Science.gov

Sample records for eap expanded access

  1. Expanded Access Programs

    PubMed Central

    Van Campen, Luann E.; Garnett, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Expanded access is a regulatory mechanism by which an investigational drug can be made available outside of a clinical trial to treat patients with serious or life-threatening conditions for which there are no satisfactory treatment options. An expanded access program (EAP) is the formal plan under which preapproval access to an investigational drug can be provided to a group of patients. Although an EAP is a regulated program, the decision to authorize an EAP is the responsibility of the biopharmaceutical sponsor. Because of the significant impact an EAP can have on current patients, drug development, and future patients, we propose that a sponsor’s decision must be based not only on regulatory criteria but also on ethical and practical considerations regarding implementation of an EAP. Such an approach will help ensure that decisions and plans uphold ethical precepts such as fairness, promoting good, and minimizing risk of harm. PMID:29473010

  2. Expanding Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    There is no question that the United States lags behind most industrialized nations in consumer access to broadband Internet service. For many policy makers and activists, this shortfall marks the latest phase in the struggle to overcome the digital divide. To remedy this lack of broadband affordability and availability, one start-up firm--with…

  3. The gefitinib long-term responder (LTR)--a cancer stem-like cell story? Insights from molecular analyses of German long-term responders treated in the IRESSA expanded access program (EAP).

    PubMed

    Gottschling, Sandra; Herpel, Esther; Eberhardt, Wilfried E E; Heigener, David F; Fischer, Jürgen R; Köhne, Claus-Henning; Kortsik, Cornelius; Kuhnt, Thomas; Muley, Thomas; Meister, Michael; Bischoff, Helge G; Klein, Peter; Moldenhauer, Ines; Schnabel, Philipp A; Thomas, Michael; Penzel, Roland

    2012-07-01

    In selected patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) the EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) gefitinib (IRESSA) shows response rates of ≥ 70% and a significant prolongation of progression free survival (PFS). However, cogent biomarkers predicting long-term response to EGFR-TKIs are yet lacking. Cancer stem-like cells (CSC) are thought to play a pivotal role in tumor regeneration and appear to be influenced by the EGFR-pathway. This makes them a promising candidate for predicting long-term response to EGFR-TKIs. We analyzed pre-therapeutic tissue specimens of a rare and specific subset of previously treated German patients with advanced NSCLC who experienced ≥ 3 year response to gefitinib within the International IRESSA EAP. 11/20 identified long-term responders (LTRs) had appropriate tissue specimens available. Those were analyzed for EGFR and k-ras (Kirsten rat sarcoma) mutations, EGFR and c-met (met proto-oncogene) amplifications and protein expression of EGFR, E-cadherin/vimentin and the CSC antigens CD133 and BCRP1 (breast cancer resistance protein 1). The results were compared to primary resistant patients (RPs) and intermediate responders (IRs) showing a median response of 8.6 months. Each group consisted of 6 women and 5 men, with 1 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 10 adenocarcinoma (AC). Along the LTRs, all but the SCC had EGFR mutations, whereas the RPs had no EGFR, but k-ras mutations in 5/11 cases. 8/11 IRs had EGFR and 3/11 k-ras mutations, of which 2 occurred concomitantly. One patient of each group had an EGFR and/or c-met amplification. EGFR and E-cadherin/vimentin expression was not different between the groups, whereas CD133 was expressed only in 4/10 LTRs and BCRP1 predominantly in responders. The LTRs showed a substantially longer mean PFS to previous therapies, a substantially lower number of metastatic sites and almost exclusively pulmonary or pleural metastasis. LTRs display established

  4. A CoAP-Based Network Access Authentication Service for Low-Power Wide Area Networks: LO-CoAP-EAP.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Carrillo, Dan; Marin-Lopez, Rafael; Kandasamy, Arunprabhu; Pelov, Alexander

    2017-11-17

    The Internet-of-Things (IoT) landscape is expanding with new radio technologies. In addition to the Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (LR-WPAN), the recent set of technologies conforming the so-called Low-Power Wide Area Networks (LP-WAN) offers long-range communications, allowing one to send small pieces of information at a reduced energy cost, which promotes the creation of new IoT applications and services. However, LP-WAN technologies pose new challenges since they have strong limitations in the available bandwidth. In general, a first step prior to a smart object being able to gain access to the network is the process of network access authentication. It involves authentication, authorization and key management operations. This process is of vital importance for operators to control network resources. However, proposals for managing network access authentication in LP-WAN are tailored to the specifics of each technology, which could introduce interoperability problems in the future. In this sense, little effort has been put so far into providing a wireless-independent solution for network access authentication in the area of LP-WAN. To fill this gap, we propose a service named Low-Overhead CoAP-EAP (LO-CoAP-EAP), which is based on previous work designed for LR-WPAN. LO-CoAP-EAP integrates the use of Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA) infrastructures and the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) protocol. For this integration, we use the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) to design a network authentication service independent of the type of LP-WAN technology. LO-CoAP-EAP represents a trade-off between flexibility, wireless technology independence, scalability and performance in LP-WAN.

  5. A CoAP-Based Network Access Authentication Service for Low-Power Wide Area Networks: LO-CoAP-EAP

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Carrillo, Dan; Marin-Lopez, Rafael; Kandasamy, Arunprabhu; Pelov, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The Internet-of-Things (IoT) landscape is expanding with new radio technologies. In addition to the Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (LR-WPAN), the recent set of technologies conforming the so-called Low-Power Wide Area Networks (LP-WAN) offers long-range communications, allowing one to send small pieces of information at a reduced energy cost, which promotes the creation of new IoT applications and services. However, LP-WAN technologies pose new challenges since they have strong limitations in the available bandwidth. In general, a first step prior to a smart object being able to gain access to the network is the process of network access authentication. It involves authentication, authorization and key management operations. This process is of vital importance for operators to control network resources. However, proposals for managing network access authentication in LP-WAN are tailored to the specifics of each technology, which could introduce interoperability problems in the future. In this sense, little effort has been put so far into providing a wireless-independent solution for network access authentication in the area of LP-WAN. To fill this gap, we propose a service named Low-Overhead CoAP-EAP (LO-CoAP-EAP), which is based on previous work designed for LR-WPAN. LO-CoAP-EAP integrates the use of Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA) infrastructures and the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) protocol. For this integration, we use the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) to design a network authentication service independent of the type of LP-WAN technology. LO-CoAP-EAP represents a trade-off between flexibility, wireless technology independence, scalability and performance in LP-WAN. PMID:29149040

  6. Expanding global access to radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Atun, Rifat; Jaffray, David A; Barton, Michael B; Bray, Freddie; Baumann, Michael; Vikram, Bhadrasain; Hanna, Timothy P; Knaul, Felicia M; Lievens, Yolande; Lui, Tracey Y M; Milosevic, Michael; O'Sullivan, Brian; Rodin, Danielle L; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Van Dyk, Jacob; Yap, Mei Ling; Zubizarreta, Eduardo; Gospodarowicz, Mary

    2015-09-01

    Radiotherapy is a critical and inseparable component of comprehensive cancer treatment and care. For many of the most common cancers in low-income and middle-income countries, radiotherapy is essential for effective treatment. In high-income countries, radiotherapy is used in more than half of all cases of cancer to cure localised disease, palliate symptoms, and control disease in incurable cancers. Yet, in planning and building treatment capacity for cancer, radiotherapy is frequently the last resource to be considered. Consequently, worldwide access to radiotherapy is unacceptably low. We present a new body of evidence that quantifies the worldwide coverage of radiotherapy services by country. We show the shortfall in access to radiotherapy by country and globally for 2015-35 based on current and projected need, and show substantial health and economic benefits to investing in radiotherapy. The cost of scaling up radiotherapy in the nominal model in 2015-35 is US$26·6 billion in low-income countries, $62·6 billion in lower-middle-income countries, and $94·8 billion in upper-middle-income countries, which amounts to $184·0 billion across all low-income and middle-income countries. In the efficiency model the costs were lower: $14·1 billion in low-income, $33·3 billion in lower-middle-income, and $49·4 billion in upper-middle-income countries-a total of $96·8 billion. Scale-up of radiotherapy capacity in 2015-35 from current levels could lead to saving of 26·9 million life-years in low-income and middle-income countries over the lifetime of the patients who received treatment. The economic benefits of investment in radiotherapy are very substantial. Using the nominal cost model could produce a net benefit of $278·1 billion in 2015-35 ($265·2 million in low-income countries, $38·5 billion in lower-middle-income countries, and $239·3 billion in upper-middle-income countries). Investment in the efficiency model would produce in the same period an even

  7. Single-arm, open label study of pemetrexed plus cisplatin in chemotherapy naïve patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma: outcomes of an expanded access program.

    PubMed

    Obasaju, Coleman K; Ye, Zhishen; Wozniak, Antoinette J; Belani, Chandra P; Keohan, Mary-Louise; Ross, Helen J; Polikoff, Jonathan A; Mintzer, David M; Monberg, Matthew J; Jänne, Pasi A

    2007-02-01

    An expanded access program (EAP) provided patient access to pemetrexed prior to its commercial availability. The current report consists of US patients in the EAP who had chemotherapy naïve pleural mesothelioma. Eligible patients had a histologic or cytologic diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma that was not amenable to curative treatment with surgery. Study treatment consisted of pemetrexed 500mg/m(2) in combination with cisplatin 75mg/m(2) once every 21 days. Vitamin B12, folic acid, and dexamethasone were administered as prophylaxis. Serious adverse events (SAEs) were reported by investigators and compiled in a pharmacovigilance database for all patients enrolled in the EAP. Of 1056 patients receiving at least one dose of pemetrexed in the EAP, 728 had chemotherapy naïve pleural mesothelioma. Median age of this group was 70 years (range 23-89 years) and 84% were male. Among 615 patients, overall response rate was 20.5%, including 12 complete responses (2.0%) and 114 partial responses (18.5%). An additional 290 patients (47.2%) had stable disease. Median survival for all 728 patients was 10.8 months (95% CI=9.8, 12.3; 60.3% censorship) and 1 year survival was 45.4%. The most commonly reported SAEs in the overall EAP irrespective of causality were dehydration (7.2%), nausea (5.2%), vomiting (4.9%), dyspnea (3.8%), and pulmonary embolism (2.4%). In this large cohort, 67.7% of patients treated with first-line chemotherapy experienced a response or stable disease. Survival time and toxicity from this EAP were promising for this difficult-to-treat disease.

  8. Patterns of Response in Patients with Pretreated Metastatic Melanoma who Received Ipilimumab 3 mg/kg in a European Expanded Access Program: Five Illustrative Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Wilgenhof, Sofie; Four, Stephanie Du; Everaert, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Ipilimumab 3 mg/kg was the first agent to improve survival of pretreated advanced melanoma patients. Nonconventional response patterns to ipilimumab have been reported widely, but most of these data were from studies with ipilimumab 10 mg/kg. Here, case reports from five patients treated within an expanded access program (EAP) with ipilimumab at its licensed dose of 3 mg/kg illustrate the efficacy of ipilimumab in an expanded access setting and the range of different tumor response patterns encountered. The durable clinical benefit seen in these patients despite the observed atypical response patterns highlights the necessity for comprehensive clinical decision making. PMID:23043499

  9. Expanding access to sterile syringes through pharmacies: assessment of New York's Expanded Syringe Access Program.

    PubMed

    Tesoriero, James M; Battles, Haven B; Klein, Susan J; Kaufman, Erin; Birkhead, Guthrie S

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the evolution of pharmacist practices, attitudes, and experiences with the Expanded Syringe Access Program (ESAP), which permits over-the-counter sale of syringes by registered pharmacies in New York State. Longitudinal study. New York State in 2002 and 2006. 506 (2002) and 682 (2006) managing pharmacists (response rates approximately 70%) at ESAP-registered pharmacies (n = 346 in both years). Mailed surveys (2002 and 2006). Pharmacist practices, attitudes, and experiences with ESAP over time. Approximately 75% of pharmacists reported that ESAP had facilitated timely/emergency access to syringes, and more than 90% in each year reported no problems or very few problems administering ESAP. The practice of placing additional requirements on the sale of syringes decreased from 2002 (51.4%) to 2006 (45.1%), while a 55% increase in syringe sales was reported between 2002 (43.3/month) and 2006 (67.1/month). The sale of sharps containers also increased between 2002 (85.2%) and 2006 (92.8%). Community independent pharmacies and those located outside New York City generally expressed more favorable attitudes and experiences with ESAP, although these differences decreased over time. Pharmacy-based syringe access is a viable harm-reduction alternative in the fight against blood-borne diseases, with ESAP now equaling the number of syringes being distributed by syringe exchange programs in New York State. Continued education/training is necessary to increase participation in ESAP and to further reduce barriers to ESAP use.

  10. Early Intervention: Expanding Access to Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Kevin, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    "The ERIC Review" announces research results, publications, and new programs relevant to each issue's theme topic. This issue focuses on early intervention and its role in making higher education accessible to all students, especially those who are traditionally underrepresented or at risk. An introductory section contains one article,…

  11. Final quality of life and safety data for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer treated with cabazitaxel in the UK Early Access Programme (EAP) (NCT01254279).

    PubMed

    Bahl, Amit; Masson, Susan; Malik, Zafar; Birtle, Alison J; Sundar, Santhanam; Jones, Rob J; James, Nicholas D; Mason, Malcolm D; Kumar, Satish; Bottomley, David; Lydon, Anna; Chowdhury, Simon; Wylie, James; de Bono, Johann S

    2015-12-01

    To compile the safety profile and quality of life (QoL) data for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) treated with cabazitaxel in the UK Early Access Programme (UK EAP). A total of 112 patients participated at 12 UK cancer centres. All had mCRPC with disease progression during or after docetaxel. Patients received cabazitaxel 25 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks with prednisolone 10 mg daily for up to 10 cycles. Safety assessments were performed before each cycle and QoL was recorded at alternate cycles using the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire and visual analogue scale (VAS). The safety profile was compiled after completion of the UK EAP and QoL measures were analysed to record trends. No formal statistical analysis was carried out. The incidences of neutropenic sepsis (6.3%), grade 3 and 4 diarrhoea (4.5%) and grade 3 and 4 cardiac toxicity (0%) were low. Neutropenic sepsis episodes, though low, occurred only in patients who did not receive prophylactic granulocyte-colony stimulating factor. There were trends towards improved VAS and EQ-5D-3L pain scores during treatment. The UK EAP experience indicates that cabazitaxel might improve QoL in mCRPC and represents an advance and a useful addition to the armamentarium of treatment for patients whose disease has progressed during or after docetaxel. In view of the potential toxicity, careful patient selection is important. © 2015 The Authors BJU International © 2015 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Expanding Your Laboratory by Accessing Collaboratory Resources

    SciT

    Hoyt, David W.; Burton, Sarah D.; Peterson, Michael R.

    2004-03-01

    The Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) in Richland, Washington, is the home of a research facility setup by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The facility is atypical because it houses over 100 cutting-edge research systems for the use of researchers all over the United States and the world. Access to the lab is requested through a peer-review proposal process and the scientists who use the facility are generally referred to as ‘users’. There are six main research facilities housed in EMSL, all of which host visiting researchers. Several of these facilities also participate in the EMSL Collaboratory, amore » remote access capability supported by EMSL operations funds. Of these, the High-Field Magnetic Resonance Facility (HFMRF) and Molecular Science Computing Facility (MSCF) have a significant number of their users performing remote work. The HFMRF in EMSL currently houses 12 NMR spectrometers that range in magnet field strength from 7.05T to 21.1T. Staff associated with the NMR facility offers scientific expertise in the areas of structural biology, solid-state materials/catalyst characterization, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. The way in which the HFMRF operates, with a high level of dedication to remote operation across the full suite of High-Field NMR spectrometers, has earned it the name “Virtual NMR Facility”. This review will focus on the operational aspects of remote research done in the High-Field Magnetic Resonance Facility and the computer tools that make remote experiments possible.« less

  13. Matching Students to Opportunity: Expanding College Choice, Access, and Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Andrew P., Ed.; Howell, Jessica S., Ed.; Sattin-Bajaj, Carolyn, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    "Matching Students to Opportunity" expands on the discussion of a critical issue in college access and success: the match between prospective students and the colleges in which they enroll. Research indicates that ensuring a good match significantly increases a student's chance of graduating. The contributors to this volume argue that…

  14. Response to "Expanding Access to Learning with Mobile Digital Devices"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanek, Jen

    2017-01-01

    In his article "Expanding Access to Learning with Mobile Digital Devices" (EJ1150752), Jeff Carter recommended a balanced perspective when measuring the potential of mobile learning to redefine teaching and learning for adults with basic skills needs. In response to Carter's article, the author makes some recommendations that she thinks…

  15. Employee Assistance Programs in the 1980s: Expanding Career Options for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, Donald V.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that Employee Assistance Programs (EAPS) offer new and expanded work opportunities for counselors. Reviews the history of EAPS, current philosophy and program components, and implications for counselors as EAPs move from crisis intervention toward prevention. (JAC)

  16. Expanded Access Protocol (EAP) Using the CliniMACS® Device for Pediatric Haplocompatible Donor Stem Cell Transplant

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-11-22

    Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Chronic Myeloid Leukemia; Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Lymphomas; Bone Marrow Failure; Hemoglobinopathy; Immune Deficiency; Osteopetrosis; Cytopenias; Leukocyte Disorders; Anemia Due to Intrinsic Red Cell Abnormality

  17. 78 FR 27115 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Expanded Access to Investigational Drugs for Treatment Use...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... a more transparent process by increasing awareness and knowledge of expanded access programs and the... regulations. Consistent with the goal of making expanded access processes more transparent, FDA is providing... (IRB) review and approval required for individual patient expanded access?'' In the draft guidance, FDA...

  18. Traditions of the Sun, One Model for Expanding Audience Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, I.; Paglierani, R.

    2006-12-01

    The Internet is a powerful tool with which to expand audience access, bringing students, teachers and the public to places and resources they might not otherwise visit or make use of. We will present Traditions of the Sun, an experiential Web site that invites exploration of the world's ancient observatories with special emphasis on Chaco Culture National Historic Park in the Four Corners region of the US and several sites in the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico. Traditions of the Sun includes resources in English and Spanish along with a unique trilingual on-line book, "Traditions of the Sun, A Photographic Journal," containing explanatory text in Yucatec Maya as well. Traditions of the Sun offers rich opportunities for virtual visits to ancient sites used for solar observing while learning about current NASA research on the Sun and indigenous solar practices within a larger historical and cultural context. The site contains hundreds of photographs, historic images and rich multimedia to help tell the story of the Sun-Earth Connection. Visitors to the site can zoom in on the great Mayan cities of Chichen Itza, Uxmal, Dzibilchaltun, and Mayapan to learn about Mayan astronomy, history, culture, and science. They can also visit Chaco Canyon to watch sunrise over Pueblo Bonito on the summer solstice, take a virtual reality tour of the great kiva at Casa Rinconada or see panoramic vistas from Fajada Butte, an area which, for preservation purposes, is restricted to the public. Traditions of the Sun provides one model of how exploration and discovery can come to life for both formal and informal audiences via the Internet. Traditions of the Sun is a collaborative project between NASA's Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum, the National Park Service, Instituto National de Antropologia e Historia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, and Ideum.

  19. Evidence for multiple modes of neutrophil serine protease recognition by the EAP family of Staphylococcal innate immune evasion proteins.

    PubMed

    Stapels, Daphne A C; Woehl, Jordan L; Milder, Fin J; Tromp, Angelino T; van Batenburg, Aernoud A; de Graaf, Wilco C; Broll, Samuel C; White, Natalie M; Rooijakkers, Suzan H M; Geisbrecht, Brian V

    2018-02-01

    Neutrophils contain high levels of chymotrypsin-like serine proteases (NSPs) within their azurophilic granules that have a multitude of functions within the immune system. In response, the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus has evolved three potent inhibitors (Eap, EapH1, and EapH2) that protect the bacterium as well as several of its secreted virulence factors from the degradative action of NSPs. We previously showed that these so-called EAP domain proteins represent a novel class of NSP inhibitors characterized by a non-covalent inhibitory mechanism and a distinct target specificity profile. Based upon high levels of structural homology amongst the EAP proteins and the NSPs, as well as supporting biochemical data, we predicted that the inhibited complex would be similar for all EAP/NSP pairs. However, we present here evidence that EapH1 and EapH2 bind the canonical NSP, Neutrophil Elastase (NE), in distinct orientations. We discovered that alteration of EapH1 residues at the EapH1/NE interface caused a dramatic loss of affinity and inhibition of NE, while mutation of equivalent positions in EapH2 had no effect on NE binding or inhibition. Surprisingly, mutation of residues in an altogether different region of EapH2 severely impacted both the NE binding and inhibitory properties of EapH2. Even though EapH1 and EapH2 bind and inhibit NE and a second NSP, Cathepsin G, equally well, neither of these proteins interacts with the structurally related, but non-proteolytic granule protein, azurocidin. These studies expand our understanding of EAP/NSP interactions and suggest that members of this immune evasion protein family are capable of diverse target recognition modes. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  20. Access to Investigational Drugs: FDA Expanded Access Programs or “Right‐to‐Try” Legislation?

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, Jelena P.; Weatherwax, Kevin; Gerber, David E.; Adamo, Joan E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose The Food and Drug Administration Expanded Access (EA) program and “Right‐to‐Try” legislation aim to provide seriously ill patients who have no other comparable treatment options to gain access to investigational drugs and biological agents. Physicians and institutions need to understand these programs to respond to questions and requests for access. Methods FDA EA programs and state and federal legislative efforts to provide investigational products to patients by circumventing FDA regulations were summarized and compared. Results The FDA EA program includes Single Patient‐Investigational New Drug (SP‐IND), Emergency SP‐IND, Intermediate Sized Population IND, and Treatment IND. Approval rates for all categories exceed 99%. Approval requires FDA and Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, and cooperation of the pharmaceutical partner is essential. “Right‐to‐Try” legislation bypasses some of these steps, but provides no regulatory or safety oversight. Conclusion The FDA EA program is a reasonable option for patients for whom all other therapeutic interventions have failed. The SP‐IND not only provides patient access to new drugs, but also maintains a balance between immediacy and necessary patient protection. Rather than circumventing existing FDA regulations through proposed legislation, it seems more judicious to provide the knowledge and means to meet the EA requirements. PMID:25588691

  1. Access to Investigational Drugs: FDA Expanded Access Programs or "Right-to-Try" Legislation?

    PubMed

    Holbein, M E Blair; Berglund, Jelena P; Weatherwax, Kevin; Gerber, David E; Adamo, Joan E

    2015-10-01

    The Food and Drug Administration Expanded Access (EA) program and "Right-to-Try" legislation aim to provide seriously ill patients who have no other comparable treatment options to gain access to investigational drugs and biological agents. Physicians and institutions need to understand these programs to respond to questions and requests for access. FDA EA programs and state and federal legislative efforts to provide investigational products to patients by circumventing FDA regulations were summarized and compared. The FDA EA program includes Single Patient-Investigational New Drug (SP-IND), Emergency SP-IND, Intermediate Sized Population IND, and Treatment IND. Approval rates for all categories exceed 99%. Approval requires FDA and Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, and cooperation of the pharmaceutical partner is essential. "Right-to-Try" legislation bypasses some of these steps, but provides no regulatory or safety oversight. The FDA EA program is a reasonable option for patients for whom all other therapeutic interventions have failed. The SP-IND not only provides patient access to new drugs, but also maintains a balance between immediacy and necessary patient protection. Rather than circumventing existing FDA regulations through proposed legislation, it seems more judicious to provide the knowledge and means to meet the EA requirements. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Recommendations to Facilitate Expanded Access to Investigational Therapies for Seriously Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jerome, Rebecca N.; Edwards, Terri L.; Boswell, Haley C.; Bernard, Gordon R.; Harris, Paul A.; Pulley, Jill M.

    2015-01-01

    When clinical trial enrollment is not an option for seriously ill patients whose illnesses have not responded to approved treatment options, those patients and their physicians may consider gaining access to investigational therapies through a pathway established by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) called expanded access. However, recent events have highlighted the challenging dynamics involved in accessing investigational therapies through expanded access that include a complex interplay of factors involving the patient, physician, drug company, FDA, and, increasingly, social media. The authors offer several potential strategies to streamline what is otherwise an arduous process for all involved. (1) The drug company should prospectively determine whether it will establish an expanded access program for specific drugs. (2) A central clearinghouse for companies should support registration of expanded access drugs for suitable patients. (3) The determination of whether a patient fits criteria would be made by an independent review board of clinicians. (4) An independent coordinating center is needed; academic health centers are ideally suited for that role. (5) Adequate financing of the costs of therapy need to be in place to make expanded access a reality, given frequent lack of payor coverage for therapies. (6) Further enhancement of regulatory pathways, approaches, or rules would promote expanded access. (7) Patients should explicitly acknowledge the limited data available. (8) There should be a shared, secure, technical platform to facilitate expanded access. All the authors’ strategies present important prospects for improving treatment options for the most seriously ill patients. PMID:26445080

  3. Higher Education In Michigan: Overcoming Challenges to Expand Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Alisa F.; Erisman, Wendy; Looney, Shannon E.

    2008-01-01

    This report examines access to higher education in underserved regions of Michigan. This study focuses on specific concerns about postsecondary education access in three geographically diverse areas of the state: suburban Macomb County; the city of Saginaw; and six rural counties in the northeastern Lower Peninsula. The report provides a summary…

  4. How Often Are Drugs Made Available Under the Food and Drug Administration's Expanded Access Process Approved?

    PubMed

    McKee, Amy E; Markon, André O; Chan-Tack, Kirk M; Lurie, Peter

    2017-10-01

    In this review of individual patient expanded-access requests to the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research for the period Fiscal Year 2010 to Fiscal Year 2014, we evaluated the number of applications received and the number allowed to proceed. We also evaluated whether drugs and certain biologics obtained under expanded access went on to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Finally, we considered concerns that adverse events occurring during expanded access might place sponsors at risk for legal liability. Overall, 98% of individual patient expanded-access requests were allowed to proceed. During the study period, among drugs without a previous approval for any indication or dosage form, 24% of unique drugs (ie, multiple applications for access to the same drug were considered to relate to 1 unique drug), and 20% of expanded-access applications received marketing approval by 1 year after initial submission; 43% and 33%, respectively, were approved by 5 years after initial submission. A search of 3 legal databases and a database of news articles did not appear to identify any product liability cases arising from the use of a product in expanded access. Our analyses seek to give physicians and patients a realistic perspective on the likelihood of a drug's approval as well as certain information regarding the product liability risks for commercial sponsors when providing expanded access to investigational drugs. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s expanded-access program maintains a careful balance between authorizing patient access to potentially beneficial drugs and protecting them from drugs that may have unknown risks. At the same time, the agency wishes to maintain the integrity of the clinical trials process, ultimately the best way to get safe and effective drugs to patients. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  5. Expanding Educational Access in Eastern Turkey: A New Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dwyer, John; Aksit, Necmi; Sands, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    The Eastern Anatolian project extends opportunity and access to quality education. The study examines the selection and learning systems adopted within the framework of gender equity, family background and higher order skills. Performance data on a range of selection measures and the initial programme are analysed. Results show that selection was…

  6. Data Basin: Expanding Access to Conservation Data, Tools, and People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comendant, T.; Strittholt, J.; Frost, P.; Ward, B. C.; Bachelet, D. M.; Osborne-Gowey, J.

    2009-12-01

    Mapping and spatial analysis are a fundamental part of problem solving in conservation science, yet spatial data are widely scattered, difficult to locate, and often unavailable. Valuable time and resources are wasted locating and gaining access to important biological, cultural, and economic datasets, scientific analysis, and experts. As conservation problems become more serious and the demand to solve them grows more urgent, a new way to connect science and practice is needed. To meet this need, an open-access, web tool called Data Basin (www.databasin.org) has been created by the Conservation Biology Institute in partnership with ESRI and the Wilburforce Foundation. Users of Data Basin can gain quick access to datasets, experts, groups, and tools to help solve real-world problems. Individuals and organizations can perform essential tasks such as exploring and downloading from a vast library of conservation datasets, uploading existing datasets, connecting to other external data sources, create groups, and produce customized maps that can be easily shared. Data Basin encourages sharing and publishing, but also provides privacy and security for sensitive information when needed. Users can publish projects within Data Basin to tell more complete and rich stories of discovery and solutions. Projects are an ideal way to publish collections of datasets, maps and other information on the internet to reach wider audiences. Data Basin also houses individual centers that provide direct access to data, maps, and experts focused on specific geographic areas or conservation topics. Current centers being developed include the Boreal Information Centre, the Data Basin Climate Center, and proposed Aquatic and Forest Conservation Centers.

  7. Characterization of bending EAP beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Sherrit, Stewart

    2004-01-01

    Electroactive polymers are attractive actuation materials because of their large deformation, flexibility, and lightweight. A CCD camera system was constructed to record the curved shapes of bending during the activation of EAP films and image-processing software was developed to digitize the bending curves. A computer program was developed to solve the invese problem of cantilever EAP beams with tip position limiter. using the developed program and acquired curves without tip position limiter as well as the corresponding tip force, the EAP material properties of voltage-strain sensitivity and Young's modulus were determined.

  8. Expanding access to naloxone for family members: The Massachusetts experience.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Sarah M; Forman, Leah S; Ruiz, Sarah; Cranston, Kevin; Walley, Alexander Y

    2018-05-01

    The Massachusetts Department of Public Health Overdose Education and Naloxone Distribution Program provides overdose education and naloxone rescue kits to people at risk for overdose and bystanders, including family members. Using Massachusetts Department of Public Health data, the aims are to: (i) describe characteristics of family members who receive naloxone; (ii) identify where family members obtain naloxone; and (iii) describe characteristics of rescues by family members. We conducted a retrospective review using program enrollee information collected on a standardised form between 2008 and 2015. We calculated descriptive statistics, including demographics, current substance use, enrolment location, history of witnessed overdoses and rescue attempt characteristics. We conducted a stratified analysis comparing family members who used drugs with those who did not. Family members were 27% of total program enrollees (n = 10 883/40 801). Family members who reported substance use (n = 4679) were 35.6 years (mean), 50.6% female, 76.3% non-Hispanic white, 75.6% had witnessed an overdose, and they obtained naloxone most frequently at HIV prevention programs. Family members who did not report substance use (n = 6148) were 49.2 years (mean), 73.8% female, 87.9% non-Hispanic white, 35.3% had witnessed an overdose, and they obtained naloxone most frequently at community meetings. Family members were responsible for 20% (n = 860/4373) of the total rescue attempts. The Massachusetts experience demonstrates that family members can be active participants in responding to the overdose epidemic by rescuing family members and others. Targeted intervention strategies for families should be included in efforts to expand overdose education and naloxone in Massachusetts. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  9. The effect of an enhanced employee assistance program (EAP) intervention on EAP utilization.

    PubMed

    Zarkin, G A; Bray, J W; Karuntzos, G T; Demiralp, B

    2001-05-01

    An enhanced employee assistance program (EAP) intervention was developed that delivers comprehensive EAP outreach services to all employees who may have alcohol-related and other workplace problems; standard EAP materials traditionally targeted at white men were enhanced to include women and minorities. This study evaluates whether the enhanced EAP intervention increased EAP utilization. The enhanced EAP intervention was developed at a large community-based not-for-profit EAP located in Rockford, Illinois. Two primary worksites and 16 other newly contracted worksites received the enhanced EAP intervention and served as intervention sites; the 107 other worksites serviced by the EAP were used as comparison sites. We used time series data from 1991 to 1998 and included repeated measures on each firm's quarterly EAP utilization. The enhanced EAP intervention increased the mean number of women and minority cases per worksite by 58%, white male cases by 45% and total EAP cases by 53%. This study shows that, for a modest cost, the enhanced EAP intervention successfully increased utilization of EAP by all employees, especially utilization by women and minority employees. It also shows that traditional EAP services and outreach materials can be made more appealing to women and minorities without adversely affecting their utilization by white men.

  10. Expanding the Role of Nurse Practitioners: Effects on Rural Access to Care for Injured Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Jeanne M.; Wickizer, Thomas M.; Franklin, Gary M.; Cheadle, Allen D.; Berkowitz, Bobbie

    2008-01-01

    Context: A 3-year pilot program to expand the role of nurse practitioners (NPs) in the Washington State workers' compensation system was implemented in 2004 (SHB 1691), amid concern about disparities in access to health care for injured workers in rural areas. SHB 1691 authorized NPs to independently perform most functions of an attending…

  11. Investing in Our Children: A Plan to Expand Access to Preschool and Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Cynthia G.; Cooper, Donna; Herman, Juliana; Lazarín, Melissa; Linden, Michael; Post, Sasha; Tanden, Neera

    2013-01-01

    This issue brief presents a plan to expand educational opportunities and care for children ages 0-5 years old by investing significant federal dollars to: (1) Make high-quality preschool universally accessible to all 3- and 4-year-old children; and (2) Enable more lower-income families to afford child care for children ages 0-3 years old. These…

  12. Expanding Access to Quality Pre-K Is Sound Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, W. Steven

    2013-01-01

    In 2013, preschool education received more attention in the media and public policy circles than it has for some time, in part because of a series of high-profile proposals to expand access to quality pre-K. The scientific basis for these proposed expansions of quality pre-K is impressive. This paper brings to bear the full weight of the evidence…

  13. 21 CFR 312.305 - Requirements for all expanded access uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... options; (iii) The criteria for patient selection or, for an individual patient, a description of the... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for all expanded access uses. 312.305 Section 312.305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  14. Expanding Access: An Evaluation of ReadCube Access as an ILL Alternative.

    PubMed

    Grabowsky, Adelia

    2016-01-01

    ReadCube Access is a patron-driven, document delivery system that provides immediate access to articles from journals owned by Nature Publishing Group. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of ReadCube Access as an interlibrary loan (ILL) alternative for nonsubscribed Nature journals at Auburn University, a research university with a School of Pharmacy and a School of Veterinary Medicine. An analysis of ten months' usage and costs are presented along with the results of a user satisfaction survey. Auburn University Libraries found ReadCube to be an acceptable alternative to ILL for unsubscribed Nature journals and at current levels of use and cost, consider ReadCube to be financially sustainable.

  15. Expanding Medicaid Access without Expanding Medicaid: Why Did Some Nonexpansion States Continue the Primary Care Fee Bump?

    PubMed

    Wilk, Adam S; Evans, Leigh C; Jones, David K

    2018-02-01

    Six states that have rejected the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act's (ACA) Medicaid expansion nonetheless extended the primary care "fee bump," by which the federal government increased Medicaid fees for primary care services up to 100 percent of Medicare fees during 2013-14. We conducted semistructured interviews with leaders in five of these states, as well as in three comparison states, to examine why they would continue a provision of the ACA that moderately expands access at significant state expense while rejecting the expansion and its large federal match, focusing on relevant economic, political, and procedural factors. We found that fee bump extension proposals were more successful where they were dissociated from major national policy debates, actionable with the input of relatively few stakeholder entities, and well aligned with preexisting policy-making structures and decision trends. Republican proposals to cap or reduce federal funding for Medicaid, if enacted, would compel states to contain program costs. In this context, states' established decision-making processes for updating Medicaid fee schedules, which we elucidate in this study, may shape the future of the Medicaid program. Copyright © 2018 by Duke University Press 2018.

  16. Expanded access to naloxone among firefighters, police officers, and emergency medical technicians in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Davis, Corey S; Ruiz, Sarah; Glynn, Patrick; Picariello, Gerald; Walley, Alexander Y

    2014-08-01

    Naloxone is a medication that reverses respiratory depression from opioid overdose if given in time. Paramedics routinely administer naloxone to opioid overdose victims in the prehospital setting, and many states are moving to increase access to the medication. Several jurisdictions have expanded naloxone administration authority to nonparamedic first responders, and others are considering that step. We report here on policy change in Massachusetts, where several communities have equipped emergency medical technicians, law enforcement officers, and firefighters with naloxone.

  17. Expanding oral care opportunities: direct access care provided by dental hygienists in the United States.

    PubMed

    Naughton, Doreen K

    2014-06-01

    Dental hygienists expand access to oral care in the United States. Many Americans have access to oral health care in traditional dental offices however millions of Americans have unmet dental needs. For decades dental hygienists have provided opportunities for un-served and under-served Americans to receive preventive services in a variety of alternate delivery sites, and referral to licensed dentists for dental care needs. Publications, state practice acts, state public health departments, the American Dental Hygienists' Association, and personal interviews of dental hygiene practitioners were accessed for information and statistical data. Dental hygienists in 36 states can legally provide direct access care. Dental hygienists are providing preventive services in a variety of settings to previously un-served and under-served Americans, with referral to dentists for dental needs. Dental hygienists have provided direct access to care in the United States for decades. The exact number of direct access providers in the United States is unknown. Limited research and anecdotal information demonstrate that direct access care has facilitated alternate entry points into the oral health systems for thousands of previously un-served and underserved Americans. Older adults, persons with special needs, children in schools, pregnant women, minority populations, rural populations, and others have benefited from the availability of many services provided by direct access dental hygienists. Legislatures and private groups are becoming increasingly aware of the impact that direct access has made on the delivery of oral health care. Many factors continue to drive the growth of direct access care. Additional research is needed to accumulate qualitative and quantitative outcome data related to direct access care provided by dental hygienists and other mid level providers of oral health services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Workplace Stress, Organizational Factors and EAP Utilization.

    PubMed

    Azzone, Vanessa; McCann, Bernard; Merrick, Elizabeth Levy; Hiatt, Deirdre; Hodgkin, Dominic; Horgan, Constance

    2009-01-01

    This study examined relationships between workplace stress, organizational factors and use of EAP counseling services delivered by network providers in a large, privately-insured population. Claims data were linked to measures of workplace stress, focus on wellness/prevention, EAP promotion, and EAP activities for health care plan enrollees from 26 employers. The association of external environment and work organization variables with use of EAP counseling services was examined. Higher levels of EAP promotion and worksite activities were associated with greater likelihood of service use. Greater focus on wellness/prevention and unusual and significant stress were associated with lower likelihood of service use. Results provide stakeholders with insights on approaches to increasing utilization of EAP services.

  19. Workplace Stress, Organizational Factors and EAP Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Azzone, Vanessa; McCann, Bernard; Merrick, Elizabeth Levy; Hiatt, Deirdre; Hodgkin, Dominic; Horgan, Constance

    2013-01-01

    This study examined relationships between workplace stress, organizational factors and use of EAP counseling services delivered by network providers in a large, privately-insured population. Claims data were linked to measures of workplace stress, focus on wellness/prevention, EAP promotion, and EAP activities for health care plan enrollees from 26 employers. The association of external environment and work organization variables with use of EAP counseling services was examined. Higher levels of EAP promotion and worksite activities were associated with greater likelihood of service use. Greater focus on wellness/prevention and unusual and significant stress were associated with lower likelihood of service use. Results provide stakeholders with insights on approaches to increasing utilization of EAP services. PMID:24058322

  20. Medical Negligence Determinations, the "Right to Try," and Expanded Access to Innovative Treatments.

    PubMed

    Meyerson, Denise

    2017-09-01

    This article considers the issue of expanded access to innovative treatments in the context of recent legislative initiatives in the United Kingdom and the United States. In the United Kingdom, the supporters of legislative change argued that the common law principles governing medical negligence are a barrier to innovation. In an attempt to remove this perceived impediment, two bills proposed that innovating doctors sued for negligence should be able to rely in their defence on the fact that their decision to innovate was "responsible." A decision to innovate would be regarded as responsible if it followed a specified process. Although these changes to the law of medical negligence were not passed, this article argues that the idea of a process-based approach was sound. In the United States, a number of states have passed "Right to Try" laws that permit doctors to prescribe and companies to provide investigational products without the need for FDA approval. These laws do not purport to and nor are they able to alter the obligations of individuals and companies under federal law. They are consequently unlikely to achieve their stated aim of expanding access to investigational products. This article argues that they nevertheless have a cogent rationale in so far as they highlight the need for rights-based reform to federal regulations governing access.

  1. Bryostatin Effects on Cognitive Function and PKCɛ in Alzheimer's Disease Phase IIa and Expanded Access Trials.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Thomas J; Sun, Miao-Kun; Lim, Chol; Sen, Abhik; Khan, Tapan; Chirila, Florin V; Alkon, Daniel L

    2017-01-01

    Bryostatin 1, a potent activator of protein kinase C epsilon (PKCɛ), has been shown to reverse synaptic loss and facilitate synaptic maturation in animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD), Fragile X, stroke, and other neurological disorders. In a single-dose (25 μg/m2) randomized double-blind Phase IIa clinical trial, bryostatin levels reached a maximum at 1-2 h after the start of infusion. In close parallel with peak blood levels of bryostatin, an increase of PBMC PKCɛ was measured (p = 0.0185) within 1 h from the onset of infusion. Of 9 patients with a clinical diagnosis of AD, of which 6 received drug and 3 received vehicle within a double-blind protocol, bryostatin increased the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score by +1.83±0.70 unit at 3 h versus -1.00±1.53 unit for placebo. Bryostatin was well tolerated in these AD patients and no drug-related adverse events were reported. The 25 μg/m2 administered dose was based on prior clinical experience with three Expanded Access advanced AD patients treated with bryostatin, in which return of major functions such as swallowing, vocalization, and word recognition were noted. In one Expanded Access patient trial, elevated PKCɛ levels closely tracked cognitive benefits in the first 24 weeks as measured by MMSE and ADCS-ADL psychometrics. Pre-clinical mouse studies showed effective activation of PKCɛ and increased levels of BDNF and PSD-95. Together, these Phase IIa, Expanded Access, and pre-clinical results provide initial encouragement for bryostatin 1 as a potential treatment for AD.

  2. Obtaining i.v. fosfomycin through an expanded-access protocol.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Corey M; Burnette, Jennifer; Aragon, Laura; Gauthier, Timothy P

    2016-08-15

    One hospital's experience with procuring i.v. fosfomycin via an expanded-access protocol to treat a panresistant infection is described. In mid-2014, a patient at a tertiary care institution had an infection caused by a gram-negative pathogen expressing notable drug resistance. Once it was determined by the infectious diseases (ID) attending physician that i.v. fosfomycin was a possible treatment for this patient, the ID pharmacist began the process of drug procurement. The research and ID pharmacists completed an investigational new drug (IND) application, which required patient-specific details and contributions from the ID physician. After obtaining approval of the IND, an Internet search identified a product vendor in the United Kingdom, who was then contacted to begin the drug purchasing and acquisition processes. Authorization of the transaction required signatures from key senior hospital administrators, including the chief financial officer and the chief operating officer. Approximately 6 days after beginning the acquisition process, the research pharmacist arranged for the wholesaler to expedite product delivery. The ID pharmacist contacted the wholesaler's shipping company at the U.S. Customs Office, providing relevant contact information to ensure that any unexpected circumstances could be quickly addressed. The product arrived at the U.S. Customs Office 8 days after beginning the acquisition process and was held in the U.S. Customs Office for 2 days. The patient received the first dose of i.v. fosfomycin 13 days after starting the expanded-access protocol process. I.V. fosfomycin was successfully procured through an FDA expanded-access protocol by coordinating efforts among ID physicians, pharmacists, and hospital executives. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Going "social" to access experimental and potentially life-saving treatment: an assessment of the policy and online patient advocacy environment for expanded access.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Tim K; Schoenfeld, Virginia J

    2016-02-02

    Social media is fundamentally altering how we access health information and make decisions about medical treatment, including for terminally ill patients. This specifically includes the growing phenomenon of patients who use online petitions and social media campaigns in an attempt to gain access to experimental drugs through expanded access pathways. Importantly, controversy surrounding expanded access and "compassionate use" involves several disparate stakeholders, including patients, manufacturers, policymakers, and regulatory agencies-all with competing interests and priorities, leading to confusion, frustration, and ultimately advocacy. In order to explore this issue in detail, this correspondence article first conducts a literature review to describe how the expanded access policy and regulatory environment in the United States has evolved over time and how it currently impacts access to experimental drugs. We then conducted structured web searches to identify patient use of online petitions and social media campaigns aimed at compelling access to experimental drugs. This was carried out in order to characterize the types of communication strategies utilized, the diseases and drugs subject to expanded access petitions, and the prevalent themes associated with this form of "digital" patient advocacy. We find that patients and their families experience mixed results, but still gravitate towards the use of online campaigns out of desperation, lack of reliable information about treatment access options, and in direct response to limitations of the current fragmented structure of expanded access regulation and policy currently in place. In response, we discuss potential policy reforms to improve expanded access processes, including advocating greater transparency for expanded access programs, exploring use of targeted economic incentives for manufacturers, and developing systems to facilitate patient information about existing treatment options. This includes

  4. Integrated EAP/Managed Behavioral Health Plan Utilization by Persons with Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Levy Merrick, Elizabeth S.; Hodgkin, Dominic; Hiatt, Deirdre; Horgan, Constance M.; Greenfield, Shelly F.; McCann, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    New federal parity and health reform legislation, promising increased behavioral health care access and a focus on prevention, has heightened interest in employee assistance programs (EAPs). This study investigated service utilization by persons with a primary substance use disorder (SUD) diagnosis in a managed behavioral healthcare organization's integrated EAP/managed behavioral health care product (N=1,158). In 2004, 25.0% of clients used the EAP first for new treatment episodes. After initial EAP utilization, 44.4% received no additional formal services through the plan and 40.4% received regular outpatient services. Overall, outpatient care, intensive outpatient/day treatment, and inpatient/residential detoxification were most common. About half of clients had co-occurring psychiatric diagnoses. Mental health service utilization was extensive. Findings suggest that for service users with primary SUD diagnoses in an integrated EAP/MBHC product, the EAP benefit plays a key role at the front end of treatment and is often only one component of treatment episodes. PMID:21185684

  5. Electroactive polymer (EAP) actuators for planetary applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Leary, Sean P.; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Harrison, Joycelyn S.; Smith, J.

    1999-05-01

    NASA is seeking to reduce the mass, size, consumed power, and cost of the instrumentation used in its future missions. An important element of many instruments and devices is the actuation mechanism and electroactive polymers (EAP) are offering an effective alternative to current actuators. In this study, two families of EAP materials were investigated, including bending ionomers and longitudinal electrostatically driven elastomers. These materials were demonstrated to effectively actuate manipulation devices and their performance is being enhanced in this on-going study. The recent observations are reported in this paper, include the operation of the bending-EAP at conditions that exceed the harsh environment on Mars, and identify the obstacles that its properties and characteristics are posing to using them as actuators. Analysis of the electrical characteristics of the ionomer EAP showed that it is a current driven material rather than voltage driven and the conductivity distribution on the surface of the material greatly influences the bending performance. An accurate equivalent circuit modeling of the ionomer EAP performance is essential for the design of effective drive electronics. The ionomer main limitations are the fact that it needs to be moist continuously and the process of electrolysis that takes place during activation. An effective coating technique using a sprayed polymer was developed extending its operation in air from a few minutes to about four months. The coating technique effectively forms the equivalent of a skin to protect the moisture content of the ionomer. In parallel to the development of the bending EAP, the development of computer control of actuated longitudinal EAP has been pursued. An EAP driven miniature robotic arm was constructed and it is controlled by a MATLAB code to drop and lift the arm and close and open EAP fingers of a 4-finger gripper.

  6. Final results from the large sunitinib global expanded-access trial in metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gore, M E; Szczylik, C; Porta, C; Bracarda, S; Bjarnason, G A; Oudard, S; Lee, S-H; Haanen, J; Castellano, D; Vrdoljak, E; Schöffski, P; Mainwaring, P; Hawkins, R E; Crinò, L; Kim, T M; Carteni, G; Eberhardt, W E E; Zhang, K; Fly, K; Matczak, E; Lechuga, M J; Hariharan, S; Bukowski, R

    2015-06-30

    We report final results with extended follow-up from a global, expanded-access trial that pre-regulatory approval provided sunitinib to metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients, ineligible for registration-directed trials. Patients ⩾18 years received oral sunitinib 50 mg per day on a 4-weeks-on-2-weeks-off schedule. Safety was assessed regularly. Tumour measurements were scheduled per local practice. A total of 4543 patients received sunitinib. Median treatment duration and follow-up were 7.5 and 13.6 months. Objective response rate was 16% (95% confidence interval (CI): 15-17). Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 9.4 months (95% CI: 8.8-10.0) and 18.7 months (95% CI: 17.5-19.5). Median PFS in subgroups of interest: aged ⩾65 years (33%), 10.1 months; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ⩾2 (14%), 3.5 months; non-clear cell histology (12%), 6.0 months; and brain metastases (7%), 5.3 months. OS was strongly associated with the International Metastatic Renal-Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium prognostic model (n=4065). The most common grade 3/4 treatment-related adverse events were thrombocytopenia (10%), fatigue (9%), and asthenia, neutropenia, and hand-foot syndrome (each 7%). Final analysis of the sunitinib expanded-access trial provided a good opportunity to evaluate the long-term side effects of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor used worldwide in mRCC. Efficacy and safety findings were consistent with previous results.

  7. Health and federal budgetary effects of increasing access to antiretroviral medications for HIV by expanding Medicaid.

    PubMed

    Kahn, J G; Haile, B; Kates, J; Chang, S

    2001-09-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study modeled the health and federal fiscal effects of expanding Medicaid for HIV-infected people to improve access to highly active antiretroviral therapy. A disease state model of the US HIV epidemic, with and without Medicaid expansion, was used. Eligibility required a CD4 cell count less than 500/mm3 or viral load greater than 10,000, absent or inadequate medication insurance, and annual income less than $10,000. Two benefits were modeled, "full" and "limited" (medications, outpatient care). Federal spending for Medicaid, Medicare, AIDS Drug Assistance Program, Supplemental Security Income, and Social Security Disability Insurance were assessed. An estimated 38,000 individuals would enroll in a Medicaid HIV expansion. Over 5 years, expansion would prevent an estimated 13,000 AIDS diagnoses and 2600 deaths and add 5,816 years of life. Net federal costs for all programs are $739 million (full benefits) and $480 million (limited benefits); for Medicaid alone, the costs are $1.43 and $1.17 billion, respectively. Results were sensitive to awareness of serostatus, highly active antiretroviral therapy cost, and participation rate. Strategies for federal cost neutrality include Medicaid HIV drug price reductions as low as 9% and private insurance buy-ins. Expansion of the Medicaid eligibility to increase access to antiretroviral therapy would have substantial health benefits at affordable costs.

  8. Expanding Access to Malaria Diagnosis through Retail Shops in Western Kenya: What Do Shop Workers Think?

    PubMed

    Rusk, Andria; Goodman, Catherine; Naanyu, Violet; Koech, Beatrice; Obala, Andrew; O'Meara, Wendy Prudhomme

    2013-01-01

    Background. The common symptoms of malaria reduce the specificity of clinical diagnosis. Presumptive treatment is conventional but can lead to overdiagnosis of malaria, delay of appropriate treatment, overprescription of antimalarials, and drug resistance. Routine use of diagnostic tests can address many of these concerns. Though treatment is often procured from retailers, there is low availability of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (MRDTs), a simple, inexpensive, and accurate diagnostic solution. We know little about the challenges to expanding access to diagnostics through these outlets. Methods. To understand the perceptions of the benefits and challenges to selling rapid diagnostic tests for malaria, we conducted focus group discussions with antimalarial retailers who serve the residents of the Webuye Health and Demographic Surveillance Site in western Kenya. Results. Medicine retailers perceived MRDTs to be beneficial to their customers and businesses but also included cost, fear of the tests, risks of self-treatment, and regulatory concerns among the challenges to using and selling MRDTs. Conclusion. MRDTs represent a viable approach to increase access to malaria diagnostic testing. Medicine retailers are eager for MRDTs to be made available to them. However, certain challenges remain to implementation in retail outlets and should be addressed in advance.

