Science.gov

Sample records for ear barriers evaluated

  1. Prenatal evaluation of the middle ear and diagnosis of middle ear hypoplasia using MRI.

    PubMed

    Katorza, Eldad; Nahama-Allouche, Catherine; Castaigne, Vanina; Gonzales, Marie; Galliani, Eva; Marlin, Sandrine; Jouannic, Jean-Marie; Rosenblatt, Jonathan; le Pointe, Hubert Ducou; Garel, Catherine

    2011-05-01

    Analysis of the middle ear with fetal MRI has not been previously reported. To show the contribution of fetal MRI to middle ear imaging. The tympanic cavity was evaluated in 108 fetal cerebral MRI examinations (facial and/or cerebral malformation excluded) and in two cases, one of Treacher Collins syndrome (case 1) and the other of oculo-auriculo-vertebral (OUV) spectrum (case 2) with middle ear hypoplasia identified by MRI at 27 and 36 weeks' gestation, respectively. In all 108 fetuses (mean gestational age 32.5 weeks), the tympanic cavity and T2 hypointensity related to the ossicles were well visualised on both sides. Case 1 had micro/retrognathia and bilateral external ear deformity and case 2 had retrognathism with a left low-set and deformed ear. MRI made it possible to recognize the marked hypoplasia of the tympanic cavity, which was bilateral in case 1 and unilateral in case 2. Both syndromes are characterized by craniofacial abnormalities including middle ear hypoplasia, which cannot be diagnosed with US. The middle ear cavity can be visualized with fetal MRI. We emphasize the use of this imaging modality in the diagnosis of middle ear hypoplasia.

  2. Evaluation of noise barriers.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1979-01-01

    Noise measurements were taken at six barrier sites: two wooden, two metal, and one concrete barrier were studied; the sixth site had no barrier and was studied to determine the ground effect. The approach was to determine insertion losses by taking s...

  3. Evaluation of standing noise barriers.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1978-01-01

    A series of tests have been carried out at six sites for the evaluation of noise barriers to determine their relative effectiveness. Two barriers were metal, two were wooden, and one was concrete. One site, used for reference, had no barrier. The eff...

  4. Handheld tympanometer measurements in conscious dogs for the evaluation of the middle ear and auditory tube.

    PubMed

    Strain, George M; Fernandes, Asia J

    2015-06-01

    Otitis externa is frequently accompanied by otitis media, yet it can be difficult to evaluate the tympanum, middle ear and auditory tube without the use of advanced radiographic imaging. The objective was to develop techniques for tympanometry testing in conscious dogs and to present normative data for clinical use of this equipment to enable assessment of the tympanum, middle ear and auditory tube. Sixteen hounds (14 female) from a school teaching colony. Dogs were gently restrained in a standing position. After cleaning of the ear canal, a tympanometer probe tip extension was placed in the vertical canal and automated testing performed using a handheld device. Both ears were tested in all dogs. Acceptable recordings were obtained from both ears of 13 dogs, from one ear in each of two dogs and from neither ear of one dog, resulting in data from 28 of 32 (88%) ears. Otoscopic examination confirmed the absence of inflammation or any other obvious explanation for the noncompliant dogs. No significant differences were seen between ears for any measure. Normative data are reported for peak compliance, peak compliance pressure, gradient and ear canal volume. Tympanograms can be recorded in conscious dogs to assist in the evaluation of the middle ear structures. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  5. Barriers to Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charley, Lois

    2007-01-01

    According to the Department of Health and Human Services, "good program evaluations assess programs performance, measure impacts on families and communities, and document program successes." With this information, programs are able to direct limited resources to where they are most needed and most effective in their communities. This article is…

  6. Biological Terrorism Preparedness: Evaluating the Performance of the Early Aberration Reporting System (EARS) Syndromic Surveillance Algorithms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    PREPAREDNESS: EVALUATING THE PERFORMANCE OF THE EARLY ABERRATION REPORTING SYSTEM (EARS) SYNDROMIC SURVEILLANCE ALGORITHMS by David A...SUBTITLE Biological Terrorism Preparedness: Evaluating the Performance of the Early Aberration Reporting System (EARS) Syndromic Surveillance...Algorithms 6. AUTHOR(S) David Dunfee, Benjamin Hegler 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School

  7. Ear wax

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Ear wax only becomes a problem if it causes a hearing impairment or other ear-related symptoms. Ear wax is more likely to accumulate and cause a hearing impairment when normal extrusion is prevented — for example, by the use of hearing aids, or by the use of cotton buds to clean the ears. Ear wax can visually obscure the ear drum, and may need to be removed for diagnostic purposes. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of methods to remove ear wax? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2007 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found nine systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: ear syringing; manual removal (other than ear syringing); and wax softeners (alone or prior to syringing). PMID:19450340

  8. Evaluation of soil moisture barrier.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-06-01

    This report is an extension report and examines one of the measures being tried to stabilize the development : of pavement damage on expansive soils, which is the use of horizontal moisture barriers. The moisture barrier : will not stop horizontal fl...

  9. Ear Infection (Middle Ear)

    MedlinePlus

    ... secretions from the middle ear Swelling, inflammation and mucus in the eustachian tubes from an upper respiratory ... your baby for at least six months. Breast milk contains antibodies that may offer protection from ear ...

  10. Design, Kinematic Optimization, and Evaluation of a Teleoperated System for Middle Ear Microsurgery

    PubMed Central

    Miroir, Mathieu; Nguyen, Yann; Szewczyk, Jérôme; Sterkers, Olivier; Bozorg Grayeli, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    Middle ear surgery involves the smallest and the most fragile bones of the human body. Since microsurgical gestures and a submillimetric precision are required in these procedures, the outcome can be potentially improved by robotic assistance. Today, there is no commercially available device in this field. Here, we describe a method to design a teleoperated assistance robotic system dedicated to the middle ear surgery. Determination of design specifications, the kinematic structure, and its optimization are detailed. The robot-surgeon interface and the command modes are provided. Finally, the system is evaluated by realistic tasks in experimental dedicated settings and in human temporal bone specimens. PMID:22927789

  11. Evaluation of intratympanic formulations for inner ear delivery: methodology and sustained release formulation testing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongzhuo; Feng, Liang; Tolia, Gaurav; Liddell, Mark R.; Hao, Jinsong; Li, S. Kevin

    2013-01-01

    A convenient and efficient in vitro diffusion cell method to evaluate formulations for inner ear delivery via the intratympanic route is currently not available. The existing in vitro diffusion cell systems commonly used to evaluate drug formulations do not resemble the physical dimensions of the middle ear and round window membrane. The objectives of this study were to examine a modified in vitro diffusion cell system of a small diffusion area for studying sustained release formulations in inner ear drug delivery and to identify a formulation for sustained drug delivery to the inner ear. Four formulations and a control were examined in this study using cidofovir as the model drug. Drug release from the formulations in the modified diffusion cell system was slower than that in the conventional diffusion cell system due to the decrease in the diffusion surface area of the modified diffusion cell system. The modified diffusion cell system was able to show different drug release behaviors among the formulations and allowed formulation evaluation better than the conventional diffusion cell system. Among the formulations investigated, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)–poly(ethylene glycol)–poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) triblock copolymer systems provided the longest sustained drug delivery, probably due to their rigid gel structures and/or polymer-to-cidofovir interactions. PMID:23631539

  12. Evaluating the physical fit of receiver-in-the-ear hearing aids in infants.

    PubMed

    Caporali, Sueli Aparecida; Schmidt, Erik; Eriksson, Asa; Sköld, Birgitta; Popecki, Barbara; Larsson, Josefina; Auriemmo, Jane

    2013-03-01

    In spite of early identification and intervention efforts achieved by Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) programs, many infants with hearing loss experience delays in early vocabulary development in comparison to peers with normal hearing (Mayne, Yoshinaga-Itano, Sedey, 2000a; Mayne, Yoshinaga-Itano, Sedey, Carey, 2000b; Moeller et al, 2007a, 2007b). One of the several factors that may contribute to individual differences in outcomes is inconsistent hearing aid use in this age group. This may be associated with the physical fit when using traditional behind-the-ear (BTE) hearing aids, since they are relatively large in comparison with the small and soft ear of an infant. Receiver-in-the-ear (RITE) hearing aids may be advantageous for use in pediatric fittings, since they are very tiny and lightweight and therefore sit comfortably on a small soft ear. To evaluate the use of a RITE hearing aid with an instant ear-tip especially developed for infants in terms of physical fit, stability, safety, and security of the device, as well as the use of retention tools (remedies for keeping the hearing aid securely on the ear) with this age group. A longitudinal study with hearing impaired infants fitted with RITE hearing aids was performed. Eighteen infants with mild to moderate/severe hearing loss participated in the study. The age range was 2-36 mo. Sixteen infants had worn hearing aids prior to their participation in the study. Each hearing impaired infant was fitted with the RITE hearing aid and an instant ear-tip, the size of which was chosen by the audiologist. The infants used the device for a period of 2-5 mo. Audiologists and parents completed questionnaires at every visit (5-7 visits in total). Responses were obtained using a category rating scale (Stevens, 1975) from 0 to 10. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and nonparametric statistics. Sixteen of the 18 children completed the study. At the end of the study, 11 of the 16 children

  13. Evaluation of plasma fibrinogen concentration as a diagnostic indicator of inflammation in red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    PubMed

    Moore, A Russell; Allender, Matthew C; Mitchell, Mark A; MacNeill, Amy L

    2015-01-15

    To critically evaluate plasma fibrinogen concentration as a diagnostic indicator of inflammation in red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans). Prospective induced-disease model and prospective cross-sectional study. Plasma samples from 12 purpose-bred red-eared sliders and 153 farm-raised red-eared sliders. A modification of the Jacobsson method was developed to measure fibrinogen concentration in platelet-poor plasma from red-eared sliders. Purpose-bred turtles had been inoculated with a ranavirus (n = 4) or sterile PBS solution (8) as part of another study. Farm-raised red-eared sliders were categorized as healthy (n = 138) or overtly ill (15) on the basis of physical examination findings at the time of blood sample collection. Samples from 124 of the 138 healthy red-eared sliders were used to establish a fibrinogen concentration reference interval as measured by the modified Jacobsson method. Fibrinogen concentrations in ranavirus-infected and physically ill turtles were compared with those of healthy turtles to determine whether fibrinogen concentration would be a useful diagnostic indicator of inflammation in red-eared sliders. The modified Jacobsson method was reliably used to measure fibrinogen concentration. The fibrinogen concentration reference interval from healthy reproductively active female red-eared sliders was right skewed. Fibrinogen concentration did not differ significantly between healthy red-eared sliders and ranavirus-infected or overtly ill red-eared sliders. A reference interval for red-eared slider plasma fibrinogen concentration was established and partitioned by sex to account for considerable right skewing observed for females. Fibrinogen concentration was not a useful indicator of inflammation in red-eared sliders with ranavirus infection or other overt illnesses.

  14. Evaluation of the International Barrier Corporation's Mark VII median barrier.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1992-01-01

    The International Barrier Corporation's (IBC) Mark VII median barrier consists of a steel frame (10 ft long, 42 in high, and 44 in wide at its widest point) filled with sand and covered with a top plate. The barrier has the ability to absorb some of ...

  15. Evaluation of median barrier safety issues.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Brifen TL-4 and Trinity CASS median cable barrier systems in preventing cross-median collisions on sections of I-64, I-71, and I-265 (Brifen system) and I-265 (Trinity system) in Je...

  16. Numerical evaluation of implantable hearing devices using a finite element model of human ear considering viscoelastic properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Tian, Jiabin; Ta, Na; Huang, Xinsheng; Rao, Zhushi

    2016-08-01

    Finite element method was employed in this study to analyze the change in performance of implantable hearing devices due to the consideration of soft tissues' viscoelasticity. An integrated finite element model of human ear including the external ear, middle ear and inner ear was first developed via reverse engineering and analyzed by acoustic-structure-fluid coupling. Viscoelastic properties of soft tissues in the middle ear were taken into consideration in this model. The model-derived dynamic responses including middle ear and cochlea functions showed a better agreement with experimental data at high frequencies above 3000 Hz than the Rayleigh-type damping. On this basis, a coupled finite element model consisting of the human ear and a piezoelectric actuator attached to the long process of incus was further constructed. Based on the electromechanical coupling analysis, equivalent sound pressure and power consumption of the actuator corresponding to viscoelasticity and Rayleigh damping were calculated using this model. The analytical results showed that the implant performance of the actuator evaluated using a finite element model considering viscoelastic properties gives a lower output above about 3 kHz than does Rayleigh damping model. Finite element model considering viscoelastic properties was more accurate to numerically evaluate implantable hearing devices. © IMechE 2016.

  17. Functional evaluation of a cell replacement therapy in the inner ear

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhengqing; Ulfendahl, Mats; Prieskorn, Diane M.; Olivius, N. Petri; Miller, Josef M.

    2015-01-01

    Hypothesis Cell replacement therapy in the inner ear will contribute to the functional recovery of hearing loss. Background Cell replacement therapy is a potentially powerful approach to replace degenerated or severely damaged spiral ganglion neurons. This study aimed at stimulating the neurite outgrowth of the implanted neurons and enhancing the potential therapeutic of inner ear cell implants. Methods Chronic electrical stimulation (CES) and exogenous neurotrophic growth factor (NGF) were applied to 46 guinea pigs transplanted with embryonic dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons four days post deafening. The animals were evaluated with the electrically-evoked auditory brain stem responses (EABRs) at experimental day 7, 11, 17, 24, 31. The animals were euthanized at day 31 and the inner ears were dissected out for immunohistochemistry investigation. Results Implanted DRG cells, identified by EGFP fluorescence and a neuronal marker, were found close to Rosenthal's canal in the adult inner ear for up to four weeks following transplantation. Extensive neurite projections clearly, greater than in non-treated animals, were observed to penetrate the bony modiolus and reach the spiral ganglion region in animals supplied with CES and/or NGF. There was, however, no significant difference in the thresholds of EABRs between DRG-transplanted-animals supplied with CES and/or NGF and DRG-transplanted animals without CES or NGF supplement. Conclusions The results suggest that CES and/or NGF can stimulate neurite outgrowth from implanted neurons, although based on EABR measurement these interventions did not induce functional connections to the central auditory pathway. Additional time or novel approaches may enhance functional responsiveness of implanted cells in the adult cochlea. PMID:19395986

  18. Comparative evaluation of rivastigmine permeation from a transdermal system in the Franz cell using synthetic membranes and pig ear skin with in vivo-in vitro correlation.

    PubMed

    Simon, Alice; Amaro, Maria Inês; Healy, Anne Marie; Cabral, Lucio Mendes; de Sousa, Valeria Pereira

    2016-10-15

    In the present study, in vitro permeation experiments in a Franz diffusion cell were performed using different synthetic polymeric membranes and pig ear skin to evaluate a rivastigmine (RV) transdermal drug delivery system. In vitro-in vivo correlations (IVIVC) were examined to determine the best model membrane. In vitro permeation studies across different synthetic membranes and skin were performed for the Exelon(®) Patch (which contains RV), and the results were compared. Deconvolution of bioavailability data using the Wagner-Nelson method enabled the fraction of RV absorbed to be determined and a point-to-point IVIVC to be established. The synthetic membrane, Strat-M™, showed a RV permeation profile similar to that obtained with pig ear skin (R(2)=0.920). Studies with Strat-M™ resulted in a good and linear IVIVC (R(2)=0.991) when compared with other synthetic membranes that showed R(2) values less than 0.90. The R(2) for pig ear skin was 0.982. Strat-M™ membrane was the only synthetic membrane that adequately simulated skin barrier performance and therefore it can be considered to be a suitable alternative to human or animal skin in evaluating transdermal drug transport, potentially reducing the number of studies requiring human or animal samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ultra-high-field (9.4 T) MRI Analysis of Contrast Agent Transport Across the Blood-Perilymph Barrier and Intrastrial Fluid-Blood Barrier in the Mouse Inner Ear.

    PubMed

    Counter, S Allen; Nikkhou-Aski, Sahar; Damberg, Peter; Berglin, Cecilia Engmér; Laurell, Göran

    2017-08-01

    Effective paramagnetic contrast agent for the penetration of the perilymphatic spaces of the scala tympani, scala vestibuli, and scala media of the mouse inner ear can be determined using intravenous injection of various gadolinium (Gd) complexes and ultra-high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 9.4 Tesla. A number of contrast agents have been explored in experimental high-field MRI to determine the most effective Gd complex for ideal signal-to-noise ratio and maximal visualization of the in vivo mammalian inner ear in analyzing the temporal and spatial parameters involved in drug penetration of the blood-perilymph barrier and intrastrial fluid-blood barrier in the mouse model using MRI. Gadoteric acid (Dotarem), Gadobutrol (Gadovist), Gadodiamide (Omniscan), Gadopent acid (Magnevist), and Mangafodipir (Teslascan) were administered intravenously using the tail vein of 60 Balb/C mice. High-resolution T1 images of drug penetration were acquired with a horizontal 9.4 T Agilent magnet after intravenously injection. Signal intensity was used as a metric of temporal and spatial parameters of drug delivery and penetration of the perilymphatic and endolymphatic spaces. ANOVA analysis of the area under the curve of intensity enhancement in perilymph revealed a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the scalae uptake using different contrast agents (F (3,25) = 3.54, p = 0.029). The Gadoteric acid complex Dotarem was found to be the most effective Gd compound in terms of rapid, morphological enhancement for analysis of the temporal, and spatial distribution in the perilymphatic space of the inner ear. Gadoteric acid (Dotarem) demonstrated efficacy as a contrast agent for enhanced visualization of the perilymphatic spaces of the inner ear labyrinthine in the mouse, including the scala tympani and scala vestibuli of the cochlea, and the semicircular canals of the vestibular apparatus. These findings may inform the clinical application of Gd compounds in

  20. Ear Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... most common illness in infants and young children. Tinnitus, a roaring in your ears, can be the ... problems in your inner ear; its symptoms include tinnitus and dizziness. Ear barotrauma is an injury to ...

  1. Swimmer's Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eardrum Taking Care of Your Ears Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? Your Ears What's Earwax? How Do Pain Relievers Work? View more About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  2. Evaluation of rebound tonometry in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    PubMed

    Delgado, Cherlene; Mans, Christoph; McLellan, Gillian J; Bentley, Ellison; Sladky, Kurt K; Miller, Paul E

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate feasibility and accuracy of intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement by rebound tonometry in adult red-eared slider turtles and determine the effects of manual and chemical restraint on IOP. Seventeen adult red-eared slider turtles. Intraocular pressure was measured with TonoLab® and TonoVet® tonometers in conscious, unrestrained turtles. To evaluate the effects of manual restraint, turtles were restrained by digital pressure on the rostral head or proximal neck. The effect of two chemical restraint protocols (dexmedetomidine, ketamine, midazolam [DKM] and dexmedetomidine, ketamine [DK] subcutaneously) on IOP was evaluated. Triplicate TonoLab® and TonoVet® readings were compared with direct manometry in three ex vivo turtle eyes. TonoLab® correlated better with manometry at IOPs < 45 mmHg than TonoVet® (linear regression slopes of 0.89 and 0.30, respectively). Mean (±SD) IOP in unrestrained conscious turtles was significantly lower (P < 0.01) with TonoLab® (10.02 ± 0.66 mmHg) than with TonoVet® (11.32 ± 1.57 mmHg). Manual neck restraint caused a significant increase in IOP (+6.31 ± 5.59 mmHg), while manual rostral head restraint did not. Both chemical restraint protocols significantly reduced IOP (DKM: −1.0 ± 0.76 mmHg; DK: −1.79 ± 1.17) compared with measurements in conscious unrestrained turtles. Chemical and manual neck restraint affected IOP. Rostral head restraint had no significant effect on IOP and is, therefore, recommended as the appropriate restraint technique in red-eared slider turtles. TonoLab® measurements estimated actual IOP more accurately, within physiologic range, than measurements obtained using the TonoVet®. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  3. EVALUATION OF REBOUND TONOMETRY IN RED-EARED SLIDER TURTLES (TRACHEMYS SCRIPTA ELEGANS)

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Cherlene; Mans, Christoph; McLellan, Gillian J.; Bentley, Ellison; Sladky, Kurt K.; Miller, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate feasibility and accuracy of intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement by rebound tonometry in adult red-eared slider turtles and determine the effects of manual and chemical restraint on IOP. Animal studied Seventeen adult red-eared slider turtles. Procedures IOP was measured with TonoLab® and TonoVet® tonometers in conscious, unrestrained turtles. To evaluate the effects of manual restraint, turtles were restrained by digital pressure on the rostral head or proximal neck. The effect of two chemical restraint protocols (dexmedetomidine, ketamine, midazolam [DKM] and dexmedetomidine, ketamine [DK] subcutaneously) on IOP was evaluated. Triplicate TonoLab® and TonoVet® readings were compared to direct manometry in 3 ex vivo turtle eyes. Results TonoLab® correlated better with manometry at IOPs <45 mm Hg than TonoVet® (linear regression slopes of 0.89 and 0.30 respectively). Mean (±SD) IOP in unrestrained conscious turtles was significantly lower (P<0.01) with TonoLab® (10.02 ± 0.66 mmHg) than with TonoVet® (11.32 ± 1.57 mmHg). Manual neck restraint caused a significant increase in IOP (+6.31 ± 5.59 mmHg), while manual rostral head restraint did not. Both chemical restraint protocols significantly reduced IOP (DKM: −1.0 ± 0.76 mmHg,; DK: −1.79 ± 1.17) compared to measurements in conscious unrestrained turtles. Conclusions Chemical and manual neck restraint affected IOP. Rostral head restraint had no significant effect on IOP and is, therefore, recommended as the appropriate restraint technique in red-eared-slider turtles. TonoLab® measurements estimated actual IOP more accurately, within physiologic range, than measurements obtained using the TonoVet®. PMID:25097909

  4. Ear wax

    MedlinePlus

    See your provider if your ears are blocked with wax and you are unable to remove the wax. Also call if you have an ear wax blockage and you develop new symptoms, such as: Drainage from the ear Ear pain Fever Hearing loss that continues after you clean the wax

  5. Ear Pieces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students make fanciful connections between art and medicine. This project challenges students to interpret "ear idioms" (e.g. "blow it out your ear," "in one ear and out the other") by relying almost entirely on realistic ear drawings, the placement of them, marks, and values. In that…

  6. Ear discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... swabs or other small objects into the ear Middle ear infection Other causes of ear discharge include: Eczema ... tube surgery - what to ask your doctor Images Ear anatomy Eardrum repair - series References Bauer CA, Jenkins HA. Otologic symptoms and syndromes. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et ...

  7. Examination of Insert Ear Interaural Attenuation (IA)Values in Audiological Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Gumus, Nebi M; Gumus, Merve; Unsal, Selim; Yuksel, Mustafa; Gunduz, Mehmet

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate Interaural Attenuation (IA) in frequency base in the insert earphones that are used in audiological assessments. Thirty healthy subjects between 18-65 years of age (14 female and 16 male) participated in our study. Otoscopic examination was performed on all participants. Audiological evaluations were performed using the Interacoustics AC40 clinical audiometer and ER-3A insert earphones. IA value was calculated by subtracting good ear bone conduction hearing thresholds of the worst airway hearing threshold. In our measuring for 0.125-8.0 kHz frequency were performed in our audiometry device separately for each frequency. IA amount in the results we found in 1000 Hz and below frequencies about 75-110 dB range avarage is 89±5dB, in above 1000 Hz frequencies in 50-95 dB range and avarage it is changed to 69±5dB. According to the obtained findings the quantity of melting in the transition between the ears are increasing with the insert earphones. The insert earphone should be beside supraaural earphone that is routinely used in clinics. Difficult masking applications due to the increase in the value of IA can be easily done with insert earphones.

  8. Long-term evaluation of the effect of middle ear effusion on the vestibular system in children.

    PubMed

    Pazdro-Zastawny, Katarzyna; Pośpiech, Lucyna; Zatoński, Tomasz

    2018-06-01

    Otitis media with effusion (OME) is one of the most common clinical conditions in childhood. Fluid accumulation in the middle ear may impact inner ear. The purpose of this random sample cohort study was to investigate whether the past history of middle ear effusion has a long-term negative impact on the vestibular system in children. The study was carried out on 22 children aged 7-15 years who had undergone drainage of the middle ear 5 years before evaluation. The control group consisted of 29 healthy children aged 4-17 years. Vestibular function was examined using sway posturography and electronystagmography (ENG). The stabilogram parameters of the study group and the control group were compared. The field of developed area (FDA) and the average body sway velocity (ASV) were analyzed. Elevated stabilogram parameters of FDA and ASV, both with eyes open and eyes closed, were found in the study group. Statistically significant values (p < 0.05) were present for ASV with eyes open and with eyes closed. The ENG recordings were analyzed in both groups. In the study group, spontaneous nystagmus was observed in 40.9% of the children and positional nystagmus occurred in 63.6% of the children. According to tests, eye tracking test was impaired in 27.3% of cases. Rotatory chair testing revealed asymmetry in 18.2% of the children. The presence of effusion in the middle ear in the past has a negative impact on the vestibular part of the inner ear. Clinicians should be aware of the possible negative impact of middle ear effusion on the vestibular function in children with a history of otitis media with effusion. With seeimingly asymptomatic children clinicians should inquire parents about symptoms of dysequlibrium and imbalance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Airplane Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... to severe hearing loss Ringing in your ear (tinnitus) Spinning sensation (vertigo) Vomiting resulting from vertigo Bleeding ... complications may include: Permanent hearing loss Ongoing (chronic) tinnitus Prevention Follow these tips to avoid airplane ear: ...

  10. Ear examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... ear anatomy Otoscopic exam of the ear References King EF, Couch ME. History, physical examination, and the ... commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer ...

  11. Elephant ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002867.htm Elephant ear poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Elephant ear plants are indoor or outdoor plants with ...

  12. Your Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... Protect your hearing by wearing earplugs at loud music concerts and around noisy machinery, like in wood ... More on this topic for: Kids Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? What Is an Ear Infection? ...

  13. Evaluation of a movable concrete barrier system.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1994-01-01

    The movable concrete barrier (MCB) system consists of 1-m-long sections of barrier connected by steel pins in hinges to form a barrier wall that is moved laterally with a transport/transfer vehicle. The MCB system allows for the quick closing and ope...

  14. Ear Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the ear drum or eustachian tube, Down Syndrome, cleft palate, and barotrauma (injury to the middle ear caused by a reduction of air pressure, ... specialist) may be warranted if you or your child has experienced repeated ... fluid in the middle ear, barotrauma, or have an anatomic abnormality that ...

  15. Ear Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... may have OTITIS MEDIA, an infection of the middle ear. Self CareSee your doctor. Many ear infections will ... half-alcohol, half-white vinegar solution in the ear before and after swimming or ... JOINT (TMJ) SYNDROME, a disorder that affects the jaw joint, may ...

  16. New Evaluation of the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR): Obtrusiveness, Compliance, and Participant Self-selection Effects

    PubMed Central

    Manson, Joseph H.; Robbins, Megan L.

    2017-01-01

    The Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR) is a method for collecting periodic brief audio snippets of participants’ daily lives using a portable recording device. The EAR can potentially intrude into people’s privacy, alter their natural behavior, and introduce self-selection biases greater than in other types of social science methods. Previous research (Mehl and Holleran, 2007, hereafter M&H) has shown that participant non-compliance with, and perceived obtrusiveness of, an EAR protocol are both low. However, these questions have not been addressed in jurisdictions that require the consent of all parties to recording conversations. This EAR study required participants to wear a button bearing a microphone icon and the words “This conversation may be recorded” to comply with California’s all-party consent law. Results revealed self-reported obtrusiveness and non-compliance were actually lower in the present study than in the M&H study. Behaviorally assessed non-compliance did not differ between the two studies. Participants in the present study talked more about being in the study than participants in the M&H study, but such talk still comprised <2% of sampled conversations. Another potential problem with the EAR, participant self-selection bias, was addressed by comparing the EAR volunteers’ HEXACO personality dimensions to a non-volunteer sample drawn from the same student population. EAR volunteers were significantly and moderately higher in Conscientiousness, and lower in Emotionality, than non-volunteers. In conclusion, the EAR method can be successfully implemented in at least one all-party consent state (California). Interested researchers are encouraged to review this procedure with their own legal counsel. PMID:28503162

  17. New Evaluation of the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR): Obtrusiveness, Compliance, and Participant Self-selection Effects.

    PubMed

    Manson, Joseph H; Robbins, Megan L

    2017-01-01

    The Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR) is a method for collecting periodic brief audio snippets of participants' daily lives using a portable recording device. The EAR can potentially intrude into people's privacy, alter their natural behavior, and introduce self-selection biases greater than in other types of social science methods. Previous research (Mehl and Holleran, 2007, hereafter M&H) has shown that participant non-compliance with, and perceived obtrusiveness of, an EAR protocol are both low. However, these questions have not been addressed in jurisdictions that require the consent of all parties to recording conversations. This EAR study required participants to wear a button bearing a microphone icon and the words "This conversation may be recorded" to comply with California's all-party consent law. Results revealed self-reported obtrusiveness and non-compliance were actually lower in the present study than in the M&H study. Behaviorally assessed non-compliance did not differ between the two studies. Participants in the present study talked more about being in the study than participants in the M&H study, but such talk still comprised <2% of sampled conversations. Another potential problem with the EAR, participant self-selection bias, was addressed by comparing the EAR volunteers' HEXACO personality dimensions to a non-volunteer sample drawn from the same student population. EAR volunteers were significantly and moderately higher in Conscientiousness, and lower in Emotionality, than non-volunteers. In conclusion, the EAR method can be successfully implemented in at least one all-party consent state (California). Interested researchers are encouraged to review this procedure with their own legal counsel.

  18. An evaluation of a nurse-led ear care service in primary care: benefits and costs.

    PubMed Central

    Fall, M; Walters, S; Read, S; Deverill, M; Lutman, M; Milner, P; Rodgers, R

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nurses trained in ear care provide a new model for the provision of services in general practice, with the aim of cost-effective treatment of minor ear and hearing problems that affect well-being and quality of life. AIM: To compare a prospective observational cohort study measuring health outcomes and resource use for patients with ear or hearing problems treated by nurses trained in ear care with similar patients treated by standard practice. METHOD: A total of 438 Rotherham and 196 Barnsley patients aged 16 years or over received two self-completion questionnaires: questionnaire 1 (Q1) on the day of consultation and questionnaire 2 (Q2) after three weeks. Primary measured outcomes were changes in discomfort and pain; secondary outcomes included the effect on normal life, health status, patient satisfaction, and resources used. RESULTS: After adjusting for differences at Q1, by Q2 there was no statistical evidence of a difference in discomfort and pain reduction, or differential change in health status between areas. Satisfaction with treatment was significantly higher (P = 0.0001) in Rotherham (91%) than in Barnsley (82%). Average total general practitioner (GP) consultations were lower in Rotherham at 0.4 per patient with an average cost of 6.28 Pounds compared with Barnsley at 1.4 per patient and an average cost of 22.53 Pounds (P = 0.04). Barnsley GPs prescribed more drugs per case (6% of total costs compared with 1.5%) and used more systemic antibiotics (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Nurses trained in ear care reduce costs, GP workload, and the use of systemic antibiotics, while increasing patient satisfaction with care. With understanding and support from GPs, such nurses are an example of how expanded nursing roles bring benefits to general practice. Nurses trained in ear care reduce treatment costs, reduce the use of antibiotics, educate patients in ear care, increase patient satisfaction, and raise ear awareness. PMID:9519514

  19. High-resolution microendoscope images of middle ear cholesteatoma and surrounding tissue: evaluation of interobserver concordance.

    PubMed

    Bradley, James; Jiang, Nancy; Levy, Lauren; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Sikora, Andrew; Smouha, Eric

    2014-04-01

    Investigate how accurately otolaryngologists could differentiate between images obtained with high-resolution microendoscopy (HRME) of ex vivo cholesteatoma specimens and surrounding middle ear epithelium. HRME images of surgically resected cholesteatoma and middle ear epithelium were obtained and otolaryngologists classified these images. Tertiary medical center. Resected cholesteatoma and middle ear epithelium were stained with a contrast agent, proflavine, and HRME images were captured. Specimens were sent for standard histopathology and compared with HRME images. Quality-controlled images were used to assemble a training set. After viewing training images, otolaryngologists without prior cholesteatoma HRME experience reviewed and classified test images. Ten cholesteatoma and 9 middle ear specimens were collected, of which 17 representative cholesteatoma and 19 middle ear epithelium images were extracted for a testing set. Qualitative analysis for concordance between HRME images and histological images yielded a strong correlation between modalities. The mean accuracy of all reviewers in correctly identifying images was 95% (95% confidence interval [CI], 92%-98%). The sensitivity to correctly detect cholesteatoma images was 98% (95% CI, 93%-100%), and the specificity was 92% (95% CI, 87%-97%). The Fleiss kappa interrater reliability score was 0.83, (95% CI, 0.77-0.89). Medical professionals can quickly be trained to accurately distinguish between HRME images of cholesteatoma and normal middle ear epithelium, both of which have distinct imaging characteristics. Real-time HRME optical imaging can potentially improve the results of otologic surgery by allowing for extirpation of cholesteatomas while eliminating residual disease.

  20. Gadolinium-enhanced inner ear magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of delayed endolymphatic hydrops, including a bilateral case.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Munehisa; Oya, Ryohei; Akazawa, Hitoshi; Tsuruta, Yukinori; Inohara, Hidenori

    2016-01-01

    The data suggests that gadolinium-enhanced inner ear MR imaging is useful for diagnosis of delayed endolymphatic hydrops (DEH) because it is independent of inner ear function, and the size of the affected endolymphatic space is clearly enlarged. This study was performed to semi-quantitatively evaluate the endolymphatic space in patients with all types of DEH using gadolinium-enhanced inner ear magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Seven patients (age range = 21-77 years; five female, two male) with ipsilateral DEH (n = 5), contralateral DEH (n = 1), and bilateral DEH (n = 1). All patients underwent 3T MR imaging 4 h after intravenous injection of gadolinium. Software was used to determine the size of the endolymphatic space. Pure tone audiometry and caloric testing using an electronystagmogram were carried out. One side of the endolymphatic space was dominantly extended in patients with ipsilateral DEH, and both sides of the space were extended in patients with contralateral and bilateral DEH. In patients with ipsilateral DEH, the volume ratio of endolymph to vestibule was 2.5-4.3-times that in the unaffected ear. The volume ratio of endolymph to vestibule was nearly equal in patients with contralateral and bilateral DEH.

  1. [Evaluation of a training system for middle ear surgery with optoelectric detection].

    PubMed

    Strauss, G; Bahrami, N; Pössneck, A; Strauss, M; Dietz, A; Korb, W; Lüth, T; Haase, R; Moeckel, H; Grunert, R

    2009-10-01

    This work presents a new training concept for surgery of the temporal bone. It is based on a model of gypsum plastic with optoelectric detection of risk structures. A prototypical evaluation is given. The training models are based on high-resolution computed tomographic data of a human skull. The resulting data set was printed by a three-dimensional (3D) printer. A 3D phantom is created from gypsum powder and a bonding agent. Risks structures are the facial nerve, semicircular canal, cochlea, ossicular chain, sigmoid sinus, dura, and internal carotid artery. An electrically conductive metal (Wood's metal) and a fiber-optic cable were used as detection materials for the risk structures. For evaluating the training system, a study was done with eight inexperienced and eight experienced ear surgeons. They were asked to perform temporal bone surgery using two identical training models (group A). In group B, the same surgeons underwent surgical training with human cadavers. In the case of injuries, the number, point in time, degree (facial nerve), and injured structure were documented during the training on the model. In addition, the total time needed was noted. The training systems could be used in all cases. Evaluation of the anatomic accuracy of the models showed results that were between 49.5% and 90% agreement with the anatomic origin. Error detection was evaluated with values between 79% and 100% agreement with the perception of an experienced surgeon. The operating setting was estimated to be better than the previous"gold standard." The possibility of completely replacing the previous training method, which uses cadavers, with the examined training model was affirmed. This study shows that the examined system fulfills the conditions for a new training concept for temporal bone surgery. The system connects the preliminary work with printed and sintered models with the possibilities of microsystem engineering. In addition, the model's digital database permits a

  2. Anomalies of the middle and inner ear.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Kimsey; Shah, Rahul K; Kenna, Margaret

    2007-02-01

    The development of the middle and inner ear highlights the intricacy of embryology. As early as 3 weeks after fertilization, the inner ear begins taking form. This process, along with development of the middle ear, continues throughout gestation. At birth, the middle ear, inner ear, and associated structures are almost adult size. An understanding of the embryologic development of the ear serves as a foundation for evaluating and managing congenital malformations of these structures. The focus of this article is the normal, abnormal, and arrested development of the middle and inner ear, with a clinical emphasis on malformed middle and inner ear structures and a discussion of associated syndromes.

  3. Inner Ear Drug Delivery for Auditory Applications

    PubMed Central

    Swan, Erin E. Leary; Mescher, Mark J.; Sewell, William F.; Tao, Sarah L.; Borenstein, Jeffrey T.

    2008-01-01

    Many inner ear disorders cannot be adequately treated by systemic drug delivery. A blood-cochlear barrier exists, similar physiologically to the blood-brain barrier, which limits the concentration and size of molecules able to leave the circulation and gain access to the cells of the inner ear. However, research in novel therapeutics and delivery systems has led to significant progress in the development of local methods of drug delivery to the inner ear. Intratympanic approaches, which deliver therapeutics to the middle ear, rely on permeation through tissue for access to the structures of the inner ear, whereas intracochlear methods are able to directly insert drugs into the inner ear. Innovative drug delivery systems to treat various inner ear ailments such as ototoxicity, sudden sensorineural hearing loss, autoimmune inner ear disease, and for preserving neurons and regenerating sensory cells are being explored. PMID:18848590

  4. Ear Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1/20th of an inch) that could allow water to enter the middle ear, research studies show no benefit in keeping the ears dry and current guidelines do not recommend routine water precautions. Therefore, you do not need to restrict ...

  5. Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials to Evaluate Cochlear Implant Candidacy in an Ear With Long-standing Hearing Loss: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Patel, Tirth R; Shahin, Antoine J; Bhat, Jyoti; Welling, D Bradley; Moberly, Aaron C

    2016-10-01

    We describe a novel use of cortical auditory evoked potentials in the preoperative workup to determine ear candidacy for cochlear implantation. A 71-year-old male was evaluated who had a long-deafened right ear, had never worn a hearing aid in that ear, and relied heavily on use of a left-sided hearing aid. Electroencephalographic testing was performed using free field auditory stimulation of each ear independently with pure tones at 1000 and 2000 Hz at approximately 10 dB above pure-tone thresholds for each frequency and for each ear. Mature cortical potentials were identified through auditory stimulation of the long-deafened ear. The patient underwent successful implantation of that ear. He experienced progressively improving aided pure-tone thresholds and binaural speech recognition benefit (AzBio score of 74%). Findings suggest that use of cortical auditory evoked potentials may serve a preoperative role in ear selection prior to cochlear implantation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Evaluating barriers to adopting telemedicine worldwide: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Scott Kruse, Clemens; Karem, Priyanka; Shifflett, Kelli; Vegi, Lokesh; Ravi, Karuna; Brooks, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Introduction and objective Studies on telemedicine have shown success in reducing the geographical and time obstacles incurred in the receipt of care in traditional modalities with the same or greater effectiveness; however, there are several barriers that need to be addressed in order for telemedicine technology to spread. The aim of this review is to evaluate barriers to adopting telemedicine worldwide through the analysis of published work. Methods The authors conducted a systematic literature review by extracting the data from the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and PubMed (MEDLINE) research databases. The reviewers in this study analysed 30 articles (nine from CINAHL and 21 from Medline) and identified barriers found in the literature. This review followed the checklist from Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2009. The reviewers organized the results into one table and five figures that depict the data in different ways, organized by: barrier, country-specific barriers, organization-specific barriers, patient-specific barriers, and medical-staff and programmer-specific barriers. Results The reviewers identified 33 barriers with a frequency of 100 occurrences through the 30 articles. The study identified the issues with technically challenged staff (11%), followed by resistance to change (8%), cost (8%), reimbursement (5%), age of patient (5%), and level of education of patient (5%). All other barriers occurred at or less than 4% of the time. Discussion and conclusions Telemedicine is not yet ubiquitous, and barriers vary widely. The top barriers are technology-specific and could be overcome through training, change-management techniques, and alternating delivery by telemedicine and personal patient-to-provider interaction. The results of this study identify several barriers that could be eliminated by focused policy. Future work should evaluate policy to identify which one to lever to

  7. EVALUATION OF PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technology represents a passive option for long-term treatment of ground-water contamination. PRBs are a potentially more cost-effective treatment option for a variety of dissolved contaminants, such as certain types of chlorinated solvents, ...

  8. The development and initial psychometric evaluation of a measure assessing adherence to prescribed exercise: the Exercise Adherence Rating Scale (EARS).

    PubMed

    Newman-Beinart, Naomi A; Norton, Sam; Dowling, Dominic; Gavriloff, Dimitri; Vari, Chiara; Weinman, John A; Godfrey, Emma L

    2017-06-01

    There is no gold standard for measuring adherence to prescribed home exercise. Self-report diaries are commonly used however lack of standardisation, inaccurate recall and self-presentation bias limit their validity. A valid and reliable tool to assess exercise adherence behaviour is required. Consequently, this article reports the development and psychometric evaluation of the Exercise Adherence Rating Scale (EARS). Development of a questionnaire. Secondary care in physiotherapy departments of three hospitals. A focus group consisting of 8 patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and 2 physiotherapists was conducted to generate qualitative data. Following on from this, a convenience sample of 224 people with CLBP completed the initial 16-item EARS for purposes of subsequent validity and reliability analyses. Construct validity was explored using exploratory factor analysis and item response theory. Test-retest reliability was assessed 3 weeks later in a sub-sample of patients. An item pool consisting of 6 items was found suitable for factor analysis. Examination of the scale structure of these 6 items revealed a one factor solution explaining a total of 71% of the variance in adherence to exercise. The six items formed a unidimensional scale that showed good measurement properties, including acceptable internal consistency and high test-retest reliability. The EARS enables the measurement of adherence to prescribed home exercise. This may facilitate the evaluation of interventions promoting self-management for both the prevention and treatment of chronic conditions. Copyright © 2017 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. New blackbody standard for the evaluation and calibration of tympanic ear thermometers at the NPL, United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEvoy, Helen C.; Simpson, Robert; Machin, Graham

    2004-04-01

    The use of infrared tympanic thermometers for monitoring patient health is widespread. However, studies into the performance of these thermometers have questioned their accuracy and repeatability. To give users confidence in these devices, and to provide credibility in the measurements, it is necessary for them to be tested using an accredited, standard blackbody source, with a calibration traceable to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). To address this need the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), UK, has recently set up a primary ear thermometer calibration (PET-C) source for the evaluation and calibration of tympanic (ear) thermometers over the range from 15 °C to 45 °C. The overall uncertainty of the PET-C source is estimated to be +/- 0.04 °C at k = 2. The PET-C source meets the requirements of the European Standard EN 12470-5: 2003 Clinical thermometers. It consists of a high emissivity blackbody cavity immersed in a bath of stirred liquid. The temperature of the blackbody is determined using an ITS-90 calibrated platinum resistance thermometer inserted close to the rear of the cavity. The temperature stability and uniformity of the PET-C source was evaluated and its performance validated. This paper provides a description of the PET-C along with the results of the validation measurements. To further confirm the performance of the PET-C source it was compared to the standard ear thermometer calibration sources of the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), Japan and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Germany. The results of this comparison will also be briefly discussed. The PET-C source extends the capability for testing ear thermometers offered by the NPL body temperature fixed-point source, described previously. An update on the progress with the commercialisation of the fixed-point source will be given.

  10. A cross-sectional evaluation of the validity of a smartphone otoscopy device in screening for ear disease in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Mandavia, R; Lapa, T; Smith, M; Bhutta, M F

    2018-02-01

    Hearing loss is a neglected international health problem. The greatest burden of ear disease is in low-income countries where there is also a lack of resources. In this context, screening for otological disease may be worthwhile. Cupris© has developed an otoscopy device that offers the possibility of low-cost mass screening in remote communities. We evaluated the validity of this device in diagnosing ear disease and in determining whether referral to an ENT centre is warranted. Cross-sectional study. Outpatient clinic, Nepal. All adults and children were invited to take part over a 2-day period. The Cupris© device was used to record participants otological history and examination. Stored history and images were assessed in the United Kingdom by a Consultant-grade ENT Surgeon, who provided a diagnosis and decided whether referral to an ENT centre was warranted. After screening with the Cupris© device, participants were immediately assessed by a UK trained ENT Consultant Surgeon using a standard otoscope ("standard assessment"). A diagnosis was recorded for each participant and a decision was made as to whether referral to an ENT centre was warranted. Concordance in primary diagnosis (analysed per ear) and concordance in the decision to refer (analysed per patient). Cohen's kappa coefficient for inter-rater agreement in diagnosis. Fifty-six patients agreed to participate. In four patients, the quality of video recorded precluded a diagnosis or management plan. These patients were excluded from subsequent analysis, leaving 52 patients for analysis. The same diagnosis was reached for 99 of 104 ears when comparing the Cupris© device to standard assessment (95% concordance), with Cohen's kappa coefficient of 0.89. The decision as to whether a patient should be referred to an ENT centre for further assessment was the same for all 52 participants when comparing the Cupris© device to standard assessment. When compared to standard assessment, the Cupris© device is a

  11. Evaluation of corn germplasm lines for multiple ear-colonizing insect and disease resistance.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xinzhi; Xu, Wenwei; Blanco, Michael H; Wilson, Jeffrey P

    2012-08-01

    Ear-colonizing insects and diseases that reduce yield and impose health threats by mycotoxin contaminations in the grain, are critical impediments for corn (Zea mays L.) production in the southern United States. Ten germplasm lines from the Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) Program in Ames, IA, and Raleigh, NC, and 10 lines (derived from GEM germplasm) from the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station in Lubbock, TX, were examined in 2007 and 2008 with local resistant and susceptible controls. Four types of insect damage and smut disease (Ustilago maydis) infection, as well as gene X environment (G X E) interaction, was assessed on corn ears under field conditions. Insect damage on corn ears was further separated as cob and kernel damage. Cob penetration rating was used to assess corn earworm [Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)] and fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)] feeding on corn cobs, whereas kernel damage was assessed using three parameters: 1) percentage of kernels discolored by stink bugs (i.e., brown stink bug [Euschistus serous (Say)], southern green stink bug [Nezara viridula (L.)], and green stink bug [Chinavia (Acrosternum) hilare (Say)]; 2) percentage of maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky)-damaged kernels; and 3) percentage of kernels damaged by sap beetle (Carpophilus spp.), "chocolate milkworm" (Moodna spp.), and pink scavenger caterpillar [Pyroderces (Anatrachyntis) rileyi (Walsingham)]. The smut infection rates on ears, tassels, and nodes also were assessed. Ear protection traits (i.e., husk tightness and extension) in relation to insect damage and smut infection also were examined. Significant differences in insect damage, smut infection, and husk protection traits were detected among the germplasm lines. Three of the 20 germplasm lines were identified as being multiple insect and smut resistant. Of the three lines, entries 5 and 7 were derived from DKXL370, which was developed using corn germplasm from Brazil, whereas entry 14 was

  12. Evaluation of the Repeatability and Accuracy of the Wideband Real-Ear-to-Coupler Difference.

    PubMed

    Vaisberg, Jonathan M; Folkeard, Paula; Pumford, John; Narten, Philipp; Scollie, Susan

    2018-06-01

    The real-ear-to-coupler difference (RECD) is an ANSI standardized method for estimating ear canal sound pressure level (SPL) thresholds and assisting in the prediction of real-ear aided responses. It measures the difference in dB between the SPL produced in the ear canal and the SPL produced in an HA-1 2-cc coupler by the same sound source. Recent evidence demonstrates that extended high-frequency bandwidth, beyond the hearing aid bandwidth typically measured, is capable of providing additional clinical benefit. The industry has, in turn, moved toward developing hearing aids and verification equipment capable of producing and measuring extended high-frequency audible output. As a result, a revised RECD procedure conducted using a smaller, 0.4-cc coupler, known as the wideband-RECD (wRECD), has been introduced to facilitate extended high-frequency coupler-based measurements up to 12.5 kHz. This study aimed to (1) compare test-retest repeatability between the RECD and wRECD and (2) measure absolute agreement between the RECD and wRECD when both are referenced to a common coupler. RECDs and wRECDs were measured bilaterally in adult ears by calculating the dB difference in SPL between the ear canal and coupler responses. Real-ear probe microphone measures were completed twice per ear per participant for both foam-tip and customized earmold couplings using the Audioscan Verifit 1 and Verifit 2 fitting systems, followed by measurements in the respective couplers. Twenty-one adults (mean age = 67 yr, range = 19-78) with typical aural anatomy (as determined by measures of impedance and otoscopy) participated in this study, leading to a sample size of 42 ears. Repeatability within RECD and wRECD was assessed for each coupling configuration using a repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with test-retest and frequency as within-participants factors. Repeatability between the RECD and wRECD was assessed within each configuration using a repeated-measures ANOVA with

  13. Ear tag

    MedlinePlus

    ... an ear tag or pit are: An inherited tendency to have this facial feature A genetic syndrome ... Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2016:chap 19. Review Date 4/24/2017 Updated by: Liora C Adler, MD, ...

  14. Swimmer's ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... often gets better with the proper treatment. Possible Complications The infection may spread to other areas around the ear, including the skull bone. In older people or those who have diabetes, the infection may become severe. This condition is ...

  15. Ear Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... but they are less common. The infection usually affects the middle ear and is called otitis media. ... become clogged with fluid and mucus. This can affect hearing, because sound cannot get through all that ...

  16. Pierced Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... weeks. Then you can start enjoying your pierced ears again! Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD Date reviewed: September ... All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, ...

  17. Ear emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... and ruptured eardrums can be caused by: Inserting cotton swabs, toothpicks, pins, pens, or other objects into ... The person will have severe pain. Place sterile cotton gently in the outer ear canal to keep ...

  18. Experimental evaluation of optimization method for developing ultraviolet barrier coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonome, Hiroki; Okajima, Junnosuke; Komiya, Atsuki; Maruyama, Shigenao

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) barrier coatings can be used to protect many industrial products from UV attack. This study introduces a method of optimizing UV barrier coatings using pigment particles. The radiative properties of the pigment particles were evaluated theoretically, and the optimum particle size was decided from the absorption efficiency and the back-scattering efficiency. UV barrier coatings were prepared with zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2). The transmittance of the UV barrier coating was calculated theoretically. The radiative transfer in the UV barrier coating was modeled using the radiation element method by ray emission model (REM2). In order to validate the calculated results, the transmittances of these coatings were measured by a spectrophotometer. A UV barrier coating with a low UV transmittance and high VIS transmittance could be achieved. The calculated transmittance showed a similar spectral tendency with the measured one. The use of appropriate particles with optimum size, coating thickness and volume fraction will result in effective UV barrier coatings. UV barrier coatings can be achieved by the application of optical engineering.

  19. Biocompatibility of Liposome Nanocarriers in the Rat Inner Ear After Intratympanic Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jing; Feng, Hao; Sood, Rohit; Kinnunen, Paavo K. J.; Pyykko, Ilmari

    2017-05-01

    Liposome nanocarriers (LPNs) are potentially the future of inner ear therapy due to their high drug loading capacity and efficient uptake in the inner ear after a minimally invasive intratympanic administration. However, information on the biocompatibility of LPNs in the inner ear is lacking. The aim of the present study is to document the biocompatibility of LPNs in the inner ear after intratympanic delivery. LPNs with or without gadolinium-tetra-azacyclo-dodecane-tetra-acetic acid (Gd-DOTA) were delivered to the rats through transtympanic injection. The distribution of the Gd-DOTA-containing LPNs in the middle and inner ear was tracked in vivo using MRI. The function of the middle and inner ear barriers was evaluated using gadolinium-enhanced MRI. The auditory function was measured using auditory brainstem response (ABR). The potential inflammatory response was investigated by analyzing glycosaminoglycan and hyaluronic acid secretion and CD44 and TLR2 expression in the inner ear. The potential apoptosis was analyzed using terminal transferase (TdT) to label the free 3'OH breaks in the DNA strands of apoptotic cells with TMR-dUTP (TUNEL staining). As a result, LPNs entered the inner ear efficiently after transtympanic injection. The transtympanic injection of LPNs with or without Gd-DOTA neither disrupted the function of the middle and inner ear barriers nor caused hearing impairment in rats. The critical inflammatory biological markers in the inner ear, including glycosaminoglycan and hyaluronic acid secretion and CD44 and TLR2 expression, were not influenced by the administration of LPNs. There was no significant cell death associated with the administration of LPNs. The transtympanic injection of LPNs is safe for the inner ear, and LPNs may be applied as a drug delivery matrix in the clinical therapy of sensorineural hearing loss.

  20. Evaluation of Subsurface Engineered Barriers at Waste Sites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-08-01

    28 3-4 MATRIX FOR EVALUATING BARRIER CQA/CQC AGAINST ACCEPTABLE INDSUTRY PRACTICES...STANDARDS................................................................. 66 4-2 MATRIX FOR EVALUATING CAP AGAINST ACCEPTABLE INDSUTRY PRACTICES...stated previously, the most widely used technique for containment is the soil-bentonite slurry wall. It is typically the most economical , utilizes low

  1. Gait Analysis From a Single Ear-Worn Sensor: Reliability and Clinical Evaluation for Orthopaedic Patients.

    PubMed

    Jarchi, Delaram; Lo, Benny; Wong, Charence; Ieong, Edmund; Nathwani, Dinesh; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2016-08-01

    Objective assessment of detailed gait patterns after orthopaedic surgery is important for post-surgical follow-up and rehabilitation. The purpose of this paper is to assess the use of a single ear-worn sensor for clinical gait analysis. A reliability measure is devised for indicating the confidence level of the estimated gait events, allowing it to be used in free-walking environments and for facilitating clinical assessment of orthopaedic patients after surgery. Patient groups prior to or following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and knee replacement were recruited to assess the proposed method. The ability of the sensor for detailed longitudinal analysis is demonstrated with a group of patients after lower limb reconstruction by considering parameters such as temporal and force-related gait asymmetry derived from gait events. The results suggest that the ear-worn sensor can be used for objective gait assessments of orthopaedic patients without the requirement and expense of an elaborate laboratory setup for gait analysis. It significantly simplifies the monitoring protocol and opens the possibilities for home-based remote patient assessment.

  2. Hydrologic Evaluation of a Humid Climate Poplar Phytoremediation Barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swensen, K.; Rabideau, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    The emplacement of hybrid poplar trees to function as phytoremediation barriers is an appealing and sustainable groundwater management strategy because of low maintenance costs and the potential to extract large amounts of groundwater without pumping. While the effectiveness of poplar barriers has been assessed by groundwater quality monitoring, less attention has been given to physical hydrologic evaluations needed to improve barrier designs. In this research, a five year hydrologic evaluation was conducted at a poplar phytoremediation site in western NY, with the goal of quantifying ETg (evapotranspiration from groundwater) as a measure of the barrier's effectiveness in a humid climate. To consider transpiration from both vadose zone and groundwater, the hydrologic evaluation included four components: physical ET measurements, theoretical ET calculations, analysis of diurnal groundwater table fluctuations, and vadose zone modeling. The direct measurements of ETT (total) were obtained using sap flow meters installed on multiple trees within the barrier. These data were interpreted using a regression model that included theoretical ET calculations and site-specific measurements of weather parameters and poplar trunk area. Application of this model was challenged by the spatial variation in rooting depth as determined by tree excavations. To further quantify the removal of groundwater by the phytobarrier (ETg), the White Method was applied to interpret diurnal groundwater fluctuations from monitoring wells located within the barrier, in conjunction with a variably saturated-saturated flow model configured to confirm water extraction from ETg. Taken together, the results of this five year hydrologic evaluation highlight the complexity in quantifying humid climate groundwater extraction, as a large number of variables were found to influence these rates. Improved understanding of these controls will contribute to improved barrier designs that maximize ETg.

  3. Understanding Patient Barriers to Kidney Transplant Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Dageforde, Leigh Anne; Box, Amanda; Feurer, Irene D.; Cavanaugh, Kerri L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Some patients referred for kidney transplant evaluation fail to attend the visit. Our goal was to compare demographic, socioeconomic, and psychological factors between evaluation visit attendees and absentees. Methods A convenience sample of patients referred and scheduled for kidney transplant evaluation at a single center from November 2012 to December 2013 participated in a phone survey reporting socioeconomic, demographic and clinical characteristics; health literacy; and perceived knowledge and concerns about transplantation. Absentees were matched by race with attendees. Analyses of differences between groups were performed with Chi-square, Fisher’s exact test, and t-tests. Multivariable logistic regression adjusted for relevant demographic characteristics. Results 104 adults participated (61% male, 46% Caucasian, 52±12 years). Financial concerns were the most prevalent (67.3% affording medication, 64.1% affording operation). Prior evaluation at a different transplant center (p=0.029) and being on dialysis (p=0.008) were significantly associated with absence. Attendance was associated with concerns about finding a living donor (p=0.038) and higher perceived general knowledge about transplantation (p ≤0.001). No differences were appreciated in demographic, socioeconomic or health literacy factors between groups. Conclusions Both attendee and absentee patients were most concerned with the financial burden of kidney transplantation. While concerns and perceived knowledge are important correlates of behavior, other considerations such as psychological factors and prior medical experiences may influence patients’ ability to complete the kidney transplant evaluation process. Although this pilot study was conducted in a small sample and has limited generalizability, our findings can guide future research. PMID:25606794

  4. Understanding Patient Barriers to Kidney Transplant Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dageforde, Leigh Anne; Box, Amanda; Feurer, Irene D; Cavanaugh, Kerri L

    2015-07-01

    Some patients referred for kidney transplant evaluation fail to attend the visit. Our goal was to compare demographic, socioeconomic, and psychologic factors between evaluation visit attendees and absentees. A convenience sample of patients referred and scheduled for kidney transplant evaluation at a single center from November 2012 to December 2013 participated in a phone survey reporting socioeconomic, demographic, and clinical characteristics; health literacy; and perceived knowledge and concerns about transplantation. Absentees were matched by race with attendees. Analyses of differences between groups were performed with chi-square test, Fisher exact test, and t tests. Multivariable logistic regression was adjusted for relevant demographic characteristics. One hundred four adults participated (61% men, 46% white, 52 ± 12 years). Financial concerns were the most prevalent (67.3% affording medication, 64.1% affording operation). Previous evaluation at a different transplant center (P = 0.029) and being on dialysis (P = 0.008) were significantly associated with absence. Attendance was associated with concerns about finding a living donor (P = 0.038) and higher perceived general knowledge about transplantation (P ≤ 0.001). No differences were appreciated in demographic, socioeconomic, or health literacy factors between groups. Both attendee and absentee patients were most concerned with the financial burden of kidney transplantation. Although concerns and perceived knowledge are important correlates of behavior, other considerations such as psychologic factors and prior medical experiences may influence patients' ability to complete the kidney transplant evaluation process. Although this pilot study was conducted in a small sample and has limited generalizability, our findings can guide future research.

