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Sample records for eag1 channel lateral

  1. Suppression of the Eag1 potassium channel sensitizes glioblastoma cells to injury caused by temozolomide.

    PubMed

    Sales, Thais Torquato; Resende, Fernando Francisco Borges; Chaves, Natália Lemos; Titze-De-Almeida, Simoneide Souza; Báo, Sônia Nair; Brettas, Marcella Lemos; Titze-De-Almeida, Ricardo

    2016-10-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive type of human primary brain tumor. The standard treatment protocol includes radiotherapy in combination with temozolomide (TMZ). Despite advances in GBM treatment, the survival time of patients diagnosed with glioma is 14.5 months. Regarding tumor biology, various types of cancer cell overexpress the ether à go-go 1 (Eag1) potassium channel. Therefore, the present study examined the role of Eag1 in the cell damage caused by TMZ on the U87MG glioblastoma cell line. Eag1 was inhibited using a channel blocker (astemizole) or silenced by a short-hairpin RNA expression vector (pKv10.1-3). pKv10.1-3 (0.2 µg) improved the Eag1 silencing caused by 250 µM TMZ, as determined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry. Additionally, inhibiting Eag1 with the vector or astemizole (5 µM) reduced glioblastoma cell viability and sensitized cells to TMZ. Cell viability decreased by 63% for pKv10.1-3 + TMZ compared with 34% for TMZ alone, and by 77% for astemizole + TMZ compared with 46% for TMZ alone, as determined by MTT assay. In addition, both the vector and astemizole increased the apoptosis rate of glioblastoma cells triggered by TMZ, as determined by an Annexin V apoptosis assay. Collectively, the current data reveal that Eag1 has a role in the damage caused to glioblastoma by TMZ. Furthermore, suppression of this channel can improve the action of TMZ on U87MG glioblastoma cells. Thus, silencing Eag1 is a promising strategy to improve GBM treatment and merits additional studies in animal models of glioma.

  2. Expression of Eag1 K+ channel and ErbBs in human pituitary adenomas: cytoskeleton arrangement patterns in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    del Pliego, Margarita González; Aguirre-Benítez, Elsa; Paisano-Cerón, Karina; Valdovinos-Ramírez, Irene; Rangel-Morales, Carlos; Rodríguez-Mata, Verónica; Solano-Agama, Carmen; Martín-Tapia, Dolores; de la Vega, María Teresa; Saldoval-Balanzario, Miguel; Camacho, Javier; Mendoza-Garrido, María Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas can invade surrounded tissue, but the mechanism remains elusive. Ether à go-go-1 (Eag1) potassium channel and epidermal growth factor receptors (ErbB1 and ErbB2) have been associated to invasive phenotypes or poor prognosis in cancer patients. However, cells arrange their cytoskeleton in order to acquire a successful migration pattern. We have studied ErbBs and Eag1 expression, and cytoskeleton arrangements in 11 human pituitary adenomas. Eag1, ErbB1 and ErbB2 expression were studied by immunochemistry in tissue and cultured cells. The cytoskeleton arrangement was analyzed in cultured cells by immunofluorescence. Normal pituitary tissue showed ErbB2 expression and Eag1 only in few cells. However, Eag1 and ErbB2 were expressed in all the tumors analyzed. ErbB1 expression was observed variable and did not show specificity for a tumor characteristic. Cultured cells from micro- and macro-adenomas clinically functional organize their cytoskeleton suggesting a mesenchymal pattern, and a round leucocyte/amoeboid pattern from invasive clinically silent adenoma. Pituitary tumors over-express EGF receptors and the ErbB2 repeated expression suggests is a characteristic of adenomas. Eag 1 was express, in different extent, and could be a therapeutic target. The cytoskeleton arrangements observed suggest that pituitary tumor cells acquire different patterns: mesenchymal, and leucocyte/amoeboid, the last observed in the invasive adenomas. Amoeboid migration pattern has been associated with high invasion capacity.

  3. Dynamics of the EAG1 K+ channel selectivity filter assessed by molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Bernsteiner, Harald; Bründl, Michael; Stary-Weinzinger, Anna

    2017-02-26

    EAG1 channels belong to the KCNH family of voltage gated potassium channels. They are expressed in several brain regions and increased expression is linked to certain cancer types. Recent cryo-EM structure determination finally revealed the structure of these channels in atomic detail, allowing computational investigations. In this study, we performed molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the ion binding sites and the dynamical behavior of the selectivity filter. Our simulations suggest that sites S2 and S4 form stable ion binding sites, while ions placed at sites S1 and S3 rapidly switched to sites S2 and S4. Further, ions tended to dissociate away from S0 within less than 20 ns, due to increased filter flexibility. This was followed by water influx from the extracellular side, leading to a widening of the filter in this region, and likely non-conductive filter configurations. Simulations with the inactivation-enhancing mutant Y464A or Na + ions lead to trapped water molecules behind the SF, suggesting that these simulations captured early conformational changes linked to C-type inactivation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Structure of the voltage-gated K⁺ channel Eag1 reveals an alternative voltage sensing mechanism.

    PubMed

    Whicher, Jonathan R; MacKinnon, Roderick

    2016-08-12

    Voltage-gated potassium (K(v)) channels are gated by the movement of the transmembrane voltage sensor, which is coupled, through the helical S4-S5 linker, to the potassium pore. We determined the single-particle cryo-electron microscopy structure of mammalian K(v)10.1, or Eag1, bound to the channel inhibitor calmodulin, at 3.78 angstrom resolution. Unlike previous K(v) structures, the S4-S5 linker of Eag1 is a five-residue loop and the transmembrane segments are not domain swapped, which suggest an alternative mechanism of voltage-dependent gating. Additionally, the structure and position of the S4-S5 linker allow calmodulin to bind to the intracellular domains and to close the potassium pore, independent of voltage-sensor position. The structure reveals an alternative gating mechanism for K(v) channels and provides a template to further understand the gating properties of Eag1 and related channels. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. The involvement of Eag1 potassium channels and miR-34a in rotenone-induced death of dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells

    PubMed Central

    Horst, Camila Hillesheim; Titze-De-Almeida, Ricardo; Titze-De-Almeida, Simoneide Souza

    2017-01-01

    The loss of dopaminergic neurons and the resultant motor impairment are hallmarks of Parkinson's disease. The SH-SY5Y cell line is a model of dopaminergic neurons, and allows for the study of dopaminergic neuronal injury. Previous studies have revealed changes in Ether à go-go 1 (Eag1) potassium channel expression during p53-induced SH-SY5Y apoptosis, and the regulatory involvement of microRNA-34a (miR-34a) was demonstrated. In the present study, the involvement of Eag1 and miR-34a in rotenone-induced SH-SY5Y cell injury was investigated. Rotenone is a neurotoxin, which is often used to generate models of Parkinson's disease, since it causes the death of nigrostriatal neurons by inducing intracellular aggregation of alpha synuclein and ubiquitin. In the present study, rotenone resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability, as revealed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and trypan blue cell counting assays. In addition, Eag1 was demonstrated to be constitutively expressed by SH-SY5Y cells, and involved in cell viability. Suppression of Eag1 with astemizole resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability, as revealed by MTT assay. Astemizole also enhanced the severity of rotenone-induced injury in SH-SY5Y cells. RNA interference against Eag1, using synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), corroborated this finding, as siRNAs potentiated rotenone-induced injury. Eag1-targeted siRNAs (kv10.1-3 or EAG1hum_287) resulted in a statistically significant 16.4–23.5% increase in vulnerability to rotenone. An increased number of apoptotic nuclei were observed in cells transfected with EAG1hum_287. Notably, this siRNA intensified rotenone-induced apoptosis, as revealed by an increase in caspase 3/7 activity. Conversely, a miR-34a inhibitor was demonstrated to exert neuroprotective effects. The viability of cells exposed to rotenone for 24 or 48 h and treated with miR-34a inhibitor was restored by 8.4–8.8%. In conclusion

  6. Behavioural and functional characterization of Kv10.1 (Eag1) knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Ufartes, Roser; Schneider, Tomasz; Mortensen, Lena Sünke; de Juan Romero, Camino; Hentrich, Klaus; Knoetgen, Hendrik; Beilinson, Vadim; Moebius, Wiebke; Tarabykin, Victor; Alves, Frauke; Pardo, Luis A.; Rawlins, J. Nicholas P.; Stuehmer, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Kv10.1 (Eag1), member of the Kv10 family of voltage-gated potassium channels, is preferentially expressed in adult brain. The aim of the present study was to unravel the functional role of Kv10.1 in the brain by generating knockout mice, where the voltage sensor and pore region of Kv10.1 were removed to render non-functional proteins through deletion of exon 7 of the KCNH1 gene using the ‘3 Lox P strategy’. Kv10.1-deficient mice show no obvious alterations during embryogenesis and develop normally to adulthood; cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum appear anatomically normal. Other tests, including general health screen, sensorimotor functioning and gating, anxiety, social behaviour, learning and memory did not show any functional aberrations in Kv10.1 null mice. Kv10.1 null mice display mild hyperactivity and longer-lasting haloperidol-induced catalepsy, but there was no difference between genotypes in amphetamine sensitization and withdrawal, reactivity to apomorphine and haloperidol in the prepulse inhibition tests or to antidepressants in the haloperidol-induced catalepsy. Furthermore, electrical properties of Kv10.1 in cerebellar Purkinje cells did not show any difference between genotypes. Bearing in mind that Kv10.1 is overexpressed in over 70% of all human tumours and that its inhibition leads to a reduced tumour cell proliferation, the fact that deletion of Kv10.1 does not show a marked phenotype is a prerequisite for utilizing Kv10.1 blocking and/or reduction techniques, such as siRNA, to treat cancer. PMID:23424202

  7. Estrogens and human papilloma virus oncogenes regulate human ether-à-go-go-1 potassium channel expression.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Lorenza; Ceja-Ochoa, Irais; Restrepo-Angulo, Iván; Larrea, Fernando; Avila-Chávez, Euclides; García-Becerra, Rocío; Borja-Cacho, Elizabeth; Barrera, David; Ahumada, Elías; Gariglio, Patricio; Alvarez-Rios, Elizabeth; Ocadiz-Delgado, Rodolfo; Garcia-Villa, Enrique; Hernández-Gallegos, Elizabeth; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Morales, Angélica; Ordaz-Rosado, David; García-Latorre, Ethel; Escamilla, Juan; Sánchez-Peña, Luz Carmen; Saqui-Salces, Milena; Gamboa-Dominguez, Armando; Vera, Eunice; Uribe-Ramírez, Marisela; Murbartián, Janet; Ortiz, Cindy Sharon; Rivera-Guevara, Claudia; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Camacho, Javier

    2009-04-15

    Ether-à-go-go-1 (Eag1) potassium channels are potential tools for detection and therapy of numerous cancers. Here, we show human Eag1 (hEag1) regulation by cancer-associated factors. We studied hEag1 gene expression and its regulation by estradiol, antiestrogens, and human papillomavirus (HPV) oncogenes (E6/E7). Primary cultures from normal placentas and cervical cancer tissues; tumor cell lines from cervix, choriocarcinoma, keratinocytes, and lung; and normal cell lines from vascular endothelium, keratinocytes, and lung were used. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) experiments and Southern blot analysis showed Eag1 expression in all of the cancer cell types, normal trophoblasts, and vascular endothelium, in contrast to normal keratinocytes and lung cells. Estradiol and antiestrogens regulated Eag1 in a cell type-dependent manner. Real-time RT-PCR experiments in HeLa cells showed that Eag1 estrogenic regulation was strongly associated with the expression of estrogen receptor-alpha. Eag1 protein was detected by monoclonal antibodies in normal placenta and placental blood vessels. Patch-clamp recordings in normal trophoblasts treated with estradiol exhibited potassium currents resembling Eag1 channel activity. Eag1 gene expression in keratinocytes depended either on cellular immortalization or the presence of HPV oncogenes. Eag1 protein was found in keratinocytes transfected with E6/E7 HPV oncogenes. Cell proliferation of E6/E7 keratinocytes was decreased by Eag1 antibodies inhibiting channel activity and by the nonspecific Eag1 inhibitors imipramine and astemizole; the latter also increased apoptosis. Our results propose novel oncogenic mechanisms of estrogen/antiestrogen use and HPV infection. We also suggest Eag1 as an early indicator of cell proliferation leading to malignancies and a therapeutic target at early stages of cellular hyperproliferation.

  8. Human EAG channels are directly modulated by PIP2 as revealed by electrophysiological and optical interference investigations

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bo; He, Kunyan; Cai, Chunlin; Tang, Yin; Yang, Linli; Heinemann, Stefan H.; Hoshi, Toshinori; Hou, Shangwei

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated ether à go-go (EAG) K+ channels are expressed in various types of cancer cells and also in the central nervous system. Aberrant overactivation of human EAG1 (hEAG1) channels is associated with cancer and neuronal disorders such as Zimmermann-Laband and Temple-Baraitser syndromes. Although hEAG1 channels are recognized as potential therapeutic targets, regulation of their functional properties is only poorly understood. Here, we show that the membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is a potent inhibitory gating modifier of hEAG1 channels. PIP2 inhibits the channel activity by directly binding to a short N-terminal segment of the channel important for Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM) binding as evidenced by bio-layer interferometry measurements. Conversely, depletion of endogenous PIP2 either by serotonin-induced phospholipase C (PLC) activation or by a rapamycin-induced translocation system enhances the channel activity at physiological membrane potentials, suggesting that PIP2 exerts a tonic inhibitory influence. Our study, combining electrophysiological and direct binding assays, demonstrates that hEAG1 channels are subject to potent inhibitory modulation by multiple phospholipids and suggests that manipulations of the PIP2 signaling pathway may represent a strategy to treat hEAG1 channel-associated diseases. PMID:27005320

  9. Spin transport in lateral structures with semiconducting channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainuddin, Abu Naser

    Spintronics is an emerging field of electronics with the potential to be used in future integrated circuits. Spintronic devices are already making their mark in storage technologies in recent times and there are proposals for using spintronic effects in logic technologies as well. So far, major improvement in spintronic effects, for example, the `spin-valve' effect, is being achieved in metals or insulators as channel materials. But not much progress is made in semiconductors owing to the difficulty in injecting spins into them, which has only very recently been overcome with the combined efforts of many research groups around the world. The key motivations for semiconductor spintronics are their ease in integration with the existing semiconductor technology along with the gate controllability. At present semiconductor based spintronic devices are mostly lateral and are showing a very poor performance compared to their metal or insulator based vertical counterparts. The objective of this thesis is to analyze these devices based on spin-transport models and simulations. At first a lateral spin-valve device is modeled with the spin-diffusion equation based semiclassical approach. Identifying the important issues regarding the device performance, a compact circuit equivalent model is presented which would help to improve the device design. It is found that the regions outside the current path also have a significant influence on the device performance under certain conditions, which is ordinarily neglected when only charge transport is considered. Next, a modified spin-valve structure is studied where the spin signal is controlled with a gate in between the injecting and detecting contacts. The gate is used to modulate the rashba spin-orbit coupling of the channel which, in turn, modulates the spin-valve signal. The idea of gate controlled spin manipulation was originally proposed by Datta and Das back in 1990 and is called 'Datta-Das' effect. In this thesis, we have

  10. Modeling lateral circulation and its influence on the along-channel flow in a branched estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lei; He, Qing; Shen, Jian

    2018-02-01

    A numerical modeling study of the influence of the lateral flow on the estuarine exchange flow was conducted in the north passage of the Changjiang estuary. The lateral flows show substantial variabilities within a flood-ebb tidal cycle. The strong lateral flow occurring during flood tide is caused primarily by the unique cross-shoal flow that induces a strong northward (looking upstream) barotropic force near the surface and advects saltier water toward the northern part of the channel, resulting in a southward baroclinic force caused by the lateral density gradient. Thus, a two-layer structure of lateral flows is produced during the flood tide. The lateral flows are vigorous near the flood slack and the magnitude can exceed that of the along-channel tidal flow during that period. The strong vertical shear of the lateral flows and the salinity gradient in lateral direction generate lateral tidal straining, which are out of phase with the along-channel tidal straining. Consequently, stratification is enhanced at the early stage of the ebb tide. In contrast, strong along-channel straining is apparent during the late ebb tide. The vertical mixing disrupts the vertical density gradient, thus suppressing stratification. The impact of lateral straining on stratification during spring tide is more pronounced than that of along-channel straining during late flood and early ebb tides. The momentum balance along the estuary suggests that lateral flow can augment the residual exchange flow. The advection of lateral flows brings low-energy water from the shoal to the deep channel during the flood tide, whereas the energetic water is moved to the shoal via lateral advection during the ebb tide. The impact of lateral flow on estuarine circulation of this multiple-channel estuary is different from single-channel estuary. A model simulation by blocking the cross-shoal flow shows that the magnitudes of lateral flows and tidal straining are reduced. Moreover, the reduced lateral

  11. Lateral movement and stability of channel banks near four highway crossings in southwestern Mississippi

    Turnipseed, D. Phil

    1994-01-01

    Channel meandering in alluvial streams has caused localized channel instability that has resulted in bridge failure and loss of human life in Mississippi. The U.S. Geological Survey, in coopera- tion with the Mississippi Department of Transpor- tation, conducted a study to develop a better methodology for defining and estimating channel meandering. For this report, river reaches near four bridge sites with current lateral movement of channel banks were selected for study. The lateral movement of channel banks was studied by mapping meanders from aerial photographs taken at various times, evaluating available discharge measurements, and measuring existing channel geometry and soil strength properties at these sites. Rapid, unre- stricted meander cuts and sandy banks are charac- teristic of the sites. Lateral movement was signi- ficant upstream from all four sites, and only one bridge site did not have significant lateral channel-bank movement during the study period. The development of cutbanks and localized channel-bank erosion have caused unstable conditions at three of the sites. Maps of tops of channel indicate significant lateral movement of channel banks upstream and downstream of all four sites and near the bridges at three of four sites. No significant movement occurred at the U.S. Highway 98 crossing of the Bogue Chitto near Tylertown from 1941 to 1991 despite large floods in 1983 and 1990. Slope stability analyses indicated this site to be marginally stable. The maximum lateral movement indicated from maps of tops of channel banks was 680 feet of northward movement of the right (north) bank of the Homochitto River near the State Highway 33 crossing at Rosetta from 1941 to 1983.

  12. Sedimentation rate and lateral migration of tidal channels in the Lagoon of Venice (Northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnici, Sandra; Madricardo, Fantina; Serandrei-Barbero, Rossana

    2017-11-01

    Tidal channels are crucial for the functioning of highly valuable coastal environments, such as estuaries and lagoons. Their properties, however, are currently less understood than those of river systems. To elucidate their past behaviour, an extensive geophysical investigation was performed to reconstruct the evolution of channels and tidal surfaces in the central part of the Lagoon of Venice (Italy) over the past 5000 years. Comparing high-spatial-resolution acoustic data and sedimentary facies analyses of 41 cores, 29 of which were radiocarbon dated, revealed the sedimentation rates in different lagoonal environments and allowed the migration of two large meanders to be reconstructed. The average sedimentation rate of the study succession in the different sedimentary environments was 1.27 mm yr-1. The lateral migration rates were 13-23 m/century. This estimate is consistent with the lateral migration rates determined by comparing aerial photographs of recent channels. Comparing the buried channels with historical and current maps showed that, in general, the number of active channels is now reduced. Their morphology was sometimes simplified by artificial interventions. An understanding of the impact of the artificial interventions over time is useful for the management and conservation of tidal environments, particularly for the Lagoon of Venice, where management authorities are currently debating the possible deepening and rectification of large navigation channels.

  13. Lateral baroclinic forcing enhances sediment transport from shallows to channel in an estuary

    Lacy, Jessica R.; Gladding, Steve; Brand, Andreas; Collignon, Audric; Stacey, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics governing exchange of sediment between estuarine shallows and the channel based on field measurements at eight stations spanning the interface between the channel and the extensive eastern shoals of South San Francisco Bay. The study site is characterized by longitudinally homogeneous bathymetry and a straight channel, with friction more important than the Coriolis forcing. Data were collected for 3 weeks in the winter and 4 weeks in the late summer of 2009, to capture a range of hydrologic and meteorologic conditions. The greatest sediment transport from shallows to channel occurred during a pair of strong, late-summer wind events, with westerly winds exceeding 10 m/s for more than 24 h. A combination of wind-driven barotropic return flow and lateral baroclinic circulation caused the transport. The lateral density gradient was produced by differences in temperature and suspended sediment concentration (SSC). During the wind events, SSC-induced vertical density stratification limited turbulent mixing at slack tides in the shallows, increasing the potential for two-layer exchange. The temperature- and SSC-induced lateral density gradient was comparable in strength to salinity-induced gradients in South Bay produced by seasonal freshwater inflows, but shorter in duration. In the absence of a lateral density gradient, suspended sediment flux at the channel slope was directed towards the shallows, both in winter and during summer sea breeze conditions, indicating the importance of baroclinically driven exchange to supply of sediment from the shallows to the channel in South San Francisco Bay and systems with similar bathymetry.

  14. Exploratory laboratory study of lateral turbulent diffusion at the surface of an alluvial channel

    Sayre, William W.; Chamberlain, A.R.

    1964-01-01

    In natural streams turbulent diffusion is one of the principal mechanisms by which liquid and suspended-particulate contaminants are dispersed in the flow. A knowledge of turbulence characteristics is therefore essential in predicting the dispersal rates of contaminants in streams. In this study the theory of diffusion by continuous movements for homogeneous turbulence is applied to lateral diffusion at the surface of an open channel in which there is uniform flow. An exploratory-laboratory investigation was conducted in which the lateral dispersion at the water surface of a sand-Led flume was studied by measuring the lateral spread from a point source of small floating polyethylene articles. The experiment was restricted to a single set of low and channel geometry conditions. The results of the study indicate that with certain restrictions lateral dispersion in alluvial channels may be successfully described by the theory of diffusion by continuous movements. The experiment demonstrates a means for evaluating the lateral diffusion coefficient and also methods for quantitatively estimating fundamental turbulence properties, such as the intensity and the Lagrangian integral scale of turbulence in an alluvial channel. The experimental results show that with increasing distance from the source the coefficient of lateral turbulent diffusion increases initially but tends toward a constant limiting value. This result is in accordance with turbulent diffusion theory. Indications are that the distance downstream from the source required for the diffusion coefficient to reach its limiting value is actually very small when compared to the length scale of most diffusion phenomena in natural streams which are of practical interest.

  15. Lateral transport of solutes in microfluidic channels using electrochemically generated gradients in redox-active surfactants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyang; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2011-04-15

    We report principles for a continuous flow process that can separate solutes based on a driving force for selective transport that is generated by a lateral concentration gradient of a redox-active surfactant across a microfluidic channel. Microfluidic channels fabricated with gold electrodes lining each vertical wall were used to electrochemically generate concentration gradients of the redox-active surfactant 11-ferrocenylundecyl-trimethylammonium bromide (FTMA) in a direction perpendicular to the flow. The interactions of three solutes (a hydrophobic dye, 1-phenylazo-2-naphthylamine (yellow AB), an amphiphilic molecule, 2-(4,4-difluoro-5,7-dimethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-pentanoyl)-1-hexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (BODIPY C(5)-HPC), and an organic salt, 1-methylpyridinium-3-sulfonate (MPS)) with the lateral gradients in surfactant/micelle concentration were shown to drive the formation of solute-specific concentration gradients. Two distinct physical mechanisms were identified to lead to the solute concentration gradients: solubilization of solutes by micelles and differential adsorption of the solutes onto the walls of the microchannels in the presence of the surfactant concentration gradient. These two mechanisms were used to demonstrate delipidation of a mixture of BODIPY C(5)-HPC (lipid) and MPS and purification of BODIPY C(5)-HPC from a mixture of BODIPY C(5)-HPC and yellow AB. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that lateral concentration gradients of redox-active surfactants formed within microfluidic channels can be used to transport solutes across the microfluidic channels in a solute-dependent manner. The approach employs electrical potentials (<1 V) that are sufficiently small to avoid electrolysis of water, can be performed in solutions having high ionic strength (>0.1M), and offers the basis of continuous processes for the purification or separation of solutes in microscale systems. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  16. KATP Channel Expression and Genetic Polymorphisms Associated with Progression and Survival in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Taboada, José M; Pugliese, Marco; Salvadó, Maria; Gámez, Josep; Mahy, Nicole; Rodríguez, Manuel J

    2018-02-28

    The ATP-sensitive potassium (K ATP ) channel directly regulates the microglia-mediated inflammatory response following CNS injury. To determine the putative role of the K ATP channel in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathology, we investigated whether ALS induces changes in K ATP channel expression in the spinal cord and motor cortex. We also characterized new functional variants of human ABCC8, ABCC9, KCNJ8, and KCNJ11 genes encoding for the K ATP channel and analyzed their association with ALS risk, rate of progression, and survival in a Spanish ALS cohort. The expression of ABCC8 and KCNJ8 genes was enhanced in the spinal cord of ALS samples, and KCNJ11 increased in motor cortex of ALS samples, as determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. We then sequenced the exons and regulatory regions of K ATP channel genes from a subset of 28 ALS patients and identified 50 new genetic variants. For the case-control association analysis, we genotyped five selected polymorphisms with predicted functional relevance in 185 Spanish ALS (134 spinal ALS and 51 bulbar ALS) patients and 493 controls. We found that bulbar ALS patients presenting the G/G genotype of the rs4148646 variant of ABCC8 and the T/T genotype of the rs5219 variant of KCNJ11 survived longer than other ALS patients presenting other genotypes. Also, the C/C genotype of the rs4148642 variant of ABCC8 and the T/C genotype of the rs148416760 variant of ABCC9 modified the progression rate in spinal ALS patients. Our results suggest that the K ATP channel plays a role in the pathophysiological mechanisms of ALS.

  17. A Finite Element Solution of Lateral Periodic Poisson–Boltzmann Model for Membrane Channel Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jingjie; Lu, Benzhuo

    2018-01-01

    Membrane channel proteins control the diffusion of ions across biological membranes. They are closely related to the processes of various organizational mechanisms, such as: cardiac impulse, muscle contraction and hormone secretion. Introducing a membrane region into implicit solvation models extends the ability of the Poisson–Boltzmann (PB) equation to handle membrane proteins. The use of lateral periodic boundary conditions can properly simulate the discrete distribution of membrane proteins on the membrane plane and avoid boundary effects, which are caused by the finite box size in the traditional PB calculations. In this work, we: (1) develop a first finite element solver (FEPB) to solve the PB equation with a two-dimensional periodicity for membrane channel proteins, with different numerical treatments of the singular charges distributions in the channel protein; (2) add the membrane as a dielectric slab in the PB model, and use an improved mesh construction method to automatically identify the membrane channel/pore region even with a tilt angle relative to the z-axis; and (3) add a non-polar solvation energy term to complete the estimation of the total solvation energy of a membrane protein. A mesh resolution of about 0.25 Å (cubic grid space)/0.36 Å (tetrahedron edge length) is found to be most accurate in linear finite element calculation of the PB solvation energy. Computational studies are performed on a few exemplary molecules. The results indicate that all factors, the membrane thickness, the length of periodic box, membrane dielectric constant, pore region dielectric constant, and ionic strength, have individually considerable influence on the solvation energy of a channel protein. This demonstrates the necessity to treat all of those effects in the PB model for membrane protein simulations. PMID:29495644

  18. A Finite Element Solution of Lateral Periodic Poisson-Boltzmann Model for Membrane Channel Proteins.

    PubMed

    Ji, Nan; Liu, Tiantian; Xu, Jingjie; Shen, Longzhu Q; Lu, Benzhuo

    2018-02-28

    Membrane channel proteins control the diffusion of ions across biological membranes. They are closely related to the processes of various organizational mechanisms, such as: cardiac impulse, muscle contraction and hormone secretion. Introducing a membrane region into implicit solvation models extends the ability of the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation to handle membrane proteins. The use of lateral periodic boundary conditions can properly simulate the discrete distribution of membrane proteins on the membrane plane and avoid boundary effects, which are caused by the finite box size in the traditional PB calculations. In this work, we: (1) develop a first finite element solver (FEPB) to solve the PB equation with a two-dimensional periodicity for membrane channel proteins, with different numerical treatments of the singular charges distributions in the channel protein; (2) add the membrane as a dielectric slab in the PB model, and use an improved mesh construction method to automatically identify the membrane channel/pore region even with a tilt angle relative to the z -axis; and (3) add a non-polar solvation energy term to complete the estimation of the total solvation energy of a membrane protein. A mesh resolution of about 0.25 Å (cubic grid space)/0.36 Å (tetrahedron edge length) is found to be most accurate in linear finite element calculation of the PB solvation energy. Computational studies are performed on a few exemplary molecules. The results indicate that all factors, the membrane thickness, the length of periodic box, membrane dielectric constant, pore region dielectric constant, and ionic strength, have individually considerable influence on the solvation energy of a channel protein. This demonstrates the necessity to treat all of those effects in the PB model for membrane protein simulations.

  19. Effect of hydrograph in the morphology of a channel with lateral cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juez, Carmelo; Thalmann, Matthias; Schleiss, Anton J.; Franca, Mário J.

    2017-04-01

    Local widening or river bank revitalization in a channelized river is a common practice in restoration projects. The lateral embayments built for this purpose in the river banks can be partially filled up by fine sediments that are conveyed in suspension within the main reach. The embayments areas may present a suitable combination for riparian habitats if they have a limited amount of fine sediments trapped providing morphology diversity and areas with low and high velocities. However, the design of these lateral cavities may be compromised by fluctuations in the water discharge: an increase in the flow discharge may re-mobilize the sediments destroying the shelters for the aquatic biota and causing effects that may hamper the ecology of the main channel and downstream reaches (sudden increase of the sediment concentration and turbidity for instance). Aiming at a better design of lateral embayments with the purpose of restoration projects, systematic experimental investigations were carried out with five hydrographs with different unsteadiness, for five different normalized geometries of the cavities installed in the banks of a laboratory open channel. Water depth, sediment samples, sediment concentration and area covered by the settled sediments are analyzed in each experiment. Sediments patterns evolution within the cavities prior, during and after the increase in discharge were correlated with the unsteadiness character of each hydrograph. It is shown that cavities with larger aspect ratios (defined as the width of the cavity over the length of the cavity) provides a sustainable shelter for aquatic biota. Quantified analysis reveal that the recovery of the sediments patterns before the flushing is different depending on the geometry and unsteadiness. Finally, total mass trapped inside the cavities at the end of the experiments is analyzed. It is shown that the trapping efficiency of the macro-roughness elements with variable discharge is a clear function of the

  20. Developing and exploring a theory for the lateral erosion of bedrock channels for use in landscape evolution models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langston, Abigail L.; Tucker, Gregory E.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding how a bedrock river erodes its banks laterally is a frontier in geomorphology. Theories for the vertical incision of bedrock channels are widely implemented in the current generation of landscape evolution models. However, in general existing models do not seek to implement the lateral migration of bedrock channel walls. This is problematic, as modeling geomorphic processes such as terrace formation and hillslope-channel coupling depends on the accurate simulation of valley widening. We have developed and implemented a theory for the lateral migration of bedrock channel walls in a catchment-scale landscape evolution model. Two model formulations are presented, one representing the slow process of widening a bedrock canyon and the other representing undercutting, slumping, and rapid downstream sediment transport that occurs in softer bedrock. Model experiments were run with a range of values for bedrock erodibility and tendency towards transport- or detachment-limited behavior and varying magnitudes of sediment flux and water discharge in order to determine the role that each plays in the development of wide bedrock valleys. The results show that this simple, physics-based theory for the lateral erosion of bedrock channels produces bedrock valleys that are many times wider than the grid discretization scale. This theory for the lateral erosion of bedrock channel walls and the numerical implementation of the theory in a catchment-scale landscape evolution model is a significant first step towards understanding the factors that control the rates and spatial extent of wide bedrock valleys.

  1. Partial information can be transmitted in an auditory channel: inferences from lateralized readiness potentials.

    PubMed

    Gong, Diankun; Hu, Jiehui; Yao, Dezhong

    2012-04-01

    With the two-choice go/no-go paradigm, we investigated whether timbre attribute can be transmitted as partial information from the stimulus identification stage to the response preparation stage in auditory tone processing. We manipulated two attributes of the stimulus: timbre (piano vs. violin) and acoustic intensity (soft vs. loud) to ensure an earlier processing of timbre than intensity. We associated the timbre attribute more with go trials. Results showed that lateralized readiness potentials (LRPs) were consistently elicited in no-go trials. This showed that the timbre attribute had been transmitted to the response preparation stage before the intensity attribute was processed in the stimuli identification stage. Such a result provides evidence for the continuous model and asynchronous discrete coding (ADC) model in information processing. We suggest that partial information can be transmitted in an auditory channel. Copyright © 2011 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  2. Ethanol Withdrawal Drives Anxiety-Related Behaviors by Reducing M-type Potassium Channel Activity in the Lateral Habenula.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seungwoo; Li, Jing; Zuo, Wanhong; Fu, Rao; Gregor, Danielle; Krnjevic, Kresimir; Bekker, Alex; Ye, Jiang-Hong

    2017-08-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and anxiety disorders (ADs) are often seen concurrently, but their underlying cellular basis is unclear. For unclear reasons, the lateral habenula (LHb), a key brain region involved in the pathophysiology of ADs, becomes hyperactive after ethanol withdrawal. M-type K + channels (M-channels), important regulators of neuronal activity, are abundant in the LHb, yet little is known about their role in AUDs and associated ADs. We report here that in rats at 24 h withdrawal from systemic ethanol administration (either by intraperitoneal injection, 2 g/kg, twice/day, for 7 days; or intermittent drinking 20% ethanol in a two-bottle free choice protocol for 8 weeks), the basal firing rate and the excitability of LHb neurons in brain slices was higher, whereas the amplitude of medium afterhyperpolarization and M-type K + currents were smaller, when compared to ethanol naive rats. Concordantly, M-channel blocker (XE991)-induced increase in the spontaneous firing rate in LHb neurons was smaller. The protein expression of M-channel subunits, KCNQ2/3 in the LHb was also smaller. Moreover, anxiety levels (tested in open field, marble burying, and elevated plus maze) were higher, which were alleviated by LHb inhibition either chemogenetically or by local infusion of the M-channel opener, retigabine. Intra-LHb infusion of retigabine also reduced ethanol consumption and preference. These findings reveal an important role of LHb M-channels in the expression of AUDs and ADs, and suggest that the M-channels could be a potential therapeutic target for alcoholics.

  3. Channeling at the base of the lithosphere during the lateral flow of plume material beneath flow line hot spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleep, Norman H.

    2008-08-01

    Chains of volcanic edifices lie along flow lines between plume-fed hot spots and the thin lithosphere at ridge axes. Discovery and Euterpe/Musicians Seamounts are two examples. An attractive hypothesis is that buoyant plume material flows along the base of the lithosphere perpendicular to isochrons. The plume material may conceivably flow in a broad front or flow within channels convectively eroded into the base to the lithosphere. A necessary but not sufficient condition for convective channeling is that the expected stagnant-lid heat flow for the maximum temperature of the plume material is comparable to the half-space surface heat flow of the oceanic lithosphere. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional numerical calculations confirm this inference. A second criterion for significant convective erosion is that it needs to occur before the plume material thins by lateral spreading. Scaling relationships indicate spreading and convection are closely related. Mathematically, the Nusselt number (ratio of convective to conductive heat flow in the plume material) scales with the flux (volume per time per length of flow front) of the plume material. A blob of unconfined plume material thus spreads before the lithosphere thins much and evolves to a slowly spreading and slowly convecting warm region in equilibrium with conduction into the base of the overlying lithosphere. Three-dimensional calculations illustrate this long-lasting (and hence observable) state of plume material away from its plume source. A different flow domain occurs around a stationary hot plume that continuously supplies hot material. The plume convectively erodes the overlying lithosphere, trapping the plume material near its orifice. The region of lithosphere underlain by plume material grows toward the ridge axis and laterally by convective thinning of the lithosphere at its edges. The hottest plume material channels along flow lines. Geologically, the regions of lithosphere underlain by either warm

  4. The Subcellular Distribution of T-Type Ca2+ Channels in Interneurons of the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Allken, Vaneeda; Chepkoech, Joy-Loi; Einevoll, Gaute T.; Halnes, Geir

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitory interneurons (INs) in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) provide both axonal and dendritic GABA output to thalamocortical relay cells (TCs). Distal parts of the IN dendrites often enter into complex arrangements known as triadic synapses, where the IN dendrite plays a dual role as postsynaptic to retinal input and presynaptic to TC dendrites. Dendritic GABA release can be triggered by retinal input, in a highly localized process that is functionally isolated from the soma, but can also be triggered by somatically elicited Ca2+-spikes and possibly by backpropagating action potentials. Ca2+-spikes in INs are predominantly mediated by T-type Ca2+-channels (T-channels). Due to the complex nature of the dendritic signalling, the function of the IN is likely to depend critically on how T-channels are distributed over the somatodendritic membrane (T-distribution). To study the relationship between the T-distribution and several IN response properties, we here run a series of simulations where we vary the T-distribution in a multicompartmental IN model with a realistic morphology. We find that the somatic response to somatic current injection is facilitated by a high T-channel density in the soma-region. Conversely, a high T-channel density in the distal dendritic region is found to facilitate dendritic signalling in both the outward direction (increases the response in distal dendrites to somatic input) and the inward direction (the soma responds stronger to distal synaptic input). The real T-distribution is likely to reflect a compromise between several neural functions, involving somatic response patterns and dendritic signalling. PMID:25268996

  5. The subcellular distribution of T-type Ca2+ channels in interneurons of the lateral geniculate nucleus.

    PubMed

    Allken, Vaneeda; Chepkoech, Joy-Loi; Einevoll, Gaute T; Halnes, Geir

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitory interneurons (INs) in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) provide both axonal and dendritic GABA output to thalamocortical relay cells (TCs). Distal parts of the IN dendrites often enter into complex arrangements known as triadic synapses, where the IN dendrite plays a dual role as postsynaptic to retinal input and presynaptic to TC dendrites. Dendritic GABA release can be triggered by retinal input, in a highly localized process that is functionally isolated from the soma, but can also be triggered by somatically elicited Ca(2+)-spikes and possibly by backpropagating action potentials. Ca(2+)-spikes in INs are predominantly mediated by T-type Ca(2+)-channels (T-channels). Due to the complex nature of the dendritic signalling, the function of the IN is likely to depend critically on how T-channels are distributed over the somatodendritic membrane (T-distribution). To study the relationship between the T-distribution and several IN response properties, we here run a series of simulations where we vary the T-distribution in a multicompartmental IN model with a realistic morphology. We find that the somatic response to somatic current injection is facilitated by a high T-channel density in the soma-region. Conversely, a high T-channel density in the distal dendritic region is found to facilitate dendritic signalling in both the outward direction (increases the response in distal dendrites to somatic input) and the inward direction (the soma responds stronger to distal synaptic input). The real T-distribution is likely to reflect a compromise between several neural functions, involving somatic response patterns and dendritic signalling.

  6. Flexible conduit for effecting lateral channelling in coal or oil shale beds

    SciT

    Sabol, K.

    1979-09-25

    There is provided in accordance with the invention apparatus and a method for boring holes through carbonaceous deposits. The method involves the step of introducing combustion-supporting gases such as air under pressure through the apparatus installed in a well hole opposite the area to be bored. The apparatus comprises inner and outer flexible tubes with flexible, jointed armour and a directional nozzle which permits it to be bent and change attitude as necessary. The adjacent carbonaceous interface after being ignited is maintained in this condition by the combustion-supporting gas which is supplied under pressure. As the combustion proceeds, the pressuremore » expels the combustion products and the gas injector is advanced along the channel it has previously formed.« less

  7. Analysis and modeling of flicker noise in lateral asymmetric channel MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Harshit; Kushwaha, Pragya; Gupta, Chetan; Khandelwal, Sourabh; Hu, Chenming; Chauhan, Yogesh Singh

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, flicker noise behavior of lateral non-uniformly doped MOSFET is studied using impedance field method. Our study shows that Klaassen Prins (KP) method, which forms the basis of noise model in MOSFETs, underestimates flicker noise in such devices. The same KP method overestimates thermal noise by 2-3 orders of magnitude in similar devices as demonstrated in Roy et al. (2007). This apparent discrepancy between thermal and flicker noise behavior lies in origin of these noises, which leads to opposite trend of local noise power spectral density vs doping. We have modeled the physics behind such behavior, which also explain the trends observed in the measurements (Agarwal et al., 2015).

  8. Do work ability and job involvement channel later personal goals in retirement? An 11-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Feldt, Taru; Hyvönen, Katriina; Oja-Lipasti, Terhi; Kinnunen, Ulla; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2012-07-01

    The present study investigates the role of work ability and job involvement in personal life goals later in retirement. The study is based on longitudinal research on Finnish employees working in managerial positions. At the study baseline (in 1996), 120 employed managers responded to a questionnaire regarding their work ability and job involvement, and 11 years later (in 2007) when they were retired, they responded to an open-ended question regarding their personal goals. The retired participants were 58-76 years old (M = 66 years), and they had been retired for 1-10 years (M = 4.3 years, SD = 2.9). On the basis of the participants' responses to the open-ended question, six main content categories of personal goals were formed. According to these categories, the personal goals in retirement focused on (1) hobbies and leisure time, (2) social relationships, (3) health and well-being, (4) housing and finance, (5) self-development and ideology, and (6) other activities. The managers with better work ability and job involvement at the baseline of the study had fewer personal goals related to health and well-being later in retirement. In addition, better work ability predicted more personal goals related to self-development and ideology views. The preceding work ability and job involvement seem to channel personal goal pursuit in retirement. Thus, sustaining employees' work ability and job involvement are not only essential for developing employees' ability to cope with work demands but also for their functional capacity in their later stages of life, such as in retirement.

  9. CACNA1H missense mutations associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis alter Cav3.2 T-type calcium channel activity and reticular thalamic neuron firing.

    PubMed

    Rzhepetskyy, Yuriy; Lazniewska, Joanna; Blesneac, Iulia; Pamphlett, Roger; Weiss, Norbert

    2016-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects nerve cells in the brain and the spinal cord. In a recent study by Steinberg and colleagues, 2 recessive missense mutations were identified in the Cav3.2 T-type calcium channel gene (CACNA1H), in a family with an affected proband (early onset, long duration ALS) and 2 unaffected parents. We have introduced and functionally characterized these mutations using transiently expressed human Cav3.2 channels in tsA-201 cells. Both of these mutations produced mild but significant changes on T-type channel activity that are consistent with a loss of channel function. Computer modeling in thalamic reticular neurons suggested that these mutations result in decreased neuronal excitability of thalamic structures. Taken together, these findings implicate CACNA1H as a susceptibility gene in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  10. Allosteric Modulation of Ca2+ flux in Ligand-gated Cation Channel (P2X4) by Actions on Lateral Portals*

    PubMed Central

    Samways, Damien S. K.; Khakh, Baljit S.; Egan, Terrance M.

    2012-01-01

    Human P2X receptors are a family of seven ATP-gated ion channels that transport Na+, K+, and Ca2+ across cell surface membranes. The P2X4 receptor is unique among family members in its sensitivity to the macrocyclic lactone, ivermectin, which allosterically modulates both ion conduction and channel gating. In this paper we show that removing the fixed negative charge of a single acidic amino acid (Glu51) in the lateral entrance to the transmembrane pore markedly attenuates the effect of ivermectin on Ca2+ current and channel gating. Ca2+ entry through P2X4 receptors is known to trigger downstream signaling pathways in microglia. Our experiments show that the lateral portals could present a novel target for drugs in the treatment of microglia-associated disease including neuropathic pain. PMID:22219189

  11. Channels

    2015-11-20

    Today's VIS image shows a number of unnamed channels located on the northeastern margin of Terra Sabaea. Orbit Number: 61049 Latitude: 33.5036 Longitude: 58.6967 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2015-09-18 12:54 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20097

  12. Lateral and vertical channel movement and potential for bed-material movement on the Madison River downstream from Earthquake Lake, Montana

    Chase, Katherine J.; McCarthy, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    and to investigate the potential for bed material movement along the same reach. The purpose of this report is to present information about the lateral and vertical movement of the Madison River from 1970 to 2006 for a 1-mile reach downstream from Earthquake Lake and for Raynolds Pass Bridge, and to provide an analysis of the potential for bed-material movement so that MADTAC can evaluate the applicability of the previously determined threshold streamflow for initiation of damaging erosion. As part of this study channel cross sections originally surveyed by the USGS in 1971 were resurveyed in 2006. Incremental channel-movement distances were determined by comparing the stream centerlines from 14 aerial photographs taken between 1970 and 2006. Depths of channel incision and aggregation were determined by comparing the 2006 and 1971 cross-section and water-surface data. Particle sizes of bed and bank materials were measured in 2006 and 2008 using the pebble-count method and sieve analyses. A one-dimensional hydraulic-flow model (HEC-RAS) was used to calculate mean boundary-shear stresses for various streamflows; these calculated boundary-shear stresses were compared to calculated critical-shear stresses for the bed materials to determine the potential for bed-material movement. A comparison of lateral channel movement distances with annual peak streamflows shows that streamflows higher than the 3,500-ft3/s threshold were followed by lateral channel movement except from 1991 to 1992 and possibly from 1996 to 1997. However, it was not possible to discern whether the channel moved gradually or suddenly, or in response to one peak flow, to several peak flows, or to sustained flows. The channel moved between 2002 and 2005 even when streamflows were less than the threshold streamflow of 3,500 ft3/s. Comparisons of cross sections and aerial photographs show that the channel has moved laterally and incised and aggraded to varying degrees. The channel has developed meander bends

  13. Involvement of plasma membrane Ca2+ channels, IP3 receptors, and ryanodine receptors in the generation of spontaneous rhythmic contractions of the cricket lateral oviduct.

    PubMed

    Tamashiro, Hirotake; Yoshino, Masami

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, the isolated cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) lateral oviduct exhibited spontaneous rhythmic contractions (SRCs) with a frequency of 0.29±0.009 Hz (n=43) and an amplitude of 14.6±1.25 mg (n=29). SRCs completely disappeared following removal of extracellular Ca2+ using a solution containing 5mM EGTA. Application of the non-specific Ca2+ channel blockers Co2+, Ni2+, and Cd2+ also decreased both the frequency and amplitude of SRCs in dose-dependent manners, suggesting that Ca2+ entry through plasma membrane Ca2+ channels is essential for the generation of SRCs. Application of ryanodine (30 μM), which depletes intracellular Ca2+ by locking ryanodine receptor (RyR)-Ca2+ channels in an open state, gradually reduced the frequency and amplitude of SRCs. A RyR antagonist, tetracaine, reduced both the frequency and amplitude of SRCs, whereas a RyR activator, caffeine, increased the frequency of SRCs with a subsequent increase in basal tonus, indicating that RyRs are essential for generating SRCs. To further investigate the involvement of phospholipase C (PLC) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) in SRCs, we examined the effect of a PLC inhibitor, U73122, and an IP3R antagonist, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), on SRCs. Separately, U73122 (10 μM) and 2-APB (30-50 μM) both significantly reduced the amplitude of SRCs with little effect on their frequency, further indicating that the PLC/IP3R signaling pathway is fundamental to the modulation of the amplitude of SRCs. A hypotonic-induced increase in the frequency and amplitude of SRCs and a hypertonic-induced decrease in the frequency and amplitude of SRCs indicated that mechanical stretch of the lateral oviduct is involved in the generation of SRCs. The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-pump ATPase inhibitors thapsigargin and cyclopiazonic acid impaired or suppressed the relaxation phase of SRCs. Taken together, the present results indicate that Ca2+ influx through plasma membrane Ca2

  14. Fabrication and characterization of the normally-off N-channel lateral 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing-Wen, Song; Xiao-Yan, Tang; Yan-Jing, He; Guan-Nan, Tang; Yue-Hu, Wang; Yi-Meng, Zhang; Hui, Guo; Ren-Xu, Jia; Hong-Liang, Lv; Yi-Men, Zhang; Yu-Ming, Zhang

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the normally-off N-channel lateral 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFFETs) have been fabricated and characterized. A sandwich- (nitridation-oxidation-nitridation) type process was used to grow the gate dielectric film to obtain high channel mobility. The interface properties of 4H-SiC/SiO2 were examined by the measurement of HF I-V, G-V, and C-V over a range of frequencies. The ideal C-V curve with little hysteresis and the frequency dispersion were observed. As a result, the interface state density near the conduction band edge of 4H-SiC was reduced to 2 × 1011 eV-1·cm-2, the breakdown field of the grown oxides was about 9.8 MV/cm, the median peak field-effect mobility is about 32.5 cm2·V-1·s-1, and the maximum peak field-effect mobility of 38 cm2·V-1·s-1 was achieved in fabricated lateral 4H-SiC MOSFFETs. Projcet supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61404098, 61176070, and 61274079), the Doctoral Fund of Ministry of Education of China (Grant Nos. 20110203110010 and 20130203120017), the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB759600), and the Key Specific Projects of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. 625010101).

  15. Rapid multiplex detection of 10 foodborne pathogens with an up-converting phosphor technology-based 10-channel lateral flow assay

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yong; Wang, Haoran; Zhang, Pingping; Sun, Chongyun; Wang, Xiaochen; Wang, Xinrui; Yang, Ruifu; Wang, Chengbin; Zhou, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The rapid high-throughput detection of foodborne pathogens is essential in controlling food safety. In this study, a 10-channel up-converting phosphor technology-based lateral flow (TC-UPT-LF) assay was established for the rapid and simultaneous detection of 10 epidemic foodborne pathogens. Ten different single-target UPT-LF strips were developed and integrated into one TC-UPT-LF disc with optimization. Without enrichment the TC-UPT-LF assay had a detection sensitivity of 104 CFU mL−1 or 105 CFU mL−1 for each pathogen, and after sample enrichment it was 10 CFU/0.6 mg. The assay also showed good linearity, allowing quantitative detection, with a linear fitting coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.916–0.998. The 10 detection channels did not cross-react, so multiple targets could be specifically detected. When 279 real food samples were tested, the assay was highly consistent (100%) with culture-based methods. The results for 110 food samples artificially contaminated with single or multiple targets showed a high detection rate (≥80%) for most target bacteria. Overall, the TC-UPT-LF assay allows the rapid, quantitative, and simultaneous detection of 10 kinds of foodborne pathogens within 20 min, and is especially suitable for the rapid detection and surveillance of foodborne pathogens in food and water. PMID:26884128

  16. Rapid multiplex detection of 10 foodborne pathogens with an up-converting phosphor technology-based 10-channel lateral flow assay.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong; Wang, Haoran; Zhang, Pingping; Sun, Chongyun; Wang, Xiaochen; Wang, Xinrui; Yang, Ruifu; Wang, Chengbin; Zhou, Lei

    2016-02-17

    The rapid high-throughput detection of foodborne pathogens is essential in controlling food safety. In this study, a 10-channel up-converting phosphor technology-based lateral flow (TC-UPT-LF) assay was established for the rapid and simultaneous detection of 10 epidemic foodborne pathogens. Ten different single-target UPT-LF strips were developed and integrated into one TC-UPT-LF disc with optimization. Without enrichment the TC-UPT-LF assay had a detection sensitivity of 10(4) CFU mL(-1) or 10(5) CFU mL(-1) for each pathogen, and after sample enrichment it was 10 CFU/0.6 mg. The assay also showed good linearity, allowing quantitative detection, with a linear fitting coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.916-0.998. The 10 detection channels did not cross-react, so multiple targets could be specifically detected. When 279 real food samples were tested, the assay was highly consistent (100%) with culture-based methods. The results for 110 food samples artificially contaminated with single or multiple targets showed a high detection rate (≥ 80%) for most target bacteria. Overall, the TC-UPT-LF assay allows the rapid, quantitative, and simultaneous detection of 10 kinds of foodborne pathogens within 20 min, and is especially suitable for the rapid detection and surveillance of foodborne pathogens in food and water.

  17. Characterization of Ether-à-go-go Channels Present in Photoreceptors Reveals Similarity to IKx, a K+ Current in Rod Inner Segments

    PubMed Central

    Frings, Stephan; Brüll, Nicole; Dzeja, Claudia; Angele, Albert; Hagen, Volker; Kaupp, U. Benjamin; Baumann, Arnd

    1998-01-01

    In this study, we describe two splice variants of an ether-à-go-go (EAG) K+ channel cloned from bovine retina: bEAG1 and bEAG2. The bEAG2 polypeptide contains an additional insertion of 27 amino acids in the extracellular linker between transmembrane segments S3 and S4. The heterologously expressed splice variants differ in their activation kinetics and are differently modulated by extracellular Mg2+. Cooperativity of modulation by Mg2+ suggests that each subunit of the putative tetrameric channel binds a Mg2+ ion. The channels are neither permeable to Ca2+ ions nor modulated by cyclic nucleotides. In situ hybridization localizes channel transcripts to photoreceptors and retinal ganglion cells. Comparison of EAG currents with IKx, a noninactivating K+ current in the inner segment of rod photoreceptors, reveals an intriguing similarity, suggesting that EAG polypeptides are involved in the formation of Kx channels. PMID:9524140

  18. [An autopsy case of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with prominent muscle cramps, fasciculation, and high titer of anti-voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex antibody].

    PubMed

    Sato, Aki; Sakai, Naoko; Shinbo, Junsuke; Hashidate, Hideki; Igarashi, Shuichi; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Yamazaki, Motoyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The patient was a 55-year-old male who had prominent fasciculation and muscle cramps. Muscle weakness and atrophy of the trunk, respiratory system, and extremities gradually progressed. On the basis of these features, we diagnosed this patient as having amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), however, the upper motor neuron signs were not significant. Following the detection of the anti-voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex antibody at 907.5 pM (normal < 100 pM) and repetitive discharge in a nerve conduction study, immunotherapy with intravenous immunoglobulin, methylprednisolone (mPSL), double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP), ciclosporin, and rituximab was introduced. mPSL and DFPP showed only tentative effectiveness for fasciculation and muscle cramps, respectively. Thereafter, muscle weakness progressed. The patient died of type II respiratory failure at the age of 57 years, about 2 years after the onset of the disease. At autopsy, a histopathological diagnosis of ALS with lower-motor-predominant degeneration was made. Characteristic cellular features, including Bunina bodies in the remaining lower motor neurons and phosphorylated TAR DNA-binding protein 43-kDa (pTDP-43)-immunopositive inclusions in both upper and lower motor neuron systems, were evident. At present, an immunological role of the anti-VGKC complex antibody in the development of cramp-fasciculation syndrome has been speculated. In this ALS patient, the antibodies might be associated with pathomechanisms underlying the characteristic symptoms.

  19. Progress of p-channel bottom-gate poly-Si thin-film transistor by nickel silicide seed-induced lateral crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sol Kyu; Seok, Ki Hwan; Park, Jae Hyo; Kim, Hyung Yoon; Chae, Hee Jae; Jang, Gil Su; Lee, Yong Hee; Han, Ji Su; Joo, Seung Ki

    2016-06-01

    Excimer laser annealing (ELA) is known to be the most common crystallization technology for the fabrication of low-temperature polycrystalline-silicon (poly-Si) thin-film transistors (TFTs) in the mass production industry. This technology, however, cannot be applied to bottom-gate (BG) TFTs, which are well developed for the liquid-crystal display (LCD) back-planes, because strong laser energy of ELA can seriously damage the other layers. Here, we propose a novel high-performance BG poly-Si TFT using Ni silicide seed-induced lateral crystallization (SILC). The SILC technology renders it possible to ensure low damage in the layers, smooth surface, and longitudinal large grains in the channel. It was observed that the electrical properties exhibited a steep subthreshold slope of 110 mV/dec, high field-effect mobility of 304 cm2/Vsec, high I on/ I off ratio of 5.9 × 107, and a low threshold voltage of -3.9 V.

  20. The L-type voltage-gated calcium channel CaV1.2 mediates fear extinction and modulates synaptic tone in the lateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Temme, Stephanie J; Murphy, Geoffrey G

    2017-11-01

    L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (LVGCCs) have been implicated in both the formation and the reduction of fear through Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction. Despite the implication of LVGCCs in fear learning and extinction, studies of the individual LVGCC subtypes, Ca V 1.2 and Ca V 1.3, using transgenic mice have failed to find a role of either subtype in fear extinction. This discontinuity between the pharmacological studies of LVGCCs and the studies investigating individual subtype contributions could be due to the limited neuronal deletion pattern of the Ca V 1.2 conditional knockout mice previously studied to excitatory neurons in the forebrain. To investigate the effects of deletion of Ca V 1.2 in all neuronal populations, we generated Ca V 1.2 conditional knockout mice using the synapsin1 promoter to drive Cre recombinase expression. Pan-neuronal deletion of Ca V 1.2 did not alter basal anxiety or fear learning. However, pan-neuronal deletion of Ca V 1.2 resulted in a significant deficit in extinction of contextual fear, implicating LVGCCs, specifically Ca V 1.2, in extinction learning. Further exploration on the effects of deletion of Ca V 1.2 on inhibitory and excitatory input onto the principle neurons of the lateral amygdala revealed a significant shift in inhibitory/excitatory balance. Together these data illustrate an important role of Ca V 1.2 in fear extinction and the synaptic regulation of activity within the amygdala. © 2017 Temme and Murphy; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  1. Stream Channel Stability Assessment

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1982-01-01

    Channel instability is manifested as lateral bank erosion, progressive degradation of the streambed, or natural scour and fill of the streambed. Lateral stability is related to stream type, and four major stream types having different stability chara...

  2. The L-Type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel Ca [subscript V] 1.2 Mediates Fear Extinction and Modulates Synaptic Tone in the Lateral Amygdala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temme, Stephanie J.; Murphy, Geoffrey G.

    2017-01-01

    L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (LVGCCs) have been implicated in both the formation and the reduction of fear through Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction. Despite the implication of LVGCCs in fear learning and extinction, studies of the individual LVGCC subtypes, Ca[subscript V]1.2 and Ca[subscript V] 1.3, using transgenic mice have…

  3. P-channel differential multiple-time programmable memory cells by laterally coupled floating metal gate fin field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tai-Min; Chien, Wei-Yu; Hsu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Chrong Jung; King, Ya-Chin

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we present a new differential p-channel multiple-time programmable (MTP) memory cell that is fully compatible with advanced 16 nm CMOS fin field-effect transistors (FinFET) logic processes. This differential MTP cell stores complementary data in floating gates coupled by a slot contact structure, which make different read currents possible on a single cell. In nanoscale CMOS FinFET logic processes, the gate dielectric layer becomes too thin to retain charges inside floating gates for nonvolatile data storage. By using a differential architecture, the sensing window of the cell can be extended and maintained by an advanced blanket boost scheme. The charge retention problem in floating gate cells can be improved by periodic restoring lost charges when significant read window narrowing occurs. In addition to high programming efficiency, this p-channel MTP cells also exhibit good cycling endurance as well as disturbance immunity. The blanket boost scheme can remedy the charge loss problem under thin gate dielectrics.

  4. Dense transient receptor potential cation channel, vanilloid family, type 2 (TRPV2) immunoreactivity defines a subset of motoneurons in the dorsal lateral nucleus of the spinal cord, the nucleus ambiguus and the trigeminal motor nucleus in rat.

    PubMed

    Lewinter, R D; Scherrer, G; Basbaum, A I

    2008-01-02

    The transient receptor potential cation channel, vanilloid family, type 2 (TRPV2) is a member of the TRPV family of proteins and is a homologue of the capsaicin/vanilloid receptor (transient receptor potential cation channel, vanilloid family, type 1, TRPV1). Like TRPV1, TRPV2 is expressed in a subset of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons that project to superficial laminae of the spinal cord dorsal horn. Because noxious heat (>52 degrees C) activates TRPV2 in transfected cells this channel has been implicated in the processing of high intensity thermal pain messages in vivo. In contrast to TRPV1, however, which is restricted to small diameter DRG neurons, there is significant TRPV2 immunoreactivity in a variety of CNS regions. The present report focuses on a subset of neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord of the rat including the dorsal lateral nucleus (DLN) of the spinal cord, the nucleus ambiguus, and the motor trigeminal nucleus. Double label immunocytochemistry with markers of motoneurons, combined with retrograde labeling, established that these cells are, in fact, motoneurons. With the exception of their smaller diameter, these cells did not differ from other motoneurons, which are only lightly TRPV2-immunoreactive. As for the majority of DLN neurons, the densely-labeled populations co-express androgen receptor and follow normal DLN ontogeny. The functional significance of the very intense TRPV2 expression in these three distinct spinal cord and brainstem motoneurons groups remains to be determined.

  5. Kv10.1 potassium channel: from the brain to the tumors.

    PubMed

    Cázares-Ordoñez, V; Pardo, L A

    2017-10-01

    The KCNH1 gene encodes the Kv10.1 (Eag1) ion channel, a member of the EAG (ether-à-go-go) family of voltage-gated potassium channels. Recent studies have demonstrated that KCHN1 mutations are implicated in Temple-Baraitser and Zimmermann-Laband syndromes and other forms of developmental deficits that all present with mental retardation and epilepsy, suggesting that Kv10.1 might be important for cognitive development in humans. Although the Kv10.1 channel is mainly expressed in the mammalian brain, its ectopic expression occurs in 70% of human cancers. Cancer cells and tumors expressing Kv10.1 acquire selective advantages that favor cancer progression through molecular mechanisms that involve several cellular pathways, indicating that protein-protein interactions may be important for Kv10.1 influence in cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Several studies on transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of Kv10.1 expression have shown interesting mechanistic insights about Kv10.1 role in oncogenesis, increasing the importance of identifying the cellular factors that regulate Kv10.1 expression in tumors.