  9. JASPAR 2014: an extensively expanded and updated open-access database of transcription factor binding profiles

    PubMed Central

    Mathelier, Anthony; Zhao, Xiaobei; Zhang, Allen W.; Parcy, François; Worsley-Hunt, Rebecca; Arenillas, David J.; Buchman, Sorana; Chen, Chih-yu; Chou, Alice; Ienasescu, Hans; Lim, Jonathan; Shyr, Casper; Tan, Ge; Zhou, Michelle; Lenhard, Boris; Sandelin, Albin; Wasserman, Wyeth W.

    2014-01-01

    JASPAR (http://jaspar.genereg.net) is the largest open-access database of matrix-based nucleotide profiles describing the binding preference of transcription factors from multiple species. The fifth major release greatly expands the heart of JASPAR—the JASPAR CORE subcollection, which contains curated, non-redundant profiles—with 135 new curated profiles (74 in vertebrates, 8 in Drosophila melanogaster, 10 in Caenorhabditis elegans and 43 in Arabidopsis thaliana; a 30% increase in total) and 43 older updated profiles (36 in vertebrates, 3 in D. melanogaster and 4 in A. thaliana; a 9% update in total). The new and updated profiles are mainly derived from published chromatin immunoprecipitation-seq experimental datasets. In addition, the web interface has been enhanced with advanced capabilities in browsing, searching and subsetting. Finally, the new JASPAR release is accompanied by a new BioPython package, a new R tool package and a new R/Bioconductor data package to facilitate access for both manual and automated methods. PMID:24194598

  10. JASPAR 2014: an extensively expanded and updated open-access database of transcription factor binding profiles.

    PubMed

    Mathelier, Anthony; Zhao, Xiaobei; Zhang, Allen W; Parcy, François; Worsley-Hunt, Rebecca; Arenillas, David J; Buchman, Sorana; Chen, Chih-yu; Chou, Alice; Ienasescu, Hans; Lim, Jonathan; Shyr, Casper; Tan, Ge; Zhou, Michelle; Lenhard, Boris; Sandelin, Albin; Wasserman, Wyeth W

    2014-01-01

    JASPAR (http://jaspar.genereg.net) is the largest open-access database of matrix-based nucleotide profiles describing the binding preference of transcription factors from multiple species. The fifth major release greatly expands the heart of JASPAR-the JASPAR CORE subcollection, which contains curated, non-redundant profiles-with 135 new curated profiles (74 in vertebrates, 8 in Drosophila melanogaster, 10 in Caenorhabditis elegans and 43 in Arabidopsis thaliana; a 30% increase in total) and 43 older updated profiles (36 in vertebrates, 3 in D. melanogaster and 4 in A. thaliana; a 9% update in total). The new and updated profiles are mainly derived from published chromatin immunoprecipitation-seq experimental datasets. In addition, the web interface has been enhanced with advanced capabilities in browsing, searching and subsetting. Finally, the new JASPAR release is accompanied by a new BioPython package, a new R tool package and a new R/Bioconductor data package to facilitate access for both manual and automated methods.

  11. Expanding Access to Malaria Diagnosis through Retail Shops in Western Kenya: What Do Shop Workers Think?

    PubMed Central

    Koech, Beatrice; Obala, Andrew; O'Meara, Wendy Prudhomme

    2013-01-01

    Background. The common symptoms of malaria reduce the specificity of clinical diagnosis. Presumptive treatment is conventional but can lead to overdiagnosis of malaria, delay of appropriate treatment, overprescription of antimalarials, and drug resistance. Routine use of diagnostic tests can address many of these concerns. Though treatment is often procured from retailers, there is low availability of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (MRDTs), a simple, inexpensive, and accurate diagnostic solution. We know little about the challenges to expanding access to diagnostics through these outlets. Methods. To understand the perceptions of the benefits and challenges to selling rapid diagnostic tests for malaria, we conducted focus group discussions with antimalarial retailers who serve the residents of the Webuye Health and Demographic Surveillance Site in western Kenya. Results. Medicine retailers perceived MRDTs to be beneficial to their customers and businesses but also included cost, fear of the tests, risks of self-treatment, and regulatory concerns among the challenges to using and selling MRDTs. Conclusion. MRDTs represent a viable approach to increase access to malaria diagnostic testing. Medicine retailers are eager for MRDTs to be made available to them. However, certain challenges remain to implementation in retail outlets and should be addressed in advance. PMID:23766923

  12. Access to Ophthalmologists in States Where Optometrists Have Expanded Scope of Practice.

    PubMed

    Stein, Joshua D; Kapoor, Kapil G; Tootoo, Joshua L; Li, Ruiyang; Wagner, Alan; Andrews, Chris; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2018-01-01

    As the United States considers how to best structure its health care services, specialty care availability is receiving increased focus. This study assesses whether patients lack reasonable access to ophthalmologists in states where optometrists have been granted expanded scope of practice. To determine the estimated travel time (ETT) to the nearest ophthalmologist office for persons residing in states that have expanded scope of practice for optometrists, and to quantify ETT to the nearest ophthalmologist for Medicare beneficiaries who received surgical care from optometrists in those states between 2008 and 2014. This study used data from the 2010 US census, a 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology member database, and a data set of claims data for a random sample of 20% of beneficiaries enrolled in Medicare nationwide from 2008 to 2014 (n=14 063 725). Combining these sources with geographic information systems analysis, the ETT to the nearest ophthalmologist office was calculated for every resident of Kentucky, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. This study also assessed ETT to the nearest ophthalmologist for Medicare beneficiaries in those states who had received surgery from an optometrist from 2008 to 2014. Data analyses were conducted from July 2016 to July 2017. The proportion of residents of Kentucky, Oklahoma, and New Mexico who live within an ETT of 10, 30, 45, 60, or 90 minutes of the nearest ophthalmologist office. The study included 4 339 367 Kentucky residents, 3 751 351 Oklahoma residents, and 2 059 179 New Mexico residents. Of these, 5 140 547 (50.6%) were female. Racial/ethnic composition included 7 154 847 people (70.5%) who were white, 640 608 (6.3%) who were black, and 1 418 246 (14.0%) who were Hispanic. The mean (SD) age was 37.8 (22.8) years. More than 75% of residents in the 3 states lived within an ETT of 30 minutes to the nearest ophthalmology office, and 94% to 99% of residents lived within an ETT of 60 minutes to the

  13. Expanding Access and Usage of NASA Near Real-Time Imagery and Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cechini, M.; Murphy, K. J.; Boller, R. A.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Thompson, C. K.; Huang, T.; McGann, J. M.; Ilavajhala, S.; Alarcon, C.; Roberts, J. T.

    2013-12-01

    In late 2009, the Land Atmosphere Near-real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) was created to greatly expand the range of near real-time data products from a variety of Earth Observing System (EOS) instruments. Since that time, NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) developed the Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) to provide highly responsive, scalable, and expandable imagery services that distribute near real-time imagery in an intuitive and geo-referenced format. The GIBS imagery services provide access through standards-based protocols such as the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Tile Service (WMTS) and standard mapping file formats such as the Keyhole Markup Language (KML). Leveraging these standard mechanisms opens NASA near real-time imagery to a broad landscape of mapping libraries supporting mobile applications. By easily integrating with mobile application development libraries, GIBS makes it possible for NASA imagery to become a reliable and valuable source for end-user applications. Recently, EOSDIS has taken steps to integrate near real-time metadata products into the EOS ClearingHOuse (ECHO) metadata repository. Registration of near real-time metadata allows for near real-time data discovery through ECHO clients. In kind with the near real-time data processing requirements, the ECHO ingest model allows for low-latency metadata insertion and updates. Combining with the ECHO repository, the fast visual access of GIBS imagery can now be linked directly back to the source data file(s). Through the use of discovery standards such as OpenSearch, desktop and mobile applications can connect users to more than just an image. As data services, such as OGC Web Coverage Service, become more prevalent within the EOSDIS system, applications may even be able to connect users from imagery to data values. In addition, the full resolution GIBS imagery provides visual context to other GIS data and tools. The NASA near real-time imagery

  14. AtomDB: Expanding an Accessible and Accurate Atomic Database for X-ray Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Randall

    Since its inception in 2001, the AtomDB has become the standard repository of accurate and accessible atomic data for the X-ray astrophysics community, including laboratory astrophysicists, observers, and modelers. Modern calculations of collisional excitation rates now exist - and are in AtomDB - for all abundant ions in a hot plasma. AtomDB has expanded beyond providing just a collisional model, and now also contains photoionization data from XSTAR as well as a charge exchange model, amongst others. However, building and maintaining an accurate and complete database that can fully exploit the diagnostic potential of high-resolution X-ray spectra requires further work. The Hitomi results, sadly limited as they were, demonstrated the urgent need for the best possible wavelength and rate data, not merely for the strongest lines but for the diagnostic features that may have 1% or less of the flux of the strong lines. In particular, incorporation of weak but powerfully diagnostic satellite lines will be crucial to understanding the spectra expected from upcoming deep observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton, as well as the XARM and Athena satellites. Beyond incorporating this new data, a number of groups, both experimental and theoretical, have begun to produce data with errors and/or sensitivity estimates. We plan to use this to create statistically meaningful spectral errors on collisional plasmas, providing practical uncertainties together with model spectra. We propose to continue to (1) engage the X-ray astrophysics community regarding their issues and needs, notably by a critical comparison with other related databases and tools, (2) enhance AtomDB to incorporate a large number of satellite lines as well as updated wavelengths with error estimates, (3) continue to update the AtomDB with the latest calculations and laboratory measurements, in particular velocity-dependent charge exchange rates, and (4) enhance existing tools, and create new ones as needed to

  15. Pembrolizumab for advanced melanoma: experience from the Spanish Expanded Access Program.

    PubMed

    González-Cao, M; Arance, A; Piulats, J M; Marquez-Rodas, I; Manzano, J L; Berrocal, A; Crespo, G; Rodriguez, D; Perez-Ruiz, E; Berciano, M; Soria, A; Castano, A G; Espinosa, E; Montagut, C; Alonso, L; Puertolas, T; Aguado, C; Royo, M A; Blanco, R; Rodríguez, J F; Muñoz, E; Mut, P; Barron, F; Martin-Algarra, S

    2017-06-01

    The programmed death (PD-1) inhibitor pembrolizumab has been recently approved for the treatment of advanced melanoma. We evaluated the clinical activity of pembrolizumab in melanoma patients treated under the Spanish Expanded Access Program. Advanced melanoma patients who failed to previous treatment lines were treated with pembrolizumab 2 mg/kg every three weeks. Patients with brain metastases were not excluded if they were asymptomatic. Data were retrospectively collected from 21 centers in the Spanish Melanoma Group. Sixty-seven advanced melanoma patients were analyzed. Most patients were stage M1c (73.1%), had high LDH levels (55.2%) and had ECOG PS 1 or higher (59.7%). For cutaneous melanoma patients, median overall survival was 14.0 months; the 18-month overall survival rate was 47.1%. Overall response rate was 27%, including three patients with complete responses (6.5%). Median response duration was not reached, with 83.3% of responses ongoing (3.5 m+ to 20.4 m+). From ten patients included with brain metastases, four (40%) had an objective response, two (20%) of them achieved a complete response. Significant prognostic factors for overall survival were LDH level, ECOG PS and objective response. There were no serious adverse events. Although this was a heavily pretreated cohort, pembrolizumab activity at the approved dose and schedule was confirmed in the clinical setting with long-term responders, also including patients with brain metastases.

  16. Expanding the Enzyme Universe: Accessing Non-Natural Reactions by Mechanism-Guided Directed Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Renata, Hans; Wang, Z. Jane

    2015-01-01

    High selectivities and exquisite control over reaction outcomes entice chemists to use biocatalysts in organic synthesis. However, many useful reactions are not accessible because they are not in nature’s known repertoire. We will use this review to outline an evolutionary approach to engineering enzymes to catalyze reactions not found in nature. We begin with examples of how nature has discovered new catalytic functions and how such evolutionary progressions have been recapitulated in the laboratory starting from extant enzymes. We then examine non-native enzyme activities that have been discovered and exploited for chemical synthesis, emphasizing reactions that do not have natural counterparts. The new functions have mechanistic parallels to the native reaction mechanisms that often manifest as catalytic promiscuity and the ability to convert from one function to the other with minimal mutation. We present examples of how non-natural activities have been improved by directed evolution, mimicking the process used by nature to create new catalysts. Examples of new enzyme functions include epoxide opening reactions with non-natural nucleophiles catalyzed by a laboratory-evolved halohydrin dehalogenase, cyclopropanation and other carbene transfer reactions catalyzed by cytochrome P450 variants, and non-natural modes of cyclization by a modified terpene synthase. Lastly, we describe discoveries of non-native catalytic functions that may provide future opportunities for expanding the enzyme universe. PMID:25649694

  17. Ipilimumab retreatment in patients with pretreated advanced melanoma: the expanded access programme in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Chiarion-Sileni, V; Pigozzo, J; Ascierto, P A; Simeone, E; Maio, M; Calabrò, L; Marchetti, P; De Galitiis, F; Testori, A; Ferrucci, P F; Queirolo, P; Spagnolo, F; Quaglino, P; Carnevale Schianca, F; Mandalà, M; Di Guardo, L; Del Vecchio, M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Retreatment with ipilimumab has been shown to re-establish disease control in some patients with disease progression. Here, we report the efficacy and safety of retreatment with ipilimumab 3 mg kg−1 among patients participating in an expanded access programme in Italy. Methods: Patients who achieved disease control during induction therapy were retreated with ipilimumab upon progression (3 mg kg−1 every 3 weeks for up to four doses), providing they had not experienced toxicity that precluded further dosing. Tumour assessments were conducted after retreatment, and patients were monitored throughout for adverse events. Results: Of 855 patients treated with ipilimumab, 51 were retreated upon disease progression. Of these, 28 (55%) regained disease control upon retreatment and 42% were alive 2 years after the first induction dose of ipilimumab; median overall survival was 21 months. Eleven patients (22%) had a treatment-related adverse event of any grade during retreatment. These were generally mild-to-moderate and resolved within a median of 4 days. No new types of toxicity were reported. Conclusions: For patients who meet predefined criteria, retreatment with ipilimumab is generally well tolerated and can translate into clinical benefit. This strategy should be compared with other therapeutic options in randomised controlled trials. PMID:24619072

  18. The Impact of EAP Study on the Academic Experiences of International Postgraduate Students in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terraschke, Agnes; Wahid, Ridwan

    2011-01-01

    EAP courses usually not only aim to improve students' level of English but also to convey useful academic study skills and introduce students to the common genres of their discipline. These are extra skills and information other international students do not have ready access to. Yet, few studies have focused on how the academic experiences of…

  19. 75 FR 11189 - Expanded Access to Direct-Acting Antiviral Agents for the Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ...] Expanded Access to Direct-Acting Antiviral Agents for the Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C Infection in... hepatitis C (CHC) infection in patients with unmet medical need. This public hearing is being held to obtain.... Background A. CHC In the United States, hepatitis C virus infection causes 20 percent of all cases of acute...

  20. Contractive tension force stack actuator based on soft dielectric EAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, Gabor; Düring, Lukas

    2009-03-01

    Among the electronic polymers EAPs especially the dielectric elastomers are functional materials that have promising potential as muscle-like actuators due to their inherent compliancy and good overall performance. The combination of huge active deformations, high energy densities, good efficiencies and fast response is unique to dielectric elastomers. Furthermore, they are lightweight, have a simple structure and can be easily tailored to various applications. Up to now most scientific research work has been focused on the planar expanding actuation mode due to the fact that the commercially available acrylic material VHB 4910 (3M) can easily be processed to planar actuators and has demonstrated very high actuation performance when pre-strained. Many different actuator designs have been developed and tested which expands in plane when voltage is applied and shrinks back as soon as the applied charges are removed from the electrodes. Obviously the contractive operation mode at activation is required for a wide range of application. Due to the principle of operation of soft DE EAP, mainly two directions to performed work against external loads are possible. Beside of the commonly used expanding actuation in planar direction the contractile actuation in thickness direction of the DE film represents a very promising option in the multilayer configuration. First approaches have been presented by the folded actuator design and by the multilayer tactile display device. In this study a novel approach for active structures driven by soft dielectric EAP is presented, which can perform contractive displacements at external tensile load. The device is composed of an array of equal segments, where the dielectric films are arranged in a pile-up configuration. In order to maintain satisfying structural integrity when external tension load is applied special attention was paid to the compliant electrode design which takes a central importance concerning the force transmission

  1. EAP Referrals: From Supervisor Training to Client Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Rob; Colan, Neil

    For several decades Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) have been a resource in the workplace to handle troubled employees. The areas of supervisor training and employee motivation provide opportunities for involvement of psychologists in the EAP field. Surveys conducted with EAP directors revealed that many programs are planning to do supervisor…

  2. The Costs of an Enhanced Employee Assistance Program (EAP) Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Michael T.; Dunlap, Laura J.; Zarkin, Gary A.; Karuntzos, Georgia T.

    1998-01-01

    This study estimates the economic costs of an enhanced Employee Assistance Program (EAP) intervention at a large midwestern EAP that serves 90 worksites. Results specify developmental and implementation costs and provide benchmark cost estimated for other EAPs that may be considering enhanced services. (SLD)

  3. Honing EAP Learners' Public Speaking Skills by Analyzing TED Talks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leopold, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of public speaking skills for English for Academic Purposes (EAP) students' academic and professional success, few EAP textbooks incorporate authentic, professional speech models. Thus, many EAP instructors have turned to TED talks for dynamic speech models. Yet a single TED talk may be too long for viewing in class and may…

  4. Refreshable Braille displays using EAP actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2010-04-01

    Refreshable Braille can help visually impaired persons benefit from the growing advances in computer technology. The development of such displays in a full screen form is a great challenge due to the need to pack many actuators in small area without interferences. In recent years, various displays using actuators such as piezoelectric stacks have become available in commercial form but most of them are limited to one line Braille code. Researchers in the field of electroactive polymers (EAP) investigated methods of using these materials to form full screen displays. This manuscript reviews the state of the art of producing refreshable Braille displays using EAP-based actuators.

  5. Refreshable Braille Displays Using EAP Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2010-01-01

    Refreshable Braille can help visually impaired persons benefit from the growing advances in computer technology. The development of such displays in a full screen form is a great challenge due to the need to pack many actuators in small area without interferences. In recent years, various displays using actuators such as piezoelectric stacks have become available in commercial form but most of them are limited to one line Braille code. Researchers in the field of electroactive polymers (EAP) investigated methods of using these materials to form full screen displays. This manuscript reviews the state of the art of producing refreshable Braille displays using EAP-based actuators..

  6. Access to Oral Health Care: The Role of Federally Qualified Health Centers in Addressing Disparities and Expanding Access

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Leiyu; Hayashi, Arthur Seiji; Sharma, Ravi; Daly, Charles; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined utilization, unmet need, and satisfaction with oral health services among Federally Qualified Health Center patients. We examined correlates of unmet need to guide efforts to increase access to oral health services among underserved populations. Methods. Using the 2009 Health Center Patient Survey, we performed multivariate logistic regressions to examine factors associated with access to dental care at health centers, unmet need, and patient experience. Results. We found no racial or ethnic disparities in access to timely oral health care among health center patients; however, uninsured patients and those whose insurance does not provide dental coverage experienced restricted access and greater unmet need. Slightly more than half of health center patients had a dental visit in the past year, but 1 in 7 reported that their most recent visit was at least 5 years ago. Among health center patients who accessed dental care at their health center, satisfaction was high. Conclusions. These results underscore the critical role that health centers play in national efforts to improve oral health status and eliminate disparities in access to timely and appropriate dental services. PMID:23327254

  7. Optimizing Depression Care: Opportunities for the EAP.

    SciT

    Kreuch, Tony J.

    Depression is a major workplace concern with significant impact on employee productivity, attendance and “presenteeism” and often affects the company bottom line in areas such as cost impact, employee morale, worker turnover and affected families. However, despite the frequent challenge of depression in the workplace, EAPs are often not well-equipped to fully address these employees. Often, the individual will either be directed to a 24 hour call center or seen briefly onsite by an EAP professional and referred to a treating provider without a full assessment or comprehensive approach. Diagnostic practices may be informal without use of validated tools andmore » without a full assessment of risk or identification of appropriate level of care. However, the EAP may be ideally placed within an organization to have a significant positive impact on this condition. This article will summarize my recommendations regarding EAP strategies for optimizing assessment and care for employees who are struggling with depression. I will also briefly review a working model for the assessment and treatment of depression that we have developed at my company using best practices and a collaborative model for tracking outcomes.« less

  8. Extended Nonfiction Readers for EAP Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimmons-Doolan, Shannon; Davis, Jessica; Stoller, Fredricka L.; Crawford, William

    2012-01-01

    Content-based instruction course designers have many important decisions to make when developing courses for postsecondary English for academic purposes (EAP) students. One important consideration revolves around deciding if students would benefit most from the use of sustained content (Murphy & Stoller, 2001) or a topical approach (Brinton,…

  9. Wirelessly Controllable Inflated Electroactive Polymer (EAP) Reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea

    2005-01-01

    Inflatable membrane reflectors are attractive for deployable, large aperture, lightweight optical and microwave systems in micro-gravity space environment. However, any fabrication flaw or temperature variation may results in significant aberration of the surface. Even for a perfectly fabricated inflatable membrane mirror with uniform thickness, theory shows it will form a Hencky curve surface but a desired parabolic or spherical surface. Precision control of the surfaceshape of extremely flexible membrane structures is a critical challenge for the success of this technology. Wirelessly controllable inflated reflectors made of electroactive polymers (EAP) are proposed in this paper. A finite element model was configured to predict the behavior of the inflatable EAP membranes under pre-strains, pressures and distributed electric charges on the surface. To explore the controllability of the inflatable EAP reflectors, an iteration algorism was developed to find the required electric actuation for correcting the aberration of the Hencky curve to the desired parabolic curve. The correction capability of the reflectors with available EAP materials was explored numerically and is presented in this paper.

  10. EAP as artificial muscles - progress and challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2004-01-01

    During the last decade and a half new polymers have emerged that respond to electrical stimulation with a significant shape or size change. This capability of electroactive polymer (EAP) materials is attracting the attention of engineers and scientists from many different disciplines.

  11. The extracellular adherence protein (Eap) of Staphylococcus aureus acts as a proliferation and migration repressing factor that alters the cell morphology of keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Eisenbeis, Janina; Peisker, Henrik; Backes, Christian S; Bur, Stephanie; Hölters, Sebastian; Thewes, Nicolas; Greiner, Markus; Junker, Christian; Schwarz, Eva C; Hoth, Markus; Junker, Kerstin; Preissner, Klaus T; Jacobs, Karin; Herrmann, Mathias; Bischoff, Markus

    2017-02-01

    Staphyloccocus aureus is a major human pathogen and a common cause for superficial and deep seated wound infections. The pathogen is equipped with a large arsenal of virulence factors, which facilitate attachment to various eukaryotic cell structures and modulate the host immune response. One of these factors is the extracellular adherence protein Eap, a member of the "secretable expanded repertoire adhesive molecules" (SERAM) protein family that possesses adhesive and immune modulatory properties. The secreted protein was previously shown to impair wound healing by interfering with host defense and neovascularization. However, its impact on keratinocyte proliferation and migration, two major steps in the re-epithelialization process of wounds, is not known. Here, we report that Eap affects the proliferation and migration capacities of keratinocytes by altering their morphology and adhesive properties. In particular, treatment of non-confluent HaCaT cell cultures with Eap resulted in cell morphology changes as well as a significant reduction in cell proliferation and migration. Eap-treated HaCaT cells changed their appearance from an oblong via a trapezoid to an astral-like shape, accompanied by decreases in cell volume and cell stiffness, and exhibited significantly increased cell adhesion. Eap had a similar influence on endothelial and cancer cells, indicative for a general effect of Eap on eukaryotic cell morphology and functions. Specifically, Eap was found to interfere with growth factor-stimulated activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway that is known to be responsible for cell shape modulation, induction of proliferation and migration of epithelial cells. Western blot analyses revealed that Eap blocked the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) in keratinocyte growth factor (KGF)-stimulated HaCaT cells. Together, these data add another antagonistic mechanism of Eap in wound healing, whereby the

  12. Expanding Access, Participation, and Success in International Baccalaureate Programmes: Year 1 Documentation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Thomas B.; Gerry, Gail B.

    2010-01-01

    In fall 2009, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation funded a three-year project (IB Access Project) with International Baccalaureate (IB) to increase participation of minority students and students in poverty in the Middle Years Programme (MYP) and Diploma Programme (DP). The IB Access Project seeks to do four things: (1) Improve teacher practice…

  13. Expanding Federal Funding to Community Health Centers Slows Decline in Access for Low-Income Adults

    PubMed Central

    McMorrow, Stacey; Zuckerman, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the impact of the Health Center Growth Initiative on access to care for low-income adults. Data Sources Data on federal funding for health centers are from the Bureau of Primary Health Care's Uniform Data System (2000–2007), and individual-level measures of access and use are derived from the National Health Interview Survey (2001–2008). Study Design We estimate person-level models of access and use as a function of individual- and market-level characteristics. By using market-level fixed effects, we identify the effects of health center funding on access using changes within markets over time. We explore effects on low-income adults and further examine how those effects vary by insurance coverage. Data Collection We calculate health center funding per poor person in a health care market and attach this information to individual observations on the National Health Interview Survey. Health care markets are defined as hospital referral regions. Principal Findings Low-income adults in markets with larger funding increases were more likely to have an office visit and to have a general doctor visit. These results were stronger for uninsured and publicly insured adults. Conclusions Expansions in federal health center funding had some mitigating effects on the access declines that were generally experienced by low-income adults over this time period. PMID:24344818

  14. Expanding federal funding to community health centers slows decline in access for low-income adults.

    PubMed

    McMorrow, Stacey; Zuckerman, Stephen

    2014-06-01

    To identify the impact of the Health Center Growth Initiative on access to care for low-income adults. Data on federal funding for health centers are from the Bureau of Primary Health Care's Uniform Data System (2000-2007), and individual-level measures of access and use are derived from the National Health Interview Survey (2001-2008). We estimate person-level models of access and use as a function of individual- and market-level characteristics. By using market-level fixed effects, we identify the effects of health center funding on access using changes within markets over time. We explore effects on low-income adults and further examine how those effects vary by insurance coverage. We calculate health center funding per poor person in a health care market and attach this information to individual observations on the National Health Interview Survey. Health care markets are defined as hospital referral regions. Low-income adults in markets with larger funding increases were more likely to have an office visit and to have a general doctor visit. These results were stronger for uninsured and publicly insured adults. Expansions in federal health center funding had some mitigating effects on the access declines that were generally experienced by low-income adults over this time period. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  15. Expanding Access to Early Head Start: State Initiatives for Infants & Toddlers at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvard, Jamie; Schmit, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    The federal Early Head Start (EHS) program was created in 1994 to address the comprehensive needs of children under age 3 in low-income families and vulnerable low-income pregnant women. In addition to early learning opportunities, EHS's comprehensive early childhood development programs provide children and families with access to a range of…

  16. Expanding College Access for Urban Youth: What Schools and Colleges Can Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Tyrone C., Ed.; Tunstall, Jonli, Ed.; Flennaugh, Terry K., Ed.

    2016-01-01

    This timely book demonstrates why there needs to be a more thoughtful and collaborative effort on the part of K-12 schools, as well as institutions of higher education, to provide better college access to students from low-income communities. Building on a 10-year case study of a successful school-university partnership, the authors examine the…

  17. Congress Expands Access to Postsecondary Education and Training for Low-Income Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Amy-Ellen; Strawn, Julie

    2007-01-01

    On September 7, 2007, Congress enacted H.R. 2669, the College Cost Reduction and Access Act, which will raise the maximum Pell Grant to $5,400 over five years and halve interest rates on subsidized student loans. The act is part of the budget reconciliation process, which secured billions of dollars for increasing Pell Grants and for reducing…

  18. Electroactive Polymer (EAP) Actuation of Mechanisms and Robotic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Leary, S.; Harrison, J.; Smith, J.

    1999-01-01

    Actuators are responsible to the operative capability of manipulation systems and robots. In recent years, electroactive polymers (EAP) have emerged as potential alternative to conventional actuators.

  19. A Corpus-Based EAP Course for NNS Doctoral Students: Moving from Available Specialized Corpora to Self-Compiled Corpora

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, David; Swales, John

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of an experimental, innovative course in corpus-informed EAP for doctoral students. Participants were given access to specialized corpora of academic writing and speaking, instructed in the tools of the trade (web- and PC-based concordancers) and gradually inducted into the skills needed to best exploit the data…

  20. Managing the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Policy Implications of Expanding Global Access to Nuclear Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    critical aspect of the nuclear fuel cycle for the United States, where longstanding nonproliferation policy discouraged commercial nuclear fuel...perhaps the most critical question in this decade for strengthening the nuclear nonproliferation regime: how can access to sensitive fuel cycle...process can take advantage of the slight difference in atomic mass between 235U and 238U. The typical enrichment process requires about 10 lbs of uranium

  1. Safety and efficacy results of the advanced renal cell carcinoma sorafenib expanded access program in North America.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Walter M; Figlin, Robert A; McDermott, David F; Dutcher, Janice P; Knox, Jennifer J; Miller, Wilson H; Hainsworth, John D; Henderson, Charles A; George, Jeffrey R; Hajdenberg, Julio; Kindwall-Keller, Tamila L; Ernstoff, Marc S; Drabkin, Harry A; Curti, Brendan D; Chu, Luis; Ryan, Christopher W; Hotte, Sebastien J; Xia, Chenghua; Cupit, Lisa; Bukowski, Ronald M

    2010-03-01

    The Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma Sorafenib (ARCCS) program made sorafenib available to patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) before regulatory approval. In this nonrandomized, open-label expanded access program, 2504 patients from the United States and Canada were treated with oral sorafenib 400 mg twice daily. Safety and efficacy were explored overall and in subgroups of patients including those with no prior therapy, nonclear cell (nonclear cell) RCC, brain metastases, prior bevacizumab treatment, and elderly patients. Sorafenib was approved for RCC 6 months after study initiation, at which time patients with no prior therapy or with nonclear cell RCC could enroll in an extension protocol for continued assessment for a period of 6 months. The most common grade > or =2 drug-related adverse events were hand-foot skin reaction (18%), rash (14%), hypertension (12%), and fatigue (11%). In the 1891 patients evaluable for response, complete response was observed in 1 patient, partial response in 67 patients (4%), and stable disease for at least 8 weeks in 1511 patients (80%). Median progression-free survival in the extension population was 36 weeks (95% confidence interval [CI], 33-45 weeks; censorship rate, 56%); median overall survival in the entire population was 50 weeks (95% CI, 46-52 weeks; censorship rate, 63%). The efficacy and safety results were similar across the subgroups. Sorafenib 400 mg twice daily demonstrated activity and a clinically acceptable toxicity profile in all patient subsets enrolled in the ARCCS expanded access program (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00111020).

  2. Social costs of expanding access to evidence-based supported employment: concepts and interpretive review of evidence.

    PubMed

    Salkever, David

    2013-02-01

    A recent policy analysis argued that expanding access to evidence-based supported employment can provide savings in major components of social costs. This article extends the scope of this policy analysis by placing the argument within a recently developed economic framework for social cost-effectiveness analysis that defines a program's social cost impact as its effect on net consumption of all goods and services. A total of 27 studies over the past two decades are reviewed to synthesize evidence of the social cost impacts of expanding access to the individual placement and support model of supported employment (IPS-SE). Most studies have focused primarily on agency costs of providing IPS-SE services, cost offsets when clients shift from "traditional" rehabilitation to IPS-SE, and impacts on clients' earnings. Because costs and cost offsets are similar in magnitude, incremental costs of expanding services to persons who would otherwise receive traditional services are probably small or even negative. The population served by an expansion could be sizable, but the feasibility of a policy targeting IPS-SE expansion in this way has yet to be demonstrated. IPS-SE has positive impacts on competitive job earnings, but these may not fully translate into social cost offsets. Additional empirical support is needed for the argument that large-scale expansion would yield substantial mental health treatment cost offsets. Other gaps in evidence of policy impacts include take-up rate estimates, cost impact estimates from longer-term studies (exceeding two years), and longer-term studies of whether IPS-SE prevents younger clients from becoming recipients of Supplemental Security Income or Social Security Disability Insurance

  3. Expanding Access to BRCA1/2 Genetic Counseling with Telephone Delivery: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Karin M.; Schwartz, Marc D.; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S.; Boucher, Kenneth M.; Pappas, Lisa M.; Gammon, Amanda; Kohlmann, Wendy; Edwards, Sandra L.; Stroup, Antoinette M.; Buys, Saundra S.; Flores, Kristina G.; Campo, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The growing demand for cancer genetic services underscores the need to consider approaches that enhance access and efficiency of genetic counseling. Telephone delivery of cancer genetic services may improve access to these services for individuals experiencing geographic (rural areas) and structural (travel time, transportation, childcare) barriers to access. Methods This cluster-randomized clinical trial used population-based sampling of women at risk for BRCA1/2 mutations to compare telephone and in-person counseling for: 1) equivalency of testing uptake and 2) noninferiority of changes in psychosocial measures. Women 25 to 74 years of age with personal or family histories of breast or ovarian cancer and who were able to travel to one of 14 outreach clinics were invited to participate. Randomization was by family. Assessments were conducted at baseline one week after pretest and post-test counseling and at six months. Of the 988 women randomly assigned, 901 completed a follow-up assessment. Cluster bootstrap methods were used to estimate the 95% confidence interval (CI) for the difference between test uptake proportions, using a 10% equivalency margin. Differences in psychosocial outcomes for determining noninferiority were estimated using linear models together with one-sided 97.5% bootstrap CIs. Results Uptake of BRCA1/2 testing was lower following telephone (21.8%) than in-person counseling (31.8%, difference = 10.2%, 95% CI = 3.9% to 16.3%; after imputation of missing data: difference = 9.2%, 95% CI = -0.1% to 24.6%). Telephone counseling fulfilled the criteria for noninferiority to in-person counseling for all measures. Conclusions BRCA1/2 telephone counseling, although leading to lower testing uptake, appears to be safe and as effective as in-person counseling with regard to minimizing adverse psychological reactions, promoting informed decision making, and delivering patient-centered communication for both rural and urban women. PMID:25376862

  4. Synthetic biology to access and expand nature’s chemical diversity

    PubMed Central

    Smanski, Michael J.; Zhou, Hui; Claesen, Jan; Shen, Ben; Fischbach, Michael; Voigt, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial genomes encode the biosynthetic potential to produce hundreds of thousands of complex molecules with diverse applications, from medicine to agriculture and materials. Economically accessing the potential encoded within sequenced genomes promises to reinvigorate waning drug discovery pipelines and provide novel routes to intricate chemicals. This is a tremendous undertaking, as the pathways often comprise dozens of genes spanning as much as 100+ kiliobases of DNA, are controlled by complex regulatory networks, and the most interesting molecules are made by non-model organisms. Advances in synthetic biology address these issues, including DNA construction technologies, genetic parts for precision expression control, synthetic regulatory circuits, computer aided design, and multiplexed genome engineering. Collectively, these technologies are moving towards an era when chemicals can be accessed en mass based on sequence information alone. This will enable the harnessing of metagenomic data and massive strain banks for high-throughput molecular discovery and, ultimately, the ability to forward design pathways to complex chemicals not found in nature. PMID:26876034

  5. Efficacy and Safety of Pembrolizumab in Patients Enrolled in KEYNOTE-030 in the United States: An Expanded Access Program.

    PubMed

    Gangadhar, Tara C; Hwu, Wen-Jen; Postow, Michael A; Hamid, Omid; Daud, Adil; Dronca, Roxana; Joseph, Richard; O'Day, Steven J; Hodi, F S; Pavlick, Anna C; Kluger, Harriet; Oxborough, Romina P; Yang, Aiming; Gazdoiu, Mihaela; Kush, Debra A; Ebbinghaus, Scot; Salama, April K S

    KEYNOTE-030 (ClinicalTrials.gov ID, NCT02083484) was a global expanded access program that allowed access to pembrolizumab, an antiprogrammed death 1 antibody, for patients with advanced melanoma before its regulatory approval. Patients with unresectable stage III/IV melanoma that progressed after standard-of-care therapy, including ipilimumab and, if BRAF mutant, a BRAF inhibitor, were eligible to receive pembrolizumab 2 mg/kg every 3 weeks. Response was assessed by immune-related response criteria by investigator review. Adverse events (AEs) were graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. In the United States, 979 patients enrolled between April and September 2014. Of the 947 evaluable patients, 621 (65.6%) remained on treatment and transitioned to receive commercial pembrolizumab following approval by the Food and Drug Administration, whereas 326 (34.4%) discontinued, most commonly for disease progression (39.6%) or death (26.4%). Objective response rate was 14.5% (95% confidence interval, 12.2%-16.8%) in the treated population (n=947) and 22.1% (95% confidence interval, 18.8%-25.5%) in patients who had ≥1 response assessment reported (n=619). Twelve patients achieved complete response. One hundred eighty-one (19.1%) patients experienced ≥1 treatment-related AE, most commonly general disorders (8.0%), skin/subcutaneous tissue disorders (7.3%), and gastrointestinal disorders (6.4%); 29 (3.1%) patients experienced ≥1 grade 3/4 treatment-related AE. Immune-mediated AEs were also reported. There were no treatment-related deaths. The safety and efficacy observed in this expanded access program were consistent with those previously reported for similar populations and support the use of pembrolizumab for patients with advanced melanoma.

  6. Who purchases nonprescription syringes? Characterizing customers of the Expanded Syringe Access Program (ESAP).

    PubMed

    Battles, Haven B; Rowe, Kirsten A; Ortega-Peluso, Christina; Klein, Susan J; Tesoriero, James M

    2009-11-01

    This study represents the first attempt in the USA to survey pharmacy nonprescription syringe customers at their point of purchase. We surveyed 62 individuals purchasing nonprescription syringes in seven pharmacies located in NYC and Albany, NY, USA. Three quarters of respondents purchased for illicit use, and 36% purchased for medical use, with differences found by race and gender. Half got their syringes from pharmacies "most of the time." Half had ever been refused a syringe purchase in a NYS pharmacy, with men, Blacks, and Hispanics reporting higher levels of refusals than women or whites. Two thirds reported syringe reuse but very few reported sharing. While approximately one quarter safely obtained and disposed of syringes "most of the time," two thirds used both safe and unsafe methods. Pharmacy-based syringe access programs are essential in areas not served by syringe exchanges.

  7. Actualizing a provider alliance to expand health services access to a low-income urban community.

    PubMed

    Tataw, David; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; James, Frederick W

    2011-01-01

    Social change to facilitate health care access for vulnerable populations sometimes involves model-driven innovative structures and innovative planning and implementation approaches. This paper described and analyzed the rationale, conceptual framework, program components, and implementation of the South Central Health Care Alliance (SCHCA) implemented in South Los Angeles from January 2002 to December 2004. The program development and implementation was guided by an integrated framework linking the Open Systems Theory, the Social Cognitive Theory, the Health Belief Model, and the Preventive Health Education and Medical Home Project. The performance of the SCHCA as a social system, partnership, and participatory implementation program is also presented. While the SCHCA was found to be a dynamic social system that responded well to contingencies, its performance as a partnership and participatory implementation program was wanting in many respects.

  8. Expanding the enzyme universe: accessing non-natural reactions by mechanism-guided directed evolution.

    PubMed

    Renata, Hans; Wang, Z Jane; Arnold, Frances H

    2015-03-09

    High selectivity and exquisite control over the outcome of reactions entice chemists to use biocatalysts in organic synthesis. However, many useful reactions are not accessible because they are not in nature's known repertoire. In this Review, we outline an evolutionary approach to engineering enzymes to catalyze reactions not found in nature. We begin with examples of how nature has discovered new catalytic functions and how such evolutionary progression has been recapitulated in the laboratory starting from extant enzymes. We then examine non-native enzyme activities that have been exploited for chemical synthesis, with an emphasis on reactions that do not have natural counterparts. Non-natural activities can be improved by directed evolution, thus mimicking the process used by nature to create new catalysts. Finally, we describe the discovery of non-native catalytic functions that may provide future opportunities for the expansion of the enzyme universe. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. 14 CFR 120.115 - Employee Assistance Program (EAP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Drug Testing Program Requirements § 120.115 Employee Assistance Program (EAP). (a... the employee and supervisor EAP training in the employer's drug testing program. [Doc. No. FAA-2008...

  10. 46 CFR 16.401 - Employee Assistance Program (EAP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employee Assistance Program (EAP). 16.401 Section 16.401 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN CHEMICAL TESTING Employee Assistance Programs § 16.401 Employee Assistance Program (EAP). The employer shall provide an...

  11. A Case for Faculty Involvement in EAP Placement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Cindy; Templeman, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The EAP placement procedure at Thompson Rivers University (TRU) involves multiple measures to assess the language skills of incoming students, some of which are facilitated and all of which are assessed by ESL faculty. In order to determine the effectiveness of this comprehensive EAP placement process and the effect of the faculty factor, a…

  12. The Staphyloccous aureus Eap protein activates expression of proinflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Scriba, Thomas J; Sierro, Sophie; Brown, Eric L; Phillips, Rodney E; Sewell, Andrew K; Massey, Ruth C

    2008-05-01

    The extracellular adhesion protein (Eap) secreted by the major human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is known to have several effects on human immunity. We have recently added to knowledge of these roles by demonstrating that Eap enhances interactions between major histocompatibility complex molecules and human leukocytes. Several studies have indicated that Eap can induce cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). To date, there has been no rigorous attempt to identify the breadth of cytokines produced by Eap stimulation or to identify the cell subsets that respond. Here, we demonstrate that Eap induces the secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) by CD14(+) leukocytes (monocytes and macrophages) within direct ex vivo PBMC populations (note that granulocytes are also CD14(+) but are largely depleted from PBMC preparations). Anti-intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (CD54) antibodies inhibited this induction and implicated a role for this known Eap binding protein in cellular activation. IL-6 and TNF-alpha secretion by murine cells exposed to Eap was also observed. The activation of CD14(+) cells by Eap suggests that it could play a significant role in both septic shock and fever, two of the major pathological features of S. aureus infections.

  13. The Spatial Politics of Gender in EAP Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleby, Roslyn

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores some of the challenges faced by EAP teachers as they address gender issues that arise when teaching in a non-Western cultural context. It draws on interviews with four Australian teachers regarding their experiences in delivering EAP programs in East Timor as part of an international aid effort, and focuses on critical…

  14. Exploring Teacher Beliefs in Teaching EAP at Low Proficiency Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Olwyn

    2012-01-01

    Teaching English for Academic Purposes (EAP) requires teachers experienced in Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) to acquire additional skills, abilities and approaches. Beliefs about CLT teaching may not be appropriate for teaching EAP, especially to low level learners. Making teachers aware of their beliefs is the first step in helping them to…

  15. Integrating CALL into an Iranian EAP Course: Constraints and Affordances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehran, Parisa; Alizadeh, Mehrasa

    2015-01-01

    Iranian universities have recently displayed a growing interest in integrating Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) into teaching/learning English. The English for Academic Purposes (EAP) context, however, is not keeping pace with the current changes since EAP courses are strictly text-based and exam-oriented, and little research has thus…

  16. Evaluate Your EAP: Can It Help Support Employee Rights Legislation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Katherine C.

    1997-01-01

    Employee assistance programs (EAPs) are emerging as an efficient way to address employee rights, particularly in light of the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Family and Medical Leave Act. Well-managed EAPs help maintain a healthy, motivated, productive workforce, show effort to provide reasonable accommodation of employee needs, and may…

  17. EAP and LLNP Students: Common Problems and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Thi Minh Phuong

    2010-01-01

    As English learners originate from many cultural and language backgrounds, they come to class with different circumstances. This paper examines the backgrounds, common problems and solutions for English for Academic Purposes (EAP) students and Language, Literacy, and Numeracy Programme (LLNP) students. EAP students are from Meridian International…

  18. Fostering Transformative Practitioners for Critical EAP: Possibilities and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Brian

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I explore the often difficult transfer of theory to practice in respect to promoting the conceptual role of transformative intellectual/practitioner through a pre-service "social issues project" for future EAP and ESL teachers. Following an examination of more established role options in EAP (e.g. technician, reflective…

  19. What Do We Want EAP Teaching Materials for?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Nigel

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the various anti-textbook arguments in the literature to determine their relevance to the field of EAP. I distinguish between what I call a "strong" and a "weak" anti-textbook line, then review the corpus-based studies which compare the language EAP textbooks teach with corpora of the language academic writers use. After…

  20. Ends versus means: the role of markets in expanding access to contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Hanson, K; Kumaranayake, L; Thomas, I

    2001-06-01

    Achieving and sustaining universal access to contraceptives are key policy goals of interventions supplying contraceptive commodities. Donor support for contraceptive supplies is substantial and many public and national programmes rely on donated and subsidized supplies of contraceptives. Sustainability of programme benefits is a concern to both national governments and donor agencies. At the same time, market-based provision of contraceptives has become a major source of contraceptives for individuals in a number of countries. While the goals or 'ends' of policy are to increase and sustain universal access to contraceptives, there is debate about the role of markets and their negative impacts on equity and universality. There is also concern that while public programmes supplying free contraceptives may, in the medium-term, achieve high coverage, they may hamper the achievement of long-term sustainability and the development of commercial markets. This paper focuses on the tension between the public health and market paradigms, and uses economic analysis as a framework in order to examine the relative roles or 'means' for subsidized public and commercial private sector supply of contraceptives. The review of the theory and evidence focuses on the trade-offs between public sector and market provision of contraceptives, examining the role for the public sector given the potential for market failures, the impact of public provision on the development of markets, and the role of price in demand. However, because of the potential conflict between these policy objectives, we argue that strategies to deliver contraceptives should be based on the specific characteristics of the context. In particular four variables (contraceptive prevalence rates, HIV prevalence, income level of country, size and geographic spread of private sector development) are important in characterizing this context, and these are highlighted in a matrix of programme priorities. Public choices need

  1. 1H, 15N, and 13C resonance assignments of the third domain from the S. aureus innate immune evasion protein Eap.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Alvaro I; Ploscariu, Nicoleta T; Geisbrecht, Brian V; Prakash, Om

    2018-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a widespread and persistent pathogen of humans and livestock. The bacterium expresses a wide variety of virulence proteins, many of which serve to disrupt the host's innate immune system from recognizing and clearing bacteria with optimal efficiency. The extracellular adherence protein (Eap) is a multidomain protein that participates in various protein-protein interactions that inhibit the innate immune response, including both the complement system (Woehl et al in J Immunol 193:6161-6171, 2014) and Neutrophil Serine Proteases (NSPs) (Stapels et al in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111:13187-13192, 2014). The third domain of Eap, Eap3, is an ~ 11 kDa protein that was recently shown to bind complement component C4b (Woehl et al in Protein Sci 26:1595-1608, 2017) and therefore play an essential role in inhibiting the classical and lectin pathways of complement (Woehl et al in J Immunol 193:6161-6171, 2014). Since structural characterization of Eap3 is still incomplete, we acquired a series of 2D and 3D NMR spectra of Eap3 in solution. Here we report the backbone and side-chain 1 H, 15 N, and 13 C resonance assignments of Eap3 and its predicted secondary structure via the TALOS-N server. The assignment data have been deposited in the BMRB data bank under accession number 27087.

  2. Simplification of antiviral hepatitis C virus therapy to support expanded access in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Ford, Nathan; Swan, Tracy; Beyer, Peter; Hirnschall, Gottfried; Easterbrook, Philippa; Wiktor, Stefan

    2014-11-01

    Currently, access to treatment for HCV is limited, with treatment rates lowest in the more resource-limited countries, including those countries with the highest prevalence. The use of oral DAAs has the potential to provide treatment at scale by offering opportunities to simplify drug regimens, laboratory requirements, and service delivery models. Key desirable characteristics of future HCV treatment regimens include high efficacy, tolerability, pan-genotype activity, short treatment duration, oral therapy, affordability, and availability as fixed-dose combination. Using such a regimen, HCV treatment delivery could be greatly simplified. Treatment could be initiated following confirmation of the presence of viraemia, with an initial assessment of the stage of liver disease. A combination DAA therapy that is safe and effective across genotypes could remove the need for genotyping and intermediary viral load assessments for response-guided therapy and reduce the need for adverse event monitoring. Simpler, safer, shorter therapy will also facilitate simplified service delivery, including task shifting, decentralization, and integration of treatment and care. The opportunity to scale up HCV treatment using such delivery approaches will depend on efforts needed to guarantee that the new DAAs are affordable in low-income settings. This will require the engagement of all stakeholders, ranging from the companies developing these new treatments, WHO and other international organizations, including procurement and funding mechanisms, governments and civil society. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Expanding rural access to mental health care through online postgraduate nurse practitioner education.

    PubMed

    Kverno, Karan; Kozeniewski, Kate

    2016-12-01

    Workforce shortages in mental health care are especially relevant to rural communities. People often turn to their primary care providers for mental healthcare services, yet primary care providers indicate that more education is needed to fill this role. Rural primary care nurse practitioners (NPs) are ideal candidates for educational enhancement. Online programs allow NPs to continue living and working in their communities while developing the competencies to provide comprehensive and integrated mental healthcare services. This article presents a review of current online postgraduate psychiatric mental health NP (PMHNP) options. Website descriptions of online PMHNP programs were located using keywords: PMHNP or psychiatric nurse practitioner, postgraduate or post-master's, and distance or online. Across the United States, 15 online postgraduate certificate programs were located that are designed for primary care NPs seeking additional PMHNP specialization. For rural primary care NPs who are ready, willing, and able, a postgraduate PMHNP specialty certificate can be obtained online in as few as three to four semesters. The expected outcome is a cadre of dually credentialed NPs capable of functioning in an integrated role and of increasing rural access to comprehensive mental healthcare services. ©2016 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  4. JASPAR 2010: the greatly expanded open-access database of transcription factor binding profiles

    PubMed Central

    Portales-Casamar, Elodie; Thongjuea, Supat; Kwon, Andrew T.; Arenillas, David; Zhao, Xiaobei; Valen, Eivind; Yusuf, Dimas; Lenhard, Boris; Wasserman, Wyeth W.; Sandelin, Albin

    2010-01-01

    JASPAR (http://jaspar.genereg.net) is the leading open-access database of matrix profiles describing the DNA-binding patterns of transcription factors (TFs) and other proteins interacting with DNA in a sequence-specific manner. Its fourth major release is the largest expansion of the core database to date: the database now holds 457 non-redundant, curated profiles. The new entries include the first batch of profiles derived from ChIP-seq and ChIP-chip whole-genome binding experiments, and 177 yeast TF binding profiles. The introduction of a yeast division brings the convenience of JASPAR to an active research community. As binding models are refined by newer data, the JASPAR database now uses versioning of matrices: in this release, 12% of the older models were updated to improved versions. Classification of TF families has been improved by adopting a new DNA-binding domain nomenclature. A curated catalog of mammalian TFs is provided, extending the use of the JASPAR profiles to additional TFs belonging to the same structural family. The changes in the database set the system ready for more rapid acquisition of new high-throughput data sources. Additionally, three new special collections provide matrix profile data produced by recent alternative high-throughput approaches. PMID:19906716

  5. A Linear Ion Trap with an Expanded Inscribed Diameter to Improve Optical Access for Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, Vaishnavi; Stokes, Chris; Ferzoco, Alessandra

    2018-02-01

    We report a custom-geometry linear ion trap designed for fluorescence spectroscopy of gas-phase ions at ambient to cryogenic temperatures. Laser-induced fluorescence from trapped ions is collected from between the trapping rods, orthogonal to the excitation laser that runs along the axis of the linear ion trap. To increase optical access to the ion cloud, the diameter of the round trapping rods is 80% of the inscribed diameter, rather than the roughly 110% used to approximate purely quadrupolar electric fields. To encompass as much of the ion cloud as possible, the first collection optic has a 25.4 mm diameter and a numerical aperture of 0.6. The choice of geometry and collection optics yields 107 detected photons/s from trapped rhodamine 6G ions. The trap is coupled to a closed-cycle helium refrigerator, which in combination with two 50 Ohm heaters enables temperature control to below 25 K on the rod electrodes. The purpose of the instrument is to broaden the applicability of fluorescence spectroscopy of gas-phase ions to cases where photon emission is a minority relaxation pathway. Such studies are important to understand how the microenvironment of a chromophore influences excited state charge transfer processes.