  5. Swimmer's Ear (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... scratching the ear canal, vigorous ear cleaning with cotton swabs, or putting foreign objects like bobby pins ... Also, never put objects into kids' ears, including cotton-tipped swabs. How Is Swimmer's Ear Treated? Treatment ...

  6. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of a Hydrogel Reservoir as a Continuous Drug Delivery System for Inner Ear Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hessler, Roland; Stöver, Timo; Esser, Karl-Heinz; Möller, Martin; Lenarz, Thomas; Jolly, Claude; Groll, Jürgen; Scheper, Verena

    2014-01-01

    Fibrous tissue growth and loss of residual hearing after cochlear implantation can be reduced by application of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone-21-phosphate-disodium-salt (DEX). To date, sustained delivery of this agent to the cochlea using a number of pharmaceutical technologies has not been entirely successful. In this study we examine a novel way of continuous local drug application into the inner ear using a refillable hydrogel functionalized silicone reservoir. A PEG-based hydrogel made of reactive NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO) prepolymers was evaluated as a drug conveying and delivery system in vitro and in vivo. Encapsulating the free form hydrogel into a silicone tube with a small opening for the drug diffusion resulted in delayed drug release but unaffected diffusion of DEX through the gel compared to the free form hydrogel. Additionally, controlled DEX release over several weeks could be demonstrated using the hydrogel filled reservoir. Using a guinea-pig cochlear trauma model the reservoir delivery of DEX significantly protected residual hearing and reduced fibrosis. As well as being used as a device in its own right or in combination with cochlear implants, the hydrogel-filled reservoir represents a new drug delivery system that feasibly could be replenished with therapeutic agents to provide sustained treatment of the inner ear. PMID:25105670

  7. Comparison of methods of evaluating hearing benefit of middle ear surgery.

    PubMed

    Toner, J G; Smyth, G D

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare two methods of predicting the level of subjective patient benefit following reconstructive middle ear surgery. This should have always been an important consideration in advising patients regarding surgery, but assumes even more relevance in these days of clinical audit and cost benefit analysis. The two methods studied were the '15/30 dB rule of thumb' (Smyth and Patterson, 1985) and the 'Glasgow plot' (Browning et al., 1991). The predictions of benefit for each of the two methods were compared to the assessment of actual benefits by the patient post-operatively. The results of this comparison in 153 patients were analysed, the rule of thumb was found to be somewhat more sensitive in predicting patient benefit.

  8. Evaluation of a rapid immunochromatographic ODK-0901 test for detection of pneumococcal antigen in middle ear fluids and nasopharyngeal secretions.

    PubMed

    Hotomi, Muneki; Togawa, Akihisa; Takei, Shin; Sugita, Gen; Sugita, Rinya; Kono, Masamitsu; Fujimaki, Yutaka; Kamide, Yosuke; Uchizono, Akihiro; Kanesada, Keiko; Sawada, Shoichi; Okitsu, Naohiro; Tanaka, Yumi; Saijo, Yoko; Yamanaka, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    Since the incidence of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae has been increasing at an astonishing rate throughout the world, the need for accurate and rapid identification of pneumococci has become increasingly important to determine the appropriate antimicrobial treatment. We have evaluated an immunochromatographic test (ODK-0901) that detects pneumococcal antigens using 264 middle ear fluids (MEFs) and 268 nasopharyngeal secretions (NPSs). A sample was defined to contain S. pneumoniae when optochin and bile sensitive alpha hemolytic streptococcal colonies were isolated by culture. The sensitivity and specificity of the ODK-0901 test were 81.4% and 80.5%, respectively, for MEFs from patients with acute otitis media (AOM). In addition, the sensitivity and specificity were 75.2% and 88.8%, respectively, for NPSs from patients with acute rhinosinusitis. The ODK-0901 test may provide a rapid and highly sensitive evaluation of the presence of S. pneumoniae and thus may be a promising method of identifying pneumococci in MEFs and NPSs.

  9. Scientific evaluation of the ArmorGuard mobile barrier system.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-06-17

    "Accidents and injuries occur during maintenance activities that could be protected by the ArmorGuard or BalsiBeam mobile barrier systems. The main purpose of this study is to perform a scientific evaluation of the utility of the ArmorGuard system in...

  10. Ear-protector ratings.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1973-12-01

    Twenty-one brands of ear protectors, including custom-molded, wearer-molded, and pre-molded types, were evaluated according to American-standard procedures. Earplugs are described and are listed in the order of their low-frequency (below 1000 Hz) att...

  11. Middle Ear Mechanics of Cartilage Tympanoplasty Evaluated by Laser Holography and Vibrometry

    PubMed Central

    Aarnisalo, Antti A.; Cheng, Jeffrey T.; Ravicz, Michael E.; Hulli, Nesim; Harrington, Ellery J.; Hernandez-Montes, Maria S.; Furlong, Cosme; Merchant, Saumil N.; Rosowski, John J.

    2010-01-01

    Goals To assess the effects of thickness and position of cartilage used to reconstruct the tympanic membrane (TM) using a novel technique, time-averaged laser holography. Background Cartilage is commonly used in TM reconstruction to prevent formation of retraction pockets. The thickness, position, and shape of the cartilage graft may adversely affect TM motion and hearing. We sought to systematically investigate these parameters in an experimental setting. Methods Computer-assisted optoelectronic laser holography was used in 4 human cadaveric temporal bones to study sound-induced TM motion for 500 Hz to 8 kHz. Stapes velocity was measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer. Baseline (control) measurements were made with the TM intact. Measurements were repeated after a 0.5- or 1.0-mm-thick oval piece of conchal cartilage was placed on the medial TM surface in the posterior-superior quadrant. The cartilage was rotated so that it was either in contact with the bony tympanic rim and manubrium or not. Results At frequencies less than 4 kHz, the cartilage graft had only minor effects on the overall TM fringe patterns. The different conditions had no effects on stapes velocity. Greater than 4 kHz, TM motion was reduced over the grafted TM, both with 0.5- and 1.0-mm-thick grafts. No significant differences in stapes velocity were seen with the 2 different thicknesses of cartilage compared with control. Conclusion Computer-assisted optoelectronic laser holography is a promising technique to investigate middle ear mechanics after tympanoplasty. Such positioning may prevent postoperative TM retraction. These findings and conclusions apply to cartilage placed in the posterior-superior TM quadrant. PMID:19779389

  12. Evaluation of the in vivo and ex vivo optical properties in a mouse ear model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomatina, E.; Yaroslavsky, A. N.

    2008-06-01

    Determination of in vivo optical properties is a challenging problem. Absorption and scattering measured ex vivo are often used for in vivo applications. To investigate the validity of this approach, we have obtained and compared the optical properties of mouse ears in vivo and ex vivo in the spectral range from 370 to 1650 nm. Integrating sphere spectrophotometry in combination with the inverse Monte Carlo technique was employed to determine absorption coefficients, μa, scattering coefficients, μs, and anisotropy factors, g. Two groups of mice were used for the study. The first group was measured in vivo and ex vivo within 5-10 min post mortem. The second group was measured in vivo and ex vivo every 24 h for up to 72 h after sacrifice. Between the measurements the tissues were kept at 4 °C wrapped in a gauze moistened with saline solution. Then the specimens were frozen at -25 °C for 40 min, thawed and measured again. The results indicate that the absorption coefficients determined in vivo and ex vivo within 5-10 min post mortem differed considerably only in the spectral range dominated by hemoglobin. These changes can be attributed to rapid deoxygenation of tissue and blood post mortem. Absorption coefficients determined ex vivo up to 72 h post mortem decreased gradually with time in the spectral regions dominated by hemoglobin and water, which can be explained by the continuing loss of blood. Absorption properties of the frozen-thawed ex vivo tissues showed increase in oxygenation, which is likely caused by the release of hemoglobin from hemolyzed erythrocytes. Scattering of the ex vivo tissues decreased gradually with time in the entire spectral range due to the continuing loss of blood and partial cell damage. Anisotropy factors did not change considerably.

  13. Evaluation of the in vivo and ex vivo optical properties in a mouse ear model.

    PubMed

    Salomatina, E; Yaroslavsky, A N

    2008-06-07

    Determination of in vivo optical properties is a challenging problem. Absorption and scattering measured ex vivo are often used for in vivo applications. To investigate the validity of this approach, we have obtained and compared the optical properties of mouse ears in vivo and ex vivo in the spectral range from 370 to 1650 nm. Integrating sphere spectrophotometry in combination with the inverse Monte Carlo technique was employed to determine absorption coefficients, mu(a), scattering coefficients, mu(s), and anisotropy factors, g. Two groups of mice were used for the study. The first group was measured in vivo and ex vivo within 5-10 min post mortem. The second group was measured in vivo and ex vivo every 24 h for up to 72 h after sacrifice. Between the measurements the tissues were kept at 4 degrees C wrapped in a gauze moistened with saline solution. Then the specimens were frozen at -25 degrees C for 40 min, thawed and measured again. The results indicate that the absorption coefficients determined in vivo and ex vivo within 5-10 min post mortem differed considerably only in the spectral range dominated by hemoglobin. These changes can be attributed to rapid deoxygenation of tissue and blood post mortem. Absorption coefficients determined ex vivo up to 72 h post mortem decreased gradually with time in the spectral regions dominated by hemoglobin and water, which can be explained by the continuing loss of blood. Absorption properties of the frozen-thawed ex vivo tissues showed increase in oxygenation, which is likely caused by the release of hemoglobin from hemolyzed erythrocytes. Scattering of the ex vivo tissues decreased gradually with time in the entire spectral range due to the continuing loss of blood and partial cell damage. Anisotropy factors did not change considerably.

  14. Congenital malformations of the inner ear and the vestibulocochlear nerve in children with sensorineural hearing loss: evaluation with CT and MRI.

    PubMed

    Westerhof, J P; Rademaker, J; Weber, B P; Becker, H

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the diagnostic value of CT and MRI in children with sensorineural hearing loss and to analyze anatomic abnormalities of the inner ear and the vestibulocochlear nerve in this patient group. We evaluated 42 inner ears in 21 children with congenital deafness who had congenital inner ear malformations and who were candidates for cochlear implants. All patients were studied with high resolution MR and helical CT examinations. The MR study included a T2-weighted 3D fast SE sequence. We describe and tabulate the anatomic abnormalities. Special attention was given to abnormalities of the vestibulocochlear nerve. The field of view in the plane according to the length axis of the internal auditory canal (IAC) was 4 cm. Additional continuous parasagittal reformations perpendicular to the length axis of the IAC were studied with a field of view of 3 cm. CT and MRI allowed accurate identification of malformations of the inner ear in children with congenital deafness. We identified 99 malformations, with a majority of patients demonstrating multiple abnormalities. Common imaging findings were Mondini abnormality and Mondini variants (12/42) and fusion of the lateral or superior semicircular canal with the vestibule (12/42). MRI demonstrated in 9 of 21 patients a rudimentary or absent vestibulocochlear nerve in the auditory canal. CT and MRI are important modalities to analyze the inner ear in children who are candidates for cochlear implants. MRI with an extremely small field of view should be used to study possible abnormalities of the vestibulocochlear nerves. This may alter clinical care and allow cochlear implant placement in patients whose electrodiagnostic studies suggest that the implant should not be performed. The detailed analysis of abnormalities of the inner ear might establish prognostic factors.

  15. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Debris removal, antibiotic ear drops, keeping water and cotton swabs out of the ear, and pain relievers ... Injuring the ear canal while cleaning it (using cotton swabs) or getting water or irritants, such as ...

  16. Ear Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Inserting something into the ear. Things like a cotton swab, fingernail, or pencil can scratch the ear ... Never stick anything in their ears — not even cotton swabs or their fingers. Regular bathing should be ...

  17. Evaluation of a Rapid Immunochromatographic ODK-0901 Test for Detection of Pneumococcal Antigen in Middle Ear Fluids and Nasopharyngeal Secretions

    PubMed Central

    Hotomi, Muneki; Togawa, Akihisa; Takei, Shin; Sugita, Gen; Sugita, Rinya; Kono, Masamitsu; Fujimaki, Yutaka; Kamide, Yosuke; Uchizono, Akihiro; Kanesada, Keiko; Sawada, Shoichi; Okitsu, Naohiro; Tanaka, Yumi; Saijo, Yoko; Yamanaka, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    Since the incidence of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae has been increasing at an astonishing rate throughout the world, the need for accurate and rapid identification of pneumococci has become increasingly important to determine the appropriate antimicrobial treatment. We have evaluated an immunochromatographic test (ODK-0901) that detects pneumococcal antigens using 264 middle ear fluids (MEFs) and 268 nasopharyngeal secretions (NPSs). A sample was defined to contain S. pneumoniae when optochin and bile sensitive alpha hemolytic streptococcal colonies were isolated by culture. The sensitivity and specificity of the ODK-0901 test were 81.4% and 80.5%, respectively, for MEFs from patients with acute otitis media (AOM). In addition, the sensitivity and specificity were 75.2% and 88.8%, respectively, for NPSs from patients with acute rhinosinusitis. The ODK-0901 test may provide a rapid and highly sensitive evaluation of the presence of S. pneumoniae and thus may be a promising method of identifying pneumococci in MEFs and NPSs. PMID:22448257

  18. Evaluation of Oxidation Damage in Thermal Barrier Coating Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    1996-01-01

    A method based on the technique of dilatometry has been established to quantitatively evaluate the interfacial damage due to the oxidation in a thermal barrier coating system. Strain isolation and adhesion coefficients have been proposed to characterize the thermal barrier coating (TBC) performance based on its thermal expansion behavior. It has been found that, for a thermal barrier coating system consisting of ZrO2-8%Y2O3/FeCrAlY/4140 steel substrate, the oxidation of the bond coat and substrate significantly reduced the ceramic coating adherence, as inferred from the dilatometry measurements. The in-situ thermal expansion measurements under 30 deg C to 700 deg C thermal cycling in air showed that the adhesion coefficient, A(sub i) decreased by 25% during the first 35 oxidation cycles. Metallography showed that delamination occurred at both the ceramic/bond coat and bond coat/substrate interfaces. In addition, the strain isolation effect has been improved by increasing the FeCrAlY bond coat thickness. The strain isolation coefficient, Si, increased from about 0.04 to 0.25, as the bond coat thickness changed from 0.1 mm to 1.0 mm. It may be possible to design optimum values of strain isolation and interface adhesion coefficients to achieve the best TBC performance.

  19. Nondestructive evaluation of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, D.J.; Taylor, J.A.T.

    Acoustic emission has been used as a nondestructive evaluation technique to examine the thermal shock response of thermal barrier coatings. In this study, samples of partially stabilized zirconia powder were sprayed and acoustic emission (AE) data were taken in a series of thermal shock tests in an effort to correlate AE with a given failure mechanism. Microstructural evidence was examined using parallel beam x-ray diffraction and optical microscopy. The AE data are discussed in terms of cumulative amplitude distributions and the use of this technique to characterize fracture events.

  20. A practice-based evaluation of a liquid barrier film.

    PubMed

    Harding, Nicola

    2002-05-01

    In palliative care it is often the little things such as being comfortable that help to improve a patient's quality of life. When the opportunity arose in our hospice to take part in a practice-based evaluation of a product that promised to make patients more comfortable, we were pleased to take part. Our small-scale evaluation was part of a wider study of SuperSkin, a liquid barrier film designed to protect skin at risk of damage. Information was collected from the patient, patient's medical notes and the nursing staff - a patient daily diary record was used in addition to normal information recordings. We evaluated the efficacy of the product and found this liquid barrier film to have a positive effect in several ways. It appeared to assist in the healing of skin damaged by friction and shearing forces, and from excoriation from wound exudates, urine and faeces. In addition, it appeared to protect healthy, 'at risk' skin from the same problems.

  1. [The modern approaches to the evaluation of the importance of chronic inflammation in the mucous membrane of the middle ear].

    PubMed

    Pal'chun, V T; Gurov, A V; Mikhaleva, L M; Gordienko, M V

    Despite the ever growing progress in antibiotic therapy and the advent of the new methods for this purpose, the number of patients suffering from chronic focal infection of the ENT organs has not decreased during the last decades which turns the problem of chronization of inflammation into a serious challenge for the physicians as exemplified by chronic inflammation in the mucous membrane of the middle ear. Pathological changes in the middle ear make up a large fraction of ENT diseases of importance not only for otorhinolaryngologists but also for the specialists in the related medical disciplines. The present article is an overview of etiological, pathogenetic, and pathomorphological aspects of chronization of the inflammation process that are known to occur in the mucous membrane of the middle ear. In the overwhelming majority of the cases, the main cause of the conversion of acute inflammation in the middle ear into the chronic condition is the inadequate (incorrect), inopportune or incomplete treatment of the acute inflammatory process in the middle ear.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of the inner ear in Meniere's disease.

    PubMed

    Pyykkö, Ilmari; Zou, Jing; Poe, Dennis; Nakashima, Tsutomu; Naganawa, Shinji

    2010-10-01

    Recent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have made it possible to examine the compartments of the cochlea using gadolidium-chelate (GdC) as a contrast agent. As GdC loads into the perilymph space without entering the endolymph in healthy inner ears, the technique provides possibilities to visualize the different cochlear compartments and evaluate the integrity of the inner ear barriers. This critical review presents the recent advancements in the inner ear MRI technology, contrast agent application and the correlated ototoxicity study, and the uptake dynamics of GdC in the inner ear. GdC causes inflammation of the mucosa of the middle ear, but there are no reports or evidence of toxicity-related changes in vivo either in animals or in humans. Intravenously administered GdC reached the guinea pig cochlea about 10 minutes after administration and loaded the scala tympani and scala vestibuli with the peak at 60 minutes. However, the perilymphatic loading peak was 80 to 100 minutes in mice after intravenous administration of GdC. In healthy animals the scala media did not load GdC. In mice in which GdC was administered topically onto the round window, loading of the cochlea peaked at 4 hours, at which time it reached the apex. The initial portions of the organ to be filled were the basal turn of the cochlea and vestibule. In animal models with endolymphatic hydrops (EH), bulging of the Reissner's membrane was observed as deficit of GdC in the scala vestibuli. Histologically the degree of bulging correlated with the MR images. In animals with immune reaction-induced EH, MRI showed that EH could be limited to restricted regions of the inner ear, and in the same inner ear both EH and leakage of GdC into the scala media were visualized. More than 100 inner ear MRI scans have been performed to date in humans. Loading of GdC followed the pattern seen in animals, but the time frame was different. In intravenous delivery of double-dose GdC, the inner ear compartments

  3. Cilia and Ear.

    PubMed

    Piatti, Gioia; De Santi, Maria Margherita; Torretta, Sara; Pignataro, Lorenzo; Soi, Daniela; Ambrosetti, Umberto

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence of otological complications derived from primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) in adulthood. Twenty-three patients with diagnosed PCD underwent medical history aimed at recording the presence of ear, nose, and throat manifestations (ENT) and any surgical treatments. The ENT objectivity was annotated, and then patients were subjected to audiometric test, tympanometry, registration of otoacoustic emission, and vestibular evaluation. Otitis media with chronic middle ear effusion (OME) during childhood was reported in 52% of the subjects, no patient had undergone ear surgery, and only 2 patients had an episode of otitis in the last year. Eleven of 23 patients showed normal hearing, 11 had a conductive hearing impairment, and 1 showed a severe sensorineural hearing loss unrelated to the syndrome. The bilateral stapedial reflex was only found in all cases of normoacusia and type A tympanogram, distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) were present in 8 patients, and no patient had vestibular alterations. Our study confirms a very frequent prevalence of OME in PCD during childhood. Careful monitoring of otological complications of the syndrome is always desirable, also given the high presence in adults of other manifestations in the upper airways, such as chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis.

  4. Clinical evaluation of the safety and efficacy of 10% imidacloprid + 2.5% moxidectin topical solution for the treatment of ear mite (Otodectes cynotis) infestations in dogs.

    PubMed

    Arther, R G; Davis, W L; Jacobsen, J A; Lewis, V A; Settje, T L

    2015-05-30

    A clinical field investigation was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of 10% imidacloprid/2.5% moxidectin for the treatment of ear mites (Otodectes cynotis) in dogs. The study was a multi-centered, blinded, positive controlled, randomized clinical trial conducted under field conditions with privately owned pets. A total of 17 veterinary clinics enrolled cases for the study. An otoscopic examination was performed to confirm the presence of O. cynotis residing in the ear of the dog prior to enrollment. A single-dog household was enrolled in the study if the dog had 5 or more ear mites and an acceptable physical examination. A multi-dog household was eligible if at least one dog in the household had 5 or more mites and all dogs in the household had acceptable physical exams and met the inclusion criteria. Qualified households were randomly assigned to treatments to receive either 10% imidacloprid+2.5% moxidectin topical solution or topical selamectin solution (positive control product) according to a pre-designated enrollment ratio of 2:1, respectively. If more than one dog in a multiple dog household had adequate numbers of ear mites, one dog was randomly selected to represent the household for efficacy evaluation prior to treatment. Treatments were administered twice per label and dose banding directions for each product approximately 28 days apart (Days 0 and 28), by the dog's owner at the study site. All dogs in a household were treated on the same day and with the same product. The owners completed a post-treatment observation form one day after each treatment. Post-treatment otoscopic examinations were performed by the investigators or attending veterinarian on Days 28 and 56. Physical examinations were performed on Days 0 and 56. One hundred and four (104) households were evaluated for efficacy on SD 28, and 102 households were evaluated for efficacy on SD 56. The dogs' ages ranged from 2 months to 16 years. A total of 247 dogs were evaluated for

  5. Evaluation of the performance of portable precast concrete traffic barriers.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1978-01-01

    The portable precast concrete traffic barrier is used to separate high speed vehicular traffic and construction activities. However, since there was a lack of information on the barrier's performance in a construction zone environment, officials of t...

  6. CT of the ear in Pendred syndrome.

    PubMed

    Goldfeld, Moshe; Glaser, Benjamin; Nassir, Elias; Gomori, John Moshe; Hazani, Elitsur; Bishara, Nassir

    2005-05-01

    To prospectively determine the structural anomalies of the inner ear by using thin-section computed tomography (CT) in an extended family with Pendred syndrome. Ethics committee approved the study, and informed consent was obtained from every patient or from parents of patients under legal age. Twelve patients (three females and nine males aged 7-47 years) with Pendred syndrome (all from the same ethnic isolate and with the same mutation in the PDS gene) were evaluated for inner-ear malformation at thin-section CT. Both ears were evaluated. Presence or absence of interscalar septum between upper and middle turns of the cochlea was evaluated, and vestibule and vestibular aqueduct were examined for enlargement. Modiolus was determined to be present or absent (modiolar deficiency). CT scans were evaluated in consensus by two radiologists (M.G., J.M.G.). All patients had inner ear malformation on both sides. Modiolus was absent and vestibule was enlarged on both sides in all 12 patients. Interscalar septum was absent in 18 (75%) of 24 ears. In eight patients, interscalar septum was absent in both ears, whereas in two patients, it was absent on only one side. Aqueduct was enlarged in 20 (80%) of 24 ears. In nine patients, both ears had enlarged aqueducts, while in two patients, only one side was abnormal. Inner ear malformation is an invariable finding in Pendred syndrome. Modiolus deficiency and vestibular enlargement were the most consistent anomalies in this population with Pendred syndrome. (c) RSNA, 2005.

  7. Identification of a gene set to evaluate the potential effects of loud sounds from seismic surveys on the ears of fishes: a study with Salmo salar

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, C D; Payne, J F; Rise, M L

    2014-01-01

    identified the transcript encoding growth hormone I as up-regulated by loud sound, supporting previous evidence linking growth hormone to hair cell regeneration in fishes. Quantitative (q) reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses confirmed dysregulation of some microarray-identified transcripts and in some cases revealed a high level of biological variability in the exposed group. These results support the potential utility of molecular biomarkers to evaluate the effect of seismic surveys on fishes with studies on the ears being placed in a priority category for development of exposure–response relationships. Knowledge of such relationships is necessary for addressing the question of potential size of injury zones. PMID:24814183

  8. Ear infection - chronic

    MedlinePlus

    Middle ear infection - chronic; Otitis media - chronic; Chronic otitis media; Chronic ear infection ... Chole RA. Chronic otitis media, mastoiditis, and petrositis. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. ...

  9. Ear drainage culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... needed. Your health care provider will use a cotton swab to collect the sample from inside the ... Using a cotton swab to take a sample of drainage from the outer ear is not painful. However, ear pain may ...

  10. Swimmer's Ear (External Otitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... t help, your doctor might prescribe a stronger pain reliever. You'll use this only for a short time — until the ear drops and antibiotics begin to work. To protect your ear while it heals, your ...

  11. Taking Care of Your Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... Audiologist Perforated Eardrum What's Hearing Loss? Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? What Is an Ear Infection? Swimmer's Ear Your Ears What's Earwax? View more About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  12. Ear asymmetries in middle-ear, cochlear, and brainstem responses in human infants

    PubMed Central

    Keefe, Douglas H.; Gorga, Michael P.; Jesteadt, Walt; Smith, Lynette M.

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, Sininger and Cone-Wesson examined asymmetries in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of otoacoustic emissions (OAE) in infants, reporting that distortion-product (DP)OAE SNR was larger in the left ear, whereas transient-evoked (TE)OAE SNR was larger in the right. They proposed that cochlear and brainstem asymmetries facilitate development of brain-hemispheric specialization for sound processing. Similarly, in 2006 Sininger and Cone-Wesson described ear asymmetries mainly favoring the right ear in infant auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). The present study analyzed 2640 infant responses to further explore these effects. Ear differences in OAE SNR, signal, and noise were evaluated separately and across frequencies (1.5, 2, 3, and 4 kHz), and ABR asymmetries were compared with cochlear asymmetries. Analyses of ear-canal reflectance and admittance showed that asymmetries in middle-ear functioning did not explain cochlear and brainstem asymmetries. Current results are consistent with earlier studies showing right-ear dominance for TEOAE and ABR. Noise levels were higher in the right ear for OAEs and ABRs, causing ear asymmetries in SNR to differ from those in signal level. No left-ear dominance for DPOAE signal was observed. These results do not support a theory that ear asymmetries in cochlear processing mimic hemispheric brain specialization for auditory processing. PMID:18345839

  13. Evaluation of Erosion Resistance of Advanced Turbine Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Miller, Robert A.; Cuy, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    The erosion resistant turbine thermal barrier coating system is critical to aircraft engine performance and durability. By demonstrating advanced turbine material testing capabilities, we will be able to facilitate the critical turbine coating and subcomponent development and help establish advanced erosion-resistant turbine airfoil thermal barrier coatings design tools. The objective of this work is to determine erosion resistance of advanced thermal barrier coating systems under simulated engine erosion and/or thermal gradient environments, validating advanced turbine airfoil thermal barrier coating systems based on nano-tetragonal phase toughening design approaches.

  14. Benchtop evaluation of pressure barrier insufflator and standard insufflator systems.

    PubMed

    Nepple, Kenneth G; Kallogjeri, Dorina; Bhayani, Sam B

    2013-01-01

    Previous experimental research has reported minimal differences in pressure maintenance between different versions of standard insufflators (SI). However, a recent report identified potential clinical benefits with a valveless pressure barrier insufflator (PBI). We sought to perform a benchtop objective evaluation of SI and PBI systems. A rigid box system with continuous pressure manometry was used to evaluate a PBI (Surgiquest Airseal) and two SIs (SI1 = Stryker PneumoSure High Flow Insufflator and SI2 = Storz SCB Thermoflator). Pressure maintenance of 15 mmHg was evaluated during experimental conditions of leakage from a 5 mm port site, leakage from a 12 mm port site, and continuous suction. With leakage from the 5 mm port site, the PBI maintained pressure of >13 mmHg whereas the pressures dropped moderately with the SI1 (7-13 mmHg) and SI2 insufflators (3-7 mmHg) and did not regain goal pressure until leakage was stopped. With leakage from 12 mm port site, the PBI pressure decreased to 9-11 mmHg, whereas the SI1 and SI2 lost insufflation pressures completely. The PBI maintained pressure of >11 mmHg during continuous suction while the SI1 and SI2 lost pressure entirely, and actually showed negative pressure from air suction into the rigid box system. When evaluated statistically with the mixed model repeated measures ANOVA, the SI1 and SI2 performed similarly while the PBI maintained increased pressure. In the experimental rigid box system, the PBI more successfully maintained pressure in response to leakage and suction than SIs.

  15. Bench evaluation: three face-shield CPR barrier devices.

    PubMed

    Simmons, M; Deao, D; Moon, L; Peters, K; Cavanaugh, S

    1995-06-01

    Due to the fear of disease transmission, the practice of mouth-to-mouth (M-M) rescue breathing is rarely performed; to address this concern, many types of CPR barrier devices have been developed. These include bag-valve-mask devices, mouth-to-mask devices, and face shields (FS). The purpose of this study was to measure the volumes delivered during mouth-to-face shield (M-FS) breathing, to measure the back pressure and calculate the resistance to flow through their 1-way valves, and to test for backward leak of gas through the valves. Three FS brands were evaluated: Kiss of Life (KOL), MicroSHIELD (Micro) and Res-Cue Key (RCK). Volume delivered during M-M and M-FS breathing was evaluated by 10 rescuers who used the devices while performing rescue breathing on a CPR mannequin. Back pressure was measured and resistance calculated by directing airflow through the 1-way valves. Backward leak was evaluated by measuring the O2 concentration at the rescuer side of the valve while 100% O2 was directed toward the patient side of the valve. Differences among the brands were evaluated using analysis of variance. The mean (SD) values for volumes in L were: M-M 1.00 (0.25), Micro 0.77 (0.20), RCK 0.64 (0.10), and KOL 0.24 (0.11). Mean values for back pressure in cm H2O at 50 L/min were Micro 16.7 (1.29), KOL 7.22 (0.13), and RCK 2.15 (0.16). Significant backward leak only occurred with RCK. Not one of the FSs tested met all of the requirements suggested by the American Heart Association and by the International Standards Organization.

  16. Evaluating the Longevity and Hydraulic Performance of Permeable Reactive Barriers at Department of Defense Sites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    Draft Final Report Evaluating the Longevity and Hydraulic Performance of Permeable Reactive Barriers at Department of Defense Sites Prepared for...AND SUBTITLE Evaluating the Longevity and Hydraulic Performance of Permeable Reactive Barriers at Department of Defense Sites 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...34 4.3.2 Hydraulic Performance Evaluation .................................................................... 38 4.3.2.1 Water-Level

  17. Evaluating the Longevity and Hydraulic Performance of Permeable Reactive Barriers at Department of Defense Sites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-24

    F inal Repor t Evaluating the Longevity and Hydraulic Performance of Permeable Reactive Barriers at Department of Defense Sites P1·epared for... Hydraulic Performance of Permeable Reactive Barriers at Department of Defense Sites Prepared for Project Officer: Charles Reeter Naval Facilities...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Evaluating the Longevity and Hydraulic Performance of Permeable Reactive N4 7408-95-D-0730/0087 Barriers at Department of

  18. Metallographic techniques for evaluation of thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brindley, William J.; Leonhardt, Todd A.

    1990-01-01

    The performance of ceramic thermal barrier coatings is strongly dependent on the amount and shape of the porosity in the coating. Current metallographic techniques do not provide polished surfaces that are adequate for a repeatable interpretation of the coating structures. A technique recently developed at NASA-Lewis for preparation of thermal barrier coating sections combines epoxy impregnation, careful sectioning and polishing, and interference layering to provide previously unobtainable information on processing-induced porosity. In fact, increased contrast and less ambiguous structure developed by the method make automatic quantitative metallography a viable option for characterizing thermal barrier coating structures.

  19. Performance evaluation of cable median barrier systems in Texas.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-08-01

    Since 2003, the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) has embarked on an aggressive campaign to install : median barriers to prevent cross-median crashes on freeway facilities statewide. In the few years prior to 2003, : virtually all fatalities...

  20. ARCTIC FOUNDATIONS, INC. FREEZE BARRIER TECHNOLOGY; INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arctic Foundations, Inc. (AFI), of Anchorage, Alaska has developed a freeze barrier technology designed to prevent the migration of contaminants in groundwater by completely isolating contaminant source areas until appropriate remediation techniques can be applied. With this tech...

  1. Evaluation of the analgesic effects of oral and subcutaneous tramadol administration in red-eared slider turtles

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Bridget B.; Sladky, Kurt K.; Johnson, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the dose- and time-dependent changes in analgesia and respiration caused by tramadol administration in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta). Design Crossover study. Animals 30 adult male and female red-eared slider turtles. Procedures 11 turtles received tramadol at various doses (1, 5, 10, or 25 mg/kg [0.45, 2.27, 4.54, or 11.36 mg/lb], PO; 10 or 25 mg/kg, SC) or a control treatment administered similarly. Degree of analgesia was assessed through measurement of hind limb thermal withdrawal latencies (TWDLs) at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after tramadol administration. Nineteen other freely swimming turtles received tramadol PO (5, 10, or 25 mg/kg), and ventilation (VE), breath frequency, tidal volume (VT and expiratory breath duration were measured. Results The highest tramadol doses (10 and 25 mg/kg, PO) yielded greater mean TWDLs 6 to 96 hours after administration than the control treatment did, whereas tramadol administered at 5 mg/kg, PO, yielded greater mean TWDLs at 12 and 24 hours. The lowest tramadol dose (1 mg/kg, PO) failed to result in analgesia. Tramadol administered SC resulted in lower TWDLs, slower onset, and shorter duration of action, compared with PO administration. Tramadol at 10 and 25 mg/kg, PO, reduced the VE at 12 hours by 51% and 67%, respectively, and at 24 through 72 hours by 55% to 62% and 61% to 70%, respectively. However, tramadol at 5 mg/kg, PO, had no effect on the VE. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Tramadol administered PO at 5 to 10 mg/kg provided thermal analgesia with less respiratory depression than that reported for morphine in red-eared slider turtles. PMID:21235376

  2. The ideal ear position in Caucasian females.

    PubMed

    Broer, P Niclas; Thiha, Aung; Ehrl, Denis; Sinno, Sammy; Juran, Sabrina; Szpalski, Caroline; Ng, Reuben; Ninkovic, Milomir; Prantl, Lukas; Heidekrueger, Paul I

    2018-03-01

    Ear position contributes significantly to facial appearance. However, while objective measurements remain the foundation for esthetic evaluations, little is known about how an ear should ideally be positioned regarding its rotational axis. This study aimed to further evaluate whether there exists a universally applicable ideal ear axis, and how sociodemographic factors impact such preferences. An interactive online survey was designed, enabling participants to change the axis of a female model's ear in terms of its forward and backward rotation. The questionnaire was sent out internationally to plastic surgeons and the general public. Demographic data were collected and analysis of variance was used to investigate respective preferences. A total of 1016 responses from 35 different countries (response rate: 18.5%) were gathered. Overall, 60% of survey takers chose the minus 10 or 5° angles to be most attractive. Significant differences were found regarding sex, ethnicity, country of residence, profession and respective ear axis preferences. Across multiple countries and ethnicities, an ear position in slight reclination of minus 5-10° is considered most pleasing in Caucasian females. However, sociodemographic factors significantly impact individual ear axis preferences and should be taken into consideration when performing reconstructive ear surgery. Copyright © 2018 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Application of a Novel Murine Ear Vein Model to Evaluate the Effects of a Vascular Radioprotectant on Radiation-Induced Vascular Permeability and Leukocyte Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Ashcraft, Kathleen A; Choudhury, Kingshuk Roy; Birer, Sam R; Hendargo, Hansford C; Patel, Pranalee; Eichenbaum, Gary; Dewhirst, Mark W

    2018-04-19

    Vascular injury after radiation exposure contributes to multiple types of tissue injury through a cascade of events. Some of the earliest consequences of radiation damage include increased vascular permeability and promotion of inflammation, which is partially manifested by increased leukocyte-endothelial (L/E) interactions. We describe herein a novel intravital imaging method to evaluate L/E interactions, as a function of shear stress, and vascular permeability at multiple time points after local irradiation to the ear. This model permitted analysis of quiescent vasculature that was not perturbed by any surgical manipulation prior to imaging. To evaluate the effects of radiation on vascular integrity, fluorescent dextran was injected intravenously and its extravasation in the extravascular space surrounding the ear vasculature was measured at days 3 and 7 after 6 Gy irradiation. The vascular permeability rate increased approximately twofold at both days 3 and 7 postirradiation ( P < 0.05). Leukocyte rolling, which is indicative of L/E interactions, was significantly increased in mice at 24 h postirradiation compared to that of nonirradiated mice. To assess our model, as a means for assessing vascular radioprotectants, we treated additional cohorts of mice with a thrombopoietin mimetic, TPOm (RWJ-800088). In addition to stimulating platelet formation, thrombopoietin can protect vasculature after several forms of injury. Thus, we hypothesized that TPOm would reduce vascular permeability and L/E adhesion after localized irradiation to the ear vasculature of mice. If TPOm reduced these consequences of radiation, it would validate the utility of our intravital imaging method. TPOm reduced radiation-induced vascular leakage to control levels at day 7. Furthermore, L/E cell interactions were also reduced in irradiated mice treated with TPOm, compared with mice receiving irradiation alone, particularly at high shear stress ( P = 0.03, Kruskal-Wallis). We conclude that the

  4. Biometric recognition using 3D ear shape.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ping; Bowyer, Kevin W

    2007-08-01

    Previous works have shown that the ear is a promising candidate for biometric identification. However, in prior work, the preprocessing of ear images has had manual steps and algorithms have not necessarily handled problems caused by hair and earrings. We present a complete system for ear biometrics, including automated segmentation of the ear in a profile view image and 3D shape matching for recognition. We evaluated this system with the largest experimental study to date in ear biometrics, achieving a rank-one recognition rate of 97.8 percent for an identification scenario and an equal error rate of 1.2 percent for a verification scenario on a database of 415 subjects and 1,386 total probes.

  5. Cauliflower ear dissection.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Masao; Suzuki, Ayano; Nagata, Takeshi; Fukamizu, Hidekazu

    2011-11-01

    Cauliflower ear (CE) is caused by repeated direct trauma to the external ear. Surgical correction of an established CE is one of the most challenging problems in ear reconstruction. However, no reports have clarified the dissection of an established CE in detail. In this report, the dissection of a CE is described based on macroscopic, microscopic and imaging features. Copyright © 2011 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A comparison of three methods to evaluate the position of an artificial ear on the deficient side of the face from a three-dimensional surface scan of patients with hemifacial microsomia.

    PubMed

    Coward, Trevor J; Watson, Roger M; Richards, Robin; Scott, Brendan J J

    2012-01-01

    Patients with hemifacial microsomia may have a missing ear on the deficient side of the face. The fabrication of an ear for such individuals usually has been accomplished by directly measuring the ear on the normal side to construct a prosthesis based on these dimensions, and the positioning has been, to a large extent, primarily operator-dependent. The aim of the present study was to compare three methods, developed from the identification of landmarks plotted on three-dimensional surface scans, to evaluate the position of an artificial ear on the deficient side of the face compared with the position of the natural ear on the normally developed side. Laser scans were undertaken of the faces of 14 subjects with hemifacial microsomia. Landmarks on the ear and face on the normal side were identified. Three methods of mirroring the normal ear on the deficient side of the face were investigated, which used either facial landmarks from the orbital area or a zero reference point generated from the intersection of three orthogonal planes on a frame of reference. To assess the methods, landmarks were identified on the ear situated on the normal side as well as on the face. These landmarks yielded paired dimensional measurements that could be compared between the normal and deficient sides. Mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. It was possible to mirror the normal ear image on to the deficient side of the face using all three methods. Generally only small differences between the dimensional measurements on the normal and deficient sides were observed. However, two-way analysis of variance revealed statistically significant differences between the three methods (P = .005). The method of mirroring using the outer canthi was found to result in the smallest dimensional differences between the anthropometric points on the ear and face between the normally developed and deficient sides. However, the effects of the deformity can result in limitations in

  7. Evaluation of hot corrosion behavior of thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, P. E.; Miller, R. A.; Gedwill, M. A.

    1980-01-01

    Calcium silicate and yttria stabilized zirconia/MCrAlY thermal barrier coating systems on air-cooled specimens were exposed to sodium plus vanadium doped Mach 0.3 combustion gases. Thermal barrier coating endurance was determined to be a strong inverse function of ceramic coating thickness. Coating system durability was increased through the use of higher Cr + Al NiCrAl and CoCrAlY bond coatings. Chemical and electron microprobe analyses supported the predictions of condensate compositions and the determination of their roles in causing spalling of the ceramic coatings.

  8. Facial Asymmetry: Brow and Ear Position.

    PubMed

    Perumal, Balaji; Meyer, Dale R

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to analyze brow and ear position, and examine the relationship between these structures in patients presenting for blepharoplasty evaluation. A retrospective chart review was performed, which included all patients presenting to one oculoplastic physician for a blepharoplasty evaluation from November, 2012 to March, 2014. The prevalence of brow ptosis and brow and ear asymmetry was calculated; the proportional distribution was determined, and chi-square analysis and the z-test of proportions were used to calculate the significance. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained for this study. A total of 133 patients met the inclusion criteria. Some degree of brow ptosis was noted in 83% of patients. Brow asymmetry was found in 88% of patients, and ear asymmetry in 77%. Of those patients who had asymmetry, 61% had the right brow lower and 75% had the right ear lower; 73% of all patients had the brow and ear lower on the same side ( p  < 0.001). In this study, brow ptosis and asymmetry were quite common. In addition, the side of the lower brow correlated strongly with the side of the lower ear, and the right side structures were lower more often than the left. Patients presenting for blepharoplasty evaluation may have an element of generalized facial asymmetry which includes the brows and ears. These observations can be important for preoperative planning and patient counseling. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. In-service evaluation of high tension cable barrier systems.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-04-15

    The Kentucky Transportation Cabinet has installed hundreds of miles of high-tension cable median barrier (CMB) as a safety innovation. The usage of CMB aids in the prevention of crossover crashes, where a vehicle departs the roadway on the left shoul...

  10. Evaluation and Systems Integration of Physical Security Barrier Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-30

    INVESTIGATED 1 (31)/ RESPONSE/DETERRENT SYSTEMS 2 BONICH, R./ BELVOIR RD&E/ - 3 1473 4 01-01-82 5 - 6 BARRIER RESPONSE SYSTEMS (I.E. FOAM, SOUND, LIGHT, NITINOL ...NONMAGNETIC NITONOL ALLOYS 2 BUCHLER, W. 3 33-216 4 -- /--/-- 5- 6 NITINOL ALLOY ’MEMORY METAL’ (PACKAGE OF PAPERS) 1 (52)/ A PROCEDURE TO INTEGRATE

  11. Safety performance evaluation of cable median barriers on freeways in Florida.

    PubMed

    Alluri, Priyanka; Haleem, Kirolos; Gan, Albert; Mauthner, John

    2016-07-03

    This article aims to evaluate the safety performance of cable median barriers on freeways in Florida. The safety performance evaluation was based on the percentages of barrier and median crossovers by vehicle type, crash severity, and cable median barrier type (Trinity Cable Safety System [CASS] and Gibraltar system). Twenty-three locations with cable median barriers totaling about 101 miles were identified. Police reports of 6,524 crashes from years 2005-2010 at these locations were reviewed to verify and obtain detailed crash information. A total of 549 crashes were determined to be barrier related (i.e., crashes involving vehicles hitting the cable median barrier) and were reviewed in further detail to identify crossover crashes and the manner in which the vehicles crossed the barriers; that is, by either overriding, underriding, or penetrating the barriers. Overall, 2.6% of vehicles that hit the cable median barrier crossed the median and traversed into the opposite travel lane. Overall, 98.1% of cars and 95.5% of light trucks that hit the barrier were prevented from crossing the median. In other words, 1.9% of cars and 4.5% of light trucks that hit the barrier had crossed the median and encroached on the opposite travel lanes. There is no significant difference in the performance of cable median barrier for cars versus light trucks in terms of crossover crashes. In terms of severity, overrides were more severe compared to underrides and penetrations. The statistics showed that the CASS and Gibraltar systems performed similarly in terms of crossover crashes. However, the Gibraltar system experienced a higher proportion of penetrations compared to the CASS system. The CASS system resulted in a slightly higher percentage of moderate and minor injury crashes compared to the Gibraltar system. Cable median barriers are successful in preventing median crossover crashes; 97.4% of the cable median barrier crashes were prevented from crossing over the median. Of all of

  12. Design and evaluation of an energy-absorbing, reusable roadside/median barrier.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-07-01

    Further design and evaluation was conducted on an energy-absorbing, restorable and reusable roadside/median barrier, : designated the RESTORE barrier. A series of dynamic component tests were conducted on 11-in. (295-mm) tall x 10-in. : (254-mm) w...

  13. Evaluation of Subsurface Engineered Barriers at Waste Sites Volumes 1 and 2

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report provides the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) waste programs with a national retrospective analysis of barrier field performance, as well as information that useful in developing guidance on the use and evaluation of barrier systems

  14. Ear tube insertion

    MedlinePlus

    ... eardrum may cause some hearing loss. But most children do not have long-term damage to their hearing or speech, even when the ... not go away with treatment, or if a child has many ear infections ... or that damages nearby nerves Injury to the ear after sudden ...

  15. Inner ear disorders.

    PubMed

    Smouha, Eric

    2013-01-01

    To present a framework for the diagnosis and treatment of inner ear disorders, with an emphasis on problems common to neuro-rehabilitation. Disorders of the inner ear can cause hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo and imbalance. Hearing loss can be conductive, sensorineural, or mixed; conductive hearing loss arises from the ear canal or middle ear, while sensorineural hearing loss arises from the inner ear or auditory nerve. Vertigo is a hallucination of motion, and is the cardinal symptom of vestibular system disease. It should be differentiated from other causes of dizziness: gait imbalance, disequilibrium, lightheadedness (pre-syncope). Vertigo can be caused by problems in the inner ear or central nervous system. The diagnosis of inner ear disorders begins with a targeted physical examination. The initial work-up of hearing loss is made by audiometry, and vertigo by electronystagmography (ENG). Supplemental tests and MRI are obtained when clinically indicated. The clinical pattern and duration of vertigo are the most important clinical features in the diagnosis. Common inner ear causes of vertigo include: vestibular neuritis (sudden, unilateral vestibular loss), Meniere's disease (episodic vertigo), benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), and bilateral vestibular loss. Common central nervous system causes of vertigo include: post concussion syndrome, cervical vertigo, vestibular migraine, cerebrovascular disease, and acoustic neuroma. A basic knowledge of vestibular physiology, coupled with a understanding of common vestibular syndromes, will lead to correct diagnosis and treatment in most cases.

  16. Effectiveness of Ear Splint Therapy for Ear Deformities

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective To present our experience with ear splint therapy for babies with ear deformities, and thereby demonstrate that this therapy is an effective and safe intervention without significant complications. Methods This was a retrospective study of 54 babies (35 boys and 19 girls; 80 ears; age ≤3 months) with ear deformities who had received ear splint therapy at the Center for Torticollis, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Ajou University Hospital between December 2014 and February 2016. Before the initiation of ear splint therapy, ear deformities were classified with reference to the standard terminology. We compared the severity of ear deformity before and after ear splint therapy by using the physician's ratings. We also compared the physician's ratings and the caregiver's ratings on completion of ear splint therapy. Results Among these 54 babies, 41 children (58 ears, 72.5%) completed the ear splint therapy. The mean age at initiation of therapy was 52.91±18.26 days and the treatment duration was 44.27±32.06 days. Satyr ear, forward-facing ear lobe, Darwinian notch, overfolded ear, and cupped ear were the five most common ear deformities. At the completion of therapy, the final physician's ratings of ear deformities were significantly improved compared to the initial ratings (8.28±1.44 vs. 2.51±0.92; p<0.001). There was no significant difference between the physician's ratings and the caregiver's ratings at the completion of ear splint therapy (8.28±1.44 vs. 8.0±1.61; p=0.297). Conclusion We demonstrated that ear splint therapy significantly improved ear deformities in babies, as measured by quantitative rating scales. Ear splint therapy is an effective and safe intervention for babies with ear deformities. PMID:28289646

  17. Finite Element Evaluation of Two Retrofit Options to Enhance the Performance of Cable Media Barriers.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-06-30

    This report summarizes the finite element modeling and simulation efforts on evaluating the performance of cable median barriers including the current and several proposed retrofit designs. It also synthesizes a literature review of the performance e...

  18. Predicting free-living energy expenditure using a miniaturized ear-worn sensor: an evaluation against doubly labeled water.

    PubMed

    Bouarfa, Loubna; Atallah, Louis; Kwasnicki, Richard Mark; Pettitt, Claire; Frost, Gary; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2014-02-01

    Accurate estimation of daily total energy expenditure (EE)is a prerequisite for assisted weight management and assessing certain health conditions. The use of wearable sensors for predicting free-living EE is challenged by consistent sensor placement, user compliance, and estimation methods used. This paper examines whether a single ear-worn accelerometer can be used for EE estimation under free-living conditions.An EE prediction model as first derived and validated in a controlled setting using healthy subjects involving different physical activities. Ten different activities were assessed showing a tenfold cross validation error of 0.24. Furthermore, the EE prediction model shows a mean absolute deviation(MAD) below 1.2 metabolic equivalent of tasks. The same model was applied to a free-living setting with a different population for further validation. The results were compared against those derived from doubly labeled water. In free-living settings, the predicted daily EE has a correlation of 0.74, p 0.008, and a MAD of 272 kcal day. These results demonstrate that laboratory-derived prediction models can be used to predict EE under free-living conditions [corrected].

  19. [Evaluation of postoperative pain intensity after ear, nose, and throat surgery--the effect of intraoperative fentanyl use].

    PubMed

    Mizota, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Haruyo; Daijo, Hiroki; Tanaka, Tomoharu; Fukuda, Kazuhiko

    2014-11-01

    This study was designed to determine postoperative pain levels after ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgery, and also to examine whether intraoperative fentanyl use during ENT surgery enhances the quality of postoperative pain control. The distribution of pain scores and rescue analgesic requirements among 198 patients undergoing ENT surgery were examined. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent factors associated with moderate to severe postoperative pain (maximal pain score ≥ 5 on the numerical rating scale) and postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). 27.8% of patients experienced moderate to severe postoperative pain after ENT surgery. The distribution of postoperative pain levels was similar among procedures performed on different anatomical regions. Intraoperative fentanyl use was not associated with moderate to severe postoperative pain (adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) :1.03 (0.51-2.13))]. On the other hand, intraoperative fentanyl use was independently associated with PONV [3.10 (1.25-8.92); P = 0.0138]. Prevalence of moderate to severe postoperative pain after ENT surgery was approximately 28%. Intraoperative fentanyl use was not associated with a decreased incidence of moderate to severe postoperative pain, but was significantly associated with PONV.

  20. Barriers and facilitators influencing ethical evaluation in health technology assessment.

    PubMed

    Assasi, Nazila; Schwartz, Lisa; Tarride, Jean-Eric; O'Reilly, Daria; Goeree, Ron

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore barriers and facilitators influencing the integration of ethical considerations in health technology assessment (HTA). The study consisted of two complementary approaches: (a) a systematic review of the literature; and (b) an eighteen-item online survey that was distributed to fifty-six HTA agencies affiliated with the International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment. The review identified twenty-six relevant articles. The most often cited barriers in the literature were: scarcity, heterogeneity and complexity of ethical analysis methods; challenges in translating ethical analysis results into knowledge that is useful for decision makers; and lack of organizational support in terms of required expertise, time and financial resources. The most frequently cited facilitators included: usage of value-based appraisal methods, stakeholder and public engagement, enhancement of practice guidelines, ethical expertise, and educational interventions. Representatives of twenty-six (46.5 percent) agencies from nineteen countries completed the survey. A median of 10 percent (interquartile range, 5 percent to 50 percent) of the HTA products produced by the agencies was reported to include an assessment of ethical aspects. The most commonly perceived barriers were: limited ethical knowledge and expertise, insufficient time and resources, and difficulties in finding ethical evidence or using ethical guidelines. Educational interventions, demand by policy makers, and involvement of ethicists in HTA were the most commonly perceived facilitators. Our results emphasize the importance of simplification of ethics methodology and development of good practice guidelines in HTA, as well as capacity building for engaging HTA practitioners in ethical analyses.

  1. Design and performance evaluation of a 1000-year evapotranspiration-capillary surface barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhuanfang Fred; Strickland, Christopher E.; Link, Steven O.

    Surface barrier technology is used to isolate radioactive waste and to reduce or eliminate recharge water to the waste zone for 1000 years or longer. However, the design and evaluation of such a barrier is challenging because of the extremely long design life. The Prototype Hanford Barrier (PHB) was designed as a 1000-year barrier with pre-determined design and performance objectives and demonstrated in field from 1994 to present. The barrier was tested to evaluate surface-barrier design and performance at the field scale under conditions of enhanced and natural precipitation and of no vegetation. The monitoring data demonstrate that the barriermore » satisfied nearly all key objectives. The PHB far exceeded the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act criteria, functioned in Hanford’s semiarid climate, limited drainage to well below the 0.5 mm yr-1 performance criterion, limited runoff, and minimized erosion. Given the two-decade record of successful performance and consideration of all the processes and mechanisms that could degrade the stability and hydrology in the future, the results suggest the PHB is very likely to perform for its 1000-year design life. This conclusion is based on two assumptions: (1) the exposed subgrade receives protection against erosion and (2) institutional controls prevent inadvertent human activity at the barrier. The PHB design can serve as the base for site-specific barriers over waste sites containing underground nuclear waste, uranium mine tailings, and hazardous mine waste.« less

  2. The constricted ear.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Alfredo A; Williams, J Kerwin; Elsahy, Nabil I

    2002-04-01

    The constricted ear may be described best as a pursestring closure of the ear. The deformity may include lidding of the upper pole with downward folding, protrusion of the concha, decreased vertical height, and low ear position relative to the face. The goals of surgical correction should include obtaining symmetry and correcting the intra-auricular anatomy. The degree of intervention is based on the severity of the deformity and may range from simple repositioning, soft tissue rearrangement, or manipulation of the cartilage. Multiple surgical techniques are described.

  3. Red ear syndrome.

    PubMed

    Purdy, R Allan; Dodick, David W

    2007-08-01

    The red ear syndrome is a rare syndrome originally described by Lance in 1994. It involves pain in and around the ear and associated autonomic phenomena, the most significant of which is cutaneous erythema of the ear ipsilateral to the pain and obvious to the patient and examiner during the attack. It may well represent an auriculo-autonomic cephalgia and/or be part of the group of disorders recognized as trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias. As a syndrome, it still lacks specificity in regard to etiology, mechanisms, and treatment but is important to recognize clinically because of its associations.

  4. Design and performance evaluation of a 1000-year evapotranspiration-capillary surface barrier.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuanfang Fred; Strickland, Christopher E; Link, Steven O

    2017-02-01

    Surface barrier technology is used to isolate radioactive waste and to reduce or eliminate recharge water to the waste zone for 1000 years or longer. However, the design and evaluation of such a barrier is challenging because of the extremely long design life. After establishing a set of design and performance objectives, a package of design solutions was developed for 1000-year surface barriers over nuclear waste sites. The Prototype Hanford Barrier (PHB) was then constructed in 1994 in the field over an existing waste site as a demonstration. The barrier was tested to evaluate surface-barrier design and performance at the field scale under conditions of enhanced and natural precipitation and of no vegetation. The monitoring data demonstrate that the barrier satisfied nearly all objectives in the past two decades. The PHB far exceeded the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act criteria, functioned in Hanford's semiarid climate, limited drainage to well below the 0.5 mm yr -1 performance criterion, limited runoff, and minimized erosion and bio-intrusion. Given the two-decade record of successful performance and consideration of the processes and mechanisms that could affect barrier stability and hydrology in the future, the results suggest the PHB is very likely to perform for its 1000-year design life. This conclusion is based on two assumptions: (1) the exposed subgrade receives protection against erosion and (2) institutional controls prevent inadvertent human activity at the barrier. The PHB design can serve as the basis for site-specific barriers over waste sites containing underground nuclear waste, uranium mine tailings, and hazardous mine waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Estimation of outer-middle ear transmission using DPOAEs and fractional-order modeling of human middle ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghibolhosseini, Maryam

    Our ability to hear depends primarily on sound waves traveling through the outer and middle ear toward the inner ear. Hence, the characteristics of the outer and middle ear affect sound transmission to/from the inner ear. The role of the middle and outer ear in sound transmission is particularly important for otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), which are sound signals generated in a healthy cochlea, and recorded by a sensitive microphone placed in the ear canal. OAEs are used to evaluate the health and function of the cochlea; however, they are also affected by outer and middle ear characteristics. To better assess cochlear health using OAEs, it is critical to quantify the impact of the outer and middle ear on sound transmission. The reported research introduces a noninvasive approach to estimate outer-middle ear transmission using distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). In addition, the role of the outer and middle ear on sound transmission was investigated by developing a physical/mathematical model, which employed fractional-order lumped elements to include the viscoelastic characteristics of biological tissues. Impedance estimations from wideband refectance measurements were used for parameter fitting of the model. The model was validated comparing its estimates of the outer-middle ear sound transmission with those given by DPOAEs. The outer-middle ear transmission by the model was defined as the sum of forward and reverse outer-middle ear transmissions. To estimate the reverse transmission by the model, the probe-microphone impedance was calculated through estimating the Thevenin-equivalent circuit of the probe-microphone. The Thevenin-equivalent circuit was calculated using measurements in a number of test cavities. Such modeling enhances our understanding of the roles of different parts of the outer and middle ear and how they work together to determine their function. In addition, the model would be potentially helpful in diagnosing pathologies of

  6. Cosmetic ear surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... ear reduction. In: Rubin JP, Neligan PC, eds. Plastic Surgery: Volume 2: Aesthetic Surgery . 4th ed. Philadelphia, ... Tang Ho, MD, Assistant Professor, Division of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology – Head and ...

  7. Complications of ear rings.

    PubMed

    Lane, Jennifer C E; O'Toole, Gregory

    2012-06-01

    In this paper the complications of ear piercing are considered and the treatment of resultant deformities is described. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ear infection - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... more than 6 children) Changes in altitude or climate Cold climate Exposure to smoke Family history of ear infections ... Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Internal review and update ...

  9. EAR Program Research Results

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-01-01

    The Exploratory Advanced Research (EAR) Program addresses the need for longer term, higher risk research with the potential for longterm improvements to transportation systems-improvements in planning, building, renewing, and operating safe, congesti...

