following injection with one of four doses of Alum-precipitated autoclaved Leishmania major (Alum/ALM) ± bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG), a VL candidate vaccine. The vaccine was well tolerated with minimal localized side-effects and without an increase in antileishmanial antibodies or interleukin (IL)-5. Five volunteers (5/44; 11·4%) had significant IFN-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in response to Leishmania antigens in their prevaccination samples (P = 0·001) but were LST non-reactive. On day 45, more than half the volunteers (26/44; 59·0%) had significantly high LST indurations (mean 9·2 ± 2·7 mm) and high IFN-γ levels (mean 1008 ± 395; median 1247 pg/ml). Five volunteers had significant L. donovani antigen-induced IFN-γ production (mean 873 ± 290; median 902; P = 0·001), but were non-reactive in LST. An additional five volunteers (5/44; 11·4%) had low IFN-γ levels (mean 110 ± 124 pg/ml; median 80) and were non-reactive in LST (induration = 00 mm). The remaining eight volunteers had low IFN-γ levels, but significant LST induration (mean 10 ± 2·9 mm; median 11). By day 90 the majority of volunteers (27/44; 61·4%) had significant LST induration (mean 10·8 ± 9·9 mm; P < 0·001), but low levels of L. donovani antigen-induced IFN-γ (mean 66·0 ± 62 pg/ml; P > 0.05). Eleven volunteers (11/44; 25%) had significantly high levels of IFN-γ and LST induration, while five volunteers had low levels of IFN-γ (<100 pg/ml) and no LST reactivity (00 mm). One volunteer was lost to follow-up. In conclusion, it is hypothesized that cellular immune

  2. Dichotomy of protective cellular immune responses to human visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Khalil, E A G; Ayed, N B; Musa, A M; Ibrahim, M E; Mukhtar, M M; Zijlstra, E E; Elhassan, I M; Smith, P G; Kieny, P M; Ghalib, H W; Zicker, F; Modabber, F; Elhassan, A M

    2005-05-01

    cellular immune responses to human VL are dichotomatous, and that IFN-gamma production and the LST response are not in a causal relationship. Following vaccination and probably cure of VL infection, the IFN-gamma response declines with time while the LST response persists. LST is a simple test that can be used to assess candidate vaccine efficacy.

  3. Suppression of secondary immune response by antilymphocyte serum: time relationship between immunization and administration of antilymphocyte serum.

    PubMed Central

    Reuben, C; Sundaram, K; Phondke, G P

    1979-01-01

    The effect of antilymphocyte serum (ALS) on the secondary humoral immune response to sheep erythrocytes (SRBC) in rats was studied by the Jerne plaque assay technique. Its effect was also studied on the delayed hypersensitivity (DH) response to SRBC by the foot pad swelling test. ALS(N), which was prepared against lymphocytes from normal rats, had no effect on the secondary humoral and cellular response or on the primary cellular response, when administered postantigenically. ALS(I), which was raised against lymph node cells from SRBC immunized rats produced significant immunosuppression of the secondary response to SRBC when administered either before or after the antigenic injections. In the case of DH, ALS(I) behaved just like ALS(N) having no effect on the secondary response and suppressing the primary only when administered prior to the antigen. PMID:369994

  4. Regulatory roles of mast cells in immune responses.

    PubMed

    Morita, Hideaki; Saito, Hirohisa; Matsumoto, Kenji; Nakae, Susumu

    2016-09-01

    Mast cells are important immune cells for host defense through activation of innate immunity (via toll-like receptors or complement receptors) and acquired immunity (via FcεRI). Conversely, mast cells also act as effector cells that exacerbate development of allergic or autoimmune disorders. Yet, several lines of evidence show that mast cells act as regulatory cells to suppress certain inflammatory diseases. Here, we review the mechanisms by which mast cells suppress diseases.

  5. Role of Activin A in Immune Response to Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Innate and adaptive immune cells in the tumor microenvironment. Nat Immunol 14:1014-1022, 2013 10. Ji R-R, Chasalow SD, Wang L, et al: An immune... cells also generate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that modify the chemokine and antigen receptors on CTLs both in the lymphoid organs and in the... cells . endogenous, evolutionarily conserved intracellular molecules that are released upon necrotic cell death. By linking the innate and adaptive immune

  6. Chemokine-mediated immune responses in the female genital tract mucosa.

    PubMed

    Deruaz, Maud; Luster, Andrew D

    2015-04-01

    The genital tract mucosa is the site where sexually transmitted infections gain entry to the host. The immune response at this site is thus critical to provide innate protection against pathogens that are seen for the very first time as well as provide long-term pathogen-specific immunity, which would be required for an effective vaccine against sexually transmitted infection. A finely regulated immune response is therefore required to provide an effective barrier against pathogens without compromising the capacity of the genital tract to allow for successful conception and fetal development. We review recent developments in our understanding of the immune response in the female genital tract to infectious pathogens, using herpes simplex virus-2, human immunodeficiency virus-1 and Chlamydia trachomatis as examples, with a particular focus on the role of chemokines in orchestrating immune cell migration necessary to achieve effective innate and adaptive immune responses in the female genital tract.

  7. Pulmonary immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in exposed individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Martin; Lange, Christoph; Stenger, Steffen; Kaufmann, Stefan H. E.; Reiling, Norbert; Schaberg, Tom; van der Merwe, Lize; Maertzdorf, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    Background Blood based Interferon-(IFN)-γ release assays (IGRAs) have a poor predictive value for the development of tuberculosis. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between IGRAs and pulmonary immune responses in tuberculosis contacts in Germany. Methods IGRAs were performed on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells and peripheral blood from close healthy contacts of patients with culturally confirmed tuberculosis. Cellular BAL composition was determined by flow cytometry. BAL cells were co-cultured with three strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and Mtb derived antigens including Purified Protein Derivative (PPD), 6 kD Early Secretory Antigenic Target (ESAT-6) and 10 kD Culture Filtrate Protein (CFP-10). Levels of 29 cytokines and chemokines were analyzed in the supernatants by multiplex assay. Associations and effects were examined using linear mixed-effects models. Results There were wide variations of inter-individual cytokine levels in BAL cell culture supernatants. Mycobacterial infection and stimulation with PPD showed a clear induction of several macrophage and lymphocyte associated cytokines, reflecting activation of these cell types. No robust correlation between cytokine patterns and blood IGRA status of the donor was observed, except for slightly higher Interleukin-2 (IL-2) responses in BAL cells from IGRA-positive donors upon mycobacterial infection compared to cells from IGRA-negative donors. Stronger correlations were observed when cytokine patterns were stratified according to BAL IGRA status. BAL cells from donors with BAL IGRA-positive responses produced significantly more IFN-γ and IL-2 upon PPD stimulation and mycobacterial infection than cells from BAL IGRA-negative individuals. Correlations between BAL composition and basal cytokine release from unstimulated cells were suggestive of pre-activated lymphocytes but impaired macrophage activity in BAL IGRA-positive donors, in contrast to BAL IGRA-negative donors. Conclusions In

  8. Effect of therapeutic irradiation on the immune responses

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, J.M.; Ngo, E.; Lau, B.H.S.

    1976-02-01

    The immune responses of 60 patients undergoing therapeutic irradiation were evaluated according to four anatomical sites irradiated. In vitro lymphocyte transformation tests with PHA, Con-A, and PWM and quantitative assays of IgG, IgA, and IgM were performed on blood obtained from each patient before and during therapy, and two weeks, two months, and six months after therapy. At these same testing intervals, skin tests with PPD, mumps antigen, Candida antigen, and SD-SK were performed. During irradiation, the mean values of all lymphocyte transformation tests were depressed, varying from 48 percent to 64 percent of pretreatment baseline. This depression persisted untilmore » about two months after completion of treatment. By six months, response rose to pretreatment values. When response was evaluated according to sites irradiated with all mitogens, the pelvic and pelvic plus abdominal groups showed consistently greater depression than the chest or head and neck groups. Radiation effected no significant changes in the mean values of IgG, IgA or IgM. A decrease in skin sensitivity was noted during radiation; 73 percent of the subjects responded positively before therapy while only 53 percent had at least one positive test during therapy. By two months postirradiation, 73 percent of the group clinically free of disease had positive skin tests. A comparison of clinical condition with test results is significant when one considers the 17 patients who developed metastatic disease or died from disease. The depression for all three mitogens during radiation therapy was greater for this group. Of the 17, only four had IgG levels in the normal range, and consistently fewer positive skin tests were demonstrated. (auth)« less

  9. Evasion of Influenza A Viruses from Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    van de Sandt, Carolien E.; Kreijtz, Joost H. C. M.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.

    2012-01-01

    The influenza A virus is one of the leading causes of respiratory tract infections in humans. Upon infection with an influenza A virus, both innate and adaptive immune responses are induced. Here we discuss various strategies used by influenza A viruses to evade innate immune responses and recognition by components of the humoral and cellular immune response, which consequently may result in reduced clearing of the virus and virus-infected cells. Finally, we discuss how the current knowledge about immune evasion can be used to improve influenza A vaccination strategies. PMID:23170167

  10. Sex differences in immune responses: Hormonal effects, antagonistic selection, and evolutionary consequences.

    PubMed

    Roved, Jacob; Westerdahl, Helena; Hasselquist, Dennis

    2017-02-01

    Males and females differ in both parasite load and the strength of immune responses and these effects have been verified in humans and other vertebrates. Sex hormones act as important modulators of immune responses; the male sex hormone testosterone is generally immunosuppressive while the female sex hormone estrogen tends to be immunoenhancing. Different sets of T-helper cells (Th) have important roles in adaptive immunity, e.g. Th1 cells trigger type 1 responses which are primarily cell-mediated, and Th2 cells trigger type 2 responses which are primarily humoral responses. In our review of the literature, we find that estrogen and progesterone enhance type 2 and suppress type 1 responses in females, whereas testosterone suppresses type 2 responses and shows an inconsistent pattern for type 1 responses in males. When we combine these patterns of generally immunosuppressive and immunoenhancing effects of the sex hormones, our results imply that the sex differences in immune responses should be particularly strong in immune functions associated with type 2 responses, and less pronounced with type 1 responses. In general the hormone-mediated sex differences in immune responses may lead to genetic sexual conflicts on immunity. Thus, we propose the novel hypothesis that sexually antagonistic selection may act on immune genes shared by the sexes, and that the strength of this sexually antagonistic selection should be stronger for type 2- as compared with type 1-associated immune genes. Finally, we put the consequences of sex hormone-induced effects on immune responses into behavioral and ecological contexts, considering social mating system, sexual selection, geographical distribution of hosts, and parasite abundance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. CELL SURFACE SIGNALING MOLECULES IN THE CONTROL OF IMMUNE RESPONSES: A TIDE MODEL

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yuwen; Yao, Sheng; Chen, Lieping

    2011-01-01

    Summary A large numbers of cell surface signaling molecules (CSSMs) have been molecularly identified and functionally characterized in recent years and, via these studies, our knowledge in the control of immune response has increased exponentially. Two major lines of evidence emerge. First, the majority of immune cells rely on one or few CSSMs to deliver a primary triggering signal to sense their environment, leading to initiation of an immune response. Second, both costimulatory CSSMs that promote the response, and coinhibitory CSSMs that inhibit the response, are required to control direction and magnitude of a given immune response. With such tight feedback, immune responses are tuned and returned to baseline. These findings extend well beyond our previous observation in the requirement for lymphocyte activation and argue a revisit of the traditional “two-signal model” for activation and tolerance of lymphocytes. Here we propose a “tide” model to accommodate and interpret current experimental findings. PMID:21511182

  12. Immunization

    MedlinePlus

    ... remembers" the germ and can fight it again. Vaccines contain germs that have been killed or weakened. When given to a healthy person, the vaccine triggers the immune system to respond and thus ...

  13. Hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope (HVJ-E) can enhance the immune responses of swine immunized with killed PRRSV vaccine

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Zhihong; China Institute of Veterinary Drug Control, Beijing 100081; Zhang, Quan

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the immunoadjuvant effects of HVJ-E on killed PRRSV vaccine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HVJ-E enhanced the humoral and cellular responses of the piglets to PRRSV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is suggested that HVJ-E could be developed as a new-type adjuvant for mammals. -- Abstract: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an economically detrimental pig pathogen that causes significant losses for the pig industry. The immunostimulatory effects of hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope (HVJ-E) in cancer therapy and the adjuvant efficacy of HVJ-E have been previously evaluated. The objective of this study was to investigate the adjuvant effects of HVJ-Emore » on immunization with killed PRRSV vaccine, and to evaluate the protective effects of this immunization strategy against virulent PRRSV infection in piglets. Next, the PRRSV-specific antibody response, lymphocyte proliferation, PRRSV-specific IL-2, IL-10 and IFN-{gamma} production, and the overall protection efficacy were evaluated to assess the immune responses of the piglets. The results showed that the piglets inoculated simultaneously with killed PRRSV vaccine and HVJ-E had a significantly stronger immune response than those inoculated with killed PRRSV vaccine alone. Our results suggest that HVJ-E could be employed as an effective adjuvant to enhance the humoral and cellular responses of piglets to PRRSV.« less

  14. Neuro-Immune Mechanisms in Response to Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    iii ABSTRACT NEURO-IMMUNE MECHANISMS IN RESPONSE TO VENEZUELAN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS INFECTION Major Bruce A. Schoneboom directed by Franziska B...Grieder, DVM, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Microbiology and Immunology, Molecular and Cellular Biology, and Neuroscience Venezuelan equine ...3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NEURO-IMMUNE MECHANISMS IN RESPONSE TO VENEZUELAN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS INFECTION 5a. CONTRACT

  15. Immune Response Augmentation in Metastasized Breast Cancer by Localized Therapy Utilizing Biocompatible Magnetic Fluids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    SUBJECT TERMS Cancer therapy by localized immune response, Magneto -rehological Fluids 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT...Metastasized Breast Cancer by Localized Therapy utilizing Biocompatible Magnetic Fluids PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Cahit Evrensel...2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Immune Response Augmentation in Metastasized Breast Cancer by Localized Therapy utilizing

  16. Quercetin and Its Anti-Allergic Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Mlcek, Jiri; Jurikova, Tunde; Skrovankova, Sona; Sochor, Jiri

    2016-05-12

    Quercetin is the great representative of polyphenols, flavonoids subgroup, flavonols. Its main natural sources in foods are vegetables such as onions, the most studied quercetin containing foods, and broccoli; fruits (apples, berry crops, and grapes); some herbs; tea; and wine. Quercetin is known for its antioxidant activity in radical scavenging and anti-allergic properties characterized by stimulation of immune system, antiviral activity, inhibition of histamine release, decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines, leukotrienes creation, and suppresses interleukin IL-4 production. It can improve the Th1/Th2 balance, and restrain antigen-specific IgE antibody formation. It is also effective in the inhibition of enzymes such as lipoxygenase, eosinophil and peroxidase and the suppression of inflammatory mediators. All mentioned mechanisms of action contribute to the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties of quercetin that can be effectively utilized in treatment of late-phase, and late-late-phase bronchial asthma responses, allergic rhinitis and restricted peanut-induced anaphylactic reactions. Plant extract of quercetin is the main ingredient of many potential anti-allergic drugs, supplements and enriched products, which is more competent in inhibiting of IL-8 than cromolyn (anti-allergic drug disodium cromoglycate) and suppresses IL-6 and cytosolic calcium level increase.

  17. Innate Immune Responses to Engineered Nanomaterials During Allergic Airway Inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipkowski, Kelly Anne

    The field of nanotechnology is continually advancing, and increasing amounts of consumer goods are being produced using engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). The health risks of occupational and/or consumer exposure to ENMs are not completely understood, although significant research indicates that pulmonary exposure to nanomaterials induces toxic effects in the lungs of exposed animals. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are a specific category of ENMs and consist of sheets of graphene rolled into cylinders that are multiple layers thick in order to strengthen their rigidity. MWCNTs have a fiber-like shape, similar to that of asbestos, which allows for a high aspect ratio and makes them difficult to clear from the lung. Studies with rodent models have demonstrated that pulmonary exposure to ENMs, in particular MWCNTs, results in acute lung inflammation and the subsequent development of chronic fibrosis, suggesting a potential human health risk to individuals involved in the manufacturing of products utilizing these nanomaterials. Induction of IL-1beta secretion via activation of the inflammasome is a prime mechanism of MWCNT-induced inflammation. The inflammasome is a multi-protein scaffold found in a variety of cell types that forms in response to a variety of immune signals, including particulates. Sensitization with allergens, such as house dust mite (HDM), increases levels of the T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 in mice and in humans, and there is particular cause for concern in cases of MWCNT exposure in individuals with pre-existing allergic airway disease, such as asthma. MWCNT exposure exacerbates airway inflammation and fibrosis in animal models of pre-existing allergic asthma, suggesting that individuals suffering from asthma are more susceptible to the toxic pulmonary effects of MWCNT exposure. Asthma is an exceptionally prominent human disease, and therefore the goal of this research was to better understand how pre-existing allergic airway

  18. Perturbation of gut bacteria induces a coordinated cellular immune response in the purple sea urchin larva.

    PubMed

    Ch Ho, Eric; Buckley, Katherine M; Schrankel, Catherine S; Schuh, Nicholas W; Hibino, Taku; Solek, Cynthia M; Bae, Koeun; Wang, Guizhi; Rast, Jonathan P

    2016-10-01

    The purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) genome sequence contains a complex repertoire of genes encoding innate immune recognition proteins and homologs of important vertebrate immune regulatory factors. To characterize how this immune system is deployed within an experimentally tractable, intact animal, we investigate the immune capability of the larval stage. Sea urchin embryos and larvae are morphologically simple and transparent, providing an organism-wide model to view immune response at cellular resolution. Here we present evidence for immune function in five mesenchymal cell types based on morphology, behavior and gene expression. Two cell types are phagocytic; the others interact at sites of microbial detection or injury. We characterize immune-associated gene markers for three cell types, including a perforin-like molecule, a scavenger receptor, a complement-like thioester-containing protein and the echinoderm-specific immune response factor 185/333. We elicit larval immune responses by (1) bacterial injection into the blastocoel and (2) seawater exposure to the marine bacterium Vibrio diazotrophicus to perturb immune state in the gut. Exposure at the epithelium induces a strong response in which pigment cells (one type of immune cell) migrate from the ectoderm to interact with the gut epithelium. Bacteria that accumulate in the gut later invade the blastocoel, where they are cleared by phagocytic and granular immune cells. The complexity of this coordinated, dynamic inflammatory program within the simple larval morphology provides a system in which to characterize processes that direct both aspects of the echinoderm-specific immune response as well as those that are shared with other deuterostomes, including vertebrates.

  19. CHRONOVAC VOYAGEUR: A study of the immune response to yellow fever vaccine among infants previously immunized against measles.