  6. Electro-Active Polymer (EAP) Actuators for Planetary Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Leary, S.; Shahinpoor, M.; Harrison, J. O.; Smith, J.

    1999-01-01

    NASA is seeking to reduce the mass, size, consumed power, and cost of the instrumentation used in its future missions. An important element of many instruments and devices is the actuation mechanism and electroactive polymers (EAP) are offering an effective alternative to current actuators. In this study, two families of EAP materials were investigated, including bending ionomers and longitudinal electrostatically driven elastomers. These materials were demonstrated to effectively actuate manipulation devices and their performance is being enhanced in this on-going study. The recent observations are reported in this paper, include the operation of the bending-EAP at conditions that exceed the harsh environment on Mars, and identify the obstacles that its properties and characteristics are posing to using them as actuators. Analysis of the electrical characteristics of the ionomer EAP showed that it is a current driven material rather than voltage driven and the conductivity distribution on the surface of the material greatly influences the bending performance. An accurate equivalent circuit modeling of the ionomer EAP performance is essential for the design of effective drive electronics. The ionomer main limitations are the fact that it needs to be moist continuously and the process of electrolysis that takes place during activation. An effective coating technique using a sprayed polymer was developed extending its operation in air from a few minutes to about four months. The coating technique effectively forms the equivalent of a skin to protect the moisture content of the ionomer. In parallel to the development of the bending EAP, the development of computer control of actuated longitudinal EAP has been pursued. An EAP driven miniature robotic arm was constructed and it is controlled by a MATLAB code to drop and lift the arm and close and open EAP fingers of a 4-finger gripper. Keywords: Miniature Robotics, Electroactive Polymers, Electroactive Actuators, EAP

  7. Cabazitaxel for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: safety data from the Spanish expanded access program.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Daniel; Antón Aparicio, Luis M; Esteban, Emilio; Sánchez-Hernández, Alfredo; Germà, Jose Ramón; Batista, Norberto; Maroto, Pablo; Pérez-Valderrama, Begoña; Luque, Raquel; Méndez-Vidal, María José

    2014-09-01

    Based on the TROPIC study results, cabazitaxel was approved for the management of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) progressing on or after docetaxel. This multi-centre program provided early access to cabazitaxel to patients with mCRPC before its commercialization. Safety data from 153 Spanish patients receiving cabazitaxel 25 mg/m(2) i.v. Q3W, plus oral prednisone/prednisolone 10 mg daily, are reported. Median age of patients was 70 years (26.8% ≥ 75 years), 94.1 and 26.8% had bone and visceral metastasis, respectively. Most had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group ≤ 1 (88.9%) and had received a median of 8.0 cycles of last docetaxel treatment. The median of cabazitaxel cycles and cumulative dose were 6.0 (Interquartile range [IQR]: 4.0; 8.0) and 148.9 (IQR: 98.2; 201.4) mg/m(2), respectively. Adverse events (AEs) possibly related to cabazitaxel occurred in 143 (93.5%) patients. The most frequent grade ≥ 3 AEs were neutropenia (n = 25, 16.3%) and asthenia (n = 17, 11.1%). Febrile neutropenia and grade ≥ 3 diarrhea occurred in 5.2% of the patients each. There were five (3.3%) possibly treatment-related deaths, mainly infection-related. G-CSFs were used in 114 (74.5%) patients, generally as prophylaxis (n = 107; 69.9%). Grade ≥ 3 peripheral neuropathy and nail disorders were uncommon. Cabazitaxel administration, in a real-world setting, is tolerated by Spanish patients with mCRPC, and the AEs are manageable.

  8. Data Basin Aquatic Center: expanding access to aquatic conservation data, analysis tools, people and practical answers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne-Gowey, J.; Strittholt, J.; Bergquist, J.; Ward, B. C.; Sheehan, T.; Comendant, T.; Bachelet, D. M.

    2009-12-01

    The world’s aquatic resources are experiencing anthropogenic pressures on an unprecedented scale and aquatic organisms are experiencing widespread population changes and ecosystem-scale habitat alterations. Climate change is likely to exacerbate these threats, in some cases reducing the range of native North American fishes by 20-100% (depending on the location of the population and the model assumptions). Scientists around the globe are generating large volumes of data that vary in quality, format, supporting documentation, and accessibility. Moreover, diverse models are being run at various temporal and spatial scales as scientists attempt to understand previous (and project future) human impacts to aquatic species and their habitats. Conservation scientists often struggle to synthesize this wealth of information for developing practical on-the-ground management strategies. As a result, the best available science is often not utilized in the decision-making and adaptive management processes. As aquatic conservation problems around the globe become more serious and the demand to solve them grows more urgent, scientists and land-use managers need a new way to bring strategic, science-based, and action-oriented approaches to aquatic conservation. The Conservation Biology Institute (CBI), with partners such as ESRI, is developing an Aquatic Center as part of a dynamic, web-based resource (Data Basin; http: databasin.org) that centralizes usable aquatic datasets and provides analytical tools to visualize, analyze, and communicate findings for practical applications. To illustrate its utility, we present example datasets of varying spatial scales and synthesize multiple studies to arrive at novel solutions to aquatic threats.

  9. Expanding the repertoire of microsatellite markers for polymorphism studies in Indian accessions of mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek).

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Divya; Verma, Priyanka; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2014-09-01

    Limited availability of validated, polymorphic microsatellite markers in mung bean (Vigna radiata), an important food legume of India, has been a major hurdle towards its improvement and higher yield. The present study was undertaken in order to develop a new set of microsatellite markers and utilize them for the analysis of genetic diversity within mung bean accessions from India. A GA/CT enriched library was constructed from V. radiata which resulted in 1,250 putative recombinant clones of which 850 were sequenced. SSR motifs were identified and their flanking sequences were utilized to design 328 SSR primer pairs. Of these, 48 SSR markers were employed for assessing genetic diversity among 76 mung bean accessions from various geographical locations in India. Two hundred and thirty four alleles with an average of 4.85 alleles per locus were detected at 48 loci. The polymorphic information content (PIC) per locus varied from 0.1 to 0.88 (average: 0.49 per locus). The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.40 to 0.95 and 0.40 to 0.81 respectively. Based on Jaccard's similarity matrix, a dendrogram was constructed using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) analysis which revealed that one accession from Bundi, Rajasthan was clustered out separately while remaining accessions were grouped into two major clusters. The markers generated in this study will help in expanding the repertoire of the available SSR markers thereby facilitating analysis of genetic diversity, molecular mapping and ultimately broadening the scope for genetic improvement of this legume.

  10. Expanding the Impact of Photogrammetric Topography Through Improved Data Archiving and Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, C. J.; Arrowsmith, R.; Nandigam, V.

    2016-12-01

    Centimeter to decimeter-scale 2.5 to 3D sampling of the Earth surface topography coupled with the potential for photorealistic coloring of point clouds and texture mapping of meshes enables a wide range of science applications. Not only is the configuration and state of the surface as imaged valuable, but repeat surveys enable quantification of topographic change (erosion, deposition, and displacement) caused by various geologic processes. We are in an era of ubiquitous point clouds which come from both active sources such as laser scanners and radar as well as passive scene reconstruction via structure from motion (SfM) photogrammetry. With the decreasing costs of high-resolution topography (HRT) data collection, via methods such as SfM, the number of researchers collecting these data is increasing. These "long-tail" topographic data are of modest size but great value, and challenges exist to making them widely discoverable, shared, annotated, cited, managed and archived. Presently, there are no central repositories or services to support storage and curation of these datasets. The NSF funded OpenTopography (OT) employs cyberinfrastructure including large-scale data management, high-performance computing, and service-oriented architectures, to provide efficient online access to large HRT (mostly lidar) datasets, metadata, and processing tools. With over 200 datasets and 12,000 registered users, OT is well positioned to provide curation for community collected photogrammetric topographic data. OT is developing a "Community DataSpace", a service built on a low cost storage cloud (e.g. AWS S3) to make it easy for researchers to upload, curate, annotate and distribute their datasets. The system's ingestion workflow will extract metadata from data uploaded; validate it; assign a digital object identifier (DOI); and create a searchable catalog entry, before publishing via the OT portal. The OT Community DataSpace will enable wider discovery and utilization of these HRT

  11. Expanding Access to NCAR's Digital Assets: Towards a Unified Scientific Data Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stott, D.

    2016-12-01

    In 2014 the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Directorate created the Data Stewardship Engineering Team (DSET) to plan and implement the strategic vision of an integrated front door for data discovery and access across the organization, including all laboratories, the library, and UCAR Community Programs. The DSET is focused on improving the quality of users' experiences in finding and using NCAR's digital assets. This effort also supports new policies included in federal mandates, NSF requirements, and journal publication rules. An initial survey with 97 respondents identified 68 persons responsible for more than 3 petabytes of data. An inventory, using the Data Asset Framework produced by the UK Digital Curation Centre as a starting point, identified asset types that included files and metadata, publications, images, and software (visualization, analysis, model codes). User story sessions with representatives from each lab identified and ranked desired features for a unified Scientific Data Management System (SDMS). A process beginning with an organization-wide assessment of metadata by the HDF Group and followed by meetings with labs to identify key documentation concepts, culminated in the development of an NCAR metadata dialect that leverages the DataCite and ISO 19115 standards. The tasks ahead are to build out an SDMS and populate it with rich standardized metadata. Software packages have been prototyped and currently are being tested and reviewed by DSET members. Key challenges for the DSET include technical and non-technical issues. First, the status quo with regard to how assets are managed varies widely across the organization. There are differences in file format standards, technologies, and discipline-specific vocabularies. Metadata diversity is another real challenge. The types of metadata, the standards used, and the capacity to create new metadata varies across the organization. Significant effort is required to develop tools to create

  12. EFFECTS: an expanded access program of everolimus for patients with subependymal giant cell astrocytoma associated with tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    Fogarasi, Andras; De Waele, Liesbeth; Bartalini, Gabriella; Jozwiak, Sergiusz; Laforgia, Nicola; Verhelst, Helene; Petrak, Borivoj; Pedespan, Jean-Michel; Witt, Olaf; Castellana, Ramon; Crippa, Stefania; Gislimberti, Gabriella; Gyorsok, Zsuzsanna

    2016-08-08

    Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, has been shown to be effective and safe in the treatment of subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). The Everolimus For Fast Expanded aCcess in TSC SEGA (EFFECTS) study was designed to provide everolimus access to patients with SEGA associated with TSC and to mainly assess the safety and also efficacy of everolimus in a real-world setting. EFFECTS was a phase 3b, open-label, noncomparative, multicenter, expanded access study. Eligible patients were ≥ 3 years of age, with a definite diagnosis of TSC, and with at least one SEGA lesion identified by MRI or CT scan. Patients received once daily everolimus (dose adjusted to attain a trough level of 5-15 ng/mL). Safety evaluation was the primary objective and included collection of adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs, with their severity and relationship to everolimus. Efficacy evaluation, which was the secondary objective, was based on the best overall response as per medical judgment. Of the 120 patients enrolled, 100 (83.3%) completed the study. Median age of patients was 11 years (range, 1-47). Median daily dose of everolimus was 5.82 mg (range, 2.0-11.8). Median duration of exposure was 56.5 weeks (range, 0.3-130). The overall incidence of AEs was 74.2%. Aphthous stomatitis (18 [15.0%]), pyrexia (18 [15.0%]), bronchitis (11 [9.2%]), and stomatitis (10 [8.3%]) were the most common AEs reported. Overall, 25 patients had grade 3 AEs; most frequent was stomatitis (4 [3.3%]). Grade 4 AEs were reported in three (2.5%) patients. A total of 62 (51.7%) patients had suspected drug-related AEs, of which 15 (12.5%) were of grade 3 or 4. In eight (6.7%) patients, AEs led to drug discontinuation. With regard to efficacy, 81 (67.5%) patients had a partial response, 35 (29.2%) had a stable disease, and one (0.8%) had progressive disease. The response was unknown in three (2.5%) patients. This study confirms the

  13. How Perceptions of Mental Illness Impact EAP Utilization.

    PubMed

    McRee, Jayme

    2017-01-01

    Studies of employee assistance program (EAP) clinical use across multiple industries and multiple EAP delivery models range from highs greater than 5% to lows of less than 1 %. Despite the range in utilization, the rates of employee behaviors that indicate a behavioral health issue are significantly higher, suggesting far too little use of EAPs overall. Studies of the costs to an employer for an employee with a mental health issue are as high as 37% lost annual productivity. EAPs have attempted to raise utilization through a variety of efforts, with mixed results. Most EAP utilization initiatives fail to address the impact of stigma, misunderstandings about mental illness and the reluctance of many employees to seek counseling as an option for better management of stress, work-life balance and overall mental wellness. For both employers and EAPs, addressing the impact of stigma and perceptions of mental illness is costly, requiring greater direct employee engagement and education. However, it is a more effective means of increasing EAP use than current practices and, ultimately, can result in significantly higher net gains in productivity while reducing employers' direct costs.

  14. Characterization of the electromechanical properties of EAP materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrita, Stewart; Bhattachary, Kaushik; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh

    2001-01-01

    Electroactive polymers (EAP) are an emerging class of actuation materials. Their large electrically induced strains (longitudinal or bending), low density, mechanical flexibility, and ease of processing offer advantages over traditional electroactive materials. However, before the capability of these materials can be exploited, their electrical and mechanical behavior must be properly quantified. Two general types of EAP can be identified. The first type is ionic EAP, which requires relatively low voltages (<10V) to achieve large bending deflections. This class usually needs to be hydrated and electrochemical reactions may occur. The second type is Electronic-EAP and it involves electrostrictive and/or Maxwell stresses. This type of materials requires large electric fields (>100MV/m) to achieve longitudinal deformations at the range from 4 - 360%. Some of the difficulties in characterizing EAP include: nonlinear properties, large compliance (large mismatch with metal electrodes), nonhomogeneity resulting from processing, etc. To support the need for reliable data, the authors are developing characterization techniques to quantify the electroactive responses and material properties of EAP materials. The emphasis of the current study is on addressing electromechanical issues related to the ion-exchange type EAP also known as IPMC. The analysis, experiments and test results are discussed in this paper.

  15. Expanding Access to HCV Treatment - Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes (ECHO) Project: Disruptive Innovation in Specialty Care

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Sanjeev; Kalishman, Summers; Thornton, Karla; Dion, Denise; Murata, Glen; Deming, Paulina; Parish, Brooke; Brown, John; Komaromy, Miriam; Colleran, Kathleen; Bankhurst, Arthur; Katzman, Joanna; Harkins, Michelle; Curet, Luis; Cosgrove, Ellen; Pak, Wesley

    2013-01-01

    The Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes (ECHO) Model was developed by the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center (UNMHSC) as a platform to deliver complex specialty medical care to underserved populations through an innovative educational model of team-based inter-disciplinary development. Using state-of-the-art telehealth technology, best practice protocols, and case based learning, ECHO trains and supports primary care providers to develop knowledge and self-efficacy on a variety of diseases. As a result, they can deliver best practice care for complex health conditions in communities where specialty care is unavailable. ECHO was first developed for the management of hepatitis C virus (HCV), optimal management of which requires consultation with multi-disciplinary experts in medical specialties, mental health and substance abuse. Few practitioners, particularly in rural and underserved areas, have the knowledge to manage its emerging treatment options, side effects, drug toxicities and treatment-induced depression. In addition data was obtained from observation of ECHO weekly clinics and database of ECHO clinic participation and patient presentations by clinical provider, evaluation of the ECHO program incorporates annual survey integrated into the ECHO annual meeting and routine surveys of community providers about workplace learning, personal and professional experiences, systems and environmental factors associated with professional practice, self-efficacy, facilitators and barriers to ECHO. The initial survey data show a significant improvement in provider knowledge, self-efficacy and professional satisfaction through participation in ECHO HCV clinics. Clinicians reported a moderate to major benefit from participation. We conclude that ECHO expands access to best practice care for underserved populations, builds communities of practice to enhance professional development and satisfaction of primary care clinicians, and expands sustainable

  16. The role of auxiliary nurse-midwives and community health volunteers in expanding access to medical abortion in rural Nepal.

    PubMed

    Puri, Mahesh; Tamang, Anand; Shrestha, Prabhakar; Joshi, Deepak

    2015-02-01

    Medical abortion was introduced in Nepal in 2009, but rural women's access to medical abortion services remained limited. We conducted a district-level operations research study to assess the effectiveness of training 13 auxiliary nurse-midwives as medical abortion providers, and 120 female community health volunteers as communicators and referral agents for expanding access to medical abortion for rural women. Interviews with service providers and women who received medical abortion were undertaken and service statistics were analysed. Compared to a neighbouring district with no intervention, there was a significant increase in the intervention area in community health volunteers' knowledge of the legal conditions for abortion, the advantages and disadvantages of medical abortion, safe places for an abortion, medical abortion drugs, correct gestational age for home use of medical abortion, and carrying out a urine pregnancy test. In a one-year period in 2011-12, the community health volunteers did pregnancy tests for 584 women and referred 114 women to the auxiliary nurse-midwives for abortion; 307 women in the intervention area received medical abortion services from auxiliary nurse-midwives. There were no complications that required referral to a higher-level facility except for one incomplete abortion. Almost all women who opted for medical abortion were happy with the services provided. The study demonstrated that auxiliary nurse-midwives can independently and confidently provide medical abortion safely and effectively at the sub-health post level, and community health volunteers are effective change agents in informing women about medical abortion. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Biologically Inspired Technology Using Electroactive Polymers (EAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2006-01-01

    Evolution allowed nature to introduce highly effective biological mechanisms that are incredible inspiration for innovation. Humans have always made efforts to imitate nature's inventions and we are increasingly making advances that it becomes significantly easier to imitate, copy, and adapt biological methods, processes and systems. This brought us to the ability to create technology that is far beyond the simple mimicking of nature. Having better tools to understand and to implement nature's principles we are now equipped like never before to be inspired by nature and to employ our tools in far superior ways. Effectively, by bio-inspiration we can have a better view and value of nature capability while studying its models to learn what can be extracted, copied or adapted. Using electroactive polymers (EAP) as artificial muscles is adding an important element to the development of biologically inspired technologies.

  18. 14 CFR 120.115 - Employee Assistance Program (EAP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Drug Testing Program Requirements § 120.115 Employee Assistance Program (EAP). (a... employer's drug testing plan submitted to the FAA for approval. ...

  19. 14 CFR 120.115 - Employee Assistance Program (EAP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Drug Testing Program Requirements § 120.115 Employee Assistance Program (EAP). (a... employer's drug testing plan submitted to the FAA for approval. ...

  20. 14 CFR 120.115 - Employee Assistance Program (EAP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Drug Testing Program Requirements § 120.115 Employee Assistance Program (EAP). (a... employer's drug testing plan submitted to the FAA for approval. ...

  1. 14 CFR 120.115 - Employee Assistance Program (EAP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Drug Testing Program Requirements § 120.115 Employee Assistance Program (EAP). (a... employer's drug testing plan submitted to the FAA for approval. ...

  2. EMPLOYER CHOICES IN EAP DESIGN AND WORKSITE SERVICES.

    PubMed

    McCann, Bernard; Azzone, Vanessa; Merrick, Elizabeth L; Hiatt, Deirdre; Hodgkin, Dominic; Horgan, Constance M

    2010-01-01

    In today's complex private healthcare market, employers have varied preferences for particular features of behavioral health products such as Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs). Factors which may influence these preferences include: establishment size, type of organization, industry, workplace substance abuse regulations, and structure of health insurance benefits. This study of 103 large employer purchasers from a single managed behavioral healthcare organization investigated the impact of such variables on the EAP features that employers select to provide to workers and their families. Our findings indicate that for this group of employers, preferences for the type and delivery mode of EAP counseling services are fairly universal, while number of sessions provided and choices for EAP-provided worksite activities are much more varied, and may be more reflective of the diverse characteristics, organizational missions and workplace culture found among larger employers in the US.

  3. EMPLOYER CHOICES IN EAP DESIGN AND WORKSITE SERVICES

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Bernard; Azzone, Vanessa; Merrick, Elizabeth L.; Hiatt, Deirdre; Hodgkin, Dominic; Horgan, Constance M.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY In today’s complex private healthcare market, employers have varied preferences for particular features of behavioral health products such as Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs). Factors which may influence these preferences include: establishment size, type of organization, industry, workplace substance abuse regulations, and structure of health insurance benefits. This study of 103 large employer purchasers from a single managed behavioral healthcare organization investigated the impact of such variables on the EAP features that employers select to provide to workers and their families. Our findings indicate that for this group of employers, preferences for the type and delivery mode of EAP counseling services are fairly universal, while number of sessions provided and choices for EAP-provided worksite activities are much more varied, and may be more reflective of the diverse characteristics, organizational missions and workplace culture found among larger employers in the US. PMID:22768017

  4. Self-Disclosure as a Predictor of EAP Supervisory Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohoe, Timothy L.; Johnson, James T.; Taquino, Maurice A.

    1999-01-01

    The value of Employee Assistance Programs (EAPS) has been cited in a variety of published papers and articles. An important managerial element relative to the assessment and referral of troubled employees has been supervisory training. There has been numerous studies highlighting the various factors and circumstances associated with supervisory behavior and EAP referrals. The inclusion of emotional awareness factors in EAP supervisory utilization has not been thoroughly investigated, although frequently found in the literature as a training and development objective for managers in business and education. The present study sought to determine what role supervisory denial and anxiety avoidance plays in confrontation of troubled employees and if admission of specific, internal emotional events is a characteristic among EAP utilizing supervisors.

  5. Experience in production of (68)Ga-DOTA-NOC for clinical use under an Expanded Access IND.

    PubMed

    Green, Mark A; Mathias, Carla J; Fletcher, James W

    2016-10-01

    [(68)Ga]Ga-DOTA-NOC was produced under an Expanded Access IND for 174 clinical PET/CT studies to evaluate patients with neuroendocrine tumors. Production employed either the TiO2-based Eckert & Ziegler (EZAG) (68)Ge/(68)Ga-generator (with fractionated elution), or the SiO2-based ITG (68)Ge/(68)Ga-generator. In both cases, [(68)Ga]Ga-DOTA-NOC was reliably produced, without pre-synthesis purification of the(68)Ga generator eluate, using readily-implemented manual synthesis procedures. [(68)Ga]Ga-DOTA-NOC radiochemical purity averaged 99.2±0.4%. Administered (68)Ga dose averaged 181±22 MBq, and administered peptide mass averaged 43.2±5.2µg (n=47) and 23.9±5.7µg (n=127), respectively, using the EZAG and ITG generators. At dose expiration, (68)Ge breakthrough in the final product averaged 2.7×10(-7)% and 5.4×10(-5%) using the EZAG and ITG generators, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Affordable antiretroviral drugs for the under-served markets: how to expand equitable access against the backdrop of challenging scenarios?

    PubMed

    Dionisio, Daniele; Cao, Yunzhen; Hongzhou, Lu; Kraisintu, Krisana; Messeri, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    Threats by enforced Intellectual Property (IP) rights to equitable HIV treatment access by poor populations are impending. India and China's policy directions in the field will be crucial in ultimately affecting the affordability and accessibility of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy in the under-served markets. These directions, together with the exploitation level of IP-bound flexibilities and the evolutionary modelling in partnerships and trade agreements between research-based and generic pharmaceutical industry, will also affect the outcomes of self-sufficiency efforts now at their beginning in the developing world as far as domestic manufacturing of generic ARV drugs is concerned. This paper explores key issues, implications and interaction dynamics across these challenging scenarios while attempting to provide equitable solution glimpses into the near future. Access-oriented long-term drug policy strategies entitled to pass muster of governments, research-based as well as generic industries in both developed and developing countries are needed if equitable access to affordable ARV treatments by poor people has to be achieved despite enforced IP rights. Predictable dynamics between western multinationals and transitional country generic corporations let regard IP-bound Voluntary License flexibilities as a fitting measure into just mentioned needs especially if substantial incentives to generic corporations are concurrently secured. Efforts to equitably expand ARV drug access through exploiting IP opportunities should encompass attainment of self-sufficiency in domestic drug manufacturing whenever basic requirements are in place in the developing world as a whole. A credible industrial potential would act, indeed, as a boosting factor for drawing branded drug producers into technology transfer agreements, the terms of which would let all contractors enjoy substantial advantages. These perspectives consistently bind up with the foreseeable long-term trade and drug

  7. Syringe Disposal among Injection Drug Users in Harlem and the Bronx during the New York State Expanded Syringe Access Demonstration Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleland, Charles M.; Deren, Sherry; Fuller, Crystal M.; Blaney, Shannon; McMahon, James M.; Tortu, Stephanie; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Vlahov, David

    2007-01-01

    Effective January 1, 2001, New York State enacted the Expanded Syringe Access Demonstration Program (ESAP), allowing syringes to be sold in pharmacies without a prescription or dispensed through doctors, hospitals, and clinics to adults. A concern in the assessment of ESAP is its effects on syringe disposal practices. Syringe use data regarding…

  8. Expanding Audio Access to Mathematics Expressions by Students with Visual Impairments via MathML. Research Report. ETS RR-17-13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Lois; Brownstein, Beth; Soiffer, Neil

    2017-01-01

    This report describes the pilot conducted in the final phase of a project, Expanding Audio Access to Mathematics Expressions by Students With Visual Impairments via MathML, to provide easy-to-use tools for authoring and rendering secondary-school algebra-level math expressions in synthesized speech that is useful for students with blindness or low…

  9. EAP Service Use in a Managed Behavioral Health Care Organization: From the Employee Perspective.

    PubMed

    Merrick, Elizabeth L; Hodgkin, Dominic; Hiatt, Deirdre; Horgan, Constance M; McCann, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary employee assistance program (EAP) services are typically provided in broad-brush programs delivered by large external vendors in a network model. Yet research has not kept pace with EAP evolution, including in terms of how EAP clients themselves view services. We surveyed a random sample of EAP service users from a national provider (361 respondents). About one-third of respondents reported getting help for workplace issues. Most learned about the EAP through employer communications such as the company website. The large majority reported that the EAP helped them "a lot" or "some," suggesting they valued this benefit.

  10. EAP Service Use in a Managed Behavioral Health Care Organization: From the Employee Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hodgkin, Dominic; Hiatt, Deirdre; Horgan, Constance M.; McCann, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Contemporary employee assistance program (EAP) services are typically provided in broad-brush programs delivered by large external vendors in a network model. Yet research has not kept pace with EAP evolution, including in terms of how EAP clients themselves view services. We surveyed a random sample of EAP service users from a national provider (361 respondents). About one-third of respondents reported getting help for workplace issues. Most learned about the EAP through employer communications such as the company website. The large majority reported that the EAP helped them “a lot” or “some,” suggesting they valued this benefit. PMID:21966281

  11. Utilizing Remote Real-Time Videoconferencing to Expand Access to Cancer Genetic Services in Community Practices: A Multicenter Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Angela; Patrick-Miller, Linda; Harris, Diana; Stevens, Evelyn; Egleston, Brian; Smith, Kyle; Mueller, Rebecca; Brandt, Amanda; Stopfer, Jill; Rauch, Shea; Forman, Andrea; Kim, Rebecca; Fetzer, Dominique; Fleisher, Linda; Daly, Mary; Domchek, Susan

    2016-02-01

    Videoconferencing has been used to expand medical services to low-access populations and could increase access to genetic services at community sites where in-person visits with genetic providers are not available. To evaluate the feasibility of, patient feedback of, and cognitive and affective responses to remote two-way videoconferencing (RVC) telegenetic services at multiple sociodemographically diverse community practices without access to genetic providers. Patients at 3 community sites in 2 US states outside the host center completed RVC pretest (visit 1, V1) and post-test (visit 2, V2) genetic counseling for cancer susceptibility. Surveys evaluated patient experiences, knowledge, satisfaction with telegenetic and cancer genetics services, anxiety, depression, and cancer worry. A total of 82 out of 100 (82.0%) approached patients consented to RVC services. A total of 61 out of 82 patients (74%) completed pretest counseling and 41 out of 61 (67%) proceeded with testing and post-test counseling. A total of 4 out of 41 (10%) mutation carriers were identified: BRCA2, MSH2, and PMS2. Patients reported many advantages (eg, lower travel burden and convenience) and few disadvantages to RVC telegenetic services. Most patients reported feeling comfortable with the video camera--post-V1: 52/57 (91%); post-V2: 39/41 (95%)--and that their privacy was respected--post-V1: 56/57 (98%); post-V2: 40/41 (98%); however, some reported concerns that RVC might increase the risk of a confidentiality breach of their health information--post-V1: 14/57 (25%); post-V2: 12/41 (29%). While the majority of patients reported having no trouble seeing or hearing the genetic counselor--post-V1: 47/57 (82%); post-V2: 39/41 (95%)--51 out of 98 (52%) patients reported technical difficulties. Nonetheless, all patients reported being satisfied with genetic services. Compared to baseline, knowledge increased significantly after pretest counseling (+1.11 mean score, P=.005); satisfaction with

  12. Policies to Spur Energy Access. Executive Summary; Volume 1, Engaging the Private Sector in Expanding Access to Electricity; Volume 2, Case Studies to Public-Private Models to Finance Decentralized Electricity Access

    SciT

    Walters, Terri; Rai, Neha; Esterly, Sean

    Government policy is one of the most important factors in engaging the private sector in providing universal access to electricity. In particular, the private sector is well positioned to provide decentralized electricity products and services. While policy uncertainty and regulatory barriers can keep enterprises and investors from engaging in the market, targeted policies can create opportunities to leverage private investment and skills to expand electricity access. However, creating a sustainable market requires policies beyond traditional electricity regulation. The report reviews the range of policy issues that impact the development and expansion of a market for decentralized electricity services from establishingmore » an enabling policy environment to catalyzing finance, building human capacity, and integrating energy access with development programs. The case studies in this report show that robust policy frameworks--addressing a wide range of market issues--can lead to rapid transformation in energy access. The report highlights examples of these policies in action Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Mali, Mexico, and Nepal.« less

  13. Descriptive study of external employee assistance program providers (EAP) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Muto, Takashi; Haruyama, Yasuo; Higashi, Toshiaki

    2012-01-01

    The mental health problems of employees have become a major occupational health issue in Japan. External employee assistance program providers (EAP) have become important in mental health care for workers, but their activities are poorly documented. This descriptive study was undertaken to clarify the status and future tasks of EAP in Japan. The subjects were all EAP (n=27) registered in the Japanese Chapter of Employee Assistance Professionals Association. The questionnaire survey was conducted in January 2007. We received 13 replies, a response rate of 54.2%. Most EAP provided seminars, stress checks, stress management, counseling, and support for a return to work. The number of EAP contracted with small-scale enterprises was small. EAP communicated infrequently with companies. To promote the use of EAP, their advertising, education and training of staff, accumulation of scientific evidence, development of an official certification system for staff, and improvement of contents of EAP services were cited.

  14. The Staphylococcus aureus extracellular adherence protein (Eap) adopts an elongated but structured conformation in solution.

    PubMed

    Hammel, Michal; Nemecek, Daniel; Keightley, J Andrew; Thomas, George J; Geisbrecht, Brian V

    2007-12-01

    The extracellular adherence protein (Eap) of Staphylococcus aureus participates in a wide range of protein-protein interactions that facilitate the initiation and dissemination of Staphylococcal disease. In this report, we describe the use of a multidisciplinary approach to characterize the solution structure of full-length Eap. In contrast to previous reports suggesting that a six-domain isoform of Eap undergoes multimerization, sedimentation equilibrium analytical ultracentrifugation data revealed that a four-domain isoform of Eap is a monomer in solution. In vitro proteolysis and solution small angle X-ray scattering studies both indicate that Eap adopts an extended conformation in solution, where the linkers connecting sequential EAP modules are solvent exposed. Construction of a low-resolution model of full-length Eap using a combination of ab initio deconvolution of the SAXS data and rigid body modeling of the EAP domain crystal structure suggests that full-length Eap may present several unique concave surfaces capable of participating in ligand binding. These results also raise the possibility that such surfaces may be held together by additional interactions between adjacent EAP modules. This hypothesis is supported by a comparative Raman spectroscopic analysis of full-length Eap and a stoichiometric solution of the individual EAP modules, which indicates the presence of additional secondary structure and a greater extent of hydrogen/deuterium exchange protection in full-length Eap. Our results provide the first insight into the solution structure of full-length Eap and an experimental basis for interpreting the EAP domain crystal structures within the context of the full-length molecule. They also lay a foundation for future studies into the structural and molecular bases of Eap-mediated protein-protein interactions with its many ligands.

  15. The Staphylococcus aureus extracellular adherence protein (Eap) adopts an elongated but structured conformation in solution

    PubMed Central

    Hammel, Michal; Němeček, Daniel; Keightley, J. Andrew; Thomas, George J.; Geisbrecht, Brian V.

    2007-01-01

    The extracellular adherence protein (Eap) of Staphylococcus aureus participates in a wide range of protein–protein interactions that facilitate the initiation and dissemination of Staphylococcal disease. In this report, we describe the use of a multidisciplinary approach to characterize the solution structure of full-length Eap. In contrast to previous reports suggesting that a six-domain isoform of Eap undergoes multimerization, sedimentation equilibrium analytical ultracentrifugation data revealed that a four-domain isoform of Eap is a monomer in solution. In vitro proteolysis and solution small angle X-ray scattering studies both indicate that Eap adopts an extended conformation in solution, where the linkers connecting sequential EAP modules are solvent exposed. Construction of a low-resolution model of full-length Eap using a combination of ab initio deconvolution of the SAXS data and rigid body modeling of the EAP domain crystal structure suggests that full-length Eap may present several unique concave surfaces capable of participating in ligand binding. These results also raise the possibility that such surfaces may be held together by additional interactions between adjacent EAP modules. This hypothesis is supported by a comparative Raman spectroscopic analysis of full-length Eap and a stoichiometric solution of the individual EAP modules, which indicates the presence of additional secondary structure and a greater extent of hydrogen/deuterium exchange protection in full-length Eap. Our results provide the first insight into the solution structure of full-length Eap and an experimental basis for interpreting the EAP domain crystal structures within the context of the full-length molecule. They also lay a foundation for future studies into the structural and molecular bases of Eap-mediated protein–protein interactions with its many ligands. PMID:18029416

  16. EAP's Response to Personal Stress and Productivity: Implications for Occupational Social Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramanathan, Chathapuram S.

    1992-01-01

    Used pretest-posttest design to investigate influence of employee assistance program (EAP) on employee stress and productivity at time of initial contact with EAP and two and four months later. Findings from 47 employees who used EAP services revealed that, although personal stress and employee productivity were related, employee assistance…

  17. Transfer Climate and EAP Education: Students Perceptions of Challenges to Learning Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Mark Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the applicability of the construct transfer climate in EAP education. In an EAP setting, transfer climate can be viewed as the support for learning transfer from an EAP course that students perceive in mainstream academic courses. The research question was as follows: What can a transfer climate perspective reveal about…

  18. Teaching Writing within the Disciplines: A Viable Approach for English for Academic Purposes (EAP) Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leopold, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    This case study of an adjunct-model English for Academic Purposes (EAP) writing course linked to a policy-analysis course describes an effective approach for putting "specificity" into practice in EAP curriculum design. The rationale for interdisciplinary collaboration, the positive learning outcomes from the EAP writing course, the…

  19. Collaborative Academic Projects on Social Network Sites to Socialize EAP Students into Academic Communities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dashtestani, Reza

    2018-01-01

    Learning English for academic purposes (EAP) can help university students promote their academic literacy through socializing them into academic communities of practice. This study examined the impact of the use of collaborative projects on three social network sites on EAP students' attitudes towards EAP and academic content learning. Three…

  20. Beyond Needs Analysis: Soft Systems Methodology for Meaningful Collaboration in EAP Course Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tajino, Akira; James, Robert; Kijima, Kyoichi

    2005-01-01

    Designing an EAP course requires collaboration among various concerned stakeholders, including students, subject teachers, institutional administrators and EAP teachers themselves. While needs analysis is often considered fundamental to EAP, alternative research methodologies may be required to facilitate meaningful collaboration between these…

  1. Doing more for less: identifying opportunities to expand public sector access to safe abortion in South Africa through budget impact analysis.

    PubMed

    Lince-Deroche, Naomi; Harries, Jane; Constant, Deborah; Morroni, Chelsea; Pleaner, Melanie; Fetters, Tamara; Grossman, Daniel; Blanchard, Kelly; Sinanovic, Edina

    2018-02-01

    To estimate the costs of public-sector abortion provision in South Africa and to explore the potential for expanding access at reduced cost by changing the mix of technologies used. We conducted a budget impact analysis using public sector abortion statistics and published cost data. We estimated the total costs to the public health service over 10 years, starting in South Africa's financial year 2016/17, given four scenarios: (1) holding service provision constant, (2) expanding public sector provision, (3) changing the abortion technologies used (i.e. the method mix), and (4) expansion plus changing the method mix. The public sector performed an estimated 20% of the expected total number of abortions in 2016/17; 26% and 54% of all abortions were performed illegally or in the private sector respectively. Costs were lowest in scenarios where method mix shifting occurred. Holding the proportion of abortions performed in the public-sector constant, shifting to more cost-effective service provision (more first-trimester services with more medication abortion and using the combined regimen for medical induction in the second trimester) could result in savings of $28.1 million in the public health service over the 10-year period. Expanding public sector provision through elimination of unsafe abortions would require an additional $192.5 million. South Africa can provide more safe abortions for less money in the public sector through shifting the methods provided. More research is needed to understand whether the cost of expanding access could be offset by savings from averting costs of managing unsafe abortions. South Africa can provide more safe abortions for less money in the public sector through shifting to more first-trimester methods, including more medication abortion, and shifting to a combined mifepristone plus misoprostol regimen for second trimester medical induction. Expanding access in addition to method mix changes would require additional funds. Copyright

  2. Progress toward EAP actuators for biomimetic social robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, D.

    2013-04-01

    Social robotics and artificial intelligence have progressed steadily in recent years, appearing in a variety of useful applications and products as well as breakthrough research. However, limitations in conventional motors continue to limit the possibilities of bio-inspired robotics. Such motors are needed for locomotion, grasping and manipulation, and social expressions and gestures. EAP actuators, being more like biological muscle in key regards, could revolutionize the hardware for such robots, if made robust, powerful, and manufacturable at reasonable prices. The author presents a survey of the progress and opportunities for EAP actuators in these fields, and discusses the latest work of his team in developing and manufacturing social robots that could benefit from EAP actuators.

  3. Electroactive Polymer (EAP) Actuators for Future Humanlike Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2009-01-01

    Human-like robots are increasingly becoming an engineering reality thanks to recent technology advances. These robots, which are inspired greatly by science fiction, were originated from the desire to reproduce the human appearance, functions and intelligence and they may become our household appliance or even companion. The development of such robots is greatly supported by emerging biologically inspired technologies. Potentially, electroactive polymer (EAP) materials are offering actuation capabilities that allow emulating the action of our natural muscles for making such machines perform lifelike. There are many technical issues related to making such robots including the need for EAP materials that can operate as effective actuators. Beside the technology challenges these robots also raise concerns that need to be addressed prior to forming super capable robots. These include the need to prevent accidents, deliberate harm, or their use in crimes. In this paper, the potential EAP actuators and the challenges that these robots may pose will be reviewed.

  4. Electroactive polymer (EAP) actuators for future humanlike robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2009-03-01

    Human-like robots are increasingly becoming an engineering reality thanks to recent technology advances. These robots, which are inspired greatly by science fiction, were originated from the desire to reproduce the human appearance, functions and intelligence and they may become our household appliance or even companion. The development of such robots is greatly supported by emerging biologically inspired technologies. Potentially, electroactive polymer (EAP) materials are offering actuation capabilities that allow emulating the action of our natural muscles for making such machines perform lifelike. There are many technical issues related to making such robots including the need for EAP materials that can operate as effective actuators. Beside the technology challenges these robots also raise concerns that need to be addressed prior to forming super capable robots. These include the need to prevent accidents, deliberate harm, or their use in crimes. In this paper, the potential EAP actuators and the challenges that these robots may pose will be reviewed.

  5. Androids: application of EAP as artificial muscles to entertainment industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, D.; Pioggia, G.; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; de Rossi, D.

    2001-01-01

    The classic movie Metropolis (1926), which is nowadays considered a cinema milestone, has shown the possibility to build robots called androids that are science and fiction run together to realize a dream: the human-like robot. In that movie, Dr. Rotwang transforms a simple and cold calculating robot into the body of a beautiful woman. Robots have often been depicted as metal creatures with cold steel bodies, but there is no reason why metals should be the only kind of material for construction of robots. The authors examined the issues related to applying electroactive polymers materials (EAP) to the entertainment industry. EAP are offering attractive characteristics with the potential to produce more realistic models of living creatures at significantly lower cost. This paper seeks to elucidate how EAP might infiltrate and ultimately revolutionize entertainment, showing some applicative examples.

  6. IL17 Mediates Pelvic Pain in Experimental Autoimmune Prostatitis (EAP)

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Stephen F.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Done, Joseph; Wong, Larry; Bell-Cohn, Ashlee; Roman, Kenny; Cashy, John; Ohlhausen, Michelle; Thumbikat, Praveen

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) is the most common form of prostatitis, accounting for 90–95% of all diagnoses. It is a complex multi-symptom syndrome with unknown etiology and limited effective treatments. Previous investigations highlight roles for inflammatory mediators in disease progression by correlating levels of cytokines and chemokines with patient reported symptom scores. It is hypothesized that alteration of adaptive immune mechanisms results in autoimmunity and subsequent development of pain. Mouse models of CPPS have been developed to delineate these immune mechanisms driving pain in humans. Using the experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) in C57BL/6 mice model of CPPS we examined the role of CD4+T-cell subsets in the development and maintenance of prostate pain, by tactile allodynia behavioral testing and flow cytometry. In tandem with increased CD4+IL17A+ T-cells upon EAP induction, prophylactic treatment with an anti-IL17 antibody one-day prior to EAP induction prevented the onset of pelvic pain. Therapeutic blockade of IL17 did not reverse pain symptoms indicating that IL17 is essential for development but not maintenance of chronic pain in EAP. Furthermore we identified a cytokine, IL7, to be associated with increased symptom severity in CPPS patients and is increased in patient prostatic secretions and the prostates of EAP mice. IL7 is fundamental to development of IL17 producing cells and plays a role in maturation of auto-reactive T-cells, it is also associated with autoimmune disorders including multiple sclerosis and type-1 diabetes. More recently a growing body of research has pointed to IL17’s role in development of neuropathic and chronic pain. This report presents novel data on the role of CD4+IL17+ T-cells in development and maintenance of pain in EAP and CPPS. PMID:25933188

  7. IL17 Mediates Pelvic Pain in Experimental Autoimmune Prostatitis (EAP).

    PubMed

    Murphy, Stephen F; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Done, Joseph; Wong, Larry; Bell-Cohn, Ashlee; Roman, Kenny; Cashy, John; Ohlhausen, Michelle; Thumbikat, Praveen

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) is the most common form of prostatitis, accounting for 90-95% of all diagnoses. It is a complex multi-symptom syndrome with unknown etiology and limited effective treatments. Previous investigations highlight roles for inflammatory mediators in disease progression by correlating levels of cytokines and chemokines with patient reported symptom scores. It is hypothesized that alteration of adaptive immune mechanisms results in autoimmunity and subsequent development of pain. Mouse models of CPPS have been developed to delineate these immune mechanisms driving pain in humans. Using the experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) in C57BL/6 mice model of CPPS we examined the role of CD4+T-cell subsets in the development and maintenance of prostate pain, by tactile allodynia behavioral testing and flow cytometry. In tandem with increased CD4+IL17A+ T-cells upon EAP induction, prophylactic treatment with an anti-IL17 antibody one-day prior to EAP induction prevented the onset of pelvic pain. Therapeutic blockade of IL17 did not reverse pain symptoms indicating that IL17 is essential for development but not maintenance of chronic pain in EAP. Furthermore we identified a cytokine, IL7, to be associated with increased symptom severity in CPPS patients and is increased in patient prostatic secretions and the prostates of EAP mice. IL7 is fundamental to development of IL17 producing cells and plays a role in maturation of auto-reactive T-cells, it is also associated with autoimmune disorders including multiple sclerosis and type-1 diabetes. More recently a growing body of research has pointed to IL17's role in development of neuropathic and chronic pain. This report presents novel data on the role of CD4+IL17+ T-cells in development and maintenance of pain in EAP and CPPS.

  8. A place for marriage and family services in employee assistance programs (EAPs): a survey of EAP client problems and needs.

    PubMed

    Shumway, Sterling T; Wampler, Richard S; Dersch, Charette; Arredondo, Rudy

    2004-01-01

    Marriage and family services have not been widely recognized as part of employee assistance programs (EAP), although family and relational problems are widely cited as sources of problems on the job. EAP clients (N = 800, 97% self-referred) indicated how much family, psychological/emotional, drug, alcohol, employment-related, legal, and medical problems troubled them and the need for services in each area. Psychological/emotional (66%) and family (65%) problem areas frequently were rated "considerable" or "extreme." Both areas were rated as "considerable" or "extreme" by 48.6% of participants. In view of the evidence that marriage and family services can be effective with both family and psychological/emotional problems, professionals who are competent to provide such services have much to offer EAP programs.

  9. Nonnegative definite EAP and ODF estimation via a unified multi-shell HARDI reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jian; Jiang, Tianzi; Deriche, Rachid

    2012-01-01

    In High Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging (HARDI), Orientation Distribution Function (ODF) and Ensemble Average Propagator (EAP) are two important Probability Density Functions (PDFs) which reflect the water diffusion and fiber orientations. Spherical Polar Fourier Imaging (SPFI) is a recent model-free multi-shell HARDI method which estimates both EAP and ODF from the diffusion signals with multiple b values. As physical PDFs, ODFs and EAPs are nonnegative definite respectively in their domains S2 and R3. However, existing ODF/EAP estimation methods like SPFI seldom consider this natural constraint. Although some works considered the nonnegative constraint on the given discrete samples of ODF/EAP, the estimated ODF/EAP is not guaranteed to be nonnegative definite in the whole continuous domain. The Riemannian framework for ODFs and EAPs has been proposed via the square root parameterization based on pre-estimated ODFs and EAPs by other methods like SPFI. However, there is no work on how to estimate the square root of ODF/EAP called as the wavefuntion directly from diffusion signals. In this paper, based on the Riemannian framework for ODFs/EAPs and Spherical Polar Fourier (SPF) basis representation, we propose a unified model-free multi-shell HARDI method, named as Square Root Parameterized Estimation (SRPE), to simultaneously estimate both the wavefunction of EAPs and the nonnegative definite ODFs and EAPs from diffusion signals. The experiments on synthetic data and real data showed SRPE is more robust to noise and has better EAP reconstruction than SPFI, especially for EAP profiles at large radius.

  10. Learner Corpora: The Missing Link in EAP Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilquin, Gaetanelle; Granger, Sylviane; Paquot, Magali

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the place of learner corpora, i.e. corpora containing authentic language data produced by learners of a foreign/second language, in English for academic purposes (EAP) pedagogy and sets out to demonstrate that they have a valuable contribution to make to the field. Following an initial brief introduction to corpus-based…

  11. The Impact of an EAP Course on Postgraduate Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Neomy; Tapper, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of completing an English for Academic Purposes (EAP) course on the writing of postgraduate learners. We begin this paper by describing a course offered for credit to postgraduate international students at a university in Australia, and then report on a large-scale study (n = 69) which investigated the improvement (if…

  12. Receptivity to Learner-Driven Feedback in EAP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maas, Clare

    2017-01-01

    There is still debate surrounding what constitutes the most effective feedback on EFL learners' writing, particularly in English for Academic Purposes (EAP) settings. Unanswered questions are found in the literature on topics such as the best formats for feedback, the role of technology, authors' authority over written texts, and ways of helping…

  13. An Analysis of Curriculum Renewal in EAP Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurekli, Aynur

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at describing the new approach to English for Academic Purposes (EAP) teaching based on the results of the curriculum renewal conducted for the freshman "Academic Skills in English" courses (ENG 101 and ENG 102) with reference to the Faculty of Computer Sciences. The study is based on the results of the needs analysis…

  14. Diagnosing EAP Writing Ability Using the Reduced Reparameterized Unified Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Youn-Hee

    2011-01-01

    Despite the increasing interest in and need for test information for use in instructional practice and student learning, there have been few attempts to systematically link a diagnostic approach to English for academic purposes (EAP) writing instruction and assessment. In response to this need for research, this study examined the extent to which…

  15. Controllable Curved Mirrors Made from Single-Layer EAP Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart

    2004-01-01

    A document proposes that lightweight, deployable, large-aperture, controllable curved mirrors made of reflectively coated thin electroactive-polymer (EAP) films be developed for use in spaceborne microwave and optical systems. In these mirrors, the EAP films would serve as both structures and actuators. EAPs that are potentially suitable for such use include piezoelectric, electrostrictive, ferroelectric, and dielectric polymers. These materials exhibit strains proportional to the squares of applied electric fields. Utilizing this phenomenon, a curved mirror according to the proposal could be made from a flat film, upon which a nonuniform electrostatic potential (decreasing from the center toward the edge) would be imposed to obtain a required curvature. The effect would be analogous to that of an old-fashioned metalworking practice in which a flat metal sheet is made into a bowl by hammering it repeatedly, the frequency of hammer blows decreasing with distance from the center. In operation, the nonuniform electrostatic potential could be imposed by use of an electron gun. Calculations have shown that by use of a single- layer film made of a currently available EAP, it would be possible to control the focal length of a 2-m-diameter mirror from infinity to 1.25 m.

  16. EAP Curriculum Alignment and Social Acculturation: Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweedie, M. Gregory; Kim, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    The role of English as a second language (ESL) teachers and instruction as factors in student social and psychological acculturation is widely acknowledged. However, the function of English for Academic Purposes (EAP) is less well known in this regard, because research has focused largely on academic acculturation. This qualitative study…

  17. Enhancing the Quality of EAP Writing through Overt Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Roselind; Sim, Jacqueline; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how overt teaching is instrumental in reducing subject-verb agreement (SVA) errors of Malaysian EAP learners which in turn improves the quality of their writing. The researchers used overt teaching of these grammatical items, that is, SVA and investigated how this method has significantly benefitted the learners who were second…

  18. Expanding Access to Secondary Schooling in Sub-Saharan Africa: Key Planning and Finance Issues. Create Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Keith M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper makes the case for managed expansion of secondary schooling in Sub-Saharan Africa. The great majority of secondary age African children remain excluded from access to good quality secondary schooling. Increasing numbers are graduating from primary schools where enrolments are rapidly growing as a result of successful Education for All…

  19. Increasing Need-Based Grant Aid Is the Most Efficient Way To Expand College Access. Illuminations: Highlighting Important Research in Postsecondary Education Access. New Agenda Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumina Foundation for Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This two-page summary offers an overview of a "New Agenda Series" publication relating to need-based grant aid. The federal and state governments share the responsibility for providing access to postsecondary education. They do this through direct appropriations, student financial aid programs and other support for research and educational…

  20. PROPOSED STANDARD TO GREATLY EXPAND PUBLIC ACCESS AND EXPLORATION OF TOXICITY DATA: EVALUATION OF STRUCTURE DATA FILE FORMAT

    EPA Science Inventory



    PROPOSED ST ANDARD TO GREA TL Y EXP AND PUBLIC ACCESS AND EXPLORATION OF TOXICITY DATA: EVALUATION OF STRUCTURE DATA FILE FORMAT

    The ability to assess the potential toxicity of environmental, pharmaceutical, or industrial chemicals based on chemical structure in...

