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Sample records for eagle argosy auriga

  1. Epsilon Aurigae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Rebecca; Price, A.; Henden, A.

    2009-05-01

    The IYA 2009 working group on Research Experiences for Students, Teachers, and Citizen-Scientists is planning a multi-year project involving the bright star Eps Aur. The project will go beyond simple observing and also include a major data analysis component. The goal is to introduce the participant to the full scientific process from background research to paper writing for a peer-reviewed journal. It begins with a 10 Star Training Program of several types of binary and transient variable stars that are easy to observe from suburban locations with the naked eye. Participants will be trained both in observing and also in basic data analysis of photometric datasets (light curve and period analysis). Eventually it will lead to a capstone project: monitoring the rare and mysterious 2009-2011 eclipse of Epsilon Aurigae. In the summer of IYA 2009, third-magnitude Eps Aur will experience its next eclipse, which occurs every 27.1 years and lasts 714 days, nearly two years. The star is bright enough to be seen with the naked eye from most urban areas. If fully funded, the project will also involve two public workshops on observing and data analysis in the summers of 2009 and 2010, respectively.

  2. Eclipse of epsilon Aurigae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, Matthew R.

    2009-07-01

    The bright, long-period, eclipsing binary star epsilon Aurigae is predicted to begin its next eclipse late July or early August of 2009. Epsilon Aurigae is now past solar conjunction and has reappeared as a morning object. All observers -- both visual and instrumental -- are encouraged to contribute observations of the eclipse during the next two years, beginning immediately for morning observers. Observations are urgently requested right now because it is less likely to be observed in the morning, and the eclipse will begin within the next month. The AAVSO is participating in a global campaign to record this eclipse as part of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 celebrations, organized by the Citizen Sky project (http://www.citizensky.org). For experienced visual observers, please observe this star on a weekly basis, using charts available via VSP from the AAVSO website. For novice visual observers, we recommend participating in this observing program by following the Citizen Sky 10-Star tutorial program, which provides a simple training experience in variable star observing. Photoelectric observers belonging to the AAVSO PEP-V program may submit data as usual via the WebObs feature of the AAVSO website Blue&Gold section. Photoelectric observers may also contribute reduced observations in all filters (including infrared J- and H-bands) directly to the AAVSO via WebObs. Observers using wide-field CCD and DSLR systems are also encouraged to participate; avoid saturating the star. For those with narrower-field systems (D < 2 degrees), we recommend taking a large number (10-100) of very short exposures and then stacking the resulting images. Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. Aaron Price is coordinating Citizen Sky for the AAVSO, and Dr. Robert Stencel and Jeffrey Hopkins are co-leading the precision photometry efforts.

  3. Epsilon Aurigae. [eclipsing binary system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    In April 1984, fourth contact ended the two year long eclipse of Epsilon Aurigae. An astrometric study of the study of the system was carried out by Van de kamp (1978) leading to the conclusion that the orbit is seen very close to edge on. The eclipse was monitored by a number of groups from the ground and from spacecraft such as the IUE. Ultraviolet observations of the system from IUE have thrown new light on the nature of the system that led to the conclusion that the secondary object is probably a cold, dusty accretion disk surrounding a star that is completely hidden inside the disk.

  4. Eagle's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Thaís Gonçalves; Soares, Vítor Yamashiro Rocha; Ferreira, Denise Bastos Lage; Raymundo, Igor Teixeira; Nascimento, Luiz Augusto; Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Costa Pires de

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Eagle's syndrome is characterized by cervicopharyngeal signs and symptoms associated with elongation of the styloid apophysis. This elongation may occur through ossification of the stylohyoid ligament, or through growth of the apophysis due to osteogenesis triggered by a factor such as trauma. Elongation of the styloid apophysis may give rise to intense facial pain, headache, dysphagia, otalgia, buzzing sensations, and trismus. Precise diagnosis of the syndrome is difficult, and it is generally confounded by other manifestations of cervicopharyngeal pain. Objective: To describe a case of Eagle's syndrome. Case Report: A 53-year-old man reported lateral pain in his neck that had been present for 30 years. Computed tomography (CT) of the neck showed elongation and ossification of the styloid processes of the temporal bone, which was compatible with Eagle's syndrome. Surgery was performed for bilateral resection of the stylohyoid ligament by using a transoral and endoscopic access route. The patient continued to present pain laterally in the neck, predominantly on his left side. CT was performed again, which showed elongation of the styloid processes. The patient then underwent lateral cervicotomy with resection of the stylohyoid process, which partially resolved his painful condition. Final Comments: Patients with Eagle's syndrome generally have a history of chronic pain. Appropriate knowledge of this disease is necessary for adequate treatment to be provided. The importance of diagnosing this uncommon and often unsuspected disease should be emphasized, given that correct clinical-surgical treatment is frequently delayed. The diagnosis of Eagle's syndrome is clinical and radiographic, and the definitive treatment in cases of difficult-to-control pain is surgical. PMID:25992033

  5. Epsilon Aurigae Eclipse 2009 - Ingress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Jeffrey L.; Stencel, Robert E.; Leadbeater, Robin; Beckmann, Paul J.; Buil, Christian; Collins, Donald; Colombo, Tiziano; Garrel, Thierry; Gorodenski, Stanley; Gudmundsson, Snaevarr; Karlsson, Mukund Kurtadikar; Lindberg, Hans-Goran; Loughney, Des; Mauclaire, Benji; McCandless, Brian E.; Melillo, Frank J.; Miles, Richard; Pearson, Robert T.; Samolyk, Gerard; Schanne, Lothar; Strikis, Iakovos Marios; Teyssier, François; Thizy, Olivier

    The mysterious star system epsilon Aurigae undergoes an eclipse every 27.1 years that lasts nearly two years. The most recent eclipse started during the late summer of 2009. An international campaign for observing this eclipse was created in 2006, with a web site for information and, to-date, 17 periodic newsletters for details, as well as a Yahoo forum List for immediate announcements and comments. Photometric data in the UBVRIJH bands have been submitted. Ingress occurred with first contact in the V band estimated at the second week of 2009 August and second contact estimated at 2010 mid-January. Spectroscopic data were also obtained during ingress. Spectroscopic data have been provided in the potassium I region, hydrogen alpha and beta regions and sodium D line region of the star system's spectrum. In this paper we describe details of observations and preliminary analysis during ingress and second contact. We introduce the observers and discuss plans for observing throughout totality and the end of the eclipse in 2011.

  6. Bald Eagles at Bay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laycock, George

    1974-01-01

    Describes the process of transplanting eggs from one nest to another in an attempt to aid in the strengthening of the eagle population. Discusses pressures exerted on eagles by hunting, trapping and pesticides. (SLH)

  7. Modelling Epsilon Aurigae without solid particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, A. Y. S.; Woolf, N. J.

    1985-01-01

    Three components can be expected to contribute to the emission of epsilon Aurigae. There is a primary F star. There is an opaque disk which occults it, and there is a gas stream which is observed to produce absorption lines. Evidence that the disk is not responsible for the gas stream lines comes both from the radial velocities, which are too small, and from the IR energy distribution out of eclipse, which shows free-free emission that would produce inadequate optical depth in electron scattering. The color temperature of the IR excess can give misleading indications of low temperature material. Free-free emission at 10,000 K between 10 and 20 microns has a color temperature of 350 K. Attempts to mold the system are discussed.

  8. Nature Photography - Bald Eagle

    2016-12-12

    An American bald eagle soars from its perch in a tree at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Several eagles call the center home. The center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. The refuge is home to more than 65 amphibian and reptile species, along with 330 native and migratory bird species, 25 mammal and 117 fish species.

  9. Nature Photography - Bald Eagle

    2016-12-12

    An American bald eagle perches in a tree at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Several eagles call the center home. The center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. The refuge is home to more than 65 amphibian and reptile species, along with 330 native and migratory bird species, 25 mammal and 117 fish species.

  10. Nature Photography - Bald Eagles

    2017-01-04

    One American bald eagle sits in its nest, while another eagle perches on a branch in tree at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The center shares a border with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. More than 330 native and migratory bird species, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles call Kennedy and the wildlife refuge home.

  11. Nature Photography - Bald Eagle

    2016-12-12

    An American bald eagle begins to soar from its perch in a tree at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Several eagles call the center home. The center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. The refuge is home to more than 65 amphibian and reptile species, along with 330 native and migratory bird species, 25 mammal and 117 fish species.

  12. 77 FR 42714 - Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC; Notice of Application...: Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC; Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC; and Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC. e... Contact: Robert Gates, Senior Vice President-- Operations, Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Water...

  13. New Eclipsing Contact Binary System in Auriga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, S. J.; Robertson, J. W.; Justice, C.; Campbell, R. T.; Hoskins, J.

    2004-05-01

    We present data on a newly discovered eclipsing binary system. The serendipitous discovery of this variable star was made by J.W. Robertson analyzing inhomogeneous ensemble photometry of stars in the field of the cataclysmic variable FS Aurigae from Indiana University RoboScope data. We obtained differential time-series BVR photometry during 2003 of this field variable using an ensemble of telescopes including the university observatories at ATU, UCA and joint ventures with amateur observatories in the state of Arkansas (Whispering Pines Observatory and Nubbin Ridge Observatory). The orbital period of this eclipsing system is 0.2508 days. The B-V light curve indicates colors of 1.2 around quadrature, to nearly 1.4 at primary eclipse. Binary star light curve models that best fit the BVR differential photometry suggest that the system is a contact binary overfilling the inner Roche Lobe by 12%, a primary component with a temperature of 4350K, a secondary component with a temperature of 3500K, a mass ratio of 0.37, and an inclination of 83 degrees. We present BVR light curves, an ephemeris, and best fit model parameters for the physical characteristics of this new eclipsing binary system.

  14. Wildlife Photography - Eagles

    2018-03-13

    An adult American bald eagle perches in a nest in a tree along State Road 3 at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Eagles have built nests in trees at the center for many years. The center shares a border with the 140,000-acre Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. More than 330 native and migratory bird species, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles call Kennedy and the wildlife refuge home.

  15. Wildlife Photography - Eagles

    2018-03-13

    An adult American bald eagle perches on a branch in a tree along State Road 3 at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Eagles have built nests in trees at the center for many years. The center shares a border with the 140,000-acre Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. More than 330 native and migratory bird species, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles call Kennedy and the wildlife refuge home.

  16. The semiregular variable UU Aurigae ( analysis in adversity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howarth, J. J.

    2001-06-01

    BAAVSS data for UU Aurigae from 1971 to 1998 are analysed to derive periodicities and to determine the behaviour of the periodic variations in phase and amplitude. Despite the difficulties associated with observing this object, distinct pulsational periods of 439.4 and 233.1 days are identified, and a long-standing phase and amplitude stability is demonstrated.

  17. Bald eagle and osprey

    Henny, C.J.; Anthony, R.G.; Pendleton, Beth Giron

    1989-01-01

    Bald eagles nested in all nine western states during recent years (about 19% of known U.S. population in 1982). The known numbers of nesting pairs in the west increased substantially in the last 10 years and totaled 584 in 1986. Much of the increase was due to more intensive survey efforts, but most biologists cite examples of new palrs establishing nesting territories. In contrast, productivity was relatively stable at 0.9 young produced per occupied territory with small annual fluctuations, a level slightly below the requirement for delisting (1.0 young per occupied territory) by the Pacific States Bald Eagle Recovery Plan. About 4,500 to 6,000 (minimum estimate) bald eagles winter throughout the western United States, which is about 50% of the surveyed population in the contiguous 48 states. Osprey range expansion and population increases have been documented in the West since 1981, when the population was estimated at 1,472 palrs (i.e., about 18% of the U.S. population). Monitoring efforts in the 1980s were not as intensive for ospreys as for bald eagles, but productivity was usually at the upper end of 0.95 to 13 young per occupied territory (a rate generally believed adequate for population stability). Although bald eagle and osprey nesting populations and productivity show cause for optimism, organochlorine contaminants remain a problem in a few individual birds and in some localized areas (e.g., lower Columbia River). DDE residues high enough to reduce productivity have been documented in eggs of both species during the 1980s. In addition, the bald eagle, which also forages on sick or dead prey, has been exposed to lead shot and the organophosphorus insecticide famphur. These contaminants have killed numbers of them in the West in recent years. Nesting ospreys appear more tolerant than nesting bald eagles of man and his disturbance; thus, more restrictions are required at bald eagle nest sites. Furthermore, bald eagles winter within the United States and

  18. Solar Eagle 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberto, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    During a 22-month period from February 1991 to December 1993, a dedicated group of students, faculty, and staff at California State University, Los Angeles completed a project to design, build, and race their second world class solar-powered electric vehicle, the Solar Eagle 2. This is the final report of that project. As a continuation of the momentum created by the success of the GM-sponsored Sunrayce USA in 1990, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) picked up the banner from General Motors as sponsors of Sunrayce 93. In February 1991, the DOE sent a request for proposals to all universities in North America inviting them to submit a proposal outlining how they would design, build, and test a solar-powered electric vehicle for a seven-day race from Arlington, Texas to Minneapolis, Minnesota, to be held in June 1993. Some 70 universities responded. At the end of a proposal evaluation process, 36 universities including CSLA were chosen to compete. This report documents the Solar Eagle 2 project--the approaches take, what was learned, and how our experience from the first Solar Eagle was incorporated into Solar Eagle 2. The intent is to provide a document that would assist those who may wish to take up the challenge to build Solar Eagle 3.

  19. Wildlife - Bald Eagle

    2007-03-20

    High in a pine tree at NASA's Kennedy Space Center, an adult bald eagle (right) and a fledgling keep watch from their nest. There are approximately a dozen active bald eagle nests both in KSC and in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which surrounds KSC. The refuge includes several wading bird rookeries, many osprey nests, up to 400 manatees during the spring, and approximately 2,500 Florida scrub jays. It also is a major wintering area for migratory birds. More than 500 species of wildlife inhabit the refuge, with 15 considered federally threatened or endangered.

  20. 77 FR 13592 - AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Land...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ...; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC; Notice... 24, 2012, AER NY-Gen, LLC (transferor), Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources.... Cherry, Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, and Eagle Creek Land Resources...

  1. 75 FR 27332 - AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC; Eagle Creek Land...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... 9690-106] AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC; Eagle Creek... Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, and Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC (transferees) filed an.... Paul Ho, Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, and Eagle Creek Land Resources...

  2. Nature Photography - Bald Eagles

    2016-12-13

    An American bald eagle soars through the air above NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The center shares a border with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. More than 330 native and migratory bird species, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles call Kennedy and the wildlife refuge home.

  3. Nature Photography - Bald Eagles

    2016-12-13

    An American bald eagle soars through the air above NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The center shares a border with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. The bird is one of more than 330 native and migratory bird species, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles that call Kennedy and the wildlife refuge home.

  4. Nature Photography - Bald Eagles

    2016-12-13

    With wings outstretched, an American bald eagle soars through the air above NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The center shares a border with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. The bird is one of more than 330 native and migratory bird species, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles that call Kennedy and the wildlife refuge home.

  5. Nature Photography - Bald Eagles

    2016-12-13

    Two American bald eagles are perched in a nest atop a pole at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The center shares a border with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. More than 330 native and migratory bird species, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles call Kennedy and the wildlife refuge home.

  6. Wildlife Photography - Eagles

    2017-05-04

    A juvenile bald eagle watches for prey in the grass at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The center shares a border with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. More than 330 native and migratory bird species, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles call Kennedy and the wildlife refuge home.

  7. Wildlife Photography - Eagles

    2017-05-04

    An American bald eagle eats its prey on a wooden dock at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The center shares a border with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. More than 330 native and migratory bird species, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles call Kennedy and the wildlife refuge home.

  8. Wildlife Photography - Eagles

    2017-05-04

    A juvenile bald eagle sits in the grass at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The center shares a border with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. More than 330 native and migratory bird species, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles call Kennedy and the wildlife refuge home.

  9. Wildlife Photography - Bald Eagle

    2017-05-04

    An American bald eagle soars through the air with its prey at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The center shares a border with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. More than 330 native and migratory bird species, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles call Kennedy and the wildlife refuge home.

  10. Creative Photography - Baby Eagles

    2018-02-08

    A baby eagle perches in a nest in a tree along State Road 3 at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The center shares a border with the 140,000-acre Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. More than 330 native and migratory bird species, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles call Kennedy and the wildlife refuge home.

  11. Creative Photography - Baby Eagles

    2018-02-08

    Two baby eagles perch in a nest in a tree along State Road 3 at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The center shares a border with the 140,000-acre Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. More than 330 native and migratory bird species, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles call Kennedy and the wildlife refuge home.

  12. Eagle Feathers, the Highest Honor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaverhead, Pete

    Following his own advice that elders of the tribe share their knowledge so that "the way of the Indians would come back to the children of today," Pete Beaverhead (1899-1975) tells of the traditions of respect and honor surrounding the eagle feather in a booklet illustrated with black and white drawings. The eagle is an Indian symbol of…

  13. Lead Levels in Utah Eagles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Michelle

    2006-10-01

    Lead is a health hazard to most animals, causing adverse effects to the nervous and reproductive systems if in sufficient quantity. Found in most fishing jigs and sinkers, as well as some ammunition used in hunting, this metal can poison wildlife such as eagles. Eagles are raptors, or predatory birds, and their lead exposure would most likely comes from their food -- a fish which has swallowed a sinker or lead shot in carrion (dead animal matter). As part of an ongoing project to investigate the environment lead levels in Utah, the bone lead levels in the wing bones of eagles have been measured for eagle carcasses found throughout Utah. The noninvasive technique of x-ray fluorescence was used, consisting of a Cd-109 radioactive source to activate lead atoms and a HPGe detector with digital electronics to collect the gamma spectra. Preliminary results for the eagles measured to date will be presented.

  14. EAGLES NEST WILDERNESS, COLORADO.

    Tweto, Ogden; Williams, Frank E.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a geologic and mineral survey, a primitive area that constitutes the nucleus of the Eagles Nest Wilderness, Colorado was appraised to offer little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Among the additional areas later incorporated in the wilderness, only a strip near a major fault west and northwest of Frisco and Dillon is classed as having probable mineral-resource potential. If mineral deposits exist, they probably are of the silver-lead-zinc or fluorspar types.

  15. The ultraviolet spectrum of the eclipsing binary IM Aurigae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruhweiler, F. C.; Feibelman, W. A.; Kondo, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Low dispersion IUE spectra have been obtained at primary and secondary minima, together with a high dispersion spectrum near maximum, for the eclipsing Algol-type IM Aurigae system. The weak, sharp absorption features noted at two distinct velocities in the high dispersion data are attributed to circumbinary gaseous shells and/or gas streams between the stellar components. The implications of these results for the recently observed increase in O-C values of the primary minimum, which prompted this UV spectral search for evidence of a recent mass-loss event, are discussed.

  16. The 1982-1984 Eclipse of Epsilon Aurigae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stencel, R. E. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    A workshop proceedings concerned with the new data collected during the 1982-1984 eclipse period of the 27-year system Epsilon Aurigae is presented. This binary star has been a classic problem in astrophysics because the opaque eclipsing object is nonstellar, and probably disk shaped. Invited papers concerning the history of the system, optical, infrared and ultraviolet photometry, optical polarimetry and ultraviolet spectroscopy are included. An invited paper concerning comprehensive theoretical interpretation in the context of stellar evolution also is included. The information collected herein is unparalleled in scope and will remain a standard reference until the next eclipse cycle in the year 2009 A.D., in all probability.

  17. Multiple Stellar Flybys Sculpting the Circumstellar Architecture in RW Aurigae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Loomis, Ryan; Cabrit, Sylvie; Haworth, Thomas J.; Facchini, Stefano; Dougados, Catherine; Booth, Richard A.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Clarke, Cathie J.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Dent, William R. F.; Pety, Jérôme

    2018-06-01

    We present high-resolution ALMA Band 6 and 7 observations of the tidally disrupted protoplanetary disks of the RW Aurigae binary. Our observations reveal tidal streams in addition to the previously observed tidal arm around RW Aur A. The observed configuration of tidal streams surrounding RW Aur A and B is incompatible with a single star–disk tidal encounter, suggesting that the RW Aurigae system has undergone multiple flyby interactions. We also resolve the circumstellar disks around RW Aur A and B, with CO radii of 58 au and 38 au consistent with tidal truncation, and 2.5 times smaller dust emission radii. The disks appear misaligned by 12° or 57°. Using new photometric observations from the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) and the All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN) archives, we have also identified an additional dimming event of the primary that began in late 2017 and is currently ongoing. With over a century of photometric observations, we are beginning to explore the same spatial scales as ALMA.

  18. EAGLE: 'EAGLE'Is an' Algorithmic Graph Library for Exploration

    SciT

    2015-01-16

    The Resource Description Framework (RDF) and SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL) were introduced about a decade ago to enable flexible schema-free data interchange on the Semantic Web. Today data scientists use the framework as a scalable graph representation for integrating, querying, exploring and analyzing data sets hosted at different sources. With increasing adoption, the need for graph mining capabilities for the Semantic Web has emerged. Today there is no tools to conduct "graph mining" on RDF standard data sets. We address that need through implementation of popular iterative Graph Mining algorithms (Triangle count, Connected component analysis, degree distribution,more » diversity degree, PageRank, etc.). We implement these algorithms as SPARQL queries, wrapped within Python scripts and call our software tool as EAGLE. In RDF style, EAGLE stands for "EAGLE 'Is an' algorithmic graph library for exploration. EAGLE is like 'MATLAB' for 'Linked Data.'« less

  19. A spectroscopic investigation of the eclipsing binary Epsilon Aurigae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balachandran, Suchitra

    1991-01-01

    The objectives were to examine, in detail, the spectra of the eclipsing binary Epsilon Aurigae taken with the IUE satellite telescope during the 1982 to 1984 eclipse. All of the low resolution spectra were analyzed and UV light curves are presented. The primary findings are as follows: (1) a constant eclipse depth from 1600 A to longer wavelengths and a sharp drop in the eclipse depth from 1600 to 1200 A; (2) the absence of large amplitude fluctuations in the UV as expected from a Cepheid primary; and (3) equal ingress and egress times in contradiction to that interpreted from visible light curves. The effects of these findings on the eclipse geometry are being studied.

  20. An optical transduction chain for the AURIGA detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, L.; Marin, F.; de Rosa, M.; Prodi, G. A.; Taffarello, L.; Zendri, J. P.; Cerdonio, M.; Vitale, S.

    2000-06-01

    We describe the principle of operation of an opto-mechanical readout for resonant mass gravitational wave detectors; with such a device the AURIGA detector is expected to reach a sensitivity at the level of Shh=10-22/Hz over a bandwidth of about 40Hz. Recent developments in the implementation of this transduction chain are also reported. In particular we achieve quantum limited laser power noise in the frequency range of 200Hz around the bar fundamental frequency (about 1kHz) by means of active stabilization. We also set up a reference cavity of finesse 40000 with optically contacted mirrors on a 0.2m long Zerodur spacer. The cavity can be heated from room temperature to about 100 °C and temperature stabilized with fluctuations within 1mK over a period of several days. The cavity is under vacuum and isolated from mechanical disturbancies by means of a double stage cantilever system. .

  1. CONSTRAINTS FROM ASYMMETRIC HEATING: INVESTIGATING THE EPSILON AURIGAE DISK

    SciT

    Pearson, Richard L. III; Stencel, Robert E., E-mail: richard.pearson@du.edu, E-mail: robert.stencel@du.edu

    2015-01-01

    Epsilon Aurigae is a long-period eclipsing binary that likely contains an F0Ia star and a circumstellar disk enshrouding a hidden companion, assumed to be a main-sequence B star. High uncertainty in its parallax has kept the evolutionary status of the system in question and, hence, the true nature of each component. This unknown, as well as the absence of solid state spectral features in the infrared, requires an investigation of a wide parameter space by means of both analytic and Monte Carlo radiative transfer (MCRT) methods. The first MCRT models of epsilon Aurigae that include all three system components aremore » presented here. We seek additional system parameter constraints by melding analytic approximations with MCRT outputs (e.g., dust temperatures) on a first-order level. The MCRT models investigate the effects of various parameters on the disk-edge temperatures; these include two distances, three particle size distributions, three compositions, and two disk masses, resulting in 36 independent models. Specifically, the MCRT temperatures permit analytic calculations of effective heating and cooling curves along the disk edge. These are used to calculate representative observed fluxes and corresponding temperatures. This novel application of thermal properties provides the basis for utilization of other binary systems containing disks. We find degeneracies in the model fits for the various parameter sets. However, the results show a preference for a carbon disk with particle size distributions ≥10 μm. Additionally, a linear correlation between the MCRT noon and basal temperatures serves as a tool for effectively eliminating portions of the parameter space.« less

  2. Campaign Photometry During The 2010 Eclipse Of Epsilon Aurigae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Jeff; Stencel, R. E.

    2011-01-01

    Epsilon Aurigae is a long period (27.1 years) eclipsing binary star system with an eclipse that lasts nearly 2 years, but with severe ambiguities about component masses and shape. The current eclipse began on schedule in August of 2009. During the previous, 1982-1984 eclipse, an International Campaign was formed to coordinate a detailed study of the system. While that Campaign was deemed successful, the evolutionary status of the star system remained unclear. Epsilon Aurigae has been observed nearly continuously since the 1982 eclipse. The current Campaign was officially started in 2006. In addition to a Yahoo forum we have a dedicated web site and more than 18 online newsletters reporting photometry, spectroscopy, interferometry and polarimetry data. High quality UBVRIJH band photometric data since before the start of the current eclipse has been submitted. We explore the color differences among the light curves in terms of eclipse phases and archival data. At least one new model of the star system has been proposed since the current Campaign began: a low mass but very high luminosity F star plus a B star surrounded by a debris disk. The current eclipse and in particular the interferometry and spectroscopic data have caused new thoughts on defining eclipsing variable star contact points and phases of an eclipse. Second contact may not be the same point as start of totality and third contact may not be the same point as the start of egress and end of totality. In addition, the much awaited mid-eclipse brightening may or may not have appeared. This paper identifies the current Campaign contributors and the photometric data. This work was supported in part by the bequest of William Herschel Womble in support of astronomy at the University of Denver, by NSF grant 1016678 to the University of Denver.

  3. Properties of H I discs in the Auriga cosmological simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinacci, Federico; Grand, Robert J. J.; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Springel, Volker; Gómez, Facundo A.; Frenk, Carlos S.; White, Simon D. M.

    2017-04-01

    We analyse the properties of the H I gas distribution in the Auriga project, a set of magnetohydrodynamic cosmological simulations performed with the moving-mesh code arepo and a physics model for galaxy formation that succeeds in forming realistic late-type galaxies in the 30 Milky Way-sized haloes simulated in this project. We use a simple approach to estimate the neutral hydrogen fraction in our simulation set, which treats low-density and star-forming gas separately, and we explore two different prescriptions to subtract the contribution of molecular hydrogen from the total H I content. The H I gas in the vast majority of the systems forms extended discs although more disturbed morphologies are present. Notwithstanding the general good agreement with observed H I properties - such as radial profiles and the mass-diameter relation - the Auriga galaxies are systematically larger and more gas-rich than typical nearby galaxies. Interestingly, the amount of H I gas outside the disc plane correlates with the star formation rate, consistent with a picture where most of this extra-planar H I gas originates from a fountain-like flow. Our findings are robust with respect to the different assumptions adopted for computing the molecular hydrogen fraction and do not vary significantly over a wide range of numerical resolution. The H I modelling introduced in this paper can be used in future work to build artificial interferometric H I data cubes, allowing an even closer comparison of the gas dynamics in simulated galaxies with observations.

  4. The Eagle's EGGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-12-01

    VLT ISAAC Looks for Young Stars in the Famous "Pillars of Creation" Summary Through imaging at infrared wavelengths, evidence has been found for recent star formation in the so-called "Pillars of Creation" in the Eagle Nebula (also known as Messier 16 ), made famous when the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) obtained spectacular visible-wavelength images of this object in 1995. Those huge pillars of gas and dust are being sculpted and illuminated by bright and powerful high-mass stars in the nearby NGC 6611 young stellar cluster . The Hubble astronomers suggested that perhaps even younger stars were forming inside. Using the ISAAC instrument on the VLT 8.2-m ANTU telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory , European astronomers have now made a wide-field infrared image of the Messier 16 region with excellent spatial resolution, enabling them to penetrate the obscuring dust and search for light from newly born stars . Two of the three pillars are seen to have very young, relatively massive stars in their tips. Another dozen or so lower-mass stars seem to be associated with the small "evaporating gaseous globules (EGGs)" that the Hubble astronomers had discovered scattered over the surface of the pillars. These findings bring new evidence to several key questions about how stars are born . Was the formation of these new stars triggered as the intense ultraviolet radiation from the NGC 6611 stars swept over the pillars, or were they already there? Will the new stars be prematurely cut off from surrounding gas cloud, thus stunting their growth? If the new stars have disks of gas and dust around them, will they be destroyed before they have time to form planetary systems? PR Photo 37a/01 : Full wide-field ISAAC image of the Eagle Nebula. PR Photo 37b/01 : Close-up view of the ISAAC image , showing the famous "Pillars of Creation". PR Photo 37c/01 : Enlargement of the head of Column 1 . PR Photo 37d/01 : Enlargement of the head of Column 2 . PR Photo 37e/01

  5. Fly with Eagles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, G. E.

    My training in many areas of research in theoretical physics derived from what I learned from the "eagles" I flew with. Let me enumerate them. First of all, when the Navy sent me to the University of Wisconsin in January 1944 to become an electrical engineering officer, I met Gregory Breit, who practically adopted me as a son. I learned from him to drag a problem bleeding through the street until it cried for help and gave up. My political indiscretions during my young life forced me to flee to England from Joe McCarthy, where I ended up in the inspiring theory group of Rudi Peierls. Peierls taught us to drive immediately to fundamentals. When I began collaborating with Hans Bethe, the first thing I learned was why he had never had long-term collaborators. I had to wait until he was more than 70 years old in order to have any chance of keeping up with him. He worked like a bulldozer, heading directly for the light at the end of the tunnel. Most important is confidence. He starts each day with a pile of white paper in the upper left-hand corner of his desk and fills it with calculations at a more or less even rate, although he's happy to stop for lunch. I found this to be an amazingly effective procedure to imitate. From my training with Rudi Peierls, his closest friend, I was well prepared to work with Hans. The twenty-odd years I've collaborated with him have been exciting and productive.

  6. A bald eagle at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    High in a pine tree on the grounds of the Kennedy Space Center, a bald eagle perches on a branch. The Southern Bald Eagle ranges throughout Florida and along the coasts of California, Texas, Louisiana, and the south Atlantic states. Bald eagles are listed as endangered in the U.S., except in five states where they are listed as threatened. The number of nesting pairs of the southern race once numbered several thousand; recent estimates are only 350-375. Most of the southern race nests in Florida. Eagles arrive at KSC during late summer and leave for the north in late spring. They move to nest sites in October and November and lay one to three eggs. The young fledge from February to April. KSC shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  7. A bald eagle at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    On the grounds of the Kennedy Space Center, a bald eagle takes wing away from two vultures at the site of an undetermined carcass. The Southern Bald Eagle ranges throughout Florida and along the coasts of California, Texas, Louisiana, and the south Atlantic states. Bald eagles are listed as endangered in the U.S., except in five states where they are listed as threatened. The number of nesting pairs of the southern race once numbered several thousand; recent estimates are only 350-375. Most of the southern race nests in Florida. Eagles arrive at KSC during late summer and leave for the north in late spring. They move to nest sites in October and November and lay one to three eggs. The young fledge from February to April. KSC shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  8. A bald eagle at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A bald eagle joins two vultures at the site of an undetermined carcass on the grounds of the Kennedy Space Center. The Southern Bald Eagle ranges throughout Florida and along the coasts of California, Texas, Louisiana, and the south Atlantic states. Bald eagles are listed as endangered in the U.S., except in five states where they are listed as threatened. The number of nesting pairs of the southern race once numbered several thousand; recent estimates are only 350-375. Most of the southern race nests in Florida. Eagles arrive at KSC during late summer and leave for the north in late spring. They move to nest sites in October and November and lay one to three eggs. The young fledge from February to April. KSC shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  9. NIF Discovery Science Eagle Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Jave; Martinez, David; Pound, Marc; Heeter, Robert; Casner, Alexis; Villette, Bruno; Mancini, Roberto

    2017-10-01

    The University of Maryland and and LLNL are investigating the origin and dynamics of the famous Pillars of the Eagle Nebula and similar parsec-scale structures at the boundaries of HII regions in molecular hydrogen clouds. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Discovery Science program Eagle Nebula has performed NIF shots to study models of pillar formation. The shots feature a new long-duration x-ray source, in which multiple hohlraums mimicking a cluster of stars are driven with UV light in series for 10 to 15 ns each to create a 30 to 60 ns output x-ray pulse. The source generates deeply nonlinear hydrodynamics in the Eagle science package, a structure of dense plastic and foam mocking up a molecular cloud containing a dense core. Omega EP and NIF shots have validated the source concept, showing that earlier hohlraums do not compromise later ones by preheat or by ejecting ablated plumes that deflect later beams. The NIF shots generated radiographs of shadowing-model pillars, and also showed evidence that cometary structures can be generated. The velocity and column density profiles of the NIF shadowing and cometary pillars have been compared with observations of the Eagle Pillars made at the millimeter-wave BIMA and CARMA observatories. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  10. Nesting bald eagles attack researcher

    Teryl G. Grubb

    1976-01-01

    Because of the large and relatively stable Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) population on Kodiak Island, Alaska, studies on nesting, productivity, and other aspects of the species' life history have been a part of a continuing research program on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge (Hensel and Troyer 1964, Condor 66: 282; Troyer and...

  11. IUE observations of the atmospheric eclipsing binary system Zeta Aurigae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Champman, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    IUE observations of the eclipsing binary system Zeta Aurigae made prior to and during the eclipse of the relatively small B8 V star by the cool supergiant star (spectral type K2 II) are reported. Spectral lines produced by the absorption of B star radiation in the atmosphere of the K star during eclipse can be used as a probe of the extended K star atmosphere, due to the negligible cool star continuum in the 1200-3200 A region. Spectra taken prior to eclipse are found to be similar to those of the single B8 V star 64 Ori, with the exception of very strong multi-component absorption lines of Si II, Si IV, C IV and the Mg resonance doublet with strong P Cygni profiles, indicating a double shell. Absorption lines including those corresponding to Al II, Al III, Cr II, Mn II, Fe II, Ni II and Ca II are observed to increase in strength and number as the eclipse progresses, with high-ionization-potential lines formed far from the K star, possibly in a shock wave, and low-ionization potential lines, formed in cool plasma, probably a cool wind, nearer to the K star. Finally, an emission-line spectra with lines corresponding to those previously observed in absorption is noted at the time the B-star continuum had disappeared.

  12. Citizen Sky, Solving the Mystery of epsilon Aurigae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Rebecca; Price, A.; Kloppenborg, B.; Henden, A.

    2010-01-01

    Citizen Sky is a multi-year, NSF funded citizen science project involving the bright star eps Aur. The project was conceived by the IYA 2009 working group on Research Experiences for Students, Teachers, and Citizen-Scientists. Citizen Sky goes beyond simple observing to include a major data analysis component. The goal is to introduce the participant to the full scientific process from background research to paper writing for a peer-reviewed journal. It begins with a 10 Star Training Program of several types of binary and transient variable stars that are easy to observe from suburban locations with the naked eye. Participants then move on to monitoring the rare and mysterious 2009-2011 eclipse (already underway) of epsilon Aurigae. This object undergoes eclipses only every 27.1 years and each eclipse lasts nearly two years. The star is bright enough to be seen with the naked eye from most urban areas. Training will be provided in observing techniques as well as basic data analysis of photometric and visual datasets (light curve and period analysis). The project also involves two public workshops, one on observing (already held in August of 2009) and one on data analysis and scientific paper writing (to be held in 2010.) This project has been made possible by the National Science Foundation.

  13. Is the Young UY Auriga System a Triple?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittal, Matthew; Prato, Lisa A.; Schaefer, Gail; Ciardi, David R.; Thomas, Allen; Biddle, Lauren; Avilez, Ian; Muzzio, Ryan; Patience, Jennifer; Beichman, Charles

    2017-01-01

    In an effort to understand the nature of the young binary, UY Aur, we examined the variable behavior of the entire, unresolved 0.9 arcsecond system, as well as the behavior of the angularly resolved, individual A and B components. UY Aur is an approximately 2 Myr old, classical T Tauri in the Taurus-Auriga star forming region and is one of a handful of young systems to host a primordial circumbinary disk, as well as individual circumstellar disks. Using the the facility infrared, high-resolution NIRSPEC spectrograph behind the adaptive optics system at the 10-meter Keck II telescope, we observed a dramatic change in the spectra of UY Aur B between 2003 and 2010. We also identified flux variability in the individual components of 1—2 magnitudes, particularly in the secondary star, on the basis of historical photometry. Thermal dust and line emission observed with millimeter interferometry indicates complex dynamical behavior of the circumbinary and circumstellar dust and led Tang et al. (2014) to speculate that UY Aur B may itself be a binary. Our adaptive optics imaging with the Keck II telescope showed no evidence for a close companion to the B component, although the marked change in our spectra of this star suggest that it could be a spectroscopic binary. We are currently limited by the paucity of angularly resolved observations, both photometric and spectroscopic, hampering the interpretation of the data. High-cadence, angularly resolved spectroscopy and photometry will be required to confirm the potential higher-order multiplicity of this system. This research was supported in part by NSF grants AST-1461200 and AST-1313399.

  14. 3. EAGLE ROCK CONTROL CENTER, OPERATIONS CONTROL. AS SYSTEM BECOMES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EAGLE ROCK CONTROL CENTER, OPERATIONS CONTROL. AS SYSTEM BECOMES INCREASINGLY AUTOMATED, EAGLE ROCK WILL BECOME MORE AND MORE THE CENTRAL CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE METROPOLITAN WATER DISTRICT. - Eagle Rock Operations Control Center, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 77 FR 47628 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [P-13123-002-CA] Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting Postponement On July 17, 2012, the...), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. However, the meeting has been postponed...

  16. 76 FR 15971 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [P-13123-002-CA] Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Teleconference a. Date and Time of Meeting... staff of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Eagle Crest Energy as part of its on-going Section 7...

  17. 76 FR 22699 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [P-13123-002--CA] Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Teleconference a. Date and Time of Meeting... staff of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Eagle Crest Energy as part of its on-going Section 7...

  18. 77 FR 27174 - Eagle Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Eagle Permitting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ..., proposed rule to revise the regulations for permits for nonpurposeful take of golden eagles (Aquila... will post all comments on http:/www.regulations.gov. This generally means that we will post any... of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), where the take is...

  19. The Northern Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus alascanus).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    finally lured out of the nest with a show of food. Kussman (1976, cited in Diss. Abst. Intern. 38(3):1033-D) studied post- fledging behavior of eagles...Frenzel, L. D., G. Juenemann, and J. Kussman 1973 Behavioral Aspects of Eagle Nest Surveys. pp 33-36 in: Bald Eagle Nest Survey Workshop, 15 Aug. U.S...J. Ligas, and W. B. Robertson, Jr. 1970 Organochlorine and Heavy Metal Residues in Bald Eagle Eggs. Pestic. Monit. Jour., 3(3): 136-140. Kussman , J

  20. Constructing bald eagle nests with natural materials

    T. G. Grubb

    1995-01-01

    A technique for using natural materials to build artificial nests for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and other raptors is detailed. Properly constructed nests are as permanently secured to the nest tree or cliff substrate as any eagle-built nest or human-made platform. Construction normally requires about three hours and at least two people. This technique is...

  1. ASBO Eagle Institute: A Leadership Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharff, James

    2012-01-01

    Each summer, ASBO International conducts an Eagle Institute leadership session in the Washington, D.C., area that provides a group of about 25 participants, including Eagle Award recipients, an opportunity to network with and learn from exemplary leaders inside and outside the field of school business management. Each year, the focus of the…

  2. EAGLE The controlled source experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguire, P. K. H.; Eagle Controlled Source Group

    2003-04-01

    In January 2003, a wide-angle reflection / refraction seismic project was carried out over the north-eastern section of the Main Ethiopian Rift as part of the international EAGLE (Ethiopia Afar Geoscientific Lithospheric Experiment) programme. EAGLE comprises a combination of passive and controlled source seismic experiments to determine the geometry and kinematics of a continental rift immediately prior to break-up, enabling the development of magmatic margin break-up models. A total of ˜900 seismic instruments were deployed along two 450km profiles, one along the axis of the Ethiopian Rift into the south-west corner of Afar; and a second across the rift, extending north and south across the uplifted, flood basalt covered, Ethiopian plateau. The two profiles intersect over the Nazret volcanic segment in the rift. This may be indicative of the transition from continental style rifting in which strain is accommodated on the rift bounding border faults, to a state where strain and magmatism have migrated to a narrow zone within the rift, a necessary pre-cursor to break-up. A further ˜300 instruments were deployed in a 100x100km^2 array around the intersection of the two profiles. A total of 16 borehole and 2 lake shots were fired into the network over a period of four days. The principal objectives of the controlled source project were to examine crustal strain, the distribution of crustal magmatic intrusions, the influence of pre-rift crustal property variations on rift development and also to provide a crustal seismic velocity distribution to improve images of the deep mantle, as well as earthquake locations derived from the EAGLE passive arrays.

  3. Survey for hemoparasites in imperial eagles (Aquila heliaca), steppe eagles (Aquila nipalensis), and white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) from Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Leppert, Lynda L; Layman, Seth; Bragin, Evgeny A; Katzner, Todd

    2004-04-01

    Prevalence of hemoparasites has been investigated in many avian species throughout Europe and North America. Basic hematologic surveys are the first step toward evaluating whether host-parasite prevalences observed in North America and Europe occur elsewhere in the world. We collected blood smears from 94 nestling imperial eagles (Aquila heliaca), five nestling steppe eagles (Aquila nipalensis), and 14 nestling white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) at Naurzum Zapovednik (Naurzum National Nature Reserve) in Kazakhstan during the summers of 1999 and 2000. In 1999, six of 29 imperial eagles were infected with Lencocytozoon toddi. Five of 65 imperial eagles and one of 14 white-tailed sea eagle were infected with L. toddi in 2000. Furthermore, in 2000, one of 65 imperial eagles was infected with Haemoproteus sp. We found no parasites in steppe eagles in either year, and no bird had multiple-species infections. These data are important because few hematologic studies of these eagle species have been conducted.

  4. EAGLE: relay mirror technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, Mary; Restaino, Sergio R.; Baker, Jeffrey T.; Payne, Don M.; Bukley, Jerry W.

    2002-06-01

    EAGLE (Evolutionary Air & Space Global Laser Engagement) is the proposed high power weapon system with a high power laser source, a relay mirror constellation, and the necessary ground and communications links. The relay mirror itself will be a satellite composed of two optically-coupled telescopes/mirrors used to redirect laser energy from ground, air, or space based laser sources to distant points on the earth or space. The receiver telescope captures the incoming energy, relays it through an optical system that cleans up the beam, then a separate transmitter telescope/mirror redirects the laser energy at the desired target. Not only is it a key component in extending the range of DoD's current laser weapon systems, it also enables ancillary missions. Furthermore, if the vacuum of space is utilized, then the atmospheric effects on the laser beam propagation will be greatly attenuated. Finally, several critical technologies are being developed to make the EAGLE/Relay Mirror concept a reality, and the Relay Mirror Technology Development Program was set up to address them. This paper will discuss each critical technology, the current state of the work, and the future implications of this program.

  5. Breeding bald eagles in captivity

    Maestrelli, J.R.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.

    1975-01-01

    A 7-year-old female Bald Eagle from Alabama was paired with a 4-year-old Alaskan male in a large flight pen during December 1969. Both birds were free of physical defects when originally placed in the pen but the female was blind in one eye prior to the 1973 breeding season.....Nesting first occurred during 1971 when at least two eggs were laid; all but one, which showed no sign of embryonic development after being incubated for 56 days, were broken by the adult birds. Two of three eggs laid in 1972 hatched. Both young died a few days after hatching following a period of inclement weather. Three eggs were laid and hatched during 1973. Antagonism between the nestlings was observed soon after hatching and may have been responsible for the unobserved death of one nestling, two days after the third young hatched. The two remaining young were raised by the adult birds and eventually left the nest 85 days after the first egg hatched. Incubation periods for the 1972-73 clutches averaged 35 days. No renesting attempts were made by the eagles during the 3.year period.

  6. 36 CFR 71.5 - Golden Eagle Passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Golden Eagle Passport. 71.5... RECREATION FEES § 71.5 Golden Eagle Passport. (a) The Golden Eagle Passport is an annual permit, valid on a... Passport shall be $10. The annual Golden Eagle Passport shall be nontransferable and the unlawful use...

  7. 36 CFR 71.5 - Golden Eagle Passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Golden Eagle Passport. 71.5... RECREATION FEES § 71.5 Golden Eagle Passport. (a) The Golden Eagle Passport is an annual permit, valid on a... Passport shall be $10. The annual Golden Eagle Passport shall be nontransferable and the unlawful use...

  8. 36 CFR 71.5 - Golden Eagle Passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Golden Eagle Passport. 71.5... RECREATION FEES § 71.5 Golden Eagle Passport. (a) The Golden Eagle Passport is an annual permit, valid on a... Passport shall be $10. The annual Golden Eagle Passport shall be nontransferable and the unlawful use...

  9. 36 CFR 71.5 - Golden Eagle Passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Golden Eagle Passport. 71.5... RECREATION FEES § 71.5 Golden Eagle Passport. (a) The Golden Eagle Passport is an annual permit, valid on a... Passport shall be $10. The annual Golden Eagle Passport shall be nontransferable and the unlawful use...

  10. 36 CFR 71.5 - Golden Eagle Passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Golden Eagle Passport. 71.5... RECREATION FEES § 71.5 Golden Eagle Passport. (a) The Golden Eagle Passport is an annual permit, valid on a... Passport shall be $10. The annual Golden Eagle Passport shall be nontransferable and the unlawful use...

  11. Star formation in the Auriga-California Giant Molecular Cloud and its circumstellar disk population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah

    2016-05-01

    This thesis presents a multiwavelength analysis, from the infrared to the microwave, of the young, forming stars in the Auriga-California Molecular Cloud and a first look at the disks they host and their potential for forming planetary systems. At the beginning of this thesis, Auriga-Cal had only recently been identified as one contiguous cloud with its distance placing it within the Gould Belt of nearby star-forming regions (Lada et al. 2009). This thesis presents the largest body of work to date on Auriga-Cal's star formation and disk population. Auriga-Cal is one of two nearby giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in the Gould Belt, the other being the Orion A molecular cloud. These two GMCs have similar mass ( 10^5 Msolar), spatial scale ( 80 pc), distance ( 450 pc), and filamentary morphology, yet the two clouds present very different star formation qualities and quantities. Namely, Auriga-Cal is forming far fewer stars and does not exhibit the high-mass star formation seen in Orion A. In this thesis, I present a census of the star forming objects in the infrared with the Spitzer Space Telescope showing that Auriga-Cal contains at least 166 young stellar objects (YSOs), 15-20x fewer stars than Orion A, the majority of which are located in the cluster around LkHalpha 101, NGC 1529, and the filament extending from it. I find the submillimetre census with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, sensitive to the youngest objects, arrives at a similar result showing the disparity between the two clouds observed in the infrared continues to the submillimetre. Therefore the relative star formation rate between the two clouds has remained constant in recent times. The final chapter introduces the first study targeted at the disk population to measure the formation potential of planetary systems around the young stars in Auriga-Cal. The dust thermal emission at cm wavelengths is observed to measure the relative amounts of cm-sized grains, indicative of the grain growth processes

  12. Agonistic asymmetries and the foraging ecology of Bald Eagles

    Knight, Richard L.; Skagen, Susan Knight

    1988-01-01

    We investigated the effects of both asymmetries and differing food levels on contest outcomes of wintering Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) feeding on chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) carcasses. Large eagles, regardless of age, were more successful in pirating than smaller eagles. Small pirating eagles were usually unsuccessful unless they were adults attempting to supplant other small eagles. Feeding eagles were more successful in defeating pirating eagles according to (1) whether their heads were up to prior to a pirating attempt, (2) how long their heads had been up, and (3) whether they displayed. During periods of food scarcity pirating eagles were less successful, a fact attributed in a proximate sense to the increase incidence of retaliation by feeding birds. When food was scarce and eagles had a choice between scavenging the pirating, they chose to scavenge more often. Body size appears to be an important factor in determining social dominance and influencing differences in foraging modes of wintering Bald Eagles.

  13. Bald eagle predation on common loon egg

    DeStefano, Stephen; McCarthy, Kyle P.; Laskowski, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The Common Loon (Gavia immer) must defend against many potential egg predators during incubation, including corvids, Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus), raccoons (Procyon lotor), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), fisher (Martes pennanti), and mink (Neovison vison) (McIntyre 1988, Evers 2004, McCann et al. 2005). Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) have been documented as predators of both adult Common Loons and their chicks (Vliestra and Paruk 1997, Paruk et al. 1999, Erlandson et al. 2007, Piper et al. 2008). In Wisconsin, where nesting Bald Eagles are abundant (>1200 nesting pairs, >1 young/pair/year), field biologists observed four instances of eagle predation of eggs in loon nests during the period 2002–2004 (M. Meyer pers. comm.). In addition, four cases of eagle predation of incubating adult loons were inferred from evidence found at the loon nest (dozens of plucked adult loon feathers, no carcass remains) and/or loon leg, neck, and skull bones beneath two active eagle nests, including leg bones containing the bands of the nearby (<25 m) incubating adult loon. However, although loon egg predation has been associated with Bald Eagles, predation events have yet to be described in peer-reviewed literature. Here we describe a photographic observation of predation on a Common Loon egg by an immature Bald Eagle as captured by a nest surveillance video camera on Lake Umbagog, a large lake (32 km2) at Umbagog National Wildlife Refuge (UNWR) in Maine.

  14. The Gould's Belt Very Large Array Survey. IV. The Taurus-Auriga Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzib, Sergio A.; Loinard, Laurent; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Kounkel, Marina A.; Pech, Gerardo; Rivera, Juana L.; Torres, Rosa M.; Boden, Andrew F.; Hartmann, Lee; Evans, Neal J., II; Briceño, Cesar; Tobin, John

    2015-03-01

    We present a multi-epoch radio study of the Taurus-Auriga star-forming complex made with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at frequencies of 4.5 GHz and 7.5 GHz. We detect a total of 610 sources, 59 of which are related to young stellar objects (YSOs) and 18 to field stars. The properties of 56% of the young stars are compatible with non-thermal radio emission. We also show that the radio emission of more evolved YSOs tends to be more non-thermal in origin and, in general, that their radio properties are compatible with those found in other star-forming regions. By comparing our results with previously reported X-ray observations, we notice that YSOs in Taurus-Auriga follow a Güdel-Benz relation with κ = 0.03, as we previously suggested for other regions of star formation. In general, YSOs in Taurus-Auriga and in all the previous studied regions seem to follow this relation with a dispersion of ~1 dex. Finally, we propose that most of the remaining sources are related with extragalactic objects but provide a list of 46 unidentified radio sources whose radio properties are compatible with a YSO nature.

  15. Golden eagle records from the Midwinter Bald Eagle Survey: information for wind energy management and planning

    Eakle, Wade; Haggerty, Patti; Fuller, Mark; Phillips, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this Data Series report is to provide the occasions, locations, and counts when golden eagles were recorded during the annual Midwinter Bald Eagle Surveys. Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) are protected by Federal statutes including the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act (BGEPA) (16 USC 668-668c) and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) (16 USC 703-12). The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) manages golden eagles with the goal of maintaining stable or increasing breeding populations (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009). Development for the generation of electricity from wind turbines is occurring in much of the range of the golden eagle in the western United States. Development could threaten population stability because golden eagles might be disturbed by construction and operation of facilities and they are vulnerable to mortality from collisions with wind turbines (Smallwood and Thelander, 2008). Therefore, the Service has proposed a process by which wind energy developers can collect information that could lead to Eagle Conservation Plans (ECP), mitigation, and permitting that allow for golden eagle management in areas of wind energy development (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011). The Service recommends that ECP be developed in stages, and the first stage is to learn if golden eagles occur at the landscape level where potential wind facilities might be located. Information about where eagles occur can be obtained from technical literature, agency files, and other sources of information including on-line biological databases. The broad North American distribution of golden eagles is known, but there is a paucity of readily available information about intermediate geographic scales and site-specific scales, especially during the winter season (Kochert and others, 2002).

  16. MQ-1C Gray Eagle Unmanned Aircraft System (MQ-1C Gray Eagle)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report ( SAR ) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-420 MQ-1C Gray Eagle Unmanned Aircraft System (MQ-1C Gray Eagle) As of FY 2017 President’s...Budget Defense Acquisition Management Information Retrieval (DAMIR) March 21, 2016 17:33:19 UNCLASSIFIED MQ-1C Gray Eagle December 2015 SAR March 21...Gray Eagle December 2015 SAR March 21, 2016 17:33:19 UNCLASSIFIED 3 PB - President’s Budget PE - Program Element PEO - Program Executive Officer PM

  17. An Eagle of Cosmic Proportions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-07-01

    Today ESO has released a new and stunning image of the sky around the Eagle Nebula, a stellar nursery where infant star clusters carve out monster columns of dust and gas. Located 7000 light-years away, towards the constellation of Serpens (the Snake), the Eagle Nebula is a dazzling stellar nursery, a region of gas and dust where young stars are currently being formed and where a cluster of massive, hot stars, NGC 6611, has just been born. The powerful light and strong winds from these massive new arrivals are shaping light-year long pillars, seen in the image partly silhouetted against the bright background of the nebula. The nebula itself has a shape vaguely reminiscent of an eagle, with the central pillars being the "talons". The star cluster was discovered by the Swiss astronomer, Jean Philippe Loys de Chéseaux, in 1745-46. It was independently rediscovered about twenty years later by the French comet hunter, Charles Messier, who included it as number 16 in his famous catalogue, and remarked that the stars were surrounded by a faint glow. The Eagle Nebula achieved iconic status in 1995, when its central pillars were depicted in a famous image obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. In 2001, ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) captured another breathtaking image of the nebula in the near-infrared, giving astronomers a penetrating view through the obscuring dust, and clearly showing stars being formed in the pillars. The newly released image, obtained with the Wide-Field Imager camera attached to the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at La Silla, Chile, covers an area on the sky as large as the full Moon, and is about 15 times more extensive than the previous VLT image, and more than 200 times more extensive than the iconic Hubble visible-light image. The whole region around the pillars can now be seen in exquisite detail. The "Pillars of Creation" are in the middle of the image, with the cluster of young stars, NGC 6611, lying above and to the right. The

  18. Experimental lead poisoning in bald eagles

    Pattee, H.; Wiemeyer, S.; Hoffman, P.; Carpenter, J.; Sileo, L.

    1979-01-01

    Captive, crippled bald eagles unsuitable for release were fed lead shot to determine diagnostic criteria for lead poisoning. The eagles were fluoroscoped and bled periodically to determine shot retention and blood delta--aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity. Microscopic examination revealed renal tubular degeneration, arterial fibrinoid necrosis and myocardial necrosis. Acid-fast intra-nuclear inclusion bodies were not found in proximal convoluted tubule cells. Analyses of blood and toxicological data are not yet complete.

  19. EAGLE can do Efficient LTL Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barringer, Howard; Goldberg, Allen; Havelund, Klaus; Sen, Koushik

    2003-01-01

    We briefly present a rule-based framework, called EAGLE, that has been shown to be capable of defining and implementing finite trace monitoring logics, including future and past time temporal logic, extended regular expressions, real-time logics, interval logics, forms of quantified temporal logics, and so on. In this paper we show how EAGLE can do linear temporal logic (LTL) monitoring in an efficient way. We give an upper bound on the space and time complexity of this monitoring.

  20. 76 FR 22393 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Cancellation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [P-13123-002-CA] Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Cancellation of Teleconference On March 15... Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. This meeting has been cancelled. We will reschedule this...

  1. 77 FR 43280 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With the Bureau of Land Management a... Bureau of Land Management to improve agency coordination and discuss the agencies' overlapping jurisdictions (pursuant to the Federal Land Policy and Management Act and the Federal Power Act), on the Eagle...

  2. 78 FR 25263 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With the Bureau of Land Management a.... Purpose of the Meeting: Commission staff will meet with the staff of the Bureau of Land Management to... Land Policy and Management Act and the Federal Power Act), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage...

  3. 78 FR 26358 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With the Bureau of Land Management a... of the Meeting: Commission staff will meet with the staff of the Bureau of Land Management to improve... Policy and Management Act and the Federal Power Act), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric...

  4. The W Serpentis binaries with a few words on epsilon Aurigae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plavec, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    The Algol systems, U-Cephei and V356 Sagittarii, which should be included among the W Serpentis stars, characterized by strong ultraviolet emission lines are discussed. The spectra of the W-Ser stars are similar to those of the T-Tauri stars, and a similarity of physical conditions is indicated. A model of W-Serpentis, a B-star embedded in a thick disk, may be relevant to other exotic eclipsing systems, possibly even to obliquity of ecliptic Aurigae. The obliquity of ecliptic and the relationship to Aur, BM Orionis is reviewed; the system probably contains a pre main sequence star highly flattened by differential rotation.