    PubMed

    Goujon, Catherine; Gougeon, Marie-Lise; Tondeur, Laura; Poirier, Béatrice; Seffer, Valérie; Desprès, Philippe; Consigny, Paul-Henri; Vray, Muriel

    2017-10-27

    For administration of multiple live attenuated vaccines, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends either simultaneous immunization or period of at least 28days between vaccines, due to a possible reduction in the immune response to either vaccine. The main objective of this study was to compare the immune response to measles (alone or combined with mumps and rubella) and yellow fever vaccines among infants aged 6-24months living in a yellow fever non-endemic country who had receivedmeasles and yellow fever vaccines before travelling to a yellow fever endemic area. A retrospective, multicenter case-control study was carried out in 7 travel clinics in the Paris area from February 1st 2011 to march 31, 2015. Cases were defined as infants immunized with the yellow fever vaccine and with the measles vaccine, either alone or in combination with mumps and rubella vaccine, with a period of 1-27days between each immunization. For each case, two controls were matched based on sex and age: a first control group (control 1) was defined as infants having received the measles vaccine and the yellow fever vaccine simultaneously; a second control group (control 2) was defined as infants who had a period of more than 27days between receiving the measles vaccine and yellow fever vaccine. The primary endpoint of the study was the percentage of infants with protective immunity against yellow fever, measured by the titer of neutralizing antibodies in a venous blood sample. One hundred and thirty-one infants were included in the study (62 cases, 50 infants in control 1 and 19 infants in control 2). Of these, 127 (96%) were shown to have a protective titer of yellow fever antibodies. All 4 infants without a protective titer of yellow fever antibodies were part of control group 1. The measles vaccine, alone or combined with mumps and rubella vaccines, appears to have no influence on humoral immune response to the yellow fever vaccine when administered between 1 and 27

  20. Immune evasion strategies of ranaviruses and innate immune responses to these emerging pathogens.

    PubMed

    Grayfer, Leon; Andino, Francisco De Jesús; Chen, Guangchun; Chinchar, Gregory V; Robert, Jacques

    2012-07-01

    Ranaviruses (RV, Iridoviridae) are large double-stranded DNA viruses that infect fish, amphibians and reptiles. For ecological and commercial reasons, considerable attention has been drawn to the increasing prevalence of ranaviral infections of wild populations and in aquacultural settings. Importantly, RVs appear to be capable of crossing species barriers of numerous poikilotherms, suggesting that these pathogens possess a broad host range and potent immune evasion mechanisms. Indeed, while some of the 95-100 predicted ranavirus genes encode putative evasion proteins (e.g., vIFα, vCARD), roughly two-thirds of them do not share significant sequence identity with known viral or eukaryotic genes. Accordingly, the investigation of ranaviral virulence and immune evasion strategies is promising for elucidating potential antiviral targets. In this regard, recombination-based technologies are being employed to knock out gene candidates in the best-characterized RV member, Frog Virus (FV3). Concurrently, by using animal infection models with extensively characterized immune systems, such as the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, it is becoming evident that components of innate immunity are at the forefront of virus-host interactions. For example, cells of the macrophage lineage represent important combatants of RV infections while themselves serving as targets for viral infection, maintenance and possibly dissemination. This review focuses on the recent advances in the understanding of the RV immune evasion strategies with emphasis on the roles of the innate immune system in ranaviral infections.

  1. Preexisting Salmonella-specific immunity interferes with the subsequent development of immune responses against the Salmonella strains delivering H9N2 hemagglutinin.

    PubMed

    Hajam, Irshad Ahmed; Lee, John Hwa

    2017-06-01

    Recombinant Salmonella strains expressing foreign heterologous antigens have been extensively studied as promising live vaccine delivery vehicles. In this study, we constructed attenuated smooth (S-HA) and rough (R-HA) Salmonella strains expressing hemagglutinin (HA) of H9N2, a low pathogenic avian influenza A virus. We then investigated the HA-specific immune responses following oral immunization with either S-HA or R-HA strain in chicken model. We further examined the effects of the preexisting anti-Salmonella immunity on the subsequent elicitation of the HA and the Salmonella ompA specific immune responses. Our results showed that primary immunization with either the S-HA or the R-HA strain elicited comparable HA-specific immune responses and the responses were significantly (p<0.05) higher compared to the Salmonella vector control. When chickens were pre-immunized with the smooth Salmonella carrier alone and then vaccinated with either S-HA or R-HA strain 3, 6 and 9 weeks later, respectively, significant reductions were seen for HA-specific immune responses at week 6, a point which corresponded to the peak of the primary Salmonella-specific antibody responses. No reductions were seen at week 3 and 9, albeit, the HA-specific immune responses were boosted at week 9, a point which corresponded to the lowest primary Salmonella-specific antibody responses. The ompA recall responses remain refractory at week 3 and 6 following deliberate immunization with the carrier strain, but were significantly (p<0.05) increased at week 9 post-primary immunization. We conclude that preexisting anti-Salmonella immunity inhibits antigen-specific immune responses and this effect could be avoided by carefully selecting the time point when carrier-specific immune responses are relatively low. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Immune responses in macaques to a prototype recombinant adenovirus live oral human papillomavirus 16 vaccine.

    PubMed

    Berg, Michael G; Adams, Robert J; Gambhira, Ratish; Siracusa, Mark C; Scott, Alan L; Roden, Richard B S; Ketner, Gary

    2014-09-01

    Immunization with human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 virus-like particles (VLPs) prevents infection with HPV. However, the expense and logistical demands of current VLP vaccines will limit their widespread use in resource-limited settings, where most HPV-induced cervical cancer occurs. Live oral adenovirus vaccines have properties that are well-suited for use in such settings. We have described a live recombinant adenovirus vaccine prototype that produces abundant HPV16 L1 protein from the adenovirus major late transcriptional unit and directs the assembly of HPV16 VLPs in tissue culture. Recombinant-derived VLPs potently elicit neutralizing antibodies in mice. Here, we characterize the immune response to the recombinant after dual oral and intranasal immunization of pigtail macaques, in which the virus replicates as it would in immunized humans. The immunization of macaques induced vigorous humoral responses to adenovirus capsid and nonstructural proteins, although, surprisingly, not against HPV L1. In contrast, immunization elicited strong T-cell responses to HPV VLPs as well as adenovirus virions. T-cell responses arose immediately after the primary immunization and were boosted by a second immunization with recombinant virus. T-cell immunity contributes to protection against a wide variety of pathogens, including many viruses. The induction of a strong cellular response by the recombinant indicates that live adenovirus recombinants have potential as vaccines for those agents. These studies encourage and will inform the continued development of viable recombinant adenovirus vaccines. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Evaluation of mucosal adjuvants and immunization routes for the induction of systemic and mucosal humoral immune responses in macaques.

    PubMed

    Veazey, Ronald S; Siddiqui, Asna; Klein, Katja; Buffa, Viviana; Fischetti, Lucia; Doyle-Meyers, Lara; King, Deborah F; Tregoning, John S; Shattock, Robin J

    2015-01-01

    Delivering vaccine antigens to mucosal surfaces is potentially very attractive, especially as protection from mucosal infections may be mediated by local immune responses. However, to date mucosal immunization has had limited successes, with issues of both safety and poor immunogenicity. One approach to improve immunogenicity is to develop adjuvants that are effective and safe at mucosal surfaces. Differences in immune responses between mice and men have overstated the value of some experimental adjuvants which have subsequently performed poorly in the clinic. Due to their closer similarity, non-human primates can provide a more accurate picture of adjuvant performance. In this study we immunised rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) using a unique matrix experimental design that maximised the number of adjuvants screened while reducing the animal usage. Macaques were immunised by the intranasal, sublingual and intrarectal routes with the model protein antigens keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH), β-galactosidase (β-Gal) and ovalbumin (OVA) in combination with the experimental adjuvants Poly(I:C), Pam3CSK4, chitosan, Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin (TSLP), MPLA and R848 (Resiquimod). Of the routes used, only intranasal immunization with KLH and R848 induced a detectable antibody response. When compared to intramuscular immunization, intranasal administration gave slightly lower levels of antigen specific antibody in the plasma, but enhanced local responses. Following intranasal delivery of R848, we observed a mildly inflammatory response, but no difference to the control. From this we conclude that R848 is able to boost antibody responses to mucosally delivered antigen, without causing excess local inflammation.

  4. F4+ ETEC infection and oral immunization with F4 fimbriae elicits an IL-17-dominated immune response.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yu; Van Nguyen, Ut; de la Fe Rodriguez, Pedro Y; Devriendt, Bert; Cox, Eric

    2015-10-21

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are an important cause of post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) in piglets. Porcine-specific ETEC strains possess different fimbrial subtypes of which F4 fimbriae are the most frequently associated with ETEC-induced diarrhea in piglets. These F4 fimbriae are potent oral immunogens that induce protective F4-specific IgA antibody secreting cells at intestinal tissues. Recently, T-helper 17 (Th17) cells have been implicated in the protection of the host against extracellular pathogens. However, it remains unknown if Th17 effector responses are needed to clear ETEC infections. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate if ETEC elicits a Th17 response in piglets and if F4 fimbriae trigger a similar response. F4(+) ETEC infection upregulated IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21 and IL-23p19, but not IL-12 and IFN-γ mRNA expression in the systemic and mucosal immune system. Similarly, oral immunization with F4 fimbriae triggered a Th17 signature evidenced by an upregulated mRNA expression of IL-17F, RORγt, IL-23p19 and IL-21 in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Intriguingly, IL-17A mRNA levels were unaltered. To further evaluate this difference between systemic and mucosal immune responses, we assayed the cytokine mRNA profile of F4 fimbriae stimulated PBMCs. F4 fimbriae induced IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22 and IL-23p19, but downregulated IL-17B mRNA expression. Altogether, these data indicate a Th17 dominated response upon oral immunization with F4 fimbriae and F4(+) ETEC infection. Our work also highlights that IL-17B and IL-17F participate in the immune response to protect the host against F4(+) ETEC infection and could aid in the design of future ETEC vaccines.

  5. Nasal Immunization Confers High Avidity Neutralizing Antibody Response and Immunity to Primary and Recurrent Genital Herpes in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Josefine; Zhang, Yuan; Olafsdottir, Thorunn A.; Thörn, Karolina; Cairns, Tina M.; Wegmann, Frank; Sattentau, Quentin J.; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Cohen, Gary H.; Harandi, Ali M.

    2016-01-01

    Genital herpes is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in both the developing and developed world. Following infection, individuals experience life-long latency associated with sporadic ulcerative outbreaks. Despite many efforts, no vaccine has yet been licensed for human use. Herein, we demonstrated that nasal immunization with an adjuvanted HSV-2 gD envelope protein mounts significant protection to primary infection as well as the establishment of latency and recurrent genital herpes in guinea pigs. Nasal immunization was shown to elicit specific T cell proliferative and IFN-γ responses as well as systemic and vaginal gD-specific IgG antibody (Ab) responses. Furthermore, systemic IgG Abs displayed potent HSV-2 neutralizing properties and high avidity. By employing a competitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis combined with a battery of known gD-specific neutralizing monoclonal Abs (MAbs), we showed that nasal immunization generated IgG Abs directed to two major discontinuous neutralizing epitopes of gD. These results highlight the potential of nasal immunization with an adjuvanted HSV-2 envelope protein for induction of protective immunity to primary and recurrent genital herpes. PMID:28082979

  6. Nasal Immunization Confers High Avidity Neutralizing Antibody Response and Immunity to Primary and Recurrent Genital Herpes in Guinea Pigs.

    PubMed

    Persson, Josefine; Zhang, Yuan; Olafsdottir, Thorunn A; Thörn, Karolina; Cairns, Tina M; Wegmann, Frank; Sattentau, Quentin J; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Cohen, Gary H; Harandi, Ali M

    2016-01-01

    Genital herpes is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in both the developing and developed world. Following infection, individuals experience life-long latency associated with sporadic ulcerative outbreaks. Despite many efforts, no vaccine has yet been licensed for human use. Herein, we demonstrated that nasal immunization with an adjuvanted HSV-2 gD envelope protein mounts significant protection to primary infection as well as the establishment of latency and recurrent genital herpes in guinea pigs. Nasal immunization was shown to elicit specific T cell proliferative and IFN-γ responses as well as systemic and vaginal gD-specific IgG antibody (Ab) responses. Furthermore, systemic IgG Abs displayed potent HSV-2 neutralizing properties and high avidity. By employing a competitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis combined with a battery of known gD-specific neutralizing monoclonal Abs (MAbs), we showed that nasal immunization generated IgG Abs directed to two major discontinuous neutralizing epitopes of gD. These results highlight the potential of nasal immunization with an adjuvanted HSV-2 envelope protein for induction of protective immunity to primary and recurrent genital herpes.

  7. Immunization of neonatal mice with LAMP/p55 HIV gag DNA elicits robust immune responses that last to adulthood

    SciTech Connect

    Ordonhez Rigato, Paula; Maciel, Milton; Goldoni, Adriana Leticia

    2010-10-10

    Successful T cell priming in early postnatal life that can generate effective long-lasting responses until adulthood is critical in HIV vaccination strategies because it prevents early sexual initiation and breastfeeding transmission of HIV. A chimeric DNA vaccine encoding p55 HIV gag associated with lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1; which drives the antigen to the MIIC compartment), has been used to enhance cellular and humoral antigen-specific responses in adult mice and macaques. Herein, we investigated LAMP-1/gag vaccine immunogenicity in the neonatal period in mice and its ability to generate long-lasting effects. Neonatal vaccination with chimeric LAMP/gag generated stronger Gag-specific immune responses,more » as measured by the breadth of the Gag peptide-specific IFN-{gamma}, proliferative responsiveness, cytokine production and antibody production, all of which revealed activation of CD4+ T cells as well as the generation of a more robust CTL response compared to gag vaccine alone. To induce long-lived T and B cell memory responses, it was necessary to immunize neonates with the chimeric LAMP/gag DNA vaccine. The LAMP/gag DNA vaccine strategy could be particularly useful for generating an anti-HIV immune response in the early postnatal period capable of inducing long-term immunological memory.« less

  8. Antiviral immune responses in the genital tract: clues for vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    Mucosal surfaces are often exploited as a portal of entry by a wide variety of microorganisms. An advanced understanding has been gained over the past decade of the immune system of the gastrointestinal and the respiratory mucosae. However, despite the fact that many viruses are transmitted sexually through the genital tract, the immune system of the male and female genital mucosae has received much less attention. Here, I describe and highlight differences of the innate and adaptive immune systems of the genital and intestinal mucosae, and discuss the challenges we face in the development of successful vaccines against sexually transmitted viral pathogens. PMID:20829886

  9. Immune response at birth, long-term immune memory and 2 years follow-up after in-utero anti-HBV DNA immunization.

    PubMed

    Fazio, V M; Ria, F; Franco, E; Rosati, P; Cannelli, G; Signori, E; Parrella, P; Zaratti, L; Iannace, E; Monego, G; Blogna, S; Fioretti, D; Iurescia, S; Filippetti, R; Rinaldi, M

    2004-03-01

    Infections occurring at the end of pregnancy, during birth or by breastfeeding are responsible for the high toll of death among first-week infants. In-utero DNA immunization has demonstrated the effectiveness in inducing specific immunity in newborns. A major contribution to infant immunization would be achieved if a vaccine proved able to be protective as early as at the birth, preventing the typical 'first-week infections'. To establish its potential for use in humans, in-utero DNA vaccination efficiency has to be evaluated for short- and long-term safety, protection at delivery, efficacy of boosts in adults and effective window/s for modulation of immune response during pregnancy, in an animal model suitable with human development. Here we show that a single intramuscular in-utero anti-HBV DNA immunization at two-thirds of pig gestation produces, at birth, antibody titers considered protective in humans. The boost of antibody titers in every animal following recall at 4 and 10 months demonstrates the establishment of immune memory. The safety of in-utero fetus manipulation is guaranteed by short-term (no fetus loss, lack of local alterations, at-term spontaneous delivery, breastfeeding) and long-term (2 years) monitoring. Treatment of fetuses closer to delivery results in immune ignorance without induction of tolerance. This result highlights the repercussion of selecting the appropriate time point when this approach is used to deliver therapeutic genes. All these findings illustrate the relevance of naked DNA-based vaccination technology in therapeutic efforts aimed to prevent the high toll of death among first-week infants.

  10. Costs of mounting an immune response during pregnancy in a lizard.

    PubMed

    Meylan, Sandrine; Richard, Murielle; Bauer, Sophie; Haussy, Claudy; Miles, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Immune defenses are of great benefit to hosts, but reducing the impact of infection by mounting an immune response also entails costs. However, the physiological mechanisms that generate the costs of an immune response remain poorly understood. Moreover, the majority of studies investigating the consequences of an immune challenge in vertebrates have been conducted on mammals and birds. The aim of this study is to investigate the physiological costs of mounting an immune response during gestation in an ectothermic species. Indeed, because ectothermic species are unable to internally regulate their body temperature, the apportionment of resources to homeostatic activities in ectothermic species can differ from that in endothermic species. We conducted this study on the common lizard Zootoca vivipara. We investigated the costs of mounting an immune response by injecting females with sheep red blood cells and quantified the consequences to reproductive performance (litter mass and success) and physiological performance (standard metabolic rate, endurance, and phytohemagglutinin response). In addition, we measured basking behavior. Our analyses revealed that mounting an immune response affected litter mass, physiological performance, and basking behavior. Moreover, we demonstrated that the modulation of an immune challenge is impacted by intrinsic factors, such as body size and condition.

  11. Nutritional modulation of the immune response in poultry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Economic efficiency demanded by the poultry industry has pushed selection towards high production with improved feed conversion ratios (FCR) and high yield; however, selection based heavily on growth characteristics and other phenotypic traits has adversely affected immune competence. Despite incre...

  12. Hormetic Response to Low-Dose Radiation: Focus on the Immune System and Its Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jiuwei; Yang, Guozi; Pan, Zhenyu; Zhao, Yuguang; Liang, Xinyue; Li, Wei; Cai, Lu

    2017-01-01

    The interrelationship between ionizing radiation and the immune system is complex, multifactorial, and dependent on radiation dose/quality and immune cell type. High-dose radiation usually results in immune suppression. On the contrary, low-dose radiation (LDR) modulates a variety of immune responses that have exhibited the properties of immune hormesis. Although the underlying molecular mechanism is not fully understood yet, LDR has been used clinically for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and malignant tumors. These advancements in preclinical and clinical studies suggest that LDR-mediated immune modulation is a well-orchestrated phenomenon with clinical potential. We summarize recent developments in the understanding of LDR-mediated immune modulation, with an emphasis on its potential clinical applications. PMID:28134809

  13. Role of MicroRNAs in Obesity-Induced Metabolic Disorder and Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hong; Ma, Minjuan; Liang, Tingming; Guo, Li

    2018-01-01

    In all living organisms, metabolic homeostasis and the immune system are the most fundamental requirements for survival. Recently, obesity has become a global public health issue, which is the cardinal risk factor for metabolic disorder. Many diseases emanating from obesity-induced metabolic dysfunction are responsible for the activated immune system, including innate and adaptive responses. Of note, inflammation is the manifest accountant signal. Deeply studied microRNAs (miRNAs) have participated in many pathways involved in metabolism and immune responses to protect cells from multiple harmful stimulants, and they play an important role in determining the progress through targeting different inflammatory pathways. Thus, immune response and metabolic regulation are highly integrated with miRNAs. Collectively, miRNAs are the new targets for therapy in immune dysfunction.