  1. The Power of Technology to Transform Adult Learning: Expanding Access to Adult Education & Workforce Skills through Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCain, Mary L.

    2009-01-01

    There is a highly compelling case for using technology on a large scale to increase access to and improve America's adult education and workforce skills enterprise. By the reckoning of the National Commission on Adult Literacy and others, the nation must reach many more millions of adults with effective college- and job-readiness skills programs…

  2. Expanding Notions of Digital Access: Parents' Negotiation of School-Based Technology Initiatives in New Immigrant Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noguerón-Liu, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Initiatives to integrate technology in schools are continuously increasing, with efforts to bridge the "homework gap" and provide technology access in low-income households. However, it is critical to include nondominant parents in technology adoption decisions in order to avoid mirroring past patterns of inequality in home-school…

  3. Iranian English for Academic Purposes (EAP) Stakeholders' Attitudes toward Using the Internet in EAP Courses for Civil Engineering Students: Promises and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atai, Mahmood Reza; Dashtestani, Reza

    2013-01-01

    English for academic purposes (EAP) has established itself as a considerable part of English as a foreign language (EFL) instruction in Iranian universities. Considering the Internet as a major educational source in EAP reading courses, it is highly important that the stakeholders have positive attitudes toward it and be aware of promises and…

  4. Extracellular adherence protein (Eap) from Staphylococcus aureus does not function as a superantigen.

    PubMed

    Haggar, A; Flock, J-I; Norrby-Teglund, A

    2010-08-01

    Extracellular adherence protein (Eap) from Staphylococcus aureus has been reported to have strong anti-inflammatory properties, which make Eap a potential anti-inflammatory agent. However, Eap has also been demonstrated to trigger T-cell activation and to share structural homology with superantigens. In this study, we focused on whether Eap fulfilled the definition criteria for a superantigen. We demonstrate that T-cell activation by Eap is dependent on both major histocompatibility complex class II and intercellular adhesion molecule type 1, that cellular processing is required for Eap to elicit T-cell proliferation, and that the kinetics of proliferation resemble the profile of a conventional antigen and not that of a superantigen.

  5. Directions for development of the field of electroactive polymer (EAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2011-04-01

    In last few years, the rate of development and advances in the field of EAP has accelerated significantly and it is increasingly getting closer to the point of finding them used in commercial products. Substantial development has been reported in the understanding of their drive mechanisms and the parameters that control their electro-activation behavior. Further, efforts are being made to develop mass production techniques with greatly improved actuation capability and operation durability. The recent efforts to develop energy harvesting techniques, haptic interfacing (including refreshable braille displays), and toys are further increasing the likelihood of finding niches for these materials. In this paper, the author sought to examine the potential directions for the future development of the field of EAP in relation to the state-of-the-art.

  6. Human-like robots as platforms for electroactive polymers (EAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2008-03-01

    Human-like robots, which have been a science fiction for many years, are increasingly becoming an engineering reality thanks to many technology advances in recent years. Humans have always sought to imitate the human appearance, functions and intelligence and as the capability progresses they may become our household appliance or even companion. Biomimetic technologies are increasingly becoming common tools to support the development of such robots. As artificial muscles, electroactive polymers (EAP) are offering important actuation capability for making such machines lifelike. The current limitations of EAP are hampering the possibilities that can be adapted in such robots but progress is continually being made. As opposed to other human made machines and devices, this technology raises various questions and concerns that need to be addressed. These include the need to prevent accidents, deliberate harm, or their use in crimes. In this paper the state-of-the-art and the challenges will be reviewed.

  7. EAP viewpoint on unpublished data from paediatric clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Schrier, L; Illy, K; Valiulis, A; Wyder, C; Stiris, T

    2018-02-01

    European children and paediatricians rely heavily on the fair, complete and timely publication of data obtained from paediatric randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Selective publication and reporting of paediatric RCTs is common practice. Industry-sponsored trials are more likely to remain unpublished, and take longer to get published compared with trials sponsored by others. However, also academic sponsors contribute to inefficiencies in publishing clinical data. Publication bias violates the ethical obligation that investigators have towards study participants, leads to considerable inefficiencies in research and a waste of financial and human resources, and has the potential to distort evidence for treatment approaches. The European Academy of Paediatrics (EAP) therefore actively supports initiatives that increase the public dissemination of paediatric clinical trial data. The EAP will raise awareness about the guidelines for Good Publication Practice among European paediatricians and subspecialty societies.

  8. Directions for Development of the Field of Electroactive Polymer (EAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2011-01-01

    In last few years, the rate of development and advances in the field of EAP has accelerated significantly and it is increasingly getting closer to the point of finding them used in commercial products. Substantial development has been reported in the understanding of their drive mechanisms and the parameters that control their electro-activation behavior. Further, efforts are being made to develop mass production techniques with greatly improved actuation capability and operation durability. The recent efforts to develop energy harvesting techniques, haptic interfacing (including refreshable braille displays), and toys are further increasing the likelihood of finding niches for these materials. In this paper, the author sought to examine the potential directions for the future development of the field of EAP in relation to the state-of-the-art.

  9. Expanding access to high-quality plain-language patient education information through context-specific hyperlinks

    PubMed Central

    Ancker, Jessica S.; Mauer, Elizabeth; Hauser, Diane; Calman, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Medical records, which are increasingly directly accessible to patients, contain highly technical terms unfamiliar to many patients. A federally qualified health center (FQHC) sought to help patients interpret their records by embedding context-specific hyperlinks to plain-language patient education materials in its portal. We assessed the impact of this innovation through a 3-year retrospective cohort study. A total of 12,877 (10% of all patients) in this safety net population had used the MPC links. Black patients, Latino patients comfortable using English, and patients covered by Medicaid were more likely to use the informational hyperlinks than other patients. The positive association with black race and Latino ethnicity remained statistically significant in multivariable models that controlled for insurance type. We conclude that many of the sociodemographic factors associated with the digital divide do not present barriers to accessing context-specific patient education information once in the portal. In fact, this type of highly convenient plain-language patient education may provide particular value to patients in traditionally disadvantaged groups. PMID:28269821

  10. The role of the EAP in the identification and treatment of substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Kramer, R M

    1998-12-01

    Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) are cost-effective strategies for employers to contain the substantial direct and indirect costs of substance abuse in the workplace. EAPs offer prevention, early detection, assessment of referral, and after-care programs to help stem the enormous costs of substance abuse in the workplace. Most effective employer substance abuse programs integrate drug-testing and EAP services to ensure a well coordinated, cost-effective program.

  11. Ring vaccination with rVSV-ZEBOV under expanded access in response to an outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea, 2016: an operational and vaccine safety report.

    PubMed

    Gsell, Pierre-Stéphane; Camacho, Anton; Kucharski, Adam J; Watson, Conall H; Bagayoko, Aminata; Nadlaou, Séverine Danmadji; Dean, Natalie E; Diallo, Abdourahamane; Diallo, Abdourahmane; Honora, Djidonou A; Doumbia, Moussa; Enwere, Godwin; Higgs, Elizabeth S; Mauget, Thomas; Mory, Diakite; Riveros, Ximena; Oumar, Fofana Thierno; Fallah, Mosoka; Toure, Alhassane; Vicari, Andrea S; Longini, Ira M; Edmunds, W J; Henao-Restrepo, Ana Maria; Kieny, Marie Paule; Kéïta, Sakoba

    2017-12-01

    In March, 2016, a flare-up of Ebola virus disease was reported in Guinea, and in response ring vaccination with the unlicensed rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine was introduced under expanded access, the first time that an Ebola vaccine has been used in an outbreak setting outside a clinical trial. Here we describe the safety of rVSV-ZEBOV candidate vaccine and operational feasibility of ring vaccination as a reactive strategy in a resource-limited rural setting. Approval for expanded access and compassionate use was rapidly sought and obtained from relevant authorities. Vaccination teams and frozen vaccine were flown to the outbreak settings. Rings of contacts and contacts of contacts were defined and eligible individuals, who had given informed consent, were vaccinated and followed up for 21 days under good clinical practice conditions. Between March 17 and April 21, 2016, 1510 individuals were vaccinated in four rings in Guinea, including 303 individuals aged between 6 years and 17 years and 307 front-line workers. It took 10 days to vaccinate the first participant following the confirmation of the first case of Ebola virus disease. No secondary cases of Ebola virus disease occurred among the vaccinees. Adverse events following vaccination were reported in 47 (17%) 6-17 year olds (all mild) and 412 (36%) adults (individuals older than 18 years; 98% were mild). Children reported fewer arthralgia events than adults (one [<1%] of 303 children vs 81 [7%] of 1207 adults). No severe vaccine-related adverse events were reported. The results show that a ring vaccination strategy can be rapidly and safely implemented at scale in response to Ebola virus disease outbreaks in rural settings. WHO, Gavi, and the World Food Programme. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. EAP artificial muscle actuators for bio-inspired intelligent social robotics (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, David F.

    2017-04-01

    Bio-inspired intelligent robots are coming of age in both research and industry, propelling market growth for robots and A.I. However, conventional motors limit bio-inspired robotics. EAP actuators and sensors could improve the simplicity, compliance, physical scaling, and offer bio-inspired advantages in robotic locomotion, grasping and manipulation, and social expressions. For EAP actuators to realize their transformative potential, further innovations are needed: the actuators must be robust, fast, powerful, manufacturable, and affordable. This presentation surveys progress, opportunities, and challenges in the author's latest work in social robots and EAP actuators, and proposes a roadmap for EAP actuators in bio-inspired intelligent robotics.

  13. The crystal structures of EAP domains from Staphylococcus aureus reveal an unexpected homology to bacterial superantigens.

    PubMed

    Geisbrecht, Brian V; Hamaoka, Brent Y; Perman, Benjamin; Zemla, Adam; Leahy, Daniel J

    2005-04-29

    The Eap (extracellular adherence protein) of Staphylococcus aureus functions as a secreted virulence factor by mediating interactions between the bacterial cell surface and several extracellular host proteins. Eap proteins from different Staphylococcal strains consist of four to six tandem repeats of a structurally uncharacterized domain (EAP domain). We have determined the three-dimensional structures of three different EAP domains to 1.8, 2.2, and 1.35 A resolution, respectively. These structures reveal a core fold that is comprised of an alpha-helix lying diagonally across a five-stranded, mixed beta-sheet. Comparison of EAP domains with known structures reveals an unexpected homology with the C-terminal domain of bacterial superantigens. Examination of the structure of the superantigen SEC2 bound to the beta-chain of a T-cell receptor suggests a possible ligand-binding site within the EAP domain (Fields, B. A., Malchiodi, E. L., Li, H., Ysern, X., Stauffacher, C. V., Schlievert, P. M., Karjalainen, K., and Mariuzza, R. (1996) Nature 384, 188-192). These results provide the first structural characterization of EAP domains, relate EAP domains to a large class of bacterial toxins, and will guide the design of future experiments to analyze EAP domain structure/function relationships.

  14. Antibody response to the extracellular adherence protein (Eap) of Staphylococcus aureus in healthy and infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Joost, Insa; Jacob, Susanne; Utermöhlen, Olaf; Schubert, Uwe; Patti, Joseph M; Ong, Mei-Fang; Gross, Jürgen; Justinger, Christoph; Renno, Jörg H; Preissner, Klaus T; Bischoff, Markus; Herrmann, Mathias

    2011-06-01

    The extracellular adherence protein (Eap) from Staphylococcus aureus has been suggested as a vaccine candidate and for therapeutic use due to its immunomodulating and antiangiogenic properties; however, little is known about anti-Eap antibodies in humans. We determined anti-Eap antibody titers by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot and measured serum samples from 92 patients with proven S. aureus infections and 93 healthy controls. The functionality of antibodies was assessed by a phagocytosis assay using Eap-coated fluorescent microspheres. Antibodies were detected in all human samples, but not in mice. Patients showed significantly higher titers than controls [immunoglobulin M (IgM), P=0.007; IgG, P<0.0001]. Patients with deep or severe infections showed higher titers than those with superficial or mild disease. Eap alone was sufficient to promote phagocytosis by peripheral blood mononuclear cell and granulocytes that was moderately enhanced in the presence of human serum, but no correlation was found with the levels of anti-Eap antibodies. Anti-Eap antibodies are prevalent in all tested humans and correlate with the severity of S. aureus infection; however, they do not seem to provide protection against invasive infections. Before considering Eap for therapy or as a vaccine candidate, further studies are warranted to assess the impact of the interference between Eap and its specific antibodies. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Platform based design of EAP transducers in Danfoss PolyPower A/S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarban, Rahimullah; Gudlaugsson, Tómas V.

    2013-04-01

    Electroactive Polymer (EAP) has gained increasing focus, in research communities, in last two decades. Research within the field of EAP has, so far, been mainly focused on material improvements, characterization, modeling and developing demonstrators. As the EAP technology matures, the need for a new area of research namely product development emerges. Product development can be based on an isolated design and production for a single product or platform design where a product family is developed. In platform design the families of products exploits commonality of platform modules while satisfying a variety of different market segments. Platform based approach has the primary benefit of being cost efficient and short lead time to market when new products emerges. Products development based on EAP technology is challenging both technologically as well as from production and processing point of view. Both the technological and processing challenges need to be addressed before a successful implementation of EAP technology into products. Based on this need Danfoss PolyPower A/S has, in 2011, launched a EAP platform project in collaboration with three Danish universities and three commercial organizations. The aim of the project is to develop platform based designs and product family for the EAP components to be used in variety of applications. This paper presents the structure of the platform project as a whole and specifically the platform based designs of EAP transducers. The underlying technologies, essential for EAP transducers, are also presented. Conceptual design and solution for the concepts are presented as well.

  16. Measuring the bending of asymmetric planar EAP structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Florian M.; Zhao, Xue; Thalmann, Peter; Deyhle, Hans; Urwyler, Prabitha; Kovacs, Gabor; Müller, Bert

    2013-04-01

    The geometric characterization of low-voltage dielectric electro-active polymer (EAP) structures, comprised of nanometer thickness but areas of square centimeters, for applications such as artificial sphincters requires methods with nanometer precision. Direct optical detection is usually restricted to sub-micrometer resolution because of the wavelength of the light applied. Therefore, we propose to take advantage of the cantilever bending system with optical readout revealing a sub-micrometer resolution at the deflection of the free end. It is demonstrated that this approach allows us to detect bending of rather conventional planar asymmetric, dielectric EAP-structures applying voltages well below 10 V. For this purpose, we built 100 μm-thin silicone films between 50 nm-thin silver layers on a 25 μm-thin polyetheretherketone (PEEK) substrate. The increase of the applied voltage in steps of 50 V until 1 kV resulted in a cantilever bending that exhibits only in restricted ranges the expected square dependence. The mean laser beam displacement on the detector corresponded to 6 nm per volt. The apparatus will therefore become a powerful mean to analyze and thereby improve low-voltage dielectric EAP-structures to realize nanometer-thin layers for stack actuators to be incorporated into artificial sphincter systems for treating severe urinary and fecal incontinence.

  17. Not just a drop in the bucket: expanding access to point-of-use water treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Mintz, E; Bartram, J; Lochery, P; Wegelin, M

    2001-10-01

    Since 1990, the number of people without access to safe water sources has remained constant at approximately 1.1 billion, of whom approximately 2.2 million die of waterborne disease each year. In developing countries, population growth and migrations strain existing water and sanitary infrastructure and complicate planning and construction of new infrastructure. Providing safe water for all is a long-term goal; however, relying only on time- and resource-intensive centralized solutions such as piped, treated water will leave hundreds of millions of people without safe water far into the future. Self-sustaining, decentralized approaches to making drinking water safe, including point-of-use chemical and solar disinfection, safe water storage, and behavioral change, have been widely field-tested. These options target the most affected, enhance health, contribute to development and productivity, and merit far greater priority for rapid implementation.

  18. Not Just a Drop in the Bucket: Expanding Access to Point-of-Use Water Treatment Systems

    PubMed Central

    Mintz, Eric; Bartram, Jamie; Lochery, Peter; Wegelin, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Since 1990, the number of people without access to safe water sources has remained constant at approximately 1.1 billion, of whom approximately 2.2 million die of waterborne disease each year. In developing countries, population growth and migrations strain existing water and sanitary infrastructure and complicate planning and construction of new infrastructure. Providing safe water for all is a long-term goal; however, relying only on time- and resource-intensive centralized solutions such as piped, treated water will leave hundreds of millions of people without safe water far into the future. Self-sustaining, decentralized approaches to making drinking water safe, including point-of-use chemical and solar disinfection, safe water storage, and behavioral change, have been widely field-tested. These options target the most affected, enhance health, contribute to development and productivity, and merit far greater priority for rapid implementation. PMID:11574307

  19. Expanding patient access to quality medication-related information: the potential of medication hotlines to improve patient adherence in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Amy R; Marcus, Steven C

    2015-05-01

    Medication nonadherence is a widespread problem that compromises treatment outcomes, particularly in schizophrenia. Weersink et al. (Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol, 2015) describe telephone calls to a national medicines information line, with a focus on queries related to antipsychotic medications. Their analysis of callers' questions and concerns offers a valuable window into patient and caregiver perspectives. Given that many callers reported that they had not shared these concerns with a health care provider, this study also highlights the capacity of medication hotlines to address unmet needs. Establishing and maintaining long-term treatment regimens is a complex task, and truly patient-centered care requires a variety of creative and accessible support resources. Medication lines have the potential to serve as a resource and to provide proactive and timely adherence support.

  20. Challenges in Expanding Access to Dialysis in South Africa-Expensive Modalities, Cost Constraints and Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Etheredge, Harriet; Fabian, June

    2017-07-31

    South Africa is a country with two distinct health sectors, which are both characterised by inequalities. Within this context, patients with end stage renal disease face unique and sometimes impenetrable barriers to accessing dialysis. There are a number of reasons for this situation. These include: the South African government's endorsement of discordant, unequal policies, which disadvantage the most vulnerable; a lack of robust national guidelines; and divisive rationing practices, which are ad hoc and place the burden of responsibility for rationing dialysis on the clinician. In this paper, we trace the socio-economic mechanisms of how we have come to be in this situation, and overlay this with a detailed examination of South African legislation. Finally, we make comprehensive practical recommendations for rectifying the situation, which include engagement with key stakeholders, public-private partnerships, and more equitable funding mechanisms.

  1. HIV testing in community pharmacies and retail clinics: a model to expand access to screening for HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Weidle, Paul J; Lecher, Shirley; Botts, Linda W; Jones, LaDawna; Spach, David H; Alvarez, Jorge; Jones, Rhondette; Thomas, Vasavi

    2014-01-01

    service organization. This pilot project established HIV testing in several community pharmacies and retail clinics to be a feasible model for offering rapid, point-of-care HIV testing. It also demonstrated the willingness and ability of staff at community pharmacies and retail clinics to provide confidential HIV testing to patients. Expanding this model to additional sites and evaluating its feasibility and effectiveness may serve unmet needs in urban and rural settings.

  2. Promoting universal financial protection: contracting faith-based health facilities to expand access--lessons learned from Malawi.

    PubMed

    Chirwa, Maureen L; Kazanga, Isabel; Faedo, Giulia; Thomas, Stephen

    2013-08-19

    Public-private collaborations are increasingly being utilized to universalize health care. In Malawi, the Ministry of Health contracts selected health facilities owned by the main faith-based provider, the Christian Health Association of Malawi (CHAM), to deliver care at no fee to the most vulnerable and underserved populations in the country through Service Level Agreements (SLAs). This study examined the features of SLAs and their effectiveness in expanding universal coverage. The study involved a policy analysis focusing on key stakeholders around SLAs as well as a case study approach to analyse how design and implementation of SLAs affect efficiency, equity and sustainability of services delivered by SLAs. The study employed both qualitative and quantitative research methods to address the research questions and was conducted in five CHAM health facilities: Mulanje Mission, Holy Family, and Mtengowanthenga Hospitals, and Mabiri and Nkope Health Centres. National and district level decision makers were interviewed while providers and clients associated with the health facilities were surveyed on their experiences. A total of 155 clients from an expected 175 were recruited in the study. The study findings revealed key aspects of how SLAs were operating, the extent to which their objectives were being attained and why. In general, the findings demonstrated that SLAs had the potential to improve health and universal health care coverage, particularly for the vulnerable and underserved populations. However, the findings show that the performance of SLAs in Malawi were affected by various factors including lack of clear guidelines, non-revised prices, late payment of bills, lack of transparency, poor communication, inadequate human and material resources, and lack of systems to monitor performance of SLAs, amongst others. There was strong consensus and shared interest between the government and CHAM regarding SLAs. It was clear that free services provided by SLAs had

  3. Impact of expanded access to combination antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy: results from a cohort study in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Heather; Townsend, Claire L; Semenenko, Igor; Malyuta, Ruslan; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Thorne, Claire

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the scale-up of antenatal combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in Ukraine since this became part of the national policy for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Data on 3535 HIV-positive pregnant women who were enrolled into the Ukraine European Collaborative Study in 2008-2010 were analysed. Factors associated with receipt of zidovudine monotherapy (AZTm) - rather than cART - and rates of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV were investigated. cART coverage increased significantly, from 22% of deliveries in 2008 to 61% of those in 2010. After adjusting for possible confounders, initiation of antenatal AZTm - rather than cART - was associated with cohabiting (versus being married; adjusted prevalence ratio, aPR: 1.09; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.02-1.16), at least two previous live births (versus none; aPR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.11-1.35) and a diagnosis of HIV infection during the first or second trimester (versus before pregnancy; aPR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.03-1.20). The overall MTCT rate was 4.1% (95% CI: 3.4-4.9); 42% (49/116) of the transmissions were from the 8% (n = 238) of women without antenatal ART. Compared with AZTm, cART was associated with a 70% greater reduction in the risk of MTCT (adjusted odds ratio: 0.30; 95% CI: 0.16-0.56). Between 2008 and 2010, access to antenatal cART improved substantially in Ukraine, but implementation of the World Health Organization's Option-B policy was slow. For MTCT to be eliminated in Ukraine, improvements in the retention of women in HIV care and further roll-out of Option B are urgently needed.

  4. Syringe disposal among injection drug users in Harlem and the Bronx during the New York State Expanded Syringe Access Demonstration Program.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Charles M; Deren, Sherry; Fuller, Crystal M; Blaney, Shannon; McMahon, James M; Tortu, Stephanie; Des Jarlais, Don C; Vlahov, David

    2007-04-01

    Effective January 1, 2001, New York State enacted the Expanded Syringe Access Demonstration Program (ESAP), allowing syringes to be sold in pharmacies without a prescription or dispensed through doctors, hospitals, and clinics to adults. A concern in the assessment of ESAP is its effects on syringe disposal practices. Syringe use data regarding the last injection episode were combined from three projects (N = 1,030) recruiting injection drug users. Disposal of syringes by methods known to be safe decreased significantly over time after the implementation of ESAP. Syringes obtained either from syringe exchange programs or ESAP sources were more likely to be disposed of safely than syringes obtained from other sources. Efforts to enlist pharmacists and others involved in ESAP implementation to encourage safe disposal are needed. More detailed information on disposal practices is needed to capture the continuum from least to most safe practices and variation within individuals.

  5. Impact of expanded access to combination antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy: results from a cohort study in Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Heather; Townsend, Claire L; Semenenko, Igor; Malyuta, Ruslan; Cortina-Borja, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the scale-up of antenatal combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in Ukraine since this became part of the national policy for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods Data on 3535 HIV-positive pregnant women who were enrolled into the Ukraine European Collaborative Study in 2008–2010 were analysed. Factors associated with receipt of zidovudine monotherapy (AZTm) – rather than cART – and rates of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV were investigated. Findings cART coverage increased significantly, from 22% of deliveries in 2008 to 61% of those in 2010. After adjusting for possible confounders, initiation of antenatal AZTm – rather than cART – was associated with cohabiting (versus being married; adjusted prevalence ratio, aPR: 1.09; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.02–1.16), at least two previous live births (versus none; aPR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.11–1.35) and a diagnosis of HIV infection during the first or second trimester (versus before pregnancy; aPR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.03–1.20). The overall MTCT rate was 4.1% (95% CI: 3.4–4.9); 42% (49/116) of the transmissions were from the 8% (n = 238) of women without antenatal ART. Compared with AZTm, cART was associated with a 70% greater reduction in the risk of MTCT (adjusted odds ratio: 0.30; 95% CI: 0.16–0.56). Conclusion Between 2008 and 2010, access to antenatal cART improved substantially in Ukraine, but implementation of the World Health Organization’s Option-B policy was slow. For MTCT to be eliminated in Ukraine, improvements in the retention of women in HIV care and further roll-out of Option B are urgently needed. PMID:23825876

  6. Teachers' Voice vs. Students' Voice: A Needs Analysis Approach to English for Acadmic Purposes (EAP) in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eslami, Zohreh R.

    2010-01-01

    EAP plays a highly important role in countries where English is used mainly for academic purposes. However, EAP programs have been developed without conducting a systematic needs analysis from both the students' and instructors' perspective. The purpose of this study is to describe the perception that EAP students and instructors have of the…

  7. Beliefs on Learning and Teaching Language Components: The Case of Iranian EAP and EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsi, Gholamreza

    2017-01-01

    The present study intended to investigate the possible difference between EAP and EFL learners' beliefs concerning learning and teaching of language components, namely, vocabulary, pronunciation and grammar. Furthermore, this study examined the association between EAP and EFL learners' beliefs and their language components' development. To this…

  8. Examining the Use of Web-Based Tests for Testing Academic Vocabulary in EAP Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dashtestani, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Interest in Web-based and computer-assisted language testing is growing in the field of English for academic purposes (EAP). In this study, four groups of undergraduate EAP students (n = 120), each group consisted of 30 students, were randomly selected from four different disciplines, i.e. biology, political sciences, psychology, and law. The four…

  9. eap Gene as novel target for specific identification of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Muzaffar; von Eiff, Christof; Sinha, Bhanu; Joost, Insa; Herrmann, Mathias; Peters, Georg; Becker, Karsten

    2008-02-01

    The cell surface-associated extracellular adherence protein (Eap) mediates adherence of Staphylococcus aureus to host extracellular matrix components and inhibits inflammation, wound healing, and angiogenesis. A well-characterized collection of S. aureus and non-S. aureus staphylococcal isolates (n = 813) was tested for the presence of the Eap-encoding gene (eap) by PCR to investigate the use of the eap gene as a specific diagnostic tool for identification of S. aureus. Whereas all 597 S. aureus isolates were eap positive, this gene was not detectable in 216 non-S. aureus staphylococcal isolates comprising 47 different species and subspecies of coagulase-negative staphylococci and non-S. aureus coagulase-positive or coagulase-variable staphylococci. Furthermore, non-S. aureus isolates did not express Eap homologs, as verified on the transcriptional and protein levels. Based on these data, the sensitivity and specificity of the newly developed PCR targeting the eap gene were both 100%. Thus, the unique occurrence of Eap in S. aureus offers a promising tool particularly suitable for molecular diagnostics of this pathogen.

  10. Academic Literacies: Providing a Space for the Socio-Political Dynamics of EAP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights the potential of academic literacies as a theoretical framework for EAP, encompassing not only work on texts, but the wider, socio-political, geopolitical, and institutional contexts and practices in and with which EAP operates. An academic literacies approach foregrounds social practices, and one particular practice, that…

  11. An EAP Program and Students' Success at a Canadian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Karin; Shi, Ling

    2017-01-01

    Many universities have instituted intensive English for Academic Purposes (EAP) programs to support international students. This qualitative study used interviews to gain insights into the experiences of 8 non-native English speaking (NNES) students who completed an EAP program before they enrolled in disciplinary courses at a Canadian university.…

  12. The Effective Use of EAPs: Retrenchment Leads to Emphasis on Helping Troubled Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogue, Gregory

    1994-01-01

    During a period of retrenchment, colleges and universities are increasingly developing employee assistance programs (EAPs) to help personnel cope with personal and work-related problems. Successful EAPs have top management commitment, have written policies and procedure, focus on employee performance, provide professional assistance, involve the…

  13. Counseling and the Bystander-Equity Model of Supervisory Helping Behavior: Directions for EAP Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerstein, Lawrence H.; Bayer, Gregory A.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses contribution of Bystander-Equity Model of Supervisory Helping Behavior to pursuit of employee assistance program (EAP) research based on traditions of field of counseling. Offers structure for pursuing empirical and applied activities in EAP settings. Encourages counseling researchers and practitioners to respond to challenge of working…

  14. Computer Literacy in Learning Academic English: Iranian EAP Students' and Instructors' Attitudes and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alavi, Seyed Mohammad; Borzabadi, Davood; Dashtestani, Reza

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze perceptions of Iranian English for Academic Purposes (EAP) students on their computer literacy levels. A total of 641 undergraduate students of civil engineering and 34 EAP instructors participated in the study. Data collection instruments included questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Findings confirmed that…

  15. Discourse Itineraries in an EAP Classroom: A Collaborative Critical Literacy Praxis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chun, Christian Wai

    2010-01-01

    This classroom ethnography documents the developing critical literacy pedagogy of an English for Academic Purposes (EAP) instructor over the course of several terms. My research, which involved extensive collaboration with the EAP instructor, explores how specific classroom practices and discourses are enacted and mediated through dialogic…

  16. Promoting Reflection on Science, Technology, and Society among Engineering Students through an EAP Online Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arno-Macia, Elisabet; Rueda-Ramos, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    With the new European framework, as EAP lecturers in an engineering college, we are reappraising our teaching and the position of our courses. From the perspective of engineering education in the 21st century, we believe that EAP teaching can focus not only on language and communication needs, but also on developing critical thinking about science…

  17. EAP: Employee Assistance Programs in the Public Schools. Reference & Resource Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacker, Carol

    Employee assistance programs (EAP's) have been set up by many businesses and organizations to help employees resolve their personal problems so they can maintain or resume an acceptable job performance level. So far, only a few public school districts have considered or implemented such programs. This monograph examines EAP's in general and…

  18. Exploring Reading Comprehension Needs of Iranian EAP Students of Health Information Management (HIM): A Triangulated Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atai, Mahmood Reza; Nazari, Ogholgol

    2011-01-01

    Discipline-based English for Academic Purposes (EAP) reading programs in Iran are designed to fill the gap between the students' general English reading competence and their ability to read authentic discipline-specific texts. This study attempted to assess target and present reading comprehension needs of EAP students of Health Information…

  19. Biomimetic actuators using electroactive polymers (EAP) as artificial muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2006-01-01

    Evolution has resolved many of nature's challenges leading to lasting solutions with maximal performance and effective use of resources. Nature's inventions have always inspired human achievements leading to effective materials, structures, tools, mechanisms, processes, algorithms, methods, systems and many other benefits. The field of mimicking nature is known as Biomimetics and one of its topics includes electroactive polymers that gain the moniker artificial muscles. Integrating EAP with embedded sensors, self-repair and many other capabilities that are used in composite materials can add greatly to the capability of smart biomimetic systems. Such development would enable fascinating possibilities potentially turning science fiction ideas into engineering reality.

  20. Accessibility

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Federal laws, including Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, mandate that people with disabilities have access to the same information that someone without a disability would have. 508 standards cover electronic and information technology (EIT) products.

  1. Axicabtagene Ciloleucel Expanded Access Study

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-29

    Relapsed/Refractory Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma; Relapsed/Refractory Primary Mediastinal B Cell Lymphoma; Relapsed/Refractory Transformed Follicular Lymphoma; Relapsed/Refractory High-Grade B-Cell Lymphoma

  2. Atezolizumab in Platinum-treated Locally Advanced or Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma: Clinical Experience from an Expanded Access Study in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sumanta Kumar; Hoffman-Censits, Jean; Zheng, Hanzhe; Kaiser, Constanze; Tayama, Darren; Bellmunt, Joaquim

    2018-05-01

    Atezolizumab (anti-programmed death-ligand 1) was approved in the USA, Europe, and elsewhere for treatment-naive and platinum-treated locally advanced/metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC). To report efficacy and safety from an atezolizumab expanded access study. This single-arm, open-label study enrolled 218 patients at 36 US sites. Key eligibility criteria included progression during/following ≥1 platinum-based chemotherapy for mUC or in perioperative setting (progression within 12 mo) and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) 0-2. Patients received atezolizumab1200mg intravenously every 3 wk until loss of clinical benefit, unacceptable toxicity, consent withdrawal, decision to discontinue, death, atezolizumab commercial availability, or study closure. Key end points reported herein included Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors v1.1 objective response rate and duration, disease control rate (DCR; response or stable disease), and safety. All patients received prior systemic therapy (68% mUC; 27% adjuvant; and 26% neoadjuvant). At baseline, 57% of 214 treated patients had ECOG PS ≥1, 19% had hemoglobin <10g/dl, and 25% had liver metastases. Median treatment duration was 9 wk (interquartile range [IQR], 6-12 wk). Median follow-up duration was 2.3 mo (IQR, 1.6-3.4 mo) overall and 2.7 mo (IQR, 2.0-3.5 mo) in patients not known to have died. Seventeen of 114 evaluable patients (15%) had objective responses (16 ongoing at study termination). DCR was 49%. Treatment-related adverse events (mostly fatigue) occurred in 98 of 214 treated patients. The benefit/risk profile of atezolizumab was consistent with that observed in previous studies, despite pretreatment and poor prognostic factors. These results suggest a potential role for atezolizumab in a broader patient range than typically eligible for phase 1-3 studies. In this expanded access study, atezolizumab was active and tolerable in a range of patients with platinum

  3. Italian Nivolumab Expanded Access Program in Nonsquamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients: Results in Never-Smokers and EGFR-Mutant Patients.

    PubMed

    Garassino, Marina Chiara; Gelibter, Alain Jonathan; Grossi, Francesco; Chiari, Rita; Soto Parra, Hector; Cascinu, Stefano; Cognetti, Francesco; Turci, Daniele; Blasi, Livio; Bengala, Carmelo; Mini, Enrico; Baldini, Editta; Quadrini, Silvia; Ceresoli, Giovanni Luca; Antonelli, Paola; Vasile, Enrico; Pinto, Carmine; Fasola, Gianpiero; Galetta, Domenico; Macerelli, Marianna; Giannarelli, Diana; Lo Russo, Giuseppe; de Marinis, Filippo

    2018-05-03

    Nivolumab is the first checkpoint inhibitor approved for the treatment of nonsquamous NSCLC. We report results from the nivolumab Italian expanded access program focusing on never-smokers and patients with EGFR-mutant nonsqamous NSCLC. Nivolumab (3 mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks) was administered upon physicians' request to patients who had relapsed after one or more prior systemic treatments for stage IIIB/IV nonsquamous NSCLC. Efficacy and safety were evaluated in patients who received at least one dose of nivolumab. Of 1588 patients with nonsquamous NSCLC, 305 (19.2%) were never-smokers. EGFR status was available for 1395 patients. Of the 102 patients (6.4%) with EGFR mutation-positive tumors, 51 (50%) were never-smokers. The objective response rate was significantly higher in patients with wild-type EGFR than patients with EGFR-mutant tumors (19.6% versus 8.8% [p = 0.007]), in former and current smokers than in never-smokers (21.5% versus 9.2% [p = 0.0001]), and in never-smokers with wild-type EGFR than in never-smokers with mutant EGFR (11.0% versus 1.9% [p = 0.04]). There was no significant difference in objective response rate between smokers with wild-type EGFR and smokers with mutant EGFR (22.0% versus 20.6%). There was no statistically significant difference in median progression-free survival or in median overall survival. The median overall survival times were 11 months in patients with EGFR wild-type tumors versus 8.3 months in patients with EGFR-mutant tumors, 11.6 months in smokers versus 10.0 months in never-smokers, 11.0 months in never-smokers with EGFR wild-type tumors versus 5.6 months in never-smokers with EGFR-mutant tumors, and 14.1 months in smokers with EGFR-mutant tumors versus 11.3 months in smokers with EGFR wild-type tumors. The data on the Italian expanded access program in populations with nonsquamous NSCLC suggest that subgroups of patients could benefit differently from nivolumab according to their EGFR mutational status and

  4. Expanding access to off-grid rural electrification in Africa: An analysis of community-based micro-grids in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirubi, Charles Gathu

    lead to elite capture. Experiences from different micro-grid settings illustrate the manner in which a coincidence of interest between the elites and the rest of members and access to external support can create incentives and mechanisms to enable community-wide access to scarce services, hence mitigating elite capture. Moreover, access to external support was found to increase the likelihood of participation for the relatively poor households. The policy-relevant message from this research is two-fold. In rural areas with suitable sites for micro-hydro power, the potential for community micro-grids appear considerable to the extent that this option would seem to represent "the road not taken" as far as policies and initiatives aimed at expanding RE are concerned in Kenya and other African countries with comparable settings. However, local participatory initiatives not complimented by external technical assistance run a considerable risk of locking rural households into relatively more costly and poor-quality services. By taking advantage of existing and/or building a dense network of local organizations, including micro-finance agencies, the government and development partners can make available to local communities the necessary support---financial, technical or regulatory---essential for efficient design of micro-grids in addition to facilitating equitable distribution of electricity benefits.

  5. Expanding access to high-cost medicines through the E2 access program in Thailand: effects on utilisation, health outcomes and cost using an interrupted time-series analysis.

    PubMed

    Sruamsiri, Rosarin; Wagner, Anita K; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Lu, Christine Y; Dhippayom, Teerapon; Ngorsuraches, Surachat; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2016-03-17

    In 2008, the Thai government introduced the 'high-cost medicines E2 access program' as a part of the National List of Essential Medicines to increase patient access to medicines, improve clinical outcomes and make medicines more affordable. Our objective was to examine whether the 'high-cost medicines E2 access program' achieved its goals. Interrupted time-series design study. 3 tertiary hospitals in different regions of Thailand, January 2006 to December 2012. Patients with target acute and chronic disease diagnoses who newly met E2 program criteria for selected study medicines. High-cost medicines E2 access program. Level and trend changes over time in the proportions of eligible patients who received the indicated E2 medicines and who improved clinically, as well as in costs of treatment. A total of 2024 patients were included in utilisation analyses and 1375 patients with selected acute diseases contributed to analyses of clinical outcome. After 1 year of the E2 program implementation, the percentage of eligible patients receiving the indicated E2 program medicines increased significantly (relative change 12.7% (95% CI 4.4% to 21.0%), especially among those insured by the government's universal coverage scheme (relative change 19.9% (95% CI 9.5% to 30.5%)). The increase in the proportion of clinically improved patients with acute conditions was not significant (relative change 6.2% (95% CI -1.9% to 15.1%)). Quarterly healthcare costs per patient dropped significantly (relative change -13.5% (95% CI -26.9% to -1.7%)). In the study hospitals, the E2 access program seems to have facilitated patient access to specialty medicines, may have contributed to improved health outcomes, and decreased treatment costs. Routine monitoring is needed to assess effects of expanding the programme, including effects on quality of care and financial sustainability. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  6. How fish swim: flexible fin thrusters as an EAP platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauder, George V.

    2007-04-01

    Fish are capable of remarkable locomotor performance and use their fins extensively for both propulsion and maneuvering. Recent interest in using fishes as inspiration for the design of a new generation of autonomous underwater vehicles has prompted both new experimental studies of fish locomotor function and efforts to use electroactive polymers (EAP) as actuators in fish-inspired propulsive devices. The fins of fishes allow precise control over body position and vectoring of thrust during propulsion and maneuvering. Recent experimental studies of fish locomotion have revealed that fins exhibit much greater flexibility than previously suspected and that there is considerable deformation of the fin surface during locomotion. The fins of the large group known as ray-finned fishes are supported by fin rays, which have a bilaminar structure that allows active curvature control of the ray and fin surface by the fin musculature. Fish have up to seven different fins, and these fins may interact with each other hydrodynamically during locomotion. Fish fins provide an excellent test platform for the use of electroactive polymer actuators as the frequency of movement is typically less than 5 Hz, and fin muscle strains typically range from 2 to 10%. Recent developments of biorobotic fish pectoral fins actuated with EAP are reviewed.

  7. Pharmacy staff characteristics associated with support for pharmacy-based HIV-testing in pharmacies participating in the New York State Expanded Access Syringe Exchange Program

    PubMed Central

    Amesty, Silvia; Blaney, Shannon; Crawford, Natalie D.; Rivera, Alexis V.; Fuller, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine support of in-pharmacy HIV-testing among pharmacy staff and the individual-level characteristics associated with in-pharmacy HIV testing support. Design Descriptive, nonexperimental, cross-sectional study. Setting New York City (NYC) during January 2008 to March 2009. Intervention 131 pharmacies registered in the Expanded Syringe Access Program (ESAP) completed a survey. Participants 480 pharmacy staff, including pharmacists, owners/managers, and technicians/clerks. Main outcome measures Support of in-pharmacy HIV testing. Results Support of in-pharmacy HIV testing is high among pharmacy staff (79.4%). Pharmacy staff that supported in-pharmacy vaccinations were significantly more likely to support in-pharmacy HIV testing. Pharmacy staff that think that selling syringes to IDUs causes the community to be littered with dirty syringes were significantly less likely to support in-pharmacy HIV testing. Conclusion Support for in-pharmacy HIV testing is high among our sample of ESAP pharmacy staff actively involved in non-prescription syringe sales. These findings suggest that active ESAP pharmacy staff may be amenable to providing HIV counseling and testing to injection drug users and warrants further investigation. PMID:22825227

  8. Individual and neighborhood-level factors associated with non-prescription counseling in pharmacies participating in the New York State Expanded Syringe Access Program (ESAP)

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Alexis V; Blaney, Shannon; Crawford, Natalie D; White, Kellee; Stern, Rachel J; Amesty, Silvia; Fuller, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the individual- and neighborhood-level predictors of frequent non-prescription in-pharmacy counseling. Design Cross-sectional survey Setting 130 pharmacies registered in the Expanded Syringe Access Program (ESAP) in New York City. Participants 477 pharmacists, non-pharmacist owner/managers, and technicians/clerks. Main outcome measures Frequent counseling on medical conditions, health insurance, and other products. Results Technicians were less likely than pharmacists to provide frequent counseling on medical conditions or health insurance. In terms of neighborhood-level characteristics, pharmacies in areas of high employment disability were less likely to provide frequent health insurance counseling and pharmacies in areas with higher deprivation were more likely to provide counseling on other products. Conclusion ESAP pharmacy staff is a frequent source of non-prescription counseling for their patients/customers in disadvantaged neighborhoods of NYC. These findings suggest that ESAP pharmacy staff may be amenable to providing relevant counseling services to injection drug using syringe customers and warrants further investigation. PMID:20833615

  9. EAP recordings in ineraid patients--correlations with psychophysical measures and possible implications for patient fitting.

    PubMed

    Zimmerling, Martin J; Hochmair, Erwin S

    2002-04-01

    Objective measurements can be helpful for cochlear implant fitting of difficult populations, as for example very young children. One method, the recording of the electrically evoked compound action potential (EAP), measures the nerve recruitment in the cochlea in response to stimulation through the implant. For coding strategies implemented at a moderate stimulation rate of 250 pps per channel, useful correlations between EAP data and psychophysical data have been already found. With new systems running at higher rates, it is important to check these correlations again. This study investigates the correlations between psychophysical data and EAP measures calculated from EAP amplitude growth functions. EAP data were recorded in 12 Ineraid subjects. Additionally, behavioral thresholds (THR) and maximum acceptable loudness levels (MAL) were determined for stimulation rates of 80 pps and 2,020 pps for each electrode. Useful correlations between EAP data and psychophysical data were found at the low stimulation rate (80 pps). However, at the higher stimulation rate (2,020 pps) correlations were not significant. They were improved substantially, however, by introducing a factor that corrected for disparities due to temporal integration. Incorporation of this factor, which controls for the influence of the stimulation rate on the threshold, improved the correlations between EAP measures recorded at 80 pps and psychophysical MALs measured at 2,020 pps to better than r = 0.70. EAP data as such can only be used to predict behavioral THRs or MCLs at low stimulation rates. To cope with temporal integration effects at higher stimulation rates, EAP data must be rate corrected. The introduction of a threshold-rate-factor is a promising way to achieve that goal. Further investigations need to be performed.

  10. Insertional inactivation of Eap in Staphylococcus aureus strain Newman confers reduced staphylococcal binding to fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Muzaffar; Haggar, Axana; Heilmann, Christine; Peters, Georg; Flock, Jan-Ingmar; Herrmann, Mathias

    2002-06-01

    To initiate invasive infection, Staphylococcus aureus must adhere to host substrates, such as the extracellular matrix or eukaryotic cells, by virtue of different surface proteins (adhesins). Recently, we identified a 60-kDa cell-secreted extracellular adherence protein (Eap) of S. aureus strain Newman with broad-spectrum binding characteristics (M. Palma, A. Haggar, and J. I. Flock, J. Bacteriol. 181:2840-2845, 1999), and we have molecularly confirmed Eap to be an analogue of the previously identified major histocompatibility complex class II analog protein (Map) (M. Hussain, K. Becker, C. von Eiff, G. Peter, and M. Herrmann, Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 8:1281-1286, 2001). Previous analyses of the Eap/Map function performed with purified protein did not allow dissection of its precise role in the complex situation of the staphylococcal whole cell presenting several secreted and wall-bound adhesins. Therefore, the role of Eap was investigated by constructing a stable eap::ermB deletion in strain Newman and by complementation of the mutant. Patterns of extracted cell surface proteins analyzed both by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by Western ligand assays with various adhesive matrix molecules clearly confirmed the absence of Eap in the mutant. However, binding and adhesion tests using whole staphylococcal cells demonstrated that both the parent and mutant strains bound equally well to fibronectin- and fibrinogen-coated surfaces, possibly due to their recognition by other staphylococcal adhesins. Furthermore, Eap mediated staphylococcal agglutination of both wild-type and mutant cells. In contrast, the mutant adhered to a significantly lesser extent to cultured fibroblasts (P < 0.001) than did the wild type, while adherence was restorable upon complementation. Furthermore, adherence to both epithelial cells (P < 0.05) and fibroblasts (not significant) could be blocked with antibodies against Eap, whereas preimmune serum was not active

  11. Expanding Access to Injectable Contraception: Results From Pilot Introduction of Subcutaneous Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (DMPA-SC) in 4 African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Stout, Anna; Wood, Siri; Barigye, George; Kaboré, Alain; Siddo, Daouda; Ndione, Ida

    2018-01-01

    PATH partnered with the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and country ministries of health (MOHs) to coordinate pilot introductions of subcutaneous depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (subcutaneous DMPA or DMPA-SC, brand name Sayana Press) in Burkina Faso, Niger, Senegal, and Uganda from July 2014 through June 2016 in order to expand the range of methods available to women, particularly in remote locations. The pilot introductions aimed to answer key questions that would inform decisions about future investments in DMPA-SC and scaling up product availability and service-delivery innovations nationally. These questions included the extent to which DMPA-SC would appeal to first-time users of modern contraception, as well as adolescent girls and young women; whether DMPA-SC would add value to family planning programs or simply replace DMPA-IM or other modern methods; and the trends in injectables use when introducing DMPA-SC (or any injectable) at the community level for the first time. We implemented a multicountry monitoring system to track key indicators, including the number of doses administered by category of user (e.g., new users, by client age group) or delivery channel. Providers generally collected these data using their national programs' standard family planning registers. Data were analyzed for cumulative information and to examine trends over time using Microsoft Power Query for Excel and Tableau. Across the 4 countries, nearly half a million DMPA-SC doses were administered and approximately 135,000 first-time users of modern contraception were reached. Furthermore, 44% of the doses administered in 3 of the countries with data were to adolescent girls and young women under age 25. Switching from DMPA-IM to DMPA-SC was not widespread, ranging from 7% in Burkina Faso to 16% in Uganda. Results from these pilot introductions demonstrate that DMPA-SC has the potential to expand community-level access to injectables, maximize task-sharing strategies, and

  12. Early access programs: Benefits, challenges, and key considerations for successful implementation

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Sanjaykumar

    2016-01-01

    Early access programs, (EAPs) are adopted by an increasing number of pharma companies due to several benefits offered by these programs. EAPs offer ethical, compliant, and controlled mechanisms of access to investigational drugs outside of the clinical trial space and before the commercial launch of the drug, to patients with life-threatening diseases having no treatment options available. In addition to the development of positive relationships with key opinion leaders (KOL), patients, advocacy groups and regulators, the data captured from the implementation of EAPs supports in the formulation of global commercialization strategies. This white paper outlines various circumstances to be considered for the implementation of EAPs named patient programs, the regulatory landscape, the benefits and challenges associated with implementing these programs and the key considerations for their successful implementation. PMID:26955570

  13. Isolation and characterization of a bacteriophage phiEap-2 infecting multidrug resistant Enterobacter aerogenes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Erna; Wei, Xiao; Ma, Yanyan; Yin, Zhe; Li, Huan; Lin, Weishi; Wang, Xuesong; Li, Chao; Shen, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Ruixiang; Yang, Huiying; Jiang, Aimin; Yang, Wenhui; Yuan, Jing; Zhao, Xiangna

    2016-01-01

    Enterobacter aerogenes (Enterobacteriaceae) is an important opportunistic pathogen that causes hospital-acquired pneumonia, bacteremia, and urinary tract infections. Recently, multidrug-resistant E. aerogenes have been a public health problem. To develop an effective antimicrobial agent, bacteriophage phiEap-2 was isolated from sewage and its genome was sequenced because of its ability to lyse the multidrug-resistant clinical E. aerogenes strain 3-SP. Morphological observations suggested that the phage belongs to the Siphoviridae family. Comparative genome analysis revealed that phage phiEap-2 is related to the Salmonella phage FSL SP-031 (KC139518). All of the structural gene products (except capsid protein) encoded by phiEap-2 had orthologous gene products in FSL SP-031 and Serratia phage Eta (KC460990). Here, we report the complete genome sequence of phiEap-2 and major findings from the genomic analysis. Knowledge of this phage might be helpful for developing therapeutic strategies against E. aerogenes. PMID:27320081

  14. Isolation and characterization of a bacteriophage phiEap-2 infecting multidrug resistant Enterobacter aerogenes.

    PubMed

    Li, Erna; Wei, Xiao; Ma, Yanyan; Yin, Zhe; Li, Huan; Lin, Weishi; Wang, Xuesong; Li, Chao; Shen, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Ruixiang; Yang, Huiying; Jiang, Aimin; Yang, Wenhui; Yuan, Jing; Zhao, Xiangna

    2016-06-20

    Enterobacter aerogenes (Enterobacteriaceae) is an important opportunistic pathogen that causes hospital-acquired pneumonia, bacteremia, and urinary tract infections. Recently, multidrug-resistant E. aerogenes have been a public health problem. To develop an effective antimicrobial agent, bacteriophage phiEap-2 was isolated from sewage and its genome was sequenced because of its ability to lyse the multidrug-resistant clinical E. aerogenes strain 3-SP. Morphological observations suggested that the phage belongs to the Siphoviridae family. Comparative genome analysis revealed that phage phiEap-2 is related to the Salmonella phage FSL SP-031 (KC139518). All of the structural gene products (except capsid protein) encoded by phiEap-2 had orthologous gene products in FSL SP-031 and Serratia phage Eta (KC460990). Here, we report the complete genome sequence of phiEap-2 and major findings from the genomic analysis. Knowledge of this phage might be helpful for developing therapeutic strategies against E. aerogenes.

  15. sae is essential for expression of the staphylococcal adhesins Eap and Emp.