  5. The 1979-1980 eclipse of Zeta Aurigae. I - The circumstellar envelope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    A model of the K-star wind far from the K star, and its interaction with the B star, has been derived from a study of Mg(+) and C(+++) resonance lines in the spectrum of Zeta Aurigae during 1979 and 1980. A mass loss rate from the K star of 2 x 10 to the -8th solar masses/year is suggested by the data; the rate of accretion of the K supergiant's material by the B star then being such that the matter accreted over a period of ten years is of the order of the total mass of the photosphere of the B star.

  6. A High-Mass Cold Core in the Auriga-California Giant Molecular Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnus McGehee, Peregrine; Paladini, Roberta; Pelkonen, Veli-Matti; Toth, Viktor; Sayers, Jack

    2015-08-01

    The Auriga-California Giant Molecular Cloud is noted for its relatively low star formation rate, especially at the high-mass end of the Initial Mass Function. We combine maps acquired by the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory's Multiwavelength Submillimeter Inductance Camera [MUSIC] in the wavelength range 0.86 to 2.00 millimeters with Planck and publicly-available Herschel PACS and SPIRE data in order to characterize the mass, dust properties, and environment of the bright core PGCC G163.32-8.41.

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Golden Eagle Distributors Inc. to Convert

    several years. Golden Eagle will convert all fleet vehicles to CNG in their six branch operations Entire Fleet to CNG Golden Eagle Distributors Inc. to Convert Entire Fleet to CNG to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Golden Eagle Distributors Inc. to Convert Entire Fleet

  8. Evidence of Bald Eagles feeding on freshwater mussels

    Teryl G. Grubb; Michael A. Coffey

    1982-01-01

    A 1978 study of the winter habitat of the Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Coconino National Forest, Arizona, indicated repeated and potentially heavy use of a freshwater mussel (Anodonta corpulenta) in the eagles’ diet. As many as 10 eagles (five adults and five immatures) were observed at Upper Lake Mary near...

  9. Bald eagles nesting in Baja California

    Henny, Charles J.; Anderson, Daniel W.; Knoder, C.E.

    1978-01-01

    Published records of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nesting in Baja California during the last 50 years are nonexistent to our knowledge, and few records exist prior to that time. Friedmann et al. (1950:61, Pac. Coast Avifauna 29) describe the distribution of Bald Eagles in Baja California as "a scattering of pairs on both the Pacific and Gulf Sides." Nesting Bald Eagles were first reported by Bryant (1889, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 2: 237-320), who found a pair on Isla Santa Margarita (24°25'N, 111°50'W; hereafter abbreviated as 2425-11150) and saw an adult on the "estero" north from Magdalena Bay (the region where one pair was seen in 1977). Other records were reviewed by Grinnell (1928, Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool. 32).

  10. Whooping crane preyed upon by golden eagle

    Windingstad, Ronald M.; Stiles, Harry E.; Drewien, Roderick C.

    1981-01-01

    The Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is the largest predatory bird in North America and is well known for its predatory abilities. Attacks have been reported on mammals such as whitetail jackrabbits (Lepus townsendi) (McGahan 1967, J. Wildl. Mgmt. 31: 496), pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) (Bruhns 1970, Can. Field-Natur. 84: 301), Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) (Kelleher and O'Malia 1971, Auk 88: 186), and Great Blue Herons (Ardea herodias) (Carnie 1954, Condor 56: 3). This communication describes an attack on an immature Whooping Crane (Grus americana) by a Golden Eagle and the subsequent necropsy findings.

  11. DDE poisoning in an adult bald eagle

    Garcelon, D.K.; Thomas, N.J.

    1997-01-01

    A 12-year-old female bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was found in May 1993 on Santa Catalina Island, California (USA), in a debilitated condition, exhibiting ataxia and tremors; it died within hours. On necropsy, the bird was emaciated but had no evidence of disease or physical injury. Chemical analyses were negative for organophosphorus pesticides and lead poisoning. High concentrations of DDE (wet weight basis) were found in the brain (212 ppm), liver (838 ppm), and serum (53 ppm). Mobilization of DDE, from depleted fat deposits, probably resulted in the lethal concentration in the eagle's brain.

  12. Suspected lead toxicosis in a bald eagle

    Jacobson, E.; Carpenter, J.W.; Novilla, M.

    1977-01-01

    An immature bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was submitted to the University of Maryland, College Park, for clinical examination. The bird was thin, had green watery feces, and was unable to maintain itself in upright posture. Following radiography, the bird went into respiratory distress and died. Numerous lead shot were recovered from the gizzard, and chemical analysis of liver and kidney tissue revealed 22.9 and 11.3 ppm lead, respectively. The clinical signs, necropsy findings, and chemical analysis of the eagle were compatible with lead toxicosis.

  13. 76 FR 52042 - Auriga Laboratories, Inc., Curon Medical, Inc., Goldstate Corp., OneWorld Systems, Inc., and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Auriga Laboratories, Inc., Curon Medical, Inc., Goldstate Corp., OneWorld Systems, Inc., and PracticeXpert, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading August 17, 2011. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that there is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the...

  14. On the discovery of K I 7699 Å line strength variation during the 1982-1984 eclipse of ε Aurigae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, M.

    2017-02-01

    The discovery of K I 7699 Å line strength variations during the 1982-1984 eclipse of ε Aurigae is described. The equivalent widths and radial velocities of the K I 7699 Å line derived from spectra obtained during 1981 November-1983 July with the 2.1 m Otto Struve reflector telescope of the McDonald observatory are presented.

  15. MESA models of the evolutionary state of the interacting binary epsilon Aurigae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Justus L.; Stencel, Robert E.

    2018-06-01

    Using MESA code (Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics, version 9575), an evaluation was made of the evolutionary state of the epsilon Aurigae binary system (HD 31964, F0Iap + disc). We sought to satisfy several observational constraints: (1) requiring evolutionary tracks to pass close to the current temperature and luminosity of the primary star; (2) obtaining a period near the observed value of 27.1 years; (3) matching a mass function of 3.0; (4) concurrent Roche lobe overflow and mass transfer; (5) an isotopic ratio 12C/13C = 5 and, (6) matching the interferometrically determined angular diameter. A MESA model starting with binary masses of 9.85 + 4.5 M⊙, with a 100 d initial period, produces a 1.2 + 10.6 M⊙ result having a 547 d period, and a single digit 12C/13C ratio. These values were reached near an age of 20 Myr, when the donor star comes close to the observed luminosity and temperature for epsilon Aurigae A, as a post-RGB/pre-AGB star. Contemporaneously, the accretor then appears as an upper main-sequence, early B-type star. This benchmark model can provide a basis for further exploration of this interacting binary, and other long-period binary stars.

  16. Parametric adaptive filtering and data validation in the bar GW detector AURIGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortolan, A.; Baggio, L.; Cerdonio, M.; Prodi, G. A.; Vedovato, G.; Vitale, S.

    2002-04-01

    We report on our experience gained in the signal processing of the resonant GW detector AURIGA. Signal amplitude and arrival time are estimated by means of a matched-adaptive Wiener filter. The detector noise, entering in the filter set-up, is modelled as a parametric ARMA process; to account for slow non-stationarity of the noise, the ARMA parameters are estimated on an hourly basis. A requirement of the set-up of an unbiased Wiener filter is the separation of time spans with 'almost Gaussian' noise from non-Gaussian and/or strongly non-stationary time spans. The separation algorithm consists basically of a variance estimate with the Chauvenet convergence method and a threshold on the Curtosis index. The subsequent validation of data is strictly connected with the separation procedure: in fact, by injecting a large number of artificial GW signals into the 'almost Gaussian' part of the AURIGA data stream, we have demonstrated that the effective probability distributions of the signal-to-noise ratio χ2 and the time of arrival are those that are expected.

  17. Famphur toxicosis in a bald eagle

    Franson, J. Christian; Kolbe, E.J.; Carpenter, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    On 24 November 1983, an adult female bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus L.) was found unable to fly near Lewes, Del-aware. She was kept overnight by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service personnel at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge and transported to the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, the following afternoon.

  18. Scaled Eagle Nebula Experiments on NIF

    SciT

    Pound, Marc W.

    We performed scaled laboratory experiments at the National Ignition Facility laser to assess models for the creation of pillar structures in star-forming clouds of molecular hydrogen, in particular the famous Pillars of the Eagle Nebula. Because pillars typically point towards nearby bright ultraviolet stars, sustained directional illumination appears to be critical to pillar formation. The experiments mock up illumination from a cluster of ultraviolet-emitting stars, using a novel long duration (30--60 ns), directional, laser-driven x-ray source consisting of multiple radiation cavities illuminated in series. Our pillar models are assessed using the morphology of the Eagle Pillars observed with the Hubblemore » Space Telescope, and measurements of column density and velocity in Eagle Pillar II obtained at the BIMA and CARMA millimeter wave facilities. In the first experiments we assess a shielding model for pillar formation. The experimental data suggest that a shielding pillar can match the observed morphology of Eagle Pillar II, and the observed Pillar II column density and velocity, if augmented by late time cometary growth.« less

  19. Bald eagle, United States [chapter 7

    Teryl G. Grubb

    2010-01-01

    "One of you boys will continue radio-tracking bears, and the other will start climbing trees to band bald eagle nestlings ... " That's how it all began for me back in the summer of 1967, on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska, my first summer job in the wildlife field. And as it turned out, that inauspicious beginning has led to a fascinating,...

  20. Rover Landing Hardware at Eagle Crater, Mars

    2017-04-21

    The bright landing platform left behind by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity in 2004 is visible inside Eagle Crater, at upper right in this April 8, 2017, observation by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter arrived at Mars in March 2006, more than two years after Opportunity's landing on Jan. 25, 2004, Universal Time (Jan. 24, PDT). This is the first image of Eagle Crater from the orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera, which has optics that include the most powerful telescope ever sent to Mars. Eagle Crater is about 72 feet (22 meters) in diameter, at 1.95 degrees south latitude, 354.47 degrees east longitude, in the Meridiani Planum region of Mars. The airbag-cushioned lander, with Opportunity folded-up inside, first hit Martian ground near the crater, then bounced and rolled right into the crater. The lander structure was four triangles, folded into a tetrahedron until after the airbags deflated. The triangular petals then opened, exposing the rover. A week later, the rover drove off (see PIA05214), and the landing platform's job was done. The spacecraft's backshell and parachute, jettisoned during final descent, are visible near the lower left corner of this scene. The blue tint of the backshell is an effect of exaggerated color, because HiRISE combines color information from red, blue-green and infrared portions of the spectrum, rather than three different visible-light colors, so its color images are not true color. Opportunity examined Eagle Crater for more than half of the rover's originally planned three-month mission, before driving east and south to larger craters. At Eagle, it found headline-making evidence that water once flowed over the surface and soaked the subsurface of the area. By the time this orbital image of the landing site was taken, about 13 years after the rover departed Eagle, Opportunity had driven more than 27 miles (44 kilometers) and was actively exploring the rim of

  1. 78 FR 65238 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Eagle, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ...-0777; Airspace Docket No. 12-AAL-16] Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Eagle, AK AGENCY... action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Eagle Airport, Eagle, AK. Controlled airspace is... management of aircraft operations at Eagle Airport, Eagle, AK. DATES: Comments must be received on or before...

  2. Using binary statistics in Taurus-Auriga to distinguish between brown dwarf formation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, M.; Martín, E. L.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Lodieu, N.; Kroupa, P.; Manjavacas, E.; Thies, I.; Rebolo López, R.; Velasco, S.

    2017-08-01

    Context. One of the key questions of the star formation problem is whether brown dwarfs (BDs) form in the manner of stars directly from the gravitational collapse of a molecular cloud core (star-like) or whether BDs and some very low-mass stars (VLMSs) constitute a separate population that forms alongside stars comparable to the population of planets, for example through circumstellar disk (peripheral) fragmentation. Aims: For young stars in Taurus-Auriga the binary fraction has been shown to be large with little dependence on primary mass above ≈ 0.2 M⊙, while for BDs the binary fraction is < 10%. Here we investigate a case in which BDs in Taurus formed dominantly, but not exclusively, through peripheral fragmentation, which naturally results in small binary fractions. The decline of the binary frequency in the transition region between star-like formation and peripheral formation is modelled. Methods: We employed a dynamical population synthesis model in which stellar binary formation is universal with a large binary fraction close to unity. Peripheral objects form separately in circumstellar disks with a distinctive initial mass function (IMF), their own orbital parameter distributions for binaries, and small binary fractions, according to observations and expectations from smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and grid-based computations. A small amount of dynamical processing of the stellar component was accounted for as appropriate for the low-density Taurus-Auriga embedded clusters. Results: The binary fraction declines strongly in the transition region between star-like and peripheral formation, exhibiting characteristic features. The location of these features and the steepness of this trend depend on the mass limits for star-like and peripheral formation. Such a trend might be unique to low density regions, such as Taurus, which host binary populations that are largely unprocessed dynamically in which the binary fraction is large for stars down to M

  3. Optical polarization observations of epsilon Aurigae during the 2009-2011 eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henson, Gary D.; Burdette, John; Gray, Sharon

    2012-05-01

    Polarization observations of the unique eclipsing binary, Epsilon Aurigae, are being carried out using a new dual beam imaging polarimeter on the 0.36m telescope of the Harry D. Powell Observatory. This bright binary system has a 27.1 year period with an eclipse duration of nearly two years. The primary is known to be a pulsating F0 supergiant with the secondary a large and essentially opaque disk. We report here on the characteristics of the polarimeter and on the status of V-band observations that are being obtained to better understand the system's geometry and the nature of its two components. In particular, the characteristics of the secondary disk remain a puzzle. Results are compared to polarization observations from the 1982-1984 eclipse.

  4. B- and A-Type Stars in the Taurus-Auriga Star-Forming Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooley, Kunal; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Rebull, Luisa; Padgett, Deborah; Knapp, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    We describe the results of a search for early-type stars associated with the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud complex, a diffuse nearby star-forming region noted as lacking young stars of intermediate and high mass. We investigate several sets of possible O, B, and early A spectral class members. The first is a group of stars for which mid-infrared images show bright nebulae, all of which can be associated with stars of spectral-type B. The second group consists of early-type stars compiled from (1) literature listings in SIMBAD, (2) B stars with infrared excesses selected from the Spitzer Space Telescope survey of the Taurus cloud, (3) magnitude- and color-selected point sources from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, and (4) spectroscopically identified early-type stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey coverage of the Taurus region. We evaluated stars for membership in the Taurus-Auriga star formation region based on criteria involving: spectroscopic and parallactic distances, proper motions and radial velocities, and infrared excesses or line emission indicative of stellar youth. For selected objects, we also model the scattered and emitted radiation from reflection nebulosity and compare the results with the observed spectral energy distributions to further test the plausibility of physical association of the B stars with the Taurus cloud. This investigation newly identifies as probable Taurus members three B-type stars: HR 1445 (HD 28929), t Tau (HD 29763), 72 Tau (HD 28149), and two A-type stars: HD 31305 and HD 26212, thus doubling the number of stars A5 or earlier associated with the Taurus clouds. Several additional early-type sources including HD 29659 and HD 283815 meet some, but not all, of the membership criteria and therefore are plausible, though not secure, members.

  5. MESA models for the evolutionary status of the epsilon Aurigae disk-eclipsed binary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stencel, Robert E.; Gibson, Justus

    2018-06-01

    The brightest member of the class of disk-eclipsed binary stars is the Algol-like long-period binary, epsilon Aurigae (HD 31964, F0Iap + disk, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9907E..17S ). Using MESA (Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics, version 9575), we have made an evaluation of its evolutionary state. We sought to satisfy several observational constraints, including: (1) requiring evolutionary tracks to pass close to the current temperature and luminosity of the primary star; (2) obtaining a period near the observed value of 27.1 years; (3) matching a mass function of 3.0; (4) concurrent Roche lobe overflow and mass transfer; (5) an isotopic ratio 12C / 13C = 5 and, (6) matching the interferometrically determined angular diameter. A MESA model starting with binary masses of 9.85 + 4.5 solar masses, with a 100 day initial period, produces a 1.2 + 10.6 solar masses result having a 547 day period, plus a single digit 12C / 13C ratio. These values were reached near an age of 20 Myr, when the donor star comes close to the observed luminosity and temperature for epsilon Aurigae A, as a post-RGB/pre-AGB star. Contemporaneously, the accretor then appears as an upper main sequence, early B-type star. This benchmark model can provide a basis for further exploration of this interacting binary, and other long period binary stars. This report has been submitted to MNRAS, along with a parallel investigation of mass transfer stream and disk sub-structure. The authors are grateful to the estate of William Herschel Womble for the support of astronomy at the University of Denver.

  6. Mercury contamination in Idaho bald eagles, Haliaeetus leucocephalus.

    PubMed

    Bechard, Marc J; Perkins, Dusty N; Kaltenecker, Gregory S; Alsup, Steve

    2009-11-01

    Because mercury contamination is potentially threatening to bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) populations, we collected molted feathers at nests to determine the level of contamination in bald eagles in the state of Idaho, USA. Eagle feathers contained measurable amounts of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), selenium (Se), lead (Pb), as well as mercury (Hg). Cadmium, Cr, Se, and Pb levels averaged 0.17, 4.68, 2.02, and 1.29 mg/kg dry weight, respectively, and were at or below concentrations indicated as causing reproductive failure in bald eagles. Mercury contamination was found to be the highest averaging 18.74 mg/kg dry weight. Although a concentration of only 7.5 mg/kg dry weight Hg in bird feathers can cause reduced productivity and even sterility, all of the eagles we sampled bred successfully and the population of bald eagles continues to grow annually throughout the state.

  7. Eagle-i: Making Invisible Resources, Visible

    PubMed Central

    Haendel, M.; Wilson, M.; Torniai, C.; Segerdell, E.; Shaffer, C.; Frost, R.; Bourges, D.; Brownstein, J.; McInnerney, K.

    2010-01-01

    RP-134 The eagle-i Consortium – Dartmouth College, Harvard Medical School, Jackson State University, Morehouse School of Medicine, Montana State University, Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU), the University of Alaska, the University of Hawaii, and the University of Puerto Rico – aims to make invisible resources for scientific research visible by developing a searchable network of resource repositories at research institutions nationwide. Now in early development, it is hoped that the system will scale beyond the consortium at the end of the two-year pilot. Data Model & Ontology: The eagle-i ontology development team at the OHSU Library is generating the data model and ontologies necessary for resource indexing and querying. Our indexing system will enable cores and research labs to represent resources within a defined vocabulary, leading to more effective searches and better linkage between data types. This effort is being guided by active discussions within the ontology community (http://RRontology.tk) bringing together relevant preexisting ontologies in a logical framework. The goal of these discussions is to provide context for interoperability and domain-wide standards for resource types used throughout biomedical research. Research community feedback is welcomed. Architecture Development, led by a team at Harvard, includes four main components: tools for data collection, management and curation; an institutional resource repository; a federated network; and a central search application. Each participating institution will populate and manage their repository locally, using data collection and curation tools. To help improve search performance, data tools will support the semi-automatic annotation of resources. A central search application will use a federated protocol to broadcast queries to all repositories and display aggregated results. The search application will leverage the eagle-i ontologies to help guide users to valid queries via auto

  8. EAGLE CAP WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT AREAS, OREGON.

    Kilsgaard, Thor H.; Tuchek, Ernest T.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey of the Eagle Cap Wilderness and adjacent areas a probable mineral-resources potential was identified in five areas in the eastern part of the wilderness. Mineral resources are most likely to occur in tactite deposits in sedimentary rocks at or near contacts with intrusive granitic rocks that could contain copper and small amounts of other metals; however, there is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources.

  9. Wintering bald eagle trends in northern Arizona, 1975-2000

    Teryl G. Grubb

    2003-01-01

    Between 1975 and 2000, 4,525 sightings of wintering bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were recorded at Mormon Lake in northern Arizona. Numbers of wintering eagles fluctuated little in the 20 years from 1975 through 1994 (5.5 ± 3.0 mean sightings per day). However, during the winters of 1995 through 1997 local record highs of 59 to 118 eagles...

  10. Program Monitoring with LTL in EAGLE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barringer, Howard; Goldberg, Allen; Havelund, Klaus; Sen, Koushik

    2004-01-01

    We briefly present a rule-based framework called EAGLE, shown to be capable of defining and implementing finite trace monitoring logics, including future and past time temporal logic, extended regular expressions, real-time and metric temporal logics (MTL), interval logics, forms of quantified temporal logics, and so on. In this paper we focus on a linear temporal logic (LTL) specialization of EAGLE. For an initial formula of size m, we establish upper bounds of O(m(sup 2)2(sup m)log m) and O(m(sup 4)2(sup 2m)log(sup 2) m) for the space and time complexity, respectively, of single step evaluation over an input trace. This bound is close to the lower bound O(2(sup square root m) for future-time LTL presented. EAGLE has been successfully used, in both LTL and metric LTL forms, to test a real-time controller of an experimental NASA planetary rover.

  11. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of Young Stellar Objects in the Lynds 1509 Dark Cloud in Auriga

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Wilson M.; Padgett, Deborah L.; Terebey, Susan; Angione, John; Rebull, Luisa M.; McCollum, Bruce; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Leisawitz, David

    2015-01-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has uncovered a striking cluster of young stellar object (YSO) candidates associated with the L1509 dark cloud in Auriga. The WISE observations, at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 microns, show a number of objects with colors consistent with YSOs, and their spectral energy distributions suggest the presence of circumstellar dust emission, including numerous Class I, flat spectrum, and Class II objects. In general, the YSOs in L1509 are much more tightly clustered than YSOs in other dark clouds in the Taurus-Auriga star forming region, with Class I and flat spectrum objects confined to the densest aggregates, and Class II objects more sparsely distributed. We estimate a most probable distance of 485-700 pc, and possibly as far as the previously estimated distance of 2 kpc.

  12. Wintering Golden Eagles on the coastal plain of South Carolina

    DOE PAGES

    Vukovich, Mark; Turner, Kelsey L.; Grazia, Tracy E.; ...

    2015-10-01

    Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) are rare winter residents in eastern North America, with most found along the Appalachian Mountains and few reported on the coastal plain of the Carolinas. We used remote cameras baited with wild pig (Sus scrofa) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) carcasses to detect, age, and individually identify Golden Eagles on the U.S. Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site on the coastal plain of South Carolina. We identified eight individual Golden Eagles during the winters of 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, with one detected during both winters. We detected eagles for 19 and 66 calendar days during the wintersmore » of 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, respectively, with two adult eagles detected for 30 and 31 calendar days in 2014–2015. Eagles typically scavenged on carcasses for a few days, left, and then returned when cameras were baited with another carcass, suggesting they had remained in the area. These observations suggest that large tracts of forests on the coastal plain may be important wintering areas for some Golden Eagles and, further, that other areas in the coastal plain of the southeastern United States may also harbor wintering eagles. Identification of wintering areas of Golden Eagles in the east will be an important step in the conservation of this protected species, and camera traps baited with carcasses can be an effective tool for such work.« less

  13. Modeling climate change impacts on overwintering bald eagles.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Chris J; Moriarty, Pamela E; Salathé, Eric P

    2012-03-01

    Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) are recovering from severe population declines, and are exerting pressure on food resources in some areas. Thousands of bald eagles overwinter near Puget Sound, primarily to feed on chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) carcasses. We used modeling techniques to examine how anticipated climate changes will affect energetic demands of overwintering bald eagles. We applied a regional downscaling method to two global climate change models to obtain hourly temperature, precipitation, wind, and longwave radiation estimates at the mouths of three Puget Sound tributaries (the Skagit, Hamma Hamma, and Nisqually rivers) in two decades, the 1970s and the 2050s. Climate data were used to drive bald eagle bioenergetics models from December to February for each river, year, and decade. Bald eagle bioenergetics were insensitive to climate change: despite warmer winters in the 2050s, particularly near the Nisqually River, bald eagle food requirements declined only slightly (<1%). However, the warming climate caused salmon carcasses to decompose more rapidly, resulting in 11% to 14% less annual carcass biomass available to eagles in the 2050s. That estimate is likely conservative, as it does not account for decreased availability of carcasses due to anticipated increases in winter stream flow. Future climate-driven declines in winter food availability, coupled with a growing bald eagle population, may force eagles to seek alternate prey in the Puget Sound area or in more remote ecosystems.

  14. Wintering Golden Eagles on the coastal plain of South Carolina

    SciT

    Vukovich, Mark; Turner, Kelsey L.; Grazia, Tracy E.

    Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) are rare winter residents in eastern North America, with most found along the Appalachian Mountains and few reported on the coastal plain of the Carolinas. We used remote cameras baited with wild pig (Sus scrofa) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) carcasses to detect, age, and individually identify Golden Eagles on the U.S. Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site on the coastal plain of South Carolina. We identified eight individual Golden Eagles during the winters of 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, with one detected during both winters. We detected eagles for 19 and 66 calendar days during the wintersmore » of 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, respectively, with two adult eagles detected for 30 and 31 calendar days in 2014–2015. Eagles typically scavenged on carcasses for a few days, left, and then returned when cameras were baited with another carcass, suggesting they had remained in the area. These observations suggest that large tracts of forests on the coastal plain may be important wintering areas for some Golden Eagles and, further, that other areas in the coastal plain of the southeastern United States may also harbor wintering eagles. Identification of wintering areas of Golden Eagles in the east will be an important step in the conservation of this protected species, and camera traps baited with carcasses can be an effective tool for such work.« less

  15. Modeling climate change impacts on overwintering bald eagles

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Chris J; Moriarty, Pamela E; Salathé Jr, Eric P

    2012-01-01

    Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) are recovering from severe population declines, and are exerting pressure on food resources in some areas. Thousands of bald eagles overwinter near Puget Sound, primarily to feed on chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) carcasses. We used modeling techniques to examine how anticipated climate changes will affect energetic demands of overwintering bald eagles. We applied a regional downscaling method to two global climate change models to obtain hourly temperature, precipitation, wind, and longwave radiation estimates at the mouths of three Puget Sound tributaries (the Skagit, Hamma Hamma, and Nisqually rivers) in two decades, the 1970s and the 2050s. Climate data were used to drive bald eagle bioenergetics models from December to February for each river, year, and decade. Bald eagle bioenergetics were insensitive to climate change: despite warmer winters in the 2050s, particularly near the Nisqually River, bald eagle food requirements declined only slightly (<1%). However, the warming climate caused salmon carcasses to decompose more rapidly, resulting in 11% to 14% less annual carcass biomass available to eagles in the 2050s. That estimate is likely conservative, as it does not account for decreased availability of carcasses due to anticipated increases in winter stream flow. Future climate-driven declines in winter food availability, coupled with a growing bald eagle population, may force eagles to seek alternate prey in the Puget Sound area or in more remote ecosystems. PMID:22822430

  16. An assessment of Li abundances in weak-lined and classical T Tauri stars of the Taurus-Auriga association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sestito, P.; Palla, F.; Randich, S.

    2008-09-01

    Context: Accurate measurements of lithium abundances in young low-mass stars provide an independent and reliable age diagnostics. Previous studies of nearby star forming regions have identified significant numbers of Li-depleted stars, often at levels inconsistent with the ages indicated by their luminosity. Aims: We aim at a new and accurate analysis of Li abundances in a sample of ~100 pre-main sequence stars in Taurus-Auriga using a homogeneous and updated set of stellar parameters and model atmospheres appropriate for the spectral types of the sample stars. Methods: We compute Li abundances using published values of the equivalent widths of the Li λ6708 Å doublet obtained from medium/high resolution spectra. Results: We find that the number of significantly Li-depleted stars in Taurus-Auriga is greatly reduced with respect to earlier results. Only 13 stars have abundances lower than the interstellar value by a factor of 5 or greater. All of them are weak-lined T Tauri stars drawn from X-ray surveys; with the exception of four stars located near the L1551 and L1489 dark clouds, all the Li-depleted stars belong to the class of dispersed low-mass stars, distributed around the main sites of current star formation. If located at the distance of Taurus-Auriga, the stellar ages implied by the derived Li abundances are in the range 3-30 Myr, greater than the bulk of the Li-rich population with implication on the star formation history of the region. Conclusions: In order to derive firm conclusions about the fraction of Li-depleted stars of Taurus-Auriga, Li measurements of the remaining members of the association should be obtained, in particular of the group of stars that fall in the Li-burning region of the HR diagram. Table [see full text] is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  17. Daedalus Project's Light Eagle - Human powered aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Michelob Light Eagle is seen here in flight over Rogers Dry Lake at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Light Eagle and Daedalus human powered aircraft were testbeds for flight research conducted at Dryden between January 1987 and March 1988. These unique aircraft were designed and constructed by a group of students, professors, and alumni of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology within the context of the Daedalus project. The construction of the Light Eagle and Daedalus aircraft was funded primarily by the Anheuser Busch and United Technologies Corporations, respectively, with additional support from the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum, MIT, and a number of other sponsors. To celebrate the Greek myth of Daedalus, the man who constructed wings of wax and feathers to escape King Minos, the Daedalus project began with the goal of designing, building and testing a human-powered aircraft that could fly the mythical distance, 115 km. To achieve this goal, three aircraft were constructed. The Light Eagle was the prototype aircraft, weighing 92 pounds. On January 22, 1987, it set a closed course distance record of 59 km, which still stands. Also in January of 1987, the Light Eagle was powered by Lois McCallin to set the straight distance, the distance around a closed circuit, and the duration world records for the female division in human powered vehicles. Following this success, two more aircraft were built, the Daedalus 87 and Daedalus 88. Each aircraft weighed approximately 69 pounds. The Daedalus 88 aircraft was the ship that flew the 199 km from the Iraklion Air Force Base on Crete in the Mediterranean Sea, to the island of Santorini in 3 hours, 54 minutes. In the process, the aircraft set new records in distance and endurance for a human powered aircraft. The specific areas of flight research conducted at Dryden included characterizing the rigid body and flexible dynamics of the Light Eagle, investigating sensors for an

  18. 77 FR 22267 - Eagle Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Eagle Permitting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... with rotating wind turbines. Permit Duration and Transferability In February 2011, we published draft... permit applicants, because of the known risk to eagles from collisions with wind turbines and electric..., shoot at, poison, wound, kill, capture, trap, collect, destroy, molest, or disturb'' (Sec. 22.3). The...

  19. Wintering Golden Eagles on the coastal plain of South Carolina

    Mark Vukovich; K.L. Turner; T.E. Grazia; T. Mims; J.C. Beasley; John Kilgo

    2015-01-01

    Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) are rare winter residents in eastern North America, with most found along the Appalachian Mountains and few reported on the coastal plain of the Carolinas. We used remote cameras baited with wild pig (Sus scrofa) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) carcasses to detect, age, and individually identify Golden Eagles on the U.S...

  20. Conservation significance of alternative nests of golden eagles

    Brian A. Millsap; Teryl G. Grubb; Robert K. Murphy; Ted Swem; James W. Watson

    2015-01-01

    Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) are long-lived raptors that maintain nesting territories that may be occupied for a century or longer. Within occupied nesting territories there is one nest in which eagles lay their eggs in a given year (i.e., the used nest), but there are usually other nests (i.e., alternative nests). Conservation plans often protect used nests, but...

  1. Leaders Hit the Battlefield for Education's Future: 2009 Eagle Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verardi, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    More than 40 esteemed school business officials traveled to Washington, D.C., for the 2009 Eagle Institute which was held on July 14-17. They examined the past and the future to uncover leadership insights. Eagle Institute participants shared a powerful experience of camaraderie, reflection, and optimism for the future. This article describes the…

  2. Kleptoparasitism by bald eagles wintering in south-central Nebraska

    Jorde, Dennis G.; Lingle, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    Kleptoparasitism on other raptors was one means by which Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) secured food along the North Platte and Platte rivers during the winters of 1978-1980. Species kelptoparasitized were Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Red-tailed Hawk (B. jamaicensis), Rough-legged Hawk (B. lagopus), Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), and Bald Eagle. Stealing of prey occurred more often during the severe winter of 1978-1979 when ice cover restricted eagles from feeding on fish than during the milder winter of 1979-1980. Kleptoparasitism occurred principally in agricultural habitats where large numbers of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were foraging. Subadults watched adults steal food and participated in food-stealing with adults, which indicated interspecific kleptoparasitism may be a learned behavior. We suggest factors that may favor interspecific kleptoparasitism as a foraging strategy of Bald Eagles in obtaining waterfowl during severe winters.

  3. ASCA Observations of the T Tauri Star SU Aurigae and the Surrounding L1517 Dark Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, Stephen L.; Walter, Frederick M.

    1998-01-01

    We present the results of a approximately equals 40 ks pointed Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) observation of the L1517 star-forming region, centered on the X-ray-bright T Tauri star SU Aurigae. This star has the highest X-ray luminosity of any classical T Tauri star in the Taurus-Auriga region, and its optical spectra show evidence for both mass inflow and outflow. Strong X-ray emission was detected from SU Aur (L(sub x) = 10(exp 30.9) ergs s(exp -1)) as well as weaker emission from five other pre-main-sequence stars. Although no large-amplitude flares were detected, the X-ray emission of SU Aur showed clear variability in the form of a slow decline in count rate during the 1.3 day observation. We provide the first direct comparison of the coronal differential emission measure (DEM) distribution of a classical T Tauri star with that of a young main-sequence star of similar spectral type. The DEM distributions of SU Aur (G2; age 3 Myr) and the young solar-like star EK Draconis (GO V; age 70 Myr) are qualitatively similar, with both showing a bimodal temperature distribution characterized by a cool plasma component peaking at approximately 8-9 MK and a hot component peaking at approximately 20-21 MK. However, there is a striking difference in the relative proportion of plasma at high temperatures in the two stars, with hot plasma (>20 MK) accounting for approximately equals 80% of the volume emission measure of SU Aur, compared to only approximately equals 40% in EK Dra. These results provide new insight into the changes that will occur in the corona of a T Tauri star as it descends onto the main sequence. A sharp decline in the fraction of coronal plasma at flarelike temperatures will occur during the late-T Tauri and post-T Tauri phases, and other recent X-ray studies have shown that this decline will continue after the young solar-like star reaches the main sequence.

  4. Interactive effects of prey and weather on golden eagle reproduction

    Steenhof, Karen; Kochert, Michael N.; McDonald, T.L.

    1997-01-01

    1. The reproduction of the golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos was studied in southwestern Idaho for 23 years, and the relationship between eagle reproduction and jackrabbit Lepus californicus abundance, weather factors, and their interactions, was modelled using general linear models. Backward elimination procedures were used to arrive at parsimonious models.2. The number of golden eagle pairs occupying nesting territories each year showed a significant decline through time that was unrelated to either annual rabbit abundance or winter severity. However, eagle hatching dates were significantly related to both winter severity and jackrabbit abundance. Eagles hatched earlier when jackrabbits were abundant, and they hatched later after severe winters.3. Jackrabbit abundance influenced the proportion of pairs that laid eggs, the proportion of pairs that were successful, mean brood size at fledging, and the number of young fledged per pair. Weather interacted with prey to influence eagle reproductive rates.4. Both jackrabbit abundance and winter severity were important in predicting the percentage of eagle pairs that laid eggs. Percentage laying was related positively to jackrabbit abundance and inversely related to winter severity.5. The variables most useful in predicting percentage of laying pairs successful were rabbit abundance and the number of extremely hot days during brood-rearing. The number of hot days and rabbit abundance were also significant in a model predicting eagle brood size at fledging. Both success and brood size were positively related to jackrabbit abundance and inversely related to the frequency of hot days in spring.6. Eagle reproduction was limited by rabbit abundance during approximately twothirds of the years studied. Weather influenced how severely eagle reproduction declined in those years.7. This study demonstrates that prey and weather can interact to limit a large raptor population's productivity. Smaller raptors could be affected more

  5. 76 FR 65507 - Notice of Petition for Rate Approval; Eagle Ford Midstream, LP

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... Petition for Rate Approval; Eagle Ford Midstream, LP Take notice that on October 11, 2011, (Eagle Ford..., and its initial baseline Statement of Operating Conditions. Eagle Ford states that it is an existing..., currently providing intrastate services to its customers. Eagle Ford proposed rates for Section 311...

  6. Final Report Bald and Golden Eagle Territory Surveys for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciT

    Fratanduono, M. L.

    2014-11-25

    Garcia and Associates (GANDA) was contracted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to conduct surveys for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) at Site 300 and in the surrounding area out to 10-miles. The survey effort was intended to document the boundaries of eagle territories by careful observation of eagle behavior from selected viewing locations throughout the study area.

  7. The Dust Cloud TGU H1192 (LDN 1525) in Auriga. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, Richard P.; Janusz, Robert; Straizys, Vytautas; Zdanavicius, Kazimieras; Maskoliunas, Marius; Kazlauskas, Algirdas

    2016-01-01

    The results of a new investigation of interstellar extinction in the direction of the emission nebulae Sh2-231 and Sh2-235 are presented. The investigation is based on CCD photometry and photometric MK classification in seven areas of 12' by 12' size in the Vilnius seven-color photometric system down to V = 19 mag. Additionally, for the same task we applied 519 red clump giants identified in the surrounding 1.5 deg. by 1.5 deg. area using the results of photometry in the 2MASS and WISE surveys. The dependence of the extinction run with distance allows determining distances to dust clouds and their extinctions. We comparethese new more detailed results with the preliminary results described in our previous paper (V. Straizys et al. 2010, Baltic Astronomy, 19, 169) and the AAS communication at the AAS Meeting No. 219 (Austin), 349.12. The relation of the TGU H1192 dust cloud with the Auriga OB1 association is discussed.

  8. Planet Formation in AB Aurigae: Imaging of the Inner Gaseous Spirals Observed inside the Dust Cavity

    SciT

    Tang, Ya-Wen; Gu, Pin-Gao; Ho, Paul T. P.

    2017-05-01

    We report the results of ALMA observations of a protoplanetary disk surrounding the Herbig Ae star AB Aurigae. We obtained high-resolution (0.″1; 14 au) images in {sup 12}CO J = 2 − 1 emission and in the dust continuum at the wavelength of 1.3 mm. The continuum emission is detected at the center and at the ring with a radius ( r ) of ∼120 au. The CO emission is dominated by two prominent spirals within the dust ring. These spirals are trailing and appear to be about 4 times brighter than their surrounding medium. Their kinematics is consistent withmore » Keplerian rotation at an inclination of 23°. The apparent two-arm-spiral pattern is best explained by tidal disturbances created by an unseen companion located at r of 60–80 au, with dust confined in the pressure bumps created outside this companion orbit. An additional companion at r of 30 au, coinciding with the peak CO brightness and a large pitch angle of the spiral, would help to explain the overall emptiness of the cavity. Alternative mechanisms to excite the spirals are discussed. The origin of the large pitch angle detected here remains puzzling.« less

  9. Radial Velocity Survey of T Tauri Stars in Taurus-Auriga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, Christopher; Mahmud, N.; Huerta, M.; Prato, L.; Johns-Krull, C.; Hartigan, P.; Jaffe, D.

    2009-01-01

    Is the frequency of giant planet companions to young stars similar to that seen around old stars? Is the "brown dwarf desert" a product of how low-mass companion objects form, or of how they evolve? Some models indicate that both giant planets and brown dwarfs should be common at young ages within 3 AU of a primary star, but migration induced by massive disks drive brown dwarfs into the parent stars, leaving behind proportionally more giant planets. Our radial velocity survey of young stars will provide a census of the young giant planet and brown dwarf population in Taurus-Auriga. In this poster we present our progress in quantifying how spurious radial velocity signatures are caused by stellar activity and in developing models to help distinguish between companion induced and spot induced radial velocity variations. Early results stress the importance of complementary observations in both visible light and NIR. We present our technique to determine radial velocities by fitting telluric features and model stellar features to our observed spectra. Finally, we discuss ongoing observations at McDonald Observatory, KPNO, and the IRTF, and several new exoplanet host candidates.

  10. A NEW COLLISIONAL RING GALAXY AT z = 0.111: AURIGA'S WHEEL

    SciT

    Conn, Blair C.; Pasquali, Anna; Pompei, Emanuela

    2011-11-10

    We report the serendipitous discovery of a collision ring galaxy, identified as 2MASX J06470249+4554022, which we have dubbed 'Auriga's Wheel', found in a SUPRIME-CAM frame as part of a larger Milky Way survey. This peculiar class of galaxies is the result of a near head-on collision typically between a late-type and an early-type galaxy. Subsequent Gemini Multi-object Spectrograph North long-slit spectroscopy has confirmed both the relative proximity of the components of this interacting pair and has shown that it has a redshift of 0.111. Analysis of the spectroscopy reveals that the late-type galaxy is a LINER class active galactic nucleusmore » (AGN) while the early-type galaxy is also potentially an AGN candidate; this is very uncommon among known collision ring galaxies. Preliminary modeling of the ring finds an expansion velocity of {approx}200 km s{sup -1} consistent with our observations, making the collision about 50 Myr old. The ring currently has a radius of about 10 kpc and a bridge of stars and gas is also visible connecting the two galaxies.« less

  11. Spectroscopic Results From Blue Hills Observatory of the 2009-2011 Eclipse of epsilon Aurigae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorodenski, S. A.

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report spectroscopic results of epsilon Aurigae during the 2009-2011 eclipse. Spectra of the sodium D lines and an absorption line occurring at approximately 5853Å were taken from February 13, 2010, to October 10, 2011, with an LHIRES III spectrograph and a 16-inch Meade telescope at Blue Hills Observatory in Dewey, Arizona. Equivalent width and radial velocity data support the presence of a void or ring structure within the eclipsing disk, and they support a central disk clearing around an unseen primary central object. The results also indicate the disk does not end at fourth contact but continues for a significant distance. Analysis of radial velocities demonstrated the profile of the 5853Å line has a disk component in addition to the primary F0 star component. A split line at this location was observed. From the equivalent width profile of the 5853Å line the duration of the split line event was estimated to be 101 days. Other lesser results are presented and discussed.

  12. Epsilon Aurigae's dark side: A thermal phase curve investigation of the near-eclipse phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Richard L.; Stencel, Robert E.; Howell, Steve B.; Hoard, D. W.; Kim, Daryl L.; Russell, Ray W.; Sitko, Michael L.

    2017-06-01

    The epsilon Aurigae disk-eclipsing binary system moves through a primary eclipse that lasts just over two years and occurs every 27.1-years. It comprises of a warm F0Ia-star (around 7750 K) and an opaque, circumstellar disk hiding an internal B-star (with a temperature greater than 15,000 K). We present new infrared observations from Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera (IRAC, at 3.6 and 4.5 microns) and The Aerospace Corporation’s Broadband Array Spectrograph System (BASS, a 116-element prism system spectrograph spanning 3 - 14 microns) in order to extract the thermal signature of the disk. Previous findings indicate a variable temperature of the disk, depending on its location within the system’s orbit: a 550 +\\- 50 K temperature was identified during eclipse phases, while a 1150 +\\- 50 K temperature was found near secondary—or anti-eclipse—phases by Hoard et al. (2010) and Hoard et al. (2012). We use the latest observations in combination with previously published IRAC and BASS data to compile a more complete thermal phase curve (TPC) of the disk across nearly one-third of the system’s orbit. The TPC indicates heating and cooling effects of the disk, pointing to specific ranges of material properties and disk structure. The observations, process, results, and implications will be presented.

  13. Rapid-cadence optical monitoring for short-period variability of ɛ Aurigae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billings, Gary

    2013-07-01

    ɛ Aurigae was observed with CCD cameras and 35 mm SLR camera lenses, at rapid cadence (>1/minute), for long runs (up to 11 hours), on multiple occasions during 2009 - 2011, to monitor for variability of the system at scales of minutes to hours. The lens and camera were changed during the period to improve results, finalizing on a 135 mm focal length Canon f/2 lens (at f/2.8), an ND8 neutral density filter, a Johnson V filter, and an SBIG ST-8XME camera (Kodak KAF-1603ME microlensed chip). Differential photometry was attempted, but because of the large separation between the variable and comparison star (η Aur), noise caused by transient extinction variations was not consistently eliminated. The lowest-noise time series for searching for short-period variability proved to be the extinction-corrected instrumental magnitude of ɛ Aur obtained on "photometric nights", with η Aur used to determine and monitor the extinction coefficient for the night. No flares or short-period variations of ɛ Aur were detected by visual inspection of the light curves from observing runs with noise levels as low as 0.008 magnitudes rms.

  14. Mercury concentrations in tissues of Florida bald eagles

    SciT

    Wood, P.B.; Wood, J.M.; White, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    We collected 48 blood and 61 feather samples from nestling bald eagles at 42 nests and adult feather samples from 20 nests in north and central Florida during 1991-93. We obtained 32 liver, 10 feather, and 5 blood samples from 33 eagle carcasses recovered in Florida during 1987-93. For nestlings, mercury concentrations in blood (GM = 0.16 ppm wet wt) and feather (GM = 3.23 ppm) samples were correlated (r = 0.69, P = 0.0001). Although nestlings had lower mercury concentrations in feathers than did adults (GM = 6.03 ppm), the feather mercury levels in nestlings and adults from themore » same nest were correlated (r = 0.63, P < 0.02). Mercury concentrations in blood of captive adult eagles (GM = 0.23 ppm) was similar to Florida nestlings but some Florida nestlings had blood mercury concentrations up to 0.61 ppm, more than twice as high as captive adults. Feather mercury concentrations in both nestlings and adults exceeded those in captive eagles, but concentrations in all tissues were similar to, or lower than, those in bald eagles from other wild populations. Although mercury concentrations in Florida eagles are below those that cause mortality, they are in the range of concentrations that can cause behavioral changes or reduce reproduction. We recommend periodic monitoring of mercury in Florida bald eagles for early detection of mercury increases before negative effects on reproduction occur. 26 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  15. UBV photometry of the 1982-4 eclipse of Epsilon Aurigae: A discussion of the observed light curves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidtke, P. C.

    1985-01-01

    At least 29 observers in nine countries have contributed photometric measurements of Epsilon Aurigae during the recent observational campaign. The present discussion is limited to data submitted by J. L. Hopkins of the Hopkins Phoenix Observatory and S. I. Ingvarsson of the Tjornisland Astronomical Observatory. Both sources are on the UBV system, with no significant systematic differences. Combined, these two sources cover the entire eclipse, from pre-ingress up to the present (April 1985). It should be noted that this eclipse is the first to have complete photometric coverage in all three broadband filters U, B, and V.

  16. Star Formation in the Eagle Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, J. M.

    2008-12-01

    M16 (the Eagle Nebula) is a striking star forming region, with a complex morphology of gas and dust sculpted by the massive stars in NGC 6611. Detailed studies of the famous ``elephant trunks'' dramatically increased our understanding of the massive star feedback into the parent molecular cloud. A rich young stellar population (2-3 Myr) has been identified, from massive O-stars down to substellar masses. Deep into the remnant molecular material, embedded protostars, Herbig-Haro objects and maser sources bear evidence of ongoing star formation in the nebula, possibly triggered by the massive cluster members. M 16 is a excellent template for the study of star formation under the hostile environment created by massive O-stars. This review aims at providing an observational overview not only of the young stellar population but also of the gas remnant of the star formation process.

  17. Eagle syndrome surgical treatment with piezosurgery.

    PubMed

    Bertossi, Dario; Albanese, Massimo; Chiarini, Luigi; Corega, Claudia; Mortellaro, Carmen; Nocini, Pierfrancesco

    2014-05-01

    Eagle syndrome (ES) is an uncommon complication of styloid process elongation with stylohyoideal complex symptomatic calcification. It is an uncommon condition (4% of the population) that is symptomatic in only 4% of the cases. Eagle syndrome is usually an acquired condition that can be related to tonsillectomy or to a neck trauma. A type of ES is the styloid-carotid syndrome, a consequence of the irritation of pericarotid sympathetic fibers and compression on the carotid artery. Clinical manifestations are found most frequently after head turning and neck compression. Although conservative treatment (analgesics, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, local infiltration with steroids, or anesthetic agents) have been used, surgical treatment is often the only effective treatment in symptomatic cases. We present the case of a 55-year-old patient, successfully treated under endotracheal anesthesia. The cranial portion of the calcified styloid process was shortened through an external approach, using a piezoelectric cutting device (Piezosurgery Medical II; Mectron Medical Technology, Carasco, Italy) with MT1-10 insert, pump level 4, vibration level 7. No major postoperative complications such as nerve damage, hematoma, or wound dehiscence occurred. After 6 months, the patient was completely recovered. Two years after the surgery, the patient did not refer any symptoms related to ES. The transcervical surgical approach in patients with ES seems to be safe and effective, despite the remarkable risk for transient marginal mandibular nerve palsy. This risk can be decreased by the use of the piezoelectric device for its distinctive characteristics--such as precision, selective cut action, and bloodless cut.

  18. 36 CFR 71.15 - The Golden Eagle Insignia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... contribute to the public's information and education about the Federal recreation fee program. (5) The term... other Federal agencies. (6) The Golden Eagle program refers to the Federal outdoor recreation fee...

  19. 36 CFR 71.15 - The Golden Eagle Insignia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... contribute to the public's information and education about the Federal recreation fee program. (5) The term... other Federal agencies. (6) The Golden Eagle program refers to the Federal outdoor recreation fee...

  20. 36 CFR 71.15 - The Golden Eagle Insignia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... contribute to the public's information and education about the Federal recreation fee program. (5) The term... other Federal agencies. (6) The Golden Eagle program refers to the Federal outdoor recreation fee...

  1. 36 CFR 71.15 - The Golden Eagle Insignia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... contribute to the public's information and education about the Federal recreation fee program. (5) The term... other Federal agencies. (6) The Golden Eagle program refers to the Federal outdoor recreation fee...

  2. Detail view of bracket, arched window and eagle from building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of bracket, arched window and eagle from building 18 section. Jet Lowe, Haer staff photographer, summer 1995 - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Machine Shops, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. 50 CFR 22.27 - Removal of eagle nests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... when the Service determines it is necessary to prevent eagles from re-nesting in the vicinity. (7) You... Migratory Bird Permit Office (http://www.fws.gov/permits/mbpermits/addresses.html) at the earliest possible...

  4. 50 CFR 22.27 - Removal of eagle nests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... when the Service determines it is necessary to prevent eagles from re-nesting in the vicinity. (7) You... Migratory Bird Permit Office (http://www.fws.gov/permits/mbpermits/addresses.html) at the earliest possible...

  5. 50 CFR 22.27 - Removal of eagle nests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... when the Service determines it is necessary to prevent eagles from re-nesting in the vicinity. (7) You... Migratory Bird Permit Office (http://www.fws.gov/permits/mbpermits/addresses.html) at the earliest possible...

  6. 50 CFR 22.27 - Removal of eagle nests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... when the Service determines it is necessary to prevent eagles from re-nesting in the vicinity. (7) You... Migratory Bird Permit Office (http://www.fws.gov/permits/mbpermits/addresses.html) at the earliest possible...

  7. EAGLE Monitors by Collecting Facts and Generating Obligations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrnger, Howard; Goldberg, Allen; Havelund, Klaus; Sen, Koushik

    2003-01-01

    We present a rule-based framework, called EAGLE, that has been shown to be capable of defining and implementing a range of finite trace monitoring logics, including future and past time temporal logic, extended regular expressions, real-time and metric temporal logics, interval logics, forms of quantified temporal logics, and so on. A monitor for an EAGLE formula checks if a finite trace of states satisfies the given formula. We present, in details, an algorithm for the synthesis of monitors for EAGLE. The algorithm is implemented as a Java application and involves novel techniques for rule definition, manipulation and execution. Monitoring is achieved on a state-by-state basis avoiding any need to store the input trace of states. Our initial experiments have been successful as EAGLE detected a previously unknown bug while testing a planetary rover controller.

  8. Adaptive EAGLE dynamic solution adaptation and grid quality enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luong, Phu Vinh; Thompson, J. F.; Gatlin, B.; Mastin, C. W.; Kim, H. J.

    1992-01-01

    In the effort described here, the elliptic grid generation procedure in the EAGLE grid code was separated from the main code into a subroutine, and a new subroutine which evaluates several grid quality measures at each grid point was added. The elliptic grid routine can now be called, either by a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to generate a new adaptive grid based on flow variables and quality measures through multiple adaptation, or by the EAGLE main code to generate a grid based on quality measure variables through static adaptation. Arrays of flow variables can be read into the EAGLE grid code for use in static adaptation as well. These major changes in the EAGLE adaptive grid system make it easier to convert any CFD code that operates on a block-structured grid (or single-block grid) into a multiple adaptive code.

  9. Golden Eagle predation on experimental Sandhill and Whooping Cranes

    Ellis, D.H.; Clegg, K.R.; Lewis, J.C.; Spaulding, E.

    1999-01-01

    There are very few published records of Golden Eagles preying upon cranes, especially in North America. During our experiments to lead cranes on migration behind motorized craft in the western United States, we experienced 15 attacks (four fatal) and believe many more attacks would have occurred (and more would have been fatal) without human intervention. We recognize eagle predation as an important risk to cranes especially during migration.

  10. Experimental lead-shot poisoning in bald eagles

    Pattee, O.H.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Mulhern, B.M.; Sileo, L.; Carpenter, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    Captive, crippled bald eagles unsuitable for release were fed lead shot to determine diagnostic criteria for lead poisoning. The eagles were fluoroscoped and bled periodically to determine shot retention and blood delta--aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity. Microscopic examination revealed renal tubular degeneration, arterial fibrinoid necrosis and myocardial necrosis. Acid-fast intra-nuclear inclusion bodies were not found in proximal convoluted tubule cells. Analyses of blood and toxicological data are not yet complete.

  11. Magnetic field formation in the Milky Way like disc galaxies of the Auriga project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakmor, Rüdiger; Gómez, Facundo A.; Grand, Robert J. J.; Marinacci, Federico; Simpson, Christine M.; Springel, Volker; Campbell, David J. R.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Guillet, Thomas; Pfrommer, Christoph; White, Simon D. M.

    2017-08-01

    The magnetic fields observed in the Milky Way and nearby galaxies appear to be in equipartition with the turbulent, thermal and cosmic ray energy densities, and hence are expected to be dynamically important. However, the origin of these strong magnetic fields is still unclear, and most previous attempts to simulate galaxy formation from cosmological initial conditions have ignored them altogether. Here, we analyse the magnetic fields predicted by the simulations of the Auriga Project, a set of 30 high-resolution cosmological zoom simulations of Milky Way like galaxies, carried out with a moving-mesh magnetohydrodynamics code and a detailed galaxy formation physics model. We find that the magnetic fields grow exponentially at early times owing to a small-scale dynamo with an e-folding time of roughly 100 Myr in the centre of haloes until saturation occurs around z = 2-3, when the magnetic energy density reaches about 10 per cent of the turbulent energy density with a typical strength of 10-50 {μ G}. In the galactic centres, the ratio between magnetic and turbulent energies remains nearly constant until z = 0. At larger radii, differential rotation in the discs leads to linear amplification that typically saturates around z = 0.5-0. The final radial and vertical variations of the magnetic field strength can be well described by two joint exponential profiles, and are in good agreement with observational constraints. Overall, the magnetic fields have only little effect on the global evolution of the galaxies as it takes too long to reach equipartition. We also demonstrate that our results are well converged with numerical resolution.

  12. NICMOS Coronagraphic Imaging of a Circumstellar Disk around the T Tauri Star GM Aurigae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koerner, D. W.; Schneider, G.; Smith, B. A.; Becklin, E. E.; Hines, D. C.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Lowrance, P. J.; Meier, R.; Reike, M.; Terrile, R. J.; Thompson, R. I.; NICMOS/IDT EONS Teams

    1998-12-01

    We have carried out a coronagraphic imaging study of circumstellar disk candidates as part of NICMOS IDT investigations of the environments of nearby stars. Here we present images of circumstellar nebulosity around the classical T Tauri star, GM Aurigae, at lambda = 1.1 and 1.6 mu m. The emission extends beyond 2.8'' (450 AU) from the star with brightness falling off radially as R(-2.5) . The flux ratio between the two wavelengths differs little from that expected for a K5 star like GM Aur, suggesting that scattering grains include a substantial population with sizes larger than 1 mu m. Preliminary modeling of the emission confirms its origin in stellar light reflected off the surface of a flared circumstellar disk and indicates an inclination 60(deg) from face on. These results agree well with the appearance of CO(2->1) emission in aperture synthesis images from the Owens Valley Millimeter Array, and with the morphology of optical nebulosity in psf-subtracted exposures taken by the WFPC2 science team. Further, the high-resolution constraint on size and orientation enables a definitive interpretation of the velocity structure from kinematic modeling of CO(2->1) images at lower resolution: it is demonstrated unequivocally that the gas is centrifugally supported and in Keplerian rotation within the confines of a disk centered on the star. This work is supported by NASA grant NAG 5-3042, and based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  13. Selected results from the epsilon Aurigae eclipse campaign, and what lies ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stencel, Robert E.

    2013-07-01

    The torrent of data generated during the 2009-2011 eclipse of the enigmatic binary, epsilon Aurigae, has provided abundant opportunity to test and refine the many ideas associated with this system. The UBVRIJH photometric light curves established times of ingress and egress, and also revealed that the differential color of the disk varied, relative to pre- or post- mid-eclipse phase. Inter-eclipse monitoring indicated secular variations suggestive of a rapidly evolving F supergiant star. Interferometric imaging decisively identified the eclipse-causing agent to be an opaque disk (CHARA+MIRC). Spectroscopy has shown that a hot source occupies the center of this disk (He I 10830A, Far-UV excess), that the disk exhibits substructure (K I 7699A) and may have an extended atmosphere (CHARA+VEGA), and that the disk is isotopically-enhanced in 13C (GNIRS) and in rare-earth elements during a third contact "still-stand" in the light curve, suggestive of a mass transfer stream. Polarimetry and spectro-polarimetry provided additional constraints on the F star atmospheric variation and the nature of the dust scattering in the disk. Numerical models of the disk are exploring its relationship to the wider class of transitional and debris-type disks, and how differential heating of the dust may reveal properties not otherwise detected spectroscopically. As the system moves to quadrature in coming years, continued observing opportunities will continue to exist. I am grateful for support from the estate of William Herschel Womble for astronomy at the University of Denver, which has made possible two decades of research on this star that otherwise has revealed its secrets only very slowly.