  14. Role of MicroRNAs in Obesity-Induced Metabolic Disorder and Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Hong; Ma, Minjuan

    2018-01-01

    In all living organisms, metabolic homeostasis and the immune system are the most fundamental requirements for survival. Recently, obesity has become a global public health issue, which is the cardinal risk factor for metabolic disorder. Many diseases emanating from obesity-induced metabolic dysfunction are responsible for the activated immune system, including innate and adaptive responses. Of note, inflammation is the manifest accountant signal. Deeply studied microRNAs (miRNAs) have participated in many pathways involved in metabolism and immune responses to protect cells from multiple harmful stimulants, and they play an important role in determining the progress through targeting different inflammatory pathways. Thus, immune response and metabolic regulation are highly integrated with miRNAs. Collectively, miRNAs are the new targets for therapy in immune dysfunction. PMID:29484304

  15. Influences of Plant Traits on Immune Responses of Specialist and Generalist Herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Lampert, Evan

    2012-01-01

    Specialist and generalist insect herbivore species often differ in how they respond to host plant traits, particularly defensive traits, and these responses can include weakened or strengthened immune responses to pathogens and parasites. Accurate methods to measure immune response in the presence and absence of pathogens and parasites are necessary to determine whether susceptibility to these natural enemies is reduced or increased by host plant traits. Plant chemical traits are particularly important in that host plant metabolites may function as antioxidants beneficial to the immune response, or interfere with the immune response of both specialist and generalist herbivores. Specialist herbivores that are adapted to process and sometimes accumulate specific plant compounds may experience high metabolic demands that may decrease immune response, whereas the metabolic demands of generalist species differ due to more broad-substrate enzyme systems. However, the direct deleterious effects of plant compounds on generalist herbivores may weaken their immune responses. Further research in this area is important given that the ecological relevance of plant traits to herbivore immune responses is equally important in natural systems and agroecosystems, due to potential incompatibility of some host plant species and cultivars with biological control agents of herbivorous pests. PMID:26466545

  16. SIRT1 and HIF1α signaling in metabolism and immune responses.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qing; Dong, Lin; Li, Yan; Liu, Gaungwei

    2018-04-01

    SIRT1 and HIF1α are regarded as two key metabolic sensors in cellular metabolism pathways and play vital roles in influencing immune responses. SIRT1 and HIF1α regulate immune responses in metabolism-dependent and -independent ways. Here, we summarized the recent knowledge of SIRT1 and HIF1α signaling in metabolism and immune responses. HIF1α is a direct target of SIRT1. Sometimes, SIRT1 and HIF1α cooperate or act separately to mediate immune responses. In innate immune responses, SIRT1 can regulate the glycolytic activity of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and influence MDSC functional differentiation. SIRT1 can regulate monocyte function through NF-κB and PGC-1, accompanying an increased NAD + level. The SIRT1-HIF1α axis bridges the innate immune signal to an adaptive immune response by directing cytokine production of dendritic cells in a metabolism-independent manner, promoting the differentiation of CD4 + T cells. For adaptive immune cells, SIRT1 can mediate the differentiation of inflammatory T cell subsets in a NAD + -dependent manner. HIF1α can stimulate some glycolysis-associated genes and regulate the ATP and ROS generations. In addition, SIRT1-and HIF1α-associated metabolism inhibits the activity of mTOR, thus negatively regulating the differentiation and function of Th9 cells. As immune cells are crucial in controlling immune-associated diseases, SIRT1-and HIF1α associated-metabolism is closely linked to immune-associated diseases, including infection, tumors, allergic airway inflammation, and autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Immunization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, Nicole; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Contents of this double journal issue concern immunization and primary health care of children. The issue decribes vaccine storage and sterilization techniques, giving particular emphasis to the role of the cold chain, i.e., the maintenance of a specific temperature range to assure potency of vaccines as they are moved from a national storage…

  18. Lessons Learned from Protective Immune Responses to Optimize Vaccines against Cryptosporidiosis.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Maxime W; Sonzogni-Desautels, Karine; Ndao, Momar

    2017-12-24

    In developing countries, cryptosporidiosis causes moderate-to-severe diarrhea and kills thousands of infants and toddlers annually. Drinking and recreational water contaminated with Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts has led to waterborne outbreaks in developed countries. A competent immune system is necessary to clear this parasitic infection. A better understanding of the immune responses required to prevent or limit infection by this protozoan parasite is the cornerstone of development of an effective vaccine. In this light, lessons learned from previously developed vaccines against Cryptosporidium spp. are at the foundation for development of better next-generation vaccines. In this review, we summarize the immune responses elicited by naturally and experimentally-induced Cryptosporidium spp. infection and by several experimental vaccines in various animal models. Our aim is to increase awareness about the immune responses that underlie protection against cryptosporidiosis and to encourage promotion of these immune responses as a key strategy for vaccine development. Innate and mucosal immunity will be addressed as well as adaptive immunity, with an emphasis on the balance between T H 1/T H 2 immune responses. Development of more effective vaccines against cryptosporidiosis is needed to prevent Cryptosporidium spp.-related deaths in infants and toddlers in developing countries.

  19. Lessons Learned from Protective Immune Responses to Optimize Vaccines against Cryptosporidiosis

    PubMed Central

    Lemieux, Maxime W.; Sonzogni-Desautels, Karine; Ndao, Momar

    2017-01-01

    In developing countries, cryptosporidiosis causes moderate-to-severe diarrhea and kills thousands of infants and toddlers annually. Drinking and recreational water contaminated with Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts has led to waterborne outbreaks in developed countries. A competent immune system is necessary to clear this parasitic infection. A better understanding of the immune responses required to prevent or limit infection by this protozoan parasite is the cornerstone of development of an effective vaccine. In this light, lessons learned from previously developed vaccines against Cryptosporidium spp. are at the foundation for development of better next-generation vaccines. In this review, we summarize the immune responses elicited by naturally and experimentally-induced Cryptosporidium spp. infection and by several experimental vaccines in various animal models. Our aim is to increase awareness about the immune responses that underlie protection against cryptosporidiosis and to encourage promotion of these immune responses as a key strategy for vaccine development. Innate and mucosal immunity will be addressed as well as adaptive immunity, with an emphasis on the balance between TH1/TH2 immune responses. Development of more effective vaccines against cryptosporidiosis is needed to prevent Cryptosporidium spp.-related deaths in infants and toddlers in developing countries. PMID:29295550

  20. Interplay between immune responses to HLA and non-HLA self-antigens in allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Angaswamy, Nataraju; Tiriveedhi, Venkataswarup; Sarma, Nayan J; Subramanian, Vijay; Klein, Christina; Wellen, Jason; Shenoy, Surendra; Chapman, William C; Mohanakumar, T

    2013-11-01

    Recent studies strongly suggest an increasing role for immune responses against self-antigens (Ags) which are not encoded by the major histocompatibility complex in the immunopathogenesis of allograft rejection. Although, improved surgical techniques coupled with improved methods to detect and avoid sensitization against donor human leukocyte antigen (HLA) have improved the immediate and short term function of transplanted organs. However, acute and chronic rejection still remains a vexing problem for the long term function of the transplanted organ. Immediately following organ transplantation, several factors both immune and non immune mechanisms lead to the development of local inflammatory milieu which sets the stage for allograft rejection. Traditionally, development of antibodies (Abs) against mismatched donor HLA have been implicated in the development of Ab mediated rejection. However, recent studies from our laboratory and others have demonstrated that development of humoral and cellular immune responses against non-HLA self-Ags may contribute in the pathogenesis of allograft rejection. There are reports demonstrating that immune responses to self-Ags especially Abs to the self-Ags as well as cellular immune responses especially through IL17 has significant pro-fibrotic properties leading to chronic allograft failure. This review summarizes recent studies demonstrating the role for immune responses to self-Ags in allograft immunity leading to rejection as well as present recent evidence suggesting there is interplay between allo- and autoimmunity leading to allograft dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Immune responses to Mycoplasma bovis vaccination and experimental infection in the bovine mammary gland.

    PubMed Central

    Boothby, J T; Schore, C E; Jasper, D E; Osburn, B I; Thomas, C B

    1988-01-01

    This study characterized the immune responses in four vaccinated and four control cows in response to vaccination and experimental intramammary inoculation with Mycoplasma bovis. Specific antibody responses occurred in serum and milk in response to vaccination and experimental infection. Lymphocytes from peripheral blood, but not from the mammary gland of vaccinated cows had increased responsiveness to mitogens. No lymphocytes tested were responsive to M. bovis antigen. Both vaccination and experimental infection resulted in skin test reactivity. These results imply that vaccination results in immune responses which may alter the course of experimental M. bovis mastitis, but may contribute to cellular inflammation. PMID:3167718

  2. Pre-existing immunity against Ad vectors: humoral, cellular, and innate response, what's important?.

    PubMed

    Fausther-Bovendo, Hugues; Kobinger, Gary P

    2014-01-01

    Pre-existing immunity against human adenovirus (HAd) serotype 5 derived vector in the human population is widespread, thus hampering its clinical use. Various components of the immune system, including neutralizing antibodies (nAbs), Ad specific T cells and type I IFN activated NK cells, contribute to dampening the efficacy of Ad vectors in individuals with pre-existing Ad immunity. In order to circumvent pre-existing immunity to adenovirus, numerous strategies, such as developing alternative Ad serotypes, varying immunization routes and utilizing prime-boost regimens, are under pre-clinical or clinical phases of development. However, these strategies mainly focus on one arm of pre-existing immunity. Selection of alternative serotypes has been largely driven by the absence in the human population of nAbs against them with little attention paid to cross-reactive Ad specific T cells. Conversely, varying the route of immunization appears to mainly rely on avoiding Ad specific tissue-resident T cells. Finally, prime-boost regimens do not actually circumvent pre-existing immunity but instead generate immune responses of sufficient magnitude to confer protection despite pre-existing immunity. Combining the above strategies and thus taking into account all components regulating pre-existing Ad immunity will help further improve the development of Ad vectors for animal and human use.

  3. In vivo Therapy with Monoclonal Anti-I-A Antibody Suppresses Immune Responses to Acetylcholine Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldor, Matthew K.; Sriram, Subramaniam; McDevitt, Hugh O.; Steinman, Lawrence

    1983-05-01

    A monoclonal antibody to I-A gene products of the immune response gene complex attenuates both humoral and cellular responses to acetylcholine receptor and appears to suppress clinical manifestations of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. This demonstrates that use of antibodies against immune response gene products that are associated with susceptibility to disease may be feasible for therapy in autoimmune conditions such as myasthenia gravis.

  4. Humoral and Cellular Response in Humans After Immunization with Influenza Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Ruben, Frederick L.; Jackson, George G.; Gotoff, Samuel P.

    1973-01-01

    The peripheral blood lymphocyte response and hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers were measured in nine adults before and after immunization with a killed split influenza virus vaccine. Cord blood lymphocytes were tested with the influenza antigen to exclude a nonspecific mitogenic effect. All of the subjects demonstrated preexisting antibody titers and antigen recognition by lymphocytes prior to immunization. The in vitro lymphocyte response after vaccination parallels the humoral antibody response to influenza antigen. PMID:4762112

  5. A comparative study of an innate immune response in Lamprologine cichlid fishes.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Constance M; Reddon, Adam R; Marsh-Rollo, Susan E; Hellmann, Jennifer K; Ligocki, Isaac Y; Hamilton, Ian M; Balshine, Sigal

    2014-10-01

    Social interactions facilitate pathogen transmission and increase virulence. Therefore, species that live in social groups are predicted to suffer a higher pathogen burden, to invest more heavily in immune defence against pathogens, or both. However, there are few empirical tests of whether social species indeed invest more heavily in immune defence than non-social species. In the current study, we conducted a phylogenetically controlled comparison of innate immune response in Lamprologine cichlid fishes. We focused on three species of highly social cichlids that live in permanent groups and exhibit cooperative breeding (Julidochromis ornatus, Neolamprologus pulcher and Neolamprologus savoryi) and three species of non-social cichlids that exhibit neither grouping nor cooperative behaviour (Telmatochromis temporalis, Neolamprologus tetracanthus and Neolamprologus modestus). We quantified the innate immune response by injecting wild fishes with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), a lectin that causes a cell-mediated immune response. We predicted that the three highly social species would show a greater immune reaction to the PHA treatment, indicating higher investment in immune defence against parasites relative to the three non-social species. We found significant species-level variation in immune response, but contrary to our prediction, this variation did not correspond to social system. However, we found that immune response was correlated with territory size across the six species. Our results indicate that the common assumption of a positive relationship between social system and investment in immune function may be overly simplistic. We suggest that factors such as rates of both in-group and out-group social interactions are likely to be important mediators of the relationship between sociality and immune function.

  6. A comparative study of an innate immune response in Lamprologine cichlid fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Constance M.; Reddon, Adam R.; Marsh-Rollo, Susan E.; Hellmann, Jennifer K.; Ligocki, Isaac Y.; Hamilton, Ian M.; Balshine, Sigal

    2014-10-01

    Social interactions facilitate pathogen transmission and increase virulence. Therefore, species that live in social groups are predicted to suffer a higher pathogen burden, to invest more heavily in immune defence against pathogens, or both. However, there are few empirical tests of whether social species indeed invest more heavily in immune defence than non-social species. In the current study, we conducted a phylogenetically controlled comparison of innate immune response in Lamprologine cichlid fishes. We focused on three species of highly social cichlids that live in permanent groups and exhibit cooperative breeding ( Julidochromis ornatus, Neolamprologus pulcher and Neolamprologus savoryi) and three species of non-social cichlids that exhibit neither grouping nor cooperative behaviour ( Telmatochromis temporalis, Neolamprologus tetracanthus and Neolamprologus modestus). We quantified the innate immune response by injecting wild fishes with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), a lectin that causes a cell-mediated immune response. We predicted that the three highly social species would show a greater immune reaction to the PHA treatment, indicating higher investment in immune defence against parasites relative to the three non-social species. We found significant species-level variation in immune response, but contrary to our prediction, this variation did not correspond to social system. However, we found that immune response was correlated with territory size across the six species. Our results indicate that the common assumption of a positive relationship between social system and investment in immune function may be overly simplistic. We suggest that factors such as rates of both in-group and out-group social interactions are likely to be important mediators of the relationship between sociality and immune function.

  7. [Immune granulomatous inflammation as the body's adaptive response].

    PubMed

    Paukov, V S; Kogan, E A

    2014-01-01

    Based on their studies and literature analysis, the authors offer a hypothesis for the adaptive pattern of chronic immune granulomatous inflammation occurring in infectious diseases that are characterized by the development of non-sterile immunity. The authors' proposed hypothesis holds that not every chronic inflammation is a manifestation of failing defenses of the body exposed to a damaging factor. By using tuberculosis and leprosy as an example, the authors show the insolvency of a number of existing notions of the pathogenesis and morphogenesis of epithelioid-cell and leprous granulomas. Thus, the authors consider that resident macrophages in tuberculosis maintain their function to kill mycobacteria; thereby the immune system obtains information on the antigenic determinants of the causative agents. At the same time, by consuming all hydrolases to kill mycobacteria, the macrophage fails to elaborate new lysosomes for the capacity of the pathogens to prevent them from forming. As a result, the lysosome-depleted macrophage transforms into an epithelioid cell that, maintaining phagocytic functions, loses its ability to kill the causative agents. It is this epithelioid cell where endocytobiosis takes place. These microorganisms destroy the epithelioid cell and fall out in the area of caseating granuloma necrosis at regular intervals. Some of them phagocytize epithelioid cells to maintain non-sterile immunity; the others are killed by inflammatory macrophages. The pathogenesis and morphogenesis of leprous granuloma, its tuberculous type in particular, proceed in a fundamentally similar way. Thus, non-sterile immunity required for tuberculosis, leprosy, and, possibly, other mycobacterioses is maintained.

  8. Inflammatory cytokines in the brain: does the CNS shape immune responses?

    PubMed

    Owens, T; Renno, T; Taupin, V; Krakowski, M

    1994-12-01

    Immune responses in the central nervous system (CNS) have traditionally been regarded as representing the intrusion of an unruly, ill-behaved mob of leukocytes into the well-ordered and organized domain of thought and reason. However, results accumulated over the past few years suggest that, far from being an immunologically privileged organ, T lymphocytes may be regular and frequent visitors to the CNS, for purposes of immune surveillance. Here, Trevor Owens and colleagues propose that the brain itself can regulate or shape immune responses therein. Furthermore, given that the immune cells may be subverted to autoimmunity, they suggest that the study of inflammatory autoimmune disease in the brain may shed light on the ability of the local environment to regulate immune responses.

  9. Dynamic two-photon imaging of the immune response to Toxoplasma gondii infection.

    PubMed

    Luu, L; Coombes, J L

    2015-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a highly successful parasite that can manipulate host immune responses to optimize its persistence and spread. As a result, a highly complex relationship exists between T. gondii and the immune system of the host. Advances in imaging techniques, and in particular, the application of two-photon microscopy to mouse infection models, have made it possible to directly visualize interactions between parasites and the host immune system as they occur in living tissues. Here, we will discuss how dynamic imaging techniques have provided unexpected new insight into (i) how immune responses are dynamically regulated by cells and structures in the local tissue environment, (ii) how protective responses to T. gondii are generated and (iii) how the parasite exploits the immune system for its own benefit. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. [Research advances of anti-tumor immune response induced by pulse electric field ablation].

    PubMed

    Cui, Guang-ying; Diao, Hong-yan

    2015-11-01

    As a novel tumor therapy, pulse electric field has shown a clinical perspective. This paper reviews the characteristics of tumor ablation by microsecond pulse and nanosecond pulse electric field, and the research advances of anti-tumor immune response induced by pulse electric field ablation. Recent researches indicate that the pulse electric field not only leads to a complete ablation of local tumor, but also stimulates a protective immune response, thereby inhibiting tumor recurrence and metastasis. These unique advantages will show an extensive clinical application in the future. However, the mechanism of anti-tumor immune response and the development of related tumor vaccine need further studies.

  11. Generation of protective immune response against anthrax by oral immunization with protective antigen plant-based vaccine.

    PubMed

    Gorantala, Jyotsna; Grover, Sonam; Rahi, Amit; Chaudhary, Prerna; Rajwanshi, Ravi; Sarin, Neera Bhalla; Bhatnagar, Rakesh

    2014-04-20

    In concern with frequent recurrence of anthrax in endemic areas and inadvertent use of its spores as biological weapon, the development of an effective anthrax vaccine suitable for both human and veterinary needs is highly desirable. A simple oral delivery through expression in plant system could offer promising alternative to the current methods that rely on injectable vaccines extracted from bacterial sources. In the present study, we have expressed protective antigen (PA) gene in Indian mustard by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and in tobacco by plastid transformation. Putative transgenic lines were verified for the presence of transgene and its expression by molecular analysis. PA expressed in transgenic lines was biologically active as evidenced by macrophage lysis assay. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) and oral immunization with plant PA in murine model indicated high serum PA specific IgG and IgA antibody titers. PA specific mucosal immune response was noted in orally immunized groups. Further, antibodies indicated lethal toxin neutralizing potential in-vitro and conferred protection against in-vivo toxin challenge. Oral immunization experiments demonstrated generation of immunoprotective response in mice. Thus, our study examines the feasibility of oral PA vaccine expressed in an edible plant system against anthrax. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ebola Virus Altered Innate and Adaptive Immune Response Signalling Pathways: Implications for Novel Therapeutic Approaches.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anoop

    2016-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) arise attention for their impressive lethality by the poor immune response and high inflammatory reaction in the patients. It causes a severe hemorrhagic fever with case fatality rates of up to 90%. The mechanism underlying this lethal outcome is poorly understood. In 2014, a major outbreak of Ebola virus spread amongst several African countries, including Leone, Sierra, and Guinea. Although infections only occur frequently in Central Africa, but the virus has the potential to spread globally. Presently, there is no vaccine or treatment is available to counteract Ebola virus infections due to poor understanding of its interaction with the immune system. Accumulating evidence indicates that the virus actively alters both innate and adaptive immune responses and triggers harmful inflammatory responses. In the literature, some reports have shown that alteration of immune signaling pathways could be due to the ability of EBOV to interfere with dendritic cells (DCs), which link innate and adaptive immune responses. On the other hand, some reports have demonstrated that EBOV, VP35 proteins act as interferon antagonists. So, how the Ebola virus altered the innate and adaptive immune response signaling pathways is still an open question for the researcher to be explored. Thus, in this review, I try to summarize the mechanisms of the alteration of innate and adaptive immune response signaling pathways by Ebola virus which will be helpful for designing effective drugs or vaccines against this lethal infection. Further, potential targets, current treatment and novel therapeutic approaches have also been discussed.