    PubMed

    Harraghy, Niamh; Kormanec, Jan; Wolz, Christiane; Homerova, Dagmar; Goerke, Christiane; Ohlsen, Knut; Qazi, Saara; Hill, Philip; Herrmann, Mathias

    2005-06-01

    Eap and Emp are two Staphylococcus aureus adhesins initially described as extracellular matrix binding proteins. Eap has since emerged as being important in adherence to and invasion of eukaryotic cells, as well as being described as an immunomodulator and virulence factor in chronic infections. This paper describes the mapping of the transcription start point of the eap and emp promoters. Moreover, using reporter-gene assays and real-time PCR in defined regulatory mutants, environmental conditions and global regulators affecting expression of eap and emp were investigated. Marked differences were found in expression of eap and emp between strain Newman and the 8325 derivatives SH1000 and 8325-4. Moreover, both genes were repressed in the presence of glucose. Analysis of expression of both genes in various regulatory mutants revealed that sarA and agr were involved in their regulation, but the data suggested that there were additional regulators of both genes. In a sae mutant, expression of both genes was severely repressed. sae expression was also reduced in the presence of glucose, suggesting that repression of eap and emp in glucose-containing medium may, in part, be a consequence of a decrease in expression of sae.

  16. Model-free and analytical EAP reconstruction via spherical polar Fourier diffusion MRI.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jian; Ghosh, Aurobrata; Jiang, Tianzi; Deriche, Rachid

    2010-01-01

    How to estimate the diffusion Ensemble Average Propagator (EAP) from the DWI signals in q-space is an open problem in diffusion MRI field. Many methods were proposed to estimate the Orientation Distribution Function (ODF) that is used to describe the fiber direction. However, ODF is just one of the features of the EAP. Compared with ODF, EAP has the full information about the diffusion process which reflects the complex tissue micro-structure. Diffusion Orientation Transform (DOT) and Diffusion Spectrum Imaging (DSI) are two important methods to estimate the EAP from the signal. However, DOT is based on mono-exponential assumption and DSI needs a lot of samplings and very large b values. In this paper, we propose Spherical Polar Fourier Imaging (SPFI), a novel model-free fast robust analytical EAP reconstruction method, which almost does not need any assumption of data and does not need too many samplings. SPFI naturally combines the DWI signals with different b-values. It is an analytical linear transformation from the q-space signal to the EAP profile represented by Spherical Harmonics (SH). We validated the proposed methods in synthetic data, phantom data and real data. It works well in all experiments, especially for the data with low SNR, low anisotropy, and non-exponential decay.

  17. On the impact of self-clearing on electroactive polymer (EAP) actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Saad; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Lanagan, Michael T.

    2017-10-01

    Electroactive polymer (EAP)-based actuators have large potential for a wide array of applications; however, their practical implementation is still a challenge because of the requirement of high driving voltage, which most often leads to premature defect-driven electrical breakdown. Polymer-based capacitors have the ability to clear defects with partial electrical breakdown and subsequent removal of a localized electrode section near the defect. In this study, this process, which is known as self-clearing, is adopted for EAP technologies. We report a methodical approach to self-clear an EAP, more specifically P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE) terpolymer, to delay premature defect-driven electrical breakdown of the terpolymer actuators at high operating electric fields. Breakdown results show that electrical breakdown strength is improved up to 18% in comparison to a control sample after self-clearing. Furthermore, the electromechanical performance in terms of blocked force and free displacement of P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE) terpolymer-based bending actuators are examined after self-clearing and precleared samples show improved blocked force, free displacement and maximum sustainable electric field compared to control samples. The study demonstrates that controlled self-clearing of EAPs improves the breakdown limit and reliability of the EAP actuators for practical applications without impeding their electromechanical performance.

  18. A study of metalized electrode self-clearing in electroactive polymer (EAP) based actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Saad; Ounaies, Zoubeida

    2016-04-01

    Electroactive polymer (EAP) based technologies have shown promise in areas such as artificial muscles, actuator, aerospace, medical and soft robotics. Still challenges remain such as low induced forces and defects-driven electrical breakdown, which impede the practical implementation of this technology. Multilayered or stacked configuration can address the low induced force issue whereas self-clearing can be a technique to improve breakdown limit of EAP based actuators. Self-clearing refers to the partial local breakdown of dielectric medium due to the presence of impurities, which in turn results in the evaporation of some of the metalized electrode. After this evaporation, the impurity is cleared and any current path would be safely cut off, which means the actuator continues to perform. It is a widely studied concept in the capacitor community, while it has not been studied much for EAP technologies. In this paper we report a systematic approach to precondition a silver-metalized electroactive polymer (EAP), more specifically P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE) terpolymer, using self-clearing concept. First, we show improvement in the dielectric breakdown strength of EAP based unimorph actuators after pre-clearing the impurities using low electric field (lower than dielectric breakdown of the terpolymer). Inspired by this improvement, we used Weibull statistics to systematically estimate the self-clearing/ preconditioning field needed to clear the defects. Then electrical breakdown experiments are conducted with and without preconditioning the samples to investigate its effect on the breakdown strength of the sample.

  19. What lies beneath? Diffusion EAP-based study of brain tissue microstructure.

    PubMed

    Zucchelli, Mauro; Brusini, Lorenza; Andrés Méndez, C; Daducci, Alessandro; Granziera, Cristina; Menegaz, Gloria

    2016-08-01

    Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance signals convey information about tissue microstructure and cytoarchitecture. In the last years, many models have been proposed for recovering the diffusion signal and extracting information to constitute new families of numerical indices. Two main categories of reconstruction models can be identified in diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (DMRI): ensemble average propagator (EAP) models and compartmental models. From both, descriptors can be derived for elucidating the underlying microstructural architecture. While compartmental models indices directly quantify the fraction of different cell compartments in each voxel, EAP-derived indices are only a derivative measure and the effect of the different microstructural configurations on the indices is still unclear. In this paper, we analyze three EAP indices calculated using the 3D Simple Harmonic Oscillator based Reconstruction and Estimation (3D-SHORE) model and estimate their changes with respect to the principal microstructural configurations. We take advantage of the state of the art simulations to quantify the variations of the indices with the simulation parameters. Analysis of in-vivo data correlates the EAP indices with the microstructural parameters obtained from the Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging (NODDI) model as a pseudo ground truth for brain data. Results show that the EAP derived indices convey information on the tissue microstructure and that their combined values directly reflect the configuration of the different compartments in each voxel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Fast and Analytical EAP Approximation from a 4th-Order Tensor.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Aurobrata; Deriche, Rachid

    2012-01-01

    Generalized diffusion tensor imaging (GDTI) was developed to model complex apparent diffusivity coefficient (ADC) using higher-order tensors (HOTs) and to overcome the inherent single-peak shortcoming of DTI. However, the geometry of a complex ADC profile does not correspond to the underlying structure of fibers. This tissue geometry can be inferred from the shape of the ensemble average propagator (EAP). Though interesting methods for estimating a positive ADC using 4th-order diffusion tensors were developed, GDTI in general was overtaken by other approaches, for example, the orientation distribution function (ODF), since it is considerably difficult to recuperate the EAP from a HOT model of the ADC in GDTI. In this paper, we present a novel closed-form approximation of the EAP using Hermite polynomials from a modified HOT model of the original GDTI-ADC. Since the solution is analytical, it is fast, differentiable, and the approximation converges well to the true EAP. This method also makes the effort of computing a positive ADC worthwhile, since now both the ADC and the EAP can be used and have closed forms. We demonstrate our approach with 4th-order tensors on synthetic data and in vivo human data.

  1. Fast and Analytical EAP Approximation from a 4th-Order Tensor

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Aurobrata; Deriche, Rachid

    2012-01-01

    Generalized diffusion tensor imaging (GDTI) was developed to model complex apparent diffusivity coefficient (ADC) using higher-order tensors (HOTs) and to overcome the inherent single-peak shortcoming of DTI. However, the geometry of a complex ADC profile does not correspond to the underlying structure of fibers. This tissue geometry can be inferred from the shape of the ensemble average propagator (EAP). Though interesting methods for estimating a positive ADC using 4th-order diffusion tensors were developed, GDTI in general was overtaken by other approaches, for example, the orientation distribution function (ODF), since it is considerably difficult to recuperate the EAP from a HOT model of the ADC in GDTI. In this paper, we present a novel closed-form approximation of the EAP using Hermite polynomials from a modified HOT model of the original GDTI-ADC. Since the solution is analytical, it is fast, differentiable, and the approximation converges well to the true EAP. This method also makes the effort of computing a positive ADC worthwhile, since now both the ADC and the EAP can be used and have closed forms. We demonstrate our approach with 4th-order tensors on synthetic data and in vivo human data. PMID:23365552

  2. Converging the capabilities of EAP artificial muscles and the requirements of bio-inspired robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, David F.; White, Victor

    2004-07-01

    The characteristics of Electro-actuated polymers (EAP) are typically considered inadequate for applications in robotics. But in recent years, there has been both dramatic increases in EAP technological capbilities and reductions in power requirements for actuating bio-inspired robotics. As the two trends continue to converge, one may anticipate that dramatic breakthroughs in biologically inspired robotic actuation will result due to the marraige of these technologies. This talk will provide a snapshot of how EAP actuator scientists and roboticists may work together on a common platform to accelerate the growth of both technologies. To demonstrate this concept of a platform to accelerate this convergence, the authors will discuss their work in the niche application of robotic facial expression. In particular, expressive robots appear to be within the range of EAP actuation, thanks to their low force requirements. Several robots will be shown that demonstrate realistic expressions with dramatically decreased force requirements. Also, detailed descriptions will be given of the engineering innovations that have enabled these robotics advancements-most notably, Structured-Porosity Elastomer Materials (SPEMs). SPEM manufacturing techniques create delicate cell-structures in a variety of elastomers that maintain the high elongation characteristics of the mother material, but because of the porisity, behave as sponge-materials, thus lower the force required to emulate facial expressions to levels output by several extant EAP actuators.

  3. Evaluation Summary of the Expanding Opportunities Interagency Inclusion Initiative: Increasing and Enhancing Access, Participation and Supports for All Children in High Quality Inclusive Programs and Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center (NECTAC), 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the impetus for creating the Expanding Opportunities Interagency Inclusion Initiative and achievements to date in identifying and implementing effective and efficient inclusion strategies in the participating states. In March 2004, the Child Care Bureau (CCB) (renamed the Office of Child Care) and the Administration on…

  4. Mapping the transcription start points of the Staphylococcus aureus eap, emp, and vwb promoters reveals a conserved octanucleotide sequence that is essential for expression of these genes.

    PubMed

    Harraghy, Niamh; Homerova, Dagmar; Herrmann, Mathias; Kormanec, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Mapping the transcription start points of the eap, emp, and vwb promoters revealed a conserved octanucleotide sequence (COS). Deleting this sequence abolished the expression of eap, emp, and vwb. However, electrophoretic mobility shift assays gave no evidence that this sequence was a binding site for SarA or SaeR, known regulators of eap and emp.

  5. A Promising Tool for Helping Vulnerable Workers? An Exploration of the Use of Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) to Help Low-Wage Workers on College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Andrew B.

    2005-01-01

    Employee assistance programs, or EAPs, are an employee benefit designed to help workers meet their work and family needs. However, questions have been raised about the design, utilization, and scale of services that EAPs make possible for low-wage workers. This article explores whether on college campuses an EAP benefit can simultaneously meet the…

  6. The extracellular adherence protein (Eap) of Staphylococcus aureus inhibits wound healing by interfering with host defense and repair mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Athanasopoulos, Athanasios N; Economopoulou, Matina; Orlova, Valeria V; Sobke, Astrid; Schneider, Darius; Weber, Holger; Augustin, Hellmut G; Eming, Sabine A; Schubert, Uwe; Linn, Thomas; Nawroth, Peter P; Hussain, Muzaffar; Hammes, Hans-Peter; Herrmann, Mathias; Preissner, Klaus T; Chavakis, Triantafyllos

    2006-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen interfering with host-cell functions. Impaired wound healing is often observed in S aureus-infected wounds, yet, the underlying mechanisms are poorly defined. Here, we identify the extracellular adherence protein (Eap) of S aureus to be responsible for impaired wound healing. In a mouse wound-healing model wound closure was inhibited in the presence of wild-type S aureus and this effect was reversible when the wounds were incubated with an isogenic Eap-deficient strain. Isolated Eap also delayed wound closure. In the presence of Eap, recruitment of inflammatory cells to the wound site as well as neovascularization of the wound were prevented. In vitro, Eap significantly reduced intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1)-dependent leukocyte-endothelial interactions and diminished the consequent activation of the proinflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) in leukocytes associated with a decrease in expression of tissue factor. Moreover, Eap blocked alphav-integrin-mediated endothelial-cell migration and capillary tube formation, and neovascularization in matrigels in vivo. Collectively, the potent anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties of Eap provide an underlying mechanism that may explain the impaired wound healing in S aureus-infected wounds. Eap may also serve as a lead compound for new anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic therapies in several pathologies.

  7. Expandable stents.

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, J C; Carrasco, H

    1996-05-01

    Expandable metallic stents are effective in selected patients with malignant or benign airway stenoses. When used for malignant lesions, the primary purpose of the stent is to improve the quality of life; stents are usually chosen for palliation of symptoms in recognition of the low likelihood of success for other therapy. For patients with benign stenoses, the stents provide a permanent source of structural support to alleviate the narrowed segment. The advantages of the expandable metallic stents are as follows: (1) they can be inserted through an endotracheal tube or under local anesthesia with relative simplicity under fluoroscopic guidance; (2) they do not impair the drainage of sputum because ciliary movement is not interrupted; (3) over a period of a few weeks, the meshwork is gradually covered with mucosa as the stent becomes incorporated into the airway wall; (4) ventilation usually is not impaired if the metallic mesh stent covers another nonstenosed bronchus, because the interstices of the stent are nonobstructive; and (5) they are dynamic and continue to expand over time, particularly if concurrent treatment achieves an effect on the lesion that caused stenosis. Disadvantages of the expandable stent include (1) they often are only temporarily effective for tracheobronchial stenosis due to intraluminal tumor or granulation tissue, both of which can grow between the wires; (2) they are considered permanent stents because removal is difficult; and (3) they can be poorly positioned during placement or can become displaced by progressive migration after placement, and they cannot be repositioned. A relative contraindication to insertion is an inflammatory process or infection that can predispose to granulation formation, particularly at the points of maximal contact pressure of the stent to the airway mucosa. In the presence of inflammation, it may be better to use a silicone prosthesis until the inflammatory process subsides and fibrosis occurs. Granulation

  8. EAP actuators aid the quest for the 'Holy Braille' of tactile displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runyan, Noel; Blazie, Deane

    2010-04-01

    The authors present the worldwide need for electronic Braille displays to promote literacy among the blind. The use of of EAP's to produce Braille displays is encouraged and detailed descriptions of the technology of Braille are presented. Prior art is covered since the early 1950's through present day displays based mostly on piezoelectric technologies. EAP's offer the promise of the "Holy Braille", the ability to display a full page of Braille electronically. Details on "how not to make a Braille display" are covered in prior art.

  9. Survival analysis to explore the characteristics of employee assistance program (EAP) referrals that remain employed.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, S; Albert, W; Maynard, M; French, P

    1989-02-01

    This study examined characteristics of referrals to employee assistance programs (EAP) associated with subsequent termination of employment. As well, relationships between characteristics of the referrals and program characteristics were explored. Longitudinal data were collected at several time periods for 163 referrals to EAPs from five organizations. Survival analysis was conducted to determine which variables were associated with termination of employment. Females, cohabitating couples, and employees who worked for the organization for 5 or more years were most likely to remain employed. One interesting finding was that people with alcohol problems were significantly more likely to be formal referrals.

  10. Integrated employee assistance program/managed behavioral health care benefits: relationship with access and client characteristics.

    PubMed

    Levy Merrick, Elizabeth S; Hodgkin, Dominic; Horgan, Constance M; Hiatt, Deirdre; McCann, Bernard; Azzone, Vanessa; Zolotusky, Galina; Ritter, Grant; Reif, Sharon; McGuire, Thomas G

    2009-11-01

    This study examined service user characteristics and determinants of access for enrollees in integrated EAP/behavioral health versus standard managed behavioral health care plans. A national managed behavioral health care organization's claims data from 2004 were used. Integrated plan service users were more likely to be employees rather than dependents, and to be diagnosed with adjustment disorder. Logistic regression analyses found greater likelihood in integrated plans of accessing behavioral health services (OR 1.20, CI 1.17-1.24), and substance abuse services specifically (OR 1.23, CI 1.06-1.43). Results are consistent with the concept that EAP benefits may increase access and address problems earlier.

  11. The cellular RNA-binding protein EAP recognizes a conserved stem-loop in the Epstein-Barr virus small RNA EBER 1.

    PubMed Central

    Toczyski, D P; Steitz, J A

    1993-01-01

    EAP (EBER-associated protein) is an abundant, 15-kDa cellular RNA-binding protein which associates with certain herpesvirus small RNAs. We have raised polyclonal anti-EAP antibodies against a glutathione S-transferase-EAP fusion protein. Analysis of the RNA precipitated by these antibodies from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)- or herpesvirus papio (HVP)-infected cells shows that > 95% of EBER 1 (EBV-encoded RNA 1) and the majority of HVP 1 (an HVP small RNA homologous to EBER 1) are associated with EAP. RNase protection experiments performed on native EBER 1 particles with affinity-purified anti-EAP antibodies demonstrate that EAP binds a stem-loop structure (stem-loop 3) of EBER 1. Since bacterially expressed glutathione S-transferase-EAP fusion protein binds EBER 1, we conclude that EAP binding is independent of any other cellular or viral protein. Detailed mutational analyses of stem-loop 3 suggest that EAP recognizes the majority of the nucleotides in this hairpin, interacting with both single-stranded and double-stranded regions in a sequence-specific manner. Binding studies utilizing EBER 1 deletion mutants suggest that there may also be a second, weaker EAP-binding site on stem-loop 4 of EBER 1. These data and the fact that stem-loop 3 represents the most highly conserved region between EBER 1 and HVP 1 suggest that EAP binding is a critical aspect of EBER 1 and HVP 1 function. Images PMID:8380232

  12. Comparison between different thickness umbrella-shaped expandable radiofrequency electrodes (SuperSlim and CoAccess): Experimental and clinical study

    PubMed Central

    KODA, MASAHIKO; TOKUNAGA, SHIHO; MATONO, TOMOMITSU; SUGIHARA, TAKAAKI; NAGAHARA, TAKAKAZU; MURAWAKI, YOSHIKAZU

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the size and configuration of the ablation zones created by SuperSlim and CoAccess electrodes, using various ablation algorithms in ex vivo bovine liver and in clinical cases. In the experimental study, we ablated explanted bovine liver using 2 types of electrodes and 4 ablation algorithms (combinations of incremental power supply, stepwise expansion and additional low-power ablation) and evaluated the ablation area and time. In the clinical study, we compared the ablation volume and the shape of the ablation zone between both electrodes in 23 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases with the best algorithm (incremental power supply, stepwise expansion and additional low-power ablation) as derived from the experimental study. In the experimental study, the ablation area and time by the CoAccess electrode were significantly greater compared to those by the SuperSlim electrode for the single-step (algorithm 1, p=0.0209 and 0.0325, respectively) and stepwise expansion algorithms (algorithm 2, p=0.0002 and <0.0001, respectively; algorithm 3, p= 0.006 and 0.0407, respectively). However, differences were not significant for the additional low-power ablation algorithm. In the clinical study, the ablation volume and time in the CoAccess group were significantly larger and longer, respectively, compared to those in the SuperSlim group (p=0.0242 and 0.009, respectively). Round ablation zones were acquired in 91.7% of the CoAccess group, while irregular ablation zones were obtained in 45.5% of the SuperSlim group (p=0.0428). In conclusion, the CoAccess electrode achieves larger and more uniform ablation zones compared with the SuperSlim electrode, though it requires longer ablation times in experimental and clinical studies. PMID:22977647

  13. The Construction of EAP Textbooks in Chinese Context from the Perspective of Eco-Education Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dali, Ning

    2017-01-01

    The increase of international exchange in education triggers strong demand for learning English language skills in various academic disciplines among Chinese students, which brings up a wide implementation of EAP (English for academic purposes) learning in universities in China. However, the teaching and learning result do not seem to be as…

  14. The Margins as "Third Space": EAP Teacher Professionalism in Canadian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Teachers of English for Academic Purposes (EAP) in the Canadian university setting often experience professional marginalization in terms of lack of status, clarity of mandate, or administrative home within their institutions. Despite having broadly benefited the ESL/EAL sector in Canada, traditional trait-focused professionalization efforts have…

  15. Impaired Job Performance and Critical Incidents: Factors Influencing Supervisory EAP Referrals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, David A.

    Relatively little empirical research has been done on the supervisory referral of employees to employee assistance programs (EAPs). Inclusion of constructive confrontation (supervisory referral) into program standards and its continued promotion as a "central strategy" of program theory and operation calls for critical investigation of…

  16. Extracting quantitative measures from EAP: a small clinical study using BFOR.

    PubMed

    Hosseinbor, A Pasha; Chung, Moo K; Wu, Yu-Chien; Fleming, John O; Field, Aaron S; Alexander, Andrew L

    2012-01-01

    The ensemble average propagator (EAP) describes the 3D average diffusion process of water molecules, capturing both its radial and angular contents, and hence providing rich information about complex tissue microstructure properties. Bessel Fourier orientation reconstruction (BFOR) is one of several analytical, non-Cartesian EAP reconstruction schemes employing multiple shell acquisitions that have recently been proposed. Such modeling bases have not yet been fully exploited in the extraction of rotationally invariant q-space indices that describe the degree of diffusion anisotropy/restrictivity. Such quantitative measures include the zero-displacement probability (P(o)), mean squared displacement (MSD), q-space inverse variance (QIV), and generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA), and all are simply scalar features of the EAP. In this study, a general relationship between MSD and q-space diffusion signal is derived and an EAP-based definition of GFA is introduced. A significant part of the paper is dedicated to utilizing BFOR in a clinical dataset, comprised of 5 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and 4 healthy controls, to estimate P(o), MSD, QIV, and GFA of corpus callosum, and specifically, to see if such indices can detect changes between normal appearing white matter (NAWM) and healthy white matter (WM). Although the sample size is small, this study is a proof of concept that can be extended to larger sample sizes in the future.

  17. A Study of Culturally Responsive Teaching Practices of Adult ESOL and EAP Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Christy M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how frequently adult education English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) and English for Academic Purposes (EAP) teachers in Florida used specific culturally responsive teaching practices and how important they believed those practices were to their teaching. Using Ginsberg and Wlodkowski's…

  18. A New Outlook on EAP Literacies: General and Specific English Territories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zohrabi, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    In designing an EAP (English for Academic Purposes) course it is necessary that we consider several factors: students' objectives, needs, levels and interests, course and institution's goals, and availability of resources. In this paper it is strived to elucidate the differences between EGP (English for General purposes) and ESP (English for…

  19. Reading and Writing as Academic Literacy in EAP Program of Indonesian Leaners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solikhah, Imroatus

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates academic literacy imposed in reading and writing for academic purposes in the EAP program. This study uses descriptive design elaborating data from curriculum documents and interviews. Involving 45 participants from IAIN Surakarta and Veteran University, data were analyzed using constant-comparison and inductive analysis…

  20. The Pronunciation Component in Teaching EAP in Cameroonian Universities: Some Proposals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safotso, Gilbert Tagne

    2016-01-01

    In Cameroonian universities, EAP is generally seen as a marginalised unit, and its teaching is abandoned to part-time secondary school teachers, or doctorate students who have little or no knowledge of the subject. Most of the time, these teachers do not know the real objective of the subject, and do not master it. In some universities, each…

  1. Changing International Student and Business Staff Perceptions of In-Sessional EAP: Using the CEM Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Diane; Porter, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses the question of whether the existing approach to EAP delivery implemented at the University of Northumbria is supporting the learning needs of the international student body. In addressing this the article documents the background, research and preliminary findings relating to provision of an in-sessional English for…

  2. Interaction between the Staphylococcus aureus extracellular adherence protein Eap and its subdomains with platelets.

    PubMed

    Palankar, Raghavendra; Binsker, Ulrike; Haracska, Bianca; Wesche, Jan; Greinacher, Andreas; Hammerschmidt, Sven

    2018-04-18

    S. aureus associated bacteremia can lead to severe infections with high risk of mortality (e.g. sepsis, infective endocarditis). Many virulence factors and adhesins of S. aureus are known to directly interact with platelets. Extracellular adherence protein, Eap, one of the most important virulence factors in S. aureus mediated infections is a multi-tandem domain protein and has been shown to interact with almost all cell types in the human circulatory system. By using amine reactive fluorescent N-hydroxysuccinimidyl (NHS)-ester dyes and by direct detection with primary fluorescently conjugated anti-histidine (His-tag) antibodies against detect N-terminal His6, we show Eap subdomain Eap D 3 D 4 specifically interacts and rapidly activates human platelets. Furthermore, we validate our finding by using site directed directional immobilization of Eap D 3 D 4 through N-terminal His 6 on nickel (II)-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) functionalized bacteriomimetic microbead arrays to visualize real-time platelet activation through calcium release assay. These methods offer an easily adoptable protocols for screening of S.aureus derived virulence factors and adhesins with platelets. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Vocabulary Learning Strategies Used by EAP Learners: The Case of the Students of Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haghi, Eshrat Bazarmaj; Pasand, Parastou Gholami

    2013-01-01

    The significance of using language learning strategies in general and vocabulary learning strategies in particular is quite clear to both language learners and language specialists. Being familiar with and making use of a range of different vocabulary learning strategies is a great aid for EAP learners in dealing with unknown words. The present…

  4. Understanding Test-Takers' Perceptions of Difficulty in EAP Vocabulary Tests: The Role of Experiential Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oruç Ertürk, Nesrin; Mumford, Simon E.

    2017-01-01

    This study, conducted by two researchers who were also multiple-choice question (MCQ) test item writers at a private English-medium university in an English as a foreign language (EFL) context, was designed to shed light on the factors that influence test-takers' perceptions of difficulty in English for academic purposes (EAP) vocabulary, with the…

  5. Effects of EAP follow-up on prevention of relapse among substance abuse clients.

    PubMed

    Foote, A; Erfurt, J C

    1991-05-01

    Clients entering an employee assistance program (EAP) of a large manufacturing plant in 1985 who were assessed as having an alcohol or drug abuse problem (N = 325) were randomized into an experimental "special follow-up" group and a control "regular care" group. The regular care group received follow-up only as needed (following the usual practice of the EAP), while a follow-up counselor was hired to make routine contacts with the special follow-up group. Study intake continued through 1985, and follow-up continued through the end of 1986. Data collected on study subjects included EAP participation data, absenteeism, number of hospitalizations, health care claims paid and disability claims paid. The major study hypothesis was that EAP clients randomly allocated to special follow-up would show better results than regular care clients (i.e., would have fewer relapses, better job attendance and lower health benefit utilization during the follow-up year). The follow-up intervention was incompletely implemented due to a variety of organizational problems. Differences between the two groups on the six outcome measures were not statistically significant, although clients in the special follow-up group did show better results than clients in the regular care group on the three measures related to substance abuse. Differences on these three measures were marginally significant in regression analyses after controlling for the effects of number of follow-up visits, age, race and chronicity.

  6. Multimodal Genre Systems in EAP Writing Pedagogy: Reflecting on a Needs Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molle, Daniella; Prior, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a genre-based needs analysis for a graduate course in English for academic purposes (EAP) at a large public U.S. university. In particular, it describes the theoretical reconceptualizations of genre analysis that the data provoked. Using ethnographic methods, an investigation of academic genres in several classrooms in…

  7. The Multimodalities of Globalization: Teaching a YouTube Video in an EAP Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chun, Christian W.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which a multimodal text--a YouTube video on globalization and business--was mediated in two English for Academic Purposes (EAP) classrooms, and how these mediations shaped the instructor's and her students' meaning-making in specific ways. I first explore the complex multimodal discourses involved with this…

  8. Designing and Evaluating an EAP Reading Textbook: English for Political Science and Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauzier-Uchida, Emi

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to report an attempt to design and organise a content-based EAP reading course in political science and economics at a university in Japan, and to shed some light on learners' actual practices and preferences through the use of survey- and interview-based research participated in by 438 students. A principal axis of this project…

  9. Reflections on the GUN CONTROL Simulation: Pedagogical Implications for EAP Writing Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salies, Tania Gastao

    2007-01-01

    This article critically reflects on the GUN CONTROL simulation (Salies, 1994a) by retaking ideas advanced by Salies (2002) and applying them to the context of English for Academic Purposes (EAP) writing classes in Brazil. It examines how controlled practice relates to learners' performance on the first draft in a simulation-based content unit…

  10. Simulation/Gaming in the EAP Writing Class: Benefits and Drawbacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salies, Tania Gastao

    2002-01-01

    Describes an integrated use of simulation/gaming in an English for Academic Purposes (EAP) class, analyzes benefits and drawbacks, and suggest how the technique could apply to other specific contexts. Explains how international students ran a simulation on gun control; discusses the debriefing process; and considers motivation, metacognitive…

  11. Investigating the Application of Needs Analysis on EAP Business Administration Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Saifalislam Abdalla Hajahmed

    2016-01-01

    This study is conducted to investigate the application of needs analysis in developing EAP materials for business administration students in two Sudanese universities. The subjects are 2 head departments of English language. To collect data, the researcher uses interview and content analysis. The study adopts the descriptive approach. The data of…

  12. Improving Students' Report Writing Quality in an EAP Context: Group versus Individual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Holi Ibrahim Holi

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks into report writing quality on both individual and group bases in an EAP context. A total of 100 EFL students at post foundation level in a University College in Oman, and 15 EFL teachers were selected randomly. Questionnaires were administered to investigate their perceptions and experiences with report writing quality on…

  13. Relationship between University Level and Employment of Language-Learning Strategies: A Study of EAP Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghafournia, Narjes

    2014-01-01

    This study scrutinized the relationship between utilizing language-learning strategies and university levels in reading-comprehension process of language learners in Iran. The participants comprised 406 EAP students at three university levels. The findings reflected significant differences among the students in implementing learning strategies.…

  14. Evaluating a Human Rights-Based Advocacy Approach to Expanding Access to Pain Medicines and Palliative Care: Global Advocacy and Case Studies from India, Kenya, and Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Lohman, Diederik; Amon, Joseph J

    2015-12-10

    Palliative care has been defined as care that is person-centered and attentive to physical symptoms and psychological, social, and existential distress in patients with severe or life-threatening illness. The identification of access to palliative care and pain treatment as a human rights issue first emerged among palliative care advocates, physicians, and lawyers in the 1990s, with a basis in the right to health and the right to be free from cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment. Using a case study approach, we evaluate the results of a human rights-based advocacy approach on access to pain medicine and palliative care in India, Kenya, and Ukraine. In each country, human rights advocacy helped raise awareness of the issue, identify structural barriers to care, define government obligations, and contribute to the reform of laws, policies, and practices impeding the availability of palliative care services. In addition, advocacy efforts stimulated civil society engagement and high-level political leadership that fostered the implementation of human rights-based palliative care programs. Globally, access to palliative care was increasingly recognized by human rights bodies and within global health and drug policy organizations as a government obligation central to the right to health. Copyright © 2015 Lohman, Amon. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  15. Elements of the patient-centered medical home associated with health outcomes among veterans: the role of primary care continuity, expanded access, and care coordination.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Karin; Sun, Haili; Dolan, Emily; Maynard, Charles; Beste, Laruen; Bryson, Christopher; Schectman, Gordon; Fihn, Stephan D

    2014-01-01

    Care continuity, access, and coordination are important features of the patient-centered medical home model and have been emphasized in the Veterans Health Administration patient-centered medical home implementation, called the Patient Aligned Care Team. Data from more than 4.3 million Veterans were used to assess the relationship between these attributes of Patient Aligned Care Team and Veterans Health Administration hospitalization and mortality. Controlling for demographics and comorbidity, we found that continuity with a primary care provider was associated with a lower likelihood of hospitalization and mortality among a large population of Veterans receiving VA primary care.

  16. Shifting the burden or expanding access to care? Assessing malaria trends following scale-up of community health worker malaria case management and reactive case detection.

    PubMed

    Larsen, David A; Winters, Anna; Cheelo, Sanford; Hamainza, Busiku; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Miller, John M; Bridges, Daniel J

    2017-11-02

    Malaria is a significant burden to health systems and is responsible for a large proportion of outpatient cases at health facilities in endemic regions. The scale-up of community management of malaria and reactive case detection likely affect both malaria cases and outpatient attendance at health facilities. Using health management information data from 2012 to 2013 this article examines health trends before and after the training of volunteer community health workers to test and treat malaria cases in Southern Province, Zambia. An estimated 50% increase in monthly reported malaria infections was found when community health workers were involved with malaria testing and treating in the community (incidence rate ratio 1.52, p < 0.001). Furthermore, an estimated 6% decrease in outpatient attendance at the health facility was found when community health workers were involved with malaria testing and treating in the community. These results suggest a large public health benefit to both community case management of malaria and reactive case detection. First, the capacity of the malaria surveillance system to identify malaria infections was increased by nearly one-third. Second, the outpatient attendance at health facilities was modestly decreased. Expanding the capacity of the malaria surveillance programme through systems such as community case management and reactive case detection is an important step toward malaria elimination.

  17. Expanded Dengue.

    PubMed

    Kadam, D B; Salvi, Sonali; Chandanwale, Ajay

    2016-07-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has coined the term expanded dengue to describe cases which do not fall into either dengue shock syndrome or dengue hemorrhagic fever. This has incorporated several atypical findings of dengue. Dengue virus has not been enlisted as a common etiological agent in several conditions like encephalitis, Guillain Barre syndrome. Moreover it is a great mimic of co-existing epidemics like Malaria, Chikungunya and Zika virus disease, which are also mosquito-borne diseases. The atypical manifestations noted in dengue can be mutisystemic and multifacetal. In clinical practice, the occurrence of atypical presentation should prompt us to investigate for dengue. Knowledge of expanded dengue helps to clinch the diagnosis of dengue early, especially during ongoing epidemics, avoiding further battery of investigations. Dengue has proved to be the epidemic with the ability to recur and has a diverse array of presentation as seen in large series from India, Srilanka, Indonesia and Taiwan. WHO has given the case definition of dengue fever in their comprehensive guidelines. Accordingly, a probable case is defined as acute febrile illness with two or more of any findings viz. headache, retro-orbital pain, myalgia, arthralgia, rash, hemorrhagic manifestations, leucopenia and supportive serology. There have been cases of patients admitted with fever, altered mentation with or without neck stiffness and pyramidal tract signs. Some had seizures or status epilepticus as presentation. When they were tested for serology, dengue was positive. After ruling out other causes, dengue remained the only culprit. We have come across varied presentations of dengue fever in clinical practice and the present article throws light on atypical manifestations of dengue. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  18. The anchorless adhesin Eap (extracellular adherence protein) from Staphylococcus aureus selectively recognizes extracellular matrix aggregates but binds promiscuously to monomeric matrix macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Uwe; Hussain, Muzaffar; Villone, Daniela; Herrmann, Mathias; Robenek, Horst; Peters, Georg; Sinha, Bhanu; Bruckner, Peter

    2006-05-01

    Besides a number of cell wall-anchored adhesins, the majority of Staphylococcus aureus strains produce anchorless, cell wall-associated proteins, such as Eap (extracellular adherence protein). Eap contains four to six tandem repeat (EAP)-domains. Eap mediates diverse biological functions, including adherence and immunomodulation, thus contributing to S. aureus pathogenesis. Eap binding to host macromolecules is unusually promiscuous and includes matrix or matricellular proteins as well as plasma proteins. The structural basis of this promiscuity is poorly understood. Here, we show that in spite of the preferential location of the binding epitopes within triple helical regions in some collagens there is a striking specificity of Eap binding to different collagen types. Collagen I, but not collagen II, is a binding substrate in monomolecular form. However, collagen I is virtually unrecognized by Eap when incorporated into banded fibrils. By contrast, microfibrils containing collagen VI as well as basement membrane-associated networks containing collagen IV, or aggregates containing fibronectin bound Eap as effectively as the monomeric proteins. Therefore, Eap-binding to extracellular matrix ligands is promiscuous at the molecular level but not indiscriminate with respect to supramolecular structures containing the same macromolecules. In addition, Eap bound to banded fibrils after their partial disintegration by matrix-degrading proteinases, including matrix metalloproteinase 1. Therefore, adherence to matrix suprastructures by S. aureus can be supported by inflammatory reactions.

  19. Enabling Web-Based GIS Tools for Internet and Mobile Devices To Improve and Expand NASA Data Accessibility and Analysis Functionality for the Renewable Energy and Agricultural Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, A.; Stackhouse, P. W.; Tisdale, B.; Tisdale, M.; Chandler, W.; Hoell, J. M., Jr.; Kusterer, J.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center Science Directorate and Atmospheric Science Data Center have initiated a pilot program to utilize Geographic Information System (GIS) tools that enable, generate and store climatological averages using spatial queries and calculations in a spatial database resulting in greater accessibility of data for government agencies, industry and private sector individuals. The major objectives of this effort include the 1) Processing and reformulation of current data to be consistent with ESRI and openGIS tools, 2) Develop functions to improve capability and analysis that produce "on-the-fly" data products, extending these past the single location to regional and global scales. 3) Update the current web sites to enable both web-based and mobile application displays for optimization on mobile platforms, 4) Interact with user communities in government and industry to test formats and usage of optimization, and 5) develop a series of metrics that allow for monitoring of progressive performance. Significant project results will include the the development of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) compliant web services (WMS, WCS, WFS, WPS) that serve renewable energy and agricultural application products to users using GIS software and tools. Each data product and OGC service will be registered within ECHO, the Common Metadata Repository, the Geospatial Platform, and Data.gov to ensure the data are easily discoverable and provide data users with enhanced access to SSE data, parameters, services, and applications. This effort supports cross agency, cross organization, and interoperability of SSE data products and services by collaborating with DOI, NRCan, NREL, NCAR, and HOMER for requirements vetting and test bed users before making available to the wider public.

  20. Expanding Access to Non-Medicalized Community-Based Rapid Testing to Men Who Have Sex with Men: An Urgent HIV Prevention Intervention (The ANRS-DRAG Study)

    PubMed Central

    Lorente, Nicolas; Preau, Marie; Vernay-Vaisse, Chantal; Mora, Marion; Blanche, Jerome; Otis, Joanne; Passeron, Alain; Le Gall, Jean-Marie; Dhotte, Philippe; Carrieri, Maria Patrizia; Suzan-Monti, Marie; Spire, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the public health benefits of community-based, non-medicalized rapid HIV testing offers (CBOffer) specifically targeting men who have sex with men (MSM), compared with the standard medicalized HIV testing offer (SMOffer) in France. This study aimed to verify whether such a CBOffer, implemented in voluntary counselling and testing centres, could improve access to less recently HIV-tested MSM who present a risk behaviour profile similar to or higher than MSM tested with the SMOffer. Method This multisite study enrolled MSM attending voluntary counselling and testing centres’ during opening hours in the SMOffer. CBOffer enrolees voluntarily came to the centres outside of opening hours, following a communication campaign in gay venues. A self-administered questionnaire was used to investigate HIV testing history and sexual behaviours including inconsistent condom use and risk reduction behaviours (in particular, a score of “intentional avoidance” for various at-risk situations was calculated). A mixed logistic regression identified factors associated with access to the CBOffer. Results Among the 330 participants, 64% attended the CBOffer. Percentages of inconsistent condom use in both offers were similar (51% CBOffer, 50% SMOffer). In multivariate analyses, those attending the CBOffer had only one or no test in the previous two years, had a lower intentional avoidance score, and met more casual partners in saunas and backrooms than SMOffer enrolees. Conclusion This specific rapid CBOffer attracted MSM less recently HIV-tested, who presented similar inconsistent condom use rates to SMOffer enrolees but who exposed themselves more to HIV-associated risks. Increasing entry points for HIV testing using community and non-medicalized tests is a priority to reach MSM who are still excluded. PMID:23613817

  1. Expanding access to non-medicalized community-based rapid testing to men who have sex with men: an urgent HIV prevention intervention (the ANRS-DRAG study).

    PubMed

    Lorente, Nicolas; Preau, Marie; Vernay-Vaisse, Chantal; Mora, Marion; Blanche, Jerome; Otis, Joanne; Passeron, Alain; Le Gall, Jean-Marie; Dhotte, Philippe; Carrieri, Maria Patrizia; Suzan-Monti, Marie; Spire, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the public health benefits of community-based, non-medicalized rapid HIV testing offers (CBOffer) specifically targeting men who have sex with men (MSM), compared with the standard medicalized HIV testing offer (SMOffer) in France. This study aimed to verify whether such a CBOffer, implemented in voluntary counselling and testing centres, could improve access to less recently HIV-tested MSM who present a risk behaviour profile similar to or higher than MSM tested with the SMOffer. This multisite study enrolled MSM attending voluntary counselling and testing centres' during opening hours in the SMOffer. CBOffer enrolees voluntarily came to the centres outside of opening hours, following a communication campaign in gay venues. A self-administered questionnaire was used to investigate HIV testing history and sexual behaviours including inconsistent condom use and risk reduction behaviours (in particular, a score of "intentional avoidance" for various at-risk situations was calculated). A mixed logistic regression identified factors associated with access to the CBOffer. Among the 330 participants, 64% attended the CBOffer. Percentages of inconsistent condom use in both offers were similar (51% CBOffer, 50% SMOffer). In multivariate analyses, those attending the CBOffer had only one or no test in the previous two years, had a lower intentional avoidance score, and met more casual partners in saunas and backrooms than SMOffer enrolees. This specific rapid CBOffer attracted MSM less recently HIV-tested, who presented similar inconsistent condom use rates to SMOffer enrolees but who exposed themselves more to HIV-associated risks. Increasing entry points for HIV testing using community and non-medicalized tests is a priority to reach MSM who are still excluded.

  2. Expanding Access to a New, More Affordable Levonorgestrel Intrauterine System in Kenya: Service Delivery Costs Compared With Other Contraceptive Methods and Perspectives of Key Opinion Leaders.

    PubMed

    Rademacher, Kate H; Solomon, Marsden; Brett, Tracey; Bratt, John H; Pascual, Claire; Njunguru, Jesse; Steiner, Markus J

    2016-08-11

    . Introducing a new, more affordable LNG IUS product could help expand choice for women in Kenya and increase use of long-acting reversible contraception. Further evaluation is needed to identify the full costs required for introduction-including the cost of demand creation-as well as research among potential and actual LNG IUS users, their partners, and health care providers to help inform scale-up of the method. © Rademacher et al.

  3. Expanding Access to a New, More Affordable Levonorgestrel Intrauterine System in Kenya: Service Delivery Costs Compared With Other Contraceptive Methods and Perspectives of Key Opinion Leaders

    PubMed Central

    Rademacher, Kate H; Solomon, Marsden; Brett, Tracey; Bratt, John H; Pascual, Claire; Njunguru, Jesse; Steiner, Markus J

    2016-01-01

    and provider training should be prioritized. Conclusion: Introducing a new, more affordable LNG IUS product could help expand choice for women in Kenya and increase use of long-acting reversible contraception. Further evaluation is needed to identify the full costs required for introduction—including the cost of demand creation—as well as research among potential and actual LNG IUS users, their partners, and health care providers to help inform scale-up of the method. PMID:27540128

  4. Anisotropic D-EAP Electrodes and their Application in Spring Roll Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xiaomeng

    Electroactive polymers (EAPs) exhibit shape change when subjected to an electric field. They are lightweight, soft, and inexpensive, while they are easy to process, shape, and tune to offer a broad range of mechanical and electrical properties. Dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAP) constitute a class of EAPs with great potential. D-EAPs consist of physically or chemically cross-linked macromolecular networks and are mechanically isotopic. Therefore, in most actuator applications that require directional electromechanical response, it is necessary to use other complex means to direct the stress/strain in the preferred direction. In this work, a simple carbon nanotube (CNT) based electrode for D-EAP actuators is demonstrated that vastly improves directional strain response originating from the mechanical anisotropy of the electrode material. Using this novel approach, the mechanical anisotropy, defined as the ratio of initial modulus in fiber direction and that in cross-fiber direction, of the CNT electroded VHB actuators, ranges from 7.9 to 11.2. Hence, the CNT-VHB flat film actuators show high directed linear actuation strain in cross-fiber direction of greater than 25% meanwhile almost no strain in fiber direction at a relatively low electric field (120 V mum-1). The morphology of the CNT sheets has critical influence on their mechanical properties and resultant actuator performance. The results demonstrate the efficacy of microcombing and selective laser etching processes to improve the CNT fiber alignment to produce pure unidirectional strain of 33% at a relatively moderate electric field. Unidirectional D-EAP composite laminates using polyurethane and polyamide monofilaments are also employed in spring roll actuators to investigate their directional mechanical and electromechanical properties. While CNT electroded D-EAP spring roll actuators were found to have about the same performance as actuators with carbon grease electrodes (6.5% strain in CNT

  5. Urate levels predict survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Analysis of the expanded Pooled Resource Open-Access ALS clinical trials database.

    PubMed

    Paganoni, Sabrina; Nicholson, Katharine; Chan, James; Shui, Amy; Schoenfeld, David; Sherman, Alexander; Berry, James; Cudkowicz, Merit; Atassi, Nazem

    2018-03-01

    Urate has been identified as a predictor of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) survival in some but not all studies. Here we leverage the recent expansion of the Pooled Resource Open-Access ALS Clinical Trials (PRO-ACT) database to study the association between urate levels and ALS survival. Pooled data of 1,736 ALS participants from the PRO-ACT database were analyzed. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate associations between urate levels at trial entry and survival. After adjustment for potential confounders (i.e., creatinine and body mass index), there was an 11% reduction in risk of reaching a survival endpoint during the study with each 1-mg/dL increase in uric acid levels (adjusted hazard ratio 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.82-0.97, P < 0.01). Our pooled analysis provides further support for urate as a prognostic factor for survival in ALS and confirms the utility of the PRO-ACT database as a powerful resource for ALS epidemiological research. Muscle Nerve 57: 430-434, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The structure of EAP-groups and self-autopermutable subgroups.

    PubMed

    Housieni, Shima; Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza Rajabzadeh

    2014-01-01

    A subgroup H of a given group G is said to be autopermutable, if HH(α) = H(α)H for all α ∈ Aut(G). We also call H a self-autopermutable subgroup of G, when HH(α) = H(α)H implies that H(α) = H. Moreover, G is said to be EAP-group, if every subgroup of G is autopermutable. One notes that if α runs over the inner automorphisms of the group, one obtains the notions of conjugate-permutability, self-conjugate-permutability, and ECP-groups, which were studied by Foguel in 1997, Li and Meng in 2007, and Xu and Zhang in 2005, respectively. In the present paper, we determine the structure of a finite EAP-group when its centre is of index 4 in G. We also show that self-autopermutability and characteristic properties are equivalent for nilpotent groups.

  7. Strain-specific induction of experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) in mice.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Christopher M; Flies, Dallas B; Mosse, Claudio A; Parwani, Anil; Hipkiss, Edward L; Drake, Charles G

    2013-05-01

    Prostatitis, a clinical syndrome characterized by pelvic pain and inflammation, is common in adult males. Although several induced and spontaneous murine models of prostatitis have been explored, the role of genetic background on induction has not been well-defined. Using a standard methodology for the induction of experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP), we investigated both acute and chronic inflammation on several murine genetic backgrounds. In our colony, nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice evinced spontaneous prostatitis that was not augmented by immunization with rat prostate extract (RPE). In contrast, the standard laboratory strain Balb/c developed chronic inflammation in response to RPE immunization. Development of EAP in other strains was variable. These data suggest that Balb/c mice injected with RPE may provide a useful model for chronic prostatic inflammation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The possible physical mechanism for the EAP-SR co-action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Zhiqiang; Feng, Guolin; Dogar, Muhammad Mubashar; Huang, Gang

    2017-11-01

    The anomalous characteristics of summer precipitation and atmospheric circulation in the East Asia-West Pacific Region (EA-WP) associated with the co-action of East Asia/Pacific teleconnection-Silk Road teleconnection (EAP-SR) are investigated in this study. The compositions of EAP-SR phase anomalies can be expressed as pattern I (+ +), pattern II (+ -), pattern III (- -), and pattern IV (- +) using EAP and SR indices. It is found that the spatial distribution of summer precipitation anomalies in EA-WP corresponding to pattern I (III) shows a tripole structure in the meridional direction and a zonal dipole structure in the subtropical region, while pattern II (IV) presents a tripole pattern in meridional direction with compressed and continuous anomalies in the zonal direction over the subtropical region. The similar meridional and zonal structures are also found in the geopotential height anomalies at 500-hPa, as well as wind anomalies and moisture convergence at 850-hPa. Finally, a schematic mechanism for the EAP-SR co-action upon the summer precipitation in EA-WP is built: (1) Pattern I (III) exhibits that the negative (positive) sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies over tropical East Pacific may cause the enhanced (weakened) convective activity dominating the West Pacific, trigger the positive (negative) EAP teleconnection and produce more (less) precipitation. Besides, the negative (positive) SST anomalies over the Indonesia Maritime Continent (IMC) may further weaken (strengthen) anomalous downward (upward) motion over the South China Sea (SCS), cause negative (positive) geopotential height anomalies at the middle troposphere and surrounding regions through the function of the tropical Hadley circulation. Then the negative (positive) geopotential height anomalies could motivate the positive (negative) EAP teleconnection through the northward propagation of wave-activity perturbation. Meanwhile, a positive (negative) geopotential height anomalous pattern

  9. Strain-Specific Induction of Experimental Autoimmune Prostatitis (EAP) in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Christopher M.; Flies, Dallas B.; Mosse, Claudio A.; Parwani, Anil; Hipkiss, Edward L.; Drake, Charles G.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Prostatitis, a clinical syndrome characterized by pelvic pain and inflammation, is common in adult males. Although several induced and spontaneous murine models of prostatitis have been explored, the role of genetic background on induction has not been well-defined. METHODS Using a standard methodology for the induction of experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP), we investigated both acute and chronic inflammation on several murine genetic backgrounds. RESULTS In our colony, nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice evinced spontaneous prostatitis that was not augmented by immunization with rat prostate extract (RPE). In contrast, the standard laboratory strain Balb/c developed chronic inflammation in response to RPE immunization. Development of EAP in other strains was variable. CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that Balb/c mice injected with RPE may provide a useful model for chronic prostatic inflammation. PMID:23129407

  10. Bessel Fourier orientation reconstruction: an analytical EAP reconstruction using multiple shell acquisitions in diffusion MRI.

    PubMed

    Hosseinbor, Ameer Pasha; Chung, Moo K; Wu, Yu-Chien; Alexander, Andrew L

    2011-01-01

    The estimation of the ensemble average propagator (EAP) directly from q-space DWI signals is an open problem in diffusion MRI. Diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) is one common technique to compute the EAP directly from the diffusion signal, but it is burdened by the large sampling required. Recently, several analytical EAP reconstruction schemes for multiple q-shell acquisitions have been proposed. One, in particular, is Diffusion Propagator Imaging (DPI) which is based on the Laplace's equation estimation of diffusion signal for each shell acquisition. Viewed intuitively in terms of the heat equation, the DPI solution is obtained when the heat distribution between temperatuere measurements at each shell is at steady state. We propose a generalized extension of DPI, Bessel Fourier Orientation Reconstruction (BFOR), whose solution is based on heat equation estimation of the diffusion signal for each shell acquisition. That is, the heat distribution between shell measurements is no longer at steady state. In addition to being analytical, the BFOR solution also includes an intrinsic exponential smootheing term. We illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method by showing results on both synthetic and real MR datasets.

  11. The Competitive Edge: Expanded Access Drives Vendors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepin, Theresa; And Others

    1997-01-01

    This report analyzes data gathered from 29 automated library system vendors who responded to a 1996 survey. The survey also requested their perceptions of Java (an object-oriented programming language) and network computers, and issues and trends to be considered by library administrators. Contact information about the vendors is provided. (Four…

  12. Expanding Primary Care Access and Workforce Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Sanders, Bernard [I-VT

    2014-04-09

    Senate - 04/09/2014 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. The challenges that employees who abuse substances experience when returning to work after completion of employee assistance programme (EAP).