  14. MAPPING THE SHORES OF THE BROWN DWARF DESERT. II. MULTIPLE STAR FORMATION IN TAURUS-AURIGA

    SciT

    Kraus, Adam L.; Ireland, Michael J.; Martinache, Frantz

    2011-04-10

    We have conducted a high-resolution imaging study of the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region in order to characterize the primordial outcome of multiple star formation and the extent of the brown dwarf desert. Our survey identified 16 new binary companions to primary stars with masses of 0.25-2.5 M{sub sun}, raising the total number of binary pairs (including components of high-order multiples) with separations of 3-5000 AU to 90. We find that {approx}2/3-3/4 of all Taurus members are multiple systems of two or more stars, while the other {approx}1/4-1/3 appear to have formed as single stars; the distribution of high-order multiplicity suggests thatmore » fragmentation into a wide binary has no impact on the subsequent probability that either component will fragment again. The separation distribution for solar-type stars (0.7-2.5 M{sub sun}) is nearly log-flat over separations of 3-5000 AU, but lower-mass stars (0.25-0.7 M{sub sun}) show a paucity of binary companions with separations of {approx}>200 AU. Across this full mass range, companion masses are well described with a linear-flat function; all system mass ratios (q = M{sub B} /M{sub A} ) are equally probable, apparently including substellar companions. Our results are broadly consistent with the two expected modes of binary formation (free-fall fragmentation on large scales and disk fragmentation on small scales), but the distributions provide some clues as to the epochs at which the companions are likely to form.« less

  15. Correlates of immune defenses in golden eagle nestlings

    MacColl, Elisabeth; Vanesky, Kris; Buck, Jeremy A.; Dudek, Benjamin; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Heath, Julie A.; Herring, Garth; Vennum, Chris; Downs, Cynthia J.

    2017-01-01

    An individual's investment in constitutive immune defenses depends on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. We examined how Leucocytozoon parasite presence, body condition (scaled mass), heterophil-to-lymphocyte (H:L) ratio, sex, and age affected immune defenses in golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) nestlings from three regions: California, Oregon, and Idaho. We quantified hemolytic-complement activity and bacterial killing ability, two measures of constitutive immunity. Body condition and age did not affect immune defenses. However, eagles with lower H:L ratios had lower complement activity, corroborating other findings that animals in better condition sometimes invest less in constitutive immunity. In addition, eagles with Leucocytozoon infections had higher concentrations of circulating complement proteins but not elevated opsonizing proteins for all microbes, and eagles from Oregon had significantly higher constitutive immunity than those from California or Idaho. We posit that Oregon eagles might have elevated immune defenses because they are exposed to more endoparasites than eagles from California or Idaho, and our results confirmed that the OR region has the highest rate of Leucocytozoon infections. Our study examined immune function in a free-living, long-lived raptor species, whereas most avian ecoimmunological research focuses on passerines. Thus, our research informs a broad perspective regarding the evolutionary and environmental pressures on immune function in birds.

  16. Spizaetus hawk-eagles as predators of arboreal colobines.

    PubMed

    Fam, S D; Nijman, V

    2011-04-01

    The predation pressure put on primates by diurnal birds of prey differs greatly between continents. Africa and South America have specialist raptors (e.g. crowned hawk-eagle Stephanoaetus coronatus and harpy eagle Harpia harpyja) whereas in Asia the only such specialist's (Philippine eagle Pithecophaga jefferyi) distribution is largely allopatric with primates. The almost universal absence of polyspecific groups in Asia (common in Africa and South America) may indicate reduced predation pressure. As such there is almost no information on predation pressures on primates in Asia by raptors. Here we report successful predation of a juvenile banded langur Presbytis femoralis (~2 kg) by a changeable hawk-eagle Spizaetus cirrhatus. The troop that was attacked displayed no signs of being alarmed, and no calls were made before the event. We argue that in insular Southeast Asia, especially, large Spizaetus hawk-eagles (~2 kg) are significant predators of arboreal colobines. Using data on the relative size of sympatric Spizaetus hawk-eagles and colobines we make predictions on where geographically we can expect the highest predation pressure (Thai-Malay Peninsula) and which colobines are least (Nasalis larvatus, Trachypithecus auratus, P. thomasi) and most (P. femoralis, T. cristatus) affected.

  17. Migration of Florida sub-adult Bald Eagles

    Mojica, E.K.; Meyers, J.M.; Millsap, B.A.; Haley, K.L.

    2008-01-01

    We used satellite telemetry locations accurate within 1 km to identify migration routes and stopover sites of 54 migratory sub-adult Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) hatched in Florida from 1997 to 2001. We measured number of days traveled during migration, path of migration, stopover time and locations, and distance traveled to and from winter and summer areas for each eagle (1?5 years old). Eagles used both Coastal Plain (n = 24) and Appalachian Mountain (n = 26) routes on their first migration north. Mountain migrants traveled farther (X = 2,112 km; 95% CI: 1,815-2,410) than coastal migrants (X = 1,397 km; 95% CI: 1,087?1,706). Eagles changed between migration routes less often on northbound and southbound movements as they matured (X2 = 13.22, df = 2, P < 0.001). One-year-old eagles changed routes between yearly spring and fall migrations 57% of the time, 2-year-olds 30%, and 3-5-year-olds changed only 17% of the time. About half (n = 25, 46%) used stopovers during migration and stayed 6-31 days (X = 14.8 days; 95% CI: 12.8-16.8). We recommend that migratory stopover site locations be added to GIS data bases for improving conservation of Bald Eagles in the eastern United States.

  18. Boundary of the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, Niel

    2009-01-01

    This vector data set delineates the approximate boundary of the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer (ERWVFA). This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. The boundary of the ERWVFA was developed by combining information from two data sources. The first data source was a 1:250,000-scale geologic map of the Leadville quadrangle developed by Day and others (1999). The location of Quaternary sediments was used as a first approximation of the ERWVFA. The boundary of the ERWVFA was further refined by overlaying the geologic map with Digital Raster Graphic (DRG) scanned images of 1:24,000 topographic maps (U.S. Geological Survey, 2001). Where appropriate, the boundary of the ERWVFA was remapped to correspond with the edge of the valley-fill aquifer marked by an abrupt change in topography at the edge of the valley floor throughout the Eagle River watershed. The boundary of the ERWVFA more closely resembles a hydrogeomorphic region presented by Rupert (2003, p. 8) because it is based upon general geographic extents of geologic materials and not on an actual aquifer location as would be determined through a rigorous hydrogeologic investigation.

  19. Eagle Nebula Flaunts its Infrared Feathers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2 Figure 3

    This set of images from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows the Eagle nebula in different hues of infrared light. Each view tells a different tale. The left picture shows lots of stars and dusty structures with clarity. Dusty molecules found on Earth called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons produce most of the red; gas is green and stars are blue.

    The middle view is packed with drama, because it tells astronomers that a star in this region violently erupted, or went supernova, heating surrounding dust (orange). This view also reveals that the hot dust is shell shaped, another indication that a star exploded.

    The final picture highlights the contrast between the hot, supernova-heated dust (green) and the cooler dust making up the region's dusty star-forming clouds and towers (red, blue and purple).

    The left image is a composite of infrared light with the following wavelengths: 3.6 microns (blue); 4.5 microns (green); 5.8 microns (orange); and 8 microns (red). The right image includes longer infrared wavelengths, and is a composite of light of 4.5 to 8.0 microns (blue); 24 microns (green); and 70 microns (red). The middle image is made up solely of 24-micron light.

  20. Recurring Occultations of RW Aurigae by Coagulated Dust in the Tidally Disrupted Circumstellar Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Reed, Phillip A.; Siverd, Robert J.; Pepper, Joshua; Stassun, Keivan G.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Weintraub, David A.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Lund, Michael B.; Stevens, Daniel J.

    2016-02-01

    We present photometric observations of RW Aurigae, a Classical T Tauri system, that reveal two remarkable dimming events. These events are similar to that which we observed in 2010-2011, which was the first such deep dimming observed in RW Aur in a century’s worth of photometric monitoring. We suggested the 2010-2011 dimming was the result of an occultation of the star by its tidally disrupted circumstellar disk. In 2012-2013, the RW Aur system dimmed by ˜0.7 mag for ˜40 days and in 2014/2015 the system dimmed by ˜2 mag for >250 days. The ingress/egress duration measurements of the more recent events agree well with those from the 2010-2011 event, providing strong evidence that the new dimmings are kinematically associated with the same occulting source as the 2010-2011 event. Therefore, we suggest that both the 2012-2013 and 2014-2015 dimming events, measured using data from the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope and the Kutztown University Observatory, are also occultations of RW Aur A by the tidally disrupted circumstellar material. Recent hydrodynamical simulations of the eccentric fly-by of RW Aur B suggest the occulting body to be a bridge of material connecting RW Aur A and B. These simulations also suggest the possibility of additional occultations which are supported by the observations presented in this work. The color evolution of the dimmings suggest that the tidally stripped disk material includes dust grains ranging in size from small grains at the leading edge, typical of star-forming regions, to large grains, ices or pebbles producing gray or nearly gray extinction deeper within the occulting material. It is not known whether this material represents arrested planet building prior to the tidal disruption event, or perhaps accelerated planet building as a result of the disruption event, but in any case the evidence suggests the presence of advanced planet building material in the space between the two stars of the RW Aur system.

  1. A Southern Bald Eagle perches on a pole at KSC.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A Southern Bald Eagle perched on top of a utility pole searches the area. About a dozen bald eagles live in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. The Southern Bald Eagle ranges throughout Florida and along the coasts of California, Texas, Louisiana, and the south Atlantic states. Bald Eagles are listed as endangered in the U.S., except in five states where they are listed as threatened. The number of nesting pairs of the southern race once numbered several thousand; recent estimates are only 350-375. Most of the southern race nest in Florida. Eagles arrive at KSC during late summer and leave for the north in late spring. They move to nest sites in October and November and lay one to three eggs. The young fledge from February to April. The Refuge encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  2. A Southern Bald Eagle perches on a pole at KSC.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A Southern Bald Eagle perches on top of a utility pole at Kennedy Space Center. About a dozen bald eagles live in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. The Southern Bald Eagle ranges throughout Florida and along the coasts of California, Texas, Louisiana, and the south Atlantic states. Bald Eagles are listed as endangered in the U.S., except in five states where they are listed as threatened. The number of nesting pairs of the southern race once numbered several thousand; recent estimates are only 350-375. Most of the southern race nest in Florida. Eagles arrive at KSC during late summer and leave for the north in late spring. They move to nest sites in October and November and lay one to three eggs. The young fledge from February to April. The Refuge encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  3. Bald eagles view their territory from high tower at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A pair of Florida bald eagles take advantage of a tower to rest and view the landscape near the intersection of the NASA Causeway and Kennedy Parkway North at Kennedy Space Center. This pair of eagles nests near Kennedy Parkway and is seen frequently by KSC commuters and visitors. The Southern Bald Eagle ranges throughout Florida and along the coasts of California, Texas, Louisiana and the south Atlantic states. Bald Eagles are listed as endangered in the U.S., except in five states where they are listed as threatened. The number of nesting pairs of the southern race once numbered several thousand; recent estimates are only 350-375. Most southern Florida eagles nesting at KSC arrive during late summer and leave for the north in late spring. They move to nest sites in October and November and lay one to three eggs. The young fledge from February to April. . Kennedy Space Center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  4. Eagle RTS: A design for a regional transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryer, Paul; Buckles, Jon; Lemke, Paul; Peake, Kirk

    1992-01-01

    This university design project concerns the Eagle RTS (Regional Transport System), a 66 passenger, twin turboprop aircraft with a range of 836 nautical miles. It will operate with a crew of two pilots and two flight attendents. This aircraft will employ the use of aluminum alloys and composite materials to reduce the aircraft weight and increase aerodynamic efficiency. The Eagle RTS will use narrow body aerodynamics with a canard configuration to improve performance. Leading edge technology will be used in the cockpit to improve flight handling and safety. The Eagle RTS propulsion system will consist of two turboprop engines with a total thrust of approximately 6300 pounds, 3150 pounds thrust per engine, for the cruise configuration. The engines will be mounted on the aft section of the aircraft to increase passenger safety in the event of a propeller failure. Aft mounted engines will also increase the overall efficiency of the aircraft by reducing the aircraft's drag. The Eagle RTS is projected to have a takeoff distance of approximately 4700 feet and a landing distance of 6100 feet. These distances will allow the Eagle RTS to land at the relatively short runways of regional airports.

  5. Eagle RTS: A design of a regional transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryer, Paul; Buckles, Jon; Lemke, Paul; Peake, Kirk

    1992-01-01

    The Eagle RTS (Regional Transport System) is a 66-passenger aircraft designed to satisfy the need for accessible and economical regional travel. The first design objective for the Eagle RTS is safety. Safety results primarily from avoidance of the hub airport air traffic, implementation of anti-stall characteristics by tailoring the canard, and proper positioning of the engines for blade shedding. To provide the most economical aircraft, the Eagle RTS will use existing technology to lower production and maintenance costs by decreasing the amount of new training required. In selecting the propulsion system, the effects on the environment were a main consideration. Two advantages of turbo-prop engines are the high fuel efficiency and low noise levels produced by this type of engine. This ensures the aircraft's usage during times of rising fuel costs and growing aircraft noise restrictions. The design of the Eagle RTS is for spoke-to-spoke transportation. It must be capable of landing on shorter runways and have speeds comparable to that of the larger aircraft to make its service beneficial to the airlines. With the use of turbo-prop engines and high lift devices, the Eagle RTS is highly adaptable to regional airports. The design topics discussed include: aerodynamics, stability, structures and materials, propulsion, and cost.

  6. From the inside out: Eagle Rock School Producing a New Generation of CES Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condon, Dan

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author gives an overview of Eagle Rock School's Teaching Fellowship Program which he founded in collaboration with Public Allies, Inc. and under the auspices of Eagle Rock's Professional Development Center. Eagle Rock's Teaching Fellowship has two perspectives: (1) local; and (2) global. Locally, Fellows contribute skills,…

  7. World Eagle, The Monthly Social Studies Resource: Data, Maps, Graphs. 1990-1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Eagle, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This document consists of the 10 issues of "World Eagle" issued during the 1990-1991 school year. World Eagle is a monthly social studies resource in which demographic and geographic information is presented in the forms of maps, graphs, charts, and text. Each issue of World Eagle has a section that focuses on a particular topic, along with other…

  8. Double-survey estimates of bald eagle populations in Oregon

    Anthony, R.G.; Garrett, Monte G.; Isaacs, F.B.

    1999-01-01

    The literature on abundance of birds of prey is almost devoid of population estimates with statistical rigor. Therefore, we surveyed bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) populations on the Crooked and lower Columbia rivers of Oregon and used the double-survey method to estimate populations and sighting probabilities for different survey methods (aerial, boat, vehicle) and bald eagle ages (adults vs. subadults). Sighting probabilities were consistently 20%. The results revealed variable and negative bias (percent relative bias = -9 to -70%) of direct counts and emphasized the importance of estimating populations where some measure of precision and ability to conduct inference tests are available. We recommend use of the double-survey method to estimate abundance of bald eagle populations and other raptors in open habitats.

  9. An Atlas of Far-ultraviolet Spectra of the Zeta Aurigae Binary 31 Cygni with Line Identifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen Bauer, Wendy; Bennett, Philip D.

    2014-04-01

    The ζ Aurigae system 31 Cygni (K4 Ib + B4 V) was observed by the FUSE satellite during total eclipse and at three phases during chromospheric eclipse. We present the coadded, calibrated spectra and atlases with line identifications. During total eclipse, emission from high ionization states (e.g., Fe III and Cr III) shows asymmetric profiles redshifted from the systemic velocity, while emission from lower ionization states (e.g., Fe II and O I) appears more symmetric and is centered closer to the systemic velocity. Absorption from neutral and singly ionized elements is detected during chromospheric eclipse. Late in chromospheric eclipse, absorption from the K star wind is detected at a terminal velocity of ~80 km s-1. These atlases will be useful for interpreting the far-UV spectra of other ζ Aur systems, as the observed FUSE spectra of 32 Cyg, KQ Pup, and VV Cep during chromospheric eclipse resemble that of 31 Cyg.

  10. The embedded young stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. I - Models for spectral energy distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee

    1993-01-01

    We describe radiative transfer calculations of infalling, dusty envelopes surrounding pre-main-sequence stars and use these models to derive physical properties for a sample of 21 heavily reddened young stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. The density distributions needed to match the FIR peaks in the spectral energy distributions of these embedded sources suggest mass infall rates similar to those predicted for simple thermally supported clouds with temperatures about 10 K. Unless the dust opacities are badly in error, our models require substantial departures from spherical symmetry in the envelopes of all sources. These flattened envelopes may be produced by a combination of rotation and cavities excavated by bipolar flows. The rotating infall models of Terebey et al. (1984) models indicate a centrifugal radius of about 70 AU for many objects if rotation is the only important physical effect, and this radius is reasonably consistent with typical estimates for the sizes of circumstellar disks around T Tauri stars.

  11. A GALEX-BASED SEARCH FOR THE SPARSE YOUNG STELLAR POPULATION IN THE TAURUS-AURIGAE STAR FORMING REGION

    SciT

    Gómez de Castro, Ana I.; Lopez-Santiago, Javier; López-Martínez, Fatima

    2015-02-01

    In this work, we identify 63 bona fide new candidates to T Tauri stars (TTSs) in the Taurus-Auriga region, using its ultraviolet excess as our baseline. The initial data set was defined from the GALEX all sky survey (AIS). The GALEX satellite obtained images in the near-ultraviolet (NUV) and far-ultraviolet (FUV) bands where TTSs show a prominent excess compared with main-sequence or giants stars. GALEX AIS surveyed the Taurus-Auriga molecular complex, as well as a fraction of the California Nebula and the Perseus complex; bright sources and dark clouds were avoided. The properties of TTSs in the ultraviolet (GALEX), opticalmore » (UCAC4), and infrared (2MASS) have been defined using the TTSs observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer reference sample. The candidates were identified by means of a mixed ultraviolet-optical-infrared excess set of colors; we found that the FUV-NUV versus J–K color-color diagram is ideally suited for this purpose. From an initial sample of 163,313 bona fide NUV sources, a final list of 63 new candidates to TTSs in the region was produced. The search procedure has been validated by its ability to detect all known TTSs in the area surveyed: 31 TTSs. Also, we show that the weak-lined TTSs are located in a well-defined stripe in the FUV-NUV versus J–K diagram. Moreover, in this work, we provide a list of TTSs photometric standards for future GALEX-based studies of the young stellar population in star forming regions.« less

  12. Residues of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls and autopsy data for bald eagles, 1971-72

    Cromartie, E.; Reichel, W.L.; Locke, L.N.; Belisle, A.A.; Kaiser, T.E.; Lamont, T.G.; Mulhern, B.M.; Prouty, R.M.; Swineford, D.M.

    1975-01-01

    Thirty-seven bald eagles found sick or dead in 18 States during 1971-72 were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). DDE and PCB's were detected in all bald eagle carcasses; 30 carcasses contained DDD and 28 contained dieldrin. Four eagles contained possibly lethal levels of dieldrin and nine eagles had been poisoned by thallium. Autopsies revealed that illegal shooting was the most common cause of mortality. Since 1964 when data were first collected, 8 of the 17 eagles obtained from Maryland, Virginia, South Carolina, and Florida possibly died from dieldrin poisoning; all four specimens from Maryland and Virginia were from the Chesapeake Bay Tidewater area.

  13. 75 FR 56093 - Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, LP; Notice of Motion for Extension of Rate Case Filing Deadline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... pipelines to extend the cycle for such reviews from three to five years.\\1\\ Therefore, Eagle Rock requests... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR09-1-002] Eagle Rock... notice that on September 8, 2010, Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P. (Eagle Rock) filed a request to extend...

  14. 77 FR 61661 - Price for the American Eagle Silver Proof and Uncirculated Coins and the America the Beautiful...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Price for the American Eagle Silver Proof and... price of silver, the United States Mint is raising the price of its American Eagle Silver Proof and... price 2012 American Eagle Silver Proof $59.95 2012 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated 50.95 2011...

  15. Bright Localized Near-Infrared Emission at 1-4 AU in the AB Aurigae Disk Revealed by IOTA Closure Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millan-Gabet, R.; Monnier, J. D.; Berger, J.-P.; Traub, W. A.; Schloerb, F. P.; Pedretti, E.; Benisty, M.; Carleton, N. P.; Haguenauer, P.; Kern, P.; Labeye, P.; Lacasse, M. G.; Malbet, F.; Perraut, K.; Pearlman, M.; Thureau, N.

    2006-07-01

    We report on the detection of localized off-center emission at 1-4 AU in the circumstellar environment of the young stellar object AB Aurigae. We used closure-phase measurements in the near-infrared that were made at the long-baseline interferometer IOTA, the first obtained on a young stellar object using this technique. When probing sub-AU scales, all closure phases are close to zero degrees, as expected given the previously determined size of the AB Aurigae inner-dust disk. However, a clear closure-phase signal of -3.5d +/- 0.5d is detected on one triangle containing relatively short baselines, requiring a high degree of non-point symmetry from emission at larger (AU-sized) scales in the disk. We have not identified any alternative explanation for these closure-phase results, and we demonstrate that a ``disk hot spot'' model can fit our data. We speculate that such detected asymmetric near-infrared emission might arise as a result of localized viscous heating due to a gravitational instability in the AB Aurigae disk, or to the presence of a close stellar companion or accreting substellar object.

  16. Relationship of diets and environmental contaminants in wintering bald eagles. [Haliaeetus leucocephalus

    SciT

    Frenzel, R.W.; Anthony, R.G.

    1989-07-01

    We investigated the relationship between diets and potential hazards in contaminants of wintering bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Klamath Basin of northern California and southern Oregon. We studied diets by identifying remains of 913 prey items found at perches, examining 341 castings collected from communal night roots, and observing foraging eagles. We determined residues of organochlorine compounds, lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) in bald eagles and their prey by analyzing eagle blood samples and carcasses and 8 major prey species. Bald eagles fed largely on waterfowl by scavenging cholera-killed ducks and geese and on microtine rodents during mid- tomore » late winter. Residues of organochlorine pesticides and Hg in prey were low, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) were detected in low concentrations in 9% of prey samples. Means Pb concentrations in prey ranged from 0.15 to 4.79 ppm. Mercury was detected in all eagle blood samples, and Pb was detected in 41% of the bald eagle blood samples. Mean Pb concentration in livers of dead eagles was 2.09 ppm and ranged as high as 27 ppm in an eagle that died of Pb poisoning. Prey of the eagles were relatively free of contaminants with the possible exception of embedded Pb shot in waterfowl, which may present a potential for Pb poisoning of eagles.« less

  17. Annual movements of a steppe eagle (Aquila nipalensis) summering in Mongolia and wintering in Tibet

    Ellis, D.H.; Moon, S.L.; Robinson, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    An adult female steppe eagle (Aquila nipalensis Hodgson) was captured and fitted with a satellite transmitter in June 1995 in southeastern Mongolia. In fall, it traveled southwest towards India as expected, but stopped in southeastern Tibet and wintered in a restricted zone within the breeding range of the steppe eagle. In spring, the bird returned to the same area of Mongolia where it was captured. These observations, though derived from the movements of a single bird, suggest three things that are contrary to what is generally believed about steppe eagle biology. First, not all steppe eagles move to warmer climes in winter. Second, not all steppe eagles are nomadic in winter. Finally, because our bird wintered at the periphery of the steppe eagle breeding range in Tibet, perhaps birds that breed in this same area also winter there. If so, not all steppe eagles are migratory.

  18. Food habits of Bald Eagles breeding in the Arizona desert

    Teryl G. Grubb

    1995-01-01

    Of 1814 foraging attempts, prey captures, or nest deliveries by Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in 14 Arizona breeding areas during 1983-1985, 1471 observations were identifiable to at least class: fish (76%), mammal (18%), bird (4%), and reptile/amphibian (2%). Forty-five species were recorded: catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Pylodictis olivaris), suckers (...

  19. Evaluating Great Lakes bald eagle nesting habitat with Bayesian inference

    Teryl G. Grubb; William W. Bowerman; Allen J. Bath; John P. Giesy; D. V. Chip Weseloh

    2003-01-01

    Bayesian inference facilitated structured interpretation of a nonreplicated, experience-based survey of potential nesting habitat for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) along the five Great Lakes shorelines. We developed a pattern recognition (PATREC) model of our aerial search image with six habitat attributes: (a) tree cover, (b) proximity and...

  20. Why Did the Bald Eagle Almost Become Extinct?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassman, Sarah J.; Sterling, Donna R.

    2012-01-01

    The activity described in this article poses a question, provides evidence needed to answer the question, and uses a cooperative learning structure within which students analyze the evidence and create their own questions. Students see how a single cause can interact with two natural systems--the water cycle and the bald eagle food chain--to…

  1. Food habits of bald eagles wintering in northern Arizona

    Teryl G. Grubb; Roy G. Lopez

    2000-01-01

    We used pellets collected from roosts to supplement incidental foraging observations to identify prey species of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucoughalus) and to evaluate spatial and temporal trends in their food habits while wintering in northern Arizona between 1994-96. We analyzed 1057 pellets collected from 14 roosts, and identified five mammal and...

  2. "The Story of Running Eagle" and "The Cause of Things."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, James Willard

    The two illustrated children's stories are part of a series about the Blackfeet Indians. The first story, originally published in 1916, is the story of Weasel Woman, an orphaned girl who stole her way into a raiding party and became a successful warrior and, ultimately, a war chief named Running Eagle. The second story is a Blackfeet creation tale…

  3. Eagles, Otters, and Unicorns: An Anatomy of Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Stephen R.; King, Margaret J.

    1990-01-01

    This article describes three archetypal workers: eagles who innovate by improvements, otters who innovate by extension, and unicorns who innovate by paradigm. Each of these innovators is discussed in terms of domain-relevant skills, manipulative skills, and motivation. Needs of each type in terms of business culture are discussed. (PB)

  4. Research resources: curating the new eagle-i discovery system

    PubMed Central

    Vasilevsky, Nicole; Johnson, Tenille; Corday, Karen; Torniai, Carlo; Brush, Matthew; Segerdell, Erik; Wilson, Melanie; Shaffer, Chris; Robinson, David; Haendel, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Development of biocuration processes and guidelines for new data types or projects is a challenging task. Each project finds its way toward defining annotation standards and ensuring data consistency with varying degrees of planning and different tools to support and/or report on consistency. Further, this process may be data type specific even within the context of a single project. This article describes our experiences with eagle-i, a 2-year pilot project to develop a federated network of data repositories in which unpublished, unshared or otherwise ‘invisible’ scientific resources could be inventoried and made accessible to the scientific community. During the course of eagle-i development, the main challenges we experienced related to the difficulty of collecting and curating data while the system and the data model were simultaneously built, and a deficiency and diversity of data management strategies in the laboratories from which the source data was obtained. We discuss our approach to biocuration and the importance of improving information management strategies to the research process, specifically with regard to the inventorying and usage of research resources. Finally, we highlight the commonalities and differences between eagle-i and similar efforts with the hope that our lessons learned will assist other biocuration endeavors. Database URL: www.eagle-i.net PMID:22434835

  5. 1. EAGLE MILL EXTERIOR FROM NORTHWEST, c. 1907. SHOWS INITIAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAGLE MILL EXTERIOR FROM NORTHWEST, c. 1907. SHOWS INITIAL MILL CONFIGURATION WITH FULLY EXPOSED CRUDE ORE BIN CONCRETE RETAINING WALL, SINGLE (SOUTH) CRUDE ORE BIN, AND EXPOSED CRUSHER HOUSE. NOTE THE LACK OF MACHINE SHOP OR SNOW SHEDS. CREDIT JW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  6. 3. EAGLE MILL, DETAIL OF CRUDE ORE BIN FROM NORTH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EAGLE MILL, DETAIL OF CRUDE ORE BIN FROM NORTH, c. 1908-10. SHOWS EXPOSED CRUSHER HOUSE IN FRONT OF (SOUTH) CRUDE ORE BIN AND SNOW SHED ADDED OVER TRAM TRACKS. NOTE LACK OF EAST OR WEST CRUDE ORE BINS. CREDIT JW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  7. The "Oklahoma Eagle": A Study of Black Press Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Karen F.

    Analyzing the history of the "Oklahoma Eagle" provides insight into the problems and the opportunities involved in operating a black newspaper and reveals the factors responsible for the paper's longevity. The paper has been owned and operated by members of the Edward Lawrence Goodwin family since 1938 and has been staffed by excellent…

  8. Organochlorine and heavy metal residues in bald eagle eggs

    Krantz, W.C.; Mulhern, B.M.; Bagley, George E.; Sprunt, A.; Ligas, F.J.; Robertson, W.B.

    1970-01-01

    Bald eagle eggs collected in 1968 from nests in Wisconsin, Maine, and Florida all contained residues of DDE, DDD, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Many also contained traces of DDT. Eggs from five nonproductive nests sampled in Maine contained much higher residues than did eggs collected from either productive or nonproductive nests in Wisconsin and Florida.

  9. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection in a captive bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)

    Franson, J. Christian; Galbreath, Elizabeth J.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Abell, John M.

    1994-01-01

    An adult bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) kept in captivity for nearly 7 yr at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, died suddenly with gross and microscopic lesions characteristic of septicemia. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae was isolated from the liver. Fish comprised part of the bird's diet and may have been the source of the organism.

  10. Bald Eagle Nesting in the Superior National Forest

    James P. Mattson; Alfred H. Grewe

    1976-01-01

    Sixteen years (1959-1974) of bald eagle nesting data representing 102 nests were examined. Nest survey intensity increased in the late 1960''s and was most comprehensive during 1972, 1973, and 1974. Some nests were used for at least 15 years. Most nest trees were white pines, reflecting availability. IN 1974 the number of active and successful nests and...

  11. Some helminth parasites of the American bald eagle

    Kocan, A.A.; Locke, L.N.

    1974-01-01

    Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) found dead or moribund in the United States and Canada and submitted to Patuxent Wildlife Research Center were examined for helminth parasites. Nine genera of helminths were reported which include new host records for Clinostomum complanatum, Neogogatea pandionis, Centrorhynchus sp., Serratospiculum amaculata, Capillaria contorta, and Habronema americanum.

  12. The Eagle’s Talons. The American Experience at War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    carrying American passengers (for 143 EAGLE’S TALONS example, the Lusitania ), became the most volatile issue be- tween the United States and Germany. It...99, 103-4, 108, 118-22 Lusitania : 144, 374 McClernand, John Alexander: Lys River: 163 103 McDowell, Irvin: 105, 114-15, MacArthur, Douglas: xv, 16

  13. Lead exposure in bald eagles from big game hunting, the continental implications and successful mitigation efforts.

    PubMed

    Bedrosian, Bryan; Craighead, Derek; Crandall, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest hunter discarded viscera of big game animals (i.e., offal) is a source of lead available to scavengers. We investigated the incidence of lead exposure in bald eagles in Wyoming during the big game hunting season, the influx of eagles into our study area during the hunt, the geographic origins of eagles exposed to lead, and the efficacy of using non-lead rifle ammunition to reduce lead in eagles. We tested 81 blood samples from bald eagles before, during and after the big game hunting seasons in 2005-2010, excluding 2008, and found eagles had significantly higher lead levels during the hunt. We found 24% of eagles tested had levels indicating at least clinical exposure (>60 ug/dL) during the hunt while no birds did during the non-hunting seasons. We performed driving surveys from 2009-2010 to measure eagle abundance and found evidence to suggest that eagles are attracted to the study area during the hunt. We fitted 10 eagles with satellite transmitters captured during the hunt and all migrated south after the cessation of the hunt. One returned to our study area while the remaining nine traveled north to summer/breed in Canada. The following fall, 80% returned to our study area for the hunting season, indicating that offal provides a seasonal attractant for eagles. We fitted three local breeding eagles with satellite transmitters and none left their breeding territories to feed on offal during the hunt, indicating that lead ingestion may be affecting migrants to a greater degree. During the 2009 and 2010 hunting seasons we provided non-lead rifle ammunition to local hunters and recorded that 24% and 31% of successful hunters used non-lead ammunition, respectively. We found the use of non-lead ammunition significantly reduced lead exposure in eagles, suggesting this is a viable solution to reduce lead exposure in eagles.

  14. Lead Exposure in Bald Eagles from Big Game Hunting, the Continental Implications and Successful Mitigation Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Bedrosian, Bryan; Craighead, Derek; Crandall, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest hunter discarded viscera of big game animals (i.e., offal) is a source of lead available to scavengers. We investigated the incidence of lead exposure in bald eagles in Wyoming during the big game hunting season, the influx of eagles into our study area during the hunt, the geographic origins of eagles exposed to lead, and the efficacy of using non-lead rifle ammunition to reduce lead in eagles. We tested 81 blood samples from bald eagles before, during and after the big game hunting seasons in 2005–2010, excluding 2008, and found eagles had significantly higher lead levels during the hunt. We found 24% of eagles tested had levels indicating at least clinical exposure (>60 ug/dL) during the hunt while no birds did during the non-hunting seasons. We performed driving surveys from 2009–2010 to measure eagle abundance and found evidence to suggest that eagles are attracted to the study area during the hunt. We fitted 10 eagles with satellite transmitters captured during the hunt and all migrated south after the cessation of the hunt. One returned to our study area while the remaining nine traveled north to summer/breed in Canada. The following fall, 80% returned to our study area for the hunting season, indicating that offal provides a seasonal attractant for eagles. We fitted three local breeding eagles with satellite transmitters and none left their breeding territories to feed on offal during the hunt, indicating that lead ingestion may be affecting migrants to a greater degree. During the 2009 and 2010 hunting seasons we provided non-lead rifle ammunition to local hunters and recorded that 24% and 31% of successful hunters used non-lead ammunition, respectively. We found the use of non-lead ammunition significantly reduced lead exposure in eagles, suggesting this is a viable solution to reduce lead exposure in eagles. PMID:23284837

  15. Environmental contaminants in bald eagle eggs from the Aleutian archipelago

    Anthony, R.G.; Miles, A.K.; Ricca, M.A.; Estes, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    We collected 136 fresh and unhatched eggs from bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nests and assessed productivity on eight islands in the Aleutian archipelago, 2000 to 2002. Egg contents were analyzed for a broad spectrum of organochlorine (OC) contaminants, mercury (Hg), and stable isotopes of carbon (??13C) and nitrogen (??15N). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (??PCBs), p,p???- dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and Hg in bald eagle eggs were elevated throughout the archipelago, but the patterns of distribution differed among the various contaminants. Total PCBs were highest in areas of past military activities on Adak and Amchitka Islands, indicating local point sources of these compounds. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were higher on Amchitka Island, which was subjected to much military activity during World War II and the middle of the 20th century. Concentrations of ??PCBs also were elevated on islands with little history of military activity (e.g., Amlia, Tanaga, Buldir), suggesting non-point sources of PCBs in addition to point sources. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were highest in eagle eggs from the most western Aleutian Islands (e.g., Buldir, Kiska) and decreased eastward along the Aleutian chain. This east-to-west increase suggested a Eurasian source of contamination, possibly through global transport and atmospheric distillation and/or from migratory seabirds. Eggshell thickness and productivity of bald eagles were normal and indicative of healthy populations because concentrations of most contaminants were below threshold levels for effects on reproduction. Contrary to our predictions, contaminant concentrations were not correlated with stable isotopes of carbon (??13C) or nitrogen (??15N) in eggs. These latter findings indicate that contaminant concentrations were influenced more by point sources and geographic location than trophic status of eagles among the different islands. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  16. Quantifying Emissions from the Eagle Ford Shale Using Ethane Enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roest, G. S.; Schade, G. W.

    2014-12-01

    Emissions from unconventional oil and natural gas exploration in the Eagle Ford Shale have been conjectured as a contributing factor to increasing ozone concentrations in the San Antonio Metropolitan Area, which is on track to be designated as a nonattainment area by the EPA. Primary species found in natural gas emissions are alkanes, with C3 and heavier alkanes acting as short-lived VOCs contributing to regional ozone formation. Methane emissions from the industry are also a forcing mechanism for climate change as methane is a potent greenhouse gas. Recent studies have highlighted a high variability and uncertainties in oil and natural gas emissions estimates in emissions inventories. Thus, accurately quantifying oil and natural gas emissions from the Eagle Ford Shale is necessary to assess the industry's impacts on climate forcing and regional air quality. We estimate oil and natural gas emissions in the Eagle Ford Shale using in situ ethane measurements along southwesterly trajectories from the Gulf of Mexico, dominantly during the summertime. Ethane enhancement within the drilling area is estimated by comparing ethane concentrations upwind of the shale, near the Texas coastline, to downwind measurements in the San Antonio Metropolitan Area, Odessa, and Amarillo. Upwind ethane observations indicate low background levels entering Texas in the Gulf of Mexico air masses. Significant ethane enhancement is observed between the coast and San Antonio, and is attributed to oil and natural gas operations due to the concurrent enhancements of heavier alkanes. Using typical boundary layer depths and presuming homogenous emissions across the Eagle Ford shale area, the observed ethane enhancements are used to extrapolate an estimate of oil and natural gas industry emissions in the Eagle Ford. As oil and natural gas production in the area is projected to grow rapidly over the coming years, the impacts of these emissions on regional air quality will need to be thoroughly

  17. Golden Eagle Migratory Behaviors in Response to Arctic Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaPoint, S.; Bohrer, G.; Davidson, S. C.; Gurarie, E.; Mahoney, P.; Boelman, N.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding how animals adapt to climate change is a conservation priority, particularly in arctic landscapes where these changes are accelerated. Doing so however, remains challenging because animal behavior datasets are typically conducted at site- or population-specific scales and are often short term (e.g., 2-3 years). We have overcome this challenge by compiling a long-term (25 years), large-scale (northwestern North America) dataset of > 0.5 million locations collected via 86 adult-aged golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) fitted with satellite and GPS data loggers. We used mechanistic range shift analyses to identify the locations and dates when each eagle performed a behavioral switch from a stationary phase (e.g., over-wintering or breeding) to migration and vice-versa. We annotated these spatio-temporal data with a suite of environmental data, including: %snow cover, time-to snow cover, time-to greening, air temperature, and wind direction and magnitude. Preliminary generalized additive mixed-models suggest these eagles have performed significant shifts in their departure dates, yet their arrival dates have remained relatively consistent. We will use a survival analysis (e.g., Cox proportional-hazard regression model) to quantify the influence of the environmental variables on these dates. It appears golden eagles migrating across northwestern North America are adapting to changes in the timing and duration of artic winters, by arriving to their northern breeding grounds earlier every spring, presumably to extend their breeding and chick rearing phases. Golden eagles exhibit some resiliency to changes in the arctic climate, but further work is warranted across other taxa and populations.

  18. Causes of mortality in eagles submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center 1975-2013

    Russell, Robin E.; Franson, J. Christian

    2014-01-01

    We summarized the cause of death for 2,980 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 1,427 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center in Madison, Wisconsin, USA, for diagnosis between 1975 and the beginning of 2013. We compared the proportion of eagles with a primary diagnosis as electrocuted, emaciated, traumatized, shot or trapped, diseased, poisoned, other, and undetermined among the 4 migratory bird flyways of the United States (Atlantic, Mississippi, Central, and Pacific). Additionally, we compared the proportion of lead-poisoned bald eagles submitted before and after the autumn 1991 ban on lead shot for waterfowl hunting. Trauma and poisonings (including lead poisoning) were the leading causes of death for bald eagles throughout the study period, and a greater proportion of bald eagles versus golden eagles were diagnosed as poisoned. For golden eagles, the major causes of mortality were trauma and electrocution. The proportion of lead poisoning diagnoses for bald eagles submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center displayed a statistically significant increase in all flyways after the autumn 1991 ban on the use of lead shot for waterfowl hunting. Thus, lead poisoning was a significant cause of mortality in our necropsied eagles, suggesting a continued need to evaluate the trade-offs of lead ammunition for use on game other than waterfowl versus the impacts of lead on wildlife populations. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. Asbestos occurrence in the Eagle C-4 quadrangle, Alaska

    Foster, Helen Laura

    1969-01-01

    An asbestos occurrence was discovered in a remote part of the Eagle quadrangle, Alaska, in the summer of 1968 during geologic reconnaissance in connection with the U.S. Geological Survey's Heavy Metals program. The exposed part of the deposit consists of large joint blocks of serpentine which are cut by closely spaced subparallel veins. Most of the veins are about ? inch thick, and they consist of cross-fiber chrysotile asbestos. The asbestos appears to be of commercial quality, but the total quantity is unknown. The asbestos occurs in a serpentinized ultramafic mass which appears to intrude metamorphic rocks. Many other serpentinized ultramafic masses are known in the Eagle quadrangle, but this is the first one in which considerable asbestos has been found. The deposit is of importance because it shows that geologic conditions are locally favorable for the formation of asbestos in the Yukon-Tanana Upland, and hope of finding commercial asbestos deposits thus seems possible.

  20. Captive and field-tested radio attachments for bald eagles

    Buehler, D.A.; Fraser, J.D.; Fuller, M.R.; McAllister, L.S.; Seegar, J.K.D.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of two radio transmitter attachment techniques on captive and one attachment technique on wild Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were studied. A Y-attachment method with a 160-g dummy transmitter was less apt to cause tissue damage on captive birds than an X-attachment method, and loosely fit transmitters caused less damage than tightly fit transmitters Annual survival of wild birds fitted with 65-g transmitters via an X attachment was estimated at 90-95%. As a result of high survival, only five wild birds marked as nestlings were recovered.Two of these birds had superficial pressure sores from tight-fitting harnesses It is recommended that a 1.3-cm space be left between the transmitter and the bird's b ack when radio-tagging post-fiedging Bald Eagles. Additional space, perhaps up to 2.5 cm, is required for nestlings to allow for added growth and development.

  1. Eagle's syndrome associated with lingual nerve paresthesia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhiwei; Bao, Haihong; Zhang, Li; Hua, Zequan

    2014-05-01

    Eagle's syndrome is characterized by a variety of symptoms, including throat pain, sensation of a foreign body in the pharynx, dysphagia, referred otalgia, and neck and throat pain exacerbated by head rotation. Any styloid process longer than 25 mm should be considered elongated and will usually be responsible for Eagle's syndrome. Surgical resection of the elongated styloid is a routine treatment and can be accomplished using a transoral or an extraoral approach. We report a patient with a rare giant styloid process that was approximately 81.7 mm. He complained of a rare symptom: hemitongue paresthesia. After removal of the elongated styloid process using the extraoral approach, his symptoms, including the hemitongue paresthesia, were alleviated. We concluded that if the styloid process displays medium to severe elongation, the extraoral approach will be appropriate. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Time and Space Partitioning the EagleEye Reference Misson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Victor; Mendham, Peter; Kauppinen, Panu; Holsti, Niklas; Crespo, Alfons; Masmano, Miguel; de la Puente, Juan A.; Zamorano, Juan

    2013-08-01

    We discuss experiences gained by porting a Software Validation Facility (SVF) and a satellite Central Software (CSW) to a platform with support for Time and Space Partitioning (TSP). The SVF and CSW are part of the EagleEye Reference mission of the European Space Agency (ESA). As a reference mission, EagleEye is a perfect candidate to evaluate practical aspects of developing satellite CSW for and on TSP platforms. The specific TSP platform we used consists of a simulated LEON3 CPU controlled by the XtratuM separation micro-kernel. On top of this, we run five separate partitions. Each partition runs its own real-time operating system or Ada run-time kernel, which in turn are running the application software of the CSW. We describe issues related to partitioning; inter-partition communication; scheduling; I/O; and fault-detection, isolation, and recovery (FDIR).

  3. World`s first SPB LNG carrier ``POLAR EAGLE``

    SciT

    Aoki, Eiji; Nakajima, Yoshiyuki; Yamada, Koichiro

    1994-12-31

    The world`s first Self-supporting Prismatic-shape IMO type B (SPB) LNG Carrier named ``POLAR EAGLE`` has been delivered to Phillips 66 Natural Gas Company and Marathon Oil Company in June, 1993. The cargo containment system installed onboard the vessel, SPB cargo containment system, was developed by Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. (IHI) and fully complies with IMO Gas Carrier Code for a type B independent tank. ``POLAR EAGLE`` was constructed in the authors` Aichi works and delivered 34 months after the contract of the vessel. Its performance was confirmed through various kinds of tests and inspections during construction of the vessel.more » Results of typical tests and inspections are introduced.« less

  4. Coming to terms about describing Golden Eagle reproduction

    Steenhof, Karen; Kochert, Michael N.; McIntyre, Carol L.; Brown, Jessi L.

    2017-01-01

    Clearly defined terms are essential for reporting and understanding research findings, and inconsistent terminology can complicate efforts to compare findings from different studies. In this article, we reiterate and clarify recommended terms for describing Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) territory occupancy and reproduction. Several authors have provided recommendations for reporting data on raptor reproduction, but our literature review showed that authors continue to use different, often ambiguous and undefined, terms. The inconsistent use of terminology by researchers has been continued and expanded by lawmakers, regulators, and managers, perpetuating confusion. We recommend that authors clearly define and reference all terminology that they use, and we caution against use of the term “active” to describe a nest or nesting territory, because it is tainted with a history of inconsistent use. We provide a glossary of recommended terms for Golden Eagles and other large, long-lived raptors.

  5. On the galaxy-halo connection in the EAGLE simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmond, Harry; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Wechsler, Risa H.; Crain, Robert A.; Schaye, Joop

    2017-10-01

    Empirical models of galaxy formation require assumptions about the correlations between galaxy and halo properties. These may be calibrated against observations or inferred from physical models such as hydrodynamical simulations. In this Letter, we use the EAGLE simulation to investigate the correlation of galaxy size with halo properties. We motivate this analysis by noting that the common assumption of angular momentum partition between baryons and dark matter in rotationally supported galaxies overpredicts both the spread in the stellar mass-size relation and the anticorrelation of size and velocity residuals, indicating a problem with the galaxy-halo connection it implies. We find the EAGLE galaxy population to perform significantly better on both statistics, and trace this success to the weakness of the correlations of galaxy size with halo mass, concentration and spin at fixed stellar mass. Using these correlations in empirical models will enable fine-grained aspects of galaxy scalings to be matched.

  6. Enhancement of surface definition and gridding in the EAGLE code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Joe F.

    1991-01-01

    Algorithms for smoothing of curves and surfaces for the EAGLE grid generation program are presented. The method uses an existing automated technique which detects undesirable geometric characteristics by using a local fairness criterion. The geometry entity is then smoothed by repeated removal and insertion of spline knots in the vicinity of the geometric irregularity. The smoothing algorithm is formulated for use with curves in Beta spline form and tensor product B-spline surfaces.

  7. Analysis of photometric light curves solution for massive contact OB binary stars. LY Aurigae, BH Centauri, SV Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avvakumova, E. A.

    2010-01-01

    We searched for signs of the presence of circumstellar gaseous matter in photometric data for massive contact early-type binaries by analyzing residual curves (the dependence of the difference between the observed and theoretical brightness variations on the orbital-period phase) for three such stars. The residual curves make it possible to estimate the influence of gas in the common envelope on the observed light curves for different phase intervals and to qualitatively describe the character of the distortion of the light from the system’s components. Changes of the residual curves from filter to filter indicate varying conditions in the circumstellar matter. Changes of the residual curves from one observation epoch to another indicate varying conditions in the circumstellar matter. We compared the residual curves obtained for different photometric bands and epochs via a correlation analysis. The distortion of light from the components of LY Aurigae in the ultraviolet differs from that in the visual. The distortion of light from the components of SV Centauri is appreciable, but not selective, and does not vary in time, while the distortion of light from BH Centauri possesses a strong selective component. A comparison of the radii computed for the components of BH Centauri and SV Centauri shows that the gas distribution near these binaries varies in time.

  8. Detection of SO towards the transitional disk AB Auriga: the sulfur chemistry in a proto-solar nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuente, A.; Agúndez, M.; Cernicharo, J.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Bachiller, R.

    2017-03-01

    The transitional disk around the Herbig Ae star, AB Auriga, has been imaged in the dust continuum emission at 1mm and in the line using the NOEMA interferometer (IRAM) (beam 1.5”). This is the first image of SO ever in a protoplanetary disk (PPD). Simultaneously, we obtained images of the ^{13}CO 2→1, C^{18}O 2→1 and H_{2}CO 3_{0,3} → 2_{0,2} lines. The dust continuum and C^{18}O emissions present the horseshoe morphology that is characteristic of the existence of a dust trap, proving that this disk is at the stage of forming planets. In contrast, SO presents uniform emission all over the disk. We interpret that the uniform SO emission is the consequence of the SO molecules being rapidly converted to SO_{2} and frozen onto the grain mantles at the high densities close to the disk midplane (> 10^{7} cm^{-3}). SO is the second S-bearing molecule detected in a PPD (the first was CS) and opens the possibility to study the sulphur chemistry in a proto-solar nebula analog. Sulfur is widespread in the Solar System and the comprehension of the sulfur chemistry is of paramount importance to understand the formation of our planetary system.

  9. Lessons from the Auriga discs: the hunt for the Milky Way's ex situ disc is not yet over

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Facundo A.; Grand, Robert J. J.; Monachesi, Antonela; White, Simon D. M.; Bustamante, Sebastian; Marinacci, Federico; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Simpson, Christine M.; Springel, Volker; Frenk, Carlos S.

    2017-12-01

    We characterize the contribution from accreted material to the galactic discs of the Auriga Project, a set of high-resolution magnetohydrodynamic cosmological simulations of late-type galaxies performed with the moving-mesh code AREPO. Our goal is to explore whether a significant accreted (or ex situ) stellar component in the Milky Way disc could be hidden within the near-circular orbit population, which is strongly dominated by stars born in situ. One-third of our models shows a significant ex situ disc but this fraction would be larger if constraints on orbital circularity were relaxed. Most of the ex situ material (≳50 per cent) comes from single massive satellites (>6 × 1010 M⊙). These satellites are accreted with a wide range of infall times and inclination angles (up to 85°). Ex situ discs are thicker, older and more metal poor than their in situ counterparts. They show a flat median age profile, which differs from the negative gradient observed in the in situ component. As a result, the likelihood of identifying an ex situ disc in samples of old stars on near-circular orbits increases towards the outskirts of the disc. We show three examples that, in addition to ex situ discs, have a strongly rotating dark matter component. Interestingly, two of these ex situ stellar discs show an orbital circularity distribution that is consistent with that of the in situ disc. Thus, they would not be detected in typical kinematic studies.

  10. Structure in the Disk of epsilon Aurigae -- Analysis of ARCES and TripleSpec data from the 2010 eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Justus; Stencel, Robert E.; ARCES Team; Ketzeback, W.; Barentine, J.; Bradley, A.; Coughlin, J.; Dembicky, J.; Hawley, S.; Huehnerhoff, J.; Leadbeater, R.; McMillan, R.; Saurage, G.; Schmidt, S.; Ule, N.; Wallerstein, G.; York, D.

    2018-06-01

    Worldwide interest in the recent eclipse of epsilon Aurigae resulted in the generation of several extensive data sets, including high resolution spectroscopic monitoring. This lead to the discovery, among other things, of the existence of a mass transfer stream, seen notably during third contact. We explored spectroscopic facets of the mass transfer stream during third contact, using high resolution spectra obtained with the ARCES and TripleSpec instruments at Apache Point Observatory. One hundred and sixteen epochs of data were obtained between 2009 and 2012, and equivalent widths and line velocities measured for high versus low eccentricity accretion disk lines. These datasets also enable greater detail to be measured of the mid-eclipse enhancement of the He I 10830A line, and the discovery of the P Cygni shape of the Pa-beta line at third contact. We found evidence of higher speed material, associated with the mass transfer stream, persisting between third and fourth eclipse contacts. We visualized the disk and stream interaction using SHAPE software, and used CLOUDY software to estimate that the source of the enhanced He I 10830A absorption arises from a region with log nH = 11 cm-3 and temperature of 20,000 K, consistent with a mid-B type central star. We thank the following for their contributions to this paper: William Ketzeback, John Barentine, Jeffrey Coughlin, Robin Leadbeater, Gabrelle Saurage, and others. This paper has been submitted to Monthly Notices.

  11. Postfledging nest dependence period for bald eagles in Florida

    Wood, P.B.; Collopy, Michael W.; Sekerak, C.M.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the postfledging dependency period in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), a little studied but important period in the life cycle of avian species. Bald eagles in Florida had a postfledging dependency period of 4-11 weeks (15-22 weeks old). The length of the dependency period did not vary by year of study, sex, number of fledgings, timing of fledging, or hatch order (P > 0.05). Mean distance fledglings ranged from the nest increased with age, but they were observed in the nest or nest tree throughout the postfledging dependency period. Distance from the nest did not vary by sex, number of fledglings, or timing of fledging (P > 0.05). Over 80% of the fledgling observations were within 229 m of the nest. The boundary of the primary protection zone specified in the bald eagle habitat management guidelines for the southeastern United States is 229 m. Restrictions on human disturbance around nest sites should remain in place during the postfledging dependency period because of the close association of fledglings with the nest site. Restrictions also should be flexible because of the varying length of the dependency period.

  12. Looking Back at 'Eagle Crater'(Left-eye)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is the left-eye version of the first 360-degree view from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's new position outside 'Eagle Crater,' the small crater where the rover landed about two months ago. Scientists are busy analyzing Opportunity's new view of the plains of Meridiani Planum. The plentiful ripples are a clear indication that wind is the primary geologic process currently in effect on the plains. The rover's tracks can be seen leading away from Eagle Crater. At the far left are two depressions--each about a meter (about 3.3 feet) across---that feature bright spots in their centers. One possibility is that the bright material is similar in composition to the rocks in Eagle Crater's outcrop and the surrounding darker material is what's referred to as 'lag deposit,' or erosional remnants, which are much harder and more difficult to wear away. These twin dimples might be revealing pieces of a larger outcrop that lies beneath. The depression closest to Opportunity is whimsically referred to as 'Homeplate' and the one behind it as 'First Base.' The rover's panoramic camera is set to take detailed images of the depressions today, on Opportunity's 58th sol. The backshell and parachute that helped protect the rover and deliver it safely to the surface of Mars are also visible near the horizon, at the left of the image. This image was taken by the rover's navigation camera.

  13. Frequency of nest use by golden eagles in southwestern Idaho

    Kochert, Michael N.; Steenhof, Karen

    2012-01-01

    We studied nest use by Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) from 1966 to 2011 to assess nest reuse within territories, ascertain the length of time that elapses between uses of nests, and test the hypotheses that reproductive success and adult turnover influence nest switching. Golden Eagles used 454 nests in 66 territories and used individual nests 1 to 26 times during 45 continuous years of observation. Time between reuse ranged from 1 to 39 yr. Distances between nearest adjacent alternative nests within territories ranged between 5 times. Two nests were unused for 21 and 27 yr after 1971 before being used every 1 to 3 yr thereafter. Eagles used 43% of the nests in series of consecutive years (range 3 to 20 consecutive nestings). Protecting unused nests for a proposed 10 yr after the last known use would not have protected 34% of all 300 nests that were reused during the study and 49% of 37 reused nests monitored consistently for 41 yr. The 102 nests that would not have received protection were in 56 of the 66 territories.

  14. The influence of weather on Golden Eagle migration in northwestern Montana

    Yates, R.E.; McClelland, B.R.; Mcclelland, P.T.; Key, C.H.; Bennetts, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    We analyzed the influence of 17 weather factors on migrating Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) near the Continental Divide in Glacier National Park, Montana, U.S.A. Local weather measurements were recorded at automated stations on the flanks of two peaks within the migration path. During a total of 506 hr of observation, the yearly number of Golden Eagles in autumn counts (1994-96) averaged 1973; spring counts (1995 and 1996) averaged 605 eagles. Mean passage rates (eagles/hr) were 16.5 in autumn and 8.2 in spring. Maximum rates were 137 in autumn and 67 in spring. Using generalized linear modeling, we tested for the effects of weather factors on the number of eagles counted. In the autumn model, the number of eagles increased with increasing air temperature, rising barometric pressure, decreasing relative humidity, and interactions among those factors. In the spring model, the number of eagles increased with increasing wind speed, barometric pressure, and the interaction between these factors. Our data suggest that a complex interaction among weather factors influenced the number of eagles passing on a given day. We hypothesize that in complex landscapes with high topographic relief, such as Glacier National Park, numerous weather factors produce different daily combinations to which migrating eagles respond opportunistically. ?? 2001 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  15. Residues of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls and autopsy data for bald eagles, 1973-74

    Prouty, R.M.; Reichel, W.L.; Locke, L.N.; Belisle, A.A.; Cromartie, E.; Kaiser, T.E.; Lamont, T.G.; Mulhern, B.M.; Swineford, D.M.