  10. Middle Ear Infections (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Middle Ear Infections KidsHealth / For Parents / Middle Ear Infections What's ... en español Infecciones del oído medio What Are Middle Ear Infections? Ear infections happen when viruses or bacteria ...

  11. Evaluation of thermal barrier coating systems on novel substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pint, B. A.; Wright, I. G.; Brindley, W. J.

    2000-06-01

    Testing was conducted on both plasma-sprayed (PS) and electron beam-physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) applied directly to oxidation-resistant substrates such as β-NiAl, oxide-dispersed FeCrAl, and NiCr. On an alloy that forms a very adherent alumina scale, β-NiAl+Zr, the coating lifetime of YSZ in furnace cyclic tests was 6 or more times longer than on state-of-the-art, YSZ coatings on single-crystal Ni-base superalloys with MCrAlY or Pt aluminide bond coats. Coatings on FeCrAl alloys appear to be a viable option for applications such as the external skin of the X-33, single stage to orbit, reusable launch vehicle. Model chromia-forming bond coat compositions also show promise for power generation applications at temperatures where hot corrosion may be a major problem. In general, while this work examined unique materials systems, many of the same fundamental failure mechanisms observed in conventional TBCs were observed.

  12. Evaluation of Dielectric-Barrier-Discharge Actuator Substrate Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, Stephen P.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Sauti, Godfrey; Xu, Tian-Bing; Meador, Mary Ann; Guo, Haiquan

    2014-01-01

    A key, enabling element of a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) actuator is the dielectric substrate material. While various investigators have studied the performance of different homogeneous materials, most often in the context of related DBD experiments, fundamental studies focused solely on the dielectric materials have received less attention. The purpose of this study was to conduct an experimental assessment of the body-force-generating performance of a wide range of dielectric materials in search of opportunities to improve DBD actuator performance. Materials studied included commonly available plastics and glasses as well as a custom-fabricated polyimide aerogel. Diagnostics included static induced thrust, electrical circuit parameters for 2D surface discharges and 1D volume discharges, and dielectric material properties. Lumped-parameter circuit simulations for the 1D case were conducted showing good correspondence to experimental data provided that stray capacitances are included. The effect of atmospheric humidity on DBD performance was studied showing a large influence on thrust. The main conclusion is that for homogeneous, dielectric materials at forcing voltages less than that required for streamer formation, the material chemical composition appears to have no effect on body force generation when actuator impedance is properly accounted for.

  13. Performance evaluation of intermediate cover soil barrier for removal of heavy metals in landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Anegawa, Aya; Endo, Kazuto; Yamada, Masato; Ono, Yusaku; Ono, Yoshiro

    2008-11-01

    This pilot-scale study evaluated the use of intermediate cover soil barriers for removing heavy metals in leachate generated from test cells for co-disposed fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators, ash melting plants, and shredder residue. Cover soil barriers were mixtures of Andisol (volcanic ash soil), waste iron powder, (grinder dust waste from iron foundries), and slag fragments. The cover soil barriers were installed in the test cells' bottom layer. Sorption/desorption is an important process in cover soil bottom barrier for removal of heavy metals in landfill leachate. Salt concentrations such as those of Na, K, and Ca in leachate were extremely high (often greater than 30 gL(-1)) because of high salt content in fly ash from ash melting plants. Concentrations of all heavy metals (nickel, manganese, copper, zinc, lead, and cadmium) in test cell leachates with a cover soil barrier were lower than those of the test cell without a cover soil barrier and were mostly below the discharge limit, probably because of dilution caused by the amount of leachate and heavy metal removal by the cover soil barrier. The cover soil barriers' heavy metal removal efficiency was calculated. About 50% of copper, nickel, and manganese were removed. About 20% of the zinc and boron were removed, but lead and cadmium were removed only slightly. Based on results of calculation of the Langelier saturation index and analyses of core samples, the reactivity of the cover soil barrier apparently decreases because of calcium carbonate precipitation on the cover soil barriers' surfaces.

  14. Sonographic Measurement of Fetal Ear Length in Turkish Women with a Normal Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Mucize Eriç; Uzun, Işıl; Karahasanoğlu, Ayşe; Aygün, Mehmet; Akın, Hale; Yazıcıoğlu, Fehmi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Abnormal fetal ear length is a feature of chromosomal disorders. Fetal ear length measurement is a simple measurement that can be obtained during ultrasonographic examinations. Aims: To develop a nomogram for fetal ear length measurements in our population and investigate the correlation between fetal ear length, gestational age, and other standard fetal biometric measurements. Study Design: Cohort study. Methods: Ear lengths of the fetuses were measured in normal singleton pregnancies. The relationship between gestational age and fetal ear length in millimetres was analysed by simple linear regression. In addition, the correlation of fetal ear length measurements with biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur length were evaluated.Ear length measurements were obtained from fetuses in 389 normal singleton pregnancies ranging between 16 and 28 weeks of gestation. Results: A nomogram was developed by linear regression analysis of the parameters ear length and gestational age. Fetal ear length (mm) = y = (1.348 X gestational age)−12.265), where gestational ages is in weeks. A high correlation was found between fetal ear length and gestational age, and a significant correlation was also found between fetal ear length and the biparietal diameter (r=0.962; p<0.001). Similar correlations were found between fetal ear length and head circumference, and fetal ear length and femur length. Conclusion: The results of this study provide a nomogram for fetal ear length. The study also demonstrates the relationship between ear length and other biometric measurements. PMID:25667783

  15. Evaluation of clinical and financial outcomes of a new no-sting barrier film and barrier cream in a large UK primary care organisation.

    PubMed

    Stephen-Haynes, Jackie; Stephens, Claire

    2013-12-01

    The study involves 95 subjects within a UK Primary Care Organisation and was undertaken in two arms. The objective was to determine the clinical outcomes and clinical acceptability of a newly available range of no-sting barrier film and no-sting barrier cream products offering significant financial benefits. The importance of undertaking this study is underpinned by evidence in the literature relating to the use of no-sting barrier preparations within clinical practice. The first part of the study (arm 1) involved extensive evaluation of either the film or cream barrier in 36 patients and was compared to existing standardised barrier protection care within the organisation. The results indicated that the new product range met all the criteria for formulary inclusion and following this the barrier range was further evaluated in arm 2, 33 patients with barrier cream and 26 patients with barrier film. The entire study was conducted over a 3-month period with patient treatment lasting a minimum of 2 days to a maximum 4-week period adhering to the agreed evaluation protocol as approved by clinical governance. In arm 1 (n = 36), the clinical expectation of the product was met in 32 cases relating to ease of use, conformability, no-sting, quick drying, ease of absorption, compatibility with devices, frequency of application, prevention and management including visual skin improvement resulting in a recommendation for formulary listing in 31 of 36 cases. In arm 2 (n = 59), barrier film and barrier cream performance was consistently rated same as, better than or much better than the existing barrier used. A formulary listing recommendation was made in 51 of 59 cases. © 2012 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  16. Property Evaluation and Damage Evolution of Environmental Barrier Coatings and Environmental Barrier Coated SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composite Sub-Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Halbig, Michael; Jaskowiak, Martha; Hurst, Janet; Bhatt, Ram; Fox, Dennis S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes recent development of environmental barrier coatings on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites. The creep and fatigue behavior at aggressive long-term high temperature conditions have been evaluated and highlighted. Thermal conductivity and high thermal gradient cyclic durability of environmental barrier coatings have been evaluated. The damage accumulation and complex stress-strain behavior environmental barrier coatings on SiCSiC ceramic matrix composite turbine airfoil subelements during the thermal cyclic and fatigue testing of have been also reported.

  17. Computational Modeling of Blast Wave Transmission Through Human Ear.

    PubMed

    Leckness, Kegan; Nakmali, Don; Gan, Rong Z

    2018-03-01

    Hearing loss has become the most common disability among veterans. Understanding how blast waves propagate through the human ear is a necessary step in the development of effective hearing protection devices (HPDs). This article presents the first 3D finite element (FE) model of the human ear to simulate blast wave transmission through the ear. The 3D FE model of the human ear consisting of the ear canal, tympanic membrane, ossicular chain, and middle ear cavity was imported into ANSYS Workbench for coupled fluid-structure interaction analysis in the time domain. Blast pressure waveforms recorded external to the ear in human cadaver temporal bone tests were applied at the entrance of the ear canal in the model. The pressure waveforms near the tympanic membrane (TM) in the canal (P1) and behind the TM in the middle ear cavity (P2) were calculated. The model-predicted results were then compared with measured P1 and P2 waveforms recorded in human cadaver ears during blast tests. Results show that the model-derived P1 waveforms were in an agreement with the experimentally recorded waveforms with statistic Kurtosis analysis. The FE model will be used for the evaluation of HPDs in future studies.

  18. Patient-Reported Barriers to the Prekidney Transplant Evaluation in an At-Risk Population in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Mark B; Saunders, Milda R; Nass, Rachel; McGivern, Claire L; Cunningham, Patrick N; Chon, W James; Josephson, Michelle A; Becker, Yolanda T; Lee, Christopher S

    2017-06-01

    Despite our knowledge of barriers to the early stages of the transplant process, we have limited insight into patient-reported barriers to the prekidney transplant medical evaluation in populations largely at-risk for evaluation failure. One-hundred consecutive adults were enrolled at an urban, Midwestern transplant center. Demographic, clinical, and quality of life data were collected prior to patients visit with a transplant surgeon/nephrologist (evaluation begins). Patient-reported barriers to evaluation completion were collected using the Subjective Barriers Questionnaire 90-days after the initial medical evaluation appointment (evaluation ends), our center targeted goal for transplant work-up completion. At 90 days, 40% of participants had not completed the transplant evaluation. Five barrier categories were created from the 85 responses to the Subjective Barriers Questionnaire. Patient-reported barriers included poor communication, physical health, socioeconomics, psychosocial influences, and access to care. In addition, determinants for successful evaluation completion included being of white race, higher income, free of dialysis, a lower comorbid burden, and reporting higher scores on the Kidney Disease Quality of Life subscale role-emotional. Poor communication between patients and providers, and among providers, was the most prominent patient-reported barrier identified. Barriers were more prominent in marginalized groups such as ethnic minorities and people with low income. Understanding the prevalence of patient-reported barriers may aid in the development of patient-centered interventions to improve completion rates.

  19. Active middle ear implant after lateral petrosectomy and radiotherapy for ear cancer.

    PubMed

    Cristalli, Giovanni; Sprinzl, Georg M; Wolf-Magele, Astrid; Marchesi, Paolo; Mercante, Giuseppe; Spriano, Giuseppe

    2014-04-01

    Tumor of the temporal bone is a rare disease with a very poor prognosis. Surgery and postoperative radiotherapy are usually the recommended treatments for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the external and middle ear, which may cause conductive hearing loss. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the audiologic results and compliance of active middle ear implant (AMEI) and establish the feasibility of the procedure in a patient treated for middle ear cancer. A 73-year-old patient treated with lateral petrosectomy, neck dissection, reconstruction/obliteration by pedicled pectoralis major myocutaneous flap, and postoperative full dose radiotherapy for external and middle ear SCC was selected for AMEI. Preoperative audiometric and speech audiometry tests were performed on both ears before and after the activation. Pure tone free field audiometry. Binaural free field speech audiogram. Aided pure tone free field audiometry AMEI results show an increase in air conduction. Speech audiogram showed better discrimination scores in AMEI-aided situations. No complications were observed. AMEI after surgery followed by radiotherapy for middle ear cancer is feasible. Acoustic results in obliterated ear are satisfactory.

  20. Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infection? Swimmer's Ear Perforated Eardrum Hearing Impairment Swimmer's Ear (External ... All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, ...

  1. Listening to the ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shera, Christopher A.

    Otoacoustic emissions demonstrate that the ear creates sound while listening to sound, offering a promising acoustic window on the mechanics of hearing in awake, listening human beings. That window is clouded, however, by an incomplete knowledge of wave reflection and transmission, both forth and back within the cochlea and through the middle ear. This thesis "does windows," addressing wave propagation and scattering on both sides of the middle ear. A summary of highlights follows. Measurements of the cochlear input impedance in cat are used to identify a new symmetry in cochlear mechanics-termed "tapering symmetry" after its geometric interpretation in simple models-that guarantees that the wavelength of the traveling wave changes slowly with position near the stapes. Waves therefore propagate without reflection through the basal turns of the cochlea. Analytic methods for solving the cochlear wave equations using a perturbative scattering series are given and used to demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, conventional cochlear models exhibit negligible internal reflection whether or not they accurately represent the tapering symmetries of the inner ear. Frameworks for the systematic "deconstruction" of eardrum and middle-ear transduction characteristics are developed and applied to the analysis of noninvasive measurements of middle-ear and cochlear mechanics. A simple phenomenological model of inner-ear compressibility that correctly predicts hearing thresholds in patients with missing or disarticulated middle-ear ossicles is developed and used to establish an upper bound on cochlear compressibility several orders of magnitude smaller than that provided by direct measurements. Accurate measurements of stimulus frequency evoked otoacoustic emissions are performed and used to determine the form and frequency variation of the cochlear traveling-wave ratio noninvasively. Those measurements are inverted to obtain the spatial distribution of mechanical

  2. Listening to the Ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shera, Christopher Alan

    Otoacoustic emissions demonstrate that the ear creates sound while listening to sound, offering a promising acoustic window on the mechanics of hearing in awake, listening human beings. That window is clouded, however, by an incomplete knowledge of wave reflection and transmission, both forth and back within the cochlea and through the middle ear. This thesis "does windows," addressing wave propagation and scattering on both sides of the middle ear. A summary of highlights follows. Measurements of the cochlear input impedance in cat are used to identify a new symmetry in cochlear mechanics--termed "tapering symmetry" after its geometric interpretation in simple models--that guarantees that the wavelength of the traveling wave changes slowly with position near the stapes. Waves therefore propagate without reflection through the basal turns of the cochlea. Analytic methods for solving the cochlear wave equations using a perturbative scattering series are given and used to demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, conventional cochlear models exhibit negligible internal reflection whether or not they accurately represent the tapering symmetries of the inner ear. Frameworks for the systematic "deconstruction" of eardrum and middle-ear transduction characteristics are developed and applied to the analysis of noninvasive measurements of middle-ear and cochlear mechanics. A simple phenomenological model of inner-ear compressibility that correctly predicts hearing thresholds in patients with missing or disarticulated middle-ear ossicles is developed and used to establish an upper bound on cochlear compressibility several orders of magnitude smaller than that provided by direct measurements. Accurate measurements of stimulus -frequency evoked otoacoustic emissions are performed and used to determine the form and frequency variation of the cochlear traveling-wave ratio noninvasively. Those measurements are inverted to obtain the spatial distribution of mechanical

  3. [Basics of Ear Surgery].

    PubMed

    Lailach, S; Zahnert, T

    2016-12-01

    The present article about the basics of ear surgery is a short overview of current indications, the required diagnostics and surgical procedures of common otologic diseases. In addition to plastic and reconstructive surgery of the auricle, principles of surgery of the external auditory canal, basics of middle ear surgery and the tumor surgery of the temporal bone are shown. Additionally, aspects of the surgical hearing rehabilitation (excluding implantable hearing systems) are presented considering current study results. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Evaluation of the effects of hyaluronic acid-carboxymethyl cellulose barrier on ovarian tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hyaluronic acid is a prognostic factor in ovarian cancers. It is also a component of Hyaluronic Acid-Carboxymethyl Cellulose (HA-CMC) barrier, an anti-adhesion membrane widely used during abdominal surgeries in particular for ovarian carcinosis. 70% of patients who undergo ovarian surgery will relapse due to the persistence of cancer cells. This study’s objective was to determine the oncological risk from use of this material, in the presence of residual disease, despite the benefit gained by it decreasing post-surgical adhesions in order to provide an unambiguous assessment of its appropriateness for use in ovarian surgical management. Methods We assessed the effects of HA-CMC barrier on the in vitro proliferation of human ovarian tumor cell lines (OVCAR-3, IGROV-1 and SKOV-3). We next evaluated, in vivo in nude mice, the capacity of this biomaterial to regulate the tumor progression of subcutaneous and intraperitoneal models of ovarian tumor xenografts. Results We showed that HA-CMC barrier does not increase in vitro proliferation of ovarian cancer cell lines compared to control. In vivo, HA-CMC barrier presence with subcutaneous xenografts induced neither an increase in tumor volume nor cell proliferation (Ki67 and mitotic index). With the exception of an increased murine carcinosis score in peritoneum, the presence of HA-CMC barrier with intraperitoneal xenografts modified neither macro nor microscopic tumor growth. Finally, protein analysis of survival (Akt), proliferation (ERK) and adhesion (FAK) pathways highlighted no activation on the xenografts imputable to HA-CMC barrier. Conclusions For the most part, our results support the lack of tumor progression activation due to HA-CMC barrier. We conclude that the benefits gained from using HA-CMC barrier membrane during ovarian cancer surgeries seem to outweigh the potential oncological risks. PMID:24739440

  5. Ear - blocked at high altitudes

    MedlinePlus

    ... ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction - high altitude ... to the eardrum) and the back of the nose and upper throat. ... down from high altitudes. Chewing gum the entire time you are ...

  6. What Is an Ear Infection?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hearing Loss? Taking Care of Your Ears Swimmer's Ear Perforated Eardrum What's Earwax? View ... All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, ...

  7. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Dialysis patient-perceived Exercise Benefits and Barriers Scale.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jing; You, Li-Ming; Lou, Tan-Qi; Chen, Nian-Chang; Lai, De-Yuan; Liang, Yan-Yi; Li, Ying-Na; Gu, Ying-Ming; Lv, Shao-Fen; Zhai, Cui-Qiu

    2010-02-01

    Perceptions of exercise benefits and barriers affect exercise behavior. Because of the clinical course and treatment, dialysis patients differ from the general population in their perceptions of exercise benefits and barriers, especially the latter. At present, no valid instruments for assessing perceived exercise benefits and barriers in dialysis patients are available. Our goal was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Dialysis patient-perceived Exercise Benefits and Barriers Scale (DPEBBS). A literature review and two focus groups were conducted to generate the initial item pool. An expert panel examined the content validity. Then, 269 Chinese hemodialysis patients were recruited by convenience sampling. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to test construct validity. Finally, internal consistency and test-retest reliability were assessed. The expert panel determined that the content validity index was satisfactory. The final 24-item scale consisted of six factors explaining 57% of the total variance in the data. Confirmative factor analysis supported the six-factor structure and a higher-order model. Cronbach's alpha was 0.87 for the total scale, and 0.84 for test-retest reliability. The DPEBBS was a valid and reliable instrument for evaluating dialysis patients' perceived benefits and barriers to exercise. The application value of this scale remains to be investigated by increasing the sample size and evaluating patients undergoing different dialysis modalities and coming from different regions and cultural backgrounds. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of barrier treatments on native vegetation in a southern California desert habitat.

    PubMed

    Britch, Seth C; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Wynn, Wayne W; Walker, Todd W; Farooq, Muhammad; Smith, Vincent L; Robinson, Cathy A; Lothrop, Branka B; Snelling, Melissa; Gutierrez, Arturo; Lothrop, Hugh D

    2009-06-01

    Treating perimeters with residual insecticides for protection from mosquito vectors has shown promise. These barrier treatments are typically evaluated in temperate or tropical areas using abundant vegetation as a substrate. However, there is an emerging interest to develop this technology to protect deployed US troops in extreme desert environments with sparse vegetation. We used a remote desert area in the Coachella Valley, California, to 1) evaluate bifenthrin barrier treatments on native xeric vegetation and 2) compare treatments applied with electrostatic and conventional spray technologies. Through a combination of laboratory bioassays on treated and control vegetation sampled at specific intervals over 63 days, synchronized with field surveillance of mosquitoes, we measured the temporal pattern of bioactivity of bifenthrin barriers under natural hot, dry, and dusty desert conditions. Regardless of spray technology, mosquito catch in treated plots was about 80% lower than the catch in control plots 1 day after treatment. This reduction in mosquito numbers in treated plots declined each week after treatment but remained at about 40% lower than control plots after 28 days. Field data were corroborated by results from bioassays that showed significantly higher mosquito mortality on treated vegetation over controls out to 28 days postspray. We concluded that barrier treatments in desert environments, when implemented as part of a suite of integrated control measures, may offer a significant level of protection from mosquitoes for deployed troops. Given the comparable performance of the tested spray technologies, we discuss considerations for choosing a barrier treatment sprayer for military scenarios.

  9. From Ear to Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Doreen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper Doreen Kimura gives a personal history of the "right-ear effect" in dichotic listening. The focus is on the early ground-breaking papers, describing how she did the first dichotic listening studies relating the effects to brain asymmetry. The paper also gives a description of the visual half-field technique for lateralized stimulus…

  10. Ear surgery - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Ear Disorders ...

  11. EVALUATION OF BARRIERS TO THE USE OF RADIATION-CURED COATINGS IN SCREEN PRINTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of barriers to the use of radiation-cured coatings in screen printing. In support of the Source Reduction Review Project (SRRP), maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standards development, and the Pollution Prevention Act, EPA is ...

  12. Evaluation of barrier treatments on native vegetation in a southern California desert habitat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Treating perimeters with residual insecticides to provide protection from mosquito vectors has shown promise. These barrier treatments are typically evaluated in temperate or tropical areas using lush, ambient vegetation as a substrate for the pesticide. However, there is an emerging interest to dev...

  13. Evaluation of energy absorbers for use in a roadside/median barrier.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-02-01

    Several types of elastomeric energy absorbers were evaluated for use in a Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware (MASH) : Test Level 4 (TL-4) energy-absorbing, urban roadside/median barrier. Twelve dynamic bogie tests were conducted on 60- : and 80-dur...

  14. Ear Infections and Language Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Joanne E.; Zeisel, Susan A.

    Ear infections in infants and preschoolers can cause mild or moderate temporary hearing loss, which may in turn affect a child's ability to understand and learn language. Noting that providing children with proper medical treatment for ear infections or middle ear fluid is important in preventing possible problems with language development, this…

  15. Ear Scaffold Reconstruction Using Ultrasonic Aspirator for Cauliflower Ear.

    PubMed

    Hao, Scarlett; Angster, Kristen; Hubbard, Fleesie; Greywoode, Jewel; Vakharia, Kalpesh T

    2018-04-01

    Untreated auricular hematomas from ear trauma can result in an ear deformation known as cauliflower ear, secondary to fibrosis and new cartilage overgrowth. Cauliflower ear reconstruction has traditionally utilized tools such as a drill or a scalpel in order to improve auricular cosmesis. We present a case report utilizing an ultrasonic aspirator to recontour the fibrosed cartilage of a cauliflower ear. The ultrasonic aspirator has advantages over traditional tools in its ability to provide finely controlled bone removal without damage to surrounding soft tissue. The patient in this case report underwent multistage reconstruction using the ultrasonic aspirator with excellent cosmetic result and patient satisfaction.

  16. Inner ear involvement in Fabry disease: Clinical and audiometric evaluation of a large cohort of patients followed in a reference centre.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jorge; Azevedo, Olga; Sousa, Nuno; Cunha, Damião; Mexedo, Alexandre; Fonseca, Rui

    2018-06-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is a lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) that involves the cochleovestibular system. Tinnitus and progressive sensorineural hearing loss are frequent complains. A stabilization of hearing function has been reported with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). This study aims to characterize the inner ear involvement, identify factors associated to hearing loss and evaluate the effect of ERT on the hearing function of FD patients. We reviewed the clinical records of patients with confirmed diagnosis of FD followed in a Reference Centre on LSD in the North of Portugal. We included a total of 122 patients with a mean age of 47.1 ± 17.6 years and 48.3% males. Hearing loss was reported by 26.2% of the patients and 23.0% mentioned tinnitus. Pure tone audiometry revealed sensorineural hearing loss in 36.9% of the cases. FD patients presented worse age-adjusted hearing thresholds in all analysed frequencies compared to the normal population (p = .001). Patients with hearing loss presented a significantly higher value of microalbuminuria (p = .001) and a higher frequency of acroparesthesias (p = .032). Patients presented a comparable hearing level one year after starting ERT (p = .384). In FD, hearing loss is common and age-matched hearing thresholds by frequency are worse than in the general population. Hearing loss was associated to the presence of acroparesthesias and higher values of microalbuminuria. Hearing loss stabilized in patients under ERT. A careful cochleo-vestibular evaluation should be part of the clinical assessment of FD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. The maize rachis affects Aspergillus flavus movement during ear development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aspergillus flavus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to follow infection in ears of maize hybrids resistant and susceptible to the fungus. Developing ears were needle-inoculated with GFP-transformed A. flavus 20 days after silk emergence, and GFP fluorescence in the pith was evalu...

  18. Tissue response to five commercially available peritoneal adhesion barriers-A systematic histological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Volker H; Mamilos, Andreas; Schmitt, Christine; Neitzer-Planck, Constanze N E; Rajab, Taufiek K; Hollemann, David; Wagner, Willi; Krämer, Bernhard; Hierlemann, Helmut; James Kirkpatrick, C; Brochhausen, Christoph

    2018-02-01

    Separating wounded serosa by physical barriers is the only clinically approved adjunct for postoperative adhesion prevention. Since the optimal adhesion barrier has not been found, it is essential to improve our pathogenic understanding of adhesion formation and to compare the effects of different barrier materials on tissue and cells. Wistar rats underwent standardized peritoneal damage and were treated either with Seprafilm, Adept, Intercoat, Spraygel, SupraSeal or remained untreated as a control. 14 days postoperatively, the lesions were explanted and histomorphologically analyzed using the European ISO score to evaluate material implants. Striking differences between the material groups were present regarding the inflammation, fibrosis, and foreign body reaction. According to the ISO score, Intercoat and Spraygel were considered as nonirritating to tissue. Adept, Seprafilm, and SupraSeal were assessed as mild-irritating materials. Interestingly, the most effective material in adhesion prevention revealed moderate inflammation accompanied by minor fibrosis. The degree of inflammation to barrier materials does not predict the efficacy in the prevention of adhesions. Histopathological investigations are crucial to improve our understanding of the cellular mechanisms during adhesion formation and elucidate the tissue response to material approaches used in adhesion prevention. This will lead to improved antiadhesive strategies and the development of functional barrier biomaterials. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 598-609, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. [Adaptability of sweet corn ears to a frozen process].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Matheus, Alejandra O; Martínez, Norelkys Maribel; de Bertorelli, Ligia O; De Venanzi, Frank

    2004-12-01

    The effects of frozen condition on the quality of three sweet corn ears (2038, 2010, 2004) and the pattern (Bonanza), were evaluated. Biometrics characteristics like ear size, ear diameter, row and kernel deep were measured as well as chemical and physical measurement in fresh and frozen states. The corn ears were frozen at -95 degrees C by 7 minutes. The yield and stability of the frozen ears were evaluated at 45 and 90 days of frozen storage (-18 degrees C). The average commercial yield as frozen corn ear for all the hybrids was 54.2%. The industry has a similar value range of 48% to 54%. The ear size average was 21.57 cm, row number was 15, ear diameter 45.54 mm and the kernel corn deep was 8.57 mm. All these measurements were found not different from commercial values found for the industry. All corn samples evaluated showed good stability despites the frozen processing and storage. Hybrid 2038 ranked higher in quality.

  20. Ear Infections - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cantonese dialect) (繁體中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Nepali (नेपाली) Russian (Русский) ... हिन्दी (Hindi) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Japanese (日本語) Expand Section Middle Ear Infection - 日本語 (Japanese) ...

  1. Histological Evaluation of Inner Ears.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-07-01

    audiograms determined by the two methods . The main effect for stimulus type was significant at the .05 level, indicating there was a difference in the...ewinrg.ineltructionie, eearchiing existi’ng data aoir.ces, gather~lng ard maintaning the data needed., and completing and reviewig the col~lection of information...24 3. Methods and Procedures ....................................................................... 26 4 . R esults

  2. Inner ear abnormalities in patients with Goldenhar syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bisdas, Sotirios; Lenarz, Minoo; Lenarz, Thomas; Becker, Hartmut

    2005-05-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the inner ear malformations in patients with Goldenhar syndrome and to hypothesize the potential embryopathogenesis of these malformations. Retrospective case review. Tertiary referral center. Fourteen patients with Goldenhar syndrome. Each patient underwent hearing tests and high-resolution computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone. In six patients, magnetic resonance imaging of the temporal bone also was performed. Among the 14 patients with Goldenhar syndrome, 13 had outer and middle ear anomalies and 5 (36%) had inner ear malformations, including one case of common cavity. Our observations regarding inner ear anomalies in Goldenhar syndrome correlate with the reported cases in the literature and may help to hypothesize the embryological origin of these malformations, which can caused by an early developmental arrest in the fourth gestational week. Specialists evaluating patients with Goldenhar syndrome should be aware of the possibility of inner ear malformations, which could be diagnosed earlier with appropriate imaging studies.

  3. Health promotion and sustainability programmes in Australia: barriers and enablers to evaluation.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Rebecca; Kingsley, Jonathan

    2017-08-01

    In an era characterised by the adverse impacts of climate change and environmental degradation, health promotion programmes are beginning to actively link human health with environmental sustainability imperatives. This paper draws on a study of health promotion and sustainability programmes in Australia, providing insights to evaluation approaches being used and barriers and enablers to these evaluations. The study was based on a multi-strategy research involving both quantitative and qualitative methods. Health promotion practitioners explained through surveys and semi-structured interviews that they focused on five overarching health and sustainability programme types (healthy and sustainable food, active transport, energy efficiency, contact with nature, and capacity building). Various evaluation methods and indicators (health, social, environmental, economic and demographic) were identified as being valuable for monitoring and evaluating health and sustainability programmes. Findings identified several evaluation enablers such as successful community engagement, knowledge of health and sustainability issues and programme champions, whereas barriers included resource constraints and competing interests. This paper highlights the need for ecological models and evaluation tools to support the design and monitoring of health promotion and sustainability programmes.

  4. Nonsurgical correction of congenital ear abnormalities in the newborn: Case series.

    PubMed

    Smith, Wg; Toye, Jw; Reid, A; Smith, Rw

    2005-07-01

    To determine whether a simple, nonsurgical treatment for congenital ear abnormalities (lop-ear, Stahl's ear, protruding ear, cryptotia) improved the appearance of ear abnormalities in newborns at six weeks of age. This is a descriptive case series. All newborns with identified abnormalities were referred by their family physician to one paediatrician (WGS) in a small level 2 perinatal centre. The ears were waxed and taped in a standard manner within 10 days of birth. Pictures were taken before taping and at the end of taping (one month). All patients and pictures were assessed by one plastic surgeon (JWT) at six weeks of age and scored using a standard scoring system. A telephone survey of the nontreatment group was conducted. The total number of ears assessed was 90. Of this total, 69 ears were taped and fully evaluated in the study (77%). The refusal rate was 23%. In the treatment group, 59% had lop-ear, 19% had Stahl's ear, 17% had protruding ear and 3% had cryptotia. Overall correction (excellent/improved) for the treatment group was 90% (100% for lop-ear, 100% for Stahl's ear, 67% for protruding ear and 0% for cryptotia). In the nontreatment (refusal) group, 67% of the ears failed to correct spontaneously. No complications were recognized by the authors or parents by six weeks. The percentage of newborns in one year in the perinatal centre with recognized ear abnormalities was 6% (90 of 1600). A simple, nonsurgical treatment in a Caucasian population appeared to be very effective in correcting congenital ear abnormalities with no complications and high patient/parent satisfaction.

  5. A randomized control hands-on defibrillation study-Barrier use evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wampler, David; Kharod, Chetan; Bolleter, Scotty; Burkett, Alison; Gabehart, Caitlin; Manifold, Craig

    2016-06-01

    Chest compressions and defibrillation are the only therapies proven to increase survival in cardiac arrest. Historically, rescuers must remove hands to shock, thereby interrupting chest compressions. This hands-off time results in a zero blood flow state. Pauses have been associated with poorer neurological recovery. This was a blinded randomized control cadaver study evaluating the detection of defibrillation during manual chest compressions. An active defibrillator was connected to the cadaver in the sternum-apex configuration. The sham defibrillator was not connected to the cadaver. Subjects performed chest compressions using 6 barrier types: barehand, single and double layer nitrile gloves, firefighter gloves, neoprene pad, and a manual chest compression/decompression device. Randomized defibrillations (10 per barrier type) were delivered at 30 joules (J) for bare hand and 360J for all other barriers. After each shock, the subject indicated degree of sensation on a VAS scale. Ten subjects participated. All subjects detected 30j shocks during barehand compressions, with only 1 undetected real shock. All barriers combined totaled 500 shocks delivered. Five (1%) active shocks were detected, 1(0.2%) single layer of Nitrile, 3(0.6%) with double layer nitrile, and 1(0.2%) with the neoprene barrier. One sham shock was reported with the single layer nitrile glove. No shocks were detected with fire gloves or compression decompression device. All shocks detected barely perceptible (0.25(±0.05)cm on 10cm VAS scale). Nitrile gloves and neoprene pad prevent (99%) responder's detection of defibrillation of a cadaver. Fire gloves and compression decompression device prevented detection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Understanding the translocation mechanism of PLGA nanoparticles across round window membrane into the inner ear: a guideline for inner ear drug delivery based on nanomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liping; Xu, Yuan; Cao, Wenjuan; Xie, Shibao; Wen, Lu; Chen, Gang

    2018-01-01

    Background The round window membrane (RWM) functions as the primary biological barrier for therapeutic agents in the inner ear via local application. Previous studies on inner ear nano-drug delivery systems mostly focused on their pharmacokinetics and distribution in the inner ear, but seldom on the interaction with the RWM. Clarifying the transport mechanism of nanoparticulate carriers across RWM will shed more light on the optimum design of nano-drug delivery systems intended for meeting demands for their clinical application. Methods The poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA NPs) encapsulating coumarin-6 were prepared by emulsifying solvent evaporation method. We utilized confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) in combination with transmission electron microscope to investigate the transport pathway of PLGA NPs in the RWM. Simultaneously, the concentration and time dependence of NPs across the RWM were also determined. The endocytic mechanism of NPs through this membrane interface was classically analyzed by means of various endocytic inhibitors. The intracellular location of NPs into lysosomes was evaluated using CLSM scanning microscope colocalization analysis. The Golgi-related inhibitors were employed to probe into the function of Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in the discharge of NPs out of cells. Results PLGA NPs were herein transported through the RWM of a sandwich-like structure into the perilymph via the transcellular pathway. NPs were internalized predominantly via macropinocytosis and caveolin-mediated endocytic pathways. After being internalized, the endocytosed cargos were entrapped within the lysosomal compartments and/or the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi apparatus which mediated the exocytotic release of NPs. Conclusion For the first time, we showed the translocation itinerary of NPs in RWM, providing a guideline for the rational fabrication of inner ear nanoparticulate carriers with better therapeutic effects. PMID:29403277

  7. The ear: Diagnostic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Vignaud, J.; Jardin, C.; Rosen, L.

    1986-01-01

    This is an English translation of volume 17-1 of Traite de radiodiagnostic and represents a reasonably complete documentation of the diseases of the temporal bone that have imaging manifestations. The book begins with chapters on embryology, anatomy and radiography anatomy; it continues with blood supply and an overview of temporal bone pathology. Subsequent chapters cover malformations, trauma, infections, tumors, postoperative changes, glomus tumors, vertebasilar insufficiency, and facial nerve canal lesions. A final chapter demonstrates and discusses magnetic resonance images of the ear and cerebellopontine angle.

  8. Use of the mouse ear vesicant model to evaluate the effectiveness of ebselen as a countermeasure to the nitrogen mustard mechlorethamine.

    PubMed

    Lulla, Anju; Reznik, Sandra; Trombetta, Louis; Billack, Blase

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies in this and other laboratories have demonstrated that ebselen (EB-1), an organoselenium compound, spares cells from mechlorethamine (HN2) toxicity in vitro. In the present study, the hypothesis that EB-1 will reduce dermal toxicity of HN2 in vivo is put forward and found to have merit. Using the mouse ear vesicant model (MEVM), HN2, applied topically, showed a dose-dependent effect upon ear swelling and thickness 24 h after treatment; whereas tissue injury consistent with vesication was observed at the higher test doses of HN2 (≥ 0.250 µmol per ear). To examine HN2 countermeasure activity using the MEVM, either hydrocortisone (HC), as a positive control, or EB-1, the test countermeasure, was administered as three topical treatments 15 min, 4 and 8 h after HN2 exposure. Using this approach, both HC and EB-1 were found to reduce tissue swelling associated with HN2 toxicity 24 h after exposure to the vesicant. Taken together, these data demonstrate for the first time the effectiveness of EB-1 as a vesicant countermeasure in a relevant in vivo model. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Infection control in digital intraoral radiography: evaluation of microbiological contamination of photostimulable phosphor plates in barrier envelopes.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, David S; Waterfield, J Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The detectors (both solid-state sensors and photostimulable phosphor [PSP] plates) used for digital intraoral radiography cannot be autoclaved, and barriers are typically used to prevent the spread of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a barrier envelope system for PSP plates. Disinfected PSP plates were aseptically inserted into barrier envelopes and placed in a periapical location. One PSP plate was placed in each of 28 patients, and 12 plates in each of 2 volunteers (D.S.M., J.D.W.). After retrieval, each PSP plate was removed from its barrier envelope, immersed in trypticase soy broth and aliquots were plated on trypticase soy agar. Bacterial colonies were counted 2 days later. Fifty-two PSP plates in barrier envelopes were evaluated for contamination. Quality assurance of the PSP plates before clinical placement revealed defects in the integrity of 4 barrier envelopes, caused by forceps-related damage or failure to achieve a uniform seal. These defects allowed substantial contamination. Contamination also occurred as a result of failure to extract the PSP plate from the barrier envelope cleanly. Of the 44 barriers with no obvious defects that were placed by either final-year dental students or a radiologist, only 3 allowed bacterial contamination of the PSP plate. Detectors contained in barrier envelopes remain a potential source of contamination. PSP plates must be disinfected between removal from a contaminated barrier envelope and placement in a new barrier envelope. In addition, placement into the barrier envelope should ideally be carried out under aseptic conditions. Finally, the integrity of each sealed barrier envelope must be verified visually before release to the clinic.

  10. Evaluation and development of tools to quantify the impacts of roadside vegetation barriers on near-road air quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulatory and urban planning programs require an accurate evaluation of how traffic emissions transport and disperse from roads to fully determine exposures and health risks. Roadside vegetation barriers have shown the potential to reduce near-road air pollution concentrations; ...

  11. Association Between Hearing Loss And Cauliflower Ear in Wrestlers, a Case Control Study Employing Hearing Tests.

    PubMed

    Noormohammadpour, Pardis; Rostami, Mohsen; Nourian, Ruhollah; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Sarough Farahani, Saeed; Farahbakhsh, Farzin; Kordi, Ramin

    2015-06-01

    According to anecdotal findings, some wrestling coaches and wrestlers believe that cauliflower ear might lead to hearing loss. Our preliminary study showed that the prevalence of hearing loss reported by the wrestlers with cauliflower ear is significantly higher than this rate among wrestlers without cauliflower ear. To the best of our knowledge, no other study has confirmed this finding employing hearing tests. To evaluate and to compare the prevalence of hearing loss among wrestlers with and without cauliflower ears employing hearing tests. The subjects were randomly selected form 14 wrestling clubs in Tehran. Subjects were 201 wrestlers with cauliflower ears (100 wrestlers with one cauliflower ear and 101 wrestlers with two cauliflower ears) and 139 wrestlers without cauliflower ears. All the participants in this study were interviewed to collect information on demographic factors and medical history of risk factors and diseases related to hearing loss. The subjects in both groups underwent otoscopic and audiologic examinations. Audiometric examination results at the frequency range of 0.5 - 8 KHz showed that the prevalence of hearing loss among cauliflower ears was higher than this rate among non-cauliflower ears. Also, the percentage of positive history of ear infections among cauliflower ears (8.4%) was about two times more than this finding among non-cauliflower ears (4.9%). This difference tended to be significant (OR: 1.86, P = 0.06, 95% CI: 0.98 - 3.53). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing that the prevalence of hearing loss among cauliflower ears is higher than this rate among non-cauliflower ears confirmed by audiological tests. This emphasizes that, more preventive measures such as mandatory ear gear for wrestlers are required.

  12. Association Between Hearing Loss And Cauliflower Ear in Wrestlers, a Case Control Study Employing Hearing Tests

    PubMed Central

    Noormohammadpour, Pardis; Rostami, Mohsen; Nourian, Ruhollah; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Sarough Farahani, Saeed; Farahbakhsh, Farzin; Kordi, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    Background: According to anecdotal findings, some wrestling coaches and wrestlers believe that cauliflower ear might lead to hearing loss. Our preliminary study showed that the prevalence of hearing loss reported by the wrestlers with cauliflower ear is significantly higher than this rate among wrestlers without cauliflower ear. To the best of our knowledge, no other study has confirmed this finding employing hearing tests. Objectives: To evaluate and to compare the prevalence of hearing loss among wrestlers with and without cauliflower ears employing hearing tests. Patients and Methods: The subjects were randomly selected form 14 wrestling clubs in Tehran. Subjects were 201 wrestlers with cauliflower ears (100 wrestlers with one cauliflower ear and 101 wrestlers with two cauliflower ears) and 139 wrestlers without cauliflower ears. All the participants in this study were interviewed to collect information on demographic factors and medical history of risk factors and diseases related to hearing loss. The subjects in both groups underwent otoscopic and audiologic examinations. Results: Audiometric examination results at the frequency range of 0.5 - 8 KHz showed that the prevalence of hearing loss among cauliflower ears was higher than this rate among non-cauliflower ears. Also, the percentage of positive history of ear infections among cauliflower ears (8.4%) was about two times more than this finding among non-cauliflower ears (4.9%). This difference tended to be significant (OR: 1.86, P = 0.06, 95% CI: 0.98 - 3.53). Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing that the prevalence of hearing loss among cauliflower ears is higher than this rate among non-cauliflower ears confirmed by audiological tests. This emphasizes that, more preventive measures such as mandatory ear gear for wrestlers are required. PMID:26448842

  13. Morphological Variations and Biometrics of Ear: An Aid to Personal Identification.

    PubMed

    Verma, Pradhuman; Sandhu, Harpreet Kaur; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Goyal, Sharry; Sudan, Madhu; Ladgotra, Amit

    2016-05-01

    The morphological characteristics and dimensions of external ear vary in different human ethnic races which can be utilized in forensics for personal identification of living or deceased. To determine uniqueness of morphological and biometric variations of both ears for individualization among North East (NE) and North West (NW) subpopulation of India. The study was conducted on randomly selected 80 students, 40 from each subgroup. Nine ear parameters were recorded twice using digital Vernier's caliper by single investigator and two indices (Ear Index and Lobule Index) were calculated for both the ears. Morphological ear shapes and lobule attachment were also noted. Pearson's coefficient correlation test was performed on cross-tabulations to evaluate significant relationship between different variables. Of the total 35% free and 65% attached ear lobes were noted in both population groups. Oval ear shape was most commonly noted followed by triangular, rectangular and round in both populations. On comparing anthropometric measurements of ears in two populations it was found that except the tragus length and lobule index all other values were noted more in NW population. No statistical difference was found in ear and lobular indices of males and females although the left ear index and lobule index were found to be higher than right in both populations except in NW females where right lobule index was recorded more than left. The results obtained can be used in anthropological and forensic sciences for the inclusion and exclusion of persons for identification on the basis of ear variations.

  14. Histologic characterization of the cat middle ear: in sickness and in health.

    PubMed

    Sula, M M; Njaa, B L; Payton, M E

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish microscopic normal in the middle ear of the cat while concurrently characterizing gross and microscopic lesions reflecting spontaneous otitis media. Both ears from 50 cats were examined grossly and processed for histologic examination of the external, middle, and internal ear on a single slide. Gross lesions of the middle ear were present in 14 of 100 (14%) and included turbid fluid, frank pus, hemorrhage, and fibrous thickening of the auricular mucoperiosteum. Histologically, 48 of 100 (48%) ears had evidence of ongoing or previous inflammatory middle ear disease, including proteinaceous fluid; vascular ectasia; expansion of the auricular mucoperiosteum by neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages; cholesterol clefts; hemorrhage; fibrin; granulation tissue; membranous pseudo-glands; fibrosis; proliferation and/or osteolysis of the tympanic and septum bullae. Histologic lesions were identified in 34 of 100 ears (34%) lacking gross evidence of disease. Ears were classified histologically as either normal (52/100 [52%]) or diseased (48/100 [48%]). Diseased ears were further classified as mild to moderate (37/100 [37%]) or severely (11/100 [11%]) affected. Internal ear involvement was present in 11 of 100 (11%) ears. Histologic evidence of middle ear disease in cats is far greater than gross lesions or clinical literature suggests; further investigation and correlation of clinical and histologic disease are warranted. With minimal additional preparation, diagnostic specimens may be readily prepared and evaluated for this integral sensing organ. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. Surgical correction of cauliflower ear.

    PubMed

    Yotsuyanagi, T; Yamashita, K; Urushidate, S; Yokoi, K; Sawada, Y; Miyazaki, S

    2002-07-01

    We have classified the cauliflower ear into different types according to the zone and the degree of deformity. One major group is deformity without change in the outline of the ear, and this is divided into four subgroups according to the zone. All of these subgroups can be treated by shaving the deformed cartilage through suitable incision lines. For deformities accompanied by a skin deficit, a postauricular skin flap should be used. The other major group is deformity accompanied by a change in the outline of the ear, which is divided into two subgroups. If the ear is rigid, a conchal cartilage graft is used. If the structural integrity of the ear is poor, costal cartilage is used to provide rigidity.

  16. Development of a Nondestructive Evaluation Technique for Degraded Thermal Barrier Coatings Using Microwave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayar, M.; Ogawa, K.; Shoji, T.

    2008-02-01

    Thermal barrier coatings have been widely used in gas turbine engines in order to protect substrate metal alloy against high temperature and to enhance turbine efficiency. Currently, there are no reliable nondestructive techniques available to monitor TBC integrity over lifetime of the coating. Hence, to detect top coating (TC) and TGO thicknesses, a microwave nondestructive technique that utilizes a rectangular waveguide was developed. The phase of the reflection coefficient at the interface of TC and waveguide varies for different TGO and TC thicknesses. Therefore, measuring the phase of the reflection coefficient enables us to accurately calculate these thicknesses. Finally, a theoretical analysis was used to evaluate the reliability of the experimental results.

  17. Evaluating bandgap distributions of carbon nanotubes via scanning electron microscopy imaging of the Schottky barriers.

    PubMed

    He, Yujun; Zhang, Jin; Li, Dongqi; Wang, Jiangtao; Wu, Qiong; Wei, Yang; Zhang, Lina; Wang, Jiaping; Liu, Peng; Li, Qunqing; Fan, Shoushan; Jiang, Kaili

    2013-01-01

    We show that the Schottky barrier at the metal-single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) contact can be clearly observed in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images as a bright contrast segment with length up to micrometers due to the space charge distribution in the depletion region. The lengths of the charge depletion increase with the diameters of semiconducting SWCNTs (s-SWCNTs) when connected to one metal electrode, which enables direct and efficient evaluation of the bandgap distributions of s-SWCNTs. Moreover, this approach can also be applied for a wide variety of semiconducting nanomaterials, adding a new function to conventional SEM.

  18. Evaluation of present-day thermal barrier coatings for industrial/utility applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bratton, R. J.; Lau, S. K.; Lee, S. Y.

    1980-01-01

    Atmospheric burner rig tests have been conducted to evaluate the corrosion resistance of present-day thermal barrier coatings. The coatings are primarily plasma-sprayed and zirconia-based. Both duplex and graded coating systems were tested at a gas temperature of 2100 F and metal temperatures that range from 1475 F to 1650 F. The fuels ranged from clean GT No. 2 to that doped with impurity levels which simulate water-washed residual fuels. Results to date suggest that liquid sulfate condensates play an important role in the coating degradation mechanisms, whereas the role of vanadium and its salts is less clear.

  19. Evaluation of laser speckle contrast imaging as an intrinsic method to monitor blood brain barrier integrity

    PubMed Central

    Dufour, Suzie; Atchia, Yaaseen; Gad, Raanan; Ringuette, Dene; Sigal, Iliya; Levi, Ofer

    2013-01-01

    The integrity of the blood brain barrier (BBB) can contribute to the development of many brain disorders. We evaluate laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) as an intrinsic modality for monitoring BBB disruptions through simultaneous fluorescence and LSCI with vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs). We demonstrated that drug-induced BBB opening was associated with a relative change of the arterial and venous blood velocities. Cross-sectional flow velocity ratio (veins/arteries) decreased significantly in rats treated with BBB-opening drugs, ≤0.81 of initial values. PMID:24156049

  20. [European Portuguese EARS test battery adaptation].

    PubMed

    Alves, Marisa; Ramos, Daniela; Oliveira, Graça; Alves, Helena; Anderson, Ilona; Magalhães, Isabel; Martins, Jorge H; Simões, Margarida; Ferreira, Raquel; Fonseca, Rita; Andrade, Susana; Silva, Luís; Ribeiro, Carlos; Ferreira, Pedro Lopes

    2014-01-01

    The use of adequate assessment tools in health care is crucial for the management of care. The lack of specific tools in Portugal for assessing the performance of children who use cochlear implants motivated the translation and adaptation of the EARS (Evaluation of Auditory Responses to Speech) test battery into European Portuguese. This test battery is today one of the most commonly used by (re)habilitation teams of deaf children who use cochlear implants worldwide. The goal to be achieved with the validation of EARS was to provide (re)habilitation teams an instrument that enables: (i) monitoring the progress of individual (re)habilitation, (ii) managing a (re)habilitation program according to objective results, comparable between different (re)habilitation teams, (iii) obtaining data that can be compared with the results of international teams, and (iv) improving engagement and motivation of the family and other professionals from local teams. For the test battery translation and adaptation process, the adopted procedures were the following: (i) translation of the English version into European Portuguese by a professional translator, (ii) revision of the translation performed by an expert panel, including doctors, speech-language pathologists and audiologists, (iii) adaptation of the test stimuli by the team's speechlanguage pathologist, and (iv) further review by the expert panel. For each of the tests that belong to the EARS battery, the introduced adaptations and adjustments are presented, combining the characteristics and objectives of the original tests with the linguistic and cultural specificities of the Portuguese population. The difficulties that have been encountered during the translation and adaptation process and the adopted solutions are discussed. Comparisons are made with other versions of the EARS battery. We defend that the translation and the adaptation process followed for the EARS test battery into European Portuguese was correctly conducted

  1. Pinna abnormalities and low-set ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect - pinna; Congenital defect - pinna Images Ear abnormalities Pinna of the newborn ear References Haddad J, Keesecker S. Congenital malformations. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ...

  2. Evaluation of a permeable reactive barrier technology for use at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS)

    SciTech Connect

    DWYER,BRIAN P.

    2000-01-01

    Three reactive materials were evaluated at laboratory scale to identify the optimum treatment reagent for use in a Permeable Reactive Barrier Treatment System at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). The contaminants of concern (COCS) are uranium, TCE, PCE, carbon tetrachloride, americium, and vinyl chloride. The three reactive media evaluated included high carbon steel iron filings, an iron-silica alloy in the form of a foam aggregate, and a peculiar humic acid based sorbent (Humasorb from Arctech) mixed with sand. Each material was tested in the laboratory at column scale using simulated site water. All three materials showed promise for themore » 903 Mound Site however, the iron filings were determined to be the least expensive media. In order to validate the laboratory results, the iron filings were further tested at a pilot scale (field columns) using actual site water. Pilot test results were similar to laboratory results; consequently, the iron filings were chosen for the fill-scale demonstration of the reactive barrier technology. Additional design parameters including saturated hydraulic conductivity, treatment residence time, and head loss across the media were also determined and provided to the design team in support of the final design. The final design was completed by the Corps of Engineers in 1997 and the system was constructed in the summer of 1998. The treatment system began fill operation in December, 1998 and despite a few problems has been operational since. Results to date are consistent with the lab and pilot scale findings, i.e., complete removal of the contaminants of concern (COCs) prior to discharge to meet RFETS cleanup requirements. Furthermore, it is fair to say at this point in time that laboratory developed design parameters for the reactive barrier technology are sufficient for fuel scale design; however,the treatment system longevity and the long-term fate of the contaminants are questions that remain unanswered

  3. Naturopathic treatment for ear pain in children.

    PubMed

    Sarrell, E Michael; Cohen, Herman Avner; Kahan, Ernesto

    2003-05-01

    Otitis media is 1 of the most frequent diseases of early infancy and childhood and 1 of the most common reasons for children to visit a physician. In the past 2 decades, there has been a substantial increase in the diagnosis of otitis media worldwide. In the United States, 93% of all children have had at least 1 episode of acute otitis media (AOM) by 7 years of age. Otalgia is the hallmark of AOM. Most affected children either complain of earache or manifest behavior that the parents interpret as indicating ear pain. Treatment of the ear pain early in the course of AOM decreases both parental anxiety and the child's discomfort and accelerates the healing process. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy and tolerability of naturopathic versus traditional treatment for the management of otalgia commonly associated with AOM in children. The study was designed as a double-blind trial in an outpatient community clinic. A total of 171 children who were aged 5 to 18 years and had otalgia and clinical findings associated with middle-ear infection were studied. The children were randomly assigned to receive treatment with Naturopathic Herbal Extract Ear Drops (NHED) or anesthetic ear drops, with or without amoxicillin. On enrollment, the children were assigned by computer-numbered randomization to receive NHED (contents: allium sativum, verbascum thapsus, calendula flores, hypericum perfoliatum, lavender, and vitamin E in olive oil) 5 drops 3 times daily, alone (group A) or together with a topical anesthetic (amethocaine and phenazone in glycerin) 5 drops 3 times daily (group B), or oral amoxicillin 80 mg/kg/d (maximum 500 mg/dose) divided into 3 doses with either NHED 5 drops 3 times daily (group C) or topical anesthetic 5 drops 3 times daily (group D). A double-blind design was used, and all ear drops were placed in identical bottles. Treatment was initiated by the nurse in all cases. A single physician (M.S.) evaluated and treated all of the patients

  4. Evaluating the Implementation Barriers of an Intranasal Fentanyl Pain Pathway for Pediatric Long-Bone Fractures.

    PubMed

    Arnautovic, Tamara; Sommese, Kathryn; Mullan, Paul C; Frazier, Steven Barron; Vazifedan, Turaj; Ramirez, Dana Erikson

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to assess physician comfort, knowledge, and implementation barriers regarding the use of intranasal fentanyl (INF) for pain management in patients with long-bone fractures in a pediatric emergency department (ED) with an INF pain pathway. A retrospective chart review was conducted of patients, 3 to 21 years old, in our ED with an International Classification of Diseases-9th Revision code for a long-bone fracture from September 1, 2013, to August 31, 2015. Patients were divided into 4 groups: (1) received INF on the pathway appropriately; (2) "missed opportunities" to receive INF, defined as either INF was ordered and then subsequently canceled (for pain ratings, ≥6/10), or INF was ordered, cancelled, and intravenous (IV) morphine given, or INF was not ordered and a peripheral IV line was placed to give IV morphine as first-line medication; (3) peripheral IV established upon ED arrival; (4) no pain medication required. Additionally, a survey regarding practice habits for pain management was completed to evaluate physician barriers to utilization of the pathway. A total of 1374 patients met the inclusion criteria. Missed opportunities were identified 41% of the time. Neither younger patient age nor more years of physician experience in the ED were associated with increased rates of missed opportunities. The survey (95% response rate) revealed greater comfort with and preference for IV morphine over INF. The high rate of missed opportunities, despite the implementation of an INF pain pathway, indicates the need for further exploration of the barriers to utilization of the INF pain pathway.

  5. A rare case of petrified ear.

    PubMed

    Buikema, Kathryn E; Adams, Erin G

    2012-01-01

    Calcification or ossification of the auricle, also referred to as petrified ear, is a rare diagnosis in dermatology. In medical literature, it has most often been attributed to trauma, hypothermia and frostbite, or hypercalcemia secondary to a metabolic or endocrine disorder, such as Addison's disease. Here, we report the clinical and radiologic findings of a 79-year-old African American male whose unilateral petrified auricle was an incidental finding. He had a preceding history of hyperparathyroidism and subsequent hypercalcemia treated with a subtotal parathyroidectomy three years prior to presentation. In addition to laboratory analysis, a history and physical examination was performed which revealed no other signs of hypercalcemia. Radiologic studies demonstrated partial ossification of the external auricular cartilage on the left side. The patient was diagnosed with the rare occurrence of a petrified ear. In light of this case, we provide a discussion concerning the possible etiologies of this diagnosis including appropriate patient evaluation and possible treatment recommendations.

  6. A Rare Case of Petrified Ear

    PubMed Central

    Buikema, Kathryn E.; Adams, Erin G.