  6. TRPC Channels and Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fang

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggest that TRPC channels play critical roles in various aspects of epileptogenesis. TRPC1/4 channels are major contributors to nonsynaptically derived epileptiform burst firing in the CA1 and the lateral septum. TRPC7 channels play a critical role in synaptically derived epileptiform burst firing. The reduction of spontaneous epileptiform bursting in the CA3 is correlated to a reduction in pilocarpine-induced SE in vivo in TRPC7 knockout mice. TRPC channels are also significant contributors to SE-induced neuronal cell death. Although the pilocarpine-induced SE itself is not significantly reduced, the SE-induced neuronal cell death is significantly reduced in the CA1 and the lateral septum, indicating that TRPC1/4 channels directly contribute to SE-induced neuronal cell death. Genetic ablation of TRPC5 also reduces SE-induced neuronal cell death in the CA1 and CA3 areas of the hippocampus.

  7. Lightning-channel conditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenfeld, R.; da Silva, C. L.; Eack, K.; Edens, H. E.; Harley, J.; McHarg, M.; Contreras Vidal, L.

    2017-12-01

    The concept of "conditioning" has several distinct applications in understanding lightning. It is commonly associated to the greater speed of dart-leaders vs. stepped leaders and the retrace of a cloud-to-ground channel by later return strokes. We will showadditional examples of conditioning: (A) High-speed videos of triggered flashes show "dark" periods of up to 50 ms between rebrightenings of an existing channel. (B) Interferometer (INTF) images of intra-cloud (IC) flashes demonstrate that electric-field "K-changes" correspond to rapid propagation of RF impulses along a previously formed channel separated by up to 20 ms with little RF emission on that channel. (C) Further, INTF images (like the one below) frequently show that the initial IC channel is more branched and "fuzzier'' than its later incarnations. Also, we contrast high-speed video, INTF observations, and spectroscopic measurements with possible physical mechanisms that can explain how channel conditioning guides and facilitates dart leader propagation. These mechanisms include: (1) a plasmochemical effect where electrons are stored in negative ions and released during the dart leader propagation via field-induced detachment; (2) small-amplitude residual currents that can maintain electrical conductivity; and (3) slow heat conduction cooling of plasma owing to channel expansion dynamics.

  8. Sheep laterality.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Dean M; Murray, Leigh W

    2013-01-01

    Turning preferences among 309 white-faced ewes were individually evaluated in an enclosed, artificially lit T-maze, followed by each ewe choosing either a right or left return alley to return to peers. Data recorded included time in the start box, time in the T-maze, exit arm chosen to leave the T-maze, and return alley. Right and left arms of the T-maze were chosen 65.7% and 34.3% of the time, respectively, while right and left return alleys were chosen 32.4% and 67.6%, respectively. Exit arm and return alley were not independently chosen (p <.0001), with observed counts being higher than expected under independence when ewes made the same choice for exit and alley (RR or LL turn patterns) and being lower than expected for alternating choices (RL or LR). Out of the 309 ewes, 28.2% and 30.1% chose RR and LL turn patterns, respectively, while 37.5% chose the RL turn pattern, but only 13 (4.2%) chose the LR turning pattern. Overall, ewes that initially turned right when presented a second turning opportunity had a slight preference to alternate their turning direction, while ewes that initially turned left tended to continue turning left when given another chance to turn. Exit arm and return alley laterality was not related (α =.05) to time of day the test was administered, ewe's age or genetics, most recent liveweight, or most recent shorn fleece weight. The mean time spent in the start box (21 s) was not related to exit arm (p =.947) or return alley (p =.779). Mean time (15 s) spent in the T-maze was not related to exit arm (p =.086) or return alley (p =.952). More research will be required to understand sheep turning laterality and how it can impact working facilities and research equipment.

  9. Channeled Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03025 Channeled Winds

    This low resolution VIS image shows a large portion of etched terrain near the south pole of Mars.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 10S, Longitude 37.2E. 18 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  10. Function Lateralization via Measuring Coherence Laterality

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ze; Mechanic-Hamilton, Dawn; Pluta, John; Glynn, Simon; Detre, John A.

    2009-01-01

    A data-driven approach for lateralization of brain function based on the spatial coherence difference of functional MRI (fMRI) data in homologous regions-of-interest (ROI) in each hemisphere is proposed. The utility of using coherence laterality (CL) to determine function laterality was assessed first by examining motor laterality using normal subjects’ data acquired both at rest and with a simple unilateral motor task and subsequently by examining mesial temporal lobe memory laterality in normal subjects and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. The motor task was used to demonstrate that CL within motor ROI correctly lateralized functional stimulation. In patients with unilateral epilepsy studied during a scene-encoding task, CL in a hippocampus-parahippocampus-fusiform (HPF) ROI was concordant with lateralization based on task activation, and the CL index (CLI) significantly differentiated the right side group to the left side group. By contrast, normal controls showed a symmetric HPF CLI distribution. Additionally, similar memory laterality prediction results were still observed using CL in epilepsy patients with unilateral seizures after the memory encoding effect was removed from the data, suggesting the potential for lateralization of pathological brain function based on resting fMRI data. A better lateralization was further achieved via a combination of the proposed approach and the standard activation based approach, demonstrating that assessment of spatial coherence changes provides a complementary approach to quantifying task-correlated activity for lateralizing brain function. PMID:19345736

  11. TRP Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voets, Thomas; Owsianik, Grzegorz; Nilius, Bernd

    The TRP superfamily represents a highly diverse group of cation-permeable ion channels related to the product of the Drosophila trp (transient receptor potential) gene. The cloning and characterization of members of this cation channel family has experienced a remarkable growth during the last decade, uncovering a wealth of information concerning the role of TRP channels in a variety of cell types, tissues, and species. Initially, TRP channels were mainly considered as phospholipase C (PLC)-dependent and/or store-operated Ca2+-permeable cation channels. More recent research has highlighted the sensitivity of TRP channels to a broad array of chemical and physical stimuli, allowing them to function as dedicated biological sensors involved in processes ranging from vision to taste, tactile sensation, and hearing. Moreover, the tailored selectivity of certain TRP channels enables them to play key roles in the cellular uptake and/or transepithelial transport of Ca2+, Mg2+, and trace metal ions. In this chapter we give a brief overview of the TRP channel superfamily followed by a survey of current knowledge concerning their structure and activation mechanisms.

  12. External pH modulates EAG superfamily K+ channels through EAG-specific acidic residues in the voltage sensor

    PubMed Central

    Kazmierczak, Marcin; Zhang, Xiaofei; Chen, Bihan; Mulkey, Daniel K.; Shi, Yingtang; Wagner, Paul G.; Pivaroff-Ward, Kendra; Sassic, Jessica K.; Bayliss, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    The Ether-a-go-go (EAG) superfamily of voltage-gated K+ channels consists of three functionally distinct gene families (Eag, Elk, and Erg) encoding a diverse set of low-threshold K+ currents that regulate excitability in neurons and muscle. Previous studies indicate that external acidification inhibits activation of three EAG superfamily K+ channels, Kv10.1 (Eag1), Kv11.1 (Erg1), and Kv12.1 (Elk1). We show here that Kv10.2, Kv12.2, and Kv12.3 are similarly inhibited by external protons, suggesting that high sensitivity to physiological pH changes is a general property of EAG superfamily channels. External acidification depolarizes the conductance–voltage (GV) curves of these channels, reducing low threshold activation. We explored the mechanism of this high pH sensitivity in Kv12.1, Kv10.2, and Kv11.1. We first examined the role of acidic voltage sensor residues that mediate divalent cation block of voltage activation in EAG superfamily channels because protons reduce the sensitivity of Kv12.1 to Zn2+. Low pH similarly reduces Mg2+ sensitivity of Kv10.1, and we found that the pH sensitivity of Kv11.1 was greatly attenuated at 1 mM Ca2+. Individual neutralizations of a pair of EAG-specific acidic residues that have previously been implicated in divalent block of diverse EAG superfamily channels greatly reduced the pH response in Kv12.1, Kv10.2, and Kv11.1. Our results therefore suggest a common mechanism for pH-sensitive voltage activation in EAG superfamily channels. The EAG-specific acidic residues may form the proton-binding site or alternatively are required to hold the voltage sensor in a pH-sensitive conformation. The high pH sensitivity of EAG superfamily channels suggests that they could contribute to pH-sensitive K+ currents observed in vivo. PMID:23712551

  13. External pH modulates EAG superfamily K+ channels through EAG-specific acidic residues in the voltage sensor.

    PubMed

    Kazmierczak, Marcin; Zhang, Xiaofei; Chen, Bihan; Mulkey, Daniel K; Shi, Yingtang; Wagner, Paul G; Pivaroff-Ward, Kendra; Sassic, Jessica K; Bayliss, Douglas A; Jegla, Timothy

    2013-06-01

    The Ether-a-go-go (EAG) superfamily of voltage-gated K(+) channels consists of three functionally distinct gene families (Eag, Elk, and Erg) encoding a diverse set of low-threshold K(+) currents that regulate excitability in neurons and muscle. Previous studies indicate that external acidification inhibits activation of three EAG superfamily K(+) channels, Kv10.1 (Eag1), Kv11.1 (Erg1), and Kv12.1 (Elk1). We show here that Kv10.2, Kv12.2, and Kv12.3 are similarly inhibited by external protons, suggesting that high sensitivity to physiological pH changes is a general property of EAG superfamily channels. External acidification depolarizes the conductance-voltage (GV) curves of these channels, reducing low threshold activation. We explored the mechanism of this high pH sensitivity in Kv12.1, Kv10.2, and Kv11.1. We first examined the role of acidic voltage sensor residues that mediate divalent cation block of voltage activation in EAG superfamily channels because protons reduce the sensitivity of Kv12.1 to Zn(2+). Low pH similarly reduces Mg(2+) sensitivity of Kv10.1, and we found that the pH sensitivity of Kv11.1 was greatly attenuated at 1 mM Ca(2+). Individual neutralizations of a pair of EAG-specific acidic residues that have previously been implicated in divalent block of diverse EAG superfamily channels greatly reduced the pH response in Kv12.1, Kv10.2, and Kv11.1. Our results therefore suggest a common mechanism for pH-sensitive voltage activation in EAG superfamily channels. The EAG-specific acidic residues may form the proton-binding site or alternatively are required to hold the voltage sensor in a pH-sensitive conformation. The high pH sensitivity of EAG superfamily channels suggests that they could contribute to pH-sensitive K(+) currents observed in vivo.

  14. Channel catfish

    This book chapter provides a comprehensive overview of channel catfish aquaculture. Sections include fish biology; commercial culture; culture facilities; production practices; water quality management; nutrition, feeding and feed formulation; infectious diseases; harvesting and processing; and the...

  15. Basal channels on ice shelves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergienko, O. V.

    2013-09-01

    Recent surveys of floating ice shelves associated with Pine Island Glacier (Antarctica) and Petermann Glacier (Greenland) indicate that there are channels incised upward into their bottoms that may serve as the conduits of meltwater outflow from the sub-ice-shelf cavity. The formation of the channels, their evolution over time, and their impact on ice-shelf flow are investigated using a fully-coupled ice-shelf/sub-ice-shelf ocean model. The model simulations suggest that channels may form spontaneously in response to meltwater plume flow initiated at the grounding line if there are relatively high melt rates and if there is transverse to ice-flow variability in ice-shelf thickness. Typical channels formed in the simulations have a width of about 1-3 km and a vertical relief of about 100-200 m. Melt rates and sea-water transport in the channels are significantly higher than on the smooth flat ice bottom between the channels. The melt channels develop through melting, deformation, and advection with ice-shelf flow. Simulations suggest that both steady state and cyclic state solutions are possible depending on conditions along the lateral ice-shelf boundaries. This peculiar dynamics of the system has strong implications on the interpretation of observations. The richness of channel morphology and evolution seen in this study suggests that further observations and theoretical analysis are imperative for understanding ice-shelf behavior in warm oceanic conditions.

  16. "Channel One."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiene, Drew

    1994-01-01

    Teachers in junior high schools using the Channel One newscasts were surveyed. Results indicated high levels of support for the programming content, journalistic professionalism, and media production values. Teachers revealed most of its teenage audience is more aware of current events. A minority of respondents objected strongly to the…

  17. Lateral flow strip assay

    DOEpatents

    Miles, Robin R [Danville, CA; Benett, William J [Livermore, CA; Coleman, Matthew A [Oakland, CA; Pearson, Francesca S [Livermore, CA; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L [Livermore, CA

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  18. The channels of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Victor R.

    1988-01-01

    The geomorphology of Mars is discussed, focusing on the Martian channels. The great flood channels of Mars, the processes of channel erosion, and dendritic channel networks, are examined. The topography of the Channeled Scabland region of the northwestern U.S. is described and compared to the Martian channels. The importance of water in the evolution of the channel systems is considered.

  19. Nonlinear channelizer.

    PubMed

    In, Visarath; Longhini, Patrick; Kho, Andy; Neff, Joseph D; Leung, Daniel; Liu, Norman; Meadows, Brian K; Gordon, Frank; Bulsara, Adi R; Palacios, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    The nonlinear channelizer is an integrated circuit made up of large parallel arrays of analog nonlinear oscillators, which, collectively, serve as a broad-spectrum analyzer with the ability to receive complex signals containing multiple frequencies and instantaneously lock-on or respond to a received signal in a few oscillation cycles. The concept is based on the generation of internal oscillations in coupled nonlinear systems that do not normally oscillate in the absence of coupling. In particular, the system consists of unidirectionally coupled bistable nonlinear elements, where the frequency and other dynamical characteristics of the emergent oscillations depend on the system's internal parameters and the received signal. These properties and characteristics are being employed to develop a system capable of locking onto any arbitrary input radio frequency signal. The system is efficient by eliminating the need for high-speed, high-accuracy analog-to-digital converters, and compact by making use of nonlinear coupled systems to act as a channelizer (frequency binning and channeling), a low noise amplifier, and a frequency down-converter in a single step which, in turn, will reduce the size, weight, power, and cost of the entire communication system. This paper covers the theory, numerical simulations, and some engineering details that validate the concept at the frequency band of 1-4 GHz.

  20. APETx4, a Novel Sea Anemone Toxin and a Modulator of the Cancer-Relevant Potassium Channel KV10.1.

    PubMed

    Moreels, Lien; Peigneur, Steve; Galan, Diogo T; De Pauw, Edwin; Béress, Lászlo; Waelkens, Etienne; Pardo, Luis A; Quinton, Loïc; Tytgat, Jan

    2017-09-13

    The human ether-à-go-go channel (hEag1 or K V 10.1) is a cancer-relevant voltage-gated potassium channel that is overexpressed in a majority of human tumors. Peptides that are able to selectively inhibit this channel can be lead compounds in the search for new anticancer drugs. Here, we report the activity-guided purification and electrophysiological characterization of a novel K V 10.1 inhibitor from the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima . Purified sea anemone fractions were screened for inhibitory activity on K V 10.1 by measuring whole-cell currents as expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes using the two-microelectrode voltage clamp technique. Fractions that showed activity on Kv10.1 were further purified by RP-HPLC. The amino acid sequence of the peptide was determined by a combination of MALDI- LIFT-TOF/TOF MS/MS and CID-ESI-FT-ICR MS/MS and showed a high similarity with APETx1 and APETx3 and was therefore named APETx4. Subsequently, the peptide was electrophysiologically characterized on K V 10.1. The selectivity of the toxin was investigated on an array of voltage-gated ion channels, including the cardiac human ether-à-go-go-related gene potassium channel (hERG or Kv11.1). The toxin inhibits K V 10.1 with an IC 50 value of 1.1 μM. In the presence of a similar toxin concentration, a shift of the activation curve towards more positive potentials was observed. Similar to the effect of the gating modifier toxin APETx1 on hERG, the inhibition of Kv10.1 by the isolated toxin is reduced at more positive voltages and the peptide seems to keep the channel in a closed state. Although the peptide also induces inhibitory effects on other K V and Na V channels, it exhibits no significant effect on hERG. Moreover, APETx4 induces a concentration-dependent cytotoxic and proapoptotic effect in various cancerous and noncancerous cell lines. This newly identified K V 10.1 inhibitor can be used as a tool to further characterize the oncogenic channel K V 10.1 or as a

  1. Tinto Vallis Fluvial Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    <

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This night time IR image shows a small fluvial channel located near Tinto Vallis. These channels are northeast of Tyrrhena Patera and its related lava flows. Tyrrhena Patera is one of the larger volcanic complexs in the southern hemisphere of Mars. Small channels are easy to see in nighttime IR, with the cold channel floor (dark) contrasting from the warmer (bright) surroundings.

    NOTE: in nighttime images North is to the bottom of the image.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -24.6, Longitude 349.7 East (10.3 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  2. Primary Lateral Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Strategy Current Research Research Funded by NINDS Basic Neuroscience Clinical Research Translational Research Research at NINDS Focus ... Diversity Resources Jobs at NINDS Director, Division of Neuroscience Director, NIH BRAIN Initiative® Health Scientist Administrator Channels ...

  3. A lateral electrophoretic flow diagnostic assay

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Robert; Skandarajah, Arunan; Gerver, Rachel E.; Neira, Hector D.; Fletcher, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Immunochromatographic assays are a cornerstone tool in disease screening. To complement existing lateral flow assays (based on wicking flow) we introduce a lateral flow format that employs directed electrophoretic transport. The format is termed a “lateral e-flow assay” and is designed to support multiplexed detection using immobilized reaction volumes of capture antigen. To fabricate the lateral e-flow device, we employ mask-based UV photopatterning to selectively immobilize unmodified capture antigen along the microchannel in a barcode-like pattern. The channel-filling polyacrylamide hydrogel incorporates a photoactive moiety (benzophenone) to immobilize capture antigen to the hydrogel without a priori antigen modification. We report a heterogeneous sandwich assay using low-power electrophoresis to drive biospecimen through the capture antigen barcode. Fluorescence barcode readout is collected via a low-resource appropriate imaging system (CellScope). We characterize lateral e-flow assay performance and demonstrate a serum assay for antibodies to the hepatitis C virus (HCV). In a pilot study, the lateral e-flow assay positively identifies HCV+ human sera in 60 min. The lateral e-flow assay provides a flexible format for conducting multiplexed immunoassays relevant to confirmatory diagnosis in near-patient settings. PMID:25608872

  4. Cerebral Lateralization and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillbrand, Marc; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A resurgence of interest in the relationship between cerebral lateralization (the functional asymmetry of the cerebral cortex) and aggression has occurred. Most recent studies have found that individuals with abnormal patterns of lateralization are overrepresented among violent individuals. Intervening variables (such as drug and alcohol abuse)…

  5. Reading Disability and Laterality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparrow, Sara S.

    The purpose of this study was to determine how retarded readers differed from normal readers in the various ways laterality is manifested. An additional purpose was to investigate the development of laterality as seen across several age levels. Subjects were 80 white male 9-, 10-, 11-, and 12-year-olds from regular classrooms in suburban…

  6. 33 CFR 118.110 - Daymarks and lateral lighting on bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... through bridges with U.S. aids to navigation system lateral marks and lights installed on the... flashing, flashing, isophase or occulting red and green lights to mark the main channels. (b) If lateral system lights are required or authorized to mark the main navigation channels, fixed yellow lights shall...

  7. 33 CFR 118.110 - Daymarks and lateral lighting on bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... through bridges with U.S. aids to navigation system lateral marks and lights installed on the... flashing, flashing, isophase or occulting red and green lights to mark the main channels. (b) If lateral system lights are required or authorized to mark the main navigation channels, fixed yellow lights shall...

  8. 33 CFR 118.110 - Daymarks and lateral lighting on bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... through bridges with U.S. aids to navigation system lateral marks and lights installed on the... flashing, flashing, isophase or occulting red and green lights to mark the main channels. (b) If lateral system lights are required or authorized to mark the main navigation channels, fixed yellow lights shall...

  9. Fine sediment trapping in river lateral cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juez, C.; Maechler, G.; Schleiss, A. J.; Franca, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    River restoration is nowadays a major issue in the field of hydraulics. The natural course and geometry of the rivers have been artificially changed by human activities for different purposes (land gaining, flood protection, agriculture). From a morphologic point of view, channelized rivers often display a straight path and monotonous river banks. This is in contradiction with natural morphology, where a high diversity can be found across the channel path (meanders) and the banks (pools, riffles). One way to restore rivers consist of transforming the artificial banks by adding macro-roughness elements in the lateral river banks (also called cavities and lateral embayments). The creation of irregularities on the banks causes new flow patterns that diversify the river habitat. However, these lateral cavities may be also responsible of the change of the river morphology, since they may trap the fine sediments travelling within the water. This is particularly important in glacier-fed streams such as the upper Rhone River in Switzerland. These are charged with fine sediments resulting from the erosion of the underlying glaciers bottom. The creation of lateral cavities may affect the sediment and morphological equilibrium of the river since these may trap sediments. This work aims to study the influence of the lateral cavities on the transport of fine sediments in the main channel. A set of laboratory experiments were done which covered a wide range of rectangular cavity configurations. Key parameters such as the flow discharge, the aspect ratio of the cavities and the initial sediment concentration were tested. Surface PIV, sediment samples and turbidity temporal records were collected during the experiments. The trapping efficiency of the cavities and the associated flow patterns were analyzed. The resulting conclusions provide a useful information for the future design of river restoration projects.

  10. Channel Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Arne; Schinnenburg, Marc; Gross, James; Aguiar, Ana

    For any communication system the Signal-to-Interference-plus-Noise-Ratio of the link is a fundamental metric. Recall (cf. Chapter 9) that the SINR is defined as the ratio between the received power of the signal of interest and the sum of all "disturbing" power sources (i.e. interference and noise). From information theory it is known that a higher SINR increases the maximum possible error-free transmission rate (referred to as Shannon capacity [417] of any communication system and vice versa). Conversely, the higher the SINR, the lower will be the bit error rate in practical systems. While one aspect of the SINR is the sum of all distracting power sources, another issue is the received power. This depends on the transmitted power, the used antennas, possibly on signal processing techniques and ultimately on the channel gain between transmitter and receiver.

  11. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a nervous system disease that attacks nerve cells called neurons in your brain and spinal cord. These neurons ... breathing machine can help, but most people with ALS die from respiratory failure. The disease usually strikes ...

  12. Laboratory Experiments on Meandering Meltwater Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, R.; Berens, J.; Parker, G.; Stark, C. P.

    2017-12-01

    Meandering channels of all scales and flowing over a wide variety of media have common planform patterns. Although the analogy in planform suggests there is a common underlying framework, the constitutive relations driving planform evolution through vertical incision/deposition and lateral migration differ from medium to medium. The driving processes in alluvial and mixed bedrock-alluvial meandering channels have been studied substantially over the last decades. However, this is not the case for meandering channels in other media such as ice or soluble rock. Here we present results from experiments conducted at the Ven Te Chow Hydrosystems Laboratory of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign on meltwater meandering channels. A rivulet is carved into an ice block and water is allowed to flow at a constant discharge. Planform evolution is analyzed with time lapse imaging and complemented with rubber molds of the channel once the experiment is over. These molds give us the full 3D structure of the meandering, including incisional overhang. Vertical incision rates are measured throughout the run by taking elevations along the channel, and these measurements are complemented with analysis from the molds. We show examples of meandering of intense amplitude with deep overhangs. Features resembling scroll bars document cyclically punctuated melting. We report on lateral migration rates, incision rates, sinuosity, channel depths, channel widths, reach averaged velocities, bend wavelengths and amplitudes and compare them to values reported in the literature for alluvial rivers.

  13. Channel Wall Landslides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The multiple landslides in this VIS image occur along a steep channel wall. Note the large impact crater in the context image. The formation of the crater may have initially weakened that area of the surface prior to channel formation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -2.7, Longitude 324.8 East (35.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  14. Laterally bendable belt conveyor

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, William J.

    1985-01-01

    An endless, laterally flexible and bendable belt conveyor particularly adapted for coal mining applications in facilitating the transport of the extracted coal up- or downslope and around corners in a continuous manner is disclosed. The conveying means includes a flat rubber belt reinforced along the middle portion thereof along which the major portion of the belt tension is directed so as to cause rotation of the tubular shaped belt when trammed around lateral turns thus preventing excessive belt bulging distortion between adjacent belt supports which would inhibit belt transport. Pretension induced into the fabric reinforced flat rubber belt by conventional belt take-up means supports the load conveyed when the belt conveyor is making lateral turns. The carrying and return portions of the belt are supported and formed into a tubular shape by a plurality of shapers positioned along its length. Each shaper is supported from above by a monorail and includes clusters of idler rollers which support the belt. Additional cluster rollers in each shaper permit the belt supporting roller clusters to rotate in response to the belt's operating tension imposed upon the cluster rollers by induced lateral belt friction forces. The freely rotating roller clusters thus permit the belt to twist on lateral curves without damage to itself while precluding escape of the conveyed material by effectively enclosing it in the tube-shaped, inner belt transport length.

  15. Model microswimmers in channels with varying cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malgaretti, Paolo; Stark, Holger

    2017-05-01

    We study different types of microswimmers moving in channels with varying cross section and thereby interacting hydrodynamically with the channel walls. Starting from the Smoluchowski equation for a dilute suspension, for which interactions among swimmers can be neglected, we derive analytic expressions for the lateral probability distribution between plane channel walls. For weakly corrugated channels, we extend the Fick-Jacobs approach to microswimmers and thereby derive an effective equation for the probability distribution along the channel axis. Two regimes arise dominated either by entropic forces due to the geometrical confinement or by the active motion. In particular, our results show that the accumulation of microswimmers at channel walls is sensitive to both the underlying swimming mechanism and the geometry of the channels. Finally, for asymmetric channel corrugation, our model predicts a rectification of microswimmers along the channel, the strength and direction of which strongly depends on the swimmer type.

  16. Lateral Thinking of Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Xavier, S. Amaladoss

    2013-01-01

    Edward de Bono who invented the term "lateral thinking" in 1967 is the pioneer of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is concerned with the generation of new ideas. Liberation from old ideas and the stimulation of new ones are twin aspects of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is a creative skills from which all people can benefit…

  17. Stamina in later life.

    PubMed

    Colerick, E J

    1985-01-01

    Patterns of aging raise a number of important questions concerning the paths to successful adaptation. What gives some older individuals their staying power in the face of misfortune? What causes others to function less effectively when stressed, to resist change? Clearly, the margin of safety, the degree of elasticity and resilience varies across individuals in the later years. This study focuses on event histories and current behavior of 62 elderly men and women (Phase I) and reports by their confidants (N = 62; Phase II). A central proposition, that stamina in later life depends, in part, on the appraisal of previous events involving loss is investigated using a model that incorporates aspects of earlier life, cognitive appraisal and clinically judged dimensions of stamina in old age. Multivariate (particularly path analytic) techniques are used to test the links between variable foci. Results suggest that antecedents of stamina involve the interaction of social resources and cognitive orientations. Specifically, stamina in later life is contingent, for the most part, on a triumphant, positive outlook during periods of adversity. Elderly so oriented are also those with robust health histories and marked educational accomplishments. Conversely, persons who view situations involving loss as threatening, overwhelming and potentially defeating experience no such outcome; low levels of stamina mark their later years. Interestingly, quality childhood ties matter for stamina in old age only by increasing the likelihood of perceptions of a supportive environment during hard times. The findings corroborate the general pattern of research documenting the importance of cognitive orientations in adaptive processes.

  18. Components in Hemispheric Lateralization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynes, Sharon C. S. L.; And Others

    The fact that there is an imperfect correlation between the asymmetrical function of the two halves of the brain and handedness has been a source of puzzlement for many investigators. Many theories have been proposed to explain handedness and why handedness does not correlate perfectly with other measures of lateralization. To assess the…

  19. Pay Now, Learn Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, John

    1986-01-01

    Duquesne University's pay-now, learn-later plan is one device that could transform college-fee payment almost as much as the GI Bill did. The further away from college age the child, the more the school earns and the deeper the discount. Some other options are discussed including installment plans and special sales on tuition. (MLW)

  20. Lateral Attitude Change.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Tina; Dickel, Nina; Liersch, Benjamin; Rees, Jonas; Süssenbach, Philipp; Bohner, Gerd

    2015-08-01

    The authors propose a framework distinguishing two types of lateral attitude change (LAC): (a) generalization effects, where attitude change toward a focal object transfers to related objects, and (b) displacement effects, where only related attitudes change but the focal attitude does not change. They bring together examples of LAC from various domains of research, outline the conditions and underlying processes of each type of LAC, and develop a theoretical framework that enables researchers to study LAC more systematically in the future. Compared with established theories of attitude change, the LAC framework focuses on lateral instead of focal attitude change and encompasses both generalization and displacement. Novel predictions and designs for studying LAC are presented. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  1. Advantages of later motherhood.

    PubMed

    Myrskylä, M; Barclay, K; Goisis, A

    2017-01-01

    In high-income countries childbearing has been increasingly postponed since the 1970s and it is crucial to understand the consequences of this demographic shift. The literature has tended to characterize later motherhood as a significant health threat for children and parents. We contribute to this debate by reviewing recent evidence suggesting that an older maternal age can also have positive effects. Literature linking the age at parenthood with the sociodemographic characteristics of the parents, with macrolevel interactions, and with subjective well-being. Comprehensive review of the existing literature. Recent studies show that there can also be advantages associated with later motherhood. First, whilst in past older mothers had low levels of education and large families, currently older mothers tend to have higher education and smaller families than their younger peers. Consequently, children born to older mothers in the past tended to have worse outcomes than children born to younger mothers, whilst the opposite is true in recent cohorts. Second, postponement of childbearing means that the child is born at a later date and in a later birth cohort, and may benefit from secular changes in the macroenvironment. Evidence shows that when the positive trends in the macroenvironment are strong they overweigh the negative effects of reproductive ageing. Third, existing studies show that happiness increases around and after childbirth among older mothers, whereas for younger mothers the effect does not exist or is short-lived. There are important sociodemographic pathways associated with postponement of childbearing which might compensate or even more than compensate for the biological disadvantages associated with reproductive ageing.

  2. Lateral View of Occator

    2015-12-09

    A group of scientists from NASA's Dawn mission suggests that when sunlight reaches Ceres' Occator Crater, a kind of thin haze of dust and evaporating water forms there. This haze only becomes dense enough to be seen by looking at it laterally, as in this image, the scientists wrote in the journal Nature in December 2015. Occator measures about 60 miles (90 kilometers) wide, and contains the brightest material seen on Ceres. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20181

  3. The Psychology of Channeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corey, Michael A.

    1988-01-01

    Theoretically analyzes phenomenon of channeling from perspective of C. G. Jung's analytic psychology. Hypothesizes that contact with otherworldly spiritual beings claimed by channelers is actually projected contact with contents of channeler's own unconscious mind. Suggests that channelers seek more constructive ways of contacting their…

  4. Young Channel, Old Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 18 March 2004

    The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

    Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    This daytime IR image was collected on February 3, 2003 during the northern summer season. This image shows a younger channel cutting through an older crater.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 30.8, Longitude 19 East (341 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System

  5. Channel nut tool

    SciT

    Olson, Marvin

    A method, system, and apparatus for installing channel nuts includes a shank, a handle formed on a first end of a shank, and an end piece with a threaded shaft configured to receive a channel nut formed on the second end of the shaft. The tool can be used to insert or remove a channel nut in a channel framing system and then removed from the channel nut.

  6. A Long and Winding Channel in Tharsis

    2016-10-05

    The Tharsis region of Mars is covered in vast lava flows, many with channels. Some channels, however, resemble features that may have been formed by water. In this image, we see a smooth, flat-bottomed channel within the roughly irregular edges of a possible lava flow. This long, winding channel runs for 115 kilometers (70 miles) from its source (shown in ESP_045091_2045), maintaining a nearly consistent width. There is also a streamlined island within the channel, which is 1.25 kilometers (about 3/4 mile) long. One possibility is that a lava flow formed, and later groundwater was released, preferentially flowing through and further eroding the pre-existing lava channel. Or, the original lava flow could have been a very low-viscosity lava. We look at the shape and profile of the channel, and the channel and lava flow edges, to understand the characteristics of the fluids at work. Although there are lava flows and rivers on Earth that we can observe to understand the processes at work, the interplay of the features on Mars may tell a more complicated story. We want to be able to understand the history of volcanic activity in Tharsis, as well as possible interaction with ground water release, to better understand some of the younger landforms on Mars. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21104

  7. GIS technology for spatiotemporal measurements of gully channel width evolution

    Field observations of gully evolution in active croplands have often revealed the presence of a less erodible soil layer that is typically associated with tillage practices (i.e. plowpan). This more erosion-resistant layer limits channel incision forcing the gully channel to expand laterally through...

  8. Formation of melt channels on ice shelves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergienko, Olga

    2013-04-01

    Melt channels have been observed on ice shelves experiencing strong melting in both Greenland (Petermann Glacier) and Antarctica (Pine Island Glacier). Using a fully-couple ice-shelf/sub-ice-shelf-ocean flow model, it is demonstrated that these channels can form spontaneously in laterally confined ice shelves. These channels have transverse extent of a few kilometers and a vertical relief of about a few hundred meters. Meltrates and sea-water transport in the channels are significantly higher than in between the channels on the smooth flat ice bottom. In circumstances where an ice shelf has no-slip conditions at its lateral boundaries, the ice-shelf/sub-ice-shelf-cavity system exhibits equilibrium periodic states, where the same configurations repetitively appear with a periodicity of about 30-35 years. This peculiar dynamics of the system has strong implications on the interpretation of the remote and in-situ observations and inferences of the system parameters (e.g., melt rates) based on these observations. For instance, the persistent temporal changes in the ice-shelf thickness are caused by internal dynamics of the melt channels, and, in contrast to traditional interpretation, can be independent of the oceanic forcings.

  9. Laparoscopic Puestow: lateral pancreaticojejunostomy.

    PubMed

    Biteman, Benjamin R; Harr, Jeffrey N; Brody, Fred

    2016-12-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a painful inflammatory disease that leads to progressive and irreversible destruction of pancreatic parenchyma [1]. A lateral pancreaticojejunostomy, also known as the Puestow procedure, is performed for symptomatic chronic pancreatitis associated with a dilated pancreatic duct secondary to calcifications or strictures [4]. An open approach is used traditionally due to the complexity of the case, and there have only been a handful of laparoscopic case reports [2]. This video depicts a laparoscopic lateral pancreaticojejunostomy for chronic pancreatitis. A 45-year-old gentleman with a 20-year history of chronic alcohol abuse presented with diffuse abdominal pain. His pain was worse postprandially and associated with loose stools. A computed tomography scan revealed multiple calcified deposits within the body and tail of the pancreas, and a dilated pancreatic duct measuring 1.4 cm with a proximal obstructing calcified stone. A 5-port foregut technique was used, and a 15-cm pancreatic ductotomy was performed with an ultrasonic scalpel. Calcified stones were cleared from the duct, and a roux-en-y pancreaticojejunostomy was performed using a hand-sewn technique. The patient had a relatively uncomplicated hospital course with return of bowel function on postoperative day 4. His patient-controlled analgesic device was discontinued on post operative day 3. He was ambulating, tolerating a regular diet and discharged home on postoperative day 5. At 12- and 26-month follow-up, he remains off narcotics, but still requires 1-2 tabs of pancreatic enzyme replacement per meal. Most importantly, he has not had any alcohol for over 2 years. The two primary goals in treating chronic pancreatitis include long-term pain relief and improvements in quality of life [3]. For patients with chronic pancreatitis and a dilated pancreatic duct, a laparoscopic lateral pancreaticojejunostomy may be an effective approach to decrease pain and improve quality of life.

  10. Primary Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Statland, Jeffrey M; Barohn, Richard J; Dimachkie, Mazen M; Floeter, Mary Kay; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    Primary lateral sclerosis is characterized by insidious onset of progressive upper motor neuron dysfunction in the absence of clinical signs of lower motor neuron involvement. Patients experience stiffness; decreased balance and coordination; mild weakness; and, if the bulbar region is affected, difficulty speaking and swallowing, and emotional lability. The diagnosis is made based on clinical history, typical examination findings, and diagnostic testing negative for other causes of upper motor neuron dysfunction. Electromyogram is normal, or only shows mild neurogenic findings in a few muscles, not meeting El Escorial criteria. Treatment is largely supportive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Diamond heteroepitaxial lateral overgrowth

    DOE PAGES

    Tang, Y. -H.; Bi, B.; Golding, B.

    2015-02-24

    A method of diamond heteroepitaxial lateral overgrowth is demonstrated which utilizes a photolithographic metal mask to pattern a thin (001) epitaxial diamond surface. Significant structural improvement was found, with a threading dislocation density reduced by two orders of magnitude at the top surface of a thick overgrown diamond layer. In the initial stage of overgrowth, a reduction of diamond Raman linewidth in the overgrown area was also realized. Thermally-induced stress and internal stress were determined by Raman spectroscopy of adhering and delaminated diamond films. As a result, the internal stress is found to decrease as sample thickness increases.

  12. Modified puestow lateral pancreaticojejunostomy.

    PubMed

    Ceppa, Eugene P; Pappas, Theodore N

    2009-05-01

    There are various surgical options for the treatment of pain associated with chronic pancreatitis. The modified Puestow lateral pancreaticojejunostomy has been proven to be effective in ameliorating symptoms and expediting return to normal lifestyle while maintaining a low rate of morbidity and mortality. However, the debate regarding which surgical treatment provides the best outcomes is controversial. The aims of this manuscript are to identify the patient population for which the Puestow benefits the most and discuss the pertinent technical aspects of the surgical procedure.

  13. Microfluidic channel fabrication method

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Don W.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Cardinale, Gregory F.

    2001-01-01

    A new channel structure for microfluidic systems and process for fabricating this structure. In contrast to the conventional practice of fabricating fluid channels as trenches or grooves in a substrate, fluid channels are fabricated as thin walled raised structures on a substrate. Microfluidic devices produced in accordance with the invention are a hybrid assembly generally consisting of three layers: 1) a substrate that can or cannot be an electrical insulator; 2) a middle layer, that is an electrically conducting material and preferably silicon, forms the channel walls whose height defines the channel height, joined to and extending from the substrate; and 3) a top layer, joined to the top of the channels, that forms a cover for the channels. The channels can be defined by photolithographic techniques and are produced by etching away the material around the channel walls.

  14. Nighttime IR Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This night time IR image shows Parana Vallis. Parana Vallis is one of many channels located in the Martian highlands SE of Eos Chasma (the eastern end of Valles Marineris). Parana Vallis is likely to have been formed by fluvial activity.

    NOTE: in nighttime images North is to the bottom of the image.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -24.6, Longitude 349.7 East (10.3 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. Lateral power MOSFETs in silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitz, Jan

    2001-07-01

    Because of its large bandgap, its high critical electric field, and its high quality native SiO2, silicon carbide is considered to be the material of choice for power switching electronics in the future. Until 1997 the maximum thickness of commercially available epilayers serving as the drift region for power devices has been limited to 10--15 mum, limiting the maximum blocking voltage to 1500 V for vertical power devices in silicon carbide. In this study, we present the first lateral power devices on a semi-insulating vanadium doped substrate of silicon carbide. The first generation of lateral DMOSFETs in 4H-SiC yielded a blocking voltage of 2.6 kV---more than twice what was previously reported for any SiC MOSFETs---but suffered from low MOS channel mobility caused by the high anneal temperatures (≥1600°C) required to activate the p-type ion-implant. Combining the high blocking-voltage of the vanadium-doped substrate with the higher MOS mobility previously achieved by an epitaxially-grown accumulation channel leads us to the LACCUFET device: No p-type implant is necessary. This device shows a blocking voltage of 2.7 kV unmatched by any SiC transistor until February 2000 combined with a much lower specific on-resistance of 3.6 O•cm2. The ability to combine long-channel test MOSFETs with high channel mobility of 27 cm2/(volt·sec) in 4H-SiC with power devices of 13 cm2/(volt·sec) on the same chip has been demonstrated. The Figure of Merit Vblock 2/Ron,sp for this new NON-RESURF LDMOSFET in 4H-SiC is close to the theoretical limit for vertical power devices made of silicon. The specific on-resistance can be reduced by factor 2.5 by forward-biasing the p-base to source junction by 2 to 3 volts. Basic operation in Static Induction Injection Accumulation FET (SIAFET) mode has been demonstrated. Lateral (Non-Punch-Through) Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (LIGBT) have been presented for the first time showing similar on-resistance and blocking voltages but

  16. Primary Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Statland, Jeffrey M.; Barohn, Richard J.; Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Floeter, Mary Kay; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) is characterized by insidious onset of progressive upper motor neuron dysfunction in the absence of clinical signs of lower motor neuron involvement. Patients experience stiffness, decreased balance and coordination, and mild weakness, and if the bulbar region is affected, difficulty speaking and swallowing, and emotional lability. The diagnosis is made based on clinical history, typical exam findings, and diagnostic testing negative for other causes of upper motor neuron dysfunction. EMG is normal, or only shows mild neurogenic findings in a few muscles, not meeting El Escorial criteria. Although no test is specific for PLS, some neurodiagnostic tests are supportive: including absent or delayed central motor conduction times; and changes in the precentral gyrus or corticospinal tracts on MRI, DTI or MR Spectroscopy. Treatment is largely supportive, and includes medications for spasticity, baclofen pump, and treatment for pseudobulbar affect. The prognosis in PLS is more benign than ALS, making this a useful diagnostic category. PMID:26515619

  17. Lateral conduction infrared photodetector

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jin K [Albuquerque, NM; Carroll, Malcolm S [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-09-20

    A photodetector for detecting infrared light in a wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m is disclosed. The photodetector has a mesa structure formed from semiconductor layers which include a type-II superlattice formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. Impurity doped regions are formed on sidewalls of the mesa structure to provide for a lateral conduction of photo-generated carriers which can provide an increased carrier mobility and a reduced surface recombination. An optional bias electrode can be used in the photodetector to control and vary a cut-off wavelength or a depletion width therein. The photodetector can be formed as a single-color or multi-color device, and can also be used to form a focal plane array which is compatible with conventional read-out integrated circuits.

  18. Bayesian sparse channel estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chulong; Zoltowski, Michael D.

    2012-05-01

    In Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) systems, the technique used to estimate and track the time-varying multipath channel is critical to ensure reliable, high data rate communications. It is recognized that wireless channels often exhibit a sparse structure, especially for wideband and ultra-wideband systems. In order to exploit this sparse structure to reduce the number of pilot tones and increase the channel estimation quality, the application of compressed sensing to channel estimation is proposed. In this article, to make the compressed channel estimation more feasible for practical applications, it is investigated from a perspective of Bayesian learning. Under the Bayesian learning framework, the large-scale compressed sensing problem, as well as large time delay for the estimation of the doubly selective channel over multiple consecutive OFDM symbols, can be avoided. Simulation studies show a significant improvement in channel estimation MSE and less computing time compared to the conventional compressed channel estimation techniques.

  19. Analysis of Lateral Rail Restraint.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1983-09-01

    This report deals with the analysis of lateral rail strength using the results of experimental investigations and a nonlinear rail response model. Part of the analysis involves the parametric study of the influence of track parameters on lateral rail...

  20. Channel morphology [Chapter 5

    Jonathan W. Long; Alvin L. Medina; Daniel G. Neary

    2012-01-01

    Channel morphology has become an increasingly important subject for analyzing the health of rivers and associated fish populations, particularly since the popularization of channel classification and assessment methods. Morphological data can help to evaluate the flows of sediment and water that influence aquatic and riparian habitat. Channel classification systems,...

  1. Lateral asymmetry of the Hoffmann reflex: relation to cortical laterality.

    PubMed Central

    Goode, D J; Glenn, S; Manning, A A; Middleton, J F

    1980-01-01

    Lateral asymmetry of the Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex) recovery curve was found in seven subjects with no personal or family history of neurological or psychiatric disorder. Differences between recovery curves from the right and left leg were larger than differences in the same leg on two successive test days. In a group of 27 psychiatric inpatients, lateral asymmetry of the later portion of the recovery curve was correlated with cortical laterality, as measured by selective identification of differing verbal stimuli presented simultaneously to both ears (DL) and to total laterality scores, a sum of visual half-field, DL, and motor laterality scores. Asymmetry of the recovery curve is related in part to cortical laterality, possibly through selective activation of cortical motor centres on the preferred side. PMID:7420106

  2. Cardiac ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Priest, Birgit T; McDermott, Jeff S

    2015-01-01

    Ion channels are critical for all aspects of cardiac function, including rhythmicity and contractility. Consequently, ion channels are key targets for therapeutics aimed at cardiac pathophysiologies such as atrial fibrillation or angina. At the same time, off-target interactions of drugs with cardiac ion channels can be the cause of unwanted side effects. This manuscript aims to review the physiology and pharmacology of key cardiac ion channels. The intent is to highlight recent developments for therapeutic development, as well as elucidate potential mechanisms for drug-induced cardiac side effects, rather than present an in-depth review of each channel subtype. PMID:26556552

  3. Robotic lateral pancreaticojejunostomy (Puestow).

    PubMed

    Meehan, John J; Sawin, Robert

    2011-06-01

    A lateral pancreaticojejunostomy (LPJ), also known as the Puestow procedure, is a complex procedure performed for chronic pancreatitis when the pancreatic duct is dilated and unable to drain properly. Traditionally, these procedures are performed with open surgery. A minimally invasive approach to the LPJ using rigid handheld nonarticulating instruments is tedious and rarely performed. In fact, there are no prior laparoscopic case reports for LPJ in children and only a small handful of cases in the adult literature. This lack of laparoscopic information may be an indication of the difficulty in performing this complex operation with nonarticulating laparoscopic instruments. The advantages of robotic surgery may help overcome these difficulties. We present the first robotic LPJ ever reported in a 14-year-old child with idiopathic chronic pancreatitis. This case demonstrates the utility of this advanced surgical technology and may lead to a new minimally invasive option for both adults and children with chronic pancreatitis requiring surgical intervention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. MULTI-CHANNEL PULSE HEIGHT ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Boyer, K.; Johnstone, C.W.

    1958-11-25

    An improved multi-channel pulse height analyzer of the type where the device translates the amplitude of each pulse into a time duration electrical quantity which is utilized to control the length of a train of pulses forwarded to a scaler is described. The final state of the scaler for any one train of pulses selects the appropriate channel in a magnetic memory in which an additional count of one is placed. The improvement consists of a storage feature for storing a signal pulse so that in many instances when two signal pulses occur in rapid succession, the second pulse is preserved and processed at a later time.

  5. Mechanically Activated Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Ranade, Sanjeev S.; Syeda, Ruhma; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2015-01-01

    Mechanotransduction, the conversion of physical forces into biochemical signals, is an essential component of numerous physiological processes including not only conscious senses of touch and hearing, but also unconscious senses such as blood pressure regulation. Mechanically activated (MA) ion channels have been proposed as sensors of physical force, but the identity of these channels and an understanding of how mechanical force is transduced has remained elusive. A number of recent studies on previously known ion channels along with the identification of novel MA ion channels have greatly transformed our understanding of touch and hearing in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Here, we present an updated review of eukaryotic ion channel families that have been implicated in mechanotransduction processes and evaluate the qualifications of the candidate genes according to specified criteria. We then discuss the proposed gating models for MA ion channels and highlight recent structural studies of mechanosensitive potassium channels. PMID:26402601

  6. Ion channels in plants.

    PubMed

    Hedrich, Rainer

    2012-10-01

    Since the first recordings of single potassium channel activities in the plasma membrane of guard cells more than 25 years ago, patch-clamp studies discovered a variety of ion channels in all cell types and plant species under inspection. Their properties differed in a cell type- and cell membrane-dependent manner. Guard cells, for which the existence of plant potassium channels was initially documented, advanced to a versatile model system for studying plant ion channel structure, function, and physiology. Interestingly, one of the first identified potassium-channel genes encoding the Shaker-type channel KAT1 was shown to be highly expressed in guard cells. KAT1-type channels from Arabidopsis thaliana and its homologs from other species were found to encode the K(+)-selective inward rectifiers that had already been recorded in early patch-clamp studies with guard cells. Within the genome era, additional Arabidopsis Shaker-type channels appeared. All nine members of the Arabidopsis Shaker family are localized at the plasma membrane, where they either operate as inward rectifiers, outward rectifiers, weak voltage-dependent channels, or electrically silent, but modulatory subunits. The vacuole membrane, in contrast, harbors a set of two-pore K(+) channels. Just very recently, two plant anion channel families of the SLAC/SLAH and ALMT/QUAC type were identified. SLAC1/SLAH3 and QUAC1 are expressed in guard cells and mediate Slow- and Rapid-type anion currents, respectively, that are involved in volume and turgor regulation. Anion channels in guard cells and other plant cells are key targets within often complex signaling networks. Here, the present knowledge is reviewed for the plant ion channel biology. Special emphasis is drawn to the molecular mechanisms of channel regulation, in the context of model systems and in the light of evolution.

  7. Intrinsic particle-induced lateral transport in microchannels

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Hamed; Sollier, Elodie; Weaver, Westbrook M.; Di Carlo, Dino

    2012-01-01

    In microfluidic systems at low Reynolds number, the flow field around a particle is assumed to maintain fore-aft symmetry, with fluid diverted by the presence of a particle, returning to its original streamline downstream. This current model considers particles as passive components of the system. However, we demonstrate that at finite Reynolds number, when inertia is taken into consideration, particles are not passive elements in the flow but significantly disturb and modify it. In response to the flow field, particles translate downstream while rotating. The combined effect of the flow of fluid around particles, particle rotation, channel confinement (i.e., particle dimensions approaching those of the channel), and finite fluid inertia creates a net recirculating flow perpendicular to the primary flow direction within straight channels that resembles the well-known Dean flow in curved channels. Significantly, the particle generating this flow remains laterally fixed as it translates downstream and only the fluid is laterally transferred. Therefore, as the particles remain inertially focused, operations can be performed around the particles in a way that is compatible with downstream assays such as flow cytometry. We apply this particle-induced transfer to perform fluid switching and mixing around rigid microparticles as well as deformable cells. This transport phenomenon, requiring only a simple channel geometry with no external forces to operate, offers a practical approach for fluid transfer at high flow rates with a wide range of applications, including sample preparation, flow reaction, and heat transfer. PMID:22761309

  8. Fading channel simulator

    DOEpatents

    Argo, Paul E.; Fitzgerald, T. Joseph

    1993-01-01

    Fading channel effects on a transmitted communication signal are simulated with both frequency and time variations using a channel scattering function to affect the transmitted signal. A conventional channel scattering function is converted to a series of channel realizations by multiplying the square root of the channel scattering function by a complex number of which the real and imaginary parts are each independent variables. The two-dimensional inverse-FFT of this complex-valued channel realization yields a matrix of channel coefficients that provide a complete frequency-time description of the channel. The transmitted radio signal is segmented to provide a series of transmitted signal and each segment is subject to FFT to generate a series of signal coefficient matrices. The channel coefficient matrices and signal coefficient matrices are then multiplied and subjected to inverse-FFT to output a signal representing the received affected radio signal. A variety of channel scattering functions can be used to characterize the response of a transmitter-receiver system to such atmospheric effects.

  9. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Wijesekera, Lokesh C; Leigh, P Nigel

    2009-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by progressive muscular paralysis reflecting degeneration of motor neurones in the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts, brainstem and spinal cord. Incidence (average 1.89 per 100,000/year) and prevalence (average 5.2 per100,000) are relatively uniform in Western countries, although foci of higher frequency occur in the Western Pacific. The mean age of onset for sporadic ALS is about 60 years. Overall, there is a slight male prevalence (M:F ratio~1.5:1). Approximately two thirds of patients with typical ALS have a spinal form of the disease (limb onset) and present with symptoms related to focal muscle weakness and wasting, where the symptoms may start either distally or proximally in the upper and lower limbs. Gradually, spasticity may develop in the weakened atrophic limbs, affecting manual dexterity and gait. Patients with bulbar onset ALS usually present with dysarthria and dysphagia for solid or liquids, and limbs symptoms can develop almost simultaneously with bulbar symptoms, and in the vast majority of cases will occur within 1–2 years. Paralysis is progressive and leads to death due to respiratory failure within 2–3 years for bulbar onset cases and 3–5 years for limb onset ALS cases. Most ALS cases are sporadic but 5–10% of cases are familial, and of these 20% have a mutation of the SOD1 gene and about 2–5% have mutations of the TARDBP (TDP-43) gene. Two percent of apparently sporadic patients have SOD1 mutations, and TARDBP mutations also occur in sporadic cases. The diagnosis is based on clinical history, examination, electromyography, and exclusion of 'ALS-mimics' (e.g. cervical spondylotic myelopathies, multifocal motor neuropathy, Kennedy's disease) by appropriate investigations. The pathological hallmarks comprise loss of motor neurones with intraneuronal ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions in upper motor neurones and TDP-43 immunoreactive inclusions in

  10. Interactive communication channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, R. H.; Mann, M. R.; Ciarrocchi, J. A.

    1985-10-01

    Discussed is an interactive communications channel (ICC) for providing a digital computer with high-performance multi-channel interfaces. Sixteen full duplex channels can be serviced in the ICC with the sequence or scan pattern being programmable and dependent upon the number or channels and their speed. A channel buffer system is used for line interface, and character exchange. The channel buffer system is on a byte basis. The ICC performs frame start and frame end functions, bit stripping and bit stuffing. Data is stored in a memory in block format (256 bytes maximum) by a program control and the ICC maintains byte address information and a block byte count. Data exchange with a memory is made by cycle steals. Error detection is also provided for using a cyclic redundancy check technique.

  11. Interband Lateral Resonant Tunneling Transistor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-11-14

    INTERBAND LATERAL RESONANT TUNNELING TRANSISTOR 10 BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Field of the Invention This invention pertains to a tunneling transistor...and in 15 particular to an interband lateral resonant tunneling transistor. Description of Related Art Conventional semiconductor technologies are... interband lateral resonant tunneling transistor along the cross-section B-B of Figure 2c. Figure 4 is another preferred embodiment cross-sectional 20

  12. Calcium Channel Blockers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Certain calcium channel blockers interact with grapefruit products. Kaplan NM, et al. Treatment of hypertension: Drug therapy. In: Kaplan's Clinical Hypertension. 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Wolters Kluwer ...

  13. Symmetrization for redundant channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tulplue, Bhalchandra R. (Inventor); Collins, Robert E. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A plurality of redundant channels in a system each contain a global image of all the configuration data bases in each of the channels in the system. Each global image is updated periodically from each of the other channels via cross channel data links. The global images of the local configuration data bases in each channel are separately symmetrized using a voting process to generate a system signal configuration data base which is not written into by any other routine and is available for indicating the status of the system within each channel. Equalization may be imposed on a suspect signal and a number of chances for that signal to heal itself are provided before excluding it from future votes. Reconfiguration is accomplished upon detecting a channel which is deemed invalid. A reset function is provided which permits an externally generated reset signal to permit a previously excluded channel to be reincluded within the system. The updating of global images and/or the symmetrization process may be accomplished at substantially the same time within a synchronized time frame common to all channels.

  14. Channel Bottom Morphology in the Deltaic Reach of the Song Hau (mekong) River Channel in Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, M. A.; Weathers, H. D., III; Meselhe, E. A.

    2016-02-01

    Boat-based, channel bathymetry and bankline elevation studies were conducted in the tidal and estuarine Mekong River channel using multibeam bathymetry and LIDAR corrected for elevation by RTK satellite positioning. Two mapping campaigns, one at high discharge in October 2014 and one at low discharge in March 2015, were conducted in the lower 100 km reach of the Song Hau distributary channel to (1) examine bottom morphology and its relationship to sediment transport, and (2) to provide information to setup the grid for a multi-dimensional and reduced complexity models of channel hydrodynamics and sediment dynamics. Sand fields were identified in multibeam data by the presence of dunes that were as large as 2-4 m high and 40-80 m wavelength and by clean sands in bottom grabs. Extensive areas of sand at the head and toe of mid-channel islands displayed 10-25 m diameter circular pits that could be correlated with bucket dredge, sand mining activities observed at some of the sites. Large areas of the channel floor were relict (containing little or no modern sediment) in the high discharge campaign, identifiable by the presence of along channel erosional furrows and terraced outcrops along the channel floor and margins. Laterally extensive flat areas were also observed in the channel thalweg. Both these and the relict areas were sampled by bottom grab as stiff silty clays. Complex cross-channel combinations of these morphologies were observed in some transects, suggesting strong bottom steering of tidal and riverine currents. Relative to high discharge, transects above and below the salt penetration limit showed evidence of shallowing in the thalweg and adjacent sloping areas at low discharge in March 2015. This shallowing, combined with the reduced extent of sand fields and furrowed areas, and soft muds in grabs, suggests seasonal trapping of fine grained sediment is occurring by estuarine and tidal circulation.

  15. Sediment and Vegetation Controls on Delta Channel Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauzon, R.; Murray, A. B.; Piliouras, A.; Kim, W.

    2016-12-01

    Numerous factors control the patterns of distributary channels formed on a delta, including water and sediment discharge, grain size, sea level rise rates, and vegetation type. In turn, these channel networks influence the shape and evolution of a delta, including what types of plant and animal life - such as humans - it can support. Previous fluvial modeling and flume experiments, outside of the delta context, have addressed how interactions between sediment and vegetation, through their influence on lateral transport of sediment, determine what type of channel networks develops. Similar interactions likely also shape delta flow patterns. Vegetation introduces cohesion, tending to reduce channel migration rates and strengthen existing channel banks, reinforcing existing channels and resulting in localized, relatively stable flow patterns. On the other hand, sediment transport processes can result in lateral migration and frequent switching of active channels, resulting in flow resembling that of a braided stream. While previous studies of deltas have indirectly explored the effects of vegetation through the introduction of cohesive sediment, we directly incorporate key effects of vegetation on flow and sediment transport into the delta-building model DeltaRCM to explore how these effects influence delta channel network formation. Model development is informed by laboratory flume experiments at UT Austin. Here we present initial results of experiments exploring the effects of sea level rise rate, sediment grain size, vegetation type, and vegetation growth rate on delta channel network morphology. These results support the hypothesis that the ability for lateral transport of sediment to occur plays a key role in determining the evolution of delta channel networks and delta morphology.

  16. A linearization of quantum channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowder, Tanner

    2015-06-01

    Because the quantum channels form a compact, convex set, we can express any quantum channel as a convex combination of extremal channels. We give a Euclidean representation for the channels whose inverses are also valid channels; these are a subset of the extreme points. They form a compact, connected Lie group, and we calculate its Lie algebra. Lastly, we calculate a maximal torus for the group and provide a constructive approach to decomposing any invertible channel into a product of elementary channels.

  17. The channels of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, V. R.

    1982-01-01

    Early observations of Mars conducted by means of telescopes are considered. Secchi introduced the Italian word 'canale' ('channel') in 1869 to describe apparent lines on the planet's surface. Between 1877 and 1888 Schiaparelli mapped a profusion of 'canali'. Schiaparelli's work led to famous controversies about Mars. This book attempts to investigate the puzzle posed by the Martian channels, taking into account also the results of the studies conducted with the aid of the two orbiting Viking spacecraft which have produced a total number of nearly 60,000 pictures. The channel types are discussed along with questions regarding the distribution, the ages, and the proposed origins of the channels. Attention is given to the geomorphology of Mars, the patterns and networks of Martian valleys, ice and the Martian surface, the outflow channels, catastrophic flood processes, questions of analogy between terrestrial and Martian geographic features, and Martian phenomena associated with water liquid or water ice.

  18. Thin walled channel

    SciT

    Crowther, R.L.; Johansson, E.B.

    1988-06-07

    A fuel assembly is described comprising fuel rods positioned in a spaced array by upper and lower tie-plates, an open ended flow channel surrounding the array for conducting coolant upward about the fuel rods, the open ended channel having a polygon shaped cross section with flat side sections connected between the corner sections; means separate from the channel connecting the upper and lower tie-plates together and maintaining the fuel rods in spaced array independent of the flow channel, improvement in the flow channel comprising: four corners having a first thickness; four sides having a second and reduced thickness from themore » corner thickness, the sides welded to the corner sections.« less

  19. Generalized channeled polarimetry.

    PubMed

    Alenin, Andrey S; Tyo, J Scott

    2014-05-01

    Channeled polarimeters measure polarization by modulating the measured intensity in order to create polarization-dependent channels that can be demodulated to reveal the desired polarization information. A number of channeled systems have been described in the past, but their proposed designs often unintentionally sacrifice optimality for ease of algebraic reconstruction. To obtain more optimal systems, a generalized treatment of channeled polarimeters is required. This paper describes methods that enable handling of multi-domain modulations and reconstruction of polarization information using linear algebra. We make practical choices regarding use of either Fourier or direct channels to make these methods more immediately useful. Employing the introduced concepts to optimize existing systems often results in superficial system changes, like changing the order, orientation, thickness, or spacing of polarization elements. For the two examples we consider, we were able to reduce noise in the reconstruction to 34.1% and 57.9% of the original design values.