  13. The innate immune response to RSV: Advances in our understanding of critical viral and host factors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; López, Carolina B

    2017-01-11

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes mild to severe respiratory illness in humans and is a major cause of hospitalizations of infants and the elderly. Both the innate and the adaptive immune responses contribute to the control of RSV infection, but despite successful viral clearance, protective immunity against RSV re-infection is usually suboptimal and infections recur. Poor understanding of the mechanisms limiting the induction of long-lasting immunity has delayed the development of an effective vaccine. The innate immune response plays a critical role in driving the development of adaptive immunity and is thus a crucial determinant of the infection outcome. Advances in recent years have improved our understanding of cellular and viral factors that influence the onset and quality of the innate immune response to RSV. These advances include the identification of a complex system of cellular sensors that mediate RSV detection and stimulate transcriptome changes that lead to virus control and the discovery that cell stress and apoptosis participate in the control of RSV infection. In addition, it was recently demonstrated that defective viral genomes (DVGs) generated during RSV replication are the primary inducers of the innate immune response. Newly discovered host pathways involved in the innate response to RSV, together with the potential generation of DVG-derived oligonucleotides, present various novel opportunities for the design of vaccine adjuvants able to induce a protective response against RSV and similar viruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Microbial Degradation of Cellular Kinases Impairs Innate Immune Signaling and Paracrine TNFα Responses

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Kenneth; Genco, Caroline Attardo

    2016-01-01

    The NFκB and MAPK signaling pathways are critical components of innate immunity that orchestrate appropriate immune responses to control and eradicate pathogens. Their activation results in the induction of proinflammatory mediators, such as TNFα a potent bioactive molecule commonly secreted by recruited inflammatory cells, allowing for paracrine signaling at the site of an infection. In this study we identified a novel mechanism by which the opportunistic pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis dampens innate immune responses by disruption of kinase signaling and degradation of inflammatory mediators. The intracellular immune kinases RIPK1, TAK1, and AKT were selectively degraded by the P. gingivalis lysine-specific gingipain (Kgp) in human endothelial cells, which correlated with dysregulated innate immune signaling. Kgp was also observed to attenuate endothelial responsiveness to TNFα, resulting in a reduction in signal flux through AKT, ERK and NFκB pathways, as well as a decrease in downstream proinflammatory mRNA induction of cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules. A deficiency in Kgp activity negated decreases to host cell kinase protein levels and responsiveness to TNFα. Given the essential role of kinase signaling in immune responses, these findings highlight a unique mechanism of pathogen-induced immune dysregulation through inhibition of cell activation, paracrine signaling, and dampened cellular proinflammatory responses. PMID:27698456

  15. A nonlinear delayed model for the immune response in the presence of viral mutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messias, D.; Gleria, Iram; Albuquerque, S. S.; Canabarro, Askery; Stanley, H. E.

    2018-02-01

    We consider a delayed nonlinear model of the dynamics of the immune system against a viral infection that contains a wild-type virus and a mutant. We consider the finite response time of the immune system and find sustained oscillatory behavior as well as chaotic behavior triggered by the presence of delays. We present a numeric analysis and some analytical results.

  16. Cross reactive cellular immune responses in chickens previously exposed to low pathogenic avian influenza

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Avian influenza (AI) infection in poultry can result in high morbidity and mortality, and negatively affect international trade. Because most AI vaccines used for poultry are inactivated, our knowledge of immunity against AI is based largely on humoral immune responses. In fact, little is known abo...

  17. Identification of quantitative trait loci controlling gene expression during the innate immunity response of soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microbe associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered immunity (MTI) is an important component of the plant innate immunity response to invading pathogens. However, most of our knowledge of MTI comes from studies of model systems with relatively little work done with crop plants. In this work, we re...

  18. Vaccination with theronts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis enhanced channel catfish molecular immune response

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) infects various freshwater fishes worldwide and results in heavy losses in aquaculture. The fish surviving natural infections or vaccinated with live theronts develop strong immune responses. Little is known about how immune genes are induced or how ...

  19. Immune responses of channel catfish against parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis following theront vaccination

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is a severe fish parasite and results in heavy losses of freshwater fish. The fish surviving natural infections or vaccinated with live theronts develop strong immune responses. Little is known about how immune genes are induced or how they interact and lead to spe...

  20. Human breast milk feeding induces stronger humoral immune response than formula feeding in neonatal porcine model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several studies indicate stronger humoral immune responses in breast-fed than formula-fed infants. The key to the beneficial impact of breastmilk on the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and immune system development is the interaction between diet and the gut microbiome. A more comprehensive, mechanistic...

  1. Bovine immune response to inoculation with Neospora caninum surface antigen SRS2 lipopeptides mimics immune response to infection with live parasites.

    PubMed

    Baszler, Timothy V; Shkap, Varda; Mwangi, Waithaka; Davies, Christopher J; Mathison, Bruce A; Mazuz, Monica; Resnikov, Dror; Fish, Lea; Leibovitch, Benjamin; Staska, Lauren M; Savitsky, Igor

    2008-04-01

    Infection of cattle with Neospora caninum protozoa, the causative agent of bovine protozoal abortion, results in robust cellular and humoral immune responses, particularly CD4(+) T-lymphocyte activation and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) secretion. In the present study, N. caninum SRS2 (NcSRS2) T-lymphocyte-epitope-bearing subunits were incorporated into DNA and peptide preparations to assess CD4(+) cell proliferation and IFN-gamma T-lymphocyte-secretion immune responses in cattle with predetermined major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genotypes. In order to optimize dendritic-cell processing, NcSRS2 DNA vaccine was delivered with granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor and Flt3 ligand adjuvant. The synthesized NcSRS2 peptides were coupled with a palmitic acid molecule (lipopeptide) and delivered with Freund's adjuvant. Cattle vaccinated with NcSRS2 DNA vaccine alone did not induce T-lymphocyte activation or IFN-gamma secretion, whereas subsequent booster inoculation with NcSRS2-lipopeptides induced robust NcSRS2-specific immune responses. Compared to the response in control animals, NcSRS2-lipopeptide-immunized cattle had significantly increased NcSRS2-specific T-lymphocyte proliferation, numbers of IFN-gamma-secreting peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG2a antibody levels. The findings show that N. caninum NcSRS2 subunits bearing T-lymphocyte epitopes induced cell-mediated immune responses similar to the protective immune responses previously described against live parasite infection, namely T-lymphocyte activation and IFN-gamma secretion. The findings support the investigation of NcSRS2 immunogens for protection against N. caninum-induced fetal infection and abortion in cattle.

  2. Understanding the immune response to seasonal influenza vaccination in older adults: a systems biology approach.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Nathaniel D; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Pankratz, V Shane; Jacobson, Robert M; Poland, Gregory A

    2012-08-01

    Annual vaccination against seasonal influenza is recommended to decrease disease-related mortality and morbidity. However, one population that responds suboptimally to influenza vaccine is adults over the age of 65 years. The natural aging process is associated with a complex deterioration of multiple components of the host immune system. Research into this phenomenon, known as immunosenescence, has shown that aging alters both the innate and adaptive branches of the immune system. The intricate mechanisms involved in immune response to influenza vaccine, and how these responses are altered with age, have led us to adopt a more encompassing systems biology approach to understand exactly why the response to vaccination diminishes with age. Here, the authors review what changes occur with immunosenescence, and some immunogenetic factors that influence response, and outline the systems biology approach to understand the immune response to seasonal influenza vaccination in older adults.

  3. Assessment of acquired immune response to Rhipicephalus appendiculatus tick infestation in different goat breeds.

    PubMed

    Gopalraj, Jeyanthi B P; Clarke, Francoise C; Donkin, Edward F

    2013-01-01

    Changes in serum gamma globulin levels, numbers of replete female ticks and engorged tick mass were used as parameters to monitor the acquired immune response (antibody mediated immune response) elicited by Rhipicephalus appendiculatus adult tick infestations. Three consecutive Rhipicephalus appendiculatus adult tick infestations were applied to South African Indigenous goats (Nguni), Saanen goats and cross-bred goats (Saanen goats crossed with South African Indigenous goats [Nguni]) under laboratory conditions. During the three consecutive Rhipicephalus appendiculatus adult tick infestations the serum gamma globulin levels increased in all three breeds, whilst the mean replete female tick numbers and engorged tick mass decreased. Even though all three goat breeds exhibited an acquired immune response, the South African Indigenous goats (Nguni) response was significantly higher than that of the Saanen and cross-bred goats. However, the acquired immune response elicited by Saanen goats was significantly lower when compared with cross-bred goats.

  4. Mathematical models of immune effector responses to viral infections: Virus control versus the development of pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wodarz, Dominik

    2005-12-01

    This article reviews mathematical models which have investigated the importance of lytic and non-lytic immune responses for the control of viral infections. Lytic immune responses fight the virus by killing infected cells, while non-lytic immune responses fight the virus by inhibiting viral replication while leaving the infected cell alive. The models suggest which types or combinations of immune responses are required to resolve infections which vary in their characteristics, such as the rate of viral replication and the rate of virus-induced target cell death. This framework is then applied to persistent infections and viral evolution. It is investigated how viral evolution and antigenic escape can influence the relative balance of lytic and non-lytic responses over time, and how this might correlate with the transition from an asymptomatic infection to pathology. This is discussed in the specific context of hepatitis C virus infection.

  5. Enhancing the Immune Response to Recombinant Plague Antigens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    protection against rotavirus infection of mice stimulated by intranasal immunization with chimeric VP4 or VP6 protein. J Virol 1999;73(9):7574–81. [13] Choi...AH, Basu M, McNeal MM, Flint J, VanCott JL, Clements JD, et al. Functional mapping of protective domains and epitopes in the rotavirus VP6 protein. J...McNeal MM, Rae MN, Bean JA, Ward RL. Antibody-dependent and -independent protection following intranasal immunization of mice with rotavirus particles. J

  6. Inbreeding effects on immune response in free-living song sparrows (Melospiza melodia).

    PubMed

    Reid, Jane M; Arcese, Peter; Keller, Lukas F; Elliott, Kyle H; Sampson, Laura; Hasselquist, Dennis

    2007-03-07

    The consequences of inbreeding for host immunity to parasitic infection have broad implications for the evolutionary and dynamical impacts of parasites on populations where inbreeding occurs. To rigorously assess the magnitude and the prevalence of inbreeding effects on immunity, multiple components of host immune response should be related to inbreeding coefficient (f) in free-living individuals. We used a pedigreed, free-living population of song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) to test whether individual responses to widely used experimental immune challenges varied consistently with f. The patagial swelling response to phytohaemagglutinin declined markedly with f in both females and males in both 2002 and 2003, although overall inbreeding depression was greater in males. The primary antibody response to tetanus toxoid declined with f in females but not in males in both 2004 and 2005. Primary antibody responses to diphtheria toxoid were low but tended to decline with f in 2004. Overall inbreeding depression did not solely reflect particularly strong immune responses in outbred offspring of immigrant-native pairings or weak responses in highly inbred individuals. These data indicate substantial and apparently sex-specific inbreeding effects on immune response, implying that inbred hosts may be relatively susceptible to parasitic infection to differing degrees in males and females.

  7. Characterization of the immune response to canine parvovirus induced by vaccination with chimaeric plant viruses.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Benjamin L; Brennan, F R; Martinez-Torrecuadrada, J L; Casal, J I; Hamilton, W D; Wakelin, D

    2002-06-21

    NIH mice were vaccinated subcutaneously or intranasally with chimaeric cow pea mosaic virus (CPMV) constructs expressing a 17-mer peptide sequence from canine parvovirus (CPV) as monomers or dimers on the small or large protein surface subunits. Responses to the chimaeric virus particles (CVPs) were compared with those of mice immunized with the native virus or with parvovirus peptide conjugated to keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH). The characteristics of the immune response to vaccination were examined by measuring serum and mucosal antibody responses in ELISA, in vitro antigen-induced spleen cell proliferation and cytokine responses. Mice made strong antibody responses to the native plant virus and peptide-specific responses to two of the four CVP constructs tested which were approximately 10-fold lower than responses to native plant virus. The immune response generated by the CVP constructs showed a marked TH1 bias, as determined by a predominantly IgG(2a) isotype peptide-specific antibody response and the release of IFN-gamma but not IL-4 or IL-5 from lymphocytes exposed to antigen in vitro. In comparison, parvovirus peptide conjugated to KLH generated an IgG(1)-biased (TH2) response. These data indicate that the presentation of peptides on viral particles could be used to bias the immune response in favor of a TH1 response.Anti-viral and anti-peptide IgA were detected in intestinal and bronchial lavage fluid of immunized mice, demonstrating that a mucosal immune response to CPV can be generated by systemic and mucosal immunization with CVP vaccines. Serum antibody from both subcutaneously-vaccinated and intranasally-vaccinated mice showed neutralizing activity against CPV in vitro.

  8. The development of a fully-integrated immune response model (FIRM) simulator of the immune response through integration of multiple subset models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The complexity and multiscale nature of the mammalian immune response provides an excellent test bed for the potential of mathematical modeling and simulation to facilitate mechanistic understanding. Historically, mathematical models of the immune response focused on subsets of the immune system and/or specific aspects of the response. Mathematical models have been developed for the humoral side of the immune response, or for the cellular side, or for cytokine kinetics, but rarely have they been proposed to encompass the overall system complexity. We propose here a framework for integration of subset models, based on a system biology approach. Results A dynamic simulator, the Fully-integrated Immune Response Model (FIRM), was built in a stepwise fashion by integrating published subset models and adding novel features. The approach used to build the model includes the formulation of the network of interacting species and the subsequent introduction of rate laws to describe each biological process. The resulting model represents a multi-organ structure, comprised of the target organ where the immune response takes place, circulating blood, lymphoid T, and lymphoid B tissue. The cell types accounted for include macrophages, a few T-cell lineages (cytotoxic, regulatory, helper 1, and helper 2), and B-cell activation to plasma cells. Four different cytokines were accounted for: IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-12. In addition, generic inflammatory signals are used to represent the kinetics of IL-1, IL-2, and TGF-β. Cell recruitment, differentiation, replication, apoptosis and migration are described as appropriate for the different cell types. The model is a hybrid structure containing information from several mammalian species. The structure of the network was built to be physiologically and biochemically consistent. Rate laws for all the cellular fate processes, growth factor production rates and half-lives, together with antibody production rates and half

  9. Plant immunity: unravelling the complexity of plant responses to biotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Miller, Robert Neil Gerard; Costa Alves, Gabriel Sergio; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne

    2017-03-01

    Plants are constantly exposed to evolving pathogens and pests, with crop losses representing a considerable threat to global food security. As pathogen evolution can overcome disease resistance that is conferred by individual plant resistance genes, an enhanced understanding of the plant immune system is necessary for the long-term development of effective disease management strategies. Current research is rapidly advancing our understanding of the plant innate immune system, with this multidisciplinary subject area reflected in the content of the 18 papers in this Special Issue. Advances in specific areas of plant innate immunity are highlighted in this issue, with focus on molecular interactions occurring between plant hosts and viruses, bacteria, phytoplasmas, oomycetes, fungi, nematodes and insect pests. We provide a focus on research across multiple areas related to pathogen sensing and plant immune response. Topics covered are categorized as follows: binding proteins in plant immunity; cytokinin phytohormones in plant growth and immunity; plant-virus interactions; plant-phytoplasma interactions; plant-fungus interactions; plant-nematode interactions; plant immunity in Citrus; plant peptides and volatiles; and assimilate dynamics in source/sink metabolism. Although knowledge of the plant immune system remains incomplete, the considerable ongoing scientific progress into pathogen sensing and plant immune response mechanisms suggests far reaching implications for the development of durable disease resistance against pathogens and pests. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Host-Toxoplasma gondii Coadaptation Leads to Fine Tuning of the Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Brasil, Thaís Rigueti; Freire-de-Lima, Celio Geraldo; Morrot, Alexandre; Vetö Arnholdt, Andrea Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii has successfully developed strategies to evade host's immune response and reach immune privileged sites, which remains in a controlled environment inside quiescent tissue cysts. In this review, we will approach several known mechanisms used by the parasite to modulate mainly the murine immune system at its favor. In what follows, we review recent findings revealing interference of host's cell autonomous immunity and cell signaling, gene expression, apoptosis, and production of microbicide molecules such as nitric oxide and oxygen reactive species during parasite infection. Modulation of host's metalloproteinases of extracellular matrix is also discussed. These immune evasion strategies are determinant to parasite dissemination throughout the host taking advantage of cells from the immune system to reach brain and retina, crossing crucial hosts' barriers.

  11. Host-Toxoplasma gondii Coadaptation Leads to Fine Tuning of the Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Brasil, Thaís Rigueti; Freire-de-Lima, Celio Geraldo; Morrot, Alexandre; Vetö Arnholdt, Andrea Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii has successfully developed strategies to evade host’s immune response and reach immune privileged sites, which remains in a controlled environment inside quiescent tissue cysts. In this review, we will approach several known mechanisms used by the parasite to modulate mainly the murine immune system at its favor. In what follows, we review recent findings revealing interference of host’s cell autonomous immunity and cell signaling, gene expression, apoptosis, and production of microbicide molecules such as nitric oxide and oxygen reactive species during parasite infection. Modulation of host’s metalloproteinases of extracellular matrix is also discussed. These immune evasion strategies are determinant to parasite dissemination throughout the host taking advantage of cells from the immune system to reach brain and retina, crossing crucial hosts’ barriers. PMID:28955329

  12. Regulatory immune cells in regulation of intestinal inflammatory response to microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Y; Liu, Z

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal lumen harbors nearly 100 trillion commensal bacteria that exert crucial function for health. An elaborate balance between immune responses and tolerance to intestinal microbiota is required to maintain intestinal homeostasis. This process depends on diverse regulatory mechanisms, including both innate and adaptive immunity. Dysregulation of the homeostasis between intestinal immune systems and microbiota has been shown to be associated with the development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in genetically susceptible populations. In this review, we discuss the recent progress reported in studies of distinct types of regulatory immune cells in the gut, including intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes, Foxp3+ regulatory T cells, regulatory B cells, alternatively activated macrophages, dendritic cells, and innate lymphoid cells, and how dysfunction of this immune regulatory system contributes to intestinal diseases such as IBD. Moreover, we discuss the manipulation of these regulatory immune cells as a potential therapeutic method for management of intestinal inflammatory disorders. PMID:26080708

  13. Regulatory immune cells in regulation of intestinal inflammatory response to microbiota.

    PubMed

    Sun, M; He, C; Cong, Y; Liu, Z

    2015-09-01

    The intestinal lumen harbors nearly 100 trillion commensal bacteria that exert crucial function for health. An elaborate balance between immune responses and tolerance to intestinal microbiota is required to maintain intestinal homeostasis. This process depends on diverse regulatory mechanisms, including both innate and adaptive immunity. Dysregulation of the homeostasis between intestinal immune systems and microbiota has been shown to be associated with the development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in genetically susceptible populations. In this review, we discuss the recent progress reported in studies of distinct types of regulatory immune cells in the gut, including intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes, Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells, regulatory B cells, alternatively activated macrophages, dendritic cells, and innate lymphoid cells, and how dysfunction of this immune regulatory system contributes to intestinal diseases such as IBD. Moreover, we discuss the manipulation of these regulatory immune cells as a potential therapeutic method for management of intestinal inflammatory disorders.

  14. Detection of cell mediated immune response to avian influenza viruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In birds, lymphomyeloid tissues develop from epithelial (Bursa of Fabricus or thymus) or mesenchymal tissue which are populated by heamatopoietic stem cells. These stem cells develop directly into immunologically competent B (bursa) and T (thymus) cells. Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is a part of the...

  15. Suppression of antitumour protective cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to a human papillomavirus 16 E7 DNA vaccine by coinjection of interleukin-12 complementary DNA: involvement of nitric oxide in immune suppression

    PubMed Central

    Sin, Jeong-Im

    2009-01-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) has been shown to enhance cellular immunity in vitro and in vivo. The beneficial roles of IL-12 as a DNA vaccine adjuvant have been commonly observed. Here the impact of IL-12 complementary DNA (cDNA) as an adjuvant for a human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 E7 DNA vaccine is investigated in a mouse tumour model. Coinjection of E7 DNA vaccine with IL-12 cDNA completely suppressed antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses, leading to a complete loss of antitumour protection from a tumour cell challenge. In addition, antigen-specific antibody and T helper cell proliferative responses were also suppressed by IL-12 cDNA coinjection. This inhibition was observed over different IL-12 cDNA doses. Furthermore, separate leg injections of IL-12 and E7 cDNAs suppressed antigen-specific CTL and tumour protective responses, but not antibody and T helper cell proliferative responses, suggesting different pathways for suppression of these two separate responses. Further knockout animal studies demonstrated that interferon-γ and nitric oxide are not directly associated with suppression of antigen-specific antibody responses by IL-12 cDNA coinjection. However, nitric oxide was found to be involved in suppression of antigen-specific CTL and tumour protective responses by IL-12 cDNA coinjection. These data suggest that coinjection of IL-12 cDNA results in suppression of E7-specific CTL responses through nitric oxide, leading to a loss of antitumour resistance in this DNA vaccine model. This study further shows that the adjuvant effect of IL-12 is dependent on the antigen types tested. PMID:19740332

  16. Suppression of antitumour protective cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to a human papillomavirus 16 E7 DNA vaccine by coinjection of interleukin-12 complementary DNA: involvement of nitric oxide in immune suppression.