    2012-01-01

    Calcification or ossification of the auricle, also referred to as petrified ear, is a rare diagnosis in dermatology. In medical literature, it has most often been attributed to trauma, hypothermia and frostbite, or hypercalcemia secondary to a metabolic or endocrine disorder, such as Addison's disease. Here, we report the clinical and radiologic findings of a 79-year-old African American male whose unilateral petrified auricle was an incidental finding. He had a preceding history of hyperparathyroidism and subsequent hypercalcemia treated with a subtotal parathyroidectomy three years prior to presentation. In addition to laboratory analysis, a history and physical examination was performed which revealed no other signs of hypercalcemia. Radiologic studies demonstrated partial ossification of the external auricular cartilage on the left side. The patient was diagnosed with the rare occurrence of a petrified ear. In light of this case, we provide a discussion concerning the possible etiologies of this diagnosis including appropriate patient evaluation and possible treatment recommendations. PMID:23259082

  7. Evaluation of the Condom Barriers Scale for Young Black MSM: Reliability and Validity of Three Sub-Scales

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Richard; Sanders, Stephanie A.; Graham, Cynthia A.; Milhausen, Robin; Yarber, William L.; Mena, Leandro

    2016-01-01

    Background Reliable and valid scale measures of barriers to condom use are not available for young Black MSM (YBMSM). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Condom Barriers Scales for application with YBMSM. Methods A clinic-based sample of 600 YBMSM completed a computer-assisted self-interview. The primary measure was a 14-item abbreviated version of the Condom Barriers Scale. Reliability and criterion validity were assessed. Results All three sub-scales were reliable: partner-related barriers (Cronbach’s alpha=.73), sensation-related barriers (alpha=.70), and motivation-related barriers (alpha=.81). A complete absence of barriers was common: 47.0% (partner-related), 30.7% (sensation-related), and 46.5% (motivation-related). Dichotomized sub-scales were significantly associated with reporting any condomless insertive anal sex (all=P < .001) and any condomless receptive anal sex (all=P < .001). The sub-scales were significantly associated with these measures of condomless sex preserved at a continuous level (all=P <.001, except for sensation barriers associated with condomless receptive anal sex =.03). Further, the sub-scales were significantly associated with reporting any condom use problems (all =P <.001) and a measure of condomless oral sex (all =P <.001, except for partner-related barriers =.31). Finally, the sensation-related barriers sub-scale was significantly associated with testing positive for Chlamydia and/or gonorrhea (P=.049). Conclusions The three identified sub-scales yielded adequate reliability and strong evidence of validity, thereby suggesting the utility of these brief measures for use in observational and experimental research with YBMSM. PMID:28081044

  8. Does ear endoscopy provide advantages in the outpatient management of open mastoidectomy cavities?

    PubMed

    Freire, Gustavo Subtil Magalhães; Sampaio, Andre Luiz Lopes; Lopes, Rafaela Aquino Fernandes; Nakanishi, Márcio; de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Costa Pires

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the use of ear endoscopy in the postoperative management of open mastoidectomy cavities, and to test whether ear endoscopy improves inspection and cleaning compared with ear microscopy. Prospective study. Thirty-two ears were divided into two groups: group 1, examination and cleaning of mastoid cavities under endoscopic visualization after microscopic standard ear cleaning; group 2, examination and cleaning of mastoid cavities under microscopic visualization after endoscope-assisted ear cleaning. We assessed the ability of each method to provide exposure and facilitate cleaning, comparing the benefits of microscopy and endoscopy when used sequentially and vice-versa. Endoscopy provided additional benefits for exposure in 61.1% of cases and cleaning in 66.7%. Microscopy provided no additional benefits in terms of exposure in any case, and provided added benefit for cleaning in only 21.4% of cases. For outpatient postoperative care of open mastoidectomy cavities, ear endoscopy provides greater benefit over ear microscopy than vice-versa. In over half of all cases, endoscopy was able to expose areas not visualized under the microscope. Furthermore, in two-thirds of cases, endoscopy enabled removal of material that could not be cleared under microscopy. Ear endoscopy was superior to microscopy in terms of enabling exposure and cleaning of hard-to-reach sites, due to its wider field of vision. Ear endoscopy is a feasible technique for the postoperative management of open mastoidectomy cavities. Ear endoscopy provided superior advantages in terms of exposure and aural cleaning compared with microscopy.

  9. Classification of Newborn Ear Malformations and their Treatment with the EarWell Infant Ear Correction System.

    PubMed

    Daniali, Lily N; Rezzadeh, Kameron; Shell, Cheryl; Trovato, Matthew; Ha, Richard; Byrd, H Steve

    2017-03-01

    A single practice's treatment protocol and outcomes following molding therapy on newborn ear deformations and malformations with the EarWell Infant Ear Correction System were reviewed. A classification system for grading the severity of constricted ear malformations was created on the basis of anatomical findings. A retrospective chart/photograph review of a consecutive series of infants treated with the EarWell System from 2011 to 2014 was undertaken. The infants were placed in either deformation or malformation groups. Three classes of malformation were identified. Data regarding treatment induction, duration of treatment, and quality of outcome were collected for all study patients. One hundred seventy-five infant ear malformations and 303 infant ear deformities were treated with the EarWell System. The average age at initiation of treatment was 12 days; the mean duration of treatment was 37 days. An average of six office visits was required. Treated malformations included constricted ears [172 ears (98 percent)] and cryptotia [three ears (2 percent)]. Cup ear (34 ears) was considered a constricted malformation, in contrast to the prominent ear deformity. Constricted ears were assigned to one of three classes, with each subsequent class indicating increasing severity: class I, 77 ears (45 percent); class II, 81 ears (47 percent); and class III, 14 ears (8 percent). Molding therapy with the EarWell System reduced the severity by an average of 1.2 points (p < 0.01). Complications included minor superficial excoriations and abrasions. The EarWell System was shown to be effective in eliminating or reducing the need for surgery in all but the most severe malformations. Therapeutic, IV.

  10. Ototoxicity (Ear Poisoning) (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... never change the dose or stop giving your child a medicine without talking to your doctor first. Reviewed by: Robert C. ... Hearing Loss? Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? Going to the Audiologist Hearing ...

  11. Evaluation of present thermal barrier coatings for potential service in electric utility gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bratton, R. J.; Lau, S. K.; Lee, S. Y.

    1982-01-01

    The resistance of present-day thermal barrier coatings to combustion gases found in electric utility turbines was assessed. The plasma sprayed coatings, both duplex and graded types, were primarily zirconia-based, although a calcium silicate was also evaluated. Both atmospheric burner rig tests and high pressure tests (135 psig) showed that several present-day thermal barrier coatings have a high potential for service in gas turbines burning the relatively clean GT No. 2 fuel. However, coating improvements are needed for use in turbines burning lower grade fuel such as residual oil. The duplex ZrO2.8Y2O3/NiCrA1Y coating was ranked highest and selected for near-term field testing, with Ca2SiO4/NiCrA1Y ranked second. Graded coatings show potential for corrosive turbine operating conditions and warrant further development. The coating degradation mechanisms for each coating system subjected to the various environmental conditions are also described.

  12. Evaluation of the New York low-tension three-cable barrier on curved alignment.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-02-01

    Three full-scale crash tests were performed on the New York Department of Transportations (NYSDOTs) curved, lowtension, : three-cable barrier systems utilizing the MASH Test Level 3 safety performance criteria. The cable barrier system : for te...

  13. Evaluation of the in-service safety performance of safety-shape and vertical concrete barriers.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-12-16

    Roadside concrete barriers have been widely used to protect errant motorists from hitting : roadside hazards or obstacles. Two concrete barrier profiles, vertical and safety-shape, have been used : for this purpose. The safety-shape profile has been ...

  14. CRASH TEST AND EVALUATION OF RESTRAINED SAFETY-SHAPE CONCRETE BARRIERS ON CONCRETE BRIDGE DECK

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2018-01-01

    This research designed and tested a new portable concrete barrier that meets the performance of MASH TL-4 and can be used in temporary and permanent applications on bridge decks. Additionally, this new barrier system will minimize deflection, allowin...

  15. Investigation of novel acoustic barrier concepts phase I: concept development and preliminary evaluation

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-06-01

    In a previous research project [SQDH 2002-3; "Study of the Performance of Acoustic Barriers for Indiana Toll Roads,"] the influence of : environmental factors and of advanced sound barrier concepts was investigated. The presence of temperature gradie...

  16. Evaluation of ARMCO sound barriers on two bridges on I-495 : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of ARMCO double-wall, steel noise barriers attached to bridge parapets so as to provide continuity for roadside barriers. Measurements were taken opposite the sites of the discontinuities o...

  17. Principles of endoscopic ear surgery.

    PubMed

    Tarabichi, Muaaz; Kapadia, Mustafa

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this review is to study the rationale, limitations, techniques, and long-term outcomes of endoscopic ear surgery. The article discusses the advantages of endoscopic ear surgery in treating cholesteatoma and how the hidden sites like facial recess, sinus tympani, and anterior epitympanum are easily accessed using the endoscope. Transcanal endoscopic approach allows minimally invasive removal of cholesteatoma with results that compare well to traditional postauricular tympanomastoidectomy.

  18. [Preoperative CT Scan in middle ear cholesteatoma].

    PubMed

    Sethom, Anissa; Akkari, Khemaies; Dridi, Inès; Tmimi, S; Mardassi, Ali; Benzarti, Sonia; Miled, Imed; Chebbi, Mohamed Kamel

    2011-03-01

    To compare preoperative CT scan finding and per-operative lesions in patients operated for middle ear cholesteatoma, A retrospective study including 60 patients with cholesteatoma otitis diagnosed and treated within a period of 5 years, from 2001 to 2005, at ENT department of Military Hospital of Tunis. All patients had computed tomography of the middle and inner ear. High resolution CT scan imaging was performed using millimetric incidences (3 to 5 millimetres). All patients had surgical removal of their cholesteatoma using down wall technic. We evaluated sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of CT-scan comparing otitic damages and CT finding, in order to examine the real contribution of computed tomography in cholesteatoma otitis. CT scan analysis of middle ear bone structures shows satisfaction (with 83% of sensibility). The rate of sensibility decrease (63%) for the tympanic raff. Predictive value of CT scan for the diagnosis of cholesteatoma was low. However, we have noticed an excellent sensibility in the analysis of ossicular damages (90%). Comparative frontal incidence seems to be less sensible for the detection of facial nerve lesions (42%). But when evident on CT scan findings, lesions of facial nerve were usually observed preoperatively (spécificity 78%). Predictive value of computed tomography for the diagnosis of perilymphatic fistulae (FL) was low. In fact, CT scan imaging have showed FL only for four patients among eight. Best results can be obtained if using inframillimetric incidences with performed high resolution computed tomography. Preoperative computed tomography is necessary for the diagnosis and the evaluation of chronic middle ear cholesteatoma in order to show extending lesion and to detect complications. This CT analysis and surgical correlation have showed that sensibility, specificity and predictive value of CT-scan depend on the anatomic structure implicated in cholesteatoma damages.

  19. Surgical correction of constricted ear combined with Stahl's ear.

    PubMed

    Bi, Ye; Lin, Lin; Yang, Qinhua; Pan, Bo; Zhao, Yanyong; He, Leren; Jiang, Haiyue

    2015-07-01

    Constricted ear combined with Stahl's ear is a rare ear deformity, which is a kind of complex congenital auricular deformity. From 1 January 2007 to 1 January 2014, 19 patients with constricted ear combined with Stahl's ear (Spock ear) were enrolled in this study, most of which were unilaterally deformed. To correct the deformity, a double Z-shaped skin incision was made on the posterior side of the auricle, with the entire layer of cartilage cut parallel to the helix traversing the third crus to form a fan-shaped cartilage flap. The superior crura of the antihelix were shaped by the folding cartilage rim. The cartilage of the abnormal third crus was made part of the new superior crura of antihelix, and the third crus was eliminated. The postoperative aesthetic assessment of the reshaped auricle was graded by both doctors and patients (or their parents). Out of the 19 patients, the number of satisfying cases of the symmetry, helix stretch, elimination of the third crus, the cranioauricular angle, and the substructure of the reshaped ears was 14 (nine excellent and five good), 16 (six excellent and 10 good), 17 (eight excellent and nine good), 15 (five excellent and 10 good), and 13 (two excellent and 11 good), respectively. With a maximum of a 90-month follow-up, no complication was observed. The results of the study suggested that this rare deformity could be corrected by appropriate surgical treatment, with a satisfied postoperative appearance. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Burner Rig Evaluation of Thermal Barrier Coating Systems for Nickel-Base Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedwill, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    Eight plasma sprayed bond coatings were evaluated for their potential use with ZrO2-Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings (TECs) which are being developed for coal derived fuel fired gas turbines. Longer TBC lives in cyclic burner rig oxidation to 1050 C were achieved with the more oxidation resistant bond coatings. These were Ni-14.1Cr-13.4A1-0.10Ar, Ni-14.1C4-14.4Al-0.16Y, and Ni-15.8Cr-12.8Al-0.36Y on Rene 41. The TBC systems performed best when 0.015-cm thick bond coatings were employed that were sprayed at 20 kW using argon 3.5v/o hydrogen. Cycling had a more life limiting influence on the TBC than accumulated time at 1050 C.

  1. Evaluation of the Lifetime and Thermal Conductivity of Dysprosia-Stabilized Thermal Barrier Coating Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Nicholas; Markocsan, Nicolaie; Östergren, Lars; Li, Xin-Hai; Dorfman, Mitch

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was the further development of dysprosia-stabilized zirconia coatings for gas turbine applications. The target for these coatings was a longer lifetime and higher insulating performance compared to today's industrial standard thermal barrier coating. Two morphologies of ceramic top coat were studied: one using a dual-layer system and the second using a polymer to generate porosity. Evaluations were carried out using a laser flash technique to measure thermal properties. Lifetime testing was conducted using thermo-cyclic fatigue testing. Microstructure was assessed with SEM and Image analysis was used to characterize porosity content. The results show that coatings with an engineered microstructure give performance twice that of the present reference coating.

  2. Economic Evaluation in Ethiopian Healthcare Sector Decision Making: Perception, Practice and Barriers.

    PubMed

    Zegeye, Elias Asfaw; Mbonigaba, Josue; Kaye, Sylvia Blanche; Wilkinson, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Globally, economic evaluation (EE) is increasingly being considered as a critical tool for allocating scarce healthcare resources. However, such considerations are less documented in low-income countries, such as in Ethiopia. In particular, to date there has been no assessment conducted to evaluate the perception and practice of and barriers to health EE. This paper assesses the use and perceptions of EE in healthcare decision-making processes in Ethiopia. In-depth interview sessions with decision makers/healthcare managers and program coordinators across six regional health bureaus were conducted. A qualitative analysis approach was conducted on three thematic areas. A total of 57 decision makers/healthcare managers were interviewed from all tiers of the health sector in Ethiopia, ranging from the Federal Ministry of Health down to the lower levels of the health facility pyramid. At the high-level healthcare decision-making tier, only 56 % of those interviewed showed a good understanding of EE when explaining in terms of cost and consequences of alternative courses of action and value for money. From the specific program perspective, 50 % of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV/AIDS program coordinators indicated the relevance of EE to program planning and decision making. These respondents reported a limited application of costing studies on the HIV/AIDS prevention and control program, which were most commonly used during annual planning and budgeting. The study uncovered three important barriers to growth of EE in Ethiopia: a lack of awareness, a lack of expertise and skill, and the traditional decision-making culture.

  3. In-situ evaluation of barrier-cream performance on human skin using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Q; Tran, M; Smith, B; Winefordner, J D

    2000-11-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to evaluate the effect of barrier creams (skin protective creams) on human skin. A Nd: YAG laser at 1,064 nm was used with a pulse energy of 100 mJ. A method was developed to measure the effectiveness of barrier creams against zinc ion absorption from aqueous zinc chloride solution and oil paste zinc oxide, which represent model hydrophilic and lipophilic metal compounds, respectively. Zinc was chosen since it posed no risk to human skin. 3 representative commercial barrier creams advertised as being effective against lipophilic and hydrophilic substances were evaluated by measuring zinc absorbed through the stratum corneum. 4 consecutive skin surface biopsies (SSB) were taken from biceps of the forearms of 6 volunteers at time periods of 0.5 h and 3 h after application of the protective cream. Results were compared with control skin where no barrier cream was used. The zinc atomic emission line at 213.9 nm was selected. Gate delay and gate width time was optimized to obtain the best signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and precision. This method provided a facile and rapid screening of the effectiveness of skin barrier creams against zinc ion penetration. The barrier creams were shown to provide appreciable protection against the penetration of both ZnCl2 and ZnO into the skin.

  4. Susceptibility constants of airborne bacteria to dielectric barrier discharge for antibacterial performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul Woo; Hwang, Jungho

    2013-01-15

    Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is a promising method to remove contaminant bioaerosols. The collection efficiency of a DBD reactor is an important factor for determining a reactor's removal efficiency. Without considering collection, simply defining the inactivation efficiency based on colony counting numbers for DBD as on and off may lead to overestimation of the inactivation efficiency of the DBD reactor. One-pass removal tests of bioaerosols were carried out to deduce the inactivation efficiency of the DBD reactor using both aerosol- and colony-counting methods. Our DBD reactor showed good performance for removing test bioaerosols for an applied voltage of 7.5 kV and a residence time of 0.24s, with η(CFU), η(Number), and η(Inactivation) values of 94%, 64%, and 83%, respectively. Additionally, we introduce the susceptibility constant of bioaerosols to DBD as a quantitative parameter for the performance evaluation of a DBD reactor. The modified susceptibility constant, which is the ratio of the susceptibility constant to the volume of the plasma reactor, has been successfully demonstrated for the performance evaluation of different sized DBD reactors under different DBD operating conditions. Our methodology will be used for design optimization, performance evaluation, and prediction of power consumption of DBD for industrial applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Bacterial invasion of the inner ear in association with pneumococcal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Møller, Martin Nue; Brandt, Christian; Østergaard, Christian; Caye-Thomasen, Per

    2014-06-01

    To examine the pathways of bacterial invasion and subsequent spreading in the inner ear during pneumococcal meningitis. A well-established adult rat model of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis was used. Thirty rats were inoculated intrathecally with S. pneumoniae serotype 1, 3 or 9 V and received no additional treatment. The rats were sacrificed when reaching terminal illness or on Day 7 and then prepared for serial sectioning and PAS-Alcian blue staining for light microscopy. During the first few days after inoculation, bacteria invade the inner ear through the cochlear aqueduct, into the scala tympani of the cochlea (perilymphatic space). From here, bacteria spreads apically toward the helicotrema and subsequently basally through the scala vestibuli, toward the vestibule and the vestibular system. When the bacteria after 5 to 6 days had reached scala vestibuli of the basal turn of the cochlea, hematogenous spreading occurred to the spiral ligament and into the cochlear endolymph, subsequently to the vestibular endolymph. We found no evidence of alternative routes for bacterial invasion in the inner ear. Several internal barriers to bacterial spreading were found within the inner ear. Bacterial elimination was evidenced by engulfment by macrophages within the inner ear. From the meninges, pneumococci invade the inner ear through the cochlear aqueduct during the first days of infection, whereas hematogenous invasion via the spiral ligament capillary bed occur at later stages. Although internal barriers exist within the inner ear, the spreading of bacteria occurs via the natural pathways of the fluid compartments. Bacterial elimination occurs by local macrophage engulfment.

  6. Prevalence of external ear disorders in Belgian stray cats.

    PubMed

    Bollez, Anouck; de Rooster, Hilde; Furcas, Alessandra; Vandenabeele, Sophie

    2018-02-01

    Objectives Feline otitis externa is a multifactorial dermatological disorder about which very little is known. The objective of this study was to map the prevalence of external ear canal disorders and the pathogens causing otitis externa in stray cats roaming around the region of Ghent, Belgium. Methods One hundred and thirty stray cats were randomly selected during a local trap-neuter-return programme. All cats were European Shorthairs. This study included clinical, otoscopic and cytological evaluation of both external ears of each cat. Prospective data used as parameters in this study included the sex, age and body condition score of each cat, as well as the presence of nasal and/or ocular discharge, and the results of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) Snap tests. Results Remarkably, very few (sub)clinical problems of the external ear canal were found in the stray cat population. Malassezia species was by far the most common organism found in the external ear canals of the 130 stray cats. A total of 96/130 (74%) cats were found to have Malassezia species organisms present in one or both ears based on the cytological examination. No correlation was found between the parameters of sex, age, body condition score, the presence of nasal and/or ocular discharge and FIV and FeLV status, and the presence of parasites, bacteria or yeasts. Conclusions and relevance This study provides more information about the normal state of the external ear canal of stray cats. The ears of most stray cats are relatively healthy. The presence of Malassezia species organisms in the external ear canal is not rare among stray cats.

  7. Revisiting gender, race, and ear differences in peripheral auditory function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boothalingam, Sriram; Klyn, Niall A. M.; Stiepan, Samantha M.; Wilson, Uzma S.; Lee, Jungwha; Siegel, Jonathan H.; Dhar, Sumitrajit

    2018-05-01

    Various measures of auditory function are reported to be superior in females as compared to males, in African American compared to Caucasian individuals, and in right compared to left ears. We re-examined the influence of these subject variables on hearing thresholds and otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) in a sample of 887 human participants between 10 and 68 years of age. Even though the variables of interest here have been examined before, previous attempts have largely been limited to frequencies up to 8 kHz. We used state-of-the-art signal delivery and recording techniques that compensated for individual differences in ear canal acoustics, allowing us to measure hearing thresholds and OAEs up to 20 kHz. The use of these modern calibration and recording techniques provided the motivation for re-examining these commonly studied variables. While controlling for age, noise exposure history, and general health history, we attempted to isolate the effects of gender, race, and ear (left versus right) on hearing thresholds and OAEs. Our results challenge the notion of a right ear advantage and question the existence of a significant gender and race differences in both hearing thresholds and OAE levels. These results suggest that ear canal anatomy and acoustics should be important considerations when evaluating the influence of gender, race, and ear on peripheral auditory function.

  8. Inner ear test battery in guinea pig models - a review.

    PubMed

    Young, Yi-Ho

    2018-06-01

    This study reviewed the development of the inner ear test battery comprising auditory brainstem response (ABR), and caloric, ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP), and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) tests in guinea pig models at our laboratory over the last 20 years. Detailed description of the methodology for testing the small animals is also included. Inner ear disorders, i.e. ototoxicity, noise exposure, or perilymph fistula were established in guinea pig models first. One to four weeks after operation, each animal underwent ABR, oVEMP, cVEMP, and caloric tests. Then, animals were sacrificed for morphological study in the temporal bones. Inner ear endorgans can be comprehensively evaluated in guinea pig models via an inner ear test battery, which provides thorough information on the cochlea, saccule, utricle, and semicircular canal function of guinea pigs. Coupled with morphological study in the temporal bones of the animals may help elucidate the mechanism of inner ear disorders in humans. The inner ear test battery in guinea pig models may encourage young researchers to perform basic study in animals and stimulate the progress of experimental otology which is in evolution.

  9. Evaluation of the "Eat Better Feel Better" Cooking Programme to Tackle Barriers to Healthy Eating.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Ada L; Reardon, Rebecca; Hammond, Elizabeth; Parrett, Alison; Gebbie-Diben, Anne

    2017-04-04

    We evaluated a 6-week community-based cooking programme, "Eat Better Feel Better", aimed at tackling barriers to cooking and healthy eating using a single-group repeated measures design. 117 participants enrolled, 62 completed baseline and post-intervention questionnaires, and 17 completed these and a 3-4 months follow-up questionnaire. Most participants were female, >45 years, and socioeconomically deprived. Confidence constructs changed positively from baseline to post-intervention (medians, scale 1 "not confident" to 7 "very confident"): "cooking using raw ingredients" (4, 6 p < 0.003), "following simple recipe" (5, 6 p = 0.003), "planning meals before shopping" (4, 5 p = <0.001), "shopping on a budget (4, 5 p = 0.044), "shopping healthier food" (4, 5 p = 0.007), "cooking new foods" (3, 5 p < 0.001), "cooking healthier foods" (4, 5 p = 0.001), "storing foods safely" (5, 6 p = 0.002); "using leftovers" (4, 5 p = 0.002), "cooking raw chicken" (5, 6 p = 0.021), and "reading food labels" (4, 5 p < 0.001). "Microwaving ready-meals" decreased 46% to 39% ( p = 0.132). "Preparing meals from scratch" increased 48% to 59% ( p = 0.071). Knowledge about correct portion sizes increased 47% to 74% ( p = 0.002). Spending on ready-meals/week decreased. Follow-up telephone interviewees ( n = 42) reported developing healthier eating patterns, spending less money/wasting less food, and preparing more meals/snacks from raw ingredients. The programme had positive effects on participants' cooking skills confidence, helped manage time, and reduced barriers of cost, waste, and knowledge.).

  10. Evaluating Continuing Nursing Education: A Qualitative Study of Intention to Change Practice and Perceived Barriers to Knowledge Translation.

    PubMed

    Wellings, Cynthea A; Gendek, Marilyn A; Gallagher, Silvia E

    Evaluating the effectiveness of continuing nursing education does not always include behavioral change and patient health outcomes. A qualitative analysis of open-ended evaluation questions from continuing nursing education activities was conducted. The aim was to evaluate learners' intentions to change their practice resulting from their learning and their perceived barriers to implementing practice changes. Results revealed the multiple, interconnected challenges involved in translating new learning into practice.

  11. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    PubMed Central

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  12. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  13. Performance Evaluation and Modeling of Erosion Resistant Turbine Engine Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A.; Zhu, Dongming; Kuczmarski, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The erosion resistant turbine thermal barrier coating system is critical to the rotorcraft engine performance and durability. The objective of this work was to determine erosion resistance of advanced thermal barrier coating systems under simulated engine erosion and thermal gradient environments, thus validating a new thermal barrier coating turbine blade technology for future rotorcraft applications. A high velocity burner rig based erosion test approach was established and a new series of rare earth oxide- and TiO2/Ta2O5- alloyed, ZrO2-based low conductivity thermal barrier coatings were designed and processed. The low conductivity thermal barrier coating systems demonstrated significant improvements in the erosion resistance. A comprehensive model based on accumulated strain damage low cycle fatigue is formulated for blade erosion life prediction. The work is currently aiming at the simulated engine erosion testing of advanced thermal barrier coated turbine blades to establish and validate the coating life prediction models.

  14. 3D finite element model of the chinchilla ear for characterizing middle ear functions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuelin; Gan, Rong Z.

    2016-01-01

    Chinchilla is a commonly used animal model for research of sound transmission through the ear. Experimental measurements of the middle ear transfer function in chinchillas have shown that the middle ear cavity greatly affects the tympanic membrane (TM) and stapes footplate (FP) displacements. However, there is no finite element (FE) model of the chinchilla ear available in the literature to characterize the middle ear functions with the anatomical features of the chinchilla ear. This paper reports a recently completed 3D FE model of the chinchilla ear based on X-ray micro-computed tomography images of a chinchilla bulla. The model consisted of the ear canal, TM, middle ear ossicles and suspensory ligaments, and the middle ear cavity. Two boundary conditions of the middle ear cavity wall were simulated in the model as the rigid structure and the partially flexible surface, and the acoustic-mechanical coupled analysis was conducted with these two conditions to characterize the middle ear function. The model results were compared with experimental measurements reported in the literature including the TM and FP displacements and the middle ear input admittance in chinchilla ear. An application of this model was presented to identify the acoustic role of the middle ear septa - a unique feature of chinchilla middle ear cavity. This study provides the first 3D FE model of the chinchilla ear for characterizing the middle ear functions through the acoustic-mechanical coupled FE analysis. PMID:26785845

  15. Managing Environmental Stress: An Evaluation of Environmental Management of the Long Point Sandy Barrier, Lake Erie, Canada.

    PubMed

    Kreutzwiser; Gabriel

    2000-01-01

    / This paper assesses the extent to which key geomorphic components, processes, and stresses have been reflected in the management of a coastal sandy barrier environment. The management policies and practices of selected agencies responsible for Long Point, a World Biosphere Reserve along Lake Erie, Canada, were evaluated for consistency with these principles of environmental management for sandy barriers: maintaining natural stresses essential to sandy barrier development and maintenance;protecting sediment sources, transfers, and storage; recognizing spatial variability and cyclicity of natural stresses, such as barrier overwash events; and accepting and planning for long-term evolutionary changes in the sandy barrier environment. Generally, management policies and practices have not respected the dynamic and sensitive environment of Long Point because of limited mandates of the agencies involved, inconsistent policies, and failure to apply or enforce existing policies. This is particularly evident with local municipalities and less so for the Canadian Wildlife Service, the federal agency responsible for managing National Wildlife Areas at the point. In the developed areas of Long Point, landward sediment transfers and sediment storage in dunes have been impacted by cottage development, shore protection, and maintenance of roads and parking lots. Additionally, agencies responsible for managing Long Point have no jurisdiction over sediment sources as far as 95 km away. Evolutionary change of sandy barriers poses the greatest challenge to environmental managers.

  16. Barriers to patient involvement in health service planning and evaluation: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Anna R; Lemieux-Charles, Louise; Brown, Adalsteinn D; Sullivan, Terrence; Goel, Vivek

    2008-02-01

    Patient involvement in health service planning and evaluation is considered important yet not widely practiced. This study explored stakeholder beliefs about patient participation in performance indicator selection to better understand hypothesized barriers. Interviews with 30 cancer patients and health professionals from two teaching hospitals were analyzed qualitatively. All groups believed patients, not members of the public, should be involved in the selection of indicators. Ongoing, interactive methods such as committee involvement, rather than single, passive efforts such as surveys were preferred. Health professionals recommended patients assume a consultative, rather than decision-making role. Older patients agreed with this. Variable patient interest, health professional attitudes, and a lack of insight on appropriate methods may be limiting patient involvement in this, and other service planning and evaluation activities. More research is required to validate expressed views among the populations these stakeholders represent, and to establish effective methods for engaging patients. Efforts to encourage a change in health professional attitude may be required, along with dedicated organizational resources, coordinators and training. Methods to engage patients should involve deliberation, which can be achieved through modified Delphi panel or participatory research approaches.

  17. An Acute Retinal Model for Evaluating Blood Retinal Barrier Breach and Potential Drugs for Treatment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Rodriguez, Ana R; Spur, Bernd W; Venkataraman, Venkat

    2016-09-13

    A low-cost, easy-to-use and powerful model system is established to evaluate potential treatments that could ameliorate blood retinal barrier breach. An inflammatory factor, histamine, is demonstrated to compromise vessel integrity in the cultured retina through positive staining of IgG outside of the blood vessels. The effects of histamine itself and those of candidate drugs for potential treatments, such as lipoxin A4, are assessed using three parameters: blood vessel leakage via IgG immunostaining, activation of Müller cells via GFAP staining and change in neuronal dendrites through staining for MAP2. Furthermore, the layered organization of the retina allows a detailed analysis of the processes of Müller and ganglion cells, such as changes in width and continuity. While the data presented is with swine retinal culture, the system is applicable to multiple species. Thus, the model provides a reliable tool to investigate the early effects of compromised retinal vessel integrity on different cell types and also to evaluate potential drug candidates for treatment.

  18. LevRad software as a tool to learn how to proceed with an evaluation of barriers.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, C C; Souza, S O

    2011-05-30

    We developed the software LevRad with the objective of teaching how to proceed in an analysis of barriers shielding against x-rays to minimize the contact of the professional or the student with x-rays and also to prevent wearing out of the x-ray equipment. Some tests of the software were made, and preliminary results indicate that LevRad is efficient as a complementary tool for the development of professionals related to diagnostic radiology. In the case of education, an advantage is gained when the beginner uses the software before his or her first contact with x-ray equipment in locu. The software introduces a basic knowledge about evaluation of barriers, prevents wearing out of the x—ray tube, reinforces teaching of evaluation of barriers, and reduces the collective effective dose by avoiding unnecessary exposures when possible.

  19. Finite-Element Modelling of the Acoustic Input Admittance of the Newborn Ear Canal and Middle Ear.

    PubMed

    Motallebzadeh, Hamid; Maftoon, Nima; Pitaro, Jacob; Funnell, W Robert J; Daniel, Sam J

    2017-02-01

    Admittance measurement is a promising tool for evaluating the status of the middle ear in newborns. However, the newborn ear is anatomically very different from the adult one, and the acoustic input admittance is different than in adults. To aid in understanding the differences, a finite-element model of the newborn ear canal and middle ear was developed and its behaviour was studied for frequencies up to 2000 Hz. Material properties were taken from previous measurements and estimates. The simulation results were within the range of clinical admittance measurements made in newborns. Sensitivity analyses of the material properties show that in the canal model, the maximum admittance and the frequency at which that maximum admittance occurs are affected mainly by the stiffness parameter; in the middle-ear model, the damping is as important as the stiffness in influencing the maximum admittance magnitude but its effect on the corresponding frequency is negligible. Scaling up the geometries increases the admittance magnitude and shifts the resonances to lower frequencies. The results suggest that admittance measurements can provide more information about the condition of the middle ear when made at multiple frequencies around its resonance.

  20. Fumonisin B(1)-nonproducing strains of Fusarium verticillioides cause maize (Zea mays) ear infection and ear rot.

    PubMed

    Desjardins, A E; Plattner, R D

    2000-11-01

    Fumonisins are polyketide mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides (synonym F. moniliforme), a major pathogen of maize (Zea mays) worldwide. Most field strains produce high levels of fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) and low levels of the less-oxygenated homologues FB(2) and FB(3), but fumonisin B(1)-nonproducing field strains have been obtained by natural variation. To test the role of various fumonisins in pathogenesis on maize under field conditions, one strain producing FB(1), FB(2), and FB(3), one strain producing only FB(2), one strain producing only FB(3), and one fumonisin-nonproducing strain were applied to ears via the silk channel and on seeds at planting. Disease severity on the harvested ears was evaluated by visible symptoms and by weight percent symptomatic kernels. Fumonisin levels in kernels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The presence of the applied FB(1)-nonproducing strains in kernels was determined by analysis of recovered strains for fumonisin production and other traits. All three FB(1)-nonproducing strains were able to infect ears following either silk-channel application or seed application at planting and were as effective as the FB(1)-producing strain in causing ear rot following silk-channel application. These results indicate that production of FB(1), FB(2), or FB(3) is not required for F. verticillioides to cause maize ear infection and ear rot.

  1. Missing links in some curious auditory phenomena: a tale from the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Michelle S; Cacace, Anthony T; Mahoney, Marty J

    2012-02-01

    Broadband middle ear power reflectance (BMEPR) is an emerging noninvasive electroacoustic measure that evaluates transmission/reflection properties of the middle ear in high resolution. It is applicable over the entire age continuum and is rapid to perform. However, it remains to be determined if BMEPR is just an incremental step in the evolution of middle ear assessment or a major advance in the way middle ear function can be evaluated. To evaluate effects of age, gender, ear, and frequency on BMEPR measurements in adults without a history of middle ear disease and to assess whether these factors require consideration in test development; to review how these data may influence active physiologic process within the inner ear; to consider how they reconcile with previously published results; and to suggest applications for future research. Prospective, cross-sectional, multivariate analysis to evaluate the effects of age, gender, ear, and frequency on BMEPR in humans without a history of middle ear disease and no air-bone gaps exceeding 10 dB for any frequency. Fifty-six adults in two age groups (Group 1: 18-25 yr, n = 28; Group 2: ≥50 and <66 yr, n = 28). Each age group was stratified by ear and gender in a balanced design. Pure tone air conduction and bone-conduction audiometry was conducted in a commercial sound booth, using a clinical audiometer with standard earphones enclosed in supra-aural ear cushions, and a standard bone-conduction oscillator and headband to evaluate for air-bone gaps. Broadband middle ear power reflectance was measured using a calibrated, commercially available computer-controlled system that incorporated a high quality probe assembly to transduce stimuli and record acoustic responses from the ear canal. Data were analyzed with a four-way (2 × 2 × 2 × 16) repeated measures analysis-of-variance (ANOVA) to evaluate the effects of age group (young vs. old), gender (male vs. female), ear (left vs. right), and frequency (258 to 5040 Hz) on

  2. Inner ear anatomy in Waardenburg syndrome: radiological assessment and comparison with normative data.

    PubMed

    Kontorinis, Georgios; Goetz, Friedrich; Lanfermann, Heinrich; Luytenski, Stefan; Giesemann, Anja M

    2014-08-01

    As patients with Waardenburg syndrome (WS) represent potential candidates for cochlear implantation, their inner ear anatomy is of high significance. There is an ongoing debate whether WS is related to any inner ear dysplasias. Our objective was to evaluate radiologically the inner ear anatomy in patients with WS and identify any temporal bone malformations. A retrospective case review was carried out in a tertiary, referral center. The high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans of the temporal bone from 20 patients (40 ears) with WS who were managed for deafness in a tertiary referral center from 1995 to 2012 were retrospectively examined. Measurements of 15 different inner ear dimensions, involving the cochlea, the vestibule, the semicircular canals and the internal auditory meatus, as well as measurements of the vestibular aqueduct, were performed independently by two neuroradiologists. Finally, we compared the results from the WS group with a control group consisting of 50 normal hearing subjects (100 ears) and with previously reported normative values. Inner ear malformations were not found in any of the patients with WS. All measured inner ear dimensions were within the normative values compiled by our study group as well as by others. Inner ear malformations are not characteristic for all types of WS; however, certain rare subtypes might be related to inner ear deformities. Normative cochleovestibular dimensions that can help in assessing the temporal bone anatomy are provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Trans-Oval-Window Implants, A New Approach for Drug Delivery to the Inner Ear: Extended Dexamethasone Release From Silicone-based Implants.

    PubMed

    Sircoglou, Julie; Gehrke, Maria; Tardivel, Meryem; Siepmann, Florence; Siepmann, Juergen; Vincent, Christophe

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new strategy to deliver drugs to the inner ear from dexamethasone (DXM)-loaded silicone implants and to evaluate the distribution of the drug in the cochlea with confocal microscopy. Systemic drug administration for the treatment of inner ear disorders is tricky because of the blood-cochlear barrier, a difficult anatomical access, the small size of the cochlea, and can cause significant adverse effects. An effective way to overcome these obstacles is to administer drugs locally. In vitro, the drug release from DXM-loaded silicone-based thin films and tiny implants into artificial perilymph was thoroughly analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. In vivo, a silicone implant loaded with 10% DXM and 5% polyethylene glycol 400 was implanted next to the stapes's footplate of gerbils. Delivery of DXM into the inner ear was proved by confocal microscopy imaging of the whole cochlea and the organ of Corti. The study showed a continuous and prolonged release during 90 days in vitro. This was confirmed by confocal microscopy that allowed detection of DXM by fluorescence labeling in the cell body of the hair cells for at least 30 days. Interestingly, fluorescence was already observed after 20 minutes of implantation, reached a climax at day 7, and could still be detected 30 days after implantation. Thus, we developed a new device for local corticosteroids delivery into the oval window with an extended drug release of DXM to the inner ear.

  4. Unclassified congenital deformities of the external ear.

    PubMed

    Vathulya, Madhubari

    2018-01-01

    Congenital ear deformities are a common entity. They are found in isolation or as a part of syndrome in patients. They may involve the external, middle or inner ear or in any of these combinations. Three patients of different ages presented with deformities including mirror image duplication of the superior auricle, unclassified deformities of ear lobule (wavy lobule) and deformity of superior auricle with unclassified variety of lateral ear pit. This article highlights that there are further cases of ear deformities that are noticed in the general population who come for cosmetic correction, and hence, there is a need for further modifying the classification of ear deformities.

  5. Learning to perform ear reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, Gordon H

    2009-08-01

    Learning how to perform ear reconstruction is very difficult. There are no standardized teaching methods. This has resulted in many ear reconstructions being suboptimal. Learning requires a major commitment by the surgeon. Factors to be seriously considered by those considering performing this surgery are (1) commitment, (2) aptitude, (3) training methods available, (4) surgical skills and experience, and (5) additional equipment needs. Unless all these factors are addressed in a surgeon's decision to perform this form of reconstruction, the end result will be compromised, and patient care will not be optimized. It is hoped that considering these factors and following this approach will result in a higher quality of aesthetic result. The future of ear reconstruction lies in the use of advanced digital technologies and tissue engineering. Copyright Thieme Medical Publishers.

  6. Development and Initial Validation of a Consumer Questionnaire to Predict the Presence of Ear Disease.

    PubMed

    Kleindienst, Samantha J; Zapala, David A; Nielsen, Donald W; Griffith, James W; Rishiq, Dania; Lundy, Larry; Dhar, Sumitrajit

    2017-10-01

    The already large population of individuals with age- or noise-related hearing loss in the United States is increasing, yet hearing aids remain largely inaccessible. The recent decision by the US Food and Drug Administration to not enforce the medical examination prior to hearing aid fitting highlights the need to reengineer consumer protections when increasing accessibility. A self-administered tool to estimate ear disease risk would provide disease surveillance without posing an unreasonable barrier to hearing aid procurement. To develop and validate a consumer questionnaire for the self-assessment of risk for ear diseases associated with hearing loss. The questionnaire was developed using established methods including expert opinion to validate and create questions, and cognitive interviews to ensure that questions were clear to respondents. Exploratory structural equation modeling, logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were used to determine sensitivity and specificity with blinded neurotologist opinion as the criterion for evaluation. Patients 40 to 80 years old with ear or hearing complaints necessitating a neurotologic examination and a control group of participants with a diagnosis of age- or noise-related hearing loss participated at the Departments of Otorhinolaryngology and Audiology of Mayo Clinic Florida. Sensitivity and specificity of the prototype questionnaire to identify individuals with targeted diseases. Of 307 participants (mean [SD] age, 62.9 [9.8] years; 148 [48%] female), 75% (n = 231) were enrolled with targeted disease(s) identified on neurotologic assessment and 25% (n = 76) with age- or noise-related hearing loss. Participants were randomly divided into a training sample (80% [n = 246; 185 with disease, 61 controls]) and a test sample (20% [n = 61; 46 with disease, 15 controls]). Using a simple scoring method, a sensitivity of 94% (95% CI, 89%-97%) and specificity of 61% (95% CI, 47

  7. Comparison of packing material in an animal model of middle ear trauma.

    PubMed

    Perez, Enrique; Hachem, Ralph Abi; Carlton, Daniel; Bueno, Isabel; Vernon, Stephen; Van De Water, Thomas R; Angeli, Simon I

    2016-01-01

    To compare the performance of absorbable gelatin sponge (AGS) with polyurethane foam (PUF) as middle ear packing material after mucosal trauma. Using a randomized, controlled and blinded study design fifteen guinea pigs underwent middle ear surgery with mucosal trauma performed on both ears. One ear was packed with either PUF or AGS while the contralateral ear remained untreated and used as non-packed paired controls. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds were measured pre-operatively and repeated at 1, 2, and 6weeks postoperatively. Histological analysis of middle ear mucosa was done in each group to evaluate the inflammatory reaction and wound healing. Another eighteen animals underwent middle ear wounding and packing in one ear while the contralateral ear was left undisturbed as control. Twelve guinea pigs were euthanized at 2weeks postoperatively, and six were euthanized at 3days post-operatively. Mucosal samples were collected for analysis of TGF-β1 levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. ABR recordings demonstrate that threshold level changes from baseline were minor in PUF packed and control ears. Threshold levels were higher in the AGS packed ears compared with both control and PUF packed ears for low frequency stimuli. Histological analysis showed persistence of packing material at 6weeks postoperatively, inflammation, granulation tissue formation, foreign body reaction and neo-osteogenesis in both AGS and PUF groups. TGF-β1 protein levels did not differ between groups. PUF and AGS packing cause inflammation and neo-osteogenesis in the middle ear following wounding of the mucosa and packing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of blood-brain barrier-stealth nanocomposites for in situ glioblastoma theranostics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Chia-Hao; Tsai, Ching-Yi; Tomanek, Boguslaw; Chen, Wei-Yu; Cheng, Fong-Yu

    2016-04-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a physiological structure of the blood vessels in the brain. The BBB efficiently traps most therapeutic drugs in the blood vessels and stops them from entering the brain tissue, resulting in a decreased therapeutic efficiency. In this study, we developed BBB-stealth nanocomposites composed of iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (NPs) as a safe nanocarrier for glioblastoma therapy. We showed the antitumor activity of Dox/alg-Fe3O4 NPs using in vitro and in vivo tests. We demonstrated that G23-alg-Fe3O4 NPs crossed the BBB and entered the brain. In situ glioblastoma tumor-bearing mice were used to successfully evaluate the antitumor activity of G23-Dox/alg-Fe3O4 NPs. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bioluminescence imaging (BLI) confirmed the BBB crossing. The BBB-stealth nanocomposites show great potential for a proof-of-concept clinical trial as a theranostics platform for human brain tumor therapy.The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a physiological structure of the blood vessels in the brain. The BBB efficiently traps most therapeutic drugs in the blood vessels and stops them from entering the brain tissue, resulting in a decreased therapeutic efficiency. In this study, we developed BBB-stealth nanocomposites composed of iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (NPs) as a safe nanocarrier for glioblastoma therapy. We showed the antitumor activity of Dox/alg-Fe3O4 NPs using in vitro and in vivo tests. We demonstrated that G23-alg-Fe3O4 NPs crossed the BBB and entered the brain. In situ glioblastoma tumor-bearing mice were used to successfully evaluate the antitumor activity of G23-Dox/alg-Fe3O4 NPs. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bioluminescence imaging (BLI) confirmed the BBB crossing. The BBB-stealth nanocomposites show great potential for a proof-of-concept clinical trial as a theranostics platform for human brain tumor therapy. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00280c

  9. Hydrogen Release Compound (HRC®) Barrier Application At The North Of Basin F Site, Rocky Mountain Arsenal; Innovative Technology Evaluation Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Innovative Technology Evaluation Report documents the results of a demonstration of the hydrogen release compound (HRC®) barrier technology developed by Regenesis Bioremediation Products, Inc., of San Clemente, California. HRC® is a proprietary, food-q...

  10. EVALUATION OF BARRIERS TO THE USE OF RADIATION-CURED COATINGS IN CAN MANUFACTURING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to investigate and identify the technical, educational, and economic barriers to the use and implementation of radiation-cured coatings in can manufacturing. The study is part of an EPA investigation of current industrial use and barriers to th...

  11. MASH TL-4 crash testing and evaluation of the RESTORE barrier.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-11-01

    Three full-scale vehicle crash tests were conducted according to the MASH Test Level 4 (TL-4) safety performance criteria on a : restorable and reusable energy-absorbing roadside/median barrier, designated the RESTORE barrier. The system utilized for...

  12. The Development and Evaluation of a Measure Assessing School Nurses' Perceived Barriers to Addressing Pediatric Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yelena P.; Steele, Ric G.

    2011-01-01

    School nurses represent an important resource for addressing pediatric obesity and weight-related health. However, school nurses perceive numerous barriers that prevent them from addressing the weight-related health of students. The current study developed and tested a new, comprehensive measure of nurses' perceptions of 10 types of barriers to…

  13. Three-Dimensional Analysis of the Ear Morphology.

    PubMed

    Modabber, Ali; Galster, Helmut; Peters, Florian; Möhlhenrich, Stephan Christian; Kniha, Kristian; Knobe, Matthias; Hölzle, Frank; Ghassemi, Alireza

    2018-06-01

    For surgical treatment of the face, detailed surgical planning is necessary to avoid later unaesthetic results. Most of the studies in the literature concentrate on the ears' anatomy during childhood and adolescence. Nearly no study evaluates the anatomy of ears of people aged 50 or older. It was our aim to measure and evaluate the ear's anatomy in Caucasians between the ages of 21 and 65. Three-dimensional scans of 240 volunteers were taken. The subjects were divided into groups of males and females and each of them into three groups by age (21-35, 36-50, 51-65). Landmarks were placed in these scans. Distances, relations and angles between them were recorded. The distance between the subaurale and superaurale significantly increases (p < 0.001) during the aging process in males and females. Also, the width of the ear, measured between the preaurale and postaurale, significantly increased (p = 0.007) with advancing age. When the length of the ear is divided into four parts by anatomical landmarks, it extended the most in the lower quadrant with increasing subject age. The ear of Caucasians does not stop changing its shape during adulthood. Even after the body has stopped growing, the ear still does. With the measured values in this study, it should be possible for the surgeon to plan the operation in advance and achieve satisfactory aesthetic outcomes. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  14. "Barriers to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Homework Completion Scale- Depression Version": Development and Psychometric Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Callan, Judith A; Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline; Sereika, Susan M; Stone, Clement; Fasiczka, Amy; Jarrett, Robin B; Thase, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a two-phase study to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of an instrument to identify barriers to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) homework completion in a depressed sample. In Phase I, we developed an item pool by interviewing 20 depressed patients and 20 CBT therapists. In Phase II, we created and administered a draft instrument to 56 people with depression. Exploratory Factor Analysis revealed a 2-factor oblique solution of "Patient Factors" and "Therapy/Task Factors." Internal consistency coefficients ranged from .80 to .95. Temporal stability was demonstrated through Pearson correlations of .72 (for the therapist/task subscale) to .95 (for the patient subscale) over periods of time that ranged from 2 days to 3 weeks. The patient subscale was able to satisfactorily classify patients (75 to 79 %) with low and high adherence at both sessions. Specificity was .66 at both time points. Sensitivity was .80 at sessions B and .77 at session C. There were no consistent predictors of assignment compliance when measured by the Assignment Compliance Rating Scale (Primakoff, Epstein, & Covi, 1986). The Rating Scale and subscale scores did, however, correlate significantly with assignment non-compliance (.32 to .46).

  15. Barriers to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Homework Completion Scale- Depression Version”: Development and Psychometric Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Callan, Judith A.; Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline; Sereika, Susan M.; Stone, Clement; Fasiczka, Amy; Jarrett, Robin B.; Thase, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a two-phase study to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of an instrument to identify barriers to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) homework completion in a depressed sample. In Phase I, we developed an item pool by interviewing 20 depressed patients and 20 CBT therapists. In Phase II, we created and administered a draft instrument to 56 people with depression. Exploratory Factor Analysis revealed a 2-factor oblique solution of “Patient Factors” and “Therapy/Task Factors.” Internal consistency coefficients ranged from .80 to .95. Temporal stability was demonstrated through Pearson correlations of .72 (for the therapist/task subscale) to .95 (for the patient subscale) over periods of time that ranged from 2 days to 3 weeks. The patient subscale was able to satisfactorily classify patients (75 to 79 %) with low and high adherence at both sessions. Specificity was .66 at both time points. Sensitivity was .80 at sessions B and .77 at session C. There were no consistent predictors of assignment compliance when measured by the Assignment Compliance Rating Scale (Primakoff, Epstein, & Covi, 1986). The Rating Scale and subscale scores did, however, correlate significantly with assignment non-compliance (.32 to .46). PMID:24049556

  16. Detection of thermally grown oxides in thermal barrier coatings by nondestructive evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahr, A.; Rogé, B.; Thornton, J.

    2006-03-01

    The thermal-barrier coatings (TBC) sprayed on hot-section components of aircraft turbine engines commonly consist of a partially stabilized zirconia top-coat and an intermediate bond-coat applied on the metallic substrate. The bond-coat is made of an aluminide alloy that at high engine temperatures forms thermally grown oxides (TGO). Although formation of a thin layer of aluminum oxide at the interface between the ceramic top-coat and the bond-coat has the beneficial effect of protecting the metallic substrate from hot gases, oxide formation at splat boundaries or pores within the bond-coat is a source of weakness. In this study, plasma-sprayed TBC specimens are manufactured from two types of bond-coat powders and exposed to elevated temperatures to form oxides at the ceramic-bond-coat boundary and within the bond-coat. The specimens are then tested using nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and destructive metallography and compared with the as-manufactured samples. The objective is to determine if NDE can identify the oxidation within the bond-coat and give indication of its severity. While ultrasonic testing can provide some indication of the degree of bond-coat oxidation, the eddy current (EC) technique clearly identifies severe oxide formation within the bond-coat. Imaging of the EC signals as the function of probe location provides information on the spatial variations in the degree of oxidation, and thereby identifies which components or areas are prone to premature damage.

  17. Evaluation of blood-brain barrier and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier permeability of 2-phenoxy-indan-1-one derivatives using in vitro cell models.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hai-Hong; Bian, Yi-Cong; Liu, Yao; Sheng, Rong; Jiang, Hui-Di; Yu, Lu-Shan; Hu, Yong-Zhou; Zeng, Su

    2014-01-02

    2-Phenoxy-indan-1-one derivatives (PIOs) are a series of novel central-acting cholinesterase inhibitors for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The adequate distribution of PIOs to the central nervous system (CNS) is essential for its effectiveness. However, articles related with their permeability in terms of CNS penetration across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) have not been found. This study was undertaken to evaluate the in vitro BBB and BCSFB transport of PIOs using Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK), MDCK-MDR1 and Z310 cell line models. As a result, the transepithelial transport of PIOs did not differ between MDCK and MDCK-MDR1, and the result suggested that PIOs were not substrates for P-gp, which means that multidrug resistance (MDR) function would not affect PIOs absorption and brain distribution. High permeability of PIOs in Z310 was found and it suggested that PIOs had high brain uptake potential. The experiment also showed that PIOs had inhibitory effects on the MDR1-mediated transport of Rhodamine123 with an IC50 value of 40-54 μM. And we suggested that 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone might be the pharmacophoric moiety of PIOs that interacts with the binding site of P-gp. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Middle ear infection (otitis media) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Otitis media is an inflammation or infection of the middle ear. Acute otitis media (acute ear infection) occurs when there is ... which causes production of fluid or pus. Chronic otitis media occurs when the eustachian tube becomes blocked ...

  19. Physiological functioning of the ear and masking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The physiological functions of the ear and the role masking plays in speech communication are examined. Topics under investigation include sound analysis of the ear, the aural reflex, and various types of noise masking.

  20. In vitro evaluation of electrospun chitosan mats crosslinked with genipin as guided tissue regeneration barrier membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norowski, Peter Andrew, Jr.

    Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) is a surgical technique commonly used to exclude bacteria and soft tissues from bone graft sites in oral/maxillofacial bone graft sites by using a barrier membrane to maintain the graft contour and space. Current clinical barrier membrane materials based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) and bovine type 1 collagen are non-ideal and experience a number of disadvantages including membrane exposure, bacterial colonization/biofilm formation and premature degradation, all of which result in increased surgical intervention and poor bone regeneration. These materials do not actively participate in tissue regeneration, however bioactive materials, such as chitosan, may provide advantages such as the ability to stimulate wound healing and de novo bone formation. Our hypothesis is that electrospun chitosan GTR membranes will support cell attachment and growth but prevent cell infiltration/penetration of membrane, demonstrate in vitro degradation predictive of 4--6 month in vivo functionality, and will deliver antibiotics locally to prevent/inhibit periopathogenic complications. To test this hypothesis a series of chitosan membranes were electrospun, in the presence or absence of genipin, a natural crosslinking agent, at concentrations of 5 and 10 mM. These membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, tensile testing, suture pullout testing, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and gel permeation chromatography, and in vitro biodegradation for diameter/morphology of fibers, membrane strengths, degree of crosslinking, crystallinity, molecular weight, and degradation kinetics, respectively. Cytocompability of membranes was evaluated in osteoblastic, fibroblastic and monocyte cultures. The activity of minocycline loaded and released from the membranes was determined in zone of inhibition tests using P. gingivalis microbe. The results demonstrated that genipin crosslinking extended the in vitro

  1. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear...

  2. Immunologic Disorders of the Inner Ear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, William C.; Hughes, Gordon B.

    1997-01-01

    Immune inner ear disease represents a series of immune system mediated problems that can present with hearing loss, dizziness, or both. The etiology, presentation, testing, and treatment of primary immune inner ear disease is discussed. A review of secondary immune inner ear disease is presented for comparison. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  3. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear...

  4. Treating "cauliflower ear" with silicone mold.

    PubMed

    Gross, C G

    1978-01-01

    Acute hematoma of the ear (cauliflower ear) can be satisfactorily treated with aspiration and the use of the silicone mold to prevent reaccumulation of the blood or serum in the ear. Advantages of the silicone mold over other dressings appears to be ease of application, patient acceptance, and prevention of reoccurrence of reaccumulation of the hematoma.

  5. Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? KidsHealth / For Kids / Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? Print en español La música ... up? Oh! You want to know if loud music can hurt your ears . Are you asking because ...

  6. Iron Hydroxy Carbonate Formation in Zerovalent Iron Permeable Reactive Barriers: Characterization and Evaluation of Phase Stability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Predicting the long-term potential of permeable reactive barriers for treating contaminated groundwater relies on understanding the endpoints of biogeochemical reactions between influent groundwater and the reactive medium. Iron hydroxy carbonate (chukanovite) is frequently obs...

  7. EVALUATION OF FLOORPAN TEARING AND CABLE SPLICES FOR CABLE BARRIER SYSTEMS

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-05-26

    This research effort consisted of two objectives related to components of a prototype cable barrier system. The first objective was to mitigate the potential for vehicle floorpan tearing by modifying the cable guardrail posts. A bogie vehicle was equ...

  8. Proposal of a Classification System for the Assessment and Treatment of Prominent Ear Deformity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngdae; Kim, Young Seok; Lee, Won Jai; Rha, Dong Kyun; Kim, Jiye

    2018-06-01

    Prominent ear is the most common external ear deformity. To comprehensively treat prominent ear deformity, adequate comprehension of its pathophysiology is crucial. In this article, we analyze cases of prominent ear and suggest a simple classification system and treatment algorithm according to pathophysiology. We retrospectively reviewed a total of 205 Northeast Asian patients' clinical data who underwent an operation for prominent ear deformity. Follow-up assessments were conducted 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Prominent ear deformities were classified by diagnostic checkpoints. Class I (simple prominent ear) includes prominent ear that developed with the absence of the antihelix without conchal hypertrophy. Class II (mixed-type prominent ear) is defined as having not only a flat antihelix, but also conchal excess. Class III (conchal-type prominent ear) has an enlarged conchal bowl with a well-developed antihelix. Among the three types of prominent ear, class I was most frequent (162 patients, 81.6%). Class II was observed in 28 patients (13.6%) and class III in 10 patients (4.8%). We used the scaphomastoid suture method for correction of antihelical effacement, the anterior approach conchal resection for correction of conchal hypertrophy, and Bauer's squid incision for lobule prominence. The complication rate was 9.2% including early hematoma, hypersensitivity, and suture extrusion. Unfavorable results occurred in 4% including partial recurrence, overcorrection, and undercorrection. To reduce unfavorable results and avoid recurrence, we propose the use of a classification and treatment algorithm in preoperative evaluation of prominent ear. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  9. Inner ear dysplasia is common in children with Down syndrome (trisomy 21).

    PubMed

    Blaser, Susan; Propst, Evan J; Martin, Daniel; Feigenbaum, Annette; James, Adrian L; Shannon, Patrick; Papsin, Blake C

    2006-12-01

    Middle and external ear anomalies are well recognized in Down syndrome (DS, trisomy 21). Inner ear anomalies are much less frequently described. This study reviews inner ear morphology on imaging to determine the prevalence of cochlear and vestibular anomalies in children with DS. The authors conducted a retrospective review of imaging features of (DS) inner ear structures. Fifty-nine sequential patients with DS with imaging of the inner ear were identified by a radiology report text search program. Quantitative biometric assessment of the inner ear was performed on patients with high-resolution computed tomography or magnetic resonance images of the petrous bone. Petrous imaging was performed for evaluation of inflammatory disease or hearing loss. Spinal imaging, which included petrous views, was performed in most cases to exclude C1 to 2 dislocation, a potential complication of DS. Measurements were compared with normative data. Inner ear dysplasia is much more common in DS than previously reported. Inner ear structures are universally hypoplastic. Vestibular malformations are particularly common and a small bony island of the lateral semicircular canal (<3 mm in diameter) appears highly typical. Additional findings in some patients were persistent lateral semicircular anlage with fusion of the lateral semicircular canal and vestibule into a single cavity, vestibular aqueduct and endolymphatic sac fossa enlargement, cochlear nerve canal hypoplasia, and stenosis or duplication of the internal auditory canal. Stenosis of the external meatus, poor mastoid pneumatization, middle ear and mastoid opacification, and cholesteatoma were common, as expected.