    1977-01-01

    Thirty-nine bald eagles found sick or dead in 13 States during 1969 and 1970 were analyzed for pesticide residues. Residues of DDE, dieldrin, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), and mercury were detected in all bald eagle carcasses; DDD residues were detected in 38; DDT, heptachlor epoxide, and dichlorobenzophenone (DCBP) were detected less frequently. Six eagles contained possible lethal levels of dieldrin in the brain, and one contained a lethal concentration of DDE (385 ppm) in the brain together with 235 ppm of PCB's. Autopsy revealed that 18 bald eagles were illegally shot; other causes of death were impact injuries, electrocution, emaciation, and infectious diseases.

  16. Movements and landscape use of Eastern Imperial Eagles Aquila heliaca in Central Asia

    Poessel, Sharon; Bragin, Evgeny A.; Sharpe, Peter B.; Garcelon, David K.; Bartoszuk, Kordian; Katzner, Todd E.

    2018-01-01

    Capsule: We describe ecological factors associated with movements of a globally declining raptor species, the Eastern Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca.Aims: To describe the movements, habitat associations and resource selection of Eastern Imperial Eagles marked in Central Asia.Methods: We used global positioning system (GPS) data sent via satellite telemetry devices deployed on Eastern Imperial Eagles captured in Kazakhstan to calculate distances travelled and to associate habitat and weather variables with eagle locations collected throughout the annual cycle. We also used resource selection models to evaluate habitat use of tracked birds during autumn migration. Separately, we used wing-tagging recovery data to broaden our understanding of wintering locations of eagles.Results: Eagles tagged in Kazakhstan wintered in most countries on the Arabian Peninsula, as well as Iran and India. The adult eagle we tracked travelled more efficiently than did the four pre-adults. During autumn migration, telemetered eagles used a mixture of vegetation types, but during winter and summer, they primarily used bare and sparsely vegetated areas. Finally, telemetered birds used orographic updrafts to subsidize their autumn migration flight, but they relied on thermal updrafts during spring migration.Conclusion: Our study is the first to use GPS telemetry to describe year-round movements and habitat associations of Eastern Imperial Eagles in Central Asia. Our findings provide insight into the ecology of this vulnerable raptor species that can contribute to conservation efforts on its behalf.

  17. 75 FR 74038 - Twin Eagle Resource Management, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2154-000] Twin Eagle Resource Management, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding, of Twin Eagle Resource Management, LLC's [[Page 74039

  18. 50 CFR 22.26 - Permits for eagle take that is associated with, but not the purpose of, an activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of the Region in which the disturbance would occur—Attention: Migratory Bird Permit Office. You can... the eagle's nest, roost, or foraging perches; and (iii) Whether alternative suitable eagle nesting...

  19. Biotelemetery data for golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) captured in coastal southern California, February 2016–February 2017

    Tracey, Jeff A.; Madden, Melanie C.; Sebes, Jeremy B.; Bloom, Peter H.; Katzner, Todd E.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2017-05-12

    Because of a lack of clarity about the status of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in coastal southern California, the USGS, in collaboration with local, State, and other Federal agencies, began a multi-year survey and tracking program of golden eagles to address questions regarding habitat use, movement behavior, nest occupancy, genetic population structure, and human impacts on eagles. Golden eagle trapping and tracking efforts began in September 2014. During trapping efforts from September 29, 2014, to February 23, 2016, 27 golden eagles were captured. During trapping efforts from February 24, 2016, to February 23, 2017, an additional 10 golden eagles (7 females and 3 males) were captured in San Diego, Orange, and western Riverside Counties. Biotelemetry data for 26 of the 37 golden eagles that were transmitting data from February 24, 2016, to February 23, 2017 are presented. These eagles ranged as far north as northern Nevada and southern Wyoming, and as far south as La Paz, Baja California, Mexico.

  20. 77 FR 5505 - Eagle Crest Energy Company; Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... Energy Projects has reviewed the application for license for the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13123-002--California] Eagle Crest Energy Company; Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the...

  1. 76 FR 1149 - Eagle Crest Energy Company; Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13123-002--California] Eagle Crest Energy Company; Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project and Notice of Public Meetings December 23, 2010. In...

  2. 77 FR 25164 - Adequacy Status of the Eagle River, Alaska Particulate Matter Limited Maintenance Plan for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-R10-OAR-2010-1914; FRL-9664-7] Adequacy Status of the Eagle River, Alaska Particulate Matter Limited Maintenance Plan for Transportation Conformity Purposes AGENCY... notifying the public of its finding that the Eagle River, Alaska, Particulate Matter (PM 10 ) Limited...

  3. 77 FR 40704 - Price for the 2012 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Price for the 2012 American Eagle Silver... States Mint is announcing the price of the 2012 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coin. The coin will be offered for sale at a price of $45.95. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: B. B. Craig, Associate Director...

  4. 77 FR 43662 - Price for the 2012 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Price for the 2012 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin... is lowering the price of the 2012 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin. The product will now be offered for sale at a price of $54.95. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: B. B. Craig, Associate Director for...

  5. 77 FR 28375 - Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR12-25-000] Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval Take notice that on May 1, 2012, Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P. (Desoto) filed a Rate Election pursuant to 284.123(b)(1) of the Commissions...

  6. 76 FR 20971 - Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-120-001] Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on April 7, 2011, Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P. filed a revised Statement of Operating Conditions to comply with an unpublished delegated letter...

  7. 75 FR 27774 - Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Rate Election

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-22-000] Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Rate Election May 11, 2010. Take notice that on May 3, 2010, Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P., (Desoto) filed a Notice of Rate Election pursuant to section 284.123(b)(1)(ii) of...

  8. 75 FR 62184 - Notification of United States Mint Silver Eagle Bullion Coin Premium Increase

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... Bullion Coin Premium Increase ACTION: Notification of United States Mint Silver Eagle Bullion Coin Premium Increase. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is increasing the premium charged to Authorized Purchasers for... will increase the premium charged to Authorized Purchasers for American Eagle Silver Bullion Coins...

  9. Lead and mercury in fall migrant golden eagles from western North America.

    PubMed

    Langner, Heiko W; Domenech, Robert; Slabe, Vincent A; Sullivan, Sean P

    2015-07-01

    Lead exposure from ingestion of bullet fragments is a serious environmental hazard to eagles. We determined blood lead levels (BLL) in 178 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) captured during fall migration along a major North American flyway. These eagles spent the breeding season distributed over a large range and are the best currently available representation of free flying golden eagles on the continent. We found 58 % of these eagles containing increased BLL > 0.1 mg/L; 10 % were clinically lead poisoned with BLL > 0.6 mg/L; and 4 % were lethally exposed with BLL > 1.2 mg/L. No statistical difference in BLL existed between golden and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Golden eagles captured on carrion had higher BLL than those captured using live bait suggesting differences in feeding habits among individuals. Median BLL increased with age class. We propose a conceptual model for the long-term increase in BLL after ingestion of lead particles. The mean blood mercury level in golden eagles was 0.023 mg/L. We evaluate a field test for BLL that is based on anodic stripping voltammetry. This cost-effective and immediate method correlated well with results from inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, although results needed to be corrected for each calibration of the test kit.

  10. 75 FR 11937 - Eagle Sportswear, Inc.; New York, NY; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-73,023] Eagle Sportswear, Inc.; New York, NY; Notice of Termination of Investigation Pursuant to Section 223 of the Trade Act of 1974... company official on behalf of workers of Eagle Sportswear, Inc., New York, New York. The petitioner has...

  11. Known breeding distribution and abundance of golden eagles in Eastern North America

    Francois Morneau; Junior A. Tremblay; Charles Todd; Tony E. Chubbs; Charles Maisonneuve; Jerome Lemaitre; Todd Katzner

    2015-01-01

    Aquila chrysaetos (Golden Eagle) breeds in both eastern and western North America. However, the former population has received much less attention than the latter. The purpose of this paper is to document the known distribution and abundance of eastern Golden Eagles within their breeding range and to identify gaps in knowledge for future studies....

  12. The genome sequence of a widespread apex Predator, the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)

    Jacqueline M. Doyle; Todd E. Katzner; Peter H. Bloom; Yanzhu Ji; Bhagya K. Wijayawardena; J. Andrew DeWoody; Ludovic Orlando

    2014-01-01

    Biologists routinely use molecular markers to identify conservation units, to quantify genetic connectivity, to estimate population sizes, and to identify targets of selection. Many imperiled eagle populations require such efforts and would benefit from enhanced genomic resources. We sequenced, assembled, and annotated the first eagle genome using DNA from a male...

  13. 75 FR 34530 - Nittany & Bald Eagle Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... Eagle Railroad Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR), pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated April 13, 2010, has agreed to grant nonexclusive overhead temporary trackage rights to Nittany & Bald Eagle Railroad Company...

  14. 77 FR 18881 - Nittany & Bald Eagle Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... Eagle Railroad Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR), pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated February 3, 2012, has agreed to grant nonexclusive overhead temporary trackage rights to Nittany & Bald Eagle Railroad Company...

  15. Research note: isolation of a herpesvirus from a bald eagle nestling

    Docherty, D.E.; Romaine, R.I.; Knight, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Cloacal swabs collected from wild bald eagle nestlings (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were tested for viruses. A virus isolated from one of these samples had a lipid coat and contained DNA. Electron microscopy confirmed that it was a herpesvirus. This appears to be the first report of a herpesvirus isolation from a wild bald eagle.

  16. Assessment of exposure of fish to emerging contaminants in the Eagle Creek Watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Eagle Creek Watershed (ECW) encompasses 162 square miles in central Indiana upstream of the Eagle Creek Reservoir, a public drinking water source for the city of Indianapolis. The dominant land-cover is agriculture, although some portions are undergoing urbanization, with th...

  17. 77 FR 839 - Pricing for 2011 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coins

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for 2011 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coins Agency: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the re-pricing of the 2011 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coins. The price of...

  18. 76 FR 27182 - Pricing for American Eagle and American Buffalo Bullion Presentation Cases

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for American Eagle and American Buffalo Bullion Presentation Cases AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price increase of the American Eagle/Buffalo Bullion...

  19. 76 FR 67799 - Pricing for the American Eagle 25th Anniversary Silver Coin Set

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the American Eagle 25th Anniversary Silver Coin Set AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the American Eagle 25th Anniversary Silver Coin Set. The...

  20. 77 FR 15457 - Pricing for the 2012 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2012 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the 2012 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin. The coins will be offered...

  1. 76 FR 53717 - Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coin AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the pricing of the 2011 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coin. The price of...

  2. 76 FR 65563 - Pricing for 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof and Uncirculated Coins

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof and Uncirculated Coins AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the re-pricing of the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof and Uncirculated Coins...

  3. 76 FR 53717 - Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the re-pricing of the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin. The price of the coins...

  4. 76 FR 33026 - Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin. The coin will be offered for...

  5. 78 FR 24816 - Pricing for the 2013 American Eagle West Point Two-Coin Silver Set

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2013 American Eagle West Point Two-Coin Silver Set AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the 2013 American Eagle West Point Two-Coin Silver Set. The...

  6. 76 FR 27753 - American Eagle Savings Bank, Boothwyn, PA; Approval of Conversion Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision [AC-61: OTS Nos. 07212] American Eagle Savings Bank, Boothwyn, PA; Approval of Conversion Application Notice is hereby given that on May 3, 2011, the Office of Thrift Supervision approved the application of American Eagle Savings Bank, Boothwyn...

  7. 76 FR 387 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility) December 17, 2010... construction and operation of a gas centrifuge uranium enrichment facility--denoted as the Eagle Rock... site at http://www.nrc.gov/materials/fuel-cycle-fac/arevanc.html . These and other documents relating...

  8. Growing Leaders in Native American Communities: An Interview with Gerald Eagle Bear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Sara

    2006-01-01

    In the summer of 2005, I interviewed Gerald Eagle Bear about his work to promote civic and cultural engagement among Native American youth. Eagle Bear is program manager of the Oyate Networking Project, an affiliate of Christian Children's Fund, in Mission, South Dakota. The organization focuses on early childhood education, youth violence…

  9. Structure in the Disk of epsilon Aurigae - Analysis of ARCES and TripleSpec spectra from the 2010 eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Justus L.; Stencel, Robert E.; Ketzeback, William; Barentine, John; Coughlin, Jeffrey; Leadbeater, Robin; Saurage, Gabrelle

    2018-06-01

    Worldwide interest in the recent eclipse of epsilon Aurigae resulted in the generation of several extensive data sets, including high resolution spectroscopic monitoring. This lead to the discovery, among other things, of the existence of a mass transfer stream, seen notably during third contact. We explored spectroscopic facets of the mass transfer stream during third contact, using high resolution spectra obtained with the ARCES and TripleSpec instruments at Apache Point Observatory. One hundred and sixteen epochs of data were obtained between 2009 and 2012, and equivalent widths and line velocities measured for high versus low eccentricity accretion disk lines. These datasets also enable greater detail to be measured of the mid-eclipse enhancement of the He I 10830Å line, and the discovery of the P Cygni shape of the Pa-β line at third contact. We found evidence of higher speed material, associated with the mass transfer stream, persisting between third and fourth eclipse contacts. We visualized the disk and stream interaction using SHAPE software, and used CLOUDY software to estimate that the source of the enhanced He I 10830A absorption arises from a region with nH = 1011 cm-3 and temperature of 20,000 K, consistent with a mid-B type central star. Van Rensbergen binary star evolutionary models are somewhat consistent with the current binary parameters for their case of a 9 plus 8 solar mass initial binary, evolving into a 2.3 and 14.11 solar mass end product after 35 Myr. With these results, it is possible to make predictions which suggest that continued monitoring prior to the next eclipse (2036) will help resolve standing questions about the mass and age of this binary.

  10. Using nestling feathers to assess spatial and temporal concentrations of mercury in bald eagles at Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, USA

    H. T. Pittman; W. W. Bowerman; L. H. Grim; Teryl Grubb; W. C. Bridges

    2011-01-01

    Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) have been utilized as a biosentinel of aquatic ecosystem health in the Great Lakes Region since the early 1960s. Bald eagle populations have been monitored at Voyageurs National Park (VNP), Minnesota, since 1973. For the past 20 years, researchers have collected feathers from nestling bald eagles to assess their dietary exposure...

  11. 78 FR 57444 - Eagle Fund III, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [License No. 07/07-0116] Eagle Fund III, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Eagle... Constitute Conflicts of Interest, of the Small Business Administration (``SBA'') Rules and Regulations. Eagle...

  12. 76 FR 34103 - In the Matter of Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility); Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    .... 10-899-02-ML-BD01] In the Matter of Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility... gas centrifuge uranium enrichment facility--denoted as the Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility (EREF)--in... Information for Contention Preparation; In the Matter of Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment...

  13. The EAGLE simulations: atomic hydrogen associated with galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crain, Robert A.; Bahé, Yannick M.; Lagos, Claudia del P.; Rahmati, Alireza; Schaye, Joop; McCarthy, Ian G.; Marasco, Antonino; Bower, Richard G.; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom; van der Hulst, Thijs

    2017-02-01

    We examine the properties of atomic hydrogen (H I) associated with galaxies in the Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) simulations of galaxy formation. EAGLE's feedback parameters were calibrated to reproduce the stellar mass function and galaxy sizes at z = 0.1, and we assess whether this calibration also yields realistic H I properties. We estimate the self-shielding density with a fitting function calibrated using radiation transport simulations, and correct for molecular hydrogen with empirical or theoretical relations. The `standard-resolution' simulations systematically underestimate H I column densities, leading to an H I deficiency in low-mass (M⋆ < 1010 M⊙) galaxies and poor reproduction of the observed H I mass function. These shortcomings are largely absent from EAGLE simulations featuring a factor of 8 (2) better mass (spatial) resolution, within which the H I mass of galaxies evolves more mildly from z = 1 to 0 than in the standard-resolution simulations. The largest volume simulation reproduces the observed clustering of H I systems, and its dependence on H I richness. At fixed M⋆, galaxies acquire more H I in simulations with stronger feedback, as they become associated with more massive haloes and higher infall rates. They acquire less H I in simulations with a greater star formation efficiency, since the star formation and feedback necessary to balance the infall rate is produced by smaller gas reservoirs. The simulations indicate that the H I of present-day galaxies was acquired primarily by the smooth accretion of ionized, intergalactic gas at z ≃ 1, which later self-shields, and that only a small fraction is contributed by the reincorporation of gas previously heated strongly by feedback. H I reservoirs are highly dynamic: over 40 per cent of H I associated with z = 0.1 galaxies is converted to stars or ejected by z = 0.

  14. Spatial structure in the diet of imperial eagles Aquila heliaca in Kazakhstan

    Katzner, T.E.; Bragin, E.A.; Knick, S.T.; Smith, A.T.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the relationship between spatial variability in prey and food habits of eastern imperial eagles Aquila heliaca at a 90,000 ha national nature reserve in north-central Kazakhstan. Eagle diet varied greatly within the population and the spatial structure of eagle diet within the population varied according to the scale of measurement. Patterns in dietary response were inconsistent with expectations if either ontogenetic imprinting or competition determined diet choice, but they met expectations if functional response determined diet. Eagles nesting near a high-density prey resource used that resource almost exclusively. In contrast, in locations with no single high-density prey species, eagles' diet was more diverse. Our results demonstrate that spatial structuring of diet of vertebrate predators can provide important insight into the mechanisms that drive dietary decisions. ?? OIKOS.

  15. Flight Testing of Guidance, Navigation and Control Systems on the Mighty Eagle Robotic Lander Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannan, Mike; Rickman, Doug; Chavers, Greg; Adam, Jason; Becker, Chris; Eliser, Joshua; Gunter, Dan; Kennedy, Logan; O'Leary, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    During 2011 a series of progressively more challenging flight tests of the Mighty Eagle autonomous terrestrial lander testbed were conducted primarily to validate the GNC system for a proposed lunar lander. With the successful completion of this GNC validation objective the opportunity existed to utilize the Mighty Eagle as a flying testbed for a variety of technologies. In 2012 an Autonomous Rendezvous and Capture (AR&C) algorithm was implemented in flight software and demonstrated in a series of flight tests. In 2012 a hazard avoidance system was developed and flight tested on the Mighty Eagle. Additionally, GNC algorithms from Moon Express and a MEMs IMU were tested in 2012. All of the testing described herein was above and beyond the original charter for the Mighty Eagle. In addition to being an excellent testbed for a wide variety of systems the Mighty Eagle also provided a great learning opportunity for many engineers and technicians to work a flight program.

  16. A rare fatality due to calcified stylohyoid ligament (Eagle syndrome).

    PubMed

    Gupta, Avneesh; Aggrawal, Anil; Setia, Puneet

    2017-06-01

    The elongation or calcification of the stylohyoid ligament that leads to pressure symptoms, or entrapment of nearby glossopharyngeal nerve or carotid artery, is known as Eagle syndrome. A PubMed search leads to finding of rare fatality among the 49 reported cases. In the present case, the deceased was a 40-year-old male who choked on his food. We hypothesise that the impaction of food in the upper respiratory tract, as well as the inability to intubate the person, were both the result of the calcified stylohyoid ligament.

  17. Life history and initial assessment of fishing impacts on the by-catch species Dules auriga (Teleostei: Serranidae) in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rovani, A T; Cardoso, L G

    2017-09-01

    The life history of Dules auriga, a small hermaphrodite serranid species inhabiting deep waters and a frequent component of the discarded catch of bottom trawling in southern Brazil, was studied to assess the fishery effects on the stock through the estimation of the remaining spawning-potential ratio. Sampling was conducted throughout a year and included specimens to determine sex, maturity and age. Age was validated by the edge type and marginal-increment analysis. The oldest and the largest individuals were 9 years and 195 mm total length. Growth parameters fitted to the von Bertalanffy equation were L ∞ = 178·34 mm, k = 0·641 year -1 and t 0 = -0·341 years. Length and age at first maturity were 140·72 mm and 2 years, respectively. The reproductive season was throughout the austral spring and summer. The assessment of the effects of fishing showed that it may have resulted in a loss of 50% of the spawning potential. This loss may be higher when taking into account the uncertainty in the life-history parameters and could be considered of concern for the population. Fast growth, moderate longevity, long spawning season, small size and age at maturity make D. auriga relatively resilient to the removal of biomass by fishing. When considering the uncertainty, however, the losses of the spawning potential have been severely reducing the population resilience in the face of ecosystem changes. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. Use of noninvasive genetics to assess nest and space use by white-tailed eagles

    Bulut, Zafer; Bragin, Evgeny A.; DeWoody, J. Andrew; Braham, Melissa A.; Katzner, Todd E.; Doyle, Jacqueline M.

    2016-01-01

    Movement and space use are important components of animal interactions with the environment. However, for hard-to-monitor raptor species, there are substantial gaps in our understanding of these key determinants. We used noninvasive genetic tools to evaluate the details of space use over a 3-yr period by White-tailed Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) at the Naurzum Zapovednik in northern Kazakhstan. We genotyped, at 10 microsatellite markers and one mitochondrial marker, 859 eagle feathers and assigned naturally shed feathers to individuals. We identified 124 White-tailed Eagles, including both members of 5–10 pairs per year, and were able to monitor birds across years. Distances between eagle nests and hunting perches were always greater than nearest neighbor distances, eagles never used the closest available hunting perch, and hunting perches were always shared with other eagles. When eagles switched nests between years, the nests they chose were almost always well outside the space that theory predicted they defended the prior year. Our data are inconsistent with classical territorial and colonial models of resource use; they more closely resemble semi-colonial behavior. It is unlikely that standard methods of animal tracking (e.g., marking and telemetry), would have provided a similarly cost-effective mechanism to gain these insights into spatial and temporal aspects of eagle behavior. When combined with existing information on space use of other local species, these data suggest that partitioning of spatial resources among White-tailed Eagles and other eagles at the Zapovednik may be facilitated by the alternative strategies of space use they employ.

  19. Probability of Elevated Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Concentrations in Groundwater in the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, Niel

    2009-01-01

    This raster data set delineates the predicted probability of elevated volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in groundwater in the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007. This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. This groundwater probability map and its associated probability maps was developed as follows: (1) A point data set of wells with groundwater quality and groundwater age data was overlaid with thematic layers of anthropogenic (related to human activities) and hydrogeologic data by using a geographic information system to assign each well values for depth to groundwater, distance to major streams and canals, distance to gypsum beds, precipitation, soils, and well depth. These data then were downloaded to a statistical software package for analysis by logistic regression. (2) Statistical models predicting the probability of elevated nitrate concentrations, the probability of unmixed young water (using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities), and the probability of elevated volatile organic compound concentrations were developed using logistic regression techniques. (3) The statistical models were entered into a GIS and the probability map was constructed.

  20. Probability of Elevated Nitrate Concentrations in Groundwater in the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, Niel

    2009-01-01

    This raster data set delineates the predicted probability of elevated nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007. This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. This groundwater probability map and its associated probability maps was developed as follows: (1) A point data set of wells with groundwater quality and groundwater age data was overlaid with thematic layers of anthropogenic (related to human activities) and hydrogeologic data by using a geographic information system to assign each well values for depth to groundwater, distance to major streams and canals, distance to gypsum beds, precipitation, soils, and well depth. These data then were downloaded to a statistical software package for analysis by logistic regression. (2) Statistical models predicting the probability of elevated nitrate concentrations, the probability of unmixed young water (using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities), and the probability of elevated volatile organic compound concentrations were developed using logistic regression techniques. (3) The statistical models were entered into a GIS and the probability map was constructed.

  1. Harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja) nesting in manipulated forests

    Alvarez, E.; Ellis, D.H.

    1994-01-01

    Continental records point to shooting, removal of young and destruction of nests as the primary conservation problems for harpy eagles (Harpia harpyja); bird-observer visits are a new source of concern. Nesting events are roughly 3 yr apart. Nests are used during and after intensive manipulation of the surrounding habitat, and minimum distance between active sites was 3-5 km. In nine nesting sites along a 100-km stretch of the Imalaca Mountains in Venezuela, we fitted five fledglings with satellite-tracked tags from NASA. One of these birds was hacked with the help of the loggers who destroyed its nest. All these nests were active while logging ensued. Out of three renesting attempts, one failed when the nest collapsed. We salvaged two additional fledglings found in captivity. We are monitoring five nests in the buffer area of the Darien National Park in Panama, all within 3 km of human settlements where trees are regularly felled for firewood, lumber, and to clear more cropland. Eagles have been killed at two sites, a third site remains inactive since 1991, and the other two nests currently have fledglings.

  2. On the galaxy–halo connection in the EAGLE simulation

    DOE PAGES

    Desmond, Harry; Mao, Yao -Yuan; Wechsler, Risa H.; ...

    2017-06-13

    Empirical models of galaxy formation require assumptions about the correlations between galaxy and halo properties. These may be calibrated against observations or inferred from physical models such as hydrodynamical simulations. In this Letter, we use the EAGLE simulation to investigate the correlation of galaxy size with halo properties. We motivate this analysis by noting that the common assumption of angular momentum partition between baryons and dark matter in rotationally supported galaxies overpredicts both the spread in the stellar mass–size relation and the anticorrelation of size and velocity residuals, indicating a problem with the galaxy–halo connection it implies. We find themore » EAGLE galaxy population to perform significantly better on both statistics, and trace this success to the weakness of the correlations of galaxy size with halo mass, concentration and spin at fixed stellar mass. Here by, using these correlations in empirical models will enable fine-grained aspects of galaxy scalings to be matched.« less

  3. On the galaxy–halo connection in the EAGLE simulation

    SciT

    Desmond, Harry; Mao, Yao -Yuan; Wechsler, Risa H.

    Empirical models of galaxy formation require assumptions about the correlations between galaxy and halo properties. These may be calibrated against observations or inferred from physical models such as hydrodynamical simulations. In this Letter, we use the EAGLE simulation to investigate the correlation of galaxy size with halo properties. We motivate this analysis by noting that the common assumption of angular momentum partition between baryons and dark matter in rotationally supported galaxies overpredicts both the spread in the stellar mass–size relation and the anticorrelation of size and velocity residuals, indicating a problem with the galaxy–halo connection it implies. We find themore » EAGLE galaxy population to perform significantly better on both statistics, and trace this success to the weakness of the correlations of galaxy size with halo mass, concentration and spin at fixed stellar mass. Here by, using these correlations in empirical models will enable fine-grained aspects of galaxy scalings to be matched.« less

  4. Landscapes for Energy and Wildlife: Conservation Prioritization for Golden Eagles across Large Spatial Scales

    PubMed Central

    Tack, Jason D.; Fedy, Bradley C.

    2015-01-01

    Proactive conservation planning for species requires the identification of important spatial attributes across ecologically relevant scales in a model-based framework. However, it is often difficult to develop predictive models, as the explanatory data required for model development across regional management scales is rarely available. Golden eagles are a large-ranging predator of conservation concern in the United States that may be negatively affected by wind energy development. Thus, identifying landscapes least likely to pose conflict between eagles and wind development via shared space prior to development will be critical for conserving populations in the face of imposing development. We used publically available data on golden eagle nests to generate predictive models of golden eagle nesting sites in Wyoming, USA, using a suite of environmental and anthropogenic variables. By overlaying predictive models of golden eagle nesting habitat with wind energy resource maps, we highlight areas of potential conflict among eagle nesting habitat and wind development. However, our results suggest that wind potential and the relative probability of golden eagle nesting are not necessarily spatially correlated. Indeed, the majority of our sample frame includes areas with disparate predictions between suitable nesting habitat and potential for developing wind energy resources. Map predictions cannot replace on-the-ground monitoring for potential risk of wind turbines on wildlife populations, though they provide industry and managers a useful framework to first assess potential development. PMID:26262876

  5. Landscapes for energy and wildlife: conservation prioritization for golden eagles across large spatial scales

    Tack, Jason D.; Fedy, Bradley C.

    2015-01-01

    Proactive conservation planning for species requires the identification of important spatial attributes across ecologically relevant scales in a model-based framework. However, it is often difficult to develop predictive models, as the explanatory data required for model development across regional management scales is rarely available. Golden eagles are a large-ranging predator of conservation concern in the United States that may be negatively affected by wind energy development. Thus, identifying landscapes least likely to pose conflict between eagles and wind development via shared space prior to development will be critical for conserving populations in the face of imposing development. We used publically available data on golden eagle nests to generate predictive models of golden eagle nesting sites in Wyoming, USA, using a suite of environmental and anthropogenic variables. By overlaying predictive models of golden eagle nesting habitat with wind energy resource maps, we highlight areas of potential conflict among eagle nesting habitat and wind development. However, our results suggest that wind potential and the relative probability of golden eagle nesting are not necessarily spatially correlated. Indeed, the majority of our sample frame includes areas with disparate predictions between suitable nesting habitat and potential for developing wind energy resources. Map predictions cannot replace on-the-ground monitoring for potential risk of wind turbines on wildlife populations, though they provide industry and managers a useful framework to first assess potential development.

  6. Landscapes for Energy and Wildlife: Conservation Prioritization for Golden Eagles across Large Spatial Scales.

    PubMed

    Tack, Jason D; Fedy, Bradley C

    2015-01-01

    Proactive conservation planning for species requires the identification of important spatial attributes across ecologically relevant scales in a model-based framework. However, it is often difficult to develop predictive models, as the explanatory data required for model development across regional management scales is rarely available. Golden eagles are a large-ranging predator of conservation concern in the United States that may be negatively affected by wind energy development. Thus, identifying landscapes least likely to pose conflict between eagles and wind development via shared space prior to development will be critical for conserving populations in the face of imposing development. We used publically available data on golden eagle nests to generate predictive models of golden eagle nesting sites in Wyoming, USA, using a suite of environmental and anthropogenic variables. By overlaying predictive models of golden eagle nesting habitat with wind energy resource maps, we highlight areas of potential conflict among eagle nesting habitat and wind development. However, our results suggest that wind potential and the relative probability of golden eagle nesting are not necessarily spatially correlated. Indeed, the majority of our sample frame includes areas with disparate predictions between suitable nesting habitat and potential for developing wind energy resources. Map predictions cannot replace on-the-ground monitoring for potential risk of wind turbines on wildlife populations, though they provide industry and managers a useful framework to first assess potential development.

  7. Lead and eagles: demographic and pathological characteristics of poisoning, and exposure levels associated with other causes of mortality

    Franson, J. Christian; Russell, Robin E.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective analysis to evaluate demographic and pathologic characteristics in 484 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 68 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) diagnosed with lead poisoning at the U.S. Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center. As part of our analysis, we compared characteristics of lead poisoned eagles with those that died of other causes. Odds of lead poisoning were greater for bald eagles versus golden eagles, females versus males, adults versus juveniles, and eagles from the Mississippi and Central flyways versus the Atlantic and Pacific flyways. In addition to spatial, species, and demographic associations, we detected a distinct temporal trend in the collection date of lead poisoned bald eagle carcasses. These carcasses were found at greater frequency in late autumn and winter than spring and summer. Lesions in lead poisoned birds included emaciation, evidence of bile stasis, myocardial degeneration and necrosis, and renal tubular nephrosis and necrosis. Ingested lead ammunition or fragments were found in 14.2 % of bald eagles and 11.8 % of golden eagles. The overall mean liver lead concentration (wet weight basis) for eagles diagnosed with lead poisoning was 28.9 ± 0.69 SE mg/kg in bald eagles and 19.4 ± 1.84 SE mg/kg in golden eagles. In eagles diagnosed with collision trauma, electrocution, poisoning (other than lead), emaciation, infectious disease, trapping death, other, and undetermined causes, average liver lead concentrations were low (<1 mg/kg) and did not differ among causes of mortality. Thus, based on our data, we found no evidence that lead exposure of eagles predisposed them to other causes of mortality.

  8. Golden Eagle Monitoring Plan for the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan

    Wiens, David; Kolar, Patrick; Katzner, Todd

    2018-01-01

    This report describes options for monitoring the status and population trends of the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) within the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP) area of Southern California in maintaining stable or increasing population in the planning area. The report profiles the ecology of golden eagles in the region and provides a range of potential sampling options to address monitoring needs and objectives. This approach also focused on links between changes in human land-use, golden eagle nesting and foraging habitat conditions, and population dynamics. The report outlines how monitoring data from demographic, prey, and habitat studies were used to develop a predictive demographic model for golden eagles in the DRECP area. Results from the model simulations suggest increases in renewable energy development could have negative consequences for population trajectories. Results also suggest site-specific conservation actions could reduce the magnitude of negative impacts to the local population of eagles. A monitoring framework is proposed including: (1) annual assessments of site-occupancy and reproduction by territorial pairs of golden eagles (including rates at which sites become colonized or vacated over time); (2) estimates of survival, movements, and intensity of use of landscapes by breeding and non-breeding golden eagles; (3) periodic (conducted every two to four years) assessments of nesting and foraging habitats, prey populations, and associations with land-use and management activities; and (4) updating the predictive demographic model with new information obtained on eagles and associated population stressors. The results of this research were published in the Journal of Rapture Research, Wiens, David,Inman, Rich D., Esque, Todd C., Longshore, Kathleen M. and Nussear, Kenneth (2017). Spatial Demographic Models to Inform Conservation Planning of Golden Eagles in Renewable Energy Landscapes. 51(3):234-257.

  9. Does the order of invasive species removal matter? The case of the eagle and the pig.

    PubMed

    Collins, Paul W; Latta, Brian C; Roemer, Gary W

    2009-09-14

    Invasive species are recognized as a primary driver of native species endangerment and their removal is often a key component of a conservation strategy. Removing invasive species is not always a straightforward task, however, especially when they interact with other species in complex ways to negatively influence native species. Because unintended consequences may arise if all invasive species cannot be removed simultaneously, the order of their removal is of paramount importance to ecological restoration. In the mid-1990s, three subspecies of the island fox Urocyon littoralis were driven to near extinction on the northern California Channel Islands owing to heightened predation by golden eagles Aquila chrysaetos. Eagles were lured to the islands by an abundant supply of feral pigs Sus scrofa and through the process of apparent competition pigs indirectly facilitated the decline in foxes. As a consequence, both pigs and eagles had to be removed to recover the critically endangered fox. Complete removal of pigs was problematic: removing pigs first could force eagles to concentrate on the remaining foxes, increasing their probability of extinction. Removing eagles first was difficult: eagles are not easily captured and lethal removal was politically distasteful. Using prey remains collected from eagle nests both before and after the eradication of pigs, we show that one pair of eagles that eluded capture did indeed focus more on foxes. These results support the premise that if the threat of eagle predation had not been mitigated prior to pig removal, fox extinction would have been a more likely outcome. If complete eradication of all interacting invasive species is not possible, the order in which they are removed requires careful consideration. If overlooked, unexpected consequences may result that could impede restoration.

  10. A pilot golden eagle population study in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California

    SciT

    Hunt, G.

    1995-05-01

    Orloff and Flannery (1992) estimated that several hundred reports are annually killed by turbine collisions, wire strikes, and electrocutions at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (WRA). The most common fatalities were those of red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), American kestrels (Falco sparvatius), and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), with lesser numbers of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), common ravens (Corvus corax), bam owls (Tyto alba), and others. Among the species of raptors killed at Altamont Pass, the one whose local population is most likely to be impacted is the golden eagle. Besides its being less abundant than the others, the breeding andmore » recruitment rates of golden eagles are naturally slow, increasing their susceptibility to decline as a result of mortality influences. The golden eagle is a species afforded special federal protection because of its inclusion within the Bald Eagle Protection Act as amended in 1963. There are no provisions within the Act which would allow the killing ``taking`` of golden eagles by WRA structures. This report details the results of field studies conducted during 19941. The primary purpose of the investigation is to lay the groundwork for determining whether or not turbine strikes and other hazards related to energy at Altamont Pass may be expected to affect golden eagles on a population basis. We also seek an understanding of the physical and biotic circumstances which attract golden eagles to the WRA within the context of the surrounding landscape and the conditions under which they are killed by wind turbines. Such knowledge may suggest turbine-related or habitat modifications that would result in a lower incidence of eagle mortality.« less

  11. A multi-wavelength study of pre-main sequence stars in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, E. W.; Stelzer, B.; Neuhäuser, R.; Hillwig, T. C.; Durisen, R. H.; Menten, K. M.; Greimel, R.; Barwig, H.; Englhauser, J.; Robb, R. M.

    2000-05-01

    Although many lowmass pre-main sequence stars are strong X-ray sources, the origin of the X-ray emission is not well known. Since these objects are variable at all frequencies, simultaneous observations in X-rays and in other wavelengths are able to constrain the properties of the X-ray emitting regions. In this paper, we report quasi-simultaneous observations in X-rays, the optical, and the radio regime for classical and weak-line T Tauri stars from the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region. We find that all detected T Tauri stars show significant night-to-night variations of the X-ray emission. For three of the stars, FM Tau and CW Tau, both classical T Tauri stars, and V773 Tau, a weak-line T Tauri star, the variations are especially large. From observations taken simultaneously, we also find that there is some correspondence between the strength of Hα and the X-ray brightness in V773 Tau. The lack of a strong correlation leads us to conclude that the X-ray emission of V773 Tau is not a superposition of flares. However, we suggest that a weak correlation occurs because chromospherically active regions and regions of strong X-ray emission are generally related. V773 Tau was detected at 8.46 GHz as a weakly circularly polarised but highly variable source. We also find that the X-ray emission and the equivalent width of Hα remained unchanged, while large variations of the flux density in the radio regime were observed. This clearly indicates that the emitting regions are different. Using optical spectroscopy we detected a flare in Hα and event which showed a flare-like light-curve of the continuum brightness in FM Tau. However, ROSAT did not observe the field at the times of these flares. Nevertheless, an interesting X-ray event was observed in V773 Tau, during which the flux increased for about 8 hours and then decreased back to the same level in 5 hours. We interpret this as a long-duration event similar to those seen on the sun and other active stars. In the

  12. Organochlorine residues and autopsy data from bald eagles 1966-68

    Mulhern, B.M.; Reichel, W.L.; Locke, L.N.; Lamont, T.G.; Belisle, A.A.; Cromartie, E.; Bagley, George E.; Prouty, R.M.

    1970-01-01

    Sixty-nine bald eagles found moribund or dead in 25 States during 1966-68 were analyzed for pesticide residues. Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls and DDE were detected in all samples of eagle carcasses; residues of dieldrin were detected in 68 and residues of DDD in 64; DDT, heptachlor epoxide, and DCBP were detected less frequently. Eight specimens had levels of dieldrin in the brain within the lethal range, and another probably died of DDT poisoning. Autopsy revealed that illegal shooting was the most frequent cause of mortality of these eagles; electrocution, impact injuries, probable lead poisoning, and infectious avian diseases were other causes of mortality.

  13. Reduction of Genetic Diversity of the Harpy Eagle in Brazilian Tropical Forests.

    PubMed

    Banhos, Aureo; Hrbek, Tomas; Sanaiotti, Tânia M; Farias, Izeni Pires

    2016-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation intensify the effects of genetic drift and endogamy, reducing genetic variability of populations with serious consequences for wildlife conservation. The Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja) is a forest dwelling species that is considered near threatened and suffers from habitat loss in the forests of the Neotropical region. In this study, 72 historical and current samples were assessed using eight autosomal microsatellite markers to investigate the distribution of genetic diversity of the Harpy Eagle of the Amazonian and Atlantic forests in Brazil. The results showed that the genetic diversity of Harpy Eagle decreased in the regions where deforestation is intense in the southern Amazon and Atlantic Forest.

  14. Caribou antlers as nest materials for golden eagles in northwestern Alaska

    Ellis, D.H.; Bunn, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    There are few published records of antlers in golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) nests. This note reports extensive use of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) antlers in three golden eagle nests in the Cape Kruzenstern region of northwestern Alaska. The importance of antlers to this population of eagles can be explained at least in part by (1) the lack of suitable woody vegetation on the open tundra, (2) the similarity of antlers to sticks, and (3) the abundance of antlers, especially cow caribou antlers, in the region.

  15. Reduction of Genetic Diversity of the Harpy Eagle in Brazilian Tropical Forests

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation intensify the effects of genetic drift and endogamy, reducing genetic variability of populations with serious consequences for wildlife conservation. The Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja) is a forest dwelling species that is considered near threatened and suffers from habitat loss in the forests of the Neotropical region. In this study, 72 historical and current samples were assessed using eight autosomal microsatellite markers to investigate the distribution of genetic diversity of the Harpy Eagle of the Amazonian and Atlantic forests in Brazil. The results showed that the genetic diversity of Harpy Eagle decreased in the regions where deforestation is intense in the southern Amazon and Atlantic Forest. PMID:26871719

  16. Geologic map of the Vail West quadrangle, Eagle County, Colorado

    Scott, Robert B.; Lidke, David J.; Grunwald, Daniel J.

    2002-01-01

    This new 1:24,000-scale geologic map of the Vail West 7.5' quadrangle, as part of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides new interpretations of the stratigraphy, structure, and geologic hazards in the area on the southwest flank of the Gore Range. Bedrock strata include Miocene tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic and upper Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, and undivided Early(?) Proterozoic metasedimentary and igneous rocks. Tuffaceous rocks are found in fault-tilted blocks. Only small outliers of the Dakota Sandstone, Morrison Formation, Entrada Sandstone, and Chinle Formation exist above the redbeds of the Permian-Pennsylvanian Maroon Formation and Pennsylvanian Minturn Formation, which were derived during erosion of the Ancestral Front Range east of the Gore fault zone. In the southwestern area of the map, the proximal Minturn facies change to distal Eagle Valley Formation and the Eagle Valley Evaporite basin facies. The Jacque Mountain Limestone Member, previously defined as the top of the Minturn Formation, cannot be traced to the facies change to the southwest. Abundant surficial deposits include Pinedale and Bull Lake Tills, periglacial deposits, earth-flow deposits, common diamicton deposits, common Quaternary landslide deposits, and an extensive, possibly late Pliocene landslide deposit. Landscaping has so extensively modified the land surface in the town of Vail that a modified land-surface unit was created to represent the surface unit. Laramide movement renewed activity along the Gore fault zone, producing a series of northwest-trending open anticlines and synclines in Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata, parallel to the trend of the fault zone. Tertiary down-to-the-northeast normal faults are evident and are parallel to similar faults in both the Gore Range and the Blue River valley to the northeast; presumably these are related to extensional deformation that occurred during formation of the northern end of the

  17. Is the Eagle Nebula powered by a hidden supernova remnant ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulanger, Francois

    2008-10-01

    Spitzer observations of the Eagle nebula (M16) reveal the presence of a large (8 pc diameter) shell of dust heated to anomalously high temperatures. Modeling of dust excitation shows that the shell emission cannot be powered by the cluster UV radiation but that it can be accounted for by collisionally heated dust in a young (a few 1000 yrs) supernova remnant. We have re-analyzed deep Chandra observations that show diffuse emission consistent with this hypothesis, but also with galactic ridge emission. We propose a 50 ksec XMM observation to probe the spatial extent of the diffuse X-ray emission beyond the Spitzer shell. Absence of emission outside of this shell will strongly support the supernova remnant interpretation

  18. Near-Infrared Polarimetry of the Eagle Nebula (M 16)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugitani, Koji; Watanabe, Makoto; Tamura, Motohide; Kandori, Ryo; Hough, James H.; Nishiyama, Shogo; Nakajima, Yasushi; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Hashimoto, Jun; Nagayama, Takahiro; Nagashima, Chie; Kato, Daisuke; Fukuda, Naoya

    2007-06-01

    We carried out deep and wide (˜ 8 × 8) JHKs imaging polarimetry in the southern region of the Eagle Nebula (M 16). The polarization intensity map reveals that two YSOs with near-IR reflection nebulae are located at the tips of two famous molecular pillars (Pillars 1 and 2) facing toward the exciting stars of M 16. The centrosymmetric polarization pattern are consistent with those around Class I objects having circumstellar envelopes, confirming that star formation is now taking place at the two tips of the pillars under the influence of UV radiation from the exciting stars. Polarization measurements of point sources show that magnetic fields are aligned along some of the pillars, but in a direction that is quite different to the global structure in M 16.

  19. Heterogeneity in the clinical presentation of Eagle's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, Abie H; Berke, Gerald S; Chhetri, Dinesh K

    2006-03-01

    Eagle's syndrome (ES) or symptomatic elongated styloid process is an uncommon but important cause of chronic head and neck pain. This study reports our experience in the diagnosis and treatment of a series of patients with ES. Patient histories, radiographic tests, and operative reports of 3 patients over a 3-month period were prospectively collected. Tertiary referral otolaryngology service. All patients had resolution of symptoms relating to their elongated styloid processes after surgical resection. Although sometimes clouded by coexisting symptoms, ES can be easily diagnosed based on good history taking and physical examination. If diagnosed appropriately, surgical treatment can be administered promptly. Patients with ES commonly have a long history of chronic pain treated by multiple physicians. Appropriate diagnosis can lead to prompt treatment of this condition. C-4.

  20. Absolute polycythemia in a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Andreia F; Fenton, Heather; Martinson, Shannon; Desmarchelier, Marion; Ferrell, Shannon T

    2014-12-01

    An approximately 6-mo-old female bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was presented for an inability to fly and bilateral drooped wings. Pectoral muscle atrophy with a moderate polycythemia was present. Over the course of 3 wk, there were no improvements in flight capacity, although the bird gained substantial weight. Further investigation revealed a prominent cyanosis that was responsive to oxygen therapy, a chronic respiratory acidosis with hypoxia, a cardiac murmur, and a persistent polycythemia. No obvious antemortem etiology for the clinical findings was discovered on computerized tomography, angiography, or echocardiography. The bird was euthanatized as a result of the poor prognosis. Necropsy and histopathology revealed no significant cardiovascular or pulmonary pathology. No myopathy was evident on electron microscopy of formalin-fixed tissues. Based on these diagnostics, a neuromuscular disorder is suspected as the cause for the blood gas abnormalities, with a resulting polycythemia from the hypoxia.

  1. The Eagle Nebula: a spectral template for star forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flagey, Nicolas; Boulanger, Francois; Carey, Sean; Compiegne, Mathieu; Dwek, Eli; Habart, Emilie; Indebetouw, Remy; Montmerle, Thierry; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto

    2008-03-01

    IRAC and MIPS have revealed spectacular images of massive star forming regions in the Galaxy. These vivid illustrations of the interaction between the stars, through their winds and radiation, and their environment, made of gas and dust, still needs to be explained. The large scale picture of layered shells of gas components, is affected by the small scale interaction of stars with the clumpy medium that surrounds them. To understand spatial variations of physical conditions and dust properties on small scales, spectroscopic imaging observations are required on a nearby object. The iconic Eagle Nebula (M16) is one of the nearest and most observed star forming region of our Galaxy and as such, is a well suited template to obtain this missing data set. We thus propose a complete spectral map of the Eagle Nebula (M16) with the IRS/Long Low module (15-38 microns) and MIPS/SED mode (55-95 microns). Analysis of the dust emission, spectral features and continuum, and of the H2 and fine-structure gas lines within our models will provide us with constraints on the physical conditions (gas ionization state, pressure, radiation field) and dust properties (temperature, size distribution) at each position within the nebula. Only such a spatially and spectrally complete map will allow us to characterize small scale structure and dust evolution within the global context and understand the impact of small scale structure on the evolution of dusty star forming regions. This project takes advantage of the unique ability of IRS at obtaining sensitive spectral maps covering large areas.

  2. Source apportionment of hydrocarbons measured in the Eagle Ford shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roest, G. S.; Schade, G. W.

    2016-12-01

    The rapid development of unconventional oil and gas in the US has led to hydrocarbon emissions that are yet to be accurately quantified. Emissions from the Eagle Ford Shale in southern Texas, one of the most productive shale plays in the U.S., have received little attention due to a sparse air quality monitoring network, thereby limiting studies of air quality within the region. We use hourly atmospheric hydrocarbon and meteorological data from three locations in the Eagle Ford Shale to assess their sources. Data are available from the Texas commission of environmental quality (TCEQ) air quality monitors in Floresville, a small town southeast of San Antonio and just north of the shale area; and Karnes city, a midsize rural city in the center of the shale. Our own measurements were carried out at a private ranch in rural Dimmit County in southern Texas from April to November of 2015. Air quality monitor data from the TCEQ were selected for the same time period. Non-negative matrix factorization in R (package NMF) was used to determine likely sources and their contributions above background. While the TCEQ monitor data consisted mostly of hydrocarbons, our own data include both CO, CO2, O3, and NOx. We find that rural Dimmit County hydrocarbons are dominated by oil and gas development sources, while central shale hydrocarbons at the TCEQ monitoring sites have a mix of sources including car traffic. However, oil and gas sources also dominate hydrocarbons at Floresville and Karnes City. Toxic benzene is nearly exclusively due to oil and gas development sources, including flaring, which NMF identifies as a major hydrocarbon source in Karnes City. Other major sources include emissions of light weight alkanes (C2-C5) from raw natural gas emissions and a larger set of alkanes (C2-C10) from oil sources, including liquid storage tanks.

  3. Thinking about feathers: Adaptations of Golden Eagle rectrices

    Ellis, D.H.; Lish, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The striking black and white plumage of the juvenile Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) provides an excellent opportunity to examine the possible selective forces influencing the strategic placement of dark pigment in birds. The conflict between opposing selective pressures (first, toward large white patches, which may allay aggression in adults, and second, toward dark plumage to promote camouflage and limit solar and abrasive wear) provides the stage whereon are revealed a score of pigmentation traits of potential adaptive value. The general pigmentation trend is for zones that are more exposed to the sun to be darker than elsewhere. More specifically: (1) for rectrices and remiges, outer webs are darker than inner; (2) for those few feathers (e.g., central rectrices, some scapulars, and some tertials), where both inner and outer webs are heavily and nearly equally solar exposed, pigmentation is supplied similarly on both webs; (3) outermost primaries and rectrices are darkest of all and are structurally similar; (4) for central rectrices, subject to high levels of abrasion with substrate, the tip is paler (resultant flexibility may limit breakage); and (5) pigment is heavier along or on the rachis than on the webs. Many of the traits listed above for the Golden Eagle are also found in other families of birds. Traits of the tail common to many species were a terminal pale tip, a subterminal dark band, rachis darker than vane, and outer webs darker than inner for both remiges and rectrices. The most widespread traits likely have adaptive value. ?? 2006 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  4. NPDES Permit for City of Eagle Butte Wastewater Treatment Facility in South Dakota

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit SD-0020192, the City of Eagle Butte, South Dakota, is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility within the Cheyenne River Sioux Reservation in Dewey County, South Dakota, to Green Grass Creek.

  5. Hemograms for and nutritional condition of migrant bald eagles tested for exposure to lead.

    PubMed

    Miller, M J; Wayland, M E; Bortolotti, G R

    2001-07-01

    Plasma proteins, hematocrit, differential blood counts were examined and nutritional condition was estimated for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) trapped (n = 66) during antumn migration, 1994-95 at Galloway Bay (Saskatchewan, Canada), for the purposes of estimating prevalence of exposure to lead. Sex and age differences in hematocrit and plasma proteins were not observed; however, female eagles exhibited larger median absolute heterophil counts than males. Hematologic values were similar to those previously reported from eagles in captivity. Departures from expected hematological values from a healthy population of eagles were not observed in birds with elevated levels of blood lead (> or =0.200 microg/ml). Similarly, nutritional condition was not related to blood-lead concentrations. Therefore, it appears that lead exposure in this population was below a threshold required to indicate toxicological alteration in the hematological values and index of nutritional condition that we measured.

  6. 77 FR 33765 - Proposed Information Collection; Bald Eagle Post-delisting Monitoring

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... this IC, contact Hope Grey at [email protected] (email) or 703-358- 2482 (telephone). SUPPLEMENTARY... of recovered species be conducted for not less than 5 years, the life history of bald eagles is such...

  7. Ancient DNA Provides New Insights into the Evolutionary History of New Zealand's Extinct Giant Eagle

    PubMed Central

    Szulkin, Marta; Lerner, Heather R. L; Barnes, Ian; Shapiro, Beth; Cooper, Alan; Holdaway, Richard N

    2005-01-01

    Prior to human settlement 700 years ago New Zealand had no terrestrial mammals—apart from three species of bats—instead, approximately 250 avian species dominated the ecosystem. At the top of the food chain was the extinct Haast's eagle, Harpagornis moorei. H. moorei (10–15 kg; 2–3 m wingspan) was 30%–40% heavier than the largest extant eagle (the harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja), and hunted moa up to 15 times its weight. In a dramatic example of morphological plasticity and rapid size increase, we show that the H. moorei was very closely related to one of the world's smallest extant eagles, which is one-tenth its mass. This spectacular evolutionary change illustrates the potential speed of size alteration within lineages of vertebrates, especially in island ecosystems. PMID:15660162

  8. Predatory threat of harpy eagles for yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys in the Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Suscke, Priscila; Verderane, Michele; de Oliveira, Robson Santos; Delval, Irene; Fernández-Bolaños, Marcelo; Izar, Patrícia

    2017-01-01

    We describe seven encounters between different harpy eagle individuals (Harpia harpyja) and a group of yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus xanthosternos) in Una Biological Reserve. These interactions lasted 58 min on average. In each of those encounters, the capuchin monkeys used particular behavioral strategies against the harpy eagle that were not employed in reaction to other aerial predators. We did not observe any successful predation events, but after one of those encounters an infant disappeared from the capuchin group. As a whole, these observations indicate that the presence of harpy eagles in the group's home range increases predation risk for capuchin monkeys. The present report also suggests a reoccupation by H. harpyja of this area, as no previous recent records identify harpy eagle occurrence in Una Biological Reserve.

  9. Ancient DNA provides new insights into the evolutionary history of New Zealand's extinct giant eagle.

    PubMed

    Bunce, Michael; Szulkin, Marta; Lerner, Heather R L; Barnes, Ian; Shapiro, Beth; Cooper, Alan; Holdaway, Richard N

    2005-01-01

    Prior to human settlement 700 years ago New Zealand had no terrestrial mammals--apart from three species of bats--instead, approximately 250 avian species dominated the ecosystem. At the top of the food chain was the extinct Haast's eagle, Harpagornis moorei. H. moorei (10-15 kg; 2-3 m wingspan) was 30%-40% heavier than the largest extant eagle (the harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja), and hunted moa up to 15 times its weight. In a dramatic example of morphological plasticity and rapid size increase, we show that the H. moorei was very closely related to one of the world's smallest extant eagles, which is one-tenth its mass. This spectacular evolutionary change illustrates the potential speed of size alteration within lineages of vertebrates, especially in island ecosystems.

  10. Common Raven (Corvus corax) kleptoparasitism at a Golden Eagle (Aquila chyrsaetos) nest in southern Nevada

    Simes, Matthew; Johnson, Diego R.; Streit, Justin; Longshore, Kathleen M.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Esque, Todd C.

    2017-01-01

    The Common Raven (Corvus corax) is a ubiquitous species in the Mojave Desert of southern Nevada and California. From 5 to 24 May 2014, using remote trail cameras, we observed ravens repeatedly kleptoparasitizing food resources from the nest of a pair of Golden Eagles (Aquila chyrsaetos) in the Spring Mountains of southern Nevada. The ravens fed on nine (30%) of the 30 prey items delivered to the nest during the chick rearing period. Kleptoparasitic behavior by the ravens decreased as the eagle nestling matured to seven weeks of age, suggesting a narrow temporal window in which ravens can successfully engage in kleptoparasitic behavior at eagle nests. The observation of kleptoparasitism by Common Ravens at the nest suggests potential risks to young Golden Eagles from Common Ravens.

  11. NORAD, USNORTHCOM and the Mexican Air Force to participate in AMALGAM EAGLE

    . Northern Command (USNORTHCOM), will participate, with the Mexican Air Force, in AMALGAM EAGLE 15, a the Mexican Air Force to participate in AMALGAM EAGLE 15 N-NC Public Affairs PRINT | E-MAIL PETERSON tactical exercise, to be conducted Jun.30 - Jul.2, 2015, in which Mexico and the United States will respond

  12. Bald eagles and sea otters in the Aleutian Archipelago: indirect effects of trophic cascades.

    Anthony, R.G.; Estes, J.A.; Ricca, M.A.; Miles, A.K.; Forsman, E.D.