    PubMed

    Sin, Jeong-Im

    2009-09-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) has been shown to enhance cellular immunity in vitro and in vivo. The beneficial roles of IL-12 as a DNA vaccine adjuvant have been commonly observed. Here the impact of IL-12 complementary DNA (cDNA) as an adjuvant for a human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 E7 DNA vaccine is investigated in a mouse tumour model. Coinjection of E7 DNA vaccine with IL-12 cDNA completely suppressed antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses, leading to a complete loss of antitumour protection from a tumour cell challenge. In addition, antigen-specific antibody and T helper cell proliferative responses were also suppressed by IL-12 cDNA coinjection. This inhibition was observed over different IL-12 cDNA doses. Furthermore, separate leg injections of IL-12 and E7 cDNAs suppressed antigen-specific CTL and tumour protective responses, but not antibody and T helper cell proliferative responses, suggesting different pathways for suppression of these two separate responses. Further knockout animal studies demonstrated that interferon-gamma and nitric oxide are not directly associated with suppression of antigen-specific antibody responses by IL-12 cDNA coinjection. However, nitric oxide was found to be involved in suppression of antigen-specific CTL and tumour protective responses by IL-12 cDNA coinjection. These data suggest that coinjection of IL-12 cDNA results in suppression of E7-specific CTL responses through nitric oxide, leading to a loss of antitumour resistance in this DNA vaccine model. This study further shows that the adjuvant effect of IL-12 is dependent on the antigen types tested.

  17. Masking of antigenic epitopes by antibodies shapes the humoral immune response to influenza

    PubMed Central

    Zarnitsyna, Veronika I.; Ellebedy, Ali H.; Davis, Carl; Jacob, Joshy; Ahmed, Rafi; Antia, Rustom

    2015-01-01

    The immune responses to influenza, a virus that exhibits strain variation, show complex dynamics where prior immunity shapes the response to the subsequent infecting strains. Original antigenic sin (OAS) describes the observation that antibodies to the first encountered influenza strain, specifically antibodies to the epitopes on the head of influenza's main surface glycoprotein, haemagglutinin (HA), dominate following infection with new drifted strains. OAS suggests that responses to the original strain are preferentially boosted. Recent studies also show limited boosting of the antibodies to conserved epitopes on the stem of HA, which are attractive targets for a ‘universal vaccine’. We develop multi-epitope models to explore how pre-existing immunity modulates the immune response to new strains following immunization. Our models suggest that the masking of antigenic epitopes by antibodies may play an important role in describing the complex dynamics of OAS and limited boosting of antibodies to the stem of HA. Analysis of recently published data confirms model predictions for how pre-existing antibodies to an epitope on HA decrease the magnitude of boosting of the antibody response to this epitope following immunization. We explore strategies for boosting of antibodies to conserved epitopes and generating broadly protective immunity to multiple strains. PMID:26194761

  18. Coding and non-coding gene regulatory networks underlie the immune response in liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bo; Zhang, Xueming; Huang, Yongming; Yang, Zhengpeng; Zhang, Yuguo; Zhang, Weihui; Gao, Zu-Hua; Xue, Dongbo

    2017-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis is recognized as being the consequence of immune-mediated hepatocyte damage and repair processes. However, the regulation of these immune responses underlying liver cirrhosis has not been elucidated. In this study, we used GEO datasets and bioinformatics methods to established coding and non-coding gene regulatory networks including transcription factor-/lncRNA-microRNA-mRNA, and competing endogenous RNA interaction networks. Our results identified 2224 mRNAs, 70 lncRNAs and 46 microRNAs were differentially expressed in liver cirrhosis. The transcription factor -/lncRNA- microRNA-mRNA network we uncovered that results in immune-mediated liver cirrhosis is comprised of 5 core microRNAs (e.g., miR-203; miR-219-5p), 3 transcription factors (i.e., FOXP3, ETS1 and FOS) and 7 lncRNAs (e.g., ENTS00000671336, ENST00000575137). The competing endogenous RNA interaction network we identified includes a complex immune response regulatory subnetwork that controls the entire liver cirrhosis network. Additionally, we found 10 overlapping GO terms shared by both liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma including "immune response" as well. Interestingly, the overlapping differentially expressed genes in liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma were enriched in immune response-related functional terms. In summary, a complex gene regulatory network underlying immune response processes may play an important role in the development and progression of liver cirrhosis, and its development into hepatocellular carcinoma.

  19. An Organismal Model for Gene Regulatory Networks in the Gut-Associated Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Katherine M.; Rast, Jonathan P.

    2017-01-01

    The gut epithelium is an ancient site of complex communication between the animal immune system and the microbial world. While elements of self-non-self receptors and effector mechanisms differ greatly among animal phyla, some aspects of recognition, regulation, and response are broadly conserved. A gene regulatory network (GRN) approach provides a means to investigate the nature of this conservation and divergence even as more peripheral functional details remain incompletely understood. The sea urchin embryo is an unparalleled experimental model for detangling the GRNs that govern embryonic development. By applying this theoretical framework to the free swimming, feeding larval stage of the purple sea urchin, it is possible to delineate the conserved regulatory circuitry that regulates the gut-associated immune response. This model provides a morphologically simple system in which to efficiently unravel regulatory connections that are phylogenetically relevant to immunity in vertebrates. Here, we review the organism-wide cellular and transcriptional immune response of the sea urchin larva. A large set of transcription factors and signal systems, including epithelial expression of interleukin 17 (IL17), are important mediators in the activation of the early gut-associated response. Many of these have homologs that are active in vertebrate immunity, while others are ancient in animals but absent in vertebrates or specific to echinoderms. This larval model provides a means to experimentally characterize immune function encoded in the sea urchin genome and the regulatory interconnections that control immune response and resolution across the tissues of the organism. PMID:29109720

  20. Systems analysis of protective immune responses to RTS,S malaria vaccination in humans

    PubMed Central

    Kazmin, Dmitri; Nakaya, Helder I.; Lee, Eva K.; Johnson, Matthew J.; van der Most, Robbert; van den Berg, Robert A.; Ballou, W. Ripley; Jongert, Erik; Wille-Reece, Ulrike; Ockenhouse, Christian; Aderem, Alan; Zak, Daniel E.; Sadoff, Jerald; Hendriks, Jenny; Wrammert, Jens; Ahmed, Rafi; Pulendran, Bali

    2017-01-01

    RTS,S is an advanced malaria vaccine candidate and confers significant protection against Plasmodium falciparum infection in humans. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms driving vaccine immunity. Here, we applied a systems biology approach to study immune responses in subjects receiving three consecutive immunizations with RTS,S (RRR), or in those receiving two immunizations of RTS,S/AS01 following a primary immunization with adenovirus 35 (Ad35) (ARR) vector expressing circumsporozoite protein. Subsequent controlled human malaria challenge (CHMI) of the vaccinees with Plasmodium-infected mosquitoes, 3 wk after the final immunization, resulted in ∼50% protection in both groups of vaccinees. Circumsporozoite protein (CSP)-specific antibody titers, prechallenge, were associated with protection in the RRR group. In contrast, ARR-induced lower antibody responses, and protection was associated with polyfunctional CD4+ T-cell responses 2 wk after priming with Ad35. Molecular signatures of B and plasma cells detected in PBMCs were highly correlated with antibody titers prechallenge and protection in the RRR cohort. In contrast, early signatures of innate immunity and dendritic cell activation were highly associated with protection in the ARR cohort. For both vaccine regimens, natural killer (NK) cell signatures negatively correlated with and predicted protection. These results suggest that protective immunity against P. falciparum can be achieved via multiple mechanisms and highlight the utility of systems approaches in defining molecular correlates of protection to vaccination. PMID:28193898

  1. Lower Selenoprotein T Expression and Immune Response in the Immune Organs of Broilers with Exudative Diathesis Due to Selenium Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tingru; Liu, Tianqi; Tan, Siran; Wan, Na; Zhang, Yiming; Li, Shu

    2018-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate whether dietary selenium (Se) deficiency would affect the expression of selenoprotein T (SelT) and immune response in the immune organs of broilers. Changes in expression of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress response caused by Se deficiency can lead to organism damage, which in turn leads to immune response. Sixty (1-day-old) broilers were divided into the control group and Se-deficiency group. Animal models with exudative diathesis were duplicated in the broilers by feeding them Se-deficient diet for 20 days. After the Se-deficient group exhibited symptoms of exudative diathesis, all the broilers were euthanized, and their immune organs were taken for analysis. The tissues including spleen, bursa of Fabricius, and thymus were treated to determine the pathological changes (including microscopic and ultramicroscopic), the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of SelT and its synthetase (SecS and SPS1), cytokine mRNA expression levels, and antioxidant status. The microscopic and ultramicroscopic analyses showed that immune tissues were obviously injured in the Se-deficient group. The mRNA expression of SelT was decreased compared with that in the control group. Meanwhile, the mRNA expression levels of SecS and SPS1 were downregulated. In the Se-deficient group, the mRNA expression levels of IL-1R and IL-1β were higher than those of three control organs. Additionally, the IL-2 and INF-γ mRNA expression levels were lower than those of the control group. The activity of CAT was decreased, and the contents of H 2 O 2 and •OH were increased due to Se deficiency. Pearson method analysis showed that the expression of SelT had a positive correlation with IL-2, INF-γ, SecS, and SPS1 and a negative correlation with IL-1R and IL-1β. In summary, these data indicated that Se-deficient diet decreased the SelT expression and its regulation of oxidative stress, and it inhibited a pleiotropic mechanism of the

  2. Identification of an immune-responsive mesolimbocortical serotonergic system: Potential role in regulation of emotional behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, C.A.; Hollis, J.H.; de Vries, A.; Pan, B.; Brunet, L.R.; Hunt, J.R.F.; Paton, J.F.R.; van Kampen, E.; Knight, D.M.; Evans, A.K.; Rook, G.A.W.; Lightman, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    Peripheral immune activation can have profound physiological and behavioral effects including induction of fever and sickness behavior. One mechanism through which immune activation or immunomodulation may affect physiology and behavior is via actions on brainstem neuromodulatory systems, such as serotonergic systems. We have found that peripheral immune activation with antigens derived from the nonpathogenic, saprophytic bacterium, Mycobacterium vaccae, activated a specific subset of serotonergic neurons in the interfascicular part of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRI) of mice, as measured by quantification of c-Fos expression following intratracheal (12 h) or s.c. (6 h) administration of heat-killed, ultrasonically disrupted M. vaccae, or heat-killed, intact M. vaccae, respectively. These effects were apparent after immune activation by M. vaccae or its components but not by ovalbumin, which induces a qualitatively different immune response. The effects of immune activation were associated with increases in serotonin metabolism within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, consistent with an effect of immune activation on mesolimbocortical serotonergic systems. The effects of M. vaccae administration on serotonergic systems were temporally associated with reductions in immobility in the forced swim test, consistent with the hypothesis that the stimulation of mesolimbocortical serotonergic systems by peripheral immune activation alters stress-related emotional behavior. These findings suggest that the immune-responsive subpopulation of serotonergic neurons in the DRI is likely to play an important role in the neural mechanisms underlying regulation of the physiological and pathophysiological responses to both acute and chronic immune activation, including regulation of mood during health and disease states. Together with previous studies, these findings also raise the possibility that immune stimulation activates a functionally and anatomically distinct subset of

  3. Fewer Doses of HPV Vaccine Result in Immune Response Similar to Three-Dose Regimen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Releases NCI News Note Fewer doses of HPV vaccine result in immune response similar to three-dose ... that two doses of a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, trademarked as Cervarix, resulted in similar serum antibody ...

  4. Individuals with increased inflammatory response to ozone demonstrate muted signaling of immune cell trafficking pathways

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Exposure to ozone activates innate immune function and causes neutrophilic (PMN) airway inflammation that in some individuals is robustly elevated. The interplay between immunoinflammatory function and genomic signaling in those with heightened inflammatory responsive...

  5. Immune Responses in Cattle Inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or Mycobacterium kansasii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cattle were inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or Mycobacterium kansasii to compare antigen-specific immune responses to varied patterns of mycobacterial disease. Disease expression ranged from colonization with associated pathology (M. bovis), colonization without path...

  6. Behavioral Fever Drives Epigenetic Modulation of the Immune Response in Fish.

    PubMed

    Boltana, Sebastian; Aguilar, Andrea; Sanhueza, Nataly; Donoso, Andrea; Mercado, Luis; Imarai, Monica; Mackenzie, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Ectotherms choose the best thermal conditions to mount a successful immune response, a phenomenon known as behavioral fever. The cumulative evidence suggests that behavioral fever impacts positively upon lymphocyte proliferation, inflammatory cytokine expression, and other immune functions. In this study, we have explored how thermal choice during infection impacts upon underpinning molecular processes and how temperature increase is coupled to the immune response. Our results show that behavioral fever results in a widespread, plastic imprint on gene regulation, and lymphocyte proliferation. We further explored the possible contribution of histone modification and identified global associations between temperature and histone changes that suggest epigenetic remodeling as a result of behavioral fever. Together, these results highlight the critical importance of thermal choice in mobile ectotherms, particularly in response to an infection, and demonstrate the key role of epigenetic modification to orchestrate the thermocoupling of the immune response during behavioral fever.

  7. Mitochondrial dysfunction as a trigger of innate immune responses and inflammation.

    PubMed

    West, A Phillip

    2017-11-01

    A growing literature indicates that mitochondria are key participants in innate immune pathways, functioning as both signaling platforms and contributing to effector responses. In addition to regulating antiviral signaling and antibacterial immunity, mitochondria are also important drivers of inflammation caused by sterile injury. Much research on mitochondrial control of immunity now centers on understanding how mitochondrial constituents released during cellular damage simulate the innate immune system. When mitochondrial integrity is compromised, mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns engage pattern recognition receptors, trigger inflammation, and promote pathology in an expanding list of diseases. Here, I review the emerging knowledge of mitochondrial dysfunction in innate immune responses and discuss how environmental exposures may induce mitochondrial damage to potentiate inflammation and human disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sexual Dimorphism of Immune Responses: A New Perspective in Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Capone, Imerio; Marchetti, Paolo; Ascierto, Paolo Antonio; Malorni, Walter; Gabriele, Lucia

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, several types of tumors can benefit from the new frontier of immunotherapy, due to the recent increasing knowledge of the role of the immune system in cancer control. Among the new therapeutic strategies, there is the immune checkpoint blockade (ICB), able to restore an efficacious antitumor immunity and significantly prolong the overall survival (OS) of patients with advanced tumors such as melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Despite the impressive efficacy of these agents in some patients, treatment failure and resistance are frequently observed. In this regard, the signaling governed by IFN type I (IFN-I) has emerged as pivotal in orchestrating host defense. This pathway displays different activation between sexes, thus potentially contributing to sexual dimorphic differences in the immune responses to immunotherapy. This perspective article aims to critically consider the immune signals, with particular attention to IFN-I, that may differently affect female and male antitumor responses upon immunotherapy. PMID:29619026

  9. Sexual Dimorphism of Immune Responses: A New Perspective in Cancer Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Capone, Imerio; Marchetti, Paolo; Ascierto, Paolo Antonio; Malorni, Walter; Gabriele, Lucia

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, several types of tumors can benefit from the new frontier of immunotherapy, due to the recent increasing knowledge of the role of the immune system in cancer control. Among the new therapeutic strategies, there is the immune checkpoint blockade (ICB), able to restore an efficacious antitumor immunity and significantly prolong the overall survival (OS) of patients with advanced tumors such as melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Despite the impressive efficacy of these agents in some patients, treatment failure and resistance are frequently observed. In this regard, the signaling governed by IFN type I (IFN-I) has emerged as pivotal in orchestrating host defense. This pathway displays different activation between sexes, thus potentially contributing to sexual dimorphic differences in the immune responses to immunotherapy. This perspective article aims to critically consider the immune signals, with particular attention to IFN-I, that may differently affect female and male antitumor responses upon immunotherapy.

  10. Effects of BRAF mutations and BRAF inhibition on immune responses to melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Ilieva, Kristina M.; Correa, Isabel; Josephs, Debra H.; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Egbuniwe, Isioma U.; Cafferkey, Michiala J.; Spicer, James F.; Harries, Mark; Nestle, Frank O.; Lacy, Katie E.; Karagiannis, Sophia N.

    2014-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is associated with poor clinical prognosis; however, novel molecular and immune therapies are now improving patient outcomes. Almost 50% of melanomas harbor targetable activating mutations of BRAF which promote RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK pathway activation and melanoma proliferation. Recent evidence also indicates that melanomas bearing mutant BRAF may also have altered immune responses, suggesting additional avenues for treatment of this patient group. The small molecule inhibitors selective for mutant BRAF induce significant but short-lived clinical responses in a proportion of patients, but also lead to immune stimulatory bystander events, which then subside with the emergence of resistance to inhibition. Simultaneous BRAF and MEK inhibition, and especially combination of BRAF inhibitors with new immunotherapies such as checkpoint blockade antibodies, may further enhance immune activation, or counteract immunosuppressive signals. Pre-clinical evaluation and ongoing clinical trials should provide novel insights into the role of immunity in the therapy of BRAF-mutant melanoma. PMID:25385327

  11. Complement is a central mediator of radiotherapy-induced tumor-specific immunity and clinical response.

    PubMed

    Surace, Laura; Lysenko, Veronika; Fontana, Andrea Orlando; Cecconi, Virginia; Janssen, Hans; Bicvic, Antonela; Okoniewski, Michal; Pruschy, Martin; Dummer, Reinhard; Neefjes, Jacques; Knuth, Alexander; Gupta, Anurag; van den Broek, Maries

    2015-04-21

    Radiotherapy induces DNA damage and cell death, but recent data suggest that concomitant immune stimulation is an integral part of the therapeutic action of ionizing radiation. It is poorly understood how radiotherapy supports tumor-specific immunity. Here we report that radiotherapy induced tumor cell death and transiently activated complement both in murine and human tumors. The local production of pro-inflammatory anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a was crucial to the tumor response to radiotherapy and concomitant stimulation of tumor-specific immunity. Dexamethasone, a drug frequently given during radiotherapy, limited complement activation and the anti-tumor effects of the immune system. Overall, our findings indicate that anaphylatoxins are key players in radiotherapy-induced tumor-specific immunity and the ensuing clinical responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Immune responses of mice immunized by DNA plasmids encoding PCV2 ORF 2 gene, porcine IL-15 or the both.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bo; Feng, Jing; Lin, Hai; Li, Lanxiang; Su, Dingding; Tu, Di; Zhu, Weijuan; Yang, Qing; Ren, Xiaofeng

    2013-11-19

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is associated with many kinds of diseases including postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). It affects the immune system of swine and causes huge epidemic losses every year. In our previous study, we provided evidence that DNA plasmid bearing porcine IL-15 (pVAX-pIL-15) might serve as an immune enhancer for DNA plasmid encoding porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus GP5 gene. In this study, PCV2 open reading frame (ORF)2 gene was cloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pVAX, resulting in the plasmid pVAX-PCV2-ORF2. Transient expression of the plasmid in BHK-21 cells could be detected using immunofluorescence assay. Experimental mice were divided into 5 groups and immunized with PBS, pVAX, pVAX-pIL-15, pVAX-PCV2-ORF2 or pVAX-pIL-15 plus pVAX-PCV2-ORF2. The results showed that the mice co-inoculated with pVAX-PCV2-ORF2 plus pVAX-pIL-15 had higher humoral and cellular immune responses than the others. In addition, DNA plasmid bearing PCV2 ORF2 gene had a protective effect against challenge with PCV2 in mice which could be promoted with the utilization of pIL-15. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy Suppresses the Early Proinflammatory Immune Response to a Severe Cutaneous Burn Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    Burn wound model Mice were anaesthetised using isoflurane inha- lation. After shaving the dorsum, the exposed skin was washed gently with room...Extracorporeal shock wave therapy suppresses the early proinflammatory immune response to a severe cutaneous burn injury* Thomas A Davis, Alexander...S, Peoples GE, Tadaki D, Elster EA. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy suppresses the early proinflammatory immune response to a severe cutaneous burn