  10. Randomized Clinical Trial of Preoperative Feeding to Evaluate Intestinal Barrier Function in Neonates Requiring Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Zyblewski, Sinai C; Nietert, Paul J; Graham, Eric M; Taylor, Sarah N; Atz, Andrew M; Wagner, Carol L

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate intestinal barrier function in neonates undergoing cardiac surgery using lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio measurements, and to determine correlations with early breast milk feeding. This was a single-center, prospective, randomized pilot study of 27 term-born neonates (≥ 37 weeks gestation) requiring cardiac surgery who were randomized to 1 of 2 preoperative feeding groups: nil per os (NPO) or trophic (10 mL/kg/day) breast milk feeds. At 3 time points (preoperative [preop], postoperative [postop] day 7, and postop day 14), subjects were administered an oral L/M solution, after which urine L/M ratios were measured using gas chromatography, with higher ratios indicative of increased intestinal permeability. Trends over time in the mean urine L/M ratios for each group were estimated using a general linear mixed model. There were no adverse events related to preoperative trophic feeding. In the NPO group (n = 13), the mean urine L/M ratio was 0.06 at preop, 0.12 at postop day 7, and 0.17 at postop day 14. In the trophic breast milk feeds group (n = 14), the mean urine L/M ratio was 0.09 at preop, 0.19 at postop day 7, and 0.15 at postop day 14. In both groups, L/M ratios were significantly higher at postop day 7 and postop day 14 compared with preop (P < .05). Neonates have increased intestinal permeability after cardiac surgery extending to at least postop day 14. This pilot study was not powered to detect differences in benefit or adverse events comparing the NPO and trophic breast milk feeds groups. Further studies to identify mechanisms of intestinal injury and therapeutic interventions are warranted. Registered with ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01475357. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Development and evaluation of suspension plasma sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia coatings as thermal barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Every, Kent J.

    The insulating effects from thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) in gas turbine engines allow for increased operational efficiencies and longer service lifetimes. Consequently, improving TBCs can lead to enhanced gas turbine engine performance. This study was conducted to investigate if yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings, the standard industrial choice for TBCs, produced from nano-sized powder could provide better thermal insulation than current commericial YSZ coatings generated using micron-sized powders. The coatings for this research were made via the recently developed suspension plasma spraying (SPS) process. With SPS, powders are suspended in a solvent containing dispersing agents; the suspension is then injected directly into a plasma flow that evaporates the solvent and melts the powder while transporting it to the substrate. Although related to the industrial TBC production method of air plasma spraying (APS), SPS has two important differences---the ability to spray sub-micron diameter ceramic particles, and the ability to alloy the particles with chemicals dissolved in the solvent. These aspects of SPS were employed to generate a series of coatings from suspensions containing ˜100 nm diameter YSZ powder particles, some of which were alloyed with neodymium and ytterbium ions from the solvent. The SPS coatings contained columnar structures not observed in APS TBCs; thus, a theory was developed to explain the formation of these features. The thermal conductivity of the coatings was tested to evaluate the effects of these unique microstructures and the effects of the alloying process. The results for samples in the as-sprayed and heat-treated conditions were compared to conventional YSZ TBCs. This comparison showed that, relative to APS YSZ coatings, the unalloyed SPS samples typically exhibited higher as-sprayed and lower heat-treated thermal conductivities. All thermal conductivity values for the alloyed samples were lower than conventional YSZ TBCs

  12. A Ubiquitous Blood Pressure Sensor Worn at the Ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koizumi, Hiroshi; Shimada, Junichi; Uenishi, Yuji; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2009-12-01

    Blood pressure (BP) measurement and BP control are important for the prevention of lifestyle diseases, especially hypertension, which can lead to more serious conditions, such as cardiac infarction and cerebral apoplexy. The purpose of our study is to develop a ubiquitous blood pressure sensor that is more comfortable and less disruptive of users' daily activities than conventional blood pressure sensors. Our developed sensor is worn at an ear orifice and measures blood pressure at the tragus. This paper describes the concept, configuration, and the optical and electronic details of the developed ear-worn blood pressure sensor and presents preliminary evaluation results. The developed sensor causes almost no discomfort and produces signals whose quality is high enough for detecting BP at an ear, making it suitable for ubiquitous usage.

  13. The Evaluation and Validation of New Creep Barrier Films for Prevention of Oil Loss by Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampson, Matthew R.; Wardzinski, Ben

    2015-09-01

    Creep barrier films are used to prevent loss of oil by surface migration. This paper gives an overview of studies to select, characterise and validate creep barrier materials for spacecraft mechanisms [1].One of the more commonly used materials, Fluorad FC- 725, is no longer manufactured, and there is a need to identify a replacement.A survey of available materials was carried out, and after a series of trial tests, three materials were down- selected for the validation exercise: two new materials - 3M Novec 2708 and Dr Tillwich E2 Concentrate - alongside the obsolete Fluorad FC-725 used as a baseline.A validation procedure is defined, which may be applied to other new creep barrier materials in future. Testing confirmed that either of the new materials would be suitable for use.

  14. In situ clay formation : evaluation of a proposed new technology for stable containment barriers.

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, Kathryn L.; DiGiovanni, Anthony Albert; Fredrich, Joanne T.

    2004-03-01

    Containment of chemical wastes in near-surface and repository environments is accomplished by designing engineered barriers to fluid flow. Containment barrier technologies such as clay liners, soil/bentonite slurry walls, soil/plastic walls, artificially grouted sediments and soils, and colloidal gelling materials are intended to stop fluid transport and prevent plume migration. However, despite their effectiveness in the short-term, all of these barriers exhibit geochemical or geomechanical instability over the long-term resulting in degradation of the barrier and its ability to contain waste. No technologically practical or economically affordable technologies or methods exist at present for accomplishing total remediation, contaminant removal, or destruction-degradationmore » in situ. A new type of containment barrier with a potentially broad range of environmental stability and longevity could result in significant cost-savings. This report documents a research program designed to establish the viability of a proposed new type of containment barrier derived from in situ precipitation of clays in the pore space of contaminated soils or sediments. The concept builds upon technologies that exist for colloidal or gel stabilization. Clays have the advantages of being geologically compatible with the near-surface environment and naturally sorptive for a range of contaminants, and further, the precipitation of clays could result in reduced permeability and hydraulic conductivity, and increased mechanical stability through cementation of soil particles. While limited success was achieved under certain controlled laboratory conditions, the results did not warrant continuation to the field stage for multiple reasons, and the research program was thus concluded with Phase 2.« less

  15. Ionizing Radiation and the Ear

    SciTech Connect

    Borsanyi, Steven J.

    The effects of ionizing radiation on the ears of 100 patients were studied in the course of treatment of malignant head and neck tumors by teleradiation using Co 60. Early changes consisted of radiation otitis media and a transient vasculitis of the vessels of the inner ear, resulting in hearing loss, tinnitus, and temporary recruitment. While no permanent changes were detected microscopically shortly after the completion of radiation in the cochlea or labyrinth, late changes sometimes occurred in the temporal bone as a result of an obliterating endarteritis. The late changes were separate entities caused primarily by obliterating endarteritis andmore » alterations in the collagen. Radiation affected the hearing of individuals selectively. When hearing threshold shift did occur, the shift was not great. The 4000 cps frequency showed a greater deficit in hearing capacity during the tests, while the area least affected appeared to be in the region of 2000 cps. The shift in speech reception was not significant and it was correlated with the over-all change in response to pure tones. Discrimination did not appear to be affected. Proper shielding of the ear with lead during radiation, when possible, eliminated most complications. (H.R.D.)« less

  16. Pathogenesis of Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto-Fukuda, Tomomi; Hishikawa, Yoshitaka; Shibata, Yasuaki; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu; Takahashi, Haruo; Koji, Takehiko

    2010-01-01

    Middle ear cholesteatoma is characterized by enhanced proliferation of epithelial cells with aberrant morphological characteristics. To investigate the origin of the cholesteatoma cells, we analyzed spontaneously occurring cholesteatomas associated with a new transplantation model in Mongolian gerbils (gerbils). Cholesteatomas were induced in gerbils with a transplanted tympanic membrane by using the external auditory canal (EAC) ligation method. After the pars flaccida of the tympanic membranes were completely removed from male gerbils, corresponding portions of tympanic membranes of female gerbils were transplanted to the area of defect, and then we ligated the EAC (hybrid-model group). As a control group, the EAC of normal male and female gerbils was ligated without myringoplasty. In all ears of each group, the induced cholesteatomas were seen. In situ PCR was then performed to detect the mouse X chromosome-linked phosphoglycerate kinase-1 (pgk-1) gene on the paraffin sections. One pgk-1 spot in the epithelial nuclei was detected in male cholesteatoma, and two pgk-1 spots were detected in female cholesteatoma, respectively. On the other hand, in the hybrid-model group, we detected not only one but also two pgk-1 spots in the epithelial nuclei of cholesteatoma. These results strengthened the evidence that the origin of epithelial cells in cholesteatoma is the tympanic membrane in this model, but not the residential middle ear epithelial cells or the skin of the EAC. PMID:20413684

  17. Evaluation of barriers contributing in the demonstration of an effective nurse-patient communication in educational hospitals of Jahrom, 2014.

    PubMed

    Kargar Jahromi, Marzieh; Ramezanli, Somayeh

    2014-06-30

    Establishing an effective communication with patients is an essential aspect of nursing care. Nurse-patient communication has a key role in improving nursing care and increasing patient's satisfaction of health care system. The study aimed at evaluation of barriers contributing in the demonstration of an effective nurse-patient communication from their viewpoint. This was cross-sectional study, carried out in 2014, with a sample of 200 nurses and patients drawn from two educational hospitals in jahrom city. Data were collected by using two questionnaire structured by the researchers. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 16). The results of this study showed that the greatest barriers of nurse-patient communication were characteristics of nursing job with an average score of 71.05 ± 10.18. The most communication barriers from patients viewpoint including: heavy work load of the nurses, age , sex and language difference between patient and nurse and the spicy morality of nurses. It is concluded that overcome barriers to communication and support are needed to enable nurses to communicate therapeutically with patients in order to achieve care that is effective and responsive to their needs.

  18. Identifying barriers and facilitators to participation in pressure ulcer prevention in allied healthcare professionals: a mixed methods evaluation.

    PubMed

    Worsley, Peter R; Clarkson, Paul; Bader, Dan L; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the barriers and facilitators for allied health professional's participation in pressure ulcer prevention. Mixed method cohort study. Single centre study in an acute university hospital trust. Five physiotherapists and four occupational therapists were recruited from the hospital trust. Therapists had been working in the National Health Service (NHS) for a minimum of one year. Therapist views and experiences were collated using an audio recorded focus group. This recording was analysed using constant comparison analysis. Secondary outcomes included assessment of attitudes and knowledge of pressure ulcer prevention using questionnaires. Key themes surrounding barriers to participation in pressure ulcer prevention included resources (staffing and equipment), education and professional boundaries. Fewer facilitators were described, with new training opportunities and communication being highlighted. Results from the questionnaires showed the therapists had a positive attitude towards pressure ulcer prevention with a median score of 81% (range 50 to 83%). However, there were gaps in knowledge with a median score of 69% (range 50 to 77%). The therapist reported several barriers to pressure ulcer prevention and few facilitators. The primary barriers were resources, equipment and education. Attitudes and knowledge in AHPs were comparable to data previously reported from experienced nursing staff. Copyright © 2016 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Test matrices for evaluating cable median barriers placed in v-ditches.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-07-01

    Cable barrier systems designed to be used in median ditches have been traditionally full-scale crash tested placed either : within 4 ft from the slope break point (SBP) of a 4H:1V front slope or near the bottom of the ditch. Recently, there has been ...

  20. EVALUATION OF BARRIERS TO THE USE OF RADIATION CURED COATINGS IN WIDE-WEB FLEXOGRAPHIC PRINTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to investigate and identify the technical, economic, and educational barriers to the use and implementation of radiation-curable coatings (primarily ultraviolet (UV) curable inks) in the wide-web flexographic printing industry. (NOTE: In suppor...

  1. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A CARBON-BASED REACTIVE BARRIER FOR NITRATE REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrate (NO3-) is a common ground water contaminant related to agricultural activity, waste water disposal, leachate from landfills, septic systems, and industrial processes. This study reports on the performance of a carbon-based permeable reactive barrier (PRB) that was constr...

  2. EVALUATION OF PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER PERFORMANCE: A TRI-AGENCY INITIATIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technology represents a passive option for long-term treatment of ground-water contamination. PRBs are a potentially more cost-effective treatment option for a variety of dissolved contaminants, such as certain types of chlorinated solvents, ...

  3. IPE : EVALUATION OF ORTHOTROPIC ELASTIC PROPERTIES AND ITS APPLICATION IN ROADSIDE BARRIERS

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-12-24

    Roadside barriers are the primary structural safety devices on surface roads. They can be made from any material as long as they can absorb the energy involved in an impact scenario. One material that has that potential is Ipe, which is a hardwood ma...

  4. Development and evaluation of a MASH TL-3 31-inch w-beam median barrier.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-01-01

    Typically, when the G4(1S) W-beam barrier is impacted in a roadside application, the Wbeam rail element deforms, the support posts are displaced through the soil, and the vehicle is redirected. During the impact sequence, the rail becomes detached ...

  5. Evaluation of Barrier Skin Cream Effectiveness Against JP-8 Jet Fuel Absorption and Irritation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    quantify the colorimeter measurements. This system uses spectral chromaticity coordinates and corresponding color- matching functions based on...in the caudal thigh or lumbar muscles and the rabbit was monitored throughout the procedure. Once anesthetized, a baseline visual and colorimeter ...Visual Scoring Technique All barrier creams were scored in 3 ways; by visual scoring described in the Draize method, by colorimeter , and by

  6. Model evaluation of roadside barrier impact on near-road air pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    Roadside noise barriers are common features along major highways in urban regions and are anticipated to have important effects on near-road air pollution – the occurrence of elevated air pollutant concentrations for several hundred meters downwind of a major roadway. A 3-dimens...

  7. Cultural Barriers in Educational Evaluation: A Comparative Study on School Report Cards in Japan and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urabe, Masashi

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses cultural barriers in educational assessment by comparing Japanese and German school report cards. The discussions on assessment fluctuate between two intellectual extremes: objectified selection or educational diagnosis. In Japan, many teachers make written comments on school report cards with ambiguous expressions to avoid…

  8. A morphometric study of the human ear.

    PubMed

    Alexander, K Skaria; Stott, David J; Sivakumar, Branavan; Kang, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    We examined variations in the shape of the human ear according to age, sex and ethnic group with particular attention to ear prominence. 420 volunteers were recruited. Measurements included; head height and length, ear height and axis, antihelix taken off angle, earlobe length and width, ear width at the helical root and tragus. Prominence was measured at the helical root and tragus (conchomastoid angle, conchal bowl depth and helical-mastoid distance). Good symmetry was shown for all measurements. Ethnically Indian volunteers had the largest ears (both length and width), followed by Caucasians, and Afro-Caribbeans. This trend was significant in males (p<0.001), but not significant in females (p=0.087). Ears increased in size throughout life. Subjectively, only 2% of volunteers felt their ears were prominent compared to 10% in the opinion of the principal investigator. No objective measurements were identified that accurately predicted subjective perceptions of prominence. We found consistent trends in ear morphology depending on ethnic group, age and sex. Our study was unable to define an objective method for assessing ear prominence. Decisions about what constitutes a prominent ear should be left to personal and aesthetic choice. Copyright © 2010 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ear canal dynamic motion as a source of power for in-ear devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delnavaz, Aidin; Voix, Jérémie

    2013-02-01

    Ear canal deformation caused by temporomandibular joint (jaw joint) activity, also known as "ear canal dynamic motion," is introduced in this paper as a candidate source of power to possibly recharge hearing aid batteries. The geometrical deformation of the ear canal is quantified in 3D by laser scanning of different custom ear moulds. An experimental setup is proposed to measure the amount of power potentially available from this source. The results show that 9 mW of power is available from a 15 mm3 dynamic change in the ear canal volume. Finally, the dynamic motion and power capability of the ear canal are investigated in a group of 12 subjects.

  10. Barriers to postoperative pain management in hip fracture patients with dementia as evaluated by nursing staff.

    PubMed

    Rantala, Maija; Kankkunen, Päivi; Kvist, Tarja; Hartikainen, Sirpa

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports a study of the perceptions of nursing staff regarding barriers to postoperative pain management in hip fracture patients with dementia, their expectations, and facilitators offered by their employers to overcome these barriers. Patients with dementia are at high risk for insufficient postoperative pain treatment, mainly owing to inability to articulate or convey their pain experience. Nursing staff have an essential role in the treatment and care of patients who are vulnerable, and therefore unable to advocate for their own pain treatment. Questionnaires with both structured and open-ended questions were used to collect data from nursing staff members in seven university hospitals and ten city-center hospitals from March to May 2011. The response rate was 52% (n = 331). According to nursing staff, the biggest barrier in pain management was the difficulty in assessing pain owing to a patient's cognitive impairment (86%). Resisting care and restlessness among patients with dementia can lead to use of restraints, although these kinds of behavioral changes can point to the occurrence of pain. There were statistically significant differences between the sufficiency of pain management and barriers. Those who expected pain management to be insufficient identified more barriers than those who expected pain management to be sufficient (p < .001). Further updating education for nursing staff in pain detection and management is needed so that nursing staff are also able to recognize behavioral symptoms as potential signs of pain and provide appropriate pain management. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Middle ear application of a sodium hyaluronate gel loaded with neomycin in a Guinea pig model.

    PubMed

    Saber, Amanj; Laurell, Göran; Bramer, Tobias; Edsman, Katarina; Engmér, Cecilia; Ulfendahl, Mats

    2009-02-01

    Establishing methods for topical administration of drugs to the inner ear have great clinical relevance and potential even in a relatively short perspective. To evaluate the efficacy of sodium hyaluronate (HYA) as a vehicle for drugs that could be used for treatment of inner ear disorders. The cochlear hair cell loss and round window membrane (RWM) morphology were investigated after topical application of neomycin and HYA into the middle ear. Sixty-five albino guinea pigs were used and divided into groups depending on the type of the treatment. Neomycin was chosen as tracer for drug release and pharmacodynamic effect. HYA loaded with 3 different concentrations of neomycin was injected to the middle ear cavity of guinea pigs. Phalloidin stained surface preparations of the organ of Corti were used to estimate hair cell loss induced by neomycin. The thickness of the midportion of the RWM was measured and compared with that of controls using light and electron microscopy. All animal procedures were pe rformed in accordance with the ethical standards of Karolinska Institutet. Neomycin induced a considerable hair cell loss in guinea pigs receiving a middle ear injection of HYA loaded with the drug, demonstrating that neomycin was released from the gel and delivered to the inner ear. The resulting hair cell loss showed a clear dose-dependence. Only small differences in hair cell loss were noted between animals receiving neomycin solution and animals exposed to neomycin in HYA suggesting that the vehicle neither facilitated nor hindered drug transport between the middle ear cavity and the inner ear. One week after topical application, the thickness of the RWM had increased and was dependent upon the concentration of neomycin administered to the middle ear. At 4 weeks the thickness of the RWM had returned to normal. HYA is a safe vehicle for drugs aimed to pass into the inner ear through the RWM. Neomycin was released from HYA and transported into the inner ear as evidenced

  12. Customized acoustic transform functions and their accuracy at predicting real-ear hearing aid performance.

    PubMed

    Munro, K J; Hatton, N

    2000-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the validity of predicting the real-ear aided response by adding customized acoustic transform functions to the performance of a hearing aid in a 2-cc coupler. The real-ear hearing aid response, the real-ear-to-coupler difference (RECD/HA2), and field to behind-the-ear microphone transfer functions were measured in both ears of 24 normally hearing subjects using probe-tube microphone equipment. The RECD/HA2 transform function was obtained using both insert earphones and with the hearing aid/ pressure comparison method. An RECD/HA2 transfer function was also obtained with a customized earmold, ER-3A foam tip, and an oto-admittance tip. Validity estimates were calculated as the difference between the derived and measured real-ear response. The derived response was generally within 5 dB of the measured real-ear response when it incorporated an RECD/HA2 transform function obtained with a customized earmold for the specific ear in question. Discrepancies increased when the RECD/HA2 transfer function was obtained from the same subject but the opposite ear. There were significant differences between the RECD/HA2 transform function obtained with customized and temporary earmolds. As a result, the derived response incorporating these transforms differed significantly from the measured real-ear response obtained with the customized earmold. The insert earphone and the hearing aid RECD/HA2 transfer function were equally valid. The derived response may be used as a substitute for in situ hearing aid response procedures when it incorporates acoustic transform functions obtained with a customized earmold from the specific ear in question.

  13. Altered Expression of Middle and Inner Ear Cytokines in Mouse Otitis Media

    PubMed Central

    MacArthur, Carol J.; Pillers, De-Ann M.; Pang, Jiaqing; Kempton, J. Beth; Trune, Dennis R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis The inner ear is at risk for sensorineural hearing loss in both acute and chronic otitis media (OM), but the underlying mechanisms underlying sensorineural hearing loss are unknown. Previous gene expression array studies showed cytokine genes might be upregulated in the cochleas of mice with acute and chronic otitis media. This implies that the inner ear could manifest a direct inflammatory response to OM that may cause sensorineural damage. Therefore, to better understand inner ear cytokine gene expression during OM, quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were performed on mouse models to evaluate middle and inner ear inflammatory and remodeling cytokines. Study Design Basic science experiment. Methods An acute OM model was created in Balb/c mice by a transtympanic injection of S. pneumoniae in one ear; the other ear used as a control. C3H/HeJ mice were screened for unilateral chronic OM with the non-infected ear serving as control. Results Both acute and chronic OM caused both the middle ear and inner tissues in these two mouse models to over express numerous cytokine genes related to tissue remodeling (TNFα, FGF, BMP) and angiogenesis (VEGF), as well as inflammatory cell proliferation (IL-1α,β, IL-2, IL-6). Immunohistochemistry confirmed that both the middle ear and inner ear tissues expressed these cytokines. Conclusion Cochlear tissues are capable of expressing cytokine mRNA that contributes to the inflammation and remodeling that occur in association with middle ear disease. This provides a potential molecular basis for the transient and permanent sensorineural hearing loss often reported with acute and chronic OM. Level of Evidence N/A PMID:21271590

  14. Evaluating the long-term hydrology of an evapotranspiration-capillary barrier with a 1000 year design life: HYDROLOGY OF A 1000 YEAR ETC BARRIER

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z. Fred

    A surface barrier (or cover) is a commonly used technology for subsurface remediation. A key function of the barrier is to reduce or eliminate the movement of meteoric precipitation into the underlying waste zone, where it could mobilize and transport contaminants. Surface barriers are expected to perform for centuries to millennia, yet there are very few examples of performance for periods longer than a decade. The Prototype Hanford Barrier was constructed in 1994 over an existing waste site to demonstrate its long-term performance for a design period of 1000 years. This barrier is a field-scale evapotranspiration-capillary (ETC) barrier. In thismore » design, the storage layer consists of 2-m-thick silt loam. The 19-year monitoring results show that the store-and-release mechanism for the ETC barrier worked efficiently as the storage layer was recharged in the winter season (November to March) and the stored water was released to the atmosphere in the summer season (April to October) via soil evaporation and plant transpiration. The capillary break functioned normally in improving the storage capacity and minimizing drainage. The maximum drainage observed through the ET barrier at any of the monitoring stations was only 0.178 mm yr-1 (under an enhanced precipitation condition), which is less than the design criterion. A very small amount (2.0 mm yr-1 on average) of runoff was observed during the 19-year monitoring period. The observed storage capacity of the storage layer was considerably (39%) larger than the estimated value based on the method of equilibrium of water pressure. After a controlled fire in 2008, the newly grown vegetation (primarily shallow-rooted grasses) could still release the stored water and summer precipitation to the atmosphere via transpiration. The findings are useful for predicting water storage and ET under different precipitation conditions and for the design of future barriers.« less

  15. Evaluation of biofilm performance as a protective barrier against biocorrosion using an enzyme electrode.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, S; Ormeci, B; Isgor, O B; Papavinasam, S

    2011-01-01

    Sulfide is known to be an important factor in microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of metals and concrete deterioration in wastewater treatment structures and sewer pipelines. A sulfide biosensor was used to determine the effectiveness of Escherichia coli DH5 alpha biofilm as a protective barrier against MIC. The biofilm was shown to be effective in protecting surfaces from sulfide and helping to reduce MIC using amperometric measurements. The results also indicated that the growth conditions of E. coli DH5 alpha may have an impact on the performance of the biofilm as a sulfide barrier. The simple method provided in this work enables the comparison of several microbial biofilms and selection of the ones with potential to prevent MIC in a relatively short time.

  16. A method for evaluating nanoparticle transport through the blood-brain barrier in vitro.

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, Daniela; Muscetti, Ornella; Netti, Paolo A

    2014-01-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) represents a formidable barrier for many therapeutic drugs to enter the brain tissue. The development of new strategies for enhancing drug delivery to the brain is of great importance in diagnostics and therapeutics of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. In this context, nanoparticles are an emerging class of drug delivery systems that can be easily tailored to deliver drugs to various compartments of the body, including the brain. To identify, characterize, and validate novel nanoparticles applicable to brain delivery, in vitro BBB model systems have been developed. In this work, we describe a method to screen nanoparticles with variable size and surface functionalization in order to define the physicochemical characteristics underlying the design of nanoparticles that are able to efficiently cross the BBB.

  17. Shaping magnetic fields to direct therapy to ears and eyes.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, B; Kulkarni, S; Nacev, A; Sarwar, A; Preciado, D; Depireux, D A

    2014-07-11

    Magnetic fields have the potential to noninvasively direct and focus therapy to disease targets. External magnets can apply forces on drug-coated magnetic nanoparticles, or on living cells that contain particles, and can be used to manipulate them in vivo. Significant progress has been made in developing and testing safe and therapeutic magnetic constructs that can be manipulated by magnetic fields. However, we do not yet have the magnet systems that can then direct those constructs to the right places, in vivo, over human patient distances. We do not yet know where to put the external magnets, how to shape them, or when to turn them on and off to direct particles or magnetized cells-in blood, through tissue, and across barriers-to disease locations. In this article, we consider ear and eye disease targets. Ear and eye targets are too deep and complex to be targeted by a single external magnet, but they are shallow enough that a combination of magnets may be able to direct therapy to them. We focus on how magnetic fields should be shaped (in space and time) to direct magnetic constructs to ear and eye targets.

  18. Prevalence of ear disease in dogs undergoing multidetector thin-slice computed tomography of the head.

    PubMed

    Foster, Allison; Morandi, Federica; May, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Previous reports describing the prevalence of ear diseases in dogs have primarily been based on dogs presenting with clinical signs of disease. The prevalence of subclinical ear disease remains unknown. The purpose of this cross-sectional retrospective study was to describe the prevalence of lesions consistent with middle and external ear disease in dogs presented for multidetector computed tomography (CT) of the head and/or cranial cervical spine at our hospital during the period of July 2011 and August 2013. For each included dog, data recorded were signalment, CT findings, diagnosis, and treatment. A total of 199 dogs met inclusion criteria. Nineteen dogs (9.5%) were referred for evaluation of suspected ear disease and 27 dogs (13.5%) had histories or physical examination findings consistent with otitis externa. A total of 163 dogs (81.9%) had CT lesions consistent with external ear disease (i.e. ear canal mineralization, external canal thickening, and/or narrowing of the external canal). Thirty-nine dogs (19.5%) had CT lesions consistent with middle ear disease (i.e. soft tissue attenuating/fluid material in the tympanic bullae, bulla wall thickening or lysis, and/or periosteal proliferation of the temporal bone). Findings from this study indicated that the prevalence of external and middle ear disease in dogs could be higher than that previously reported. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  19. Ear abnormalities in patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (Goldenhar syndrome).

    PubMed

    Rosa, Rafael Fabiano Machado; Silva, Alessandra Pawelec da; Goetze, Thayse Bienert; Bier, Bianca de Almeida; Almeida, Sheila Tamanini de; Paskulin, Giorgio Adriano; Zen, Paulo Ricardo Gazzola

    2011-01-01

    Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) is a rare condition characterized by the involvement of the first branchial arches. To investigate the ear abnormalities of a sample of patients with OAVS. The sample consisted of 12 patients with OAVS seen at the Clinical Genetics Unit, UFCSPA/CHSCPA. The study included only patients who underwent mastoid computed tomography and with normal karyotype. We performed a review of its clinical features, giving emphasis to the ear findings. Nine patients were male, the ages ranged from 1 day to 17 years. Ear abnormalities were observed in all patients and involved the external (n = 12), middle (n = 10) and inner ear (n = 3). Microtia was the most frequent finding (n = 12). The most common abnormalities of the middle ear were: opacification (n = 2), displacement (n = 2) and malformation of the ossicular chain. Agenesis of the internal auditory canal (n = 2) was the most frequent alteration of the inner ear. Ear abnormalities are variable in patients with OAVS and often there is no correlation between findings in the external, middle and inner ear. The evaluation of these structures is important in the management of individuals with OAVS.

  20. Dichotic Hearing in Elderly Hearing Aid Users Who Choose to Use a Single-Ear Device

    PubMed Central

    Ribas, Angela; Mafra, Nicoli; Marques, Jair; Mottecy, Carla; Silvestre, Renata; Kozlowski, Lorena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Elderly individuals with bilateral hearing loss often do not use hearing aids in both ears. Because of this, dichotic tests to assess hearing in this group may help identify peculiar degenerative processes of aging and hearing aid selection. Objective To evaluate dichotic hearing for a group of elderly hearing aid users who did not adapt to using binaural devices and to verify the correlation between ear dominance and the side chosen to use the device. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study involving 30 subjects from 60 to 81 years old, of both genders, with an indication for bilateral hearing aids for over 6 months, but using only a single device. Medical history, pure tone audiometry, and dichotic listening tests were all completed. Results All subjects (100%) of the sample failed the dichotic digit test; 94% of the sample preferred to use the device in one ear because bilateral use bothered them and affected speech understanding. In 6%, the concern was aesthetics. In the dichotic digit test, there was significant predominance of the right ear over the left, and there was a significant correlation between the dominant side with the ear chosen by the participant for use of the hearing aid. Conclusion In elderly subjects with bilateral hearing loss who have chosen to use only one hearing aid, there is dominance of the right ear over the left in dichotic listening tasks. There is a correlation between the dominant ear and the ear chosen for hearing aid fitting. PMID:25992120

  1. Patient-physician Communication Barrier: A Pilot Study Evaluating Patient Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Khan, TM; Hassali, MA; Al-Haddad, MSM

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to identify the patient-physician communication barriers in the primary healthcare setting in Pulau Penang, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was designed to attain the objectives of the study. A self-developed 17-item study tool was used to explore respondent's perception about the barriers they have faced while communicating with physician. The reliability scale was applied and internal consistency of the study tool was estimated on the basis of Cronbach's alpha (α = 0.58). The data analysis was conducted using statistical package for social sciences students SPSS 13®. Chi Square test was used to test the difference between proportions. A total of n = 69 patients responded to this survey. A higher participation was seen by the male respondents, 39 (56.5%). About 52 (76.5%) of the respondents were satisfied with the information provided by the physician. In an effort to identify the patient-physician barriers, a poor understanding among the patients and physician was revealed. 16 (23.5%) respondents disclosed lack of satisfaction from the information provided to them. Overall, it is seen that lack of physician-patient understanding was the main reason that result hindrance in the affective communication. Moreover, there is a possibility that a low level of health literacy among the patients and inability of the physician to affectively listen to patients may be the other factors that result in a deficient communication. PMID:21897668

  2. Market and behavioral barriers to energy efficiency: A preliminary evaluation of the case for tariff financing in California

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, K. Sydny

    Consumers regularly forgo purchases of high efficiency appliances that appear to be cost effective at a reasonable rate of return. While some argue that this is a true revelation of preferences for appliance features, this 'efficiency gap' can be largely explained by a combination of market and behavioral failures that reduce consumers ability to evaluate the relative value of appliances and skew preferences toward initial cost savings, undervaluing future reductions in operating costs. These failures and barriers include externalities of energy use, imperfect competition between manufacturers, asymmetric information, bounded rationality, split incentives, and transaction costs (Golove 1996). Recognizing the socialmore » benefit of energy conservation, several major methods are used by policymakers to ensure that efficient appliances are purchased: minimum efficiency standards, Energy Star labeling, and rebates and tax credits. There is no single market for energy services; there are hundreds of uses, thousands of intermediaries, and millions of users, and likewise, no single appropriate government intervention (Golove 1996). Complementary approaches must be implemented, considering policy and institutional limitations. In this paper, I first lay out the rationale for government intervention by addressing the market and behavioral failures and barriers that arise in the context of residential energy efficiency. I then consider the ways in which some of these failures and barriers are addressed through major federal programs and state and utility level programs that leverage them, as well as identifying barriers that are not addressed by currently implemented programs. Heterogeneity of consumers, lack of financing options, and split incentives of landlords and tenants contribute significantly to the under-adoption of efficient appliances. To quantify the size of the market most affected by these barriers, I estimate the number of appliances, and in particular the

  3. Molecular Mechanisms of Inner Ear Development

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Doris K.; Kelley, Matthew W.

    2012-01-01

    The inner ear is a structurally complex vertebrate organ built to encode sound, motion, and orientation in space. Given its complexity, it is not surprising that inner ear dysfunction is a relatively common consequence of human genetic mutation. Studies in model organisms suggest that many genes currently known to be associated with human hearing impairment are active during embryogenesis. Hence, the study of inner ear development provides a rich context for understanding the functions of genes implicated in hearing loss. This chapter focuses on molecular mechanisms of inner ear development derived from studies of model organisms. PMID:22855724

  4. Molecular mechanisms of inner ear development.

    PubMed

    Wu, Doris K; Kelley, Matthew W

    2012-08-01

    The inner ear is a structurally complex vertebrate organ built to encode sound, motion, and orientation in space. Given its complexity, it is not surprising that inner ear dysfunction is a relatively common consequence of human genetic mutation. Studies in model organisms suggest that many genes currently known to be associated with human hearing impairment are active during embryogenesis. Hence, the study of inner ear development provides a rich context for understanding the functions of genes implicated in hearing loss. This chapter focuses on molecular mechanisms of inner ear development derived from studies of model organisms.

  5. Listening to Nature's orchestra with peculiar ears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, David D.

    2003-04-01

    Insects use hearing for the crucial tasks of communicating with conspecifics and avoiding predators. Although all are based on the same acoustic principles, the diversity of insect ears is staggering and instructive. For instance, a South African grasshopper demonstrates that hearing conspecific calls is possible over distances 1 km with ears that do not have tympana. Actually, these creatures have six pairs of ears that play different roles in behavior. In numerical contrast, praying mantises have just a single ear in the ventral midline. The ear is very effective at detecting ultrasonic bat cries. However, the bioacoustics of sound transduction by two tympana facing each other in a deep, narrow slit is a puzzle. Tachinid flies demonstrate that directional hearing at 5 kHz is possible with a pair of ears fused together to give a total size of 1 mm. The ears are under the fly's chin. Hawk moths have their ears built into their mouthparts and the tympanum is more like a hollow ball than the usual membrane. As an apt last example, cicada ears are actually part of the orchestra: their tympana function both in sound reception and sound production.

  6. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David

    2015-01-01

    The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition. PMID:26061553

  7. Could ionizing radiation forestall cauliflower ear?

    PubMed

    Hwang, K; Kim, C W; Lee, S I; Park, I S; Kim, W C; Loh, J J

    2001-02-01

    Repeated trauma to the ear very often results in "cauliflower ear." Many methods have been suggested to prevent an injured ear from demonstrating a cauliflowerlike deformity. The principles of treatment are evacuation of the hematoma, control of the reaccumulation of fluid, and maintenance of the cartilage contour. The authors studied the effect of ionizing radiation on deformed rabbit ears induced by repeated trauma. Twenty ears (10 rabbits) were used in the experiment. The animals were divided into four groups (control, preradiation, low dose, and high dose). Hematoma was produced by pounding the lateral side of the auricle 10 times with a 50-g weight at a height of 15 cm. The thickness of the injured and uninjured sites was measured, and histological analysis was performed for each group. The thickness of the ears of the irradiated groups was significantly less than the control group. The authors think that radiation treatment of repeatedly injured ears could prevent ear deformity, and could possibly be an adjunctive form of management of cauliflower ear in addition to hematoma evacuation and compression therapy.

  8. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David

    2015-01-01

    The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition.

  9. Evaluation of a combination of sodium hypochlorite and polyhexamethylene biguanide as an egg wash for red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) to suppress or eliminate Salmonella organisms on egg surfaces and in hatchlings.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Mark A; Adamson, Trinka W; Singleton, Charles B; Roundtree, Marlana K; Bauer, Rudy W; Acierno, Mark J

    2007-02-01

    To evaluate a combination of 2 nonantibiotic microbicide compounds, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB), as a treatment to suppress or eliminate Salmonella spp from red-eared slider (RES) turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) eggs and hatchlings. 2,738 eggs from 8 turtle farms in Louisiana. Eggs were randomly sorted into 3 or, when sufficient eggs were available, 4 treatment groups as follows: control, pressure-differential egg treatment with NaOCl and gentamicin, NaOCl and PHMB bath treatment, and pressure-differential egg treatment with NaOCl and PHMB. Bacterial cultures were performed from specimens of eggs and hatchlings and evaluated for Salmonella spp. RES turtle eggs treated with NaOCl and PHMB as a bath (odds ratio [OR], 0.2 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.1 to 0.3]) or as a pressure-differential dip (OR, 0.01 [95% CI, 0.001 to 0.07]) or with gentamicin as a pressure-differential dip (OR, 0.1 [95% CI, 0.06 to 0.2]) were significantly less likely to have Salmonella-positive culture results than control-group eggs. Concern over reptile-associated salmonellosis in children in the United States is so great that federal regulations prohibit the sale of turtles that are < 10.2 cm in length. Currently, turtle farms treat eggs with gentamicin solution. Although this has reduced Salmonella shedding, it has also resulted in antimicrobial resistance. Results of our study indicate that a combination of NaOCl and PHMB may be used to suppress or eliminate Salmonella spp on RES turtle eggs and in hatchlings.

  10. A Longitudinal Study in Children with Sequential Bilateral Cochlear Implants: Time Course for the Second Implanted Ear and Bilateral Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeder, Ruth M.; Firszt, Jill B.; Cadieux, Jamie H.; Strube, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Whether, and if so when, a second-ear cochlear implant should be provided to older, unilaterally implanted children is an ongoing clinical question. This study evaluated rate of speech recognition progress for the second implanted ear and with bilateral cochlear implants in older sequentially implanted children and evaluated localization…

  11. Barriers to the success of an electronic pharmacovigilance reporting system in Kenya: an evaluation three years post implementation.

    PubMed

    Agoro, Oscar O; Kibira, Sarah W; Freeman, Jenny V; Fraser, Hamish S F

    2018-06-01

    Electronic pharmacovigilance reporting systems are being implemented in many developing countries in an effort to improve reporting rates. This study sought to establish the factors that acted as barriers to the success of an electronic pharmacovigilance reporting system in Kenya 3 years after its implementation. Factors that could act as barriers to using electronic reporting systems were identified in a review of literature and then used to develop a survey questionnaire that was administered to pharmacists working in government hospitals in 6 counties in Kenya. The survey was completed by 103 out of the 115 targeted pharmacists (89.5%) and included free-text comments. The key factors identified as barriers were: unavailable, unreliable, or expensive Internet access; challenges associated with a hybrid system of paper and electronic reporting tools; and system usability issues. Coordination challenges at the national pharmacovigilance center and changes in the structure of health management in the country also had an impact on the success of the electronic reporting system. Different personal, organizational, infrastructural, and reporting system factors affect the success of electronic reporting systems in different ways, depending on the context. Context-specific formative evaluations are useful in establishing the performance of electronic reporting systems to identify problems and ensure that they achieve the desired objectives. While several factors hindered the optimal use of the electronic pharmacovigilance reporting system in Kenya, all were considered modifiable. Effort should be directed toward tackling the identified issues in order to facilitate use and improve pharmacovigilance reporting rates.

  12. Expert-led didactic versus self-directed audiovisual training of confocal laser endomicroscopy in evaluation of mucosal barrier defects

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Roy; Ip, Matthew; Chang, Jeff; Haifer, Craig; Leong, Rupert W.

    2018-01-01

    Background and study aims  Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) allows mucosal barrier defects along the intestinal epithelium to be visualized in vivo during endoscopy. Training in CLE interpretation can be achieved didactically or through self-directed learning. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of expert-led didactic with self-directed audiovisual teaching for training inexperienced analysts on how to recognize mucosal barrier defects on endoscope-based CLE (eCLE). Materials and methods  This randomized controlled study involved trainee analysts who were taught how to recognize mucosal barrier defects on eCLE either didactically or through an audiovisual clip. After being trained, they evaluated 6 sets of 30 images. Image evaluation required the trainees to determine whether specific features of barrier dysfunction were present or not. Trainees in the didactic group engaged in peer discussion and received feedback after each set while this did not happen in the self-directed group. Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of both groups were compared. Results  Trainees in the didactic group achieved a higher overall accuracy (87.5 % vs 85.0 %, P  = 0.002) and sensitivity (84.5 % vs 80.4 %, P  = 0.002) compared to trainees in the self-directed group. Interobserver agreement was higher in the didactic group (k = 0.686, 95 % CI 0.680 – 0.691, P  < 0.001) than in the self-directed group (k = 0.566, 95 % CI 0.559 – 0.573, P  < 0.001). Confidence (OR 6.48, 95 % CI 5.35 – 7.84, P  < 0.001) and good image quality (OR 2.58, 95 % CI 2.17 – 2.82, P  < 0.001) were positive predictors of accuracy. Conclusion  Expert-led didactic training is more effective than self-directed audiovisual training for teaching inexperienced analysts how to recognize mucosal barrier defects on eCLE. PMID:29344572

  13. Expert-led didactic versus self-directed audiovisual training of confocal laser endomicroscopy in evaluation of mucosal barrier defects.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Roy; Ip, Matthew; Chang, Jeff; Haifer, Craig; Leong, Rupert W

    2018-01-01

     Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) allows mucosal barrier defects along the intestinal epithelium to be visualized in vivo during endoscopy. Training in CLE interpretation can be achieved didactically or through self-directed learning. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of expert-led didactic with self-directed audiovisual teaching for training inexperienced analysts on how to recognize mucosal barrier defects on endoscope-based CLE (eCLE).  This randomized controlled study involved trainee analysts who were taught how to recognize mucosal barrier defects on eCLE either didactically or through an audiovisual clip. After being trained, they evaluated 6 sets of 30 images. Image evaluation required the trainees to determine whether specific features of barrier dysfunction were present or not. Trainees in the didactic group engaged in peer discussion and received feedback after each set while this did not happen in the self-directed group. Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of both groups were compared. Trainees in the didactic group achieved a higher overall accuracy (87.5 % vs 85.0 %, P  = 0.002) and sensitivity (84.5 % vs 80.4 %, P  = 0.002) compared to trainees in the self-directed group. Interobserver agreement was higher in the didactic group (k = 0.686, 95 % CI 0.680 - 0.691, P  < 0.001) than in the self-directed group (k = 0.566, 95 % CI 0.559 - 0.573, P  < 0.001). Confidence (OR 6.48, 95 % CI 5.35 - 7.84, P  < 0.001) and good image quality (OR 2.58, 95 % CI 2.17 - 2.82, P  < 0.001) were positive predictors of accuracy.  Expert-led didactic training is more effective than self-directed audiovisual training for teaching inexperienced analysts how to recognize mucosal barrier defects on eCLE.

  14. Evaluation of the likelihood of reflux developing in patients with recurrent upper respiratory infections, recurrent sinusitis or recurrent otitis seen in ear-nose-throat outpatient clinics.

    PubMed

    Önal, Zerrin; Çullu-Çokuğraş, Fügen; Işıldak, Hüseyin; Kaytaz, Asım; Kutlu, Tufan; Erkan, Tülay; Doğusoy, Gülen

    2015-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux is considered a risk factor for recurrent or persistent upper and lower respiratory tract conditions including asthma, chronic cough, sinusitis, laryngitis, serous otitis and paroxysmal laryngospasm. Fifty-one subjects with recurrent (more than three) episodes of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), serous otitis or sinusitis who had been admitted to an earnose- throat (ENT) outpatient clinic during the previous year were enrolled in the present study to evaluate the presence of laryngeal and/or esophageal reflux. The participants, who were randomly selected, were questioned about symptoms of reflux, including vomiting, abdominal pain, failure to thrive, halitosis, bitter taste in the mouth, chronic cough, heartburn, constipation and hoarseness. All subjects had an endoscopic examination, an otoscopic examination, a tympanogram and upper GI system endoscopy. Esophagitis was diagnosed endoscopically and histologically. The likelihood of occurrence of esophagitis was found to be higher only among subjects with postglottic edema/erythema as determined by pathological laryngeal examination. The reflux complaints reported did not predict the development of esophagitis, but the odds of esophagitis occurring were ninefold greater among subjects with recurrent otitis. Of the subjects, 45.1% were Helicobacter pylori-positive. However, no association was found between esophagitis and Helicobacter pylori positivity. The likelihood of the occurrence of esophagitis was found to be increased in the presence of recurrent otitis media and/or postglottic edema, irrespective of the presence of reflux symptoms. We concluded that, in contrast to the situation where adults are concerned, the boundaries for discriminating laryngopharyngeal reflux from gastroesophageal reflux are somewhat blurred in pediatric patients.

  15. Health worker perspectives on barriers to delivery of routine tuberculosis diagnostic evaluation services in Uganda: a qualitative study to guide clinic-based interventions.

    PubMed

    Cattamanchi, Adithya; Miller, Cecily R; Tapley, Asa; Haguma, Priscilla; Ochom, Emmanuel; Ackerman, Sara; Davis, J Lucian; Katamba, Achilles; Handley, Margaret A

    2015-01-22

    Studies of the quality of tuberculosis (TB) diagnostic evaluation of patients in high burden countries have generally shown poor adherence to international or national guidelines. Health worker perspectives on barriers to improving TB diagnostic evaluation are critical for developing clinic-level interventions to improve guideline implementation. We conducted structured, in-depth interviews with staff at six district-level health centers in Uganda to elicit their perceptions regarding barriers to TB evaluation. Interviews were transcribed, coded with a standardized framework, and analyzed to identify emergent themes. We used thematic analysis to develop a logic model depicting health system and contextual barriers to recommended TB evaluation practices. To identify possible clinic-level interventions to improve TB evaluation, we categorized findings into predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors as described by the PRECEDE model, focusing on potentially modifiable behaviors at the clinic-level. We interviewed 22 health center staff between February 2010 and November 2011. Participants identified key health system barriers hindering TB evaluation, including: stock-outs of drugs/supplies, inadequate space and infrastructure, lack of training, high workload, low staff motivation, and poor coordination of health center services. Contextual barrier challenges to TB evaluation were also reported, including the time and costs borne by patients to seek and complete TB evaluation, poor health literacy, and stigma against patients with TB. These contextual barriers interacted with health system barriers to contribute to sub-standard TB evaluation. Examples of intervention strategies that could address these barriers and are related to PRECEDE model components include: assigned mentors/peer coaching for new staff (targets predisposing factor of low motivation and need for support to conduct job duties); facilitated workshops to implement same day microscopy (targets

  16. Evaluation of GE-167 Silicone Rubber (RTV) For Possible Service As A Moisture-Barrier For Certain Strain Gage Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hare, David A.; Moore, Thomas C., Sr.

    2000-01-01

    The Langley Research Center uses strain gages in a wide variety of demanding test environments. Strain gage installations, depending on the testing scenario, may see high temperatures, cryogenic temperature, moisture accumulation, mechanical abuse, or any combination of these conditions. At Langley, there is often a need to provide protection for strain gages against moisture and mechanical abuse, especially when large-scale, harsh environment testing is to be encountered. This technical memorandum discusses the evaluation of a room temperature curing silicone rubber sealant manufactured by the General Electric Company for consideration as a moisture-barrier for certain strain gage installations.

  17. Evaluation of Thermal Barrier and PS-200 Self-Lubricating Coatings in an Air-Cooled Rotary Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moller, Paul S.

    1995-01-01

    This project provides an evaluation of the feasibility and desirability of applying a thermal barrier coating overlaid with a wear coating on the internal surfaces of the combustion area of rotary engines. Many experiments were conducted with different combinations of coatings applied to engine components of aluminum, iron and titanium, and the engines were run on a well-instrumented test stand. Significant improvements in specific fuel consumption were achieved and the wear coating, PS-200, which was invented at NASA's Lewis Research Center, held up well under severe test conditions.

  18. Bone Marrow Stem Cells and Ear Framework Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Hamid; Emami, Seyed-Abolhassan; Olad-Gubad, Mohammad-Kazem

    2016-11-01

    Repair of total human ear loss or congenital lack of ears is one of the challenging issues in plastic and reconstructive surgery. The aim of the present study was 3D reconstruction of the human ear with cadaveric ear cartilages seeded with human mesenchymal stem cells. We used cadaveric ear cartilages with preserved perichondrium. The samples were divided into 2 groups: group A (cartilage alone) and group B (cartilage seeded with a mixture of fibrin powder and mesenchymal stem cell [1,000,000 cells/cm] used and implanted in back of 10 athymic rats). After 12 weeks, the cartilages were removed and shape, size, weight, flexibility, and chondrocyte viability were evaluated. P value <0.05 was considered significant. In group A, size and weight of cartilages clearly reduced (P < 0.05) and then shape and flexibility (torsion of cartilages in clockwise and counterclockwise directions) were evaluated, which were found to be significantly reduced (P > 0.05). After staining with hematoxylin and eosin and performing microscopic examination, very few live chondrocytes were found in group A. In group B, size and weight of samples were not changed (P < 0.05); the shape and flexibility of samples were well maintained (P < 0.05) and on performing microscopic examination of cartilage samples, many live chondrocytes were found in cartilage (15-20 chondrocytes in each microscopic field). In samples with human stem cell, all variables (size, shape, weight, and flexibility) were significantly maintained and abundant live chondrocytes were found on performing microscopic examination. This method may be used for reconstruction of full defect of auricles in humans.

  19. Percutaneous Implants with Porous Titanium Dermal Barriers: An In Vivo Evaluation of Infection Risk

    PubMed Central

    Isackson, Dorthyann; McGill, Lawrence D.; Bachus, Kent N.

    2010-01-01

    Osseointegrated percutaneous implants are a promising prosthetic alternative for a subset of amputees. However, as with all percutaneous implants, they have an increased risk of infection since they breach the skin barrier. Theoretically, host tissues could attach to the metal implant creating a barrier to infection. When compared with smooth surfaces, it is hypothesized that porous surfaces improve the attachment of the host tissues to the implant, and decrease the infection risk. In this study, 4 titanium implants, manufactured with a percutaneous post and a subcutaneous disk, were placed subcutaneously on the dorsum of eight New Zealand White rabbits. Beginning at four weeks post-op, the implants were inoculated weekly with 108 CFU Staphylococcus aureus until signs of clinical infection presented. While we were unable to detect a difference in the incidence of infection of the porous metal implants, smooth surface (no porous coating) percutaneous and subcutaneous components had a 7-fold increased risk of infection compared to the implants with a porous coating on one or both components. The porous coated implants displayed excellent tissue ingrowth into the porous structures; whereas, the smooth implants were surrounded with a thick, organized fibrotic capsule that was separated from the implant surface. This study suggests that porous coated metal percutaneous implants are at a significantly lower risk of infection when compared to smooth metal implants. The smooth surface percutaneous implants were inadequate in allowing a long-term seal to develop with the soft tissue, thus increasing vulnerability to the migration of infecting microorganisms. PMID:21145778

  20. Evaluation of moisture barrier coatings on carbon-phenolic SRM nozzle materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnutt, Ronald C.

    1986-01-01

    The carbon-phenolic composite ablative material used on the Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) nozzle is known to absorb moisture from the atmosphere. This could cause problems such as pocketing during firing. Several moisture barrier coatings were tested on the SRM nozzle material. Data are presented for six of the 12 coatings to be tested. The data were obtained from immersion of coated samples in an environmental chamber at 100 F and 100% relative humidity and by using a modified TGA (thermal gravimetric analysis) technique. The TGA technique involved allowing wet nitrogen (25 C, 80% relative humidity) to flow across a small sample at about 65 cu cm per minute while continually monitoring the weight increase. These preliminary results show Kel-F-800, a material supplied by 3M Corporation to be the better moisture barrier. A second task was to collect data on the relative absorption of water and kerosene into the carbon-phenolic SRM nozzle material. These data indicate that water absorbs into the nozzle material to a much greater extent than kerosene. Thus kerosene is the more likely solvent in which to make specific gravity measurements on the SRM nozzle material.

  1. 2011 Georgiana Slough non-physical barrier performance evaluation project report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, Ryan R.; McQuirk, Jacob; Ameri, Khalid; Perry, Russell W.; Romine, Jason G.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Burau, Jon R.; Blake, Aaron R.; Fitzer, Chris; Smith, Natalie; Pagliughi, Steve; Johnston, Sam; Kumagai, Kevin; Cash, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Under the ESA, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) issued the 2009 Biological and Conference Opinion for the Long‐Term Operations of the Central Valley Project and State Water Project (BO) for Chinook salmon and other listed anadromous fish species (NMFS 2009). Reasonable and Prudent Alternative (RPA) Action IV.1.3 of the BO requires the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) to consider engineering solutions to reduce the diversion of juvenile salmonids from the Sacramento River into the interior and south Delta. DWR implemented the 2011 Georgiana Slough NonPhysical Barrier (GSNPB) Study to test the effectiveness of using a non-physical barrier, referred to as a behavioral Bio-Acoustic Fish Fence (BAFF), that combines three stimuli to deter juvenile Chinook salmon from entering Georgiana Slough: sound, high-intensity modulated light (previously known as stroboscopic light), and a bubble curtain. This report presents the results of the experimental tests conducted in 2011.

  2. Evaluation of a cyanoacrylate dressing to manage peristomal skin alterations under ostomy skin barrier wafers.

    PubMed

    Milne, Catherine T; Saucier, Darlene; Trevellini, Chenel; Smith, Juliet

    2011-01-01

    Peristomal skin alterations under ostomy barrier wafers are a commonly reported problem. While a number of interventions to manage this issue have been reported, the use of a topically applied cyanoacrylate has received little attention. This case series describes the use of a topical cyanoacrylate for the management of peristomal skin alterations in persons living with an ostomy. Using a convenience sample, the topical cyanoacrylate dressing was applied to 11 patients with peristomal skin disruption under ostomy wafers in acute care and outpatient settings. The causes of barrier function interruption were also addressed to enhance outcomes. Patients were assessed for wound discomfort using a Likert Scale, time to healing, and number of appliance changes. Patient satisfaction was also examined. Average reported discomfort levels were 9.5 out of 10 at the initial peristomal irritation assessment visit decreased to 3.5 at the first wafer change and were absent by the second wafer change. Wafers had increasing wear time between changes in both settings with acute care patients responding faster. Epidermal resurfacing occurred within 10.2 days in outpatients and within 7 days in acute care patients. Because of the skin sealant action of this dressing, immediate adherence of the wafer was reported at all pouch changes.

  3. Playing by Ear: Foundation or Frill?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Many people divide musicians into two types: those who can read music and those who play by ear. Formal music education tends to place great emphasis on producing musically literate performers but devotes much less attention to teaching students to make music without notation. Some would suggest that playing by ear is a specialized skill that is…

  4. Stem Cell Therapy for the Inner Ear

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    In vertebrates, perception of sound, motion, and balance is mediated through mechanosensory hair cells located within the inner ear. In mammals, hair cells are only generated during a short period of embryonic development. As a result, loss of hair cells as a consequence of injury, disease, or genetic mutation, leads to permanent sensory deficits. At present, cochlear implantation is the only option for profound hearing loss. However, outcomes are still variable and even the best implant cannot provide the acuity of a biological ear. The recent emergence of stem cell technology has the potential to open new approaches for hair cell regeneration. The goal of this review is to summarize the current state of inner ear stem cell research from a viewpoint of its clinical application for inner ear disorders to illustrate how complementary studies have the potential to promote and refine stem cell therapies for inner ear diseases. The review initially discusses our current understanding of the genetic pathways that regulate hair cell formation from inner ear progenitors during normal development. Subsequent sections discuss the possible use of endogenous inner ear stem cells to induce repair as well as the initial studies aimed at transplanting stem cells into the ear. PMID:22514095

  5. Is Attention Shared Between the Ears?1

    PubMed Central

    Shiffrin, Richard M.; Pisoni, David B.; Castaneda-Mendez, Kicab

    2012-01-01

    This study tests the locus of attention during selective listening for speech-like stimuli. Can processing be differentially allocated to the two ears? Two conditions were used. The simultaneous condition involved one of four randomly chosen stop-consonants being presented to one of the ears chosen at random. The sequential condition involved two intervals; in the first S listened to the right ear; in the second S listened to the left ear. One of the four consonants was presented to an attended ear during one of these intervals. Experiment I used no distracting stimuli. Experiment II utilized a distracting consonant not confusable with any of the four target consonants. This distractor was always presented to any ear not containing a target. In both experiments, simultaneous and sequential performance were essentially identical, despite the need for attention sharing between the two ears during the simultaneous condition. We conclude that selective attention does not occur during perceptual processing of speech sounds presented to the two ears. We suggest that attentive effects arise in short-term memory following processing. PMID:23226838

  6. Ultrasound characterization of middle ear effusion.

    PubMed

    Seth, Rahul; Discolo, Christopher M; Palczewska, Grazyna M; Lewandowski, Jan J; Krakovitz, Paul R

    2013-01-01

    To further enhance and assess the ability to characterize middle ear effusion (MEE) using non-invasive ultrasound technology. This is a prospective unblinded comparison study. Fifty-six children between the ages of 6 months and 17 years scheduled to undergo bilateral myringotomy with pressure equalization tube placement were enrolled. With the child anesthetized, the probe was placed into the external ear canal after sterile water was inserted. Ultrasound recordings of middle ear contents were analyzed by computer algorithm. Middle ear fluid was collected during myringotomy and analyzed for bacterial culture and viscosity. Ultrasound waveforms yielded a computer algorithm interpretation of middle ear contents in 66% of ears tested. When a result was obtained, the sensitivity and specificity for successfully characterizing middle ear fluid content as either void of fluid, thick fluid (mucoid), or thin fluid (serous or purulent) were at least 94%. Mucoid effusions had higher measured viscosity values (P=.002). Viscosity measures were compared to culture result, and those with low viscosity (thin consistency) had a higher likelihood of having a positive culture (P=.048). The device sensitivity and specificity for fluid detection were 94% or greater among interpretable waveforms (66% of those tested). Although this technology provides important information of the middle ear effusion presence and characteristic, further technological improvements are needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An...

  8. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An...

  9. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An...

  10. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An...

  11. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An...

  12. INNER EAR EMBRYOGENESIS: GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The anatomy and developmental molecular genetics of the inner ear from establishment of the otic placode to formation of the definitive cochlea and vestibular apparatus will be reviewed and the complex 3-D structural changes that shape the developing inner ear will be illustrated...