    2008-01-01

    Because sea otters (Enhydra lutris) exert a wide array of direct and indirect effects on coastal marine ecosystems throughout their geographic range, we investigated the potential influence of sea otters on the ecology of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA. We studied the diets, productivity, and density of breeding Bald Eagles on four islands during 1993–1994 and 2000–2002, when sea otters were abundant and scarce, respectively. Bald Eagles depend on nearshore marine communities for most of their prey in this ecosystem, so we predicted that the recent decline in otter populations would have an indirect negative effect on diets and demography of Bald Eagles. Contrary to our predictions, we found no effects on density of breeding pairs on four islands from 1993–1994 to 2000–2002. In contrast, diets and diet diversity of Bald Eagles changed considerably between the two time periods, likely reflecting a change in prey availability resulting from the increase and subsequent decline in sea otter populations. The frequency of sea otter pups, rock greenling (Hexagammus lagocephalus), and smooth lumpsuckers (Aptocyclus ventricosus) in the eagle's diet declined with corresponding increases in Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus), Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens), Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus monopterygius), and various species of seabirds during the period of the recent otter population decline. Breeding success and productivity of Bald Eagles also increased during this time period, which may be due to the higher nutritional quality of avian prey consumed in later years. Our results provide further evidence of the wide-ranging indirect effects of sea otter predation on nearshore marine communities and another apex predator, the Bald Eagle. Although the indirect effects of sea otters are widely known, this example is unique because the food-web pathway transcended five species and several trophic levels in linking one apex

  13. Long-term survival despite low genetic diversity in the critically endangered Madagascar fish-eagle.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeff A; Tingay, Ruth E; Culver, Melanie; Hailer, Frank; Clarke, Michèle L; Mindell, David P

    2009-01-01

    The critically endangered Madagascar fish-eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides) is considered to be one of the rarest birds of prey globally and at significant risk of extinction. In the most recent census, only 222 adult individuals were recorded with an estimated total breeding population of no more than 100-120 pairs. Here, levels of Madagascar fish-eagle population genetic diversity based on 47 microsatellite loci were compared with its sister species, the African fish-eagle (Haliaeetus vocifer), and 16 of these loci were also characterized in the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Overall, extremely low genetic diversity was observed in the Madagascar fish-eagle compared to other surveyed Haliaeetus species. Determining whether this low diversity is the result of a recent bottleneck or a more historic event has important implications for their conservation. Using a Bayesian coalescent-based method, we show that Madagascar fish-eagles have maintained a small effective population size for hundreds to thousands of years and that its low level of neutral genetic diversity is not the result of a recent bottleneck. Therefore, efforts made to prevent Madagascar fish-eagle extinction should place high priority on maintenance of habitat requirements and reducing direct and indirect human persecution. Given the current rate of deforestation in Madagascar, we further recommend that the population be expanded to occupy a larger geographical distribution. This will help the population persist when exposed to stochastic factors (e.g. climate and disease) that may threaten a species consisting of only 200 adult individuals while inhabiting a rapidly changing landscape.

  14. Long-term survival despite low genetic diversity in the critically endangered Madagascar fish-eagle

    Johnson, J.A.; Tingay, R.E.; Culver, M.; Hailer, F.; Clarke, M.L.; Mindell, D.P.

    2009-01-01

    The critically endangered Madagascar fish-eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides) is considered to be one of the rarest birds of prey globally and at significant risk of extinction. In the most recent census, only 222 adult individuals were recorded with an estimated total breeding population of no more than 100-120 pairs. Here, levels of Madagascar fish-eagle population genetic diversity based on 47 microsatellite loci were compared with its sister species, the African fish-eagle (Haliaeetus vocifer), and 16 of these loci were also characterized in the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Overall, extremely low genetic diversity was observed in the Madagascar fish-eagle compared to other surveyed Haliaeetus species. Determining whether this low diversity is the result of a recent bottleneck or a more historic event has important implications for their conservation. Using a Bayesian coalescent-based method, we show that Madagascar fish-eagles have maintained a small effective population size for hundreds to thousands of years and that its low level of neutral genetic diversity is not the result of a recent bottleneck. Therefore, efforts made to prevent Madagascar fish-eagle extinction should place high priority on maintenance of habitat requirements and reducing direct and indirect human persecution. Given the current rate of deforestation in Madagascar, we further recommend that the population be expanded to occupy a larger geographical distribution. This will help the population persist when exposed to stochastic factors (e.g. climate and disease) that may threaten a species consisting of only 200 adult individuals while inhabiting a rapidly changing landscape. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  15. Modeling Late-Summer Distribution of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the Western United States.

    PubMed

    Nielson, Ryan M; Murphy, Robert K; Millsap, Brian A; Howe, William H; Gardner, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Increasing development across the western United States (USA) elevates concerns about effects on wildlife resources; the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is of special concern in this regard. Knowledge of golden eagle abundance and distribution across the western USA must be improved to help identify and conserve areas of major importance to the species. We used distance sampling and visual mark-recapture procedures to estimate golden eagle abundance from aerial line-transect surveys conducted across four Bird Conservation Regions in the western USA between 15 August and 15 September in 2006-2010, 2012, and 2013. To assess golden eagle-habitat relationships at this scale, we modeled counts of golden eagles seen during surveys in 2006-2010, adjusted for probability of detection, and used land cover and other environmental factors as predictor variables within 20-km2 sampling units randomly selected from survey transects. We found evidence of positive relationships between intensity of use by golden eagles and elevation, solar radiation, and mean wind speed, and of negative relationships with the proportion of landscape classified as forest or as developed. The model accurately predicted habitat use observed during surveys conducted in 2012 and 2013. We used the model to construct a map predicting intensity of use by golden eagles during late summer across our ~2 million-km2 study area. The map can be used to help prioritize landscapes for conservation efforts, identify areas where mitigation efforts may be most effective, and identify regions for additional research and monitoring. In addition, our map can be used to develop region-specific (e.g., state-level) density estimates based on the latest information on golden eagle abundance from a late-summer survey and aid designation of geographic management units for the species.

  16. Modeling Late-Summer Distribution of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the Western United States

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Increasing development across the western United States (USA) elevates concerns about effects on wildlife resources; the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is of special concern in this regard. Knowledge of golden eagle abundance and distribution across the western USA must be improved to help identify and conserve areas of major importance to the species. We used distance sampling and visual mark-recapture procedures to estimate golden eagle abundance from aerial line-transect surveys conducted across four Bird Conservation Regions in the western USA between 15 August and 15 September in 2006–2010, 2012, and 2013. To assess golden eagle-habitat relationships at this scale, we modeled counts of golden eagles seen during surveys in 2006–2010, adjusted for probability of detection, and used land cover and other environmental factors as predictor variables within 20-km2 sampling units randomly selected from survey transects. We found evidence of positive relationships between intensity of use by golden eagles and elevation, solar radiation, and mean wind speed, and of negative relationships with the proportion of landscape classified as forest or as developed. The model accurately predicted habitat use observed during surveys conducted in 2012 and 2013. We used the model to construct a map predicting intensity of use by golden eagles during late summer across our ~2 million-km2 study area. The map can be used to help prioritize landscapes for conservation efforts, identify areas where mitigation efforts may be most effective, and identify regions for additional research and monitoring. In addition, our map can be used to develop region-specific (e.g., state-level) density estimates based on the latest information on golden eagle abundance from a late-summer survey and aid designation of geographic management units for the species. PMID:27556735

  17. Pleistocene to historic shifts in bald eagle diets on the Channel Islands, California.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Seth D; Collins, Paul W; Rick, Torben C; Guthrie, Daniel A; Erlandson, Jon M; Fogel, Marilyn L

    2010-05-18

    Studies of current interactions among species, their prey, and environmental factors are essential for mitigating immediate threats to population viability, but the true range of behavioral and ecological flexibility can be determined only through research on deeper timescales. Ecological data spanning centuries to millennia provide important contextual information for long-term management strategies, especially for species that now are living in relict populations. Here we use a variety of methods to reconstruct bald eagle diets and local abundance of their potential prey on the Channel Islands from the late Pleistocene to the time when the last breeding pairs disappeared from the islands in the mid-20th century. Faunal and isotopic analysis of bald eagles shows that seabirds were important prey for immature/adult eagles for millennia before the eagles' local extirpation. In historic times (A.D. 1850-1950), however, isotopic and faunal data show that breeding bald eagles provisioned their chicks with introduced ungulates (e.g., sheep), which were locally present in high densities. Today, bald eagles are the focus of an extensive conservation program designed to restore a stable breeding population to the Channel Islands, but native and nonnative prey sources that were important for bald eagles in the past are either diminished (e.g., seabirds) or have been eradicated (e.g., introduced ungulates). In the absence of sufficient resources, a growing bald eagle population on the Channel Islands could expand its prey base to include carrion from local pinniped colonies, exert predation pressure on a recovering seabird population, and possibly prey on endangered island foxes.

  18. Quest for safer skies: Modeling golden eagles and wind energy to reduce turbine risk

    Todd Katzner; Tricia Miller; Scott Stoleson

    2014-01-01

    In a patch of sky above Pennsylvania, a golden eagle moves languidly, never flapping but passing quickly as it cruises southward on a cushion of air. It is migrating to its wintering grounds after a season of breeding in Quebec. As part of a team studying eagles on a daily basis—a project supported by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), West Virginia University,...

  19. A pair of bald eagles on a utility pole at KSC.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A pair of nesting bald eagles share a utility pole on Kennedy Parkway North. Nearby is their 11-foot-deep nest, in a pine tree, which has been home to one or more pairs of eagles for two dozen years. It is one of a dozen eagle nests in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. The Southern Bald Eagle ranges throughout Florida and along the coasts of California, Texas, Louisiana, and the south Atlantic states. Bald Eagles are listed as endangered in the U.S., except in five states where they are listed as threatened. The number of nesting pairs of the southern race once numbered several thousand; recent estimates are only 350-375. Most of the southern race nests in Florida Eagles arrive at KSC during late summer and leave for the north in late spring. They move to nest sites in October and November and lay one to three eggs. The young fledge from February to April. The Refuge encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  20. Assessment of frequency and duration of point counts when surveying for golden eagle presence

    Skipper, Ben R.; Boal, Clint W.; Tsai, Jo-Szu; Fuller, Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    We assessed the utility of the recommended golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) survey methodology in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2013 Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance. We conducted 800-m radius, 1-hr point-count surveys broken into 20-min segments, during 2 sampling periods in 3 areas within the Intermountain West of the United States over 2 consecutive breeding seasons during 2012 and 2013. Our goal was to measure the influence of different survey time intervals and sampling periods on detectability and use estimates of golden eagles among different locations. Our results suggest that a less intensive effort (i.e., survey duration shorter than 1 hr and point-count survey radii smaller than 800 m) would likely be inadequate for rigorous documentation of golden eagle occurrence pre- or postconstruction of wind energy facilities. Results from a simulation analysis of detection probabilities and survey effort suggest that greater temporal and spatial effort could make point-count surveys more applicable for evaluating golden eagle occurrence in survey areas; however, increased effort would increase financial costs associated with additional person-hours and logistics (e.g., fuel, lodging). Future surveys can benefit from a pilot study and careful consideration of prior information about counts or densities of golden eagles in the survey area before developing a survey design. If information is lacking, survey planning may be best served by assuming low detection rates and increasing the temporal and spatial effort.

  1. Characterizing Golden Eagle risk to lead and anticoagulant rodenticide exposure: A review

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Buck, Jeremy A.

    2017-01-01

    Contaminant exposure is among the many threats to Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) populations throughout North America, particularly lead poisoning and anticoagulant rodenticides (AR). These threats may act in concert with others (e.g., lead poisoning and trauma associated with striking objects) to exacerbate risk. Golden Eagles are skilled hunters but also exploit scavenging opportunities, making them particularly susceptible to contaminant exposure from ingesting tissues of poisoned or shot animals. Lead poisoning has long been recognized as an important source of mortality for Golden Eagles throughout North America. More recently, ARs have been associated with both sublethal and lethal effects in raptor species worldwide. In this review, we examine the current state of knowledge for lead and AR exposure in Golden Eagles, drawing from the broader raptor contaminant ecology literature. We examine lead and AR sources within Golden Eagle habitats, exposure routes and toxicity, effects on individuals and populations, synergistic effects, and data and information needs. Continued research addressing data needs and information gaps will help with Golden Eagle conservation planning.

  2. Reproduction and distribution of bald eagles in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, 1973-1993

    Grim, Leland H.; Kallemeyn, Larry W.

    1995-01-01

    The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is classified as a threatened species in Minnesota. In 1973, the National Park Service began monitoring the distribution and reproduction of bald eagles in and immediately adjacent to Voyageurs National Park to obtain data that park management could use to protect bald eagles from the effects of use of the park by visitors and from the expansion of park facilities. Thirty-seven breeding areas were identified during 1973-93. Annual productivity ranged from 0.00 to 1.42 fledglings/occupied nest and averaged 0.68 during the 21 breeding seasons. The annual number of breeding pairs tripled, the mean number of fledged eaglets increased 5 times, and reproductive success doubled during the study. However, in more than 15 of the breeding seasons, the mean productivity and the annual reproductive success in Voyageurs National Park were below the 1 fledgling/occupied nest and the 70% reproductive success that are representative of healthy bald eagle populations. We suspect that toxic substances, human disturbance, severe weather, and lack of food in early spring may have kept bald eagles in Voyageurs National Park from achieving a breeding success that was similar to that of conspecifics in the nearby Chippewa National Forest. The cumulative effect of these variables on reproduction and on habitat of bald eagles in Voyageurs National Park is unknown and should be determined.

  3. Species variation in osmotic, cryoprotectant, and cooling rate tolerance in poultry, eagle, and Peregrine Falcon spermatozoa

    Blanco, J.M.; Gee, G.; Wildt, D.E.; Donoghue, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Potential factors influencing spermatozoa survival to cryopreservation and thawing were analyzed across a range of the following avian species: domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), Bonelli's eagle (Hieraaetus fasciatus), imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti), and peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). Studies focused on spermatozoa tolerance to the following: 1) osmotic stress, 2) different extracellular concentrations of the cryoprotectant dimethylacetamide (DMA), 3) equilibration times of 1 versus 4 h, 4) equilibration temperature of 4 versus 21 degrees C, and 5) rapid versus slow cooling before cryopreservation and standard thawing. Sperm viability was assessed with the live/dead stain (SYBR14/ propidium iodine). Sperm viability at osmolalities >/=800 mOsm was higher (P: /=2.06 M), experienced decreased (P: < 0.05) spermatozoa survival in all species, except the golden eagle and peregrine falcon. Number of surviving spermatozoa diminished progressively with increasing DMA concentrations in all species. Increased equilibration temperature (from 4 to 21 degrees C) markedly reduced (P: < 0.05) spermatozoa survival in all species except the Bonelli's eagle and turkey. Rapid cooling was detrimental (P: < 0.05) to spermatozoa from all species except the imperial eagle and the chicken. These results demonstrate that avian spermatozoa differ remarkably in response to osmotic changes, DMA concentrations, equilibration time, temperature, and survival after fast or slow freezing. These differences emphasize the need for species-specific studies in the development and enhancement of assisted breeding for poultry and endangered species.

  4. Organochlorine pesticide, PCB, and PBB residues and necropsy data for bald eagles from 29 states - 1975-77

    Kaiser, T. Earl; Reichel, William L.; Locke, Louis N.; Cromartie, Eugene; Krynitsky, Alexander J.; Lamont, Thair; Mulhern, Bernard M.; Prouty, Richard M.; Stafford, Charles J.; Swineford, Douglas M.

    1980-01-01

    During 1975-77, 168 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) found moribund or dead in 29 states were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); 32 specimens from 13 states were analyzed for polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs). PCBs were present in 166 bald eagle carcasses and DDE was found in 165. TDE and dieldrin were identified in 137 samples, trans-nonachlor in 118, and oxychlordane in 90. Brains of five eagles contained possible lethal levels of dieldrin, and two eagles possibly died of endrin poisoning. Nine eagle livers, analyzed because of suspected lead poisoning, contained high levels of lead. Twenty percent of the eagles died from shooting, the most common cause of death; this cause of death, however, has declined.

  5. Residues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and mercury and autopsy data for bald eagles, 1969 and 1970

    Belisle, Andre A.; Reichel, William L.; Locke, Louis N.; Lamont, Thair; Mulhern, Bernard M.; Prouty, Richard M.; DeWolf, Robert B.; Cromartie, Eugene

    1972-01-01

    Thirty-nine bald eagles found sick or dead in 13 States during 1969 and 1970 were analyzed for pesticide residues. Residues of DDE, dieldrin, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), and mercury were detected in all bald eagle carcasses; DDD residues were detected in 38; DDT, heptachlor epoxide, and dichlorobenzophenone (DCBP) were detected less frequently. Six eagles contained possible lethal levels of dieldrin in the brain, and one contained a lethal concentration of DDE (385 ppm) in the brain together with 235 ppm of PCB's. Autopsy revealed that 18 bald eagles were illegally shot; other causes of death were impact injuries, electrocution, emaciation, and infectious diseases.

  6. Movements by juvenile and immature Steller's Sea Eagles Haliaeetus pelagicus tracked by satellite

    McGrady, M.J.; Ueta, M.; Potapov, E.R.; Utekhina, I.; Marterov, V.; Ladyguine, A.; Zykov, V.; Cibor, J.; Fuller, Mark R.; Seegar, J.K.

    2003-01-01

    Twenty-four juvenile Steller's Sea Eagles Haliaeetus pelagicus were tracked via satellite from natal areas in Magadan, Kabarovsk, Amur, Sakhalin and Kamchatka. Nestling dispersal occurred between 9 September and 6 December (n = 24), mostly 14 September-21 October, and did not differ among regions or years. Most eagles made stopovers of 4-28 days during migration. Migration occurred 9 September-18 January, mostly along previously described routes, taking 4-116 days to complete (n = 18). Eagles averaged 47.8 km/day excluding stopovers; 22.9 km/day including stopovers. The mean degrees of latitude spanned during migration was: Kamchatka, 2.1; Magadan, 11.6; Amur, 7.3; and Sakhalin, 1.1. Eagle winter range sizes varied. Eagles concentrated in 1-3 subareas within overall winter ranges. The mean size of the first wintering subareas was 274 km2, the second 529 km2, and the third 1181 km2. Second wintering areas were south of first wintering areas. Spring migration started between 2 February and 31 March. Two eagles from Magadan were tracked onto summering grounds, well south of their natal areas. Both had early and late summering areas. One bird was followed for 25 months. It initiated its second autumn migration in the first half of October and arrived on its wintering grounds on 26 December. The second autumn migration covered 1839 km (20.9-22.4 km/day). Unlike its first winter when it used two subareas, this bird used only one subarea in 1998-99, but this was located near wintering areas used in 1997-98. It left its wintering ground between 13 April and 13 May, and arrived on its summering grounds between 7 June and 8 July. Unlike most satellite radiotracking studies, data are presented from a relatively large number of birds from across their breeding range, including new information on eagle movements on the wintering grounds and during the second year

  7. Increased Flight Altitudes among Migrating Golden Eagles Suggest Turbine Avoidance at a Rocky Mountain Wind Installation

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Naira N.; Bradley, James E.; Otter, Ken A.

    2014-01-01

    Potential wind-energy development in the eastern Rocky Mountain foothills of British Columbia, Canada, raises concerns due to its overlap with a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) migration corridor. The Dokie 1 Wind Energy Project is the first development in this area and stands as a model for other projects in the area because of regional consistency in topographic orientation and weather patterns. We visually tracked golden eagles over three fall migration seasons (2009–2011), one pre- and two post-construction, to document eagle flight behaviour in relation to a ridge-top wind energy development. We estimated three-dimensional positions of eagles in space as they migrated through our study site. Flight tracks were then incorporated into GIS to ascertain flight altitudes for eagles that flew over the ridge-top area (or turbine string). Individual flight paths were designated to a category of collision-risk based on flight altitude (e.g. flights within rotor-swept height; ≤150 m above ground) and wind speed (winds sufficient for the spinning of turbines; >6.8 km/h at ground level). Eagles were less likely to fly over the ridge-top area within rotor-swept height (risk zone) as wind speed increased, but were more likely to make such crosses under headwinds and tailwinds compared to western crosswinds. Most importantly, we observed a smaller proportion of flights within the risk zone at wind speeds sufficient for the spinning of turbines (higher-risk flights) during post-construction compared to pre-construction, suggesting that eagles showed detection and avoidance of turbines during migration. PMID:24671199

  8. Factors that influence mercury concentrations in nestling Eagle Owls (Bubo bubo).

    PubMed

    Espín, Silvia; Martínez-López, Emma; León-Ortega, Mario; Calvo, José F; García-Fernández, Antonio Juan

    2014-02-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that bioaccumulates and biomagnifies in food chains, and is associated with adverse effects in both humans and wildlife. The Hg levels detected in blood obtained from Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) chicks in Southeast Spain (Murcia) can be considered low (mean Hg concentration in blood from 2006 to 2012 was 36.83 ± 145.58 μg/l wet weigh, n=600), and it is therefore unlikely that Hg pollution can negatively affect their breeding. Positive correlation (r=0.339, p<0.001, n=229) was found to exist between the Hg concentrations in the blood and back feathers of the chicks. We provide a regression equation that could be helpful to estimate blood Hg levels when analyzing Hg concentrations in back feathers. Blood Hg concentrations in Eagle Owls have shown positive correlations with Hg levels in rabbit muscles, more evident in nests from the Northern area (r=0.600, p=0.014, n=16), where rabbits are the main prey of Eagle Owls. The best Linear Mixed Model to explain variations in blood Hg concentrations in nestling Eagle Owls includes year and location within the mining area as variables. The variable year is assigned the largest value of relative importance, followed by the location in the ancient mining sites and then the zone. Rainfalls may have an effect on the temporal differences in the blood Hg concentrations of nestling Eagle Owls. Although the studied region is not considered Hg polluted, the Hg levels were higher in Eagle Owls and European Rabbits from areas within the ancient mining sites as compared to those in the entire region. This result shows that spatial differences in Hg concentrations in Eagle Owls may be affected by local contamination, and that the role of diet composition may be less significant. © 2013.

  9. Increased flight altitudes among migrating golden eagles suggest turbine avoidance at a Rocky Mountain wind installation.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Naira N; Bradley, James E; Otter, Ken A

    2014-01-01

    Potential wind-energy development in the eastern Rocky Mountain foothills of British Columbia, Canada, raises concerns due to its overlap with a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) migration corridor. The Dokie 1 Wind Energy Project is the first development in this area and stands as a model for other projects in the area because of regional consistency in topographic orientation and weather patterns. We visually tracked golden eagles over three fall migration seasons (2009-2011), one pre- and two post-construction, to document eagle flight behaviour in relation to a ridge-top wind energy development. We estimated three-dimensional positions of eagles in space as they migrated through our study site. Flight tracks were then incorporated into GIS to ascertain flight altitudes for eagles that flew over the ridge-top area (or turbine string). Individual flight paths were designated to a category of collision-risk based on flight altitude (e.g. flights within rotor-swept height; ≤150 m above ground) and wind speed (winds sufficient for the spinning of turbines; >6.8 km/h at ground level). Eagles were less likely to fly over the ridge-top area within rotor-swept height (risk zone) as wind speed increased, but were more likely to make such crosses under headwinds and tailwinds compared to western crosswinds. Most importantly, we observed a smaller proportion of flights within the risk zone at wind speeds sufficient for the spinning of turbines (higher-risk flights) during post-construction compared to pre-construction, suggesting that eagles showed detection and avoidance of turbines during migration.

  10. 50 CFR 22.23 - What are the requirements for permits to take depredating eagles and eagles that pose a risk to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... appropriate Regional Director—Attention: Migratory Bird Permit Office. You can find addresses for the... Bird Permit Office within 10 days following completion of the taking operations or the expiration of... be covered by the permit and the injury complained of is substantial, or that bald or golden eagles...

  11. 50 CFR 22.23 - What are the requirements for permits to take depredating eagles and eagles that pose a risk to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... appropriate Regional Director—Attention: Migratory Bird Permit Office. You can find addresses for the... Bird Permit Office within 10 days following completion of the taking operations or the expiration of... be covered by the permit and the injury complained of is substantial, or that bald or golden eagles...

  12. Embedded Star Formation in the Eagle Nebula with Spitzer GLIMPSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indebetouw, R.; Robitaille, T. P.; Whitney, B. A.; Churchwell, E.; Babler, B.; Meade, M.; Watson, C.; Wolfire, M.

    2007-09-01

    We present new Spitzer photometry of the Eagle Nebula (M16, containing the optical cluster NGC 6611) combined with near-infrared photometry from 2MASS. We use dust radiative transfer models, mid-infrared and near-infrared color-color analysis, and mid-infrared spectral indices to analyze point-source spectral energy distributions, select candidate YSOs, and constrain their mass and evolutionary state. Comparison of the different protostellar selection methods shows that mid-infrared methods are consistent, but as has been known for some time, near-infrared-only analysis misses some young objects. We reveal more than 400 protostellar candidates, including one massive YSO that has not been previously highlighted. The YSO distribution supports a picture of distributed low-level star formation, with no strong evidence of triggered star formation in the ``pillars.'' We confirm the youth of NGC 6611 by a large fraction of infrared excess sources and reveal a younger cluster of YSOs in the nearby molecular cloud. Analysis of the YSO clustering properties shows a possible imprint of the molecular cloud's Jeans length. Multiwavelength mid-IR imaging thus allows us to analyze the protostellar population, to measure the dust temperature and column density, and to relate these in a consistent picture of star formation in M16.

  13. Plasma chemistry in booted eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus) during breeding season.

    PubMed

    Casado, Eva; Balbontin, Javier; Ferrer, Miguel

    2002-02-01

    Most studies that have examined raptor plasma chemistry have been conducted on birds living in captivity. In this study, we describe typical plasma chemistry values indicators of body condition in free-living Booted Eagles, Hieraaetus pennatus, from Doñana National Park (Spain). Values are compared with those of other raptors. Mean concentrations of creatinine, uric acid and urea were lower in adults than in nestlings, while glucose, DAT and AAT were lower in nestlings than in adults. Interactions of age/sex affected plasma mean levels of creatine kinase, glucose, AAT, uric acid and urea. Adult females showed significantly lower levels of creatine kinase, uric acid and urea than adult males and nestlings. Adult males had significantly higher levels of AAT than the other groups. The lowest levels of glucose and the highest levels of uric acid were found in nestling females. We think the differences in blood parameters can be explained by differences in size of species, of individuals (because of both body condition and sexual dimorphism) and diet.

  14. [Transcient ischemic attack, a rare manifestation of Eagle syndrome].

    PubMed

    Usseglio, J; Montoro, F Macian; Martin, S; Lerat, J; Laloze, J; Taibi, A; Brie, J

    2016-12-01

    Clinical presentation of Eagle syndrome (ES) is very variable and non-specific, making its diagnosis difficult. It is usually limited to pain. Transient neurological manifestations are exceptional. We report one case in which the diagnosis of ES has been made based on neurological events occurring during left anterolateral head bending, without pain. A 47-year-old man presented with transient neurological events progressing since two years, half-right body paresthesia and reduced field of vision on the left side type, triggered by left anterolateral head flexion and regressive in neutral position. Transcranial Doppler and CT angiography of the supra-aortic trunks were performed in neutral position and in right and left head rotation that showed a disruption of the left sylvian flow and an extrinsic compression of the left internal carotid artery, due to a musculoskeletal impediment involving the lower end of the temporal styloid process. Complete recovering was achieved after surgical resection of this process. A control CT angiography confirmed the cessation of the compression. ES has non-specific and highly variable clinical manifestations making diagnosis difficult or leading to misdiagnosis. ES should be considered in any transient neurological deficit, especially when occurring during head rotation. Treatment relies on surgical resection of the excessively long styloid process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Spatial and temporal patterns in golden eagle diets in the western United States, with implications for conservation planning

    Bedrosian, Geoffrey; Watson, James W.; Steenhof, Karen; Kochert, Michael N.; Preston, Charles R.; Woodbridge, Brian; Williams, Gary E.; Keller, Kent R.; Crandall, Ross H.

    2017-01-01

    Detailed information on diets and predatory ecology of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) is essential to prioritize prey species management and to develop landscape-specific conservation strategies, including mitigation of the effects of energy development across the western United States. We compiled published and unpublished data on Golden Eagle diets to (1) summarize available information on Golden Eagle diets in the western U.S., (2) compare diets among biogeographic provinces, and (3) discuss implications for conservation planning and future research. We analyzed 35 studies conducted during the breeding season at 45 locations from 1940–2015. Golden Eagle diet differed among western ecosystems. Lower dietary breadth was associated with desert and shrub-steppe ecosystems and higher breadth with mountain ranges and the Columbia Plateau. Correlations suggest that percentage of leporids in the diet is the factor driving overall diversity of prey and percentage of other prey groups in the diet of Golden Eagles. Leporids were the primary prey of breeding Golden Eagles in 78% of study areas, with sciurids reported as primary prey in 18% of study areas. During the nonbreeding season, Golden Eagles were most frequently recorded feeding on leporids and carrion. Golden Eagles can be described as both generalist and opportunistic predators; they can feed on a wide range of prey species but most frequently feed on abundant medium-sized prey species in a given habitat. Spatial variations in Golden Eagle diet likely reflect regional differences in prey community, whereas temporal trends likely reflect responses to long-term change in prey populations. Evidence suggests dietary shifts from traditional (leporid) prey can have adverse effects on Golden Eagle reproductive rates. Land management practices that support or restore shrub-steppe ecosystem diversity should benefit Golden Eagles. More information is needed on nonbreeding-season diet to determine what food resources

  16. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in bald (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and golden (Aquila chrysaetos) eagles from Washington and Idaho, USA.

    PubMed

    Spears, Brian Lee; Isanhart, John

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about the exposure and accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the 2 species of eagles inhabiting North America. The authors analyzed the livers of 33 bald eagles and 7 golden eagles collected throughout Washington and Idaho, USA, for 51 PBDE congeners. Total PBDEs ranged from 2.4 ng/g to 9920 ng/g wet weight. Bald eagles and eagles associated with large urban areas had the highest PBDE concentrations; golden eagles and eagles from more sparsely populated areas had the lowest concentrations. Congener patterns in the present study (brominated diphenyl ether [BDE]-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, and BDE-154 dominating concentrations) were similar to those reported for other bird species, especially raptors. However, the authors also found elevated contributions of BDE-209 in golden eagles and BDE-77 in both species. Patterns in bald eagle samples reflected those in fillets of fish collected from the same general locations throughout Washington, suggesting local exposure to runoff-based contamination, whereas patterns in golden eagle samples suggest a difference in food chain uptake facilitated by atmospheric transport and deposition of BDE-209 and its degradation products into the terrestrial system. Data from the present study represent some of the first reported on burdens of PBDEs in juvenile and adult eagles from North America. The high PBDE liver concentrations associated with large metropolitan areas and accumulation of deca-BDE congeners are a cause for concern. Published 2014 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  17. Bald eagle winter roost characteristics in Lava Beds National Monument, California

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    This study provided a survey of bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) winter roost habitat (in 4 km2 of potential roost areas) in southern Lava Beds National Monument, California. A systematic-clustered sampling design (n=381 plots) was used to compare forest stand characteristics in two primary roost areas (Caldwell Butte and Eagle Nest Butte) and two potential roost areas (Hidden Valley and Island Butte). A 100 percent inventory of roost trees in Caldwell Butte (n=103 trees) and Eagle Nest Butte (n=44 trees) showed they were spatially clumped and restricted to 12.7 percent and 2.8 percent, respectively, of the study areas. Roost trees, primarily ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), averaged 81.1 ± 1.3 cm dbh (mean ± 1 S.E.) compared to non-roost trees (>35 cm dbh) that averaged 52.2 ± 1.0 cm dbh. Roost trees were generally taller and more open-structured than non-roost trees. All four study sites had adequate numbers of mid-sized trees (10 to 50 cm dbh) to replace the current stock of older, larger roost trees. However, seedling and small trees (<10 cm dbh) in the roost areas were spatially clumped and few, suggesting that maintaining a continuous population of roost trees may be a problem in the distant future. Long-term studies of changing winter roost habitat and eagle use are essential to protect the bald eagle in the northwestern US.

  18. Monitoring bald eagles using lists of nests: Response to Watts and Duerr

    Sauer, John R.; Otto, Mark C.; Kendall, William L.; Zimmerman, Guthrie S.

    2011-01-01

    The post-delisting monitoring plan for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) roposed use of a dual-frame sample design, in which sampling of known nest sites in combination with additional area-based sampling is used to estimate total number of nesting bald eagle pairs. Watts and Duerr (2010) used data from repeated observations of bald eagle nests in Virginia, USA to estimate a nest turnover rate and used this rate to simulate decline in number of occupied nests in list nests over time. Results of Watts and Duerr suggest that, given the rates of loss of nests from the list of known nest sites in Virginia, the list information will be of little value to sampling unless lists are constantly updated. Those authors criticize the plan for not placing sufficient emphasis on updating and maintaining lists of bald eagle nests. Watts and Duerr's metric of turnover rate does not distinguish detectability or temporary nonuse of nests from permanent loss of nests and likely overestimates turnover rate. We describe a multi-state capture–recapture model that allows appropriate estimation of rates of loss of nests, and we use the model to estimate rates of loss from a sample of nests from Maine, USA. The post-delisting monitoring plan addresses the need to maintain and update the lists of nests, and we show that dual frame sampling is an effective approach for sampling nesting bald eagle populations.

  19. Reproductive characteristics of migratory golden eagles in Denali National Park, Alaska

    McIntyre, Carol L.; Adams, Layne G.

    1999-01-01

    We describe reproductive characteristics of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) breeding in Denali National Park, Alaska during an entire snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) cycle, 1988-1997. Data on nesting eagles were collected at 58 to 72 nesting areas annually using two aerial surveys. Surveys were conducted during the incubation period to determine occupancy and nesting activities and late in the nestling period to count nestlings and determine nesting success. Annual occupancy rates of nesting areas did not vary significantly, whereas laying rates, success rates, and mean brood size varied significantly over the study period. Fledgling production for the study population varied sevenfold during the ten-year period. Laying rates, mean brood size, and overall population productivity were significantly correlated with abundance of cyclic snowshoe hare and Willow Ptarmigan (Lugopus lagopus) populations. Reproductive rates of Golden Eagles in Denali were similar to those of Golden Eagles from other high latitude study areas in North America, but lower than for Golden Eagles from temperate zone study areas in North America.

  20. Nesting by Golden Eagles on the North Slope of the Brooks Range in Northeastern Alaska

    Young, Donald D.; McIntyre, Carol L.; Bente, Peter J.; McCabe, Thomas R.; Ambrose, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-two Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) nesting territories and 31 occupied eagle nests were documented on the north slope of the Brooks Range in northeastern Alaska, 1988-1990, in an area previously thought to be marginal breeding habitat for eagles. The mean number of young/successful nest was 1.25 in 1988, 1.27 in 1989, and 1.13 in 1990; means did not differ significantly among years. Eighty percent (20/25) of the nestlings for which age was estimated were assumed to have successfully fledged. Nesting success was 79% (11/14) in 1989, the only year nesting success could be determined. Laying dates ranged from 23 March (1990) to 11 May (1989) with mean estimated laying dates differing significantly among years. Annual variation in nesting phenology coincided with annual differences in snow accumulations during spring. These results indicate that Golden Eagles consistently and successfully breed at the northern extent of their range in Alaska, although, productivity may be lower than that for eagles at more southern latitudes.

  1. Functions of perch relocations in a communal night roost of wintering bald eagles

    Yackel Adams, A.A.; Skagen, S.K.; Knight, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the functions of perch relocations within a communal night roost of wintering bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) along the Nooksack River, Washington, during two winters. We tested seven predictions of two nonexclusive hypotheses: (1) bald eagles relocate within roosts to assess foraging success of conspecifics and (2) bald eagles relocate to obtain thermoregulatory benefits from an improved microclimate. Additionally, we gathered descriptive information to allow refinement of further alternative hypotheses. We rejected the hypothesis that relocations are a means of assessing foraging success. Contrary to our expectations, immature eagles did not relocate to be closer to adults, and relocations were less frequent when food was less abundant. Our data support the hypothesis that eagles relocate within night roosts to obtain a favorable microclimate during winters when they are subjected to cold stress and food stress. In both winters, relocations were more frequent in the evening than in the morning. In both winters, most evening relocations were to the center of the roost rather than to its edge, and the frequency of relocation to the center was greater when temperatures were low. The microclimate hypothesis, however, explains only a limited number of relocations. Based on our findings, it is likely that relocation has multiple functions, including establishing and (or) maintaining foraging associations, establishing and (or) maintaining social-dominance hierarchies when food is less abundant, and nonsocial activities.

  2. Trigeminal neuralgia post-styloidectomy in Eagle syndrome: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Eagle syndrome is a condition characterized by an elongated (>3cm) styloid process with associated symptoms of recurrent facial or throat pain. In this report we present a case of Eagle syndrome exhibiting the typical findings of glossopharyngeal nerve involvement, as well as unusual involvement of the trigeminal nerve. Notably, this patient developed a classical trigeminal neuralgia post-styloidectomy. Case presentation A 68-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a 25-year history of dull pain along the right side of her throat, lateral neck, and jaw. Her symptoms were poorly controlled with medication until 15 years ago when she was diagnosed with Eagle syndrome, and underwent a manual fracture of her styloid process. This provided symptomatic relief until 5 years ago when the pain recurred and progressed. She underwent a styloidectomy via a lateral neck approach, which resolved the pain once again. However, 6 months ago a new onset of triggerable, electric shock-like facial pain began within the right V1 and V2 distributions. Conclusions Eagle syndrome is distressing to patients and often difficult to diagnose due to its wide variability in symptoms. It is easily confused with dental pain or temporomandibular joint disorder, leading to missed diagnoses and unnecessary procedures. Pain along the jaw and temple is an unusual but possible consequence of Eagle syndrome. An elongated styloid process should be considered a possible etiology of dull facial pain in the trigeminal distributions, in particular V3. PMID:23031688

  3. The flared inner disk of the Herbig Ae star AB Aurigae revealed by VLTI/MIDI in the N-band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Folco, E.; Dutrey, A.; Chesneau, O.; Wolf, S.; Schegerer, A.; Leinert, Ch.; Lopez, B.

    2009-06-01

    Aims: We aim at using the long baselines of the VLT Interferometer and the mid-IR combiner MIDI (8-13 μm) to derive the morphology of the protoplanetary disk surrounding the Herbig Ae star AB Aurigae Methods: We present the first N-band analysis of AB Aur performed with a maximum angular resolution of 17 mas (2.5 AU at the Taurus-Auriga distance). We used the radiative transfer code MC3D and a silicate-dominated dust grain mixture to fit the spectral energy distribution (SED), together with the N-band dispersed visibilities (λ / δλ ~ 30) and to constrain the inner-disk spatial structure. Results: The silicate band is prominent in the ~ 300 mas FOV of the MIDI instrument, the emission reaches 70 to 90% of the total flux measured by ISO. The circumstellar emission (CSE) is resolved even at the shortest baselines. The spectrally dispersed visibilities show a steep drop between 8 and 9.5 μm, followed by a plateau between 10 and 13 μm. Our modelling shows that the observed SED and visibilities can be reproduced with a simple passive disk model. For such a weakly inclined disk (i ~ 30 deg), the mid-IR visibilities can directly determine the flaring index, while the scale height can be subsequently and unambiguously derived from the combination of the spectral and interferometric constraints. The modelling yields typical values for the scale height of about 8 AU at a radial distance of 100 AU and a flaring index in the range 1.25-1.30 for the explored range of model input parameters. Conclusions: The radial structure of the circumstellar inner disk around AB Aur is directly determined by MIDI. The radiative transfer modelling demonstrates the powerful synergy of interferometry and spectro-photometry to alleviate the degeneracy, which may hamper determining the disk morphology. Our analysis supports the classification of AB Aur among the flared disks of the first group in the Meeus classification. Based on observations collected at ESO (Paranal Observatory) with the

  4. An Extreme Analogue of ɛ Aurigae: An M-giant Eclipsed Every 69 Years by a Large Opaque Disk Surrounding a Small Hot Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Lund, Michael B.; Siverd, Robert J.; Pepper, Joshua; Tang, Sumin; Kafka, Stella; Gaudi, B. Scott; Conroy, Kyle E.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Stevens, Daniel J.; Shappee, Benjamin J.; Kochanek, Christopher S.

    2016-05-01

    We present TYC 2505-672-1 as a newly discovered and remarkable eclipsing system comprising an M-type red giant that undergoes a ˜3.45 year long, near-total eclipse (depth of ˜4.5 mag) with a very long period of ˜69.1 years. TYC 2505-672-1 is now the longest-period eclipsing binary system yet discovered, more than twice as long as that of the currently longest-period system, ɛ Aurigae. We show from analysis of the light curve including both our own data and historical data spanning more than 120 years and from modeling of the spectral energy distribution, both before and during eclipse, that the red giant primary is orbited by a moderately hot source (Teff ≈ 8000 K) that is itself surrounded by an extended, opaque circumstellar disk. From the measured ratio of luminosities, the radius of the hot companion must be in the range of 0.1-0.5 R⊙ (depending on the assumed radius of the red giant primary), which is an order of magnitude smaller than that for a main sequence A star and 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than that for a white dwarf. The companion is therefore most likely a “stripped red giant” subdwarf-B type star destined to become a He white dwarf. It is, however, somewhat cooler than most sdB stars, implying a very low mass for this “pre-He-WD” star. The opaque disk surrounding this hot source may be a remnant of the stripping of its former hydrogen envelope. However, it is puzzling how this object became stripped, given that it is at present so distant (orbital semimajor axis of ˜24 au) from the current red giant primary star. Extrapolating from our calculated ephemeris, the next eclipse should begin in early UT 2080 April and end in mid UT 2083 September (eclipse center UT 2081 December 24). In the meantime, radial velocity observations would establish the masses of the components, and high-cadence UV observations could potentially reveal oscillations of the hot companion that would further constrain its evolutionary status. In any case

  5. 75 FR 20879 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Eagle County Regional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... To Release Airport Property at the Eagle County Regional Airport, Eagle, CO AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Request to Release Airport Property. SUMMARY: The FAA proposes to... provisions of section 125 of the Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment Reform Act for the 21st Century (AIR 21...

  6. 77 FR 32716 - Price for the 2012 American Eagle San Francisco Two-Coin Silver Proof Set

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Price for the 2012 American Eagle San Francisco Two...: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the 2012 American Eagle San Francisco Two-Coin Silver Proof Set. The coin set will be offered for sale at a price of $149.95. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  7. 76 FR 13446 - Nittany Bald and Eagle Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... Eagle Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA- COG Joint Rail Authority Nittany Bald and Eagle... 0.0 and milepost 1.8 in Castanea, Clinton County, Pa. The line is owned or leased by SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority (SEDA-COG). N&BE states that the line it proposes to operate is an extension of its...

  8. 50 CFR 22.26 - Permits for eagle take that is associated with, but not the purpose of, an activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Other interests. (5) Any additional factors that may be relevant to our decision whether to issue the..., SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) EAGLE PERMITS... cumulative effects of other permitted take and other additional factors affecting eagle populations; (ii...

  9. 75 FR 31811 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Post-Delisting Monitoring Plan for Bald Eagle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... Species Act (ESA) requires that we implement a system, in cooperation with the States, to monitor... cooperation with the States, to effectively monitor for not less than 5 years the status of all species that... stratified sampling based on density of identified bald eagle nest sites. Our Bald Eagle Monitoring Team will...

  10. 78 FR 57444 - Eagle Fund III-A, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under the Small Business Investment Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [License No. 07/07-0117] Eagle Fund III-A, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Eagle..., Financings which Constitute Conflicts of Interest, of the Small Business Administration (``SBA'') Rules and...

  11. An adaptive-management framework for optimal control of hiking near golden eagle nests in Denali National Park

    Martin, Julien; Fackler, Paul L.; Nichols, James D.; Runge, Michael C.; McIntyre, Carol L.; Lubow, Bruce L.; McCluskie, Maggie C.; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2011-01-01

    Unintended effects of recreational activities in protected areas are of growing concern. We used an adaptive-management framework to develop guidelines for optimally managing hiking activities to maintain desired levels of territory occupancy and reproductive success of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in Denali National Park (Alaska, U.S.A.). The management decision was to restrict human access (hikers) to particular nesting territories to reduce disturbance. The management objective was to minimize restrictions on hikers while maintaining reproductive performance of eagles above some specified level. We based our decision analysis on predictive models of site occupancy of eagles developed using a combination of expert opinion and data collected from 93 eagle territories over 20 years. The best predictive model showed that restricting human access to eagle territories had little effect on occupancy dynamics. However, when considering important sources of uncertainty in the models, including environmental stochasticity, imperfect detection of hares on which eagles prey, and model uncertainty, restricting access of territories to hikers improved eagle reproduction substantially. An adaptive management framework such as ours may help reduce uncertainty of the effects of hiking activities on Golden Eagles

  12. A chronicle of galaxy mass assembly in the EAGLE simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Yan; Helly, John C.; Bower, Richard G.; Theuns, Tom; Crain, Robert A.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Furlong, Michelle; McAlpine, Stuart; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; White, Simon D. M.

    2017-01-01

    We analyse the mass assembly of central galaxies in the Evolution and Assembly of Galaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) hydrodynamical simulations. We build merger trees to connect galaxies to their progenitors at different redshifts and characterize their assembly histories by focusing on the time when half of the galaxy stellar mass was assembled into the main progenitor. We show that galaxies with stellar mass M* < 1010.5 M⊙ assemble most of their stellar mass through star formation in the main progenitor (`in situ' star formation). This can be understood as a consequence of the steep rise in star formation efficiency with halo mass for these galaxies. For more massive galaxies, however, an increasing fraction of their stellar mass is formed outside the main progenitor and subsequently accreted. Consequently, while for low-mass galaxies, the assembly time is close to the stellar formation time, the stars in high-mass galaxies typically formed long before half of the present-day stellar mass was assembled into a single object, giving rise to the observed antihierarchical downsizing trend. In a typical present-day M* ≥ 1011 M⊙ galaxy, around 20 per cent of the stellar mass has an external origin. This fraction decreases with increasing redshift. Bearing in mind that mergers only make an important contribution to the stellar mass growth of massive galaxies, we find that the dominant contribution comes from mergers with galaxies of mass greater than one-tenth of the main progenitor's mass. The galaxy merger fraction derived from our simulations agrees with recent observational estimates.

  13. Care, food consumption, and behavior of bald eagles used in DDT tests

    Chura, N.J.; Stewart, P.A.

    1967-01-01

    Twenty-seven Bald Eagles captured in southeastern Alaska were used in feeding tests to determine the effects of DDT in the diet.....Trapping and housing of eagles are discussed. Various aspects of eagle behavior and handling techniques are also presented. Recommendations are made for preventing injuries and increasing the comfort of captive birds.....The 1962 test birds consumed an average of 274 grams per bird day with a range of 109 to 401 grams per day between birds. Average food intake was 254 grams per bird day for the 1963 test birds with a range of 194 to 324 grams per day between birds.....Weight losses varied from 23 to 49 per cent of normal body weight for the 7 birds which died in the 1962 tests. Tremors and death occurred first for birds on the highest dosage and progressively later for birds on the lower dosages.

  14. Sublethal Lead Exposure Alters Movement Behavior in Free-Ranging Golden Eagles.

    PubMed

    Ecke, Frauke; Singh, Navinder J; Arnemo, Jon M; Bignert, Anders; Helander, Björn; Berglund, Åsa M M; Borg, Hans; Bröjer, Caroline; Holm, Karin; Lanzone, Michael; Miller, Tricia; Nordström, Åke; Räikkönen, Jannikke; Rodushkin, Ilia; Ågren, Erik; Hörnfeldt, Birger

    2017-05-16

    Lead poisoning of animals due to ingestion of fragments from lead-based ammunition in carcasses and offal of shot wildlife is acknowledged globally and raises great concerns about potential behavioral effects leading to increased mortality risks. Lead levels in blood were correlated with progress of the moose hunting season. Based on analyses of tracking data, we found that even sublethal lead concentrations in blood (25 ppb, wet weight), can likely negatively affect movement behavior (flight height and movement rate) of free-ranging scavenging Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). Lead levels in liver of recovered post-mortem analyzed eagles suggested that sublethal exposure increases the risk of mortality in eagles. Such adverse effects on animals are probably common worldwide and across species, where game hunting with lead-based ammunition is widespread. Our study highlights lead exposure as a considerably more serious threat to wildlife conservation than previously realized and suggests implementation of bans of lead ammunition for hunting.

  15. Golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) habitat selection as a function of land use and terrain, San Diego County, California

    Tracey, Jeff A.; Madden, Melanie C.; Bloom, Peter H.; Katzner, Todd E.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2018-04-16

    Beginning in 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with Bloom Biological, Inc., began telemetry research on golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) captured in the San Diego, Orange, and western Riverside Counties of southern California. This work was supported by the San Diego Association of Governments, California Department of Fish and Wildlife, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Land Management, and the U.S. Geological Survey. Since 2014, we have tracked more than 40 eagles, although this report focuses only on San Diego County eagles.An important objective of this research is to develop habitat selection models for golden eagles. Here we provide predictions of population-level habitat selection for golden eagles in San Diego County based on environmental covariates related to land use and terrain.

  16. Far-infrared and dust properties of present-day galaxies in the EAGLE simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camps, Peter; Trayford, James W.; Baes, Maarten; Theuns, Tom; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop

    2016-10-01

    The Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) cosmological simulations reproduce the observed galaxy stellar mass function and many galaxy properties. In this work, we study the dust-related properties of present-day EAGLE galaxies through mock observations in the far-infrared and submm wavelength ranges obtained with the 3D dust radiative transfer code SKIRT. To prepare an EAGLE galaxy for radiative transfer processing, we derive a diffuse dust distribution from the gas particles and we re-sample the star-forming gas particles and the youngest star particles into star-forming regions that are assigned dedicated emission templates. We select a set of redshift-zero EAGLE galaxies that matches the K-band luminosity distribution of the galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey (HRS), a volume-limited sample of about 300 normal galaxies in the Local Universe. We find overall agreement of the EAGLE dust scaling relations with those observed in the HRS, such as the dust-to-stellar mass ratio versus stellar mass and versus NUV-r colour relations. A discrepancy in the f250/f350 versus f350/f500 submm colour-colour relation implies that part of the simulated dust is insufficiently heated, likely because of limitations in our sub-grid model for star-forming regions. We also investigate the effect of adjusting the metal-to-dust ratio and the covering factor of the photodissociation regions surrounding the star-forming cores. We are able to constrain the important dust-related parameters in our method, informing the calculation of dust attenuation for EAGLE galaxies in the UV and optical domain.

  17. Spatial demographic models to inform conservation planning of golden eagles in renewable energy landscapes

    Wiens, J. David; Schumaker, Nathan H.; Inman, Richard D.; Esque, Todd C.; Longshore, Kathleen M.; Nussear, Kenneth E

    2017-01-01

    Spatial demographic models can help guide monitoring and management activities targeting at-risk species, even in cases where baseline data are lacking. Here, we provide an example of how site-specific changes in land use and anthropogenic stressors can be incorporated into a spatial demographic model to investigate effects on population dynamics of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). Our study focused on a population of Golden Eagles exposed to risks associated with rapid increases in renewable energy development in southern California, U.S.A. We developed a spatially explicit, individual-based simulation model that integrated empirical data on demography of Golden Eagles with spatial data on the arrangement of nesting habitats, prey resources, and planned renewable energy development sites. Our model permitted simulated eagles of different stage-classes to disperse, establish home ranges, acquire prey resources, prospect for breeding sites, and reproduce. The distribution of nesting habitats, prey resources, and threats within each individual's home range influenced movement, reproduction, and survival. We used our model to explore potential effects of alternative disturbance scenarios, and proposed conservation strategies, on the future distribution and abundance of Golden Eagles in the study region. Results from our simulations suggest that probable increases in mortality associated with renewable energy infrastructure (e.g., collisions with wind turbines and vehicles, electrocution on power poles) could have negative consequences for population trajectories, but that site-specific conservation actions could reduce the magnitude of negative effects. Our study demonstrates the use of a flexible and expandable modeling framework to incorporate spatially dependent processes when determining relative effects of proposed management options to Golden Eagles and their habitats.

  18. Satellite tracking of two Lesser Spotted Eagles, Aquila pomarina, migrating from Namibia

    Meyburg, B.-U.; Ellis, D.H.; Meyburg, C.; Mendelsohn, J.M.; Scheller, W.

    2001-01-01

    One immature and one subadult Lesser Spotted Eagle, Aquila pomarina, were followed by satellite telemetry from their nonbreeding areas in Namibia. Both birds were fitted with transmitters (PTTs) in February 1994 and tracked, the immature for six months and three weeks, the subadult for eight months and two weeks, over distances of 10 084 and 16 773 km, respectively. During their time in Namibia both birds' movements were in response to good local rainfall. The immature eagle left Namibia at the end of February, the subadult at the end of March. They flew to their respective summer quarters in Hungary and the Ukraine, arriving there 2.5 and 1.5 months later than the breeding adults. The immature eagle took over two months longer on the homeward journey than a breeding male followed by telemetry in a previous study. On returning, the immature eagle followed the narrow flightpath through Africa used by other Lesser Spotted Eagles on their outward migration. It reached this corridor, which runs roughly between longitudes 31?? and 36?? East from Suez to Lake Tanganyika, veering from the shortest route in a direction east-northeast through Angola and Zambia to the southern end of Lake Tanganyika. The route taken by the subadult bird on its return migration differed markedly from that of all Lesser Spotted Eagles tracked to date, running further west through the Democratic Republic of Congo where, level with the equator, it flew over the eastern rainforest of that country. The outward migration, however, followed the same corridor and coincided in time with the migration of adults. [A German translation of the abstract is provided on p. 40.].

  19. Satellite tracking of two lesser spotted eagles Aquila pomarina, migrating from Namibia

    Meyburg, B.-U.; Ellis, D.H.; Meyburg, C.; Mendelsohn, J.; Scheller, W.

    2001-01-01

    One immature and one subadult Lesser Spotted Eagle, Aquila pomarina, were followed by satellite telemetry from their non-breeding areas in Namibia. Both birds were fitted with transmitters (PTTs) in February 1994 and tracked, the immature for six months and two weeks, over distances of 10084 and 16773 km, respectively. During their time in Namibia both birds? movements were in response to good local rainfall. The immature eagle left Namibia at the end of February, the subadult at the end of March. They flew to their respective summer quarters in Hungary and the Ukraine, arriving there 2.5 and 1.5 months later than the breeding adults. The immature eagle took over two months longer on the homeward journey than a breeding male followed by telemetry in a previous study. On returning, the immature eagle followed the narrow flightpath through Africa used by other Lesser Spotted Eagles on their outward migration. It reached this corridor, which runs roughly between longitudes 31? and 36? East from Suez to Lake Tanganyika, veering from the shortest route in a direction east-northeast through Angola and Zambia to the southern end of Lake Tanganyika. The route taken by the subadult bird on its return migration differed markedly from that of all Lesser Spotted Eagles tracked to date, running further west through the Democratic Republic of Congo where, level with the equator, it flew over the eastern rainforest of that country. The outward migration, however, followed the same corridor and coincided in time with the migration of adults.

  20. Paleogeothermal gradients and timing of oil generation in the Belden Formation, Eagle Basin, northwestern Colorado

    Nuccio, V.F.; Johnson, S.Y.; Schenk, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    Paleogeothermal gradients and timing of oil generation for the Lower and Middle Pennsylvanian Belden Formation have been estimated for four locations in the Eagle Basin of northwestern Colorado, by comparing measured vitrinite reflectance with maturity modeling. Two thermal models were made for each location: one assumes a constant paleogeothermal gradient through time while the other is a two-stage model with changing paleogeothermal gradients. The two-stage paleogeothermal gradient scenario is considered more geologically realistic and is used to estimate the timing of oil generation throughout the Eagle basin. From the data and interpretations, one would expect Belden oil to be found in either upper Paleozoic or Mesozoic reservoir rocks. -Authors

  1. The multiplicity of T Tauri stars in the star forming regions Taurus-Auriga and Ophiuchus-Scorpius: A 2.2 micron speckle imaging survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghez, A. M.; Neugebauer, G.; Matthews, K.

    1993-01-01

    We present the results of a magnitude limited (K less than = 8.5 mag) speckle imaging survey of 69 T Tauri stars in the star forming regions Taurus-Auriga and Ophiuchus-Scorpius. Thirty-three companion stars were found with separations ranging from 0.07 sec to 2.5 sec, nine are new detections. This survey reveals a distinction between the classical T Tauri stars (CTTS) and the weak-lined T Tauri stars (WTTS) based on the binary star frequency as a function of separation: the WTTS binary star distribution is enhanced at the closer separations (less than 50 AU) relative to the CTTS binary star distribution. We suggest that the nearby companion stars shorten the accretion time scale in multiple star systems, thereby accounting for the presence of WTTS that are coeval with many CTTS. The binary star frequency in the projected linear separation range 16 to 252 AU for T Tauri stars (60 (+/- 17)%) is a factor of 4 greater than that of the solar-type main-sequence stars (16(+/- 3)%). Given the limited separation range of this survey, the rate at which binaries are detected suggests that most, if not all, T Tauri stars have companions. We propose that the observed overabundance of companions of T Tauri stars is an evolutionary effect, in which triple and higher order T Tauri stars are disrupted by close encounters with another star or system of stars.

  2. The Spitzer Survey of Interstellar Clouds in the Gould Belt. VI. The Auriga-California Molecular Cloud Observed with IRAC and MIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Matthews, Brenda C.; Harvey, Paul M.; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Huard, Tracy L.; Tothill, Nicholas F. H.; Nutter, David; Bourke, Tyler L.; DiFrancesco, James; Jorgensen, Jes K.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present observations of the Auriga-California Molecular Cloud (AMC) at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, 24, 70 and 160 micrometers observed with the IRAC and MIPS detectors as part of the Spitzer Gould Belt Legacy Survey. The total mapped areas are 2.5 deg(exp 2) with IRAC and 10.47 deg2 with MIPS. This giant molecular cloud is one of two in the nearby Gould Belt of star-forming regions, the other being the Orion A Molecular Cloud (OMC). We compare source counts, colors and magnitudes in our observed region to a subset of the SWIRE data that was processed through our pipeline. Using color-magnitude and color-color diagrams, we find evidence for a substantial population of 166 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the cloud, many of which were previously unknown. Most of this population is concentrated around the LkH(alpha) 101 cluster and the filament extending from it. We present a quantitative description of the degree of clustering and discuss the fraction of YSOs in the region with disks relative to an estimate of the diskless YSO population. Although the AMC is similar in mass, size and distance to the OMC, it is forming about 15 - 20 times fewer stars.