  14. An Investigation of the Memory Response of the Local Immune System to Shigella Antigens.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-31

    kAD-A±75 215 AN INVESTIOATION OF THE MEMORY RESPONSE OF THE LOCAL L/1 I IMMUNE SYSTEM TO SHIGELLA ANTIGENS(U) MICHIGAN UNIV ANN I RBOR D F KEREN 31...IMMUNE SYSTEM TO SHIGELLA ANTIGENS ANNUAL REPORT DAVID F. KEREN, M.D. DECEMBER 31, 1985 FOR THE PERIOD DECEMBER 1, 1984 - NOVEMBER 30, 1985 SUPPORTED...Security Classification) An Investigation of the Memory Response of the Local Immune System to Shigella Antigens 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Keren, David F

  15. Bivalve immunity and response to infections: Are we looking at the right place?

    PubMed

    Allam, Bassem; Pales Espinosa, Emmanuelle

    2016-06-01

    Significant progress has been made in the understanding of cellular and molecular mediators of immunity in invertebrates in general and bivalve mollusks in particular. Despite this information, there is a lack of understanding of factors affecting animal resistance and specific responses to infections. This in part results from limited consideration of the spatial (and to some extent temporal) heterogeneity of immune responses and very limited information on host-pathogen (and microbes in general) interactions at initial encounter/colonization sites. Of great concern is the fact that most studies on molluscan immunity focus on the circulating hemocytes and the humoral defense factors in the plasma while most relevant host-microbe interactions occur at mucosal interfaces. This paper summarizes information available on the contrasting value of information available on focal and systemic immune responses in infected bivalves, and highlights the role of mucosal immune factors in host-pathogen interactions. Available information underlines the diversity of immune effectors at molluscan mucosal interfaces and highlights the tailored immune response to pathogen stimuli. This context raises fascinating basic research questions around host-microbe crosstalk and feedback controls of these interactions and may lead to novel disease mitigation strategies and improve the assessment of resistant crops or the screening of probiotic candidates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhancement of Th1 immune responses to recombinant influenza nucleoprotein by Ribi adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Cargnelutti, Diego E; Sanchez, María A V; Alvarez, Paula; Boado, Lorena; Mattion, Nora; Scodeller, Eduardo A

    2013-04-01

    A broad coverage influenza vaccine against multiple viral strains based on the viral nucleoprotein (NP) is a goal pursued by many laboratories. If the goal is to formulate the vaccine with recombinant NP it is essential to count on adjuvants capable of inducing cellular immunity. This work have studied the effect of the monophosphoryl lipid A and trehalose dimycolate, known as the Ribi Adjuvant System (RAS), in the immune response induced in mice immunized with recombinant NP. The NP was formulated with RAS and used to immunize BALB/c mice. Immunizations with NP-RAS increased the humoral and cellular immune responses compared to unadjuvanted NP. The predominant antibody isotype was IgG2a, suggesting the development of a Th1 response. Analysis of the cytokines from mice immunized with NP-RAS showed a significant increase in the production of IFN-g and a decreased production of IL-10 and IL-4 compared to controls without RAS. These results are similar to those usually obtained using Freund’s adjuvant, known to induce Th1 and CTL responses when co-administered with purified proteins, and suggest that a similar approach may be possible to enhance the performance of a T-cell vaccine containing NP.

  17. Coding and non-coding gene regulatory networks underlie the immune response in liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xueming; Huang, Yongming; Yang, Zhengpeng; Zhang, Yuguo; Zhang, Weihui; Gao, Zu-hua; Xue, Dongbo

    2017-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis is recognized as being the consequence of immune-mediated hepatocyte damage and repair processes. However, the regulation of these immune responses underlying liver cirrhosis has not been elucidated. In this study, we used GEO datasets and bioinformatics methods to established coding and non-coding gene regulatory networks including transcription factor-/lncRNA-microRNA-mRNA, and competing endogenous RNA interaction networks. Our results identified 2224 mRNAs, 70 lncRNAs and 46 microRNAs were differentially expressed in liver cirrhosis. The transcription factor -/lncRNA- microRNA-mRNA network we uncovered that results in immune-mediated liver cirrhosis is comprised of 5 core microRNAs (e.g., miR-203; miR-219-5p), 3 transcription factors (i.e., FOXP3, ETS1 and FOS) and 7 lncRNAs (e.g., ENTS00000671336, ENST00000575137). The competing endogenous RNA interaction network we identified includes a complex immune response regulatory subnetwork that controls the entire liver cirrhosis network. Additionally, we found 10 overlapping GO terms shared by both liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma including “immune response” as well. Interestingly, the overlapping differentially expressed genes in liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma were enriched in immune response-related functional terms. In summary, a complex gene regulatory network underlying immune response processes may play an important role in the development and progression of liver cirrhosis, and its development into hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:28355233

  18. Plant Immune Responses Against Viruses: How Does a Virus Cause Disease?[OA

    PubMed Central

    Mandadi, Kranthi K.; Scholthof, Karen-Beth G.

    2013-01-01

    Plants respond to pathogens using elaborate networks of genetic interactions. Recently, significant progress has been made in understanding RNA silencing and how viruses counter this apparently ubiquitous antiviral defense. In addition, plants also induce hypersensitive and systemic acquired resistance responses, which together limit the virus to infected cells and impart resistance to the noninfected tissues. Molecular processes such as the ubiquitin proteasome system and DNA methylation are also critical to antiviral defenses. Here, we provide a summary and update of advances in plant antiviral immune responses, beyond RNA silencing mechanisms—advances that went relatively unnoticed in the realm of RNA silencing and nonviral immune responses. We also document the rise of Brachypodium and Setaria species as model grasses to study antiviral responses in Poaceae, aspects that have been relatively understudied, despite grasses being the primary source of our calories, as well as animal feed, forage, recreation, and biofuel needs in the 21st century. Finally, we outline critical gaps, future prospects, and considerations central to studying plant antiviral immunity. To promote an integrated model of plant immunity, we discuss analogous viral and nonviral immune concepts and propose working definitions of viral effectors, effector-triggered immunity, and viral pathogen-triggered immunity. PMID:23709626

  19. Immune response of T cells during herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Liu, Huan; Wei, Bin

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), a neurotropic member of the alphaherpes virus family, is among the most prevalent and successful human pathogens. HSV-1 can cause serious diseases at every stage of life including fatal disseminated disease in newborns, cold sores, eye disease, and fatal encephalitis in adults. HSV-1 infection can trigger rapid immune responses, and efficient inhibition and clearance of HSV-1 infection rely on both the innate and adaptive immune responses of the host. Multiple strategies have been used to restrict host innate immune responses by HSV-1 to facilitate its infection in host cells. The adaptive immunity of the host plays an important role in inhibiting HSV-1 infections. The activation and regulation of T cells are the important aspects of the adaptive immunity. They play a crucial role in host-mediated immunity and are important for clearing HSV-1. In this review, we examine the findings on T cell immune responses during HSV-1 infection, which hold promise in the design of new vaccine candidates for HSV-1.

  20. Immune response of T cells during herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Liu, Huan; Wei, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), a neurotropic member of the alphaherpes virus family, is among the most prevalent and successful human pathogens. HSV-1 can cause serious diseases at every stage of life including fatal disseminated disease in newborns, cold sores, eye disease, and fatal encephalitis in adults. HSV-1 infection can trigger rapid immune responses, and efficient inhibition and clearance of HSV-1 infection rely on both the innate and adaptive immune responses of the host. Multiple strategies have been used to restrict host innate immune responses by HSV-1 to facilitate its infection in host cells. The adaptive immunity of the host plays an important role in inhibiting HSV-1 infections. The activation and regulation of T cells are the important aspects of the adaptive immunity. They play a crucial role in host-mediated immunity and are important for clearing HSV-1. In this review, we examine the findings on T cell immune responses during HSV-1 infection, which hold promise in the design of new vaccine candidates for HSV-1. PMID:28378566

  1. Oral antibiotics enhance antibody responses to keyhole limpet hemocyanin in orally but not muscularly immunized chickens.

    PubMed

    Murai, Atsushi; Kitahara, Kazuki; Okumura, Shouta; Kobayashi, Misato; Horio, Fumihiko

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies have emphasized the crucial role of gut microbiota in triggering and modulating immune response. We aimed to determine whether the modification of gut microbiota by oral co-administration of two antibiotics, ampicillin and neomycin, would lead to changes in the antibody response to antigens in chickens. Neonatal chickens were given or not given ampicillin and neomycin (0.25 and 0.5 g/L, respectively) in drinking water. At 2 weeks of age, the chicks were muscularly or orally immunized with antigenic keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), and then serum anti-KLH antibody levels were examined by ELISA. In orally immunized chicks, oral antibiotics treatment enhanced antibody responses (IgM, IgA, IgY) by 2-3-fold compared with the antibiotics-free control, while the antibiotics did not enhance antibody responses in the muscularly immunized chicks. Concomitant with their enhancement of antibody responses, the oral antibiotics also lowered the Lactobacillus species in feces. Low doses of antibiotics (10-fold and 100-fold lower than the initial trial), which failed to change the fecal Lactobacillus population, did not modify any antibody responses when chicks were orally immunized with KLH. In conclusion, oral antibiotics treatment enhanced the antibody response to orally exposed antigens in chickens. This enhancement of antibody response was associated with a modification of the fecal Lactobacillus content, suggesting a possible link between gut microbiota and antibody response in chickens. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Antiviral immune responses: triggers of or triggered by autoimmunity?

    PubMed Central

    Münz, Christian; Lünemann, Jan D.; Getts, Meghann Teague; Miller, Stephen D.

    2010-01-01

    Several common autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and multiple sclerosis, are genetically linked to distinct human MHC class II molecules and other immune modulators. However, genetic predisposition is only one risk factor for the development of these diseases, and low concordance rates in monozygotic twins as well as geographical distribution of disease risk point towards environmental factors in the genesis of these diseases. Among these environmental factors, infections have been implicated in the onset and/or promotion of autoimmunity. In this review, we outline mechanisms by which pathogens can trigger autoimmune disease, and also pathways by which infection and immune control of infectious disease might be dysregulated during autoimmunity. PMID:19319143

  3. Carotenoids, immune response and the expression of sexual ornaments in male greenfinches ( Carduelis chloris)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, Eduardo; Amat, Juan A.

    2007-11-01

    Allocation trade-offs of carotenoids between their use in the immune system and production of sexual ornaments have been suggested as a proximate mechanism maintaining honesty of sexual signals. To test this idea, we experimentally examined whether carotenoid availability in the diet was related to variation in antibody response to novel antigens in male greenfinches ( Carduelis chloris aurantiiventris), a species with extensive carotenoid-dependent plumage colouration. We also measured the cost of mounting a humoral response in terms of circulating carotenoids. Finally, we examined the relationship between plumage colour, immune response and circulating carotenoids. We found that males with carotenoid-supplemented diets showed stronger antibody response than non-supplemented birds. We also found that activation of the immune system significantly reduced circulating carotenoids (24.9% lower in immune-challenged birds than in control birds). Finally, intensity (chroma) of ventral plumage colouration of males, a character directly related to concentration of total carotenoids in feathers, was negatively correlated with the immune response and circulating carotenoids in winter. These results support the idea that carotenoids are a limiting resource and that males trade ornamental colouration against immune response.

  4. Intestinal immune response to human Cryptosporidium sp. infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro . J. Infect. Dis. 172:211–216. 29. Gomez Morales, M. A., G. La Rosa, A. Ludovisi, A. M...at different developmental stages modulates host cell apop- tosis in vitro . Infect. Immun. 72:6061–6067. 68. Moore, K. W., R. de Waal Malefyt, R. L...Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California2; Cell Biology Laboratory, United

  5. Induction of complex immune responses and strong protection against retrovirus challenge by adenovirus-based immunization depends on the order of vaccine delivery.

    PubMed

    Kaulfuß, Meike; Wensing, Ina; Windmann, Sonja; Hrycak, Camilla Patrizia; Bayer, Wibke

    2017-02-06

    In the Friend retrovirus mouse model we developed potent adenovirus-based vaccines that were designed to induce either strong Friend virus GagL 85-93 -specific CD8 + T cell or antibody responses, respectively. To optimize the immunization outcome we evaluated vaccination strategies using combinations of these vaccines. While the vaccines on their own confer strong protection from a subsequent Friend virus challenge, the simple combination of the vaccines for the establishment of an optimized immunization protocol did not result in a further improvement of vaccine effectivity. We demonstrate that the co-immunization with GagL 85-93 /leader-gag encoding vectors together with envelope-encoding vectors abrogates the induction of GagL 85-93 -specific CD8 + T cells, and in successive immunization protocols the immunization with the GagL 85-93 /leader-gag encoding vector had to precede the immunization with an envelope encoding vector for the efficient induction of GagL 85-93 -specific CD8 + T cells. Importantly, the antibody response to envelope was in fact enhanced when the mice were adenovirus-experienced from a prior immunization, highlighting the expedience of this approach. To circumvent the immunosuppressive effect of envelope on immune responses to simultaneously or subsequently administered immunogens, we developed a two immunizations-based vaccination protocol that induces strong immune responses and confers robust protection of highly Friend virus-susceptible mice from a lethal Friend virus challenge.

  6. Exosomes and Immune Response in Cancer: Friends or Foes?

    PubMed

    Barros, Francisco M; Carneiro, Fatima; Machado, Jose C; Melo, Sónia A

    2018-01-01

    Exosomes are a type of extracellular vesicle whose study has grown exponentially in recent years. This led to the understanding that these structures, far from being inert waste by-products of cellular functioning, are active players in intercellular communication mechanisms, including in the interactions between cancer cells and the immune system. The deep comprehension of the crosstalk between tumors and the immune systems of their hosts has gained more and more importance, as immunotherapeutic techniques have emerged as viable options for several types of cancer. In this review, we present a comprehensive, updated, and elucidative review of the current knowledge on the functions played by the exosomes in this crosstalk. The roles of these vesicles in tumor antigen presentation, immune activation, and immunosuppression are approached as the relevant interactions between exosomes and the complement system. The last section of this review is reserved for the exploration of the results from the first phase I to II clinical trials of exosomes-based cell-free cancer vaccines.

  7. Immune Responses to Mumps Vaccine in Adults Who Were Vaccinated in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Hanna-Wakim, Rima; Yasukawa, Linda L.; Sung, Phillip; Arvin, Ann M.; Gans, Hayley A.

    2008-01-01

    Background In a mumps outbreak in the United States, many infected individuals were adults who had received 2 doses of mumps vaccine. The persistence of cellular immunity to mumps vaccine has not been defined. Methods This was an observational, nonrandomized cohort study evaluating cell-mediated and humoral immunity to mumps in 10 vaccinated and 10 naturally immune adults. Mumps-specific T cell activation and interferon (IFN)–γ production were measured using lymphoproliferative and flow cytometry assays, and mumps immunoglobulin (Ig) G was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results T cell immunity to mumps was high in both groups; 70% of vaccinated and 80% of naturally immune individuals had a positive (≥3) stimulation index (SI) (P = 1.0). The mean percentages of mumps-specific CD4+ T cells that expressed CD69 and produced IFN-γ were equivalent in the 2 groups: 0.06% and 0.12%, respectively (P = .11). The mean SIs in the groups were also equivalent, although IFN-γ concentrations from cultures stimulated with mumps antigen were higher in naturally immune adults than in vaccinated adults (P ≤ .01). All adults were positive for mumps IgG. Conclusion T and B cell immunity to mumps was detected in adults at least 10 years after immunization. Except for IFN-γ release, responses in vaccinated adults paralleled those observed in naturally immune individuals. PMID:18419345

  8. Immune responses to mumps vaccine in adults who were vaccinated in childhood.

    PubMed

    Hanna-Wakim, Rima; Yasukawa, Linda L; Sung, Phillip; Arvin, Ann M; Gans, Hayley A

    2008-06-15

    In a mumps outbreak in the United States, many infected individuals were adults who had received 2 doses of mumps vaccine. The persistence of cellular immunity to mumps vaccine has not been defined. This was an observational, nonrandomized cohort study evaluating cell-mediated and humoral immunity to mumps in 10 vaccinated and 10 naturally immune adults. Mumps-specific T cell activation and interferon (IFN)-gamma production were measured using lymphoproliferative and flow cytometry assays, and mumps immunoglobulin (Ig) G was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. T cell immunity to mumps was high in both groups; 70% of vaccinated and 80% of naturally immune individuals had a positive (> or =3) stimulation index (SI) (P = 1.0). The mean percentages of mumps-specific CD4+ T cells that expressed CD69 and produced IFN-gamma were equivalent in the 2 groups: 0.06% and 0.12%, respectively (P = .11). The mean SIs in the groups were also equivalent, although IFN-gamma concentrations from cultures stimulated with mumps antigen were higher in naturally immune adults than in vaccinated adults (P < or = .01). All adults were positive for mumps IgG. T and B cell immunity to mumps was detected in adults at least 10 years after immunization. Except for IFN-gamma release, responses in vaccinated adults paralleled those observed in naturally immune individuals.

  9. How might infant and paediatric immune responses influence malaria vaccine efficacy?

    PubMed

    Moormann, A M

    2009-09-01

    Naturally acquired immunity to malaria requires repeat infections yet does not engender sterile immunity or long-lasting protective immunologic memory. This renders infants and young children the most susceptible to malaria-induced morbidity and mortality, and the ultimate target for a malaria vaccine. The prevailing paradigm is that infants initially garner protection due to transplacentally transferred anti-malarial antibodies and other intrinsic factors such as foetal haemoglobin. As these wane infants have an insufficient immune repertoire to prevent genetically diverse Plasmodium infections and an inability to control malaria-induced immunopathology. This Review discusses humoral, cell-mediated and innate immune responses to malaria and how each contributes to protection - focusing on how deficiencies in infant and paediatric immune responses might influence malaria vaccine efficacy in this population. In addition, burgeoning evidence suggests a role for inhibitory receptors that limit immunopathology and guide the development of long-lived immunity. Precisely how age or malaria infections influence the function of these regulators is unknown. Therefore the possibility that infants may not have the immune-dexterity to balance effective parasite clearance with timely immune-regulation leading to protective immunologic memory is considered. And thus, malaria vaccines tested in adults and older children may not be predictive for trials conducted in infants.

  10. Shikonin derivatives protect immune organs from damage and promote immune responses in vivo in tumour-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Long, Su; GuangZhi, Yan; BaoJie, Guan; Wei, Xu; YanYong, Hao; YingLi, Wang; Yang, Zhang; LiHua, Liu

    2012-01-01

    Shikonin, a major component of Lithospermum erythrorhizon and Arnebia euchroma, exhibits antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory and antitumour activities. Although many recent studies have focused on the antitumour effects of shikonin, the exact mechanisms underlying its antitumour and immunomodulatory effects in tumour-bearing mice remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antitumour and immunomodulatory effects of shikonin derivatives (ShD) in tumour-bearing mice. Swiss mice inoculated with hepatoma HepA(22) or sarcoma 180 (S(180)) cells were treated with ShD or 5-fluorouracil (5Fu). Survival time, immune organs, natural killer cell activity, lymphocytes, lymphocyte transformation and interleukin (IL)-2 production were analysed. ShD significantly prolonged the survival (median survival time prolonged by >7 days) of tumour-bearing mice in a dose-dependent manner, inhibited the growth of transplantable neoplasms (inhibitory rate, > 33%), and recovered (at [ShD] = 2.5 mg/kg/day) or increased (at [ShD] > 5 mg/kg/day) the number of CD3- and CD19-positive cells. ShD also played a role in protecting the immune organs from damage and reversed or enhanced immune responses, as noted by the nearly normal thymic structure; enlarged splenic corpuscles; and improved natural killer cell activity, lymphocyte transformation and IL-2 production in ShD-treated mice. ShD reduced the tumour load of tumour-bearing mice and protected the immune organs against tumour-induced damage and immune function impairment. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. 17D yellow fever vaccine elicits comparable long-term immune responses in healthy individuals and immune-compromised patients.