  13. Ultrasound Characterization of Middle Ear Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Rahul; Discolo, Christopher M; Palczewska, Grazyna M; Lewandowski, Jan J; Krakovitz, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To further enhance and assess the ability to characterize middle ear effusion (MEE) using non-invasive ultrasound technology. Materials and Methods This is a prospective unblinded comparison study. Fifty-six children between the ages of 6 months and 17 years scheduled to undergo bilateral myringotomy with pressure equalization tube placement were enrolled. With the child anesthetized, the probe was placed into the external ear canal after sterile water was inserted. Ultrasound recordings of middle ear contents were analyzed by computer algorithm. Middle ear fluid was collected during myringotomy and analyzed for bacterial culture and viscosity. Results Ultrasound waveforms yielded a computer algorithm interpretation of middle ear contents in 66% of ears tested. When a result was obtained, the sensitivity and specificity for successfully characterizing middle ear fluid content as either void of fluid, thick fluid (mucoid), or thin fluid (serous or purulent) was at least 94%. Mucoid effusions had higher measured viscosity values (P=0.002). Viscosity measures were compared to culture result, and those with low viscosity (thin consistency) had a higher likelihood of having a positive culture (P=0.048). Conclusion The device sensitivity and specificity for fluid detection was 94% or greater among interpretable waveforms (66% of those tested). Although this technology provides important information of the middle ear effusion presence and characteristic, further technological improvements are needed. PMID:23084430

  14. Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... You Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and ... loss. How does otitis media affect a child’s hearing? All children with middle ear infection or fluid ...

  15. The application of direct current electrical stimulation of the ear and cervical spine kinesitherapy in tinnitus treatment.

    PubMed

    Mielczarek, Marzena; Konopka, Wieslaw; Olszewski, Jurek

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of electrical stimulations of the hearing organ in tinnitus treatment adapting the frequency of stimulation according to tinnitus frequency, to assess the influence of cervical spine kinesitherapy on tinnitus, as well as to evaluate hearing after electrical stimulations alone and together with cervical spine kinesitherapy. The study comprised 80 tinnitus, sensorineural hearing loss patients (119 tinnitus ears) divided into two groups. In group I (n - 58 tinnitus ears) electrical stimulation of the hearing organ was performed, in group II (n - 61 tinnitus ears) electrical stimulation together with cervical spine kinesitherapy. Hydrotransmissive, selective electrical stimulations were conducted using direct, rectangular current. The passive electrode was placed on the forehead, the active--a silver probe--was immersed in the external ear canal in 0.9% saline solution. The treatment involved fifteen applications of electrical stimulations (each lasted for 4 min) administered three or four times a week (whole treatment lasted approximately 30 days). The evaluation of the results considered a case history (change from permanent to temporary tinnitus), questionnaires (the increase/decrease of the total points) and the audiometric evaluation of hearing level. Before the treatment, group I comprised 51 ears (87.93%) with permanent, and 7 ears (12.07%) with temporary tinnitus; group II - 55 ears (90.17%) with permanent and 6 ears (9.83%) with temporary tinnitus. After the treatment, in both groups the number of ears with permanent tinnitus decreased considerably obtaining the pauses or disappearing of tinnitus. Directly after the treatment, group I comprised 25 ears (43.11%) with permanent, and 10 ears (17.24%) with temporary tinnitus, in 23 ears (39.65%) tinnitus disappeared; group II - 33 ears (54.1%) with permanent and 11 ears (18.03%) with temporary tinnitus, in 17 ears (27.87%) tinnitus disappeared. Regarding

  16. What are the barriers and facilitators for third sector organisations (non-profits) to evaluate their services? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bach-Mortensen, Anders Malthe; Montgomery, Paul

    2018-01-22

    The third sector is becoming a more common provider of social and health services, but little is known about how third sector organisations (TSOs) evaluate their activities. Past research has reported that the third sector is under increasing pressure to evaluate its impact and performance by government and other commissioning bodies. However, in responding to this increased pressure to undertake evaluation, research suggests that many TSOs struggle to evaluate their activities following the principles of evidence-based practice (EBP). Yet, there has been no systematic effort to investigate why the third sector is struggling to provide good quality evidence of its effects. This systematic review is reported following the PRISMA guidelines. Ten interdisciplinary databases were searched using a search string developed following best practice and in consultation with an information systems expert. Included studies were primary research of any research design investigating barriers to and facilitators of the evaluation process of TSOs as identified by practitioners. All studies were quality appraised, and the results were synthesised as a thematic summary. Twenty-four studies were included, which mainly investigated TSOs working within health and social services. The thematic summary identified the main barriers for TSOs to undertake evaluation to be related to the (1) lack of financial resources, (2) lack of technical capability and evaluation literacy and (3) challenges around identifying relevant evaluation systems and outcome indicators. Key facilitating factors involved (1) getting the appropriate support, (2) having an organisational culture that supports evaluation and (3) the motivation to be accountable to stakeholders. These findings were robust to study quality. This review constitutes the first systematic effort to synthesise existing literature on factors supporting and preventing evaluation by TSOs. The prevalence of factors revolving around the lack of

  17. A Longitudinal Study in Children With Sequential Bilateral Cochlear Implants: Time Course for the Second Implanted Ear and Bilateral Performance.

    PubMed

    Reeder, Ruth M; Firszt, Jill B; Cadieux, Jamie H; Strube, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Whether, and if so when, a second-ear cochlear implant should be provided to older, unilaterally implanted children is an ongoing clinical question. This study evaluated rate of speech recognition progress for the second implanted ear and with bilateral cochlear implants in older sequentially implanted children and evaluated localization abilities. A prospective longitudinal study included 24 bilaterally implanted children (mean ear surgeries at 5.11 and 14.25 years). Test intervals were every 3-6 months through 24 months postbilateral. Test conditions were each ear and bilaterally for speech recognition and localization. Overall, the rate of progress for the second implanted ear was gradual. Improvements in quiet continued through the second year of bilateral use. Improvements in noise were more modest and leveled off during the second year. On all measures, results from the second ear were poorer than the first. Bilateral scores were better than either ear alone for all measures except sentences in quiet and localization. Older sequentially implanted children with several years between surgeries may obtain speech understanding in the second implanted ear; however, performance may be limited and rate of progress gradual. Continued contralateral ear hearing aid use and reduced time between surgeries may enhance outcomes.

  18. Acceptance and barriers pertaining to a general practice decision support system for multiple clinical conditions: A mixed methods evaluation.

    PubMed

    Arts, Derk L; Medlock, Stephanie K; van Weert, Henk C P M; Wyatt, Jeremy C; Abu-Hanna, Ameen

    2018-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the use of clinical decision support systems as a means to improve care, but have thus far failed to show significant effects on patient-related outcomes. We developed a clinical decision support system that attempted to address issues that were identified in these studies. The system was implemented in Dutch general practice and was designed to be both unobtrusive and to respond in real time. Despite our efforts, usage of the system was low. In the current study we perform a mixed methods evaluation to identify remediable barriers which led to disappointing usage rates for our system. A mixed methods evaluation employing an online questionnaire and focus group. The focus group was organized to clarify free text comments and receive more detailed feedback from general practitioners. Topics consisted of items based on results from the survey and additional open questions. The response rate for the questionnaire was 94%. Results from the questionnaire and focus group can be summarized as follows: The system was perceived as interruptive, despite its design. Participants felt that there were too many recommendations and that the relevance of the recommendations varied. Demographic based recommendations (e.g. age) were often irrelevant, while specific risk-based recommendations (e.g. diagnosis) were more relevant. The other main barrier to use was lack of time during the patient visit. These results are likely to be useful to other researchers who are attempting to address the problems of interruption and alert fatigue in decision support.

  19. Comparison of Ear-Canal Reflectance and Umbo Velocity in Patients with Conductive Hearing Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merchant, Gabrielle R.; Nakajima, Hideko H.; Pisano, Dominic V.; Röösli, Christof; Hamade, Mohamad A.; Mafoud, Lorice; Halpin, Christopher F.; Merchant, Saumil N.; Rosowski, John J.

    2011-11-01

    Patients who present at hearing clinics with a conductive hearing loss (CHL) in the presence of an intact, healthy tympanic membrane create a unique challenge for otologists. While patient counseling, treatment options, and outcome vary with differing middle-ear pathologies, a non-invasive diagnostic that can differentiate between these pathologies does not currently exist. We evaluated the clinical utility and diagnostic accuracy of two non-invasive measures of middle-ear mechanics: ear-canal reflectance (ECR) and umbo velocity (VU).

  20. An evaluation of bacterial contamination of barriers used in periapical tissue regeneration: Part 1--Bacterial adherence.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Priya; Mickel, André K; Chogle, Sami; Sharma, Prem Nath; Han, Yiping W; Jones, Jefferson J

    2008-02-01

    To compare the adherence of Prevotella melaninogenica and Enterococcus faecalis to 3 guided tissue regeneration membranes: Atrisorb, Lambone, and OsseoQuest. It was hypothesized that OsseoQuest would show increased bacterial adherence compared to Lambone and Atrisorb. The barriers were suspended in trypticase soy broth containing an inoculum of either P melaninogenica or E faecalis. The samples were incubated under appropriate conditions for 6, 24, and 48 hours. Following incubation, each membrane was mixed in fresh media in a vortex machine to dislodge adherent bacteria. The vortexed media was quantitatively assessed using serial dilutions for viable cell count. E faecalis exhibited higher adherence compared to P melaninogenica with time. Of the membranes tested, Lambone displayed the least bacterial adherence. An analysis of the results indicated that bacterial adherence was time-dependent for all membranes. Membrane structure, chemical configuration, hydrophobicity, and bacterial cell surface structure were suggested as factors contributing to variance in bacterial adherence.

  1. Evaluation of eddy current and magnetic techniques for inspecting rebars in bridge barrier rails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, C. C. H.; Nakagawa, N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a feasibility study of using eddy current (EC) and magnetic flux leakage (MFL) methods to detect corrosion damage in rebars that anchor concrete barrier rails to the road deck of bridge structures. EC and MFL measurements were carried out on standalone rebars with and without artificial defects of 25% and 50% material loss, using a commercial EC-based rebar locator and a MFL system that was developed using giant magnetoresistance sensors to detect leakage fluxes from the defects. Both techniques can readily detect the defects at a distance of 2.5″ (63.5 mm). The amplitudes of the EC and MFL signals vary monotonically with the amount of material loss, indicating the potential of using the techniques to quantify material loss of standalone rebars.

  2. Evaluating Restorative Justice Circles of Support and Accountability: Can Social Support Overcome Structural Barriers?

    PubMed

    Bohmert, Miriam Northcutt; Duwe, Grant; Hipple, Natalie Kroovand

    2018-02-01

    In a climate in which stigmatic shaming is increasing for sex offenders as they leave prison, restorative justice practices have emerged as a promising approach to sex offender reentry success and have been shown to reduce recidivism. Criminologists and restorative justice advocates believe that providing ex-offenders with social support that they may not otherwise have is crucial to reducing recidivism. This case study describes the expressive and instrumental social support required and received, and its relationship to key outcomes, by sex offenders who participated in Circles of Support and Accountability (COSAs), a restorative justice, reentry program in Minnesota. In-depth interviews with re-entering sex offenders and program volunteers revealed that 75% of offenders reported weak to moderate levels of social support leaving prison, 70% reported receiving instrumental support in COSAs, and 100% reported receiving expressive support. Findings inform work on social support, structural barriers, and restorative justice programming during sex offender reentry.

  3. Microbiomes of the normal middle ear and ears with chronic otitis media.

    PubMed

    Minami, Shujiro B; Mutai, Hideki; Suzuki, Tomoko; Horii, Arata; Oishi, Naoki; Wasano, Koichiro; Katsura, Motoyasu; Tanaka, Fujinobu; Takiguchi, Tetsuya; Fujii, Masato; Kaga, Kimitaka

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to profile and compare the middle ear microbiomes of human subjects with and without chronic otitis media. Prospective multicenter cohort study. All consecutive patients undergoing tympanoplasty surgery for chronic otitis media or ear surgery for conditions other than otitis media were recruited. Sterile swab samples were collected from the middle ear mucosa during surgery. The variable region 4 of the 16S rRNA gene in each sample were amplified using region-specific primers adapted for the Illumina MiSeq sequencer (Illumina, CA, USA)). The sequences were subjected to local blast and classified using Metagenome@KIN (World Fusion, Tokyo, Japan). In total, 155 participants were recruited from seven medical centers. Of these, 88 and 67 had chronic otitis media and normal middle ears, respectively. The most abundant bacterial phyla on the mucosal surfaces of the normal middle ears were Proteobacteria, followed by Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. The children and adults with normal middle ears differed significantly in terms of middle ear microbiomes. Subjects with chronic otitis media without active inflammation (dry ear) had similar middle ear microbiomes as the normal middle ears group. Subjects with chronic otitis media with active inflammation (wet ear) had a lower prevalence of Proteobacteria and a higher prevalence of Firmicutes than the normal middle ears. The human middle ear is inhabited by more diverse microbial communities than was previously thought. Alteration of the middle ear microbiome may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic otitis media with active inflammation. 2b. Laryngoscope, 127:E371-E377, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. Thumb carpometacarpal joint resurfacing with autologous ear cartilage.

    PubMed

    Nickell, William B

    2014-05-01

    A study was designed to ascertain the long-term effectiveness of using autologous full-thickness ear cartilage to resurface the arthritic face of the trapezium, leaving the body of the trapezium intact. The value of injection of the involved carpometacarpal (CMC) joint with local anesthetic in predicting improvement from the surgery was also studied. An operation was used to enter the CMC joint of the thumb between the thenar muscles and the abductor tendon. The articular surface of the trapezium was resected and resurfaced with full-thickness ear cartilage from the patient's ear. Patients were selected based on constant, unremitting pain. All patients also had x-ray evidence of severe arthritis at the CMC joint of the thumb. Both thumbs were evaluated for pain, range of motion, key and palmar pinch, and grip strength before the surgery and followed up for a minimum of 30 months to be included in the study. Fifty-nine patients had ear cartilage arthroplasty from 1997 to 2007 by the same surgeon with a total of 67 operations (8 patients, all women, had both thumbs operated). Forty-nine of these patients, 4 men and 45 women (53 hands), were available for follow-up and constitute the study group. Eight procedures were done on the left hand, and 45, on the right. There were no ear complications and no cartilage extrusions. All patients had improved range of motion and greatly decreased pain. Strength was equaled or exceeded the unoperated thumb. Preoperative joint injection was a good predictor of postoperative pain relief. All patients were pleased with the result and said that they would have the surgery again. Thumb CMC joint arthroplasty with autologous ear cartilage and preservation of the body of the trapezium is an effective alternative to existing procedures.There is no morbidity to the ear, and predictable long-term improvement in thumb pain and strength can be obtained. Injection of the CMC joint before surgery with local anesthetic is a reliable predictor of

  5. Effect of laryngoscopy on middle ear pressure during anaesthesia induction.

    PubMed

    Degerli, Semih; Acar, Baran; Sahap, Mehmet; Horasanlı, Eyup

    2013-01-01

    The procedure of laryngoscopic orotracheal intubation (LOTI) has many impacts on several parts of the body. But its effect on middle ear pressure (MEP) is not known well. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the MEP changes subsequent to insertion of endotracheal tube with laryngoscope. 44 patients were included in this study with a normal physical examination of ear, nose and throat. A standard general anaesthesia induction without any inhaler agent was performed to the all patients. The MEP measurements for both ears were applied under 1 minute; before induction (BI) and after intubation (AI) with a middle ear analyzer. Also hemodynamic parameters were recorded before induction and after intubation. Of the 44 patients were 25 women and 19 men with a 43.5±15.1 mean age. A statistically significant rise in MEP was seen in all patients subsequent to insertion of endotracheal tube (P<0.05). Mean right MEPs were BI: -9.5 and AI: 18.5 daPa. Also mean left MEPs were BI: -21.7 and AI: 29.1 daPa. The amount of increases in left and right MEPs were 50 daPa and 27 daPa, respectively. 20% increase in systolic blood pressure and 19% increase in diastolic blood pressure were determined after intubation. The mean heart rate was 76/min before intubation, whereas it was 102/min after intubation with a 34% increase. In this study bilateral significant increases in MEP were determined subsequent to LOTI. Possible factors affecting MEP may be auditory tube, size and type of the blades, drugs and face masking time. But on the other hand in our opinion cardiovascular and haemodynamic response to LOTI has the most impact over the middle ear mucosa with mucosal venous congestion.

  6. Ear surgery techniques results on hearing threshold improvement

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtarinejad, Farhad; Pour, Saeed Soheili; Nilforoush, Mohammad Hussein; Sepehrnejad, Mahsa; Mirelahi, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bone conduction (BC) threshold depression is not always by means of sensory neural hearing loss and sometimes it is an artifact caused by middle ear pathologies and ossicular chain problems. In this research, the influences of ear surgeries on bone conduction were evaluated. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted as a clinical trial study. The ear surgery performed on 83 patients classified in four categories: Stapedectomy, tympanomastoid surgery and ossicular reconstruction partially or totally; Partial Ossicular Replacement Prosthesis (PORP) and Total Ossicular Replacement Prosthesis (TORP). Bone conduction thresholds assessed in frequencies of 250, 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz pre and post the surgery. Results: In stapedectomy group, the average of BC threshold in all frequencies improved approximately 6 dB in frequency of 2000 Hz. In tympanomastoid group, BC threshold in the frequency of 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz changed 4 dB (P-value < 0.05). Moreover, In the PORP group, 5 dB enhancement was seen in 1000 and 2000 Hz. In TORP group, the results confirmed that BC threshold improved in all frequencies especially at 4000 Hz about 6.5 dB. Conclusion: In according to results of this study, BC threshold shift was seen after several ear surgeries such as stapedectomy, tympanoplasty, PORP and TORP. The average of BC improvement was approximately 5 dB. It must be considered that BC depression might happen because of ossicular chain problems. Therefore; by resolving middle ear pathologies, the better BC threshold was obtained, the less hearing problems would be faced. PMID:24381615

  7. Middle ear tuberculosis: diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Jesić, Snezana; Stosić, Svetlana; Milenković, Branislava; Nesić, Vladimir; Dudvarski, Zoran; Jotić, Ana; Slijepcević, Nikola

    2009-01-01

    Tuberculous otitis is a diagnostic problem due to the difficulty to obtain microbiological, histomorphological and cytological confirmation of the disease. Our objective was to compare clinical and radiological characteristic and development of otogenic complications in patients with tuberculous otitis and otitis with cholesteatoma as the most destructive form of chronic nonspecific otitis in the purpose of establishing the diagnostic criteria for tuberculous otitis. Medical records of 12 patients with tuberculous otitis and 163 patients with cholesteatoma treated at the Institute of Otorhinolaryngology and Maxillofacial Surgery in Belgrade during the eight-year period were analyzed. All of the patients underwent otomicroscopic, audiological and radiological examination of the thorax and temporal bone, microbiological examination of the secretion and histomorphological examination of the tissue taken during middle ear surgery. Statistical analysis was done using chi2 test with Yates correction. Otogenic complication as facial palsy and sensorineural hearing loss were more frequent in tuberculous otitis patients, than in cholesteatoma. Also, fistulas of the labyrinth and facial canal bone destruction were also more frequent in tuberculous otitis than in cholesteatoma. A larger extent of temporal bone destruction was noticed on CT scans of the temporal bone in half of the patents with tuberculous otitis. Coexistence with miliary pulmonary tuberculosis was detected in one third of the patients. There were no microbiological or histomorphological confirmations of the disease, except in one case with positive ZiehI-Neelsen staining. Tuberculous otitis media should be considered in patients with serious otogenic complications and with shorter duration of ear discharge, and in association with diagnosed miliary pulmonary tuberculosis and extensive temporal bone destruction. Polymerase chain reaction still is not reliable for diagnosis.

  8. Numerical analysis of ossicular chain lesion of human ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yingxi; Li, Sheng; Sun, Xiuzhen

    2009-04-01

    Lesion of ossicular chain is a common ear disease impairing the sense of hearing. A comprehensive numerical model of human ear can provide better understanding of sound transmission. In this study, we propose a three-dimensional finite element model of human ear that incorporates the canal, tympanic membrane, ossicular bones, middle ear suspensory ligaments/muscles, middle ear cavity and inner ear fluid. Numerical analysis is conducted and employed to predict the effects of middle ear cavity, malleus handle defect, hypoplasia of the long process of incus, and stapedial crus defect on sound transmission. The present finite element model is shown to be reasonable in predicting the ossicular mechanics of human ear.

  9. Computed tomography demonstrates abnormalities of contralateral ear in subjects with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Sonya; Whitlow, Christopher T; Koonce, James; Zapadka, Michael E; Chen, Michael Y; Williams, Daniel W; Lewis, Meagan; Evans, Adele K

    2014-02-01

    Prior studies have associated gross inner ear abnormalities with pediatric sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) using computed tomography (CT). No studies to date have specifically investigated morphologic inner ear abnormalities involving the contralateral unaffected ear in patients with unilateral SNHL. The purpose of this study is to evaluate contralateral inner ear structures of subjects with unilateral SNHL but no grossly abnormal findings on CT. IRB-approved retrospective analysis of pediatric temporal bone CT scans. 97 temporal bone CT scans, previously interpreted as "normal" based upon previously accepted guidelines by board certified neuroradiologists, were assessed using 12 measurements of the semicircular canals, cochlea and vestibule. The control-group consisted of 72 "normal" temporal bone CTs with underlying SNHL in the subject excluded. The study-group consisted of 25 normal-hearing contralateral temporal bones in subjects with unilateral SNHL. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was then conducted to evaluate for differences between the study and control group. Cochlea basal turn lumen width was significantly greater in magnitude and central lucency of the lateral semicircular canal bony island was significantly lower in density for audiometrically normal ears of subjects with unilateral SNHL compared to controls. Abnormalities of the inner ear were present in the contralateral audiometrically normal ears of subjects with unilateral SNHL. These data suggest that patients with unilateral SNHL may have a more pervasive disease process that results in abnormalities of both ears. The findings of a cochlea basal turn lumen width disparity >5% from "normal" and/or a lateral semicircular canal bony island central lucency disparity of >5% from "normal" may indicate inherent risk to the contralateral unaffected ear in pediatric patients with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A 3-D analysis of the protympanum in human temporal bones with chronic ear disease.

    PubMed

    Pauna, Henrique F; Monsanto, Rafael C; Schachern, Patricia; Paparella, Michael M; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

    2017-03-01

    Eustachian tube dysfunction is believed to be an important factor to cholesteatoma development and recurrence of disease after surgical treatment. Although many studies have described prognostic factors, evaluation methods, or surgical techniques for Eustachian tube dysfunction, they relied on the soft tissues of its structure; little is known about its bony structure-the protympanum-which connects the Eustachian tube to the tympanic cavity, and can also be affected by several inflammatory conditions, both from the middle ear or from the nasopharynx. We studied temporal bones from patients with cholesteatoma, chronic otitis media (with and without retraction pockets), purulent otitis media, and non-diseased ears, looking for differences between the volume of the protympanum, the diameter of the Eustachian tube isthmus, and the distance between the anterior tympanic annulus and the promontory. Light microscopy and 3-D reconstruction software were used for the measurements. We observed a decrease of volume in the lumen of the four middle ear diseased ears compared to the control group. We observed a significant decrease in the volume of the protympanic space in the cholesteatoma group compared to the chronic otitis media group. We also observed a decrease in the bony space (protympanum space) in cholesteatoma, chronic otitis media with retraction pockets, and purulent otitis media compared to the control group. We found a correlation in middle ear diseases and a decrease in the middle ear space. Our findings may suggest that a smaller bony volume in the protympanic area may trigger middle ear dysventilation problems.

  11. Effects of topical oxiconazole and boric acid in alcohol solutions to rat inner ears.

    PubMed

    Özdemir, Süleyman; Tuncer, Ülkü; Tarkan, Özgür; Akar, Funda; Sürmelioğlu, Özgür

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the ototoxicity of topical oxiconazole and boric acid in alcohol solutions. Prospective controlled animal study. Research laboratory. Fifty adult Wistar albino rats were divided into 5 groups consisting of 10 animals each. The right tympanic membranes were perforated, and baseline and posttreatment distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) measurements were performed. The solutions were applied through the external ear canal to the middle ear twice a day for 14 days. The rats in group I and group II received 0.1 mL of oxiconazole-containing solution drops and 4% boric acid in alcohol solution drops, respectively. Group III received gentamicin solution (40 mg/mL) (ototoxic control), group IV received saline solution, and group V was followed without any medication. The baseline DPOAE results of the right ears of all animals tested were normal. Animals in groups I, II, IV, and V showed no statistically significant change in the DPOAE amplitudes. The rats in the gentamicin group showed a significant decrease. This study demonstrates that topically used oxiconazole and boric acid in alcohol solutions to the middle ear appear to be safe on the inner ear of rats. The safety of these drugs has not yet been confirmed in humans. Caution should be taken when prescribing these drugs, especially to patients who had tympanic membrane perforation. Ear drops should be chosen more carefully in an external ear infection for patients with tympanic membrane perforation to avoid ototoxicity.

  12. Sturge-Weber syndrome: ear, nose, and throat issues and neurologic status.

    PubMed

    Irving, Natasha D; Lim, Jae Hyung; Cohen, Bernard; Ferenc, Lisa M; Comi, Anne M

    2010-10-01

    The pathophysiology of Sturge-Weber syndrome is poorly understood, and ear, nose, and throat involvement is possible. These issues can result in frequent illnesses or airway obstruction, affecting patients' neurologic status. Patients with definite brain involvement who reported potential ear, nose, and throat issues on intake questionnaires underwent retrospective reviews of their medical records. We examined the relationships between these issues, secondary surgical interventions, and patients' neurologic status. The most common complaints involved the sinuses and frequent ear infections. Six patients underwent placement of ear tubes, leading to improvements in migraines and stroke-like episodes in one patient, and improved seizure control in four others. Obstructive sleep apnea was confirmed in three patients who underwent sleep studies. Tonsil or adenoid removal occurred in another three patients. Surgery resulted in marked improvements regarding excessive drooling, daytime sleepiness, and breathing problems. These findings suggest that ear, nose, and throat problems occur frequently in patients with Sturge-Weber Syndrome, and when repeated ear infections are associated with uncontrolled seizures, early placement of ear tubes may be beneficial. Furthermore, patients with facial tissue hypertrophy may be at risk for obstructive sleep apnea, and should be appropriately evaluated. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Acceleration induced water removal from ear canals.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hosung; Averett, Katelee; Jung, Sunghwan

    2017-11-01

    Children and adults commonly experience having water trapped in the ear canals after swimming. To remove the water, individuals will shake their head sideways. Since a child's ear canal has a smaller diameter, it requires more acceleration of the head to remove the trapped water. In this study, we theoretically and experimentally investigated the acceleration required to break the surface meniscus of the water in artificial ear canals and hydrophobic-coated glass tubes. In experiments, ear canal models were 3D-printed from a CT-scanned human head. Also, glass tubes were coated with silane to match the hydrophobicity in ear canals. Then, using a linear stage, we measured the acceleration values required to forcefully eject the water from the artificial ear canals and glass tubes. A theoretical model was developed to predict the critical acceleration at a given tube diameter and water volume by using a modified Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Furthermore, this research can shed light on the potential of long-term brain injury and damage by shaking the head to push the water out of the ear canal. This research was supported by National Science Foundation Grant CBET-1604424.

  14. Middle ear impedance measurements in large vestibular aqueduct syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bilgen, Cem; Kirkim, Günay; Kirazli, Tayfun

    2009-06-01

    To assess the effect of inner ear pressure on middle ear impedance in patients with large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS). Data from admittance tympanometry and multifrequency tympanometry on 8 LVAS patients and control subjects were studied. Static acoustic compliance (SAC) values for the ears with stable sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) were within the limits of the mean values of control groups except for two ears. The resonance frequency (RF) values of the ears with stable SNHL were lower than the mean values of control groups except for three ears. SAC values for the two ears with fluctuating SNHL were lower and the RF values were higher than the mean values of control groups. Decreased SAC values and increased RF values found in the ears with fluctuating SNHL might be an indirect indicator of increased inner ear pressure, while low RF values in the ears with stable SNHL might reflect the decreased inner ear impedance.

  15. Glyphosate contaminated soil remediation by atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma and its residual toxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tiecheng; Ren, Jingyu; Qu, Guangzhou; Liang, Dongli; Hu, Shibin

    2016-12-15

    Glyphosate was one of the most widely used herbicides in the world. Remediation of glyphosate-contaminated soil was conducted using atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma. The feasibility of glyphosate degradation in soil was explored, and the soil leachate toxicity after remediation was assessed via a seed germination test. The experimental results showed that approximately 93.9% of glyphosate was degraded within 45min of DBD plasma treatment with an energy yield of 0.47gkWh -1 , and the degradation process fitted the first-order kinetic model. Increasing the discharge voltage and decreasing the organic matter content of the soil were both found to facilitate glyphosate degradation. There existed appropriate soil moisture to realize high glyphosate degradation efficiency. Glyphosate mineralization was confirmed by changes of total organic carbon (TOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), PO 4 3- and NO 3 - . The degradation intermediates including glycine, aminomethylphosphonic acid, acetic acid, formic acid, PO 4 3- and NO 3 - , CO 2 and CO were observed. A possible pathway for glyphosate degradation in the soil using this system was proposed. Based on the soil leachate toxicity test using wheat seed germination, the soil did not exhibit any hazardous effects following high-efficiency glyphosate degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of the Condom Barriers Scale for Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men: Reliability and Validity of 3 Subscales.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Richard A; Sanders, Stephanie A; Graham, Cynthia A; Milhausen, Robin; Yarber, William L; Mena, Leandro

    2017-02-01

    Reliable and valid scale measures of barriers to condom use are not available for young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Condom Barriers Scales for application with YBMSM. A clinic-based sample of 600 YBMSM completed a computer-assisted self-interview. The primary measure was a 14-item abbreviated version of the Condom Barriers Scale. Reliability and criterion validity were assessed. All 3 subscales were reliable: partner-related barriers (Cronbach α=0.73), sensation-related barriers (α=0.70), and motivation-related barriers (α =0.81). A complete absence of barriers was common: 47.0% (partner-related), 30.7% (sensation-related), and 46.5% (motivation-related). Dichotomized subscales were significantly associated with reporting any condomless insertive anal sex (all Ps < 0.001) and any condomless receptive anal sex (all Ps < 0.001). The subscales were significantly associated with these measures of condomless sex preserved at a continuous level (all Ps <0.001, except for sensation barriers associated with condomless receptive anal sex = 0.03). Further, the subscales were significantly associated with reporting any condom use problems (all Ps <0.001) and a measure of condomless oral sex (all Ps <0.001, except for partner-related barriers=0.31). Finally, the sensation-related barriers subscale was significantly associated with testing positive for Chlamydia and/or gonorrhea (P=0.049). The 3 identified subscales yielded adequate reliability and strong evidence of validity, thereby suggesting the utility of these brief measures for use in observational and experimental research with YBMSM.

  17. Surgical management of 2 different presentations of ear canal atresia in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Béraud, Romain

    2012-01-01

    A 6-year-old French spaniel and a 14-month-old German shepherd dog were diagnosed with ear canal atresia. Based on presentation, computed tomography, and auditory function evaluation, the first dog underwent excision of the horizontal ear canal and bulla curettage, and the second underwent re-anastomosis of the vertical canal to the external meatus. Both dogs had successful outcomes. PMID:23024390

  18. EARS: Electronic Access to Reference Service.

    PubMed Central

    Weise, F O; Borgendale, M

    1986-01-01

    Electronic Access to Reference Service (EARS) is a front end to the Health Sciences Library's electronic mail system, with links to the online public catalog. EARS, which became operational in September 1984, is accessed by users at remote sites with either a terminal or microcomputer. It is menu-driven, allowing users to request: a computerized literature search, reference information, a photocopy of a journal article, or a book. This paper traces the history of EARS and discusses its use, its impact on library staff and services, and factors that influence the diffusion of new technology. PMID:3779167

  19. EARS: Electronic Access to Reference Service.

    PubMed

    Weise, F O; Borgendale, M

    1986-10-01

    Electronic Access to Reference Service (EARS) is a front end to the Health Sciences Library's electronic mail system, with links to the online public catalog. EARS, which became operational in September 1984, is accessed by users at remote sites with either a terminal or microcomputer. It is menu-driven, allowing users to request: a computerized literature search, reference information, a photocopy of a journal article, or a book. This paper traces the history of EARS and discusses its use, its impact on library staff and services, and factors that influence the diffusion of new technology.

  20. Oral pseudoephedrine decreases the rate of transmucosal nitrous oxide exchange for the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Miriam S; Alper, Cuneyt M; Martin, Brian S; Doyle, Brendan M Cullen; Doyle, William J

    2015-09-01

    Determine if oral treatment with a vasoconstrictor decreases the blood to middle ear exchange rate of the perfusion-limited gas, nitrous oxide (N2O). Randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Ten adult subjects with and 10 without past middle ear disease completed paired experimental sessions, identical except for oral treatment with either pseudoephedrine hydrochloride or lactose placebo. At each session, subjects were fitted with a nonrebreathing mask and breathed room air for 20 minutes (acclimation period), 50% N2O:50% O2 for 20 minutes (experimental period), and 100% O2 for 10 minutes (recovery period). Throughout, heart rate, blood pressure, and O2 saturation were monitored, and bilateral middle ear pressures were recorded by tympanometry every minute. The primary outcome was the slope of the middle ear pressure-time function for the experimental period, which estimates the volume N2O exchange rate. Using repeated measures analysis of variance, the effects of group (disease history), treatment (active vs. placebo), and period (1 vs. 2) on the recorded vital signs, and of group, treatment, and ear (left/right) on the middle ear pressure-time slope were evaluated for statistical significance. Statistically significant effects of period on O2 saturation (period 2 > period 1) and of treatment on heart rate (active > placebo) were documented. Only treatment was statistically significant for the middle ear pressure-time slope, with a shallower slope characterizing the active treatment session. The volume exchange rate across the middle ear mucosa of perfusion-limited gases can be modulated pharmacologically. Theoretically, similar drugs can be used to reduce the requisite eustachian tube opening efficiency for adequate middle ear pressure regulation. 1b. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. Oral Pseudoephedrine Decreases the Rate of Trans-mucosal Nitrous Oxide Exchange for the Middle Ear

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Miriam S.; Alper, Cuneyt M.; Martin, Brian S; Cullen Doyle, Brendan M.; Doyle, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Determine if oral pretreatment with a vasoconstrictor decreases the blood to middle-ear exchange-rate of the perfusion-limited gas, Nitrous Oxide (N2O). Study Design Randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Methods Ten adult subjects with and 10 without past middle-ear disease completed paired experimental sessions, identical but for oral pretreatment with either pseudoephedrine HCL or lactose placebo. At each session, subjects were fitted with a non-rebreathing mask and breathed room air for 20 minutes (acclimation period), 50% N2O:50% O2 for 20 minutes (experimental period) and 100% O2 for 10 minutes (recovery period). Throughout, heart-rate, blood-pressure and O2 saturation were monitored and bilateral middle-ear pressures were recorded by tympanometry every minute. The primary outcome was the slope of the middle-ear pressure-time function for the experimental period which estimates the volume N2O exchange-rate. Using repeated measures ANOVA, the effects of Group (disease history), Treatment (active vs. placebo) and Period (1 vs. 2) on the recorded vital signs, and of Group, Treatment and Ear (left/right) on the middle-ear pressure-time slope were evaluated for statistical significance. Results Statistically significant effects of Period on O2 saturation (Period 2>Period 1) and of Treatment on heart-rate (Active>Placebo) were documented. Only Treatment was statistically significant for the middle-ear pressure-time slope with a shallower slope characterizing the active treatment session. Conclusion The volume exchange-rate across the middle-ear mucosa of perfusion-limited gases can be modulated pharmacologically. Theoretically, similar drugs can be used to reduce the requisite Eustachian tube opening efficiency for adequate middle-ear pressure regulation. PMID:26152838

  2. Evaluation of Schottky barrier height on 4H-SiC m-face \\{ 1\\bar{1}00\\} for Schottky barrier diode wall integrated trench MOSFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yusuke; Ishimori, Hiroshi; Kinoshita, Akimasa; Kojima, Takahito; Takei, Manabu; Kimura, Hiroshi; Harada, Shinsuke

    2017-04-01

    We proposed an Schottky barrier diode wall integrated trench MOSFET (SWITCH-MOS) for the purposes of shrinking the cell pitch and suppressing the forward degradation of the body diode. A trench Schottky barrier diode (SBD) was integrated into a trench gate MOSFET with a wide shielding p+ region that protected the trench bottoms of both the SBD and the MOS gate from high electrical fields in the off state. The SBD was placed on the trench sidewall of the \\{ 1\\bar{1}00\\} plane (m-face). Static and transient simulations revealed that SWITCH-MOS sufficiently suppressed the bipolar current that induced forward degradation, and we determined that the optimum Schottky barrier height (SBH) was from 0.8 to 2.0 eV. The SBH depends on the crystal planes in 4H-SiC, but the SBH of the m-face was unclear. We fabricated a planar m-face SBD for the first time, and we obtained SBHs from 1.4 to 1.8 eV experimentally with titanium or nickel as a Schottky metal.

  3. Patients' evaluation of quality of care in general practice: what are the cultural and linguistic barriers?

    PubMed

    Harmsen, J A M; Bernsen, R M D; Bruijnzeels, M A; Meeuwesen, L

    2008-07-01

    . It is also recommended to offer facilities to bridge the language barrier, by making use of interpreters or cultural mediators.

  4. Evaluating blood-brain barrier permeability in delayed cerebral infarction after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Ivanidze, J; Kesavabhotla, K; Kallas, O N; Mir, D; Baradaran, H; Gupta, A; Segal, A Z; Claassen, J; Sanelli, P C

    2015-05-01

    Patients with SAH are at increased risk of delayed infarction. Early detection and treatment of delayed infarction remain challenging. We assessed blood-brain barrier permeability, measured as permeability surface area product, by using CTP in patients with SAH with delayed infarction. We performed a retrospective study of patients with SAH with delayed infarction on follow-up NCCT. CTP was performed before the development of delayed infarction. CTP data were postprocessed into permeability surface area product, CBF, and MTT maps. Coregistration was performed to align the infarcted region on the follow-up NCCT with the corresponding location on the CTP maps obtained before infarction. Permeability surface area product, CBF, and MTT values were then obtained in the location of the subsequent infarction. The contralateral noninfarcted region was compared with the affected side in each patient. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were performed to determine statistical significance. Clinical data were collected at the time of CTP and at the time of follow-up NCCT. Twenty-one patients with SAH were included in the study. There was a statistically significant increase in permeability surface area product in the regions of subsequent infarction compared with the contralateral control regions (P < .0001). However, CBF and MTT values were not significantly different in these 2 regions. Subsequent follow-up NCCT demonstrated new delayed infarction in all 21 patients, at which time 38% of patients had new focal neurologic deficits. Our study reveals a statistically significant increase in permeability surface area product preceding delayed infarction in patients with SAH. Further investigation of early permeability changes in SAH may provide new insights into the prediction of delayed infarction. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  5. Indirect selection for resistance to ear rot and leaf diseases in maize lines using biplots.

    PubMed

    Pereira, G S; Camargos, R B; Balestre, M; Von Pinho, R G; C Melo, W M

    2015-09-21

    Leaf disease and ear rot have caused reductions in maize yield in Brazil and other producer countries. Therefore, the aims of this study were to analyze the association between husked ear yield and the severity of maize white spot, gray leaf spot, helminthosporium, and ear rot caused by Fusarium verticillioides and Diplodia maydis using biplots in a mixed-model approach. The responses of 238 lines introduced to Brazil and four controls were evaluated using an incomplete block design with three replicates in two locations: Lavras and Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Two experiments were conducted in each location, one with F. verticillioides and the other with D. maydis. The mixed models elucidated the relationship between yield, leaf disease, and ear disease. Significant genotype x environment and genotype x pathogen interactions were observed. In conclusion, husked ear yield is more associated with ear rot than with the leaf diseases evaluated, justifying the indirect selection for resistance to kernel rot in maize-F. verticillioides and maize-D. maydis pathosystems by yield evaluation.

  6. Antiadhesive effect of bioresorbable polylactide film in abraded middle ear mucosa.

    PubMed

    Jang, Chul Ho; Jo, Si Young; Cho, Yong Beom; Choi, Cheol Hee; Jung, Won Kyo

    2014-12-01

    Polylactide film (PLF) is used to prevent postoperative peridural adhesion in spinal surgery. Up until now, the antiadhesive effect of bioresorbable PLF in ear middle surgery has not been reported. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the antiadhesive effect of PLF in guinea pigs serving as a model for middle ear mucosal trauma. The animals were divided into two groups: the PLF group and the silastic sheeting group. There were seven guinea pigs (fourteen ears) in both groups. Under aseptic conditions, the middle ear mucosa was abraded using a pick inserted transbullaly. A PLF or silicone sheet was then placed into the guinea pigs' middle ear cavities. The auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were assessed preoperatively and at three weeks postoperatively while the animals were under general anesthesia. A histopathological study was performed 3 weeks after the operation. The difference between the ABR results before the operation and three weeks postoperatively were not statistically significant. The adhesion formation did not appeared in either group. Prominent fibrous capsule formation and inflammation were observed in the silastic sheeting group, but not in the PLF group. Mild fibrous thickening of regenerated mucosa was observed in the PLF group. From our results, bioresorbable PLF is nonototoxic and biocompatible with the guinea pig's middle ear cavity by short-term evaluation. Further long-term evaluation study is necessary before clinical application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Identifying motivators and barriers to student completion of instructor evaluations: A multi-faceted, collaborative approach from four colleges of pharmacy.

    PubMed

    McAuley, James W; Backo, Jennifer Lynn; Sobota, Kristen Finley; Metzger, Anne H; Ulbrich, Timothy

    To identify motivators and barriers to pharmacy student completion of instructor evaluations, and to develop potential strategies to improve the evaluation process. Completed at four Ohio Colleges of Pharmacy, Phase I consisted of a student/faculty survey and Phase II consisted of joint student/faculty focus groups to discuss Phase I data and to problem solve. In Phase I, the top three student-identified and faculty-perceived motivators to completion of evaluations were to (1) make the course better, (2) earn bonus points, and (3) improve the instructor's teaching. The top three student-identified barriers to completion of evaluations were having to (1) evaluate multiple instructors, (2) complete several evaluations around the same time, and (3) complete lengthy evaluations. Phase II focus groups identified a number of potential ways to enhance the motivators and reduce barriers, including but not limited to making sure faculty convey to students that the feedback they provide is useful and to provide examples of how student feedback has been used to improve their teaching/the course. Students and faculty identified motivators and barriers to completing instructor evaluations and were willing to work together to improve the process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Barriers, facilitators, and benefits of implementation of dialectical behavior therapy in routine care: results from a national program evaluation survey in the Veterans Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Landes, Sara J; Rodriguez, Allison L; Smith, Brandy N; Matthieu, Monica M; Trent, Lindsay R; Kemp, Janet; Thompson, Caitlin

    2017-12-01

    National implementation of evidence-based psychotherapies (EBPs) in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) provides important lessons on the barriers and facilitators to implementation in a large healthcare system. Little is known about barriers and facilitators to the implementation of a complex EBP for emotional and behavioral dysregulation-dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT). The purpose of this study was to understand VHA clinicians' experiences with barriers, facilitators, and benefits from implementing DBT into routine care. This national program evaluation survey measured site characteristics of VHA sites (N = 59) that had implemented DBT. DBT was most often implemented in general mental health outpatient clinics. While 42% of sites offered all four modes of DBT, skills group was the most frequently implemented mode. Fifty-nine percent of sites offered phone coaching in any form, yet only 11% of those offered it all the time. Providers were often provided little to no time to support implementation of DBT. Barriers that were difficult to overcome were related to phone coaching outside of business hours. Facilitators to implementation included staff interest and expertise. Perceived benefits included increased hope and functioning for clients, greater self-efficacy and compassion for providers, and ability to treat unique symptoms for clinics. There was considerable variability in the capacity to address implementation barriers among sites implementing DBT in VHA routine care. Mental health policy makers should note the barriers and facilitators reported here, with specific attention to phone coaching barriers.

  9. Oral administration of glucosylceramide ameliorates inflammatory dry-skin condition in chronic oxazolone-induced irritant contact dermatitis in the mouse ear.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Mijung; Kim, Sung-Hun; Lee, Bombi; Han, Jeong-Jun; Chung, Guk Hoon; Choi, Hee-Don; Lee, Hyejung; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2012-08-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is an inflammatory skin disease triggered by exposure to a chemical that is toxic or irritating to the skin. A major characteristic of chronic ICD is an inflammatory dry-skin condition with associated itching. Although glucosylceramide (GlcCer) is known to improve the skin barrier function, its mechanism of action is unknown. Using a mouse model of oxazolone-induced chronic ICD, this study investigated the effects of oral administration of GlcCer on inflammatory dry skin. Chronic ICD was induced by repeated application of oxazolone in mice. GlcCer was orally administered once daily throughout the elicitation phase. The beneficial efficacy of GlcCer on cutaneous inflammation was evaluated by assessing ear thickness, lymph node weight, histological findings, and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-6. Additionally, parameters of the itch-associated response, including scratching behavior, water content of the skin, and aquaporin-3 levels in the lesional ear, were measured. Oral GlcCer administration significantly suppressed mRNA expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6. GlcCer also suppressed ear swelling, lymph node weight gains, and infiltration of leukocytes and mast cells in ICD mice. In oxazolone-induced ICD mice, GlcCer significantly inhibited irritant-related scratching behavior and dehydration of the stratum corneum, and decreased aquaporin-3 expression. Our results indicate that GlcCer suppressed inflammation not only by inhibiting cytokine production but also by repairing the skin barrier function, suggesting a potential beneficial role for GlcCer in the improvement of chronic ICD. Copyright © 2012 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Visualization of Middle Ear Ossicles in Elder Subjects with Ultra-short Echo Time MR Imaging.

    PubMed

    Naganawa, Shinji; Nakane, Toshiki; Kawai, Hisashi; Taoka, Toshiaki; Suzuki, Kojiro; Iwano, Shingo; Satake, Hiroko; Grodzki, David

    2017-04-10

    To evaluate the visualization of middle ear ossicles by ultra-short echo time magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 3T in subjects over 50 years old. Sixty ears from 30 elder patients that underwent surgical or interventional treatment for neurovascular diseases were included (ages: 50-82, median age: 65; 10 men, 20 women). Patients received follow-up MR imaging including routine T 1 - and T 2 -weighted images, time-of-flight MR angiography, and ultra-short echo time imaging (PETRA, pointwise encoding time reduction with radial acquisition). All patients underwent computed tomography (CT) angiography before treatment. Thin-section source CT images were correlated with PETRA images. Scan parameters for PETRA were: TR 3.13, TE 0.07, flip angle 6 degrees, 0.83 × 0.83 × 0.83 mm resolution, 3 min 43 s scan time. Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated the visibility of each ossicular structure as positive or negative using PETRA images. The structures evaluated included the head of the malleus, manubrium of the malleus, body of the incus, long process of the incus, and the stapes. Signal intensity of the ossicles was classified as: between labyrinthine fluid and air, similar to labyrinthine fluid, between labyrinthine fluid and cerebellar parenchyma, or higher than cerebellar parenchyma. In all ears, the body of the incus was visible. The head of the malleus was visualized in 36/60 ears. The manubrium of the malleus and long process of the incus was visualized in 1/60 and 4/60 ears, respectively. The stapes were not visualized in any ear. Signal intensity of the visible structures was between labyrinthine fluid and air in all ears. The body of the incus was consistently visualized with intensity between air and labyrinthine fluid on PETRA images in aged subjects. Poor visualization of the manubrium of the malleus, long process of the incus, and the stapes limits clinical significance of middle ear imaging with current PETRA methods.

  11. Middle-ear microsurgery simulation to improve new robotic procedures.

    PubMed

    Kazmitcheff, Guillaume; Nguyen, Yann; Miroir, Mathieu; Péan, Fabien; Ferrary, Evelyne; Cotin, Stéphane; Sterkers, Olivier; Duriez, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Otological microsurgery is delicate and requires high dexterity in bad ergonomic conditions. To assist surgeons in these indications, a teleoperated system, called RobOtol, is developed. This robot enhances gesture accuracy and handiness and allows exploration of new procedures for middle ear surgery. To plan new procedures that exploit the capacities given by the robot, a surgical simulator is developed. The simulation reproduces with high fidelity the behavior of the anatomical structures and can also be used as a training tool for an easier control of the robot for surgeons. In the paper, we introduce the middle ear surgical simulation and then we perform virtually two challenging procedures with the robot. We show how interactive simulation can assist in analyzing the benefits of robotics in the case of complex manipulations or ergonomics studies and allow the development of innovative surgical procedures. New robot-based microsurgical procedures are investigated. The improvement offered by RobOtol is also evaluated and discussed.

  12. Evaluating surface transport predictions of alternative ocean-atmosphere models using surface drifters in the Belizean Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindo-Atichati, D.; Curcic, M.; Paris, C. B.; Buston, P. M.

    2016-02-01

    Determining the appropriate resolution of circulation models often lacks statistical evaluation. Thus, the gains from implementing high-resolution versus less-costly low-resolution models are not always clear. Here we construct a hierarchy of ocean-atmosphere models operating at multiple-scales within a 1×1° domain of the Belizean Barrier Reef (BBR). We compare the dispersion and velocity of 55 surface drifters released in the field in summer 2013 to the dispersion and velocity of simulated drifters under alternative model configurations. Increasing the resolution of the ocean model (from 1/12° to 1/100°, from 1 day to 1 h), the resolution of the atmosphere model forcing (from 1/2° to 1/100°, from 6 h to 1 h), and incorporating tidal forcing incrementally reduces discrepancy between simulated and observed velocities and dispersion. We also investigate the effect of semi-diurnal tides on the local circulation. The model with highest resolution and with tidal forcing resolves higher number of looping trajectories and sub-mesoscale coherent structures. This may be a key factor in reducing discrepancy between simulated and observed velocities and dispersion. Simulations conducted with the highest resolution ocean-atmosphere model and tidal forcing highlight an intensification of the velocity fields throughout the summer and reveal several processes: mesoscale anticyclonic circulation around Glovers Reef, and recurrent sub-mesoscale cyclonic eddies formed in the vicinity of Columbus Island. This study provides a general framework to estimate the best surface transport prediction from different ocean-atmosphere models using metrics derived from high frequency drifters' data. Also, this study provides an evaluated high-resolution ocean-atmosphere model that resolves tides for the Belizean Barrier Reef.

  13. Neonatal Ear Molding: Timing and Technique.

    PubMed

    Anstadt, Erin Elizabeth; Johns, Dana Nicole; Kwok, Alvin Chi-Ming; Siddiqi, Faizi; Gociman, Barbu

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of auricular deformities is believed to be ∼11.5 per 10,000 births, excluding children with microtia. Although not life-threatening, auricular deformities can cause undue distress for patients and their families. Although surgical procedures have traditionally been used to reconstruct congenital auricular deformities, ear molding has been gaining acceptance as an efficacious, noninvasive alternative for the treatment of newborns with ear deformations. We present the successful correction of bilateral Stahl's ear deformity in a newborn through a straightforward, nonsurgical method implemented on the first day of life. The aim of this report is to make pediatric practitioners aware of an effective and simple molding technique appropriate for correction of congenital auricular anomalies. In addition, it stresses the importance of very early initiation of ear cartilage molding for achieving the desired outcome. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Animal models of middle ear cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto-Fukuda, Tomomi; Takahashi, Haruo; Koji, Takehiko

    2011-01-01

    Middle ear acquired cholesteatoma is a pathological condition associated with otitis media, which may be associated with temporal bone resorption, otorrhea and hearing loss, and occasionally various other complications. Cholesteatoma is characterized by the enhanced proliferation of epithelial cells with aberrant morphologic characteristics. Unfortunately, our understanding of the mechanism underlying its pathogenesis is limited. To investigate its pathogenesis, different animal models have been used. This paper provides a brief overview of the current status of research in the field of pathogenesis of middle ear acquired cholesteatoma, four types of animal models previously reported on, up-to-date cholesteatoma research using these animal models, our current studies of the local hybrid ear model, and the future prospect of new animal models of middle ear cholesteatoma.

  15. Animal Models of Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto-Fukuda, Tomomi; Takahashi, Haruo; Koji, Takehiko

    2011-01-01

    Middle ear acquired cholesteatoma is a pathological condition associated with otitis media, which may be associated with temporal bone resorption, otorrhea and hearing loss, and occasionally various other complications. Cholesteatoma is characterized by the enhanced proliferation of epithelial cells with aberrant morphologic characteristics. Unfortunately, our understanding of the mechanism underlying its pathogenesis is limited. To investigate its pathogenesis, different animal models have been used. This paper provides a brief overview of the current status of research in the field of pathogenesis of middle ear acquired cholesteatoma, four types of animal models previously reported on, up-to-date cholesteatoma research using these animal models, our current studies of the local hybrid ear model, and the future prospect of new animal models of middle ear cholesteatoma. PMID:21541229

  16. Milestones in the History of Ear Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Berghaus, Alexander; Nicoló, Marion San

    2015-12-01

    The reconstruction of ear deformities has been challenging plastic surgeons since centuries. However, it is only in the 19th century that reports on partial and total ear reconstruction start increasing. In the quest for an aesthetically pleasing and natural-looking result, surgeons worked on the perfect framework and skin coverage. Different materials and flap techniques have evolved. Some were abandoned out of frustration, while others kept evolving over the years. In this article, we discuss the milestones in ear reconstruction-from ancient times to early attempts in Western civilization to the key chapters of ear reconstruction in the 20th century leading to the current techniques. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. EAR Program Research Results : Updated through 2013

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-12-31

    The Exploratory Advanced Research (EAR) Program addresses the need for longer term, higher risk research with the potential for long-term improvements to transportation systemsimprovements in planning, building, renewing, and operating safe, conge...

  18. EAR Program Research Results: Updated through 2014

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-12-31

    The Exploratory Advanced Research (EAR) Program addresses the need for longer term, higher risk research with the potential for long-term improvements to transportation systemsimprovements in planning, building, renewing, and operating safe, conge...

  19. Diode Laser Ear Piercing: A Novel Technique.

    PubMed

    Suseela, Bibilash Babu; Babu, Preethitha; Chittoria, Ravi Kumar; Mohapatra, Devi Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Earlobe piercing is a common office room procedure done by a plastic surgeon. Various methods of ear piercing have been described. In this article, we describe a novel method of laser ear piercing using the diode laser. An 18-year-old female patient underwent an ear piercing using a diode laser with a power of 2.0 W in continuous mode after topical local anaesthetic and pre-cooling. The diode laser was fast, safe, easy to use and highly effective way of ear piercing. The advantages we noticed while using the diode laser over conventional methods were more precision, minimal trauma with less chances of hypertrophy and keloids, no bleeding with coagulation effect of laser, less time taken compared to conventional method and less chance of infection due to thermal heat effect of laser.

  20. Torsion of partial cleft of ear lobule.

    PubMed

    Kumaraswamy, M; Waiker, Veena P

    2014-02-01

    Torsion is a well-known phenomenon involving organs with long mesentery. Torsion in the ear lobule is rare. Ear lobule is very well vascularized. In cases of partial cleft ear lobule, there is a small segment of lobule inferior to the cleft which is vascularized through the pedicles on either side of the cleft. A lady aged 89 years presented with discoloration of the ear lobule. She was diagnosed as having gangrene of the central part of lobule. The segment of the lobule had undergone more than 360° torsion. She underwent debridement of gangrenous part and lobuloplasty. In our case laxity of the stretched lobule caused the torsion of the segment followed by gangrene. This rare complication indicates the need for correction of the cleft lobule not only for esthetic purpose, but also for the prevention of torsion. Copyright © 2013 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. EAR Program Research Results: Updated through 2016

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-12-31

    The Exploratory Advanced Research (EAR) Program addresses the need for longer term, higher risk research with the potential for long-term improvements to transportation systemsimprovements in planning, building, renewing, and operating safe, conge...

  2. Middle ear abnormalities in Van Maldergem syndrome.

    PubMed

    Verheij, Emmy; Thomeer, Henricus G X M; Pameijer, Frank A; Topsakal, Vedat

    2017-01-01

    Van Maldergem syndrome (VMS) is a very rare syndrome that was first described in 1992. The main features of this syndrome comprise intellectual disability, blepharo-naso-facial malformation, and hand anomalies. Almost all nine described patients have been shown to be affected by conductive hearing impairment attributed to microtia, and atresia of the outer ear canal. Here, we present a VMS patient with congenital malformations of the middle ear as the main reason for severe conductive bilateral hearing impairment. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe middle ear abnormalities in VMS. These malformations were seen on high resolution Computed Tomography scanning and during an exploratory tympanotomy. Due to the severity of the middle ear abnormalities and the risk for facial nerve damage, the patient was not offered an ossicular chain reconstruction but a bone conduction device after this exploratory tympanotomy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Effects of Acoustic Impulses on the Middle Ear

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    conditioned response; middle ear; damage-risk criteria; health hazard evaluation ACCOMPLISHMENTS: What were the major goals of the project? The...participants declined to participate after the study was described during the informed consent process. The results of V1 were used to evaluate participant...0.64 0.73 4000 Hz 0.82 0.78 0.85 0.68 0.63 0.73 1 or 2 kHz 0.93 0.90 0.95 – – – 13 Evaluation of RTs Analyses of reflexive tasks

  4. Evaluation of effect of different disposable infection control barriers on light intensity of light-curing unit and microhardness of composite - An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Khode, Rajiv Tarachand; Shenoi, Pratima Ramakrishna; Kubde, Rajesh R.; Makade, Chetana S.; Wadekar, Kanchan D.; Khode, Priyanka Tarachand

    2017-01-01

    Aims: This study evaluated effect of infection control barriers on light intensity (LI) of light-curing unit (LCU) and microhardness of composite. Materials and Methods: Four different disposable barriers (n = 30) were tested against the control. LI for each barrier was measured with Lux meter. One hundred and fifty Teflon molds were equally divided into five groups of thirty each. Composite was filled in bulk in these molds and cured without and with barrier. Microhardness was evaluated on top and bottom surface of composite specimen with microhardness testing machine and hardness ratio (HR) was derived. Statistical Analysis Used: One-way analysis of variance, Tukey's honestly significant difference test, and paired t-test using SPSS version 18 software. Results: All barriers had significantly reduced the baseline LI of LCU (P < 0.0001), but only Cure Elastic Steri-Shield and latex cut glove pieces (LCGP) significantly reduced the microhardness of the composite (P < 0.05). However, HR determined inadequate curing only with LCGP. Conclusions: Although entire tested barrier significantly reduced the LI; none, except LCGP markedly affected the degree of cure of the composite. PMID:29279622

  5. Evaluation of effect of different disposable infection control barriers on light intensity of light-curing unit and microhardness of composite - An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Khode, Rajiv Tarachand; Shenoi, Pratima Ramakrishna; Kubde, Rajesh R; Makade, Chetana S; Wadekar, Kanchan D; Khode, Priyanka Tarachand

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated effect of infection control barriers on light intensity (LI) of light-curing unit (LCU) and microhardness of composite. Four different disposable barriers ( n = 30) were tested against the control. LI for each barrier was measured with Lux meter. One hundred and fifty Teflon molds were equally divided into five groups of thirty each. Composite was filled in bulk in these molds and cured without and with barrier. Microhardness was evaluated on top and bottom surface of composite specimen with microhardness testing machine and hardness ratio (HR) was derived. One-way analysis of variance, Tukey's honestly significant difference test, and paired t -test using SPSS version 18 software. All barriers had significantly reduced the baseline LI of LCU ( P < 0.0001), but only Cure Elastic Steri-Shield and latex cut glove pieces (LCGP) significantly reduced the microhardness of the composite ( P < 0.05). However, HR determined inadequate curing only with LCGP. Although entire tested barrier significantly reduced the LI; none, except LCGP markedly affected the degree of cure of the composite.