  3. Golden eagle population trends in the western United States: 1968-2010

    Millsap, Brian A.; Zimmerman, Guthrie S.; Sauer, John R.; Nielson, Ryan M.; Otto, Mark; Bjerre, Emily; Murphy, Robert K.

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service promulgated permit regulations for the unintentional lethal take (anthropogenic mortality) and disturbance of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). Accurate population trend and size information for golden eagles are needed so agency biologists can make informed decisions when eagle take permits are requested. To address this need with available data, we used a log-linear hierarchical model to average data from a late-summer aerial-line-transect distance-sampling survey (WGES) of golden eagles in the United States portions of Bird Conservation Region (BCR) 9 (Great Basin), BCR 10 (Northern Rockies), BCR 16 (Southern Rockies/Colorado Plateau), and BCR 17 (Badlands and Prairies) from 2006 to 2010 with late-spring, early summer Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data for the same BCRs and years to estimate summer golden eagle population size and trends in these BCRs. We used the ratio of the density estimates from the WGES to the BBS index to calculate a BCR-specific adjustment factor that scaled the BBS index (i.e., birds per route) to a density estimate. Our results indicated golden eagle populations were generally stable from 2006 to 2010 in the 4 BCRs, with an estimated average rate of population change of −0.41% (95% credible interval [CI]: −4.17% to 3.40%) per year. For the 4 BCRs and years, we estimated annual golden eagle population size to range from 28,220 (95% CI: 23,250–35,110) in 2007 to 26,490 (95% CI: 21,760–32,680) in 2008. We found a general correspondence in trends between WGES and BBS data for these 4 BCRs, which suggested BBS data were providing useful trend information. We used the overall adjustment factor calculated from the 4 BCRs and years to scale BBS golden eagle counts from 1968 to 2005 for the 4 BCRs and for 1968 to 2010 for the 8 other BCRs (without WGES data) to estimate golden eagle population size and trends across the western United States for the period 1968 to 2010. In general, we

  4. Chromosome reshuffling in birds of prey: the karyotype of the world's largest eagle (Harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja) compared to that of the chicken (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Edivaldo H C; Habermann, Felix A; Lacerda, Oneida; Sbalqueiro, Ives J; Wienberg, Johannes; Müller, Stefan

    2005-11-01

    Like various other diurnal birds of prey, the world's largest eagle, the Harpy (Harpia harpyja), presents an atypical bird karyotype with 2n=58 chromosomes. There is little knowledge about the dramatic changes in the genomic reorganization of these species compared to other birds. Since recently, the chicken provides a "default map" for various birds including the first genomic DNA sequence of a bird species. Obviously, the gross division of the chicken genome into relatively gene-poor macrochromosomes and predominantly gene-rich microchromosomes has been conserved for more than 150 million years in most bird species. Here, we present classical features of the Harpy eagle karyotype but also chromosomal homologies between H. harpyja and the chicken by chromosome painting and comparison to the chicken genome map. We used two different sets of painting probes: (1) chicken chromosomes were divided into three size categories: (a) macrochromosomes 1-5 and Z, (b) medium-sized chromosomes 6-10, and (c) 19 microchromosomes; (2) combinatorially labeled chicken chromosome paints 1-6 and Z. Both probe sets were visualized on H. harpyja chromosomes by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Our data show how the organization into micro- and macrochromosomes has been lost in the Harpy eagle, seemingly without any preference or constraints.

  5. Genetic diversity of a newly established population of golden eagles on the Channel Islands, California

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Coonan, Timothy J.; Latta, Brian C.; Sage, George K.; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Gene flow can have profound effects on the genetic diversity of a founding population depending on the number and relationship among colonizers and the duration of the colonization event. Here we used data from nuclear microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA control region loci to assess genetic diversity in golden eagles of the recently colonized Channel Islands, California. Genetic diversity in the Channel Island population was low, similar to signatures observed for other recent colonizing island populations. Differences in levels of genetic diversity and structure observed between mainland California and the islands suggests that few individuals were involved in the initial founding event, and may have comprised a family group. The spatial genetic structure observed between Channel Island and mainland California golden eagle populations across marker types, and genetic signature of population decline observed for the Channel Island population, suggest a single or relatively quick colonization event. Polarity in gene flow estimates based on mtDNA confirm an initial colonization of the Channel Islands by mainland golden eagles, but estimates from microsatellite data suggest that golden eagles on the islands were dispersing more recently to the mainland, possibly after reaching the carrying capacity of the island system. These results illustrate the strength of founding events on the genetic diversity of a population, and confirm that changes to genetic diversity can occur within just a few generations.

  6. Hazardous Waste Cleanup: Sunoco Incorporated - R&M Eagle Point Refinery in Westville, New Jersey

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Sunoco, Inc. - R&M Eagle Point Refinery is located on Route 295 & 130 in Westville, West Deptford Township, New Jersey. The site is a 1,000-acre oil refinery on the Delaware River, 550 acres of which is an active production area.

  7. Assessing cumulative impacts to wintering Bald Eagles and their habitats in western Washington

    SciT

    Witmer, G.W.; O'Neil, T.A.

    Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) of Washington, the largest wintering population in the lower 48 states, are subject to numerous pressures and impacts from human activites. An evaluative method potential cumulative impacts of multiple hydroelectric development and logging activities on known and potential eagle use areas. Four resource components include food supply, roost sites, mature riparian forest, and disturbance. In addition to actual estimates of losses in food supply (fish biomass in kg) and habitat (km/sup 2/) in one river basin, impact levels from 0 (none) to 4 (high) were assigned for each development and for each component based on themore » impacts anticipated and the estimated value of the site to eagles. Midwinter eagle surveys, aerial photography, topographic and forest stand maps, and site visits were used in the analysis. Impacts were considered additive for all but the disturbance component, which was adjusted for potential synergism between developments. Adjustments were made for mitigation before the impacts were aggregated into a single, dimensionless cumulative impact score. 50 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.« less

  8. NREL Testing Erigo's and EaglePicher's Microgrid Energy Storage System |

    EaglePicher's Microgrid Energy Storage System NREL researchers are testing an energy storage system for a contains three independently controllable energy storage technologies. Photo of energy storage system hardware in a laboratory Photo by Dennis Schroeder Microgrids-and effective storage systems supporting them

  9. 78 FR 143 - Desert Mining, Inc., Eagle Broadband, Inc., Endovasc, Inc., Environmental Oil Processing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Desert Mining, Inc., Eagle Broadband, Inc., Endovasc, Inc., Environmental Oil Processing Technology Corp., Falcon Ridge Development, Inc., Fellows... Environmental Oil Processing Technology Corp. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period...

  10. 50 CFR 22.28 - Permits for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the Endangered Species Act. 22.28 Section 22.28 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act. (a) Purpose and scope. This permit... section 7 incidental take statement under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA) (16 U.S.C...

  11. Night roosts of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) wintering in northern Arizona

    Prabin K. Joshi

    2009-01-01

    Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were delisted from threatened or endangered status in 2007 in the conterminous states because of their encouraging comeback throughout most of North America. However the recent court decision on 1 May 2008 forced USFWS to issue a rule to amend the regulations for the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife by...

  12. 50 CFR 22.28 - Permits for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the Endangered Species Act. 22.28 Section 22.28 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act. (a) Purpose and scope. This permit... section 7 incidental take statement under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA) (16 U.S.C...

  13. 50 CFR 22.28 - Permits for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the Endangered Species Act. 22.28 Section 22.28 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act. (a) Purpose and scope. This permit... section 7 incidental take statement under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA) (16 U.S.C...

  14. 50 CFR 22.28 - Permits for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the Endangered Species Act. 22.28 Section 22.28 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act. (a) Purpose and scope. This permit... section 7 incidental take statement under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA) (16 U.S.C...

  15. 50 CFR 22.28 - Permits for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the Endangered Species Act. 22.28 Section 22.28 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act. (a) Purpose and scope. This permit... section 7 incidental take statement under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA) (16 U.S.C...

  16. A survey of potential bald eagle nesting habitat along the Great Lakes shoreline

    William W. Bowerman; Teryl G. Grubb; Allen J. Bath; John P. Giesy; D.V. Chip Weseloh

    2005-01-01

    We used fixed-wing aircraft to survey the entire shoreline and connecting channels of the five Great Lakes to determine potential nesting habitat for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) during 1992. Habitat was classified as either good, marginal, or unsuitable, based on six habitat attributes: (a) tree cover, (b) proximity and (c) type/amount...

  17. Bald eagles view their territory atop a utility pole at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This pair of bald eagles appear unhappy as the focus of the camera while they perch together on the top of a utility pole at Kennedy Space Center. The Center counts more than half a dozen bald eagles among the denizens of its site, especially since KSC shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. The Southern bald eagle is no stranger to Florida as it ranges throughout the state and along the coasts of California, Texas, Louisiana and south Atlantic states. Most southern Florida eagles nesting at KSC arrive during late summer and leave for the north in late spring. They move to nest sites in October and November and lay one to three eggs. The young fledge from February to April. The Refuge encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  18. 77 FR 4825 - Golden Eagles; Programmatic Take Permit Application; Draft Environmental Assessment; West Butte...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... regulations, as well as the first eagle take permit issued to a wind- energy company. Background BGEPA allows... methods. Email: pacific_birds@fws.gov . Include ``DEA for the West Butte Wind Project'' in the subject..., Division of Migratory Birds and Habitat Programs, Pacific Region, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 911 NE...

  19. 77 FR 129 - Golden Eagles; Programmatic Take Permit Application; Draft Environmental Assessment; West Butte...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... permit issued to a wind- energy company. Background BGEPA allows us to authorize bald eagle and golden... information by one of the following methods. Email: pacific_birds@fws.gov . Include ``DEA for the West Butte... Michael Green, Acting Chief, Division of Migratory Birds and Habitat Programs, Pacific Region, U.S. Fish...

  20. Influences of Eagle Ford Shale Development on Superintendent Leadership Experiences: A Phenomenological Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moczygemba, Jeanette Winn

    2017-01-01

    This phenomenological narrative study examined the effects of the Eagle Ford Shale development upon public school superintendent leadership experiences during the boom phase of the energy industry expansion. The four research questions investigated the shale development's influence on experiences in the areas of instruction, finance and…

  1. To migrate, stay put, or wander? Varied movement strategies in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    PubMed

    Wheat, Rachel E; Lewis, Stephen B; Wang, Yiwei; Levi, Taal; Wilmers, Christopher C

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying individual variability in movement behavior is critical to understanding population-level patterns in animals. Here, we explore intraspecific variation in movement strategies of bald eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) in the north Pacific, where there is high spatiotemporal resource variability. We tracked 28 bald eagles (five immature, 23 adult) using GPS transmitters between May 2010 and January 2016. We found evidence of four movement strategies among bald eagles in southeastern Alaska and western Canada: breeding individuals that were largely sedentary and remained near nest sites year-round, non-breeding migratory individuals that made regular seasonal travel between northern summer and southern winter ranges, non-breeding localized individuals that displayed fidelity to foraging sites, and non-breeding nomadic individuals with irregular movement. On average, males traveled farther per day than females. Most nomadic individuals were immature, and all residential individuals (i.e. breeders and localized birds) were adults. Alternative movement strategies among north Pacific eagles are likely associated with the age and sex class, as well as breeding status, of an individual. Intraspecific variation in movement strategies within the population results in different space use patterns among contingents, which has important implications for conservation and management.

  2. 50 CFR 22.25 - What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... This information will be used to review permit applications and make decisions, according to the... Director—Attention: Migratory Bird Permit Office. You can find addresses for the appropriate Regional... preservation of the area nesting population of golden eagles. In making such determination, the Director shall...

  3. Radioactivity at the Copper Creek copper lode prospect, Eagle district, east-central Alaska

    Wedow, Helmuth; Tolbert, Gene Edward

    1952-01-01

    Investigation of radioactivity anomalies at the Copper Creek copper lode prospect, Eagle district, east-central Alaska, during 1949 disclosed that the radioactivity is associated with copper mineralization in highly metamorphosed sedimentary rocks. These rocks are a roof pendant in the Mesozoic "Charley River" batholith. The radioactivity is probably all due to uranium associated with bornite and malachite.

  4. 50 CFR 22.25 - What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... nests are inactive, if the taking is compatible with the preservation of the area nesting population of... by the Office of Management and Budget under 44 U.S.C. 3507 and assigned clearance number 1018-0022... which the applicant is engaged; (2) The number of golden eagle nests proposed to be taken; (3) A...

  5. 50 CFR 22.25 - What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... nests are inactive, if the taking is compatible with the preservation of the area nesting population of... by the Office of Management and Budget under 44 U.S.C. 3507 and assigned clearance number 1018-0022... which the applicant is engaged; (2) The number of golden eagle nests proposed to be taken; (3) A...

  6. 50 CFR 22.25 - What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... nests are inactive, if the taking is compatible with the preservation of the area nesting population of... by the Office of Management and Budget under 44 U.S.C. 3507 and assigned clearance number 1018-0022... which the applicant is engaged; (2) The number of golden eagle nests proposed to be taken; (3) A...

  7. 50 CFR 22.25 - What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... nests are inactive, if the taking is compatible with the preservation of the area nesting population of... by the Office of Management and Budget under 44 U.S.C. 3507 and assigned clearance number 1018-0022... which the applicant is engaged; (2) The number of golden eagle nests proposed to be taken; (3) A...

  8. If Animals Could Talk: Bald Eagle, Bear, Florida Panther, Gopher Tortoise, Indigo Snake, Manatee, Otter, Raccoon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinellas County District School Board, Clearwater, FL.

    In this series of booklets, eight Florida animals describe their appearance, habitats, food, behavior, and relationships with humans. Each entry is written for elementary students from the animal's point of view and includes a bibliography. Contained are the life stories of the bald eagle, black bear, Florida panther, gopher tortoise, Eastern…

  9. 75 FR 62895 - Notice of Availability of Safety Evaluation Report; AREVA Enrichment Services LLC, Eagle Rock...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... Evaluation Report; AREVA Enrichment Services LLC, Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility, Bonneville County, ID... report. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Breeda Reilly, Senior Project Manager, Advanced Fuel Cycle, Enrichment, and Uranium Conversion, Division of Fuel Cycle Safety and Safeguards, Office of Nuclear Material...

  10. Provisioning rates and time budgets of adult and nestling Bald Eagles at Inland Wisconsin nests

    Keith, Warnke D.; Andersen, D.E.; Dykstra, C.R.; Meyer, M.W.; Karasov, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    We used a remote video recording system and direct observation to quantify provisioning rate and adult and nestling behavior at Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nests in north-central Wisconsin in 1992 (N = 5) and 1993 (N = 8). Eagles nesting in this region have a high reproductive rate (??? 1.3 young/occupied territory), and the number of occupied territories has expanded nearly three-fold since 1980. The season-long provisioning rate averaged 5.2 prey deliveries/nest/d and 3.0 prey deliveries/nestling/d, and did not vary by year or with nestling number or age. Fish (Osteichthyes) made up 97% of identified prey deliveries followed by reptiles (Reptilia) (1.5%), birds (Aves) (1.2%), and mammals (Mammalia) (0.6%). Nearly 85% of prey items were >15 cm and 90% of the day and was negatively correlated with nestling age. Time adults spent feeding nestlings was negatively correlated with nestling age. Nestlings stood or sat in the nest >30% of the day, began to feed themselves, and exhibited increased mobility in the nest at 6-8 wk. We identified three stages of the nestling period and several benchmarks that may be useful when scheduling data collection for comparison of Bald Eagle nesting behavior. Our results support the hypothesis that food was not limiting this breeding population of Bald Eagles. ?? 2002 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  11. Golden eagle indifference to heli-skiing and military helicopters in northern Utah

    Teryl G. Grubb; David K. Delaney; William W. Bowerman; Michael R. Wierda

    2010-01-01

    In 2006-2007, during Wasatch Powderbird Guides (WPG) permit renewal for heli-skiing in the Tri-Canyon Area (TCA) of the Wasatch Mountains, Utah, USA, we recorded 303 helicopter passes between 0 m and 3,000 m (horizontal distance) near >30 individual golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in 22 nesting territories, through passive observation and active experimentation...

  12. Golden Eagle fatalities and the continental-scale consequences of local wind-energy generation

    Katzner, Todd E.; Nelson, David M.; Braham, Melissa A.; Doyle, Jacqueline M.; Fernandez, Nadia B.; Duerr, Adam E.; Bloom, Peter H.; Fitzpatrick, Matthew C.; Miller, Tricia A.; Culver, Renee C. E.; Braswell, Loan; DeWoody, J. Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy production is expanding rapidly despite mostly unknown environmental effects on wildlife and habitats. We used genetic and stable isotope data collected from Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) killed at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (APWRA) in California in demographic models to test hypotheses about the geographic extent and demographic consequences of fatalities caused by renewable energy facilities. Geospatial analyses of δ2H values obtained from feathers showed that ≥25% of these APWRA-killed eagles were recent immigrants to the population, most from long distances away (>100 km). Data from nuclear genes indicated this subset of immigrant eagles was genetically similar to birds identified as locals from the δ2H data. Demographic models implied that in the face of this mortality, the apparent stability of the local Golden Eagle population was maintained by continental-scale immigration. These analyses demonstrate that ecosystem management decisions concerning the effects of local-scale renewable energy can have continental-scale consequences.

  13. 78 FR 900 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Alaska: Eagle River PM10

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ...-7] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Alaska: Eagle River PM 10... National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less... under section 110 and part D of the CAA? D. Has the State demonstrated that the air quality improvement...

  14. 76 FR 6114 - Lincoln National Forest, New Mexico, North Fork Eagle Creek Wells Special Use Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... groundwater drawdown from this well field to maintain surface flows and protect water-dependent ecosystems.... The United States Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the independent study from 2007-2009 to determine... during both time periods, there were no days of zero flow recorded at the Eagle Creek gage from 1969-1980...

  15. Estimation of paleogeothermal gradients and their relationship to timing of petroleum generation, Eagle basin, northwestern Colorado

    SciT

    Nuccio, V.F.; Schenk, C.J.

    1988-02-01

    Lopatin time-temperature index (TTI) modeling of three locations in the Eagle basin, northwestern Colorado, where vitrinite reflectance (R/sub m/) profiles were obtained, shows that paleogeothermal gradients and the timing of oil generation in the Belden Formation (Pennsylvanian) varied due to differing thickness of the Pennsylvanian section across the basin.

  16. The Genome Sequence of a Widespread Apex Predator, the Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Jacqueline M.; Katzner, Todd E.; Bloom, Peter H.; Ji, Yanzhu; Wijayawardena, Bhagya K.; DeWoody, J. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Biologists routinely use molecular markers to identify conservation units, to quantify genetic connectivity, to estimate population sizes, and to identify targets of selection. Many imperiled eagle populations require such efforts and would benefit from enhanced genomic resources. We sequenced, assembled, and annotated the first eagle genome using DNA from a male golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) captured in western North America. We constructed genomic libraries that were sequenced using Illumina technology and assembled the high-quality data to a depth of ∼40x coverage. The genome assembly includes 2,552 scaffolds >10 Kb and 415 scaffolds >1.2 Mb. We annotated 16,571 genes that are involved in myriad biological processes, including such disparate traits as beak formation and color vision. We also identified repetitive regions spanning 92 Mb (∼6% of the assembly), including LINES, SINES, LTR-RTs and DNA transposons. The mitochondrial genome encompasses 17,332 bp and is ∼91% identical to the Mountain Hawk-Eagle (Nisaetus nipalensis). Finally, the data reveal that several anonymous microsatellites commonly used for population studies are embedded within protein-coding genes and thus may not have evolved in a neutral fashion. Because the genome sequence includes ∼800,000 novel polymorphisms, markers can now be chosen based on their proximity to functional genes involved in migration, carnivory, and other biological processes. PMID:24759626

  17. Human values and codes of behavior: Changes in Oregon's Eagle Cap Wilderness visitors and their attitudes

    Alan E. Watson; John C. Hendee; Hans P. Zaglauer

    1996-01-01

    A study of visitors to Oregon's Eagle Cap Wilderness in 1965 offered a baseline against which to evaluate how those who recreate in wilderness have changed their views of wilderness. A study of visitors to that same wilderness area in 1993 provided comparative data. Some characteristics of the visitors changed in ways that would suggest that the values visitors...

  18. CHARACTERIZATION AND FATE OF PAH-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS AT THE WYCKOFF/EAGLE HARBOR SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eagle Harbor is a shallow marine embayment of Bainbridge Island, WA and formerly the site of the Wyckoff wood-treatment facility. The facility became operational in the early 1900s and used large quantities of creosote in its wood-treating processes. Creosote percolated through t...

  19. Golden Eagle fatalities and the continental-scale consequences of local wind-energy generation.

    PubMed

    Katzner, Todd E; Nelson, David M; Braham, Melissa A; Doyle, Jacqueline M; Fernandez, Nadia B; Duerr, Adam E; Bloom, Peter H; Fitzpatrick, Matthew C; Miller, Tricia A; Culver, Renee C E; Braswell, Loan; DeWoody, J Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Renewable energy production is expanding rapidly despite mostly unknown environmental effects on wildlife and habitats. We used genetic and stable isotope data collected from Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) killed at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (APWRA) in California in demographic models to test hypotheses about the geographic extent and demographic consequences of fatalities caused by renewable energy facilities. Geospatial analyses of δ 2 H values obtained from feathers showed that ≥25% of these APWRA-killed eagles were recent immigrants to the population, most from long distances away (>100 km). Data from nuclear genes indicated this subset of immigrant eagles was genetically similar to birds identified as locals from the δ 2 H data. Demographic models implied that in the face of this mortality, the apparent stability of the local Golden Eagle population was maintained by continental-scale immigration. These analyses demonstrate that ecosystem management decisions concerning the effects of local-scale renewable energy can have continental-scale consequences. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Data Release of UV to Submillimeter Broadband Fluxes for Simulated Galaxies from the EAGLE Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camps, Peter; Trčka, Ana; Trayford, James; Baes, Maarten; Theuns, Tom; Crain, Robert A.; McAlpine, Stuart; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop

    2018-02-01

    We present dust-attenuated and dust emission fluxes for sufficiently resolved galaxies in the EAGLE suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, calculated with the SKIRT radiative transfer code. The post-processing procedure includes specific components for star formation regions, stellar sources, and diffuse dust and takes into account stochastic heating of dust grains to obtain realistic broadband fluxes in the wavelength range from ultraviolet to submillimeter. The mock survey includes nearly half a million simulated galaxies with stellar masses above {10}8.5 {M}ȯ across six EAGLE models. About two-thirds of these galaxies, residing in 23 redshift bins up to z = 6, have a sufficiently resolved metallic gas distribution to derive meaningful dust attenuation and emission, with the important caveat that the same dust properties were used at all redshifts. These newly released data complement the already publicly available information about the EAGLE galaxies, which includes intrinsic properties derived by aggregating the properties of the smoothed particles representing matter in the simulation. We further provide an open-source framework of Python procedures for post-processing simulated galaxies with the radiative transfer code SKIRT. The framework allows any third party to calculate synthetic images, spectral energy distributions, and broadband fluxes for EAGLE galaxies, taking into account the effects of dust attenuation and emission.

  1. NPDES Permit for Eagle Oil and Gas Company – Sheldon Dome Field in Wyoming

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit WY-0020338, the Eagle Oil and Gas Company is authorized to discharge from its Sheldon Dome Field wastewater treatment facility in Fremont County, Wyoming, to an unnamed ephemeral tributary of Dry Creek, a tributary to the Wind River.

  2. Biotelemetry data for golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) captured in coastal southern California, November 2014–February 2016

    Tracey, Jeff A.; Madden, Melanie C.; Sebes, Jeremy B.; Bloom, Peter H.; Katzner, Todd E.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2016-04-21

    The status of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in coastal southern California is unclear. To address this knowledge gap, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with local, State, and other Federal agencies began a multi-year survey and tracking program of golden eagles to address questions regarding habitat use, movement behavior, nest occupancy, genetic population structure, and human impacts on eagles. Golden eagle trapping and tracking efforts began in October 2014 and continued until early March 2015. During the first trapping season that focused on San Diego County, we captured 13 golden eagles (8 females and 5 males). During the second trapping season that began in November 2015, we focused on trapping sites in San Diego, Orange, and western Riverside Counties. By February 23, 2016, we captured an additional 14 golden eagles (7 females and 7 males). In this report, biotelemetry data were collected between November 22, 2014, and February 23, 2016. The location data for eagles ranged as far north as San Luis Obispo, California, and as far south as La Paz, Baja California, Mexico.

  3. Davis Pond freshwater prediversion biomonitoring study: freshwater fisheries and eagles

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Bourgeois, E. Beth; Jeske, Clint W.

    2008-01-01

    In January 2001, the construction of the Davis Pond freshwater diversion structure was completed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The diversion of freshwater from the Mississippi River is intended to mitigate saltwater intrusion from the Gulf of Mexico and to lessen the concomitant loss of wetland areas. In addition to the freshwater inflow, Barataria Bay basin would receive nutrients, increased flows of sediments, and water-borne and sediment-bound compounds. The purpose of this biomonitoring study was, therefore, to serve as a baseline for prediversion concentrations of selected contaminants in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nestlings (hereafter referred to as eaglets), representative freshwater fish, and bivalves. Samples were collected from January through June 2001. Two similarly designed postdiversion studies, as described in the biological monitoring program, are planned. Active bald eagle nests targeted for sampling eaglet blood (n = 6) were generally located southwest and south of the diversion structure. The designated sites for aquatic animal sampling were at Lake Salvador, at Lake Cataouatche, at Bayou Couba, and along the Mississippi River. Aquatic animals representative of eagle prey were collected. Fish were from three different trophic levels and have varying feeding strategies and life histories. These included herbivorous striped mullet (Mugil cephalus), omnivorous blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus), and carnivorous largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Three individuals per species were collected at each of the four sampling sites. Freshwater Atlantic rangia clams (Rangia cuneata) were collected at the downstream marsh sites, and zebra mussels (Dreissena spp.) were collected on the Mississippi River. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) protocols served as guides for fish sampling and health assessments. Fish are useful for monitoring aquatic ecosystems because they accumulate

  4. The utility of point count surveys to predict wildlife interactions with wind energy facilities: An example focused on golden eagles

    Sur, Maitreyi; Belthoff, James R.; Bjerre, Emily R.; Millsap, Brian A.; Katzner, Todd

    2018-01-01

    Wind energy development is rapidly expanding in North America, often accompanied by requirements to survey potential facility locations for existing wildlife. Within the USA, golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) are among the most high-profile species of birds that are at risk from wind turbines. To minimize golden eagle fatalities in areas proposed for wind development, modified point count surveys are usually conducted to estimate use by these birds. However, it is not always clear what drives variation in the relationship between on-site point count data and actual use by eagles of a wind energy project footprint. We used existing GPS-GSM telemetry data, collected at 15 min intervals from 13 golden eagles in 2012 and 2013, to explore the relationship between point count data and eagle use of an entire project footprint. To do this, we overlaid the telemetry data on hypothetical project footprints and simulated a variety of point count sampling strategies for those footprints. We compared the time an eagle was found in the sample plots with the time it was found in the project footprint using a metric we called “error due to sampling”. Error due to sampling for individual eagles appeared to be influenced by interactions between the size of the project footprint (20, 40, 90 or 180 km2) and the sampling type (random, systematic or stratified) and was greatest on 90 km2 plots. However, use of random sampling resulted in lowest error due to sampling within intermediate sized plots. In addition sampling intensity and sampling frequency both influenced the effectiveness of point count sampling. Although our work focuses on individual eagles (not the eagle populations typically surveyed in the field), our analysis shows both the utility of simulations to identify specific influences on error and also potential improvements to sampling that consider the context-specific manner that point counts are laid out on the landscape.

  5. Resource availability and diet in Harpy Eagle breeding territories on the Xingu River, Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Aguiar-Silva, F H; Junqueira, T G; Sanaiotti, T M; Guimarães, V Y; Mathias, P V C; Mendonça, C V

    2015-08-01

    In the Tapajos-Xingu interfluve, one of the largest birds of prey, the Harpy Eagle, is under intense anthropogenic pressure due to historical and recent reductions in forest cover. We studied prey availability and use by Harpy Eagle on six breeding territories on the low- and mid-Xingu River, between 2013 and 2015. We evaluated food resource availability using the environmental-surveys database from two methods: terrestrial surveys (RAPELD method) and fauna rescue/flushing before vegetation suppression for the Belo Monte Hydroelectric Complex construction. Harpy Eagle diet was identified by prey remains sampled around six nest trees. Eighteen species of mammals, birds and reptiles comprised the prey items. Most prey species were sloths, primates and porcupines, which have arboreal habits and are found in forested areas, but two species, hoatzin and iguana, are usually associated with riverine habitats. The proportion of prey from each species predated on the nest best studied was different from estimated availability (χ2 = 54.23; df = 16; p < 0.001), however there was a positive correlation (rs = 0.7; p < 0.01) between prey species consumed and abundance available, where the predation was more on species more abundant. Continuous monitoring of the Harpy Eagle diet at these nests could evidence changes in the assemblage of prey species available for Harpy Eagles, due to changes in the seasonal flood pulse of the Xingu River to be caused by the operation of the hydroelectric dam, and changes in habitat features by forest reduction around breeding territories. We believe that it is important to consider the protection of remnants of forested areas in the landscape matrix surrounding the breeding territories to maintain the food resource availability and allow all pairs to successfully reproduce.

  6. Energy Intensity and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Oil Production in the Eagle Ford Shale

    SciT

    Yeh, Sonia; Ghandi, Abbas; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    A rapid increase in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing in shale and “tight” formations that began around 2000 has resulted in record increases in oil and natural gas production in the U.S. This study examines energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from crude oil and natural gas produced from ~8,200 wells in the Eagle Ford Shale in southern Texas from 2009 to 2013. Our system boundary includes processes from primary exploration wells to the refinery entrance gate (henceforth well-to-refinery or WTR). The Eagle Ford includes four distinct production zones—black oil (BO), volatile oil (VO), condensate (C), and dry gasmore » (G) zones—with average monthly gas-to-liquids ratios (thousand cubic feet per barrel—Mcf/bbl) varying from 0.91 in the BO zone to 13.9 in the G zone. Total energy consumed in drilling, extracting, processing, and operating an Eagle Ford well is ~1.5% of the energy content of the produced crude and gas in the BO and VO zones, compared with 2.2% in the C and G zones. On average, the WTR GHG emissions of gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel derived from crude oil produced in the BO and VO zones in the Eagle Ford play are 4.3, 5.0, and 5.1 gCO2e/MJ, respectively. Comparing with other known conventional and unconventional crude production where upstream GHG emissions are in the range 5.9–30 gCO2e/MJ, oil production in the Eagle Ford has lower WTR GHG emissions.« less

  7. Solving Man-Induced Large-Scale Conservation Problems: The Spanish Imperial Eagle and Power Lines

    PubMed Central

    López-López, Pascual; Ferrer, Miguel; Madero, Agustín; Casado, Eva; McGrady, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Man-induced mortality of birds caused by electrocution with poorly-designed pylons and power lines has been reported to be an important mortality factor that could become a major cause of population decline of one of the world rarest raptors, the Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti). Consequently it has resulted in an increasing awareness of this problem amongst land managers and the public at large, as well as increased research into the distribution of electrocution events and likely mitigation measures. Methodology/Principal Findings We provide information of how mitigation measures implemented on a regional level under the conservation program of the Spanish imperial eagle have resulted in a positive shift of demographic trends in Spain. A 35 years temporal data set (1974–2009) on mortality of Spanish imperial eagle was recorded, including population censuses, and data on electrocution and non-electrocution of birds. Additional information was obtained from 32 radio-tracked young eagles and specific field surveys. Data were divided into two periods, before and after the approval of a regional regulation of power line design in 1990 which established mandatory rules aimed at minimizing or eliminating the negative impacts of power lines facilities on avian populations. Our results show how population size and the average annual percentage of population change have increased between the two periods, whereas the number of electrocuted birds has been reduced in spite of the continuous growing of the wiring network. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that solving bird electrocution is an affordable problem if political interest is shown and financial investment is made. The combination of an adequate spatial planning with a sustainable development of human infrastructures will contribute positively to the conservation of the Spanish imperial eagle and may underpin population growth and range expansion, with positive side effects on other endangered

  8. Strength and Deformability of Light-toned Layered Deposits Observed by MER Opportunity: Eagle to Erebus Craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, C. H.; Schultz, R. A.; Nahm, A. L.

    2007-07-01

    The strength and deformability of light-toned layered deposits are estimated based on measurements of porosity from Microscopic Imager data acquired by MER Opportunity during its traverse from Eagle Crater to Erebus Crater.

  9. Age of the youngest volcanism at Eagle Lake, northeastern California—40Ar/39Ar and paleomagnetic results

    Clynne, Michael A.; Calvert, Andrew T.; Champion, Duane E.; Muffler, L.J.P.; Sawlan, Michael G.; Downs, Drew T.

    2017-03-22

    The age of the youngest volcanism at Eagle Lake, California, was investigated using stratigraphic, paleomagnetic, and 40Ar/39Ar techniques. The three youngest volcanic lava flows at Eagle Lake yielded ages of 130.0±5.1, 127.5±3.2 and 123.6±18.7 ka, and are statistically indistinguishable. Paleomagnetic results demonstrate that two of the lava flows are very closely spaced in time, whereas the third is different by centuries to at most a few millennia. These results indicate that the basalt lava flows at Eagle Lake are not Holocene in age, and were erupted during an episode of volcanism at about 130–125 ka that is unlikely to have spanned more than a few thousand years. Thus, the short-term potential for subsequent volcanism at Eagle Lake is considered low. 

  10. Probability of Unmixed Young Groundwater (defined using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities) in the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, Niel

    2009-01-01

    This raster data set delineates the predicted probability of unmixed young groundwater (defined using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities) in groundwater in the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007. This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. This groundwater probability map and its associated probability maps were developed as follows: (1) A point data set of wells with groundwater quality and groundwater age data was overlaid with thematic layers of anthropogenic (related to human activities) and hydrogeologic data by using a geographic information system to assign each well values for depth to groundwater, distance to major streams and canals, distance to gypsum beds, precipitation, soils, and well depth. These data then were downloaded to a statistical software package for analysis by logistic regression. (2) Statistical models predicting the probability of elevated nitrate concentrations, the probability of unmixed young water (using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities), and the probability of elevated volatile organic compound concentrations were developed using logistic regression techniques. (3) The statistical models were entered into a GIS and the probability map was constructed.

  11. Count trends for migratory Bald Eagles reveal differences between two populations at a spring site along the Lake Ontario shoreline

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The recovery of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucophalus), after DDT and other organochlorine insecticides were banned in the United States, can be regarded as one of the most iconic success stories resulting from the Endangered Species Act. Interest remains high in the recovery and growth of the Bald Eagle population. Common to evaluating growth and recovery rates are counts at nesting sites and analyses of individuals fledged per season. But this is merely one snapshot that ignores survival rates as eagles grow to maturity. By analyzing indices from migration counts, we get a different snapshot better reflecting the survival of young birds. Different populations of Bald Eagles breed at different sites at different times of the year. Typical migration count analyses do not separate the populations. A separation of two distinct populations can be achieved at spring count sites by taking advantage of the tendency for northern summer breeding birds to migrate north in spring earlier than southern winter breeding birds who disperse north later in spring. In this paper I analyze migratory indices at a spring site along Lake Ontario. The analysis shows that eagles considered to be primarily of the northern summer breeding population showed an estimated growth rate of 5.3 ± 0.85% (SE) per year with 49% of eagles tallied in adult plumage, whereas the migrants considered to be primarily of the southern breeding population had an estimated growth rate of 14.0 ± 1.79% with only 22% in adult plumage. Together these results argue that the populations of southern breeding Bald Eagles are growing at a substantially higher rate than northern breeding eagles. These findings suggest that aggregate population indices for a species at migration counting sites can sometimes obscure important differences among separate populations at any given site and that separating counts by time period can be a useful way to check for differences among sub-populations. PMID:27231647

  12. West Nile Virus transmission in winter: the 2013 Great Salt Lake Bald Eagle and Eared Grebes Mortality event

    Ip, Hon S.; Van Wettere, Arnaud J.; McFarlan, Leslie; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Dickson, Sammie L.; Baker, JoDee; Hatch, Gary; Cavender, Kimberly; Long, Renee Romaine; Bodenstein, Barbara L.

    2014-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) infection has been reported in over 300 species of birds and mammals. Raptors such as eagles, hawks and falcons are remarkably susceptible, but reports of WNV infection in Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) are rare and reports of WNV infection in grebes (Podicipediformes) even rarer. We report an unusually large wild bird mortality event involving between 15,000-20,000 Eared Grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) and over 40 Bald Eagles around the Great Salt Lake, Utah, in November-December 2013. Mortality in grebes was first reported in early November during a period when the area was unseasonably warm and the grebes were beginning to gather and stage prior to migration. Ten out of ten Eared Grebes collected during this period were WNV RT-PCR and/or isolation positive. This is the first report of WNV infection in Eared Grebes and the associated mortality event is matched in scale only by the combined outbreaks in American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) colonies in the north central states in 2002-2003. We cannot be sure that all of the grebes were infected by mosquito transmission; some may have become infected through contact with WNV shed orally or cloacally from other infected grebes. Beginning in early December, Bald Eagles in the Great Salt Lake area were observed to display neurological signs such as body tremors, limb paralysis and lethargy. At least 43 Bald Eagles had died by the end of the month. Nine of nine Bald Eagles examined were infected with WNV. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest single raptor mortality event since WNV became endemic in the USA. Because the majority of the eagles affected were found after onset of below-freezing temperatures, we suggest at least some of the Bald Eagles were infected with WNV via consumption of infected Eared Grebes or horizontal transmission at roost sites.

  13. Geochemical and mineralogical characterization of the Eagle Ford Shale: Results from the USGS Gulf Coast #1 West Woodway core

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Boehlke, Adam; Paxton, Stanley T.; Whidden, Katherine J.; Pearson, Ofori N.

    2017-01-01

    The Eagle Ford shale is a major continuous oil and gas resource play in southcentral Texas and a source for other oil accumulations in the East Texas Basin. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) petroleum system assessment and research efforts, a coring program to obtain several immature, shallow cores from near the outcrop belt in central Texas has been undertaken. The first of these cores, USGS Gulf Coast #1 West Woodway, was collected near Waco, Texas, in September 2015 and has undergone extensive geochemical and mineralogical characterization using routine methods to ascertain variations in the lithologies and chemofacies present in the Eagle Ford at this locale. Approximately 270 ft of core was examined for this study, focusing on the Eagle Ford Group interval between the overlying Austin Chalk and underlying Buda Limestone (~20 ft of each). Based on previous work to identify the stratigraphy of the Eagle Ford Group in the Waco area and elsewhere (Liro et al., 1994; Robison, 1997; Ratcliffe et al., 2012; Boling and Dworkin, 2015; Fairbanks et al., 2016, and references therein), several lithological units were expected to be present, including the Pepper Shale (or Woodbine), the Lake Waco Formation (or Lower Eagle Ford, including the Bluebonnet, Cloice, and Bouldin or Flaggy Cloice members), and the South Bosque Member (Upper Eagle Ford). The results presented here indicate that there are three major chemofacies present in the cored interval, which are generally consistent with previous descriptions of the Eagle Ford Group in this area. The relatively high-resolution sampling (every two ft above the Buda, 432.8 ft depth, and below the Austin Chalk, 163.5 ft depth) provides great detail in terms of geochemical and mineralogical properties supplementing previous work on immature Eagle Ford Shale near the outcrop belt.

  14. West Nile Virus Transmission in Winter: The 2013 Great Salt Lake Bald Eagle and Eared Grebes Mortality Event

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Hon S.; Van Wettere, Arnaud J.; McFarlane, Leslie; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Dickson, Sammie Lee; Baker, JoDee; Hatch, Gary; Cavender, Kimberly; Long, Renee; Bodenstein, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) infection has been reported in over 300 species of birds and mammals. Raptors such as eagles, hawks and falcons are remarkably susceptible, but reports of WNV infection in Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) are rare and reports of WNV infection in grebes (Podicipediformes) even rarer. We report an unusually large wild bird mortality event involving between 15,000-20,000 Eared Grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) and over 40 Bald Eagles around the Great Salt Lake, Utah, in November-December 2013. Mortality in grebes was first reported in early November during a period when the area was unseasonably warm and the grebes were beginning to gather and stage prior to migration. Ten out of ten Eared Grebes collected during this period were WNV RT-PCR and/or isolation positive. This is the first report of WNV infection in Eared Grebes and the associated mortality event is matched in scale only by the combined outbreaks in American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) colonies in the north central states in 2002-2003. We cannot be sure that all of the grebes were infected by mosquito transmission; some may have become infected through contact with WNV shed orally or cloacally from other infected grebes. Beginning in early December, Bald Eagles in the Great Salt Lake area were observed to display neurological signs such as body tremors, limb paralysis and lethargy. At least 43 Bald Eagles had died by the end of the month. Nine of nine Bald Eagles examined were infected with WNV. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest single raptor mortality event since WNV became endemic in the USA. Because the majority of the eagles affected were found after onset of below-freezing temperatures, we suggest at least some of the Bald Eagles were infected with WNV via consumption of infected Eared Grebes or horizontal transmission at roost sites. PMID:24761310

  15. A three-dimensional application with the numerical grid generation code: EAGLE (utilizing an externally generated surface)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, Johnny L.

    1990-01-01

    Program EAGLE (Eglin Arbitrary Geometry Implicit Euler) is a multiblock grid generation and steady-state flow solver system. This system combines a boundary conforming surface generation, a composite block structure grid generation scheme, and a multiblock implicit Euler flow solver algorithm. The three codes are intended to be used sequentially from the definition of the configuration under study to the flow solution about the configuration. EAGLE was specifically designed to aid in the analysis of both freestream and interference flow field configurations. These configurations can be comprised of single or multiple bodies ranging from simple axisymmetric airframes to complex aircraft shapes with external weapons. Each body can be arbitrarily shaped with or without multiple lifting surfaces. Program EAGLE is written to compile and execute efficiently on any CRAY machine with or without Solid State Disk (SSD) devices. Also, the code uses namelist inputs which are supported by all CRAY machines using the FORTRAN Compiler CF177. The use of namelist inputs makes it easier for the user to understand the inputs and to operate Program EAGLE. Recently, the Code was modified to operate on other computers, especially the Sun Spare4 Workstation. Several two-dimensional grid configurations were completely and successfully developed using EAGLE. Currently, EAGLE is being used for three-dimension grid applications.

  16. Estimation of occupancy, breeding success, and predicted abundance of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the Diablo Range, California, 2014

    Wiens, J. David; Kolar, Patrick S.; Fuller, Mark R.; Hunt, W. Grainger; Hunt, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    We used a multistate occupancy sampling design to estimate occupancy, breeding success, and abundance of territorial pairs of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the Diablo Range, California, in 2014. This method uses the spatial pattern of detections and non-detections over repeated visits to survey sites to estimate probabilities of occupancy and successful reproduction while accounting for imperfect detection of golden eagles and their young during surveys. The estimated probability of detecting territorial pairs of golden eagles and their young was less than 1 and varied with time of the breeding season, as did the probability of correctly classifying a pair’s breeding status. Imperfect detection and breeding classification led to a sizeable difference between the uncorrected, naïve estimate of the proportion of occupied sites where successful reproduction was observed (0.20) and the model-based estimate (0.30). The analysis further indicated a relatively high overall probability of landscape occupancy by pairs of golden eagles (0.67, standard error = 0.06), but that areas with the greatest occupancy and reproductive potential were patchily distributed. We documented a total of 138 territorial pairs of golden eagles during surveys completed in the 2014 breeding season, which represented about one-half of the 280 pairs we estimated to occur in the broader 5,169-square kilometer region sampled. The study results emphasize the importance of accounting for imperfect detection and spatial heterogeneity in studies of site occupancy, breeding success, and abundance of golden eagles.

  17. Golden Eagle mortality at a utility-scale wind energy facility near Palm Springs, California

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2015-01-01

    Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) mortality associated with wind energy turbines and infrastructure is under-reported and weakly substantiated in the published literature. I report two cases of mortality at a utility-scale renewable energy facility near Palm Springs, California. The facility has been in operation since 1984 and included 460 65KW turbines mounted on 24.4 m or 42.7 m lattice-style towers with 8 m rotor diameters. One mortality event involved a juvenile eagle that was struck and killed by a spinning turbine blade on 31 August, 1995. The tower was 24.4 m high. The other involved an immature female that was struck by a spinning blade on another 24.4 m tower on 17 April, 1997 and was later euthanized due to the extent of internal injuries. Other raptor mortalities incidentally observed at the site, and likely attributable to turbines, included three Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) found near turbines.

  18. Six different plasma enzymes in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and their usefulness in pathological diagnosis

    Dieter, M.P.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.

    1978-01-01

    1. Activities of creatine phosphokinase, glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, fructose diphosphate aldolase and cholinesterase were measured in plasma of bald eagles.2. There were no sex differences in the plasma enzyme activities.3. An acute dieldrin dosage (10 mg/kg) of a female bald eagle resulted in 400% increases in activities of plasma creatine phosphokinase and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase and 250% increases in activities of lactate dehydrogenase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase.4. At 11 days post-dosage all but one of the plasma enzyme activities had returned to normal; glutamic oxalacetic transaminase activity remained 100% above pre-dosage values.5. Plasma enzyme assays constitute a non-destrcutive procedure that can be used in valuable wildlife species to screen for the presence and prevalence of environmental contaminants.

  19. Doppler ultrasonography of the pectinis oculi artery in harpy eagles (Harpia harpyja)

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Wanderlei; Ferreira, Thiago A.C.; Somma, André T.; Cubas, Zalmir S.; Moore, Bret A.; Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano

    2017-01-01

    Twenty harpy eagles (Harpia harpyja) without systemic or ocular diseases were examined to measure blood velocity parameters of the pectinis oculi artery using Doppler ultrasonography. Pectinate artery resistive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) were investigated using ocular Doppler ultrasonography. The mean RI and PI values across all eyes were 0.44±0.10 and 0.62±0.20 respectively. Low RI and PI values found in the harpy eagle´s pectinis oculi artery compared with the American pekin ducks one and other tissue suggest indeed a high metabolic activity in pecten oculi and corroborates the hypothesis of a nutritional function and/or intraocular pressure regulation. PMID:28540254

  20. Post-fledging movements of white-tailed eagles: Conservation implications for wind-energy development.

    PubMed

    Balotari-Chiebao, Fabio; Villers, Alexandre; Ijäs, Asko; Ovaskainen, Otso; Repka, Sari; Laaksonen, Toni

    2016-11-01

    The presence of poorly sited wind farms raises concerns for wildlife, including birds of prey. Therefore, there is a need to extend the knowledge of the potential human-wildlife conflicts associated with wind energy. Here, we report on the movements and habitat use of post-fledging satellite-tagged white-tailed eagles in Finland, where wind-energy development is expected to increase in the near future. In particular, we examine the probability of a fledgling approaching a hypothetical turbine that is placed at different distances from the nest. We found that this probability is high at short distances but considerably decreases with increasing distances to the nest. A utilisation-availability analysis showed that the coast was the preferred habitat. We argue that avoiding construction between active nests and the shoreline, as well as adopting the currently 2-km buffer zone for turbine deployment, can avoid or minimise potential impacts on post-fledging white-tailed eagles.

  1. Study of hydrodynamic characteristics of a Sharp Eagle wave energy converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ya-qun; Sheng, Song-wei; You, Ya-ge; Huang, Zhen-xin; Wang, Wen-sheng

    2017-06-01

    According to Newton's Second Law and the microwave theory, mechanical analysis of multiple buoys which form Sharp Eagle wave energy converter (WEC) is carried out. The movements of every buoy in three modes couple each other when they are affected with incident waves. Based on the above, mechanical models of the WEC are established, which are concerned with fluid forces, damping forces, hinge forces, and so on. Hydrodynamic parameters of one buoy are obtained by taking the other moving buoy as boundary conditions. Then, by taking those hydrodynamic parameters into the mechanical models, the optimum external damping and optimal capture width ratio are calculated out. Under the condition of the optimum external damping, a plenty of data are obtained, such as the displacements amplitude of each buoy in three modes (sway, heave, pitch), damping forces, hinge forces, and speed of the hydraulic cylinder. Research results provide theoretical references and basis for Sharp Eagle WECs in the design and manufacture.

  2. Rural culture and the conservation of Mackinders eagle owls (Bubo capensis mackinderi) in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2008-06-01

    The author describes her fieldwork studying a population of Mackinders eagle owls that live adjacent to small-scale farms in rural Kenya. Her study investigated the effects of farming practices on the diet and breeding ecology of the owls. She documented local people's attitudes toward owls since owls are taboo throughout Africa. She describes a typical day in the field, the community aspect of her project, her unique experiences studying owls in Kenya, and promotion of owl tourism.

  3. Successful nesting by a Bald Eagle pair in prairie grasslands of the Texas Panhandle

    Boal, G.W.; Giovanni, M.D.; Beall, B.N.

    2006-01-01

    We observed a breeding Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leitcocephalus) pair nesting in a short-grass prairie and agricultural community on the southern Great Plains of the Texas Panhandle in 2004 and 2005. The nesting eagles produced 1 fledgling in 2004 and 2 fledglings in 2005. Our assessment of landcover types within a 5-km radius of the nest indicated that grasslands accounted for most of the area (90%), followed by agricultural lands (8%). Black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies occupied 2.5% of the area, and single human residences with associated structures (i.e., barns) occupied 2.5 ha in surface area was 51 km from the nest. An analysis of regurgitated castings collected near the nest revealed a mammalian-dominated, breeding-season diet with black-tailed prairie dogs occurring in 80.9% of the castings. Other identified prey included cottontails (Sylvilagus spp., 15.9%), black-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus, 3.2%), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana, 3.2%), and plains pocket gopher (Geomys bursarius, 1.6%). Bird remains were also present in 34.9% of the castings. This is the first reported successful nesting of Bald Eagles in the panhandle region of Texas since 1916; the nest is particularly unique because of its distance from any substantial body of water.

  4. Geochemistry of Eagle Ford group source rocks and oils from the first shot field area, Texas

    Edman, Janell D.; Pitman, Janet K.; Hammes, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    Total organic carbon, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, and vitrinite reflectance analyses performed on Eagle Ford Group core and cuttings samples from the First Shot field area, Texas demonstrate these samples have sufficient quantity, quality, and maturity of organic matter to have generated oil. Furthermore, gas chromatography and biomarker analyses performed on Eagle Ford Group oils and source rock extracts as well as weight percent sulfur analyses on the oils indicate the source rock facies for most of the oils are fairly similar. Specifically, these source rock facies vary in lithology from shales to marls, contain elevated levels of sulfur, and were deposited in a marine environment under anoxic conditions. It is these First Shot Eagle Ford source facies that have generated the oils in the First Shot Field. However, in contrast to the generally similar source rock facies and organic matter, maturity varies from early oil window to late oil window in the study area, and these maturity variations have a pronounced effect on both the source rock and oil characteristics. Finally, most of the oils appear to have been generated locally and have not experienced long distance migration. 

  5. Eagle's syndrome-A non-perceived differential diagnosis of temporomandibular disorder.

    PubMed

    Thoenissen, P; Bittermann, G; Schmelzeisen, R; Oshima, T; Fretwurst, T

    2015-01-01

    This article unveils a case of the classic styloid syndrome and states that panoramic imaging and ultrasound can be an alternative to computed tomography. In addition, the endoscope-assisted extraoral approach using CT-based navigation is useful. Eagle's Syndrome is an aggregate of symptoms described by Eagle in 1937. He described different forms: the classic styloid syndrome consisting of elongation of the styloid process which causes pain. Second, the stylo-carotid-artery syndrome which is responsible for transient ischemic attack or stroke. Using the example of a 66 years old male patient suffering from long term pain, we explain our diagnostic and surgical approach. After dissecting the styloid process of the right side using an extraoral approach, the pain ceased and the patient could be discharged without any recurrence of the pain up to this point. Eagle's syndrome, with its similar symptoms, is rather difficult to differentiate from temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD), but can be easily excluded from possible differential diagnoses of TMD using panoramic radiographs and ultrasound. Making use of low cost and easily accessible diagnostic workup techniques can reveal this particular cause for chronic pain restricting quality of life. Thereby differentiation from the TMD symptomatic complex is possible. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Revamping EAGLE-I and experiences during Hurricanes Harvey and Irma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanyal, J.; Chinthavali, S.; Myers, A.; Newby, S.; Redmon, D.

    2017-12-01

    EAGLE-I, the Environment for Analysis of Geo-Located Energy Information) is an operational system for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE), Infrastructure Security and Energy Restoration (ISER) division to provide near real-time situational awareness of the nation's energy sector. The system geospatially maps energy assets and systems in electricity, oil and natural gas, petroleum, and coal, and tie together a variety of data sources into one visualization platform. The system serves the needs of the ESF#12 (Emergency Support Function - Energy) community and has users from FEMA, USDA, DHS, and other federal and state emergency response agencies. During the hurricane season, the EAGLE-I team improved the coverage of electric customers in areas where the hurricanes were expected to make landfall, provided custom reports for Puerto Rico using whatever data was available, and supported various requests for data during the events. Various attempts were also made to establish a direct contact with utilities. Acute shortage of information was felt as utility systems went down, particularly in the territories, which led to considerations of using indirect mechanisms such as processing night lights imagery. As the EAGLE-I system undergoes a significant modernization, these experiences have helped understand and guide priorities in the modernization.

  7. The Eagle Ford Shale, Texas: an initial insight into Late Cretaceous organic-rich mudrock palaeoenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forshaw, Joline; Jarvis, Ian; Trabucho-Alexandre, João; Tocher, Bruce; Pearce, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The hypothesised reduction of oxygen within the oceans during the Cretaceous is believed to have led to extended intervals of regional anoxia in bottom waters, resulting in increased preservation of organic matter and the deposition of black shales. Episodes of more widespread anoxia, and even euxinia, in both bottom and surface waters are associated with widespread black shale deposition during Ocean Anoxic Events (OAEs). The most extensive Late Cretaceous OAE, which occurred ~ 94 Ma during Cenomanian-Turonian boundary times, and was particularly well developed in the proto-North Atlantic and Tethyan regions, lasted for around 500 kyr (OAE2). Although the causes of this and other events are still hotly debated, research is taking place internationally to produce a global picture of the causes and consequences of Cretaceous OAEs. Understanding OAEs will enable a better interpretation of the climate fluctuations that ensued, and their association with the widespread deposition of black shales, rising temperatures, increased pCO2, enhanced weathering, and increased nutrient fluxes. The Eagle Ford Formation, of Cenomanian - Turonian age, is a major shale gas play in SW and NE Texas, extending over an area of more than 45,000 km2. The formation, which consists predominantly of black shales (organic-rich calcareous mudstones), was deposited during an extended period of relative tectonic quiescence in the northern Gulf Coast of the Mexico Basin, bordered by reefs along the continental shelf. The area offers an opportunity to study the effects of OAE2 in an organic-rich shelf setting. The high degree of organic matter preservation in the formation has produced excellent oil and gas source rocks. Vast areas of petroleum-rich shales are now being exploited in the Southern States of the US for shale gas, and the Eagle Ford Shale is fast becoming one of the countries largest producers of gas, oil and condensate. The Eagle Ford Shale stratigraphy is complex and heterogeneous

  8. Laying the foundations for a human-predator conflict solution: assessing the impact of Bonelli's eagle on rabbits and partridges.

    PubMed

    Moleón, Marcos; Sánchez-Zapata, José A; Gil-Sánchez, José M; Barea-Azcón, José M; Ballesteros-Duperón, Elena; Virgós, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Predation may potentially lead to negative effects on both prey (directly via predators) and predators (indirectly via human persecution). Predation pressure studies are, therefore, of major interest in the fields of theoretical knowledge and conservation of prey or predator species, with wide ramifications and profound implications in human-wildlife conflicts. However, detailed works on this issue in highly valuable--in conservation terms--Mediterranean ecosystems are virtually absent. This paper explores the predator-hunting conflict by examining a paradigmatic, Mediterranean-wide (endangered) predator-two prey (small game) system. We estimated the predation impact ('kill rate' and 'predation rate', i.e., number of prey and proportion of the prey population eaten, respectively) of Bonelli's eagle Aquila fasciata on rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus and red-legged partridge Alectoris rufa populations in two seasons (the eagle's breeding and non-breeding periods, 100 days each) in SE Spain. The mean estimated kill rate by the seven eagle reproductive units in the study area was c. 304 rabbits and c. 262 partridges in the breeding season, and c. 237 rabbits and c. 121 partridges in the non-breeding period. This resulted in very low predation rates (range: 0.3-2.5%) for both prey and seasons. The potential role of Bonelli's eagles as a limiting factor for rabbits and partridges at the population scale was very poor. The conflict between game profitability and conservation interest of either prey or predators is apparently very localised, and eagles, quarry species and game interests seem compatible in most of the study area. Currently, both the persecution and negative perception of Bonelli's eagle (the 'partridge-eating eagle' in Spanish) have a null theoretical basis in most of this area.