  20. Interaction of lateral baroclinic forcing and turbulence in an estuary

    Lacy, J.R.; Stacey, M.T.; Burau, J.R.; Monismith, Stephen G.

    2003-01-01

    Observations of density and velocity in a channel in northern San Francisco Bay show that the onset of vertical density stratification during flood tides is controlled by the balance between the cross-channel baroclinic pressure gradient and vertical mixing due to turbulence. Profiles of velocity, salinity, temperature, and suspended sediment concentration were measured in transects across Suisun Cutoff, in northern San Francisco Bay, on two days over the 12.5-hour tidal cycle. During flood tides an axial density front developed between fresher water flowing from the shallows of Grizzly Bay into the northern side of Suisun Cutoff and saltier water flowing up the channel. North of the front, transverse currents were driven by the lateral salinity gradient, with a top-to-bottom velocity difference greater than 30 cm/s. South of the front, the secondary circulation was weak, and along-channel velocities were greater than to the north. The gradient Richardson number shows that stratification was stable north of the front, while the water column was turbulently mixed south of the front. Time-series measurements of velocity and salinity demonstrate that the front develops during each tidal cycle. In estuaries, longitudinal dynamics predict less stratification during flood than ebb tides. These data show that stratification can develop during flood tides due to a lateral baroclinic pressure gradient in estuaries with complex bathymetry.

  1. Determination of Track Lateral Resistance from Lateral Pull Tests

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1986-04-01

    Thermal buckling of railroad tracks in the lateral plane is an important problem in the design and maintenance of continuous welded rail (CWR) track. The severity of the problem is manifested through the number of derailments which are attributable t...

  2. Lateralization of the Huggins pitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peter Xinya; Hartmann, William M.

    2004-05-01

    The lateralization of the Huggins pitch (HP) was measured using a direct estimation method. The background noise was initially N0 or Nπ, and then the laterality of the entire stimulus was varied with a frequency-independent interaural delay, ranging from -1 to +1 ms. Two versions of the HP boundary region were used, stepped phase and linear phase. When presented in isolation, without the broadband background, the stepped boundary can be lateralized on its own but the linear boundary cannot. Nevertheless, the lateralizations of both forms of HP were found to be almost identical functions both of the interaural delay and of the boundary frequency over a two-octave range. In a third experiment, the same listeners lateralized sine tones in quiet as a function of interaural delay. Good agreement was found between lateralizations of the HP and of the corresponding sine tones. The lateralization judgments depended on the boundary frequency according to the expected hyperbolic law except when the frequency-independent delay was zero. For the latter case, the dependence on boundary frequency was much slower than hyperbolic. [Work supported by the NIDCD grant DC 00181.

  3. What causes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Sarah; Al Khleifat, Ahmad; Al-Chalabi, Ammar

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease predominantly affecting upper and lower motor neurons, resulting in progressive paralysis and death from respiratory failure within 2 to 3 years. The peak age of onset is 55 to 70 years, with a male predominance. The causes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are only partly known, but they include some environmental risk factors as well as several genes that have been identified as harbouring disease-associated variation. Here we review the nature, epidemiology, genetic associations, and environmental exposures associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:28408982

  4. Coherifying quantum channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzekwa, Kamil; Czachórski, Stanisław; Puchała, Zbigniew; Życzkowski, Karol

    2018-04-01

    Is it always possible to explain random stochastic transitions between states of a finite-dimensional system as arising from the deterministic quantum evolution of the system? If not, then what is the minimal amount of randomness required by quantum theory to explain a given stochastic process? Here, we address this problem by studying possible coherifications of a quantum channel Φ, i.e., we look for channels {{{Φ }}}{ \\mathcal C } that induce the same classical transitions T, but are ‘more coherent’. To quantify the coherence of a channel Φ we measure the coherence of the corresponding Jamiołkowski state J Φ. We show that the classical transition matrix T can be coherified to reversible unitary dynamics if and only if T is unistochastic. Otherwise the Jamiołkowski state {J}{{Φ }}{ \\mathcal C } of the optimally coherified channel is mixed, and the dynamics must necessarily be irreversible. To assess the extent to which an optimal process {{{Φ }}}{ \\mathcal C } is indeterministic we find explicit bounds on the entropy and purity of {J}{{Φ }}{ \\mathcal C }, and relate the latter to the unitarity of {{{Φ }}}{ \\mathcal C }. We also find optimal coherifications for several classes of channels, including all one-qubit channels. Finally, we provide a non-optimal coherification procedure that works for an arbitrary channel Φ and reduces its rank (the minimal number of required Kraus operators) from {d}2 to d.

  5. Reconfigurable virtual electrowetting channels.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Ananda; Kreit, Eric; Liu, Yuguang; Heikenfeld, Jason; Papautsky, Ian

    2012-02-21

    Lab-on-a-chip systems rely on several microfluidic paradigms. The first uses a fixed layout of continuous microfluidic channels. Such lab-on-a-chip systems are almost always application specific and far from a true "laboratory." The second involves electrowetting droplet movement (digital microfluidics), and allows two-dimensional computer control of fluidic transport and mixing. The merging of the two paradigms in the form of programmable electrowetting channels takes advantage of both the "continuous" functionality of rigid channels based on which a large number of applications have been developed to date and the "programmable" functionality of digital microfluidics that permits electrical control of on-chip functions. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time programmable formation of virtual microfluidic channels and their continuous operation with pressure driven flows using an electrowetting platform. Experimental, theoretical, and numerical analyses of virtual channel formation with biologically relevant electrolyte solutions and electrically-programmable reconfiguration are presented. We demonstrate that the "wall-less" virtual channels can be formed reliably and rapidly, with propagation rates of 3.5-3.8 mm s(-1). Pressure driven transport in these virtual channels at flow rates up to 100 μL min(-1) is achievable without distortion of the channel shape. We further demonstrate that these virtual channels can be switched on-demand between multiple inputs and outputs. Ultimately, we envision a platform that would provide rapid prototyping of microfluidic concepts and would be capable of a vast library of functions and benefitting applications from clinical diagnostics in resource-limited environments to rapid system prototyping to high throughput pharmaceutical applications.

  6. Fractional channel multichannel analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Anderson, G.A.

    1994-08-23

    A multichannel analyzer incorporating the features of the present invention obtains the effect of fractional channels thus greatly reducing the number of actual channels necessary to record complex line spectra. This is accomplished by using an analog-to-digital converter in the asynchronous mode, i.e., the gate pulse from the pulse height-to-pulse width converter is not synchronized with the signal from a clock oscillator. This saves power and reduces the number of components required on the board to achieve the effect of radically expanding the number of channels without changing the circuit board. 9 figs.

  7. Fractional channel multichannel analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbush, Larry W.; Anderson, Gordon A.

    1994-01-01

    A multichannel analyzer incorporating the features of the present invention obtains the effect of fractional channels thus greatly reducing the number of actual channels necessary to record complex line spectra. This is accomplished by using an analog-to-digital converter in the asynscronous mode, i.e., the gate pulse from the pulse height-to-pulse width converter is not synchronized with the signal from a clock oscillator. This saves power and reduces the number of components required on the board to achieve the effect of radically expanding the number of channels without changing the circuit board.

  8. Cerebral Laterality and Verbal Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Jay L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Research suggests that we process information by way of two distinct and functionally separate coding systems. Their location, somewhat dependent on cerebral laterality, varies in right- and left-handed persons. Tests this dual coding model. (Editor/RK)

  9. 21. OUTLET PIPE AND CONCRETE CHANNEL FOR THE HEAD GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. OUTLET PIPE AND CONCRETE CHANNEL FOR THE HEAD GATE PICTURED IN CO-43-A-20. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  10. Determination of channel change for selected streams, Maricopa County, Arizona

    Capesius, Joseph P.; Lehman, Ted W.

    2002-01-01

    In Maricopa County, Arizona, 10 sites on seven streams were studied to determine the lateral and vertical change of the channel. Channel change was studied over time scales ranging from individual floods to decades using cross-section surveys, discharge measurements, changes in the point of zero flow, and repeat photography. All of the channels showed some change in cross-section area or hydraulic radius over the time scales studied, but the direction and mag-nitude of change varied considerably from one flow, or series of flows, to another. The documentation of cross-section geometry for streams in Maricopa County for long-term monitoring was begun in this study.

  11. Regimes of Two-Phase Flow in Short Rectangular Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinnov, Evgeny A.; Guzanov, Vladimir V.; Cheverda, Vyacheslav; Markovich, Dmitry M.; Kabov, Oleg A.

    2009-08-01

    Experimental study of two-phase flow in the short rectangular horizontal channel with height 440 μm has been performed. Characteristics of liquid motion inside the channel have been registered and measured by the Laser Induced Fluorescence technique. New information has allowed determining more precisely the characteristics of churn regime and boundaries between different regimes of two-phase flow. It was shown that formation of some two-phase flow regimes and transitions between them are determined by instability of the flow in the lateral parts of the channel.

  12. 28-Channel rotary transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1981-01-01

    Transformer transmits power and digital data across rotating interface. Array has many parallel data channels, each with potential l megabaud data rate. Ferrite-cored transformers are spaced along rotor; airgap between them reduces crosstalk.

  13. Proton channel models

    PubMed Central

    Pupo, Amaury; Baez-Nieto, David; Martínez, Agustín; Latorre, Ramón; González, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated proton channels are integral membrane proteins with the capacity to permeate elementary particles in a voltage and pH dependent manner. These proteins have been found in several species and are involved in various physiological processes. Although their primary topology is known, lack of details regarding their structures in the open conformation has limited analyses toward a deeper understanding of the molecular determinants of their function and regulation. Consequently, the function-structure relationships have been inferred based on homology models. In the present work, we review the existing proton channel models, their assumptions, predictions and the experimental facts that support them. Modeling proton channels is not a trivial task due to the lack of a close homolog template. Hence, there are important differences between published models. This work attempts to critically review existing proton channel models toward the aim of contributing to a better understanding of the structural features of these proteins. PMID:24755912

  14. Fractures and Channels

    2013-01-22

    This image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft of the Claritas Fossae region illustrates how fractures affect other features. In this instance, the fractures control the path of several channels from upper right towards lower left.

  15. Chondrocyte channel transcriptomics

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Rebecca; May, Hannah; Mobasheri, Ali; Barrett-Jolley, Richard

    2013-01-01

    To date, a range of ion channels have been identified in chondrocytes using a number of different techniques, predominantly electrophysiological and/or biomolecular; each of these has its advantages and disadvantages. Here we aim to compare and contrast the data available from biophysical and microarray experiments. This letter analyses recent transcriptomics datasets from chondrocytes, accessible from the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI). We discuss whether such bioinformatic analysis of microarray datasets can potentially accelerate identification and discovery of ion channels in chondrocytes. The ion channels which appear most frequently across these microarray datasets are discussed, along with their possible functions. We discuss whether functional or protein data exist which support the microarray data. A microarray experiment comparing gene expression in osteoarthritis and healthy cartilage is also discussed and we verify the differential expression of 2 of these genes, namely the genes encoding large calcium-activated potassium (BK) and aquaporin channels. PMID:23995703

  16. A Simple Water Channel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, A. S.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a simple water channel, for use with an overhead projector. It is run from a water tap and may be used for flow visualization experiments, including the effect of streamlining and elementary building aerodynamics. (MLH)

  17. Surface dynamics of voltage-gated ion channels.

    PubMed

    Heine, Martin; Ciuraszkiewicz, Anna; Voigt, Andreas; Heck, Jennifer; Bikbaev, Arthur

    2016-07-03

    Neurons encode information in fast changes of the membrane potential, and thus electrical membrane properties are critically important for the integration and processing of synaptic inputs by a neuron. These electrical properties are largely determined by ion channels embedded in the membrane. The distribution of most ion channels in the membrane is not spatially uniform: they undergo activity-driven changes in the range of minutes to days. Even in the range of milliseconds, the composition and topology of ion channels are not static but engage in highly dynamic processes including stochastic or activity-dependent transient association of the pore-forming and auxiliary subunits, lateral diffusion, as well as clustering of different channels. In this review we briefly discuss the potential impact of mobile sodium, calcium and potassium ion channels and the functional significance of this for individual neurons and neuronal networks.

  18. Surface dynamics of voltage-gated ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Heine, Martin; Ciuraszkiewicz, Anna; Voigt, Andreas; Heck, Jennifer; Bikbaev, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Neurons encode information in fast changes of the membrane potential, and thus electrical membrane properties are critically important for the integration and processing of synaptic inputs by a neuron. These electrical properties are largely determined by ion channels embedded in the membrane. The distribution of most ion channels in the membrane is not spatially uniform: they undergo activity-driven changes in the range of minutes to days. Even in the range of milliseconds, the composition and topology of ion channels are not static but engage in highly dynamic processes including stochastic or activity-dependent transient association of the pore-forming and auxiliary subunits, lateral diffusion, as well as clustering of different channels. In this review we briefly discuss the potential impact of mobile sodium, calcium and potassium ion channels and the functional significance of this for individual neurons and neuronal networks. PMID:26891382

  19. Bathymetric controls on sediment transport in the Hudson River estuary: Lateral asymmetry and frontal trapping

    Ralston, David K.; Geyer, W. Rockwell; Warner, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Analyses of field observations and numerical model results have identified that sediment transport in the Hudson River estuary is laterally segregated between channel and shoals, features frontal trapping at multiple locations along the estuary, and varies significantly over the spring-neap tidal cycle. Lateral gradients in depth, and therefore baroclinic pressure gradient and stratification, control the lateral distribution of sediment transport. Within the saline estuary, sediment fluxes are strongly landward in the channel and seaward on the shoals. At multiple locations, bottom salinity fronts form at bathymetric transitions in width or depth. Sediment convergences near the fronts create local maxima in suspended-sediment concentration and deposition, providing a general mechanism for creation of secondary estuarine turbidity maxima at bathymetric transitions. The lateral bathymetry also affects the spring-neap cycle of sediment suspension and deposition. In regions with broad, shallow shoals, the shoals are erosional and the channel is depositional during neap tides, with the opposite pattern during spring tides. Narrower, deeper shoals are depositional during neaps and erosional during springs. In each case, the lateral transfer is from regions of higher to lower bed stress, and depends on the elevation of the pycnocline relative to the bed. Collectively, the results indicate that lateral and along-channel gradients in bathymetry and thus stratification, bed stress, and sediment flux lead to an unsteady, heterogeneous distribution of sediment transport and trapping along the estuary rather than trapping solely at a turbidity maximum at the limit of the salinity intrusion.

  20. Cognitive CDMA Channelization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    proposed scheme for power and code allocation for the secondary user is outlined in Fig. 2. V. SIMULATION STUDIES We consider a primary DS - CDMA system...DATES COVERED (From - To) January 2008 – June 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE COGNITIVE CDMA CHANNELIZATION 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-House 5b. GRANT...TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) N/A Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Cognitive CDMA Channelization Kanke

  1. Stream Channel Stability.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    Cycles of wetting and drying are also t ,v itiue swelling and shrinkage of the soil. S 11ied blocks or peds of soil fabric ,,ks. id downslope soil creep ...hydrographs of water and sediment at the point in question. By feeding the output from the hydrology-transport model into the finite element model...the banks as undercut banks fail. Channel irregularities such as seepage zones, cattle crossings, overbank drainage, buried channels, organic deposits

  2. Chloride channels in stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-ping; Zhang, Hao; Duan, Dayue Darrel

    2013-01-01

    Vascular remodeling of cerebral arterioles, including proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), is the major cause of changes in the cross-sectional area and diameter of the arteries and sudden interruption of blood flow or hemorrhage in the brain, ie, stroke. Accumulating evidence strongly supports an important role for chloride (Cl−) channels in vascular remodeling and stroke. At least three Cl− channel genes are expressed in VSMCs: 1) the TMEM16A (or Ano1), which may encode the calcium-activated Cl− channels (CACCs); 2) the CLC-3 Cl− channel and Cl−/H+ antiporter, which is closely related to the volume-regulated Cl− channels (VRCCs); and 3) the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which encodes the PKA- and PKC-activated Cl− channels. Activation of the CACCs by agonist-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ causes membrane depolarization, vasoconstriction, and inhibition of VSMC proliferation. Activation of VRCCs by cell volume increase or membrane stretch promotes the production of reactive oxygen species, induces proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of VSMCs. Activation of CFTR inhibits oxidative stress and may prevent the development of hypertension. In addition, Cl− current mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has also been implicated a role in ischemic neuron death. This review focuses on the functional roles of Cl− channels in the development of stroke and provides a perspective on the future directions for research and the potential to develop Cl− channels as new targets for the prevention and treatment of stroke. PMID:23103617

  3. Motor laterality as an indicator of speech laterality.

    PubMed

    Flowers, Kenneth A; Hudson, John M

    2013-03-01

    The determination of speech laterality, especially where it is anomalous, is both a theoretical issue and a practical problem for brain surgery. Handedness is commonly thought to be related to speech representation, but exactly how is not clearly understood. This investigation analyzed handedness by preference rating and performance on a reliable task of motor laterality in 34 patients undergoing a Wada test, to see if they could provide an indicator of speech laterality. Hand usage preference ratings divided patients into left, right, and mixed in preference. Between-hand differences in movement time on a pegboard task determined motor laterality. Results were correlated (χ2) with speech representation as determined by a standard Wada test. It was found that patients whose between-hand difference in speed on the motor task was small or inconsistent were the ones whose Wada test speech representation was likely to be ambiguous or anomalous, whereas all those with a consistently large between-hand difference showed clear unilateral speech representation in the hemisphere controlling the better hand (χ2 = 10.45, df = 1, p < .01, η2 = 0.55) This relationship prevailed across hand preference and level of skill in the hands itself. We propose that motor and speech laterality are related where they both involve a central control of motor output sequencing and that a measure of that aspect of the former will indicate the likely representation of the latter. A between-hand measure of motor laterality based on such a measure may indicate the possibility of anomalous speech representation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Lateral topological crystalline insulator heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qilong; Dai, Ying; Niu, Chengwang; Ma, Yandong; Wei, Wei; Yu, Lin; Huang, Baibiao

    2017-06-01

    The emergence of lateral heterostructures fabricated by two-dimensional building blocks brings many exciting realms in material science and device physics. Enriching available nanomaterials for creating such heterostructures and enabling the underlying new physics is highly coveted for the integration of next-generation devices. Here, we report a breakthrough in lateral heterostructure based on the monolayer square transition-metal dichalcogenides MX2 (M  =  W, X  =  S/Se) modules. Our results reveal that the MX2 lateral heterostructure (1S-MX2 LHS) can possess excellent thermal and dynamical stability. Remarkably, the highly desired two-dimensional topological crystalline insulator phase is confirmed by the calculated mirror Chern number {{n}\\text{M}}=-1 . A nontrivial band gap of 65 meV is obtained with SOC, indicating the potential for room-temperature observation and applications. The topologically protected edge states emerge at the edges of two different nanoribbons between the bulk band gap, which is consistent with the mirror Chern number. In addition, a strain-induced topological phase transition in 1S-MX2 LHS is also revealed, endowing the potential utilities in electronics and spintronics. Our predictions not only introduce new member and vitality into the studies of lateral heterostructures, but also highlight the promise of lateral heterostructure as appealing topological crystalline insulator platforms with excellent stability for future devices.

  5. Influence of alluvial cover and lithology on the adjustment characteristics of semi-alluvial bedrock channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Sean P.; Rennie, Colin D.

    2017-05-01

    A growing body of research has focused on evaluating the adjustment characteristics of semi-alluvial channels containing proximate bedrock, mixed, and alluvial sections. Active orogens have been the focus of most empirical field-based studies with comparatively less focus on semi-alluvial bedrock channels located in other regions. In this study, we present an inventory of channel geometry data collected from semi-alluvial bedrock channels in Ontario and Québec, Canada, which are not subject to tectonic uplift. Data were sourced from a variety of physiographic settings, permitting evaluation of the influence of alluvial cover, lithology, and gradient on cross-sectional channel form. Our results show no substantial difference in channel width or scaling behaviour amongst bedrock, mixed, and alluvial channels included in our study, except for sedimentary bedrock channels virtually bare of alluvial cover that represent a uniquely wide, distinct subgroup. Channel gradient does not appear to exhibit any observable control on channel width amongst our study rivers, suggesting that sedimentary bedrock channels form a distinct subgroup because of lithology. Comparatively, the widths of our bedrock channels formed in igneous/metamorphic bedrock are comparable to the widths of mixed channels and alluvial channels for a given discharge and drainage area. Our findings also suggest that cross-sectional adjustment of sedimentary bedrock channels is achieved through lateral erosion of the channel banks and downward erosion of the channel bed, whereas cross-sectional adjustment of igneous/metamorphic bedrock is primarily achieved through downward erosion of the bed with limited lateral erosion of the banks.

  6. Channel planform evolution: Spatial and temporal aspect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusnák, M.; Frandofer, M.; Lehotský, M.

    2012-04-01

    The recent period is characterized by impacts of climate change. Increasing magnitude and frequency of flood events results in morphological and morphodynamical changes of river channels. It is a challenge for the fluvial geomorphology to highlight the morphological response to these events, because the knowledge of the morphological-sedimentological attributes of the river channel is the first step in pursue of a comprehensive knowledge of the riverine landscape and impact on its sustainable management. Research of the spatial variability of landforms and the regime of processes creates an appropriate knowledge base for other sciences interested in the riverine as well as terrestrial systems. The contribution deals with the morphological changes of the channel pattern of the River Topľa (115 km in total length, 1506 km2 of catchment area, average annual discharge 8.08 m3.s-1 in mouth). The 72.5 km long segment has been studied (Strahler ord. 4-7). It represents a transient from the mountain cobble-bed to the basin fine gravel-bed river. The Topľa is a less regulated and laterally partly confined river in northeastern Slovakia, with flysch geology. Three time horizons of the remote sensing imagery (1987, 2002 and 2009) have been analyzed using the GIS, with the reference time horizon of 1987. The analysis consists of identification and delimitation of an active channel bank line and the delimitation of the channel bars in the mentioned series of imageries. The active channel width, area of channel bars, lateral channel shift and area stricken by bank erosion were studied via overlaying layers. The last attribute showed a significant increase: during the 1987-2002 period the area of 32.6 ha was eroded, whereas during the following period (2002-2009) of frequent and intensive floods up to 70.0 ha was eroded. Likewise, the maximum channel shift was 260 m and 443 m in 1987-2002 and in 2002-2009 respectively. The key results are not only the values of these parameters

  7. Optical Communications Channel Combiner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Quirk, Kevin J.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Nguyen, Huy

    2012-01-01

    NASA has identified deep-space optical communications links as an integral part of a unified space communication network in order to provide data rates in excess of 100 Mb/s. The distances and limited power inherent in a deep-space optical downlink necessitate the use of photon-counting detectors and a power-efficient modulation such as pulse position modulation (PPM). For the output of each photodetector, whether from a separate telescope or a portion of the detection area, a communication receiver estimates a log-likelihood ratio for each PPM slot. To realize the full effective aperture of these receivers, their outputs must be combined prior to information decoding. A channel combiner was developed to synchronize the log-likelihood ratio (LLR) sequences of multiple receivers, and then combines these into a single LLR sequence for information decoding. The channel combiner synchronizes the LLR sequences of up to three receivers and then combines these into a single LLR sequence for output. The channel combiner has three channel inputs, each of which takes as input a sequence of four-bit LLRs for each PPM slot in a codeword via a XAUI 10 Gb/s quad optical fiber interface. The cross-correlation between the channels LLR time series are calculated and used to synchronize the sequences prior to combining. The output of the channel combiner is a sequence of four-bit LLRs for each PPM slot in a codeword via a XAUI 10 Gb/s quad optical fiber interface. The unit is controlled through a 1 Gb/s Ethernet UDP/IP interface. A deep-space optical communication link has not yet been demonstrated. This ground-station channel combiner was developed to demonstrate this capability and is unique in its ability to process such a signal.

  8. Vertical and lateral heterogeneous integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geske, Jon; Okuno, Yae L.; Bowers, John E.; Jayaraman, Vijay

    2001-09-01

    A technique for achieving large-scale monolithic integration of lattice-mismatched materials in the vertical direction and the lateral integration of dissimilar lattice-matched structures has been developed. The technique uses a single nonplanar direct-wafer-bond step to transform vertically integrated epitaxial structures into lateral epitaxial variation across the surface of a wafer. Nonplanar wafer bonding is demonstrated by integrating four different unstrained multi-quantum-well active regions lattice matched to InP on a GaAs wafer surface. Microscopy is used to verify the quality of the bonded interface, and photoluminescence is used to verify that the bonding process does not degrade the optical quality of the laterally integrated wells. The authors propose this technique as a means to achieve greater levels of wafer-scale integration in optical, electrical, and micromechanical devices.

  9. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow.

    PubMed

    Tosti, Rick; Jennings, John; Sewards, J Milo

    2013-04-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, or "tennis elbow," is a common musculotendinous degenerative disorder of the extensor origin at the lateral humeral epicondyle. Repetitive occupational or athletic activities involving wrist extension and supination are thought to be causative. The typical symptoms include lateral elbow pain, pain with wrist extension, and weakened grip strength. The diagnosis is made clinically through history and physical examination; however, a thorough understanding of the differential diagnosis is imperative to prevent unnecessary testing and therapies. Most patients improve with nonoperative measures, such as activity modification, physical therapy, and injections. A small percentage of patients will require surgical release of the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon. Common methods of release may be performed via percutaneous, arthroscopic, or open approaches. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Audiometric asymmetry and tinnitus laterality.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Betty S; Sweetow, Robert W; Cheung, Steven W

    2012-05-01

    To identify an optimal audiometric asymmetry index for predicting tinnitus laterality. Retrospective medical record review. Data from adult tinnitus patients (80 men and 44 women) were extracted for demographic, audiometric, tinnitus laterality, and related information. The main measures were sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Three audiometric asymmetry indices were constructed using one, two, or three frequency elements to compute the average interaural threshold difference (aITD). Tinnitus laterality predictive performance of a particular index was assessed by increasing the cutoff or minimum magnitude of the aITD from 10 to 35 dB in 5-dB steps to determine its ROC curve. Single frequency index performance was inferior to the other two (P < .05). Double and triple frequency indices were indistinguishable (P > .05). Two adjoining frequency elements with aITD ≥ 15 dB performed optimally for predicting tinnitus laterality (sensitivity = 0.59, specificity = 0.71, and PPV = 0.76). Absolute and relative magnitudes of hearing loss in the poorer ear were uncorrelated with tinnitus distress. An optimal audiometric asymmetry index to predict tinnitus laterality is one whereby 15 dB is the minimum aITD of two adjoining frequencies, inclusive of the maximal ITD. Tinnitus laterality dependency on magnitude of interaural asymmetry may inform design and interpretation of neuroimaging studies. Monaural acoustic tinnitus therapy may be an initial consideration for asymmetric hearing loss meeting the criterion of aITD ≥ 15 dB. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Borehole optical lateral displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, R.E.

    1998-10-20

    There is provided by this invention an optical displacement sensor that utilizes a reflective target connected to a surface to be monitored to reflect light from a light source such that the reflected light is received by a photoelectric transducer. The electric signal from the photoelectric transducer is then imputed into electronic circuitry to generate an electronic image of the target. The target`s image is monitored to determine the quantity and direction of any lateral displacement in the target`s image which represents lateral displacement in the surface being monitored. 4 figs.

  12. Computerized lateral-shear interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegan, Sorin A.; Jianu, Angela; Vlad, Valentin I.

    1998-07-01

    A lateral-shear interferometer, coupled with a computer for laser wavefront analysis, is described. A CCD camera is used to transfer the fringe images through a frame-grabber into a PC. 3D phase maps are obtained by fringe pattern processing using a new algorithm for direct spatial reconstruction of the optical phase. The program describes phase maps by Zernike polynomials yielding an analytical description of the wavefront aberration. A compact lateral-shear interferometer has been built using a laser diode as light source, a CCD camera and a rechargeable battery supply, which allows measurements in-situ, if necessary.

  13. Pool spacing in forest channels

    David R. Montgomery; John M. Buffington; Richard D. Smith; Kevin M. Schmidt; George Pess

    1995-01-01

    Field surveys of stream channels in forested mountain drainage basins in southeast Alaska and Washington reveal that pool spacing depends on large woody debris (LWD) loading and channel type, slope, and width. Mean pool spacing in pool-riffle, plane-bed, and forced pool-riffle channels systematically decreases from greater than 13 channel widths per pool to less than 1...

  14. Lateral Downflows in Sunspot Penumbral Filaments and their Temporal Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteban Pozuelo, S.; Bellot Rubio, L. R.; de la Cruz Rodríguez, J.

    2015-04-01

    We study the temporal evolution of downflows observed at the lateral edges of penumbral filaments in a sunspot located very close to the disk center. Our analysis is based on a sequence of nearly diffraction-limited scans of the Fe i 617.3 nm line taken with the CRisp Imaging Spectro-Polarimeter instrument at the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope. We compute Dopplergrams from the observed intensity profiles using line bisectors and filter the resulting velocity maps for subsonic oscillations. Lateral downflows appear everywhere in the center-side penumbra as small, weak patches of redshifts next to or along the edges of blueshifted flow channels. These patches have an intermittent life and undergo mergings and fragmentations quite frequently. The lateral downflows move together with the hosting filaments and react to their shape variations, very much resembling the evolution of granular convection in the quiet Sun. There is a good relation between brightness and velocity in the center-side penumbra, with downflows being darker than upflows on average, which is again reminiscent of quiet Sun convection. These results point to the existence of overturning convection in sunspot penumbrae, with elongated cells forming filaments where the flow is upward but very inclined, and weak lateral downward flows. In general, the circular polarization profiles emerging from the lateral downflows do not show sign reversals, although sometimes we detect three-lobed profiles that are suggestive of opposite magnetic polarities in the pixel.

  15. Channel Access in Erlang

    SciT

    Nicklaus, Dennis J.

    2013-10-13

    We have developed an Erlang language implementation of the Channel Access protocol. Included are low-level functions for encoding and decoding Channel Access protocol network packets as well as higher level functions for monitoring or setting EPICS process variables. This provides access to EPICS process variables for the Fermilab Acnet control system via our Erlang-based front-end architecture without having to interface to C/C++ programs and libraries. Erlang is a functional programming language originally developed for real-time telecommunications applications. Its network programming features and list management functions make it particularly well-suited for the task of managing multiple Channel Access circuits and PVmore » monitors.« less

  16. Chaos in quantum channels

    DOE PAGES

    Hosur, Pavan; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Roberts, Daniel A.; ...

    2016-02-01

    For this research, we study chaos and scrambling in unitary channels by considering their entanglement properties as states. Using out-of-time-order correlation functions to diagnose chaos, we characterize the ability of a channel to process quantum information. We show that the generic decay of such correlators implies that any input subsystem must have near vanishing mutual information with almost all partitions of the output. Additionally, we propose the negativity of the tripartite information of the channel as a general diagnostic of scrambling. This measures the delocalization of information and is closely related to the decay of out-of-time-order correlators. We back upmore » our results with numerics in two non-integrable models and analytic results in a perfect tensor network model of chaotic time evolution. In conclusion, these results show that the butterfly effect in quantum systems implies the information-theoretic definition of scrambling.« less

  17. Lidar for Lateral Mixing (LATMIX)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    overflew, a strong reflection front he float could be detected in the lidar elastic backscatter channel. Initial searches have detected several liar...grid scale mixing and stirring in numerical models. Ultimately our research will also enhance modeling and understanding of upper ocean ecosystems...km. A second objective is to determine whether slow but persistent vortices enhance the stirring attributable to shear dispersion. We also share

  18. Lidar for Lateral Mixing (LATMIX)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    strong reflection front he float could be detected in the lidar elastic backscatter channel. Initial searches have detected several liar float returns...stirring in numerical models. Ultimately our research will also enhance modeling and understanding of upper ocean ecosystems, since the flow of...is to determine whether slow but persistent vortices enhance the stirring attributable to shear dispersion. We also share the overall objectives of

  19. Channel plate for DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Douthart, R.J.; Crowell, S.L.

    1998-01-13

    This invention is a channel plate that facilitates data compaction in DNA sequencing. The channel plate has a length, a width and a thickness, and further has a plurality of channels that are parallel. Each channel has a depth partially through the thickness of the channel plate. Additionally an interface edge permits electrical communication across an interface through a buffer to a deposition membrane surface. 15 figs.

  20. Laterality of basic auditory perception.

    PubMed

    Sininger, Yvonne S; Bhatara, Anjali

    2012-01-01

    Laterality (left-right ear differences) of auditory processing was assessed using basic auditory skills: (1) gap detection, (2) frequency discrimination, and (3) intensity discrimination. Stimuli included tones (500, 1000, and 4000 Hz) and wide-band noise presented monaurally to each ear of typical adult listeners. The hypothesis tested was that processing of tonal stimuli would be enhanced by left ear (LE) stimulation and noise by right ear (RE) presentations. To investigate the limits of laterality by (1) spectral width, a narrow-band noise (NBN) of 450-Hz bandwidth was evaluated using intensity discrimination, and (2) stimulus duration, 200, 500, and 1000 ms duration tones were evaluated using frequency discrimination. A left ear advantage (LEA) was demonstrated with tonal stimuli in all experiments, but an expected REA for noise stimuli was not found. The NBN stimulus demonstrated no LEA and was characterised as a noise. No change in laterality was found with changes in stimulus durations. The LEA for tonal stimuli is felt to be due to more direct connections between the left ear and the right auditory cortex, which has been shown to be primary for spectral analysis and tonal processing. The lack of a REA for noise stimuli is unexplained. Sex differences in laterality for noise stimuli were noted but were not statistically significant. This study did establish a subtle but clear pattern of LEA for processing of tonal stimuli.

  1. Laterality of Basic Auditory Perception

    PubMed Central

    Sininger, Yvonne S.; Bhatara, Anjali

    2010-01-01

    Laterality (left-right ear differences) of auditory processing was assessed using basic auditory skills: 1) gap detection 2) frequency discrimination and 3) intensity discrimination. Stimuli included tones (500, 1000 and 4000 Hz) and wide-band noise presented monaurally to each ear of typical adult listeners. The hypothesis tested was: processing of tonal stimuli would be enhanced by left ear (LE) stimulation and noise by right ear (RE) presentations. To investigate the limits of laterality by 1) spectral width, a narrow band noise (NBN) of 450 Hz bandwidth was evaluated using intensity discrimination and 2) stimulus duration, 200, 500 and 1000 ms duration tones were evaluated using frequency discrimination. Results A left ear advantage (LEA) was demonstrated with tonal stimuli in all experiments but an expected REA for noise stimuli was not found. The NBN stimulus demonstrated no LEA and was characterized as a noise. No change in laterality was found with changes in stimulus durations. The LEA for tonal stimuli is felt to be due to more direct connections between the left ear and the right auditory cortex which has been shown to be primary for spectral analysis and tonal processing. The lack of a REA for noise stimuli is unexplained. Sex differences in laterality for noise stimuli were noted but were not statistically significant. This study did establish a subtle but clear pattern of LEA for processing of tonal stimuli. PMID:22385138

  2. Laterally loaded pile cap connections.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-08-01

    This study investigated the moment capacity and load-displacement response of the pile-to-cap connection details. Lateral load tests were conducted on four pile caps (3 ft H x 3 ft W x 6.5 ft L) with two 40 foot-long steel pipe piles (12.75 inch OD) ...

  3. Anxiety and Lateral Cerebral Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Don M.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Examines the effect of stressful and nonstressful experimental situations upon the processing capacity of each cerebral hemisphere, through observing the differential performance tasks presented to right and left visual half-fields (VHFs). Also examines attentional bias and lateral eye movements. (Author/RK)

  4. The neutron channeling phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Khanouchi, A; Sabir, A; Boulkheir, M; Ichaoui, R; Ghassoun, J; Jehouani, A

    1997-01-01

    Shields, used for protection against radiation, are often pierced with vacuum channels for passing cables and other instruments for measurements. The neutron transmission through these shields is an unavoidable phenomenon. In this work we study and discuss the effect of channels on neutron transmission through shields. We consider an infinite homogeneous slab, with a fixed thickness (20 lambda, with lambda the mean free path of the neutron in the slab), which contains a vacuum channel. This slab is irradiated with an infinite source of neutrons on the left side and on the other side (right side) many detectors with windows equal to 2 lambda are placed in order to evaluate the neutron transmission probabilities (Khanouchi, A., Aboubekr, A., Ghassoun, J. and Jehouani, A. (1994) Rencontre Nationale des Jeunes Chercheurs en Physique. Casa Blanca Maroc; Khanouchi, A., Sabir, A., Ghassoun, J. and Jehouani, A. (1995) Premier Congré International des Intéractions Rayonnements Matière. Eljadida Maroc). The neutron history within the slab is simulated by the Monte Carlo method (Booth, T. E. and Hendricks, J. S. (1994) Nuclear Technology 5) and using the exponential biasing technique in order to improve the Monte Carlo calculation (Levitt, L. B. (1968) Nuclear Science and Engineering 31, 500-504; Jehouani, A., Ghassoun, J. and Aboubker, A. (1994) In Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Radiation Physics, Rabat, Morocco). Then different geometries of the vacuum channel have been studied. For each geometry we have determined the detector response and calculated the neutron transmission probability for different detector positions. This neutron transmission probability presents a peak for the detectors placed in front of the vacuum channel. This study allowed us to clearly identify the neutron channeling phenomenon. One application of our study is to detect vacuum defects in materials.

  5. Adaptive evolution of voltage-gated sodium channels: The first 800 million years

    PubMed Central

    Zakon, Harold H.

    2012-01-01

    Voltage-gated Na+-permeable (Nav) channels form the basis for electrical excitability in animals. Nav channels evolved from Ca2+ channels and were present in the common ancestor of choanoflagellates and animals, although this channel was likely permeable to both Na+ and Ca2+. Thus, like many other neuronal channels and receptors, Nav channels predated neurons. Invertebrates possess two Nav channels (Nav1 and Nav2), whereas vertebrate Nav channels are of the Nav1 family. Approximately 500 Mya in early chordates Nav channels evolved a motif that allowed them to cluster at axon initial segments, 50 million years later with the evolution of myelin, Nav channels “capitalized” on this property and clustered at nodes of Ranvier. The enhancement of conduction velocity along with the evolution of jaws likely made early gnathostomes fierce predators and the dominant vertebrates in the ocean. Later in vertebrate evolution, the Nav channel gene family expanded in parallel in tetrapods and teleosts (∼9 to 10 genes in amniotes, 8 in teleosts). This expansion occurred during or after the late Devonian extinction, when teleosts and tetrapods each diversified in their respective habitats, and coincided with an increase in the number of telencephalic nuclei in both groups. The expansion of Nav channels may have allowed for more sophisticated neural computation and tailoring of Nav channel kinetics with potassium channel kinetics to enhance energy savings. Nav channels show adaptive sequence evolution for increasing diversity in communication signals (electric fish), in protection against lethal Nav channel toxins (snakes, newts, pufferfish, insects), and in specialized habitats (naked mole rats). PMID:22723361

  6. Role of TRP ion channels in cancer and tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Shapovalov, George; Ritaine, Abigael; Skryma, Roman; Prevarskaya, Natalia

    2016-05-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are recently identified proteins that form a versatile family of ion channels, the majority of which are calcium permeable and exhibit complex regulatory patterns with sensitivity to multiple environmental factors. While this sensitivity has captured early attention, leading to recognition of TRP channels as environmental and chemical sensors, many later studies concentrated on the regulation of intracellular calcium by TRP channels. Due to mutations, dysregulation of ion channel gating or expression levels, normal spatiotemporal patterns of local Ca(2+) distribution become distorted. This causes deregulation of downstream effectors sensitive to changes in Ca(2+) homeostasis that, in turn, promotes pathophysiological cancer hallmarks, such as enhanced survival, proliferation and invasion. These observations give rise to the appreciation of the important contributions that TRP channels make to many cellular processes controlling cell fate and positioning these channels as important players in cancer regulation. This review discusses the accumulated scientific knowledge focused on TRP channel involvement in regulation of cell fate in various transformed tissues.

  7. Zeolites: Exploring Molecular Channels

    Arslan, Ilke; Derewinski, Mirek

    2018-05-16

    Synthetic zeolites contain microscopic channels, sort of like a sponge. They have many uses, such as helping laundry detergent lather, absorbing liquid in kitty litter, and as catalysts to produce fuel. Of the hundreds of types of zeolites, only about 15 are used for catalysis. PNNL catalysis scientists Ilke Arslan and Mirek Derewinksi are studying these zeolites to understand what make them special. By exploring the mystery of these microscopic channels, their fundamental findings will help design better catalysts for applications such as biofuel production.

  8. How Gas Carves Channels

    2017-01-24

    NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spies a layer of dry ice covering Mars south polar layer. In the spring, gas created from heating of the dry ice escapes through ruptures in the overlying seasonal ice, entraining material from the ground below. The gas erodes channels in the surface, generally exploiting weaker material. The ground likely started as polygonal patterned ground (common in water-ice-rich surfaces), and then escaping gas widened the channels. Fans of dark material are bits of the surface carried onto the top of the seasonal ice layer and deposited in a direction determined by local winds. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11706

  9. Zeolites: Exploring Molecular Channels

    SciT

    Arslan, Ilke; Derewinski, Mirek

    2015-05-22

    Synthetic zeolites contain microscopic channels, sort of like a sponge. They have many uses, such as helping laundry detergent lather, absorbing liquid in kitty litter, and as catalysts to produce fuel. Of the hundreds of types of zeolites, only about 15 are used for catalysis. PNNL catalysis scientists Ilke Arslan and Mirek Derewinksi are studying these zeolites to understand what make them special. By exploring the mystery of these microscopic channels, their fundamental findings will help design better catalysts for applications such as biofuel production.

  10. Wide, Branching Channels

    2017-01-11

    Southern spring on Mars brings sublimation of the seasonal dry ice polar cap. Gas trapped under the seasonal ice sheet carves channels on its way to escaping to the atmosphere. At this site, the channels are wider than we see elsewhere on Mars, perhaps meaning that the spider-like (or more scientifically, "araneiform") terrain here is older, or that the surface is more easily eroded. Seasonal fans of eroded surface material, pointed in two different directions, are deposited on the remaining ice. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA13151

  11. Tharsis Grooved Channel

    2002-12-04

    The Tharsis Montes region on Mars is a major center of volcanic and tectonic activity. The channel in this image from NASA Mars Odyssey is west of the relatively small volcano called Biblis Patera although it shows no obvious relationship to that volcano. Instead, it may be related to the more distant, but more massive volcano Olympus Mons to the north. The channel may have hosted flowing lava at one time but now contains a material that has eroded into an impressive ridge-and-groove pattern. These features may be yardangs, landforms produced from the erosion by wind of sedimentary material. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04020

  12. Ion Channels in Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Molenaar, Remco J.

    2011-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain tumor with the most dismal prognosis. It is characterized by extensive invasion, migration, and angiogenesis. Median survival is only 15 months due to this behavior, rendering focal surgical resection ineffective and adequate radiotherapy impossible. At this moment, several ion channels have been implicated in glioblastoma proliferation, migration, and invasion. This paper summarizes studies on potassium, sodium, chloride, and calcium channels of glioblastoma. It provides an up-to-date overview of the literature that could ultimately lead to new therapeutic targets. PMID:22389824

  13. Ion channels in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Molenaar, Remco J

    2011-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain tumor with the most dismal prognosis. It is characterized by extensive invasion, migration, and angiogenesis. Median survival is only 15 months due to this behavior, rendering focal surgical resection ineffective and adequate radiotherapy impossible. At this moment, several ion channels have been implicated in glioblastoma proliferation, migration, and invasion. This paper summarizes studies on potassium, sodium, chloride, and calcium channels of glioblastoma. It provides an up-to-date overview of the literature that could ultimately lead to new therapeutic targets.

  14. Potassium channels in brain mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Bednarczyk, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    Potassium channels are the most widely distributed class of ion channels. These channels are transmembrane proteins known to play important roles in both normal and pathophysiological functions in all cell types. Various potassium channels are recognised as potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, brain/spinal cord ischaemia and sepsis. In addition to their importance as therapeutic targets, certain potassium channels are known for their beneficial roles in anaesthesia, cardioprotection and neuroprotection. Some types of potassium channels present in the plasma membrane of various cells have been found in the inner mitochondrial membrane as well. Potassium channels have been proposed to regulate mitochondrial membrane potential, respiration, matrix volume and Ca(+) ion homeostasis. It has been proposed that mitochondrial potassium channels mediate ischaemic preconditioning in various tissues. However, the specificity of a pharmacological agents and the mechanisms underlying their effects on ischaemic preconditioning remain controversial. The following potassium channels from various tissues have been identified in the inner mitochondrial membrane: ATP-regulated (mitoK(ATP)) channel, large conductance Ca(2+)-regulated (mitoBK(Ca)) channel, intermediate conductance Ca(2+)-regulated (mitoIK(Ca)) channel, voltage-gated (mitoKv1.3 type) channel, and twin-pore domain (mitoTASK-3) channel. It has been shown that increased potassium flux into brain mitochondria induced by either the mitoK(ATP) channel or mitoBK(Ca) channel affects the beneficial effects on neuronal cell survival under pathological conditions. Recently, differential distribution of mitoBK(Ca) channels has been observed in neuronal mitochondria. These findings may suggest a neuroprotective role for the mitoBK(Ca) channel in specific brain structures. This minireview summarises current data on brain mitochondrial potassium channels and the efforts to identify

  15. River channel patterns: Braided, meandering, and straight

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Wolman, M. Gordon

    1957-01-01

    Channel pattern is used to describe the plan view of a reach of river as seen from an airplane, and includes meandering, braiding, or relatively straight channels.Natural channels characteristically exhibit alternating pools or deep reaches and riffles or shallow reaches, regardless of the type of pattern. The length of the pool or distance between riffles in a straight channel equals the straight line distance between successive points of inflection in the wave pattern of a meandering river of the same width. The points of inflection are also shallow points and correspond to riffles in the straight channel. This distance, which is half the wavelength of the meander, varies approximately as a linear function of channel width. In the data we analysed the meander wavelength, or twice the distance between successive riffles, is from 7 to 12 times the channel width. It is concluded that the mechanics which may lead to meandering operate in straight channels.River braiding is characterized by channel division around alluvial islands. The growth of an island begins as the deposition of a central bar which results from sorting and deposition of the coarser fractions of the load which locally cannot be transported. The bar grows downstream and in height by continued deposition on its surface, forcing the water into the flanking channels, which, to carry the flow, deepen and cut laterally into the original banks. Such deepening locally lowers the water surface and the central bar emerges as an island which becomes stabilized by vegetation. Braiding was observed in a small river in a laboratory. Measurements of the adjustments of velocity, depth, width, and slope associated with island development lead to the conclusion that braiding is one of the many patterns which can maintain quasi-equilibrium among discharge, load, and transporting ability. Braiding does not necessarily indicate an excess of total load.Channel cross section and pattern are ultimately controlled by the

  16. The elusive character of discontinuous deep-water channels: New insights from Lucia Chica channel system, offshore California

    Maier, K.L.; Fildani, A.; Paull, C.K.; Graham, S.A.; McHargue, T.R.; Caress, D.W.; McGann, M.

    2011-01-01

    New high-resolution autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) seafloor images, with 1 m lateral resolution and 0.3 m vertical resolution, reveal unexpected seafloor rugosity and low-relief (<10 m), discontinuous conduits over ~70 km2. Continuous channel thalwegs were interpreted originally from lower-resolution images, but newly acquired AUV data indicate that a single sinuous channel fed a series of discontinuous lower-relief channels. These discontinuous channels were created by at least four avulsion events. Channel relief, defined as the height from the thalweg to the levee crest, controls avulsions and overall stratigraphic architecture of the depositional area. Flowstripped turbidity currents separated into and reactivated multiple channels to create a distributary pattern and developed discontinuous trains of cyclic scours and megaflutes, which may be erosional precursors to continuous channels. The diverse features now imaged in the Lucia Chica channel system (offshore California) are likely common in modern and ancient systems with similar overall morphologies, but have not been previously mapped with lower-resolution detection methods in any of these systems. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  17. Learning in Tactile Channels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gescheider, George A.; Wright, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Vibrotactile intensity-discrimination thresholds for sinusoidal stimuli applied to the thenar eminence of the hand declined as a function of practice. However, improvement was confined to the tactile information-processing channel in which learning had occurred. Specifically, improvements in performance with training within the Pacinian-corpuscle…

  18. Chemistry in Microfluidic Channels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chia, Matthew C.; Sweeney, Christina M.; Odom, Teri W.

    2011-01-01

    General chemistry introduces principles such as acid-base chemistry, mixing, and precipitation that are usually demonstrated in bulk solutions. In this laboratory experiment, we describe how chemical reactions can be performed in a microfluidic channel to show advanced concepts such as laminar fluid flow and controlled precipitation. Three sets of…

  19. Intermittency and exotic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialas, A.; Peschanski, R.

    1994-11-01

    It is pointed out that accurate measurements of short-range two-particle correlations in like-charge Kπ and in π0π0 channels should be very helpful in determining the origin of the ``intermittency'' phenomenon observed recently for the like-charge pion pairs.

  20. Channeled Southern Highlands

    2018-04-30

    This enhanced color image from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) shows the heavily channeled and ancient southern highlands of Mars. The elongated and jagged features are windblown dunes, perhaps hardened and eroded. For more information see https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22436

  1. Channels of Propaganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sproule, J. Michael

    Defining propaganda as "efforts by special interests to win over the public covertly by infiltrating messages into various channels of public expression ordinarily viewed as politically neutral," this book argues that propaganda has become pervasive in American life. Pointing out that the 1990s society is inundated with propaganda from…

  2. Ion channels in inflammation.

    PubMed

    Eisenhut, Michael; Wallace, Helen

    2011-04-01

    Most physical illness in vertebrates involves inflammation. Inflammation causes disease by fluid shifts across cell membranes and cell layers, changes in muscle function and generation of pain. These disease processes can be explained by changes in numbers or function of ion channels. Changes in ion channels have been detected in diarrhoeal illnesses, pyelonephritis, allergy, acute lung injury and systemic inflammatory response syndromes involving septic shock. The key role played by changes in ion transport is directly evident in inflammation-induced pain. Expression or function of all major categories of ion channels like sodium, chloride, calcium, potassium, transient receptor potential, purinergic receptor and acid-sensing ion channels can be influenced by cyto- and chemokines, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, histamine, ATP, reactive oxygen species and protons released in inflammation. Key pathways in this interaction are cyclic nucleotide, phosphoinositide and mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated signalling, direct modification by reactive oxygen species like nitric oxide, ATP or protons and disruption of the cytoskeleton. Therapeutic interventions to modulate the adverse and overlapping effects of the numerous different inflammatory mediators on each ion transport system need to target adversely affected ion transport systems directly and locally.

  3. Channel - False Color

    2015-05-25

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. This false color image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows part of an unnamed channel in Terra Cimmeria.

  4. Experimental modeling of gravity underflow in submarine channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Mohammad Ashraful

    stacked upon the other. The lower cell forms near the channel bed surface and has a circulation pattern similar to fluvial channels where a near-bed flow is directed inward. The other circulation cell forms in the upper part of the gravity flow and has a streamwise vorticity opposite to the lower cell. The lower circulation cell can be reasonably approximated by open channel flow theory. The curvature induced mixing is found to shift the position of the maximum streamwise velocity in the upward direction. Experiments conducted in the multiple-bend channel reveals that the channel side slope does not alter the structure of the secondary flow as long as the flow remains confined within the channel. However, if flow spilling occurs at the channel bend, the lateral convection suppresses the upper circulation cell. The lateral slope promotes high superelevation of the dense-light fluid interface at a channel bend and the current almost entirely separates from the inner bank. Compared with the saline flow, the silt-laden flow has larger thickness and thus easily experiences spilling at the bend apex. The overbank flow approximately follows the pre-bend direction of the in-channel flow. Unlike the flow in the channel with vertical sidewalls, the maximum velocity position does not experience an upward shift. This may be attributed to the highly superelevated current interface. The saline flow experiences little reduction in flow velocity while the velocity of the particulate flow drops significantly in the downstream direction primarily due to in-channel sediment deposit.

  5. Channeling through Bent Crystals

    SciT

    Mack, Stephanie; /Ottawa U. /SLAC

    2012-09-07

    Bent crystals have demonstrated potential for use in beam collimation. A process called channeling is when accelerated particle beams are trapped by the nuclear potentials in the atomic planes within a crystal lattice. If the crystal is bent then the particles can follow the bending angle of the crystal. There are several different effects that are observed when particles travel through a bent crystal including dechanneling, volume capture, volume reflection and channeling. With a crystal placed at the edge of a particle beam, part of the fringe of the beam can be deflected away towards a detector or beam dump,more » thus helping collimate the beam. There is currently FORTRAN code by Igor Yazynin that has been used to model the passage of particles through a bent crystal. Using this code, the effects mentioned were explored for beam energy that would be seen at the Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET) at a range of crystal orientations with respect to the incoming beam. After propagating 5 meters in vacuum space past the crystal the channeled particles were observed to separate from most of the beam with some noise due to dechanneled particles. Progressively smaller bending radii, with corresponding shorter crystal lengths, were compared and it was seen that multiple scattering decreases with the length of the crystal therefore allowing for cleaner detection of the channeled particles. The input beam was then modified and only a portion of the beam sent through the crystal. With the majority of the beam not affected by the crystal, most particles were not deflected and after propagation the channeled particles were seen to be deflected approximately 5mm. After a portion of the beam travels through the crystal, the entire beam was then sent through a quadrupole magnet, which increased the separation of the channeled particles from the remainder of the beam to a distance of around 20mm. A different code, which was developed at SLAC, was used

  6. Hemangiopericytoma in the lateral ventricle.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Sakiko; Wanifuchi, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Takashi; Kubo, Osami

    2009-11-01

    A 31-year-old female presented with a particularly rare hemangiopericytoma (HPC) in the right lateral ventricle manifesting as a 6-month history of visual disturbance and headache. Left hemianopsia and choked disc were identified by an ophthalmologist who referred her to us. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a 5-cm homogeneously enhanced mass in the trigone of the right lateral ventricle. The tumor was totally removed by two stage surgery. The histological findings were consistent with HPC. HPC is very important to differentiate from meningioma and solitary fibrous tumors because HPC is more aggressive. The histological and immunochemical findings are important for the differential diagnosis. The present case showed no local recurrence or metastasis without radiation therapy for 4 years, indicating that radiation therapy is not absolutely imperative for patients with intraventricular HPC showing low MIB-1 staining index after total removal.

  7. Lateral pancreaticojejunostomy for chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Stephen J; Aranha, Gerard V

    2003-11-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive fibrosis of the pancreas that leads to loss of endocrine and exocrine function. The most common symptom in this disease is intractable pain. The etiology of pain in chronic pancreatitis is not clearly understood. However, many of these patients have dilated ducts consisting of saccular dilations and intervening constructions referred to as the "chain of lakes" phenomenon. These patients can be diagnosed with either endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or computed tomography (CT). These patients are best treated by the Partington Rochelle modification of the Puestow Procedure otherwise known as lateral pancreaticojejunostomy. Overall pain relief in published studies occurs in 50-90% of patients. Another proposed advantage of the lateral pancreaticojejunostomy is preservation of endocrine and exocrine pancreatic function as long as the pancreas is not further damaged by alcohol.

  8. Sexual behavior in later life.

    PubMed

    DeLamater, John; Moorman, Sara M

    2007-12-01

    This research tests the influences of age, biological, and psychosocial factors on sexual expression in later life. The American Association of Retired Persons Modern Maturity Sexuality Survey collected data on diagnosed illnesses, treated illnesses, sexual desire, sexual attitudes, partner circumstances, and sexual behavior from 1,384 persons ages 45 and older. Ordered logistic regression models estimate the associations of age, biological, and psychosocial factors with the frequency of five sexual behaviors. Diagnosed illnesses and treatments are generally unrelated to frequency of sexual activity. Sexual attitudes are related to frequency of partnered behavior and sexual desire is related to frequency of masturbation among both women and men. Satisfaction with the physical relationship with a partner is strongly related to behavior. Age remains significant after all other factors are controlled. The authors conclude that the nature of sexual expression in later life reflects the interplay of body, mind, and social context.

  9. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow

    PubMed Central

    Vaquero-Picado, Alfonso; Barco, Raul; Antuña, Samuel A.

    2016-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, also known as ‘tennis elbow’, is a very common condition affecting mainly middle-aged patients. The pathogenesis remains unknown but there appears to be a combination of local tendon pathology, alteration in pain perception and motor impairment. The diagnosis is usually clinical but some patients may benefit from additional imaging for a specific differential diagnosis. The disease has a self-limiting course of between 12 and 18 months, but in some patients, symptoms can be persistent and refractory to treatment. Most patients are well-managed with non-operative treatment and activity modification. Many surgical techniques have been proposed for patients with refractory symptoms. New non-operative treatment alternatives with promising results have been developed in recent years. Cite this article: Vaquero-Picado A, Barco R, Antuña SA. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:391-397. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000049. PMID:28461918

  10. Lagrangian Studies of Lateral Mixing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-19

    instabilities. A towed profiler was used to conduct synoptic, 4D surveys to resolve submesoscale variability. Results include finding that: (i...OBJECTIVES The LATMIX2 experimental program focused on two potential mechanisms for lateral mixing: 1. Submesoscale turbulence, generated by...Figure 1. LATMIX2 surveys . Red (black) lines mark Knorr (Atlantis) tracks plotted over SST images from 2 separate days, corresponding to the 2

  11. Lateral dampers for thrust bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibner, D. H.; Szafir, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of lateral damping schemes for thrust bearings was examined, ranking their applicability to various engine classes, selecting the best concept for each engine class and performing an in-depth evaluation. Five major engine classes were considered: large transport, military, small general aviation, turboshaft, and non-manrated. Damper concepts developed for evaluation were: curved beam, constrained and unconstrained elastomer, hybrid boost bearing, hydraulic thrust piston, conical squeeze film, and rolling element thrust face.

  12. Life in the fast lane: fish and foodweb structure in the main channel of large rivers

    Dettmers, J.M.; Wahl, David H.; Soluk, D.A.; Gutreuter, S.

    2001-01-01

    We studied the main channel of the lower Illinois River and of the Mississippi River just upstream and downstream of its confluence with the Illinois River to describe the abundance, composition, and/or seasonal appearance of components of the main-channel community. Abundance of fishes in the main channel was high, especially adults. Most adult fishes were present in the main channel for either 3 or 4 seasons/y, indicating that fishes regularly reside in the main channel. We documented abundant zooplankton and benthic invertebrates in the main channel, and the presence of these food types in the diets of channel catfish and freshwater drum. All trophic levels were well represented in the main channel, indicating that the main channel supports a unique food web. The main channel also serves as an important energetic link with other riverine habitats (e.g., floodplains, secondary channels, backwater lakes) because of the mobility of resident fishes and because of the varied energy sources supplying this food web. It may be more realistic to view energy flow in large-river systems as a combination of 3 existing concepts, the river continuum concept (downstream transport), the flood pulse concept (lateral transport to the floodplain), and the riverine productivity model (autochthonous production). We urge additional research to quantify the links between the main channel and other habitat types in large rivers because of the apparent importance of main-channel processes in the overall structure and function of large-river ecosystems.

  13. Architecture and Channel-Belt Clustering in the Fluvial lower Wasatch Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisel, J. R.; Pyles, D. R.; Bracken, B.; Rosenbaum, C. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Eocene lower Wasatch Formation of the Uinta Basin contains exceptional outcrops of low net-sand content (27% sand) fluvial strata. This study quantitatively documents the stratigraphy of a 7 km wide by 300 meter thick strike-oriented outcrop in order to develop a quantitative data base that can be used to improve our knowledge of how some fluvial systems evolve over geologic time scales. Data used to document the outcrop are: (1) 550 meters of decimeter to half meter scale resolution stratigraphic columns that document grain size and physical sedimentary structures; (2) detailed photopanels used to document architectural style and lithofacies types in the outcrop; (3) thickness, width, and spatial position for all channel belts in the outcrop, and (4) directional measurements of paleocurrent indicators. Two channel-belt styles are recognized: lateral and downstream accreting channel belts; both of which occur as either single or multi-story. Floodplain strata are well exposed and consist of overbank fines and sand-rich crevasse splay deposits. Key upward and lateral characteristics of the outcrop documented herein are the following. First, the shapes of 243 channels are documented. The average width, thickness and aspect ratios of the channel belts are 110 m, 7 m, and 16:1, respectively. Importantly, the size and shape of channel belts does not change upward through the 300 meter transect. Second, channels are documented to spatially cluster. 9 clusters are documented using a spatial statistic. Key upward patterns in channel belt clustering are a marked change from non-amalgamated isolated channel-belt clusters to amalgamated channel-belt clusters. Critically, stratal surfaces can be correlated from mudstone units within the clusters to time-equivalent floodplain strata adjacent to the cluster demonstrating that clusters are not confined within fluvial valleys. Finally, proportions of floodplain and channel belt elements underlying clusters and channel belts

  14. Ecohydrologic function and disturbance of desert ephemeral stream channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedford, D.; Macias, M.; Miller, D. M.; Newlander, A.; Perkins, K. S.; Sandquist, D. R.; Schwinning, S.