    PubMed

    Soeker, Shaheed; Matimba, Tandokazi; Machingura, Last; Msimango, Henry; Moswaane, Bobo; Tom, Sinazo

    2015-01-01

    Employee assistance programs (EAPs) are responsible for helping employees cope with problems such as: mental distress, alcoholism and other drug dependencies, marital and financial difficulties--in short, the whole host of personal and family troubles endemic to the human condition. The study explored the challenges that employees who abuse substances experience when returning to work after the completion of an employee assistance program. The study used a qualitative exploratory descriptive research design. Three male participants and two key informants participated in the study. One semi structured interview was conducted with each one of the participants and one semi structured interview with the key informants. Four themes emerged: 1) Loss of one's worker role identity, 2) Negative influences of the community continues to effect the success of EAP, 3) EAP as a vehicle for change and, 4) Healthy occupations strengthen EAP. This study portrayed the following: how substance abuse effect the worker role of individuals employed in the open labor market, the challenges and facilitators experienced by employees who abuse substances when returning to their previous work roles and how occupation based interventions can be incorporated in EAP programs. Occupational therapists could use the health promotion approach, work simplification, energy conservation techniques and ergonomic analysis techniques.

  14. Constraining the parameters of the EAP sea ice rheology from satellite observations and discrete element model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsamados, Michel; Heorton, Harry; Feltham, Daniel; Muir, Alan; Baker, Steven

    2016-04-01

    The new elastic-plastic anisotropic (EAP) rheology that explicitly accounts for the sub-continuum anisotropy of the sea ice cover has been implemented into the latest version of the Los Alamos sea ice model CICE. The EAP rheology is widely used in the climate modeling scientific community (i.e. CPOM stand alone, RASM high resolution regional ice-ocean model, MetOffice fully coupled model). Early results from sensitivity studies (Tsamados et al, 2013) have shown the potential for an improved representation of the observed main sea ice characteristics with a substantial change of the spatial distribution of ice thickness and ice drift relative to model runs with the reference visco-plastic (VP) rheology. The model contains one new prognostic variable, the local structure tensor, which quantifies the degree of anisotropy of the sea ice, and two parameters that set the time scale of the evolution of this tensor. Observations from high resolution satellite SAR imagery as well as numerical simulation results from a discrete element model (DEM, see Wilchinsky, 2010) have shown that these individual floes can organize under external wind and thermal forcing to form an emergent isotropic sea ice state (via thermodynamic healing, thermal cracking) or an anisotropic sea ice state (via Coulombic failure lines due to shear rupture). In this work we use for the first time in the context of sea ice research a mathematical metric, the Tensorial Minkowski functionals (Schroeder-Turk, 2010), to measure quantitatively the degree of anisotropy and alignment of the sea ice at different scales. We apply the methodology on the GlobICE Envisat satellite deformation product (www.globice.info), on a prototype modified version of GlobICE applied on Sentinel-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery and on the DEM ice floe aggregates. By comparing these independent measurements of the sea ice anisotropy as well as its temporal evolution against the EAP model we are able to constrain the

  15. We strongly support childhood immunisation-statement from the European Academy of Paediatrics (EAP).

    PubMed

    Dornbusch, Hans Juergen; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Del Torso, Stefano; Mercier, Jean-Christophe; Wyder, Corinne; Schrier, Lenneke; Ross-Russell, Robert; Stiris, Tom; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2017-05-01

    The eradication of smallpox and the elimination of several other infectious diseases from much of the world has provided convincing evidence that vaccines are among the most effective interventions for promoting health. The current scepticism about immunisation among members of the new US administration carries a risk of decreasing immunisation rates also in Europe. While only a small minority of the population are strongly anti-vaccine, their public activities have significantly influenced an uncertainty among the general population about both the safety of and the necessity for vaccination. Therefore, the EAP calls for greater publically available, scientifically supported information on vaccination, particularly targeted at health care providers, for the further development of electronically based immunisation information systems (IIS). We further call on all European countries to work together both in legislative and public health arenas in order to increase vaccination coverage among the paediatric population. In the interest of children and their parents, the EAP expresses its strong support for childhood immunisation and recommended vaccination schedules. We are prepared to work with governments and media and share the extensive evidence demonstrating the effectiveness and safety of vaccines.

  16. Parametric dictionary learning for modeling EAP and ODF in diffusion MRI.

    PubMed

    Merlet, Sylvain; Caruyer, Emmanuel; Deriche, Rachid

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we propose an original and efficient approach to exploit the ability of Compressed Sensing (CS) to recover diffusion MRI (dMRI) signals from a limited number of samples while efficiently recovering important diffusion features such as the ensemble average propagator (EAP) and the orientation distribution function (ODF). Some attempts to sparsely represent the diffusion signal have already been performed. However and contrarly to what has been presented in CS dMRI, in this work we propose and advocate the use of a well adapted learned dictionary and show that it leads to a sparser signal estimation as well as to an efficient reconstruction of very important diffusion features. We first propose to learn and design a sparse and parametric dictionary from a set of training diffusion data. Then, we propose a framework to analytically estimate in closed form two important diffusion features: the EAP and the ODF. Various experiments on synthetic, phantom and human brain data have been carried out and promising results with reduced number of atoms have been obtained on diffusion signal reconstruction, thus illustrating the added value of our method over state-of-the-art SHORE and SPF based approaches.

  17. Arrays of EAP micro-actuators for single-cell stretching applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, S.; Niklaus, M.; Shea, H.

    2010-04-01

    Mechanical stimuli are critical for the development and maintenance of most tissues such as muscles, cartilage, bones and blood vessels. The commercially available cell culture systems replicating the in vivo environment are typically based on simple membrane cell-stretching equipment, which can only measure the average response of large colonies of cells over areas of greater than one cm2. We present here the conceptual design and the complete fabrication process of an array of 128 Electro-Active Polymer (EAP) micro-actuators which are uni-axially stretched and hence used to impose unidirectional strain on single cells, make it feasible to do experiments on the cytomechanics of individual cells. The Finite Element Method is employed to study the effect of different design parameters on achievable strain, leading to the optimized design. Compliant gold electrodes are deposited by low-energy ion implantation on both sides of a PDMS membrane, as this technique allows making electrodes that support large strain with minimal stiffening of the elastomer. The membrane is bonded to a rigid support, leading to an array of 100×100 μm2 EAP actuators.

  18. Moderating Top-Down Policy Impact and Supporting EAP Curricular Renewal: Exploring the Potential of Diagnostic Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Janna D.

    2009-01-01

    A Canadian university required a new admissions policy in order to increase the fairness of procedures for second language (L2) international students, admitted provisionally to the university with mandatory language course requirements. This necessitated reform of the English for Academic Purposes (EAP) curriculum, but there was no agreement…

  19. Processfolio: Uniting Academic Literacies and Critical Emancipatory Action Research for Practitioner-Led Inquiry into EAP Writing Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Jayne

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on the design and implementation of an alternative form of writing assessment in a UK English for Academic Purposes (EAP) pre-sessional course. The assessment, termed processfolio, was a response to research inquiry into how writing assessment in a local context negated student agency and inculcated disempowering models of…

  20. Technology-Enhanced Language Learning (Tell): An Update and a Principled Framework for English for Academic Purposes (EAP) Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chau, Juliana; Lee, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    The range and number of technologies currently available have yielded both opportunities and challenges for language educators. This study aims to review recent technology-enhanced language learning (TeLL) research, and to examine their potential relevance to EAP pedagogy, curricula, assessment and instruction. The results of this study show TeLL…

  1. Designing and Delivering an e-Presessional Course in EAP for the 21st First Century International Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Julie; White, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Summer pre-sessional courses in English for academic purposes (EAP), which prepare growing numbers of international students for degree programmes at UK universities, are facing greater challenges in how to provide the physical space and human resources for their effective and efficient delivery. The affordances of the internet now make other…

  2. Pre and Post Test Evaluations of Students in the Needs-Analysis Based EAP Course at Undergraduate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nafissi, Zohreh; Rezaeipanah, Fariba; Monsefi, Roya

    2017-01-01

    Iran's education system is exam-based and to gain admission to universities at undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate levels, candidates have to sit a competitive examination. For this reason, developing an EAP course which prepares the candidates for these examinations is of crucial importance. The present study attempted to develop an EAP…

  3. A 2-year cohort study on the impact of an Employee Assistance Programme (EAP) on depression and suicidal thoughts in male Japanese workers.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Mutsuhiro; Nishikitani, Mariko; Shima, Satoru; Yano, Eiji

    2007-11-01

    Depression and suicide-related behaviours are important issues for workers, and the number of Japanese companies contracting with the Employee Assistance Programme (EAP) to promote employees' mental health has recently increased. However, no longitudinal studies have reported that the EAP maintains or improves the overall level of depression among employees qualitatively. Thus, we attempted to assess the impact of the EAP on depression and suicide-related behaviours in the workplace. A cohort study was conducted on 283 male Japanese employees aged 22-38 years at a Japanese information-technology company introducing the EAP. Because the privacy policy of the EAP service made it difficult to perform a randomised design in the workplace, 22 men working at an affiliated company without the EAP were used as a reference group. All the subjects completed the 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) and Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) consisting of job demands, control, and social support before the EAP was introduced to establish a baseline and after 2 years. In the EAP group, the total HAM-D scores significantly decreased after the 2-year study period (P=0.0011); the changes in the scores of the five HAM-D items (i.e., suicidal thoughts, agitation, psychomotor retardation, guilt, and depressed mood) were significant. Specifically, 19 (86%) of the 22 workers with a positive response to the suicidal thoughts item (i.e., score >or= 1) at baseline reported that they no longer had suicidal thoughts (i.e., score=0) after the 2 year study period. No significant changes were observed in the reference group. The three JCQ scores were not significantly different between the baseline and after the 2 year study period in both groups. Although further studies are needed, EAPs may be a promising strategy for maintaining the good mental health of workers.

  4. Implementing long-term EAP follow-up with clients and family members to help prevent relapse-With implications for primary prevention.

    PubMed

    Foote, A; Googins, B; Moriarty, M; Sandonato, C; Nadolski, J; Jefferson, C

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports on a study in progress which involves (a) regular post-treatment contact by employee assistance program (EAP) staff with employees who seek help through the EAP, and (b) contact with a family member or other support person designated by the employee. The contacts are designed to provide support for maintenance of therapeutic gains, assistance in adjusting to current life situations, and early identification and prevention of relapse. The study will evaluate the process of initiating these contacts and will examine their effectiveness at reducing relapse. Factors associated with implementing these services in an EAP context are discussed.

  5. Defibrotide for the treatment of hepatic veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome following nontransplant-associated chemotherapy: Final results from a post hoc analysis of data from an expanded-access program.

    PubMed

    Kernan, Nancy A; Richardson, Paul G; Smith, Angela R; Triplett, Brandon M; Antin, Joseph H; Lehmann, Leslie; Messinger, Yoav; Liang, Wei; Hume, Robin; Tappe, William; Soiffer, Robert J; Grupp, Stephan A

    2018-06-06

    Hepatic veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS) is a potentially fatal complication of conditioning for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) but can occur after nontransplant-associated chemotherapy. Following HSCT, VOD/SOS with multi-organ dysfunction (MOD) may be associated with >80% mortality. Defibrotide is approved to treat severe hepatic VOD/SOS post-HSCT in patients aged >1 month in the European Union and hepatic VOD/SOS with renal or pulmonary dysfunction post-HSCT in the United States. Prior to US approval, defibrotide was available to treat VOD/SOS through an expanded-access treatment (T-IND) program. A post hoc analysis of nontransplant-associated VOD/SOS patients treated with defibrotide initiated within 30 days of starting chemotherapy and followed for 70 days is presented. Patients were diagnosed by Baltimore or modified Seattle criteria or biopsy, and received defibrotide 25 mg/kg/day in four divided doses (≥21 days recommended). Of the 1,154 patients in the T-IND, 137 had nontransplant-associated VOD/SOS, 82 of whom developed VOD/SOS within 30 days of starting chemotherapy. Of them, 66 (80.5%) were aged ≤16 years. Across all the 82 patients, Kaplan-Meier estimated day +70 survival was 74.1%, 65.8% in patients with MOD (n = 38), and 81.3% in patients without MOD (n = 44). By age group, Kaplan-Meier estimated day +70 survival was 80.1% in pediatric patients (n = 66) and 50.0% in adults (n = 16). Treatment-related adverse events occurred in 26.8%. In this post hoc analysis of 82 patients initiating defibrotide within 30 days of starting chemotherapy, Kaplan-Meier estimated survival was 74.1% at 70 days after defibrotide initiation. Safety profile was consistent with prior defibrotide studies. © 2018 The Authors. Pediatric Blood & Cancer Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Determinants of access to experimental antiretroviral drugs in an Italian cohort of patients with HIV: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Girardi, Enrico; Scognamiglio, Paola; Angeletti, Claudio; Gori, Andrea; Buonfrate, Dora; Arlotti, Massimo; Mazzarello, Giovanni; Castagna, Antonella; Andreoni, Massimo; d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Antinori, Andrea; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2012-02-15

    Identification of the determinants of access to investigational drugs is important to promote equity and scientific validity in clinical research. We aimed to analyze factors associated with the use of experimental antiretrovirals in Italy. We studied participants in the Italian Cohort of Antiretroviral-Naive Patients (ICoNA). All patients 18 years or older who had started cART (≥ 3 drugs including at least two NRTI) after their enrolment and during 1997-2007 were included in this analysis. We performed a random effect logistic regression analysis to take into account clustering observations within clinical units. The outcome variable was the use of an experimental antiretroviral, defined as an antiretroviral started before commercial availability, in any episode of therapy initiation/change. Use of an experimental antiretroviral obtained through a clinical trial or an expanded access program (EAP) was also analyzed separately. A total of 9,441 episodes of therapy initiation/change were analyzed in 3,752 patients. 392 episodes (360 patients) involved an experimental antiretroviral. In multivariable analysis, factors associated with the overall use of experimental antiretrovirals were: number of experienced drugs (≥ 8 drugs versus "naive": adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.71) or failed antiretrovirals(3-4 drugs and ≥ 5 drugs versus 0-2 drugs: AOR = 1.42 and 2.38 respectively); calendar year (AOR = 0.80 per year) and plasma HIV-RNA copies/ml at therapy change (≥ 4 log versus < 2 log: AOR = 1.55). The probability of taking an experimental antiretroviral through a trial was significantly lower for patients suffering from liver co-morbidity(AOR = 0.65) and for those who experienced 3-4 drugs (vs naive) (AOR = 0.55), while it increased for multi-treated patients(AOR = 2.60). The probability to start an experimental antiretroviral trough an EAP progressively increased with the increasing number of experienced and of failed drugs and also increased for patients with

  7. Integrated Employee Assistance Program/Managed Behavioral Healthcare Benefits: Relationship with Access and Client Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Merrick, Elizabeth S. Levy; Hodgkin, Dominic; Horgan, Constance M.; Hiatt, Deirdre; McCann, Bernard; Azzone, Vanessa; Zolotusky, Galina; Ritter, Grant; Reif, Sharon; McGuire, Thomas G.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined service user characteristics and determinants of access for enrollees in integrated EAP/behavioral health versus standard managed behavioral health care plans. A national managed behavioral health care organization’s claims data from 2004 were used. Integrated plan service users were more likely to be employees rather than dependents, and to be diagnosed with adjustment disorder. Logistic regression analyses found greater likelihood in integrated plans of accessing behavioral health services (OR 1.20, CI 1.17–1.24), and substance abuse services specifically (OR 1.23, CI 1.06–1.43). Results are consistent with the concept that EAP benefits may increase access and address problems earlier. PMID:19690952

  8. What Expands in an Expanding Universe?

    PubMed

    Pacheco, José A De Freitas

    2015-01-01

    In the present investigation, the possible effects of the expansion of the Universe on systems bonded either by gravitational or electromagnetic forces, are reconsidered. It will be shown that the acceleration (positive or negative) of the expanding background, is the determinant factor affecting planetary orbits and atomic sizes. In the presently accepted cosmology (ΛCDM) all bonded systems are expanding at a decreasing rate that tends to be zero as the universe enters in a de Sitter phase. It is worth mentioning that the estimated expansion rates are rather small and they can be neglected for all practical purposes.

  9. Biophysical modelling of phytoplankton communities from first principles using two-layered spheres: Equivalent Algal Populations (EAP) model: erratum.

    PubMed

    Lain, Lisl Robertson; Bernard, Stewart; Matthews, Mark W

    2016-11-28

    We regret that the Rrs spectra shown for the EAP modelled high biomass validation in Fig. 7 [Opt. Express, 22, 16745 (2014)] are incorrect. They are corrected here. The closest match of modelled to measured effective diameter is for a generalised 16 μm dinoflagellate population and not a 12 μm one as previously stated. These corrections do not affect the discussion or the conclusions of the paper.

  10. Various design approaches to achieve electric field-driven segmented folding actuation of electroactive polymer (EAP) sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Saad; Hong, Jonathan; Zhang, Wei; Kopatz, Jessica; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Frecker, Mary

    2018-03-01

    Electroactive polymer (EAPs) based technologies have shown promise in areas such as artificial muscles, aerospace, medical and soft robotics. In this work, we demonstrate ways to harness on-demand segmented folding actuation from pure bending of relaxor-ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE) based films, using various design approaches, such as `stiffener' and `notch' based approaches. The in-plane actuation of the P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE) is converted into bending actuation using unimorph configurations, where one passive substrate layer is attached to the active polymer. First, we experimentally show that placement of thin metal strips as stiffener in between active EAPs and passive substrates leads to segmented actuation as opposed to pure bending actuation; stiffeners made of different materials, such as nickel, copper and aluminum, are studied which reveals that a higher Young's modulus favors more pronounced segmented actuation. Second, notched samples are prepared by mounting passive substrate patches of various materials on top of the passive layers of the unimorph EAP actuators. Effect of notch materials, size of the notches and position of the notches on the folding actuation are studied. The motion of the human finger inspires a finger-like biomimetic actuator, which is realized by assigning multiple notches on the structure; finite element analysis (FEA) is also performed using COMSOL Multiphysics software for the notched finger actuator. Finally, a versatile soft-gripper is developed using the notched approach to demonstrate the capability of a properly designed EAP actuator to hold objects of various sizes and shapes.

  11. Expandable space frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoen, A. H. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Expandable space frames having essentially infinite periodicity limited only by practical considerations, are described. Each expandable space frame comprises a plurality of hinge joint assemblies having arms that extend outwardly in predetermined symmetrically related directions from a central or vertex point. The outer ends of the arms form one part of a hinge point. The outer expandable space frame also comprises a plurality of struts. The outer ends of the struts from the other part of the hinged joint. The struts interconnect the plurality of hinge point in sychronism, the spaceframes can be expanded or collapsed. Three-dimensional as well as two-dimensional spaceframes of this general nature are described.

  12. Prekindergarten: Four Selected States Expanded Access by Relying on Schools and Existing Providers of Early Education and Care to Provide Services. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-04-852

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaul, Marnie S.

    2004-01-01

    For nearly 40 years, the federal government has helped provide early childhood development for children of low-income families through Head Start and other programs. This study examined how Georgia, New Jersey, New York, and Oklahoma expanded their preschool programs for at-risk students to serve more children, focusing on: how programs were…

  13. Bimonthly 24 h infusion of high-dose 5-fluorouracil vs EAP regimen in patients with advanced gastric cancer. A randomized phase II study.

    PubMed

    Popov, I P; Jelić, S B; Krivokapić, Z V; Jezdić, S D; Pesko, P M; Micev, M T; Babić, D R

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the activity and toxicity of high dose (HD) infusional 5-FU in comparison to EAP regimen as first-line chemotherapy in patients with advanced gastric cancer. Histologically confirmed measurable advanced gastric cancer, age < 72 yr, ECOG performance status 0-2, no prior chemo- and radiotherapy, adequate organ functions. EAP arm: doxorubicin (40 mg/m(2)), etoposide (360 mg/m(2)), and cisplatin (80 mg/m(2)) every 28 d; HD 5-FU arm: 5-FU 2.6 g/m(2) 24 h infusion, biweekly. Sixty patients were randomized. Patient characteristics (arms EAP/HD 5-FU): Median age 57/55 yr, median PS 1/1, LAD (patients) 3/8, M1 (patients) 27/22. Median number of cycles (range): EAP arm 4 (2-8), HD 5-FU arm 2 (1-8). Worst toxicity per cycle (grade 3 and 4 in%): Neutropenia 20/3, thrombocytopenia 9/0, anemia 9/13, diarrhea 3/10, nausea 17/7, vomiting 10/0 for EAP and HD 5-FU arms, respectively. All patients were eligible for response in both arms. Confirmed response rate (95%CI): EAP arm 34% [16-50%]/HD 5-FU arm 10% (0-21%), no change: 46/40%, progression of disease: 20/50, respectively. Overall survival (range): EAP arm A 7 mo [3-27], HD 5-FU arm 6 mo (4-25). Infusional HD 5-FU showed a low incidence of severe toxicity. But given the low efficacy of 5-FU in the dosage we applied in the study, it cannot be recommended as a single treatment for further studies. Assessment of higher dose intensity and/or dose density of 5-FU, with introduction of other active drugs in combination, could be an option for further studies.

  14. Closed-loop control of a core free rolled EAP actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarban, Rahimullah; Oubaek, Jakob; Jones, Richard W.

    2009-03-01

    Tubular dielectric electro-active polymer actuators, also referred as tubular InLastors, have many possible applications. One of the most obvious is as a positioning push-type device. This work examines the feedback closed-loop control of a core-free tubular InLastor fabricated from sheets of PolyPowerTM, an EAP material developed by Danfoss PolyPower A/S, which uses a silicone elastomer in conjunction with smart compliant electrode technology. This is part of an ongoing study to develop a precision positioning feedback control system for this device. Initially proportional and integral (PI) control is considered to provide position control of the tubular InLastor. Control of the tubular Inlastors require more than conventional control, used for linear actuators, because the InLastors display highly nonlinear static voltage-strain and voltage-force characteristics as well as dynamic hysteresis and time-dependent strain behavior. In an attempt to overcome the nonlinear static voltage-strain characteristics of the Inlastors and for improving the dynamic performance of the controlled device, a gain scheduling algorithm is then integrated into the PI controlled system.

  15. Continuous diffusion signal, EAP and ODF estimation via Compressive Sensing in diffusion MRI.

    PubMed

    Merlet, Sylvain L; Deriche, Rachid

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we exploit the ability of Compressed Sensing (CS) to recover the whole 3D Diffusion MRI (dMRI) signal from a limited number of samples while efficiently recovering important diffusion features such as the Ensemble Average Propagator (EAP) and the Orientation Distribution Function (ODF). Some attempts to use CS in estimating diffusion signals have been done recently. However, this was mainly an experimental insight of CS capabilities in dMRI and the CS theory has not been fully exploited. In this work, we also propose to study the impact of the sparsity, the incoherence and the RIP property on the reconstruction of diffusion signals. We show that an efficient use of the CS theory enables to drastically reduce the number of measurements commonly used in dMRI acquisitions. Only 20-30 measurements, optimally spread on several b-value shells, are shown to be necessary, which is less than previous attempts to recover the diffusion signal using CS. This opens an attractive perspective to measure the diffusion signals in white matter within a reduced acquisition time and shows that CS holds great promise and opens new and exciting perspectives in diffusion MRI (dMRI). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Functionalized expanded porphyrins

    DOEpatents

    Sessler, Jonathan L; Pantos, Patricia J

    2013-11-12

    Disclosed are functionalized expanded porphyrins that can be used as spectrometric sensors for high-valent actinide cations. The disclosed functionalized expanded porphyrins have the advantage over unfunctionalized systems in that they can be immobilized via covalent attachment to a solid support comprising an inorganic or organic polymer or other common substrates. Substrates comprising the disclosed functionalized expanded porphyrins are also disclosed. Further, disclosed are methods of making the disclosed compounds (immobilized and free), methods of using them as sensors to detect high valent actinides, devices that comprise the disclosed compounds, and kits.

  17. L'E.A.P. ou l'anglais enseigne dans les etudes superieures. Un guide pour le debutant (E.A.P. or English for Academic Purposes: A Guide for the Beginner).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Peter J.

    1981-01-01

    Addresses those readers who are not familiar with EAP, offering an introductory discussion of its objectives and methods, in two parts. Devotes the first part to the needs that justify an EAP approach, and the second to its methodology, with particular attention to interdisciplinary, task-oriented instruction. Societe Nouvelle Didier Erudition, 40…

  18. PANATIKI: A Network Access Control Implementation Based on PANA for IoT Devices

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Pedro Moreno; Lopez, Rafa Marin; Gomez Skarmeta, Antonio F.

    2013-01-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) networks are the pillar of recent novel scenarios, such as smart cities or e-healthcare applications. Among other challenges, these networks cover the deployment and interaction of small devices with constrained capabilities and Internet protocol (IP)-based networking connectivity. These constrained devices usually require connection to the Internet to exchange information (e.g., management or sensing data) or access network services. However, only authenticated and authorized devices can, in general, establish this connection. The so-called authentication, authorization and accounting (AAA) services are in charge of performing these tasks on the Internet. Thus, it is necessary to deploy protocols that allow constrained devices to verify their credentials against AAA infrastructures. The Protocol for Carrying Authentication for Network Access (PANA) has been standardized by the Internet engineering task force (IETF) to carry the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP), which provides flexible authentication upon the presence of AAA. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first deep study of the feasibility of EAP/PANA for network access control in constrained devices. We provide light-weight versions and implementations of these protocols to fit them into constrained devices. These versions have been designed to reduce the impact in standard specifications. The goal of this work is two-fold: (1) to demonstrate the feasibility of EAP/PANA in IoT devices; (2) to provide the scientific community with the first light-weight interoperable implementation of EAP/PANA for constrained devices in the Contiki operating system (Contiki OS), called PANATIKI. The paper also shows a testbed, simulations and experimental results obtained from real and simulated constrained devices. PMID:24189332

  19. PANATIKI: a network access control implementation based on PANA for IoT devices.

    PubMed

    Moreno Sanchez, Pedro; Marin Lopez, Rafa; Gomez Skarmeta, Antonio F

    2013-11-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) networks are the pillar of recent novel scenarios, such as smart cities or e-healthcare applications. Among other challenges, these networks cover the deployment and interaction of small devices with constrained capabilities and Internet protocol (IP)-based networking connectivity. These constrained devices usually require connection to the Internet to exchange information (e.g., management or sensing data) or access network services. However, only authenticated and authorized devices can, in general, establish this connection. The so-called authentication, authorization and accounting (AAA) services are in charge of performing these tasks on the Internet. Thus, it is necessary to deploy protocols that allow constrained devices to verify their credentials against AAA infrastructures. The Protocol for Carrying Authentication for Network Access (PANA) has been standardized by the Internet engineering task force (IETF) to carry the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP), which provides flexible authentication upon the presence of AAA. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first deep study of the feasibility of EAP/PANA for network access control in constrained devices. We provide light-weight versions and implementations of these protocols to fit them into constrained devices. These versions have been designed to reduce the impact in standard specifications. The goal of this work is two-fold: (1) to demonstrate the feasibility of EAP/PANA in IoT devices; (2) to provide the scientific community with the first light-weight interoperable implementation of EAP/PANA for constrained devices in the Contiki operating system (Contiki OS), called PANATIKI. The paper also shows a testbed, simulations and experimental results obtained from real and simulated constrained devices.

  20. Opportunities and limitations for using new media and mobile phones to expand access to sexual and reproductive health information and services for adolescent girls and young women in six Nigerian states.

    PubMed

    Akinfaderin-Agarau, Fadekem; Chirtau, Manre; Ekponimo, Sylvia; Power, Samantha

    2012-06-01

    Reproductive health problems are a challenge affecting young people in Nigeria. Education as a Vaccine (EVA) implements the My Question and Answer Service, using mobile phones to provide sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information and services. Use of the service by adolescent girls and young women is low. Focus group discussions were held with 726 females to assess their access to mobile phones, as well as the barriers and limitations to the use of their phones to seek SRH information and services. Results demonstrate high mobile phone access but limited use of phones to access SRH information and services. Barriers to use of these services include cost of service for young female clients, request for socio-demographic information that could break anonymity, poor marketing and publicity, socio-cultural beliefs and expectations of young girls, individual personality and beliefs, as well as infrastructural/network quality. It is therefore recommended that these barriers be adequately addressed to increase the potential use of mobile phone for providing adolescent and young girls with SRH information and services. In addition, further initiatives and research are needed to explore the potentials of social media in meeting this need.

  1. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, A.; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A.; Ain, M. F.

    2015-03-01

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed.

  2. Expanding SLA's World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avallone, Susan

    1987-01-01

    Briefly summarizes topics discussed within the theme of global information access at the annual conference of the Special Libraries Association, including information policy in foreign countries, copyright laws, the impact of library automation on access to information, and findings of a task force on the value of the information professional.…

  3. Adams National Historical Park expanded transit service evaluation

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-12-01

    In 2005 and 2006, Adams National Historical Park piloted expanded shuttle service, with the aim of promoting car-free access for its visitors. This report evaluates the 2006 season of operation. Adams National Historical Park (NHP) is located approxi...

  4. Expanding Student Assessment Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartscher, Beth; Carter, Andrea; Lawlor, Anna; McKelvey, Barbara

    This paper describes an approach for expanding assessment opportunities for students to demonstrate their understanding of content. The targeted population consisted of elementary and junior high school students in two schools in a growing middle-class community in north central Illinois. The elementary school enrolled 467 students and the junior…

  5. Expanding Area Search Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    of the *botrIal eltered In BloCk 20, If dlferent (Mran Re.ort) 1I. SUPPLEMCNTARY NOTES It. K EY WORDS (Continue on te’e oide It nft e408 7 old Identty...Each subject see his own position and the constantly expanding farthest-or. circle displayed on a cathode ray tube, with his velocity being

  6. ExpandED Options: Learning beyond High School Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ExpandED Schools, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Through ExpandED Options by TASC, New York City high school students get academic credit for learning career-related skills that lead to paid summer jobs. Too many high school students--including those most likely to drop out--are bored or see classroom learning as irrelevant. ExpandED Options students live the connection between mastering new…

  7. Biophysical modelling of phytoplankton communities from first principles using two-layered spheres: Equivalent Algal Populations (EAP) model.

    PubMed

    Robertson Lain, L; Bernard, S; Evers-King, H

    2014-07-14

    There is a pressing need for improved bio-optical models of high biomass waters as eutrophication of coastal and inland waters becomes an increasing problem. Seasonal boom conditions in the Southern Benguela and persistent harmful algal production in various inland waters in Southern Africa present valuable opportunities for the development of such modelling capabilities. The phytoplankton-dominated signal of these waters additionally addresses an increased interest in Phytoplankton Functional Type (PFT) analysis. To these ends, an initial validation of a new model of Equivalent Algal Populations (EAP) is presented here. This paper makes a first order comparison of two prominent phytoplankton Inherent Optical Property (IOP) models with the EAP model, which places emphasis on explicit bio-physical modelling of the phytoplankton population as a holistic determinant of inherent optical properties. This emphasis is shown to have an impact on the ability to retrieve the detailed phytoplankton spectral scattering information necessary for PFT applications and to successfully simulate reflectance across wide ranges of physical environments, biomass, and assemblage characteristics.

  8. Regulatory challenges to global harmonization and expanded access to concentrates: how will regulators balance the increasing cost of new safety requirements with the desire to increase the availability of affordable product?

    PubMed

    Farrugia, A

    2004-10-01

    The provision of concentrates of the deficient coagulation factors is an essential component of the provision of comprehensive haemophilia care. Their safety, quality and efficacy need to be assured independently of the measures dictated by the market and the individual manufacturers. Over the past 20 years, this assurance has become the role of regulatory authorities, which in the developed world have generated a framework that assesses haemophilia products as medicines in the highest category of risk relative to other therapeutic agents. Systems of official regulation mandating standards and other measures are now coupled with voluntary standards adopted by industry bodies as additional features of a comprehensive nexus of arrangements contributing to product quality and risk minimization. Currently, the regulation of products for haemophilia in less developed economies relies on reference to decisions in the first-world authorities. This may not always result in optimal outcomes as most of the haemophilia care in the developing world is through local plasma and cryoprecipitate, which are not subject to the oversight of mainstream regulators. Furthermore, the emergence of companies based outside the developed world and seeking to supply the emerging economies of the developing world with haemophilia concentrates has necessitated new strategies for regulation that are independent of the established frameworks. Overall, the principles used by mainstream agencies may be applied in all environments seeking to assure the quality of haemophilia care. Applied properly, they can contribute to maintaining the delivery of a form of therapy that is nowadays amongst the safest in therapeutic practice. A rigid interpretation can seriously impede access to treatment, and therefore the development of independent expertise and appropriate strategies in assuring product safety and quality in the developing world is essential if patient safety and access to products can be assured.

  9. Grazing incidence beam expander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkapeddi, P. R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V. K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  10. EAP-based critical incident stress management: utilization of a practice-based assessment of incident severity level in responding to workplace trauma.

    PubMed

    DeFraia, Gary S

    2013-01-01

    Central to the field of trauma psychology is assessment of the impact of critical incidents on individuals, as measured by individual symptoms of stress. Accordingly, the trauma literature reflects a proliferation of clinical impact of event scales. Workplace incidents however, affect not only individual employees, but also work organizations, requiring a multi-level response. Critical incident stress management (CISM) is the most prevalent multi-level incident response strategy utilized by organizations, often through specialized CISM units operating within their employee assistance programs (EAPs). While EAP-based CISM units seeks to support both individuals and organizations, studies focused on individual stress dominate the literature, mirroring assessment scales that tend to emphasize clinical as opposed to organizational practice. This research contributes to less-prevalent studies exploring incident characteristics as disruptive to organizations, rather than clinical symptoms as disruptive to individuals. To measure incident disruption, an EAP-based CISM unit developed a critical incident severity scale. By analyzing this unit's extensive practice database, this exploratory study examines how critical incident severity level varies among various types of incidents. Employing the methodology of clinical data mining, this practice-based research generates evidence-informed practice recommendations in the areas of EAP-based CISM intake assessment, organizational consultation and incident response planning.

  11. Expanding the HAWC Observatory

    SciT

    Mori, Johanna

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray Observatory is expanding its current array of 300 water tanks to include 350 outrigger tanks to increase sensitivity to gamma rays above 10 TeV. This involves creating and testing hardware with which to build the new tanks, including photomultiplier tubes, high voltage supply units, and flash analog to digital converters. My responsibilities this summer included preparing, testing and calibrating that equipment.

  12. Surfactant protein A (SP-A)-mediated clearance of Staphylococcus aureus involves binding of SP-A to the staphylococcal adhesin eap and the macrophage receptors SP-A receptor 210 and scavenger receptor class A.

    PubMed

    Sever-Chroneos, Zvjezdana; Krupa, Agnieszka; Davis, Jeremy; Hasan, Misbah; Yang, Ching-Hui; Szeliga, Jacek; Herrmann, Mathias; Hussain, Muzafar; Geisbrecht, Brian V; Kobzik, Lester; Chroneos, Zissis C

    2011-02-11

    Staphylococcus aureus causes life-threatening pneumonia in hospitals and deadly superinfection during viral influenza. The current study investigated the role of surfactant protein A (SP-A) in opsonization and clearance of S. aureus. Previous studies showed that SP-A mediates phagocytosis via the SP-A receptor 210 (SP-R210). Here, we show that SP-R210 mediates binding and control of SP-A-opsonized S. aureus by macrophages. We determined that SP-A binds S. aureus through the extracellular adhesin Eap. Consequently, SP-A enhanced macrophage uptake of Eap-expressing (Eap(+)) but not Eap-deficient (Eap(-)) S. aureus. In a reciprocal fashion, SP-A failed to enhance uptake of Eap(+) S. aureus in peritoneal Raw264.7 macrophages with a dominant negative mutation (SP-R210(DN)) blocking surface expression of SP-R210. Accordingly, WT mice cleared infection with Eap(+) but succumbed to sublethal infection with Eap- S. aureus. However, SP-R210(DN) cells compensated by increasing non-opsonic phagocytosis of Eap(+) S. aureus via the scavenger receptor scavenger receptor class A (SR-A), while non-opsonic uptake of Eap(-) S. aureus was impaired. Macrophages express two isoforms: SP-R210(L) and SP-R210(S). The results show that WT alveolar macrophages are distinguished by expression of SP-R210(L), whereas SR-A(-/-) alveolar macrophages are deficient in SP-R210(L) expressing only SP-R210(S). Accordingly, SR-A(-/-) mice were highly susceptible to both Eap(+) and Eap(-) S. aureus. The lungs of susceptible mice generated abnormal inflammatory responses that were associated with impaired killing and persistence of S. aureus infection in the lung. In conclusion, alveolar macrophage SP-R210(L) mediates recognition and killing of SP-A-opsonized S. aureus in vivo, coordinating inflammatory responses and resolution of S. aureus pneumonia through interaction with SR-A.

  13. Effects of expanded and standard captions on deaf college students' comprehension of educational videos.

    PubMed

    Stinson, Michael S; Stevenson, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-two college students who were deaf viewed one instructional video with standard captions and a second with expanded captions, in which key terms were expanded in the form of vocabulary definitions, labeled illustrations, or concept maps. The students performed better on a posttest after viewing either type of caption than on a pretest; however, there was no difference in comprehension between standard and expanded captions. Camtasia recording software enabled examination of the extent to which the students accessed the expanded captions. The students accessed less than 20% of the available expanded captions. Thus, one explanation for the lack of difference in comprehension between the standard and expanded captions is that the students did not access the expanded captions sufficiently. Despite limited use of the expanded captions, the students stated, when interviewed, that they considered these captions beneficial in learning from the instructional video.

  14. Grazing incidence beam expander

    SciT

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, wouldmore » allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.« less

  15. Use of spring-roll EAP actuator applied as end-effector of a hyper-redundant robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errico, Gianmarco; Fava, Victor; Resta, Ferruccio; Ripamonti, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a hyper-redundant continuous robot used to perform work in places which humans can not reach. This type of robot is generally a bio-inspired solution, it is composed by a lot of flexible segments driven by multiple actuators and its dynamics is described by a lot degrees of freedom. In this paper a model composed of some rigid links connected to each other by revolution joint is presented. In each link a torsional spring is added in order to simulate the resistant torque between the links and the interactions among the cables and the robot during the relative rotation. Moreover a type of EAP actuator, called spring roll, is used as the end-effector of the robot. Through a suitable sensor, such as a camera, the spring roll allows to track a target and it closes the control loop on the robot to follow it.

  16. OPACs: The User and Subject Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Elizabeth

    1985-01-01

    This survey of the literature reveals user and professional opinions of changes in subject access features available for online public access catalogs. Highlights include expanded access to fields already incorporated into traditional MARC record, access to context of the record, and design of the user interface. Twenty-four references are cited.…

  17. Mechanically expandable annular seal

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, R.F.

    1983-07-19

    A mechanically expandable annular reusable seal assembly to form an annular hermetic barrier between two stationary, parallel, and planar containment surfaces is described. A rotatable ring, attached to the first surface, has ring wedges resembling the saw-tooth array of a hole saw. Matching seal wedges are slidably attached to the ring wedges and have their motion restricted to be perpendicular to the second surface. Each seal wedge has a face parallel to the second surface. An annular elastomer seal has a central annular region attached to the seal wedges' parallel faces and has its inner and outer circumferences attached to the first surface. A rotation of the ring extends the elastomer seal's central region perpendicularly towards the second surface to create the fluid tight barrier. A counter rotation removes the barrier. 6 figs.

  18. Expanding hollow metal rings

    DOEpatents

    Peacock, Harold B [Evans, GA; Imrich, Kenneth J [Grovetown, GA

    2009-03-17

    A sealing device that may expand more planar dimensions due to internal thermal expansion of a filler material. The sealing material is of a composition such that when desired environment temperatures and internal actuating pressures are reached, the sealing materials undergoes a permanent deformation. For metallic compounds, this permanent deformation occurs when the material enters the plastic deformation phase. Polymers, and other materials, may be using a sealing mechanism depending on the temperatures and corrosivity of the use. Internal pressures are generated by either rapid thermal expansion or material phase change and may include either liquid or solid to gas phase change, or in the gaseous state with significant pressure generation in accordance with the gas laws. Sealing material thickness and material composition may be used to selectively control geometric expansion of the seal such that expansion is limited to a specific facing and or geometric plane.

  19. Expanding Access to Learning with Mobile Digital Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    From the outset of the author's career in adult education 20 years ago, teachers, program directors, and policymakers were touting the use of technology to improve student learning (and professional development for teachers as well). Unfortunately, however, despite islands of excellence here and there, the introduction of computers and digital…

  20. The Macomb Plan: Expanding a Community's Access to Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo, Albert L.

    The Macomb Plan, recently developed by Macomb Community College (MCC), is a delivery system for the final two years of a four-year college degree to be housed in a facility located on a two-year college campus. The plan is designed to meet the unique needs of an adult learner's lifestyle, while approximating most of the elements that make up the…

  1. Expanding Access and Opportunity: The Washington State Achievers Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    In 2001, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the multi-year, multi-million dollar Washington State Achievers Scholarship program. Concerned about disparities in college participation for low-income students in the state of Washington versus their wealthier peers, the Gates Foundation partnered with the College Success Foundation…

  2. Expanding Access and Opportunity: The Washington State Achievers Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Jennifer; Gorgol, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched a 10-year, multi-million dollar initiative, the Washington State Achievers Program (WSA), to increase opportunities for low-income students to attend postsecondary institutions in Washington State. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation granted funds to the College Success Foundation…

  3. Expanding Choice: Tax Credits and Educational Access in Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Dick M., II

    2011-01-01

    The past 30 years have seen a steady expansion in the educational choices available to parents as school choice programs have spread around the country. Enabling parents to choose schools that fit their children's unique needs is a win-win-win: Research shows that such school choice policies benefit the children who participate, give traditional…

  4. Expanding Choice: Tax Credits and Educational Access in Indiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Dick M., II; Ross, John K.

    2009-01-01

    One of the oldest and more popular forms of school choice in the United States is educational tax credits. Like many other types of school choice, educational tax credits enable parents to send their children to the K-12 school of their choice, public or private, religious or non-religious. One type of educational tax credits, tax-credit…

  5. Expanding Choice: Tax Credits and Educational Access in Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Dick M., II; Ross, John K.

    2009-01-01

    The evidence advanced in this report demonstrates that using tax credits to fund scholarships for students is both well-established and sound practice. Three existing credits allow taxpayer funds to flow to faith-based organizations, and one of those, the Qualified Endowment Credit, rewards contributions to more than a thousand charitable…

  6. Management of sepsis involving expanded polytetrafluoroethylene grafts for hemodialysis access.

    PubMed

    Bhat, D J; Tellis, V A; Kohlberg, W I; Driscoll, B; Veith, F J

    1980-04-01

    The incidence and management of infections in 80 polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts is reviewed. In a follow-up period of 12 to 30 months, the overall incidence of infection was 19%. In functioning grafts the majority of infections occurred after dialysis puncture or reoperation. With appropriate management, by incision, drainage, and packing of wounds with povidone-iodine solution, it was possible, even in the face of positive blood cultures, to treat four of five localized infections successfully without loss of graft function. Prophylactic antibiotics may be useful in reducing the high incidence of infection associated with secondary operations.

  7. Population, desert expanding.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    The conditions of desert expansion in the Sahara are highlighted. On the southern border the desert is growing at a rate of 3-6 miles/year. This growth is encroaching on arable land in Ethiopia and Mauritania. The region loses up to 28,000 sq miles/year of farmland. 33% of Africa's fertile land is threatened. Land-use patterns are responsible for the deterioration of the soil. Traditional practices are not effective because the practices are not suitable for permanent farming. Farmers also have stopped environmentally sound practices such as letting the fields remain fallow in order to renew soil fertility. Nomads overgraze areas before moving on. A recent study by the World Bank's Africa Region Office was released; the report details some of the links between rapid population growth, poor agricultural performance, and environmental degradation. Soil conditions are such that valuable topsoil is blow away by the wind because the layer is too thin. Vegetation at the desert's edge is used for cooking purposes or for heating fuel. Tropical and savannah areas are depleted when tree replacement is inadequate. Only 9 trees are planted for every 100 removed. The report emphasized the role of women and children in contributing to population pressure by increased fertility. Women's work load is heavy and children are a help in alleviating some of the burden of domestic and agricultural work. There is hope in meeting demographic, agricultural, food security, and environmental objectives over the next 30 years if the needs of women are met. The needs include access to education for young women, lessening the work loads of women, and decreasing child mortality through improved health care and access to safe water.

  8. The Artful Universe Expanded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, John D.

    2005-07-01

    Our love of art, writes John Barrow, is the end product of millions of years of evolution. How we react to a beautiful painting or symphony draws upon instincts laid down long before humans existed. Now, in this enhanced edition of the highly popular The Artful Universe , Barrow further explores the close ties between our aesthetic appreciation and the basic nature of the Universe. Barrow argues that the laws of the Universe have imprinted themselves upon our thoughts and actions in subtle and unexpected ways. Why do we like certain types of art or music? What games and puzzles do we find challenging? Why do so many myths and legends have common elements? In this eclectic and entertaining survey, Barrow answers these questions and more as he explains how the landscape of the Universe has influenced the development of philosophy and mythology, and how millions of years of evolutionary history have fashioned our attraction to certain patterns of sound and color. Barrow casts the story of human creativity and thought in a fascinating light, considering such diverse topics as our instinct for language, the origins and uses of color in nature, why we divide time into intervals as we do, the sources of our appreciation of landscape painting, and whether computer-generated fractal art is really art. Drawing on a wide variety of examples, from the theological questions raised by St. Augustine and C.S. Lewis to the relationship between the pure math of Pythagoras and the music of the Beatles, The Artful Universe Expanded covers new ground and enters a wide-ranging debate about the meaning and significance of the links between art and science.

  9. Advanced expander test bed engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Expander Test Bed (AETB) is a key element in NASA's Space Chemical Engine Technology Program for development and demonstration of expander cycle oxygen/hydrogen engine and advanced component technologies applicable to space engines as well as launch vehicle upper stage engines. The AETB will be used to validate the high pressure expander cycle concept, study system interactions, and conduct studies of advanced mission focused components and new health monitoring techniques in an engine system environment. The split expander cycle AETB will operate at combustion chamber pressures up to 1200 psia with propellant flow rates equivalent to 20,000 lbf vacuum thrust.

  10. Advanced expander test bed program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, A. I.; Mitchell, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Expander Test Bed (AETB) is a key element in NASA's Chemical Transfer Propulsion Program for development and demonstration of expander cycle oxygen/hydrogen engine technology component technology for the next space engine. The AETB will be used to validate the high-pressure expander cycle concept, investigate system interactions, and conduct investigations of advanced missions focused components and new health monitoring techniques. The split-expander cycle AETB will operate at combustion chamber pressures up to 1200 psia with propellant flow rates equivalent to 20,000 lbf vacuum thrust.

  11. Comparing the Lexical Features of EAP Students' Essays by Prompt and Rating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavallée, Maxime; McDonough, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that high frequency lexical items, such as AWL words and formulaic expressions, may differentiate between texts written by expert and novice writers (Chen & Baker, 2010; Hancioglu, 2009), and that lexical features related to breadth, depth, and accessibility differentiate among texts from L2 writers of different…

  12. Processes and Their Products: A Comparison of Task Sequences and Outcome in EAP Writing Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Desmond; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A recent study proposed a rational for investigating the effects of mediating tasks upon a summary writing activity for tertiary-level students using English as an educational medium. The tasks in this study involved a group discussion or a reading comprehension exercise, with a third condition providing for immediate access to the text and…

  13. Surfactant Protein A (SP-A)-mediated Clearance of Staphylococcus aureus Involves Binding of SP-A to the Staphylococcal Adhesin Eap and the Macrophage Receptors SP-A Receptor 210 and Scavenger Receptor Class A*

    PubMed Central

    Sever-Chroneos, Zvjezdana; Krupa, Agnieszka; Davis, Jeremy; Hasan, Misbah; Yang, Ching-Hui; Szeliga, Jacek; Herrmann, Mathias; Hussain, Muzafar; Geisbrecht, Brian V.; Kobzik, Lester; Chroneos, Zissis C.

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus causes life-threatening pneumonia in hospitals and deadly superinfection during viral influenza. The current study investigated the role of surfactant protein A (SP-A) in opsonization and clearance of S. aureus. Previous studies showed that SP-A mediates phagocytosis via the SP-A receptor 210 (SP-R210). Here, we show that SP-R210 mediates binding and control of SP-A-opsonized S. aureus by macrophages. We determined that SP-A binds S. aureus through the extracellular adhesin Eap. Consequently, SP-A enhanced macrophage uptake of Eap-expressing (Eap+) but not Eap-deficient (Eap−) S. aureus. In a reciprocal fashion, SP-A failed to enhance uptake of Eap+ S. aureus in peritoneal Raw264.7 macrophages with a dominant negative mutation (SP-R210(DN)) blocking surface expression of SP-R210. Accordingly, WT mice cleared infection with Eap+ but succumbed to sublethal infection with Eap- S. aureus. However, SP-R210(DN) cells compensated by increasing non-opsonic phagocytosis of Eap+ S. aureus via the scavenger receptor scavenger receptor class A (SR-A), while non-opsonic uptake of Eap− S. aureus was impaired. Macrophages express two isoforms: SP-R210L and SP-R210S. The results show that WT alveolar macrophages are distinguished by expression of SP-R210L, whereas SR-A−/− alveolar macrophages are deficient in SP-R210L expressing only SP-R210S. Accordingly, SR-A−/− mice were highly susceptible to both Eap+ and Eap− S. aureus. The lungs of susceptible mice generated abnormal inflammatory responses that were associated with impaired killing and persistence of S. aureus infection in the lung. In conclusion, alveolar macrophage SP-R210L mediates recognition and killing of SP-A-opsonized S. aureus in vivo, coordinating inflammatory responses and resolution of S. aureus pneumonia through interaction with SR-A. PMID:21123169

  14. Advanced expander test bed program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccardi, D. P.; Mitchell, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Expander Test Bed (AETB) is a key element in NASA's Space Chemical Engine Technology Program for development and demonstration of expander cycle oxygen/hydrogen engine and advanced component technologies applicable to space engines as well as launch vehicle upper stage engines. The AETB will be used to validate the high-pressure expander cycle concept, investigate system interactions, and conduct investigations of advanced mission focused components and new health monitoring techniques in an engine system environment. The split expander cycle AETB will operate at combustion chamber pressures up to 1200 psia with propellant flow rates equivalent to 20,000 lbf vacuum thrust. Contract work began 27 Apr. 1990. During 1992, a major milestone was achieved with the review of the final design of the oxidizer turbopump in Sep. 1992.

  15. Short paths in expander graphs

    SciT

    Kleinberg, J.; Rubinfeld, R.

    Graph expansion has proved to be a powerful general tool for analyzing the behavior of routing algorithms and the interconnection networks on which they run. We develop new routing algorithms and structural results for bounded-degree expander graphs. Our results are unified by the fact that they are all based upon, and extend, a body of work asserting that expanders are rich in short, disjoint paths. In particular, our work has consequences for the disjoint paths problem, multicommodify flow, and graph minor containment. We show: (i) A greedy algorithm for approximating the maximum disjoint paths problem achieves a polylogarithmic approximation ratiomore » in bounded-degree expanders. Although our algorithm is both deterministic and on-line, its performance guarantee is an improvement over previous bounds in expanders. (ii) For a multicommodily flow problem with arbitrary demands on a bounded-degree expander, there is a (1 + {epsilon})-optimal solution using only flow paths of polylogarithmic length. It follows that the multicommodity flow algorithm of Awerbuch and Leighton runs in nearly linear time per commodity in expanders. Our analysis is based on establishing the following: given edge weights on an expander G, one can increase some of the weights very slightly so the resulting shortest-path metric is smooth - the min-weight path between any pair of nodes uses a polylogarithmic number of edges. (iii) Every bounded-degree expander on n nodes contains every graph with O(n/log{sup O(1)} n) nodes and edges as a minor.« less

  16. Card Access Know-How.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Provides tips for expanding a school's card access system and making it more productive for all concerned. Tips include the use of electronic locks for better security; the need for state-of-the-art card reader system to save money in the long run; selecting vendors to one that manufactures, installs, and supports the card system; and having…

  17. Access to Experimental Cancer Drugs

    Cancer.gov

    An experimental drug has been tested in the lab and with animals and approved for testing in people by the FDA, but can’t yet be advertised, sold, or prescribed. Experimental drugs may be available through clinical trials or expanded access programs - learn more about these programs and how to talk to your doctor.