  9. Abundance of Harpy and Crested Eagles from a reservoir-impact area in the Low- and Mid-Xingu River.

    PubMed

    Sanaiotti, T M; Junqueira, T G; Palhares, V; Aguiar-Silva, F H; Henriques, L M P; Oliveira, G; Guimarães, V Y; Castro, V; Mota, D; Trombin, D F; Villar, D N A; Lara, K M; Fernandes, D; Castilho, L; Yosheno, E; Alencar, R M; Cesca, L; Dantas, S M; Laranjeiras, T O; Mathias, P C; Mendonça, C V

    2015-08-01

    In the Brazilian Amazon, two monospecific genera, the Harpy Eagle and Crested Eagle have low densities and are classified by IUCN as Near Threatened due to habitat loss, deforestation, habitat degradation and hunting. In this study, we evaluate occurrence of these large raptors using the environmental surveys database from Belo Monte Hydroelectric Power Plant. Integrating the dataset from two methods, we plotted a distribution map along the Xingu River, including records over a 276-km stretch of river. Terrestrial surveys (RAPELD method) were more efficient for detecting large raptors than standardized aquatic surveys, although the latter were complementary in areas without modules. About 53% of the records were obtained during activities of wildlife rescue/flushing, vegetation suppression or in transit. Between 2012 and 2014, four Harpy Eagles were removed from the wild; two shooting victims, one injured by collision with power lines and one hit by a vehicle. Also, seven nests were mapped. The mean distance between Harpy Eagle records was 15 km along the river channel, with a mean of 20 km between nests near the channel, which allowed us to estimate 20 possible pairs using the alluvial forest, riverine forest and forest fragments. Territories of another ten pairs will probably be affected by inundation of the Volta Grande channel, which is far from the main river. The average distance between Crested Eagle records was 16 km along the river channel. The only nest found was 1.3 km away from a Harpy Eagle nest. The remnant forests are under threat of being replaced by cattle pastures, so we recommend that permanently protected riparian vegetation borders (APP) be guaranteed, and that forest fragments within 5 km of the river be conserved to maintain eagle populations.

  10. Home in the heat: Dramatic seasonal variation in home range of desert golden eagles informs management for renewable energy development

    Braham, Melissa A.; Miller, Tricia A.; Duerr, Adam E.; Lanzone, Michael J.; Fesnock, Amy; LaPre, Larry; Driscoll, Daniel; Katzner, Todd E.

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy is expanding quickly with sometimes dramatic impacts to species and ecosystems. To understand the degree to which sensitive species may be impacted by renewable energy projects, it is informative to know how much space individuals use and how that space may overlap with planned development. We used global positioning system–global system for mobile communications (GPS-GSM) telemetry to measure year-round movements of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) from the Mojave Desert of California, USA. We estimated monthly space use with adaptive local convex hulls to identify the temporal and spatial scales at which eagles may encounter renewable energy projects in the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan area. Mean size of home ranges was lowest and least variable from November through January and greatest in February–March and May–August. These monthly home range patterns coincided with seasonal variation in breeding ecology, habitat associations, and temperature. The expanded home ranges in hot summer months included movements to cooler, prey-dense, mountainous areas characterized by forest, grasslands, and scrublands. Breeding-season home ranges (October–May) included more lowland semi-desert and rock vegetation. Overlap of eagle home ranges and focus areas for renewable energy development was greatest when eagle home ranges were smallest, during the breeding season. Golden eagles in the Mojave Desert used more space and a wider range of habitat types than expected and renewable energy projects could affect a larger section of the regional population than was previously thought.

  11. A Population Study of Golden Eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Population Trend Analysis, 1994-1997

    SciT

    Hunt, W. G.; Jackman, R. E.; Hunt, T. L.

    1999-07-20

    The wind industry has annually reported 28-43 turbine blade strike casualties of golden eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, and many more carcasses have doubtless gone unnoticed. Because this species is especially sensitive to adult survival rate changes, we focused upon estimating the demographic trend of the population. In aerial surveys, we monitored survival within a sample of 179 radio-tagged eagles over a four-year period. We also obtained data on territory occupancy and reproduction of about 65 eagle pairs residing in the area. Of 61 recorded deaths of radio-tagged eagles during the four-year investigation, 23 (38%) were causedmore » by wind turbine blade strikes. Additional fatalities were unrecorded because blade strikes sometimes destroy radio transmitters. Annual survival was estimated at 0.7867 (SE=0.0263) for non-territorial eagles and 0.8964 (SE=0.0371) for territorial ones. Annual reproduction was 0.64 (SE=0.08) young per territorial pair (0.25 per female). These parameters were used to estimate population growth rates under different modeling frameworks. At present, there are indications that a reserve of non-breeding adults still exists, i.e., there is an annual territorial reoccupancy rate of 100% and a low incidence (3%) of subadults as members of breeding pairs.« less

  12. Reference intervals, longitudinal analyses, and index of individuality of commonly measured laboratory variables in captive bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    PubMed

    Jones, Michael P; Arheart, Kristopher L; Cray, Carolyn

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine reference intervals, perform longitudinal analyses, and determine the index of individuality (IoI) of 8 hematologic, and 13 biochemical and electrophoretic variables for a group of captive bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Reference intervals were determined from blood samples collected during annual wellness examinations for 41 eagles (23 male and 18 female) with ages ranging between 6 and 43 years (18.7 +/- 7.4, mean +/- SD) at the time of sample collection. Longitudinal analyses and IoI were determined for measured hematologic, biochemical, and protein electrophoretic variables, both individually and as a group, for a subset of 16 eagles (10 male and 6 female) during a 12-year period. This smaller group of eagles ranged in age between 2 and 20 years at the start of the study period, and between 14 and 32 years (21.9 +/- 5.0, mean +/- SD) at the end of the study period. Significant increases with age within the group of 16 eagles were observed only for red blood cells, percent heterophils, total protein, and beta-globulin protein fraction, while albumin:globulin decreased significantly with age. A low IoI (> or = 1.4) was determined for all hematologic and biochemical variables except gamma globulins, which had high IoI (< or = 0.6) for 3 individuals within the subset of 16.

  13. Genetic structure and viability selection in the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), a vagile raptor with a Holarctic distribution

    Doyle, Jacqueline M.; Katzner, Todd E.; Roemer, Gary; Cain, James W.; Millsap, Brian; McIntyre, Carol; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Fernandez, Nadia B.; Wheeler, Maria; Bulut, Zafer; Bloom, Peter; DeWoody, J. Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Molecular markers can reveal interesting aspects of organismal ecology and evolution, especially when surveyed in rare or elusive species. Herein, we provide a preliminary assessment of golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) population structure in North America using novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). These SNPs included one molecular sexing marker, two mitochondrial markers, 85 putatively neutral markers that were derived from noncoding regions within large intergenic intervals, and 74 putatively nonneutral markers found in or very near protein-coding genes. We genotyped 523 eagle samples at these 162 SNPs and quantified genotyping error rates and variability at each marker. Our samples corresponded to 344 individual golden eagles as assessed by unique multilocus genotypes. Observed heterozygosity of known adults was significantly higher than of chicks, as was the number of heterozygous loci, indicating that mean zygosity measured across all 159 autosomal markers was an indicator of fitness as it is associated with eagle survival to adulthood. Finally, we used chick samples of known provenance to test for population differentiation across portions of North America and found pronounced structure among geographic sampling sites. These data indicate that cryptic genetic population structure is likely widespread in the golden eagle gene pool, and that extensive field sampling and genotyping will be required to more clearly delineate management units within North America and elsewhere.

  14. Using nestling plasma to assess long-term spatial and temporal concentrations of organochlorine compounds in bald eagles within Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, USA

    H. Tyler Pittman; William W. Bowerman; Leland H. Grim; Teryl G. Grubb; William C. Bridges; Michael R. Wierda

    2015-01-01

    The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) population at Voyageurs National Park (VNP) provides an opportunity to assess long-term temporal and spatial trends of persistent environmental contaminants. Nestling bald eagle plasma samples collected from 1997 to 2010 were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides. Trends of total PCBs,...

  15. Assessment of surface-water quantity and quality, Eagle River watershed, Colorado, 1947-2007

    Williams, Cory A.; Moore, Jennifer L.; Richards, Rodney J.

    2011-01-01

    The spatial patterns for concentrations of trace metals (aluminum, cadmium, copper, iron, manganese, and zinc) indicate an increase in dissolved concentrations of these metals near historical mining areas in the Eagle River and several tributaries near Belden. In general, concentrations decrease downstream from mining areas. Concentrations typically are near or below reporting limits in Gore Creek and other tributaries within the watershed. Concentrations for trace elements (arsenic, selenium, and uranium) in the watershed usually are below the reporting limit, and no prevailing spatial patterns were observed in the data. Step-trend analysis and temporal-trend analysis provide evidence that remediation of historical mining areas in the upper Eagle River have led to observed decreases in metals concentrations in many surface-waters. Comparison of pre- and post-remediation concentrations for many metals indicates significant decreases in metals concentrations for cadmium, manganese, and zinc at sites downstream from the Eagle Mine Superfund Site. Some sites show order of magnitude reductions in median concentrations between these two periods. Evaluation of monotonic trends for dissolved metals concentrations show downward trends at numerous sites in, and downstream from, historic mining areas. The spatial pattern of nutrients shows lower concentrations on many tributaries and on the Eagle River upstream from Red Cliff with increases in nutrients downstream of major urban areas. Seasonal variations show that for many nutrient species, concentrations tend to be lowest May-June and highest January-March. The gradual changes in concentrations between seasons may be related to dilution effects from increases and decreases in streamflow. Upward trends in nutrients between the towns of Gypsum and Avon were detected for nitrate, orthophosphate, and total phosphorus. An upward trend in nitrite was detected in Gore Creek. No trends were detected in un-ionized ammonia within

  16. Eagle's syndrome veiling as pain of odontogenic origin: Report of two cases with cone beam computed tomography illustration

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Vikash; Rai, Shalu; Misra, Deepankar; Panjwani, Sapna

    2015-01-01

    Eagle's syndrome, also known as an elongated styloid process, is a condition that may be the source of craniofacial and cervical pain. It is infrequently reported but is probably more common than generally considered. The symptoms related to Eagle's syndrome can be confused with those attributed to a wide variety of facial neuralgia and or oral, dental, and temporomandibular joint diseases. In this paper, there are two cases, which reported to the Department of Oral Medicine, Diagnosis, and Maxillofacial Radiology, with a chief complaint of radiating pain in the preauricular region of the face. After radiographic investigation, these cases are considered as a case of Eagle's syndrome because of increase in the size of the styloid process. PMID:27390501

  17. Influence of boat noises on escape behaviour of white-spotted eagle ray Aetobatus ocellatus at Moorea Island (French Polynesia).

    PubMed

    Berthe, Cecile; Lecchini, David

    2016-02-01

    The present study tested different sounds that could disturb eagle rays (Aetobatus ocellatus) during their foraging activities at Moorea, French Polynesia. Results showed that artificial white sound and single-frequency tones (40 Hz, 600 Hz or 1 kHz) did not have an effect on rays (at least 90% of rays continued to forage over sand), while playbacks of boat motor sound significantly disturbed rays during foraging activity (60% exhibited an escape behaviour). Overall, our study highlighted the negative effect of boat noises on the foraging activity of eagle rays. These noises produced by boat traffic could, however, have some positive effects for marine aquaculture if they could be used as a deterrent to repel the eagle rays, main predators of the pearl oysters. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  18. Brief communication: Plio-Pleistocene eagle predation on fossil cercopithecids from the Humpata Plateau, southern Angola.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Christopher C; McGraw, W Scott; Delson, Eric

    2009-07-01

    Recent studies suggest a large raptor such as the crowned eagle (Stephanaoetus coronatus) was responsible for collecting at least a portion of the primate fauna from the South African fossil site of Taung, including its lone hominin specimen. This taphonomic signature at Taung is currently regarded as a unique and, most likely, isolated case in primate and human evolution. However, the activities of large, carnivorous birds should also be detectable at other primate fossil localities in Africa if raptors have been a strong selective force throughout primate evolution. Over the last 60 years, a collection of extinct cercopithecids has been assembled from several cave breccias on the Humpata Plateau in southern Angola. The material, dated near the Plio-Pleistocene boundary, includes an assortment of craniodental and postcranial remains variably assigned to Papio (Dinopithecus) cf. quadratirostris, Parapapio, Cercopithecoides, and Theropithecus. We compare the Angolan and Taung material to remains of extant primates killed by crowned eagles in the Ivory Coast's Tai National Park. Our analysis indicates that the size distribution and composition of fauna from the localities is quite similar and that there are striking consistencies in damage to the crania from each site. The absence of large bodied (>20 kg) primates and other mammalian taxa at the Taung hominin locality and Tai, and their rarity in Angola, combined with the strong likelihood that raptor nests were positioned near fissure openings at both fossil localities, provides additional support for eagle involvement. On the basis of this evidence, we conclude that at least some of the Angolan cercopithecids were most likely raptor prey and hypothesize that raptor predation has been a strong and perhaps underappreciated selective force during the course of primate evolution.

  19. Recovery distances of nestling Bald Eagles banded in Florida and implications for natal dispersal and philopatry

    Wood, Petra Bohall

    2009-01-01

    I used band recovery data to examine distances between banding and recovery locations for 154 nestling Florida Bald Eagles and discuss the implications for understanding natal dispersal and philopatry in this species. Band recoveries occurred in 23 U.S. states and five Canadian provinces between 1931–2005. Recovery distance from the natal nest averaged longer for the youngest age classes (ANOVA: F  =  3.59; df  =  5, 153; P  =  0.005), for individuals banded in earlier decades (F  =  1.94; df  =  5, 153; P  =  0.093), and for the months of May through October (F  =  3.10; df  =  12, 153;P < 0.001). Of 35 individuals classed as mature (≥3.9 yr old when recovered; range 3.9–36.5 yr), 31 were located within Florida, which suggested a strong degree of philopatry to the natal state. Among 21 mature eagles of known sex with known banding and recovery locations in Florida, females, particularly younger birds, had longer recovery distances (N  =  9, mean  =  93 km, SE  =  22.4) than did males (N  =  12, mean  =  31 km, SE  =  5.3; t  =  2.67, df  =  19, P  =  0.026). The records examined here suggest a high degree of philopatry and relatively short natal dispersal distances, particularly in male Bald Eagles.

  20. Size matters: abundance matching, galaxy sizes, and the Tully-Fisher relation in EAGLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, Ismael; Navarro, Julio F.; Abadi, Mario G.; Sales, Laura V.; Bower, Richard G.; Crain, Robert A.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom

    2017-02-01

    The Tully-Fisher relation (TFR) links the stellar mass of a disc galaxy, Mstr, to its rotation speed: it is well approximated by a power law, shows little scatter, and evolves weakly with redshift. The relation has been interpreted as reflecting the mass-velocity scaling (M ∝ V3) of dark matter haloes, but this interpretation has been called into question by abundance-matching (AM) models, which predict the galaxy-halo mass relation to deviate substantially from a single power law and to evolve rapidly with redshift. We study the TFR of luminous spirals and its relation to AM using the EAGLE set of Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmological simulations. Matching both relations requires disc sizes to satisfy constraints given by the concentration of haloes and their response to galaxy assembly. EAGLE galaxies approximately match these constraints and show a tight mass-velocity scaling that compares favourably with the observed TFR. The TFR is degenerate to changes in galaxy formation efficiency and the mass-size relation; simulations that fail to match the galaxy stellar mass function may fit the observed TFR if galaxies follow a different mass-size relation. The small scatter in the simulated TFR results because, at fixed halo mass, galaxy mass and rotation speed correlate strongly, scattering galaxies along the main relation. EAGLE galaxies evolve with lookback time following approximately the prescriptions of AM models and the observed mass-size relation of bright spirals, leading to a weak TFR evolution consistent with observation out to z = 1. ΛCDM models that match both the abundance and size of galaxies as a function of stellar mass have no difficulty reproducing the observed TFR and its evolution.

  1. Music from the heavens - gravitational waves from supermassive black hole mergers in the EAGLE simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salcido, Jaime; Bower, Richard G.; Theuns, Tom; McAlpine, Stuart; Schaller, Matthieu; Crain, Robert A.; Schaye, Joop; Regan, John

    2016-11-01

    We estimate the expected event rate of gravitational wave signals from mergers of supermassive black holes that could be resolved by a space-based interferometer, such as the Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA), utilizing the reference cosmological hydrodynamical simulation from the EAGLE suite. These simulations assume a Lambda cold dark matter cosmogony with state-of-the-art subgrid models for radiative cooling, star formation, stellar mass loss, and feedback from stars and accreting black holes. They have been shown to reproduce the observed galaxy population with unprecedented fidelity. We combine the merger rates of supermassive black holes in EAGLE with the latest phenomenological waveform models to calculate the gravitational waves signals from the intrinsic parameters of the merging black holes. The EAGLE models predict ˜2 detections per year by a gravitational wave detector such as eLISA. We find that these signals are largely dominated by mergers between seed mass black holes merging at redshifts between z ˜ 2 and z ˜ 1. In order to investigate the dependence on the assumed black hole seed mass, we introduce an additional model with a black hole seed mass an order of magnitude smaller than in our reference model. We also consider a variation of the reference model where a prescription for the expected delays in the black hole merger time-scale has been included after their host galaxies merge. We find that the merger rate is similar in all models, but that the initial black hole seed mass could be distinguished through their detected gravitational waveforms. Hence, the characteristic gravitational wave signals detected by eLISA will provide profound insight into the origin of supermassive black holes and the initial mass distribution of black hole seeds.

  2. Influence of food supply and chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants on breeding success of bald eagles.

    PubMed

    Gill, Christopher E; Elliott, John E

    2003-01-01

    Food supply and contaminants were investigated as possible causes of low bald eagle productivity near a bleached kraft pulp and paper mill at Crofton on Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Over a seven year period, 1992-1998, average productivity of five eagle territories situated south of the pulp mill at Crofton was significantly lower (0.43 young/occupied territory) than six territories north of the mill (1.04 young/occupied territory). A reference population of 32 territories located in Barkley Sound on the west coast of Vancouver Island demonstrated intermediary mean productivity (0.75 young/occupied territory). Measures of prey biomass delivered to nests were lowest south of the mill, and correlated significantly with nesting success. On average, measures of energy delivered to nests and a parameter determined to be related to prey availability, adult nest attendance time, accounted for about 70% of variability in nest success. Contaminant concentrations, including pulp mill derived polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), as well as dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and calculated tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) were significantly greater in plasma samples of nestlings from south of the mill compared to the other two sites, but did not correlate significantly with individual nest success data. Nests south of the mill concentrate around Maple Bay, which appears to be a deposition area for contaminants transported by tides and currents from sources such as the pulp mill. Concentrations of DDE and PCBs in plasma of nestling eagles from south of the mill were less than the critical values estimated to affect production of young. For TEQs, there are no published critical values for plasma by which to compare our results. We conclude that less than adequate energy provisioning to nests, presumably related to low prey availability, was likely the main cause of

  3. Remedial Investigation Report: White Phosphorus Contamination of Salt Marsh Sediments at Eagle River Flats, Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-31

    ponds (Bread Truck Pond) were significantly higher than those from the other ponds. Area C and the Bread Truck ponds, covering an area of about 15 ha (37...Figure 1-12. Aerial view of Eagle River Flats in January 1991 viewed to the north showing Knik Arm and ice- covered ERF. Figure 11-13. Ice core...levees of some distributaries are tall stands of beach rye (Elymus arenarius). Inside or landward of this sparsely vegetated mudflat zone is a low sedge

  4. Lead contamination of golden eagles Aquila chrysaetos within the range of the California condor Gymnogyps californianus

    Bloom, P.H.; Scott, J.M.; Pattee, O.H.; Smith, M.R.; Meyburg, B-U.; Chancellor, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    Blood samples were taken from 66 golden eagles from June 1985 to January 1986 and analyzed for their lead content. Thirty-nine percent had blood lead levels greater than 0.2 ppm, indicating exposure to environmental lead. Within the exposed group, 3 had blood levels exceeding 0.6 ppm and one exceeded 1.0 ppm. These data suggest that lead, probably in the form of shot, bullets, or bullet fragments, poses a hazard to scavenging birds within the range of the California condor.

  5. Summer and winter space use and home range characteristics of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in eastern North America

    Miller, Tricia A.; Brooks, Robert P.; Lanzone, Michael J.; Cooper, Jeff; O'Malley, Kieran; Brandes, David; Duerr, Adam E.; Katzner, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Movement behavior and its relationship to habitat provide critical information toward understanding the effects of changing environments on birds. The eastern North American population of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) is a genetically distinct and small population of conservation concern. To evaluate the potential responses of this population to changing landscapes, we calculated the home range and core area sizes of 52 eagles of 6 age–sex classes during the summer and winter seasons. Variability in range size was related to variation in topography and open cover, and to age and sex. In summer, eagle ranges that were smaller had higher proportions of ridge tops and open cover and had greater topographic roughness than did larger ranges. In winter, smaller ranges had higher proportions of ridge tops, hillsides and cliffs, and open cover than did larger ranges. All age and sex classes responded similarly to topography and open cover in both seasons. Not surprisingly, adult eagles occupied the smallest ranges in both seasons. Young birds used larger ranges than adults, and subadults in summer used the largest ranges (>9,000 km2). Eastern adult home ranges in summer were 2–10 times larger than those reported for other populations in any season. Golden Eagles in eastern North America may need to compensate for generally lower-quality habitat in the region by using larger ranges that support access to adequate quantities of resources (prey, updrafts, and nesting, perching, and roosting sites) associated with open cover and diverse topography. Our results suggest that climate change–induced afforestation on the breeding grounds and ongoing land cover change from timber harvest and energy development on the wintering grounds may affect the amount of suitable habitat for Golden Eagles in eastern North America.

  6. Ranging behaviour and habitat preferences of the Martial Eagle: Implications for the conservation of a declining apex predator

    PubMed Central

    van Eeden, Rowen; Whitfield, D. Philip; Botha, Andre; Amar, Arjun

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the ranging behaviours of species can be helpful in effective conservation planning. However, for many species that are rare, occur at low densities, or occupy challenging environments, this information is often lacking. The Martial Eagle (Polemaetus bellicosus) is a low density apex predator declining in both non-protected and protected areas in southern Africa, and little is known about its ranging behaviour. We use GPS tags fitted to Martial Eagles (n = 8) in Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa to describe their ranging behaviour and habitat preference. This represents the first time that such movements have been quantified in adult Martial Eagles. Territorial eagles (n = 6) held home ranges averaging ca. 108 km2. Home range estimates were similar to expectations based on inter-nest distances, and these large home range sizes could constrain the carrying capacity of even the largest conservation areas. Two tagged individuals classed as adults on plumage apparently did not hold a territory, and accordingly ranged more widely (ca. 44,000 km2), and beyond KNP boundaries as floaters. Another two territorial individuals abandoned their territories and joined the ‘floater’ population, and so ranged widely after leaving their territories. These unexpected movements after territory abandonment could indicate underlying environmental degradation. Relatively high mortality of these wide-ranging ‘floaters’ due to anthropogenic causes (three of four) raises further concerns for the species’ persistence. Habitat preference models suggested Martial Eagles used areas preferentially that were closer to rivers, had higher tree cover, and were classed as dense bush rather than open bush or grassland. These results can be used by conservation managers to help guide actions to preserve breeding Martial Eagles at an appropriate spatial scale. PMID:28306744

  7. Laying the Foundations for a Human-Predator Conflict Solution: Assessing the Impact of Bonelli's Eagle on Rabbits and Partridges

    PubMed Central

    Moleón, Marcos; Sánchez-Zapata, José A.; Gil-Sánchez, José M.; Barea-Azcón, José M.; Ballesteros-Duperón, Elena; Virgós, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Background Predation may potentially lead to negative effects on both prey (directly via predators) and predators (indirectly via human persecution). Predation pressure studies are, therefore, of major interest in the fields of theoretical knowledge and conservation of prey or predator species, with wide ramifications and profound implications in human-wildlife conflicts. However, detailed works on this issue in highly valuable –in conservation terms– Mediterranean ecosystems are virtually absent. This paper explores the predator-hunting conflict by examining a paradigmatic, Mediterranean-wide (endangered) predator-two prey (small game) system. Methodology/Principal Findings We estimated the predation impact (‘kill rate’ and ‘predation rate’, i.e., number of prey and proportion of the prey population eaten, respectively) of Bonelli's eagle Aquila fasciata on rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus and red-legged partridge Alectoris rufa populations in two seasons (the eagle's breeding and non-breeding periods, 100 days each) in SE Spain. The mean estimated kill rate by the seven eagle reproductive units in the study area was c. 304 rabbits and c. 262 partridges in the breeding season, and c. 237 rabbits and c. 121 partridges in the non-breeding period. This resulted in very low predation rates (range: 0.3–2.5%) for both prey and seasons. Conclusions/Significance The potential role of Bonelli's eagles as a limiting factor for rabbits and partridges at the population scale was very poor. The conflict between game profitability and conservation interest of either prey or predators is apparently very localised, and eagles, quarry species and game interests seem compatible in most of the study area. Currently, both the persecution and negative perception of Bonelli's eagle (the ‘partridge-eating eagle’ in Spanish) have a null theoretical basis in most of this area. PMID:21818399

  8. Pesticide, PCB, and lead residues and necropsy data for bald eagles from 32 states - 1978-81

    Reichel, W.L.; Schmeling, Shelia K.; Cromartie, E.; Kaiser, T.E.; Krynitsky, A.J.; Lamont, T.G.; Mulhern, B.M.; Prouty, R.M.; Stafford, C.J.; Swineford, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    In 1978–81, 293 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from 32 states were necropsied and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and lead residues. DDE was found in all carcasses; PCB, DDD, trans-nonachlor, dieldrin and oxychlordane were next in order of percent frequency of detection. The median levels of DDE and PCB have declined when compared with previous collections. Five specimens contained high levels of dieldrin in their brains which may have contributed to their deaths. Seventeen eagles contained liver lead residues greater than 10 ppm and probably died of lead poisoning. Trauma and shooting are the most common causes of death.

  9. Eagle's syndrome: treatment by intraoral bilateral resection of the ossified stylohyoid ligament. A review and report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Martins, Wilson Denis; Ribas, Marina de Oliveira; Bisinelli, Julio; França, Beatriz Helena Sottile; Martins, Guilherme

    2013-07-01

    The complexities of Eagle's syndrome are examined according to anatomical, historical, clinical, and treatment aspects. There appears to be little correlation between the extent, form, and size of the anomalies of the styloid process and the stylohyoid ligament and the predictability of patients with related symptoms. Surgical treatment and the advantages and disadvantages of each surgical approach (intra- and extraoral) are discussed. The probable causes of enlargement of the styloid process and ossification of the stylohyoid ligament are addressed. Two cases of Eagle's syndrome are presented: one unilateral and the other bilateral. An intraoral modified surgical technique is presented.

  10. Groundwater Quality, Age, and Probability of Contamination, Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, Niel

    2009-01-01

    The Eagle River watershed is located near the destination resort town of Vail, Colorado. The area has a fastgrowing permanent population, and the resort industry is rapidly expanding. A large percentage of the land undergoing development to support that growth overlies the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer (ERWVFA), which likely has a high predisposition to groundwater contamination. As development continues, local organizations need tools to evaluate potential land-development effects on ground- and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. To help develop these tools, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority, conducted a study in 2006-2007 of the groundwater quality, age, and probability of contamination in the ERWVFA, north-central Colorado. Ground- and surface-water quality samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, tritium, dissolved gases, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) determined with very low-level laboratory methods. The major-ion data indicate that groundwaters in the ERWVFA can be classified into two major groups: groundwater that was recharged by infiltration of surface water, and groundwater that had less immediate recharge from surface water and had elevated sulfate concentrations. Sulfate concentrations exceeded the USEPA National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations (250 milligrams per liter) in many wells near Eagle, Gypsum, and Dotsero. The predominant source of sulfate to groundwater in the Eagle River watershed is the Eagle Valley Evaporite, which is a gypsum deposit of Pennsylvanian age located predominantly in the western one-half of Eagle County.

  11. Assessment of lead exposure in Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) from spent ammunition in central Spain

    Fernandez, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos; Hofle, Ursula; Mateo, Rafael; de Francisco, Olga Nicolas; Abbott, Rachel; Acevedo, Pelayo; Blanco, Juan-Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) is found only in the Iberian Peninsula and is considered one of the most threatened birds of prey in Europe. Here we analyze lead concentrations in bones (n = 84), livers (n = 15), primary feathers (n = 69), secondary feathers (n = 71) and blood feathers (n = 14) of 85 individuals collected between 1997 and 2008 in central Spain. Three birds (3.6%) had bone lead concentration > 20 (mu or u)g/g and all livers were within background lead concentration. Bone lead concentrations increased with the age of the birds and were correlated with lead concentration in rachis of secondary feathers. Spatial aggregation of elevated bone lead concentration was found in some areas of Montes de Toledo. Lead concentrations in feathers were positively associated with the density of large game animals in the area where birds were found dead or injured. Discontinuous lead exposure in eagles was evidenced by differences in lead concentration in longitudinal portions of the rachis of feathers.

  12. Surgical treatment of bumblefoot in a captive golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)

    PubMed Central

    Poorbaghi, Seyedeh Leila; Javdani, Moosa; Nazifi, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    The golden eagle is one of the world's largest living birds. Footpad dermatitis, also known as plantar pododermatitis or bumblefoot, is a condition characterized by lesions due to contact with unhealthy "perching" conditions, such as plastic perches, sharp-cornered perches on the ventral footpad of birds. A young female golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) in Fars province of Iran was presented to veterinary clinics of Shiraz University with clinical signs of lameness. The bird was examined clinically and a variety of complementary diagnostic procedures such as blood analysis, X-ray and bacteriological culture were performed. Then a surgical method was pick out for removing of scab, pus and necrotic tissues from abscess on the plantar aspect of bird's feet and healing the skin of area. After surgery, specific bandage, systemic antibiotics and vitamins were used. Corynebacterium, a gram negative bacterium, was isolated in the pus from the abscess. After the surgical operation, swelling in the digital pad reduced, the skin of pad healed and the signs of lameness vanished. To prevent developing bumblefoot, good bedding for proper "perching" conditions is necessary. Additionally, vitamin therapy to promote a healthy integument is advised. PMID:25653750

  13. Cosmic distribution of highly ionized metals and their physical conditions in the EAGLE simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmati, Alireza; Schaye, Joop; Crain, Robert A.; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom

    2016-06-01

    We study the distribution and evolution of highly ionized intergalactic metals in the Evolution and Assembly of Galaxies and their Environment (EAGLE) cosmological, hydrodynamical simulations. EAGLE has been shown to reproduce a wide range of galaxy properties while its subgrid feedback was calibrated without considering gas properties. We compare the predictions for the column density distribution functions (CDDFs) and cosmic densities of Si IV, C IV, N V, O VI and Ne VIII absorbers with observations at redshift z = 0 to ˜6 and find reasonable agreement, although there are some differences. We show that the typical physical densities of the absorbing gas increase with column density and redshift, but decrease with the ionization energy of the absorbing ion. The typical metallicity increases with both column density and time. The fraction of collisionally ionized metal absorbers increases with time and ionization energy. While our results show little sensitivity to the presence or absence of AGN feedback, increasing/decreasing the efficiency of stellar feedback by a factor of 2 substantially decreases/increases the CDDFs and the cosmic densities of the metal ions. We show that the impact of the efficiency of stellar feedback on the CDDFs and cosmic densities is largely due to its effect on the metal production rate. However, the temperatures of the metal absorbers, particularly those of strong O VI, are directly sensitive to the strength of the feedback.

  14. Predators as prey at a Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos eyrie in Mongolia

    Ellis, D.H.; Tsengeg, Pu; Whitlock, P.; Ellis, Merlin H.

    2000-01-01

    Although golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) have for decades been known to occasionally take large or dangerous quarry, the capturing of such was generally believed to be rare and/or the act of starved birds. This report provides details of an exceptional diet at a golden eagle eyrie in eastern Mongolia with unquantified notes on the occurrence of foxes at other eyries in Mongolia. Most of the prey we recorded were unusual, including 1 raven (Corvus corax), 3 demoiselle cranes (Anthropoides virgo), 1 upland buzzard (Buteo hemilasius), 3 owls, 27 foxes, and 11 Mongolian gazelles. Some numerical comparisons are of interest. Our value for gazelle calves (10 minimum count, 1997) represents 13% of 78 prey items and at least one adult was also present. Our total of only 15 hares (Lepus tolai) and 4 marmots (Marmota sibirica) compared to 27 foxes suggests not so much a preference for foxes, but rather that populations of more normal prey were probably depressed at this site. Unusual prey represented 65% of the diet at this eyrie.

  15. Temporal and spatial changes in golden eagle reproduction in relation to increased off highway vehicle activity

    Steenhof, Karen; Brown, Jessi L.; Kochert, Michael N.

    2014-01-01

    We used >40 years of data on golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) nesting in southwestern Idaho, USA, to assess whether the proportion of territories and pairs producing young has changed over time, and whether territories in areas where off highway vehicle (OHV) use has increased significantly were less likely to be productive than those in areas that continued to have little or no motorized recreation. The proportion of territories that produced young was similar across southwestern Idaho from the late 1960s to 1999. After a dramatic increase in OHV use from 1999 to 2009, occupancy and success of territories in close proximity to recreational trails and parking areas declined, and the proportion of these territories producing young differed significantly from territories not impacted by OHVs. We could not pinpoint which types of motorized activity are most disturbing, nor could we identify disturbance thresholds at which eagles abandon their eggs, their young, and finally their territory. Timing, proximity, duration, and frequency of disturbance could all play a role. © 2014 The Wildlife Society.

  16. Accumulation of flame retardants in paired eggs and plasma of bald eagles.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiehong; Simon, Kendall; Romanak, Kevin; Bowerman, William; Venier, Marta

    2018-06-01

    In this study, we measured the concentrations of 58 flame retardants (and related compounds) in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) egg and plasma samples from the Michigan. These analytes include polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), novel flame retardants (nFRs), Dechlorane-related compounds (Decs), and organophosphate esters (OPEs). A total of 24 paired eaglet plasma and egg samples were collected from inland (IN, N = 13) and the Great Lakes (GL, N = 11) breeding areas from 2000 to 2012. PBDEs were the most abundant chemical group with a geometric mean of 181 ng/g wet weight (ww) in egg and 5.31 ng/g ww in plasma. Decs were barely found in plasma samples, but they were frequently found in eggs (geometric mean 23.5 ng/g ww). OPE levels were comparable to those of PBDEs in the plasma but lower than those of PBDEs in eggs. Dec and PBDE concentrations were significantly higher in GL than in IN (p < 0.05). The ratio of egg to plasma concentrations (lipid normalized) varied with chemicals and correlated with the chemical's octanol-water partition coefficient. The lipid normalized bald eagle egg and plasma concentrations from Lake Superior and Huron were one to three orders of magnitude higher than concentrations measured in composite lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the same lake, implying that they biomagnify in the environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Where eagles nest, the wind also blows: consolidating habitat and energy needs

    Tack, J.; Wilson, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Energy development is rapidly escalating in resource-rich Wyoming, and with it the risks posed to raptor populations. These risks are of increasing concern to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, which is responsible for protecting the persistence of protected species, including raptors. In support of a Federal mandate to protect trust species and the wind energy industry’s need to find suitable sites on which to build wind farms, scientists at the USGS Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) and their partners are conducting research to help reduce impacts to raptor species from wind energy operations. Potential impacts include collision with the turbine blades and habitat disruption and disturbance from construction and operations. This feature describes a science-based tool—a quantitative predictive model—being developed and tested by FORT scientists to potentially avoid or reduce such impacts. This tool will provide industry and resource managers with the biological basis for decisions related to sustainably siting wind turbines in a way that also conserves important habitats for nesting golden eagles. Because of the availability of comprehensive data on nesting sites, golden eagles in Wyoming are the prototype species (and location) for the first phase of this investigation.

  18. Modeling with uncertain science: estimating mitigation credits from abating lead poisoning in Golden Eagles.

    PubMed

    Fitts Cochrane, Jean; Lonsdorf, Eric; Allison, Taber D; Sanders-Reed, Carol A

    2015-09-01

    Challenges arise when renewable energy development triggers "no net loss" policies for protected species, such as where wind energy facilities affect Golden Eagles in the western United States. When established mitigation approaches are insufficient to fully avoid or offset losses, conservation goals may still be achievable through experimental implementation of unproven mitigation methods provided they are analyzed within a framework that deals transparently and rigorously with uncertainty. We developed an approach to quantify and analyze compensatory mitigation that (1) relies on expert opinion elicited in a thoughtful and structured process to design the analysis (models) and supplement available data, (2) builds computational models as hypotheses about cause-effect relationships, (3) represents scientific uncertainty in stochastic model simulations, (4) provides probabilistic predictions of "relative" mortality with and without mitigation, (5) presents results in clear formats useful to applying risk management preferences (regulatory standards) and selecting strategies and levels of mitigation for immediate action, and (6) defines predictive parameters in units that could be monitored effectively, to support experimental adaptive management and reduction in uncertainty. We illustrate the approach with a case study characterized by high uncertainty about underlying biological processes and high conservation interest: estimating the quantitative effects of voluntary strategies to abate lead poisoning in Golden Eagles in Wyoming due to ingestion of spent game hunting ammunition.

  19. Changes in productivity and contaminants in bald eagles nesting along the lower Columbia River, USA

    Buck, J.A.; Anthony, R.G.; Schuler, C.A.; Isaacs, F.B.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies documented poor productivity of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the lower Columbia River (LCR), USA, and elevated p,p???-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins, and furans in eagle eggs. From 1994 to 1995, we collected partially incubated eggs at 19 of 43 occupied territories along the LCR and compared productivity and egg contaminants to values obtained in the mid-1980s. We found higher productivity at new nesting sites along the river, yet productivity at 23 older breeding territories remained low and was not different (p = 0.713) between studies. Eggshell thickness at older territories had not improved (p = 0.404), and eggshells averaged 11% thinner than shells measured before dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane use. Decreases in DDE (p = 0.022) and total PCBs (p = 0.0004) in eggs from older breeding areas occurred between study periods. Productivity was not correlated to contaminants, but DDE, PCBs, and dioxin-like chemicals exceeded estimated no-effect values. Some dioxin-like contaminants in eggs were correlated to nest location, with highest concentrations occurring toward the river's mouth where productivity was lowest. Although total productivity increased due to the success of new nesting pairs in the region, egg contaminants remain high enough to impair reproduction at older territories and, over time, may alter productivity of new pairs nesting near the river's mouth. ?? 2005 SETAC.

  20. Baseflow recession analysis across the Eagle Ford shale play (Texas, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arciniega, Saul; Brena-Naranjo, Agustin; Hernandez-Espriu, Jose Antonio; Pedrozo-Acuña, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    Baseflow is an important process of the hydrological cycle as it can be related to aquatic ecosystem health and groundwater recharge. The temporal and spatial dynamics of baseflow are typically governed by fluctuations in the water table of shallow aquifers hence groundwater pumping and return flow can greatly modify baseflow patterns. More recently, in some regions of the world the exploitation of gas trapped in shale formations by means of hydraulic fracturing (fracking) has raised major concerns on the quantitative and qualitative groundwater impacts. Although fracking implies massive amounts of groundwater withdrawals, its contribution on baseflow decline has not yet been fully investigated. Furthermore, its impact with respect to other human activities or climate extremes such as irrigation or extreme droughts, respectively, remain largely unknown. This work analyzes baseflow recession time-space patterns for a set of watersheds located across the largest shale producer in the world, the Eagle Ford shale play in Texas (USA). The period of study (1985-2014) includes a pre-development and post-development period. The dataset includes 56 hydrometric time series located inside and outside the shale play. Results show that during the development and expansion of the Eagle Ford play, around 70 % of the time series displayed a significant decline wheras no decline was observed during the pre-development)

  1. Spatial use and habitat selection of golden eagles in southwestern Idaho

    Marzluff, J.M.; Knick, Steven T.; Vekasy, M.S.; Schueck, Linda S.; Zarriello, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    We measured spatial use and habitat selection of radio-tagged Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) at eight to nine territories each year from 1992 to 1994 in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area. Use of space did not vary between years or sexes, but did vary among seasons (home ranges and travel distances were larger during the nonbreeding than during the breeding season) and among individuals. Home ranges were large, ranging from 190 to 8,330 ha during the breeding season and from 1,370 to 170,000 ha outside of the breeding season, but activity was concentrated in small core areas of 30 to 1,535 ha and 485 to 6,380 ha during the breeding and nonbreeding seasons, respectively. Eagles selected shrub habitats and avoided disturbed areas, grasslands, and agriculture. This resulted in selection for habitat likely to contain their principal prey, black-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus). Individuals with home ranges in extensive shrubland (n = 3) did not select for shrubs in the placement of their core areas or foraging points, but individuals in highly fragmented or dispersed shrublands (n = 5) concentrated their activities and foraged preferentially in jackrabbit habitats (i.e. areas with abundant and large shrub patches). As home ranges expanded outside of the breeding season, individuals selected jackrabbit habitats within their range. Shrubland fragmentation should be minimized so that remaining shrub patches are large enough to support jackrabbits.

  2. Factors influencing territorial occupancy and reproductive success in a Eurasian Eagle-owl (Bubo bubo) population.

    PubMed

    León-Ortega, Mario; Jiménez-Franco, María V; Martínez, José E; Calvo, José F

    2017-01-01

    Modelling territorial occupancy and reproductive success is a key issue for better understanding the population dynamics of territorial species. This study aimed to investigate these ecological processes in a Eurasian Eagle-owl (Bubo bubo) population in south-eastern Spain during a seven-year period. A multi-season, multi-state modelling approach was followed to estimate the probabilities of occupancy and reproductive success in relation to previous state, time and habitat covariates, and accounting for imperfect detection. The best estimated models showed past breeding success in the territories to be the most important factor determining a high probability of reoccupation and reproductive success in the following year. In addition, alternative occupancy models suggested the positive influence of crops on the probability of territory occupation. By contrast, the best reproductive model revealed strong interannual variations in the rates of breeding success, which may be related to changes in the abundance of the European Rabbit, the main prey of the Eurasian Eagle-owl. Our models also estimated the probabilities of detecting the presence of owls in a given territory and the probability of detecting evidence of successful reproduction. Estimated detection probabilities were high throughout the breeding season, decreasing in time for unsuccessful breeders but increasing for successful breeders. The probability of detecting reproductive success increased with time, being close to one in the last survey. These results suggest that reproduction failure in the early stages of the breeding season is a determinant factor in the probability of detecting occupancy and reproductive success.

  3. Effects of fire on golden eagle territory occupancy and reproductive success

    Kochert, Michael N.; Steenhof, Karen; Marzluff, J.M.; Carpenter, L.B.

    1999-01-01

    We examined effects of fire on golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) territory occupancy and reproductive success in southwestern Idaho because wildfires since 1980 have resulted in large-scale losses of shrub habitat in the Snake River Plain. Success (percentage of pairs that raised young) at burned territories declined after major fires (P = 0.004). Pairs in burned areas that could expand into adjacent vacant territories were as successful as pairs in unburned territories and more successful than pairs in burned territories that could not expand. Success at extensively burned territories was lowest 4-6 years after burning but increased 4-5 years later. The incidence and extent of fires did not help predict territories that would have low occupancy and success rates in postburn years. The presence of a vacant neighboring territory and the amount of agriculture and proportion of shrubs within 3 km of the nesting centroid best predicted probability of territory occupancy. Nesting success during preburn years best predicted the probability of a territory being successful in postburn years. Burned territories with high success rates during preburn years continued to have high success rates during postburn years, and those with low success in preburn years continued to be less successful after burning. In areas where much shrub habitat has been lost to fire, management for golden eagles should include active fire suppression and rehabilitation of burned areas.

  4. Projecting the Water Footprint Associated with Shale Resource Production: Eagle Ford Shale Case Study.

    PubMed

    Ikonnikova, Svetlana A; Male, Frank; Scanlon, Bridget R; Reedy, Robert C; McDaid, Guinevere

    2017-12-19

    Production of oil from shale and tight reservoirs accounted for almost 50% of 2016 total U.S. production and is projected to continue growing. The objective of our analysis was to quantify the water outlook for future shale oil development using the Eagle Ford Shale as a case study. We developed a water outlook model that projects water use for hydraulic fracturing (HF) and flowback and produced water (FP) volumes based on expected energy prices; historical oil, natural gas, and water-production decline data per well; projected well spacing; and well economics. The number of wells projected to be drilled in the Eagle Ford through 2045 is almost linearly related to oil price, ranging from 20 000 wells at $30/barrel (bbl) oil to 97 000 wells at $100/bbl oil. Projected FP water volumes range from 20% to 40% of HF across the play. Our base reference oil price of $50/bbl would result in 40 000 additional wells and related HF of 265 × 10 9 gal and FP of 85 × 10 9 gal. The presented water outlooks for HF and FP water volumes can be used to assess future water sourcing and wastewater disposal or reuse, and to inform policy discussions.

  5. Hydrology of Eagle Creek Basin and effects of groundwater pumping on streamflow, 1969-2009

    Matherne, Anne Marie; Myers, Nathan C.; McCoy, Kurt J.

    2010-01-01

    Urban and resort development and drought conditions have placed increasing demands on the surface-water and groundwater resources of the Eagle Creek Basin, in southcentral New Mexico. The Village of Ruidoso, New Mexico, obtains 60-70 percent of its water from the Eagle Creek Basin. The village drilled four production wells on Forest Service land along North Fork Eagle Creek; three of the four wells were put into service in 1988 and remain in use. Local citizens have raised questions as to the effects of North Fork well pumping on flow in Eagle Creek. In response to these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Village of Ruidoso, conducted a hydrologic investigation from 2007 through 2009 of the potential effect of the North Fork well field on streamflow in North Fork Eagle Creek. Mean annual precipitation for the period of record (1942-2008) at the Ruidoso climate station is 22.21 inches per year with a range from 12.27 inches in 1970 to 34.81 inches in 1965. Base-flow analysis indicates that the 1970-80 mean annual discharge, direct runoff, and base flow were 2,260, 1,440, and 819 acre-ft/yr, respectively, and for 1989-2008 were 1,290, 871, and 417 acre-ft/yr, respectively. These results indicate that mean annual discharge, direct runoff, and base flow were less during the 1989-2008 period than during the 1970-80 period. Mean annual precipitation volume for the study area was estimated to be 12,200 acre-feet. Estimated annual evapotranspiration for the study area ranged from 8,730 to 8,890 acre-feet. Estimated annual basin yield for the study area was 3,390 acre-ft or about 28 percent of precipitation. On the basis of basin-yield computations, annual recharge was estimated to be 1,950 acre-ft, about 16 percent of precipitation. Using a chloride mass-balance method, groundwater recharge over the study area was estimated to average 490 acre-ft, about 4.0 percent of precipitation. Because the North Fork wells began pumping in 1988, 1969

  6. Patterns and trends of chlorinated hydrocarbons in nestling bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) plasma in British Columbia and Southern California.

    PubMed

    Cesh, Lillian S; Williams, Tony D; Garcelon, David K; Elliott, John E

    2008-10-01

    Patterns and trends of chlorinated hydrocarbons were assessed in bald eagle nestling plasma from sites along the west coast of North America. Eagle plasma was sampled from four areas in southwestern British Columbia (BC), a reference site in northern BC, and from Santa Catalina Island, off the coast of California. Sites were chosen to reflect variation in contaminant exposure due to differing recent and/or historic anthropogenic activities. Santa Catalina Island had significantly greater mean concentrations of p,p'-DDE, 41.3 microg/kg wet weight (ww), than other sites, and Nanaimo/Crofton, BC had the greatest mean concentration of total PCBs, 28.9 microg/kg ww. Contaminant levels measured in 2003 in BC were compared to levels measured in 1993; over that ten year span, concentrations and patterns of chlorinated hydrocarbons have not significantly changed. There were no significant differences in levels of p,p'-DDE or hexachlorobenzene between 1993 and 2003, but significant decreases were found for trans-nonachlor and PCBs at BC sites. Levels of total PCBs and trans-nonachlor in the central Fraser Valley and Nanaimo/Crofton area have significantly decreased. Mean concentrations of p,p'-DDE measured in bald eagle nestling plasma samples in 2003 exceeded published criteria for effects on bald eagle reproduction at Santa Catalina Island and Barkley Sound, more than 30 years since heavy usage restrictions were imposed.

  7. Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Concentrations of Perfluorinated Compounds in Bald Eagle Nestlings in the Upper Midwestern United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) are of concern due to their widespread use, persistence in the environment, tendency to accumulate in animal tissues, and growing evidence of toxicity. Between 2006 and 2011 we collected blood plasma from 261 bald eagle nestlings in six study areas...

  8. 76 FR 54711 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Bald Eagles Nesting in Sonoran Desert Area of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... protections under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), for the bald eagles nesting in the... species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act) (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) in 43 of the... an endangered species, and that we concurrently designate critical habitat for the DPS under the Act...

  9. 77 FR 54548 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Eagle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... feeding, breeding, and sheltering; (b) Genetics and taxonomy; (c) Historical and current range, including... hatchery rearing is breeding out the ``wildness'' in the Eagle Lake rainbow trout and causing them to be... latipes), which were transgenic, meaning they had had portions of their genome deliberately spliced with...

  10. 78 FR 72926 - Bald and Golden Eagles; Migratory Birds; Phase I Development of the Chokecherry-Sierra Madre Wind...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... which this notice primarily pertains, would consist of approximately 500 wind turbines, a haul road, a... development for CCSM Phase II, which will consist of about 500 additional wind turbines (roughly 1500 MW), at...-FXMB12310600000] Bald and Golden Eagles; Migratory Birds; Phase I Development of the Chokecherry-Sierra Madre Wind...

  11. 76 FR 5580 - Eagle Crest Energy Company; Notice of Applicant-Proposed Water Pipeline Route for the Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... Hydroelectric Project (Eagle Mountain Project). This notice describes the water supply pipeline route proposed... property that would be crossed by the proposed water supply pipeline. We are currently soliciting comments on the proposed water supply pipeline and the draft EIS. Additionally, as discussed below, we will be...

  12. Effects of lead shot ingestion on delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, hemoglobin concentration, and serum chemistry in bald eagles

    Hoffman, D.J.; Pattee, O.H.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Mulhern, B.

    1981-01-01

    Lead shot ingestion by bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is considered to be widespread and has been implicated in the death of eagles in nature. It was recently demonstrated under experimental conditions that ingestion of as few as 10 lead shot resulted in death within 12 to 20 days. In the present study hematological responses to lead toxicity including red blood cell ALAD activity, hemoglobin concentration and 23 different blood serum chemistries were examined in five captive bald eagles that were unsuitable for rehabilitation and release. Eagles were dosed by force-feeding with 10 lead shot; they were redosed if regurgitation occurred. Red blood cell ALAD activity was inhibited by nearly 80% within 24 hours when mean blood lead concentration had increased to 0.8 parts per million (ppm). By the end of 1 week there was a significant decrease (20-25%) in hematocrit and hemoglobin, and the mean blood lead concentration was over 3 ppm. Within as little as 1-2 weeks after dosing, significant elevations in serum creatinine and serum alanine aminotransferase occurred, as well as a significant decrease in the ratio of serum aspartic aminotransferase to serum alanine aminotransferase. The mean blood lead concentration was over 5 ppm by the end of 2 weeks. These changes in serum chemistry may be indicative of kidney and liver alterations.

  13. 78 FR 25758 - Migratory Birds; Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance: Module 1-Land-Based Wind Energy, Version 2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R9-MB-2012-N094; FF09M29000-112... Energy, Version 2 AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY... and operation of a particular site and design configuration to eagles. The objectives, recommended...

  14. 75 FR 35018 - Eagle Industrial Power Services (IL), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... Industrial Power Services (IL), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...-referenced proceeding of Eagle Industrial Power Services (IL), LLC's application for market- based rate... authorization, under 18 CFR part 34, of future issuances of securities and assumptions of liability. Any person...

  15. 75 FR 62530 - Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Laredo Ridge Wind, LLC; RRI Energy West, Inc.; Goshen Phase II LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ...; EG10-52-000; EG10-53-000; EG10- 54-000; EG10-55-000; EG10-56-000] Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Laredo Ridge Wind, LLC; RRI Energy West, Inc.; Goshen Phase II LLC; Solar Partners I, LLC; Solar Partners II, LLC; Solar Partners VIII, LLC; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status October 1...

  16. Patterns and trends in lead (Pb) concentrations in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nestlings from the western Great Lakes region.

    PubMed

    Bruggeman, Jason E; Route, William T; Redig, Patrick T; Key, Rebecca L

    2018-04-10

    Most studies examining bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) exposure to lead (Pb) have focused on adults that ingested spent Pb ammunition during the fall hunting season, often at clinical or lethal levels. We sampled live bald eagle nestlings along waterbodies to quantify Pb concentrations in 3 national park units and 2 nearby study areas in the western Great Lakes region. We collected 367 bald eagle nestling feather samples over 8 years during spring 2006-2015 and 188 whole blood samples over 4 years during spring 2010-2015. We used Tobit regression models to quantify relationships between Pb concentrations in nestling feathers and blood using study area, year, and nestling attributes as covariates. Pb in nestling feather samples decreased from 2006 to 2015, but there was no trend for Pb in blood samples. Pb concentrations in nestling feather and blood samples were significantly higher in study areas located closer to and within urban areas. Pb in feather and blood samples from the same nestling was positively correlated. Pb in feathers increased with nestling age, but this relationship was not observed for blood. Our results reflect how Pb accumulates in tissues as nestlings grow, with Pb in feathers and blood indexing exposure during feather development and before sampling, respectively. Some nestlings had Pb concentrations in blood that suggested a greater risk to sublethal effects from Pb exposure. Our data provides baselines for Pb concentrations in feathers and blood of nestling bald eagles from a variety of waterbody types spanning remote, lightly populated, and human-dominated landscapes.

  17. Eagle Adventure: School-Based Type 2 Diabetes Prevention Program Results in Improved Outcomes Related to Food and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stovall-Amos, Angelina; Parker, Stephany; Mata, Sara; Fox, Jill; Jackson, Teresa; Miracle, Sarah; Hermann, Janice

    2014-01-01

    The Eagle Adventure program was designed as a semester-long, SNAP-Ed program to address food and physical activity choices important for prevention of type 2 diabetes, obesity, and other chronic diseases. The program was developed for implementation in Grades 1-3. This article presents findings from two participating grade centers inclusive of…

  18. Hematocrit and plasma chemistry values in adult collared scops owls (Otus lettia) and crested serpent eagles (Spilornis cheela hoya).

    PubMed

    Chan, Fang-Tse; Lin, Pei-I; Chang, Geng-Ruei; Wang, Hsien-Chi; Hsu, Tien-Huan

    2012-07-01

    In this study, we report hematocrit and plasma chemistry values for adult captive collared scops owls (Otus lettia) and crested serpent eagles (Spilornis cheela hoya). In particular, we address the gender-specific differences within these values. We measured hematocrit (HCT) and plasma chemistry values for uric acid (UA), plasma urea nitrogen (BUN), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), glucose (GLU), cholesterol (CHO), triglyceride (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (TBIL), creatine (CRE), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), amylase (AMY), calcium (CA), ionic phosphorous (IP) and sodium (NA), potassium (K) and chloride ions (CL) in 37 adult captive collared scops owls and 39 adult captive crested serpent eagles. Significant differences between the sexes were found for UA, GLU and CPK in the collared scope owls. UA and GLU concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.01 and P<0.05) among males than females, while the CPK concentration was significantly lower (P<0.05) in males. There were no significant differences in of all of the measured parameters between male and female eagles. These finding suggested that HCT and plasma chemistry values of raptors vary individually according to species and sex. Our results provide the 1st available reference data for ranges of plasma values in adult captive collared scops owls and crested serpent eagles, making them a potentially useful complementary diagnostic tool for veterinary care of individuals for both species in captivity.

  19. Estimating the potential impacts of large mesopredators on benthic resources: integrative assessment of spotted eagle ray foraging ecology in Bermuda.

    PubMed

    Ajemian, Matthew J; Powers, Sean P; Murdoch, Thaddeus J T

    2012-01-01

    Declines of large sharks and subsequent release of elasmobranch mesopredators (smaller sharks and rays) may pose problems for marine fisheries management as some mesopredators consume exploitable shellfish species. The spotted eagle ray (Aetobatus narinari) is the most abundant inshore elasmobranch in subtropical Bermuda, but its predatory role remains unexamined despite suspected abundance increases and its hypothesized specialization for mollusks. We utilized a combination of acoustic telemetry, benthic invertebrate sampling, gut content analysis and manipulative experiments to assess the impact of spotted eagle rays on Bermudian shellfish resources. Residency and distribution of adult spotted eagle rays was monitored over two consecutive summers in Harrington Sound (HS), an enclosed inshore lagoon that has historically supported multiple recreational and commercial shellfish species. Telemetered rays exhibited variable fidelity (depending on sex) to HS, though generally selected regions that supported relatively high densities of potential mollusk prey. Gut content analysis from rays collected in HS revealed a diet of mainly bivalves and a few gastropods, with calico clam (Macrocallista maculata) representing the most important prey item. Manipulative field and mesocosm experiments with calico clams suggested that rays selected prey patches based on density, though there was no evidence of rays depleting clam patches to extirpation. Overall, spotted eagle rays had modest impacts on local shellfish populations at current population levels, suggesting a reduced role in transmitting cascading effects from apex predator loss. However, due to the strong degree of coupling between rays and multiple protected mollusks in HS, ecosystem-based management that accounts for ray predation should be adopted.