    2011-12-01

    In response to rare high-intensity or long duration rainstorms, runoff in desert ephemeral channels can redistribute water through landscapes and potentially serve as a resource subsidy. We are using transect studies, mapping, monitoring and manipulation experiments to investigate the ecohydrologic relations of these pervasive features with vegetation in the eastern Mojave Desert, USA. We focus on a gently sloping piedmont transected by a ~100 year old railroad that alters natural channel flow by diverting it through staggered culverts to areas downslope of the railroad. This creates three distinct ecohydrologic zones: 1) relatively undisturbed areas above the railroad, 2) areas below the railroad that receive enhanced flow where water is diverted through culverts (enhanced zones), and 3) areas below the railroad where water flow from upslope has been blocked (deprived zones). In all areas we found that vegetation cover and density are higher adjacent to stream channels and decrease with distance from the channels. Relative to the undisturbed areas, vegetation cover is higher in the enhanced areas, and lower in the deprived. Species-specific vegetation changes included higher cover of the drought deciduous sub-shrub Ambrosia dumosa in deprived zones and higher cover of the evergreen drought-tolerant shrub Larrea tridentata in enhanced zones. Using simulated channel runoff experiments, we found that most Larrea within 3 m, and Ambrosia within 1.5 m of an undisturbed stream channel physiologically responded to a water pulse and the responses persisted for over a month. Less pronounced responses were seen adjacent to channels in the deprived zones, and did not persist as long. Electrical resistance imaging of the watering experiments shows that water infiltrates vertically in channels and spreads laterally at depth; vegetation use of channel water in the deprived zones appears to be reduced. While we have no information on the pace of vegetation change due to channel

  15. Critical capillary channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grah, Aleksander; Klatte, Jörg; Dreyer, Michael E.

    The main subject are numerical studies on capillary channel flow, based on results of the sounding rocket experiments TEXUS 41/42. The flow through a capillary channel is established by a gear pump at the outlet. The channel, consists of two parallel glass plates with a width of 25 mm, a gap of 10 mm and a length of 12 mm. The meniscus of a compensation tube maintains a constant system pressure. Steady and dynamic pressure effects in the system force the surfaces to bend inwards. A maximum flow rate is achieved when the free surface collapses and gas ingestion occurs at the outlet. This critical flow rate depends on the channel geometry, the flow regime and the liquid properties. The aim of the experiments is the determination of the free surface shape and to find the maximum flow rate. In order to study the unsteady liquid loop behaviour, a dimensionless transient model was developed. It is based on the unsteady Bernoulli equation, the unsteady continuity equation and geometrical conditions for the surface curvature and the flow cross-section. The pressure is related to the curvature of the free liquid surface by the dimensionless Gauss-Laplace equation with two principal radii. The experimental and evaluated contour data shows good agreement for a sequence of transient flow rate perturbations. The surface oscillation frequencies and amplitudes can be predicted with quite high accuracy. The dynamic of the pump is defined by the increase of the flow rate in a time period. To study the unsteady system behavior in the "worst case", we use a perturbations related to the natural frequency of the oscillating liquid. In the case of steady flow at maximum flow rate, when the "choking" effect occurs, the surfaces collapse and cause gas ingestion into the channel. This effect is related to the Speed Index. At the critical flow rate the Speed Index reaches the value Sca = 1, in analogy to the Mach Number. Unsteady choking does not necessarily cause surface collapse. We show

  16. Manual lateralization in macaques: handedness, target laterality and task complexity.

    PubMed

    Regaiolli, Barbara; Spiezio, Caterina; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primates represent models to understand the evolution of handedness in humans. Despite several researches have been investigating non-human primates handedness, few studies examined the relationship between target position, hand preference and task complexity. This study aimed at investigating macaque handedness in relation to target laterality and tastiness, as well as task complexity. Seven pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) were involved in three different "two alternative choice" tests: one low-level task and two high-level tasks (HLTs). During the first and the third tests macaques could select a preferred food and a non-preferred food, whereas by modifying the design of the second test, macaques were presented with no-difference alternative per trial. Furthermore, a simple-reaching test was administered to assess hand preference in a social context. Macaques showed hand preference at individual level both in simple and complex tasks, but not in the simple-reaching test. Moreover, target position seemed to affect hand preference in retrieving an object in the low-level task, but not in the HLT. Additionally, individual hand preference seemed to be affected from the tastiness of the item to be retrieved. The results suggest that both target laterality and individual motivation might influence hand preference of macaques, especially in simple tasks.

  17. Fluid channeling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald Y. (Inventor); Hitch, Bradley D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A fluid channeling system includes a fluid ejector, a heat exchanger, and a fluid pump disposed in series flow communication The ejector includes a primary inlet for receiving a primary fluid, and a secondary inlet for receiving a secondary fluid which is mixed with the primary fluid and discharged therefrom as ejector discharge. Heat is removed from the ejector discharge in the heat exchanger, and the heat exchanger discharge is compressed in the fluid pump and channeled to the ejector secondary inlet as the secondary fluid In an exemplary embodiment, the temperature of the primary fluid is greater than the maximum operating temperature of a fluid motor powering the fluid pump using a portion of the ejector discharge, with the secondary fluid being mixed with the primary fluid so that the ejector discharge temperature is equal to about the maximum operating temperature of the fluid motor.

  18. Zephyria Channel System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    10 September 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a portion of an outflow channel system located in the Zephyria region, south of Cerberus, from which vast quantities of rough-surfaced material flowed. The channel system has no name and was not known prior to the MGS mission. The material that flowed through this system may have been extremely fluid lava, or it may have been water-rich mud. Research by members of the Mars science community regarding the nature and origin of flow materials in the Cerberus, Zephyria, and Marte Vallis regions of Mars is on-going. This image is located near 4.6oN, 204.1oW. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated by sunlight from the left/lower left.

  19. Chryse Outflow Channel

    1998-06-08

    A color image of the south Chryse basin Valles Marineris outflow channels on Mars; north toward top. The scene shows on the southwest corner the chaotic terrain of the east part of Valles Marineris and two of its related canyons: Eos and Capri Chasmata (south to north). Ganges Chasma lies directly north. The chaos in the southern part of the image gives rise to several outflow channels, Shalbatana, Simud, Tiu, and Ares Valles (left to right), that drained north into the Chryse basin. The mouth of Ares Valles is the site of the Mars Pathfinder lander. This image is a composite of NASA's Viking medium-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color. The image extends from latitude 20 degrees S. to 20 degrees N. and from longitude 15 degrees to 53 degrees; Mercator projection. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00418

  20. ``Just Another Distribution Channel?''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemstra, Wolter; de Leeuw, Gerd-Jan; van de Kar, Els; Brand, Paul

    The telecommunications-centric business model of mobile operators is under attack due to technological convergence in the communication and content industries. This has resulted in a plethora of academic contributions on the design of new business models and service platform architectures. However, a discussion of the challenges that operators are facing in adopting these models is lacking. We assess these challenges by considering the mobile network as part of the value system of the content industry. We will argue that from the perspective of a content provider the mobile network is ‘just another’ distribution channel. Strategic options available for the mobile communication operators are to deliver an excellent distribution channel for content delivery or to move upwards in the value chain by becoming a content aggregator. To become a mobile content aggregator operators will have to develop or acquire complementary resources and capabilities. Whether this strategic option is sustainable remains open.

  1. Functional diversity of potassium channel voltage-sensing domains.

    PubMed

    Islas, León D

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channels or Kv's are membrane proteins with fundamental physiological roles. They are composed of 2 main functional protein domains, the pore domain, which regulates ion permeation, and the voltage-sensing domain, which is in charge of sensing voltage and undergoing a conformational change that is later transduced into pore opening. The voltage-sensing domain or VSD is a highly conserved structural motif found in all voltage-gated ion channels and can also exist as an independent feature, giving rise to voltage sensitive enzymes and also sustaining proton fluxes in proton-permeable channels. In spite of the structural conservation of VSDs in potassium channels, there are several differences in the details of VSD function found across variants of Kvs. These differences are mainly reflected in variations in the electrostatic energy needed to open different potassium channels. In turn, the differences in detailed VSD functioning among voltage-gated potassium channels might have physiological consequences that have not been explored and which might reflect evolutionary adaptations to the different roles played by Kv channels in cell physiology.

  2. Functional diversity of potassium channel voltage-sensing domains

    PubMed Central

    Islas, León D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Voltage-gated potassium channels or Kv's are membrane proteins with fundamental physiological roles. They are composed of 2 main functional protein domains, the pore domain, which regulates ion permeation, and the voltage-sensing domain, which is in charge of sensing voltage and undergoing a conformational change that is later transduced into pore opening. The voltage-sensing domain or VSD is a highly conserved structural motif found in all voltage-gated ion channels and can also exist as an independent feature, giving rise to voltage sensitive enzymes and also sustaining proton fluxes in proton-permeable channels. In spite of the structural conservation of VSDs in potassium channels, there are several differences in the details of VSD function found across variants of Kvs. These differences are mainly reflected in variations in the electrostatic energy needed to open different potassium channels. In turn, the differences in detailed VSD functioning among voltage-gated potassium channels might have physiological consequences that have not been explored and which might reflect evolutionary adaptations to the different roles played by Kv channels in cell physiology. PMID:26794852

  3. Athermal channeled spectropolarimeter

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Julia Craven

    2015-12-08

    A temperature insensitive (athermal) channeled spectropolarimeter (CSP) is described. The athermal CSP includes a crystal retarder formed of a biaxial crystal. The crystal retarder has three crystal axes, wherein each axis has its own distinct index of refraction. The axes are oriented in a particular manner, causing an amplitude modulating carrier frequency induced by the crystal retarder to be thermally invariant. Accordingly, a calibration beam technique can be used over a relatively wide range of ambient temperatures, with a common calibration data set.

  4. Data acquisition channel apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, C. H.; Skipper, J. D.

    1985-10-01

    Dicussed is a hybrid integrated circuit data acquisition channel apparatus employing an operational amplifier fed by a low current differential bipolar transistor preamplifier having separate feedback gain and signal gain determining elements and providing an amplified signal output to a sample and hold and analog-to-digital converter circuits. The disclosed apparatus operates with low energy and small space requirements and is capable of operations without the sample and hold circuit where the nature of the applied input signal permits.

  5. Channel processes and watershed function

    Tom Lisle

    1999-01-01

    Purpose of this presentation is to put channel monitoring in context of channel processes and dispel the myth of the learned sage walking up the stream channel observing changes in the channel and extrapolating how these changes came about without looking at the rest of the watershed. The message I want to convey is it is not only O.K.to peek at the rest of the...

  6. Radar channel balancing with commutation

    SciT

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-02-01

    When multiple channels are employed in a pulse-Doppler radar, achieving and maintaining balance between the channels is problematic. In some circumstances the channels may be commutated to achieve adequate balance. Commutation is the switching, trading, toggling, or multiplexing of the channels between signal paths. Commutation allows modulating the imbalance energy away from the balanced energy in Doppler, where it can be mitigated with filtering.

  7. The alpha channeling effect

    SciT

    Fisch, N. J.

    2015-12-10

    Alpha particles born through fusion reactions in a tokamak reactor tend to slow down on electrons, but that could take up to hundreds of milliseconds. Before that happens, the energy in these alpha particles can destabilize on collisionless timescales toroidal Alfven modes and other waves, in a way deleterious to energy confinement. However, it has been speculated that this energy might be instead be channeled into useful energy, so as to heat fuel ions or to drive current. Such a channeling needs to be catalyzed by waves Waves can produce diffusion in energy of the alpha particles in a waymore » that is strictly coupled to diffusion in space. If these diffusion paths in energy-position space point from high energy in the center to low energy on the periphery, then alpha particles will be cooled while forced to the periphery. The energy from the alpha particles is absorbed by the wave. The amplified wave can then heat ions or drive current. This process or paradigm for extracting alpha particle energy collisionlessly has been called alpha channeling. While the effect is speculative, the upside potential for economical fusion is immense. The paradigm also operates more generally in other contexts of magnetically confined plasma.« less

  8. The alpha channeling effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisch, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Alpha particles born through fusion reactions in a tokamak reactor tend to slow down on electrons, but that could take up to hundreds of milliseconds. Before that happens, the energy in these alpha particles can destabilize on collisionless timescales toroidal Alfven modes and other waves, in a way deleterious to energy confinement. However, it has been speculated that this energy might be instead be channeled into useful energy, so as to heat fuel ions or to drive current. Such a channeling needs to be catalyzed by waves Waves can produce diffusion in energy of the alpha particles in a way that is strictly coupled to diffusion in space. If these diffusion paths in energy-position space point from high energy in the center to low energy on the periphery, then alpha particles will be cooled while forced to the periphery. The energy from the alpha particles is absorbed by the wave. The amplified wave can then heat ions or drive current. This process or paradigm for extracting alpha particle energy collisionlessly has been called alpha channeling. While the effect is speculative, the upside potential for economical fusion is immense. The paradigm also operates more generally in other contexts of magnetically confined plasma.

  9. Potassium Channels in Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Köhling, Rüdiger; Wolfart, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    This review attempts to give a concise and up-to-date overview on the role of potassium channels in epilepsies. Their role can be defined from a genetic perspective, focusing on variants and de novo mutations identified in genetic studies or animal models with targeted, specific mutations in genes coding for a member of the large potassium channel family. In these genetic studies, a demonstrated functional link to hyperexcitability often remains elusive. However, their role can also be defined from a functional perspective, based on dynamic, aggravating, or adaptive transcriptional and posttranslational alterations. In these cases, it often remains elusive whether the alteration is causal or merely incidental. With ∼80 potassium channel types, of which ∼10% are known to be associated with epilepsies (in humans) or a seizure phenotype (in animals), if genetically mutated, a comprehensive review is a challenging endeavor. This goal may seem all the more ambitious once the data on posttranslational alterations, found both in human tissue from epilepsy patients and in chronic or acute animal models, are included. We therefore summarize the literature, and expand only on key findings, particularly regarding functional alterations found in patient brain tissue and chronic animal models. PMID:27141079

  10. Lightning energetics: Estimates of energy dissipation in channels, channel radii, and channel-heating risetimes

    SciT

    Borovsky, J.E.

    1998-05-01

    In this report, several lightning-channel parameters are calculated with the aid of an electrodynamic model of lightning. The electrodynamic model describes dart leaders and return strokes as electromagnetic waves that are guided along conducting lightning channels. According to the model, electrostatic energy is delivered to the channel by a leader, where it is stored around the outside of the channel; subsequently, the return stroke dissipates this locally stored energy. In this report this lightning-energy-flow scenario is developed further. Then the energy dissipated per unit length in lightning channels is calculated, where this quantity is now related to the linear chargemore » density on the channel, not to the cloud-to-ground electrostatic potential difference. Energy conservation is then used to calculate the radii of lightning channels: their initial radii at the onset of return strokes and their final radii after the channels have pressure expanded. Finally, the risetimes for channel heating during return strokes are calculated by defining an energy-storage radius around the channel and by estimating the radial velocity of energy flow toward the channel during a return stroke. In three appendices, values for the linear charge densities on lightning channels are calculated, estimates of the total length of branch channels are obtained, and values for the cloud-to-ground electrostatic potential difference are estimated. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union« less

  11. Cerebral laterality and verbal processes.

    PubMed

    Sherman, J L; Kulhavy, R W; Burns, K

    1976-11-01

    Research suggests that we process information by way of two distinct and functionallly separate coding systems. The localization of these two processing systems appears to be somewhat dependent on cerebral laterality, which has been shown to vary in right-handed and left-handed persons. To test the dual coding model, right-handed and left-handed subjects learned lists of abstract and concrete words under various conditions of visual and tactile interference. Right-handed subjects showed a significant superiority in the remembering of highly concrete items, while total recall did not differ reliably between groups.

  12. Clinical Neurogenetics: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Matthew B.; Baloh, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease, about which our understanding is expanding rapidly as its genetic causes are uncovered. The pace of new gene discovery over the last 5 years has accelerated, providing new insights into the pathogenesis of disease and highlighting biological pathways for target for therapeutic development. This article reviews our current understanding of the heritability of ALS, provides an overview of each of the major ALS genes, highlighting their phenotypic characteristics and frequencies as a guide for clinicians evaluating patients with ALS. PMID:24176417

  13. Comments on ionization cooling channels

    DOE PAGES

    Neuffer, David

    2017-09-25

    Ionization cooling channels with a wide variety of characteristics and cooling properties are being developed. These channels can produce cooling performances that are largely consistent with the linear ionization cooling theory developed previously. In this study, we review ionization cooling theory, discuss its application to presently developing cooling channels, and discuss criteria for optimizing cooling.

  14. Comments on ionization cooling channels

    SciT

    Neuffer, David

    Ionization cooling channels with a wide variety of characteristics and cooling properties are being developed. These channels can produce cooling performances that are largely consistent with the linear ionization cooling theory developed previously. In this study, we review ionization cooling theory, discuss its application to presently developing cooling channels, and discuss criteria for optimizing cooling.

  15. Seismic stochastic inversion identify river channel sand body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Z.

    2015-12-01

    The technology of seismic inversion is regarded as one of the most important part of geophysics. By using the technology of seismic inversion and the theory of stochastic simulation, the concept of seismic stochastic inversion is proposed.Seismic stochastic inversion can play an significant role in the identifying river channel sand body. Accurate sand body description is a crucial parameter to measure oilfield development and oilfield stimulation during the middle and later periods. Besides, rational well spacing density is an essential condition for efficient production. Based on the geological knowledge of a certain oilfield, in line with the use of seismic stochastic inversion, the river channel sand body in the work area is identified. In this paper, firstly, the single river channel body from the composite river channel body is subdivided. Secondly, the distribution of river channel body is ascertained in order to ascertain the direction of rivers. Morever, the superimposed relationship among the sand body is analyzed, especially among the inter-well sand body. The last but not at the least, via the analysis of inversion results of first vacuating the wells and continuous infilling later, it is meeted the most needs well spacing density that can obtain the optimal inversion result. It would serve effective guidance for oilfield stimulation.

  16. Predictive techniques for river channel evolution and maintenance

    Nelson, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Predicting changes in alluvial channel morphology associated with anthropogenic and natural changes in flow and/or sediment supply is a critical part of the management of riverine systems. Over the past few years, advances in the understanding of the physics of sediment transport in conjunction with rapidly increasing capabilities in computational fluid dynamics have yielded now approaches to problems in river mechanics. Techniques appropriate for length scales ranging from reaches to bars and bedforms are described here. Examples of the use of these computational approaches are discussed for three cases: (1) the design of diversion scenarios that maintain channel morphology in steep cobble-bedded channels in Colorado, (2) determination of channel maintenance flows for the preservation of channel islands in the Snake River in Idaho, and (3) prediction of the temporal evolution of deposits in lateral separation zones for future assessment of the impacts of various dam release scenarios on lateral separation deposits in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. With continued development of their scientific and technical components, the methodologies described here can provide powerful tools for the management of river environments in the future.

  17. Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamponi, Gerald Werner

    Voltage Gated Calcium Channels is the first comprehensive book in the calcium channel field, encompassing over thirty years of progress towards our understanding of calcium channel structure, function, regulation, physiology, pharmacology, and genetics. This book balances contributions from many of the leading authorities in the calcium channel field with fresh perspectives from risings stars in the area, taking into account the most recent literature and concepts. This is the only all-encompassing calcium channel book currently available, and is an essential resource for academic researchers at all levels in the areas neuroscience, biophysics, and cardiovascular sciences, as well as to researchers in the drug discovery area.

  18. Investigation of particle lateral migration in sample-sheath flow of viscoelastic fluid and Newtonian fluid.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dan; Zhang, Jun; Yan, Sheng; Peng, Gangrou; Zhao, Qianbin; Alici, Gursel; Du, Hejun; Li, Weihua

    2016-08-01

    In this work, particle lateral migration in sample-sheath flow of viscoelastic fluid and Newtonian fluid was experimentally investigated. The 4.8-μm micro-particles were dispersed in a polyethylene oxide (PEO) viscoelastic solution, and then the solution was injected into a straight rectangular channel with a deionised (DI) water Newtonian sheath flow. Micro-particles suspended in PEO solution migrated laterally to a DI water stream, but migration in the opposite direction from a DI water stream to a PEO solution stream or from one DI water stream to another DI water stream could not be achieved. The lateral migration of particles depends on the viscoelastic properties of the sample fluids. Furthermore, the effects of channel length, flow rate, and PEO concentration were studied. By using viscoelastic sample flow and Newtonian sheath flow, a selective particle lateral migration can be achieved in a simple straight channel, without any external force fields. This particle lateral migration technique could be potentially used in solution exchange fields such as automated cell staining and washing in microfluidic platforms, and holds numerous biomedical applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Lateral and vertical distribution of downstream migrating juvenile sea lamprey

    Sotola, V. Alex; Miehls, Scott M.; Simard, Lee G.; Marsden, J. Ellen

    2018-01-01

    Sea lamprey is considered an invasive and nuisance species in the Laurentian Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Finger Lakes of New York and is a major focus of control efforts. Currently, management practices focus on limiting the area of infestation using barriers to block migratory adults, and lampricides to kill ammocoetes in infested tributaries. No control efforts currently target the downstream-migrating post-metamorphic life stage which could provide another management opportunity. In order to apply control methods to this life stage, a better understanding of their downstream movement patterns is needed. To quantify spatial distribution of downstream migrants, we deployed fyke and drift nets laterally and vertically across the stream channel in two tributaries of Lake Champlain. Sea lamprey was not randomly distributed across the stream width and lateral distribution showed a significant association with discharge. Results indicated that juvenile sea lamprey is most likely to be present in the thalweg and at midwater depths of the stream channel. Further, a majority of the catch occurred during high flow events, suggesting an increase in downstream movement activity when water levels are higher than base flow. Discharge and flow are strong predictors of the distribution of out-migrating sea lamprey, thus managers will need to either target capture efforts in high discharge areas of streams or develop means to guide sea lamprey away from these areas.

  20. Intersecting Channels near Olympica Fossae

    2016-09-21

    This complicated area contains various types of channels, pits and fractures. We can determine the relative ages of the pits and channels based on which features cross-cut others. Older channels appear smooth-edged and shallow. Younger channels and pits are deeper and more sharp-edged, as well as less sinuous than the shallower channels. What caused this array of various channels and intersecting pits? This region is covered in vast lava flows. The collapse pits here may be collapsed lava tubes or where overlying rock "drained" into voids created by extensional faulting. The older smoother channel that seems to source from this region may have carried an outflow of groundwater. It continues on for over 100 kilometers (62 miles). The orientation and shapes of these features make an interesting geological puzzle. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21066

  1. Channel Simulation in Quantum Metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurenza, Riccardo; Lupo, Cosmo; Spedalieri, Gaetana; Braunstein, Samuel L.; Pirandola, Stefano

    2018-04-01

    In this review we discuss how channel simulation can be used to simplify the most general protocols of quantum parameter estimation, where unlimited entanglement and adaptive joint operations may be employed. Whenever the unknown parameter encoded in a quantum channel is completely transferred in an environmental program state simulating the channel, the optimal adaptive estimation cannot beat the standard quantum limit. In this setting, we elucidate the crucial role of quantum teleportation as a primitive operation which allows one to completely reduce adaptive protocols over suitable teleportation-covariant channels and derive matching upper and lower bounds for parameter estimation. For these channels,wemay express the quantum Cramér Rao bound directly in terms of their Choi matrices. Our review considers both discrete- and continuous-variable systems, also presenting some new results for bosonic Gaussian channels using an alternative sub-optimal simulation. It is an open problem to design simulations for quantum channels that achieve the Heisenberg limit.

  2. Chloride channels as drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Verkman, Alan S.; Galietta, Luis J. V.

    2013-01-01

    Chloride channels represent a relatively under-explored target class for drug discovery as elucidation of their identity and physiological roles has lagged behind that of many other drug targets. Chloride channels are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including epithelial fluid secretion, cell-volume regulation, neuroexcitation, smooth-muscle contraction and acidification of intracellular organelles. Mutations in several chloride channels cause human diseases, including cystic fibrosis, macular degeneration, myotonia, kidney stones, renal salt wasting and hyperekplexia. Chloride-channel modulators have potential applications in the treatment of some of these disorders, as well as in secretory diarrhoeas, polycystic kidney disease, osteoporosis and hypertension. Modulators of GABAA (γ-aminobutyric acid A) receptor chloride channels are in clinical use and several small-molecule chloride-channel modulators are in preclinical development and clinical trials. Here, we discuss the broad opportunities that remain in chloride-channel-based drug discovery. PMID:19153558

  3. Roughness characteristics of natural channels

    Barnes, Harry Hawthorne

    1967-01-01

    Color photographs and descriptive data are presented for 50 stream channels for which roughness coefficients have been determined. All hydraulic computations involving flow in open channels require an evaluation of the roughness characteristics of the channel. In the absence of a satisfactory quantitative procedure this evaluation remains chiefly an art. The ability to evaluate roughness coefficients must be developed through experience. One means of gaining this experience is by examining and becoming acquainted with the appearance of some typical channels whose roughness coefficients are known. The photographs and data contained in this report represent a wide range of channel conditions. Familiarity with the appearance, geometry, and roughness characteristics of these channels will improve the engineer's ability to select roughness coefficients for other channels .

  4. Lateral Erosion Encourages Vertical Incision in a Bimodal Alluvial River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gran, K. B.

    2015-12-01

    Sand can have a strong impact on gravel transport, increasing gravel transport rates by orders of magnitude as sand content increases. Recent experimental work by others indicates that adding sand to an armored bed can even cause armor to break-up and mobilize. These two elements together help explain observations from a bimodal sand and gravel-bedded river, where lateral migration into sand-rich alluvium breaks up the armor layer, encouraging further incision into the bed. Detailed bedload measurements were coupled with surface and subsurface grain size analyses and cross-sectional surveys in a seasonally-incised channel carved into the upper alluvial fan of the Pasig-Potrero River at Mount Pinatubo, Philippines. Pinatubo erupted in 1991, filling valleys draining the flanks of the volcano with primarily sand-sized pyroclastic flow debris. Twenty years after the eruption, sand-rich sediment inputs are strongly seasonal, with most sediment input to the channel during the rainy season. During the dry season, flow condenses from a wide braided planform to a single-thread channel in most of the upper basin, extending several km onto the alluvial fan. This change in planform creates similar unit discharge ranges in summer and winter. Lower sediment loads in the dry season drive vertical incision until the bed is sufficiently armored. Incision proceeds downstream in a wave, with increasing sediment transport rates and decreasing grain size with distance downstream, eventually reaching a gravel-sand transition and return to a braided planform. Incision depths in the gravel-bedded section exceeded 3 meters in parts of a 4 km-long study reach, a depth too great to be explained by predictions from simple winnowing during incision. Instead, lateral migration into sand-rich alluvium provides sufficient fine sediment to break up the armor surface, allowing incision to start anew and increasing the total depth of the seasonally-incised valley. Lateral migration is recorded in a

  5. Imaging an optogenetic pH sensor reveals that protons mediate lateral inhibition in the retina.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tzu-Ming; Holzhausen, Lars C; Kramer, Richard H

    2014-02-01

    The reciprocal synapse between photoreceptors and horizontal cells underlies lateral inhibition and establishes the antagonistic center-surround receptive fields of retinal neurons to enhance visual contrast. Despite decades of study, the signal mediating the negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones has remained under debate because the small, invaginated synaptic cleft has precluded measurement. Using zebrafish retinas, we show that light elicits a change in synaptic proton concentration with the correct magnitude, kinetics and spatial dependence to account for lateral inhibition. Light, which hyperpolarizes horizontal cells, causes synaptic alkalinization, whereas activating an exogenously expressed ligand-gated Na(+) channel, which depolarizes horizontal cells, causes synaptic acidification. Whereas acidification was prevented by blocking a proton pump, re-alkalinization was prevented by blocking proton-permeant ion channels, suggesting that distinct mechanisms underlie proton efflux and influx. These findings reveal that protons mediate lateral inhibition in the retina, raising the possibility that protons are unrecognized retrograde messengers elsewhere in the nervous system.

  6. Relativism in Feyerabend's later writings.

    PubMed

    Kusch, Martin

    2016-06-01

    This paper reconstructs, and distinguishes between, Feyerabend's different forms of relativism in his later writings. Science in a Free Society remains close to familiar forms of relativism, while, at the same time, developing an original but under-argued form of political relativism, and rejecting "conversion" models of cultural exchange. Farewell to Reason moves away from common renderings of relativism, and develops a range of different new forms. Central here are links between relativism, skepticism and infallibilism. In the last six years of his life, Feyerabend often criticizes a peculiar radical form of relativism that arguably no-one has ever proposed or defended. In the same context, Feyerabend sketches an "ontological" form of relativism. It combines "Kantian humility", metaphysical pluralism and constructivism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS OF THE ELBOW

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Marcio; da Rocha Motta Filho, Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is a common condition that is estimated to affect 1% to 3% of the population. The word epicondylitis suggests inflammation, although histological analysis on the tissue fails to show any inflammatory process. The structure most commonly affected is the origin of the tendon of the extensor carpi radialis brevis and the mechanism of injury is associated with overloading. Nonsurgical treatment is the preferred method, and this includes rest, physiotherapy, cortisone infiltration, platelet-rich plasma injections and use of specific immobilization. Surgical treatment is recommended when functional disability and pain persist. Both the open and the arthroscopic surgical technique with resection of the degenerated tendon tissue present good results in the literature. PMID:27047843

  8. Ion Channels in Leukocytes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    muscle k142), heart muscle (80), bo- are released. In recent years much has been learned vine pulmonar arter endothelial cells (251), and rat about the...b3 Zn or cytes from cystic fibrosis patients lack a Cl current that Ni (1 mM)-added to the cytoplasmic side of the mem- can be acti% ated b3 the...that at37’C hu- to be defectiv.- in cystic fibrosis (55, 277), and Chen et al. man T-cell CiL channels are active at rest, implies that (25) have shown

  9. Coupling MAST-1D, a sediment routing model for channel-floodplain complexes, with channel migration relationships to predict reach-averaged river morphodynamics. Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viparelli, E.; Eke, E. C.; Lauer, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    Sediment exchange between the channel and floodplain can occur via meander migration, overbank deposition or erosion, and changes in channel geometry. Depending on channel and floodplain history, floodplains can act either as sources or sinks of bed material and/or wash load. Here we present preliminary modeling results that explicitly account for the feedbacks between the changes in floodplain geometry and sediment size distribution and the changes in channel geometry and migration. These results are obtained by coupling the Morphodynamics And Sediment Tracers in 1D (MAST-1D) program with the results of meander migration studies linking the bankfull flow depth and mean velocity to channel migration, sinuosity and channel geometry. MAST-1D is a numerical model built to describe grain size specific transport of sediment and tracers and the long-term - i.e. decadal and longer - evolution of channel floodplain complexes. MAST-1D differs from other 1D numerical models because it allows for 1) uneven exchange of sediment and tracers between the river channel and the floodplain, 2) temporal changes in channel geometry, bed elevation and floodplain thickness, which result in changes in the channel hydraulic capacity, and 3) temporal changes of size distribution and tracer content in the floodplain, in the load and in the underlying substrate. Under conditions of constant base level, water and sediment supply, the system evolves toward a steady state wherein the amount of sediment deposited through point bar deposition and overbank sedimentation is balanced by the erosion of sediment from the floodplain through lateral migration. The current formulation couples MAST-1D with empirical channel migration relationships that link bankfull flow depth and mean velocity to channel migration, sinuosity and channel geometry. Future development of this preliminary work will involve a fully coupled MAST-1D model with a standard meander migration model that will allow for the building

  10. A Micromechanical RF Channelizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akgul, Mehmet

    The power consumption of a radio generally goes as the number and strength of the RF signals it must process. In particular, a radio receiver would consume much less power if the signal presented to its electronics contained only the desired signal in a tiny percent bandwidth frequency channel, rather than the typical mix of signals containing unwanted energy outside the desired channel. Unfortunately, a lack of filters capable of selecting single channel bandwidths at RF forces the front-ends of contemporary receivers to accept unwanted signals, and thus, to operate with sub-optimal efficiency. This dissertation focuses on the degree to which capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical resonators can achieve the aforementioned RF channel-selecting filters. It aims to first show theoretically that with appropriate scaling capacitive-gap transducers are strong enough to meet the needed coupling requirements; and second, to fully detail an architecture and design procedure needed to realize said filters. Finally, this dissertation provides an actual experimentally demonstrated RF channel-select filter designed using the developed procedures and confirming theoretical predictions. Specifically, this dissertation introduces four methods that make possible the design and fabrication of RF channel-select filters. The first of these introduces a small-signal equivalent circuit for parallel-plate capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical resonators that employs negative capacitance to model the dependence of resonance frequency on electrical stiffness in a way that facilitates the analysis of micromechanical circuits loaded with arbitrary electrical impedances. The new circuit model not only correctly predicts the dependence of electrical stiffness on the impedances loading the input and output electrodes of parallel-plate capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical device, but does so in a visually intuitive way that identifies current drive as most appropriate for

  11. Reconfigurable lateral optical force achieved by selectively exciting plasmonic dark modes near Fano resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huajin; Ye, Qian; Zhang, Yiwen; Shi, Lei; Liu, Shiyang; Jian, Zi; Lin, Zhifang

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrate a reconfigurable lateral optical force (OF) on a plasmonic nanoparticle immersed in a simple optical field invariant along the lateral direction and formed by two interfering plane waves. This lateral OF is shown, from the multipolar expansion technique, attributed to several coupling channels established between multiple multipoles excited on a plasmonic nanoparticle, in particular, the adjacent electric multipole modes that bring about the Fano interferences, which can substantially enhance the lateral scattering asymmetry, leading to an augmented lateral OF comparable to the longitudinal OF. More importantly, by engineering Fano interference either intrinsically through particle size or extrinsically through selectively exciting narrow plasmonic dark modes the direction of the lateral OF is reversibly switchable. The lateral OF can even be modulated continuously from positive to negative by controlling the incident angle of the interfering plane waves due to the variation of relative phase of the excited plasmonic dark modes near Fano resonance, facilitating the plasmonic nanoparticle as a controllable conveyor as well as the optical selection and separation. Besides, a fundamental and counterintuitive physical consequence emerges in that the simple proportional relation between the lateral OF and the Belinfante spin momentum derived in the small particle limit breaks down when the Fano interference comes into play, in particular, a negative lateral OF opposite the Belinfante spin momentum can be induced by properly controlling the selective excitation.

  12. Differential distribution of the sodium‐activated potassium channels slick and slack in mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Knaus, Hans‐Günther; Schwarzer, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The sodium‐activated potassium channels Slick (Slo2.1, KCNT2) and Slack (Slo2.2, KCNT1) are high‐conductance potassium channels of the Slo family. In neurons, Slick and Slack channels are involved in the generation of slow afterhyperpolarization, in the regulation of firing patterns, and in setting and stabilizing the resting membrane potential. The distribution and subcellular localization of Slick and Slack channels in the mouse brain have not yet been established in detail. The present study addresses this issue through in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Both channels were widely distributed and exhibited distinct distribution patterns. However, in some brain regions, their expression overlapped. Intense Slick channel immunoreactivity was observed in processes, varicosities, and neuronal cell bodies of the olfactory bulb, granular zones of cortical regions, hippocampus, amygdala, lateral septal nuclei, certain hypothalamic and midbrain nuclei, and several regions of the brainstem. The Slack channel showed primarily a diffuse immunostaining pattern, and labeling of cell somata and processes was observed only occasionally. The highest Slack channel expression was detected in the olfactory bulb, lateral septal nuclei, basal ganglia, and distinct areas of the midbrain, brainstem, and cerebellar cortex. In addition, comparing our data obtained from mouse brain with a previously published study on rat brain revealed some differences in the expression and distribution of Slick and Slack channels in these species. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2093–2116, 2016. © 2015 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26587966

  13. 19. OUTLET OF PIPE WITH A CONCRETE CHANNEL SERVING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. OUTLET OF PIPE WITH A CONCRETE CHANNEL SERVING THE HEAD GATE SHOWN IN CO-43-A-18. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  14. 27. DIVERSION STRUCTURE WITH CONCRETE SIDEWALLS AND CONCRETE CHANNEL BEYOND, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. DIVERSION STRUCTURE WITH CONCRETE SIDEWALLS AND CONCRETE CHANNEL BEYOND, A SHORT DISTANCE WEST OF D STREET ABOUT ONE-QUARTER MILE SOUTH OF 9TH AVENUE (SECTION 26). - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  15. 10. CONCRETE DIVERSION CHANNEL EXTENDING TOWARD LAKE LADORA FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. CONCRETE DIVERSION CHANNEL EXTENDING TOWARD LAKE LADORA FROM THE DIVERSION STRUCTURE WEST OF LOWER DERBY LAKE (SECTION 2). - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  16. Integrated multiple patch-clamp array chip via lateral cell trapping junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, J.; Ionescu-Zanetti, C.; Diamond, J.; Lal, R.; Lee, L. P.

    2004-03-01

    We present an integrated multiple patch-clamp array chip by utilizing lateral cell trapping junctions. The intersectional design of a microfluidic network provides multiple cell addressing and manipulation sites for efficient electrophysiological measurements at a number of patch sites. The patch pores consist of openings in the sidewall of a main fluidic channel, and a membrane patch is drawn into a smaller horizontal channel. This device geometry not only minimizes capacitive coupling between the cell reservoir and the patch channel, but also allows simultaneous optical and electrical measurements of ion channel proteins. Evidence of the hydrodynamic placement of mammalian cells at the patch sites as well as measurements of patch sealing resistance is presented. Device fabrication is based on micromolding of polydimethylsiloxane, thus allowing inexpensive mass production of disposable high-throughput biochips.

  17. Martian channels and valleys - Their characteristics, distribution, and age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, M. H.; Clow, G. D.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution and ages of Martian channels and valleys, which are generally believed to have been cut by running water, are examined with particular emphasis on the small branching networks referred to as runoff channels or valley networks. Valleys at latitudes from 65 deg S to 65 deg N were surveyed on Viking images at resolutions between 125 and 300 m. Almost all of the valleys are found in the old cratered terrain, in areas characterized by high elevations, low albedos and low violet/red ratios. The networks are deduced to have formed early in the history of the planet, with a formation rate declining rapidly shortly after the decline of the cratering rate 3.9 billion years ago. Two types of outflow channels are distinguished: unconfined, in which broad swaths of terrain are scoured, and confined, in which flow is restricted to discrete channels. Both types start at local sources, and have formed episodically throughout Martian history. Fretted channels, found mainly in two latitude belts characterized by relatively rapid erosion along escarpments, are explained by the lateral enlargement of other channels by mass wasting.

  18. Channel response to a new hydrological regime in southwestern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callow, J. N.; Smettem, K. R. J.

    2007-02-01

    The Kent River flows from semi-arid headwaters in the agricultural (wheatbelt) region of Western Australia to a wetter and forested lower-catchment. It is set in an atypical fluvial environment, with rainfall decreasing inland towards a low-relief upper catchment. Replacement of native deep-rooted perennial vegetation with shallow-rooted seasonal crops has altered the hydrology of the upper catchment. Clearing for agriculture has also increased recharge of regional groundwater systems causing groundwater to rise and mobilise salt stores. This has increased stream salinity which has degradation riparian vegetation and decreased flow resistance. Elevated groundwater has also affected streamflow, increasing flow duration and annual discharge. The altered hydrological regime has affected geomorphic stability, resulting in channel responses that include incision and removal of uncohesive material. Channel response is variable, showing a high dependence on channel morphotype, channel boundary material and severity of salinity (degree of vegetation degradation). Response in confined reaches bounded by sandy material has been characterised by minor lateral bank erosion. In the fine-grained, wider, low-gradient reaches, mid-channel islands have been stripped of sandy sediment where vegetation has degraded. Following an initial period of high erosion rates in these reaches, the channel is now slowly adjusting to a new set of boundary conditions. The variable response has significant implications for management of salt affected rivers in southwestern Australia.

  19. Hemispheric Laterality in Music and Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szirony, Gary Michael; Burgin, John S.; Pearson, L. Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Hemispheric laterality may be a useful concept in teaching, learning, training, and in understanding more about human development. To address this issue, a measure of hemispheric laterality was compared to musical and mathematical ability. The Human Information Processing Survey (HIPS) instrument, designed to measure hemispheric laterality, was…

  20. Hip arthroscopy. The lateral approach.

    PubMed

    Glick, J M

    2001-10-01

    The lateral approach provides an easy and safe access to the hip joint. The line from skin to the joint itself is a straight, downward drop (Fig. 18). The vital arteries and nerves are a safe distance from the portal sites. The potential problems that can arise from this procedure are from the traction applying a compression force on the branches of the pudendal nerve as they cross the ischium (Fig. 19) and traction force on the sciatic nerve. I have always maintained that traction should be treated like a tourniquet; that is, it should be applied for no more then 2 hours. [figure: see text] Furthermore, the amount of traction should not exceed 75 pounds. I use a tensiometer, but it is not mandatory because the major issue with traction is the duration of application. I have monitored the sciatic nerve using both evoke potentials and, in some cases, motor potentials in over 50 cases in the past year, and the poundage and time limits of the traction (75 pounds and 2 hours) were verified. In addition, if the fracture [figure: see text] table has a vertical post as well as a peroneal post, set the vertical post in the back of the patient, and not in the front. Flexing the hip around that post will greatly increase the traction and at the same time will place an extreme stretch on the sciatic nerve, setting up the chance of a significant sciatic nerve neuropraxia. To protect the pudendal nerve, Lyon et al suggest that the perineal post be at least 9 cm in diameter to distribute the forces in a wide area on the ischium and make sure that the pelvis is well supported so the pressure of the post is not placed directly on the this nerve. The perineal posts on most fracture tables are only 3 cm in diameter. These can be made larger by wrapping them with padding. In some fracture tables, the slats that support the lower leg can be removed, and consequently the support on the pelvis is lost. For hip arthroscopy, the slats do not have to be removed. The lateral approach

  1. Gas Transport Through Channels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-25

    van Zijl, P. C. M., Zeidel, M. L., and Agre, P. (1996) Functional analysis of aquaporin 1-deficient red cells. The Colton null phenotype. /. liml...free cytosolic NrVNH4 +. A new analysis of the effects of NH3 vs. NH4 + fluxes on pHs R. Musa-Aziz L.-M. Chen W. F. Boron Department of... tannins in the algae Spirogyra—demonstrated that it is NH< rather than NH4 + that readily crosses the cell membrane. Later, Warburg (1922), Harvey (1911

  2. Molecular Mechanism of TRP Channels

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are cellular sensors for a wide spectrum of physical and chemical stimuli. They are involved in the formation of sight, hearing, touch, smell, taste, temperature, and pain sensation. TRP channels also play fundamental roles in cell signaling and allow the host cell to respond to benign or harmful environmental changes. As TRP channel activation is controlled by very diverse processes and, in many cases, exhibits complex polymodal properties, understanding how each TRP channel responds to its unique forms of activation energy is both crucial and challenging. The past two decades witnessed significant advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie TRP channels activation. This review focuses on our current understanding of the molecular determinants for TRP channel activation. PMID:23720286

  3. The role of the lateral habenula in punishment.

    PubMed

    Jean-Richard Dit Bressel, Philip; McNally, Gavan P

    2014-01-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb) is a small epithalamic structure that projects via the fasciculus retroflexus to the midbrain. The LHb is known to modulate midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons, including inhibition of ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons via glutamatergic excitation of the GABAergic rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg). A variety of lines of evidence show activity in LHb and the LHb-RMTg pathway is correlated with, and is sufficient to support, punishment learning. However, it is not immediately clear whether LHb is necessary for punishment. Here we used a within-subjects punishment task to assess the role of LHb in the acquisition and expression of punishment as well as in aversive choice. Rats that pressed two individually presented levers for pellet rewards rapidly suppressed responding to one lever if it also caused footshock deliveries (punished lever) but continued pressing a second lever that did not cause footshock (unpunished lever). Infusions of an AMPA receptor antagonist (NBQX) into LHb had no effect on the acquisition or expression of this punishment, or on aversive choice, but did increase locomotion. Infusion of the sodium channel blocker bupivacaine likewise had no effect on expression of punishment. However, infusion of the calcium channel blocker mibefradil did affect expression of punishment by significantly decreasing the latency with which rats responded on the punished lever and significantly increasing unpunished lever-pressing. Taken together, these findings indicate that the LHb plays a limited role in punishment, influencing only latency to respond. This role is linked to calcium channel permeability and not AMPA receptor or sodium channel permeability.

  4. The Role of the Lateral Habenula in Punishment

    PubMed Central

    Jean-Richard Dit Bressel, Philip; McNally, Gavan P.

    2014-01-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb) is a small epithalamic structure that projects via the fasciculus retroflexus to the midbrain. The LHb is known to modulate midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons, including inhibition of ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons via glutamatergic excitation of the GABAergic rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg). A variety of lines of evidence show activity in LHb and the LHb-RMTg pathway is correlated with, and is sufficient to support, punishment learning. However, it is not immediately clear whether LHb is necessary for punishment. Here we used a within-subjects punishment task to assess the role of LHb in the acquisition and expression of punishment as well as in aversive choice. Rats that pressed two individually presented levers for pellet rewards rapidly suppressed responding to one lever if it also caused footshock deliveries (punished lever) but continued pressing a second lever that did not cause footshock (unpunished lever). Infusions of an AMPA receptor antagonist (NBQX) into LHb had no effect on the acquisition or expression of this punishment, or on aversive choice, but did increase locomotion. Infusion of the sodium channel blocker bupivacaine likewise had no effect on expression of punishment. However, infusion of the calcium channel blocker mibefradil did affect expression of punishment by significantly decreasing the latency with which rats responded on the punished lever and significantly increasing unpunished lever-pressing. Taken together, these findings indicate that the LHb plays a limited role in punishment, influencing only latency to respond. This role is linked to calcium channel permeability and not AMPA receptor or sodium channel permeability. PMID:25365401

  5. The Channel Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The Channel Tunnel is a 50.5 km-long rail tunnel beneath the English Channel at the Straits of Dover. It connects Dover, Kent in England with Calais, northern France. The undersea section of the tunnel is unsurpassed in length in the world. A proposal for a Channel tunnel was first put forward by a French engineer in 1802. In 1881, a first attempt was made at boring a tunnel from the English side; the work was halted after 800 m. Again in 1922, English workers started boring a tunnel, and advanced 120 m before it too was halted for political reasons. The most recent attempt was begun in 1987, and the tunnel was officially opened in 1994. At completion it was estimated that the project cost around $18 billion. It has been operating at a significant loss since its opening, despite trips by over 7 million passengers per year on the Eurostar train, and over 3 million vehicles per year.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring

  6. The Expression of Backwater Dynamics in the Morphology, Kinematics and Deposit Architecture of Fluvio-deltaic Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, A. M.; Smith, V.

    2017-12-01

    A downstream reduction in bed material flux is associated with the backwater zone, where rivers in their terminal reaches deepen to respond to the sea-level in the receiving basin. This downstream change in sediment transport is reflected in: a) lateral channel mobility, and b) sedimentology and stratigraphic architecture of composite depositional bodies that are left behind. Here we draw comparisons between the Mississippi River and the Trinity River (TX), in terms of bar morphologies and composition, and lateral mobility of these rivers. Across the backwater transition, both rivers display a slight increase in lateral migration rates, followed by substantial decrease lateral migration in the terminal reaches. Both rivers also display predominantly symmetrical channel cross-sections, coincident with very small migration rates in the terminal reaches. We will discuss how the divergence in sediment transport flux across the backwater zone relates to the volume and shape of bank-attached bars, which in turn relates to the cross-sectional shapes of the channels as well as their lateral migrations rates, and ultimately defines the internal architecture of the composite channel deposits that result. Furthermore, we draw comparisons between the morphologies of bank-attached bars and channels in rivers and submarine channels to present insights into how the dominant mode of sediment transport in these different environments ultimately controls the morphologies and kinematics of these channels.

  7. Depression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    ATASSI, NAZEM; COOK, AMANDA; PINEDA, CRISTIANA M. E.; YERRAMILLI-RAO, PADMAJA; PULLEY, DARLENE; CUDKOWICZ, MERIT

    2011-01-01

    Depression is an under-recognized comorbidity associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The goals of this study were to prospectively estimate the prevalence of depression and other ALS related symptoms and to study the impact of depression on enrollment in research studies. One hundred and twenty-seven people with ALS completed the ALS Depression Inventory (ADI-12) and answered questions about ALS related symptoms and research study enrollment preferences. Demographics, ALS symptoms, medications, functional status, and research enrollment were compared between depressed and non-depressed patients. Results showed that the prevalence of mild and severe depression was 29% and 6%, respectively. More than one-third of our ALS patients were receiving anti-depressants to treat depression, sialorrhea, and pseudobulbar affect. Depression prevalence was not correlated with disease duration or progression. Except for anxiety, none of the ALS related symptoms predicted depression. The presence of depression did not have an effect on the decision to enroll in research studies. In conclusion, major depression is less common in our ALS cohort than in the general population. The diagnosis of depression can be masked by some ALS related symptoms and it has no impact on enrollment in ALS clinical trials. PMID:21091399

  8. Subependymoma of the lateral ventricles.

    PubMed

    Nishio, S; Morioka, T; Mihara, F; Fukui, M

    2000-06-01

    Four subependymomas of the lateral ventricle were reviewed with regard to clinical presentation, neuroimaging features, treatment, histopathological features, and long-term follow-up. There were two male and two female patients ranging in age from 27 to 60 years (mean 48.3 years). While two patients presented with symptoms and signs of raised intracranial pressure, two others were found incidentally during neuroimaging investigations to have intraventricular tumors. Neuroimaging characteristics of these tumors included no paraventricular extension, iso- or hypodensity with minimal enhancement on computerized tomography (CT), or iso- or hypointensity on T1-weighted and hyperintensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI). The usual finding on MRI was of no or scarce contrast enhancement, but one case showed heterogeneous enhancement. Three patients underwent total resection of the tumor and one underwent partial resection. No patients received postoperative radiation therapy. All patients have been doing well 4.8 to 15.4 years (mean 8.8 years), after surgery. Although there are no absolutely specific features to distinguish these tumors from other intraventricular tumors preoperatively, subependymoma should be kept in mind for differential diagnosis, as this tumor may safely be removed without sacrificing contiguous normal tissue and with good long-term results.

  9. Pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Sarah; Orrell, Richard W

    2016-09-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or motor neuron disease is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The primary involvement is of motor neurons in the brain, spinal cord and peripherally. There is secondary weakness of muscles and primary involvement of other brain regions, especially involving cognition. Peer-reviewed journal articles and reviews. PubMed.gov The pathogenesis of ALS remains largely unknown. There are a wide range of potential mechanisms related to neurodegeneration. An increasing number of genetic factors are recognized. There remains controversy, or lack of knowledge, in explaining how cellular events manifest as the complex human disease. There is controversy as to how well cellular and animal models of disease relate to the human disease. Large-scale international collaborative genetic epidemiological studies are replacing local studies. Therapies related to pathogenesis remain elusive, with the greatest advances to date relating to provision of care (including multidisciplinary management) and supportive care (nutrition and respiratory support). The identification of C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeats as the most frequent genetic background to ALS, and the association with frontotemporal dementia, gives the potential of a genetic background against which to study other risk factors, triggers and pathogenic mechanisms, and to develop potential therapies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Lateral and Vertical Organic Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Shadeedi, Akram

    An extensive study has been performed to provide a better understanding of the operation principles of doped organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), organic p-i-n diodes, Schottky diodes, and organic permeable base transistors (OPBTs). This has been accomplished by a combination of electrical and structural characterization of these devices. The discussion of doped OFETs focuses on the shift of the threshold voltage due to increased doping concentrations and the generation and transport of minority charge carriers. Doping of pentacene OFETs is achieved by co-evaporation of pentacene with the n-dopant W2(hpp)4. It is found that pentacene thin film are efficiently doped and that a conductivity in the range of 2.6 x 10-6 S cm-1 for 1 wt% to 2.5 x 10-4 S cm-1 for 16 wt% is reached. It is shown that n-doped OFET consisting of an n-doped channel and n-doped contacts are ambipolar. This behavior is surprising, as n-doping the contacts should suppress direct injection of minority charge carriers (holes). It was proposed that minority charge carrier injection and hence the ambipolar characteristic of n-doped OFETs can be explained by Zener tunneling inside the intrinsic pentacene layer underneath the drain electrode. It is shown that the electric field in this layer is indeed in the range of the breakdown field of pentacene based p-i-n Zener homodiodes. Doping the channel has a profound influence on the onset voltage of minority (hole) conduction. The onset voltage can be shifted by lightly n-doping the channel. The shift of onset voltage can be explained by two mechanisms: first, due to a larger voltage that has to be applied to the gate in order to fully deplete the n-doped layer. Second, it can be attributed to an increase in hole trapping by inactive dopants. Moreover, it has been shown that the threshold voltage of majority (electron) conduction is shifted by an increase in the doping concentration, and that the ambipolar OFETs can be turned into unipolar OFETs at

  11. Spatial and temporal variability in sedimentation rates associated with cutoff channel infill deposits: Ain River, France

    Piégay, H.; Hupp, C.R.; Citterio, A.; Dufour, S.; Moulin, B.; Walling, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Floodplain development is associated with lateral accretion along stable channel geometry. Along shifting rivers, the floodplain sedimentation is more complex because of changes in channel position but also cutoff channel presence, which exhibit specific overflow patterns. In this contribution, the spatial and temporal variability of sedimentation rates in cutoff channel infill deposits is related to channel changes of a shifting gravel bed river (Ain River, France). The sedimentation rates estimated from dendrogeomorphic analysis are compared between and within 14 cutoff channel infills. Detailed analyses along a single channel infill are performed to assess changes in the sedimentation rates through time by analyzing activity profiles of the fallout radionuclides 137Cs and unsupported 210Pb. Sedimentation rates are also compared within the channel infills with rates in other plots located in the adjacent floodplain. Sedimentation rates range between 0.65 and 2.4 cm a−1 over a period of 10 to 40 years. The data provide additional information on the role of distance from the bank, overbank flow frequency, and channel geometry in controlling the sedimentation rate. Channel infills, lower than adjacent floodplains, exhibit higher sedimentation rates and convey overbank sediment farther away within the floodplain. Additionally, channel degradation, aggradation, and bank erosion, which reduce or increase the distance between the main channel and the cutoff channel aquatic zone, affect local overbank flow magnitude and frequency and therefore sedimentation rates, thereby creating a complex mosaic of sedimentation zones within the floodplain and along the cutoff channel infills. Last, the dendrogeomorphic and 137Cs approaches are cross validated for estimating the sedimentation rate within a channel infill.

  12. Calcium channel blockers and transmitter release at the normal human neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Protti, D A; Reisin, R; Mackinley, T A; Uchitel, O D

    1996-05-01

    Transmitter release evoked by nerve stimulation is highly dependent on Ca2+ entry through voltage-activated plasma membrane channels. Calcium influx may be modified in some neuromuscular diseases like Lambert-Eaton syndrome and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We studied the pharmacologic sensitivity of the transmitter release process to different calcium channel blockers in normal human muscles and found that funnel web toxin and omega-Agatoxin-IVA, both P-type calcium channel blockers, blocked nerve-elicited muscle action potentials and inhibited evoked synaptic transmission. The transmitter release was not affected either by nitrendipine, an L-type channel blocker, or omega-Conotoxin-GVIA, an N-type channel blocker. The pharmacologic profile of neuromuscular transmission observed in normal human muscles indicates that P-like channels mediate transmitter release at the motor nerve terminals.

  13. Recognition of oolite-filled channels, Ste. Genevieve Formation, Illinois basin

    SciT

    Bandy, W.F. Jr.

    1991-03-01

    Porous oolitic grainstones in the Ste. Genevieve Formation (Mississippian) of the Illinois basin have typically been viewed as bar-shaped reservoirs. However, a reservoir discovered in the Allendale Pool, southern Lawrence County, is an oolitic grainstone with a channel geometry. A similar, oolite-filled channel has been recognized in southern Lawrence field, approximately 4 miles north of the Allendale channel. This reservoir, previously thought to be a bar, was discovered over 80 years ago is much larger than the Allendale channel. Both reservoirs have proven prolific, with high initial and cumulative productions and relatively little water. In contrast to oolitic bars, whichmore » are convex downward, with relatively greater average thickness and porosities. Laterally, bars thin gradually, whereas channels may thin very abruptly. Similar, undiscovered channels probably occur elsewhere in the Illinois basin.« less

  14. Brownsville Ship Channel Hydrodynamic Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    the Brownsville Ship Channel in Brownsville, Texas. These plans include possible deepening and widening of the ship channel from its connection to...LONGER NEEDED. DO NOT RETURN IT TO THE ORIGINATOR. ERDC/CHL TR-12-6 iii Table of Contents Abstract...Ship Channel, to include potential deepening and widening. In order to assess the impacts of these changes on both navigation and the ecosystem, it is

  15. Single-channel kinetics of BK (Slo1) channels

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Yanyan; Magleby, Karl L.

    2014-01-01

    Single-channel kinetics has proven a powerful tool to reveal information about the gating mechanisms that control the opening and closing of ion channels. This introductory review focuses on the gating of large conductance Ca2+- and voltage-activated K+ (BK or Slo1) channels at the single-channel level. It starts with single-channel current records and progresses to presentation and analysis of single-channel data and the development of gating mechanisms in terms of discrete state Markov (DSM) models. The DSM models are formulated in terms of the tetrameric modular structure of BK channels, consisting of a central transmembrane pore-gate domain (PGD) attached to four surrounding transmembrane voltage sensing domains (VSD) and a large intracellular cytosolic domain (CTD), also referred to as the gating ring. The modular structure and data analysis shows that the Ca2+ and voltage dependent gating considered separately can each be approximated by 10-state two-tiered models with five closed states on the upper tier and five open states on the lower tier. The modular structure and joint Ca2+ and voltage dependent gating are consistent with a 50 state two-tiered model with 25 closed states on the upper tier and 25 open states on the lower tier. Adding an additional tier of brief closed (flicker states) to the 10-state or 50-state models improved the description of the gating. For fixed experimental conditions a channel would gate in only a subset of the potential number of states. The detected number of states and the correlations between adjacent interval durations are consistent with the tiered models. The examined models can account for the single-channel kinetics and the bursting behavior of gating. Ca2+ and voltage activate BK channels by predominantly increasing the effective opening rate of the channel with a smaller decrease in the effective closing rate. Ca2+ and depolarization thus activate by mainly destabilizing the closed states. PMID:25653620

  16. Marte Vallis Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    14 September 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a portion of a channel in the Marte Valles outflow system. An old meteor impact crater in the lower left (southwest) corner of the image blocked the erosive fluids that poured through Marte Vallis, creating a streamlined tail in its lee. The materials that flowed through the valley may have been water-rich mud, very fluid lava, or both. The nature of the fluid is still a matter of research and discussion among Mars scientists. This image is located near 12.5oN, 177.5oW. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated by sunlight from the left/lower left.

  17. Capacities of quantum amplifier channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Haoyu; Wilde, Mark M.

    2017-01-01

    Quantum amplifier channels are at the core of several physical processes. Not only do they model the optical process of spontaneous parametric down-conversion, but the transformation corresponding to an amplifier channel also describes the physics of the dynamical Casimir effect in superconducting circuits, the Unruh effect, and Hawking radiation. Here we study the communication capabilities of quantum amplifier channels. Invoking a recently established minimum output-entropy theorem for single-mode phase-insensitive Gaussian channels, we determine capacities of quantum-limited amplifier channels in three different scenarios. First, we establish the capacities of quantum-limited amplifier channels for one of the most general communication tasks, characterized by the trade-off between classical communication, quantum communication, and entanglement generation or consumption. Second, we establish capacities of quantum-limited amplifier channels for the trade-off between public classical communication, private classical communication, and secret key generation. Third, we determine the capacity region for a broadcast channel induced by the quantum-limited amplifier channel, and we also show that a fully quantum strategy outperforms those achieved by classical coherent-detection strategies. In all three scenarios, we find that the capacities significantly outperform communication rates achieved with a naive time-sharing strategy.

  18. Chaotic behavior of channeling particles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling; Kaloyeros, Alain E.; Wang, Guang-Hou

    1994-03-01

    Channeling describes the collimated motion of energetic charged particles along the lattice plane or axis in a crystal. The energetic particles are steered through the channels formed by strings of atomic constituents in the lattice. In the case of planar channeling, the motion of a charged particle between the atomic planes can be periodic or quasiperiodic, such as a simple oscillatory motion in the transverse direction. In practice, however, the periodic motion of the channeling particles can be accompanied by an irregular, chaotic behavior. In this paper, the Moliere potential, which is considered as a good analytical approximation for the interaction of channeling particles with the rows of atoms in the lattice, is used to simulate the channeling behavior of positively charged particles in a tungsten (100) crystal plane. By appropriate selection of channeling parameters, such as the projectile energy E(0) and incident angle psi(0), the transition of channeling particles from regular to chaotic motion is demonstrated. It is argued that the fine structures that appear in the angular scan channeling experiments are due to the particles' chaotic motion.