  18. Web Accessibility and Accessibility Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ravonne A.; Huprich, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Section 508 of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) mandates that programs and services be accessible to people with disabilities. While schools of library and information science (SLIS*) and university libraries should model accessible Web sites, this may not be the case. This article examines previous studies about the Web accessibility of…

  19. Accessibility, Textbooks, and Access Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahler, Janice E.

    2017-01-01

    Putting access in Access Services is the goal. The Course Reserves unit is the place. Textbooks are the focus. Electronic technologies are the future. Patron-centric services will be our standard. Access to textbooks by all patrons will be the achievement. Course Reserves located in Library West at the University of Florida George A. Smathers…

  20. The Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gary, Dale E.; Hurford, G. J.; Nita, G. M.; White, S. M.; Tun, S. D.; Fleishman, G. D.; McTiernan, J. M.

    2011-05-01

    The Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array (EOVSA) is now under construction near Big Pine, CA as a solar-dedicated microwave imaging array operating in the frequency range 1-18 GHz. The solar science to be addressed focuses on the 3D structure of the solar corona (magnetic field, temperature and density), on the sudden release of energy and subsequent particle acceleration, transport and heating, and on space weather phenomena. The project will support the scientific community by providing open data access and software tools for analysis of the data, to exploit synergies with on-going solar research in other wavelengths. The New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) is expanding OVSA from its previous complement of 7 antennas to a total of 15 by adding 8 new antennas, and will reinvest in the existing infrastructure by replacing the existing control systems, signal transmission, and signal processing with modern, far more capable and reliable systems based on new technology developed for the Frequency Agile Solar Radiotelescope (FASR). The project will be completed in time to provide solar-dedicated observations during the upcoming solar maximum in 2013 and beyond. We provide an update on current status and our preparations for exploiting the data through modeling and data analysis tools. This research is supported by NSF grants AST-0908344, and AGS-0961867 and NASA grant NNX10AF27G to New Jersey Institute of Technology.

  1. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    DOEpatents

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2013-01-22

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  2. Tree Decay - An Expanded Concept

    Alex L. Shigo

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to clarify further the tree decay concept that expands the classical concept to include the orderly response of the tree to wounding and infection-compartmentalization-and the orderly infection of wounds by many microorganisms-successions. The heartrot concept must be abandoned because it deals only with decay-causing fungi and it...

  3. Tree decay an expanded concept

    Alex L. Shigo

    1979-01-01

    This publication is the final one in a series on tree decay developed in cooperation with Harold G. Marx, Research Application Staff Assistant, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, D.C. The purpose of this publication is to clarify further the tree decay concept that expands the classical concept to include the orderly response of the tree to...

  4. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    SciT

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  5. Expanding the Universe of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Elizabeth

    1996-01-01

    Definitions of "education" and "rural" are debunked and expanded. The three major tasks of rural education are educating people to understand their own needs, the unavoidable changes that will transform rural Australia within their lifetimes, and the range of technologies that can enhance their well-being. Presents a strategy…

  6. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    DOEpatents

    Chin, Jason W [Cambridge, GB; Cropp, T Ashton [Bethesda, MD; Anderson, J Christopher [San Francisco, CA; Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA

    2009-10-27

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  7. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    DOEpatents

    Chin, Jason W; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G

    2015-02-03

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  8. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    DOEpatents

    Chin, Jason W [Cambridge, GB; Cropp, T Ashton [Bethesda, MD; Anderson, J Christopher [San Francisco, CA; Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA

    2009-12-01

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  9. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    DOEpatents

    Chin, Jason W [Cambridge, GB; Cropp, T Ashton [Bethesda, MD; Anderson, J Christopher [San Francisco, CA; Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA

    2012-02-14

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  10. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    DOEpatents

    Chin, Jason W [Cambridge, GB; Cropp, T Ashton [Bethesda, MD; Anderson, J Christopher [San Francisco, CA; Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA

    2009-11-17

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  11. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    DOEpatents

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2010-09-14

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  12. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    DOEpatents

    Chin, Jason W [Cambridge, GB; Cropp, T Ashton [Bethesda, MD; Anderson, J Christopher [San Francisco, CA; Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA

    2012-05-08

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  13. Evolutionary Action score of TP53 (EAp53) identifies high risk mutations associated with decreased survival and increased distant metastases in head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Neskey, David M.; Osman, Abdullah A.; Ow, Thomas J.; Katsonis, Panagiotis; McDonald, Thomas; Hicks, Stephanie C.; Hsu, Teng-Kuei; Pickering, Curtis R.; Ward, Alexandra; Patel, Ameeta; Yordy, John S.; Skinner, Heath D.; Giri, Uma; Sano, Daisuke; Story, Michael D.; Beadle, Beth M.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Kies, Merrill S.; William, William N.; Caulin, Carlos; Frederick, Mitchell; Kimmel, Marek; Myers, Jeffrey N.; Lichtarge, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    TP53 is the most frequently altered gene in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with mutations occurring in over two third of cases, but the prognostic significance of these mutations remains elusive. In the current study, we evaluated a novel computational approach termed Evolutionary Action (EAp53) to stratify patients with tumors harboring TP53 mutations as high or low risk, and validated this system in both in vivo and in vitro models. Patients with high risk TP53 mutations had the poorest survival outcomes and the shortest time to the development of distant metastases. Tumor cells expressing high risk TP53 mutations were more invasive and tumorigenic and they exhibited a higher incidence of lung metastases. We also documented an association between the presence of high risk mutations and decreased expression of TP53 target genes, highlighting key cellular pathways that are likely to be dysregulated by this subset of p53 mutations which confer particularly aggressive tumor behavior. Overall, our work validated EAp53 as a novel computational tool that may be useful in clinical prognosis of tumors harboring p53 mutations. PMID:25634208

  14. Accessibility | NREL

    electronic and information technologies accessible to individuals with disabilities in accordance with Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act (29 U.S.C. 794d), as amended in 1998. Contact us with feedback or concerns related to the accessibility of this website.

  15. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  16. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Building access control (BAC)--a catchall phrase to describe the systems that control access to facilities across campus--has traditionally been handled with remarkably low-tech solutions: (1) manual locks; (2) electronic locks; and (3) ID cards with magnetic strips. Recent improvements have included smart cards and keyless solutions that make use…

  17. Quenching an expanding chiral condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialas, A.; Czyz, W.; Gmyrek, M.

    1995-04-01

    We simulate quenching in the O(4) σ model of hadronic matter expanding along the z axis, with randomly generated initial conditions imposed at a given boost invariant time τ0= √t2-z2 . A comparison of our results with the simulations of Rajagopal and Wilczek for a nonexpanding case shows that the normalized power exhibits approximately the same frequency of oscillations in the laboratory time in both cases. However, the response of the expanding system depends on τ0: e.g., for τ0=1 fm it is about 2 orders of magnitude smaller than for the nonexpanding system. Also, the relaxation time becomes shorter with expansion present. When τ0-->∞ the two cases become identical. Kinematical windows for the production of a disoriented chiral condensate are also discussed.

  18. Helical screw expander evaluation project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, R.

    1982-01-01

    A one MW helical rotary screw expander power system for electric power generation from geothermal brine was evaluated. The technology explored in the testing is simple, potentially very efficient, and ideally suited to wellhead installations in moderate to high enthalpy, liquid dominated field. A functional one MW geothermal electric power plant that featured a helical screw expander was produced and then tested with a demonstrated average performance of approximately 45% machine efficiency over a wide range of test conditions in noncondensing, operation on two-phase geothermal fluids. The Project also produced a computer equipped data system, an instrumentation and control van, and a 1000 kW variable load bank, all integrated into a test array designed for operation at a variety of remote test sites. Data are presented for the Utah testing and for the noncondensing phases of the testing in Mexico. Test time logged was 437 hours during the Utah tests and 1101 hours during the Mexico tests.

  19. The effect of code expanding optimizations on instruction cache design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, William Y.; Chang, Pohua P.; Conte, Thomas M.; Hwu, Wen-Mei W.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that code expanding optimizations have strong and non-intuitive implications on instruction cache design. Three types of code expanding optimizations are studied: instruction placement, function inline expansion, and superscalar optimizations. Overall, instruction placement reduces the miss ratio of small caches. Function inline expansion improves the performance for small cache sizes, but degrades the performance of medium caches. Superscalar optimizations increases the cache size required for a given miss ratio. On the other hand, they also increase the sequentiality of instruction access so that a simple load-forward scheme effectively cancels the negative effects. Overall, it is shown that with load forwarding, the three types of code expanding optimizations jointly improve the performance of small caches and have little effect on large caches.

  20. Entropy in an expanding universe.

    PubMed

    Frautschi, S

    1982-08-13

    The question of how the observed evolution of organized structures from initial chaos in the expanding universe can be reconciled with the laws of statistical mechanics is studied, with emphasis on effects of the expansion and gravity. Some major sources of entropy increase are listed. An expanding "causal" region is defined in which the entropy, though increasing, tends to fall further and further behind its maximum possible value, thus allowing for the development of order. The related questions of whether entropy will continue increasing without limit in the future, and whether such increase in the form of Hawking radiation or radiation from positronium might enable life to maintain itself permanently, are considered. Attempts to find a scheme for preserving life based on solid structures fail because events such as quantum tunneling recurrently disorganize matter on a very long but fixed time scale, whereas all energy sources slow down progressively in an expanding universe. However, there remains hope that other modes of life capable of maintaining themselves permanently can be found.

  1. Equal Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Presents an interview with Stephen McCarthy, co-partner and president of Equal Access ADA Consulting Architects of San Diego, California, about designing schools to naturally integrate compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). (EV)

  2. Accessing memory

    DOEpatents

    Yoon, Doe Hyun; Muralimanohar, Naveen; Chang, Jichuan; Ranganthan, Parthasarathy

    2017-09-26

    A disclosed example method involves performing simultaneous data accesses on at least first and second independently selectable logical sub-ranks to access first data via a wide internal data bus in a memory device. The memory device includes a translation buffer chip, memory chips in independently selectable logical sub-ranks, a narrow external data bus to connect the translation buffer chip to a memory controller, and the wide internal data bus between the translation buffer chip and the memory chips. A data access is performed on only the first independently selectable logical sub-rank to access second data via the wide internal data bus. The example method also involves locating a first portion of the first data, a second portion of the first data, and the second data on the narrow external data bus during separate data transfers.

  3. Interactive Exploration for Continuously Expanding Neuron Databases.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongyu; Metaxas, Dimitris N; Lu, Aidong; Zhang, Shaoting

    2017-02-15

    This paper proposes a novel framework to help biologists explore and analyze neurons based on retrieval of data from neuron morphological databases. In recent years, the continuously expanding neuron databases provide a rich source of information to associate neuronal morphologies with their functional properties. We design a coarse-to-fine framework for efficient and effective data retrieval from large-scale neuron databases. In the coarse-level, for efficiency in large-scale, we employ a binary coding method to compress morphological features into binary codes of tens of bits. Short binary codes allow for real-time similarity searching in Hamming space. Because the neuron databases are continuously expanding, it is inefficient to re-train the binary coding model from scratch when adding new neurons. To solve this problem, we extend binary coding with online updating schemes, which only considers the newly added neurons and update the model on-the-fly, without accessing the whole neuron databases. In the fine-grained level, we introduce domain experts/users in the framework, which can give relevance feedback for the binary coding based retrieval results. This interactive strategy can improve the retrieval performance through re-ranking the above coarse results, where we design a new similarity measure and take the feedback into account. Our framework is validated on more than 17,000 neuron cells, showing promising retrieval accuracy and efficiency. Moreover, we demonstrate its use case in assisting biologists to identify and explore unknown neurons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Unconventional microfluidics: expanding the discipline.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Ahmad Ahsan; Mao, Xiaole; Stratton, Zackary S; Huang, Tony Jun

    2013-04-21

    Since its inception, the discipline of microfluidics has been harnessed for innovations in the biomedicine/chemistry fields-and to great effect. This success has had the natural side-effect of stereotyping microfluidics as a platform for medical diagnostics and miniaturized lab processes. But microfluidics has more to offer. And very recently, some researchers have successfully applied microfluidics to fields outside its traditional domains. In this Focus article, we highlight notable examples of such "unconventional" microfluidics applications (e.g., robotics, electronics). It is our hope that these early successes in unconventional microfluidics prompt further creativity, and inspire readers to expand the microfluidics discipline.

  5. Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    What is Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM)? The Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) is an expandable habitat technology demonstration on ISS; increase human-rated inflatable structure Technology Readiness Level (TRL) to level 9. NASA managed ISS payload project in partnership with Bigelow Aerospace. Launched to ISS on Space X 8 (April 8th, 2016). Fully expanded on May 28th, 2016. Jeff Williams/Exp. 48 Commander first entered BEAM on June 5th, 2016.

  6. Expander for Thin-Wall Tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pessin, R.

    1983-01-01

    Tool locally expands small-diameter tubes. Tube expander locally expands and deforms tube: Compressive lateral stress induced in elastomeric sleeve by squeezing axially between two metal tool parts. Adaptable to situations in which tube must have small bulge for mechanical support or flow control.

  7. Expandable Lunar Habitat (X-Hab)

    2010-09-23

    Expandable Lunar Habitat (X-Hab).ILC Dover, under contract by NASA Langley Research Center, and in cooperation with NASA Johnson Space Center has designed and manufactured an expandable lunar habitat. This cylindrical habitat, or Expandable Lunar Habitat (X-Hab) is a hybrid system with two hard end caps and a deployable softgoods section in the center.

  8. Leak detection with expandable coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Developed and evaluated is a system for leak detection that can be easily applied over separable connectors and that expands into a bubble or balloon if a leak is present. This objective is accomplished by using thin films of Parafilm tape wrapped over connectors, which are then overcoated with a special formulation. The low yield strength and the high elongation of the envelope permit bubble formation if leakage occurs. This system is appropriate for welds and other hardware besides separable connectors. The practical limit of this system appears to be for leaks exceeding 0.000001 cc/sec. If this envelope is used to trap gases for mass spectrometer inspection, leaks in the range of ten to the minus 8th power cc/sec. may be detectable.

  9. [Expandable stents and composite prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Baldeyrou, P

    1999-11-01

    Today, numerous expandable and mixed silicone metallic stents for trachea and bronchi are available. Among the many technical propositions, Nitinol is a new alloy with promising potential, offering the advantage of shape memory. The right stent is the one which best meets the needs of the individual stenotic situation as evaluated by endoscopy and CT. Sufficient experience has been acquired only with the Dumon stent, giving exact information about its qualities and possible complications. The new stents are thinner. Some can be inserted under fluoroscopic and fibroscopic control. They are presumed to produce fewer complications an provide answers to some still unresolved questions such as dyskinesia or stenosis on short bronchi. They appear to be more easily inserted on the tracheo-bronchial tree. More experience is needed to satisfactorily identify specific indications and contraindications. A prospective registry will be important to obtain comparative information more quickly.

  10. Expanding Human Cognition and Communication

    SciT

    Spohrer, Jim; Pierce, Brian M.; Murray, Cherry A.

    To be able to chart the most profitable future directions for societal transformation and corresponding scientific research, five multidisciplinary themes focused on major goals have been identified to fulfill the overall motivating vision of convergence described in the previous pages. The first, “Expanding Human Cognition and Communication,” is devoted to technological breakthroughs that have the potential to enhance individuals’ mental and interaction abilities. Throughout the twentieth century, a number of purely psychological techniques were offered for strengthening human character and personality, but evaluation research has generally failed to confirm the alleged benefits of these methods (Druckman and Bjork 1992; 1994).more » Today, there is good reason to believe that a combination of methods, drawing upon varied branches of converging science and technology, would be more effective than attempts that rely upon mental training alone.« less

  11. OCT Expanded Clinical Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Baalen, Mary; Tafreshi, Ali; Patel, Nimesh; Young, Millennia; Mason, Sara; Otto, Christian; Samuels, Brian; Koslovsky, Matthew; Schaefer, Caroline; Taiym, Wafa; hide

    2017-01-01

    Vision changes identified in long duration space fliers has led to a more comprehensive clinical monitoring protocol. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) was recently implemented on board the International Space Station in 2013. NASA is collaborating with Heidelberg Engineering to expand our current OCT data analysis capability by implementing a volumetric approach. Volumetric maps will be created by combining the circle scan, the disc block scan, and the radial scan. This assessment may provide additional information about the optic nerve and further characterize changes related microgravity exposure. We will discuss challenges with collection and analysis of OCT data, present the results of this reanalysis and outline the potential benefits and limitations of the additional data.

  12. Preventive Ethics Through Expanding Education.

    PubMed

    Ho, Anita; MacDonald, Lisa Mei-Hwa; Unger, David

    2016-03-01

    Healthcare institutions have been making increasing efforts to standardize consultation methodology and to accredit both bioethics training programs and the consultants accordingly. The focus has traditionally been on the ethics consultation as the relevant unit of ethics intervention. Outcome measures are studied in relation to consultations, and the hidden assumption is that consultations are the preferred or best way to address day-to-day ethical dilemmas. Reflecting on the data from an internal quality improvement survey and the literature, we argue that having general ethics education as a key function of ethics services may be more important in meeting the contemporaneous needs of acute care settings. An expanded and varied ethics education, with attention to the time constraints of healthcare workers' schedules, was a key recommendation brought forward by survey respondents. Promoting ethical reflection and creating a culture of ethics may serve to prevent ethical dilemmas or mitigate their effects.

  13. Easy Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettelman, Alan

    2009-01-01

    School and university restrooms, locker and shower rooms have specific ADA accessibility requirements that serve the needs of staff, students and campus visitors who are disabled as a result of injury, illness or age. Taking good care of them is good for the reputation of a sensitive community institution, and fosters positive public relations.…

  14. Gaining Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wand, Sean; Thermos, Adam C.

    1998-01-01

    Explains the issues to consider before a college decides to purchase a card-access system. The benefits of automation, questions involving implementation, the criteria for technology selection, what typical card technology involves, privacy concerns, and the placement of card readers are discussed. (GR)

  15. Hemodialysis access - self care

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - hemodialysis access; dialysis - hemodialysis access

  16. The effect of employee assistance plan benefits on the use of outpatient behavioral health care.

    PubMed

    Hodgkin, Dominic; Merrick, Elizabeth L; Hiatt, Deirdre; Horgan, Constance M; McGuire, Thomas G

    2010-12-01

    Nearly half of all US workers have access to an employee assistance plan (EAP). At the same time, most large US employers also purchase health benefits for their employees, and these benefits packages typically include behavioral health services. There is some potential overlap in services covered by the EAP and the health plan, and some employers choose to purchase the two jointly as an 'integrated product'. It is not clear whether EAP services substitute for outpatient behavioral health care services covered by the health plan. To evaluate how the number of EAP visits covered affects the use of regular outpatient behavioral health care (number of visits, and total spending), in an integrated product setting. Analysis of claims, eligibility and benefits data for 26,464 users of behavioral health care for the year 2005. For both EAP and regular behavioral health care, the individuals were enrolled with Managed Health Network (MHN), a large national specialty insurance plan. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to investigate the determinants of the number of regular outpatient visits, and spending for regular outpatient care. To address skewness in the dependent variables, the estimation used generalized linear models with a log link. A limited instrumental variable analysis was used to test for endogeneity of the number of EAP visits covered. Nearly half the enrollees in this sample were in employer plans that allowed 4-5 EAP visits per treatment episode, and 31% were allowed 3 EAP visits per year. Having an EAP visit allowance of 4-5 sessions per episode predicts fewer regular outpatient visits, compared with having an allowance of 3 sessions per year. More generous EAP allowances also reduce payments for outpatient care, with one exception. Greater availability of EAP benefits appears to reduce utilization of regular outpatient care, supporting the idea that the two types of care are to some extent perceived as substitutes. One limitation of this

  17. Association of PPP1R13L and CD3EAP polymorphisms with risk and survival of non-small cell lung cancer in Chinese non-smoking females

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xu; Fang, Xue; Xia, Lingzi; Ren, Yangwu; Li, Xuelian; Quan, Xiaowei; Zhou, Baosen

    2017-01-01

    PPP1R13L and CD3EAP were confirmed to play important roles in transcription and apoptosis. SNPs in PPP1R13L and CD3EAP may be associated with lung cancer risk and survival. This study investigated the association of PPP1R13L rs1005165 and CD3EAP rs967591 with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) risk and survival in Chinese non-smoking females. 442 NSCLC cases and 480 cancer-free controls were conducted in the case-control study, and 283 cases were in cohort study. Genotype was determined by Taqman real-time PCR. The statistical analyses were performed by SPSS 22.0 software. We found that rs1005165 and rs967591 were significantly associated with NSCLC risk in Chinese non-smoking females. For rs1005165, compared with homozygous wild CC genotype, carriers of CT or TT genotype had lower risk of NSCLC (adjusted ORs were 0.675 and 0.713, 95% CI were 0.461-0.988 and 0.525-0.968, respectively), adjusted OR for dominant model was 0.702, 95% CI was 0.526-0.937. For rs967591, AA genotype (adjusted OR = 0.721, 95% CI = 0.532-0.978) and at least one A allele (GA+AA) (adjusted OR = 0.716, 95% CI = 0.536-0.956) were significantly correlated with lower risk of NSCLC, compared with GG genotype. But we didn’t find correlation between the two SNPs and survival time in Chinese non-smoking NSCLC females. In general, we found PPP1R13L rs1005165 and CD3EAP rs967591 might be associated with lower NSCLC risk in Chinese non-smoking females, but no significant relationship was found with NSCLC survival. PMID:29108262

  18. FMC: Expanding its chemical universe

    SciT

    Wood, A.

    1992-12-23

    With a portfolio ranging from defense systems to gold to food machinery - the source of its name - FMC Corp. (Chicago) ranks as a diversified conglomerate. The company's industrial chemicals operation consists of alkali chemicals, chiefly soda ash and derivatives: peroxygen chemicals, made up of hydrogen peroxide and other peroxygens; and phosphorus chemicals. FMC has about a 30% market share in each of these three. It also includes the Foret (Barcelona) division, part of FMC Europe. Moving lithium into FMC's specialties group reflects the R D-intensive nature of many lithium compounds, explains F. Wyman Morgan, director/group technology for themore » chemical product and specialty chemicals groups. FMC is also involved in collaborative research programs to develop lithium-based batteries and fuel cells. We have a decentralized business-oriented R D focus, Morgan says. The main thrusts in lithium are in developing organolithiums for drug synthesis. FMC also has a major industrial lithium business; it recently added a new butyl lithium unit in Texas and is looking to expand production through the development of lithium deposits in Latin America. But lithium is growing fastest in the downstream areas, says W. Reginald Hall, v.p. and group manager/specialty chemicals group. It has an unbelievable range of uses, he says, including catalytic applications in the pharmaceuticals industry. We are working on lithium compounds that allow you to drop a functional organic group into a molecule in a reliable way.« less

  19. The expanding role of fluoroquinolones.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Anthony J

    2003-02-01

    There has been a growing rate of resistance among common urinary tract pathogens, such as Escherichia coli, to traditional antimicrobial therapies including the "gold standard" trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX). Consequently, fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents have taken on an expanding management role for UTIs. In fact, the recent Infectious Diseases Society of America clinical management guidelines for UTI recommend fluoroquinolones as first-line therapy for uncomplicated UTI in areas where resistance is likely to be of concern. Fluoroquinolones have demonstrated high bacteriologic and clinical cure rates, as well as low rates of resistance, among most common uropathogens. There are currently 7 fluoroquinolones with indications for UTI in the United States. However, only 3 are commonly used: levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and, to a lesser extent, gatifloxacin. Many of the fluoroquinolone agents have once-daily dosing regimens, enhancing patient adherence. In addition, levofloxacin and gatifloxacin have same-dose bioequivalency between their intravenous and oral formulations, allowing for "switch" or step-down therapy from parenteral to oral formulations of the same agent at the same dose. Fluoroquinolones are indicated for the management of acute uncomplicated UTIs, as well as complicated and severe UTI and pyelonephritis, in adults. They are the first-line treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis in patients who cannot tolerate sulfonamides or TMP, who live in geographic areas with known resistance >10% to 20% to TMP-SMX, or who have risk factors for such resistance. Fluoroquinolone properties include a broad spectrum of coverage, low rates of resistance, and good safety profiles.

  20. Attitudes toward expanding nurses' authority.

    PubMed

    Kerzman, Hana; Van Dijk, Dina; Eizenberg, Limor; Khaikin, Rut; Phridman, Shoshi; Siman-Tov, Maya; Goldberg, Shoshi

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of care procedures previously under the physician's authority have been placed in the hands of registered nurses. The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of nurses towards expanding nurses' authority and the relationships between these attitudes and job satisfaction facets, professional characteristics, and demographics. A cross-sectional study was conducted between 2010 and 2011 in three major medical centers in Israel. Participants included 833 nurses working in 89 departments. Attitudes toward the expansion of nurses' authority were assessed by self-report questionnaire, as well as job satisfaction facets including perception of professional autonomy, nurse-physician working relations, workload and burnout, perceptions of quality of care, and nursing staff satisfaction at work. Nurses reported positive attitudes toward the expansion of nurses' authority and moderate attitudes for interpretation of diagnostic tests in selected situations. The results of multivariate regression analyses demonstrate that the nurses' satisfaction from professional autonomy and work relations were the most influential factors in explaining their attitudes toward the expansion of nurses' authority. In addition, professionally young nurses tend to be more positive regarding changes in nurses' authority. In the Israeli reality of a nurse's shortage, we are witnessing professional transitions toward expansion of the scope of nurses' accountability and decision-making authority. The current research contributes to our understanding of attitudes toward the expansion of nurses' authority among the nursing staffs. The findings indicate the necessity of redefining the scope of nursing practice within the current professional context.

  1. SHEAR ACCELERATION IN EXPANDING FLOWS

    SciT

    Rieger, F. M.; Duffy, P., E-mail: frank.rieger@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: peter.duffy@ucd.ie

    Shear flows are naturally expected to occur in astrophysical environments and potential sites of continuous non-thermal Fermi-type particle acceleration. Here we investigate the efficiency of expanding relativistic outflows to facilitate the acceleration of energetic charged particles to higher energies. To this end, the gradual shear acceleration coefficient is derived based on an analytical treatment. The results are applied to the context of the relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei. The inferred acceleration timescale is investigated for a variety of conical flow profiles (i.e., power law, Gaussian, Fermi–Dirac) and compared to the relevant radiative and non-radiative loss timescales. The results exemplifymore » that relativistic shear flows are capable of boosting cosmic-rays to extreme energies. Efficient electron acceleration, on the other hand, requires weak magnetic fields and may thus be accompanied by a delayed onset of particle energization and affect the overall jet appearance (e.g., core, ridge line, and limb-brightening).« less

  2. Expanded Endonasal Endoscopic Approach for Resection of an Infrasellar Craniopharyngioma.

    PubMed

    Abou-Al-Shaar, Hussam; Blitz, Ari M; Rodriguez, Fausto J; Ishii, Masaru; Gallia, Gary L

    2016-11-01

    Craniopharyngiomas are uncommon benign locally aggressive epithelial tumors mostly located in the sellar and suprasellar regions. An infrasellar origin of these tumors is rare. The authors report a 22-year-old male patient with a purely infrasellar adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma centered in the nasopharynx with extension into the posterior nasal septum, sphenoid sinus, and clivus. Gross total resection was achieved using an expanded endonasal endoscopic transethmoidal, transsphenoidal, transpterygoid, and transclival approach. Follow-up at one year demonstrated no evidence of disease recurrence. Infrasellar craniopharyngioma should be included in the differential diagnosis of sinonasal masses even in the absence of sellar extension. Expanded endonasal endoscopic approaches provide excellent access to and visualization of such lesions and may obviate the need for postoperative radiotherapy when gross total resection is achieved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Expanding the knowledge translation metaphor.

    PubMed

    Engebretsen, Eivind; Sandset, Tony Joakim; Ødemark, John

    2017-03-13

    Knowledge translation (KT) is a buzzword in modern medical science. However, there has been little theoretical reflection on translation as a process of meaning production in KT. In this paper, we argue that KT will benefit from the incorporation of a more theoretical notion of translation as an entangled material, textual and cultural process. We discuss and challenge fundamental assumptions in KT, drawing on theories of translation from the human sciences. We show that the current construal of KT as separate from and secondary to the original scientific message is close to the now deeply compromised literary view of translation as the simple act of copying the original. Inspired by recent theories of translation, we claim that KT can be more adequately understood in terms of a 'double supplement' - on the one hand, KT offers new approaches to the communication of scientific knowledge to different groups in the healthcare system with the aim of supplementing a lack of knowledge among clinicians (and patients). On the other, it demonstrates that a textual and cultural supplement, namely a concern with target audiences (clinicians and patients), is inevitable in the creation of an 'autonomous' science. Hence, the division between science and its translation is unproductive and impossible to maintain. We discuss some possible implications of our suggested shift in concept by drawing on pharmaceutical interventions for the prevention of HIV as a case. We argue that such interventions are based on a supplementary and paradoxical relation to the target audiences, both presupposing and denying their existence. More sophisticated theories of translation can lay the foundation for an expanded model of KT that incorporates a more adequate and reflective description of the interdependency of scientific, cultural, textual and material practices.

  4. Gene surfing in expanding populations.

    PubMed

    Hallatschek, Oskar; Nelson, David R

    2008-02-01

    Large scale genomic surveys are partly motivated by the idea that the neutral genetic variation of a population may be used to reconstruct its migration history. However, our ability to trace back the colonization pathways of a species from their genetic footprints is limited by our understanding of the genetic consequences of a range expansion. Here, we study, by means of simulations and analytical methods, the neutral dynamics of gene frequencies in an asexual population undergoing a continual range expansion in one dimension. During such a colonization period, lineages can fix at the wave front by means of a "surfing" mechanism [Edmonds, C.A., Lillie, A.S., Cavalli-Sforza, L.L., 2004. Mutations arising in the wave front of an expanding population. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 101, 975-979]. We quantify this phenomenon in terms of (i) the spatial distribution of lineages that reach fixation and, closely related, (ii) the continual loss of genetic diversity (heterozygosity) at the wave front, characterizing the approach to fixation. Our stochastic simulations show that an effective population size can be assigned to the wave that controls the (observable) gradient in heterozygosity left behind the colonization process. This effective population size is markedly higher in the presence of cooperation between individuals ("pushed waves") than when individuals proliferate independently ("pulled waves"), and increases only sub-linearly with deme size. To explain these and other findings, we develop a versatile analytical approach, based on the physics of reaction-diffusion systems, that yields simple predictions for any deterministic population dynamics. Our analytical theory compares well with the simulation results for pushed waves, but is less accurate in the case of pulled waves when stochastic fluctuations in the tip of the wave are important.

  5. Improving and expanding NGO programmes.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, A

    1993-06-01

    India has massive problems and is in need of improving and expanding non governmental organization (NGO) programs by broadening the scope of NGO activities, identifying successful NGO activities, and by moving closer to the community to participate in their activities. The problems and experience in the last few decades indicate that with expansion bureaucratization takes place. The institution begins to depend on donors and follows donor-driven agendas. As more money is given by the government, many more so called GONGO or Government-NGO projects materialize. Another problem is that the government almost always approaches the NGOs for the implementation of a project, and there is complete lack of cooperation at the planning stage. The government is considering a loan from the World Bank and UNICEF to launch a mother and child health program, but there has not been any discussion with the dozens of people who have worked on issues concerning mother and child health issues for many years. There is a need to be more demanding of the government about the various programs that are implemented for the government. Very few NGO health and family welfare projects are run by ordinary nurses or ordinary Ayurvedic doctors under ordinary conditions. Since successful NGO work has to be extended to other parts of the country, they will have to be run by ordinary people with very ordinary resources. Over the years, the NGO community has become preoccupied with its own agenda. Today, despite very sophisticated equipment and infrastructure, they are not able to reach the 60,000-70,000 workers and employees. Some of the ideas with respect to the strengthens and weaknesses of community participation have to be shared. NGOs should include all the existing non governmental organizations throughout the country, and have a dialogue with other nongovernmental bodies such as trade unions. The challenge is to adjust the current agenda, prevailing style, and present way of operating and move

  6. AstroCom NYC: Expanding the Partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paglione, Timothy; Ford, Saavik; Agueros, Marcel A.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Robbins, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    AstroCom NYC is an undergraduate mentoring program designed to improve urban minority student access to opportunities in astrophysical research by greatly enhancing partnerships between research astronomers in New York City (City University of New York - an MSI, American Museum of Natural History, and Columbia). AstroCom NYC provides centralized, personalized mentoring as well as financial and academic support, to CUNY undergraduates throughout their studies, plus the resources and opportunities to further CUNY faculty research with students. The goal is that students' residency at AMNH helps them build a sense of belonging in the field, and readies and inspires them for graduate study. AstroCom NYC provides a rigorous Methods of Scientific Research course developed specifically to this purpose, a laptop, research and career mentors, outreach activities, scholarships and stipends, Metrocards, and regular assessment for maximum effectiveness. Stipends in part alleviate the burdens at home typical for CUNY students so they may concentrate on their academic success. AMNH serves as the central hub for our faculty and students, who are otherwise dispersed among all five boroughs of the City. For our second cohort, we dramatically improved the application and screening process, implemented a number of tools to evaluate their potential for grad school, and began growing a network of potential hosts for summer internships around NY State and the US. We review these implementations and outcomes, as well as plans for Year 3, when we expect many of our current students to compete for external summer REUs, and after greatly expanding the program reach through a NASA community college initiative.

  7. Expanding the role of nonclinical personnel in the OR.

    PubMed

    Hemingway, Maureen; Freehan, Marion; Morrissey, Lisa

    2010-06-01

    Ideally, quality health care should be accessible, affordable, and equitable. Working toward these goals in the OR necessitates examining and redesigning work processes and nursing workflow to make better use of the education and skills of perioperative nurses and assistive personnel. This article describes a pilot project undertaken in the OR at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, to identify tasks that took nurses away from direct patient care and to better incorporate assistive personnel into the workflow to increase nurses' contact with patients. The pilot program resulted in an expanded role for assistive personnel and more direct patient contact for nurses. Copyright 2010 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Expanding genomics of mycorrhizal symbiosis

    SciT

    Kuo, Alan; Kohler, Annegret; Martin, Francis M.

    The mycorrhizal symbiosis between soil fungi and plant roots is a ubiquitous mutualism that plays key roles in plant nutrition, soil health, and carbon cycling. The symbiosis evolved repeatedly and independently as multiple morphotypes [e.g., arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM), ectomycorrhizal (ECM)] in multiple fungal clades (e.g., phyla Glomeromycota, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota). The accessibility and cultivability of many mycorrhizal partners make them ideal models for symbiosis studies. Alongside molecular, physiological, and ecological investigations, sequencing led to the first three mycorrhizal fungal genomes, representing two morphotypes and three phyla. The genome of the ECM basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor showed that the mycorrhizal lifestyle can evolvemore » through loss of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) and expansion of lineage-specific gene families such as short secreted protein (SSP) effectors. The genome of the ECM ascomycete Tuber melanosporum showed that the ECM type can evolve without expansion of families as in Laccaria, and thus a different set of symbiosis genes. The genome of the AM glomeromycete Rhizophagus irregularis showed that despite enormous phylogenetic distance and morphological difference from the other two fungi, symbiosis can involve similar solutions as symbiosis-induced SSPs and loss of PCWDEs. The three genomes provide a solid base for addressing fundamental questions about the nature and role of a vital mutualism.« less

  9. Expanding genomics of mycorrhizal symbiosis

    DOE PAGES

    Kuo, Alan; Kohler, Annegret; Martin, Francis M.; ...

    2014-11-04

    The mycorrhizal symbiosis between soil fungi and plant roots is a ubiquitous mutualism that plays key roles in plant nutrition, soil health, and carbon cycling. The symbiosis evolved repeatedly and independently as multiple morphotypes [e.g., arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM), ectomycorrhizal (ECM)] in multiple fungal clades (e.g., phyla Glomeromycota, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota). The accessibility and cultivability of many mycorrhizal partners make them ideal models for symbiosis studies. Alongside molecular, physiological, and ecological investigations, sequencing led to the first three mycorrhizal fungal genomes, representing two morphotypes and three phyla. The genome of the ECM basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor showed that the mycorrhizal lifestyle can evolvemore » through loss of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) and expansion of lineage-specific gene families such as short secreted protein (SSP) effectors. The genome of the ECM ascomycete Tuber melanosporum showed that the ECM type can evolve without expansion of families as in Laccaria, and thus a different set of symbiosis genes. The genome of the AM glomeromycete Rhizophagus irregularis showed that despite enormous phylogenetic distance and morphological difference from the other two fungi, symbiosis can involve similar solutions as symbiosis-induced SSPs and loss of PCWDEs. The three genomes provide a solid base for addressing fundamental questions about the nature and role of a vital mutualism.« less

  10. Expanding your horizons in science and mathematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Cynthia E. A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the 'Expanding Your Horizons in Science and Mathematics' program is to interest young women in grades six through twelve in a variety of careers where mathematics and science are important. Progress in encouraging young women to take courses in mathematics, science, and technological subjects is discussed. Also included are adult, student, and organizational information packets used for 'Expanding Your Horizons' conferences.

  11. 24 CFR 3285.502 - Expanding rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Optional Features § 3285.502 Expanding rooms. The support and anchoring systems for expanding rooms must be installed in accordance with designs provided by the home manufacturer or prepared by a registered professional engineer or registered architect, in...

  12. 24 CFR 3285.502 - Expanding rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Expanding rooms. 3285.502 Section 3285.502 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Optional Features § 3285.502 Expanding rooms. The...

  13. Screw expander for light duty diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary selection and sizing of a positive displacement screw compressor-expander subsystem for a light-duty adiabatic diesel engine; development of a mathematical model to describe overall efficiencies for the screw compressor and expander; simulation of operation to establish overall efficiency for a range of design parameters and at given engine operating points; simulation to establish potential net power output at light-duty diesel operating points; analytical determination of mass moments of inertia for the rotors and inertia of the compressor-expander subsystem; and preparation of engineering layout drawings of the compressor and expander are discussed. As a result of this work, it was concluded that the screw compressor and expander designed for light-duty diesel engine applications are viable alternatives to turbo-compound systems, with acceptable efficiencies for both units, and only a moderate effect on the transient response.

  14. The Ins and Outs of Access Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longworth, David

    1999-01-01

    Presents basic considerations when school districts plan to acquire an access-control system for their education facilities. Topics cover cards and readers, controllers, software, automation, card technology, expandability, price, specification of needs beyond the canned specifications already supplied, and proper usage training to cardholders.…

  15. ExpandED Schools National Demonstration: Lessons for Scale and Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Christina A.; Hildreth, Jeanine L.; Stevens, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The ExpandED Schools model for expanded learning is designed to transform schools by changing the use of time, both as experienced by students in learning and by teachers in instruction. The model is grounded in the belief that strategically adding time to the school day can enhance skills and knowledge and broaden horizons by engaging students in…

  16. Time to Grow: Year Two Report on ExpandED Schools. A TASC Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traill, Saskia; Brohawn, Katie

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of data from the second year of The After-School Corporation's (TASC's) national demonstration of an expanded school day for elementary and middle school students shows that ExpandED Schools improved school culture, decreased rates of students' chronic absenteeism and helped students develop positive learning habits and attitudes.…

  17. Tissue Expander Overfilling: Achieving New Dimensions of Customization in Breast Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Treiser, Matthew D; Lahair, Tracy; Carty, Matthew J

    2016-02-01

    Overfill of tissue expanders is a commonly used modality to achieve customized dimensions in breast reconstruction. Little formal study of the dynamics of hyperexpansion of these devices has been performed to date, however. Overfill trials were performed using both Natrelle 133 MV and Mentor 8200 tissue expanders of indicated capacities ranging from 250 to 800 mL. Each expander was initially filled to its indicated capacity with normal water and then injected in regular increments to 400% overfill. Measurements of each expander's width, height, and projection were made at indicated capacity and with each successive incremental overfill injection, and these results were then recorded, collated, and analyzed. Over the first 50% overfill, all expanders demonstrated a logarithmic increase in projection (mean increase, 143 ± 9%) while maintaining essentially stable base dimensions. Overfill levels in excess of 50% were accompanied by linear increases in height, width, and projection, during which projection approached, but never equaled, base dimensions. Stress versus strain analyses demonstrated nonlinear biomechanical dynamics during the first 50% overfill, followed by standard elastic dynamics up to 400% overfill. At no point during the study, did expander tensions outstrip elastic properties, thereby explaining the lack of device rupture. Through overfilling, tunable geometries of tissue expanders can be accessed that may provide for increasing customization of reconstructions, particularly at overfill volumes up to 50% over indicated capacity. This study should serve to guide tissue expander selection and fill volumes that surgeons may implement in obtaining ideal reconstructed breast shapes.

  18. Awakening Tiger: India’s Quest for Expanded Influence in the World

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    media.csis/pubs/sam98. pdf (accessed June 3, 2007). 2 Lisa Curtis. “India’s Expanding Role in Asia: Adapting to Rising Power Status,” Heritage Foundation...Backgrounder No. 2008 (February 20, 2007), http://www.heritage.org/Research/AsiaandthePacific/upload/bg_2008. pdf (accessed May 29, 2007). 3...Growth,” Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations, New Delhi Working Papers Number 122 (2004). http://www.icrier.org/ pdf /wp122. pdf

  19. Long-term implications of observing an expanding cosmological civilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, S. Jay

    2018-01-01

    Suppose that advanced civilizations, separated by a cosmological distance and time, wish to maximize their access to cosmic resources by rapidly expanding into the universe. How does the presence of one limit the expansionistic ambitions of another, and what sort of boundary forms between their expanding domains? We describe a general scenario for any expansion speed, separation distance and time. We then specialize to a question of particular interest: What are the future prospects for a young and ambitious civilization if they can observe the presence of another at a cosmological distance? We treat cases involving the observation of one or two expanding domains. In the single-observation case, we find that almost any plausible detection will limit one's future cosmic expansion to some extent. Also, practical technological limits to expansion speed (well below the speed of light) play an interesting role. If a domain is visible at the time one embarks on cosmic expansion, higher practical limits to expansion speed are beneficial only up to a certain point. Beyond this point, a higher speed limit means that gains in the ability to expand are more than offset by the first-mover advantage of the observed domain. In the case of two visible domains, it is possible to be `trapped' by them if the practical speed limit is high enough and their angular separation in the sky is large enough, i.e. one's expansion in any direction will terminate at a boundary with the two visible civilizations. Detection at an extreme cosmological distance has surprisingly little mitigating effect on our conclusions.

  20. AEROSAT Access Control Summary

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1976-10-01

    The report consists of three basic sections. Section 2 is a discussion of the communications concepts germane to AEROSAT access control. It defines and reviews the principles of multiplexing, multiple access, demand access, and access control and rel...

  1. Aerosat Access Control Summary

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1976-10-01

    The report consists of three basic sections. Section 2 is a discussion of the communications concepts germane to AEROSAT access control. It defines and reviews the principles of multiplexing, multiple access, demand access, and access control and rel...

  2. FDA Expands Approval of Venetoclax for CLL

    Cancer.gov

    FDA expanded the approval of venetoclax (Venclexta) for people with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) to include those whose cancer has progressed after previous treatment, regardless of whether their cancer cells have the deletion 17p gene alteration.

  3. Expanding Learning, Enriching Learning: Portraits of Five Programs. Stories from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Daniel; Syed, Sarosh; Mendels, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    These "Stories From the Field" describe five Wallace-funded programs working to expand learning and enrichment for disadvantaged children, so they can benefit from the types of opportunities their wealthier counterparts have access to, from homework help to swimming classes. The report details each program's approach, successes and…

  4. Expanding Discourse Options through Computer-Mediated Communication: Guiding Learners toward Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Lee B.; Williams, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes a multiliteracies-based pedagogical framework for the analysis of computer-mediated discourse (CMD) in order to give students increased access to expanded discourse options that are available in online communication environments and communities (i.e., beyond the classroom). Through the analysis of excerpts and a corpus of…

  5. Pore-expanded SBA-15 sulfonic acid silicas for biodiesel synthesis.

    PubMed

    Dacquin, J P; Lee, A F; Pirez, C; Wilson, K

    2012-01-07

    Here we present the first application of pore-expanded SBA-15 in heterogeneous catalysis. Pore expansion over the range 6-14 nm confers a striking activity enhancement towards fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) synthesis from triglycerides (TAG), and free fatty acid (FFA), attributed to improved mass transport and acid site accessibility. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  6. Expanded Learning Time and Opportunities: Key Principles, Driving Perspectives, and Major Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Dale A.; LaCroix-Dalluhn, Laura

    2011-01-01

    If expanded learning is going to make a real difference, then three key principles must inform how communities overcome challenges and assure equitable access to learning opportunities. Much of today's debate is framed in the language of formal education systems--students, classrooms, schools--even though part of the expansion seeks to engage a…

  7. A Universal Good: Expanding Voluntary, Early Learning Opportunities for Illinois' Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Sean

    This report was written to stimulate discussion about the potential and need for expanding access to voluntary, high-quality early childhood care and education programs in Illinois. The report compiles 13 short articles pertaining to early learning as follows: (1) "Ready to Succeed: Preparing Children for School, and for Life"; (2)…

  8. Community Conversations: An Approach for Expanding and Connecting Opportunities for Employment for Adolescents with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trainor, Audrey A.; Carter, Erik W.; Swedeen, Beth; Pickett, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Although early work experiences can impart a number of benefits to adolescents with disabilities, few students have meaningful access to these opportunities. The authors examined "community conversations" to build capacity and interest in expanding employment opportunities. Events were held in seven different communities and used the…

  9. 76 FR 76158 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; RCRA Expanded...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... contents of the docket, and to access those documents in the public docket that are available..., including through the use of appropriate automated electronic, mechanical, or other technological collection... as State, local, or Tribal governments. Title: RCRA Expanded Public Participation. ICR numbers: EPA...

  10. Thoughts on Access, Differentiation, and Implementation of a Multicultural Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavilla, Derek

    2014-01-01

    Identification of gifted students from diverse and underserved communities is traditionally low; however, there are ways to expand identification methods in order to make access to gifted education programs more equitable. Creation and implementation of multi-faceted and multi-dimensional assessments as well as tiered access into gifted education…

  11. Higher Education: In Search of Access and Scholarship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, David A.

    This report presents a brief historical review of how American higher education has attempted to develop potential by adhering to the foundations of its educational mission: access and scholarship. Higher education has accomplished its mission by expanding in areas such as diversity in enrollment and educational legislation to provide access to…

  12. Technology for People, Not Disabilities: Ensuring Access and Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Alan; Ferri, Beth A.

    2012-01-01

    The potential of technology to connect people and provide access to education, commerce, employment and entertainment has never been greater or more rapidly changing. Communication technologies and new media promise to "revolutionize our lives" by breaking down barriers and expanding access for disabled people. Yet, it is also true that technology…

  13. Establishment of mouse expanded potential stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xuefei; Antunes, Liliana; Yu, Yong; Zhu, Zhexin; Wang, Juexuan; Kolodziejczyk, Aleksandra A.; Campos, Lia S.; Wang, Cui; Yang, Fengtang; Zhong, Zhen; Fu, Beiyuan; Eckersley-Maslin, Melanie A.; Woods, Michael; Tanaka, Yosuke; Chen, Xi; Wilkinson, Adam C.; Bussell, James; White, Jacqui; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; Reik, Wolf; Göttgens, Berthold; Teichmann, Sarah A.; Tam, Patrick P. L.; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Zou, Xiangang; Lu, Liming; Liu, Pentao

    2018-01-01

    Mouse embryonic stem cells derived from the epiblast1 contribute to the somatic lineages and the germline but are excluded from the extra-embryonic tissues that are derived from the trophectoderm and the primitive endoderm2 upon reintroduction to the blastocyst. Here we report that cultures of expanded potential stem cells can be established from individual eight-cell blastomeres, and by direct conversion of mouse embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. Remarkably, a single expanded potential stem cell can contribute both to the embryo proper and to the trophectoderm lineages in a chimaera assay. Bona fide trophoblast stem cell lines and extra-embryonic endoderm stem cells can be directly derived from expanded potential stem cells in vitro. Molecular analyses of the epigenome and single-cell transcriptome reveal enrichment for blastomere-specific signature and a dynamic DNA methylome in expanded potential stem cells. The generation of mouse expanded potential stem cells highlights the feasibility of establishing expanded potential stem cells for other mammalian species. PMID:29019987

  14. Building the Case: Changing Consumer Perceptions of the Value of Expanded Community Pharmacist Services.

    PubMed

    Steckowych, Kathryn; Smith, Marie; Spiggle, Susan; Stevens, Andrew; Li, Hao

    2018-01-01

    The role of the community pharmacist has traditionally been a medication dispenser; however, community pharmacists' responsibilities must expand to include more direct patient care services in order to transform primary care practice. Use case-based scenarios to (1) determine factors that contribute to positive and negative consumer perceptions of expanded community pharmacist patient care roles, (2) identify facilitators and barriers that contribute to consumer perceptions of the value of expanded community pharmacist patient care services, and (3) develop a successful approach and strategies for increasing consumer advocacy for the value of expanded community pharmacist patient care services. Two consumer focus groups used scenario-based guided discussions and Likert scale questionnaires to elicit consumer reactions, facilitators, and barriers to expanded community pharmacist services. Convenience, timeliness, and accessibility were common positive reactions across all 3 scenarios. Team approach to care and trust were viewed as major facilitators. Participant concerns included uncertainty about pharmacist training and qualifications, privacy, pharmacists' limited bandwidth to accept new tasks, and potential increased patient costs. Common barriers to service uptake included a lack of insurance payment and physician preference to provide the services. Consumer unfamiliarity with non-traditional community pharmacist services is likely an influencer of consumers' hesitancy to utilize such services; therefore, an opportunity exists to engage consumers and advocacy organizations in supporting expanded community pharmacist roles. This study can inform consumers, advocates, community pharmacists, primary care providers, and community-based organizations on methods to shape consumer perceptions on the value of community pharmacist expanded services.