  20. Macroinvertebrate and algal community sample collection methods and data collected at selected sites in the Eagle River watershed, Colorado, 2000-07

    Zuellig, Robert E.; Bruce, James F.

    2010-01-01

    State and local agencies are concerned about the effects of increasing urban development and human population growth on water quality and the biological condition of regional streams in the Eagle River watershed. In response to these needs, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a study in cooperation with the Colorado River Water Conservation District, Eagle County, Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority, Colorado Department of Transportation, City of Aurora, Town of Eagle, Town of Gypsum, Town of Minturn, Town of Vail, Vail Resorts, Colorado Springs Utilities, Denver Water, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. As part of this study, previously collected macroinvertebrate and algal data from the Eagle River watershed were compiled. This report includes macroinvertebrate data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and(or) the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service from 73 sites from 2000 to 2007 and algal data collected from up to 26 sites between 2000 and 2001 in the Eagle River watershed. Additionally, a brief description of the sample collection methods and data processing procedures are presented.

  1. Epizootic vacuolar myelinopathy of the central nervous system of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and American coots (Fulica americana)

    Thomas, N.J.; Meteyer, C.U.; Sileo, L.

    1998-01-01

    Unprecedented mortality occurred in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) at DeGray Lake, Arkansas, during the winters of 1994-1995 and 1996-1997. The first eagles were found dead during November, soon after arrival from fall migration, and deaths continued into January during both episodes. In total, 29 eagles died at or near DeGray Lake in the winter of 1994-1995 and 26 died in the winter of 1996-1997; no eagle mortality was noted during the same months of the intervening winter or in the earlier history of the lake. During the mortality events, sick eagles were observed overflying perches or colliding with rock walls. Signs of incoordination and limb paresis were also observed in American coots (Fulica americana) during the episodes of eagle mortality, but mortality in coots was minimal. No consistent abnormalities were seen on gross necropsy of either species. No microscopic findings in organs other than the central nervous system (CNS) could explain the cause of death. By light microscopy, all 26 eagles examined and 62/77 (81%) coots had striking, diffuse, spongy degeneration of the white matter of the CNS. Vacuolation occurred in all myelinated CNS tissue, including the cerebellar folia and medulla oblongata, but was most prominent in the optic tectum. In the spinal cord, vacuoles were concentrated near the gray matter, and occasional swollen axons were seen. Vacuoles were uniformly present in optic nerves but were not evident in the retina or peripheral or autonomic nerves. Cellular inflammatory response to the lesion was distinctly lacking. Vacuoles were 8-50 microns in diameter and occurred individually, in clusters, or in rows. In sections stained by luxol fast blue/periodic acid-Schiff stain, the vacuoles were delimited and transected by myelin strands. Transmission electron microscopy revealed intramyelinic vacuoles formed in the myelin sheaths by splitting of one or more myelin lamellae at the intraperiodic line. This lesion is characteristic of

  2. The occurrence of the Complexiopollis-Atlantopollis zone (Palynomorphs) in the Eagle Ford Group (Upper Cretaceous) of Texas

    Christopher, Raymond A.

    1982-01-01

    The Lower and lower Upper Cretaceous palynological zones defined in the Atlantic Coastal Plain Province and which occur in the eastern Gulf Coastal Plain Province are characterized by a paucity of marine invertebrate fossils. As a result, correlation of these zones with European and provincial stages, as well as with other microfossil and megafossil zones is tenuous. However, an examination of a complete section of the Eagle Ford Group and adjacent strata in Texas reveals that: 1) the upper part of the Woodbine Formation and the Tarrant Formation of the overlying Eagle Ford Group represent a biostratigraphic interval that is absent in the Atlantic and eastern Gulf Coastal Plain Provinces; 2) the Complexiopollis-Atlantopollis Zone (zone IV of some authors) occurs within the Britton Formation (Eagle Ford Group), and is equivalent to the upper part of the Rotalipora cushmani-greenhornensis Subzone (planktic foraminifers) and possibly to the Sciponoceras gracile Zone (ammonites); 3) the Arcadia Park Formation (Eagle Ford Group) contains a mixed assemblage of palynomorphs that includes guides to both the Complexiopollis-Atlantopollis and the overlying Complexiopollis exigua-Santalacites minor Zones, suggesting that biostratigraphic equivalents of the Arcadia Park Formation are not represented in the Atlantic and eastern Gulf Coastal Plain Provinces; and 4) in the basal part of the Austin Chalk of Texas, only one guide palynomorph to the Complexiopollis-Atlantopollis Zone was recognized, but guides to the Complexiopollis exigua-Santalacites minor Zone are present. The Tuscaloosa Group of the eastern Gulf Coastal Plain appears to be biostratigraphically equivalent to the Complexiopollis-Atlantopollis Zone, and therefore correlative with the middle to upper part of the Britton Formation of the Eagle Ford Group.

  3. Spatial patterns in occupancy and reproduction of Golden Eagles during drought: Prospects for conservation in changing environments

    Wiens, David; Kolar, Patrick; Hunt, W. Grainger; Hunt, Teresa; Fuller, Mark R.; Bell, Douglas A.

    2018-01-01

    We used a broad-scale sampling design to investigate spatial patterns in occupancy and breeding success of territorial pairs of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the Diablo Range, California, USA, during a period of exceptional drought (2014–2016). We surveyed 138 randomly selected sample sites over 4 occasions each year and identified 199 pairs of eagles, 100 of which were detected in focal sample sites. We then used dynamic multistate modeling to identify relationships between site occupancy and reproduction of Golden Eagles relative to spatial variability in landscape composition and drought conditions. We observed little variability among years in site occupancy (3-yr mean = 0.74), but the estimated annual probability of successful reproduction was relatively low during the study period and declined from 0.39 (± 0.08 SE) to 0.18 (± 0.07 SE). Probabilities of site occupancy and reproduction were substantially greater at sample sites that were occupied by successful breeders in the previous year, indicating the presence of sites that were consistently used by successfully reproducing eagles. We found strong evidence for nonrandom spatial distribution in both occupancy and reproduction: Sites with the greatest potential for occupancy were characterized by rugged terrain conditions with intermediate amounts of grassland interspersed with patches of oak woodland and coniferous forest, whereas successful reproduction was most strongly associated with the amount of precipitation that a site received during the nesting period. Our findings highlight the contribution of consistently occupied and productive breeding sites to overall productivity of the local breeding population, and show that both occupancy and reproduction at these sites were maintained even during a period of exceptional drought. Our approach to quantifying and mapping site quality should be especially useful for the spatial prioritization of compensation measures intended to help offset the

  4. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in conventional and continuous petroleum systems in the Upper Cretaceous Eagle Ford Group, U.S. Gulf Coast region, 2011

    Dubiel, Russell F.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pearson, Ofori N.; Pearson, Krystal; Kinney, Scott A.; Lewan, Michael D.; Burke, Lauri; Biewick, Laura; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed means of (1) 141 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 502 billion cubic feet of natural gas (BCFG), and 16 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL) in the conventional Eagle Ford Updip Sandstone Oil and Gas Assessment Unit (AU); (2) 853 MMBO, 1,707 BCFG, and 34 MMBNGL in the continuous Eagle Ford Shale Oil AU; and (3) 50,219 BCFG and 2,009 MMBNGL in the continuous Eagle Ford Shale Gas AU in onshore lands and State waters of the Gulf Coast.

  5. Ground-water quality and geochemistry in Carson and Eagle Valleys, western Nevada and eastern California

    Welch, Alan H.

    1994-01-01

    Aquifers in Carson and Eagle Valleys are an important source of water for human consumption and agriculture. Concentrations of major constituents in water from the principal aquifers on the west sides of Carson and Eagle Valleys appear to be a result of natural geochemical reactions with minerals derived primarily from plutonic rocks. In general, water from principal aquifers is acceptable for drinking when compared with current (1993) Nevada State drinking-water maximum contaminant level standards. Water was collected and analyzed for all inorganic constituents for which primary or secondary drinking-water standards have been established. About 3 percent of these sites had con- stituents that exceeded one or more primary or secondary drinking-water standards have been established. About 3 percent of these sites had con- stituents that exceeded one or more primary standards and water at about 10 percent of the sites had at least one constituent that surpassed a secondary standard. Arsenic exceeded the standard in water at less than 1 percent of the principal aquifer sites; nitrate surpassed its standard in water at 3 percent of 93 sites. Water from wells in the principal aquifer with high concentrations of nitrate was in areas where septic systems are used; these concentrations indicate that contamination may be entering the wells. Concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in water from the principal aquifers, exceed the proposed Federal standards for some constituents, but were not found t be above current (1993) State standards. The uranium concen- trations exceeded the proposed 20 micrograms per liter Federal standard at 10 percent of the sites. Of the sites analyzed for all of the inorganic constituents with primary standards plus uranium, 15 percent exceed one or more established standards. If the proposed 20 micrograms per liter standard for uranium is applied to the sampled sites, then 23 percent would exceed the standard for uranium or some other

  6. Case histories of bald eagles and other raptors killed by organophosphorus insecticides topically applied to livestock

    Henny, C.J.; Kolbe, E.J.; Hill, E.F.; Blus, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Since 1982 when secondary poisoning of a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) was documented following the recommended use of famphur applied topically to cattle, the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center has tested dead birds of prey for poisoning by famphur and other pour-on organophosphorus (OP) insecticides. Brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity was first determined, then if ChE was depressed greater than or equal to 50%, stomach and/or crop contents were evaluated for anti-ChE compounds. This report presents the circumstances surrounding the OP-caused deaths of eight bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), two red-tailed hawks, and one great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) between March 1984 and March 1985. OP poisoning of raptors by pour-on insecticides in the United States is widespread, but its magnitude is unknown.

  7. A mechanical design concept for EAGLE on the revised E-ELT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubbeldam, Cornelis M.

    2014-07-01

    ESO have recently revisited the design of the E-ELT with a view to reducing cost, leading to de-scopes which include a smaller primary aperture and removal of the Gravity Invariant Focal Station (GIFS). In its original concept, the EAGLE instrument was designed to be located at the GIFS and consequently a major mechanical re-design was required to enable the instrument to be placed on its side in a conventional straight-through Nasmyth configuration. In this paper, a conceptual design for a new instrument structure is presented. A preliminary finite element analysis was carried out to assess the structure's behaviour under operating loading conditions (e.g. gravity loads). The results of this analysis demonstrate that the proposed design is viable, without any significant degradation in performance compared to the original GIFS design.

  8. Degradation testing of Mg alloys in Dulbecco's modified eagle medium: Influence of medium sterilization.

    PubMed

    Marco, Iñigo; Feyerabend, Frank; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Van der Biest, Omer

    2016-05-01

    This work studies the in vitro degradation of Mg alloys for bioabsorbable implant applications under near physiological conditions. For this purpose, the degradation behaviour of Mg alloys in Dulbecco's modified eagle medium (DMEM) which is a commonly used cell culture medium is analysed. Unfortunately, DMEM can be contaminated by microorganisms, acidifying the medium and accelerating the Mg degradation process by dissolution of protective degradation layers, such as (Mgx,Cay)(PO4)z. In this paper the influence of sterilization by applying UV-C radiation and antibiotics (penicillin/streptomycin) is analysed with two implant material candidates: Mg-Gd and Mg-Ag alloys; and pure magnesium as well as Mg-4Y-3RE as a reference. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Interactions between a group of Golden Eagles and a herd of North American elk

    O'Connell, Matt P.; Kochert, Michael N.

    2013-01-01

    Raptors are generally considered solitary predators (Schoener 1969), but occasionally they interact socially (Brown and Amadon 1968). Certain raptor species (e.g., Swallow-tailed Kites [Elanoides forficatus] and Swainson's Hawks [Buteo swainsoni]) concentrate in aggregations in response to localized, abundant food sources (Ellis et al. 1993). Many raptor species engage in group hunting (Ellis et al. 1993), and social foraging is a routine strategy for some species (e.g., Harris's Hawks [Parabuteo unicinctus]; Bednarz 1988, Ellis et al. 1993]. Raptors generally engage in group hunting to pursue elusive or large prey (Ellis et al. 1993). Occasionally individuals of conspecific raptors engage in play as a group sometimes involving chases of prey species (Palmer 1988). In this letter, we report interactions between a large group of Golden Eagles and a herd of adult and juvenile Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus canadensis nelsoni) in late autumn.

  10. Case histories of bald eagles and other raptors killed by organophosphorus insecticides topically applied to livestock.

    PubMed

    Henny, C J; Kolbe, E J; Hill, E F; Blus, L J

    1987-04-01

    Since 1982 when secondary poisoning of a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) was documented following the recommended use of famphur applied topically to cattle, the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center has tested dead birds of prey for poisoning by famphur and other pour-on organophosphorus (OP) insecticides. Brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity was first determined, then if ChE was depressed greater than or equal to 50%, stomach and/or crop contents were evaluated for anti-ChE compounds. This report presents the circumstances surrounding the OP-caused deaths of eight bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), two red-tailed hawks, and one great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) between March 1984 and March 1985. OP poisoning of raptors by pour-on insecticides in the United States is widespread, but its magnitude is unknown.

  11. Geochemical reconnaissance study of Vassar Meadow (Adams Rib) wetlands and vicinity, Eagle County, Colorado

    Owen, Douglass E.; Breit, George N.

    1995-01-01

    Wetlands are known to be efficient filters of metals dissolved in ground and surface waters. This paper presents the results of geochemical reconnaissance sampling done at the request of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in wetlands in Vassar Meadow, Eagle County, Colorado. Ten wetlands were sampled and found to be variously enriched in chromium, molybdenum, and uranium. The uranium and chromium concentrations (and, to a lesser extent, molybdenum) represent an environmental concern should they be released as a result of anthropogenic disturbance. The metal accumulation in these wetlands documents that the wetlands have been functioning as filters that protect water quality in East Brush Creek by lowering the dissolved metal content in water.

  12. Controls on Methane Occurrences in Aquifers Overlying the Eagle Ford Shale Play, South Texas.

    PubMed

    Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Larson, Toti; Darvari, Roxana; Mickler, Patrick; Uhlman, Kristine; Costley, Ruth

    2017-07-01

    Assessing natural vs. anthropogenic sources of methane in drinking water aquifers is a critical issue in areas of shale oil and gas production. The objective of this study was to determine controls on methane occurrences in aquifers in the Eagle Ford Shale play footprint. A total of 110 water wells were tested for dissolved light alkanes, isotopes of methane, and major ions, mostly in the eastern section of the play. Multiple aquifers were sampled with approximately 47 samples from the Carrizo-Wilcox Aquifer (250-1200 m depth range) and Queen City-Sparta Aquifer (150-900 m depth range) and 63 samples from other shallow aquifers but mostly from the Catahoula Formation (depth <150 m). Besides three shallow wells with unambiguously microbial methane, only deeper wells show significant dissolved methane (22 samples >1 mg/L, 10 samples >10 mg/L). No dissolved methane samples exhibit thermogenic characteristics that would link them unequivocally to oil and gas sourced from the Eagle Ford Shale. In particular, the well water samples contain very little or no ethane and propane (C1/C2+C3 molar ratio >453), unlike what would be expected in an oil province, but they also display relatively heavier δ 13 C methane (>-55‰) and δD methane (>-180‰). Samples from the deeper Carrizo and Queen City aquifers are consistent with microbial methane sourced from syndepositional organic matter mixed with thermogenic methane input, most likely originating from deeper oil reservoirs and migrating through fault zones. Active oxidation of methane pushes δ 13 C methane and δD methane toward heavier values, whereas the thermogenic gas component is enriched with methane owing to a long migration path resulting in a higher C1/C2+C3 ratio than in the local reservoirs. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  13. The environmental dependence of H I in galaxies in the EAGLE simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marasco, Antonino; Crain, Robert A.; Schaye, Joop; Bahé, Yannick M.; van der Hulst, Thijs; Theuns, Tom; Bower, Richard G.

    2016-09-01

    We use the EAGLE suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to study how the H I content of present-day galaxies depends on their environment. We show that EAGLE reproduces observed H I mass-environment trends very well, while semi-analytic models typically overpredict the average H I masses in dense environments. The environmental processes act primarily as an on/off switch for the H I content of satellites with M* > 109 M⊙. At a fixed M*, the fraction of H I-depleted satellites increase with increasing host halo mass M200 in response to stronger environmental effects, while at a fixed M200 it decreases with increasing satellite M* as the gas is confined by deeper gravitational potentials. H I-depleted satellites reside mostly, but not exclusively, within the virial radius r200 of their host halo. We investigate the origin of these trends by focusing on three environmental mechanisms: ram pressure stripping by the intragroup medium, tidal stripping by the host halo and satellite-satellite encounters. By tracking back in time the evolution of the H I-depleted satellites, we find that the most common cause of H I removal is satellite encounters. The time-scale for H I removal is typically less than 0.5 Gyr. Tidal stripping occurs in haloes of M200 < 1014 M⊙ within 0.5 × r200, while the other processes act also in more massive haloes, generally within r200. Conversely, we find that ram pressure stripping is the most common mechanism that disturbs the H I morphology of galaxies at redshift z = 0. This implies that H I removal due to satellite-satellite interactions occurs on shorter time-scales than the other processes.

  14. Air Quality at a Ranch Site in the Western Part of the Eagle Ford shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roest, G. S.; Schade, G. W.; Brooks, S. D.; Zenker, J.

    2015-12-01

    The booming unconventional oil and gas industry in the Eagle Ford shale in southern Texas continues to grow. Modeling studies of the air quality impacts of the Eagle Ford rely on emission inventories that may underestimate emissions from such operations, and air quality monitoring in the area remains limited. We conducted an air quality study on a ranch in Dimmit County, Texas, which was ranked 6th in Texas for natural gas production and 10th in Texas for oil production as of April 2015. An automated GC-FID was used to measure the concentration of hydrocarbons (C3 - C14), with concurrent measurements of CO, CO2, H2O, O3, NO/NOx. In addition, the concentration and sizing of aerosols ranging from 0.6 to 20 µm aerodynamic diameter were measured with a GRIMM aerosol spectrometer (GRIMM 1.108), and meteorological variables including wind speed, direction, temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and insolation were recorded. We report on local air quality and changes during the process as observed during the measurement campaign. Local drilling on the ranch began in May 2015 and production started in June 2015, at a site approximately 5 km southeast of the air quality trailer. Local air quality showed typically low, near background abundances of CO and NOx early during the campaign, and more frequent local NOx plumes during the drilling and production phases. Aerosol mass measurements were also relatively low and well within attainment of NAAQS particulate matter standards. We assess OH radical reactivity of individual and/or groups of VOCs using observed concentrations and their reaction rate coefficient with OH, the dominant VOC sink in the troposphere.

  15. The metallicity distribution of H I systems in the EAGLE cosmological simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmati, Alireza; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.

    2018-06-01

    The metallicity of strong H I systems, spanning from damped Lyman α absorbers (DLAs) to Lyman-limit systems (LLSs), is explored between z = 5 → 0 using the EAGLE high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamic simulation of galaxy formation. The metallicities of LLSs and DLAs steadily increase with time in agreement with observations. DLAs are more metal rich than LLSs, although the metallicities in the LLS column density range (N_{H I }≈ 10^{17}-10^{20} cm^{-2}) are relatively flat, evolving from a median H I-weighted metallicity of {Z}≲ 10^{-2} Z_{⊙} at z = 3 to ≈10-0.5 Z⊙ by z = 0. The metal content of H I systems tracks the increasing stellar content of the Universe, holding ≈ 5 {per cent} of the integrated total metals released from stars at z = 0. We also consider partial LLS (pLLS, N_{H I}≈ 10^{16}-10^{17} cm^{-2}) metallicities, and find good agreement with Wotta et al. for the fraction of systems above (37 per cent) and below (63 per cent) 0.1 Z⊙. We also find a large dispersion of pLLS metallicities, although we do not reproduce the observed metallicity bimodality and instead we make the prediction that a larger sample will yield more pLLSs around 0.1 Z⊙. We underpredict the median metallicity of strong LLSs, and predict a population of Z < 10-3 Z⊙ DLAs at z > 3 that are not observed, which may indicate more widespread early enrichment in the real Universe compared to EAGLE.

  16. Quantifying alkane emissions in the Eagle Ford Shale using boundary layer enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roest, Geoffrey; Schade, Gunnar

    2017-09-01

    The Eagle Ford Shale in southern Texas is home to a booming unconventional oil and gas industry, the climate and air quality impacts of which remain poorly quantified due to uncertain emission estimates. We used the atmospheric enhancement of alkanes from Texas Commission on Environmental Quality volatile organic compound monitors across the shale, in combination with back trajectory and dispersion modeling, to quantify C2-C4 alkane emissions for a region in southern Texas, including the core of the Eagle Ford, for a set of 68 days from July 2013 to December 2015. Emissions were partitioned into raw natural gas and liquid storage tank sources using gas and headspace composition data, respectively, and observed enhancement ratios. We also estimate methane emissions based on typical ethane-to-methane ratios in gaseous emissions. The median emission rate from raw natural gas sources in the shale, calculated as a percentage of the total produced natural gas in the upwind region, was 0.7 % with an interquartile range (IQR) of 0.5-1.3 %, below the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) current estimates. However, storage tanks contributed 17 % of methane emissions, 55 % of ethane, 82 % percent of propane, 90 % of n-butane, and 83 % of isobutane emissions. The inclusion of liquid storage tank emissions results in a median emission rate of 1.0 % (IQR of 0.7-1.6 %) relative to produced natural gas, overlapping the current EPA estimate of roughly 1.6 %. We conclude that emissions from liquid storage tanks are likely a major source for the observed non-methane hydrocarbon enhancements in the Northern Hemisphere.

  17. White phosphorus at Eagle River Flats, Alaska: A case history of waterfowl mortality

    Sparling, Donald W.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    2003-01-01

    White phosphorus has a limited distribution in the environment because it only occurs where it has been directly used by humans. It is not transported aerially for any distance and, due to its density, has a limited ability to disperse through water. Therefore, it is not a contaminant of broad-scale concern. However, where it does occur, it can cause substantial mortality or critically injure populations of waterfowl. This chronic harm includes impaired liver and kidney functioning, decreased respiratory efficiency, increased susceptibility to predation, loss of body mass, general weakening and malaise, and curtailment of reproductive functioning. Lethal effects occur around 3---4 mg/kg or approximately 3-6 ingested particles; sublethal effects can occur with ingestion of as little as a single particle. The impact of P4 on waterfowl populations nesting around ERF has never been estimated. Even if direct mortality on ERF could be estimated accurately in ducks, the delayed toxicity of P4 in swans (and presumably other species that use small grit size) and the potential for swans to fly away after ingesting a lethal dose of P4 could greatly underestimate the overall mortality. Inhibition of laying, reduced fertility and hatchability, and teratogenesis in hens ingesting even a small amount of P4 could potentially have, an effect on populations greater than that exhibited by direct mortality. Predators such as bald eagles and gulls are also at risk due to the toxicity of pelletized, dissolved, and assimilated P4 in prey organisms. Although the U.S. Army stopped using P4 in wetlands in 1993 and remediation efforts have been underway since 1995, waterfowl mortality is expected to continue for several more years. Because Eagle River Flats is only one of several sites where P4 has been found in wetland conditions, further biological investigation is warranted at these other sites.

  18. Avian vacuolar myelinopathy: a newly recognized fatal neurologic disease of eagles, waterfowl, and other birds

    Fischer, John R.; Lewis, L.A.; Augspurger, T.; Rocke, T.E.

    2002-01-01

    Wildlife biologists and health specialists have been frustrated by a long list of negative findings in their AVM investigations, however studies continue to provide pieces of information to aid the determination of the cause and its source. Available data indicated that AVM may have been present since at least 1990, occurs in at least five states, has been documented during October through April at sites of wintering populations of birds where the exposure apparently occurs, and has killed at least 90 bald eagles. Birds with AVM have difficulty or inability to fly, swim, walk, or perch, but there has been resolution of clinical signs in some affected coots. The list of affected species continues to grow, but remains confined to wild avians, including bald eagle, American coot, great horned owl, killdeer, Canada goose, mallard, ring-necked duck and bufflehead. The effects of the AVM agent on mammals, including human beings, are unknown. A neurotoxicant of manmade or natural origin is the suspected cause of AVM because no infectious disease agents, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites and prions, have been found, and the lesion and epizootiology of AVM resemble those of toxicoses. Additionally it is documented, experimentally, that exposure to raptors can occur through ingestion of infected coots. Collaborative studies will continue in the effort to identify the cause of AVM, its geographic distribution, and the range of species susceptibility. Hopefully, this information can be used to identify measures that might be taken to reduce the impact of AVM on the wildlife resource. Multiple agencies, institutions, and individuals must rely on each other's expertise in the multidisciplinary approach to this problem, persevere in their efforts and take advantage of serendipity that presents itself during investigations of this newly recognized cause of wild bird mortality.

  19. Factors influencing territorial occupancy and reproductive success in a Eurasian Eagle-owl (Bubo bubo) population

    PubMed Central

    León-Ortega, Mario; Jiménez-Franco, María V.; Martínez, José E.

    2017-01-01

    Modelling territorial occupancy and reproductive success is a key issue for better understanding the population dynamics of territorial species. This study aimed to investigate these ecological processes in a Eurasian Eagle-owl (Bubo bubo) population in south-eastern Spain during a seven-year period. A multi-season, multi-state modelling approach was followed to estimate the probabilities of occupancy and reproductive success in relation to previous state, time and habitat covariates, and accounting for imperfect detection. The best estimated models showed past breeding success in the territories to be the most important factor determining a high probability of reoccupation and reproductive success in the following year. In addition, alternative occupancy models suggested the positive influence of crops on the probability of territory occupation. By contrast, the best reproductive model revealed strong interannual variations in the rates of breeding success, which may be related to changes in the abundance of the European Rabbit, the main prey of the Eurasian Eagle-owl. Our models also estimated the probabilities of detecting the presence of owls in a given territory and the probability of detecting evidence of successful reproduction. Estimated detection probabilities were high throughout the breeding season, decreasing in time for unsuccessful breeders but increasing for successful breeders. The probability of detecting reproductive success increased with time, being close to one in the last survey. These results suggest that reproduction failure in the early stages of the breeding season is a determinant factor in the probability of detecting occupancy and reproductive success. PMID:28399175

  20. Macroinvertebrate-based assessment of biological condition at selected sites in the Eagle River watershed, Colorado, 2000-07

    Zuellig, Robert E.; Bruce, James F.; Healy, Brian D.; Williams, Cory A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Colorado River Water Conservation District, Eagle County, Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority, Colorado Department of Transportation, City of Aurora, Town of Eagle, Town of Gypsum, Town of Minturn, Town of Vail, Vail Resorts, Colorado Springs Utilities, Denver Water, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (FS), compiled macroinvertebrate (73 sites, 124 samples) data previously collected in the Eagle River watershed from selected USGS and FS studies, 2000-07. These data were analyzed to assess the biological condition (that is, biologically ?degraded? or ?good?) at selected sites in the Eagle River watershed and determine if site class (for example, urban or undeveloped) described biological condition. An independently developed predictive model was applied to calculate a site-specific measure of taxonomic completeness for macroinvertebrate communities, where taxonomic completeness was expressed as the ratio of observed (O) taxa to those expected (E) to occur at each site. Macroinvertebrate communities were considered degraded at sites were O/E values were less than 0.80, indicating that at least 20 percent of expected taxa were not observed. Sites were classified into one of four classes (undeveloped, adjacent road or highway or both, mixed, urban) using a combination of riparian land-cover characteristics, examination of topographic maps and aerial imagery, screening for exceedances in water-quality standards, and best professional judgment. Analysis of variance was used to determine if site class accounted for variability in mean macroinvertebrate O/E values. Finally, macroinvertebrate taxa observed more or less frequently than expected at urban sites were indentified. This study represents the first standardized assessment of biological condition of selected sites distributed across the Eagle River watershed. Of the 73 sites evaluated, just over

  1. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents in extracts of Baltic white-tailed sea eagles

    SciT

    Koistinen, J.; Giesy, J.P.; Koivusaari, J.

    Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-(TCDD) equivalents were measured in extracts of Baltic white-tailed sea eagle tissues. Extracts of salmon, ringed seal, and grey seal were analyzed as other predatory species of the same area. Concentrations in eagle and seal tissues were greater than those in salmon. Concentrations of TCDD equivalents (TCDD-EQs) determined by the H4IIE bioassay were compared with toxic equivalents (TEQs) derived from instrumental chemical analyses in fractions containing polychlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) or coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Toxic equivalents were calculated by use of an additive model in which the product of the concentrations of instrumentally measured individualmore » congeners were multiplied by their TCDD equivalency factors and were summed to give a total concentration of TEQs. The TCDD-EQs were compared with TEQs to develop a mass balance to determine whether all the TCDD-like activity was accounted for. The TEQs determined by chemical analyses for coplanar PCBs was 770 pg/g fw, and that of PCDD/PCDFs was 270 pg/g fw in this eagle. Thus, concentrations of TCDD-EQs were approx. 20% greater than those of TEQs. The true difference in activities is probably greater because of lower recoveries and infra-additivities among congeners in the bioassay. This indicates that there are compounds present in the extracts that can contribute to the total concentrations of TCDD-EQs in white-tailed sea eagle eggs to the no-observable-adverse-effect concentration, ranged from 7.3 to 141. This indicates that current concentrations of TCDD-EQs in these eggs are likely causing adverse effects in the Baltic populations of white-tailed sea eagles. This study indicated that the H4IIE bioassay is useful for monitoring the presence and biological activity of TCDD-like compounds in environmental samples like white-tailed sea eagles.« less

  2. Nonmotorized recreation and motorized recreation in shrub-steppe habitats affects behavior and reproduction of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos).

    PubMed

    Spaul, Robert J; Heath, Julie A

    2016-11-01

    Different forms of outdoor recreation have different spatiotemporal activity patterns that may have interactive or cumulative effects on wildlife through human disturbance, physical habitat change, or both. In western North America, shrub-steppe habitats near urban areas are popular sites for motorized recreation and nonmotorized recreation and can provide important habitat for protected species, including golden eagles. Our objective was to determine whether recreation use (i.e., number of recreationists) or recreation features (e.g., trails or campsites) predicted golden eagle territory occupancy, egg-laying, or the probability a breeding attempt resulted in ≥1 offspring (nest survival). We monitored egg-laying, hatching and fledging success, eagle behavior, and recreation activity within 23 eagle territories near Boise, Idaho, USA. Territories with more off-road vehicle (ORV) use were less likely to be occupied than territories with less ORV use (β = -1.6, 85% CI: -2.8 to -0.8). At occupied territories, early season pedestrian use (β = -1.6, 85% CI: -3.8 to -0.2) and other nonmotorized use (β = -3.6, 85% CI: -10.7 to -0.3) reduced the probability of egg-laying. At territories where eagles laid eggs, short, interval-specific peaks in ORV use were associated with decreased nest survival (β = -0.5, 85% CI: -0.8 to -0.2). Pedestrians, who often arrived near eagle nests via motorized vehicles, were associated with reduced nest attendance (β = -11.9, 85% CI: -19.2 to -4.5), an important predictor of nest survival. Multiple forms of recreation may have cumulative effects on local populations by reducing occupancy at otherwise suitable territories, decreasing breeding attempts, and causing nesting failure. Seasonal no-stopping zones for motorized vehicles may be an alternative to trail closures for managing disturbance. This study demonstrates the importance of considering human disturbance across different parts of the annual cycle, particularly where

  3. Utilization Probability Map for Migrating Bald Eagles in Northeastern North America: A Tool for Siting Wind Energy Facilities and Other Flight Hazards

    PubMed Central

    Mojica, Elizabeth K.; Watts, Bryan D.; Turrin, Courtney L.

    2016-01-01

    Collisions with anthropogenic structures are a significant and well documented source of mortality for avian species worldwide. The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is known to be vulnerable to collision with wind turbines and federal wind energy guidelines include an eagle risk assessment for new projects. To address the need for risk assessment, in this study, we 1) identified areas of northeastern North America utilized by migrating bald eagles, and 2) compared these with high wind-potential areas to identify potential risk of bald eagle collision with wind turbines. We captured and marked 17 resident and migrant bald eagles in the northern Chesapeake Bay between August 2007 and May 2009. We produced utilization distribution (UD) surfaces for 132 individual migration tracks using a dynamic Brownian bridge movement model and combined these to create a population wide UD surface with a 1 km cell size. We found eagle migration movements were concentrated within two main corridors along the Appalachian Mountains and the Atlantic Coast. Of the 3,123 wind turbines ≥100 m in height in the study area, 38% were located in UD 20, and 31% in UD 40. In the United States portion of the study area, commercially viable wind power classes overlapped with only 2% of the UD category 20 (i.e., the areas of highest use by migrating eagles) and 4% of UD category 40. This is encouraging because it suggests that wind energy development can still occur in the study area at sites that are most viable from a wind power perspective and are unlikely to cause significant mortality of migrating eagles. In siting new turbines, wind energy developers should avoid the high-use migration corridors (UD categories 20 & 40) and focus new wind energy projects on lower-risk areas (UD categories 60–100). PMID:27336482

  4. Utilization Probability Map for Migrating Bald Eagles in Northeastern North America: A Tool for Siting Wind Energy Facilities and Other Flight Hazards.

    PubMed

    Mojica, Elizabeth K; Watts, Bryan D; Turrin, Courtney L

    2016-01-01

    Collisions with anthropogenic structures are a significant and well documented source of mortality for avian species worldwide. The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is known to be vulnerable to collision with wind turbines and federal wind energy guidelines include an eagle risk assessment for new projects. To address the need for risk assessment, in this study, we 1) identified areas of northeastern North America utilized by migrating bald eagles, and 2) compared these with high wind-potential areas to identify potential risk of bald eagle collision with wind turbines. We captured and marked 17 resident and migrant bald eagles in the northern Chesapeake Bay between August 2007 and May 2009. We produced utilization distribution (UD) surfaces for 132 individual migration tracks using a dynamic Brownian bridge movement model and combined these to create a population wide UD surface with a 1 km cell size. We found eagle migration movements were concentrated within two main corridors along the Appalachian Mountains and the Atlantic Coast. Of the 3,123 wind turbines ≥100 m in height in the study area, 38% were located in UD 20, and 31% in UD 40. In the United States portion of the study area, commercially viable wind power classes overlapped with only 2% of the UD category 20 (i.e., the areas of highest use by migrating eagles) and 4% of UD category 40. This is encouraging because it suggests that wind energy development can still occur in the study area at sites that are most viable from a wind power perspective and are unlikely to cause significant mortality of migrating eagles. In siting new turbines, wind energy developers should avoid the high-use migration corridors (UD categories 20 & 40) and focus new wind energy projects on lower-risk areas (UD categories 60-100).

  5. Using bald eagles to track spatial (1999-2008) and temporal (1987-1992, 1999-2003, and 2004-2008) trends of contaminants in Michigan's aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Wierda, Michael R; Leith, Katherine F; Roe, Amy S; Grubb, Teryl G; Sikarskie, James G; Best, David A; Pittman, H Tyler; Fuentes, Latice; Simon, Kendall L; Bowerman, William

    2016-08-01

    The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is an extensively researched tertiary predator. Studies have delineated information about its life history and the influences of various stressors on its reproduction. Due to the bald eagle's position at the top of the food web, it is susceptible to biomagnification of xenobiotics. The Michigan Department of Environmental Quality implemented a program in 1999 to monitor persistent chemicals including polychlorinated biphenols (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDE). The objectives of the present study were to evaluate spatial and temporal trends of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in nestling bald eagles of Michigan. The authors' study found that concentrations of PCBs and DDE were higher in Great Lakes areas with Lakes Michigan and Lake Huron having the highest concentrations of DDE and Lake Erie having the highest concentrations of PCBs. Temporally (1987-1992, 1999-2003, and 2004-2008) the present study found declines in PCB and DDE concentrations with a few exceptions. Continued monitoring of Michigan bald eagle populations is suggested for a couple of reasons. First, nestling blood contaminant levels are an appropriate method to monitor ecosystem contaminant levels. Second, from 1999 to 2008 PCB and DDE concentrations for 30% and 40%, respectively, of the nestling eagles sampled were above the no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) for bald eagles. Lastly, with the continued development and deployment of new chemistries a continuous long term monitoring program is an invaluable resource. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1995-2002. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  6. Patterns of spatial distribution of golden eagles across North America: How do they fit into existing landscape-scale mapping systems?

    Brown, Jessi L.; Bedrosian, Bryan; Bell, Douglas A.; Braham, Melissa A.; Cooper, Jeff; Crandall, Ross H.; DiDonato, Joe; Domenech, Robert; Duerr, Adam E.; Katzner, Todd; Lanzone, Michael J.; LaPlante, David W.; McIntyre, Carol L.; Miller, Tricia A.; Murphy, Robert K.; Shreading, Adam; Slater, Steven J.; Smith, Jeff P.; Smith, Brian W.; Watson, James W.; Woodbridge, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Conserving wide-ranging animals requires knowledge about their year-round movements and resource use. Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) exhibit a wide range of movement patterns across North America. We combined tracking data from 571 Golden Eagles from multiple independent satellite-telemetry projects from North America to provide a comprehensive look at the magnitude and extent of these movements on a continental scale. We compared patterns of use relative to four alternative administrative and ecological mapping systems, namely Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs), U.S. administrative migratory bird flyways, Migratory Bird Joint Ventures, and Landscape Conservation Cooperatives. Our analyses suggested that eagles initially captured in eastern North America used space differently than those captured in western North America. Other groups of eagles that exhibited distinct patterns in space use included long-distance migrants from northern latitudes, and southwestern and Californian desert residents. There were also several groupings of eagles in the Intermountain West. Using this collaborative approach, we have identified large-scale movement patterns that may not have been possible with individual studies. These results will support landscape-scale conservation measures for Golden Eagles across North America.

  7. Characterization of the Distribution of Siderophile and Highly Siderophile Elements in the Milton and Eagle Station Pallasites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillebrand, J. T.; McDonough, W. F.; Walker, R. J.; Piccoli, P. M.

    2004-01-01

    We examine the partitioning characteristics of several siderophile elements and HSE in the Eagle Station and Milton pallasites to determine if the D(sup Metal/Silicate) in natural systems are comparable to the range of values determined for synthetic systems. Eagle Station and Milton are particularly appropriate for this type of study because previous studies have shown that bulk samples of these meteorites have much higher abundances of siderophile elements and HSE than bulk samples of main group pallasites or mesosiderites. Thus, the expectation that initiated this study was that the abundances of at least some elements of interest present in the silicate phases may be at levels sufficiently high to be determined via in situ spot analysis using laser ablation ICP-MS.

  8. Estimating the Potential Impacts of Large Mesopredators on Benthic Resources: Integrative Assessment of Spotted Eagle Ray Foraging Ecology in Bermuda

    PubMed Central

    Ajemian, Matthew J.; Powers, Sean P.; Murdoch, Thaddeus J. T.

    2012-01-01

    Declines of large sharks and subsequent release of elasmobranch mesopredators (smaller sharks and rays) may pose problems for marine fisheries management as some mesopredators consume exploitable shellfish species. The spotted eagle ray (Aetobatus narinari) is the most abundant inshore elasmobranch in subtropical Bermuda, but its predatory role remains unexamined despite suspected abundance increases and its hypothesized specialization for mollusks. We utilized a combination of acoustic telemetry, benthic invertebrate sampling, gut content analysis and manipulative experiments to assess the impact of spotted eagle rays on Bermudian shellfish resources. Residency and distribution of adult spotted eagle rays was monitored over two consecutive summers in Harrington Sound (HS), an enclosed inshore lagoon that has historically supported multiple recreational and commercial shellfish species. Telemetered rays exhibited variable fidelity (depending on sex) to HS, though generally selected regions that supported relatively high densities of potential mollusk prey. Gut content analysis from rays collected in HS revealed a diet of mainly bivalves and a few gastropods, with calico clam (Macrocallista maculata) representing the most important prey item. Manipulative field and mesocosm experiments with calico clams suggested that rays selected prey patches based on density, though there was no evidence of rays depleting clam patches to extirpation. Overall, spotted eagle rays had modest impacts on local shellfish populations at current population levels, suggesting a reduced role in transmitting cascading effects from apex predator loss. However, due to the strong degree of coupling between rays and multiple protected mollusks in HS, ecosystem-based management that accounts for ray predation should be adopted. PMID:22802956

  9. The Dusk Chorus from an Owl Perspective: Eagle Owls Vocalize When Their White Throat Badge Contrasts Most

    PubMed Central

    Penteriani, Vincenzo; Delgado, Maria del Mar

    2009-01-01

    Background An impressive number of studies have investigated bird vocal displays, and many of them have tried to explain the widespread phenomenon of the so-called dawn and dusk chorus, the sunrise and sunset peaks in bird song output. As many as twelve non-exclusive hypotheses have been proposed to explain why twilight peaks in vocal display might be advantageous; but, even after more than two decades of study, the basis underlying the dusk and dawn chorus is still unclear. Moreover, to date, the majority of studies on this topic have focused on songbirds. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigate here a novel hypothesis on why nocturnal birds with patches of white feathers call at twilight. We propose that white plumage patches and the timing of visual signaling have co-evolved to maximize the effectiveness of social communication such as the dusk chorus. This hypothesis centers on the recent discovery that eagle owls can adopt specific forms of visual signaling and is supported by the observation that adult eagle owls possess a white throat badge that is only visible during vocal displays. By monitoring the calling of eagle owls at dusk, a peak time for bird call output, we found that white throat badges contrasted most with the surrounding background during the owls' twilight chorusing. Conclusions/Significance Crepuscular and nocturnal species appear to have evolved white patches that, shown in association with vocal displays, allow them to communicate in dark surroundings. The evolution of a white badge that operates jointly with call displays at dawn and dusk may be relevant to the eagle owls' social dynamics. Our explanation for the dusk chorus may possibly represent an overlooked but common pattern of signaling among crepuscular and nocturnal birds that combine patches of white feathers with twilight displays. Furthermore, our findings could be relevant to songbirds that breed in dark forest habitats and have contrasting white badges, as well as birds

  10. The dusk chorus from an owl perspective: eagle owls vocalize when their white throat badge contrasts most.

    PubMed

    Penteriani, Vincenzo; Delgado, Maria del Mar

    2009-01-01

    An impressive number of studies have investigated bird vocal displays, and many of them have tried to explain the widespread phenomenon of the so-called dawn and dusk chorus, the sunrise and sunset peaks in bird song output. As many as twelve non-exclusive hypotheses have been proposed to explain why twilight peaks in vocal display might be advantageous; but, even after more than two decades of study, the basis underlying the dusk and dawn chorus is still unclear. Moreover, to date, the majority of studies on this topic have focused on songbirds. We investigate here a novel hypothesis on why nocturnal birds with patches of white feathers call at twilight. We propose that white plumage patches and the timing of visual signaling have co-evolved to maximize the effectiveness of social communication such as the dusk chorus. This hypothesis centers on the recent discovery that eagle owls can adopt specific forms of visual signaling and is supported by the observation that adult eagle owls possess a white throat badge that is only visible during vocal displays. By monitoring the calling of eagle owls at dusk, a peak time for bird call output, we found that white throat badges contrasted most with the surrounding background during the owls' twilight chorusing. Crepuscular and nocturnal species appear to have evolved white patches that, shown in association with vocal displays, allow them to communicate in dark surroundings. The evolution of a white badge that operates jointly with call displays at dawn and dusk may be relevant to the eagle owls' social dynamics. Our explanation for the dusk chorus may possibly represent an overlooked but common pattern of signaling among crepuscular and nocturnal birds that combine patches of white feathers with twilight displays. Furthermore, our findings could be relevant to songbirds that breed in dark forest habitats and have contrasting white badges, as well as birds living in open habitats and showing contrasting bars.

  11. Impact of the California lead ammunition ban on reducing lead exposure in golden eagles and turkey vultures.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Terra R; Bloom, Peter H; Torres, Steve G; Hernandez, Yvette Z; Poppenga, Robert H; Boyce, Walter M; Johnson, Christine K

    2011-04-06

    Predatory and scavenging birds may be exposed to high levels of lead when they ingest shot or bullet fragments embedded in the tissues of animals injured or killed with lead ammunition. Lead poisoning was a contributing factor in the decline of the endangered California condor population in the 1980s, and remains one of the primary factors threatening species recovery. In response to this threat, a ban on the use of lead ammunition for most hunting activities in the range of the condor in California was implemented in 2008. Monitoring of lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds is essential for assessing the effectiveness of the lead ammunition ban in reducing lead exposure in these species. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of the regulation in decreasing blood lead concentration in two avian sentinels, golden eagles and turkey vultures, within the condor range in California. We compared blood lead concentration in golden eagles and turkey vultures prior to the lead ammunition ban and one year following implementation of the ban. Lead exposure in both golden eagles and turkey vultures declined significantly post-ban. Our findings provide evidence that hunter compliance with lead ammunition regulations was sufficient to reduce lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds at our study sites.

  12. Use of multiple modes of flight subsidy by a soaring terrestrial bird, the golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos, when on migration

    PubMed Central

    Katzner, Todd E.; Turk, Philip J.; Duerr, Adam E.; Miller, Tricia A.; Lanzone, Michael J.; Cooper, Jeff L.; Brandes, David; Tremblay, Junior A.; Lemaître, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Large birds regularly use updrafts to subsidize flight. Although most research on soaring bird flight has focused on use of thermal updrafts, there is evidence suggesting that many species are likely to use multiple modes of subsidy. We tested the degree to which a large soaring species uses multiple modes of subsidy to provide insights into the decision-making that underlies flight behaviour. We statistically classified more than 22 000 global positioning satellite–global system for mobile communications telemetry points collected at 30-s intervals to identify the type of subsidized flight used by 32 migrating golden eagles during spring in eastern North America. Eagles used subsidized flight on 87% of their journey. They spent 41.9% ± 1.5 (, range: 18–56%) of their subsidized northbound migration using thermal soaring, 45.2% ± 2.1 (12–65%) of time gliding between thermals, and 12.9% ± 2.2 (1–55%) of time using orographic updrafts. Golden eagles responded to the variable local-scale meteorological events they encountered by switching flight behaviour to take advantage of multiple modes of subsidy. Orographic soaring occurred more frequently in morning and evening, earlier in the migration season, and when crosswinds and tail winds were greatest. Switching between flight modes allowed migration for relatively longer periods each day and frequent switching behaviour has implications for a better understanding of avian flight behaviour and of the evolution of use of subsidy in flight. PMID:26538556

  13. Regional ozone impacts of increased natural gas use in the Texas power sector and development in the Eagle Ford shale.

    PubMed

    Pacsi, Adam P; Kimura, Yosuke; McGaughey, Gary; McDonald-Buller, Elena C; Allen, David T

    2015-03-17

    The combined emissions and air quality impacts of electricity generation in the Texas grid and natural gas production in the Eagle Ford shale were estimated at various natural gas price points for the power sector. The increased use of natural gas in the power sector, in place of coal-fired power generation, drove reductions in average daily maximum 8 h ozone concentration of 0.6-1.3 ppb in northeastern Texas for a high ozone episode used in air quality planning. The associated increase in Eagle Ford upstream oil and gas production nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions caused an estimated local increase, in south Texas, of 0.3-0.7 ppb in the same ozone metric. In addition, the potential ozone impacts of Eagle Ford emissions on nearby urban areas were estimated. On the basis of evidence from this work and a previous study on the Barnett shale, the combined ozone impact of increased natural gas development and use in the power sector is likely to vary regionally and must be analyzed on a case by case basis.

  14. Impact of the California Lead Ammunition Ban on Reducing Lead Exposure in Golden Eagles and Turkey Vultures

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Terra R.; Bloom, Peter H.; Torres, Steve G.; Hernandez, Yvette Z.; Poppenga, Robert H.; Boyce, Walter M.; Johnson, Christine K.

    2011-01-01

    Predatory and scavenging birds may be exposed to high levels of lead when they ingest shot or bullet fragments embedded in the tissues of animals injured or killed with lead ammunition. Lead poisoning was a contributing factor in the decline of the endangered California condor population in the 1980s, and remains one of the primary factors threatening species recovery. In response to this threat, a ban on the use of lead ammunition for most hunting activities in the range of the condor in California was implemented in 2008. Monitoring of lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds is essential for assessing the effectiveness of the lead ammunition ban in reducing lead exposure in these species. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of the regulation in decreasing blood lead concentration in two avian sentinels, golden eagles and turkey vultures, within the condor range in California. We compared blood lead concentration in golden eagles and turkey vultures prior to the lead ammunition ban and one year following implementation of the ban. Lead exposure in both golden eagles and turkey vultures declined significantly post-ban. Our findings provide evidence that hunter compliance with lead ammunition regulations was sufficient to reduce lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds at our study sites. PMID:21494329

  15. Correlation of brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging of spontaneously lead poisoned bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) with histological lesions: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    de Francisco, Olga Nicolas; Feeney, Daniel; Armién, Anibal G; Wuenschmann, Arno; Redig, Patrick T

    2016-04-01

    Six bald eagles with severe, acute lead poisoning based on blood lead values were analyzed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the brain and histopathology. The aims of the study were to use MRI to locate brain lesions and correlate the changes in MRI signal with the histological character of the lesions at necropsy. All of the bald eagles presented with neurologic and non-neurologic signs suggestive of severe lead poisoning and had blood lead levels in excess of 1.0 ppm. Areas of change in image intensity in the brainstem, midbrain and cerebellum were detected in the MRI scans. Histopathology confirmed the presence of all suspected lesions. The character of the lesions suggested vascular damage as the primary insult. MRI was useful for detecting lesions and defining their three-dimensional distribution and extent. Future studies are needed to evaluate the utility of MRI for detection of lesions in less severely lead poisoned eagles and determining prognosis for treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Flight test results for the Daedalus and Light Eagle human powered aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, R. Bryan; Zerweckh, Siegfried H.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the flight test program of the Daedalus and Light Eagle human powered aircraft in the winter of 1987/88 are given. The results from experiments exploring the Light Eagle's rigid body and structural dynamics are presented. The interactions of these dynamics with the autopilot design are investigated. Estimates of the power required to fly the Daedalus aircraft are detailed. The system of sensors, signal conditioning boards, and data acquisition equipment used to record the flight data is also described. In order to investigate the dynamics of the aircraft, flight test maneuvers were developed to yield maximum data quality from the point of view of estimating lateral and longitudinal stability derivatives. From this data, structural flexibility and unsteady aerodynamics have been modeled in an ad hoc manner and are used to augment the equations of motion with flexibility effects. Results of maneuvers that were flown are compared with the predictions from the flexibility model. To extend the ad hoc flexibility model, a fully flexible aeroelastic model has been developed. The model is unusual in the approximate equality of many structural natural frequencies and the importance of unsteady aerodynamic effects. the Gossamer Albatross. It is hypothesized that this inverse ground effect is caused by turbulence in the Earth's boundary layer. The diameters of the largest boundary layer eddies (which represent most of the turbulent kinetic energy) are proportional to altitude; thus, closer to the ground, the energy in the boundary layer becomes concentrated in eddies of smaller and smaller diameter. Eventually the eddies become sufficiently small (approximately 0.5 cm) that they trip the laminar boundary layer on the wing. As a result, a greater percentage of the wing area is covered with turbulent flow. Consequently the aircraft's drag and the pow er required both increase as the aircraft flies closer to the ground. The results of the flight test program are

  17. Pre-main sequence stars with disks in the Eagle Nebula observed in scattered light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarcello, M. G.; Damiani, F.; Micela, G.; Peres, G.; Prisinzano, L.; Sciortino, S.

    2010-10-01

    Context. NGC 6611 and its parental cloud, the Eagle Nebula (M 16), are well-studied star-forming regions, thanks to their large content of both OB stars and stars with disks and the observed ongoing star formation. In our previous studies of the Eagle Nebula, we identified 834 disk-bearing stars associated with the cloud, after detecting their excesses in NIR bands from J band to 8.0 μ m. Aims: In this paper, we study in detail the nature of a subsample of disk-bearing stars that show peculiar characteristics. They appear older than the other members in the V vs. V-I diagram, and/or they have one or more IRAC colors at pure photospheric values, despite showing NIR excesses, when optical and infrared colors are compared. Methods: We confirm the membership of these stars to M 16 by a spectroscopic analysis. The physical properties of these stars with disks are studied by comparing their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with the SEDs predicted by models of T Tauri stars with disks and envelopes. Results: We show that the age of these stars estimated from the V vs. V-I diagram is unreliable since their V-I colors are altered by the light scattered by the disk into the line of sight. Only in a few cases their SEDs are compatible with models with excesses in V band caused by optical veiling. Candidate members with disks and photospheric IRAC colors are selected by the used NIR disk diagnostic, which is sensitive to moderate excesses, such as those produced by disks with low masses. In 1/3 of these cases, scattering of stellar flux by the disks can also be invoked. Conclusions: The photospheric light scattered by the disk grains into the line of sight can affect the derivation of physical parameters of Class II stars from photometric optical and NIR data. Besides, the disks diagnostic we defined are useful for selecting stars with disks, even those with moderate excesses or whose optical colors are altered by veiling or photospheric scattered light. Table with the

  18. Application of threshold concepts to ecological management problems: occupancy of Golden Eagles in Denali National Park, Alaska: Chapter 5

    Eaton, Mitchell J.; Martin, Julien; Nichols, James D.; McIntyre, Carol; McCluskie, Maggie C.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Lubow, Bruce L.; Runge, Michael C.; Edited by Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we demonstrate the application of the various classes of thresholds, detailed in earlier chapters and elsewhere, via an actual but simplified natural resource management case study. We intend our example to provide the reader with the ability to recognize and apply the theoretical concepts of utility, ecological and decision thresholds to management problems through a formalized decision-analytic process. Our case study concerns the management of human recreational activities in Alaska’s Denali National Park, USA, and the possible impacts of such activities on nesting Golden Eagles, Aquila chrysaetos. Managers desire to allow visitors the greatest amount of access to park lands, provided that eagle nesting-site occupancy is maintained at a level determined to be acceptable by the managers themselves. As these two management objectives are potentially at odds, we treat minimum desired occupancy level as a utility threshold which, then, serves to guide the selection of annual management alternatives in the decision process. As human disturbance is not the only factor influencing eagle occupancy, we model nesting-site dynamics as a function of both disturbance and prey availability. We incorporate uncertainty in these dynamics by considering several hypotheses, including a hypothesis that site occupancy is affected only at a threshold level of prey abundance (i.e., an ecological threshold effect). By considering competing management objectives and accounting for two forms of thresholds in the decision process, we are able to determine the optimal number of annual nesting-site restrictions that will produce the greatest long-term benefits for both eagles and humans. Setting a utility threshold of 75 occupied sites, out of a total of 90 potential nesting sites, the optimization specified a decision threshold at approximately 80 occupied sites. At the point that current occupancy falls below 80 sites, the recommended decision is to begin restricting

  19. GIS-based approach for quantifying landscape connectivity of Javan Hawk-Eagle habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurfatimah, C.; Syartinilia; Mulyani, Y. A.

    2018-05-01

    Javan Hawk-Eagle (Nisaetus bartelsi; JHE) is a law-protected endemic raptor which currently faced the decreased in number and size of habitat patches that will lead to patch isolation and species extinction. This study assessed the degree of connectivity between remnant habitat patches in central part of Java by utilizing Conefor Sensinode software as an additional tool for ArcGIS. The connectivity index was determined by three fractions which are infra, flux and connector. Using connectivity indices successfully identified 4 patches as core habitat, 9 patches as stepping-stone habitat and 6 patches as isolated habitat were derived from those connectivity indices. Those patches then being validated with land cover map derived from Landsat 8 of August 2014. 36% of core habitat covered by natural forest, meanwhile stepping stone habitat has 55% natural forest and isolated habitat covered by 59% natural forest. Isolated patches were caused by zero connectivity (PCcon = 0) and the patch size which too small to support viable JHE population. Yet, the condition of natural forest and the surrounding matrix landscape in isolated patches actually support the habitat need. Thus, it is very important to conduct the right conservation management system based on the condition of each patches.

  20. Convergent Evidence of Eagle Talons Used by Late Neanderthals in Europe: A Further Assessment on Symbolism

    PubMed Central

    Romandini, Matteo; Peresani, Marco; Laroulandie, Véronique; Metz, Laure; Pastoors, Andreas; Vaquero, Manuel; Slimak, Ludovic

    2014-01-01

    To contribute to have a better understanding of the symbolic or not use of certain items by Neanderthals, this work presents new evidence of the deliberate removal of raptor claws occurred in Mediterranean Europe during the recent phases of the Mousterian. Rio Secco Cave in the north-east of Italy and Mandrin Cave in the Middle Rhône valley have recently produced two golden eagle pedal phalanges from contexts not younger than 49.1–48.0 ky cal BP at Rio Secco and dated around 50.0 ky cal BP at Mandrin. The bones show cut-marks located on the proximal end ascribable to the cutting of the tendons and the incision of the cortical organic tissues. Also supported by an experimental removal of large raptor claws, our reconstruction explains that the deliberate detachment occurred without damaging the claw, in a way comparable at a general level with other Mousterian contexts across Europe. After excluding that these specimens met the nutritional requirements for human subsistence, we discuss the possible implications these findings perform in our current knowledge of the European Middle Palaeolithic context. PMID:25010346