  19. TRPC Channel Structure and Properties.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shengjie

    2017-01-01

    TRPC channels are the first identified members in the TRP family. They function as either homo- or heterotetramers regulating intracellular Ca 2+ concentration in response to numerous physiological or pathological stimuli. TRPC channels are nonselective cation channels permeable to Ca 2+ . The properties and the functional domains of TRPC channels have been identified by electrophysiological and biochemical methods. However, due to the large size, instability, and flexibility of their complexes, the structures of the members in TRPC family remain unrevealed. More efforts should be made on structure analysis and generating good tools, including specific antibodies, agonist, and antagonist.

  20. Demystifying Mechanosensitive Piezo Ion Channels.

    PubMed

    Xu, X Z Shawn

    2016-06-01

    Mechanosensitive channels mediate touch, hearing, proprioception, and blood pressure regulation. Piezo proteins, including Piezo1 and Piezo2, represent a new class of mechanosensitive channels that have been reported to play key roles in most, if not all, of these modalities. The structural architecture and molecular mechanisms by which Piezos act as mechanosensitive channels, however, remain mysterious. Two new studies have now provided critical insights into the atomic structure and molecular basis of the ion permeation and mechano-gating properties of the Piezo1 channel.

  1. Geometric pumping in autophoretic channels.

    PubMed

    Michelin, Sébastien; Montenegro-Johnson, Thomas D; De Canio, Gabriele; Lobato-Dauzier, Nicolas; Lauga, Eric

    2015-08-07

    Many microfluidic devices use macroscopic pressure differentials to overcome viscous friction and generate flows in microchannels. In this work, we investigate how the chemical and geometric properties of the channel walls can drive a net flow by exploiting the autophoretic slip flows induced along active walls by local concentration gradients of a solute species. We show that chemical patterning of the wall is not required to generate and control a net flux within the channel, rather channel geometry alone is sufficient. Using numerical simulations, we determine how geometric characteristics of the wall influence channel flow rate, and confirm our results analytically in the asymptotic limit of lubrication theory.

  2. Packings of monodisperse emulsions in flat microfluidic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claussen, Ohle; Herminghaus, Stephan; Brinkmann, Martin

    2012-06-01

    In the lateral confinement of a flat microfluidic channel, monodisperse emulsion droplets spontaneously self-organize in a variety of topologically different packings. The explicit construction of mechanically equilibrated arrangements of effectively two-dimensional congruent droplet shapes reveals the existence of multiple mechanical equilibria depending on channel width W, droplet area Ad, and volume fraction φ of the dispersed phase. The corresponding boundaries of local or global stability are summarized in a packing diagram for congruent droplet shapes in terms of the dimensionless channel width w=W/Ad and φ. In agreement with experimental results, an increasingly strong hysteresis of the transition between single-row and two-row packings is observed during changes of w above a threshold volume fraction of φ*≃0.813.

  3. Integration of channel and floodplain suites. I. Developmental sequence and lateral relations of alluvial paleosols.

    Bown, T.M.; Kraus, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    The lower Eocene Willwood Formation of the Bighorn Basin, northwest Wyoming, consists of about 770 m of alluvial rocks that exhibit extensive mechanical and geochemical modifications resulting from Eocene pedogenesis. Five arbitrary stages are proposed to distinguish these soils of different maturities in the Willwood Formation. An inverse relationship exists between soil maturity and short-term sediment accumulation rate. Illustrates several important principles of soil-sediment interrelationships in aggrading alluvial systems that have broad application to other deposits.-from Authors

  4. Genesis and sedimentary record of blind channel and islands of the anabranching river: An evolution model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leli, Isabel T.; Stevaux, José C.; Assine, Mário L.

    2018-02-01

    Blind channel (BC) is a fluvial feature formed by attachment of a lateral sand bar to an island or riverbank. It consists of a 10- to 20-m wide and hundreds to thousands meters long channel, parallel to the island or bank, closed at its upstream end by accretion to the island. It is an important feature in anabranching rivers that plays an important role in both the island formation and river ecology. This paper discusses the formation processes, functioning, evolution, and the sedimentary record of a blind channel, related landforms, and its context on island development in the Upper Paraná River. The evolution of this morphologic feature involves (1) formation of a lateral or attachment bar beside an island with the development of a channel in between; (2) vertical accretion of mud deposits during the flood and vegetal development on the bar; (3) the upstream channel closure that generates the blind channel; and (4) annexation of the blind channel to the island. A blind channel is semilotic to lentic, that is not totally integrated to the dynamics of the main active channel and that acts as a nursery for fingerlings and macrophytes. The sedimentary facies succession of BCs are relatively simple and characterized by cross-stratified sand covered by organic muddy sediments. Based on facies analysis of 12 cores, we identified a succession of environments that contribute to the formation of islands: channel bar, blind channel, pond, and swamp. Blind channel formation and its related bar-island attachment are relevant processes associated with the growing of large island evolution in some anabranching rivers.

  5. Juvenile anadromous salmonid production in upper Columbia River side channels with different levels of hydrological connection

    Martens, Kyle D.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the contribution of three types of side channels based on their hydrologic connectivity (seasonally disconnected, partially connected, and connected) to production of juvenile anadromous salmonids. Juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss and Chinook Salmon O. tshawytscha were found in all three of these side channel types and in each year of the study. Upon connection with the main stem at high flows, the seasonally disconnected side channels experienced an emptying out of the previous year's fish while filling with young-of-year fish during the 2- to 4-month period of hydrologic connection. There were no differences between the densities of juvenile steelhead and Chinook Salmon and the rate of smolts produced among the three types of side channels. Recently reintroduced Coho Salmon O. kisutch had sporadic presence and abundance in partially and connected side channels, but the smolt production rate was over two times that of steelhead and Chinook Salmon in seasonally disconnected side channels. Within seasonally disconnected side channels, young-of-year salmonids in deep pools (≥100 cm) had greater survival than those in shallow pools (<100 cm). Densities of juvenile steelhead in all side channel types were similar to those in tributaries and were higher than in main-stem lateral margins. Juvenile Chinook Salmon densities were higher in side channels than in both tributary and main-stem lateral margins. Our results suggest that improving quality of pool habitat within seasonally disconnected side channels can result in improved survival for juvenile anadromous salmonids during the period of disconnection. Habitat improvement in these seasonally disconnected side channels should be recognized as a worthy restoration strategy, especially when full connectivity of side channels may not be a feasible target (e.g., through lack of water availability) or when full connectivity may present too high a risk (e.g., flooding, stream capture, bank

  6. Retroviruses and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Alfahad, Tariq; Nath, Avindra

    2013-08-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, invariably fatal neurologic disorder resulting from upper and lower motor neuron degeneration, which typically develops during the sixth or seventh decade of life, and is diagnosed based on standard clinical criteria. Its underlying cause remains undetermined. The disease may occur with increased frequency within certain families, often in association with specific genomic mutations, while some sporadic cases have been linked to environmental toxins or trauma. Another possibility, first proposed in the 1970s, is that retroviruses play a role in pathogenesis. In this paper, we review the published literature for evidence that ALS is associated either with infection by an exogenous retrovirus or with the expression of human endogenous retroviral (HERV) sequences in cells of the central nervous system. A small percentage of persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) or human T cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1) develop ALS-like syndromes. While HTLV-1 associated ALS-like syndrome has several features that may distinguish it from classical ALS, HIV-infected patients may develop neurological manifestations that resemble classical ALS although it occurs at a younger age and they may show a dramatic improvement following the initiation of antiretroviral therapy. However, most patients with probable or definite ALS show no evidence of HIV-1 or HTLV-1 infection. In contrast, recent reports have shown a stronger association with HERV, as analysis of serum samples, and postmortem brain tissue from a number of patients with a classical ALS has revealed significantly increased expression of HERV-K, compared to controls. These findings suggest that endogenous retroviral elements are involved in the pathophysiology of ALS, but there is no evidence that they are the primary cause of the syndrome. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Lateral repair of parastomal hernia.

    PubMed Central

    Amin, S. N.; Armitage, N. C.; Abercrombie, J. F.; Scholefield, J. H.

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Parastomal hernia is a common complication of stoma construction. Although the majority of patients are asymptomatic, about 10% require surgical correction. AIMS: We describe a new surgical approach for the repair of parastomal hernias, which avoids both the need for laparotomy and stoma mobilization. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Nine patients (4 female) with parastomal hernia underwent surgical repair. Median age was 55 years (range 38-73 years). There were 8 para-ileostomy herniae and one paracolostomy hernia. A lateral incision was made approximately 10 cm from the stoma, and carried down to the rectus sheath. The dissection was carried medially towards the stoma, and around the defect in the abdominal musculature. The hernia sac was excised when possible and the fascial defect closed with non-absorbable, monofilament suture. A polyprolene mesh was placed round the stoma by making a slit in the mesh. The skin was closed with subcuticular monofilament absorbable suture. RESULTS: All patients returned to normal diet on the first postoperative day, and were discharged from hospital within 72 h. There were no wound infections, and no recurrences after a median follow up of 6 months (range 3-12 months). DISCUSSION: The technique we describe is simple and avoids the need of laparotomy. The mucocutaneous junction of the stoma is not disturbed, reducing the risk of contamination of the mesh, stenosis or retraction of the stoma. Grooving of the stoma and difficulty in fitting appliances is avoided because the wound is not placed near the mucocutaneous junction. This approach may be superior to other mesh repairs for parastomal hernia. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:11432142

  8. Impact of a large flood on mountain river habitats, channel morphology, and valley infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajdukiewicz, Hanna; Wyżga, Bartłomiej; Mikuś, Paweł; Zawiejska, Joanna; Radecki-Pawlik, Artur

    2016-11-01

    The Biała River, Polish Carpathians, was considerably modified by channelization and channel incision in the twentieth century. To restore the Biała, establishing an erodible corridor was proposed in two river sections located in its mountain and foothill course. In these sections, longer, unmanaged channel reaches alternate with short, channelized reaches; and channel narrowing and incision increases in the downstream direction. In June 2010 an 80-year flood occurred on the river; and this study aims at determining its effects on physical habitat conditions for river biota, channel morphology, and valley-floor infrastructure. Surveys of 10 pairs of closely located, unmanaged and channelized cross sections, performed in 2009 and in the late summer 2010, allowed us to assess the flood-induced changes to physical habitat conditions. A comparison of channel planforms determined before (2009) and after (2012) the flood provided information on the degree of channel widening as well as changes in the width of particular elements of the river's active zone in eight stretches of the Biała. The impact of the flood on valley-floor infrastructure was confronted with the degree of river widening in unmanaged and channelized river reaches. Before the flood, unmanaged cross sections were typified by finer bed material and greater lateral variability in depth-averaged and near-bed flow velocity than channelized cross sections. The flood tended to equalize habitat conditions in both types of river cross sections, obliterating differences (in particular physical habitat parameters) between channelized and unmanaged channel reaches. River widening mostly reflected an increase in the area of channel bars, whereas the widening of low-flow channels was less pronounced. A comparison of channel planform from 2009 and 2012 indicated that intense channel incision typical of downstream sections limited river widening by the flood. Active channel width increased by half in the unmanaged

  9. Discovery and Development of Calcium Channel Blockers

    PubMed Central

    Godfraind, Théophile

    2017-01-01

    In the mid 1960s, experimental work on molecules under screening as coronary dilators allowed the discovery of the mechanism of calcium entry blockade by drugs later named calcium channel blockers. This paper summarizes scientific research on these small molecules interacting directly with L-type voltage-operated calcium channels. It also reports on experimental approaches translated into understanding of their therapeutic actions. The importance of calcium in muscle contraction was discovered by Sidney Ringer who reported this fact in 1883. Interest in the intracellular role of calcium arose 60 years later out of Kamada (Japan) and Heibrunn (USA) experiments in the early 1940s. Studies on pharmacology of calcium function were initiated in the mid 1960s and their therapeutic applications globally occurred in the the 1980s. The first part of this report deals with basic pharmacology in the cardiovascular system particularly in isolated arteries. In the section entitled from calcium antagonists to calcium channel blockers, it is recalled that drugs of a series of diphenylpiperazines screened in vivo on coronary bed precontracted by angiotensin were initially named calcium antagonists on the basis of their effect in depolarized arteries contracted by calcium. Studies on arteries contracted by catecholamines showed that the vasorelaxation resulted from blockade of calcium entry. Radiochemical and electrophysiological studies performed with dihydropyridines allowed their cellular targets to be identified with L-type voltage-operated calcium channels. The modulated receptor theory helped the understanding of their variation in affinity dependent on arterial cell membrane potential and promoted the terminology calcium channel blocker (CCB) of which the various chemical families are introduced in the paper. In the section entitled tissue selectivity of CCBs, it is shown that characteristics of the drug, properties of the tissue, and of the stimuli are important factors of

  10. A channel simulator design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devito, D. M.; Goutmann, M. M.; Harper, R. C.

    1971-01-01

    A propagation path simulator was designed for the channel between a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite in geostationary orbit and a user spacecraft orbiting the earth at an altitude between 200 and 4000 kilometers. The simulator is required to duplicate the time varying parameters of the propagation channel.

  11. Sand Waves in Tidal Channels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    sincerely thank Steven Borgeld, from Humboldt State University, for providing the grain size data for the Humboldt Entrance Channel. iv SAND...Wave Characteristics at Moriches Inlet... 182 APPENDIX VII – Sediment Data , Humboldt Entrance Channel, CA ........................... 186 References...waves may be limited by wave action, sand supply, and dredging activity. Bathymetric data collected at Humboldt Inlet, California, show sand waves

  12. Ionic Channels as Natural Nanodevices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    introduce the numerical techniques required to simulate charge transport in ion channels. [1] Using Poisson- Nernst -Planck-type (PNP) equations ...Eisenberg. 2003. Ionic diffusion through protein channels: from molecular description to continuum equations . Nanotech 2003, 3: 439-442. 4...Nadler, B., Schuss, Z., Singer, A., and R. S. Eisenberg. 2004. Ionic diffusion through confined geometries: from Langevin equations to partial

  13. Photonic channels for quantum communication

    PubMed

    van Enk SJ; Cirac; Zoller

    1998-01-09

    A general photonic channel for quantum communication is defined. By means of local quantum computing with a few auxiliary atoms, this channel can be reduced to one with effectively less noise. A scheme based on quantum interference is proposed that iteratively improves the fidelity of distant entangled particles.

  14. Channel by Day and Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 17 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of a small channel.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 19.8, Longitude 141.5 East (218.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through

  15. Characterization of nitride hole lateral transport in a charge trap flash memory by using a random telegraph signal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu-Heng; Jiang, Cheng-Min; Lin, Hsiao-Yi; Wang, Tahui; Tsai, Wen-Jer; Lu, Tao-Cheng; Chen, Kuang-Chao; Lu, Chih-Yuan

    2017-07-01

    We use a random telegraph signal method to investigate nitride trapped hole lateral transport in a charge trap flash memory. The concept of this method is to utilize an interface oxide trap and its associated random telegraph signal as an internal probe to detect a local channel potential change resulting from nitride charge lateral movement. We apply different voltages to the drain of a memory cell and vary a bake temperature in retention to study the electric field and temperature dependence of hole lateral movement in a nitride. Thermal energy absorption by trapped holes in lateral transport is characterized. Mechanisms of hole lateral transport in retention are investigated. From the measured and modeled results, we find that thermally assisted trap-to-band tunneling is a major trapped hole emission mechanism in nitride hole lateral transport.

  16. A Demonstration of Optimal Apodization Determination for Proper Lateral Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumi, Chikayoshi; Komiya, Yuichi; Uga, Shinya

    2009-07-01

    We have realized effective ultrasound (US) beamformings by the steering of plural beams and apodizations for B-mode imaging with a high lateral resolution and accurate measurement of tissue or blood displacement vector and/or strain tensor using the multidimensional cross-spectrum phase gradient method (MCSPGM), or multidimensional autocorrelation or Doppler methods (MAM and MDM) using multidimensional analytic signals. For instance, the coherent superposition of the steered beams performed in the lateral cosine modulation method (LCM) has a higher potential for realizing a more accurate measurement of a displacement vector than the synthesis of the displacement vector using the accurately measured axial displacements obtained by the multidimensional synthetic aperture method (MDSAM), multidirectional transmission method (MTM) or the use of plural US transducers. Originally, the apodization function to be used for realizing a designed point spread function (PSF) was obtained by the Fraunhofer approximation (FA). However, to obtain the best approximated, designed PSF in the least-squares sense, we proposed a linear optimization (LO) method. Furthermore, on the basis of the knowledge about the losts of US energy during the propagation, we have recently developed a nonlinear optimization (NLO) method, in which the feet of the main lobes in apodization function are properly truncated. Thus, NLO also allows the decrease in the number of channels or the confinement of the effective aperture. In this study, to gain insight into the ideal shape of the PSF, the accuracies of the two-dimensional (2D) displacement vector measurements were compared for typical PSFs with distinct lateral envelope shapes, particularly, in terms of full width at half maximum (FWHM) and the length of the feet, i.e., the Gaussian function, Hanning window and parabolic function. It was confirmed that a PSF having a wide FWHM and short feet was ideal. Such a PSF yielded an echo with a high signal

  17. Reliable video transmission over fading channels via channel state estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumwilaisak, Wuttipong; Kim, JongWon; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2000-04-01

    Transmission of continuous media such as video over time- varying wireless communication channels can benefit from the use of adaptation techniques in both source and channel coding. An adaptive feedback-based wireless video transmission scheme is investigated in this research with special emphasis on feedback-based adaptation. To be more specific, an interactive adaptive transmission scheme is developed by letting the receiver estimate the channel state information and send it back to the transmitter. By utilizing the feedback information, the transmitter is capable of adapting the level of protection by changing the flexible RCPC (rate-compatible punctured convolutional) code ratio depending on the instantaneous channel condition. The wireless channel is modeled as a fading channel, where the long-term and short- term fading effects are modeled as the log-normal fading and the Rayleigh flat fading, respectively. Then, its state (mainly the long term fading portion) is tracked and predicted by using an adaptive LMS (least mean squares) algorithm. By utilizing the delayed feedback on the channel condition, the adaptation performance of the proposed scheme is first evaluated in terms of the error probability and the throughput. It is then extended to incorporate variable size packets of ITU-T H.263+ video with the error resilience option. Finally, the end-to-end performance of wireless video transmission is compared against several non-adaptive protection schemes.

  18. Processes Leading to Beaded Channels Formation in Central Yakutia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarbeeva, A. M.; Lebedeva, L.; Efremov, V. S.; Krylenko, I. V.; Surkov, V. V.

    2017-12-01

    -forming flow discharges in the past. Transition to the beaded channel planform took place only later, presumably as a result of climate changes. Reduction of water runoff and freezing over of taliks leaded to activation of cryogenic processes (thermokarst, uneven thermoerosion, disturbance of riverbanks during the cracking of ice mounds).

  19. Voltage-gated Proton Channels

    PubMed Central

    DeCoursey, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated proton channels, HV1, have vaulted from the realm of the esoteric into the forefront of a central question facing ion channel biophysicists, namely the mechanism by which voltage-dependent gating occurs. This transformation is the result of several factors. Identification of the gene in 2006 revealed that proton channels are homologues of the voltage-sensing domain of most other voltage-gated ion channels. Unique, or at least eccentric, properties of proton channels include dimeric architecture with dual conduction pathways, perfect proton selectivity, a single-channel conductance ~103 smaller than most ion channels, voltage-dependent gating that is strongly modulated by the pH gradient, ΔpH, and potent inhibition by Zn2+ (in many species) but an absence of other potent inhibitors. The recent identification of HV1 in three unicellular marine plankton species has dramatically expanded the phylogenetic family tree. Interest in proton channels in their own right has increased as important physiological roles have been identified in many cells. Proton channels trigger the bioluminescent flash of dinoflagellates, facilitate calcification by coccolithophores, regulate pH-dependent processes in eggs and sperm during fertilization, secrete acid to control the pH of airway fluids, facilitate histamine secretion by basophils, and play a signaling role in facilitating B-cell receptor mediated responses in B lymphocytes. The most elaborate and best-established functions occur in phagocytes, where proton channels optimize the activity of NADPH oxidase, an important producer of reactive oxygen species. Proton efflux mediated by HV1 balances the charge translocated across the membrane by electrons through NADPH oxidase, minimizes changes in cytoplasmic and phagosomal pH, limits osmotic swelling of the phagosome, and provides substrate H+ for the production of H2O2 and HOCl, reactive oxygen species crucial to killing pathogens. PMID:23798303

  20. Secondary currents in a curved, stratified, estuarine channel

    Lacy, J.R.; Monismith, Stephen G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a study of secondary circulation in a curved stratified channel in northern San Francisco Bay over a 12.5-hour tidal cycle. Secondary currents were strong at times (varying by up to 35 cm/s from top to bottom) but relatively transient, as the balance between centrifugal and lateral baroclinic forcing changed over time. The short travel time around the bend did not allow a steady state balance to develop between centrifugal and lateral baroclinic forcing. During the flood tide the confluence of two streams with different velocities produced a strong lateral gradient in streamwise velocity. As a result, lateral advection was a significant term in the streamwise momentum balance, having the same order of magnitude as the barotropic and baroclinic pressure gradients, and the frictional terms. During the first part of the ebb, secondary currents were induced by lateral baroclinic forcing. The direction of the secondary circulation reversed later in the ebb, as the baroclinic forcing became weaker than the centrifugal acceleration. The gradient Richardson number showed that stratification was stable over most of the tidal cycle, decreasing the importance of friction and allowing secondary currents to persist. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Amazon floodplain channels regulate channel-floodplain water exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, P. D.; Baugh, C.; Trigg, M.

    2017-12-01

    We examine the role of floodplain channels in regulating the exchange of water between the Amazon main stem and its extensive floodplains using a combination of field survey, remote sensing and numerical modelling for a 30,000 km2 area around the confluence of the Solimões and Purus rivers. From Landsat imagery we identified 1762 individual floodplain channel reaches with total length of nearly 9300 line km that range in width from 900m to 20m. Using a boat survey we measured width and depth along 509 line km of floodplain channels in 45 separate reaches and used these data to develop geomorphic relationships between width and depth. This enabled reconstruction of the depth of all other channels in the Landsat survey to an RMSE of 2.5m. We then constructed a 2D hydraulic model of this site which included all 9300km of floodplain channels as sub-grid scale features using a recently developed version of the LISFLOOD-FP code. The DEM for the model was derived from a version of the SRTM Digital Elevation Model that was processed to remove vegetation artefacts. The model was run at 270m resolution over the entire 30,000 km2 domain for the period from 2002-2009. Simulations were run with and without floodplain channels to examine the impact of these features on floodplain flow dynamics and storage. Simulated floodplain channel hydraulics were validated against a combination of in-situ and remotely sensed data. Our results show that approximately 100 km3 of water is exchanged between the channel and the floodplain during a typical annual cycle, and 8.5±2.1% of mainstem flows is routed through the floodplain. The overall effect of floodplains channels was to increase the duration of connections between the Amazon River and the floodplain. Inclusion of floodplain channels in the model increased inundation volume by 7.3% - 11.3% at high water, and decreased it at low water by 4.0% - 16.6%, with the range in these estimates due to potential errors in floodplain channel

  2. Lateralization of visual learning in the honeybee.

    PubMed

    Letzkus, Pinar; Boeddeker, Norbert; Wood, Jeff T; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2008-02-23

    Lateralization is a well-described phenomenon in humans and other vertebrates and there are interesting parallels across a variety of different vertebrate species. However, there are only a few studies of lateralization in invertebrates. In a recent report, we showed lateralization of olfactory learning in the honeybee (Apis mellifera). Here, we investigate lateralization of another sensory modality, vision. By training honeybees on a modified version of a visual proboscis extension reflex task, we find that bees learn a colour stimulus better with their right eye.

  3. Acoustic reflex patterns in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Canale, Andrea; Albera, Roberto; Lacilla, Michelangelo; Canosa, Antonio; Albera, Andrea; Sacco, Francesca; Chiò, Adriano; Calvo, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate acoustic reflex testing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. Amplitude, latency, and rise time of stapedial reflex were recorded for 500 and 1000 Hz contralateral stimulus. Statistical analysis was performed by the Wilcoxon test and the level of significance was set at 5 %. Fifty-one amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and ten sex- and age-matched control subjects were studied. Patients were further divided in two groups: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-bulbar (38 cases, with bulbar signs at evaluation) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-spinal (13 cases, without bulbar signs at evaluation). Stapedial reflex was present in all patients. There was a statistically significant difference in the mean amplitude, latency, and rise time between the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients as compared with the controls. Amplitude was lower in both the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-bulbar and the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-spinal patients than in the controls (p < 0.05) and rise time was longer in both patient groups compared with the controls (p < 0.05). These results confirm the presence of abnormal acoustic reflex patterns in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases with bulbar signs and, moreover, suggesting a possible subclinical involvement of the stapedial motor neuron even in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-spinal patients. Amplitude and rise time seem to be good sensitive parameters for investigating subclinical bulbar involvement.

  4. Laterality of radiographic osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Daigo; Ikeuchi, Kazuma; Kojima, Toshihisa; Takegami, Yasuhiko; Amano, Takafumi; Tsuboi, Masaki; Ishiguro, Naoki; Hasegawa, Yukiharu

    2017-05-01

    There are few reports of the laterality in radiological knee osteoarthritis (ROA). This study aimed to evaluate laterality in terms of the minimum joint space width (mJSW) and osteophyte areas (OFs) in a cross-sectorial general population screen and elucidate the association between laterality and risk of osteoarthritis. We enrolled 330 participants (mean age 64.6 years) and examined the presence of ROA (Kellgren-Lawrence grade ≧ 2) laterality in terms of the mJSW and OF on the medial tibia using auto-measuring software. Moreover, we examined the association between laterality and leg dominance. The right and left medial mJSWs were 4.02 ± 0.98 mm and 4.05 ± 1.01 mm, respectively, showing no laterality; the laterals were also similar. The participants who had osteophytes ≥1 mm 2 in the right, left, and bilateral knees were 15, 37, and 57 respectively, with osteophytes being significantly more common in the left knee. The OF was significantly larger in the left knee. Conversely, the medial and lateral mJSWs and OF did not differ according to leg dominance. The prevalence of ROA was higher and the OF was more pronounced in the left knee. However, the mJSW showed no laterality. Additionally, the mJSW and OF showed no differences according to leg dominance.

  5. Experimental Research on Boundary Shear Stress in Typical Meandering Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kai-hua; Xia, Yun-feng; Zhang, Shi-zhao; Wen, Yun-cheng; Xu, Hua

    2018-06-01

    A novel instrument named Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) flexible hot-film shear stress sensor was used to study the boundary shear stress distribution in the generalized natural meandering open channel, and the mean sidewall shear stress distribution along the meandering channel, and the lateral boundary shear stress distribution in the typical cross-section of the meandering channel was analysed. Based on the measurement of the boundary shear stress, a semi-empirical semi-theoretical computing approach of the boundary shear stress was derived including the effects of the secondary flow, sidewall roughness factor, eddy viscosity and the additional Reynolds stress, and more importantly, for the first time, it combined the effects of the cross-section central angle and the Reynolds number into the expressions. Afterwards, a comparison between the previous research and this study was developed. Following the result, we found that the semi-empirical semi-theoretical boundary shear stress distribution algorithm can predict the boundary shear stress distribution precisely. Finally, a single factor analysis was conducted on the relationship between the average sidewall shear stress on the convex and concave bank and the flow rate, water depth, slope ratio, or the cross-section central angle of the open channel bend. The functional relationship with each of the above factors was established, and then the distance from the location of the extreme sidewall shear stress to the bottom of the open channel was deduced based on the statistical theory.

  6. Computer simulations of channel meandering and the formation of point bars: Linking channel dynamics to the preserved stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, T.; Covault, J. A.; Pyrcz, M.; Sullivan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Meandering rivers are probably one of the most recognizable geomorphic features on earth. As they meander across alluvial and delta plains, channels migrate laterally and develop point bars, splays, levees and other geomorphic and sedimentary features that compose substantial portions of the fill within many sedimentary basins. These basins can include hydrocarbon producing fields. Therefore, a good understanding of the processes of meandering channels and their associated deposits is critical for exploiting these reservoirs in the subsurface. In the past couple of decades, significant progress has been made in our understanding of the morphodynamics of channel meandering. Basic fluid dynamics and sediment transport (Ikeda and Parker, 1981; Howard, 1992) has shown that many characteristic features of meandering rivers, such as the meandering wavelength, growth rate and downstream migration rate, can be predicted quantitatively. As a result, a number of variations and improvement of the theory have emerged (e.g., Blondeaux and Seminara, 1985; Parker and Andrews, 1985, 1986; and Sun et al., 2001a, b).The main improvements include the recognition of so called "bar-bend" interactions, where the development of bars on the channel bed and their interactions with the channel bend is recognized as a primary cause for meandering channels to develop greater complexity than the classic goose-neck meander bend shapes, such as compound bend. Recently, Sun and others have shown that the spatial patterns of width variations in meandering channels can be explained by an extrinsic periodic flow variations coupled with the intrinsic bend instability dynamics. In contrast to the significant improvement of our understanding of channel meandering, little work has been done to link the geomorphic features of meandering channels to the geometry and heterogeneity of the deposits they form and ultimately preserves. A computer simulation model based on the work of Sun and others (1996, 2001

  7. Potassium channels in articular chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mobasheri, Ali; Lewis, Rebecca; Ferreira-Mendes, Alexandrina; Rufino, Ana; Dart, Caroline; Barrett-Jolley, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Chondrocytes are the resident cells of cartilage, which synthesize and maintain the extracellular matrix. The range of known potassium channels expressed by these unique cells is continually increasing. Since chondrocytes are non-excitable, and do not need to be repolarized following action potentials, the function of potassium channels in these cells has, until recently, remained completely unknown. However, recent advances in both traditional physiology and “omic” technologies have enhanced our knowledge and understanding of the chondrocyte channelome. A large number of potassium channels have been identified and a number of putative, but credible, functions have been proposed. Members of each of the potassium channel sub-families (calcium activated, inward rectifier, voltage-gated and tandem pore) have all been identified. Mechanotransduction, cell volume regulation, apoptosis and chondrogenesis all appear to involve potassium channels. Since evidence suggests that potassium channel gene transcription is altered in osteoarthritis, future studies are needed that investigate potassium channels as potential cellular biomarkers and therapeutic targets for treatment of degenerative joint conditions. PMID:23064164

  8. Information geometry of Gaussian channels

    SciT

    Monras, Alex; CNR-INFM Coherentia, Napoli; CNISM Unita di Salerno

    2010-06-15

    We define a local Riemannian metric tensor in the manifold of Gaussian channels and the distance that it induces. We adopt an information-geometric approach and define a metric derived from the Bures-Fisher metric for quantum states. The resulting metric inherits several desirable properties from the Bures-Fisher metric and is operationally motivated by distinguishability considerations: It serves as an upper bound to the attainable quantum Fisher information for the channel parameters using Gaussian states, under generic constraints on the physically available resources. Our approach naturally includes the use of entangled Gaussian probe states. We prove that the metric enjoys some desirablemore » properties like stability and covariance. As a by-product, we also obtain some general results in Gaussian channel estimation that are the continuous-variable analogs of previously known results in finite dimensions. We prove that optimal probe states are always pure and bounded in the number of ancillary modes, even in the presence of constraints on the reduced state input in the channel. This has experimental and computational implications. It limits the complexity of optimal experimental setups for channel estimation and reduces the computational requirements for the evaluation of the metric: Indeed, we construct a converging algorithm for its computation. We provide explicit formulas for computing the multiparametric quantum Fisher information for dissipative channels probed with arbitrary Gaussian states and provide the optimal observables for the estimation of the channel parameters (e.g., bath couplings, squeezing, and temperature).« less

  9. Ion Channels in Brain Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Klumpp, Lukas; Sezgin, Efe C.; Eckert, Franziska; Huber, Stephan M.

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer, lung cancer and melanoma exhibit a high metastatic tropism to the brain. Development of brain metastases severely worsens the prognosis of cancer patients and constrains curative treatment options. Metastasizing to the brain by cancer cells can be dissected in consecutive processes including epithelial–mesenchymal transition, evasion from the primary tumor, intravasation and circulation in the blood, extravasation across the blood–brain barrier, formation of metastatic niches, and colonization in the brain. Ion channels have been demonstrated to be aberrantly expressed in tumor cells where they regulate neoplastic transformation, malignant progression or therapy resistance. Moreover, many ion channel modulators are FDA-approved drugs and in clinical use proposing ion channels as druggable targets for future anti-cancer therapy. The present review article aims to summarize the current knowledge on the function of ion channels in the different processes of brain metastasis. The data suggest that certain channel types involving voltage-gated sodium channels, ATP-release channels, ionotropic neurotransmitter receptors and gap junction-generating connexins interfere with distinct processes of brain metastazation. PMID:27618016

  10. Killing K channels with TEA+.

    PubMed

    Khodakhah, K; Melishchuk, A; Armstrong, C M

    1997-11-25

    Tetraethylammonium (TEA+) is widely used for reversible blockade of K channels in many preparations. We noticed that intracellular perfusion of voltage-clamped squid giant axons with a solution containing K+ and TEA+ irreversibly decreased the potassium current when there was no K+ outside. Five minutes of perfusion with 20 mM TEA+, followed by removal of TEA+, reduced potassium current to < 5% of its initial value. The irreversible disappearance of K channels with TEA+ could be prevented by addition of > or = 10 mM K+ to the extracellular solution. The rate of disappearance of K channels followed first-order kinetics and was slowed by reducing the concentration of TEA+. Killing is much less evident when an axon is held at -110 mV to tightly close all of the channels. The longer-chain TEA+ derivative decyltriethylammonium (C10+) had irreversible effects similar to TEA+. External K+ also protected K channels against the irreversible action of C10+. It has been reported that removal of all K+ internally and externally (dekalification) can result in the disappearance of K channels, suggesting that binding of K+ within the pore is required to maintain function. Our evidence further suggests that the crucial location for K+ binding is external to the (internal) TEA+ site and that TEA+ prevents refilling of this location by intracellular K+. Thus in the absence of extracellular K+, application of TEA+ (or C10+) has effects resembling dekalification and kills the K channels.

  11. IA channels: diverse regulatory mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Carrasquillo, Yarimar; Nerbonne, Jeanne M

    2014-04-01

    In many peripheral and central neurons, A-type K(+) currents, IA, have been identified and shown to be key determinants in shaping action potential waveforms and repetitive firing properties, as well as in the regulation of synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity. The functional properties and physiological roles of native neuronal IA, however, have been shown to be quite diverse in different types of neurons. Accumulating evidence suggests that this functional diversity is generated by multiple mechanisms, including the expression and subcellular distributions of IA channels encoded by different voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channel pore-forming (α) subunits, interactions of Kv α subunits with cytosolic and/or transmembrane accessory subunits and regulatory proteins and post-translational modifications of channel subunits. Several recent reports further suggest that local protein translation in the dendrites of neurons and interactions between IA channels with other types of voltage-gated ion channels further expands the functional diversity of native neuronal IA channels. Here, we review the diverse molecular mechanisms that have been shown or proposed to underlie the functional diversity of native neuronal IA channels.

  12. Association of Frontal and Lateral Facial Attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jeffrey T; Avilla, David; Devcic, Zlatko; Karimi, Koohyar; Wong, Brian J F

    2018-01-01

    Despite the large number of studies focused on defining frontal or lateral facial attractiveness, no reports have examined whether a significant association between frontal and lateral facial attractiveness exists. To examine the association between frontal and lateral facial attractiveness and to identify anatomical features that may influence discordance between frontal and lateral facial beauty. Paired frontal and lateral facial synthetic images of 240 white women (age range, 18-25 years) were evaluated from September 30, 2004, to September 29, 2008, using an internet-based focus group (n = 600) on an attractiveness Likert scale of 1 to 10, with 1 being least attractive and 10 being most attractive. Data analysis was performed from December 6, 2016, to March 30, 2017. The association between frontal and lateral attractiveness scores was determined using linear regression. Outliers were defined as data outside the 95% individual prediction interval. To identify features that contribute to score discordance between frontal and lateral attractiveness scores, each of these image pairs were scrutinized by an evaluator panel for facial features that were present in the frontal or lateral projections and absent in the other respective facial projections. Attractiveness scores obtained from internet-based focus groups. For the 240 white women studied (mean [SD] age, 21.4 [2.2] years), attractiveness scores ranged from 3.4 to 9.5 for frontal images and 3.3 to 9.4 for lateral images. The mean (SD) frontal attractiveness score was 6.9 (1.4), whereas the mean (SD) lateral attractiveness score was 6.4 (1.3). Simple linear regression of frontal and lateral attractiveness scores resulted in a coefficient of determination of r2 = 0.749. Eight outlier pairs were identified and analyzed by panel evaluation. Panel evaluation revealed no clinically applicable association between frontal and lateral images among outliers; however, contributory facial features were suggested

  13. Vannevar Bush: Fifty Years Later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    It is ironic that the 50th anniversary year of Vannevar Bush's Report to President Truman entitled "Science the Endless Frontier", which put into motion the eminently successful current system of education of scientists in this country occurs at a time when serious questions are being asked about the usefulness of that very system. Bush viewed his proposal to establish a national research foundation (later to be called the National Science Foundation) as a "social compact." Judgment of scientific merit would be delegated to expert peers in return for scientific progress, which would ultimately benefit the nation in terms of scientific needs--military security, economic productivity, and enhanced quality of life. Bush wanted the funding of basic research intertwined with training, and preferred to use universities for this purpose rather than industrial or national labs. Bush viewed college and university scientists as teachers and investigators. He believed university-based research would uniquely encourage and engage the next generation of scientists as no other institutional arrangement could. Bush did not trust industry's commitment to basic research, an instinct that proved prophetic. The academic reserve of scientists (PhD's in training and postdoctoral students) that existed before World War II, and upon which the United States could draw for its needs, which were primarily associated with defense efforts, was probably one of the defining factors in Bush's suggested strategy. Currently, that reserve of talent has gotten so large that it is the obvious throttle in the pipeline slowing the continued development of the university research enterprise. Since 1977, the rate at which we have trained new scientists exceeds an average of 4% annually. Since 1987, the "science work force"--PhD's--has grown at three times the rate of the general labor supply. Temporary positions for postdoctoral scientists have grown even faster (over 5% per year since 1989). To compound

  14. Marine Toxins Targeting Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Hugo R.

    2006-01-01

    This introductory minireview points out the importance of ion channels for cell communication. The basic concepts on the structure and function of ion channels triggered by membrane voltage changes, the so-called voltage-gated ion channels (VGICs), as well as those activated by neurotransmitters, the so-called ligand-gated ion channel (LGICs), are introduced. Among the most important VGIC superfamiles, we can name the voltage-gated Na+ (NaV), Ca2+ (CaV), and K+ (KV) channels. Among the most important LGIC super families, we can include the Cys-loop or nicotinicoid, the glutamate-activated (GluR), and the ATP-activated (P2XnR) receptor superfamilies. Ion channels are transmembrane proteins that allow the passage of different ions in a specific or unspecific manner. For instance, the activation of NaV, CaV, or KV channels opens a pore that is specific for Na+, Ca2+, or K+, respectively. On the other hand, the activation of certain LGICs such as nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, GluRs, and P2XnRs allows the passage of cations (e.g., Na+, K+, and/or Ca2+), whereas the activation of other LGICs such as type A γ-butyric acid and glycine receptors allows the passage of anions (e.g., Cl− and/or HCO3−). In this regard, the activation of NaV and CaV as well as ligand-gated cation channels produce membrane depolarization, which finally leads to stimulatory effects in the cell, whereas the activation of KV as well as ligand-gated anion channels induce membrane hyperpolarization that finally leads to inhibitory effects in the cell. The importance of these ion channel superfamilies is emphasized by considering their physiological functions throughout the body as well as their pathophysiological implicance in several neuronal diseases. In this regard, natural molecules, and especially marine toxins, can be potentially used as modulators (e.g., inhibitors or prolongers) of ion channel functions to treat or to alleviate a specific ion channel-linked disease (e

  15. Lateral patellar retinaculum reconstruction for medial patellar instability following lateral retinacular release: a case report.

    PubMed

    Udagawa, Kazuhiko; Niki, Yasuo; Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Hideo; Enomoto, Hiroyuki; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Suda, Yasunori

    2014-01-01

    Lateral retinacular release is still being performed in patients with recurrent patellar dislocation as an additional procedure with distal realignment or medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction. However, consensus remains lacking regarding suitable indications for lateral retinacular release. A 20-year-old woman presented with patellar instability in both medial and lateral directions after undergoing lateral retinacular release with MPFL reconstruction. She displayed inherent systemic joint laxity meeting all seven Carter-Wilkinson criteria. Simultaneous MPFL revision and lateral retinaculum reconstruction successfully improved patellar instability in both directions. This case provides an example of iatrogenic medial patellar instability after failed lateral retinacular release. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Communication Channel Estimation and Waveform Design: Time Delay Estimation on Parallel, Flat Fading Channels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    channels, so the channel gain is known on each realization and used in a coherent matched filter; and (c) Rayleigh channels with noncoherent matched...gain is known on each realization and used in a coherent matched filter (channel model 1A); and (c) Rayleigh channels with noncoherent matched filters...filters, averaged over Rayleigh channel realizations (channel model 1A). (b) Noncoherent matched filters with Rayleigh fading (channel model 3). MSEs are

  17. Lateral release of proteins from the TOM complex into the outer membrane of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Harner, Max; Neupert, Walter; Deponte, Marcel

    2011-07-15

    The TOM complex of the outer membrane of mitochondria is the entry gate for the vast majority of precursor proteins that are imported into the mitochondria. It is made up by receptors and a protein conducting channel. Although precursor proteins of all subcompartments of mitochondria use the TOM complex, it is not known whether its channel can only mediate passage across the outer membrane or also lateral release into the outer membrane. To study this, we have generated fusion proteins of GFP and Tim23 which are inserted into the inner membrane and, at the same time, are spanning either the TOM complex or are integrated into the outer membrane. Our results demonstrate that the TOM complex, depending on sequence determinants in the precursors, can act both as a protein conducting pore and as an insertase mediating lateral release into the outer membrane.

  18. Protons are a neurotransmitter that regulates synaptic plasticity in the lateral amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jianyang; Reznikov, Leah R.; Price, Margaret P.; Zha, Xiang-ming; Lu, Yuan; Moninger, Thomas O.; Wemmie, John A.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Stimulating presynaptic terminals can increase the proton concentration in synapses. Potential receptors for protons are acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), Na+- and Ca2+-permeable channels that are activated by extracellular acidosis. Those observations suggest that protons might be a neurotransmitter. We found that presynaptic stimulation transiently reduced extracellular pH in the amygdala. The protons activated ASICs in lateral amygdala pyramidal neurons, generating excitatory postsynaptic currents. Moreover, both protons and ASICs were required for synaptic plasticity in lateral amygdala neurons. The results identify protons as a neurotransmitter, and they establish ASICs as the postsynaptic receptor. They also indicate that protons and ASICs are a neurotransmitter/receptor pair critical for amygdala-dependent learning and memory. PMID:24889629

  19. Protons are a neurotransmitter that regulates synaptic plasticity in the lateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Du, Jianyang; Reznikov, Leah R; Price, Margaret P; Zha, Xiang-ming; Lu, Yuan; Moninger, Thomas O; Wemmie, John A; Welsh, Michael J

    2014-06-17

    Stimulating presynaptic terminals can increase the proton concentration in synapses. Potential receptors for protons are acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), Na(+)- and Ca(2+)-permeable channels that are activated by extracellular acidosis. Those observations suggest that protons might be a neurotransmitter. We found that presynaptic stimulation transiently reduced extracellular pH in the amygdala. The protons activated ASICs in lateral amygdala pyramidal neurons, generating excitatory postsynaptic currents. Moreover, both protons and ASICs were required for synaptic plasticity in lateral amygdala neurons. The results identify protons as a neurotransmitter, and they establish ASICs as the postsynaptic receptor. They also indicate that protons and ASICs are a neurotransmitter/receptor pair critical for amygdala-dependent learning and memory.

  20. Zinc release in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala by stimulation of the entorhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Atsushi; Imano, Sachie; Itoh, Hiromasa; Oku, Naoto

    2006-11-06

    Zinc release in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala was examined using rat brain slices. The lateral and basolateral nuclei in the amygdala were evidently stained by Timm's sulfide-silver staining method. When the amygdala including both the nuclei was stimulated with 100 mM KCl by means of in vivo microdialysis, extracellular zinc concentration was increased significantly. Zinc release in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala innervated by the entorhinal cortex was next examined in brain slices double-stained with zinc and calcium indicators. Extracellular zinc signal (ZnAF-2) in the lateral nucleus was increased with intracellular calcium signal (calcium orange) during delivery of tetanic stimuli to the entorhinal cortex. Both the increases were completely inhibited by addition of 1 micro M tetrodotoxin, a sodium channel blocker. Furthermore, calcium signal in the lateral nucleus during delivery of tetanic stimuli to the entorhinal cortex was increased in the presence of 10 micro M CNQX, an AMPA/KA receptor antagonist, and this increase was facilitated by addition of 1 mM CaEDTA, a membrane-impermeable zinc chelator. The present study suggested that zinc is released in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala by depolarization of the entorhinal neurons. In the lateral nucleus, zinc released may suppress the increase in presynaptic calcium signal.

  1. Channel Evolution Following Avulsion: an Example from the Yellow River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, S.

    2017-12-01

    Long-term field observation of morphological adjustments of rivers following avulsions is lacked when studying the evolution of avulsive channel on deltas. Avulsion at the Yellow River Delta (YRD) is frequent with average lifespan of channels of only about a decade. The Qing-shui-gou channel, the recent lobe on the YRD, provides a rare opportunity for investigating channel evolution following artificial avulsion. The reasons for its longer lifespan also needs investigation of the channel evolution. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed the geomorphic adjustment of the channel based on filed survey data during 1976-2014. The evolution of the channel was impacted by anthropogenic activities, including artificial avulsion at the downstream channel reaches in 1996, alteration of runoff and sediment load through Water and Sediment Regulation Scheme (WSRS), construction of levees and dikes. Analysis on channel geometry showed that avulsions in 1976 and in 1996 both caused short-term (1 2 years) erosion at the upstream channel reaches. Following the avulsion in 1976, massive aggradation occurred at the channel reaches at the downstream of the avulsion point. A single-thread channel gradually formed, widened and enlarged as channel bed under-cut on the deposition material. As delta extended seaward and the longitudinal slope decreased with time, aggradation occurred and an alluvial ridge formed. The ratio of lateral slope to the longitudinal slope (i.e. gradient advantage) and the relative super-elevation of the channel were calculated to estimate the possibility of avulsion at the channel in the late 1990. Results showed that the slope ratio was greater than 20 locally and super-elevation near its critical value for avulsion. The fact, that natural avulsion did not occurred despite of high values of gradient advantage and super elevation, may indicate that they are not sufficient conditions for avulsion at highly human-controlled rivers, where channel boundaries are

  2. Strengthening communication to overcome lateral violence.

    PubMed

    Ceravolo, Diane J; Schwartz, Diane G; Foltz-Ramos, Kelly M; Castner, Jessica

    2012-07-01

    This quality improvement project aims to reduce nurse-to-nurse lateral violence and create a more respectful workplace culture through a series of workshops. Lateral violence is common and pervasive in nursing, with detrimental physical, psychological and organizational consequences. This project describes the organization-wide pre- and post-intervention survey of registered nurses' perception of lateral violence and turnover. After the workshop series, nurses who reported experiencing verbal abuse fell from 90 to 76%. A greater percentage of nurses perceived a workplace that was respectful to others and in which it was safe to express opinions. After the workshop series, a greater percentage of nurses felt determined to solve the problem after an incident of lateral violence, while a smaller percentage felt powerless. Nursing turnover and vacancy rates dropped. Educational workshops that enhanced awareness of lateral violence and improved assertive communication resulted in a better working environment, reduction in turnover and vacancy rates, and reduced incidence of lateral violence. Nurse managers must raise awareness of lateral violence with individual and organizational consequences. Nursing leadership can effect organizational change to lesson lateral violence and enhance a healthy workplace culture by replicating our intervention or components of our workshops. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lateral marks. 62.25 Section 62.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.25 Lateral marks. (a...

  4. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lateral marks. 62.25 Section 62.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.25 Lateral marks. (a...

  5. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lateral marks. 62.25 Section 62.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.25 Lateral marks. (a...

  6. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lateral marks. 62.25 Section 62.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.25 Lateral marks. (a...

  7. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lateral marks. 62.25 Section 62.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.25 Lateral marks. (a...

  8. Factors Affecting Lateral Stability and Controllability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, John P; Toll, Thomas A

    1948-01-01

    The effects on dynamic lateral stability and controllability of some of the important aerodynamic and mass characteristics are discussed and methods are presented for estimating the various stability parameters to be used in the calculation of the dynamic lateral stability of airplanes with swept and low-aspect-ratio wings.

  9. NURSERY SCHOOL BEHAVIOR AND LATER SCHOOL ADJUSTMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WESTMAN, JACK C.; AND OTHERS

    THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BEHAVIOR AND PERSONALITY TRAITS OBSERVED EARLY AND LATER IN LIFE IS EXPLORED IN THIS PAPER. IN PARTICULAR, THE POSSIBILITY OF IDENTIFYING CHILDREN DURING NURSERY SCHOOL YEARS WHO LATER SHOW SIGNS OF MALADJUSTMENT IS EXPLORED. A SAMPLE OF 130 CHILDREN WHO ATTENDED A PRIVATE NURSERY SCHOOL BETWEEN 1945 AND 1950 WAS SELECTED.…

  10. Diagnosing Dyslexia: The Screening of Auditory Laterality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansen, Kjeld

    A study investigated whether a correlation exists between the degree and nature of left-brain laterality and specific reading and spelling difficulties. Subjects, 50 normal readers and 50 reading disabled persons native to the island of Bornholm, had their auditory laterality screened using pure-tone audiometry and dichotic listening. Results…

  11. Lateral displacement and rotational displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Duden, Thomas

    2014-04-22

    A position measuring sensor formed from opposing sets of capacitor plates measures both rotational displacement and lateral displacement from the changes in capacitances as overlapping areas of capacitors change. Capacitances are measured by a measuring circuit. The measured capacitances are provided to a calculating circuit that performs calculations to obtain angular and lateral displacement from the capacitances measured by the measuring circuit.

  12. The hitchhiker’s guide to the voltage-gated sodium channel galaxy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels contribute to the rising phase of action potentials and served as an early muse for biophysicists laying the foundation for our current understanding of electrical signaling. Given their central role in electrical excitability, it is not surprising that (a) inherited mutations in genes encoding for Nav channels and their accessory subunits have been linked to excitability disorders in brain, muscle, and heart; and (b) Nav channels are targeted by various drugs and naturally occurring toxins. Although the overall architecture and behavior of these channels are likely to be similar to the more well-studied voltage-gated potassium channels, eukaryotic Nav channels lack structural and functional symmetry, a notable difference that has implications for gating and selectivity. Activation of voltage-sensing modules of the first three domains in Nav channels is sufficient to open the channel pore, whereas movement of the domain IV voltage sensor is correlated with inactivation. Also, structure–function studies of eukaryotic Nav channels show that a set of amino acids in the selectivity filter, referred to as DEKA locus, is essential for Na+ selectivity. Structures of prokaryotic Nav channels have also shed new light on mechanisms of drug block. These structures exhibit lateral fenestrations that are large enough to allow drugs or lipophilic molecules to gain access into the inner vestibule, suggesting that this might be the passage for drug entry into a closed channel. In this Review, we will synthesize our current understanding of Nav channel gating mechanisms, ion selectivity and permeation, and modulation by therapeutics and toxins in light of the new structures of the prokaryotic Nav channels that, for the time being, serve as structural models of their eukaryotic counterparts. PMID:26712848

  13. Correcting lateral response artifacts from flatbed scanners for radiochromic film dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, David; Chan, Maria F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A known factor affecting the accuracy of radiochromic film dosimetry is the lateral response artifact (LRA) induced by nonuniform response of a flatbed scanner in the direction perpendicular to the scan direction. This work reports a practical solution to eliminate such artifacts for all forms of dose QA. Methods: EBT3 films from a single production lot (02181401) cut into rectangular 4 × 5 cm2 pieces, with the long dimension parallel to the long dimension of the original 20.3 × 25.4 cm2 sheets, were exposed at a depth of 5 cm on a Varian Trilogy at the center of a 20 × 20 cm2 open field at seven doses between 50 and 1600 cGy using 6 MV photons. These films together with an unexposed film from the same production lot were lined one next to the other on an Epson 10000XL or 11000XL scanner in portrait orientation with their long dimension parallel to the scan direction. Scanned images were then obtained with the line of films positioned at seven discrete lateral locations perpendicular to the scan direction. The process was repeated in landscape orientation and on three other Epson scanners. Data were also collected for three additional production lots of EBT3 film (11051302, 03031401, and 03171403). From measurements at the various lateral positions, the scanner response was determined as a function of the lateral position of the scanned film. For a given color channel X, the response at any lateral position L is related to the response at the center, C, of the scanner by Response(C, D, X) = AL,X + BL,X⋅Response(L, D, X), where D is dose and the coefficients AL,X and BL,X are determined from the film measurements at the center of the scanner and six other discrete lateral positions. The values at intermediate lateral positions were obtained by linear interpolation. The coefficients were determined for the red, green, and blue color channels, preserving the ability to apply triple-channel dosimetry once corrections were applied to compensate for the

  14. Correcting lateral response artifacts from flatbed scanners for radiochromic film dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Lewis, David; Chan, Maria F

    2015-01-01

    A known factor affecting the accuracy of radiochromic film dosimetry is the lateral response artifact (LRA) induced by nonuniform response of a flatbed scanner in the direction perpendicular to the scan direction. This work reports a practical solution to eliminate such artifacts for all forms of dose QA. EBT3 films from a single production lot (02181401) cut into rectangular 4 × 5 cm(2) pieces, with the long dimension parallel to the long dimension of the original 20.3 × 25.4 cm(2) sheets, were exposed at a depth of 5 cm on a Varian Trilogy at the center of a 20 × 20 cm(2) open field at seven doses between 50 and 1600 cGy using 6 MV photons. These films together with an unexposed film from the same production lot were lined one next to the other on an Epson 10000 XL or 11000 XL scanner in portrait orientation with their long dimension parallel to the scan direction. Scanned images were then obtained with the line of films positioned at seven discrete lateral locations perpendicular to the scan direction. The process was repeated in landscape orientation and on three other Epson scanners. Data were also collected for three additional production lots of EBT3 film (11051302, 03031401, and 03171403). From measurements at the various lateral positions, the scanner response was determined as a function of the lateral position of the scanned film. For a given color channel X, the response at any lateral position L is related to the response at the center, C, of the scanner by Response(C, D, X) = A(L,X) + B(L,X) ⋅ Response(L, D, X), where D is dose and the coefficients A(L,X) and B(L,X) are determined from the film measurements at the center of the scanner and six other discrete lateral positions. The values at intermediate lateral positions were obtained by linear interpolation. The coefficients were determined for the red, green, and blue color channels, preserving the ability to apply triple-channel dosimetry once corrections were applied to compensate for the

  15. Temporal integration in nasal lateralization of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Wise, Paul M; Canty, Thomas M; Wysocki, Charles J

    2006-03-01

    Two experiments examined the trade-off between concentration and stimulus duration in nasal lateralization of n-ethyl alcohol. In nasal lateralization, a common measure of irritation threshold, subjects receive chemical vapor in one nostril and clean air in the other. Subjects try to determine which nostril received the chemical. Within experimental runs, subjects received fixed concentrations (1650-5000 ppm) of ethanol, and duration was varied to find the shortest, lateralizable stimulus. In Experiment 1, a small group of subjects was tested intensively to obtain stable individual data. In Experiment 2, a larger group was studied using more rapid methods. In both cases, subjects could lateralize increasingly weaker concentrations with longer stimulus presentations. Hence integration occurred. However, more than a twofold increase in duration was required to compensate for a twofold decrease in concentration to maintain threshold lateralization. These results suggest that an imperfect, mass-integrator model can describe short-term integration of nasal lateralization of ethanol.

  16. Ultrasonographic Differentiation of Lateral Elbow Pain

    PubMed Central

    Obuchowicz, R.; Bonczar, M.

    2016-01-01

    Lateral elbow pain is often attributed to degenerative or posttraumatic impairment of the common extensor tendon. Ultrasonography assesses the soft tissue structures of the lateral elbow, allowing the differentiation between various underlying processes, including angiofibroblastic degeneration, hyaline degeneration, and inflammation, and exclusion of other possible causes of pain such as posterior interosseous and lateral antebrachial nerve compression. Furthermore, the real-time imaging nature of ultrasonography enables the detection of impingement of the lateral synovial fold, degenerative changes in the elbow recess, and elbow posterolateral instability during dynamic maneuvers. Ultrasonography is widely accessible and well tolerated by patients, making it a perfect method for establishing an initial diagnosis and monitoring the healing process. This review describes the possible causes of lateral elbow pain and their ultrasonographic differentiation. PMID:27689169

  17. Associations between schizotypy and cerebral laterality.

    PubMed

    Park, Haeme R P; Waldie, Karen E

    2017-03-01

    Atypical lateralization for language has been found in schizophrenia, suggesting that language and thought disorders on the schizophrenia spectrum may be due to left hemispheric dysfunction. However, research with those with non-clinical schizotypy has been inconsistent, with some studies finding reduced or reversed language laterality (particularly with positive schizotypal traits), and others finding typical left hemispheric specialization. The aim of the current study was to use both a behavioural (dual reading-finger tapping) task and an functional magnetic resonance imaging lexical decision task to investigate language laterality in a university sample of high- and low-schizotypal adults. Findings revealed no evidence for atypical lateralization in our sample for both overall schizotypy (measured by the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences) and positive schizotypy (measured by the Unusual Experiences subscale) groups. Our findings provide further evidence that non-clinical schizotypy is not associated with atypical language laterality.

  18. Photonic confinement in laterally structured metal-organic microcavities

    SciT

    Mischok, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.mischok@iapp.de; Brückner, Robert; Sudzius, Markas

    2014-08-04

    We investigate the formation of optical modes in organic microcavities with an incorporated perforated silver layer. The metal leads to a formation of Tamm-plasmon-polaritons and thus separates the sample into metal-free or metal-containing areas, supporting different resonances. This mode splitting is exploited to confine photons in elliptic holes and triangular cuts, forming distinctive standing wave patterns showing the strong lateral confinement. A comparison with a Maxwell-Bloch based rate equation model clearly shows the nonlinear transition into the lasing regime. The concentration of the electric field density and inhibition of lateral loss channels in turn decreases the lasing threshold by upmore » to one order of magnitude, to 0.1 nJ. By spectroscopic investigation of such a triangular wedge, we observe the transition from the unperturbed cavity state to a strongly confined complex transversal mode. Such a structured silver layer can be utilized in future for charge carrier injection in an electrically driven organic solid state laser.« less

  19. Social representations of memory and gender in later medieval England.

    PubMed

    Kane, Bronach

    2012-12-01

    Social representations in later medieval culture have attracted little attention amongst psychologists, pre-dating the development of the so-called 'public sphere' in the eighteenth century. In addition, the association of pre-modern societies with 'traditional' modes of communication in social psychology places implicit limits on areas that may be studied through the lens of social representation theory. This article analyses the way in which knowledge circulated in late medieval society, noting initially the plural nature of representations of events and marginal groups, and the myriad channels through which beliefs were consolidated. In later medieval England perceptions of the past depended on collective and group memory, with customary rights and local histories forged through 'common knowledge', hearsay and the opinions of 'trustworthy men' of the village. The final section of this commentary provides an analysis of testimony from the late medieval church courts, in which witnesses articulated gender ideologies that reflected perceptions drawn from everyday life. Social representations of women were thus deployed in ecclesiastical suits, on the one hand supporting evidence of female witnesses and on the other justifying misogynistic stereotypes of women's behaviour.

  20. DR Reactor VSR channel damage

    SciT

    Kempf, F.J.; Rawlins, J.K.

    1961-10-30

    On July 11, 1961 the Ball 3X System at DR Reactor was inadventently tripped. All vertical safety rods dropped and all channels were filled with balls. This report has the twofold purpose of documenting borescope observations of ten vertical rod channels at DR Reactor and recording the estimated extent of graphite damage resulting from the above incident. Channel damage data are presented on appended drawings. With suitable notations, the tracings of these drawings may be revised to reflect any future graphite damage. All vertical rod channels at DR Reactor were visually examined with a closed circuit television system during ballmore » removal efforts. Typical photographs of trapped balls and ledges, as viewed on the television monitor, are shown. Photographs of typical graphite damage, obtained through the borescope are also included in this report. 3 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.« less

  1. Biophysics of BK Channel Gating.

    PubMed

    Pantazis, A; Olcese, R

    2016-01-01

    BK channels are universal regulators of cell excitability, given their exceptional unitary conductance selective for K(+), joint activation mechanism by membrane depolarization and intracellular [Ca(2+)] elevation, and broad expression pattern. In this chapter, we discuss the structural basis and operational principles of their activation, or gating, by membrane potential and calcium. We also discuss how the two activation mechanisms interact to culminate in channel opening. As members of the voltage-gated potassium channel superfamily, BK channels are discussed in the context of archetypal family members, in terms of similarities that help us understand their function, but also seminal structural and biophysical differences that confer unique functional properties. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Channels and valleys on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, V. R.