  6. Verrucous carcinoma of the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Woodson, G E; Jurco, S; Alford, B R; McGavran, M H

    1981-01-01

    A case of a highly destructive, cytologically nondysplastic squamous epithelial lesion of the middle ear is presented. The cranial nerve involvement and bone destruction are more extensive than has been seen in cholesteatoma. Cultures are negative for Pseudomonas, and the patient does not have the reported diathesis for malignant otitis externa. The gross and microscopic features are those of verrucous carcinoma. To our knowledge, the middle ear has not been previously reported as a site of involvement by verrucous carcinoma.

  7. A simulation-based evaluation of methods for inferring linear barriers to gene flow

    Treesearch

    Christopher Blair; Dana E. Weigel; Matthew Balazik; Annika T. H. Keeley; Faith M. Walker; Erin Landguth; Sam Cushman; Melanie Murphy; Lisette Waits; Niko Balkenhol

    2012-01-01

    Different analytical techniques used on the same data set may lead to different conclusions about the existence and strength of genetic structure. Therefore, reliable interpretation of the results from different methods depends on the efficacy and reliability of different statistical methods. In this paper, we evaluated the performance of multiple analytical methods to...

  8. Real-time estimation of horizontal gaze angle by saccade integration using in-ear electrooculography

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    The manuscript proposes and evaluates a real-time algorithm for estimating eye gaze angle based solely on single-channel electrooculography (EOG), which can be obtained directly from the ear canal using conductive ear moulds. In contrast to conventional high-pass filtering, we used an algorithm that calculates absolute eye gaze angle via statistical analysis of detected saccades. The estimated eye positions of the new algorithm were still noisy. However, the performance in terms of Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients was significantly better than the conventional approach in some instances. The results suggest that in-ear EOG signals captured with conductive ear moulds could serve as a basis for light-weight and portable horizontal eye gaze angle estimation suitable for a broad range of applications. For instance, for hearing aids to steer the directivity of microphones in the direction of the user’s eye gaze. PMID:29304120

  9. Real-time estimation of horizontal gaze angle by saccade integration using in-ear electrooculography.

    PubMed

    Hládek, Ľuboš; Porr, Bernd; Brimijoin, W Owen

    2018-01-01

    The manuscript proposes and evaluates a real-time algorithm for estimating eye gaze angle based solely on single-channel electrooculography (EOG), which can be obtained directly from the ear canal using conductive ear moulds. In contrast to conventional high-pass filtering, we used an algorithm that calculates absolute eye gaze angle via statistical analysis of detected saccades. The estimated eye positions of the new algorithm were still noisy. However, the performance in terms of Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients was significantly better than the conventional approach in some instances. The results suggest that in-ear EOG signals captured with conductive ear moulds could serve as a basis for light-weight and portable horizontal eye gaze angle estimation suitable for a broad range of applications. For instance, for hearing aids to steer the directivity of microphones in the direction of the user's eye gaze.

  10. 3D visualization of middle ear structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Uwe; Schmitt, Thomas

    1998-06-01

    The achievement of volume geometry data from middle ear structures and surrounding components performs a necessary supposition for the finite element simulation of the vibrational and transfer characteristics of the ossicular chain. So far those models base on generalized figures and size data from anatomy textbooks or particular manual and one- or two-dimensional distance measurements of single ossicles, mostly obtained by light microscopy, respectively. Therefore the goal of this study is to create a procedure for complete three-dimensional imaging of real middle ear structures (tympanic membrane, ossicles, ligaments) in vitro or even in vivo. The main problems are their microscopic size with relevant structures from 10 micrometer to 5 mm, representing various tissue properties (bone, soft tissue). Additionally, these structures are surrounded by the temporal bone, the most solid bone of the human body. Generally there exist several established diagnostic tools for medical imaging that could be used for geometry data acquisition, e.g., X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Basically they image different tissue parameters, either bony structures (ossicles), or soft tissue (tympanic membrane, ligaments). But considering this application those standard techniques allow low spatial resolution only, usually in the 0.5 - 1mm range, at least in one spatial direction. Thus particular structures of the middle ear region could even be missed completely because of their spatial location. In vitro there is a way out by collecting three complete data sets, each distinguished by 90 degree rotation of a cube-shaped temporal bone specimen. That allows high-resolution imaging in three orthogonal planes, which essentially supports the three-dimensional interpolation of the unknown elements, starting from the regularly set elements of the cubic grid with an edge extension given by the original two-dimensional matrix. A different approach represents the

  11. [Constricted ear therapy with free auricular composite grafts].

    PubMed

    Liu, Tun; Zhang, Lian-sheng; Zhuang, Hong-xing; Zhang, Ke-yuan

    2004-03-01

    A simple and effective therapy for single side constricted ear. Transplanting normal side free composite auricular grafts to constricted ear (15 patients and 15 sides), then lengthening the helix, exposing the scapha, correcting deformity. The 15 patients composite grafts all survived. The helix has been lengthened, the scapha exposed, the normal ear reduced, the constricted ear augmented and two sides ear have become symmetry. This method is simple and results are satisfied.

  12. [Atypical inflammation of the middle ear].

    PubMed

    Garov, E V; Kryukov, A I; Zelenkova, V N; Sidorina, N G; Kaloshina, A S

    The objective of the present study was to characterize the patients presenting with atypical inflammation of the middle ear and consider the currently available methods for their examination. A total of 20 patients at the age from 16 to 66 years were admitted to the Department of Ear Microsurgery during the period from 2008 and 2016 for the treatment of atypical inflammation of the middle ear. Eleven of them (18 ears) were found to have tuberculous lesions (TL) of the middle ear while the remaining 9 patients (11 ears) suffered giant cell vasculitis (GCV). All the patients underwent the general clinical and otorhinolaryngological examination, computed tomography of the temporal bones and the thoracic cavity organs, cytological, bacteriological, pathomorphological, and molecular-genetic studies including PCR diagnostics, rheumatological tests, as well as counseling by a phthisiotherapist and rheumatologist. The primary localization of TL in the middle ear was documented in 6 patients including its association with lung lesions in 5 cases. The clinical picture of the disease in 5 patients was that of smoldering exudative pathology and in 6 ones was accompanied by suppurative perforative otitis media. According to the laboratory analyses, bacteriological diagnostics proved efficient in 9% of the patients, pathomorphological and cytological diagnostics in 18% and 27.3% of the cases respectively while the effectiveness of PCR diagnostics was estimated at 55%. The diagnosis in individual patients was established within the period from 1 month to 1.5 years after they first sought medical advice in connection with complaints of the ear disease. Tuberculosis of the middle ear began to develop as exudative middle otitis that acquired the form of bilateral pathology in 4 patients. Three patients had a concomitant pulmonary disease. In 4 patuents, the diagnois of middle ear tuberculosis was established based on the presence of the specific antibodies and in 5 ones based on the

  13. Insights and efforts to control rabies in Zambia: Evaluation of determinants and barriers to dog vaccination in Nyimba district.

    PubMed

    Mulipukwa, Carolyn Patricia; Mudenda, Boyd; Mbewe, Allan Rabson

    2017-10-01

    The current rabies control strategy in Zambia is based on dog vaccination, dog population control and dog movement restrictions. In Nyimba district of Zambia, dog vaccination coverage is low but the incidence of dog bites is high which places the community at risk of rabies infection. The renewed global interest eliminating rabies in developing countries has spurred interest to identify determinants and barriers of dog vaccination in an effort to reduce the overall disease burden. A mixed methods cross sectional design was used in the study. This consisted of three parts: Evaluation of medical records regarding dog bite injuries, implementation and analysis of a household survey and in-depth review of key informant interviews. Data was collected into a Microsoft Excel database and subsequently transferred to STATA for descriptive, inferential and thematic analysis. Dog vaccination coverage overall was 8.7% (57/655), with 3.4% (22/655) in urban areas, 1.8% (12/655) in peri-urban and 3.5 (23/655) in the rural regions. Financially stable households were more likely to have their dogs vaccinated. Only 10.3% (31/300) of the respondents had vaccinated their dogs and these had a reliable source of income as 6% (18/300) were peasant farmers, 2% (6/300) were dependants whose guardians were financially stable and 2.3% (7/300) were in steady employment. Important barriers to dog vaccination included cost, limited awareness of vaccination program and access. Current rabies control strategies in Nyimba district, Zambia, appear quite limited. Improvements in the regional dog vaccination program may provide benefits. Enhancement of educational efforts targeting behavioural factors may also prove useful. Finally, the cost of dog vaccination can be reduced with scaled up production of a local vaccine.

  14. Evaluation of the “Eat Better Feel Better” Cooking Programme to Tackle Barriers to Healthy Eating

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Ada L.; Reardon, Rebecca; Hammond, Elizabeth; Parrett, Alison; Gebbie-Diben, Anne

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated a 6-week community-based cooking programme, “Eat Better Feel Better”, aimed at tackling barriers to cooking and healthy eating using a single-group repeated measures design. 117 participants enrolled, 62 completed baseline and post-intervention questionnaires, and 17 completed these and a 3–4 months follow-up questionnaire. Most participants were female, >45 years, and socioeconomically deprived. Confidence constructs changed positively from baseline to post-intervention (medians, scale 1 “not confident” to 7 “very confident”): “cooking using raw ingredients” (4, 6 p < 0.003), “following simple recipe” (5, 6 p = 0.003), “planning meals before shopping” (4, 5 p = <0.001), “shopping on a budget (4, 5 p = 0.044), “shopping healthier food” (4, 5 p = 0.007), “cooking new foods” (3, 5 p < 0.001), “cooking healthier foods” (4, 5 p = 0.001), “storing foods safely” (5, 6 p = 0.002); “using leftovers” (4, 5 p = 0.002), “cooking raw chicken” (5, 6 p = 0.021), and “reading food labels” (4, 5 p < 0.001). “Microwaving ready-meals” decreased 46% to 39% (p = 0.132). “Preparing meals from scratch” increased 48% to 59% (p = 0.071). Knowledge about correct portion sizes increased 47% to 74% (p = 0.002). Spending on ready-meals/week decreased. Follow-up telephone interviewees (n = 42) reported developing healthier eating patterns, spending less money/wasting less food, and preparing more meals/snacks from raw ingredients. The programme had positive effects on participants’ cooking skills confidence, helped manage time, and reduced barriers of cost, waste, and knowledge. PMID:28375186

  15. Insights and efforts to control rabies in Zambia: Evaluation of determinants and barriers to dog vaccination in Nyimba district

    PubMed Central

    Mudenda, Boyd; Mbewe, Allan Rabson

    2017-01-01

    Background The current rabies control strategy in Zambia is based on dog vaccination, dog population control and dog movement restrictions. In Nyimba district of Zambia, dog vaccination coverage is low but the incidence of dog bites is high which places the community at risk of rabies infection. The renewed global interest eliminating rabies in developing countries has spurred interest to identify determinants and barriers of dog vaccination in an effort to reduce the overall disease burden. Methodology A mixed methods cross sectional design was used in the study. This consisted of three parts: Evaluation of medical records regarding dog bite injuries, implementation and analysis of a household survey and in-depth review of key informant interviews. Data was collected into a Microsoft Excel database and subsequently transferred to STATA for descriptive, inferential and thematic analysis. Results Dog vaccination coverage overall was 8.7% (57/655), with 3.4% (22/655) in urban areas, 1.8% (12/655) in peri-urban and 3.5 (23/655) in the rural regions. Financially stable households were more likely to have their dogs vaccinated. Only 10.3% (31/300) of the respondents had vaccinated their dogs and these had a reliable source of income as 6% (18/300) were peasant farmers, 2% (6/300) were dependants whose guardians were financially stable and 2.3% (7/300) were in steady employment. Important barriers to dog vaccination included cost, limited awareness of vaccination program and access. Conclusion Current rabies control strategies in Nyimba district, Zambia, appear quite limited. Improvements in the regional dog vaccination program may provide benefits. Enhancement of educational efforts targeting behavioural factors may also prove useful. Finally, the cost of dog vaccination can be reduced with scaled up production of a local vaccine. PMID:28991898

  16. Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Self Adhesive Composite Resin Cements by Dentin Barrier Test on 3D Pulp Cells.

    PubMed

    Ulker, Hayriye Esra; Sengun, Abdulkadir

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of five self-etch dental composite resin cements on the cell viability of bovine dental papilla-derived cells. The cytotoxicity of composite resin cements (Rely X Unicem Clicker, 3M ESPE; MaxCem; KERR, Panavia F 2.0; Kuraray, BisCem; Bisco and Bistite II DC; Tokuyama) was analyzed in a dentin barrier test device using three-dimensional (3D) pulp cell cultures. A commercially available cell culture perfusion chamber was separated into two compartments by 500 mum dentin disc. The three dimensional cultures placed on a dentin disk held in place by a special biocompatible stainless-steel holder. Test materials were introduced into the upper compartment in direct contact with the cavity side of the dentin disks according to the manufacturer's instructions. Subsequently, the pulpal part of the perfusion chamber containing the cell cultures was perfused with medium (2 ml/h). After an exposure period of 24 h, the cell survival was determined by the MTT assay. Statistical analyses were performed using the Mann-Whitney U-test. In dentin barrier test, cell survival was similar with Maxcem and negative control group (P>.05), and all other tested materials were cytotoxic for the three dimensional cell cultures (P>.05). The significance of composite resin cements is being more important in dentistry. The cytotoxic potencies demonstrated by these materials might be of clinical relevance. Some composite resin cements include biologically active ingredients and may modify pulp cell metabolism when the materials are used in deep cavities or directly contact pulp tissue.

  17. Lea's Shield, a new barrier contraceptive preliminary clinical evaluations three-day tolerance study.

    PubMed

    Hunt, W L; Gabbay, L; Potts, M

    1994-12-01

    In this study the Lea's Shield was evaluated for its tolerance by women who wore the device for three consecutive days. Ten women who wore the Lea's Shield for 72 hours completed the tolerance study without adverse effects. Examination of the cervix and vagina revealed that the device did not provoke any significant cellular or microbial changes among the wearers. No major changes in the appearance or prevalence of vaginal flora occurred in the women after three days of wearing the device. A gradient in the pH could be detected between the contents of the vagina, which was more acidic than the contents of the bowl of the device. The range of cervical shapes and vaginal morphology among the study participants has had no influence upon the ability of the device to remain in its proper position. The device "settles in place" as it is pushed in, thereby obviating any special maneuvers for proper positioning. No vaginal nor cervical trauma occurred. We have concluded from these basic clinical evaluations that Lea's Shield is well tolerated during three days of use. Efficacy trials in women at risk recently completed have confirmed the high degree of acceptability and that the device can function adequately as one size fits all.

  18. Middle-ear pain and trauma during air travel

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Changes in air pressure during flying can cause ear-drum pain and perforation, vertigo, and hearing loss. It has been estimated that 10% of adults and 22% of children might have changes to the ear drum after a flight, although perforation is rare. Symptoms usually resolve spontaneously. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of interventions to prevent middle-ear pain during air travel? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to July 2014 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found three studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: nasal balloon inflation, nasal decongestants (topical), and oral pseudoephedrine. PMID:25599243

  19. Patients' satisfaction after ear reconstruction with autologous rib cartilage.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, Martina; Öberg, Martin; Wikström, Sven Olof

    2013-04-01

    Patients' satisfaction is an important outcome measure in reconstructive surgery and quality assurance is today central in the clinical practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the patients' satisfaction with the process and final result after reconstruction for congenital microtia. A questionnaire was designed and sent to 78 patients who had undergone unilateral ear reconstruction with autologous rib cartilage during the period 2000-2010. For a multidimensional view the patients answered 42 questions about aesthetic, functional, psychosocial, and clinic-related outcomes. The response rate was 76% (59/78 patients). The patients were generally satisfied with the aesthetic result of the ear and had function gain in being able to wear glasses; however, some patients did report new different functional problems after the operation. Still, almost all patients felt that the ear was a part of them and would have chosen the same operative procedure if they could do it again. The patients were overall highly satisfied with the care process. This surgery-specific questionnaire is an important tool for quality assurance in this clinical practice. These findings can help to improve the preoperative information to meet the patients' notions, expectations, and fears.

  20. Sparse coding joint decision rule for ear print recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guermoui, Mawloud; Melaab, Djamel; Mekhalfi, Mohamed Lamine

    2016-09-01

    Human ear recognition has been promoted as a profitable biometric over the past few years. With respect to other modalities, such as the face and iris, that have undergone a significant investigation in the literature, ear pattern is relatively still uncommon. We put forth a sparse coding-induced decision-making for ear recognition. It jointly involves the reconstruction residuals and the respective reconstruction coefficients pertaining to the input features (co-occurrence of adjacent local binary patterns) for a further fusion. We particularly show that combining both components (i.e., the residuals as well as the coefficients) yields better outcomes than the case when either of them is deemed singly. The proposed method has been evaluated on two benchmark datasets, namely IITD1 (125 subject) and IITD2 (221 subjects). The recognition rates of the suggested scheme amount for 99.5% and 98.95% for both datasets, respectively, which suggest that our method decently stands out against reference state-of-the-art methodologies. Furthermore, experiments conclude that the presented scheme manifests a promising robustness under large-scale occlusion scenarios.

  1. Diffusion barriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolet, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    The choice of the metallic film for the contact to a semiconductor device is discussed. One way to try to stabilize a contact is by interposing a thin film of a material that has low diffusivity for the atoms in question. This thin film application is known as a diffusion barrier. Three types of barriers can be distinguished. The stuffed barrier derives its low atomic diffusivity to impurities that concentrate along the extended defects of a polycrystalline layer. Sacrificial barriers exploit the fact that some (elemental) thin films react in a laterally uniform and reproducible fashion. Sacrificial barriers have the advantage that the point of their failure is predictable. Passive barriers are those most closely approximating an ideal barrier. The most-studied case is that of sputtered TiN films. Stuffed barriers may be viewed as passive barriers whose low diffusivity material extends along the defects of the polycrystalline host.

  2. Barriers to and facilitators of implementing complex workplace dietary interventions: process evaluation results of a cluster controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Sarah; Geaney, Fiona; Kelly, Clare; McHugh, Sheena; Perry, Ivan J

    2016-04-21

    Ambiguity exists regarding the effectiveness of workplace dietary interventions. Rigorous process evaluation is vital to understand this uncertainty. This study was conducted as part of the Food Choice at Work trial which assessed the comparative effectiveness of a workplace environmental dietary modification intervention and an educational intervention both alone and in combination versus a control workplace. Effectiveness was assessed in terms of employees' dietary intakes, nutrition knowledge and health status in four large manufacturing workplaces. The study aimed to examine barriers to and facilitators of implementing complex workplace interventions, from the perspectives of key workplace stakeholders and researchers involved in implementation. A detailed process evaluation monitored and evaluated intervention implementation. Interviews were conducted at baseline (27 interviews) and at 7-9 month follow-up (27 interviews) with a purposive sample of workplace stakeholders (managers and participating employees). Topic guides explored factors which facilitated or impeded implementation. Researchers involved in recruitment and data collection participated in focus groups at baseline and at 7-9 month follow-up to explore their perceptions of intervention implementation. Data were imported into NVivo software and analysed using a thematic framework approach. Four major themes emerged; perceived benefits of participation, negotiation and flexibility of the implementation team, viability and intensity of interventions and workplace structures and cultures. The latter three themes either positively or negatively affected implementation, depending on context. The implementation team included managers involved in coordinating and delivering the interventions and the researchers who collected data and delivered intervention elements. Stakeholders' perceptions of the benefits of participating, which facilitated implementation, included managers' desire to improve company

  3. Development of optoelectronic monitoring system for ear arterial pressure waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasayama, Satoshi; Imachi, Yu; Yagi, Tamotsu; Imachi, Kou; Ono, Toshirou; Man-i, Masando

    1994-02-01

    Invasive intra-arterial blood pressure measurement is the most accurate method but not practical if the subject is in motion. The apparatus developed by Wesseling et al., based on a volume-clamp method of Penaz (Finapres), is able to monitor continuous finger arterial pressure waveforms noninvasively. The limitation of Finapres is the difficulty in measuring the pressure of a subject during work that involves finger or arm action. Because the Finapres detector is attached to subject's finger, the measurements are affected by inertia of blood and hydrostatic effect cause by arm or finger motion. To overcome this problem, the authors made a detector that is attached to subject's ear and developed and optoelectronic monitoring systems for ear arterial pressure waveform (Earpres). An IR LEDs, photodiode, and air cuff comprised the detector. The detector was attached to a subject's ear, and the space adjusted between the air cuff and the rubber plate on which the LED and photodiode were positioned. To evaluate the accuracy of Earpres, the following tests were conducted with participation of 10 healthy male volunteers. The subjects rested for about five minutes, then performed standing and squatting exercises to provide wide ranges of systolic and diastolic arterial pressure. Intra- and inter-individual standard errors were calculated according to the method of van Egmond et al. As a result, average, the averages of intra-individual standard errors for earpres appeared small (3.7 and 2.7 mmHg for systolic and diastolic pressure respectively). The inter-individual standard errors for Earpres were about the same was Finapres for both systolic and diastolic pressure. The results showed the ear monitor was reliable in measuring arterial blood pressure waveforms and might be applicable to various fields such as sports medicine and ergonomics.

  4. Middle Ear Pressures in Wind Instrument Musicians.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Max Sallis; Morris, Simon; Clark, Matthew P; Begg, Philip

    2018-05-22

    This study aimed to assess if playing wind instruments leads to a measurable increase in middle ear pressure during note generation and to provide evidence to clinicians to advise musicians undergoing middle ear surgery. An observational cohort study of 40 volunteers in 7 different wind instrument categories underwent tympanometry at rest and during note production. Community. Recreational musicians aged over 18 years recruited from the student body attending Birmingham University, UK. None. Tympanometry is used as a noninvasive measure of middle ear pressure. The pressure at which peak compliance occurred was taken as an indirect measure of middle ear pressure. The data produced at rest and during note production was statistically analysed with paired t testing and significance set at a p value less than 0.01. Overall a statistically significant increase in middle ear pressure change of 0.63 mm Hg (p = 0.0001) during note production was identified. Musicians playing the oboe and trumpet demonstrate the largest increase in middle ear pressure of 1.46 mm Hg (p = 0.0053) and 0.78 mm Hg (p = 0.0005) respectively. The data provided by this study gives evidence for the first time that playing wind instruments does increase middle ear pressure. Although the clinical significance of this is yet to be determined the authors would advise that musicians who undergo otological procedures should refrain from playing their instruments until full recovery has been achieved as advised by their clinician following direct microscopic review.

  5. Structure and function of the mammalian middle ear. I: Large middle ears in small desert mammals.

    PubMed

    Mason, Matthew J

    2016-02-01

    Many species of small desert mammals are known to have expanded auditory bullae. The ears of gerbils and heteromyids have been well described, but much less is known about the middle ear anatomy of other desert mammals. In this study, the middle ears of three gerbils (Meriones, Desmodillus and Gerbillurus), two jerboas (Jaculus) and two sengis (elephant-shrews: Macroscelides and Elephantulus) were examined and compared, using micro-computed tomography and light microscopy. Middle ear cavity expansion has occurred in members of all three groups, apparently in association with an essentially 'freely mobile' ossicular morphology and the development of bony tubes for the middle ear arteries. Cavity expansion can occur in different ways, resulting in different subcavity patterns even between different species of gerbils. Having enlarged middle ear cavities aids low-frequency audition, and several adaptive advantages of low-frequency hearing to small desert mammals have been proposed. However, while Macroscelides was found here to have middle ear cavities so large that together they exceed brain volume, the bullae of Elephantulus are considerably smaller. Why middle ear cavities are enlarged in some desert species but not others remains unclear, but it may relate to microhabitat. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  6. Barriers to and Facilitators of the Evaluation of Integrated Community-Wide Overweight Intervention Approaches: A Qualitative Case Study in Two Dutch Municipalities

    PubMed Central

    van Koperen, Tessa M.; de Kruif, Anja; van Antwerpen, Lisa; Hendriks, Anna-Marie; Seidell, Jacob C.; Schuit, Albertine J.; Renders, Carry M.

    2016-01-01

    To prevent overweight and obesity the implementation of an integrated community-wide intervention approach (ICIA) is often advocated. Evaluation can enhance implementation of such an approach and demonstrate the extent of effectiveness. To be able to support professionals in the evaluation of ICIAs we studied barriers to and facilitators of ICIA evaluation. In this study ten professionals of two Dutch municipalities involved in the evaluation of an ICIA participated. We conducted semi-structured interviews (n = 12), observed programme meetings (n = 4) and carried out document analysis. Data were analyzed using a thematic content approach. We learned that evaluation is hampered when it is perceived as unfeasible due to limited time and budget, a lack of evaluation knowledge or a negative evaluation attitude. Other barriers are a poor understanding of the evaluation process and its added value to optimizing the programme. Sufficient communication between involved professionals on evaluation can facilitate evaluation, as does support for evaluation of ICIAs together with stakeholders at a strategic and tactical level. To stimulate the evaluation of ICIAs, we recommend supporting professionals in securing evaluation resources, providing tailored training and tools to enhance evaluation competences and stimulating strategic communication on evaluation. PMID:27043600

  7. Barriers to and Facilitators of the Evaluation of Integrated Community-Wide Overweight Intervention Approaches: A Qualitative Case Study in Two Dutch Municipalities.

    PubMed

    van Koperen, Tessa M; de Kruif, Anja; van Antwerpen, Lisa; Hendriks, Anna-Marie; Seidell, Jacob C; Schuit, Albertine J; Renders, Carry M

    2016-03-31

    To prevent overweight and obesity the implementation of an integrated community-wide intervention approach (ICIA) is often advocated. Evaluation can enhance implementation of such an approach and demonstrate the extent of effectiveness. To be able to support professionals in the evaluation of ICIAs we studied barriers to and facilitators of ICIA evaluation. In this study ten professionals of two Dutch municipalities involved in the evaluation of an ICIA participated. We conducted semi-structured interviews (n = 12), observed programme meetings (n = 4) and carried out document analysis. Data were analyzed using a thematic content approach. We learned that evaluation is hampered when it is perceived as unfeasible due to limited time and budget, a lack of evaluation knowledge or a negative evaluation attitude. Other barriers are a poor understanding of the evaluation process and its added value to optimizing the programme. Sufficient communication between involved professionals on evaluation can facilitate evaluation, as does support for evaluation of ICIAs together with stakeholders at a strategic and tactical level. To stimulate the evaluation of ICIAs, we recommend supporting professionals in securing evaluation resources, providing tailored training and tools to enhance evaluation competences and stimulating strategic communication on evaluation.

  8. [Effect size on resonance of the outer ear canal by simulation of middle ear lesions using a temporal bone preparation].

    PubMed

    Scheinpflug, L; Vorwerk, U; Begall, K

    1995-01-01

    By means of a model of the external and the middle ear it is possible to simulate various, exactly defined pathological conditions of the middle ear and to describe their influence on ear canal resonance. Starting point of the investigations are fresh postmortem preparations of 8 human temporal bones with an intact ear drum and a retained skin of the ear canal. The compliance of the middle ear does not significantly differ from the clinical data of probands with healthy ears. After antrotomy it is possible to simulate pathological conditions of the middle ear one after the other at the same temporal bone. The influence of the changed middle ear conditions on ear drum compliance, ear canal volume and on the resonance curve of the external ear canal was investigated. For example, the middle ear was filled with water to create approximately the same conditions as in acute serous otitis media. In this middle ear condition a significant increase of the sound pressure amplification was found, on an average by 4 decibels compared to the unchanged temporal bone model. A small increase in resonance frequency was also measured. The advantages of this model are the approximately physiological conditions and the constant dimensions of the external and middle ear.

  9. The quality and accuracy of internet information on the subject of ear tubes.

    PubMed

    McKearney, Thomas C; McKearney, Richard M

    2013-06-01

    The World Wide Web is a commonly used source of health information for patients. The objective of this study is to assess the quality and accuracy of information on the internet regarding ear tubes and their insertion. Websites were identified from Google, Yahoo and MSN using the search terms 'myringotomy', 'tympanostomy', 'grommet' and 'ear tubes'. The first 40 consecutive websites from each search engine using each search term were potentially eligible for the study. Quality of information was assessed using the DISCERN instrument and readability using the Flesch Readability Formula and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level Readability Formula. As the DISCERN instrument is subjective, both authors rated each website. Specific facts related to ear tubes were identified from each website such as the indications for and complications of ear tubes which were evaluated for accuracy and consistency. Of the 480 potentially eligible websites, 84 were included in the study. The mean DISCERN score for all websites was 38.5 (range 18-64) and the mean readability score was 49.4 (range 5.7-71.6). The mean Flesch-Kincaid Grade level was 10.1 (range 6.6-12). Key facts quoted on websites regarding ear tube information such as indications for insertion and complications are very variable. Overall, internet information regarding ear tubes is of mixed quality and the readability is generally low. Certain topics such as the number of patients that require repeat ear tube insertion and advice on bathing and showering with ear tubes were poorly described. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Larval western bean cutworm feeding damage encourages the development of Gibberella ear rot on field corn.

    PubMed

    Parker, Nicole S; Anderson, Nolan R; Richmond, Douglas S; Long, Elizabeth Y; Wise, Kiersten A; Krupke, Christian H

    2017-03-01

    A 2 year study was conducted to determine whether western bean cutworm (Striacosta albicosta Smith) (WBC) larval feeding damage increases severity of the fungal disease Gibberella ear rot [Fusarium graminearum (Schwein.) Petch] in field corn (Zea mays L.). The effect of a quinone-outside inhibiting fungicide, pyraclostrobin, on Gibberella ear rot severity and mycotoxin production, both with and without WBC pressure, was also evaluated. The impact of each variable was assessed individually and in combination to determine the effect of each upon ear disease severity. There was a positive correlation between the presence of WBC larvae in field corn and Gibberella ear rot severity under inoculated conditions in the 2 years of the experiment. An application of pyraclostrobin did not impact Gibberella ear rot development when applied at corn growth stage R1 (silks first emerging). Feeding damage from WBC larvae significantly increases the development of F. graminearum in field corn. We conclude that an effective integrated management strategy for Gibberella ear rot should target the insect pest first, in an effort to limit disease severity and subsequent mycotoxin production by F. graminearum in kernels. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Demodex Species Infestation in Patients with Ear Itching and Its Relationship to Itch Severity.

    PubMed

    Bilal, Nagihan; Kirişci, Özlem; Özkaya, Esra

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate Demodex species infestation in patients with ear itching. The relationship between the severity of ear itching and Demodex spp. positivity has not been previously reported in the literature, and we believe that our study will make a significant contribution to the understanding of the etiology of ear itching. Fifty patients with itching ears and 54 healthy control patients were asked to use a visual analogue scale (VAS) to rate the itch, the itching period, and the medication used for the itching. All samples were evaluated for Demodex spp. under a light microscope. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of numbers of Demodex spp. (p=0.154), and there was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of Demodex spp. positivity (p=0.054). Despite the lack of statistically significant differences, Demodex spp. infestations were more common in the affected group than in the control group. A positive and strongly significant relationship was observed between the number of Demodex spp. and severity of ear itch in the patient group based on VAS scores (p=0.0001; r=0.724). We found that an increased number of Demodex spp. was strongly related to increased severity of ear itching.

  12. A right-ear bias of auditory selective attention is evident in alpha oscillations.

    PubMed

    Payne, Lisa; Rogers, Chad S; Wingfield, Arthur; Sekuler, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Auditory selective attention makes it possible to pick out one speech stream that is embedded in a multispeaker environment. We adapted a cued dichotic listening task to examine suppression of a speech stream lateralized to the nonattended ear, and to evaluate the effects of attention on the right ear's well-known advantage in the perception of linguistic stimuli. After being cued to attend to input from either their left or right ear, participants heard two different four-word streams presented simultaneously to the separate ears. Following each dichotic presentation, participants judged whether a spoken probe word had been in the attended ear's stream. We used EEG signals to track participants' spatial lateralization of auditory attention, which is marked by interhemispheric differences in EEG alpha (8-14 Hz) power. A right-ear advantage (REA) was evident in faster response times and greater sensitivity in distinguishing attended from unattended words. Consistent with the REA, we found strongest parietal and right frontotemporal alpha modulation during the attend-right condition. These findings provide evidence for a link between selective attention and the REA during directed dichotic listening. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  13. Protection of horse ears against Simulid parasitism: Efficacy of a mammal semiochemical solution over 10hours.

    PubMed

    Creton, Benjamin; Pageat, Patrick; Robejean, Myriam; Lafont-Lecuelle, Céline; Cozzi, Alessandro

    2016-08-30

    Hematophagous insects can be vectors of pathogens and cause significant economic loss in zootechnical production. Among biting insects, many dipteran species feed on horse blood. The black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) group, is responsible for several disorders in horses and inflicts painful bites that lead to undesirable behaviours in horses, particularly when bites occur in sensitive areas such as the inner ear. A field study was conducted in a French equestrian center during which a semiochemical was applied on horses' ears to assess repellent efficacy against simulid infestation. During the first phase of the study, efficacy was evaluated over a one hour period. Then, during the second phase of the study, persistency of the effect was tested at 8, 9 and 10h after application. The results of the study's first phase showed 90% efficacy over one hour, with 121.5 insects found in control ears and 12 insects in treated ears (p=0.001). In the second phase of the study, a total amount of 411 insects were observed on control ears whereas only 2 insects were observed on treated ears (p<0.0001); the treatment remained over 98% effective up to 10hours after application. When using a slow release excipient, this semiochemical may offer at least 10h of protection against simulids. This safe, efficient, and long lasting protection could help horses and their owners to manage simulid parasitism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Adenovirus Vectors Target Several Cell Subtypes of Mammalian Inner Ear In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenyan; Shen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian inner ear harbors diverse cell types that are essential for hearing and balance. Adenovirus is one of the major vectors to deliver genes into the inner ear for functional studies and hair cell regeneration. To identify adenovirus vectors that target specific cell subtypes in the inner ear, we studied three adenovirus vectors, carrying a reporter gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) from two vendors or with a genome editing gene Cre recombinase (Cre), by injection into postnatal days 0 (P0) and 4 (P4) mouse cochlea through scala media by cochleostomy in vivo. We found three adenovirus vectors transduced mouse inner ear cells with different specificities and expression levels, depending on the type of adenoviral vectors and the age of mice. The most frequently targeted region was the cochlear sensory epithelium, including auditory hair cells and supporting cells. Adenovirus with GFP transduced utricular supporting cells as well. This study shows that adenovirus vectors are capable of efficiently and specifically transducing different cell types in the mammalian inner ear and provides useful tools to study inner ear gene function and to evaluate gene therapy to treat hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction. PMID:28116172

  15. Gerbil middle-ear sound transmission from 100 Hz to 60 kHz1

    PubMed Central

    Ravicz, Michael E.; Cooper, Nigel P.; Rosowski, John J.

    2008-01-01

    Middle-ear sound transmission was evaluated as the middle-ear transfer admittance HMY (the ratio of stapes velocity to ear-canal sound pressure near the umbo) in gerbils during closed-field sound stimulation at frequencies from 0.1 to 60 kHz, a range that spans the gerbil’s audiometric range. Similar measurements were performed in two laboratories. The HMY magnitude (a) increased with frequency below 1 kHz, (b) remained approximately constant with frequency from 5 to 35 kHz, and (c) decreased substantially from 35 to 50 kHz. The HMY phase increased linearly with frequency from 5 to 35 kHz, consistent with a 20–29 μs delay, and flattened at higher frequencies. Measurements from different directions showed that stapes motion is predominantly pistonlike except in a narrow frequency band around 10 kHz. Cochlear input impedance was estimated from HMY and previously-measured cochlear sound pressure. Results do not support the idea that the middle ear is a lossless matched transmission line. Results support the ideas that (1) middle-ear transmission is consistent with a mechanical transmission line or multiresonant network between 5 and 35 kHz and decreases at higher frequencies, (2) stapes motion is pistonlike over most of the gerbil auditory range, and (3) middle-ear transmission properties are a determinant of the audiogram. PMID:18646983

  16. Reasons for low uptake of referrals to ear and hearing services for children in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Bright, Tess; Mulwafu, Wakisa; Thindwa, Richard; Zuurmond, Maria; Polack, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Early detection and appropriate intervention for children with hearing impairment is important for maximizing functioning and quality of life. The lack of ear and hearing services in low income countries is a significant challenge, however, evidence suggests that even where such services are available, and children are referred to them, uptake is low. The aim of this study was to assess uptake of and barriers to referrals to ear and hearing services for children in Thyolo District, Malawi. This was a mixed methods study. A survey was conducted with 170 caregivers of children who were referred for ear and hearing services during community-based screening camps to assess whether they had attended their referral and reasons for non-attendance. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 caregivers of children who did not take up their referral to explore in-depth the reasons for non-uptake. In addition, 15 stakeholders were interviewed. Thematic analysis of the interview data was conducted and emerging trends were analysed. Referral uptake was very low with only 5 out of 150 (3%) children attending. Seven main interacting themes for non-uptake of referral were identified in the semi-structured interviews: location of the hospital, lack of transport, other indirect costs of seeking care, fear and uncertainty about the referral hospital, procedural problems within the camps, awareness and understanding of hearing loss, and lack of visibility and availability of services. This study has highlighted a range of interacting challenges faced by families in accessing ear and hearing services in this setting. Understanding these context specific barriers to non-uptake of ear and hearing services is important for designing appropriate interventions to increase uptake.

  17. Reasons for low uptake of referrals to ear and hearing services for children in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Mulwafu, Wakisa; Thindwa, Richard; Zuurmond, Maria; Polack, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Background Early detection and appropriate intervention for children with hearing impairment is important for maximizing functioning and quality of life. The lack of ear and hearing services in low income countries is a significant challenge, however, evidence suggests that even where such services are available, and children are referred to them, uptake is low. The aim of this study was to assess uptake of and barriers to referrals to ear and hearing services for children in Thyolo District, Malawi. Methods This was a mixed methods study. A survey was conducted with 170 caregivers of children who were referred for ear and hearing services during community-based screening camps to assess whether they had attended their referral and reasons for non-attendance. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 caregivers of children who did not take up their referral to explore in-depth the reasons for non-uptake. In addition, 15 stakeholders were interviewed. Thematic analysis of the interview data was conducted and emerging trends were analysed. Results Referral uptake was very low with only 5 out of 150 (3%) children attending. Seven main interacting themes for non-uptake of referral were identified in the semi-structured interviews: location of the hospital, lack of transport, other indirect costs of seeking care, fear and uncertainty about the referral hospital, procedural problems within the camps, awareness and understanding of hearing loss, and lack of visibility and availability of services. Conclusion This study has highlighted a range of interacting challenges faced by families in accessing ear and hearing services in this setting. Understanding these context specific barriers to non-uptake of ear and hearing services is important for designing appropriate interventions to increase uptake. PMID:29261683

  18. Maintaining ear aesthetics in helical rim reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Taylor, James M; Rajan, Ruchika; Dickson, John K; Mahajan, Ajay L

    2014-03-01

    Wedge resections of the helical rim may result in a significant deformity of the ear with the ear not only smaller but cupped and prominent too. Our technique involves resection of the wedge in the scaphal area without extending into the concha followed by advancement of the helical rim into the defect. This technique is most suitable for peripheral defects of the helical rim, in the middle third. Our modified surgical technique was applied to reconstruction of the pinna after resection of the tumor in 12 patients. Free cartilaginous helical rim, length of helical rim to be resected, and projection of the ear from the mastoid was measured. This was then compared with measurements after the operation, and the patient satisfaction assessed with a visual analog scale. The free cartilaginous rim was 91.67 ± 5.61 mm. Of this, 21.92 ± 3.78 mm was resected, which amounted to 23.84% ± 3.35% of the rim. Although this resulted in a mean increase in ear projection of 6.42 ± 1.68 mm, the aesthetic outcome was good (visual analog scale, 9.08 ± 0.9). This technique reduces cupping and does not make the ear as prominent as it may do after a conventional wedge resection and results in high patient satisfaction.

  19. Evolution and development of the vertebrate ear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritzsch, B.; Beisel, K. W.

    2001-01-01

    This review outlines major aspects of development and evolution of the ear, specifically addressing issues of cell fate commitment and the emerging molecular governance of these decisions. Available data support the notion of homology of subsets of mechanosensors across phyla (proprioreceptive mechanosensory neurons in insects, hair cells in vertebrates). It is argued that this conservation is primarily related to the specific transducing environment needed to achieve mechanosensation. Achieving this requires highly conserved transcription factors that regulate the expression of the relevant structural genes for mechanosensory transduction. While conserved at the level of some cell fate assignment genes (atonal and its mammalian homologue), the ear has also radically reorganized its development by implementing genes used for cell fate assignment in other parts of the developing nervous systems (e.g., neurogenin 1) and by evolving novel sets of genes specifically associated with the novel formation of sensory neurons that contact hair cells (neurotrophins and their receptors). Numerous genes have been identified that regulate morphogenesis, but there is only one common feature that emerges at the moment: the ear appears to have co-opted genes from a large variety of other parts of the developing body (forebrain, limbs, kidneys) and establishes, in combination with existing transcription factors, an environment in which those genes govern novel, ear-related morphogenetic aspects. The ear thus represents a unique mix of highly conserved developmental elements combined with co-opted and newly evolved developmental elements.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS USING ZERO-VALENT IRON: AN EVALUATION AT TWO SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geochemical and microbiological factors that control long-term performance of subsurface permeable reactive barriers were evaluated at the Elizabeth City, NC and the Denver Federal Center, CO sites. These groundwater treatment systems use zero-valent iron filings to intercept an...

  1. Evaluation of a non-proprietary, high-tension, four-cable median barrier on level terrain.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-11-01

    During the last decade, the use of cable median barriers has risen dramatically. Cable barriers are often utilized in depressed medians : with widths ranging from 30 to 50 ft (9.1 to 15.2 m) and with fill slopes as steep as 4H:1V. A careful review of...

  2. Evaluation of the flammability of trees and shrubs used in the implementation of green barriers in southern Brazil

    Treesearch

    Antonio Carlos Batista; Daniela Biondi; Alexandre França Tetto; Rafaela de Assunção; Andressa Tres; Raquel Costa Chiao Travenisk; Bruna Kovalsyki

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of green barriers, also known as green fuelbreaks, is to reduce the spread and intensity of fire, mainly by stopping it from spreading to the treetops, which facilitates fire control and suppression. A major difficulty in implementing green barriers is to identify suitable species for forming these structures. The aim of this study was to assess the...

  3. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Stormwater Decision Support Tools for Infrastructure Selection and the Barriers to Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spahr, K.; Hogue, T. S.

    2016-12-01

    Selecting the most appropriate green, gray, and / or hybrid system for stormwater treatment and conveyance can prove challenging to decision markers across all scales, from site managers to large municipalities. To help streamline the selection process, a multi-disciplinary team of academics and professionals is developing an industry standard for selecting and evaluating the most appropriate stormwater management technology for different regions. To make the tool more robust and comprehensive, life-cycle cost assessment and optimization modules will be included to evaluate non-monetized and ecosystem benefits of selected technologies. Initial work includes surveying advisory board members based in cities that use existing decision support tools in their infrastructure planning process. These surveys will qualify the decisions currently being made and identify challenges within the current planning process across a range of hydroclimatic regions and city size. Analysis of social and other non-technical barriers to adoption of the existing tools is also being performed, with identification of regional differences and institutional challenges. Surveys will also gage the regional appropriateness of certain stormwater technologies based off experiences in implementing stormwater treatment and conveyance plans. In additional to compiling qualitative data on existing decision support tools, a technical review of components of the decision support tool used will be performed. Gaps in each tool's analysis, like the lack of certain critical functionalities, will be identified and ease of use will be evaluated. Conclusions drawn from both the qualitative and quantitative analyses will be used to inform the development of the new decision support tool and its eventual dissemination.

  4. An economic evaluation of setting up physical barriers in railway stations for preventing railway injury: evidence from Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Law, C K; Yip, P S F

    2011-10-01

    Setting physical barriers, for example platform screen doors (PSDs), has been proven to be effective in preventing falls onto railway tracks, but its cost-effectiveness is not known. For economic evaluation of public health interventions, the importance of including non-health factors has been noted despite a lack of empirical studies. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of PSDs, which are installed in part of the Hong Kong railway system, for preventing railway injuries. Data on railway injuries from 1997 to 2007 were obtained from the railway operators. Poisson regression was used to examine the risk reduction. Two incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were calculated to assess the cost-effectiveness based on (1) disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) only and (2) DALYs with potential fare revenue and passengers' waiting time lost due to railway circulation collapse. The PSD installation has effectively reduced railway injuries (adjusted 5-year average percentage change: -68.8%, p<0.0001) with no apparent substitution effect to the other platforms observed. To be cost-effective, the cost of gaining a healthy life year (ICER) should not exceed three times the per capita GDP (US$74,700). The PSD installation would only be cost-effective if the loss of fare revenue and passengers' waiting time, in addition to DALY, were included (ICER: US$65,400), while the ICER based on DALY only would be US$77,900. The challenges of complexity for economic evaluation appear in many community-based health interventions. A more extensive perspective for exploring other outcome measurements and evaluation methods to reflect a fair and appropriate value of the intervention's cost-effectiveness is needed.

  5. Ear molding in newborn infants with auricular deformities.

    PubMed

    Byrd, H Steve; Langevin, Claude-Jean; Ghidoni, Lorraine A

    2010-10-01

    A review of a single physician's experience in managing over 831 infant ear deformities (488 patients) is presented. The authors' methods of molding have advanced from the use of various tapes, glues, and stents, to a comprehensive yet simple system that shapes the antihelix, the triangular fossa, the helical rim, and the overly prominent conchal-mastoid angle (EarWell Infant Ear Correction System). The types of deformities managed, and their relative occurrence, are as follows: (1) prominent/cup ear, 373 ears (45 percent); (2) lidding/lop ear, 224 ears (27 percent); (3) mixed ear deformities, 83 ears (10 percent) (all had associated conchal crus); (4) Stahl's ear, 66 ears (8 percent); (5) helical rim abnormalities, 58 ears (7 percent); (6) conchal crus, 25 ears (3 percent); and (7) cryptotia, two ears (0.2 percent). Bilateral deformities were present in 340 patients (70 percent), with unilateral deformities in 148 patients (30 percent). Fifty-eight infant ears (34 patients) were treated using the final version of the EarWell Infant Ear Correction System with a success rate exceeding 90 percent (good to excellent results). The system was found to be most successful when begun in the first week of the infant's life. When molding was initiated after 3 weeks from birth, only approximately half of the infants had a good response. Congenital ear deformities are common and only approximately 30 percent self-correct. These deformities can be corrected by initiating appropriate molding in the first week of life. Neonatal molding reduces the need for surgical correction with results that often exceed what can be achieved with the surgical alternative.

  6. Field evaluation of vegetation and noise barriers for mitigation of near-freeway air pollution under variable wind conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eon S.; Ranasinghe, Dilhara R.; Ahangar, Faraz Enayati; Amini, Seyedmorteza; Mara, Steven; Choi, Wonsik; Paulson, Suzanne; Zhu, Yifang

    2018-02-01

    Traffic-related air pollutants are a significant public health concern, particularly near freeways. Previous studies have suggested either soundwall or vegetation barriers might reduce the near-freeway air pollution. This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of a combination of both soundwall and vegetation barrier for reducing ultrafine particles (UFPs, diameter ≤ 100 nm) and PM2.5 (diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) concentrations. Concurrent data collection was carried out at both upwind and downwind fixed locations approximately 10-15 m away from the edge of two major freeways in California. This study observed that the reduction of UFP and PM2.5 was generally greater with the combination barrier than with either soundwall or vegetation alone. Since there were no non-barrier sites at the study locations, the reductions reported here are all in relative terms. The soundwall barrier was more effective for reducing PM2.5 (25-53%) than UFPs (0-5%), and was most effective (51-53% for PM2.5) when the wind speed ranged between 1 and 2 m/s. Under the same range of wind speed, the vegetation barrier had little effect (0-5%) on reducing PM2.5; but was effective at reducing UFP (up to 50%). For both types of roadside barrier, decreasing wind speed resulted in greater net reduction of UFPs (i.e., total number particle concentrations; inversely proportional). This trend was observed, however, only within specific particle size ranges (i.e., diameter < 20 nm for the soundwall barrier and 12-60 nm for the vegetation barrier). Out of these size ranges, the reduction of UFP concentration was proportional to increasing wind speed. Overall findings of this study support positive effects of soundwall and vegetation barriers for near-freeway air pollution mitigation.

  7. Precise individualized armature for ear reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evenhouse, Raymond J.; Chen, Xiaoming

    1991-04-01

    The cosmetic result of an ear restored surgically or via prosthetics is dependent on the surgeon''s ability to carve a precise cartilage armature at the time of surgery or the prosthetist''s ability to sculpt in wax an exact duplicate of the patient''s " missing" ear. Introducing CAD/CAM technology into the process benefits the esthetic outcome of these procedures. By utilizing serial section information derived from CAT MRI or moulage techniques a mirrorimage of the patient''s " donor" ear is generated. The resulting earform data is then used for the design of a cartilage armature produced by multi-axis milling or to produce by stereolithography a model which serves as the basis for a prosthesis.

  8. Building an endoscopic ear surgery program.

    PubMed

    Golub, Justin S

    2016-10-01

    This article discusses background, operative details, and outcomes of endoscopic ear surgery. This information will be helpful for those establishing a new program. Endoscopic ear surgery is growing in popularity. The ideal benefit is in totally transcanal access that would otherwise require a larger incision. The endoscope carries a number of advantages over the microscope, as well as some disadvantages. Several key maneuvers can minimize disadvantages. There is a paucity of studies directly comparing outcomes between endoscopic and microscopic approaches for the same procedure. The endoscope is gaining acceptance as a tool for treating otologic diseases. For interested surgeons, this article can help bridge the transition from microscopic to totally transcanal endoscopic ear surgery for appropriate disease.

  9. Exploring the barriers to rigorous monitoring and evaluation of health systems strengthening activities: qualitative evidence from international development partners.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Janna M; Yeager, Valerie A; Diana, Mark L; Hotchkiss, David R

    2016-10-01

    The number of health systems strengthening (HSS) programs has increased in the last decade. However, a limited number of studies providing robust evidence for the value and impact of these programs are available. This study aims to identify knowledge gaps and challenges that impede rigorous monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of HSS, and to ascertain the extent to which these efforts are informed by existing technical guidance. Interviews were conducted with HSS advisors at United States Agency for International Development-funded missions as well as senior M&E advisors at implementing partner and multilateral organizations. Findings showed that mission staff do not use existing technical resources, either because they do not know about them or do not find them useful. Barriers to rigorous M&E included a lack suitable of indicators, data limitations, difficulty in demonstrating an impact on health, and insufficient funding and resources. Consensus and collaboration between international health partners and local governments may mitigate these challenges. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Evaluation of storing hepatitis B vaccine outside the cold chain in the Solomon Islands: Identifying opportunities and barriers to implementation.

    PubMed

    Breakwell, Lucy; Anga, Jenniffer; Dadari, Ibrahim; Sadr-Azodi, Nahad; Ogaoga, Divinal; Patel, Minal

    2017-05-15

    Monovalent Hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) is heat stable, making it suitable for storage outside cold chain (OCC) at 37°C for 1month. We conducted an OCC project in the Solomon Islands to determine the feasibility of and barriers to national implementation and to evaluate impact on coverage. Healthcare workers at 13 facilities maintained monovalent HepB birth dose (HepB-BD) OCC for up to 28days over 7months. Vaccination data were recorded for children born during the project and those born during 7months before the project. Timely HepB-BD coverage among facility and home births increased from 30% to 68% and from 4% to 24%, respectively. Temperature excursions above 37°C were rare, but vaccine wastage was high and shortages common. Storing HepB OCC can increase HepB-BD coverage in countries with insufficient cold chain capacity or numerous home births. High vaccine wastage and unreliable vaccine supply must be addressed for successful implementation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Evaluation of immigration status, race and language barriers on chronic hepatitis C virus infection management and treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Céline; Druyts, Eric F; Garber, Gary; Cooper, Curtis

    2009-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence in certain Canadian immigrant populations is higher than that of the overall population. Disparities in care related to immigration status as well as to race and language are well recognized. Identifying and understanding these disparities is vital to the provision of optimal and inclusive HCV care. HCV RNA-positive patients assessed at The Ottawa Hospital Viral Hepatitis Clinic between June 2000 and June 2007 were identified using a clinical database. As measures of access to care, liver biopsy rates, treatment initiation rates, supportive care provision (i.e. erythropoietin for treatment-related anemia) and sustained virological response (SVR) rates were assessed as a function of immigration status, race and spoken language. Nine hundred and ten patients were evaluated, of which 20% were immigrants. Biopsy rates (54 vs. 51%), HCV treatment initiation (37 vs. 38%), erythropoietin prescription (13 vs. 18%) and SVR rates (52 vs. 51%) did not differ between immigrants and Canadian-born individuals. Spoken language and race did not influence access to treatment. SVR was predicted by genotype, HIV status and race. In the context of a multidisciplinary, multilingual universal health care system, by studying the influence of barriers to HCV investigation and successful therapy can be abrogated.

  12. Evaluation of manhole inserts as structural barriers to mosquito entry into belowground stormwater systems using a simulated treatment device.

    PubMed

    Harbison, Justin E; Metzger, Marco E; Allen, Vaikko; Hu, Renjie

    2009-09-01

    Belowground proprietary stormwater treatment devices can produce mosquitoes, including vectors of West Nile virus. Elimination of vertical entry points such as pick holes in manhole covers may reduce the number of mosquitoes entering and reproducing in these structures. Plastic manhole dish inserts were evaluated as structural barriers against mosquito entry through pick holes in a simulated stormwater treatment device. Inserts were 100% effective at preventing mosquito entry through covers when no other openings existed. In devices configured with an open lateral conveyance pipe, the addition of an insert under the cover reduced mosquito oviposition significantly. Subsequent trials to further elucidate mosquito entry through manhole covers found a significant positive correlation between increasing number of pick holes and mosquito oviposition. Results of the study suggest the potential for manhole dish inserts to decrease the number of mosquitoes entering belowground structures. The different available stormwater treatment systems and site-specific installations may, however, provide a much greater variety of possible alternate entry points for mosquitoes than was addressed in the current study. Further work is needed in field installations to quantify the significance of pick holes to mosquito entry and determine under what conditions, if any, manhole dish inserts would be most effective and appropriate.

  13. The effect of continuous positive airway pressure on middle ear pressure.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fred Y; Gurgel, Richard K; Popelka, Gerald R; Capasso, Robson

    2012-03-01

    While continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is commonly used for obstructive sleep apnea treatment, its effect on middle ear pressure is unknown. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of CPAP on middle ear pressure and describe the correlation between CPAP levels and middle ear pressures. Retrospective review of normal tympanometry values and a prospective cohort evaluation of subjects' tympanometric values while using CPAP at distinct pressure levels. A total of 3,066 tympanograms were evaluated to determine the normal range of middle ear pressures. Ten subjects with no known history of eustachian tube dysfunction or obstructive sleep apnea had standard tympanometry measurements while wearing a CPAP device. Measurements were taken at baseline and with CPAP air pressures of 0, 5, 10, and 15 cm H(2)O. The percentage of normal control patients with middle ear pressures above 40 daPa was 0.03%. In the study population, prior to a swallowing maneuver to open the eustachian tube, average middle ear pressures were 21.67 daPa, 22.63 daPa, 20.42, daPa, and 21.58 daPa with CPAP pressures of 0, 5, 10, and 15 cm H(2) 0, respectively. After swallowing, average middle ear air pressures were 18.83 daPa, 46.75 daPa, 82.17 daPa, and 129.17 daPa with CPAP pressures of 0, 5, 10, and 15 cm H(2)0, respectively. The postswallow Pearson correlation coefficient correlating CPAP and middle ear pressures was 0.783 (P < 0.001). Middle ear air pressure is directly proportional to CPAP air pressure in subjects with normal eustachian tube function. Middle ear pressure reaches supraphysiologic levels at even minimal CPAP levels. Although further investigation is necessary, there may be otologic implications for patients who are chronically CPAP dependent. These findings may also influence the perioperative practice of otologic and skull base surgeons. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Investigating the complementary value of discrete choice experiments for the evaluation of barriers and facilitators in implementation research: a questionnaire survey

    PubMed Central

    van Helvoort-Postulart, Debby; van der Weijden, Trudy; Dellaert, Benedict GC; de Kok, Mascha; von Meyenfeldt, Maarten F; Dirksen, Carmen D

    2009-01-01

    Background The potential barriers and facilitators to change should guide the choice of implementation strategy. Implementation researchers believe that existing methods for the evaluation of potential barriers and facilitators are not satisfactory. Discrete choice experiments (DCE) are relatively new in the health care sector to investigate preferences, and may be of value in the field of implementation research. The objective of our study was to investigate the complementary value of DCE for the evaluation of barriers and facilitators in implementation research. Methods Clinical subject was the implementation of the guideline for breast cancer surgery in day care. We identified 17 potential barriers and facilitators to the implementation of this guideline. We used a traditional questionnaire that was made up of statements about the potential barriers and facilitators. Respondents answered 17 statements on a five-point scale ranging from one (fully disagree) to five (fully agree). The potential barriers and facilitators were included in the DCE as decision attributes. Data were gathered among anaesthesiologists, surgical oncologists, and breast care nurses by means of a paper-and-pencil questionnaire. Results The overall response was 10%. The most striking finding was that the responses to the traditional questionnaire hardly differentiated between barriers. Forty-seven percent of the respondents thought that DCE is an inappropriate method. These respondents considered DCE too difficult and too time-consuming. Unlike the traditional questionnaire, the results of a DCE provide implementation researchers and clinicians with a relative attribute importance ranking that can be used to prioritize potential barriers and facilitators to change, and hence to better fine-tune the implementation strategies to the specific problems and challenges of a particular implementation process. Conclusion The results of our DCE and traditional questionnaire would probably lead to

  15. Bioassay evaluation of residual activity of attractive toxic sugar-treated barrier fence in the control of Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Saghafipour, Abedin; Vatandoost, Hassan; Zahraei-Ramazani, Ali Reza; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Rassi, Yavar; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Phlebotomus papatasi is the main vector of the zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) in Qom Province and many other provinces of Iran. Attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) treated barrier fence is one of the new methods for controlling the vectors such as sandflies. The present study was designed to evaluate the residual activity of ATSB-treated barrier fence that was used in control of P. papatasi. Following the selection of villages in Markazi district of Qom Province, central Iran during 2015 for ATSB and ASB (bait containing no active ingredient) methods; barrier fences on the ground in front of the rodent's colony were installed. A total of four conical tubes were installed and fixed on surfaces of treated barrier net of dimension 25 Χ 25 cm at biweekly interval. In each conical tube, 10 sand flies were released and after 3 min of exposure they were transferred to sterile cups. After 24 h, the obtained results were recorded according to the survival and mortality rate of sandflies. These tests were carried out five days after the installation of barrier fences, and repeated every 15 days until the mortality rate decreased to 60-65%. The bioassay tests results showed that the mortality rate of P. papatasi on ATSB-treated barrier fence for 5, 15, 30 and 45 days after spraying was 100, 95.83, 88.18 and 66.67% respectively, which decreased to 50.83% after 60 days. Persistence and residual activity of the active ingredient of the bait in the hot and dry climatic conditions of Qom Province remained significantly effective for at most 45 days, which subsequently decreased at a high rate. Hence, every 45 days barrier fences need to be impregnated with ATSB bait. The method also appeared cost-effective and could be practical in implementation of vector control programmes against ZCL.