    PubMed

    Wieten, R W; Goorhuis, A; Jonker, E F F; de Bree, G J; de Visser, A W; van Genderen, P J J; Remmerswaal, E B M; Ten Berge, I J M; Visser, L G; Grobusch, M P; van Leeuwen, E M M

    2016-06-01

    The 17D live attenuated yellow fever (YF) vaccine is contra-indicated in immune-compromised individuals and may elicit a suboptimal immunologic response. The aim of this study is to assess whether long-term immune responses against the YF vaccine are impaired in immune-compromised patients. Fifteen patients using different immunosuppressive drugs and 30 healthy individuals vaccinated 0-22 years ago were included. The serological response was measured using the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). CD8(+) and CD4(+) T-cell responses were measured following proliferation and re-stimulation with YFV peptide pools. Phenotypic characteristics and cytokine responses of CD8(+) T-cells were determined using class I tetramers. The geometric mean titre of neutralizing antibodies was not different between the groups (p = 0.77). The presence of YFV-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell did not differ between patients and healthy individuals (15/15, 100.0% vs. 29/30, 96.7%, p = 0.475). Time since vaccination correlated negatively with the number of YFV-specific CD8(+) T-cells (r = -0.66, p = 0.0045). Percentages of early-differentiated memory cells increased (r = 0.67, p = 0.017) over time. These results imply that YF vaccination is effective despite certain immunosuppressive drug regimens. An early-differentiated memory-like phenotype persisted, which is associated with effective expansion upon re-encounter with antigen, suggesting a potent memory T-cell pool remains. Copyright © 2016 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Leptin, immune responses and autoimmune disease. Perspectives on the use of leptin antagonists.

    PubMed

    Peelman, F; Iserentant, H; Eyckerman, S; Zabeau, L; Tavernier, J

    2005-01-01

    The pivotal role of leptin in regulating body weight and energy homeostasis is very well established. More recently, leptin also emerged as an important regulator of T-cell-dependent immunity. Reduced leptin levels, as observed during periods of starvation, correlate with an impaired cellular immune response, whereby especially the T(H)1 pro-inflammatory immune response appears to be affected. Physiologically, this could reflect the high energy demand of such processes, which are suppressed in animals or people with nutrient shortage. Several autoimmune diseases are T(H)1 T-cell dependent. In line with a pro-inflammatory role for leptin, animal models of leptin deficiency are markedly resistant to a variety of T-cell dependent autoimmune diseases. Here, we review the role of leptin in immune responses, with emphasis on autoimmune diseases. The design and potential use of leptin antagonists is also discussed.

  13. Adenovirus vector-induced immune responses in nonhuman primates: responses to prime boost regimens1

    PubMed Central

    Tatsis, Nia; Lasaro, Marcio O.; Lin, Shih-Wen; Xiang, Zhi Q.; Zhou, Dongming; DiMenna, Lauren; Li, Hua; Bian, Ang; Abdulla, Sarah; Li, Yan; Giles-Davis, Wynetta; Engram, Jessica; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Silvestri, Guido; Ertl, Hildegund C.; Betts, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    In the phase IIb STEP trial an HIV-1 vaccine based on adenovirus (Ad) vectors of the human serotype 5 (AdHu5) not only failed to induce protection but also increased susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in individuals with pre-existing neutralizing antibodies against AdHu5. The mechanisms underlying the increased HIV-1 acquisition rates have not yet been elucidated. Furthermore, it remains unclear if the lack of the vaccine's efficacy reflects a failure of the concept of T cell-mediated protection against HIV-1 or a product failure of the vaccine. Here we compared two vaccine regimens based on sequential use of AdHu5 vectors or two different chimpanzee derived Ad (AdC) vectors in rhesus macaques that were AdHu5 seropositive or seronegative at the onset of vaccination. Our results show that heterologous booster immunizations with the AdC vectors induced higher T and B cell responses than repeated immunizations with the AdHu5 vector especially in AdHu5-pre-exposed macaques. PMID:19414814

  14. Adenovirus vector-induced immune responses in nonhuman primates: responses to prime boost regimens.

    PubMed

    Tatsis, Nia; Lasaro, Marcio O; Lin, Shih-Wen; Haut, Larissa H; Xiang, Zhi Q; Zhou, Dongming; Dimenna, Lauren; Li, Hua; Bian, Ang; Abdulla, Sarah; Li, Yan; Giles-Davis, Wynetta; Engram, Jessica; Ratcliffe, Sarah J; Silvestri, Guido; Ertl, Hildegund C; Betts, Michael R

    2009-05-15

    In the phase IIb STEP trial an HIV-1 vaccine based on adenovirus (Ad) vectors of the human serotype 5 (AdHu5) not only failed to induce protection but also increased susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in individuals with preexisting neutralizing Abs against AdHu5. The mechanisms underlying the increased HIV-1 acquisition rates have not yet been elucidated. Furthermore, it remains unclear if the lack of the vaccine's efficacy reflects a failure of the concept of T cell-mediated protection against HIV-1 or a product failure of the vaccine. Here, we compared two vaccine regimens based on sequential use of AdHu5 vectors or two different chimpanzee-derived Ad vectors in rhesus macaques that were AdHu5 seropositive or seronegative at the onset of vaccination. Our results show that heterologous booster immunizations with the chimpanzee-derived Ad vectors induced higher T and B cell responses than did repeated immunizations with the AdHu5 vector, especially in AdHu5-preexposed macaques.

  15. The acute phase response of cod (Gadus morhua L.): expression of immune response genes.

    PubMed

    Audunsdottir, Sigridur S; Magnadottir, Bergljot; Gisladottir, Berglind; Jonsson, Zophonias O; Bragason, Birkir Th

    2012-02-01

    An acute phase response (APR) was experimentally induced in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) by intramuscular injection of turpentine oil. The change in the expression of immune related genes was monitored in the anterior kidney and the spleen over a period of 7 days. The genes examined were two types of pentraxins, apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA-I), the complement component C3, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), transferrin, cathelicidin, and hepcidin. All genes were constitutively expressed in both organs and their expression amplified by the turpentine injection. A pattern of response was observed both with respect to the organ preference and to the timing of a maximum response. The increased gene expression of the pentraxins, ApoA-I and C3 was restricted to the anterior kidney, the gene expression of IL-1β, cathelicidin, and transferrin increased in both organs, while hepcidin gene expression was only significantly increased in the spleen. The pentraxins and ApoA-I appear to be early mediators of APR in cod, possibly stimulating C3 and IL-1β response, while the antimicrobial peptides may play a minor role. The increase in transferrin gene expression in both organs, and apparent indifference to cortisol release associated with the turpentine injection, suggests that this could be a typical acute phase protein in cod. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Determinants of antigenic molecules responsible for genetically controlled regulation of immune responses.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, M; Waltenbaugh, C; Dorf, M; Cesla, R; Sela, M; Benacerraf, B

    1976-01-01

    The ability of mice bearing the H-2S haplotype to develop helper responses to the random copolymer of Glu,Ala while they developed suppressor responses to the terpolymer of Glu,Ala,Tyr suggested the crucial role of tyrosine in these peptides. On the basis of various considerations, it was postulated that many of the tyrosine residues in Glu,Ala,Tyr would be localized at the NH2-terminal end of the molecule. To verify this hypothesis, a block terpolymer composed of a short sequence of homopolymer tyrosine covalently bound to the random copolymer of Glu,Ala was synthesized. The present studies, using this block terpolymer, demonstrated that the chemical determinants stimulating helper and suppressor responses are distinct and can be present simultaneously in the same molecule. Thus, addition of COOH-terminal tyrosine residues to the Glu,Ala polypeptide converted this immunogenic molecule to an immunosuppressive molecule in mice bearing the H-2S haplotype. The mechanism by which these short sequences of tyrosine influence H-2-linked immune responses remains to be determined. PMID:60762

  17. pH-Responsive Micelle-Based Cytoplasmic Delivery System for Induction of Cellular Immunity.

    PubMed

    Yuba, Eiji; Sakaguchi, Naoki; Kanda, Yuhei; Miyazaki, Maiko; Koiwai, Kazunori

    2017-11-04

    (1) Background: Cytoplasmic delivery of antigens is crucial for the induction of cellular immunity, which is an important immune response for the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. To date, fusogenic protein-incorporated liposomes and pH-responsive polymer-modified liposomes have been used to achieve cytoplasmic delivery of antigen via membrane rupture or fusion with endosomes. However, a more versatile cytoplasmic delivery system is desired for practical use. For this study, we developed pH-responsive micelles composed of dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine (DLPC) and deoxycholic acid and investigated their cytoplasmic delivery performance and immunity-inducing capability. (2) Methods: Interaction of micelles with fluorescence dye-loaded liposomes, intracellular distribution of micelles, and antigenic proteins were observed. Finally, antigen-specific cellular immune response was evaluated in vivo using ELIspot assay. (3) Results: Micelles induced leakage of contents from liposomes via lipid mixing at low pH. Micelles were taken up by dendritic cells mainly via macropinocytosis and delivered ovalbumin (OVA) into the cytosol. After intradermal injection of micelles and OVA, OVA-specific cellular immunity was induced in the spleen. (4) Conclusions: pH-responsive micelles composed of DLPC and deoxycholic acid are promising as enhancers of cytosol delivery of antigens and the induction capability of cellular immunity for the treatment of cancer immunotherapy and infectious diseases.

  18. Effect of gender and sex hormones on immune responses following shock.

    PubMed

    Angele, M K; Schwacha, M G; Ayala, A; Chaudry, I H

    2000-08-01

    Several clinical and experimental studies show a gender dimorphism of the immune and organ responsiveness in the susceptibility to and morbidity from shock, trauma, and sepsis. In this respect, cell-mediated immune responses are depressed in males after trauma-hemorrhage, whereas they are unchanged or enhanced in females. Sex hormones contribute to this gender-specific immune response after adverse circulatory conditions. Specifically, studies indicate that androgens are responsible for the immunodepression after trauma-hemorrhage in males. In contrast, female sex steroids seem to exhibit immunoprotective properties after trauma and severe blood loss, because administration of estrogen prevents the androgen-induced immunodepression in castrated male mice. Nonetheless, the precise underlying mechanisms for these immunomodulatory effects of sex steroids after shock remain unknown. Although testosterone depletion, testosterone receptor antagonism, or estrogen treatment has been shown to prevent the depression of immune functions after trauma-hemorrhage, it remains to be established whether differences in the testosterone-estradiol ratio are responsible for the immune dysfunction. Furthermore, sex hormone receptors have been identified on various immune cells, suggesting direct effects. Thus, the immunomodulatory properties of sex hormones after trauma-hemorrhage might represent novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of immunodepression in trauma patients.

  19. Clostridium perfringens beta toxin DNA prime-protein boost elicits enhanced protective immune response in mice.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Amit Kumar; Bhatia, Bharati; Kaushik, Himani; Deshmukh, Sachin K; Dixit, Aparna; Garg, Lalit C

    2017-07-01

    Clostridium perfringens beta toxin (CPB) is the primary pathogenic factor responsible for necrotic enteritis in sheep, cattle and humans. Owing to rapid progression of the disease, vaccination is the only possible recourse to avoid high mortality in animal farms and huge economic losses. The present study reports evaluation of a cpb gene-based DNA vaccine encoding the beta toxin of C. perfringens with homologous as well as heterologous booster strategy. Immunization strategy employing heterologous booster with heat-inactivated rCPB mounted stronger immune response when compared to that generated by homologous booster. Antibody isotyping and cytokine ELISA demonstrated the immune response to be Th1-biased mixed immune response. While moderate protection of immunized BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice against rCPB challenge was observed with homologous booster strategy, heterologous booster strategy led to complete protection. Thus, beta toxin-based DNA vaccine using the heterologous prime-boosting strategy was able to generate better immune response and conferred greater degree of protection against high of dose rCPB challenge than homologous booster regimen, making it an effective vaccination approach against C. perfringens beta toxin.

  20. The role of dehydroepiandrosterone on functional innate immune responses to acute stress.

    PubMed

    Prall, Sean P; Larson, Emilee E; Muehlenbein, Michael P

    2017-12-01

    The androgen dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) responds to stress activation, exhibits anti-glucocorticoid properties, and modulates immunity in diverse ways, yet little is known of its role in acute stress responses. In this study, the effects of DHEA and its sulfate ester DHEA-S on human male immune function during exposure to an acute stressor is explored. Variation in DHEA, DHEA-S, testosterone, and cortisol, along with bacterial killing assays, was measured in response to a modified Trier Social Stress test in 27 young adult males. Cortisol was positively related to salivary innate immunity but only for participants who also exhibited high DHEA responses. Additionally, DHEA positively and DHEA-S negatively predicted salivary immunity, but the opposite was observed for serum-based innate immunity. The DHEA response to acute stress appears to be an important factor in stress-mediated immunological responses, with differential effects on immunity dependent upon the presence of other hormones, primarily cortisol and DHEA-S. These results suggest that DHEA plays an important role, alongside other hormones, in modulating immunological shifts during acute stress. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Intranasal immunization with protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis induces a long-term immunological memory response.

    PubMed

    Woo, Sun-Je; Kang, Seok-Seong; Park, Sung-Moo; Yang, Jae Seung; Song, Man Ki; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

    2015-10-01

    Although intranasal vaccination has been shown to be effective for the protection against inhalational anthrax, establishment of long-term immunity has yet to be achieved. Here, we investigated whether intranasal immunization with recombinant protective antigen (rPA) of Bacillus anthracis induces immunological memory responses in the mucosal and systemic compartments. Intranasal immunization with rPA plus cholera toxin (CT) sustained PA-specific antibody responses for 6 months in lung, nasal washes, and vaginal washes as well as serum. A significant induction of PA-specific memory B cells was observed in spleen, cervical lymph nodes (CLNs) and lung after booster immunization. Furthermore, intranasal immunization with rPA plus CT remarkably generated effector memory CD4(+) T cells in the lung. PA-specific CD4(+) T cells preferentially increased the expression of Th1- and Th17-type cytokines in lung, but not in spleen or CLNs. Collectively, the intranasal immunization with rPA plus CT promoted immunologic memory responses in the mucosal and systemic compartments, providing long-term immunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comprehensive Genetic Dissection of the Hemocyte Immune Response in the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, Fabrizio; Ghani, Yasmeen; Kafatos, Fotis C.; Christophides, George K.

    2013-01-01

    Reverse genetics in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae by RNAi mediated gene silencing has led in recent years to an advanced understanding of the mosquito immune response against infections with bacteria and malaria parasites. We developed RNAi screens in An. gambiae hemocyte-like cells using a library of double-stranded RNAs targeting 109 genes expressed highly or specifically in mosquito hemocytes to identify novel regulators of the hemocyte immune response. Assays included phagocytosis of bacterial bioparticles, expression of the antimicrobial peptide CEC1, and basal and induced expression of the mosquito complement factor LRIM1. A cell viability screen was also carried out to assess dsRNA cytotoxicity and to identify genes involved in cell growth and survival. Our results identify 22 novel immune regulators, including proteins putatively involved in phagosome assembly and maturation (Ca2+ channel, v-ATPase and cyclin-dependent protein kinase), pattern recognition (fibrinogen-domain lectins and Nimrod), immune modulation (peptidase and serine protease homolog), immune signaling (Eiger and LPS-induced factor), cell adhesion and communication (Laminin B1 and Ninjurin) and immune homeostasis (Lipophorin receptor). The development of robust functional cell-based assays paves the way for genome-wide functional screens to study the mosquito immune response to infections with human pathogens. PMID:23382679

  3. Evaluation of the humoral immune response of children with low level lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Reigart, J.R.; Graber, C.D.

    1976-07-01

    Twelve lead-exposed children, with evidence of metabolic impairment, and seven non-lead exposed children were examined for evidence of impairment of their immunological response. There were no differences between the control group and the lead exposed group with reference to complement levels, immunoglobulins, or anamnestic response to the tetanus toxoid antigen. It remains to be demonstrated whether or not there is deficient response to primary immunization, whether other antigens are more affected by lead, or whether impairment of humoral immune response requires a more serious degree of lead intoxication.

  4. Transcriptomic immune response of Tenebrio molitor pupae to parasitization by Scleroderma guani.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jia-Ying; Yang, Pu; Zhang, Zhong; Wu, Guo-Xing; Yang, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Host and parasitoid interaction is one of the most fascinating relationships of insects, which is currently receiving an increasing interest. Understanding the mechanisms evolved by the parasitoids to evade or suppress the host immune system is important for dissecting this interaction, while it was still poorly known. In order to gain insight into the immune response of Tenebrio molitor to parasitization by Scleroderma guani, the transcriptome of T. molitor pupae was sequenced with focus on immune-related gene, and the non-parasitized and parasitized T. molitor pupae were analyzed by digital gene expression (DGE) analysis with special emphasis on parasitoid-induced immune-related genes using Illumina sequencing. In a single run, 264,698 raw reads were obtained. De novo assembly generated 71,514 unigenes with mean length of 424 bp. Of those unigenes, 37,373 (52.26%) showed similarity to the known proteins in the NCBI nr database. Via analysis of the transcriptome data in depth, 430 unigenes related to immunity were identified. DGE analysis revealed that parasitization by S. guani had considerable impacts on the transcriptome profile of T. molitor pupae, as indicated by the significant up- or down-regulation of 3,431 parasitism-responsive transcripts. The expression of a total of 74 unigenes involved in immune response of T. molitor was significantly altered after parasitization. obtained T. molitor transcriptome, in addition to establishing a fundamental resource for further research on functional genomics, has allowed the discovery of a large group of immune genes that might provide a meaningful framework to better understand the immune response in this species and other beetles. The DGE profiling data provides comprehensive T. molitor immune gene expression information at the transcriptional level following parasitization, and sheds valuable light on the molecular understanding of the host-parasitoid interaction.

  5. Transcriptomic Immune Response of Tenebrio molitor Pupae to Parasitization by Scleroderma guani

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jia-Ying; Yang, Pu; Zhang, Zhong; Wu, Guo-Xing; Yang, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Background Host and parasitoid interaction is one of the most fascinating relationships of insects, which is currently receiving an increasing interest. Understanding the mechanisms evolved by the parasitoids to evade or suppress the host immune system is important for dissecting this interaction, while it was still poorly known. In order to gain insight into the immune response of Tenebrio molitor to parasitization by Scleroderma guani, the transcriptome of T. molitor pupae was sequenced with focus on immune-related gene, and the non-parasitized and parasitized T. molitor pupae were analyzed by digital gene expression (DGE) analysis with special emphasis on parasitoid-induced immune-related genes using Illumina sequencing. Methodology/Principal Findings In a single run, 264,698 raw reads were obtained. De novo assembly generated 71,514 unigenes with mean length of 424 bp. Of those unigenes, 37,373 (52.26%) showed similarity to the known proteins in the NCBI nr database. Via analysis of the transcriptome data in depth, 430 unigenes related to immunity were identified. DGE analysis revealed that parasitization by S. guani had considerable impacts on the transcriptome profile of T. molitor pupae, as indicated by the significant up- or down-regulation of 3,431 parasitism-responsive transcripts. The expression of a total of 74 unigenes involved in immune response of T. molitor was significantly altered after parasitization. Conclusions/Significance obtained T. molitor transcriptome, in addition to establishing a fundamental resource for further research on functional genomics, has allowed the discovery of a large group of immune genes that might provide a meaningful framework to better understand the immune response in this species and other beetles. The DGE profiling data provides comprehensive T. molitor immune gene expression information at the transcriptional level following parasitization, and sheds valuable light on the molecular understanding of the host

  6. In vivo Ebola virus infection leads to a strong innate response in circulating immune cells.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Ignacio S; Honko, Anna N; Gire, Stephen K; Winnicki, Sarah M; Melé, Marta; Gerhardinger, Chiara; Lin, Aaron E; Rinn, John L; Sabeti, Pardis C; Hensley, Lisa E; Connor, John H

    2016-09-05

    Ebola virus is the causative agent of a severe syndrome in humans with a fatality rate that can approach 90 %. During infection, the host immune response is thought to become dysregulated, but the mechanisms through which this happens are not entirely understood. In this study, we analyze RNA sequencing data to determine the host response to Ebola virus infection in circulating immune cells. Approximately half of the 100 genes with the strongest early increases in expression were interferon-stimulated genes, such as ISG15, OAS1, IFIT2, HERC5, MX1 and DHX58. Other highly upregulated genes included cytokines CXCL11, CCL7, IL2RA, IL2R1, IL15RA, and CSF2RB, which have not been previously reported to change during Ebola virus infection. Comparing this response in two different models of exposure (intramuscular and aerosol) revealed a similar signature of infection. The strong innate response in the aerosol model was seen not only in circulating cells, but also in primary and secondary target tissues. Conversely, the innate immune response of vaccinated macaques was almost non-existent. This suggests that the innate response is a major aspect of the cellular response to Ebola virus infection in multiple tissues. Ebola virus causes a severe infection in humans that is associated with high mortality. The host immune response to virus infection is thought to be an important aspect leading to severe pathology, but the components of this overactive response are not well characterized. Here, we analyzed how circulating immune cells respond to the virus and found that there is a strong innate response dependent on active virus replication. This finding is in stark contrast to in vitro evidence showing a suppression of innate immune signaling, and it suggests that the strong innate response we observe in infected animals may be an important contributor to pathogenesis.