    1983-01-01

    Tentative conclusions about the origins of channels and valleys on Mars based on the consensus of investigators who have studied the problem are presented. The morphology of outflow channels is described in detail, and the morphology, distribution, and genesis of Martian valleys are addressed. Secondary modification of channels and valleys by mass-wasting phenomena, eolian processes, cratering, and mantling by lava flows is discussed. The physics of the flows needed to account for the immense volumes of Martian outflow channels is considered in detail, including the possible influence of debris flows and mudflows, glaciers, and ice sheets. It is concluded that Mars once probably possessed an atmosphere with higher temperatures and pressures than at present which played an essential role in an active hydrological cycle.

  3. TRP channels in the skin.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Balázs I; Oláh, Attila; Szöllősi, Attila Gábor; Bíró, Tamás

    2014-05-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels not only act as 'polymodal cellular sensors' on sensory neurons but are also functionally expressed by a multitude of non-neuronal cell types. This is especially true in the skin, one of the largest organs of the body, where they appear to be critically involved in regulating various cutaneous functions both under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In this review, we focus on introducing the roles of several cutaneous TRP channels in the regulation of the skin barrier, skin cell proliferation and differentiation, and immune functions. Moreover, we also describe the putative involvement of several TRP channels in the development of certain skin diseases and identify future TRP channel-targeted therapeutic opportunities. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. Parallel MR Imaging with Accelerations Beyond the Number of Receiver Channels Using Real Image Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jim; Wright, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Parallel imaging using multiple phased-array coils and receiver channels has become an effective approach to high-speed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To obtain high spatiotemporal resolution, the k-space is subsampled and later interpolated using multiple channel data. Higher subsampling factors result in faster image acquisition. However, the subsampling factors are upper-bounded by the number of parallel channels. Phase constraints have been previously proposed to overcome this limitation with some success. In this paper, we demonstrate that in certain applications it is possible to obtain acceleration factors potentially up to twice the channel numbers by using a real image constraint. Data acquisition and processing methods to manipulate and estimate of the image phase information are presented for improving image reconstruction. In-vivo brain MRI experimental results show that accelerations up to 6 are feasible with 4-channel data.

  5. The transverse dynamics of flow in a tidal channel within a greater strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosravi, Maziar; Siadatmousavi, Seyed Mostafa; Vennell, Ross; Chegini, Vahid

    2018-02-01

    Vessel-mounted ADCP measurements were conducted to describe the transverse structure of flow between the two headland tips in Khuran Channel, south of Iran (26° 45' N), where the highest tidal velocities in spring tides were 1.8 m/s. Current profiles were obtained using a 614.4 kHz TRDI WorkHorse Broadband ADCP over nine repetitions of three cross-channel transects during one semidiurnal tidal cycle. The 2.2-km-long transects ran north/south across the channel. A least-square fit to semidiurnal, quarter-diurnal, and sixth diurnal harmonics was used to separate the tidal signals from the observed flow. Spatial gradients showed that the greatest lateral shears and convergences were found over the northern channel and near the northern headland tip due to very sharp bathymetric changes in this area. Contrary to the historical assumption, the across-channel momentum balance in the Khuran Channel was ageostrophic. The current study represents one of the few examples reported where the lateral friction influences the across-channel momentum balance.

  6. Catalytic reaction in confined flow channel

    SciT

    Van Hassel, Bart A.

    A chemical reactor comprises a flow channel, a source, and a destination. The flow channel is configured to house at least one catalytic reaction converting at least a portion of a first nanofluid entering the channel into a second nanofluid exiting the channel. The flow channel includes at least one turbulating flow channel element disposed axially along at least a portion of the flow channel. A plurality of catalytic nanoparticles is dispersed in the first nanofluid and configured to catalytically react the at least one first chemical reactant into the at least one second chemical reaction product in the flowmore » channel.« less

  7. Magnetic modulation of inverse spin Hall effect in lateral spin-valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrianov, T.; Vedyaev, A.; Dieny, B.

    2018-05-01

    We analytically investigated the spin-dependent transport properties in a lateral spin-valve device comprising pinned ferromagnetic electrodes allowing the injection of a spin current in a spin conducting channel where spin orbit scattering takes place. This produces an inverse spin Hall (ISHE) voltage across the thickness of the spin conducting channel. It is shown that by adding an extra soft ferromagnetic electrode with rotatable magnetization along the spin conducting channel, the ISHE generated voltage can be magnetically modulated by changing the magnetization orientation of this additional electrode. The dependence of the ISHE voltage on the direction of magnetization of the ferromagnetic electrode with rotatable magnetization was calculated in various configurations. Our results suggest that such structures could be considered as magnetic field sensors in situations where the total thickness of the sensor is constrained such as in hard disk drive readers.

  8. Cooper Lake and Channels, Texas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-04-01

    maintenance. Adverse esthetic impacts of the channel and levees. Inundation of some 90 archeo- logical sites which have been tested to the extent...below the reservoir was approximately ’,0 percent complete. In June 1976, the draft environmental impact statement (EIS) was coordinated for review and...construction necessitates cutting off natural channel bends. 3. a. Environmental Impacts : (I) Reservoir. The flood storage space in the approved

  9. High lateral resolution exploration using surface waves from noise records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chávez-García, Francisco José Yokoi, Toshiaki

    2016-04-01

    Determination of the shear-wave velocity structure at shallow depths is a constant necessity in engineering or environmental projects. Given the sensitivity of Rayleigh waves to shear-wave velocity, subsoil structure exploration using surface waves is frequently used. Methods such as the spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) or multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) determine phase velocity dispersion from surface waves generated by an active source recorded on a line of geophones. Using MASW, it is important that the receiver array be as long as possible to increase the precision at low frequencies. However, this implies that possible lateral variations are discarded. Hayashi and Suzuki (2004) proposed a different way of stacking shot gathers to increase lateral resolution. They combined strategies used in MASW with the common mid-point (CMP) summation currently used in reflection seismology. In their common mid-point with cross-correlation method (CMPCC), they cross-correlate traces sharing CMP locations before determining phase velocity dispersion. Another recent approach to subsoil structure exploration is based on seismic interferometry. It has been shown that cross-correlation of a diffuse field, such as seismic noise, allows the estimation of the Green's Function between two receivers. Thus, a virtual-source seismic section may be constructed from the cross-correlation of seismic noise records obtained in a line of receivers. In this paper, we use the seismic interferometry method to process seismic noise records obtained in seismic refraction lines of 24 geophones, and analyse the results using CMPCC to increase the lateral resolution of the results. Cross-correlation of the noise records allows reconstructing seismic sections with virtual sources at each receiver location. The Rayleigh wave component of the Green's Functions is obtained with a high signal-to-noise ratio. Using CMPCC analysis of the virtual-source seismic lines, we are able to

  10. Methamphetamine acutely inhibits voltage-gated calcium channels but chronically up-regulates L-type channels.

    PubMed

    Andres, Marilou A; Cooke, Ian M; Bellinger, Frederick P; Berry, Marla J; Zaporteza, Maribel M; Rueli, Rachel H; Barayuga, Stephanie M; Chang, Linda

    2015-07-01

    In neurons, calcium (Ca(2+) ) channels regulate a wide variety of functions ranging from synaptic transmission to gene expression. They also induce neuroplastic changes that alter gene expression following psychostimulant administration. Ca(2+) channel blockers have been considered as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of methamphetamine (METH) dependence because of their ability to reduce drug craving among METH users. Here, we studied the effects of METH exposure on voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels using SH-SY5Y cells as a model of dopaminergic neurons. We found that METH has different short- and long-term effects. A short-term effect involves immediate (< 5 min) direct inhibition of Ca(2+) ion movements through Ca(2+) channels. Longer exposure to METH (20 min or 48 h) selectively up-regulates the expression of only the CACNA1C gene, thus increasing the number of L-type Ca(2+) channels. This up-regulation of CACNA1C is associated with the expression of the cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB), a known regulator of CACNA1C gene expression, and the MYC gene, which encodes a transcription factor that putatively binds to a site proximal to the CACNA1C gene transcription initiation site. The short-term inhibition of Ca(2+) ion movement and later, the up-regulation of Ca(2+) channel gene expression together suggest the operation of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein- and C-MYC-mediated mechanisms to compensate for Ca(2+) channel inhibition by METH. Increased Ca(2+) current density and subsequent increased intracellular Ca(2+) may contribute to the neurodegeneration accompanying chronic METH abuse. Methamphetamine (METH) exposure has both short- and long-term effects. Acutely, methamphetamine directly inhibits voltage-gated calcium channels. Chronically, neurons compensate by up-regulating the L-type Ca(2+) channel gene, CACNA1C. This compensatory mechanism is mediated by transcription factors C-MYC and CREB, in which CREB is linked to the

  11. A three channel telemetry system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesho, Jeffery C.; Eaton, Harry A. C.

    1993-01-01

    A three channel telemetry system intended for biomedical applications is described. The transmitter is implemented in a single chip using a 2 micron BiCMOS processes. The operation of the system and the test results from the latest chip are discussed. One channel is always dedicated to temperature measurement while the other two channels are generic. The generic channels carry information from transducers that are interfaced to the system through on-chip general purpose operational amplifiers. The generic channels have different bandwidths: one from dc to 250 Hz and the other from dc to 1300 Hz. Each generic channel modulates a current controlled oscillator to produce a frequency modulated signal. The two frequency modulated signals are summed and used to amplitude modulate the temperature signal which acts as a carrier. A near-field inductive link telemeters the combined signals over a short distance. The chip operates on a supply voltage anywhere from 2.5 to 3.6 Volts and draws less than 1 mA when transmitting a signal. The chip can be incorporated into ingestible, implantable and other configurations. The device can free the patient from tethered data collection systems and reduces the possibility of infection from subcutaneous leads. Data telemetry can increase patient comfort leading to a greater acceptance of monitoring.

  12. Routing channels in VLSI layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Hong

    A number of algorithms for the automatic routing of interconnections in Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) building-block layouts are presented. Algorithms for the topological definition of channels, the global routing and the geometrical definition of channels are presented. In contrast to traditional approaches the definition and ordering of the channels is done after the global routing. This approach has the advantage that global routing information can be taken into account to select the optimal channel structure. A polynomial algorithm for the channel definition and ordering problem is presented. The existence of a conflict-free channel structure is guaranteed by enforcing a sliceable placement. Algorithms for finding the shortest connection path are described. A separate algorithm is developed for the power net routing, because the two power nets must be planarly routed with variable wire width. An integrated placement and routing system for generating building-block layout is briefly described. Some experimental results and design experiences in using the system are also presented. Very good results are obtained.

  13. Model to Design Drip Hose Lateral Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Rafael; Cury Saad, João Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Introduction The design criterion for non-pressure compensating drip hose is normally to have 10% of flow variation (Δq) in the lateral line, corresponding to 20% of head pressure variation (ΔH). Longer lateral lines in drip irrigation systems using conventional drippers provide cost reduction, but it is necessary to obtain to the uniformity of irrigation [1]. The use of Δq higher levels can provide longer lateral lines. [4] proposes the use of a 30% Δq and he found that this value resulted in distribution uniformity over 80%. [1] considered it is possible to extend the lateral line length using two emitters spacing in different section. He assumed that the spacing changing point would be at 40% of the total length, because this is approximately the location of the average flow according with [2]. [3] found that, for practical purposes, the average pressure is located at 40% of the length of the lateral line and that until this point it has already consumed 75% of total pressure head loss (hf ). In this case, the challenge for designers is getting longer lateral lines with high values of uniformity. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a model to design longer lateral lines using non-pressure compensating drip hose. Using the developed model, the hypotheses to be evaluated were: a) the use of two different spacing between emitters in the same lateral line allows longer length; b) it is possible to get longer lateral lines using high values of pressure variation in the lateral lines since the distribution uniformity stays below allowable limits. Methodology A computer program was developed in Delphi® based on the model developed and it is able to design lateral lines in level using non-pressure compensating drip hose. The input data are: desired distribution uniformity (DU); initial and final pressure in the lateral line; coefficients of relationship between emitter discharge and pressure head; hose internal diameter; pipe cross-sectional area

  14. Morphological resilience to flow fluctuations of fine sediment deposits in bank lateral cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juez, C.; Thalmann, M.; Schleiss, A. J.; Franca, M. J.

    2018-05-01

    Lateral cavities are built in the banks of rivers for several purposes: to create harbors, to capture sediment, to keep a central navigable channel (i.e., Casiers de Girardon in the Rhone river) or to promote the formation of aquatic habitats if a limited amount of sediment is captured, providing hydraulic and morphologic diversity (i.e., the case of Japanese Wandos). This work is focused on this latter purpose: promotion of hydraulic and morphologic diversity. In these scenarios, an increase in the flow discharge in the main channel may, however, re-mobilize the deposit of sediment inside these lateral embayments and cause a sudden increase of the sediment concentration and turbidity in the main channel. It is thus of interest to characterize the resistance and resilience of these sedimentary deposits when the main channel is subjected to high flow or flushing events. Laboratory tests were carried out for five different normalized geometries of the cavities installed in the banks of an open channel and for five hydrographs with different levels of unsteadiness. Water depth, sediment deposit mass, sediment concentration and area covered by the settled sediments were recorded throughout each experiment. Although sediment deposits established at equilibrium before the flushing events are different depending on the geometry of the cavities, generally, they are recovered after being flushed by the high flow events. It is shown that the resistance and resilience of the sediment deposits are strongly dependent on the flow field and the mass exchange between the main channel and the cavities. This mass exchange is governed by the geometry of the cavities and the magnitude of the hydrographs applied.

  15. Transposition of a Process-Based Model, Flumy: from Meandering Fluvial Systems to Channelized Turbidite Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemay, M.; Cojan, I.; Rivoirard, J.; Grimaud, J. L.; Ors, F.

    2017-12-01

    Channelized turbidite systems are among the most important hydrocarbon reservoirs. Yet building realistic turbidite reservoir models is still a challenge. Flumy has been firstly developed to simulate the long-term evolution of aggrading meandering fluvial systems in order to build facies reservoir models. In this study, Flumy has been transposed to channelized turbidite systems. The channel migration linear model of Imran et al. (1999) dedicated to subaqueous flows has been implemented. The whole model has been calibrated taking into account the differences on channel morphology, avulsion frequency, and aggradation and migration rates. This calibration and the comparison of the model to natural systems rely on: i) the channel planform morphology characterized by the meander wavelength, amplitude, and sinuosity; ii) the channel trajectory and the resulting stratigraphic architecture described using Jobe et al. (2016) indexes. Flumy succeeds in reproducing turbidite channel planform morphology as shown by the mean sinuosity of 1.7, the wavelength to width and amplitude to width ratios around 4 and 1 respectively. First-order meander architecture, characterized by the ratios meander belt width versus channel width, meander belt thickness versus channel depth, and the deduced stratigraphic mobility number (the ratio between lateral versus vertical channel displacements), is also well reproduced: 2.5, 3.8, and 0.6 respectively. Both lateral and downstream channel normalized migrations are around 3.5 times lower than in fluvial systems. All these values are absolutely coherent with the observations. In the other hand, the channel trajectory observed on seismic cross sections (hockey stick geometry) is not fully reproduced: the local stratigraphic mobility number is divided upward by 3 whereas up to 10 is expected. This behavior is generally explained in the literature by an increasing aggradation rate through time and/or flow stripping at outer bend that decreases

  16. Prenatal and pubertal testosterone affect brain lateralization.

    PubMed

    Beking, T; Geuze, R H; van Faassen, M; Kema, I P; Kreukels, B P C; Groothuis, T G G

    2018-02-01

    After decades of research, the influence of prenatal testosterone on brain lateralization is still elusive, whereas the influence of pubertal testosterone on functional brain lateralization has not been investigated, although there is increasing evidence that testosterone affects the brain in puberty. We performed a longitudinal study, investigating the relationship between prenatal testosterone concentrations in amniotic fluid, pubertal testosterone concentrations in saliva, and brain lateralization (measured with functional Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (fTCD)) of the Mental Rotation, Chimeric Faces and Word Generation tasks. Thirty boys and 30 girls participated in this study at the age of 15 years. For boys, we found a significant interaction effect between prenatal and pubertal testosterone on lateralization of Mental Rotation and Chimeric Faces. In the boys with low prenatal testosterone levels, pubertal testosterone was positively related to the strength of lateralization in the right hemisphere, while in the boys with high prenatal testosterone levels, pubertal testosterone was negatively related to the strength of lateralization. For Word Generation, pubertal testosterone was negatively related to the strength of lateralization in the left hemisphere in boys. For girls, we did not find any significant effects, possibly because their pubertal testosterone levels were in many cases below quantification limit. To conclude, prenatal and pubertal testosterone affect lateralization in a task-specific way. Our findings cannot be explained by simple models of prenatal testosterone affecting brain lateralization in a similar way for all tasks. We discuss alternative models involving age dependent effects of testosterone, with a role for androgen receptor distribution and efficiency. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Lateral-deflection-controlled friction force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuzawa, Kenji; Hamaoka, Satoshi; Shikida, Mitsuhiro; Itoh, Shintaro; Zhang, Hedong

    2014-08-01

    Lateral-deflection-controlled dual-axis friction force microscopy (FFM) is presented. In this method, an electrostatic force generated with a probe-incorporated micro-actuator compensates for friction force in real time during probe scanning using feedback control. This equivalently large rigidity can eliminate apparent boundary width and lateral snap-in, which are caused by lateral probe deflection. The method can evolve FFM as a method for quantifying local frictional properties on the micro/nanometer-scale by overcoming essential problems to dual-axis FFM.

  18. Use of micro-resistivity imaging tools in developing lower Pennsylvanian Morrow channel sandstone reservoirs, Cheyenne, Kiowa and Lincoln Counties, Colorado

    SciT

    Germinario, M.P.

    1996-12-31

    In southeastern Colorado, Lower Pennsylvanian Morrow channel sandstones are part of complex valley-fill sequences incised into Morrow marine deposits. Morrow valleys are approximately {1/2} to 1 mile wide. Valley-fill consists of floodplain and channel filling shales, very fine-grained estuarine sandstones and fine- to coarse-grained channel sandstones that are up to 50` thick. Channel sandstones represent a sequence of stacked fluvial bars deposited in braided, anastomosing and meandering fluvial environments. Cross-stratification in channel sandstones can be imaged by micro-resistivity wireline logging tools and interpreted interactively on various workstation software packages. Recognition, interpretation and measurement of current, stoss face, and lateral accretionmore » beds in these sandstones can result in an estimated direction of paleocurrent flow of the channel. Determination of the channel`s local paleoflow direction can provide significant sand risk reduction in developmental drilling, especially in 80 acre or less spacing patterns. As the distance between offset drilling locations increases, the reliability of paleoflow prediction decreases, and the corresponding sand risk rises. Lateral accretion bedding in Morrow channel sandstones has proven to be a poor indicator of sand thickening direction, due to the complex stacking of multiple channel sandstones within any given valley-fill sequence. Micro-resistivity imaging reduces risk in Morrow channel sandstone development drilling programs. Furthermore, these interpretation techniques could be applicable in other fluvial channel sandstone plays.« less

  19. Lateral column length in adult flatfoot deformity.

    PubMed

    Kang, Steve; Charlton, Timothy P; Thordarson, David B

    2013-03-01

    In adult acquired flatfoot deformity, it is unclear whether the lateral column length shortens with progression of the deformity, whether it is short to begin with, or whether it is short at all. To our knowledge, no previous study has examined the lateral column length of patients with adult acquired flatfoot deformity compared to a control population. The purpose of our study was to compare the lateral column length in patients with and without adult acquired flatfoot deformity to see if there was a significant difference. The study was a retrospective radiographic review of 2 foot and ankle fellowship-trained orthopaedic surgeons' patients with adult flatfoot deformity. Our study population consisted of 75 patients, 85 feet (28 male, 57 female) with adult flatfoot deformity with a mean age of 64 (range, 23-93). Our control population consisted of 57 patients and 70 feet (23 male, 47 female) without flatfoot deformity with a mean age of 61 (range, 40-86 years). Weightbearing anteroposterior (AP) and lateral foot radiographs were analyzed for each patient, and the following measurements were made: medial and lateral column lengths, talonavicular uncoverage angle, talus-first metatarsal angle, calcaneal pitch angle, and medial and lateral column heights. An unpaired t test was used to analyze the measurements between the groups. Ten patients' radiographs were remeasured, and correlation coefficients were obtained to assess the reliability of the measuring techniques. For the flatfoot group, the mean medial and lateral column lengths on the AP radiograph were 108.6 mm and 95.8 mm, respectively; the mean talo-navicular uncoverage angle was 26.2 degrees; and the mean talus-first metatarsal angle was 20.0 degrees. In the control group, the mean medial and lateral column lengths on the AP radiograph were 108.8 mm and 96.5 mm, respectively; the mean talo-navicular uncoverage angle was 8.2 degrees; and the mean talus-first metatarsal angle was 7.7 degrees. On the lateral

  20. Seismic patterns and migration history of submarine fan channels in deep-water area, Niger Delta, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guotao; Zhang, Shangfeng; Li, Yuan

    2015-04-01

    The channels of deep-water submarine fan under Niger delta slope are characterized by large dimensions special deposition positions and complex formation processes, its geographical location and sedimentary environment also hinder the research and exploration development. According to the strata slicing, RMS amplitude attribute and other techniques, we exhibit the platforms patterns of channels at different period, and based on the analysis of internal architecture and deformation history of channel-leveed systems, migration and evolution process of channel systems could be understood accurately. A great quantity of isolated channels develop in middle Miocene and aggrading streams in late Miocene, which generating because of large scale of turbidity caused by the drop of second order sea-level, which characterized by vertical accretion at smooth channel, while vertical accretion and lateral migration at bend. Evolution of channel systems can be divided into three stages: the initial erosion, erosion and filling alternately, and abandoned stage. With these three stages, the sinuosity of channel change from moderate to high, then decrease. Incision and filling of channels, being during the three development phases, is the driving force of meander-loops migration, which promote three kinds of migration patterns: lateral, down-system and combination migration. The research provides theoretical basis for high-precision prediction and evaluation of deep-water reservoir.

  1. Laterality and Lateralization in Autism Spectrum Disorder, Using a Standardized Neuro-Psychomotor Assessment.

    PubMed

    Paquet, A; Golse, B; Girard, M; Olliac, B; Vaivre-Douret, L

    2017-01-01

    A detailed assessment of laterality in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) was realized, including handedness and other measures (muscle tone, manual performance, dominant eye), using a standardized battery for the developmental assessment of neuro-psychomotor functions. The results of the laterality tests relating to cerebral hemisphere organization (spontaneous gestural laterality and tonic laterality) were different in ASD children, and indicate that the cerebral organization could be disrupted. These assessments, added to the observations of usual laterality most often reported in the literature, provide better understanding of the developmental organization from the pathophysiological point of view in children with ASD.

  2. Riparian Vegetation: Controls on Channel Planform in Noncohesive Beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tal, M.; Paola, C.; Gran, K.

    2001-12-01

    Riparian vegetation has strong consequences for the channel planform and dynamics. An understanding of this role is key to accurate modeling of river systems, and may provide answers to fundamental questions concerning stream dynamics as well as bridge the various approaches to modeling channel evolution. Vegetation on the flood plain works to constrain the flow of the river to a single channel by stabilizing banks and offering resistance to overbank flow. These controls were recently established through a set of controlled experiments at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory. The runs were designed to determine how addition of vegetation affects channel form and flow dynamics. This was achieved by holding water discharge, sediment discharge, grain size, and slope constant, while making vegetation density the only variable between runs. Plants were grown while water discharge was half its channel-forming value. This work showed that as vegetation density increased there was a decrease in braiding intensity, lateral mobility, and width to depth ratios, and an increase in maximum scour hole depth, and channel relief. While producing braiding experimentally has proven simple, no one has yet produced true dynamic meanders (i.e. high-amplitude bends that grow, cut off, and grow again). Present experimental studies at St. Anthony Falls Laboratory aim to investigate the role of vegetation in the development of a meandering river in otherwise insufficiently cohesive sand that would favor a more stable braided river system. The experiments begin with an unseeded bed into which a straight channel has been carved. Each cycle comprises a period of low discharge during which the bed is seeded with alfalfa seeds. The discharge is raised to a higher discharge only after the plants have grown to a height of about 20 mm (approximately 7 days). The duration of the high-flow stage is such that not more than 10-20% of the channel width is eroded. In addition to offering insight as to the

  3. The development of a laterally confined laboratory fan delta under sediment supply reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Siqiang; Wu, Xi; Xu, Shun; Li, Zhangyong

    2016-03-01

    In previous fan delta experiments, the effect of lateral confinement was generally ignored as these fans were usually unconfined with semiconical geometries. However, in gorge areas, fan development is usually laterally confined by valley walls. This study investigates autogenic processes of fan deltas in a laterally confined experimental tank. The experiment is divided into three phases. The sediment supply is held constant within each phase, so the autogenic processes of the fan are separated from the allogenic forcings. Results indicate that laterally confined fan deltas have higher progradation and aggradation potential, more regular channel braiding, and more even transverse sedimentation than unconfined fans. Besides, responses of fan deltas to sediment supply reduction are investigated in this research. At the initiation of the second and third phases, sediment feed rates are instantaneously reduced so that the allogenic forcings are predominant. Observations show that under sediment supply reduction, channelization on fan deltas are more pronounced and durations of the fluvial cycles are longer. The adjustment of fan morphology becomes slower as the self-regulation capacity of the fan decreases with reduced sediment supply.

  4. Enhancing interaural-delay-based extents of laterality at high frequencies by using ``transposed stimuli''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, Leslie R.; Trahiotis, Constantine

    2003-06-01

    An acoustic pointing task was used to determine whether interaural temporal disparities (ITDs) conveyed by high-frequency ``transposed'' stimuli would produce larger extents of laterality than ITDs conveyed by bands of high-frequency Gaussian noise. The envelopes of transposed stimuli are designed to provide high-frequency channels with information similar to that conveyed by the waveforms of low-frequency stimuli. Lateralization was measured for low-frequency Gaussian noises, the same noises transposed to 4 kHz, and high-frequency Gaussian bands of noise centered at 4 kHz. Extents of laterality obtained with the transposed stimuli were greater than those obtained with bands of Gaussian noise centered at 4 kHz and, in some cases, were equivalent to those obtained with low-frequency stimuli. In a second experiment, the general effects on lateral position produced by imposed combinations of bandwidth, ITD, and interaural phase disparities (IPDs) on low-frequency stimuli remained when those stimuli were transposed to 4 kHz. Overall, the data were fairly well accounted for by a model that computes the cross-correlation subsequent to known stages of peripheral auditory processing augmented by low-pass filtering of the envelopes within the high-frequency channels of each ear.

  5. Individualized optimal surgical extent of the lateral neck in papillary thyroid cancer with lateral cervical metastasis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Yong; Koo, Bon Seok

    2014-06-01

    Despite an excellent prognosis, cervical lymph node (LN) metastases are common in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). The presence of metastasis is associated with an increased risk of locoregional recurrence, which significantly impairs quality of life and may decrease survival. Therefore, it has been an important determinant of the extent of lateral LN dissection in the initial treatment of PTC patients with lateral cervical metastasis. However, the optimal extent of therapeutic lateral neck dissection (ND) remains controversial. Optimizing the surgical extent of LN dissection is fundamental for balancing the surgical morbidity and oncological benefits of ND in PTC patients with lateral neck metastasis. We reviewed the currently available literature regarding the optimal extent of lateral LN dissection in PTC patients with lateral neck metastasis. Even in cases with suspicion of metastatic LN at the single lateral level or isolated metastatic lateral LN, the application of ND including all sublevels from IIa and IIb to Va and Vb may be overtreatment, due to the surgical morbidity. When there is no suspicion of LN metastasis at levels II and V, or when multilevel aggressive neck metastasis is not found, sublevel IIb and Va dissection may not be necessary in PTC patients with lateral neck metastasis. Thus consideration of the individualized optimal surgical extent of lateral ND is important when treating PTC patients with lateral cervical metastasis.

  6. The laterality effect: myth or truth?

    PubMed

    Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2008-03-01

    Tzelgov and colleagues [Tzelgov, J., Meyer, J., and Henik, A. (1992). Automatic and intentional processing of numerical information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 18, 166-179.], offered the existence of the laterality effect as a post-hoc explanation for their results. According to this effect, numbers are classified automatically as small/large versus a standard point under autonomous processing of numerical information. However, the genuinity of the laterality effect was never examined, or was confounded with the numerical distance effect. In the current study, I controlled the numerical distance effect and observed that the laterality effect does exist, and affects the processing of automatic numerical information. The current results suggest that the laterality effect should be taken into account when using paradigms that require automatic numerical processing such as Stroop-like or priming tasks.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile primary lateral sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the ALS2 gene cause most cases of juvenile primary lateral sclerosis . This gene provides instructions for making a protein called alsin. Alsin is abundant in motor neurons , but its function is not fully understood. Mutations in the ALS2 ...

  8. Lateral Patellofemoral Ligament: An Anatomic Study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kalpit N; DeFroda, Steven F; Ware, James Kristopher; Koruprolu, Sarath C; Owens, Brett D

    2017-12-01

    Medial instability of the patellofemoral joint is a rare but known phenomenon that may result from an incompetent lateral patellofemoral ligament (LPFL). Surgical reconstruction of the LPFL has been described. However, anatomic details of the ligament have not been the subject of scrutiny. To describe the anatomic origin and insertion of the LPFL. Descriptive laboratory study. Ten fresh-frozen, unpaired human cadaveric knees (mean age, 57 years) were dissected to identify the LPFL. The dissection was carried out by elevating the iliotibial band to expose the deep capsular layer of the knee joint, followed by a medial parapatellar approach to the knee. Then the quadriceps and patellar tendons were sectioned, and the LPFL was isolated by visualization and palpation. The LPFL was dissected to reveal its origin and insertion; these were measured with respect to the lateral epicondyle and the superior-inferior axis of the lateral patella, respectively. On average, the LPFL had a variable point of origin in location as well as width about the lateral epicondyle. The LPFL originated, on average, 2.6 mm distal (range, 13.1 mm proximal to 11.4 mm distal) and 10.8 mm anterior (range, 7.3 mm posterior to 14.9 mm anterior) to the lateral epicondyle. The LPFL insertion on the patella was more reliably found to be about 45% (range, 23.7%-58.4%) of its lateral articular surface. The insertion on the patella was found to be in the middle third of the lateral patella. The LPFL has an origin that is variable but, on average, was found to be distal and anterior to the lateral epicondyle. The patella insertion was more reliably found to be in the middle third of the lateral patella. These anatomic relationships can help the surgeon reconstruct the LPFL in a more anatomic fashion. Surgeons who are tasked with reconstruction of the LPFL of a patient with idiopathic medial instability or a previous aggressive lateral release of the knee may reference this article to perform an anatomic

  9. Hydrophobically stabilized open state for the lateral gate of the Sec translocon

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Miller, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    The Sec translocon is a central component of cellular pathways for protein translocation and membrane integration. Using both atomistic and coarse-grained molecular simulations, we investigate the conformational landscape of the translocon and explore the role of peptide substrates in the regulation of the translocation and integration pathways. Inclusion of a hydrophobic peptide substrate in the translocon stabilizes the opening of the lateral gate for membrane integration, whereas a hydrophilic peptide substrate favors the closed lateral gate conformation. The relative orientation of the plug moiety and a peptide substrate within the translocon channel is similarly dependent on whether the substrate is hydrophobic or hydrophilic in character, and the energetics of the translocon lateral gate opening in the presence of a peptide substrate is governed by the energetics of the peptide interface with the membrane. Implications of these results for the regulation of Sec-mediated pathways for protein translocation vs. membrane integration are discussed. PMID:20203009

  10. On the Formation of Filament Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.-M.; Muglach, K.

    2007-09-01

    From the Hα archive of the Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) we have selected three examples showing fibril structures that change their orientation, over 1 or 2 days, from nearly perpendicular to nearly parallel to the polarity inversion line (PIL). In one case, the filament channel forms within a single decaying bipole; in the other two cases, it forms along the boundary between an active region and its surroundings. Comparing the Hα filtergrams with magnetograms from the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI), we find that the fibrils become aligned with the PIL as supergranular convection brings opposite-polarity magnetic flux together; shearing motions along the PIL, when present, act mainly to accelerate the rate of diffusive annihilation. We conclude that the reorientation of the fibrils is due to the cancellation and submergence of the transverse field component (B⊥), leaving behind the preexisting axial field component (B∥). The latter may have been generated by photospheric differential rotation over longer timescales, or else was already present when the flux emerged. The filament channel forms slowly if B∥/B⊥ is initially small, as along the internal neutral line of a newly emerged bipole, but may appear within hours if this ratio is initially substantial, as where the dipole-like loops of an active region curve around its periphery. In all of our examples, filaments form within a day or so after the fibrils become aligned with the PIL, while barbs appear at a later stage, as flux elements continue to diffuse across the PIL and cancel with the majority-polarity flux on the other side.

  11. A probabilistic approach for channel initiation

    Erkan Istanbulluoglu; David G. Tarboton; Robert T. Pack; Charles H. Luce

    2002-01-01

    The channel head represents an important transition point from hillslope to fluvial processes. There is a nonlinear threshold transition across the channel head with sediment transport much larger in channels than on hillslopes. Deterministic specific catchment area, a, thresholds for channel initiation, sometimes dependent on slope, S...

  12. A Crash Course in Calcium Channels.

    PubMed

    Zamponi, Gerald W

    2017-12-20

    Much progress has been made in understanding the molecular physiology and pharmacology of calcium channels. Recently, there have been tremendous advances in learning about calcium channel structure and function through crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy studies. Here, I will give an overview of our knowledge about calcium channels, and highlight two recent studies that give important insights into calcium channel structure.

  13. TRP channels in the skin

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, Balázs I; Oláh, Attila; Szöllősi, Attila Gábor; Bíró, Tamás

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels not only act as ‘polymodal cellular sensors’ on sensory neurons but are also functionally expressed by a multitude of non-neuronal cell types. This is especially true in the skin, one of the largest organs of the body, where they appear to be critically involved in regulating various cutaneous functions both under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In this review, we focus on introducing the roles of several cutaneous TRP channels in the regulation of the skin barrier, skin cell proliferation and differentiation, and immune functions. Moreover, we also describe the putative involvement of several TRP channels in the development of certain skin diseases and identify future TRP channel-targeted therapeutic opportunities. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on the pharmacology of TRP channels. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-10 PMID:24372189

  14. Generic theory for channel sinuosity.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Eli D; Constantine, José Antonio

    2013-05-21

    Sinuous patterns traced by fluid flows are a ubiquitous feature of physical landscapes on Earth, Mars, the volcanic floodplains of the Moon and Venus, and other planetary bodies. Typically discussed as a consequence of migration processes in meandering rivers, sinuosity is also expressed in channel types that show little or no indication of meandering. Sinuosity is sometimes described as "inherited" from a preexisting morphology, which still does not explain where the inherited sinuosity came from. For a phenomenon so universal as sinuosity, existing models of channelized flows do not explain the occurrence of sinuosity in the full variety of settings in which it manifests, or how sinuosity may originate. Here we present a generic theory for sinuous flow patterns in landscapes. Using observations from nature and a numerical model of flow routing, we propose that flow resistance (representing landscape roughness attributable to topography or vegetation density) relative to surface slope exerts a fundamental control on channel sinuosity that is effectively independent of internal flow dynamics. Resistance-dominated surfaces produce channels with higher sinuosity than those of slope-dominated surfaces because increased resistance impedes downslope flow. Not limited to rivers, the hypothesis we explore pertains to sinuosity as a geomorphic pattern. The explanation we propose is inclusive enough to account for a wide variety of sinuous channel types in nature, and can serve as an analytical tool for determining the sinuosity a landscape might support.

  15. River meanders and channel size

    Williams, G.P.

    1986-01-01

    This study uses an enlarged data set to (1) compare measured meander geometry to that predicted by the Langbein and Leopold (1966) theory, (2) examine the frequency distribution of the ratio radius of curvature/channel width, and (3) derive 40 empirical equations (31 of which are original) involving meander and channel size features. The data set, part of which comes from publications by other authors, consists of 194 sites from a large variety of physiographic environments in various countries. The Langbein-Leopold sine-generated-curve theory for predicting radius of curvature agrees very well with the field data (78 sites). The ratio radius of curvature/channel width has a modal value in the range of 2 to 3, in accordance with earlier work; about one third of the 79 values is less than 2.0. The 40 empirical relations, most of which include only two variables, involve channel cross-section dimensions (bankfull area, width, and mean depth) and meander features (wavelength, bend length, radius of curvature, and belt width). These relations have very high correlation coefficients, most being in the range of 0.95-0.99. Although channel width traditionally has served as a scale indicator, bankfull cross-sectional area and mean depth also can be used for this purpose. ?? 1986.

  16. Landscapes of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    Schumann, R. Randall; Minor, Scott A.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Pigati, Jeffery S.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is the second-largest of the California Channel Islands. It is one of 4 east–west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the 5 islands in Channel Islands National Park. The landforms, and collections of landforms called landscapes, of Santa Rosa Island have been created by tectonic uplift and faulting, rising and falling sea level, landslides, erosion and deposition, floods, and droughts. Landscape features, and areas delineating groups of related features on Santa Rosa Island, are mapped, classified, and described in this paper. Notable landscapes on the island include beaches, coastal plains formed on marine terraces, sand dunes, and sand sheets. In this study, the inland physiography has been classified into 4 areas based on relief and degree of fluvial dissection. Most of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, or barrancas, leaving a relict floodplain above the present channel. A better understanding of the processes and mechanisms that created these landscapes enhances visitors’ enjoyment of their surroundings and contributes to improving land and resource management strategies in order to optimize and balance the multiple goals of conservation, preservation, restoration, and visitor experience.

  17. [Modulation of Kv4 channels by KChIPs clamping].

    PubMed

    Cui, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Ke-Wei

    2009-01-01

    The rapidly inactivating (A-type) potassium channels regulate membrane excitability that defines the fundamental mechanism of neuronal functions such as pain signaling. Cytosolic Kv channel-interacting proteins KChIPs co-assemble with Kv4 (Shal) alpha subunits to form a native complex. The specific binding of auxiliary KChIPs to the Kv4 N-terminus results in modulation of gating properties, surface expression and subunit assembly of Kv4 channels. Based on recent structural efforts, here we attempt to emphasize the interaction between KChIPs and Kv4 channel complex in which a single KChIP1 molecule laterally clamps two neighboring Kv4.3 N-termini in a 4:4 manner. Greater insights into molecular mechanism between KChIPs and Kv4 interaction may provide therapeutic potentials by structure-based design of chemical compounds aimed at disrupting the protein-protein interaction for treatment of membrane excitability-related disorders.

  18. Variable parameter McCarthy-Muskingum routing method considering lateral flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Basant; Perumal, Muthiah; Bardossy, Andras

    2015-04-01

    The fully mass conservative variable parameter McCarthy-Muskingum (VPMM) method recently proposed by Perumal and Price (2013) for routing floods in channels and rivers without considering lateral flow is extended herein for accounting uniformly distributed lateral flow contribution along the reach. The proposed procedure is applied for studying flood wave movement in a 24.2 km river stretch between Rottweil and Oberndorf gauging stations of Neckar River in Germany wherein significant lateral flow contribution by intermediate catchment rainfall prevails during flood wave movement. The geometrical elements of the cross-sectional information of the considered routing river stretch without considering lateral flow are estimated using the Robust Parameter Estimation (ROPE) algorithm that allows for arriving at the best performing set of bed width and side slope of a trapezoidal section. The performance of the VPMM method is evaluated using the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency criterion as the objective function to be maximized using the ROPE algorithm. The twenty-seven flood events in the calibration set are considered to identify the relationship between 'total rainfall' and 'total losses' as well as to optimize the geometric characteristics of the prismatic channel (width and slope of the trapezoidal section). Based on this analysis, a relationship between total rainfall and total loss of the intermediate catchment is obtained and then used to estimate the lateral flow in the reach. Assuming the lateral flow hydrograph is of the form of inflow hydrograph and using the total intervening catchment runoff estimated from the relationship, the uniformly distributed lateral flow rate qL at any instant of time is estimated for its use in the VPMM routing method. All the 27 flood events are simulated using this routing approach considering lateral flow along the reach. Many of these simulations are able to simulate the observed hydrographs very closely. The proposed approach

  19. Charged and Neutral Particles Channeling Phenomena Channeling 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabagov, Sultan B.; Palumbo, Luigi

    2010-04-01

    On the discovery of coherent Bremsstrahlung in a single crystal at the Frascati National Laboratories / C. Barbiellini, G. P. Murtas and S. B. Dabagov -- Advances in coherent Bremsstrahlung and LPM-effect studies (to the lOOth anniversary from the birth of L. D. Landau) / N. F. Shul'ga -- Spectra of radiation and created particles at intermediate energy in oriented crystal taking into account energy loss / V. N. Baier and V. M. Katkov -- The coherent Bremsstrahlung beam at MAX-lab facility / K. Fissum ... [et al.] -- Radiation from thin, structured targets (CERN NA63) / A. Dizdar -- Hard incoherent radiation in thick crystals / N. F. Shul'ga, V. V. Syshchenko and A. I. Tarnovsky -- Coherent Bremsstrahlung in periodically deformed crystals with a complex base / A. R. Mkrtchyan, A. A. Saharian and V. V. Parazian -- Induction of coherent x-ray Bremsstrahlung in crystals under the influence of acoustic waves / A. R. Mkrtchyan and V. V. Parazian -- Coherent processes in bent single crystals / V. A. Maisheev -- Experimental and theoretical investigation of complete transfer phenomenon for media with various heat exchange coefficients / A. R. Mkrtchyan, A. E. Movsisyan and V. R. Kocharyan -- Coherent pair production in crystals / A. R. Mkrtchyan, A. A. Saharian and V. V. Parazian -- Negative particle planar and axial channeling and channeling collimation / R. A. Carrigan, Jr. -- CERN crystal-based collimation in modern hadron colliders / W. Scandale -- Studies and application of bent crystals for beam steering at 70 GeV IHEP accelerator / A. G. Afonin ... [et al.] -- Crystal collimation studies at the Tevatron (T-980) / N. V. Mokhov ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of crystals for channeling of particles in accellerators / A. Mazzolari ... [et al.] -- New possibilities to facilitate collimation of both positively and negatively charged particle beams by crystals / V. Guidi, A. Mazzolari and V. V. Tikhomirov -- Increase of probability of particle capture into the channeling

  20. A Gradually Varied Approach to Model Turbidity Currents in Submarine Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolla Pittaluga, M.; Frascati, A.; Falivene, O.

    2018-01-01

    We develop a one-dimensional model to describe the dynamics of turbidity current flowing in submarine channels. We consider the flow as a steady state polydisperse suspension accounting for water detrainment from the clear water-turbid interface, for spatial variations of the channel width and for water and sediment lateral overspill from the channel levees. Moreover, we account for sediment exchange with the bed extending the model to deal with situations where the current meets a nonerodible bed. Results show that when water detrainment is accounted for, the flow thickness becomes approximately constant proceeding downstream. Similarly, in the presence of channel levees, the flow tends to adjust to channel relief through the lateral loss of water and sediment. As more mud is spilled above the levees relative to sand, the flow becomes more sand rich proceeding downstream when lateral overspill is present. Velocity and flow thickness predicted by the model are then validated by showing good agreement with laboratory observations. Finally, the model is applied to the Monterey Canyon bathymetric data matching satisfactorily the December 2002 event field measurements and predicting a runout length consistent with observations.

  1. Channel with Island in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 29 March 2004

    The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

    This false color image shows part of the Apsus Vallis region. It was collected February 2, 2003 during northern summer season. The local time is 5pm. The image shows a typical channel formation with island created in it.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 35.1, Longitude 135 East (225 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics

  2. Inertial and viscoelastic forces on rigid colloids in microfluidic channels.

    PubMed

    Howard, Michael P; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z; Nikoubashman, Arash

    2015-06-14

    We perform hybrid molecular dynamics simulations to study the flow behavior of rigid colloids dispersed in a dilute polymer solution. The underlying Newtonian solvent and the ensuing hydrodynamic interactions are incorporated through multiparticle collision dynamics, while the constituent polymers are modeled as bead-spring chains, maintaining a description consistent with the colloidal nature of our system. We study the cross-stream migration of the solute particles in slit-like channels for various polymer lengths and colloid sizes and find a distinct focusing onto the channel center under specific solvent and flow conditions. To better understand this phenomenon, we systematically measure the effective forces exerted on the colloids. We find that the migration originates from a competition between viscoelastic forces from the polymer solution and hydrodynamically induced inertial forces. Our simulations reveal a significantly stronger fluctuation of the lateral colloid position than expected from thermal motion alone, which originates from the complex interplay between the colloid and polymer chains.

  3. Channel catfish response to ultraviolet-B radiation

    Ewing, M.S.; Blazer, V.S.; Fabacher, D.L.; Little, E.E.; Kocan, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    Fingerling channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus exposed to simulated ultraviolet-B radiation at an average daily dose of 2.9 J/cm2 were quite sensitive to the radiation. After a 24-h exposure, thinning of the most dorsal epidermis frequently was accompanied by edema. Compared with epidermis of unexposed fish, mucous cells in exposed fish were less superficial and club cells were less numerous both dorsally and high on the lateral surface of the body. Sunburn cells with pyknotic nuclei were evident in the epidermis of exposed fish. Among fish exposed for 48 h, focal necrosis and sloughing of the outer epidermal layer were widespread. A methanol-extractable skin substance that is associated with resistance to sunburn in other fish species was not detected in channel catfish.

  4. Chick cerebellar Purkinje cells express omega-conotoxin GVIA-sensitive rather than funnel-web spider toxin-sensitive calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Angulo, M C; Parra, P; Dieudonné, S

    1998-03-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels form a complex family of distinct molecular entities which participate in multiple neuronal functions. In cerebellar Purkinje cells these channels contribute to the characteristic electrophysiological pattern of complex spikes, first described in birds and later in mammals. A specific calcium channel, the P-type channel, has been shown to mediate the majority of the voltage-gated calcium flux in mammalian Purkinje cells. P-type channels play an essential role in synaptic transmission of mammalian cerebellum. It is unclear whether the P-type calcium channel is present in birds. Studies in chick synaptosomal preparations show that the pharmacological profile of calcium channels is complex and suggest a minimal expression of the P-type channel in avian central nervous system. In the present work, we studied voltage-gated calcium channels in dissociated chick cerebellar Purkinje cells to examine the presence of different calcium channel types. Purkinje cells were used because, in mammals, they express predominantly P-type channels and because the morphology of these cells is thought to be phylogenetically conserved. We found that omega-conotoxin GVIA (omega-CgTx GVIA), a specific antagonist of N-type calcium channel, rather than the synthetic funnel-web spider toxin (sFTX), a P-type channel antagonist, blocks the majority of the barium current flowing through calcium channels in chick Purkinje neurons.

  5. Reduced Sodium Current in the Lateral Ventricular Wall Induces Inferolateral J-Waves.

    PubMed

    Meijborg, Veronique M F; Potse, Mark; Conrath, Chantal E; Belterman, Charly N W; De Bakker, Jacques M T; Coronel, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    J-waves in inferolateral leads are associated with a higher risk for idiopathic ventricular fibrillation. We aimed to test potential mechanisms (depolarization or repolarization dependent) responsible for inferolateral J-waves. We hypothesized that inferolateral J-waves can be caused by regional delayed activation of myocardium that is activated late during normal conditions. Computer simulations were performed to evaluate how J-point elevation is influenced by reducing sodium current conductivity (GNa), increasing transient outward current conductivity (Gto), or cellular uncoupling in three predefined ventricular regions (lateral, anterior, or septal). Two pig hearts were Langendorff-perfused with selective perfusion with a sodium channel blocker of lateral or anterior/septal regions. Volume-conducted pseudo-electrocardiograms (ECG) were recorded to detect the presence of J-waves. Epicardial unipolar electrograms were simultaneously recorded to obtain activation times (AT). Simulation data showed that conduction slowing, caused by reduced sodium current, in lateral, but not in other regions induced inferolateral J-waves. An increase in transient outward potassium current or cellular uncoupling in the lateral zone elicited slight J-point elevations which did not meet J-wave criteria. Additional conduction slowing in the entire heart attenuated J-waves and J-point elevations on the ECG, because of masking by the QRS. Experimental data confirmed that conduction slowing attributed to sodium channel blockade in the left lateral but not in the anterior/septal ventricular region induced inferolateral J-waves. J-waves coincided with the delayed activation. Reduced sodium current in the left lateral ventricular myocardium can cause inferolateral J-waves on the ECG.

  6. Continuous equal channel angular pressing

    DOEpatents

    Zhu, Yuntian T.; Lowe, Terry C.; Valiev, Ruslan Z.; Raab, Georgy J.

    2006-12-26

    An apparatus that continuously processes a metal workpiece without substantially altering its cross section includes a wheel member having an endless circumferential groove, and a stationary constraint die that surrounds the wheel member, covers most of the length of the groove, and forms a passageway with the groove. The passageway has a rectangular shaped cross section. An abutment member projects from the die into the groove and blocks one end of the passageway. The wheel member rotates relative to the die in the direction toward the abutment member. An output channel in the die adjacent the abutment member has substantially the same cross section as the passageway. A metal workpiece is fed through an input channel into the passageway and carried in the groove by frictional drag in the direction towards the abutment member, and is extruded through the output channel without any substantial change in cross section.

  7. Thin-channel electrospray emitter

    DOEpatents

    Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2004-08-31

    An electrospray device includes a high voltage electrode chamber. The high voltage electrode chamber includes an inlet for receiving a fluid to be ionized and for directing the fluid into the chamber and at least one electrode having an exposed surface within the chamber. A flow channel directs fluid over a surface of the electrode and out of the chamber. The length of the flow channel over the electrode is greater than the height of the flow channel over the electrode, thereby producing enhanced mass transport to the working electrode resulting in improved electrolysis efficiency. An outlet is provided for transmitting the fluid out from the electrode chamber. A method of creating charged droplets includes flowing a fluid over an electrode where the length over the electrode is greater than the height of the fluid flowing over the electrode.

  8. Ceramic membranes having macroscopic channels

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Marc A.; Peterson, Reid A.

    1996-01-01

    Methods have been developed to make porous ceramic membranes having macroscopic channels therethrough. The novel membranes are formed by temporarily supporting the sol-gel membrane precursor on an organic support which is ultimately removed from the interior of the membrane, preferably by pyrolysis or by chemical destruction. The organic support may also include an inorganic metal portion that remains on destruction of the organic portion, providing structural support and/or chemical reactivity to the membrane. The channels formed when the organic support is destroyed provide the ability to withdraw small catalytic products or size-separated molecules from the metal oxide membrane. In addition, the channel-containing membranes retain all of the advantages of existing porous ceramic membranes.

  9. Ceramic membranes having macroscopic channels

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, M.A.; Peterson, R.A.

    1996-09-03

    Methods have been developed to make porous ceramic membranes having macroscopic channels therethrough. The novel membranes are formed by temporarily supporting the sol-gel membrane precursor on an organic support which is ultimately removed from the interior of the membrane, preferably by pyrolysis or by chemical destruction. The organic support may also include an inorganic metal portion that remains on destruction of the organic portion, providing structural support and/or chemical reactivity to the membrane. The channels formed when the organic support is destroyed provide the ability to withdraw small catalytic products or size-separated molecules from the metal oxide membrane. In addition, the channel-containing membranes retain all of the advantages of existing porous ceramic membranes. 1 fig.

  10. Evaluate interference in digital channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davarian, F.; Sumida, J.

    1985-01-01

    Any future mobile satellite service (MSS) which is to provide simultaneous mobile communications for a large number of users will have to make very efficient use of the spectrum. As the spectrum available for an MSS is limited, the system's channels should be packed as closely together as possible, with minimum-width guard bands. In addition the employment of frequency reuse schemes is an important factor. Difficulties regarding these solutions are related to the introduction of interference in the link. A balance must be achieved between the competing aims of spectrum conservation and low interference. While the interference phenomenon in narrowband FM voice channels is reasonably well understood, very little effort, however, has been devoted to the problem in digital radios. Attention is given to work, which illuminates the effects of cochannel and adjacent channel interference on digital FM (FSK) radios.

  11. On stimulated resonance radiation by channeled particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabagov, S. B.; Kalashnikov, N. P.

    2017-07-01

    The channeled particles undergo quasiperiodic transverse bound motion along main crystallographic directions at either 1D planar or 2D axial channeling. This motion is accompanied by spontaneous radiation known as channeling radiation due to projectile's transmission between discrete quantum states. In this work we have presented preliminary evaluation of the processes of resonance scattering of external electromagnetic field when the external frequency becomes close to the channeled particle transition energies that might be of the source for induced radiation at channeling.

  12. A Conceptual Model of Riparian Forest Response to Channel Abandonment on Meandering Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stella, J. C.; Hayden, M. K.; Battles, J. J.; Piegay, H.; Dufour, S.; Fremier, A. K.

    2008-12-01

    On alluvial rivers, hydrogeomorphic regimes exert a primary control on the regeneration of pioneer riparian forest stands and thus their composition and age structure. Seasonal flow patterns provide the necessary conditions for recruitment, and channel migration drives patterns of forest stand dynamics. To date, studies of pioneer riparian forest structure have focused primarily on point bar habitats, where woody vegetation typically recruits with decadal frequency in even-aged bands parallel to the river margin. However, there are indications that other recruitment pathways exist and can be important from a population and conservation perspective. On floodplains where channel migration occurs as infrequent cutoff or avulsion events, the geometry and position of the old channel relative to the new one determines rates and patterns of sedimentation and flood frequency. These conditions provide a brief opportunity for forest recruitment, and geomorphic evolution of the former channel habitat in turn influences forest dynamics. The population implications of this alternative forest regeneration pathway depend on the temporal dynamics of channel abandonment versus the rate of lateral channel migration. Preliminary analysis indicates that the geographic scope of this ecogeomorphological process is sizable. Along the Sacramento River (CA) and Ain River (France), for example, cottonwood-dominated stands associated with abandoned channels tend to be less frequent in number (38% of all stands) but larger in area (accounting for 53% of all forest area) relative to forest stands associated with laterally migrating point bars. Dendrochronological analysis confirms that tree ages in floodplain stands corresponds to the first decade after channel abandonment. These data indicate that changes to the rate and scale of channel abandonment due to human and climatic alterations to the flow regime will likely influence riparian corridor-wide tree population structure and forest

  13. Differential distribution of the sodium-activated potassium channels slick and slack in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, Sandra; Knaus, Hans-Günther; Schwarzer, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    The sodium-activated potassium channels Slick (Slo2.1, KCNT2) and Slack (Slo2.2, KCNT1) are high-conductance potassium channels of the Slo family. In neurons, Slick and Slack channels are involved in the generation of slow afterhyperpolarization, in the regulation of firing patterns, and in setting and stabilizing the resting membrane potential. The distribution and subcellular localization of Slick and Slack channels in the mouse brain have not yet been established in detail. The present study addresses this issue through in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Both channels were widely distributed and exhibited distinct distribution patterns. However, in some brain regions, their expression overlapped. Intense Slick channel immunoreactivity was observed in processes, varicosities, and neuronal cell bodies of the olfactory bulb, granular zones of cortical regions, hippocampus, amygdala, lateral septal nuclei, certain hypothalamic and midbrain nuclei, and several regions of the brainstem. The Slack channel showed primarily a diffuse immunostaining pattern, and labeling of cell somata and processes was observed only occasionally. The highest Slack channel expression was detected in the olfactory bulb, lateral septal nuclei, basal ganglia, and distinct areas of the midbrain, brainstem, and cerebellar cortex. In addition, comparing our data obtained from mouse brain with a previously published study on rat brain revealed some differences in the expression and distribution of Slick and Slack channels in these species. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2093-2116, 2016. © 2015 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Flood plain and channel dynamics of the Quinault and Queets Rivers, Washington, USA

    O'Connor, J. E.; Jones, M.A.; Haluska, T.L.

    2003-01-01

    Observations from this study and previous studies on the Queets River show that channel and flood-plain dynamics and morphology are affected by interactions between flow, sediment, and standing and entrained wood, some of which likely involve time frames similar to 200–500-year flood-plain half-lives. On the upper Quinault River and Queets River, log jams promote bar growth and consequent channel shifting, short-distance avulsions, and meander cutoffs, resulting in mobile and wide active channels. On the lower Quinault River, large portions of the channel are stable and flow within vegetated flood plains. However, locally, channel-spanning log jams have caused channel avulsions within reaches that have been subsequently mobile for several decades. In all three reaches, log jams appear to be areas of conifer germination and growth that may later further influence channel and flood-plain conditions on long time scales by forming flood-plain areas resistant to channel migration and by providing key members of future log jams. Appreciation of these processes and dynamics and associated temporal and spatial scales is necessary to formulate effective long-term approaches to managing fluvial ecosystems in forested environments.

  15. Distinct modes of perimembrane TRP channel turnover revealed by TIR-FRAP.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debapriya; Segal, Andrei; Voets, Thomas

    2014-11-19

    Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels form a broadly expressed and functionally diverse family of cation channels involved in various (patho)physiological processes. Whereas the mechanisms that control opening of TRP channels have been extensively studied, little is known about the transport processes of TRP channels to and within the plasma membrane. Here we used Total Internal Reflection--Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching (TIR-FRAP) to selectively visualize and bleach the fluorescently labeled TRP channels TRPV2 and TRPM4 in close proximity of the glass-plasma membrane interface, allowing detailed analysis of their perimembrane dynamics. We show that recovery of TRPM4 occurs via 200-nm diameter transport vesicles, and demonstrate the full fusion of such vesicles with the plasma membrane. In contrast, TRPV2 recovery proceeded mainly via lateral diffusion from non-bleached areas of the plasma membrane. Analysis of the two-dimensional channel diffusion kinetics yielded 2D diffusion coefficients ranging between 0.1 and 0.3 μm(2)/s, suggesting that these TRP channels move relatively unrestricted within the plasma membrane. These data demonstrate distinct modes of TRP channel turnover at the plasma membrane and illustrate the usefulness of TIR-FRAP to monitor these processes with high resolution.

  16. Eight-Channel Continuous Timer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Steven

    2004-01-01

    A custom laboratory electronic timer circuit measures the durations of successive cycles of nominally highly stable input clock signals in as many as eight channels, for the purpose of statistically quantifying the small instabilities of these signals. The measurement data generated by this timer are sent to a personal computer running software that integrates the measurements to form a phase residual for each channel and uses the phase residuals to compute Allan variances for each channel. (The Allan variance is a standard statistical measure of instability of a clock signal.) Like other laboratory clock-cycle-measuring circuits, this timer utilizes an externally generated reference clock signal having a known frequency (100 MHz) much higher than the frequencies of the input clock signals (between 100 and 120 Hz). It counts the number of reference-clock cycles that occur between successive rising edges of each input clock signal of interest, thereby affording a measurement of the input clock-signal period to within the duration (10 ns) of one reference clock cycle. Unlike typical prior laboratory clock-cycle-measuring circuits, this timer does not skip some cycles of the input clock signals. The non-cycle-skipping feature is an important advantage because in applications that involve integration of measurements over long times for characterizing nominally highly stable clock signals, skipping cycles can degrade accuracy. The timer includes a field-programmable gate array that functions as a 20-bit counter running at the reference clock rate of 100 MHz. The timer also includes eight 20-bit latching circuits - one for each channel - at the output terminals of the counter. Each transition of an input signal from low to high causes the corresponding latching circuit to latch the count at that instant. Each such transition also sets a status flip-flop circuit to indicate the presence of the latched count. A microcontroller reads the values of all eight status flipflops

  17. Lubiprostone: a chloride channel activator.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Brian E; Levy, L Campbell

    2007-04-01

    In January 2006 the Food and Drug Administration approved lubiprostone for the treatment of chronic constipation in men and women aged 18 and over. Lubiprostone is categorized as a prostone, a bicyclic fatty acid metabolite of prostaglandin E1. Lubiprostone activates a specific chloride channel (ClC-2) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to enhance intestinal fluid secretion, which increases GI transit and improves symptoms of constipation. This article reviews the role of chloride channels in the GI tract, describes the structure, function, and pharmacokinetics of lubiprostone, and discusses clinically important data on this new medication.