  15. Tissue Expander Overfilling: Achieving New Dimensions of Customization in Breast Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Treiser, Matthew D.; Lahair, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Overfill of tissue expanders is a commonly used modality to achieve customized dimensions in breast reconstruction. Little formal study of the dynamics of hyperexpansion of these devices has been performed to date, however. Methods: Overfill trials were performed using both Natrelle 133 MV and Mentor 8200 tissue expanders of indicated capacities ranging from 250 to 800 mL. Each expander was initially filled to its indicated capacity with normal water and then injected in regular increments to 400% overfill. Measurements of each expander’s width, height, and projection were made at indicated capacity and with each successive incremental overfill injection, and these results were then recorded, collated, and analyzed. Results: Over the first 50% overfill, all expanders demonstrated a logarithmic increase in projection (mean increase, 143 ± 9%) while maintaining essentially stable base dimensions. Overfill levels in excess of 50% were accompanied by linear increases in height, width, and projection, during which projection approached, but never equaled, base dimensions. Stress versus strain analyses demonstrated nonlinear biomechanical dynamics during the first 50% overfill, followed by standard elastic dynamics up to 400% overfill. At no point during the study, did expander tensions outstrip elastic properties, thereby explaining the lack of device rupture. Conclusions: Through overfilling, tunable geometries of tissue expanders can be accessed that may provide for increasing customization of reconstructions, particularly at overfill volumes up to 50% over indicated capacity. This study should serve to guide tissue expander selection and fill volumes that surgeons may implement in obtaining ideal reconstructed breast shapes. PMID:27014541

  16. Expanded Schools: Developing Mindsets to Support Academic Success. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ExpandED Schools, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The national demonstration of ExpandED Schools, The After-School Corporation's (TASC) expanded learning model, was launched in 2011-12 in New York City, Baltimore, and New Orleans. The ExpandED Schools demonstration is being evaluated by Policy Studies Associates (PSA) and is rolling out at a time when there is heightened awareness among…

  17. Environmental Assessment Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project Weld County, Colorado

    SciT

    N /A

    1999-03-02

    The U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) has considered a proposal from the State of Colorado, Office of Energy Conservation (OEC), for funding construction of the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project in Weld County, Colorado. OEC plans to enter into a contracting arrangement with Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCO) for the completion of these activities. PSCo, along with its subcontractors and business partners, are jointly developing the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project. DOE completed an environmental assessment of the original proposed project in August 1997. Since then, the geographic scope and the design of the project changed, necessitating additional review of the projectmore » under the National Environmental Policy Act. The project now calls for the possible construction of up to 48 wind turbines on State and private lands. PSCo and its partners have initiated construction of the project on private land in Weld County, Colorado. A substation, access road and some wind turbines have been installed. However, to date, DOE has not provided any funding for these activities. DOE, through its Commercialization Ventures Program, has solicited applications for financial assistance from state energy offices, in a teaming arrangement with private-sector organizations, for projects that will accelerate the commercialization of emerging renewable energy technologies. The Commercialization Ventures Program was established by the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Technology Competitiveness Act of 1989 (P.L. 101-218) as amended by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486). The Program seeks to assist entry into the marketplace of newly emerging renewable energy technologies, or of innovative applications of existing technologies. In short, an emerging renewable energy technology is one which has already proven viable but which has had little or no operational experience. The Program is managed by the Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable

  18. NASA Expands BEAM’s Mission

    2017-12-05

    The mission of the Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) on the International Space Station has been, well, expanded. After more than a year and a half on orbit providing performance data on expandable habitat technologies, NASA and Bigelow Aerospace have reached agreement to extend the life of the privately-owned module. For a minimum of three more years, BEAM will be a more operational element of the station used in crew activities and on board storage, allowing time to gather more data on the technology’s structural integrity, thermal stability, and resistance to space debris, radiation and microbial growth. _______________________________________ FOLLOW THE SPACE STATION! Twitter: https://twitter.com/Space_Station Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ISS Instagram: https://instagram.com/iss/

  19. Design of laser afocal zoom expander system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lian; Zeng, Chun-Mei; Hu, Tian-Tian

    2018-01-01

    Laser afocal zoom expander system due to the beam diameter variable, can be used in the light sheet illumination microscope to observe the samples of different sizes. Based on the principle of afocal zoom system, the laser collimation and beam expander system with a total length of less than 110mm, 6 pieces of spherical lens and a beam expander ratio of 10 is designed by using Zemax software. The system is focused on laser with a wavelength of 532nm, divergence angle of less than 4mrad and incident diameter of 4mm. With the combination of 6 spherical lens, the beam divergence angle is 0.4mrad at the maximum magnification ratio, and the RMS values at different rates are less than λ/4. This design is simple in structure and easy to process and adjust. It has certain practical value.

  20. Expanding your horizons in science and mathematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Through the presentation of its Expanding Your Horizons in Science and Mathematics career education conferences for secondary school young women, the Math/Science Network continues its efforts to remove the educational, psychological, and cultural barriers which prevent women from entering math-and science-based careers. The Expanding Your Horizons conferences were presented on 77 college, university and high school campuses across the United States. This year, these unique one day conferences reached 15,500 students, 3,000 parents and educators, and involved 3,000 career women who volunteered their services as conference planners, workshop leaders, speakers, and role models.

  1. The Expanded Large Scale Gap Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    NSWC TR 86-32 DTIC THE EXPANDED LARGE SCALE GAP TEST BY T. P. LIDDIARD D. PRICE RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT ’ ~MARCH 1987 Ap~proved for public...arises, to reduce the spread in the LSGT 50% gap value.) The worst charges, such as those with the highest or lowest densities, the largest re-pressed...Arlington, VA 22217 PE 62314N INS3A 1 RJ14E31 7R4TBK 11 TITLE (Include Security CIlmsilficatiorn The Expanded Large Scale Gap Test . 12. PEIRSONAL AUTHOR() T

  2. Suicide trends in an expanding mental health service in Auckland.

    PubMed

    Argyle, Nick

    2010-10-01

    Suicide is a global health priority. It is important to analyse the effects of investment in mental health services on suicide rates. This paper presents and discusses recent changes in suicide rates and diagnostic mix among clients of the mental health service in Auckland during a time of service growth. Details of suicides among current clients were analysed for the years 1993 to 2006, comparing the periods 1993-1999 and 2000-2006. These periods were compared with the local population and national figures. The local population suicide rate decreased significantly with the rate among clients increasing slightly so the proportion occurring among clients increased (up to 31%). There was an increase in non-psychotic diagnoses. As access to services expands the proportion of suicides that occur in known clients will paradoxically increase. Service expansion may have contributed to the falling population suicide rate in Auckland.

  3. Expanding P450 catalytic reaction space through evolution and engineering

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, John A.; Farwell, Christopher C.; Arnold, Frances H.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in protein and metabolic engineering have led to wider use of enzymes to synthesize important molecules. However, many desirable transformations are not catalyzed by any known enzyme, driving interest in understanding how new enzymes can be created. The cytochrome P450 enzyme family, whose members participate in xenobiotic metabolism and natural products biosynthesis, catalyzes an impressive range of difficult chemical reactions that continues to grow as new enzymes are characterized. Recent work has revealed that P450-derived enzymes can also catalyze useful reactions previously accessible only to synthetic chemistry. The evolution and engineering of these enzymes provides an excellent case study for how to genetically encode new chemistry and expand biology’s reaction space. PMID:24658056

  4. Expanding medicines for neurologic disorders on the WHO Model List.

    PubMed

    Rimmer, Kathryn; Shah, Hiral; Thakur, Kiran

    2017-03-07

    The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines is a recommended formulary for high-priority diseases based on public health trends and epidemiology patterns. The biennial publication serves as a guide for countries, particularly low- and lower-middle-income countries, to develop their own national essential medicines list (EML), and many nongovernmental organizations base their medication supplies on the WHO EML. Over the last 40 years, WHO has expanded the EML in response to treatment gaps for infectious diseases, pediatrics, palliative care, and cancer. In contrast, neurotherapeutics are poorly represented on the Model List despite the global burden of neurologic disorders, which have continued to increase in the last decade. It is imperative that the neurology community advocate for more evidence-based neurologic medicines on the WHO EML. Equitable access to essential neurologic medicines is a crucial step toward reducing the treatment gap for high-burden neurologic disorders worldwide. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  5. BWI terminal accessibility study.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-12-01

    This study details the landside accessibility of the BWI airport. The accessibility of the airport is examined from : each of the access facilities. Included in the study are the terminal garage, ESP parking lot, all satellite lots and : terminal cur...

  6. Accessible Near-Earth Objects (NEOs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Brent W.

    2015-01-01

    Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are asteroids and comets whose orbits are in close proximity to Earth's orbit; specifically, they have perihelia less than 1.3 astronomical units. NEOs particularly near Earth asteroids (NEAs) are identified as potential destinations for future human exploration missions. In this presentation I provide an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding the astrodynamical accessibility of NEAs according to NASA's Near Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS). I also investigate the extremes of NEA accessibility using case studies and illuminate the fact that a space-based survey for NEOs is essential to expanding the set of known accessible NEAs for future human exploration missions.

  7. Digital Storytelling: Expanding Media Possibilities for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLellan, Hilary, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Stories offer a powerful framework for engagement, reflection, and other important skills that young people need to learn. As digital media have expanded, so have the possibilities for creating stories. Here, several examples of those new possibilities are examined, examples that highlight student-produced online broadcasting initiatives,…

  8. Supporting Student Outcomes through Expanded Learning Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Priscilla M.

    2009-01-01

    This purpose of this report is to examine the role of after school and summer learning programs in supporting student success and to help bridge the divide between out-of-school time programs and schools by offering research-derived principles for effective expanded learning partnership efforts. Discussion points include: (1) Benefits of expanded…

  9. Women Engineering Faculty: Expanding the Pipeline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greni, Nadene Deiterman

    2006-01-01

    The purpose for this case study was to explore the features of undergraduate engineering departmental and college support that influenced the persistence of women students. Women engineering faculty members were among the participants at three Land Grant universities in the Midwest. The data revealed the theme, Expanding the Pipeline, and…

  10. Expanding CTE Opportunities through Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinstry, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The global economy, 21st century skills, knowledge society, college and career readiness, digital and project-based learning are all common terms to educators who are expanding their learning environments beyond the classroom to meet the needs of all students. It is common knowledge that the rapid technological advances of this century have…

  11. Expanding Arts Education in a Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Haeryun; Piro, Joseph M.

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a way to expand the study of arts education within new contexts of technology and globalization. Drawing upon theories that have informed arts and aesthetic education in the past, the authors suggest new applications for these ideas to ensure that arts education sustains its significance in twenty-first-century society. The…

  12. Custom Ontologies for Expanded Network Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    for Expanded Network Analysis. In Visualising Network Information (pp. 6-1 – 6-10). Meeting Proceedings RTO-MP-IST-063, Paper 6. Neuilly-sur-Seine...Even to this day, current research groups are working to develop an approach that involves taking all available text, video, imagery and audio and

  13. FDA Expands Abiraterone Approval for Prostate Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    The FDA has expanded the approval of abiraterone (Zytiga) to treat men with metastatic prostate cancer. The agency approved abiraterone, in combination with prednisone, for men whose cancer that is responsive to hormone-blocking treatments (also known as castration-sensitive) and is at high risk of progressing.

  14. An Expanding Universe in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, David

    1991-01-01

    Two computer-generated star charts that can be used as overlay transparencies to show an expanding universe are presented. Directions on how to use the star charts to determine the Hubble constant and the age of the universe are provided. (KR)

  15. Responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening

    PubMed Central

    Henneman, Lidewij; Borry, Pascal; Chokoshvili, Davit; Cornel, Martina C; van El, Carla G; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Howard, Heidi C; Janssens, Sandra; Kayserili, Hülya; Lakeman, Phillis; Lucassen, Anneke; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Vidmar, Lovro; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo J; Peterlin, Borut

    2016-01-01

    This document of the European Society of Human Genetics contains recommendations regarding responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening. Carrier screening is defined here as the detection of carrier status of recessive diseases in couples or persons who do not have an a priori increased risk of being a carrier based on their or their partners' personal or family history. Expanded carrier screening offers carrier screening for multiple autosomal and X-linked recessive disorders, facilitated by new genetic testing technologies, and allows testing of individuals regardless of ancestry or geographic origin. Carrier screening aims to identify couples who have an increased risk of having an affected child in order to facilitate informed reproductive decision making. In previous decades, carrier screening was typically performed for one or few relatively common recessive disorders associated with significant morbidity, reduced life-expectancy and often because of a considerable higher carrier frequency in a specific population for certain diseases. New genetic testing technologies enable the expansion of screening to multiple conditions, genes or sequence variants. Expanded carrier screening panels that have been introduced to date have been advertised and offered to health care professionals and the public on a commercial basis. This document discusses the challenges that expanded carrier screening might pose in the context of the lessons learnt from decades of population-based carrier screening and in the context of existing screening criteria. It aims to contribute to the public and professional discussion and to arrive at better clinical and laboratory practice guidelines. PMID:26980105

  16. Expanding the Boundaries of Adult Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, E. Paulette

    2012-01-01

    Religious institutions wear many hats. In addition to meeting spiritual needs, they also serve as educational, cultural, political, and social centers. Like the world in general, many of them have responded to societal changes. They have expanded their contextual, geographical, and physical boundaries. Also, as demonstrated throughout this…

  17. NCI Expands Repository of Cancer Research Models

    Cancer.gov

    NCI is expanding its Patient-Derived Models Repository (PDMR), which generates and distributes models like patient-derived xenografts and organoids. In this Cancer Currents Q&A with Drs. Yvonne Evrard and James Doroshow, learn how the expansion can help cancer researchers make more rapid progress.

  18. Properties of extruded expandable breadfruit products

    Dried breadfruit was extruded with a twin screw extruder to develop a value-added expanded fruit product. This research studied the effects of barrel temperature (120-160°C), moisture content (13-25%), feeding rate (13-25 kg/h) and screw speed (115-175rpm) on physicochemical properties (bulk densit...

  19. Expanding Perspectives on HRD Research. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on expanding perspectives in human resource development (HRD) research. "The Concept of Culture in International and Comparative HRD Research: Methodological Problems and Possible Solutions" (Alexander Ardichvili, K. Peter Kuchinke) discusses the following topics: (1) alternative…

  20. Expanding the Audience for the Performing Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreasen, Alan R.

    Becoming involved in the arts is a process that involves movement through several stages, from disinterest to active attendance at and enthusiasm for performing arts events. Since target consumers at any time will differ in their placement on this continuum, marketing programs to expand arts audiences must first identify where each target segment…

  1. Expanding Assessment Methods and Moments in History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Jennifer; de Pont, Genevieve; Brailsford, Ian

    2012-01-01

    History courses at The University of Auckland are typically assessed at two or three moments during a semester. The methods used normally employ two essays and a written examination answering questions set by the lecturer. This study describes an assessment innovation in 2008 that expanded both the frequency and variety of activities completed by…

  2. Refrigeration generation using expander-generator units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, A. V.; Agababov, V. S.; Koryagin, A. V.; Baidakova, Yu. O.

    2016-05-01

    The problems of using the expander-generator unit (EGU) to generate refrigeration, along with electricity were considered. It is shown that, on the level of the temperatures of refrigeration flows using the EGU, one can provide the refrigeration supply of the different consumers: ventilation and air conditioning plants and industrial refrigerators and freezers. The analysis of influence of process parameters on the cooling power of the EGU, which depends on the parameters of the gas expansion process in the expander and temperatures of cooled environment, was carried out. The schematic diagram of refrigeration generation plant based on EGU is presented. The features and advantages of EGU to generate refrigeration compared with thermotransformer of steam compressive and absorption types were shown, namely: there is no need to use the energy generated by burning fuel to operate the EGU; beneficial use of the heat delivered to gas from the flow being cooled in equipment operating on gas; energy production along with refrigeration generation, which makes it possible to create, using EGU, the trigeneration plants without using the energy power equipment. It is shown that the level of the temperatures of refrigeration flows, which can be obtained by using the EGU on existing technological decompression stations of the transported gas, allows providing the refrigeration supply of various consumers. The information that the refrigeration capacity of an expander-generator unit not only depends on the parameters of the process of expansion of gas flowing in the expander (flow rate, temperatures and pressures at the inlet and outlet) but it is also determined by the temperature needed for a consumer and the initial temperature of the flow of the refrigeration-carrier being cooled. The conclusion was made that the expander-generator units can be used to create trigeneration plants both at major power plants and at small energy.

  3. A balloon-expandable sheath facilitates transfemoral TAVR in patients with peripheral vascular disease and tortuosity.

    PubMed

    Goldsweig, Andrew M; Faheem, Osman; Cleman, Michael W; Forrest, John K

    2015-06-01

    We sought to perform transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) via the transfemoral approach in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD), small caliber ileofemoral vessels and vascular tortuosity. For patients with increased surgical risk, TAVR is associated with a higher 1-year survival rate than surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). Transfemoral vascular access for TAVR results in superior outcomes versus procedures performed via other routes in terms of mortality, morbidity and healthcare economics. In many patients, the ability to safely perform the procedure via the transfemoral approach is limited by narrow, diseased and tortuous ileofemoral vasculature. We employed the SoloPath Balloon Expandable TransFemoral Access System (Terumo Med. Corp., Tokyo, Japan) to perform transfemoral TAVR in five patients with PAD, small caliber ileofemoral vessels and vascular tortuosity. We report our experience using this balloon-expandable sheath during 5 cases of transfemoral TAVR in patients with inhospitable ileofemoral vasculature of mean diameter ⩽ 5.8 mm. The unexpanded sheath's malleable structure and hydrophilic coating permitted deployment despite severe stenoses and tortuosity. Subsequent inflation to 18 Fr facilitated successful TAVR. Postprocedural angiography demonstrated no significant vascular access complications. In one case, the entire procedure was performed percutaneously, without common femoral artery surgical cutdown. The SoloPath sheath system permits transfemoral TAVR in patients with PAD small caliber ileofemoral vessels and vascular tortuosity. The transfemoral balloon-expandable sheath allowed these patients to avoid the increased morbidity and mortality risks associated with direct aortic or transapical access. © The Author(s), 2015.

  4. Access Based Cost Estimation for Beddown Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-23

    logic. This research expands upon the existing research by using Visual Basic for Applications ( VBA ) to further customize and streamline the...methods with the use of VBA . Calculations are completed in either underlying Form VBA code or through global modules accessible throughout the...query and SQL referencing. Attempts were made where possible to align data structures with possible external sources to minimize import errors and

  5. Access to Higher Education in Egypt: Examining Trends by University Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckner, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Access to higher education in Egypt is expanding in both the public and private sectors. Using a nationally representative sample from the Survey of Young People in Egypt, this article is able to disaggregate patterns of access by both demographic group and university sector. Findings suggest that access in the public sector is governed strongly…

  6. Expanding the reach of probiotics through social enterprises.

    PubMed

    Reid, G; Kort, R; Alvarez, S; Bourdet-Sicard, R; Benoit, V; Cunningham, M; Saulnier, D M; van Hylckama Vlieg, J E T; Verstraelen, H; Sybesma, W

    2018-05-25

    The rapid rise in microbiome and probiotic science has led to estimates of product creation and sales exceeding $50 billion within five years. However, many people do not have access to affordable products, and regulatory agencies have stifled progress. The objective of a discussion group at the 2017 meeting of the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics was to identify mechanisms to confer the benefits of probiotics to a larger portion of the world's population. Three initiatives, built around fermented food, were discussed with different methods of targeting populations that face enormous challenges of malnutrition, infectious disease, poverty and violent conflict. As new candidate probiotic strains emerge, and the market diversifies towards more personalised interventions, manufacturing processes will need to evolve. Information dissemination through scientific channels and social media is projected to provide consumers and healthcare providers with rapid access to clinical results, and to identify the nearest location of sites making new and affordable probiotic food and supplements. This rapid translation of science to individual well-being will not only expand the beneficiaries of probiotics, but also fuel new social enterprises and economic business models.

  7. Magnetic fields in an expanding universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastor, David; Traschen, Jennie

    2014-04-01

    We find a solution to 4D Einstein-Maxwell theory coupled to a massless dilaton field, for all values of the dilaton coupling, describing a Melvin magnetic field in an expanding universe with ‘stiff matter’ equation of state parameter w = +1. As the universe expands, magnetic flux becomes more concentrated around the symmetry axis for dilaton coupling a\\lt1/\\sqrt{3} and more dispersed for a\\gt1/\\sqrt{3}. An electric field circulates around the symmetry axis in the direction determined by Lenz's law. For a = 0 the magnetic flux through a disc of fixed comoving radius is proportional to the proper area of the disc. This result disagrees with the usual expectation based on a test magnetic field that this flux should be constant, and we show why this difference arises. We also find a Melvin solution in an accelerating universe with w = -7/9 for a dilaton field with a certain exponential potential.

  8. Expanding Advanced Civilizations in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gros, C.

    The 1950 lunch-table remark by Enrico Fermi `Where is everybody' has started intensive scientific and philosophical discussions about what we call nowadays the `Fermi paradox': If there had been ever a single advanced civilization in the cosmological history of our galaxy, dedicated to expansion, it would have had plenty of time to colonize the entire galaxy via exponential growth. No evidence of present or past alien visits to earth are known to us, leading to the standard conclusion that no advanced expanding civilization has ever existed in the milky-way. This conclusion rest fundamentally on the ad-hoc assumption, that any alien civilizations dedicated to expansion at one time would remain dedicated to expansions forever. Considering our limited knowledge about alien civilizations we need however to relax this basic assumption. Here we show that a substantial and stable population of expanding advanced civilization might consequently exist in our galaxy.

  9. Black holes in an expanding universe.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Gary W; Maeda, Kei-ichi

    2010-04-02

    An exact solution representing black holes in an expanding universe is found. The black holes are maximally charged and the universe is expanding with arbitrary equation of state (P = w rho with -1 < or = for all w < or = 1). It is an exact solution of the Einstein-scalar-Maxwell system, in which we have two Maxwell-type U(1) fields coupled to the scalar field. The potential of the scalar field is an exponential. We find a regular horizon, which depends on one parameter [the ratio of the energy density of U(1) fields to that of the scalar field]. The horizon is static because of the balance on the horizon between gravitational attractive force and U(1) repulsive force acting on the scalar field. We also calculate the black hole temperature.

  10. Small Expanded Craters in the Northern Lowlands

    2016-08-24

    This image shows many small craters over a larger degraded one in the northern lowlands. These small craters are smoother and shallower than their counterparts closer to the equator. Scientists believe this difference is a result of impact into a region with subsurface ice, which sublimates when exposed to the Martian atmosphere. This causes the crater to gradually expand and flatten after impact. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21021

  11. Texaphyrins: Tumor Localizing Redox Active Expanded Porphyrins

    PubMed Central

    Arambula, Jonathan F.; Preihs, Christian; Borthwick, Derric; Magda, Darren; Sessler, Jonathan L.

    2011-01-01

    Texaphyrins, a class of tumor selective expanded porphyrins capable of coordinating large metals, have been found to act as redox mediators within biological systems. This review summarizes studies involving their experimentaluse in cancer chemotherapy. Mechanistic insights involving their presumed mode of action are also described, as well as certain structure activity relationships. Finally, newer texaphyrin-based applications associated with targeted drug delivery are presented. PMID:21355841

  12. Expanding Private Production of Defense Services,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    the commercial firms that typi- cally come to mind as characteristic of entrepreneurial enterprise. Which bundle offers the most effective unity of... The second step toward expanded outsourcing is to identify the ac- tivities that are most cost- effective to outsource. A review of the empirical...workload between internal and external sources when the following circumstances apply: (1) an external source looks more cost- effective , but an

  13. Expandable Metal Liner For Downhole Components

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe R.

    2004-10-05

    A liner for an annular downhole component is comprised of an expandable metal tube having indentations along its surface. The indentations are formed in the wall of the tube either by drawing the tube through a die, by hydroforming, by stamping, or roll forming and may extend axially, radially, or spirally along its wall. The indentations accommodate radial and axial expansion of the tube within the downhole component. The tube is inserted into the annular component and deformed to match an inside surface of the component. The tube may be expanded using a hydroforming process or by drawing a mandrel through the tube. The tube may be expanded in such a manner so as to place it in compression against the inside wall of the component. The tube is useful for improving component hydraulics, shielding components from contamination, inhibiting corrosion, and preventing wear to the downhole component during use. It may also be useful for positioning conduit and insulated conductors within the component. An insulating material may be disposed between the tube and the component in order to prevent galvanic corrosion of the downhole component.

  14. Intermittency Statistics in the Expanding Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuesta, M. E.; Parashar, T. N.; Matthaeus, W. H.

    2017-12-01

    The solar wind is observed to be turbulent. One of the open questions in solar wind research is how the turbulence evolves as the solar wind expands to great distances. Some studies have focused on evolution of the outer scale but not much has been done to understand how intermittency evolves in the expanding wind beyond 1 AU (see [1,2]). We use magnetic field data from Voyager I spacecraft from 1 to 10AU to study the evolution of statistics of magnetic discontinuities. We perform various statistical tests on these discontinuities and make connections to the physical processes occurring in the expanding wind.[1] Tsurutani, Bruce T., and Edward J. Smith. "Interplanetary discontinuities: Temporal variations and the radial gradient from 1 to 8.5 AU." Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 84.A6 (1979): 2773-2787.[2] Greco, A., et al. "Evidence for nonlinear development of magnetohydrodynamic scale intermittency in the inner heliosphere." The Astrophysical Journal 749.2 (2012): 105.

  15. Flute Instability of Expanding Plasma Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudnikova, Galina; Vshivkov, Vitali

    2000-10-01

    The expansion of plasma against a magnetized background where collisions play no role is a situation common to many plasma phenomena. The character of interaction between expanding plasma and background plasma is depending of the ratio of the expansion velocity to the ambient Alfven velocity. If the expansion speed is greater than the background Alfven speed (super-Alfvenic flows) a collisionless shock waves are formed in background plasma. It is originally think that if the expansion speed is less than Alfvenic speed (sub-Alfvenic flows) the interaction of plasma flows will be laminar in nature. However, the results of laboratory experiments and chemical releases in magnetosphere have shown the development of flute instability on the boundary of expanding plasma (Rayleigh-Taylor instability). A lot of theoretical and experimental papers have been devoted to study the Large Larmor Flute Instability (LLFI) of plasma expanding into a vacuum magnetic field. In the present paper on the base of computer simulation of plasma cloud expansion in magnetizied background plasma the regimes of development and stabilization LLFI for super- and sub-Alfvenic plasma flows are investigated. 2D hybrid numerical model is based on kinetic Vlasov equation for ions and hydrodynamic approximation for electrons. The similarity parameters characterizing the regimes of laminar flows are founded. The stabilization of LLFI takes place with the transition from sub- to super-Alfvenic plasma cloud expansion. The results of the comparision between computer simulation and laboratory simulation are described.

  16. Public Attitudes Toward Expanded Newborn Screening.

    PubMed

    DeLuca, Jane M

    There is limited research available on public knowledge and understanding of expanded newborn screening (NBS). The aims of this study were to assess current public knowledge and understanding of newborn screening disorders and procedures, perceived education needs, and preferences for the delivery of NBS information and education. An additional aim was to develop a beginning understanding of public attitudes toward screening for complex, severe, and in some cases untreatable disorders. In this preliminary descriptive study, eighty-eight participants completed surveys querying their general knowledge of NBS, preferred means of receiving NBS information and education, and their opinions about screening for severe disorders such as lysosomal storage diseases (LSD). Most study participants lacked general knowledge about current NBS practices, however, they supported expanding screening for severe and in some cases untreatable conditions. Most participants were enthusiastic about expanding NBS; however, those with more years of education were cautious regarding extensive costs of diagnosing and treating rare disorders. Newborn screening continues to evolve through new technological developments and the addition of more disorders to screening panels. More research of into public acceptance of newborn screening is needed. Addressing the educational needs of the public is important for improving their understanding of NBS and promoting patient-centered care in the era of genomic screening. Enhanced educational efforts are necessary for improving public understanding of newborn screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Tissue Expander versus Tissue Expander and Latissimus Flap in Morbidly Obese Breast Reconstruction Patients

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Robert L.; Chandler, Robert G.; Parks, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Background: Immediate postmastectomy breast reconstruction in morbidly obese patients represents a challenge because neither prosthetic nor abdominal-based options may be suitable. Methods: This study compared a previously published cohort of immediate prosthetic reconstruction of 346 patients (511 breasts) of whom 49 patients (67 breasts) were morbidly obese (defined as a body mass index > 35) with a morbidly obese patient population whose breasts were reconstructed immediately following postmastectomy with latissimus flap and tissue expander (21 patients and 22 breasts) in the same time period. The preoperative risk factors of mastectomy such as tobacco use, diabetes, and prior radiation and the postoperative complications of mastectomy such as skin necrosis, seroma, and prosthesis loss were examined. The explantation of the tissue expander provided a defined endpoint of reconstruction failure. Results: The average body mass index in the tissue expander/implant group and in the latissimus flap plus tissue expander/implant group was 40.9 and 40.1, respectively. The risk profile of diabetes and tobacco use was similar in both groups. Fifteen of the 67 breasts (22.3%) of the tissue expander/implant group and 15 of the 23 breasts (65.2%) of the latissimus flap group had received prior radiation. The prosthesis loss was 13 of 67 breasts (19.4%) that had tissue-expander–alone reconstruction and 1 of 22 (4.8%) in the latissimus group that had tissue expander reconstruction. Modification of donor-site incision and skin-island location in the latissimus group of patients can minimize scar deformity. Conclusion: The loss rate in immediate postmastectomy reconstruction in morbidly obese patients with latissimus flap plus tissue expander was substantially lower than the loss rate in those with breast reconstructed with tissue expander alone. PMID:25878934

  18. Enhancing Ocean Research Data Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Cynthia; Groman, Robert; Shepherd, Adam; Allison, Molly; Arko, Robert; Chen, Yu; Fox, Peter; Glover, David; Hitzler, Pascal; Leadbetter, Adam; Narock, Thomas; West, Patrick; Wiebe, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) works in partnership with ocean science investigators to publish data from research projects funded by the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections and the Office of Polar Programs Antarctic Organisms & Ecosystems Program at the U.S. National Science Foundation. Since 2006, researchers have been contributing data to the BCO-DMO data system, and it has developed into a rich repository of data from ocean, coastal and Great Lakes research programs. While the ultimate goal of the BCO-DMO is to ensure preservation of NSF funded project data and to provide open access to those data, achievement of those goals is attained through a series of related phases that benefits from active collaboration and cooperation with a large community of research scientists as well as curators of data and information at complementary data repositories. The BCO-DMO is just one of many intermediate data management centers created to facilitate long-term preservation of data and improve access to ocean research data. Through partnerships with other data management professionals and active involvement in local and global initiatives, BCO-DMO staff members are working to enhance access to ocean research data available from the online BCO-DMO data system. Continuing efforts in use of controlled vocabulary terms, development of ontology design patterns and publication of content as Linked Open Data are contributing to improved discovery and availability of BCO-DMO curated data and increased interoperability of related content available from distributed repositories. We will demonstrate how Semantic Web technologies (e.g. RDF/XML, SKOS, OWL and SPARQL) have been integrated into BCO-DMO data access and delivery systems to better serve the ocean research community and to contribute to an expanding global knowledge network.

  19. 21 CFR 312.305 - Requirements for all expanded access uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... contained in an existing IND if the sponsor of the existing IND grants a right of reference to the IND. (2... therapeutic options that would ordinarily be tried before resorting to the investigational drug or an...

  20. 21 CFR 312.305 - Requirements for all expanded access uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contained in an existing IND if the sponsor of the existing IND grants a right of reference to the IND. (2... therapeutic options that would ordinarily be tried before resorting to the investigational drug or an...

  1. 21 CFR 312.305 - Requirements for all expanded access uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... contained in an existing IND if the sponsor of the existing IND grants a right of reference to the IND. (2... therapeutic options that would ordinarily be tried before resorting to the investigational drug or an...

  2. 21 CFR 312.305 - Requirements for all expanded access uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... contained in an existing IND if the sponsor of the existing IND grants a right of reference to the IND. (2... therapeutic options that would ordinarily be tried before resorting to the investigational drug or an...

  3. Unemployment, Entrepreneurial Education and Mega Universities: Challenges to Expanding Access in Education in Nigeria University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Undie, John Atewhoble; Okafor, Victor

    2014-01-01

    In fundamental economics, individuals acquired education for two broad reasons, as an investment and as consumption. The investment function of education has continued to create tension for job search leading to cases of unemployment. Entrepreneurship education and establishment of mega universities have been identified as panaceas. This paper…

  4. Expanding Access to Large-Scale Genomic Data While Promoting Privacy: A Game Theoretic Approach.

    PubMed

    Wan, Zhiyu; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy; Xia, Weiyi; Clayton, Ellen Wright; Kantarcioglu, Murat; Malin, Bradley

    2017-02-02

    Emerging scientific endeavors are creating big data repositories of data from millions of individuals. Sharing data in a privacy-respecting manner could lead to important discoveries, but high-profile demonstrations show that links between de-identified genomic data and named persons can sometimes be reestablished. Such re-identification attacks have focused on worst-case scenarios and spurred the adoption of data-sharing practices that unnecessarily impede research. To mitigate concerns, organizations have traditionally relied upon legal deterrents, like data use agreements, and are considering suppressing or adding noise to genomic variants. In this report, we use a game theoretic lens to develop more effective, quantifiable protections for genomic data sharing. This is a fundamentally different approach because it accounts for adversarial behavior and capabilities and tailors protections to anticipated recipients with reasonable resources, not adversaries with unlimited means. We demonstrate this approach via a new public resource with genomic summary data from over 8,000 individuals-the Sequence and Phenotype Integration Exchange (SPHINX)-and show that risks can be balanced against utility more effectively than with traditional approaches. We further show the generalizability of this framework by applying it to other genomic data collection and sharing endeavors. Recognizing that such models are dependent on a variety of parameters, we perform extensive sensitivity analyses to show that our findings are robust to their fluctuations. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Expanding Access to Knowledge: Continuing Higher Education. NUCEA 1915-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohfeld, Rae Wahl, Ed.

    In honor of its 75th anniversary, the National University Continuing Education Association (NUCEA) presents this compendium of the history of continuing higher education. It traces the adult education movement from its beginnings and explores the role of continuing education and NUCEA in the 20th century. Articles, excerpts, and reports are…

  6. Managing the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Policy Implications of Expanding Global Access to Nuclear Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-03

    Spent nuclear fuel disposal has remained the most critical aspect of the nuclear fuel cycle for the United States, where longstanding nonproliferation...inalienable right and by and large, neither have U.S. government officials. However, the case of Iran raises perhaps the most critical question in...the enrichment process can take advantage of the slight difference in atomic mass between 235U and 238U. The typical enrichment process requires

  7. Managing the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Policy Implications of Expanding Global Access to Nuclear Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    inalienable right and, by and large, neither have U.S. government officials. However, the case of Iran raises perhaps the most critical question in this...slight difference in atomic mass between 235U and 238U. The typical enrichment process requires about 10 lbs of uranium U3O8 to produce 1 lb of low...thermal neutrons but can induce fission in all actinides , including all plutonium isotopes. Therefore, nuclear fuel for a fast reactor must have a

  8. Managing the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Policy Implications of Expanding Global Access to Nuclear Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-05

    However, the case of Iran raises perhaps the most critical question in this decade for strengthening the nuclear nonproliferation regime: How can...enrichment process can take advantage of the slight difference in atomic mass between 235U and 238U. The typical enrichment process requires about 10 lbs of...neutrons but can induce fission in all actinides , including all plutonium isotopes. Therefore, nuclear fuel for a fast reactor must have a higher

  9. Managing the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Policy Implications of Expanding Global Access to Nuclear Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-20

    critical aspect of the nuclear fuel cycle for the United States, where longstanding nonproliferation policy discouraged commercial nuclear fuel...have U.S. government officials. However, the case of Iran raises perhaps the most critical question in this decade for strengthening the nuclear...slight difference in atomic mass between 235U and 238U. The typical enrichment process requires about 10 lbs of uranium U3O8 to produce 1 lb of low

  10. Service-Learning in the Financial Planning Curriculum: Expanding Access to the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annis, Paul M.; Palmer, Lance; Goetz, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Service-learning projects are a cornerstone of student experiential learning. Such programs have proven to be mutually beneficial to communities and students within a variety of family and consumer sciences courses. However, there is a paucity of literature addressing service-learning efforts within the field of financial planning. There is an…

  11. Expanding Access to Vocational-Technical Education in Massachusetts. White Paper No. 136

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardon, Ken; Fraser, Alison L.

    2015-01-01

    It is clear from assessment, graduation, and follow-up data that career-vocational technical education (CVTE), as it is practiced in Massachusetts, is a success. CVTE is becoming so popular that there are up to 5,000 more applicants for places in Massachusetts' vocational technical schools than there are openings, creating waiting lists. This…

  12. Expanding Health Care Access Through Education: Dissemination and Implementation of the ECHO Model.

    PubMed

    Katzman, Joanna G; Galloway, Kevin; Olivas, Cynthia; McCoy-Stafford, Kimberly; Duhigg, Daniel; Comerci, George; Kalishman, Summers; Buckenmaier, Chester C; McGhee, Laura; Joltes, Kristin; Bradford, Andrea; Shelley, Brian; Hernandez, Jessica; Arora, Sanjeev

    2016-03-01

    Project ECHO (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes) is an evidence-based model that provides high-quality medical education for common and complex diseases through telementoring and comanagement of patients with primary care clinicians. In a one to many knowledge network, the ECHO model helps to bridge the gap between primary care clinicians and specialists by enhancing the knowledge, skills, confidence, and practice of primary care clinicians in their local communities. As a result, patients in rural and urban underserved areas are able to receive best practice care without long waits or having to travel long distances. The ECHO model has been replicated in 43 university hubs in the United States and five other countries. A new replication tool was developed by the Project ECHO Pain team and U.S. Army Medical Command to ensure a high-fidelity replication of the model. The adoption of the tool led to successful replication of ECHO in the Army Pain initiative. This replication tool has the potential to improve the fidelity of ECHO replication efforts around the world. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  13. Expanding Access to Mental Health Counselors: Evaluation of the TRICARE Demonstration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    the MCSC. Last , we conducted several additional interviews with other stakeholders affected by TRICARE’s practice requirements for LMHCs. In...ability to accomplish things much better/a lit- tle better or much better compared with 6 months ago 27.9/57.8 Deal with social situations 1 if...patient rates her or his ability to deal with social situations much bet- ter/a little better or much better as compared with 6 months ago 33.0/59.6 Deal

  14. NCTN/NCORP Data Archive: Expanding Access to Clinical Trial Data

    Cancer.gov

    NCI is launching the NCTN/NCORP Data Archive, a centralized repository of patient-level data from phase III clinical trials conducted by NCI’s NCTN and NCORP trials programs and the National Cancer Institute of Canada-Clinical Trials Group.

  15. Calling for an end to attacks on Syrian civilians and expanded humanitarian access.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Royce, Edward R. [R-CA-39

    2014-03-14

    House - 04/30/2014 Ordered to be Reported in the Nature of a Substitute (Amended) by Unanimous Consent. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. Expanding Access, Knowledge, and Participation for Learning Disabled Young Adults with Low Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Donita Massengill; Disney, Laurel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a deeper understanding of learning disabled young adults who struggle with low literacy skills in order to learn more about their literacy profiles and, from an emic perspective, understand the affective factors that may have influenced their attendance and persistence in a post-secondary residential…

  17. Expanding access to non-traditional vaccines: a perspective from Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Suwantika, Auliya A; Postma, Maarten J

    2014-12-01

    In addition to the use of traditional vaccines in the National Immunization Program, the introduction: of additional vaccines in Indonesia appears to be important to further reduce rates of childhood mortality. However, it typically takes at least two decades for additional vaccines to be introduced into the National Immunization Program since decisions to introduce additional vaccines must be supported with clear strategies to guarantee the supply of affordable vaccines, financial sustainability and long-term commitments.

  18. Expanding access and choice for health care consumers through tax reform.

    PubMed

    Butler, S; Kendall, D B

    1999-01-01

    A refundable tax credit for the uninsured would complement the existing job-based health insurance system while letting people keep their job-based coverage if they wish. Among the wide variety of design options for a tax credit, policy and political analysis does not reveal an obvious choice, but a tax credit based on a percentage of spending may have a slight advantage. Congress should give states maximum flexibility to use existing funding sources to supplement the value of a federal tax credit and encourage the use of techniques to create stable insurance pools.

  19. Using American Community Survey Data to Expand Access to the School Meals Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schirm, Allen, Ed.; Kirkendall, Nancy, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs, administered by the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), are key components of the nation's food security safety net, providing free or low-cost meals to millions of schoolchildren each day. To qualify their children each year for free or…

  20. After-School Programs: Expanding Access and Ensuring Quality. PPI Policy Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayl, Chrisanne L.

    2004-01-01

    High quality after-school programs provide numerous social, family, and community benefits. In addition to helping parents balance work and life responsibilities, these programs offer prime opportunities to enhance learning--particularly for struggling students. After-school programs also help to promote equity among students by providing…

  1. Expanding Access and Opportunity: The Impact of the Gates Millennium Scholars Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    In 1999, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation began an innovative scholarship program that provides full financial support to low-income minority students across the United States. The Gates Millennium Scholars (GMS) program has already awarded more than 10,000 scholarships to exceptional students, with the ultimate goal of funding at least…

  2. EAP: An Important Supervisory Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Jim

    1984-01-01

    Discusses elements of the Employee Assistance Program: why employees need it, their acceptance of the program, when to refer an employee to the program, counseling, formal referral, plan of action, and how the program helps the supervisor. (CT)

  3. Association of herpes simplex virus regulatory protein ICP22 with transcriptional complexes containing EAP, ICP4, RNA polymerase II, and viral DNA requires posttranslational modification by the U(L)13 proteinkinase.

    PubMed Central

    Leopardi, R; Ward, P L; Ogle, W O; Roizman, B

    1997-01-01

    The expression of herpes simplex virus 1 gamma (late) genes requires functional alpha proteins (gamma1 genes) and the onset of viral DNA synthesis (gamma2 genes). We report that late in infection after the onset of viral DNA synthesis, cell nuclei exhibit defined structures which contain two viral regulatory proteins (infected cell proteins 4 and 22) required for gamma gene expression, RNA polymerase II, a host nucleolar protein (EAP or L22) known to be associated with ribosomes and to bind small RNAs, including the Epstein-Barr virus small nuclear RNAs, and newly synthesized progeny DNA. The formation of these complexes required the onset of viral DNA synthesis. The association of infected cell protein 22, a highly posttranslationally processed protein, with these structures did not occur in cells infected with a viral mutant deleted in the genes U(L)13 and U(S)3, each of which specifies a protein kinase known to phosphorylate the protein. PMID:8995634

  4. A Baccalaureate Education Curriculum to Prepare Dental Hygienists for Expanded Public Health Practice.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Lisa J; Stein, Susan M

    2016-06-01

    A baccalaureate dental hygiene education program was intentionally designed and implemented to prepare dental hygienists to work in expanded public health practice. Expanded practice dental hygienists (EPDH) in Oregon practice without the supervision of a dentist to provide dental hygiene services for underserved patients with limited access to dental care. Ten competencies were identified for the successful EPDH, and then these competencies were incorporated into the curriculum of a baccalaureate dental hygiene program. When recent graduates of the innovative program were surveyed, results indicated that they felt well prepared for expanded practice, they had a high level of interest in working as an EPDH, and all were planning to apply for an expanded practice permit. Two graduates and their unique contributions to individuals in need are profiled. Intentional preparation of dental hygienists for expanded public health roles suggested the need for a baccalaureate curriculum designed specifically for that purpose. Advocacy and collaboration among educators, legislators, and administrators in Oregon led to the development and implementation of such an innovative dental hygiene education program at Pacific University. Graduates are likely to pursue opportunities working as EPDHs. Further research will document the viability of this purposefully designed curriculum to prepare dental hygienists to help meet the public need for optimal oral health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Research of Ad Hoc Networks Access Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Ma

    With the continuous development of mobile communication technology, Ad Hoc access network has become a hot research, Ad Hoc access network nodes can be used to expand capacity of multi-hop communication range of mobile communication system, even business adjacent to the community, improve edge data rates. When the ad hoc network is the access network of the internet, the gateway discovery protocol is very important to choose the most appropriate gateway to guarantee the connectivity between ad hoc network and IP based fixed networks. The paper proposes a QoS gateway discovery protocol which uses the time delay and stable route to the gateway selection conditions. And according to the gateway discovery protocol, it also proposes a fast handover scheme which can decrease the handover time and improve the handover efficiency.

  6. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft fistula for chronic hemodialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Tellis, V A; Kohlberg, W I; Bhat, D J; Driscoll, B; Veith, F J

    1979-01-01

    In a retrospective study of 66 PTFE arteriovenous fistulae and 71 BCH arteriovenous fistulae for dialysis access, PTFE had a higher patency rate than BCH at 12 months (62.4 versus 32.5%). PTFE was easier to work with and easier to handle in the face of infection. The lateral upper arm approach to placement of the PTFE graft is desirable in patients who have had multiple previous access procedures because this area is usually free from scarring, is distant from neurovascular structures, and provides a greater length of graft for needle punctures. Images Fig. 3. PMID:758853

  7. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft fistula for chronic hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Tellis, V A; Kohlberg, W I; Bhat, D J; Driscoll, B; Veith, F J

    1979-01-01

    In a retrospective study of 66 PTFE arteriovenous fistulae and 71 BCH arteriovenous fistulae for dialysis access, PTFE had a higher patency rate than BCH at 12 months (62.4 versus 32.5%). PTFE was easier to work with and easier to handle in the face of infection. The lateral upper arm approach to placement of the PTFE graft is desirable in patients who have had multiple previous access procedures because this area is usually free from scarring, is distant from neurovascular structures, and provides a greater length of graft for needle punctures.

  8. The public cost of expanding coverage.

    PubMed

    Sheils, J F; Baxter, R J; Haught, R A

    1995-01-01

    The 103d Congress considered several health care reform bills that would encourage voluntary expansions of coverage through insurance market reforms, new tax deductions for premiums, and direct premium subsidies for low-income persons. We found that insurance reforms alone will do little to expand coverage. We also found that most of the proposed tax deductions would go to persons who already have insurance and would have little impact on coverage. Premium subsidies for low-income persons would greatly increase coverage. However, coverage would change little for those who would have to pay all or part of the premium.

  9. [Treatment of tracheobronchomalacia with expandable metallic stents].

    PubMed

    Antón-Pacheco Sánchez, J; García Vázquez, A; Cuadros García, J; Cano Novillo, I; Villafruela Sanz, M; Berchi García, F J

    2002-10-01

    Tracheomalacia is an unfrequent disease that causes tracheal collapse during breathing. It is generally associated to esophageal atresia, but cases of primary tracheomalacia and others secondary to extrinsic compression, have also been described. Spontaneous resolution is generally the rule and only a few cases need surgical treatment. When this therapy fails or is not indicated for any reason, endoluminal tracheobronchial stents may be used. We have treated two patients with four expandable metallic stents: one had severe tracheomalacia associated to esophageal atresia and the other tracheobronchomalacia secondary to cardiomegaly. Results have been good in both cases.

  10. Expanding and reprogramming the genetic code.

    PubMed

    Chin, Jason W

    2017-10-04

    Nature uses a limited, conservative set of amino acids to synthesize proteins. The ability to genetically encode an expanded set of building blocks with new chemical and physical properties is transforming the study, manipulation and evolution of proteins, and is enabling diverse applications, including approaches to probe, image and control protein function, and to precisely engineer therapeutics. Underpinning this transformation are strategies to engineer and rewire translation. Emerging strategies aim to reprogram the genetic code so that noncanonical biopolymers can be synthesized and evolved, and to test the limits of our ability to engineer the translational machinery and systematically recode genomes.

  11. The expanded role nurse in geriatrics.

    PubMed

    McNamara, C; Vandewater, D

    1999-05-01

    The first experience in Halifax with the expanded role nurse (ERN) was in 1993, when Victoria General Hospital established an ERN position in the cardiology program. A few years later the adult hospitals in the city merged into a new 900-bed, multi-site facility--the Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre (QEII). In the Geriatrics Department, called the Centre for Health Care of the Elderly (CHCE), the director of nursing and the medical director also began to consider establishing such a position.

  12. Expandable tubulars for use in geologic structures

    DOEpatents

    Spray, Jeffery A.; Svedeman, Steven; Walter, David; Mckeighan, Peter; Siebanaler, Shane; Dewhurst, Peter; Hobson, Steven; Foss, Doug; Wirz, Holger; Sharpe, Aaron; Apostal, Michael

    2014-08-12

    An expandable tubular includes a plurality of leaves formed from sheet material that have curved surfaces. The leaves extend around a portion or fully around the diameter of the tubular structure. Some of the adjacent leaves of the tubular are coupled together. The tubular is compressed to a smaller diameter so that it can be inserted through previously deployed tubular assemblies. Once the tubular is properly positioned, it is deployed and coupled or not coupled to a previously deployed tubular assembly. The tubular is useful for all types of wells and boreholes.

  13. Multiparticle dynamics in an expanding universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, James L.

    1995-11-01

    Approximate equations of motion for multiparticle systems in an expanding Einstein-deSitter universe are derived from the Einstein-Maxwell field equations using the Einstein-Infeld-Hoffmann surface integral method. At the Newtonian level of approximation one finds that, in comoving coordinates, both the Newtonian gravitational and Coulomb interactions in these equations are multiplied by the inverse third power of the scale factor R(t) appearing in the Einstein-deSitter field and they acquire a cosmic ``drag'' term. Nevertheless, both the period and luminosity size of bound two-body systems whose period is small compared to the Hubble time are found to be independent of t.

  14. Expanding the Bethe/Gauge dictionary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullimore, Mathew; Kim, Hee-Cheol; Lukowski, Tomasz

    2017-11-01

    We expand the Bethe/Gauge dictionary between the XXX Heisenberg spin chain and 2d N = (2, 2) supersymmetric gauge theories to include aspects of the algebraic Bethe ansatz. We construct the wave functions of off-shell Bethe states as orbifold defects in the A-twisted supersymmetric gauge theory and study their correlation functions. We also present an alternative description of off-shell Bethe states as boundary conditions in an effective N = 4 supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Finally, we interpret spin chain R-matrices as correlation functions of Janus interfaces for mass parameters in the supersymmetric quantum mechanics.

  15. Benefits of access management.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-01-01

    This brochure serves as a guide to the major benefits of several : access management techniques in use across the United States. The : purpose of this brochure is to provide a comprehensive and succinct : examination of the benefits of access managem...

  16. Accessibility | FNLCR Staging

    Cancer.gov

    The Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research campus is making every effort to ensure that the information available on our website is accessible to all. If you use special adaptive equipment to access the web and encounter problems when usin

  17. System access control study

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1974-06-01

    The report presents a summary of a study conducted for the Transportation Systems Center of promising access control techniques which are applicable to an aeronautical satellite system. Several frequency division multiple access (FDMA) and time divis...

  18. Access management for Kentucky.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-02-01

    The Access Management Manual published by the Transportation Research Board in 2003 defines access management as the "systematic control of the location, spacing, design, and operation of driveways, median openings, interchanges, and street connectio...

  19. Comparison of self-expandable and balloon-expanding stents for hybrid ductal stenting in hypoplastic left heart complex.

    PubMed

    Goreczny, Sebastian; Qureshi, Shakeel A; Rosenthal, Eric; Krasemann, Thomas; Nassar, Mohamed S; Anderson, David R; Morgan, Gareth J

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to compare the procedural and mid-term performance of a specifically designed self-expanding stent with balloon-expandable stents in patients undergoing hybrid palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome and its variants. The lack of specifically designed stents has led to off-label use of coronary, biliary, or peripheral stents in the neonatal ductus arteriosus. Recently, a self-expanding stent, specifically designed for use in hypoplastic left heart syndrome, has become available. We carried out a retrospective cohort comparison of 69 neonates who underwent hybrid ductal stenting with balloon-expandable and self-expanding stents from December, 2005 to July, 2014. In total, 43 balloon-expandable stents were implanted in 41 neonates and more recently 47 self-expanding stents in 28 neonates. In the balloon-expandable stents group, stent-related complications occurred in nine patients (22%), compared with one patient in the self-expanding stent group (4%). During follow-up, percutaneous re-intervention related to the ductal stent was performed in five patients (17%) in the balloon-expandable stent group and seven patients (28%) in self-expanding stents group. Hybrid ductal stenting with self-expanding stents produced favourable results when compared with the results obtained with balloon-expandable stents. Immediate additional interventions and follow-up re-interventions were similar in both groups with complications more common in those with balloon-expandable stents.

  20. [Accessible Rural Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Nick, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue of the quarterly newsletter "Rural Exchange" provides information and resources on accessible rural housing for the disabled. "Accessible Manufactured Housing Could Increase Rural Home Supply" (Nick Baker) suggests that incorporation of access features such as lever door handles and no-step entries into manufactured housing could help…