  7. Innate Immune Response to Rift Valley Fever Virus in Goats

    PubMed Central

    Nfon, Charles K.; Marszal, Peter; Zhang, Shunzhen; Weingartl, Hana M.

    2012-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF), a re-emerging mosquito-borne disease of ruminants and man, was endemic in Africa but spread to Saudi Arabia and Yemen, meaning it could spread even further. Little is known about innate and cell-mediated immunity to RVF virus (RVFV) in ruminants, which is knowledge required for adequate vaccine trials. We therefore studied these aspects in experimentally infected goats. We also compared RVFV grown in an insect cell-line and that grown in a mammalian cell-line for differences in the course of infection. Goats developed viremia one day post infection (DPI), which lasted three to four days and some goats had transient fever coinciding with peak viremia. Up to 4% of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were positive for RVFV. Monocytes and dendritic cells in PBMCs declined possibly from being directly infected with virus as suggested by in vitro exposure. Infected goats produced serum IFN-γ, IL-12 and other proinflammatory cytokines but not IFN-α. Despite the lack of IFN-α, innate immunity via the IL-12 to IFN-γ circuit possibly contributed to early protection against RVFV since neutralising antibodies were detected after viremia had cleared. The course of infection with insect cell-derived RVFV (IN-RVFV) appeared to be different from mammalian cell-derived RVFV (MAM-RVFV), with the former attaining peak viremia faster, inducing fever and profoundly affecting specific immune cell subpopulations. This indicated possible differences in infections of ruminants acquired from mosquito bites relative to those due to contact with infectious material from other animals. These differences need to be considered when testing RVF vaccines in laboratory settings. PMID:22545170

  8. Innate immune response to Rift Valley fever virus in goats.

    PubMed

    Nfon, Charles K; Marszal, Peter; Zhang, Shunzhen; Weingartl, Hana M

    2012-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF), a re-emerging mosquito-borne disease of ruminants and man, was endemic in Africa but spread to Saudi Arabia and Yemen, meaning it could spread even further. Little is known about innate and cell-mediated immunity to RVF virus (RVFV) in ruminants, which is knowledge required for adequate vaccine trials. We therefore studied these aspects in experimentally infected goats. We also compared RVFV grown in an insect cell-line and that grown in a mammalian cell-line for differences in the course of infection. Goats developed viremia one day post infection (DPI), which lasted three to four days and some goats had transient fever coinciding with peak viremia. Up to 4% of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were positive for RVFV. Monocytes and dendritic cells in PBMCs declined possibly from being directly infected with virus as suggested by in vitro exposure. Infected goats produced serum IFN-γ, IL-12 and other proinflammatory cytokines but not IFN-α. Despite the lack of IFN-α, innate immunity via the IL-12 to IFN-γ circuit possibly contributed to early protection against RVFV since neutralising antibodies were detected after viremia had cleared. The course of infection with insect cell-derived RVFV (IN-RVFV) appeared to be different from mammalian cell-derived RVFV (MAM-RVFV), with the former attaining peak viremia faster, inducing fever and profoundly affecting specific immune cell subpopulations. This indicated possible differences in infections of ruminants acquired from mosquito bites relative to those due to contact with infectious material from other animals. These differences need to be considered when testing RVF vaccines in laboratory settings.

  9. Deciphering the Adaptive Immune Response to Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    of 10 mg/mL. Wells containing anti-CD3/ anti-CD28 coated beads (bead-to-cell ratio of 1:1) or human cytomegalovirus, Epstein - Barr virus , and...Waldenstrom’s Macroglobulinemia (MYD88L265P). CONCLUSION: Overall, this study is progressing on schedule and on budget. We have developed the...apart from T-cell–medi- ated control of virus -induced cancers (3). More obvious in humans is the influence of the immune system on cancer progression and

  10. Reprogramming Antitumor Immune Responses with microRNAs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    22. 7. Rodriguez A, Vigorito E, Clare S, Warren MV, Couttet P, Soond DR, et al. Requirement of bic/microRNA-155 for normal immune function. Science...and CD40-mediated licensing of dendritic cells. J Immunol 2010;184: 5654–62. 32. Marigo I, Bosio E, Solito S, Mesa C, Fernandez A, Dolcetti L, et al...185 (2010) 2273–2284. [48] L.A. Norian, P.C. Rodriguez , L.A. O’Mara, J. Zabaleta, A.C. Ochoa, M. Cella, P.M. Allen, Tumor-infiltrating regulatory

  11. Reprogramming Antitumor Immune Responses with microRNAs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    7. Rodriguez A, Vigorito E, Clare S, Warren MV, Couttet P, Soond DR, et al. Requirement of bic/microRNA-155 for normal immune function. Science...CD40-mediated licensing of dendritic cells. J Immunol 2010;184: 5654–62. 32. Marigo I, Bosio E, Solito S, Mesa C, Fernandez A, Dolcetti L, et al. Tumor...2010) 2273–2284. [48] L.A. Norian, P.C. Rodriguez , L.A. O’Mara, J. Zabaleta, A.C. Ochoa, M. Cella, P.M. Allen, Tumor-infiltrating regulatory dendritic

  12. Current views on the mechanisms of immune responses to trauma and infection

    PubMed Central

    Michalak, Grzegorz; Słotwiński, Robert

    2015-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, post-traumatic mortality rates are still very high and show an increasing tendency. Disorders of innate immune response that may increase the risk of serious complications play a key role in the immunological system response to trauma and infection. The mechanism of these disorders is multifactorial and is still poorly understood. The changing concepts of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome (CARS) early inflammatory response, presented in this work, have been extended to genetic studies. Overexpression of genes and increased production of immune response mediators are among the main causes of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Changes in gene expression detected early after injury precede the occurrence of subsequent complications with a typical clinical picture. Rapid depletion of energy resources leads to immunosuppression and persistent inflammation and immune suppression catabolism syndrome (PICS). Early diagnosis of immune disorders and appropriate nutritional therapy can significantly reduce the incidence of complications, length of hospital stay, and mortality. The study presents the development of knowledge and current views explaining the mechanisms of the immune response to trauma and infection. PMID:26557036

  13. Antibody response and maternal immunity upon boosting PRRSV-immune sows with experimental farm-specific and commercial PRRSV vaccines.

    PubMed

    Geldhof, Marc F; Van Breedam, Wander; De Jong, Ellen; Lopez Rodriguez, Alfonso; Karniychuk, Uladzimir U; Vanhee, Merijn; Van Doorsselaere, Jan; Maes, Dominiek; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2013-12-27

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory disease in pigs of all ages. Despite the frequent use of vaccines to maintain PRRSV immunity in sows, little is known on how the currently used vaccines affect the immunity against currently circulating and genetically divergent PRRSV variants in PRRSV-immune sows, i.e. sows that have a pre-existing PRRSV-specific immunity due to previous infection with or vaccination against the virus. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the capacity of commercially available attenuated/inactivated PRRSV vaccines and autogenous inactivated PRRSV vaccines - prepared according to a previously optimized in-house protocol - to boost the antibody immunity against currently circulating PRRSV variants in PRRSV-immune sows. PRRSV isolates were obtained from 3 different swine herds experiencing PRRSV-related problems, despite regular vaccination of gilts and sows against the virus. In a first part of the study, the PRRSV-specific antibody response upon booster vaccination with commercial PRRSV vaccines and inactivated farm-specific PRRSV vaccines was evaluated in PRRSV-immune, non-pregnant replacement sows from the 3 herds. A boost in virus-neutralizing antibodies against the farm-specific isolate was observed in all sow groups vaccinated with the corresponding farm-specific inactivated vaccines. Use of the commercial attenuated EU type vaccine boosted neutralizing antibodies against the farm-specific isolate in sows derived from 2 farms, while use of the commercial attenuated NA type vaccine did not boost farm-specific virus-neutralizing antibodies in any of the sow groups. Interestingly, the commercial inactivated EU type vaccine boosted farm-specific virus-neutralizing antibodies in sows from 1 farm. In the second part of the study, a field trial was performed at one of the farms to evaluate the booster effect of an inactivated farm-specific vaccine and a commercial

  14. Effect of age on immune parameters and the immune response of dogs to vaccines: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    HogenEsch, Harm; Thompson, Steven; Dunham, Anisa; Ceddia, Michael; Hayek, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The evaluation of anti-aging intervention strategies in dogs would benefit from reliable quantitative biomarkers of aging. In the present study, the expression of various immune parameters was measured in young and old dogs to identify potential biomarkers of aging. The second goal of the study was to determine the effect of age on the immune response to vaccines. The immune function, including the antibody response to vaccines, was determined in 32 young adult (3.15+/-0.8 years of age) and 33 old dogs (12.1+/-1.3 years of age) of various breeds. Old dogs had a significantly lower lymphocyte proliferative response and a lower percentage of CD4+ T cells and CD45R+/CD4+ T cells, and a higher percentage of CD8+ T cells and a higher concentration of serum and salivary IgA. The most significant differences (P<0.001) occurred in the lymphocyte proliferative responses to ConA and PHA, the CD4:CD8 ratio, and the percentage of CD45R+/CD4+ T cells suggesting that these parameters are potential biomarkers of aging. There was no difference in the percentage of total T and B lymphocytes and the concentration of serum IgM and IgG. Both groups of dogs had protective titers against distemper virus, parvovirus and rabies virus before annual revaccination. The pre-vaccination titer against rabies virus was higher in the old dogs than in the young dogs, and there were no differences in post-vaccination titers against any of the viruses. This suggests that annual vaccination protocols provide adequate protection for old dogs.

  15. Difference in immune response in vaccinated and unvaccinated Swedish individuals after the 2009 influenza pandemic

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous exposures to flu and subsequent immune responses may impact on 2009/2010 pandemic flu vaccine responses and clinical symptoms upon infection with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza strain. Qualitative and quantitative differences in humoral and cellular immune responses associated with the flu vaccination in 2009/2010 (pandemic H1N1 vaccine) and natural infection have not yet been described in detail. We designed a longitudinal study to examine influenza- (flu-) specific immune responses and the association between pre-existing flu responses, symptoms of influenza-like illness (ILI), impact of pandemic flu infection, and pandemic flu vaccination in a cohort of 2,040 individuals in Sweden in 2009–2010. Methods Cellular flu-specific immune responses were assessed by whole-blood antigen stimulation assay, and humoral responses by a single radial hemolysis test. Results Previous seasonal flu vaccination was associated with significantly lower flu-specific IFN-γ responses (using a whole-blood assay) at study entry. Pandemic flu vaccination induced long-lived T-cell responses (measured by IFN-γ production) to influenza A strains, influenza B strains, and the matrix (M1) antigen. In contrast, individuals with pandemic flu infection (PCR positive) exhibited increased flu-specific T-cell responses shortly after onset of ILI symptoms but the immune response decreased after the flu season (spring 2010). We identified non-pandemic-flu vaccinated participants without ILI symptoms who showed an IFN-γ production profile similar to pandemic-flu infected participants, suggesting exposure without experiencing clinical symptoms. Conclusions Strong and long-lived flu-M1 specific immune responses, defined by IFN-γ production, in individuals after vaccination suggest that M1-responses may contribute to protective cellular immune responses. Silent flu infections appeared to be frequent in 2009/2010. The pandemic flu vaccine induced qualitatively and quantitatively

  16. Immune Response to a Variable Pathogen: A Stochastic Model with Two Interlocked Darwinian Entities

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling of a host immune system, more precisely the immune effector cell and immune memory cell population, and its interaction with an invading pathogen population. It will tackle two issues of interest; on the one hand, in defining a stochastic model accounting for the inherent nature of organisms in population dynamics, namely multiplication with mutation and selection; on the other hand, in providing a description of pathogens that may vary their antigens through mutations during infection of the host. Unlike most of the literature, which models the dynamics with first-order differential equations, this paper proposes a Galton-Watson type branching process to describe stochastically by whole distributions the population dynamics of pathogens and immune cells. In the first model case, the pathogen of a given type is either eradicated or shows oscillatory chronic response. In the second model case, the pathogen shows variational behavior changing its antigen resulting in a prolonged immune reaction. PMID:23424603

  17. Is there a role for antioxidant carotenoids in limiting self-harming immune response in invertebrates?

    PubMed

    Cornet, Stéphane; Biard, Clotilde; Moret, Yannick

    2007-06-22

    Innate immunity relies on effectors, which produce cytotoxic molecules that have not only the advantage of killing pathogens but also the disadvantage of harming host tissues and organs. Although the role of dietary antioxidants in invertebrate immunity is still unknown, it has been shown in vertebrates that carotenoids scavenge cytotoxic radicals generated during the immune response. Carotenoids may consequently decrease the self-harming cost of immunity. A positive relationship between the levels of innate immune defence and circulating carotenoid might therefore be expected. Consistent with this hypothesis, we show that the maintenance and use of the prophenoloxidase system strongly correlate with carotenoid concentration in haemolymph within and among natural populations of the crustacean Gammarus pulex.

  18. Immune response to a variable pathogen: a stochastic model with two interlocked Darwinian entities.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling of a host immune system, more precisely the immune effector cell and immune memory cell population, and its interaction with an invading pathogen population. It will tackle two issues of interest; on the one hand, in defining a stochastic model accounting for the inherent nature of organisms in population dynamics, namely multiplication with mutation and selection; on the other hand, in providing a description of pathogens that may vary their antigens through mutations during infection of the host. Unlike most of the literature, which models the dynamics with first-order differential equations, this paper proposes a Galton-Watson type branching process to describe stochastically by whole distributions the population dynamics of pathogens and immune cells. In the first model case, the pathogen of a given type is either eradicated or shows oscillatory chronic response. In the second model case, the pathogen shows variational behavior changing its antigen resulting in a prolonged immune reaction.

  19. Immune system responses and fitness costs associated with consumption of bacteria in larvae of Trichoplusia ni

    PubMed Central

    Freitak, Dalial; Wheat, Christopher W; Heckel, David G; Vogel, Heiko

    2007-01-01

    Background Insects helped pioneer, and persist as model organisms for, the study of specific aspects of immunity. Although they lack an adaptive immune system, insects possess an innate immune system that recognizes and destroys intruding microorganisms. Its operation under natural conditions has not been well studied, as most studies have introduced microbes to laboratory-reared insects via artificial mechanical wounding. One of the most common routes of natural exposure and infection, however, is via food; thus, the role of dietary microbial communities in herbivorous insect immune system evolution invites study. Here, we examine the immune system response and consequences of exposing a lepidopteran agricultural pest to non-infectious microorganisms via simple oral consumption. Results Immune system response was compared between Trichoplusia ni larvae reared on diets with or without non-pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus). Two major immune response-related enzymatic activities responded to diets differently – phenoloxidase activity was inhibited in the bacteria-fed larvae, whereas general antibacterial activity was enhanced. Eight proteins were highly expressed in the hemolymph of the bacteria fed larvae, among them immune response related proteins arylphorin, apolipophorin III and gloverin. Expression response among 25 putative immune response-related genes were assayed via RT-qPCR. Seven showed more than fivefold up regulation in the presence of bacterial diet, with 22 in total being differentially expressed, among them apolipophorin III, cecropin, gallerimycin, gloverin, lysozyme, and phenoloxidase inhibiting enzyme. Finally, potential life-history trade-offs were studied, with pupation time and pupal mass being negatively affected in bacteria fed larvae. Conclusion The presence of bacteria in food, even if non-pathogenic, can trigger an immune response cascade with life history tradeoffs. Trichoplusia ni larvae are able to detect

  20. Induction of multispecific Th-1 type immune response against HCV in mice by protein immunization using CpG and Montanide ISA 720 as adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Qi; Wang, Richard Yuan-Hu; Jiao, Xuanmao; Jin, Bo; Sugauchi, Fuminaka; Grandinetti, Teresa; Alter, Harvey J.; Shih, J. Wai-Kuo

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that Th1-type immune responses against a broad spectrum of hepatitis C virus (HCV) gene products are crucial to the resolution of acute HCV infection. We investigated new vaccine approaches to augment the strength of HCV-specific Th1-type immune responses. ELISPOT assay revealed that single or multiple protein immunization using both CpG ODN and Montanide ISA 720 as adjuvants induced much stronger IFN-γ-producing Th1 responses against core, NS3 and NS5b targets than did the formulation without these adjuvants. Protein vaccination using CpG ODN and Montanide ISA 720 as adjuvants also greatly enhanced humoral responses to HCV core, E1/E2 and NS3. When specific IgG isotypes were assayed, protein immunization using CpG ODN and Montanide ISA 720 as adjuvants produced higher titers of IgG2a dominant antibodies than did protein immunization alone, indicating a more Th1-biasedpathway. This increase in IgG2a is consistent with the induction of Th1 cells secreting IFN-γ demonstrated by ELISPOT assay. In conclusion, protein immunization using CpG ODN and Montanide ISA 720 as adjuvants greatly enhanced cellular (Th1 type) as well as humoral immune responses against HCV in Balb/c mice. The use of adjuvants appears critical to the induction of Th1 immune responses during HCV vaccination with recombinant proteins. PMID:18675871

  1. Induction of multispecific Th-1 type immune response against HCV in mice by protein immunization using CpG and Montanide ISA 720 as adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Qi; Wang, Richard Yuan-Hu; Jiao, Xuanmao; Jin, Bo; Sugauchi, Fuminaka; Grandinetti, Teresa; Alter, Harvey J; Shih, J Wai-Kuo

    2008-10-09

    Recent studies demonstrate that Th1-type immune responses against a broad spectrum of hepatitis C virus (HCV) gene products are crucial to the resolution of acute HCV infection. We investigated new vaccine approaches to augment the strength of HCV-specific Th1-type immune responses. ELISPOT assay revealed that single or multiple protein immunization using both CpG ODN and Montanide ISA 720 as adjuvants induced much stronger IFN-gamma-producing Th1 responses against core, NS3 and NS5b targets than did the formulation without these adjuvants. Protein vaccination using CpG ODN and Montanide ISA 720 as adjuvants also greatly enhanced humoral responses to HCV core, E1/E2 and NS3. When specific IgG isotypes were assayed, protein immunization using CpG ODN and Montanide ISA 720 as adjuvants produced higher titers of IgG2a dominant antibodies than did protein immunization alone, indicating a more Th1-biased pathway. This increase in IgG2a is consistent with the induction of Th1 cells secreting IFN-gamma demonstrated by ELISPOT assay. In conclusion, protein immunization using CpG ODN and Montanide ISA 720 as adjuvants greatly enhanced cellular (Th1 type) as well as humoral immune responses against HCV in Balb/c mice. The use of adjuvants appears critical to the induction of Th1 immune responses during HCV vaccination with recombinant proteins.

  2. Effects of sodium fluoride on immune response in m