  18. Use of micro-resistivity imaging tools in developing lower Pennsylvanian Morrow channel sandstone reservoirs, Cheyenne, Kiowa and Lincoln Counties, Colorado

    SciT

    Germinario, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    In southeastern Colorado, Lower Pennsylvanian Morrow channel sandstones are part of complex valley-fill sequences incised into Morrow marine deposits. Morrow valleys are approximately [1/2] to 1 mile wide. Valley-fill consists of floodplain and channel filling shales, very fine-grained estuarine sandstones and fine- to coarse-grained channel sandstones that are up to 50' thick. Channel sandstones represent a sequence of stacked fluvial bars deposited in braided, anastomosing and meandering fluvial environments. Cross-stratification in channel sandstones can be imaged by micro-resistivity wireline logging tools and interpreted interactively on various workstation software packages. Recognition, interpretation and measurement of current, stoss face, and lateral accretionmore » beds in these sandstones can result in an estimated direction of paleocurrent flow of the channel. Determination of the channel's local paleoflow direction can provide significant sand risk reduction in developmental drilling, especially in 80 acre or less spacing patterns. As the distance between offset drilling locations increases, the reliability of paleoflow prediction decreases, and the corresponding sand risk rises. Lateral accretion bedding in Morrow channel sandstones has proven to be a poor indicator of sand thickening direction, due to the complex stacking of multiple channel sandstones within any given valley-fill sequence. Micro-resistivity imaging reduces risk in Morrow channel sandstone development drilling programs. Furthermore, these interpretation techniques could be applicable in other fluvial channel sandstone plays.« less

  19. Language Lateralization Shifts with Learning by Adults

    PubMed Central

    Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K.; Vance, Christopher J.; Asbjørnsen, Arve E.

    2014-01-01

    For the majority of the population, language is a left hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short-term within a learning context, independent of maturation. PMID:25285756

  20. Lateral restraint assembly for reactor core

    DOEpatents

    Gorholt, Wilhelm; Luci, Raymond K.

    1986-01-01

    A restraint assembly for use in restraining lateral movement of a reactor core relative to a reactor vessel wherein a plurality of restraint assemblies are interposed between the reactor core and the reactor vessel in circumferentially spaced relation about the core. Each lateral restraint assembly includes a face plate urged against the outer periphery of the core by a plurality of compression springs which enable radial preloading of outer reflector blocks about the core and resist low-level lateral motion of the core. A fixed radial key member cooperates with each face plate in a manner enabling vertical movement of the face plate relative to the key member but restraining movement of the face plate transverse to the key member in a plane transverse to the center axis of the core. In this manner, the key members which have their axes transverse to or subtending acute angles with the direction of a high energy force tending to move the core laterally relative to the reactor vessel restrain such lateral movement.

  1. Proper horizontal photospheric flows in a filament channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, B.; Roudier, T.; Mein, N.; Mein, P.; Malherbe, J. M.; Chandra, R.

    2014-04-01

    magnetized areas (ends, feet, lateral extensions of the EUV filament channel). From a large scale point-of-view, the differential rotation induced a shear of 0.1 km s-1 in the filament. From a small scale point-of-view, any convective motions favored the interaction of the parasitic polarities responsible for the anchorages of the filament to the photosphere with the surrounding network and may explain the activity of the filament. Two movies are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  2. The Berlin oil channel for drag reduction research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechert, D. W.; Hoppe, G.; van der Hoeven, J. G. Th.; Makris, R.

    1992-03-01

    For drag reduction research an oil channel has been designed and built. It is also well suited for investigations on turbulent flow and in particular on the dynamics of the viscous sublayer near the wall. The thickness of the viscous sublayer ( y += 5) can be varied between 1 and 4 mm. Surfaces with longitudinal ribs (“riblets”), which are known to reduce drag, can have fairly large dimensions. The lateral spacing of the ribs can lie between 3 and 10 mm, as compared to about 0.5 mm spacing for conventional wind tunnels. It has been proved by appropriate tests that the oil channel data are completely equivalent to data from other facilities and with other mean flow geometries. However, the shear stress data from the new oil channel are much more accurate than previous data due to a novel differential shear force balance with an accuracy of ±0.2%. In addition to shear stress measurements, velocity fluctuation measurements can be carried out with hot wire or hot film probes. In order to calibrate these probes, a moving sled permits to emulate the flow velocities with the fluid in the channel at rest. A number of additional innovations contribute to the improvement of the measurements, such as, e.g., (i) novel adjustable turbulators to maintain equilibrium turbulence in the channel, (ii) a “bubble trap” to avoid bubbles in the channel at high flow velocities, (iii) a simple method for the precision calibration of manometers, and (iv) the elimination of (Coulomb) friction in ball bearings. This latter fairly general invention is used for the wheels of the calibration unit of the balance. The channel has a cross section of 25 × 85 cm and is 11 m long. It is filled with about 4.5 metric tons of baby oil (white paraffine oil), which is transparent and odorless like water. The kinematic viscosity of the oil is v = 1.2×10-5 m2/s, and the highest (average) velocity is 1.29 m/s. Thus, the Reynolds number range (calculated with the channel width, 0.25 m) lies between

  3. Voltage-dependent conformational changes in connexin channels.

    PubMed

    Bargiello, Thaddeus A; Tang, Qingxiu; Oh, Seunghoon; Kwon, Taekyung

    2012-08-01

    Channels formed by connexins display two distinct types of voltage-dependent gating, termed V(j)- or fast-gating and loop- or slow-gating. Recent studies, using metal bridge formation and chemical cross-linking have identified a region within the channel pore that contributes to the formation of the loop-gate permeability barrier. The conformational changes are remarkably large, reducing the channel pore diameter from 15 to 20Å to less than 4Å. Surprisingly, the largest conformational change occurs in the most stable region of the channel pore, the 3(10) or parahelix formed by amino acids in the 42-51 segment. The data provide a set of positional constraints that can be used to model the structure of the loop-gate closed state. Less is known about the conformation of the V(j)-gate closed state. There appear to be two different mechanisms; one in which conformational changes in channel structure are linked to a voltage sensor contained in the N-terminus of Cx26 and Cx32 and a second in which the C-terminus of Cx43 and Cx40 may act either as a gating particle to block the channel pore or alternatively to stabilize the closed state. The later mechanism utilizes the same domains as implicated in effecting pH gating of Cx43 channels. It is unclear if the two V(j)-gating mechanisms are related or if they represent different gating mechanisms that operate separately in different subsets of connexin channels. A model of the V(j)-closed state of Cx26 hemichannel that is based on the X-ray structure of Cx26 and electron crystallographic structures of a Cx26 mutation suggests that the permeability barrier for V(j)-gating is formed exclusively by the N-terminus, but recent information suggests that this conformation may not represent a voltage-closed state. Closed state models are considered from a thermodynamic perspective based on information from the 3.5Å Cx26 crystal structure and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The applications of computational and experimental

  4. Lateral unicompartmental knee arthroplasty through a lateral parapatellar approach has high early survivorship.

    PubMed

    Berend, Keith R; Kolczun, Michael C; George, Joseph W; Lombardi, Adolph V

    2012-01-01

    The literature suggests lateral unicompartmental knee arthroplasties are associated with low revision rates. However, there are fewer reports describing techniques for lateral unicompartmental arthroplasty and whether technique influences ROM and function compared to reports for medial unicompartmental arthroplasty. We report our indications for lateral unicompartmental arthroplasty, how we perform this procedure, and the subsequent Knee Society scores, ROM, and revision and reoperation rates. From a retrospective review of electronic records from 2004 through 2008, we identified 93 patients who had 100 lateral unicompartmental arthroplasties. Indications were complete lateral bone-on-bone arthrosis with a correctible deformity and maintenance of the medial joint space on varus stress radiographs or isolated lateral disease by diagnostic arthroscopy. Average age was 68 years. Seventy percent of patients were women. At followup, we obtained Knee Society scores and ROM. Minimum followup was 24 months (average, 39 months; range, 24-81 months). At followup, Knee Society scores averaged 46 for pain, 94 for clinical, and 89 for function, and ROM averaged 124°. Three patients had reoperations: one an open reduction and internal fixation for fracture at 2 years postoperatively, one an arthroscopy for a medial meniscal tear, and one a revision for pain. Based on our observations, we believe complete cartilage loss laterally and correctible deformity with maintenance of the medial joint on varus stress radiographs are reasonable indications for lateral unicompartmental arthroplasty. We recommend a lateral parapatellar approach can be utilized. The early reoperation and revision rates were low.

  5. Channeling a Community's Aging Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Daniel J.

    This report addresses the issue of community utilization of resources for the elderly population. A strategy for channeling resources is presented, including: (1) design of a comprehensive aging services administration and delivery plan based on needs assessment data and a service resource inventory; (2) development of a service agencies network…

  6. Total Charge Movement per Channel

    PubMed Central

    Sigg, Daniel; Bezanilla, Francisco

    1997-01-01

    One measure of the voltage dependence of ion channel conductance is the amount of gating charge that moves during activation and vice versa. The limiting slope method, introduced by Almers (Almers, W. 1978. Rev. Physiol. Biochem. Pharmacol. 82:96–190), exploits the relationship of charge movement and voltage sensitivity, yielding a lower limit to the range of single channel gating charge displacement. In practice, the technique is plagued by low experimental resolution due to the requirement that the logarithmic voltage sensitivity of activation be measured at very low probabilities of opening. In addition, the linear sequential models to which the original theory was restricted needed to be expanded to accommodate the complexity of mechanisms available for the activation of channels. In this communication, we refine the theory by developing a relationship between the mean activation charge displacement (a measure of the voltage sensitivity of activation) and the gating charge displacement (the integral of gating current). We demonstrate that recording the equilibrium gating charge displacement as an adjunct to the limiting slope technique greatly improves accuracy under conditions where the plots of mean activation charge displacement and gross gating charge displacement versus voltage can be superimposed. We explore this relationship for a wide variety of channel models, which include those having a continuous density of states, nonsequential activation pathways, and subconductance states. We introduce new criteria for the appropriate use of the limiting slope procedure and provide a practical example of the theory applied to low resolution simulation data. PMID:8997663

  7. Store-Operated Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Store-operated calcium channels (SOCs) are a major pathway for calcium signaling in virtually all metozoan cells and serve a wide variety of functions ranging from gene expression, motility, and secretion to tissue and organ development and the immune response. SOCs are activated by the depletion of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), triggered physiologically through stimulation of a diverse set of surface receptors. Over 15 years after the first characterization of SOCs through electrophysiology, the identification of the STIM proteins as ER Ca2+ sensors and the Orai proteins as store-operated channels has enabled rapid progress in understanding the unique mechanism of store-operate calcium entry (SOCE). Depletion of Ca2+ from the ER causes STIM to accumulate at ER-plasma membrane (PM) junctions where it traps and activates Orai channels diffusing in the closely apposed PM. Mutagenesis studies combined with recent structural insights about STIM and Orai proteins are now beginning to reveal the molecular underpinnings of these choreographic events. This review describes the major experimental advances underlying our current understanding of how ER Ca2+ depletion is coupled to the activation of SOCs. Particular emphasis is placed on the molecular mechanisms of STIM and Orai activation, Orai channel properties, modulation of STIM and Orai function, pharmacological inhibitors of SOCE, and the functions of STIM and Orai in physiology and disease. PMID:26400989

  8. Aquaglyceroporins: ancient channels for metalloids

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Hiranmoy; Mukhopadhyay, Rita; Thiyagarajan, Saravanamuthu; Rosen, Barry P

    2008-01-01

    The identification of aquaglyceroporins as uptake channels for arsenic and antimony shows how these toxic elements can enter the food chain, and suggests that food plants could be genetically modified to exclude arsenic while still accumulating boron and silicon. PMID:19014407

  9. Improved Ion-Channel Biosensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadeau, Jay; White, Victor; Dougherty, Dennis; Maurer, Joshua

    2004-01-01

    An effort is underway to develop improved biosensors of a type based on ion channels in biomimetic membranes. These sensors are microfabricated from silicon and other materials compatible with silicon. As described, these sensors offer a number of advantages over prior sensors of this type.

  10. Recovery of Dysphagia in Lateral Medullary Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Hitesh; Banerjee, Alakananda

    2014-01-01

    Lateral medullary stroke is typically associated with increased likelihood of occurrence of dysphagia and exhibits the most severe and persistent form. Worldwide little research exists on dysphagia in brainstem stroke. An estimated 15% of all patients admitted to stroke rehabilitation units experience a brainstem stroke out of which about 47% suffer from dysphagia. In India, a study showed that 22.3% of posterior circulation stroke patients develop dysphagia. Dearth of literature on dysphagia and its outcome in brainstem stroke particularly lateral medullary stroke motivated the author to present an actual case study of a patient who had dysphagia following a lateral medullary infarct. This paper documents the severity and management approach of dysphagia in brainstem stroke, with traditional dysphagia therapy and VitalStim therapy. Despite being diagnosed with a severe form of dysphagia followed by late treatment intervention, the patient had complete recovery of the swallowing function. PMID:25045555

  11. Laterality, spatial abilities, and accident proneness.

    PubMed

    Voyer, Susan D; Voyer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Although handedness as a measure of cerebral specialization has been linked to accident proneness, more direct measures of laterality are rarely considered. The present study aimed to fill that gap in the existing research. In addition, individual difference factors in accident proneness were further examined with the inclusion of mental rotation and navigation abilities measures. One hundred and forty participants were asked to complete the Mental Rotations Test, the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction scale, the Greyscales task, the Fused Dichotic Word Test, the Waterloo Handedness Questionnaire, and a grip strength task before answering questions related to number of accidents in five areas. Results indicated that handedness scores, absolute visual laterality score, absolute response time on the auditory laterality index, and navigation ability were significant predictors of the total number of accidents. Results are discussed with respect to cerebral hemispheric specialization and risk-taking attitudes and behavior.

  12. Recovery of Dysphagia in lateral medullary stroke.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Hitesh; Banerjee, Alakananda

    2014-01-01

    Lateral medullary stroke is typically associated with increased likelihood of occurrence of dysphagia and exhibits the most severe and persistent form. Worldwide little research exists on dysphagia in brainstem stroke. An estimated 15% of all patients admitted to stroke rehabilitation units experience a brainstem stroke out of which about 47% suffer from dysphagia. In India, a study showed that 22.3% of posterior circulation stroke patients develop dysphagia. Dearth of literature on dysphagia and its outcome in brainstem stroke particularly lateral medullary stroke motivated the author to present an actual case study of a patient who had dysphagia following a lateral medullary infarct. This paper documents the severity and management approach of dysphagia in brainstem stroke, with traditional dysphagia therapy and VitalStim therapy. Despite being diagnosed with a severe form of dysphagia followed by late treatment intervention, the patient had complete recovery of the swallowing function.

  13. Lateral step initiation behavior in older adults.

    PubMed

    Sparto, Patrick J; Jennings, J Richard; Furman, Joseph M; Redfern, Mark S

    2014-02-01

    Older adults have varied postural responses during induced and voluntary lateral stepping. The purpose of the research was to quantify the occurrence of different stepping strategies during lateral step initiation in older adults and to relate the stepping responses to retrospective history of falls. Seventy community-ambulating older adults (mean age 76 y, range 70-94 y) performed voluntary lateral steps as quickly as possible to the right or left in response to a visual cue, in a blocked design. Vertical ground reaction forces were measured using a forceplate, and the number and latency of postural adjustments were quantified. Subjects were assigned to groups based on their stepping strategy. The frequency of trials with one or two postural adjustments was compared with data from 20 younger adults (mean age 38 y, range 21-58 y). Logistic regression was used to relate presence of a fall in the previous year with the number and latency of postural adjustments. In comparison with younger adults, who almost always demonstrated one postural adjustment when stepping laterally, older adults constituted a continuous distribution in the percentage of step trials made with one postural adjustment (from 0% to 100% of trials). Latencies of the initial postural adjustment and foot liftoff varied depending on the number of postural adjustments made. A history of falls was associated a larger percentage of two postural adjustments, and a longer latency of foot liftoff. In conclusion, the number and latency of postural adjustments made during voluntary lateral stepping provides additional evidence that lateral control of posture may be a critical indicator of aging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Lateral step initiation behavior in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Sparto, Patrick J; Jennings, J Richard; Furman, Joseph M; Redfern, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Older adults have varied postural responses during induced and voluntary lateral stepping. The purpose of the research was to quantify the occurrence of different stepping strategies during lateral step initiation in older adults and to relate the stepping responses to retrospective history of falls. Seventy community-ambulating older adults (mean age 76 y, range 70–94 y) performed voluntary lateral steps as quickly as possible to the right or left in response to a visual cue, in a blocked design. Vertical ground reaction forces were measured using a forceplate, and the number and latency of postural adjustments were quantified. Subjects were assigned to groups based on their stepping strategy. The frequency of trials with one or two postural adjustments was compared with data from 20 younger adults (mean age 38 y, range 21–58 y). Logistic regression was used to relate presence of a fall in the previous year with the number and latency of postural adjustments. In comparison with younger adults, who almost always demonstrated one postural adjustment when stepping laterally, older adults constituted a continuous distribution in the percentage of step trials made with one postural adjustment (from 0% to 100% of trials). Latencies of the initial postural adjustment and foot liftoff varied depending on the number of postural adjustments made. A history of falls was associated a larger percentage of two postural adjustments, and a longer latency of foot liftoff. In conclusion, the number and latency of postural adjustments made during voluntary lateral stepping provides additional evidence that lateral control of posture may be a critical indicator of aging. PMID:24295896

  15. Quantum channels and memory effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruso, Filippo; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano

    2014-10-01

    Any physical process can be represented as a quantum channel mapping an initial state to a final state. Hence it can be characterized from the point of view of communication theory, i.e., in terms of its ability to transfer information. Quantum information provides a theoretical framework and the proper mathematical tools to accomplish this. In this context the notion of codes and communication capacities have been introduced by generalizing them from the classical Shannon theory of information transmission and error correction. The underlying assumption of this approach is to consider the channel not as acting on a single system, but on sequences of systems, which, when properly initialized allow one to overcome the noisy effects induced by the physical process under consideration. While most of the work produced so far has been focused on the case in which a given channel transformation acts identically and independently on the various elements of the sequence (memoryless configuration in jargon), correlated error models appear to be a more realistic way to approach the problem. A slightly different, yet conceptually related, notion of correlated errors applies to a single quantum system which evolves continuously in time under the influence of an external disturbance which acts on it in a non-Markovian fashion. This leads to the study of memory effects in quantum channels: a fertile ground where interesting novel phenomena emerge at the intersection of quantum information theory and other branches of physics. A survey is taken of the field of quantum channels theory while also embracing these specific and complex settings.

  16. Ultra-wideband WDM VCSEL arrays by lateral heterogeneous integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geske, Jon

    Advancements in heterogeneous integration are a driving factor in the development of evermore sophisticated and functional electronic and photonic devices. Such advancements will merge the optical and electronic capabilities of different material systems onto a common integrated device platform. This thesis presents a new lateral heterogeneous integration technology called nonplanar wafer bonding. The technique is capable of integrating multiple dissimilar semiconductor device structures on the surface of a substrate in a single wafer bond step, leaving different integrated device structures adjacent to each other on the wafer surface. Material characterization and numerical simulations confirm that the material quality is not compromised during the process. Nonplanar wafer bonding is used to fabricate ultra-wideband wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) arrays. The optically-pumped VCSEL arrays span 140 nm from 1470 to 1610 nm, a record wavelength span for devices operating in this wavelength range. The array uses eight wavelength channels to span the 140 nm with all channels separated by precisely 20 nm. All channels in the array operate single mode to at least 65°C with output power uniformity of +/- 1 dB. The ultra-wideband WDM VCSEL arrays are a significant first step toward the development of a single-chip source for optical networks based on coarse WDM (CWDM), a low-cost alternative to traditional dense WDM. The CWDM VCSEL arrays make use of fully-oxidized distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) to provide the wideband reflectivity required for optical feedback and lasing across 140 rim. In addition, a novel optically-pumped active region design is presented. It is demonstrated, with an analytical model and experimental results, that the new active-region design significantly improves the carrier uniformity in the quantum wells and results in a 50% lasing threshold reduction and a 20°C improvement in the peak

  17. Differentiating submarine channel-related thin-bedded turbidite facies: Outcrop examples from the Rosario Formation, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Larissa; Callow, Richard; Kane, Ian; Kneller, Ben

    2017-08-01

    Thin-bedded turbidites deposited by sediment gravity flows that spill from submarine channels often contain significant volumes of sand in laterally continuous beds. These can make up over 50% of the channel-belt fill volume, and can thus form commercially important hydrocarbon reservoirs. Thin-bedded turbidites can be deposited in environments that include levees and depositional terraces, which are distinguished on the basis of their external morphology and internal architecture. Levees have a distinctive wedge shaped morphology, thinning away from the channel, and confine both channels (internal levees) and channel-belts (external levees). Terraces are flat-lying features that are elevated above the active channel within a broad channel-belt. Despite the ubiquity of terraces and levees in modern submarine channel systems, the recognition of these environments in outcrop and in the subsurface is challenging. In this outcrop study of the Upper Cretaceous Rosario Formation (Baja California, Mexico), lateral transects based on multiple logged sections of thin-bedded turbidites reveal systematic differences in sandstone layer thicknesses, sandstone proportion, palaeocurrents, sedimentary structures and ichnology between channel-belt and external levee thin-bedded turbidites. Depositional terrace deposits have a larger standard deviation in sandstone layer thicknesses than external levees because they are topographically lower, and experience a wider range of turbidity current sizes overspilling from different parts of the channel-belt. The thickness of sandstone layers within external levees decreases away from the channel-belt while those in depositional terraces are less laterally variable. Depositional terrace environments of the channel-belt are characterized by high bioturbation intensities, and contain distinctive trace fossil assemblages, often dominated by ichnofabrics of the echinoid trace fossil Scolicia. These assemblages contrast with the lower

  18. Activity and Ca2+ regulate the mobility of TRPV1 channels in the plasma membrane of sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Senning, Eric N; Gordon, Sharona E

    2015-01-01

    TRPV1 channels are gated by a variety of thermal, chemical, and mechanical stimuli. We used optical recording of Ca2+ influx through TRPV1 to measure activity and mobility of single TRPV1 molecules in isolated dorsal root ganglion neurons and cell lines. The opening of single TRPV1 channels produced sparklets, representing localized regions of elevated Ca2+. Unlike sparklets reported for L-type Ca2+ channels, TRPV4 channels, and AchR channels, TRPV1 channels diffused laterally in the plasma membrane as they gated. Mobility was highly variable from channel-to-channel and, to a smaller extent, from cell to cell. Most surprisingly, we found that mobility decreased upon channel activation by capsaicin, but only in the presence of extracellular Ca2+. We propose that decreased mobility of open TRPV1 could act as a diffusion trap to concentrate channels in cell regions with high activity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03819.001 PMID:25569155

  19. Progressive video coding for noisy channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Beong-Jo; Xiong, Zixiang; Pearlman, William A.

    1998-10-01

    We extend the work of Sherwood and Zeger to progressive video coding for noisy channels. By utilizing a 3D extension of the set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) algorithm, we cascade the resulting 3D SPIHT video coder with a rate-compatible punctured convolutional channel coder for transmission of video over a binary symmetric channel. Progressive coding is achieved by increasing the target rate of the 3D embedded SPIHT video coder as the channel condition improves. The performance of our proposed coding system is acceptable at low transmission rate and bad channel conditions. Its low complexity makes it suitable for emerging applications such as video over wireless channels.

  20. The origin of channels and associated deposits in the Elysium region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric H.; Hoppin, Richard A.

    1987-01-01

    Photogeological studies of the Elysium volcanic province of Mars show that its sinuous channels are part of a large deposit which probably was emplaced as a series of huge volcanic debris flows or lahars. The suggestion is based on evidence that the lahars were : (1) gravity-driven mass flow deposits (lobate outlines, steep snouts, smooth medial channels and rough lateral deposits--the deposits narrow and widen in accord with topography, and they extend downslope); (2) wet (channeled surfaces, drainage features); and (3) associated with volcanism (the deposits and channels extend from a system of fractures which fed lava flows). It is conceivable that heat associated with magmatism melted ground ice below the Elysium volcanoes, formed a muddy slurry which issued out of regional fractures and spread over the adjoining plain.

  1. Hot-carrier-induced current capability degradation and optimization for lateral IGBT on thick SOI substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunwei; Li, Yang; Yue, Wenjing; Fu, Xiaoqian; Li, Zhiming

    2018-07-01

    In this paper, the hot-carrier-induced current capability degradation of a 600 V lateral insulated gate bipolar transistor (LIGBT) on thick silicon on insulator (SOI) substrate is investigated. Our experiments found that, for the SOI-LIGBT, the worst stress condition is the maximum gate voltage (Vgmax) condition and the current degradation is dominated by the damages in the channel region under the Vgmax stress condition. However, further analyses show that the influence of channel region damages on the collector current degradation increases with the increase of measured collector voltage and is maximum in the current saturation region. Therefore, in our opinion, the hot-carrier-induced current capability degradation of the SOI-LIGBT should be evaluated by the degradation of saturation current under the Vgmax stress condition. In addition, a novel SOI-LIGBT structure with an external p-type region was also proposed, which can alleviate the damage in the channel region by reducing the lateral electric field peak. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed structure could optimize the hot-carrier reliability effectively with the other characteristics maintained. He is currently a lecturer at the University of Jinan, Jinan, China. His research interests include power electronics, high voltage devices and the electronics reliability.

  2. Lateral Pancreaticojejunostomy for Chronic Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Ductal Dilation in Children.

    PubMed

    Shah, Adil A; Petrosyan, Mikael; Kane, Timothy D

    2018-06-06

    Pancreatic ductal obstruction leading to ductal dilation and recurrent pancreatitis is uncommon in children. Treatment is dependent upon etiology but consists of decompression of the pancreatic duct (PD) proximally, if possible, by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) intervention or surgical decompression with pancreaticojejunal anastomosis. After institutional review board approval, we retrospectively reviewed the records for 2 children who underwent lateral pancreaticojejunostomy for pancreatic ductal dilation. Data, including demographics, diagnostic studies, operative details, complications, outcomes, and follow-up, were analyzed. Case 1 was a 4-year-old female with pancreatic ductal obstruction with multiple episodes of recurrent pancreatitis and failure of ERCP to clear her PD of stones. She underwent a laparoscopic cholecystectomy with a lateral pancreaticojejunostomy (Puestow procedure). She recovered well with no further episodes of pancreatitis and normal pancreatic function 4 years later. Case 2 was a 2-year-old female who developed recurrent pancreatitis and was found to have papillary stenosis and long common bile-PD channel. Despite multiple sphincterotomies, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and laparoscopic hepaticoduodenostomy, she continued to experience episodes of pancreatitis. She underwent a laparoscopy converted to open lateral pancreaticojejunostomy. Her recovery was also smooth having had no episodes of pancreatitis or hospital admissions for over 2 years following the Puestow. Indication for lateral pancreaticojejunostomy or Puestow procedure is rare in children and even less often performed using laparoscopy. In our small experience, both patients with pancreatic ductal obstruction managed with Puestow's procedure enjoy durable symptom and pain relief in the long term.

  3. Clofilium inhibits Slick and Slack potassium channels.

    PubMed

    de Los Angeles Tejada, Maria; Stolpe, Kathleen; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Klaerke, Dan A

    2012-01-01

    Slick and Slack high-conductance potassium channels have been recently discovered, and are found in the central nervous system and in the heart. Both channels are activated by Na(+) and Cl(-), and Slick channels are also inhibited by adenosine triphospate (ATP). An important role of setting the resting membrane potential and controlling the basal excitability of neurons has been suggested for these channels. In addition, no specific blockers for these channels are known up to the present. With the purpose of studying the pharmacological characteristics of Slick and Slack channels, the effects of exposure to the antiarrhythmic compound clofilium were evaluated. Clofilium was able to modulate the activity of Slick and Slack channels effectively, with a stronger effect on Slack than Slick channels. In order to evaluate the pharmacological behavior of Slick and Slack channels further, 38 commonly used potassium channel blockers were tested. Screening of these compounds did not reveal any modulators of Slick and Slack channels, except for clofilium. The present study provides a first approach towards elucidating the pharmacological characteristics of Slick and Slack channels and could be the basis for future studies aimed at developing potent and specific blockers and activators for these channels.

  4. Depression in Later Life: Recognition and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmall, Vicki L.; And Others

    This guide is designed to help readers understand depression and factors related to its onset in later life; recognize signs of depression and potential suicide; and know actions they can take if they suspect an older family member or friend may be depressed or contemplating suicide. Following a brief introduction, a chapter on depression…

  5. Laterality and Directional Preferences in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Lesley E.

    1982-01-01

    Directional preference for horizontal hand movements was investigated in 49 right- and 49 left-handed four-year-olds using three drawing tests. Directionality for more complex perceptual-motor tasks has a different basis than directionality for simple tasks; such directionality is established at a later age but only for the right hand. (Author/CM)

  6. Defining Mental Health in Later Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qualls, Sara Honn

    2002-01-01

    Traditional models for defining mental health have used statistical definitions and symptom-based definitions. In a lifespan psychological approach, mental health in later life is defined as acceptance of the aging self as an active being who creates meaning, maintains maximum autonomy, and sustains positive relationships. (Contains 12…

  7. Lateralization of the human mirror neuron system.

    PubMed

    Aziz-Zadeh, Lisa; Koski, Lisa; Zaidel, Eran; Mazziotta, John; Iacoboni, Marco

    2006-03-15

    A cortical network consisting of the inferior frontal, rostral inferior parietal, and posterior superior temporal cortices has been implicated in representing actions in the primate brain and is critical to imitation in humans. This neural circuitry may be an evolutionary precursor of neural systems associated with language. However, language is predominantly lateralized to the left hemisphere, whereas the degree of lateralization of the imitation circuitry in humans is unclear. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of imitation of finger movements with lateralized stimuli and responses. During imitation, activity in the inferior frontal and rostral inferior parietal cortex, although fairly bilateral, was stronger in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the visual stimulus and response hand. This ipsilateral pattern is at variance with the typical contralateral activity of primary visual and motor areas. Reliably increased signal in the right superior temporal sulcus (STS) was observed for both left-sided and right-sided imitation tasks, although subthreshold activity was also observed in the left STS. Overall, the data indicate that visual and motor components of the human mirror system are not left-lateralized. The left hemisphere superiority for language, then, must be have been favored by other types of language precursors, perhaps auditory or multimodal action representations.

  8. Adolescent Sexual Debut and Later Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, Stacy; Haynie, Dana L.

    2007-01-01

    Does sexual debut (i.e., experiencing sexual intercourse for the first time) increase the risks of participating in later delinquent behavior? Does this risk increase if adolescents experience early sexual debut relative to the timing experienced by one's peers? Although many factors have been linked to sexual debut, little research has examined…

  9. Convergent models of handedness and brain lateralization

    PubMed Central

    Sainburg, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    The pervasive nature of handedness across human history and cultures is a salient consequence of brain lateralization. This paper presents evidence that provides a structure for understanding the motor control processes that give rise to handedness. According to the Dynamic Dominance Model, the left hemisphere (in right handers) is proficient for processes that predict the effects of body and environmental dynamics, while the right hemisphere is proficient at impedance control processes that can minimize potential errors when faced with unexpected mechanical conditions, and can achieve accurate steady-state positions. This model can be viewed as a motor component for the paradigm of brain lateralization that has been proposed by Rogers et al. (MacNeilage et al., 2009) that is based upon evidence from a wide range of behaviors across many vertebrate species. Rogers proposed a left-hemisphere specialization for well-established patterns of behavior performed in familiar environmental conditions, and a right hemisphere specialization for responding to unforeseen environmental events. The dynamic dominance hypothesis provides a framework for understanding the biology of motor lateralization that is consistent with Roger's paradigm of brain lateralization. PMID:25339923

  10. The Blue Marble 43 Years Later

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-05-16

    article title:  The Blue Marble 43 Years Later View larger image ... points over more than four decades apart. The iconic "Blue Marble" view on the left was taken 43 years ago on December 7, 1972 from ... points over more than four decades apart. The iconic "Blue Marble" view on the left was taken 43 years ago on December 7, 1972 from ...

  11. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    PubMed

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum.

  12. Lateralized Temporal Order Judgement in Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Jackson, Georgina M.; Rorden, Chris; Jackson, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01

    Temporal and spatial attentional deficits in dyslexia were investigated using a lateralized visual temporal order judgment (TOJ) paradigm that allowed both sensitivity to temporal order and spatial attentional bias to be measured. Findings indicate that adult participants with a positive screen for dyslexia were significantly less sensitive to the…

  13. Language lateralization in healthy right-handers.

    PubMed

    Knecht, S; Deppe, M; Dräger, B; Bobe, L; Lohmann, H; Ringelstein, E; Henningsen, H

    2000-01-01

    Our knowledge about the variability of cerebral language lateralization is derived from studies of patients with brain lesions and thus possible secondary reorganization of cerebral functions. In healthy right-handed subjects 'atypical', i.e. right hemisphere language dominance, has generally been assumed to be exceedingly rare. To test this assumption we measured language lateralization in 188 healthy subjects with moderate and strong right-handedness (59% females) by a new non-invasive, quantitative technique previously validated by direct comparison with the intracarotid amobarbital procedure. During a word generation task the averaged hemispheric perfusion differences within the territories of the middle cerebral arteries were determined. (i) The natural distribution of language lateralization was found to occur along a bimodal continuum. (ii) Lateralization was equivalent in men and women. (iii) Right hemisphere dominance was found in 7.5% of subjects. These findings indicate that atypical language dominance in healthy right-handed subjects of either sex is considerably more common than previously suspected.

  14. The Columbine Tragedy Ten Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Some tragedies are so emblazoned in people's minds that years later they can recall where they were when they first heard the news. The assassinations of John F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr., the Challenger explosion, and the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks are among these events. So also is the Columbine High School tragedy of April 20, 1999.…

  15. Comet Tempel 1 Six Years Later

    2011-02-18

    This image shows the surface of comet Tempel 1 before and after NASA Deep Impact mission sent a probe into the comet in 2005. The region was imaged by Deep Impact before the collision left, then six years later on by NASA Stardust-NExT mission.

  16. Lateral prefrontal cortex: architectonic and functional organization

    PubMed Central

    Petrides, Michael

    2005-01-01

    A comparison of the architecture of the human prefrontal cortex with that of the macaque monkey showed a very similar architectonic organization in these two primate species. There is no doubt that the prefrontal cortical areas of the human brain have undergone considerable development, but it is equally clear that the basic architectonic organization is the same in the two species. Thus, a comparative approach to the study of the functional organization of the primate prefrontal cortex is more likely to reveal the essential aspects of the various complex control processes that are the domain of frontal function. The lateral frontal cortex appears to be functionally organized along both a rostral–caudal axis and a dorsal–ventral axis. The most caudal frontal region, the motor region on the precentral gyrus, is involved in fine motor control and direct sensorimotor mappings, whereas the caudal lateral prefrontal region is involved in higher order control processes that regulate the selection among multiple competing responses and stimuli based on conditional operations. Further rostrally, the mid-lateral prefrontal region plays an even more abstract role in cognitive control. The mid-lateral prefrontal region is itself organized along a dorsal–ventral axis of organization, with the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex being involved in the monitoring of information in working memory and the mid-ventrolateral prefrontal region being involved in active judgments on information held in posterior cortical association regions that are necessary for active retrieval and encoding of information. PMID:15937012

  17. Proportioning the airplane for lateral stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donlan, C. J.

    1976-01-01

    Proportioning for lateral aircraft control included: (1) directional stability (slope of curve of yawing moment coefficient against sideslip), and (2) effective dihedral factor (slope of curve of rolling moment coefficient against sideslip). Basic forces influencing the directional stability of aircraft are indicated. Propeller side force, basic fuselage yaw, and vertical tail side force contributed to yaw moment about center of gravity.

  18. Profiling 1366 Technologies: One Year Later

    SciT

    Van Mierlo, Frank; Sachs, Ely

    2011-01-01

    Last January, we took a look at how ARPA-E performer, 1366 Technologies is working to dramatically reduce the cost of solar energy. A year later, we revisited their headquarters in Lexington, MA to see the progress they've made.

  19. Religious Attendance and Loneliness in Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rote, Sunshine; Hill, Terrence D.; Ellison, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Studies show that loneliness is a major risk factor for health issues in later life. Although research suggests that religious involvement can protect against loneliness, explanations for this general pattern are underdeveloped and undertested. In this paper, we propose and test a theoretical model, which suggests that social…

  20. The Never-Married in Later Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Russell A.

    1979-01-01

    Consequences of singlehood are analyzed for never-married persons. Highly-educated older women are most likely to remain single. Family background is not a predictor. Although the never-married find life more exciting than other marital statuses among younger respondents, this reverses in later life. Never-marrieds are also less happy than the…

  1. Profiling 1366 Technologies: One Year Later

    Van Mierlo, Frank; Sachs, Ely

    2018-05-30

    Last January, we took a look at how ARPA-E performer, 1366 Technologies is working to dramatically reduce the cost of solar energy. A year later, we revisited their headquarters in Lexington, MA to see the progress they've made.

  2. Arthroscopic repair of chronic lateral ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Corte-Real, Nuno M; Moreira, Rodrigo M

    2009-03-01

    The current "gold standard'' for treatment of chronic lateral ankle instability is the Broström-Gould procedure. Most authors recommend this type of operation even after an arthroscopic inspection of the joint. We review our results with an arthroscopic method of lateral ankle ligament repair. A method of arthroscopic lateral ligament repair with an anchor placed in the fibula is described. We used this technique on 31 consecutive patients (28 were available for followup). Twenty-one patients had work or traffic accidents, four suffered casual falls. and three had sport-related lesions. The patients were evaluated after 24.5 month average followup. The average postoperative AOFAS score was 85.3 (82.3 in the workers-compensation group and 94.4 in the others) and average satisfaction was 3.8 (3.5 to workers-compensation and 4.6 for the others). Complications occurred in nine patients (29%), but only three cases had ongoing problems. We had two recurrences (another sprain without instability on the stress radiograph). Three patients had some wound healing problems and three had injuries of the superficial peroneal nerve, one of which is persistent. One patient developed a deep venous thrombosis postoperatively. With this method, we achieved good clinical results. We had several complications but most of them were minor. It was a simple procedure with less morbidity to most patients. We believe it produced an anatomical repair of the lateral ligament with clinical and functional results similar to other techniques.

  3. Lateral trends and vertical sequences in estuarine sediments, Willapa Bay, Washington

    Clifton, H. Edward; Phillips, L.

    1980-01-01

    Willapa Bay is a sizable estuary on the southern coast of Washington- Relatively unmodified in a geologic sense by human activity the bay provides an excellent example of modern depositional facies in an estuarine setting. Studies of these deposits indicate that consistent lateral trends exist in sediment texture and sedimentary structures. The texture changes from sandy at the mouth of the bay to muddy in its upper parts. In any part of the bay , sediment is coarsest in the channel bottoms, where lag deposits accumulate. The sediment tends to fine in an upslope direction and is finest in supratidal flat deposits of silt and clay. The nature of sedimentary structures depends on the combination of physical and biological processes and sediment textures. Bedforms exist wherever the bed is sandy. In the main tidal channels sandwaves and dunes up to 4 meters high occur. In tributary channels and at the margins of the main channel, at shallower depths and under less intense currents , the structures are generally less than a meter high. Current ripples occur in t he sandy bed of all of the tidal channels and in runoff channels cross the tidal flat. Symmetric long-crested ripples are produced by wave action over the sandy intertidal flat. Internal structures in the bay's sediment depend not only on the nature of the bedform but also on the rate of bioturbation relative to physical processes. Under fields of large sandwaves or dunes, medium- to large-scale tabular and trough crossbedding predominates. This crossbedding generally is unidirectional, reflecting the locally dominant current (ebb or flood). Ripple bedding predominates elsewhere in sandy sediment within the channels. Where sand transport is diminished, as on the floor of the upper tributary channels, bioturbation exceeds the rate of production of physical structures and bedding is destroyed. The depositional banks in such areas tend to be sites of rapid sediment accumulation and bedding in the form of

  4. Biomechanics of lateral lumbar interbody fusion constructs with lateral and posterior plate fixation: laboratory investigation.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Guy R; Parikh, Rachit D; Ryu, Stephen I; Turner, Alexander W L

    2014-03-01

    Lumbar interbody fusion is indicated in the treatment of degenerative conditions. Laterally inserted interbody cages significantly decrease range of motion (ROM) compared with other cages. Supplemental fixation options such as lateral plates or spinous process plates have been shown to provide stability and to reduce morbidity. The authors of the current study investigate the in vitro stability of the interbody cage with a combination of lateral and spinous process plate fixation and compare this method to the established bilateral pedicle screw fixation technique. Ten L1-5 specimens were evaluated using multidirectional nondestructive moments (± 7.5 N · m), with a custom 6 degrees-of-freedom spine simulator. Intervertebral motions (ROM) were measured optoelectronically. Each spine was evaluated under the following conditions at the L3-4 level: intact; interbody cage alone (stand-alone); cage supplemented with lateral plate; cage supplemented with ipsilateral pedicle screws; cage supplemented with bilateral pedicle screws; cage supplemented with spinous process plate; and cage supplemented with a combination of lateral plate and spinous process plate. Intervertebral rotations were calculated, and ROM data were normalized to the intact ROM data. The stand-alone laterally inserted interbody cage significantly reduced ROM with respect to the intact state in flexion-extension (31.6% intact ROM, p < 0.001), lateral bending (32.5%, p < 0.001), and axial rotation (69.4%, p = 0.002). Compared with the stand-alone condition, addition of a lateral plate to the interbody cage did not significantly alter the ROM in flexion-extension (p = 0.904); however, it was significantly decreased in lateral bending and axial rotation (p < 0.001). The cage supplemented with a lateral plate was not statistically different from bilateral pedicle screws in lateral bending (p = 0.579). Supplemental fixation using a spinous process plate was not significantly different from bilateral pedicle

  5. Riparian vegetation controls on channels formed in non-cohesive sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gran, K.; Tal, M.; Paola, C.

    2002-05-01

    Riparian vegetation can significantly influence the morphology of a river, affecting channel geometry and flow dynamics. In channels formed in non-cohesive material, vegetation is the main source of bank cohesion and could affect the overall behavior of the river, potentially constraining the flow from a multi-thread channel to a single-thread channel. To examine the effects of riparian vegetation on streams formed in non-cohesive material, we conducted a series of physical experiments at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory. The first set of experiments examines the effects of varying densities of vegetation on braided stream dynamics. Water discharge, sediment discharge, and grain size were held constant. For each run, we allowed a braided system to develop, then halved the discharge, and seeded the flume with alfalfa (Medicago sativa). After ten to fourteen days of growth, we returned the discharge to its original value and continued the run for 30-36 hours. Our results show that the influence of vegetation on the overall river pattern varied systematically with the spatial density of plant stems. The vegetation reduced the number of active channels and increased bank stability, leading to lower lateral migration rates, narrower and deeper channels, and an increase in channel relief. All these effects increased with vegetation density. Vegetation also influenced flow dynamics, increasing the variance of flow direction in the vegetated runs, and increasing scour depths through strong downwelling where the flow collided with relatively resistant banks. This oblique bank collision provides a new mechanism for producing secondary flows. We found these bank collision driven secondary flows to be more important than the classical curvature-driven mechanism in the vegetated runs. The next set of experiments examines more closely how the channel pattern evolves through time, allowing for both channel migration and successive vegetation growth. In these on-going experiments

  6. Integration of lateral porous silicon membranes into planar microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Leïchlé, Thierry; Bourrier, David

    2015-02-07

    In this work, we present a novel fabrication process that enables the monolithic integration of lateral porous silicon membranes into single-layer planar microchannels. This fabrication technique relies on the patterning of local electrodes to guide pore formation horizontally within the membrane and on the use of silicon-on-insulator substrates to spatially localize porous silicon within the channel depth. The feasibility of our approach is studied by current flow analysis using the finite element method and supported by creating 10 μm long mesoporous membranes within 20 μm deep microchannels. The fabricated membranes are demonstrated to be potentially useful for dead-end microfiltration by adequately retaining 300 nm diameter beads while macromolecules such as single-stranded DNA and immunoglobulin G permeate the membrane. The experimentally determined fluidic resistance is in accordance with the theoretical value expected from the estimated pore size and porosity. The work presented here is expected to greatly simplify the integration of membranes capable of size exclusion based separation into fluidic devices and opens doors to the use of porous silicon in planar lab on a chip devices.

  7. Device-independent tests of quantum channels.

    PubMed

    Dall'Arno, Michele; Brandsen, Sarah; Buscemi, Francesco

    2017-03-01

    We develop a device-independent framework for testing quantum channels. That is, we falsify a hypothesis about a quantum channel based only on an observed set of input-output correlations. Formally, the problem consists of characterizing the set of input-output correlations compatible with any arbitrary given quantum channel. For binary (i.e. two input symbols, two output symbols) correlations, we show that extremal correlations are always achieved by orthogonal encodings and measurements, irrespective of whether or not the channel preserves commutativity. We further provide a full, closed-form characterization of the sets of binary correlations in the case of: (i) any dihedrally covariant qubit channel (such as any Pauli and amplitude-damping channels) and (ii) any universally-covariant commutativity-preserving channel in an arbitrary dimension (such as any erasure, depolarizing, universal cloning and universal transposition channels).

  8. Channel Measurements for Automatic Vehicle Monitoring Systems

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1974-03-01

    Co-channel and adjacent channel electromagnetic interference measurements were conducted on the Sierra Research Corp. and the Chicago Transit Authority automatic vehicle monitoring systems. These measurements were made to determine if the automatic v...

  9. Channel in the Cerberus Palus Region

    2013-07-17

    This observation from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows the end of a small channel near Athabasca Valles on Mars. Athabasca is an example of a Martian outflow channel, likely carved by a massive flood of groundwater.

  10. Device-independent tests of quantum channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Arno, Michele; Brandsen, Sarah; Buscemi, Francesco

    2017-03-01

    We develop a device-independent framework for testing quantum channels. That is, we falsify a hypothesis about a quantum channel based only on an observed set of input-output correlations. Formally, the problem consists of characterizing the set of input-output correlations compatible with any arbitrary given quantum channel. For binary (i.e. two input symbols, two output symbols) correlations, we show that extremal correlations are always achieved by orthogonal encodings and measurements, irrespective of whether or not the channel preserves commutativity. We further provide a full, closed-form characterization of the sets of binary correlations in the case of: (i) any dihedrally covariant qubit channel (such as any Pauli and amplitude-damping channels) and (ii) any universally-covariant commutativity-preserving channel in an arbitrary dimension (such as any erasure, depolarizing, universal cloning and universal transposition channels).

  11. Insulin receptor regulates photoreceptor CNG channel activity

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vivek K.; Rajala, Ammaji

    2012-01-01

    Photoreceptor cyclic nucleotide gated (CNG) channels are critical elements in phototransduction and light adaptation. Here we report that insulin receptor (IR), an integral membrane protein, directly phosphorylates the CNGA1 subunit of CNG channels that in turn affects the function of these channels negatively. The IR phosphorylates Tyr498 and Tyr503 residues on CNGA1 that are situated at the membrane-cytoplasmic interface. The IR tyrosine kinase activity is essential for the inhibition of CNG channel. To maintain the channels in an off state, it is necessary not only to have a precise balance of the cGMP levels but also to have a control on the cGMP sensitivity of the CNG channels itself. In this study, we observed that the channel opens at a lower concentration of cGMP in IR−/− mice. These studies suggest that IR regulates the modulation of CNG channel activity in vivo. PMID:23032687

  12. Insulin receptor regulates photoreceptor CNG channel activity.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vivek K; Rajala, Ammaji; Rajala, Raju V S

    2012-12-01

    Photoreceptor cyclic nucleotide gated (CNG) channels are critical elements in phototransduction and light adaptation. Here we report that insulin receptor (IR), an integral membrane protein, directly phosphorylates the CNGA1 subunit of CNG channels that in turn affects the function of these channels negatively. The IR phosphorylates Tyr(498) and Tyr(503) residues on CNGA1 that are situated at the membrane-cytoplasmic interface. The IR tyrosine kinase activity is essential for the inhibition of CNG channel. To maintain the channels in an off state, it is necessary not only to have a precise balance of the cGMP levels but also to have a control on the cGMP sensitivity of the CNG channels itself. In this study, we observed that the channel opens at a lower concentration of cGMP in IR(-/-) mice. These studies suggest that IR regulates the modulation of CNG channel activity in vivo.

  13. Development of levees on deep-sea channels: Insights from high-resolution AUV exploration of the Lucia Chica system, offshore central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, K. L.; Fildani, A.; Romans, B.; Paull, C. K.; McHargue, T.; Graham, S. A.; Caress, D. W.

    2010-12-01

    The Lucia Chica, a tributary channel system of the Lucia Canyon, offshore central California, was imaged using the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute’s (MBARI) Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) in order to investigate seafloor and subsurface morphologies associated with low-relief submarine channels. In larger, previously investigated seafloor channel-levee systems, initial deposits are either eroded, compacted, or below the resolution of available imaging. In this dataset from the Lucia Chica, the unprecedented high-resolution multibeam bathymetry (1 m lateral resolution) and chirp sub-bottom profiles (11 cm vertical resolution) reveal a highly irregular seafloor with scours, depressions, and discontinuous low-relief conduits over an area of ~70 km2. Sediment packages associated with channels, levees, and deposits related to less confined flows are correlated between chirp profiles and with the multibeam bathymetric image to determine the stratigraphic evolution of the Lucia Chica and the sequence of channel-levee development. In the Lucia Chica, channels appear to have initiated as trains of scours that eventually coalesced into continuous channel thalwegs carved by erosional turbidity currents. Channel incision and stepped lateral migration led to the development of terraces, complex levee stratigraphy, and distinct morphologies associated with inner and outer bends of sinuous channels. The inner bend levee stratigraphy indicates that the channel position migrated in discrete shifts, as opposed to continuous channel migration associated with lateral accretion. Discrete levee packages, formed from flow-stripped turbidity currents, later infilled abandoned portions of the channel and overbank areas. While processes of initial channel and levee development are well established in fluvial settings, detailed examples are lacking for deep-sea systems. These results highlight the differences in initiation between submarine channel systems, their fluvial

  14. Heteromeric Canonical Transient Receptor Potential 1 and 4 Channels Play a Critical Role in Epileptiform Burst Firing and Seizure-Induced Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Kevin D.; Mock, Matthew M.; Kretz, Oliver; Shwe, U. Thaung; Kozhemyakin, Maxim; Greenfield, L. John; Dietrich, Alexander; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Freichel, Marc; Flockerzi, Veit

    2012-01-01

    Canonical transient receptor potential channels (TRPCs) are receptor-operated cation channels that are activated in response to phospholipase C signaling. Although TRPC1 is ubiquitously expressed in the brain, TRPC4 expression is the most restrictive, with the highest expression level limited to the lateral septum. The subunit composition of neuronal TRPC channels remains uncertain because of conflicting data from recombinant expression systems. Here we report that the large depolarizing plateau potential that underlies the epileptiform burst firing induced by metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists in lateral septal neurons was completely abolished in TRPC1/4 double-knockout mice, and was abolished in 74% of lateral septal neurons in TRPC1 knockout mice. Furthermore, neuronal cell death in the lateral septum and the cornu ammonis 1 region of hippocampus after pilocarpine-induced severe seizures was significantly ameliorated in TRPC1/4 double-knockout mice. Our data suggest that both TRPC1 and TRPC4 are essential for an intrinsic membrane conductance mediating the plateau potential in lateral septal neurons, possibly as heteromeric channels. Moreover, excitotoxic neuronal cell death, an underlying process for many neurological diseases, is not mediated merely by ionotropic glutamate receptors but also by heteromeric TRPC channels activated by metabotropic glutamate receptors. TRPC channels could be an unsuspected but critical molecular target for clinical intervention for excitotoxicity. PMID:22144671

  15. Heteromeric canonical transient receptor potential 1 and 4 channels play a critical role in epileptiform burst firing and seizure-induced neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Kevin D; Mock, Matthew M; Kretz, Oliver; Shwe, U Thaung; Kozhemyakin, Maxim; Greenfield, L John; Dietrich, Alexander; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Freichel, Marc; Flockerzi, Veit; Zheng, Fang

    2012-03-01

    Canonical transient receptor potential channels (TRPCs) are receptor-operated cation channels that are activated in response to phospholipase C signaling. Although TRPC1 is ubiquitously expressed in the brain, TRPC4 expression is the most restrictive, with the highest expression level limited to the lateral septum. The subunit composition of neuronal TRPC channels remains uncertain because of conflicting data from recombinant expression systems. Here we report that the large depolarizing plateau potential that underlies the epileptiform burst firing induced by metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists in lateral septal neurons was completely abolished in TRPC1/4 double-knockout mice, and was abolished in 74% of lateral septal neurons in TRPC1 knockout mice. Furthermore, neuronal cell death in the lateral septum and the cornu ammonis 1 region of hippocampus after pilocarpine-induced severe seizures was significantly ameliorated in TRPC1/4 double-knockout mice. Our data suggest that both TRPC1 and TRPC4 are essential for an intrinsic membrane conductance mediating the plateau potential in lateral septal neurons, possibly as heteromeric channels. Moreover, excitotoxic neuronal cell death, an underlying process for many neurological diseases, is not mediated merely by ionotropic glutamate receptors but also by heteromeric TRPC channels activated by metabotropic glutamate receptors. TRPC channels could be an unsuspected but critical molecular target for clinical intervention for excitotoxicity.

  16. Thermoelectricity in Heterogeneous Nanofluidic Channels.

    PubMed

    Li, Long; Wang, Qinggong

    2018-05-01

    Ionic fluids are essential to energy conversion, water desalination, drug delivery, and lab-on-a-chip devices. Ionic transport in nanoscale confinements and complex physical fields still remain elusive. Here, a nanofluidic system is developed using nanochannels of heterogeneous surface properties to investigate transport properties of ions under different temperatures. Steady ionic currents are observed under symmetric temperature gradients, which is equivalent to generating electricity using waste heat (e.g., electronic chips and solar panels). The currents increase linearly with temperature gradient and nonlinearly with channel size. Contributions to ion motion from temperatures and channel properties are evaluated for this phenomenon. The findings provide insights into the study of confined ionic fluids in multiphysical fields, and suggest applications in thermal energy conversion, temperature sensors, and chip-level thermal management. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Detecting Lower Bounds to Quantum Channel Capacities.

    PubMed

    Macchiavello, Chiara; Sacchi, Massimiliano F

    2016-04-08

    We propose a method to detect lower bounds to quantum capacities of a noisy quantum communication channel by means of a few measurements. The method is easily implementable and does not require any knowledge about the channel. We test its efficiency by studying its performance for most well-known single-qubit noisy channels and for the generalized Pauli channel in an arbitrary finite dimension.

  18. AVHRR channel selection for land cover classification

    Maxwell, S.K.; Hoffer, R.M.; Chapman, P.L.

    2002-01-01

    Mapping land cover of large regions often requires processing of satellite images collected from several time periods at many spectral wavelength channels. However, manipulating and processing large amounts of image data increases the complexity and time, and hence the cost, that it takes to produce a land cover map. Very few studies have evaluated the importance of individual Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) channels for discriminating cover types, especially the thermal channels (channels 3, 4 and 5). Studies rarely perform a multi-year analysis to determine the impact of inter-annual variability on the classification results. We evaluated 5 years of AVHRR data using combinations of the original AVHRR spectral channels (1-5) to determine which channels are most important for cover type discrimination, yet stabilize inter-annual variability. Particular attention was placed on the channels in the thermal portion of the spectrum. Fourteen cover types over the entire state of Colorado were evaluated using a supervised classification approach on all two-, three-, four- and five-channel combinations for seven AVHRR biweekly composite datasets covering the entire growing season for each of 5 years. Results show that all three of the major portions of the electromagnetic spectrum represented by the AVHRR sensor are required to discriminate cover types effectively and stabilize inter-annual variability. Of the two-channel combinations, channels 1 (red visible) and 2 (near-infrared) had, by far, the highest average overall accuracy (72.2%), yet the inter-annual classification accuracies were highly variable. Including a thermal channel (channel 4) significantly increased the average overall classification accuracy by 5.5% and stabilized interannual variability. Each of the thermal channels gave similar classification accuracies; however, because of the problems in consistently interpreting channel 3 data, either channel 4 or 5 was found to be a more

  19. Channel CAT: A Tactical Link Analysis Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS CHANNEL CAT : A TACTICAL LINK ANALYSIS TOOL by Michael Glenn Coleman September 1997 Thesis...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED September 1997 Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CHANNEL CAT : A TACTICAL LINK ANALYSIS TOOL 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...tool, the Channel Capacity Analysis Tool (Channel CAT ), designed to provide an automated tool for the anlysis of design decisions in developing client

  20. Optimal superdense coding over memory channels

    SciT

    Shadman, Z.; Kampermann, H.; Bruss, D.

    2011-10-15

    We study the superdense coding capacity in the presence of quantum channels with correlated noise. We investigate both the cases of unitary and nonunitary encoding. Pauli channels for arbitrary dimensions are treated explicitly. The superdense coding capacity for some special channels and resource states is derived for unitary encoding. We also provide an example of a memory channel where nonunitary encoding leads to an improvement in the superdense coding capacity.

  1. Spark channel propagation in a microbubble liquid

    SciT

    Panov, V. A.; Vasilyak, L. M., E-mail: vasilyak@ihed.ras.ru; Vetchinin, S. P.

    Experimental study on the development of the spark channel from the anode needle under pulsed electrical breakdown of isopropyl alcohol solution in water with air microbubbles has been performed. The presence of the microbubbles increases the velocity of the spark channel propagation and increases the current in the discharge gap circuit. The observed rate of spark channel propagation in microbubble liquid ranges from 4 to 12 m/s, indicating the thermal mechanism of the spark channel development in a microbubble liquid.

  2. Ion channel-transporter interactions

    PubMed Central

    Neverisky, Daniel L.; Abbott, Geoffrey W.

    2016-01-01

    All living cells require membrane proteins that act as conduits for the regulated transport of ions, solutes and other small molecules across the cell membrane. Ion channels provide a pore that permits often rapid, highly selective, and tightly regulated movement of ions down their electrochemical gradient. In contrast, active transporters can move moieties up their electrochemical gradient. The secondary active transporters (such as SLC superfamily solute transporters) achieve this by coupling uphill movement of the substrate to downhill movement of another ion, such as sodium. The primary active transporters (including H+/K+-ATPases and Na+/K+-ATPases) utilize ATP hydrolysis as an energy source to power uphill transport. It is well known that proteins in each of these classes work in concert with members of the other classes to ensure, for example, ion homeostasis, ion secretion, and restoration of ion balance following action potentials. More recently, evidence is emerging of direct physical interaction between true ion channels, and some primary or secondary active transporters. Here, we review the first known members of this new class of macromolecular complexes that we term “chansporters”, explore their biological roles, and discuss the pathophysiological consequences of their disruption. We compare functional and/or physical interactions between the ubiquitous KCNQ1 potassium channel and various active transporters, and examine other newly discovered chansporter complexes that suggest we may be seeing the tip of the iceberg in a newly emerging signaling modality. PMID:27098917

  3. Curved channel MCP improvement program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laprade, Bruce N.; Corbett, Michael B.

    1987-01-01

    Blowholes and blemishes were determined to start at two stages of manufacturing. Sperical blowholes resulted from trapped gas between the high melting temperature bond glass and the MCP wafer. During thermal processing, the trapped gas expanded and displaced the softened channel glass to form a spherical inclusion. This defect was eliminated by grinding the prefritted bond wafer and channel plate wafer to a flatness which ensured intimate contact prior to fusion. Elliptical blowholes or blemishes were introduced during the fiber draw stage. Contaminants trapped between the core bar and clad tubing volatized providing large quantities of expanding gas. These pockets of gas became elongated to an ellipsoidal shape during fiber draw. Special cleanliness procedures were developed for the grinding, polishing, and acid etching of core bars. Improvements in channel curvature fabrication were implemented. The design of the shearing fixture was evaluated. A new design was developed which eliminated an off-axis moment. The shearing furnace design was evaluated. Steady state thermal conditions instead of thermal transient conditions were determined to reduce curvature nonuniformity.

  4. Multiple channel data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Crawley, H. Bert; Rosenberg, Eli I.; Meyer, W. Thomas; Gorbics, Mark S.; Thomas, William D.; McKay, Roy L.; Homer, Jr., John F.

    1990-05-22

    A multiple channel data acquisition system for the transfer of large amounts of data from a multiplicity of data channels has a plurality of modules which operate in parallel to convert analog signals to digital data and transfer that data to a communications host via a FASTBUS. Each module has a plurality of submodules which include a front end buffer (FEB) connected to input circuitry having an analog to digital converter with cache memory for each of a plurality of channels. The submodules are interfaced with the FASTBUS via a FASTBUS coupler which controls a module bus and a module memory. The system is triggered to effect rapid parallel data samplings which are stored to the cache memories. The cache memories are uploaded to the FEBs during which zero suppression occurs. The data in the FEBs is reformatted and compressed by a local processor during transfer to the module memory. The FASTBUS coupler is used by the communications host to upload the compressed and formatted data from the module memory. The local processor executes programs which are downloaded to the module memory through the FASTBUS coupler.

  5. Multiple channel data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Crawley, H.B.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Meyer, W.T.; Gorbics, M.S.; Thomas, W.D.; McKay, R.L.; Homer, J.F. Jr.

    1990-05-22

    A multiple channel data acquisition system for the transfer of large amounts of data from a multiplicity of data channels has a plurality of modules which operate in parallel to convert analog signals to digital data and transfer that data to a communications host via a FASTBUS. Each module has a plurality of submodules which include a front end buffer (FEB) connected to input circuitry having an analog to digital converter with cache memory for each of a plurality of channels. The submodules are interfaced with the FASTBUS via a FASTBUS coupler which controls a module bus and a module memory. The system is triggered to effect rapid parallel data samplings which are stored to the cache memories. The cache memories are uploaded to the FEBs during which zero suppression occurs. The data in the FEBs is reformatted and compressed by a local processor during transfer to the module memory. The FASTBUS coupler is used by the communications host to upload the compressed and formatted data from the module memory. The local processor executes programs which are downloaded to the module memory through the FASTBUS coupler. 25 figs.

  6. Potassium channels: the importance of transport signals.

    PubMed

    Griffith, L C

    2001-03-20

    The number, type and distribution of ion channels on a neuron's surface determine its electrical response to stimulation. One way that a cell determines how many molecules of each channel type are sent to the surface has been eludicated in a recent study of intrinsic protein transport signals within potassium channels.

  7. Language Planning, Channel Management, and ESP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Chris

    Channel management, a concept developed in marketing to refer to the process by which a product is moved from production to consumption, uses a channel of distribution operating at several levels, each responsible for one or more of the activities of moving the product forward to the consumer. The function of channel management is to select the…

  8. Response format, magnitude of laterality effects, and sex differences in laterality.

    PubMed

    Voyer, Daniel; Doyle, Randi A

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the evidence for the claim that response format might affect the magnitude of laterality effects by means of a meta-analysis. The analysis included the 396 effect sizes drawn from 266 studies retrieved by Voyer (1996) and relevant to the main effect of laterality and sex differences in laterality for verbal and non-verbal tasks in the auditory, tactile, and visual sensory modality. The response format used in specific studies was the only moderator variable of interest in the present analysis, resulting in four broad response categories (oral, written, computer, and pointing). A meta-analysis analogue to ANOVA showed no significant influence of response format on either the main effect of laterality or sex differences in laterality when all sensory modalities were combined. However, when modalities were considered separately, response format affected the main effect of laterality in the visual modality, with a clear advantage for written responses. Further pointed analyses revealed some specific differences among response formats. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for the measurement of laterality.

  9. Measuring acetabular component position on lateral radiographs - ischio-lateral method.

    PubMed

    Pulos, Nicholas; Tiberi Iii, John V; Schmalzried, Thomas P

    2011-01-01

    The standard method for the evaluation of arthritis and postoperative assessment of arthroplasty treatment is observation and measurement from plain films, using the flm edge for orientation. A more recent employment of an anatomical landmark, the ischial tuberosity, has come into use as orientation for evaluation and is called the ischio-lateral method. In this study, the use of this method was evaluated as a first report to the literature on acetabular component measurement using a skeletal reference with lateral radiographs. Postoperative radiographs of 52 hips, with at least three true lateral radiographs taken at different time periods, were analyzed. Component position was measured with the historical method (using the flm edge for orientation) and with the new method using the ischio-lateral method. The mean standard deviation (SD) for the historical approach was 3.7° and for the ischio-lateral method, 2.2° (p < 0.001). With the historical method, 19 (36.5%) hips had a SD greater than ± 4°, compared to six hips (11.5%) with the ischio-lateral method. By using a skeletal reference, the ischio-lateral method provides a more consistent measurement of acetabular component position. The high intra-class correlation coefficients for both intra- and inter-observer reliability indicate that the angle measured with this simple method, which employs no further technology, increased time, or cost, is consistent and reproducible for multiple observers.

  10. Prolonged lateral steep position impairs respiratory mechanics during continuous lateral rotation therapy in respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Schellongowski, Peter; Losert, Heidrun; Locker, Gottfried J; Laczika, Klaus; Frass, Michael; Holzinger, Ulrike; Bojic, Andja; Staudinger, Thomas

    2007-04-01

    To establish whether prolonged lateral steep position during continuous rotation therapy leads to improvement on pulmonary gas exchange, respiratory mechanics and hemodynamics. Prospective observational study. Intensive care unit of a university hospital. Twelve consecutive patients suffering from acute lung injury or adult respiratory distress syndrome undergoing continuous rotation therapy. Blood gas analysis, static lung compliance, blood pressure, cardiac index and pulmonary shunt fraction were measured in supine as well as in left and right lateral steep position at 62 degrees during continuous rotation therapy (phase I). Rotation was then stopped for 30 min with the patients in supine position, left and right lateral steep position, and the same measurements were performed every 10 min (phase II). Phase I and II revealed no significant changes in PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio, mean arterial blood pressure, pulmonary shunt fraction, or cardiac index. Significantly lower static compliance was observed in lateral steep position than in supine position (p<0.001). Concomitantly, PaCO(2) was significantly lower in supine position than in left and right lateral steep position (p<0.01). Lateral steep positioning impairs the compliance of the respiratory system. Prolonged lateral steep position does not lead to benefits with respect to oxygenation or hemodynamics. Individual response to the different positions is unpredictable. The pauses in "extreme" positions should be as short as possible.

  11. Comparative use of side and main channels by small-bodied fish in a large, unimpounded river

    Reinhold, Ann Marie; Bramblett, Robert G.; Zale, Alexander V.; Roberts, David W.; Poole, Geoffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological theory and field studies suggest that lateral floodplain connectivity and habitat heterogeneity provided by side channels impart favourable habitat conditions for lotic fishes, especially fluvial fishes dependent on large patches of shallow, slow velocity habitats for some portion of their life cycle. However, anthropogenic modification of large, temperate floodplain rivers has led to extensive channel simplification and side-channel loss. Highly modified rivers consist of simplified channels in contracted, less dynamic floodplains.Most research examining the seasonal importance of side channels for fish assemblages in large rivers has been carried out in heavily modified rivers, where side-channel extents are substantially reduced from pre-settlement times, and has often overlooked small-bodied fishes. Inferences about the ecological importance of side channels for small-bodied fishes in large rivers can be ascertained only from investigations of large rivers with largely intact floodplains. The Yellowstone River, our study area, is a rare example of one such river.We targeted small-bodied fishes and compared their habitat use in side and main channels in two geomorphically distinct types of river bends during early and late snowmelt runoff, and autumn base flow. Species compositions of side and main channels differed throughout hydroperiods concurrent with the seasonal redistribution of the availability of shallow, slow current-velocity habitats. More species of fish used side channels than main channels during runoff. Additionally, catch rates of small fishes were generally greater in side channels than in main channels and quantitative assemblage compositions differed between channel types during runoff, but not during base flow. Presence of and access to diverse habitats facilitated the development and persistence of diverse fish assemblages in our study area.Physical dissimilarities between side and main channels may have differentially structured

  12. Structure resonances due to space charge in periodic focusing channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Jameson, R. A.

    2018-02-01

    The Vlasov-Poisson model is one of the most effective methods to study the space charge dominated beam evolution self-consistently in a periodic focusing channel. Since the approach to get the solution with this model is not trivial, previous studies are limited in degenerated conditions, either in smoothed channel (constant focusing) [I. Hofmann, Phys. Rev. E 57, 4713 (1998)] or in alternating gradient focusing channel with equal initial beam emittance condition in the degrees of freedom [I. Hofmann et al., Part. Accel. 13, 145 (1983); Chao Li et al., THOBA02, IPAC2016]. To establish a basis, we intentionally limit this article to the study of the pure transverse periodic focusing lattice with arbitrary initial beam condition, and the same lattice structure in both degrees of freedom, but with possibility of different focusing strengths. This will show the extension of the existing work. The full Hamiltonian is invoked for a pure transverse focusing lattice in various initial beam conditions, revealing different mode structure and additional modes beyond those of the degenerated cases. Application of the extended method to realistic lattices (including longitudinal accelerating elements) and further details will then reveal many new insights, and will be presented in later work.

  13. Formation and maintenance of single-thread tie channels entering floodplain lakes: Observations from three diverse river systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, J. C.; Dietrich, W. E.; Day, G.; Parker, G.

    2009-06-01

    Tie channels connect rivers to floodplain lakes on many lowland rivers and thereby play a central role in floodplain sedimentology and ecology; yet they are generally unrecognized and little studied. Here we report the results of field studies focused on tie channel origin and morphodynamics in the following three contrasting systems: the Middle Fly River (Papua New Guinea), the Lower Mississippi River, and Birch Creek in Alaska. Across these river systems, tie channels vary by an order of magnitude in size but exhibit the same characteristic morphology and appear to develop and evolve by a similar set of processes. In all three systems, the channels are characterized by a narrow, leveed, single-thread morphology with maximum width approximately one tenth the width of the mainstem river. The channels typically have a V-shaped cross section, unlike most fluvial channels. These channels develop as lakes become isolated from the river by sedimentation. Narrowing of the connection between river and lake causes a sediment-laden jet to develop. Levees develop along the margins of the jet leading to channel emergence and eventual levee aggradation to the height of the mainstem levees. Bidirectional flow in these channels is common. Outflows from the lake scour sediment and prevent channel blockage. We propose that channel geometry and size are then controlled by a dynamic balance between channel narrowing by suspended sediment deposition and incision and widening by mass failure of banks during outflows. Tie channels are laterally stable and may convey flow for hundreds to a few thousand of years.

  14. Existence and Regularity Results for the Inviscid Primitive Equations with Lateral Periodicity

    SciT

    Hamouda, Makram, E-mail: mahamoud@indiana.edu; Jung, Chang-Yeol, E-mail: changyeoljung@gmail.com; Temam, Roger, E-mail: temam@indiana.edu

    2016-06-15

    The article is devoted to prove the existence and regularity of the solutions of the 3D inviscid Linearized Primitive Equations (LPEs) in a channel with lateral periodicity. This was assumed in a previous work (Hamouda et al. in Discret Contin Dyn Syst Ser S 6(2):401–422, 2013) which is concerned with the boundary layers generated by the corresponding viscous problem. Although the equations under investigation here are of hyperbolic type, the standard methods do not apply because of the specificity of the hyperbolic system. A set of non-local boundary conditions for the inviscid LPEs has to be imposed at the lateralmore » boundary of the channel making thus the system well-posed.« less

  15. Lateral root development in the maize (Zea mays) lateral rootless1 mutant.

    PubMed

    Husakova, Eva; Hochholdinger, Frank; Soukup, Ales

    2013-07-01

    The maize lrt1 (lateral rootless1) mutant is impaired in its development of lateral roots during early post-embryonic development. The aim of this study was to characterize, in detail, the influences that the mutation exerts on lateral root initiation and the subsequent developments, as well as to describe the behaviour of the entire plant under variable environmental conditions. Mutant lrt1 plants were cultivated under different conditions of hydroponics, and in between sheets of moist paper. Cleared whole mounts and anatomical sections were used in combination with both selected staining procedures and histochemical tests to follow root development. Root surface permeability tests and the biochemical quantification of lignin were performed to complement the structural data. The data presented suggest a redefinition of lrt1 function in lateral roots as a promoter of later development; however, neither the complete absence of lateral roots nor the frequency of their initiation is linked to lrt1 function. The developmental effects of lrt1 are under strong environmental influences. Mutant primordia are affected in structure, growth and emergence; and the majority of primordia terminate their growth during this last step, or shortly thereafter. The lateral roots are impaired in the maintenance of the root apical meristem. The primary root shows disturbances in the organization of both epidermal and subepidermal layers. The lrt1-related cell-wall modifications include: lignification in peripheral layers, the deposition of polyphenolic substances and a higher activity of peroxidase. The present study provides novel insights into the function of the lrt1 gene in root system development. The lrt1 gene participates in the spatial distribution of initiation, but not in its frequency. Later, the development of lateral roots is strongly affected. The effect of the lrt1 mutation is not as obvious in the primary root, with no influences observed on the root apical meristem

  16. Lateral root development in the maize (Zea mays) lateral rootless1 mutant

    PubMed Central

    Husakova, Eva; Hochholdinger, Frank; Soukup, Ales

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The maize lrt1 (lateral rootless1) mutant is impaired in its development of lateral roots during early post-embryonic development. The aim of this study was to characterize, in detail, the influences that the mutation exerts on lateral root initiation and the subsequent developments, as well as to describe the behaviour of the entire plant under variable environmental conditions. Methods Mutant lrt1 plants were cultivated under different conditions of hydroponics, and in between sheets of moist paper. Cleared whole mounts and anatomical sections were used in combination with both selected staining procedures and histochemical tests to follow root development. Root surface permeability tests and the biochemical quantification of lignin were performed to complement the structural data. Key Results The data presented suggest a redefinition of lrt1 function in lateral roots as a promoter of later development; however, neither the complete absence of lateral roots nor the frequency of their initiation is linked to lrt1 function. The developmental effects of lrt1 are under strong environmental influences. Mutant primordia are affected in structure, growth and emergence; and the majority of primordia terminate their growth during this last step, or shortly thereafter. The lateral roots are impaired in the maintenance of the root apical meristem. The primary root shows disturbances in the organization of both epidermal and subepidermal layers. The lrt1-related cell-wall modifications include: lignification in peripheral layers, the deposition of polyphenolic substances and a higher activity of peroxidase. Conclusions The present study provides novel insights into the function of the lrt1 gene in root system development. The lrt1 gene participates in the spatial distribution of initiation, but not in its frequency. Later, the development of lateral roots is strongly affected. The effect of the lrt1 mutation is not as obvious in the primary root, with no

  17. Fabrication of Large Lateral Polycrystalline Silicon Film by Laser Dehydrogenation and Lateral Crystallization of Hydrogenated Nanocrystalline Silicon Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Kenichi; Kambara, Junji; Kitahara, Kuninori; Hara, Akito

    2009-12-01

    Hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) thin-film transistors (TFTs) have attracted attention for application to the operation of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The monolithic integration of nc-Si:H TFTs and polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) TFTs and the use of nc-Si:H TFTs for operating an OLED are candidate technologies to achieve OLED system-on-glass. To develop such a system, it is necessary to fabricate poly-Si films without employing thermal dehydrogenation because hydrogen needs to be maintained in the channel region of nc-Si:H TFTs. In this study, we optimized the laser dehydrogenation process as a substitute for thermal dehydrogenation by using a diode-pumped solid-state continuous-wave green laser (Nd:YVO4, 2ω=532 nm) to fabricate large lateral poly-Si films with grain sizes of 3×20 µm2. The performance of poly-Si TFTs is well known to be sensitive to the quality of poly-Si films. In order to evaluate the electrical properties of poly-Si films, TFTs were fabricated by conventional processes. The field-effect mobility, threshold voltage, and S-value of the poly-Si TFTs were 220 cm2 V-1 s-1, -1.0 V, and 0.45 V/dec, respectively. The quality of the poly-Si film fabricated in this experiment was sufficiently high for the integration of peripheral circuits.

  18. Shrink film patterning by craft cutter: complete plastic chips with high resolution/high-aspect ratio channel.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Douglas; Dyer, David; Lew, Valerie; Khine, Michelle

    2010-09-21

    This paper presents a rapid, ultra-low-cost approach to fabricate microfluidic devices using a polyolefin shrink film and a digital craft cutter. The shrinking process (with a 95% reduction in area) results in relatively uniform and consistent microfluidic channels with smooth surfaces, vertical sidewalls, and high aspect ratio channels with lateral resolutions well beyond the tool used to cut them. The thermal bonding of the layers results in strongly bonded devices. Complex microfluidic designs are easily designed on the fly and protein assays are also readily integrated into the device. Full device characterization including channel consistency, optical properties, and bonding strength are assessed in this technical note.

  19. Bottom morphology in the Song Hau distributary channel, Mekong River Delta, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, Mead A.; Dallon Weathers, H.; Meselhe, Ehab A.

    2017-09-01

    Field studies in the Song Hau distributary of the Mekong Delta in Vietnam conducted at high (Sept.-Oct 2014) and low (March 2015) Mekong River discharge are utilized to examine channel bottom morphology and links with sediment transport in the system. Multibeam bathymetric mapping surveys over the entire channel complex in the lower 80 km of the distributary channel, and over 12- to 24-h tidal periods at six transect locations in the reach are used to characterize bottom type and change on seasonal and tidal timescales, supplemented by bottom sampling. The results of this study indicate that the largest proportion of channel floor (up to 80% of the total area) is composed of substratum outcrops of relict sediment units deposited during the progradation of the delta in the last 3.5 ka. These take the form of outcrops that are either (1) steep-sided, tabular channel floor, (2) steep-sided sidewall, or (3) relatively flat channel floor. Flatter outcrops of channel floor substratum are identified by the presence of sedimentary furrows (<0.5 m deep) incised into the channel bottom that are exposed at high discharge and oriented along channel and laterally continuous for kilometers. These furrows are persistent in location and extent across tidal cycles and appear to be incised into relict units, sometimes with a thin surficial layer of modern sediment observable in bottom grabs. The extent of substratum exposure, greater than that observed previously in low tidal energy systems like the Mississippi River, may relate both to a relatively low sand supply from the catchment, and/or to an efficient transfer of both sand and mud through this tidally energetic channel. Sand bottom areas forming dunes, comprise about 19% of the channel floor over the study area and are generally less than a few meters thick except on bar extensions of mid-channel islands. Both sandy and substratum areas are mantled by soft muds 0.25-1 m thick during low discharge in the estuarine section of

  20. The hydraulic geometry of narrow and deep channels; evidence for flow optimisation and controlled peatland growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanson, Rachel A.; Nanson, Gerald C.; Huang, He Qing

    2010-04-01

    At-a-station and bankfull hydraulic geometry analyses of peatland channels at Barrington Tops, New South Wales, Australia, reveal adjustments in self-forming channels in the absence of sediment load. Using Rhodes ternary diagram, comparisons are made with hydraulic geometry data from self-forming channels carrying bedload in alluvial settings elsewhere. Despite constraints on channel depths caused at some locations by the restricted thickness of peat, most stations have cohesive, near-vertical, well-vegetated banks, and width/depth (w/d) ratios of ∼ 2 that are optimal for sediment-free flow. Because banks are strong, resist erosion and can stand nearly vertical, and depth is sometimes constrained, adjustments to discharge are accommodated largely by changes in velocity. These findings are consistent with the model of maximum flow efficiency and the overarching least action principle in open channels. The bankfull depth of freely adjusting laterally active channels in clastic alluvium is well known to be related to the thickness of floodplain alluvium and a similar condition appears to apply to these swamps that grow in situ and are formed almost entirely of organic matter. The thickness of peat in these swamps rarely exceeds that required to form a bankfull channel of optimum w/d ratio for the transport of sediment-free water. Swamp vegetation is highly dependent on proximity to the water table. To maintain a swamp-channel and associated floodplain system, the channels must flow with sufficient water much of the time; they not only offer an efficient morphology for flow but do so in a way that enables bankfull conditions to occur many times a year. They also prevent the swamp from growing above a level linked to the depth of the channel. Once the channel attains the most efficient cross section, further growth of the swamp vertically is restricted by enhanced flow velocities and limited flow depths. This means that the volume of peat in such swamps is determined

  1. Lateral Pectoral Nerve Injury Mimicking Cervical Radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Ilknur; Palamar, Deniz; Akgun, Kenan

    2015-07-01

    The lateral pectoral nerve (LPN) is commonly injured along with the brachial plexus, but its isolated lesions are rare. Here, we present a case of an isolated LPN lesion confused with cervical radiculopathy. A 41-year-old man was admitted to our clinic because of weakness in his right arm. Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination revealed right posterolateral protrusion at the C6-7 level. At the initial assessment, atrophy of the right pectoralis major muscle was evident, and mild weakness of the right shoulder adductor, internal rotator, and flexor muscles was observed. Therefore, electrodiagnostic evaluation was performed, and a diagnosis of isolated LPN injury was made. Nerve injury was thought to have been caused by weightlifting exercises and traction injury. Lateral pectoral nerve injury can mimic cervical radiculopathy, and MRI examination alone may lead to misdiagnosis. Repeated physical examinations during the evaluation and treatment phase will identify the muscle atrophy that occurs 1 or more months after the injury.

  2. Thrust vectoring for lateral-directional stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peron, Lee R.; Carpenter, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of using thrust vectoring for lateral-directional control and the effects of reducing the tail size of a single-engine aircraft were investigated. The aerodynamic characteristics of the F-16 aircraft were generated by using the Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System II panel code. The resulting lateral-directional linear perturbation analysis of a modified F-16 aircraft with various tail sizes and yaw vectoring was performed at several speeds and altitudes to determine the stability and control trends for the aircraft compared to these trends for a baseline aircraft. A study of the paddle-type turning vane thrust vectoring control system as used on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle is also presented.

  3. [Lateral chest X-rays. Radiographic anatomy].

    PubMed

    García Villafañe, C; Pedrosa, C S

    2014-01-01

    Lateral chest views constitute an essential part of chest X-ray examinations, so it is fundamental to know the anatomy on these images and to be able to detect the variations manifested on these images in different diseases. The aim of this article is to review the normal anatomy and main normal variants seen on lateral chest views. For teaching purposes, we divide the thorax into different spaces and analyze each in an orderly way, especially emphasizing the anatomic details that are most helpful for locating lesions that have already been detected in the posteroanterior view or for detecting lesions that can be missed in the posteroanterior view. Copyright © 2013 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Lateralization Technique and Inferior Alveolar Nerve Transposition

    PubMed Central

    Sanches, Marco Antonio; Ramalho, Gabriel Cardoso; Manzi, Marcello Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Bone resorption of the posterior mandible can result in diminished bone edge and, therefore, the installation of implants in these regions becomes a challenge, especially in the presence of the mandibular canal and its contents, the inferior alveolar nerve. Several treatment alternatives are suggested: the use of short implants, guided bone regeneration, appositional bone grafting, distraction osteogenesis, inclined implants tangential to the mandibular canal, and the lateralization of the inferior alveolar nerve. The aim was to elucidate the success rate of implants in the lateralization technique and in inferior alveolar nerve transposition and to determine the most effective sensory test. We conclude that the success rate is linked to the possibility of installing implants with long bicortical anchor which favors primary stability and biomechanics. PMID:27433360

  5. Lateral distribution on charged particles in EAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dedenko, L. G.; Kulikov, G. V.; Solovjeva, V. I.; Sulakov, V. F.

    1985-01-01

    Lateral distribution of charged particles which allow for the finiteness of energy gamma-quanta, the inhomogeneity of the atmosphere and the experimental selection of EAS are needed to interpret experimental data. The effects of finiteness of energy of gamma-quanta which produce the partial electron-photon cascades were considered by substituting K R sub m instead of R sub m in NKG approximation where K was found to be 0.56 from comparison with the experimental data. New results on the lateral distribution of electrons in the partial cascades from gamma-quanta were obtained. It is shown that the coefficient K can be regarded as a constant. The last approximation of K was found to be most adequate when compared with the experimental data. The inhomogeneity of the atmosphere, muons and experimental selection are considered. The calculation of Ne are extended from 100,000 to 10 million for sea level and for Akeno level.

  6. Electrostatics of two-dimensional lateral junctions.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Ferney A; Jiménez, David

    2018-07-06

    The increasing technological control of two-dimensional (2D) materials has allowed the demonstration of 2D lateral junctions exhibiting unique properties that might serve as the basis for a new generation of 2D electronic and optoelectronic devices. Notably, the chemically doped MoS 2 homojunction, the WSe 2 -MoS 2 monolayer and MoS 2 monolayer/multilayer heterojunctions, have been demonstrated. Here we report the investigation of 2D lateral junction electrostatics, which differs from the bulk case because of the weaker screening, producing a much longer transition region between the space-charge region and the quasi-neutral region, making inappropriate the use of the complete-depletion region approximation. For such a purpose we have developed a method based on the conformal mapping technique to solve the 2D electrostatics, widely applicable to every kind of junctions, giving accurate results for even large asymmetric charge distribution scenarios.

  7. Electrostatics of two-dimensional lateral junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, Ferney A.; Jiménez, David

    2018-07-01

    The increasing technological control of two-dimensional (2D) materials has allowed the demonstration of 2D lateral junctions exhibiting unique properties that might serve as the basis for a new generation of 2D electronic and optoelectronic devices. Notably, the chemically doped MoS2 homojunction, the WSe2-MoS2 monolayer and MoS2 monolayer/multilayer heterojunctions, have been demonstrated. Here we report the investigation of 2D lateral junction electrostatics, which differs from the bulk case because of the weaker screening, producing a much longer transition region between the space-charge region and the quasi-neutral region, making inappropriate the use of the complete-depletion region approximation. For such a purpose we have developed a method based on the conformal mapping technique to solve the 2D electrostatics, widely applicable to every kind of junctions, giving accurate results for even large asymmetric charge distribution scenarios.

  8. Laterally-Biased Quantum IR Detectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-23

    Rocío San-Román, Adrián Hierro , Journal of Crystal Growth 323, (2011), 496-500. [3] Semiconductor Devices: Physics and Technology 2nd Ed., S.M. Sze...6] “Laterally biased double quantum well IR detector fabricated by MBE regrowth”, Álvaro Guzmán, Rocío San-Román, Adrián Hierro , 16th

  9. Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay Test Strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    As easy to read as a home pregnancy test, three Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay (QLFA) strips used to test water for E. coli show different results. The brightly glowing control line on the far right of each strip indicates that all three tests ran successfully. But the glowing test line on the middle left and bottom strips reveal their samples were contaminated with E. coli bacteria at two different concentrations. The color intensity correlates with concentration of contamination.

  10. Lateralization of affective processing in the insula.

    PubMed

    Duerden, Emma G; Arsalidou, Marie; Lee, Minha; Taylor, Margot J

    2013-09-01

    Evidence from electrophysiological and functional neuroimaging studies has suggested strong lateralization of affective processing within the insular cortices; however, little is known about the spatial location of these processes in these regions. Using quantitative meta-analytic methods the laterality of: (1) emotional processing; (2) stimulus valence (positive vs. negative); (3) perception vs. experience of emotion; and (4) sex-differences were assessed using the data from 143 functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. Activation in response to all emotional stimuli occurred in bilateral anterior and mid-insula, and the left posterior insula. Positive emotional stimuli were associated with activation in the left anterior and mid-insula, while negative emotional stimuli activated bilateral anterior and mid-insula. Activation in response to the perception and experience of emotions was highest in bilateral anterior insula, and within the mid and posterior insula it was left lateralized. In males, emotional stimuli predominantly activated the left anterior/mid-insula and right posterior insula, whereas females activated bilateral anterior insula and the left mid and posterior insula. Spatial distinctions observed in emotional processing and its subcategories can provide a comprehensive account of the role of the insular cortices in affect processing, which could aid in understanding deficits seen in psychiatric or developmental disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Lateral jet injection into typical combustor flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilley, D. G.

    1986-01-01

    The experimental problem of lateral jet injection into typical flow fields in the absence of combustion was studied. All flow fields being investigated have no expansion of the crossflow (the test section to swirler diameter ratio D/d = 1), after its passage through an optional swirler (with swirl vane angle phi = 0 (swirler removed), 45, and 70 degree). The lateral jet(s) is(are) located one test-section diameter downstream of the test-section inlet (x/D = 1). The lateral jets have round-sectioned nozzles, each of which has an area of 1/100th of the cross sectional area of the crossflow (A sub j/A sub c = 1/100). Jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios of R = v sub j/u sub o = 2, 4, and 6 were investigated. Helium-bubble low visualization, five-hole pitot probe time-mean velocity measurements, and single-wire time-mean velocity and normal and shear stress turbulence data were obtained in the research program.

  12. Transnational connections of later-life migrants.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Sari Johanna; Lumme-Sandt, Kirsi

    2013-04-01

    In this paper a transnational perspective is used to explain whether and how older migrants construct and sustain their social networks. The paper uses a transnational viewpoint on older migrants' lives by analysing their engagement with their former homeland, and the intensity and habitualness of those engagements in old age. The aim of this article is to study the transnational connections of later-life migrants'. Attention is especially paid to the features of old age while maintaining these connections. These considerations are based on analyses of transnational networks in the everyday lives of later-life migrants from the former Soviet Union residing in Finland. The data were collected from 11 later-life migrants. It is found that transnational relationships are a vital part of the everyday lives of older migrants, and that they are sustained in varied ways. These connections mean a concrete source of help, family affiliations, the sharing of emotions, and a larger social network. Economic limitations affect the frequency and type of communication, and various physical limitations may also cause inability to maintain contacts across borders. In these circumstances, family members or other close relatives or friends are needed to deliver messages on the older person's behalf. Old age and immigration status affect the amount and direction of communication across borders, thereby shaping these networks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Non-contact lateral force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Weymouth, A J

    2017-08-16

    The goal of atomic force microscopy (AFM) is to measure the short-range forces that act between the tip and the surface. The signal recorded, however, includes long-range forces that are often an unwanted background. Lateral force microscopy (LFM) is a branch of AFM in which a component of force perpendicular to the surface normal is measured. If we consider the interaction between tip and sample in terms of forces, which have both direction and magnitude, then we can make a very simple yet profound observation: over a flat surface, long-range forces that do not yield topographic contrast have no lateral component. Short-range interactions, on the other hand, do. Although contact-mode is the most common LFM technique, true non-contact AFM techniques can be applied to perform LFM without the tip depressing upon the sample. Non-contact lateral force microscopy (nc-LFM) is therefore ideal to study short-range forces of interest. One of the first applications of nc-LFM was the study of non-contact friction. A similar setup is used in magnetic resonance force microscopy to detect spin flipping. More recently, nc-LFM has been used as a true microscopy technique to systems unsuitable for normal force microscopy.

  14. Efferent pathways of the mouse lateral habenula

    PubMed Central

    Quina, Lely A.; Tempest, Lynne; Ng, Lydia; Harris, Julie; Ferguson, Susan; Jhou, Thomas; Turner, Eric E.

    2014-01-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb) is part of the habenula complex of the dorsal thalamus. Recent studies of the LHb have focused on its projections to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), which contain GABAergic neurons that mediate reward prediction error via inhibition of dopaminergic activity. However, older studies in the rat have also identified LHb outputs to the lateral and posterior hypothalamus, median raphe, dorsal raphe, and dorsal tegmentum. Although these studies have shown that the medial and lateral divisions of the LHb have somewhat distinct projections, the topographic specificity of LHb efferents is not completely understood, and the relative extent of these projections to brainstem targets is unknown. Here we have used anterograde tracing with adeno-associated virus mediated expression of green fluorescent protein, combined with serial two-photon tomography, to map the efferents of the LHb on a standard coordinate system for the entire mouse brain, and reconstruct the efferent pathways of the LHb in three dimensions. Using automated quantitation of fiber density, we show that in addition to the RMTg, the median raphe, caudal dorsal raphe, and pontine central gray are major recipients of LHb efferents. Using retrograde tract tracing with cholera toxin subunit B, we show that LHb neurons projecting to the hypothalamus, VTA, median raphe, and caudal dorsal raphe, and pontine central gray reside in characteristic, but sometimes overlapping regions of the LHb. Together these results provide the anatomical basis for systematic studies of LHb function in neural circuits and behavior in mice. PMID:25099741

  15. Technical Note: On GAFChromic EBT-XD film and the lateral response artifact

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, David F.

    2016-01-01

    . Owing its lower sensitivity, EBT-XD film requires higher dose to reach the same response as EBT3, resulting in lesser impact of the lateral response artifact. For doses >10 Gy, the slopes of the EBT-XD red and green channel dose response curves are greater than the corresponding ones for EBT3. For these two reasons, the authors prefer EBT-XD for doses exceeding about 10 Gy. PMID:26843228

  16. Technical Note: On GAFChromic EBT-XD film and the lateral response artifact.

    PubMed

    Lewis, David F; Chan, Maria F

    2016-02-01

    requires higher dose to reach the same response as EBT3, resulting in lesser impact of the lateral response artifact. For doses >10 Gy, the slopes of the EBT-XD red and green channel dose response curves are greater than the corresponding ones for EBT3. For these two reasons, the authors prefer EBT-XD for doses exceeding about 10 Gy.

  17. High throughput screening technologies for ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hai-bo; Li, Min; Wang, Wei-ping; Wang, Xiao-liang

    2016-01-01

    Ion channels are involved in a variety of fundamental physiological processes, and their malfunction causes numerous human diseases. Therefore, ion channels represent a class of attractive drug targets and a class of important off-targets for in vitro pharmacological profiling. In the past decades, the rapid progress in developing functional assays and instrumentation has enabled high throughput screening (HTS) campaigns on an expanding list of channel types. Chronologically, HTS methods for ion channels include the ligand binding assay, flux-based assay, fluorescence-based assay, and automated electrophysiological assay. In this review we summarize the current HTS technologies for different ion channel classes and their applications. PMID:26657056

  18. CHANNEL EVOLUTION IN MODIFIED ALLUVIAL STREAMS.

    Simon, Andrew; Hupp, Cliff R.

    1987-01-01

    This study (a) assesses the channel changes and network trends of bed level response after modifications between 1959 and 1972 of alluvial channels in western Tennessee and (b) develops a conceptual model of bank slope development to qualitatively assess bank stability and potential channel widening. A six-step, semiquantitative model of channel evolution in disturbed channels was developed by quantifying bed level trends and recognizing qualitative stages of bank slope development. Development of the bank profile is defined in terms of three dynamic and observable surfaces: (a) vertical face (70 to 90 degrees), (b) upper bank (25 to 50 degrees), and (c) slough line (20 to 25 degrees).

  19. Recipes for lateral spin transport between magnetic contacts, advantage of carbon-based materials.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fert, Albert

    2010-03-01

    After the presentation of magneto-transport results [1] on metallic carbon nanotubes (CNT) between LSMO electrodes (MR 60-70%, [VAP -- VP] 60mV), I will discuss the general problem of spin transport in a nonmagnetic lateral channel between spin-polarized contacts in both the diffusive and ballistic regimes. In the diffusive regime, a treatment by the classical drift-diffusion equations applied to a multi-terminal structure is used to calculate what can be expected for the output signal with local or non-local voltage probes. A general result is that the output signal (δR = δV/I where δV is the local or non-local output voltage), directly related to the spin accumulation splitting in the channel, scales with the smallest of the relevant spin and interfaces resistances. In the best situation, that is with only tunnel contacts having the same (large) resistance RT and separated by less than the spin diffusion length (λ) in a lateral channel limited to the zone of the contacts, the signal δR increases in proportion of RT as long as the dwell time is smaller than the spin lifetime. δR can be thus much larger than the spin resistance of the channel (product of its resistivity by the ratio λ/section ). This explain why, in the experiments of Ref.[1] on CNT, δR can be as large as 90 Mφ, that is of the order of the tunnel contact resistances and much larger than the spin resistance of the CNT (smaller signals in experiments with CNT or graphene are often due the leak of spin accumulation in lateral channels extending too far outside the contacts). The relative disadvantage for semiconductors comes from the too long dwell time due to much smaller electron velocities than in metallic CNTs (and graphene). We will conclude by a similar analysis of the ballistic regime and a discussion of experiments with graphene. [4pt] [1] Hueso et al, Nature 445, 410 (2007).

  20. [Acute injuries of lateral ankle joint ligaments].

    PubMed

    Lacko, M; Sidor, Z; Stolfa, S; Cellár, R; Vasko, G

    2010-08-01

    Acute injuries of the lateral ankle ligaments are one of the most common form of injury involving the musculoskeletal apparatus. Treatment usually range from cast immobilisation or acute surgical repair to functional rehabilitation. The aim of our study was to evaluate the incidence of different grades of acute injuries of lateral ligaments of the ankle joint in our patients group and to compare the results of non surgical versus surgical treatment of third grade injuries. 3148 patients were treated for acute lateral ankle sprain in a period of 5 years at our department. Each patient had stress X-ray of the ankle for evaluation of instability at the first visit. From the 234 patients with third grade injury, 39 were enrolled in our study with non surgical treatment and 18 with surgical treatment. Each group was divided regarding to the age in two subgroups. Functional outcome was evaluated 12 and 24 months after injury with AOFAS clinical rating scale and Sports Ankle Rating System--Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation. Statistical analysis was done with Pearson's Chi quadrate test with P < 0.05. First grade injury was present in 62%, second grade in 31% and only 7% of the patients had third grade injury of the lateral ankle ligaments. Further only third grade injuries were studied. Statistically significant better results were seen in patients under the age of 25, in the patient group with surgical treatment compared to patients over 25 years of age. Also statistically significant better results were seen in patient with surgical treatment to non surgical treatment in each age group. No significant difference was observed in the non surgical treatment group regarding to age. Although the injuries of the ankle ligaments belong to the most common injuries of the musculoskeletal system, there is no consensus in the treatment of such disorders. Our experiences and the results of our study show, that surgical treatment in indicated cases provides better results in

  1. Numerical determination of lateral loss coefficients for subchannel analysis in nuclear fuel bundles

    SciT

    Sin Kim; Goon-Cherl Park

    1995-09-01

    An accurate prediction of cross-flow based on detailed knowledge of the velocity field in subchannels of a nuclear fuel assembly is of importance in nuclear fuel performance analysis. In this study, the low-Reynolds number {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model has been adopted in two adjacent subchannels with cross-flow. The secondary flow is estimated accurately by the anisotropic algebraic Reynolds stress model. This model was numerically calculated by the finite element method and has been verified successfully through comparison with existing experimental data. Finally, with the numerical analysis of the velocity field in such subchannel domain, an analytical correlation of the lateral lossmore » coefficient is obtained to predict the cross-flow rate in subchannel analysis codes. The correlation is expressed as a function of the ratio of the lateral flow velocity to the donor subchannel axial velocity, recipient channel Reynolds number and pitch-to-diameter.« less

  2. Anion channels: master switches of stress responses.

    PubMed

    Roelfsema, M Rob G; Hedrich, Rainer; Geiger, Dietmar

    2012-04-01

    During stress, plant cells activate anion channels and trigger the release of anions across the plasma membrane. Recently, two new gene families have been identified that encode major groups of anion channels. The SLAC/SLAH channels are characterized by slow voltage-dependent activation (S-type), whereas ALMT genes encode rapid-activating channels (R-type). Both S- and R-type channels are stimulated in guard cells by the stress hormone ABA, which leads to stomatal closure. Besides their role in ABA-dependent stomatal movement, anion channels are also activated by biotic stress factors such as microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Given that anion channels occur throughout the plant kingdom, they are likely to serve a general function as master switches of stress responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Lateral epicondylitis and beyond: imaging of lateral elbow pain with clinical-radiologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Kotnis, Nikhil A; Chiavaras, Mary M; Harish, Srinivasan

    2012-04-01

    The diagnosis of lateral epicondylitis is often straightforward and can be made on the basis of clinical findings. However, radiological assessment is valuable where the clinical picture is less clear or where symptoms are refractory to treatment. Demographics, aspects of clinical history, or certain physical signs may suggest an alternate diagnosis. Knowledge of the typical clinical presentation and imaging findings of lateral epicondylitis, in addition to other potential causes of lateral elbow pain, is necessary. These include entrapment of the posterior interosseous and lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerves, posterolateral rotatory instability, posterolateral plica syndrome, Panner's disease, osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum, radiocapitellar overload syndrome, occult fractures and chondral-osseous impaction injuries, and radiocapitellar arthritis. Knowledge of these potential masquerades of lateral epicondylitis and their characteristic clinical and imaging features is essential for accurate diagnosis. The goal of this review is to provide an approach to the imaging of lateral elbow pain, discussing the relevant anatomy, various causes, and discriminating factors, which will allow for an accurate diagnosis.

  4. Conductive Channel for Energy Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollonov, Victor V.

    2011-11-01

    For many years the attempts to create conductive channels of big length were taken in order to study the upper atmosphere and to settle special tasks, related to energy transmission. There upon the program of creation of "Impulsar" represents a great interest, as this program in a combination with high-voltage high repetition rate electrical source can be useful to solve the above mentioned problems (N. Tesla ideas for the days of high power lasers). The principle of conductive channel production can be shortly described as follows. The "Impulsar"—laser jet engine vehicle—propulsion take place under the influence of powerful high repetition rate pulse-periodic laser radiation. In the experiments the CO2—laser and solid state Nd:YAG laser systems had been used. Active impulse appears thanks to air breakdown (<30 km) or to the breakdown of ablated material on the board (>30 km), placed in the vicinity of the focusing mirror-acceptor of the breakdown waves. With each pulse of powerful laser the device rises up, leaving a bright and dense trace of products with high degree of ionization and metallization by conductive nano-particles due to ablation. Conductive dust plasma properties investigation in our experiments was produced by two very effective approaches: high power laser controlled ablation and by explosion of wire. Experimental and theoretical results of conductive canal modeling will be presented. The estimations show that with already experimentally demonstrated figures of specific thrust impulse the lower layers of the Ionosphere can be reached in several ten seconds that is enough to keep the high level of channel conductivity and stability with the help of high repetition rate high voltage generator. Some possible applications for new technology are highlighted.

  5. Precipitation patterns during channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamtveit, B.; Hawkins, C.; Benning, L. G.; Meier, D.; Hammer, O.; Angheluta, L.

    2013-12-01

    Mineral precipitation during channelized fluid flow is widespread in a wide variety of geological systems. It is also a common and costly phenomenon in many industrial processes that involve fluid flow in pipelines. It is often referred to as scale formation and encountered in a large number of industries, including paper production, chemical manufacturing, cement operations, food processing, as well as non-renewable (i.e. oil and gas) and renewable (i.e. geothermal) energy production. We have studied the incipient stages of growth of amorphous silica on steel plates emplaced into the central areas of the ca. 1 meter in diameter sized pipelines used at the hydrothermal power plant at Hellisheidi, Iceland (with a capacity of ca 300 MW electricity and 100 MW hot water). Silica precipitation takes place over a period of ca. 2 months at approximately 120°C and a flow rate around 1 m/s. The growth produces asymmetric ca. 1mm high dendritic structures ';leaning' towards the incoming fluid flow. A novel phase-field model combined with the lattice Boltzmann method is introduced to study how the growth morphologies vary under different hydrodynamic conditions, including non-laminar systems with turbulent mixing. The model accurately predicts the observed morphologies and is directly relevant for understanding the more general problem of precipitation influenced by turbulent mixing during flow in channels with rough walls and even for porous flow. Reference: Hawkins, C., Angheluta, L., Hammer, Ø., and Jamtveit, B., Precipitation dendrites in channel flow. Europhysics Letters, 102, 54001

  6. Ongoing River Capture in the Amazon via Secondary Channel Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, S. L.; Stokes, M.; Perron, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    The Rio Casiquiare in South America is a secondary channel that originates as a distributary of the Rio Orinoco and flows into the Rio Negro as a tributary to form a perennial connection between the Amazon and Orinoco basins, the largest and fourth-largest rivers on Earth by discharge. This unusual configuration is the result of an incomplete and ongoing river capture in which the Rio Negro is actively capturing the upper Rio Orinoco. This rarely observed intermediate stage of capture illuminates important mechanisms that drive river capture in lowland settings, both in the Amazon basin and elsewhere. In particular, we show that the capture of the Rio Orinoco by the Rio Casiquiare is driven by a combination of headward incision of a rapidly eroding tributary of the Rio Negro, sedimentation in the Rio Orinoco downstream of the bifurcation, and seasonal inundation of a low-relief divide. The initiation of the bifurcation by headward erosion caused an increase in discharge to the Rio Casiquiare while the corresponding loss of discharge to the downstream Rio Orinoco has led to observable sedimentation within the main channel. Unlike most ephemeral secondary channels, the Rio Casiquiare appears to be growing, suggesting that the present bifurcation is an unstable feature that will eventually lead to the complete capture of the upper Rio Orinoco by the Rio Casiquiare. This capture is the latest major event in the late Cenozoic drainage evolution of South America in response to Andean tectonism, and is an example of the lateral expansion of the Amazon basin through river capture following integration and entrenchment of the transcontinental Amazon River. The Rio Casiquiare provides a snapshot of an intermediate, transient state of bifurcation and inter-basin flow via a secondary channel during lowland river capture.

  7. Geometry of generalized depolarizing channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrell, Christian K.

    2009-10-01

    A generalized depolarizing channel acts on an N -dimensional quantum system to compress the “Bloch ball” in N2-1 directions; it has a corresponding compression vector. We investigate the geometry of these compression vectors and prove a conjecture of Dixit and Sudarshan [Phys. Rev. A 78, 032308 (2008)], namely, that when N=2d (i.e., the system consists of d qubits), and we work in the Pauli basis then the set of all compression vectors forms a simplex. We extend this result by investigating the geometry in other bases; in particular we find precisely when the set of all compression vectors forms a simplex.

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) channel corner seal

    DOEpatents

    Spurrier, Francis R.

    1980-01-01

    A corner seal for an MHD duct includes a compressible portion which contacts the duct walls and an insulating portion which contacts the electrodes, sidewall bars and insulators. The compressible portion may be a pneumatic or hydraulic gasket or an open-cell foam rubber. The insulating portion is segmented into a plurality of pieces of the same thickness as the electrodes, insulators and sidewall bars and aligned therewith, the pieces aligned with the insulator being of a different size from the pieces aligned with the electrodes and sidewall bars to create a stepped configuration along the corners of the MHD channel.

  9. Multiple channel programmable coincidence counter

    DOEpatents

    Arnone, Gaetano J.

    1990-01-01

    A programmable digital coincidence counter having multiple channels and featuring minimal dead time. Neutron detectors supply electrical pulses to a synchronizing circuit which in turn inputs derandomized pulses to an adding circuit. A random access memory circuit connected as a programmable length shift register receives and shifts the sum of the pulses, and outputs to a serializer. A counter is input by the adding circuit and downcounted by the seralizer, one pulse at a time. The decoded contents of the counter after each decrement is output to scalers.

  10. Ideal Channel Field Effect Transistors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    well as on /?-GaAs/w-GaAs homojunctions grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The diode I-Vs at reverse bias are plotted below. The measured breakdown...transistors and composite channel InAlAs/InGaAs/lnP/InAlAs high electron mobility transistors ( HEMTs ), which have taken the full advantage of the matched...result in a large number of dislocations in GaAs films epitaxially grown on wurtzite GaN. In this work, we have successfully integrated GaAs with GaN

  11. Channel and hillslope processes in a semiarid area, New Mexico

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Emmett, William W.; Myrick, Robert M.

    1966-01-01

    Ephemeral washes having drainage areas from a few acres to 5 square miles are shown by actual measurement to be accumulating sediment on the streambed. This aggradation is not apparent to the eye but is clearly shown in 7 years of annual remeasurement.A similar aggradation was in progress in the same area some 3000 years ago as evidenced by an alluvial terrace later dissected by the present channel system. At that time as well as at present, aggradation occurred even in tributary areas draining a few acres. Colluvial accumulations merge with channel deposits and blanket the valleys and tributary basins even up to a few hundred feet of the drainage divides. The present study concerned the amounts of sediment produced by different erosion processes in various physiographic positions in the drainage basins. Measurements show that by far the largest sediment source is sheet erosion operating on the small percentage of basin area near the basin divides. Mass movement, gully head extension, and channel enlargement are presently small contributors of sediment compared with sheet erosion on unrilled slopes. As in previous studies, not all of the erosion products could be accounted for by accumulations on colluvial slopes and on beds of channels. The discrepancies are attributed primarily to sediment carried completely out of the basins studied and presumably deposited somewhere downstream.Aggradation of alluvial valleys of 5 square miles area and smaller both in the present epicycle, and in prehistorical but post-glacial times in this locality, cannot be attributed to gullying or rill extension in the headwater tributaries but to sheet erosion of the most upstream margins of the basins.Studies of rainfall characteristics of the 7 years of measurement compared with previous years in the 100-year record do not provide a clear-out difference which would account for the presently observed aggradation of channels. Longer period of measurement of erosion and sedimentation will

  12. Lateral Compression Properties of Magnesium Alloy Tubes Fabricated via Hydrostatic Extrusion Integrated with Circular ECAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Jiuming; Hu, Fangyi; Cao, Quoc Dinh; Yuan, Renshu; Wu, Zhilin; Cai, Hongming; Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Xinping

    2017-03-01

    Hydrostatic extrusion integrated with circular equal channel angular pressing has been previously proposed for fabricating AZ80 magnesium alloy tubes as a method to obtain high-strength tubes for industrial applications. In order to axial tensile strength, circumferential mechanical properties are also important for tubular structures. The tensile properties of AZ80 tubes have been previously studied; however, the circumferential properties have not been examined. In this work, circumferential mechanical properties of these tubes were studied using lateral compression tests. An analytical model is proposed to evaluate the circumferential elongation, which is in good agreement with finite element results. The effects of the extrusion ratio and conical mandrel angle on the circumferential elongation and lateral compression strength are discussed. The strain distribution in the sample during lateral compression testing was found to be inhomogeneous, and cracks initially appeared on the inner surface of the sample vertex. The circumferential elongation and lateral compression strength increased with the extrusion ratio and conical mandrel angle. The anisotropy of the tube's mechanical properties was insignificant when geometric effects were ignored.

  13. Lateralization of Frequency-Specific Networks for Covert Spatial Attention to Auditory Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Samuel; D'Zmura, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a cued spatial attention experiment to investigate the time–frequency structure of human EEG induced by attentional orientation of an observer in external auditory space. Seven subjects participated in a task in which attention was cued to one of two spatial locations at left and right. Subjects were instructed to report the speech stimulus at the cued location and to ignore a simultaneous speech stream originating from the uncued location. EEG was recorded from the onset of the directional cue through the offset of the inter-stimulus interval (ISI), during which attention was directed toward the cued location. Using a wavelet spectrum, each frequency band was then normalized by the mean level of power observed in the early part of the cue interval to obtain a measure of induced power related to the deployment of attention. Topographies of band specific induced power during the cue and inter-stimulus intervals showed peaks over symmetric bilateral scalp areas. We used a bootstrap analysis of a lateralization measure defined for symmetric groups of channels in each band to identify specific lateralization events throughout the ISI. Our results suggest that the deployment and maintenance of spatially oriented attention throughout a period of 1,100 ms is marked by distinct episodes of reliable hemispheric lateralization ipsilateral to the direction in which attention is oriented. An early theta lateralization was evident over posterior parietal electrodes and was sustained throughout the ISI. In the alpha and mu bands punctuated episodes of parietal power lateralization were observed roughly 500 ms after attentional deployment, consistent with previous studies of visual attention. In the beta band these episodes show similar patterns of lateralization over frontal motor areas. These results indicate that spatial attention involves similar mechanisms in the auditory and visual modalities. PMID:21630112

  14. Channel function reconstitution and re-animation: a single-channel strategy in the postcrystal age

    PubMed Central

    Oiki, Shigetoshi

    2015-01-01

    The most essential properties of ion channels for their physiologically relevant functions are ion-selective permeation and gating. Among the channel species, the potassium channel is primordial and the most ubiquitous in the biological world, and knowledge of this channel underlies the understanding of features of other ion channels. The strategy applied to studying channels changed dramatically after the crystal structure of the potassium channel was resolved. Given the abundant structural information available, we exploited the bacterial KcsA potassium channel as a simple model channel. In the postcrystal age, there are two effective frameworks with which to decipher the functional codes present in the channel structure, namely reconstitution and re-animation. Complex channel proteins are decomposed into essential functional components, and well-examined parts are rebuilt for integrating channel function in the membrane (reconstitution). Permeation and gating are dynamic operations, and one imagines the active channel by breathing life into the ‘frozen’ crystal (re-animation). Capturing the motion of channels at the single-molecule level is necessary to characterize the behaviour of functioning channels. Advanced techniques, including diffracted X-ray tracking, lipid bilayer methods and high-speed atomic force microscopy, have been used. Here, I present dynamic pictures of the KcsA potassium channel from the submolecular conformational changes to the supramolecular collective behaviour of channels in the membrane. These results form an integrated picture of the active channel and offer insights into the processes underlying the physiological function of the channel in the cell membrane. PMID:25833254

  15. Use of navigation channels by Lake Sturgeon: Does channelization increase vulnerability of fish to ship strikes?

    PubMed

    Hondorp, Darryl W; Bennion, David H; Roseman, Edward F; Holbrook, Christopher M; Boase, James C; Chiotti, Justin A; Thomas, Michael V; Wills, Todd C; Drouin, Richard G; Kessel, Steven T; Krueger, Charles C

    2017-01-01

    Channelization for navigation and flood control has altered the hydrology and bathymetry of many large rivers with unknown consequences for fish species that undergo riverine migrations. In this study, we investigated whether altered flow distributions and bathymetry associated with channelization attracted migrating Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) into commercial navigation channels, potentially increasing their exposure to ship strikes. To address this question, we quantified and compared Lake Sturgeon selection for navigation channels vs. alternative pathways in two multi-channel rivers differentially affected by channelization, but free of barriers to sturgeon movement. Acoustic telemetry was used to quantify Lake Sturgeon movements. Under the assumption that Lake Sturgeon navigate by following primary flow paths, acoustic-tagged Lake Sturgeon in the more-channelized lower Detroit River were expected to choose navigation channels over alternative pathways and to exhibit greater selection for navigation channels than conspecifics in the less-channelized lower St. Clair River. Consistent with these predictions, acoustic-tagged Lake Sturgeon in the more-channelized lower Detroit River selected the higher-flow and deeper navigation channels over alternative migration pathways, whereas in the less-channelized lower St. Clair River, individuals primarily used pathways alternative to navigation channels. Lake Sturgeon selection for navigation channels as migratory pathways also was significantly higher in the more-channelized lower Detroit River than in the less-channelized lower St. Clair River. We speculated that use of navigation channels over alternative pathways would increase the spatial overlap of commercial vessels and migrating Lake Sturgeon, potentially enhancing their vulnerability to ship strikes. Results of our study thus demonstrated an association between channelization and the path use of migrating Lake Sturgeon that could prove important for

  16. Use of navigation channels by Lake Sturgeon: Does channelization increase vulnerability of fish to ship strikes?

    PubMed Central

    Bennion, David H.; Roseman, Edward F.; Holbrook, Christopher M.; Boase, James C.; Chiotti, Justin A.; Thomas, Michael V.; Wills, Todd C.; Drouin, Richard G.; Kessel, Steven T.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2017-01-01

    Channelization for navigation and flood control has altered the hydrology and bathymetry of many large rivers with unknown consequences for fish species that undergo riverine migrations. In this study, we investigated whether altered flow distributions and bathymetry associated with channelization attracted migrating Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) into commercial navigation channels, potentially increasing their exposure to ship strikes. To address this question, we quantified and compared Lake Sturgeon selection for navigation channels vs. alternative pathways in two multi-channel rivers differentially affected by channelization, but free of barriers to sturgeon movement. Acoustic telemetry was used to quantify Lake Sturgeon movements. Under the assumption that Lake Sturgeon navigate by following primary flow paths, acoustic-tagged Lake Sturgeon in the more-channelized lower Detroit River were expected to choose navigation channels over alternative pathways and to exhibit greater selection for navigation channels than conspecifics in the less-channelized lower St. Clair River. Consistent with these predictions, acoustic-tagged Lake Sturgeon in the more-channelized lower Detroit River selected the higher-flow and deeper navigation channels over alternative migration pathways, whereas in the less-channelized lower St. Clair River, individuals primarily used pathways alternative to navigation channels. Lake Sturgeon selection for navigation channels as migratory pathways also was significantly higher in the more-channelized lower Detroit River than in the less-channelized lower St. Clair River. We speculated that use of navigation channels over alternative pathways would increase the spatial overlap of commercial vessels and migrating Lake Sturgeon, potentially enhancing their vulnerability to ship strikes. Results of our study thus demonstrated an association between channelization and the path use of migrating Lake Sturgeon that could prove important for

  17. Channel function reconstitution and re-animation: a single-channel strategy in the postcrystal age.

    PubMed

    Oiki, Shigetoshi

    2015-06-15

    The most essential properties of ion channels for their physiologically relevant functions are ion-selective permeation and gating. Among the channel species, the potassium channel is primordial and the most ubiquitous in the biological world, and knowledge of this channel underlies the understanding of features of other ion channels. The strategy applied to studying channels changed dramatically after the crystal structure of the potassium channel was resolved. Given the abundant structural information available, we exploited the bacterial KcsA potassium channel as a simple model channel. In the postcrystal age, there are two effective frameworks with which to decipher the functional codes present in the channel structure, namely reconstitution and re-animation. Complex channel proteins are decomposed into essential functional components, and well-examined parts are rebuilt for integrating channel function in the membrane (reconstitution). Permeation and gating are dynamic operations, and one imagines the active channel by breathing life into the 'frozen' crystal (re-animation). Capturing the motion of channels at the single-molecule level is necessary to characterize the behaviour of functioning channels. Advanced techniques, including diffracted X-ray tracking, lipid bilayer methods and high-speed atomic force microscopy, have been used. Here, I present dynamic pictures of the KcsA potassium channel from the submolecular conformational changes to the supramolecular collective behaviour of channels in the membrane. These results form an integrated picture of the active channel and offer insights into the processes underlying the physiological function of the channel in the cell membrane. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  18. Anthropogenic changes to the tidal channel network, sediment rerouting, and social implications in southwest Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Sams, S.; Small, C.

    2015-12-01

    The tidal channel network in southwest Bangladesh has been undergoing major adjustment in response to anthropogenic modification over the past few decades. Densely inhabited, agricultural islands that have been embanked to protect against inundation by tides, river flooding, and storm surges (i.e., polders) preclude tidal exchange and sedimentation. Studies reveal this results in elevation deficits relative to mean high water, endangering local communities when embankment failures occur (e.g., during storms, lateral channel erosion). In addition, many studies suggest that the decrease in tidal prism and associated change in hydrodynamics from poldering causes shoaling in remaining tidal channels, which can cause a disruption in transportation. The widespread closure and conversion of tidal channel areas to profitable shrimp aquaculture is also prevalent in this region. In this study, we quantify the direct closure of tidal channels due to poldering and shrimp aquaculture using historical Landsat and Google Earth imagery, and analyze the morphologic adjustment of the tidal channel network due to these perturbations. In the natural Sundarbans mangrove forest, the tidal channel network has remained relatively constant since the 1970s. In contrast, construction of polders removed >1000 km of primary tidal creeks and >90 km2 has been reclaimed outside of polders through infilling and closure of formerly-active, higher order conduit channels now used for shrimp aquaculture. Field validation confirm tidal restriction by large sluice gates is prevalent, favoring local channel siltation at rates up to 20cm/yr. With the impoundment of primary creeks and closure of 30-60% of conduit channels in the study area, an estimated 1,400 x 106 m3 of water has been removed from the tidal prism and potentially redirected within remaining channels. This has significant implications for tidal amplification in this region. Further, we estimate that 12.3 x 106 MT of sediment annually

  19. Modeling growth kinetics of thin films made by atomic layer deposition in lateral high-aspect-ratio structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ylilammi, Markku; Ylivaara, Oili M. E.; Puurunen, Riikka L.

    2018-05-01

    The conformality of thin films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) is studied using all-silicon test structures with long narrow lateral channels. A diffusion model, developed in this work, is used for studying the propagation of ALD growth in narrow channels. The diffusion model takes into account the gas transportation at low pressures, the dynamic Langmuir adsorption model for the film growth and the effect of channel narrowing due to film growth. The film growth is calculated by solving the diffusion equation with surface reactions. An efficient analytic approximate solution of the diffusion equation is developed for fitting the model to the measured thickness profile. The fitting gives the equilibrium constant of adsorption and the sticking coefficient. This model and Gordon's plug flow model are compared. The simulations predict the experimental measurement results quite well for Al2O3 and TiO2 ALD processes.

  20. Holocene earthquakes and right-lateral slip on the left-lateral Darrington-Devils Mountain fault zone, northern Puget Sound, Washington

    Personius, Stephen F.; Briggs, Richard W.; Nelson, Alan R.; Schermer, Elizabeth R; Maharrey, J. Zebulon; Sherrod, Brian; Spaulding, Sarah A.; Bradley, Lee-Ann

    2014-01-01

    Sources of seismic hazard in the Puget Sound region of northwestern Washington include deep earthquakes associated with the Cascadia subduction zone, and shallow earthquakes associated with some of the numerous crustal (upper-plate) faults that crisscross the region. Our paleoseismic investigations on one of the more prominent crustal faults, the Darrington–Devils Mountain fault zone, included trenching of fault scarps developed on latest Pleistocene glacial sediments and analysis of cores from an adjacent wetland near Lake Creek, 14 km southeast of Mount Vernon, Washington. Trench excavations revealed evidence of a single earthquake, radiocarbon dated to ca. 2 ka, but extensive burrowing and root mixing of sediments within 50–100 cm of the ground surface may have destroyed evidence of other earthquakes. Cores in a small wetland adjacent to our trench site provided stratigraphic evidence (formation of a laterally extensive, prograding wedge of hillslope colluvium) of an earthquake ca. 2 ka, which we interpret to be the same earthquake documented in the trenches. A similar colluvial wedge lower in the wetland section provides possible evidence for a second earthquake dated to ca. 8 ka. Three-dimensional trenching techniques revealed evidence for 2.2 ± 1.1 m of right-lateral offset of a glacial outwash channel margin, and 45–70 cm of north-side-up vertical separation across the fault zone. These offsets indicate a net slip vector of 2.3 ± 1.1 m, plunging 14° west on a 286°-striking, 90°-dipping fault plane. The dominant right-lateral sense of slip is supported by the presence of numerous Riedel R shears preserved in two of our trenches, and probable right-lateral offset of a distinctive bedrock fault zone in a third trench. Holocene north-side-up, right-lateral oblique slip is opposite the south-side-up, left-lateral oblique sense of slip inferred from geologic mapping of Eocene and older rocks along the fault zone. The cause of this slip reversal is