  16. Expansion method in secondary total ear reconstruction for undesirable reconstructed ear.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tun; Hu, Jintian; Zhou, Xu; Zhang, Qingguo

    2014-09-01

    Ear reconstruction by autologous costal cartilage grafting is the most widely applied technique with fewer complications. However, undesirable ear reconstruction brings more problems to plastic surgeons. Some authors resort to free flap or osseointegration technique with prosthetic ear. In this article, we introduce a secondary total ear reconstruction with expanded skin flap method. From July 2010 to April 2012, 7 cases of undesirable ear reconstruction were repaired by tissue expansion method. Procedures including removal of previous cartilage framework, soft tissue expander insertion, and second stage of cartilage framework insertion were performed to each case regarding their local conditions. The follow-up time ranged from 6 months to 2.5 years. All of the cases recovered well with good 3-dimensional forms, symmetrical auriculocephalic angle, and stable fixation. All these evidence showed that this novel expansion method is safe, stable, and less traumatic for secondary total ear reconstruction. With sufficient expanded skin flap and refabricated cartilage framework, lifelike appearance of reconstructed ear could be acquired without causing additional injury.

  17. Gustatory otalgia and wet ear syndrome: a possible cross-innervation after ear surgery.

    PubMed

    Saito, H

    1999-04-01

    The chorda tympani and Arnold's nerves have close approximation to each other and their cross-innervation is possible after ear surgery. A retrospective study was performed with a temporal bone pathology case and two clinical cases as representatives of such a possibility. Patients had severe otalgia and wet ear during gustatory stimulation. A temporal bone pathology case was studied under a light microscope. Earache and/or wet ear were provoked during gustatory stimulation. Wet ear was tested with iodine-starch reaction after the subject tasted lemon juice. The temporal bone specimen has clusters of regenerated fibers in the tympanic cavity in the area of the chorda tympani and Arnold's nerves, suggesting a possibility of mixing. There are regenerated fibers in the iter chordae anterius, showing successful bridging of the chorda tympani nerves across a long gap. Detachment of the skin over the operated mastoid bowl obscured signs in one clinical case. Another clinical case of gustatory wet ear showed objective evidence of cross-innervation with iodine-starch reaction. The detachment procedure and iodine-starch reaction were the proofs that the signs were related to regenerated fibers. This is the first report of gustatory otalgia and wet ear after ear surgery.

  18. Dysmorphism of the middle ear: case report

    PubMed Central

    Solero, P; Ferrara, M; Musto, R; Pira, A; Di Lisi, D

    2005-01-01

    Summary Although there are numerous publications in the literature describing the wide range of diagnosis, classifications and treatment of malformations of the hearing apparatus, even more variations can be found in clinical practice. Indeed, each individual case is unique as far as concerns pathogenesis, clinical course and treatment. The case reported herein describes a 12-year-old boy affected by cranio-facial dysmorphism and monolateral conductive hearing loss in the right ear: followed from radiological diagnosis – carried out to study a malformation of the ear pinna – to surgical treatment. PMID:16602328

  19. Correcting prominent ears with the island technique.

    PubMed

    DeMoura, L F

    1977-01-01

    A surgical procedure is described which corrects the ansiform ear by repositioning and reconstructing the anthelix and the anterior crus with the formation of the triangular fossa. This corrects the scaphoconchal angle and improves the cephaloauricular angle, overcoming the problem of prominent ears. Correction in early childhood is recommended in order to avoid personality problems that may result from the deformity, particularly in boys. The technique employed yields important advantages: (1) prolonged use of the helmet-type of surgical dressing is unnecessary; (2) scars are less conspicuous; (3) the outcome is attractive and normal; (4) bleeding and inflammatory complications are avoided; and (5) recurrence of the malformation is unlikely.

  20. Are two ears not better than one?

    PubMed

    McArdle, Rachel A; Killion, Mead; Mennite, Monica A; Chisolm, Theresa H

    2012-03-01

    The decision to fit one or two hearing aids in individuals with binaural hearing loss has been debated for years. Although some 78% of U.S. hearing aid fittings are binaural (Kochkin , 2010), Walden and Walden (2005) presented data showing that 82% (23 of 28 patients) of their sample obtained significantly better speech recognition in noise scores when wearing one hearing aid as opposed to two. To conduct two new experiments to fuel the monaural/binaural debate. The first experiment was a replication of Walden and Walden (2005), whereas the second experiment examined the use of binaural cues to improve speech recognition in noise. A repeated measures experimental design. Twenty veterans (aged 59-85 yr), with mild to moderately severe binaurally symmetrical hearing loss who wore binaural hearing aids were recruited from the Audiology Department at the Bay Pines VA Healthcare System. Experiment 1 followed the procedures of the Walden and Walden study, where signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) loss was measured using the Quick Speech-in-Noise (QuickSIN) test on participants who were aided with their current hearing aids. Signal and noise were presented in the sound booth at 0° azimuth under five test conditions: (1) right ear aided, (2) left ear aided, (3) both ears aided, (4) right ear aided, left ear plugged, and (5) unaided. The opposite ear in (1) and (2) was left open. In Experiment 2, binaural Knowles Electronics Manikin for Acoustic Research (KEMAR) manikin recordings made in Lou Malnati's pizza restaurant during a busy period provided a typical real-world noise, while prerecorded target sentences were presented through a small loudspeaker located in front of the KEMAR manikin. Subjects listened to the resulting binaural recordings through insert earphones under the following four conditions: (1) binaural, (2) diotic, (3) monaural left, and (4) monaural right. Results of repeated measures ANOVAs demonstrated that the best speech recognition in noise performance was

  1. Evaluating the long-term hydrology of an evapotranspiration-capillary barrier with a 1000 year design life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. Fred

    2016-06-01

    A surface barrier is a commonly used technology for isolation of subsurface contaminants. Surface barriers for isolating radioactive waste are expected to perform for centuries to millennia, yet there are very few data for field-scale surface barriers for periods approaching a decade or longer. The Prototype Hanford Barrier (PHB) with a design life of 1000 years was constructed over an existing radioactive waste site in 1994 to demonstrate its long-term performance. The primary element of the PHB is an evapotranspiration-capillary (ETC) barrier in which precipitation water is stored in a fine-textured soil layer and later released to the atmosphere via evapotranspiration. To address the barrier performance under extreme conditions, this study included an enhanced precipitation stress test from 1995 to 1997 to determine barrier response to extreme precipitation events. During this period a 1000 year 24 h return rainstorm was simulated in March every year. The loss of vegetation on barrier hydrology was tested with a controlled fire test in 2008. The 19 year monitoring record shows that the store-and-release mechanism worked as well as or better than the design criterion. Average drainage from the ETC barrier amounted to an average of 0.005 mm yr-1, which is well below the design criterion of 0.5 mm yr-1. After a simulated wildfire, the naturally reestablished vegetation and increased evaporation combined to release the stored water and summer precipitation to the atmosphere such that drainage did not occur in the 5 years subsequent to the fire.

  2. A different type of 'glue ear': report of an unusual case of prominent ears.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Elizabeth M; O'Neill, Ann C; Regan, Padraic J

    2003-09-01

    Prominent ears is a condition that can cause extreme psychological distress in young people. This cosmetic deformity can be corrected by otoplasty, an outpatient surgical procedure that is associated with a high rate of patient satisfaction. We report the unusual case of a teenage boy who had repeatedly applied cyanoacrylate adhesive ("superglue") to his postauricular skin in an attempt to pin back his prominent ears. This case of "glue ear" was ultimately resolved by successful otoplasty, although the residual effects of the glue resulted in delayed healing of the surgical wound.

  3. Hyperspectral and chlorophyll fluorescence imaging to analyse the impact of Fusarium culmorum on the photosynthetic integrity of infected wheat ears.

    PubMed

    Bauriegel, Elke; Giebel, Antje; Herppich, Werner B

    2011-01-01

    Head blight on wheat, caused by Fusarium spp., is a serious problem for both farmers and food production due to the concomitant production of highly toxic mycotoxins in infected cereals. For selective mycotoxin analyses, information about the on-field status of infestation would be helpful. Early symptom detection directly on ears, together with the corresponding geographic position, would be important for selective harvesting. Hence, the capabilities of various digital imaging methods to detect head blight disease on winter wheat were tested. Time series of images of healthy and artificially Fusarium-infected ears were recorded with a laboratory hyperspectral imaging system (wavelength range: 400 nm to 1,000 nm). Disease-specific spectral signatures were evaluated with an imaging software. Applying the 'Spectral Angle Mapper' method, healthy and infected ear tissue could be clearly classified. Simultaneously, chlorophyll fluorescence imaging of healthy and infected ears, and visual rating of the severity of disease was performed. Between six and eleven days after artificial inoculation, photosynthetic efficiency of infected compared to healthy ears decreased. The severity of disease highly correlated with photosynthetic efficiency. Above an infection limit of 5% severity of disease, chlorophyll fluorescence imaging reliably recognised infected ears. With this technique, differentiation of the severity of disease was successful in steps of 10%. Depending on the quality of chosen regions of interests, hyperspectral imaging readily detects head blight 7 d after inoculation up to a severity of disease of 50%. After beginning of ripening, healthy and diseased ears were hardly distinguishable with the evaluated methods.

  4. Dynamic evaluation of a pinned anchoring system for New York state's temporary concrete barriers--phase II.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-01-27

    Temporary concrete barrier (TCB) systems are utilized in many situations, including placement adjacent to vertical drop-offs. : Free-standing TCB systems are known to have relatively large deflections when impacted, which may be undesirable when deal...

  5. Dynamic evaluation of a pinned anchoring system for New York state's temporary concrete barriers : final report, September 8, 2009.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-09-08

    Temporary concrete barrier (TCB) systems are utilized in many circumstances, including for placement adjacent to vertical : dropoffs. Free-standing TCB systems are known to have relatively large deflections when impacted, which may be undesirable whe...

  6. [An ear thermometer based on infrared thermopiles sensor].

    PubMed

    Xie, Haiyuan; Qian, Mingli

    2013-09-01

    According to the development of body temperature measurement mode, an ear thermometer with infrared thermopiles sensor is designed for body thermometry Compared with oral thermometer, the accuracy of ear thermometer is acceptable.

  7. Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders Pediatric Obesity ... self-esteem, and isolation from their peers. Pediatric obesity and otolaryngic problems Otolaryngologists, or ear, nose, and ...

  8. Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Although there is no proven medical link between middle ear infections and pediatric obesity there may be a behavioral association between the two conditions. Some studies have found that when a child is rubbing or massaging the infected ear the ...

  9. Transmission matrix analysis of the chinchilla middle ear

    PubMed Central

    Songer, Jocelyn E.; Rosowski, John J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the common use of the chinchilla as an animal model in auditory research, a complete characterization of the chinchilla middle ear using transmission matrix analysis has not been performed. In this paper we describe measurements of middle-ear input admittance and stapes velocity in ears with the middle-ear cavity opened under three conditions: intact tympano-ossicular system and cochlea, after the cochlea has been drained, and after the stapes has been fixed. These measurements, made with stimulus frequencies of 100–8000 Hz, are used to define the transmission matrix parameters of the middle ear and to calculate the cochlear input impedance as well as the middle-ear output impedance. This transmission characterization of the chinchilla middle ear will be useful for modeling auditory sensitivity in the normal and pathological chinchilla ear. PMID:17672642

  10. Ear tube surgery - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    What to ask your doctor about ear tube surgery; Tympanostomy - what to ask your doctor; Myringotomy - what to ask your doctor ... need ear tubes? Can we try other treatments? What are the risks of the surgery? Is it ...

  11. Should children who use cochlear implants wear hearing aids in the opposite ear?

    PubMed

    Ching, T Y; Psarros, C; Hill, M; Dillon, H; Incerti, P

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate 1) whether a hearing aid needs to be adjusted differently depending on whether a child wears a cochlear implant or another hearing aid in the contralateral ear; 2) whether the use of a hearing aid and a cochlear implant in opposite ears leads to binaural interference; and 3) whether the use of a hearing aid and a cochlear implant in opposite ears leads to binaural benefits in speech perception, localization, and communicative functioning in real life. Sixteen children participated in this study. All children used a Nucleus 22 or Nucleus 24 cochlear implant system programmed with the SPEAK strategy in one ear. The hearing aid amplification requirements in the nonimplanted ear of these children were determined using two procedures. A paired comparison technique was used to identify the frequency response that was best for speech intelligibility in quiet, and a loudness balancing technique was used to match the loudness of speech in the ear with a hearing aid to that with a cochlear implant. Eleven of the 16 children participated in the investigation of binaural effects. Performance in speech perception, localization, and communicative functioning was assessed under four aided conditions: cochlear implant with hearing aid as worn, cochlear implant alone, hearing aid alone, and cochlear implant with hearing aid adjusted according to individual requirements. Fifteen of the 16 children whose amplification requirements were determined preferred a hearing aid frequency response that was within +/-6 dB/octave of the NAL-RP prescription. On average, the children required 6 dB more gain than prescribed to balance the loudness of the implanted ear for a speech signal presented at 65 dB SPL. For all 11 children whose performance was evaluated for investigating binaural effects, there was no indication of significantly poorer performance under bilaterally aided conditions compared with unilaterally aided conditions. On average, there were

  12. Getting Teens to Read with Their Ears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fues, Marianne Cole

    2009-01-01

    Audiobooks have been around for years in various formats, like cassette tapes and CDs. This article describes a new type of audiobook on the market which is generating an interest in "reading." The device, called Playaway, is the size of a MP3 player and comes with a lanyard and ear buds. Buttons on the back of the player control the…

  13. Congenital tuberculosis localised to the ear.

    PubMed Central

    Naranbhai, R C; Mathiassen, W; Malan, A F

    1989-01-01

    We report two infants who had localised congenital tuberculous otitis. In both cases the infants presented with an ear discharge and both mothers had been diagnosed as having miliary tuberculosis. Infection is thought to have occurred in utero or during birth. Images Figure PMID:2786383

  14. A systematic review on external ear melanoma.

    PubMed

    Toia, Francesca; Garbo, Giuseppe; Tripoli, Massimiliano; Rinaldi, Gaetana; Moschella, Francesco; Cordova, Adriana

    2015-07-01

    External ear melanoma accounts for only 1% of all cutaneous melanomas, and data on its optimal management and prognosis are limited. We aim to review the literature on external ear melanoma to guide surgeons in the treatment of this uncommon and peculiar pathology. A systematic review of English language studies on ear melanoma published from 1993 to 2013 was performed using the PubMed electronic database. Data on epidemiology, oncological treatment (tumor resection and regional lymph nodes management), and reconstruction were extrapolated from selected papers. The total number of patients was 858 (30 studies). The helix was the most common location (57%); superficial spreading melanoma was the most common histopathological subtype (41%). The mean Breslow thickness was 2.01 mm, with 88% of stage I-II patients. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed in 45% of patients, with 8% of positive nodes. Available data on its prognosis are fragmentary and contrasting, but the Breslow thickness appears to be the main prognostic factor. There is a tendency towards reduced resection margins and preservation of the underlying perichondrium and cartilage. Local flaps are the most popular reconstructive option. To the best of our knowledge, this systematic review presents the largest data series on external ear melanoma. There is no general agreement on its surgical management, but a favorable prognosis seems to justify the tendency towards conservative treatments. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Surgical correction of the cauliflower ear.

    PubMed

    Vogelin, E; Grobbelaar, A O; Chana, J S; Gault, D T

    1998-07-01

    The cauliflower ear presents a challenge to the surgeon. Patients complain of discomfort and appearance. Three patients were treated surgically via a posterior approach to remove the hardened segment and re-sculpture a leaf of cartilage left in place. An acceptable cosmetic result was achieved and all patients are currently pain free.

  16. Interaction Between Allergy and Middle Ear Infection.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Woo Jin

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies have attempted to identify interactions among the causes of otitis media with effusion (OME). This review discusses the interaction between allergy and infection with regard to host and environmental factors in terms of the development of OME. Protection of the upper airway against microbial invasion requires active interaction between the defense mechanisms of the respiratory epithelium, including innate and adaptive immunity, and mechanical factors. The impairment of these defenses due to allergy and/or increased bacterial resistance may lead to increased susceptibility to infectious organisms in the respiratory tract and middle ear mucosa. Recent genetic studies have provided valuable information about the association of Toll-like receptor signaling variations with clinical phenotypes and the risk of infection in the middle ear. Among the causal factors of OME, allergy not only induces an inflammatory reaction in the middle ear cavity but also facilitates the invasion of infectious pathogens. There is also evidence that allergy can affect the susceptibility of patients to infection of the upper respiratory tract, including the middle ear cavity.

  17. A review of microvascular ear replantation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sung Won; Lee, Junsang; Oh, Suk Joon; Koh, Sung Hoon; Chung, Chul Hoon; Lee, Jong Wook

    2013-03-01

    Microvascular ear replantation is a significant challenge because of the small size of the vessels and the fact that traumatic amputations are frequently avulsed. The zone of trauma is therefore extended and the primary repair of the injured vessel is rendered unlikely. The purpose of this study is to review the literature of ear replantation. A review of the relevant literature that has been published since 1980 revealed 47 cases reported in 37 publications. We present 5 cases from our own experience and analyze a total 52 cases of microvascular ear replantation. The patient's age, sex, degree of amputation, cause of injury, ischemic time, method of arterial and venous anastomosis, complications, any additional outflow used, postoperative medications, the requirement for transfusions, and the number of hospital admission days are described. Successful microvascular ear replantations require anastomosis of the vessels if possible. Rather than a vein graft, primary repair of the vessels, or at least pedicled repair of the artery, should be considered to ensure flap survival. In addition, vein repair should be considered if possible to ensure the secure drainage of blood from the replant. With secure circulation, the replant can survive, resulting in a very satisfactory outcome. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. Keep Your Ear-Lids Open.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrington, Gary

    1994-01-01

    This article suggests that the development of listening skills should extend to the "soundscape" of nonspeech acoustical information. It presents a model for effective aural processing, identifies categories of information obtained from nonverbal sound, and explores "ear-tuning" or listening exercises that use sound to glean…

  19. [The effect of OSAHS on middle ear and inner ear vestibule function advances].

    PubMed

    Li, K L; Li, J R

    2016-05-20

    Obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome(OSAHS) as a common frequentlyoccurring disease, it can cause repeated episodes of hypoxaemia and hypercapnia during sleep. With long period of hypoxaemia, obvious pathological changes and dysfunction emerged in heart,brain and lung then all kinds of clinical symptoms appear. Because of the middle ear and inner ear themselves anatomical characteristics and blood supply of regulating mechanism, they often has been damaged before the other important organ damage. As scholars have indepth study of the auditory system complications in patients with OSAHS, various influence of OSAHS on the middle ear,inner ear also gradually be known.This paper will review the effect of OSAHS on middle ear, inner ear and vestibule function, hope to have some application value for clinical work. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery.

  20. A pilot randomised trial to assess the methods and procedures for evaluating the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Exercise Assisted Reduction then Stop (EARS) among disadvantaged smokers.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Adrian H; Thompson, Tom P; Greaves, Colin J; Taylor, Rod S; Green, Colin; Warren, Fiona C; Kandiyali, Rebecca; Aveyard, Paul; Ayres, Richard; Byng, Richard; Campbell, John L; Ussher, Michael H; Michie, Susan; West, Robert

    2014-01-01

    There have been few rigorous studies on the effects of behavioural support for helping smokers to reduce who do not immediately wish to quit. While reduction may not have the health benefits of quitting, it may lead smokers to want to quit. Physical activity (PA) helps to reduce cravings and withdrawal symptoms, and also reduces weight gain after quitting, but smokers may be less inclined to exercise. There is scope to develop and determine the effectiveness of interventions to support smoking reduction and increase physical activity, for those not ready to quit. To conduct a pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) [Exercise Assisted Reduction then Stop (EARS) smoking study] to (1) design and evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a PA and smoking-reduction counselling intervention [for disadvantaged smokers who do not wish to quit but do want to reduce their smoking (to increase the likelihood of quitting)], and (2) to inform the design of a large RCT to determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the intervention. A single-centre, pragmatic, pilot trial with follow-up up to 16 weeks. A mixed methods approach assessed the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention and trial methods. Smokers were individually randomised to intervention or control arms. General practices, NHS buildings, community venues, and the Stop Smoking Service (SSS) within Plymouth, UK. Aged > 18 years, smoking ≥ 10 cigarettes per day (for ≥ 2 years) who wished to cut down. We excluded individuals who were contraindicated for moderate PA, posed a safety risk to the research team, wished to quit immediately or use Nicotine Replacement Therapy, not registered with a general practitioner, or did not converse in English. We designed a client-centred, counselling-based intervention designed to support smoking reduction and increases in PA. Support sessions were delivered by trained counsellors either face to face or by telephone. Both intervention

  1. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation of...

  2. The middle ear mass: a rare but important diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pankhania, Miran; Rourke, Thomas; Draper, Mark R

    2011-12-02

    The authors report a rare case of primary intracranial meningioma presenting as a middle ear mass with conductive hearing loss. The authors aim to highlight the importance of diagnosing a middle ear mass, which although rare, may have a substantial impact on ongoing patient management. A discussion of other middle ear pathologies is made in order to demonstrate the subtle differences in presentation.

  3. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation of...

  4. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation of...

  5. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation of...

  6. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation of...

  7. 15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... technology and software not subject to the EAR are described in §§ 734.7 through 734.11 and supplement no. 1... of items subject to the EAR out of the United States, or release of technology or software subject to... source code and object code software subject to the EAR. (2) Export of technology or software. (See...

  8. 15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... technology and software not subject to the EAR are described in §§ 734.7 through 734.11 and supplement no. 1... of items subject to the EAR out of the United States, or release of technology or software subject to... source code and object code software subject to the EAR. (2) Export of technology or software. (See...

  9. 15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... technology and software not subject to the EAR are described in §§ 734.7 through 734.11 and supplement no. 1... of items subject to the EAR out of the United States, or release of technology or software subject to... source code and object code software subject to the EAR. (2) Export of technology or software. (See...

  10. 15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... technology and software not subject to the EAR are described in §§ 734.7 through 734.11 and supplement no. 1... of items subject to the EAR out of the United States, or release of technology or software subject to... source code and object code software subject to the EAR. (2) Export of technology or software. (See...

  11. 15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... technology and software not subject to the EAR are described in §§ 734.7 through 734.11 and supplement no. 1... of items subject to the EAR out of the United States, or release of technology or software subject to... source code and object code software subject to the EAR. (2) Export of technology or software. (See...

  12. Role of skeletal muscle in ear development.

    PubMed

    Rot, Irena; Baguma-Nibasheka, Mark; Costain, Willard J; Hong, Paul; Tafra, Robert; Mardesic-Brakus, Snjezana; Mrduljas-Djujic, Natasa; Saraga-Babic, Mirna; Kablar, Boris

    2017-10-01

    The current paper is a continuation of our work described in Rot and Kablar, 2010. Here, we show lists of 10 up- and 87 down-regulated genes obtained by a cDNA microarray analysis that compared developing Myf5-/-:Myod-/- (and Mrf4-/-) petrous part of the temporal bone, containing middle and inner ear, to the control, at embryonic day 18.5. Myf5-/-:Myod-/- fetuses entirely lack skeletal myoblasts and muscles. They are unable to move their head, which interferes with the perception of angular acceleration. Previously, we showed that the inner ear areas most affected in Myf5-/-:Myod-/- fetuses were the vestibular cristae ampullaris, sensitive to angular acceleration. Our finding that the type I hair cells were absent in the mutants' cristae was further used here to identify a profile of genes specific to the lacking cell type. Microarrays followed by a detailed consultation of web-accessible mouse databases allowed us to identify 6 candidate genes with a possible role in the development of the inner ear sensory organs: Actc1, Pgam2, Ldb3, Eno3, Hspb7 and Smpx. Additionally, we searched for human homologues of the candidate genes since a number of syndromes in humans have associated inner ear abnormalities. Mutations in one of our candidate genes, Smpx, have been reported as the cause of X-linked deafness in humans. Our current study suggests an epigenetic role that mechanical, and potentially other, stimuli originating from muscle, play in organogenesis, and offers an approach to finding novel genes responsible for altered inner ear phenotypes.

  13. Right Ear Advantage of Speech Audiometry in Single-sided Deafness.

    PubMed

    Wettstein, Vincent G; Probst, Rudolf

    2018-04-01

    Postlingual single-sided deafness (SSD) is defined as normal hearing in one ear and severely impaired hearing in the other ear. A right ear advantage and dominance of the left hemisphere are well established findings in individuals with normal hearing and speech processing. Therefore, it seems plausible that a right ear advantage would exist in patients with SSD. The audiometric database was searched to identify patients with SSD. Results from the German monosyllabic Freiburg word test and four-syllabic number test in quiet were evaluated. Results of right-sided SSD were compared with left-sided SSD. Statistical calculations were done with the Mann-Whitney U test. Four hundred and six patients with SSD were identified, 182 with right-sided and 224 with left-sided SSD. The two groups had similar pure-tone thresholds without significant differences. All test parameters of speech audiometry had better values for right ears (SSD left) when compared with left ears (SSD right). Statistically significant results (p < 0.05) were found for a weighted score (social index, 98.2 ± 4% right and 97.5 ± 4.7% left, p < 0.026), for word understanding at 60 dB SPL (95.2 ± 8.7% right and 93.9 ± 9.1% left, p < 0.035), and for the level at which 100% understanding was reached (61.5 ± 10.1 dB SPL right and 63.8 ± 11.1 dB SPL left, p < 0.022) on a performance-level function. A right ear advantage of speech audiometry was found in patients with SSD in this retrospective study of audiometric test results.

  14. Clinical implications of magnetic resonance imaging in temporomandibular disorders patients presenting ear fullness.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Yeon; Park, Ji Woon; Park, Seo Eun; Nam, Dong Woo; Lim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Young Ho

    2017-12-14

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether findings detected by temporomandibular joint magnetic resonance imaging (TMJ-MRI) can provide pathognomonic evidence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in patients with nonspecific ear fullness (EF). The association of nonspecific EF with clinical characteristics of TMD based on TMJ-MRI findings was examined. Retrospective analysis. Thirty-four subjects (42 ears) who had no detectable otologic problems as a cause of EF were enrolled in this study. Each subject underwent TMJ-MRI to identify pathology of the TMJ as a possible cause of nonspecific EF. All subjects participated in the re-evaluation process following TMD treatment. Anatomical abnormalities in TMJ-MRI, irrespective of TMD signs, were observed in 34 of the 42 ears (80.9%), such as degenerative change of the TMJ (16 ears), articular disc displacement (11 ears), and joint effusion (seven ears). Specific abnormalities of the TMJ were associated with nonspecific EF, and this symptom showed improvement following individualized TMD treatment in those with internal derangement and/or effusion of the TMJ. However, abnormal TMJ-MRI findings were also observed in seven of nine ears with no TMD signs, and there was no significant association between the presence of TMD signs and abnormal TMJ-MRI findings (χ 2 = 0.075, P = .784). Patients presenting with nonspecific EF may have TMD, which can be effectively diagnosed using TMJ-MRI. The present study revealed the causal relationship between nonspecific EF and abnormal TMJ findings based on MRI. Individualized TMD treatments based on TMJ-MRI led to improved treatment outcomes with special regard to nonspecific EF LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Monaural or binaural sound deprivation in postlingual hearing loss: Cochlear implant in the worse ear.

    PubMed

    Canale, Andrea; Dalmasso, Giulia; Dagna, Federico; Lacilla, Michelangelo; Montuschi, Carla; Rosa, Rosalba Di; Albera, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    To determine whether speech recognition scores (SRS) differ between adults with long-term auditory deprivation in the implanted ear and adults who received cochlear implant (CI) in the nonsound-deprived ear, either for hearing aid-assisted or due to rapidly deteriorating hearing loss. Retrospective study. Speech recognition scores at evaluations (3 and 14 months postimplantation) conducted with CI alone at 60-dB sound pressure level intensity were compared in 15 patients (4 with bilateral severe hearing loss; 11 with asymmetric hearing loss, 7 of which had contralateral hearing aid), all with long-term auditory deprivation (mean duration 16.9 years) (group A), and in 15 other patients with postlingual hearing loss (10 symmetric, 5 asymmetric with bimodal stimulation) (controls, group B). Comparison of mean percentage of correctly recognized words on speech audiometry at 3 and 14 months showed improvement within each group (P < 0.05). Between-group comparison showed no significant difference at 3 (P = 0.17) or 14 months (P = 0.46). Comparison of SRSs in group A (bimodal stimulation [n = 7] and binaural sound deprivation [n = 4]) versus group B showed no significant differences at 3 (bimodal stimulation P = 0.16; binaural sound deprivation P = 0.19) or 14 months (bimodal stimulation P = 0.14; binaural sound deprivation P = 0.82). Speech recognition scores in monaural and binaural sound-deprived ears did not significantly differ from ears with unilateral cochlear implantation in nonsound-deprived ears when tested with CI alone. Improvement in the implanted worse ear indicates that it could be a potential candidate ear for cochlear implantation even when sound deprived. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:1905-1910, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  16. Vehicle barrier

    DOEpatents

    Hirsh, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    A vehicle security barrier which can be conveniently placed across a gate opening as well as readily removed from the gate opening to allow for easy passage. The security barrier includes a barrier gate in the form of a cable/gate member in combination with laterally attached pipe sections fixed by way of the cable to the gate member and lateral, security fixed vertical pipe posts. The security barrier of the present invention provides for the use of cable restraints across gate openings to provide necessary security while at the same time allowing for quick opening and closing of the gate areas without compromising security.

  17. Chinchilla middle ear transmission matrix model and middle-ear flexibilitya)

    PubMed Central

    Ravicz, Michael E.; Rosowski, John J.

    2017-01-01

    The function of the middle ear (ME) in transforming ME acoustic inputs and outputs (sound pressures and volume velocities) can be described with an acoustic two-port transmission matrix. This description is independent of the load on the ME (cochlea or ear canal) and holds in either direction: forward (from ear canal to cochlea) or reverse (from cochlea to ear canal). A transmission matrix describing ME function in chinchilla, an animal commonly used in auditory research, is presented, computed from measurements of forward ME function: input admittance YTM, ME pressure gain GMEP, ME velocity transfer function HV, and cochlear input admittance YC, in the same set of ears [Ravicz and Rosowski (2012b). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 2437–2454; (2013a). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133, 2208–2223; (2013b). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134, 2852–2865]. Unlike previous estimates, these computations require no assumptions about the state of the inner ear, effectiveness of ME manipulations, or measurements of sound transmission in the reverse direction. These element values are generally consistent with physical constraints and the anatomical ME “transformer ratio.” Differences from a previous estimate in chinchilla [Songer and Rosowski (2007). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 122, 932–942] may be due to a difference in ME flexibility between the two subject groups. PMID:28599566

  18. Chinchilla middle ear transmission matrix model and middle-ear flexibility.

    PubMed

    Ravicz, Michael E; Rosowski, John J

    2017-05-01

    The function of the middle ear (ME) in transforming ME acoustic inputs and outputs (sound pressures and volume velocities) can be described with an acoustic two-port transmission matrix. This description is independent of the load on the ME (cochlea or ear canal) and holds in either direction: forward (from ear canal to cochlea) or reverse (from cochlea to ear canal). A transmission matrix describing ME function in chinchilla, an animal commonly used in auditory research, is presented, computed from measurements of forward ME function: input admittance Y TM , ME pressure gain G MEP , ME velocity transfer function H V , and cochlear input admittance Y C , in the same set of ears [Ravicz and Rosowski (2012b). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 2437-2454; (2013a). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133, 2208-2223; (2013b). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134, 2852-2865]. Unlike previous estimates, these computations require no assumptions about the state of the inner ear, effectiveness of ME manipulations, or measurements of sound transmission in the reverse direction. These element values are generally consistent with physical constraints and the anatomical ME "transformer ratio." Differences from a previous estimate in chinchilla [Songer and Rosowski (2007). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 122, 932-942] may be due to a difference in ME flexibility between the two subject groups.

  19. Anthropometric growth study of the ear in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shichun; Li, Dianguo; Liu, Zhenzhong; Wang, Yibiao; Liu, Lei; Jiang, Duyin; Pan, Bo

    2018-04-01

    A large number of anthropometric studies of the auricle have been reported in different nations, but little data were available in the Chinese population. The aim of this study was to analyze growth changes in the ear by measuring the width and length of ears in a Chinese population. A total of 480 participants were enrolled and classified into 1-, 3-, 5-, 7-, 9-, 12-, 14-, and 18-year groups (half were boys and half were girls in each group). Ear length, ear width, body weight, and body length were measured and recorded; ear index was calculated according to ear length and ear width. The growth of auricle and differences between genders were analyzed. Growth of ear in relation to body height and weight and the degree of emphasis on the length and width of the auricle were also analyzed. Ear length and width increased with age. Ear length achieved its mature size in both 14-year-old males and females. Ear width reached its mature size in males at 7 years and in females at 5 years. Different trends of ear index were shown between males and females. People in this population paid more attention to the length than the width of the auricle. The data indicated that ear development followed increase in age. There were gender and ethnic difference in the development of ear. These results may have potential implications for the diagnosis of congenital malformations, syndromes, and planning of ear reconstruction surgery. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Ear Care in Coastal Karnataka.

    PubMed

    Dosemane, Deviprasad; Ganapathi, Keerthan; Kanthila, Jayashree

    2015-12-01

    Ear as an organ is necessary for the perception of sound and body balance. Ear infection, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and excessive use of mobile phone for listening to music at high volume all can reduce hearing. No earlier study was available in the costal Karnataka population, regarding the practice of ear care. The study objective was to ascertain the level of knowledge of the community regarding ear care, to find out whether some of the common conditions affecting hearing are known and to find out the common practices involved in maintaining ear hygiene. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 subjects in two tertiary care hospitals by convenient sampling, using self-administered questionnaire. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice across the age groups, religion & education background were studied. Across different education groups, 66.7%-90% did not know that 'cold' can cause ear infection and 46.7%-75.0% did not know that diabetes and hypertension can reduce hearing. When there is ear pain or discharge, people put ear drops available at home in 48.3%-75.0% across 3 age groups; 58.5%-61.5% across 3 religions and 44.8%-67.9% across 5 education groups. No statistically significant difference was found in the practice of pouring oil into ears across religions. A total of 58.6%-100% daily clean inside the ear and 70-100% use cotton buds. General perception of the people is that ear is necessary only for hearing. Majority did not know that nasal infection can affect the ear and that DM and hypertension can cause hearing loss. When there is ear pain and discharge, most of the adults put drops that are available at home. Pouring oil into the ears and cleaning inside the ear canals is routinely practiced in costal Karnataka.

  1. Texture analysis with statistical methods for wheat ear extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhouche, M.; Cointault, F.; Gouton, P.

    2007-01-01

    In agronomic domain, the simplification of crop counting, necessary for yield prediction and agronomic studies, is an important project for technical institutes such as Arvalis. Although the main objective of our global project is to conceive a mobile robot for natural image acquisition directly in a field, Arvalis has proposed us first to detect by image processing the number of wheat ears in images before to count them, which will allow to obtain the first component of the yield. In this paper we compare different texture image segmentation techniques based on feature extraction by first and higher order statistical methods which have been applied on our images. The extracted features are used for unsupervised pixel classification to obtain the different classes in the image. So, the K-means algorithm is implemented before the choice of a threshold to highlight the ears. Three methods have been tested in this feasibility study with very average error of 6%. Although the evaluation of the quality of the detection is visually done, automatic evaluation algorithms are currently implementing. Moreover, other statistical methods of higher order will be implemented in the future jointly with methods based on spatio-frequential transforms and specific filtering.

  2. Inner ear changes in mucopolysaccharidosis type I/Hurler syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kariya, Shin; Schachern, Patricia A; Nishizaki, Kazunori; Paparella, Michael M; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

    2012-10-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type I/Hurler syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease caused by a deficiency of α-L-iduronidase activity. Recurrent middle ear infections and hearing loss are common complications in Hurler syndrome. Although sensorineural and conductive components occur, the mechanism of sensorineural hearing loss has not been determined. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the quantitative inner ear histopathology of the temporal bones of patients with Hurler syndrome. Eleven temporal bones from 6 patients with Hurler syndrome were examined. Age-matched healthy control samples consisted of 14 temporal bones from 7 cases. Temporal bones were serially sectioned in the horizontal plane and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The number of spiral ganglion cells, loss of cochlear hair cells, area of stria vascularis, and cell density of spiral ligament were evaluated using light microscopy. There was no significant difference between Hurler syndrome and healthy controls in the number of spiral ganglion cells, area of stria vascularis, or cell density of spiral ligament. The number of cochlear hair cells in Hurler syndrome was significantly decreased compared with healthy controls. Auditory pathophysiology in the central nerve system in Hurler syndrome remains unknown; however, decreased cochlear hair cells may be one of the important factors for the sensorineural component of hearing loss.

  3. Correction of Lying Ears by Augmentation of the Conchoscaphal Angle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Eun; Yeo, Chi-Ho; Kim, Taegon; Kim, Yong-Ha; Lee, Jun Ho; Chung, Kyu-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Lying ears are defined as ears that protrude less from the head, and in frontal view, are characterized by lateral positioning of antihelical contour relative to the helical rim. These aesthetically displeasing ears require correction in accord with the goals of otoplasty stated by McDowell. The authors present a case of lying ears treated by correcting the conchomastoid angle using Z-plasty, resection of posterior auricular muscle, and correction of the conchoscaphal angle by releasing cartilage using 2 full-thickness incisions and grafting of a conchal cartilage spacer. By combining these techniques, the authors efficiently corrected lying ears and produced aesthetically pleasing results.

  4. Management of auricular hematoma and the cauliflower ear.

    PubMed

    Greywoode, Jewel D; Pribitkin, Edmund A; Krein, Howard

    2010-12-01

    Acute auricular hematoma is common after blunt trauma to the side of the head. A network of vessels provides a rich blood supply to the ear, and the ear cartilage receives its nutrients from the overlying perichondrium. Prompt management of hematoma includes drainage and prevention of reaccumulation. If left untreated, an auricular hematoma can result in complications such as perichondritis, infection, and necrosis. Cauliflower ear may result from long-standing loss of blood supply to the ear cartilage and formation of neocartilage from disrupted perichondrium. Management of cauliflower ear involves excision of deformed cartilage and reshaping of the auricle. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  5. Validated Smartphone-Based Apps for Ear and Hearing Assessments: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Pallawela, Danuk

    2016-01-01

    Background An estimated 360 million people have a disabling hearing impairment globally, the vast majority of whom live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Early identification through screening is important to negate the negative effects of untreated hearing impairment. Substantial barriers exist in screening for hearing impairment in LMICs, such as the requirement for skilled hearing health care professionals and prohibitively expensive specialist equipment to measure hearing. These challenges may be overcome through utilization of increasingly available smartphone app technologies for ear and hearing assessments that are easy to use by unskilled professionals. Objective Our objective was to identify and compare available apps for ear and hearing assessments and consider the incorporation of such apps into hearing screening programs Methods In July 2015, the commercial app stores Google Play and Apple App Store were searched to identify apps for ear and hearing assessments. Thereafter, six databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE, Global Health, Web of Science, CINAHL, and mHealth Evidence) were searched to assess which of the apps identified in the commercial review had been validated against gold standard measures. A comparison was made between validated apps. Results App store search queries returned 30 apps that could be used for ear and hearing assessments, the majority of which are for performing audiometry. The literature search identified 11 eligible validity studies that examined 6 different apps. uHear, an app for self-administered audiometry, was validated in the highest number of peer reviewed studies against gold standard pure tone audiometry (n=5). However, the accuracy of uHear varied across these studies. Conclusions Very few of the available apps have been validated in peer-reviewed studies. Of the apps that have been validated, further independent research is required to fully understand their accuracy at detecting ear and hearing conditions. PMID

  6. [Effect of the middle ear status on the recording of vestibular evoked myogenic potential--VEMP].

    PubMed

    Kurzyna, Agnieszka; Hassmann-Poznańska, Elzbieta; Topolska, Małgorzata Maria

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the middle ear status on the recording of air- and bone-conducted vestibular evoked myogenic potential. Forty eight children were included in the study, ranging in age from 4 to 10 years. All of the children underwent otoscopy, pure tone audiometry, tympanometry and air- and bone-conducted VEMP in response to click. There were 3 groups according to the condition of the middle ear: group I--52 ears (type A and C1 tympanogram, pure tone average < or = 20 dB), group II--23 ears (type C2 and B tympanogram, pure tone average < or = 20 dB), group III--21 (type B tympanogram, pure tone average > 20 dB). The threshold, presence of correct waveform morphology of the response and latency was evaluated. The condition of the middle ear has no significant effect on the recording of VEMP and mean level of the response threshold with bone stimulation, based on the performed studies. However, with air stimulation it has effect on the recording of VEMP, increase of the mean threshold response and shortening of latency p13 and n23.

  7. Corneal critical barrier against the penetration of dexamethasone and lomefloxacin hydrochloride: evaluation by the activation energy for drug partition and diffusion in cornea.

    PubMed

    Yasueda, Shin-ichi; Higashiyama, Masayo; Yamaguchi, Masazumi; Isowaki, Akiharu; Ohtori, Akira

    2007-08-01

    The cornea is a solid barrier against drug permeation. We searched the critical barrier of corneal drug permeation using a hydrophobic drug, dexamethasone (DM), and a hydrophilic drug, lomefloxacin hydrochloride (LFLX). The activation energies for permeability of DM and LFLX across the intact cornea were 88.0 and 42.1 kJ/mol, respectively. Their activation energies for permeability across the cornea without epithelium decreased to 33.1 and 16.6 kJ/mol, respectively. The results show that epithelium is the critical barrier on the cornea against the permeation of a hydrophobic drug of DM as well as a hydrophilic drug of LFLX. The activation energy of partition for DM (66.8 kJ/mol) was approximately 3-fold larger than that of diffusion (21.2 kJ/mol). The results indicate that the partition for the hydrophobic drug of DM to the corneal epithelium is the primary barrier. Thermodynamic evaluation of activation energy for the drug permeation parameters is a good approach to investigate the mechanism of drug permeability.

  8. Ear-Shaped Stable Auricular Cartilage Engineered from Extensively Expanded Chondrocytes in an Immunocompetent Experimental Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Pomerantseva, Irina; Bichara, David A.; Tseng, Alan; Cronce, Michael J.; Cervantes, Thomas M.; Kimura, Anya M.; Neville, Craig M.; Roscioli, Nick; Vacanti, Joseph P.; Randolph, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Advancement of engineered ear in clinical practice is limited by several challenges. The complex, largely unsupported, three-dimensional auricular neocartilage structure is difficult to maintain. Neocartilage formation is challenging in an immunocompetent host due to active inflammatory and immunological responses. The large number of autologous chondrogenic cells required for engineering an adult human-sized ear presents an additional challenge because primary chondrocytes rapidly dedifferentiate during in vitro culture. The objective of this study was to engineer a stable, human ear-shaped cartilage in an immunocompetent animal model using expanded chondrocytes. The impact of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) supplementation on achieving clinically relevant expansion of primary sheep chondrocytes by in vitro culture was determined. Chondrocytes expanded in standard medium were either combined with cryopreserved, primary passage 0 chondrocytes at the time of scaffold seeding or used alone as control. Disk and human ear-shaped scaffolds were made from porous collagen; ear scaffolds had an embedded, supporting titanium wire framework. Autologous chondrocyte-seeded scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously in sheep after 2 weeks of in vitro incubation. The quality of the resulting neocartilage and its stability and retention of the original ear size and shape were evaluated at 6, 12, and 20 weeks postimplantation. Neocartilage produced from chondrocytes that were expanded in the presence of bFGF was superior, and its quality improved with increased implantation time. In addition to characteristic morphological cartilage features, its glycosaminoglycan content was high and marked elastin fiber formation was present. The overall shape of engineered ears was preserved at 20 weeks postimplantation, and the dimensional changes did not exceed 10%. The wire frame within the engineered ear was able to withstand mechanical forces during wound healing and neocartilage

  9. Intraear Compensation of Field Corn, Zea mays, from Simulated and Naturally Occurring Injury by Ear-Feeding Larvae.

    PubMed

    Steckel, S; Stewart, S D

    2015-06-01

    Ear-feeding larvae, such as corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), can be important insect pests of field corn, Zea mays L., by feeding on kernels. Recently introduced, stacked Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) traits provide improved protection from ear-feeding larvae. Thus, our objective was to evaluate how injury to kernels in the ear tip might affect yield when this injury was inflicted at the blister and milk stages. In 2010, simulated corn earworm injury reduced total kernel weight (i.e., yield) at both the blister and milk stage. In 2011, injury to ear tips at the milk stage affected total kernel weight. No differences in total kernel weight were found in 2013, regardless of when or how much injury was inflicted. Our data suggested that kernels within the same ear could compensate for injury to ear tips by increasing in size, but this increase was not always statistically significant or sufficient to overcome high levels of kernel injury. For naturally occurring injury observed on multiple corn hybrids during 2011 and 2012, our analyses showed either no or a minimal relationship between number of kernels injured by ear-feeding larvae and the total number of kernels per ear, total kernel weight, or the size of individual kernels. The results indicate that intraear compensation for kernel injury to ear tips can occur under at least some conditions. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Structures that Contribute to Middle-Ear Admittance in Chinchilla

    PubMed Central

    Rosowski, John J.; Ravicz, Michael E.; Songer, Jocelyn E.

    2009-01-01

    We describe measurements of middle-ear input admittance in chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera) before and after various manipulations that define the contributions of different middle-ear components to function. The chinchilla’s middle-ear air spaces have a large effect on the low-frequency compliance of the middle ear, and removing the influences of these spaces reveals a highly admittant tympanic membrane and ossicular chain. Measurements of the admittance of the air spaces reveal that the high-degree of segmentation of these spaces has only a small effect on the admittance. Draining the cochlea further increases the middle-ear admittance at low frequencies and removes a low-frequency (less than 300 Hz) level dependence in the admittance. Spontaneous or sound-driven contractions of the middle-ear muscles in deeply anesthetized animals were associated with significant changes in middle-ear admittance. PMID:16944166

  11. A novel vehicle for local protein delivery to the inner ear: injectable and biodegradable thermosensitive hydrogel loaded with PLGA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dai, Juan; Long, Wei; Liang, Zhongping; Wen, Lu; Yang, Fan; Chen, Gang

    2018-01-01

    Delivery of biomacromolecular drugs into the inner ear is challenging, mainly because of their inherent instability as well as physiological and anatomical barriers. Therefore, protein-friendly, hydrogel-based delivery systems following local administration are being developed for inner ear therapy. Herein, biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) containing interferon α-2 b (IFN α-2 b) were loaded in chitosan/glycerophosphate (CS/GP)-based thermosensitive hydrogel for IFN delivery by intratympanic injection. The injectable hydrogel possessed a physiological pH and formed semi-solid gel at 37 °C, with good swelling and deswelling properties. The CS/GP hydrogel could slowly degrade as visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The presence of NPs in CS/GP gel largely influenced in vitro drug release. In the guinea pig cochlea, a 1.5- to 3-fold increase in the drug exposure time of NPs-CS/GP was found than those of the solution, NPs and IFN-loaded hydrogel. Most importantly, a prolonged residence time was attained without obvious histological changes in the inner ear. This biodegradable, injectable, and thermosensitive NPs-CS/GP system may allow longer delivery of protein drugs to the inner ear, thus may be a potential novel vehicle for inner ear therapy.

  12. Evaluation and development of tools to quantify the impacts of roadside vegetation barriers on near-road air quality.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traffic emissions are associated with the elevation of health risks of people living close to highways. Roadside vegetation barriers have the potential of reducing these risks by decreasing near-road air pollution concentrations. However, while we understand the mechanisms that d...

  13. Systematic Review and Meta-study Synthesis of Qualitative Studies Evaluating Facilitators and Barriers to Participation in Colorectal Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Honein-AbouHaidar, Gladys N; Kastner, Monika; Vuong, Vincent; Perrier, Laure; Daly, Corinne; Rabeneck, Linda; Straus, Sharon; Baxter, Nancy N

    2016-06-01

    Screening reduces the incidence, morbidity, and mortality of colorectal cancer, yet participation tends to be low. We undertook a systematic review and meta-study synthesis of qualitative studies to identify facilitators and barriers to colorectal cancer screening participation. We searched major bibliographic databases for records published in all languages from inception to February 2015. Included primary studies that elicited views and perceptions towards colorectal cancer screening were appraised for relevance and quality. We used a two-stage synthesis to create an interpretation of colorectal cancer screening decisions grounded in primary studies; a thematic analysis to group themes and systematically compare studies and a meta-synthesis to generate an expanded theory of colorectal cancer screening participation. Ninety-four studies were included. The decision to participate in colorectal cancer screening depended on an individual's awareness of colorectal cancer screening. Awareness affected views of cancer, attitudes towards colorectal cancer screening modalities, and motivation for screening. Factors mediating awareness included public education to address misconceptions, primary care physician efforts to recommend screening, and the influence of friends and family. Specific barriers to participation in populations with lower participation rates included language barriers, logistical challenges to attending screening tests, and cultural beliefs. This study identifies key barriers, facilitators, and mediators to colorectal cancer screening participation. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(6); 907-17. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. EVALUATION OF BARRIERS TO THE USE OF RADIATION-CURED AND HOT MELT COATINGS IN COATED AND LAMINATED SUBSTRATE MANUFACTURING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to investigate and identify the technical, educational, and economic barriers to the use and implementation of radiation-cured and hot melt coatings in coated and laminated substrate manufacturing. (NOTE: In support of EPA's Source Reduction Re...

  15. Evaluation of US and UK Models in Simulating the Impact of Barriers on Near-Road Air Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    The possibility that roadside noise barriers can act to mitigate traffic-related air pollution exposures for people living and working near major roadways is being considered in the context of public health protection. Air pollution dispersion models that can accurately simulate ...

  16. Management of prominent ears: personal approach.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Macias, José Manuel

    2008-03-01

    Various methods for correcting prominent ears have been reported. Although anterior cartilage antihelix abrasion combined with posterior retention sutures is a conventional procedure, it does not include anterior conchal cartilage abrasion and thus allows easier reduction of the condromastoid angle. A simple and effective technique is described that involves using a rasp to score the whole anterior surface of the auricular cartilage, including the concha, in combination with Mustarde-type conchal-antihelical and conchal-mastoid retention sutures. This method was applied to 342 patients (675 ears) over 23 years, who were followed up for periods varying from 18 to 24 months. Good results were obtained for all patients with minimal complications.

  17. Ewing Sarcoma of the External Ear Canal

    PubMed Central

    Kecelioglu Binnetoglu, Kiymet; Gerin, Fatma; Sari, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a high-grade malignant tumor that has skeletal and extraskeletal forms and consists of small round cells. In the head and neck region, reported localization of extraskeletal ES includes the larynx, thyroid gland, submandibular gland, nasal fossa, pharynx, skin, and parotid gland, but not the external ear canal. Methods. We present the unique case of a 2-year-old boy with extraskeletal ES arising from the external ear canal, mimicking auricular hematoma. Results. Surgery was performed and a VAC/IE (vincristine, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide alternating with ifosfamide, and etoposide) regimen was used for adjuvant chemotherapy for 12 months. Conclusion. The clinician should consider extraskeletal ES when diagnosing tumors localized in the head and neck region because it may be manifested by a nonspecific clinical picture mimicking common otorhinolaryngologic disorders. PMID:27313930

  18. Equivalent Ear Canal Volumes in Children Pre- and Post-Tympanostomy Tube Insertion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanks, Janet E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Evaluation of preoperative and postoperative equivalent ear canal volume measures on 334 children (ages 6 weeks to 6.7 years) with chronic otitis media with effusion found that the determination could be made very accurately for children 4 years and older. Criterion values for tympanic membrane perforation and preoperative and postoperative…

  19. Impact of applying edible oils to silk channels on ear pests of sweet corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The impact of applying vegetable oils to corn silks on ear-feeding insects in sweet corn production was evaluated in 2006 and 2007. Six vegetable oils used in this experiment were canola, corn, olive, peanut, sesame, and soybean. Water and two commercial insecticidal oils (Neemix' neem oil and Sun...

  20. Structural Metadata Research in the Ears Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    detecting structural information in the word stream (the so-called “structural MDE” portion of the EARS program); other MDE efforts on speaker ... diarization are overviewed in [13]. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. We describe the structural MDE tasks, performance measurement, and corpora...tems have only recently been introduced, with NIST reporting re- sults with the Wilcoxon signed rank test for speaker -level average score differences

  1. Narrow-band evoked oto-acoustic emission from ears with normal and pathologic conditions.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Taizo; Kakigi, Akinobu; Takebayashi, Shinji; Ohono, Satoshi; Nishioka, Rie; Nakatani, Hiroaki

    2010-01-01

    Evoked oto-acoustic emission (EOAE), in particular the slow component, is fragile with the inner ear lesions and is apt to disappear in impaired ears. This presence is thought to mean that inner ear is not badly damaged, and that the presence of EOAEs in early stage sudden deafness carries a good prognosis. Narrow-band EOAE analysis would open a potentially promising way to manage sensorineural deafness. The aim of present study was to evaluate the characteristics of EOAEs from pathologic ears by a narrow-band EOAE analysis, which allowed us to investigate amplitude, frequency content and latency of EOAEs simultaneously and also to easily detect weak echoes in cases with inner ear lesions. EOAEs were analyzed by investigating narrow-band frequency contents of EOAEs, filtered by a 100-Hz step of pass bandwidth in frequency regions from 1.0 to 2.0 kHz, and by 500 Hz of pass bandwidth in the frequency ranges of 0.5-1.0 and 2.0-5.0 kHz. EOAE testing was performed in 40 normal ears and 111 ears with pathologic disorders, including sudden deafness, Ménière's disease and surgically proven acoustic neurinomas. Spontaneous oto-acoustic emission was investigated in some cases. In acoustic neurinoma, especially computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging tests were performed to assess the tumor size. (1) Narrow-band EOAE analysis revealed that EOAEs from normal ears were composed of two main echo trains and several sub-echoes. The main echo trains were divided into a fast component with a short latency of <10 ms and a slow component with a long latency of >10 ms. (2) EOAEs could often be detected from ears with moderate to severe hearing loss >45 dB HL in early stage sudden deafness. The prognosis of sudden deafness was good in cases where both a fast component and slow component were detected in the acute stage within 2 weeks after the deafness onset, and was pessimistic, when either or both of them failed to recover. (3) In Ménière's disease, EOAE was found

  2. Theory of forward and reverse middle-ear transmission applied to otoacoustic emissions in infant and adult ears

    PubMed Central

    Keefe, Douglas H.; Abdala, Carolina

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand why otoacoustic emission (OAE) levels are higher in normal-hearing human infants relative to adults. In a previous study, distortion product (DP) OAE input/output (I/O) functions were shown to differ at f2=6 kHz in adults compared to infants through 6 months of age. These DPOAE I/O functions were used to noninvasively assess immaturities in forward/reverse transmission through the ear canal and middle ear [Abdala, C., and Keefe, D. H., (2006). J. Acoust Soc. Am. 120, 3832–3842]. In the present study, ear-canal reflectance and DPOAEs measured in the same ears were analyzed using a scattering-matrix model of forward and reverse transmission in the ear canal, middle ear, and cochlea. Reflectance measurements were sensitive to frequency-dependent effects of ear-canal and middle-ear transmission that differed across OAE type and subject age. Results indicated that DPOAE levels were larger in infants mainly because the reverse middle-ear transmittance level varied with ear-canal area, which differed by more than a factor of 7 between term infants and adults. The forward middle-ear transmittance level was −16 dB less in infants, so that the conductive efficiency was poorer in infants than adults. PMID:17348521

  3. Ear recognition from one sample per person.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Mu, Zhichun; Zhang, Baoqing; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Biometrics has the advantages of efficiency and convenience in identity authentication. As one of the most promising biometric-based methods, ear recognition has received broad attention and research. Previous studies have achieved remarkable performance with multiple samples per person (MSPP) in the gallery. However, most conventional methods are insufficient when there is only one sample per person (OSPP) available in the gallery. To solve the OSPP problem by maximizing the use of a single sample, this paper proposes a hybrid multi-keypoint descriptor sparse representation-based classification (MKD-SRC) ear recognition approach based on 2D and 3D information. Because most 3D sensors capture 3D data accessorizing the corresponding 2D data, it is sensible to use both types of information. First, the ear region is extracted from the profile. Second, keypoints are detected and described for both the 2D texture image and 3D range image. Then, the hybrid MKD-SRC algorithm is used to complete the recognition with only OSPP in the gallery. Experimental results on a benchmark dataset have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method in resolving the OSPP problem. A Rank-one recognition rate of 96.4% is achieved for a gallery of 415 subjects, and the time involved in the computation is satisfactory compared to conventional methods.

  4. Why Do Elephants Flap Their Ears?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koffi, Moise; Jiji, Latif; Andreopoulos, Yiannis

    2009-11-01

    It is estimated that a 4200 kg elephant generates as much as 5.12 kW of heat. How the elephant dissipates its metabolic heat and regulates its body temperature has been investigated during the past seven decades. Findings and conclusions differ sharply. The high rate of metabolic heat coupled with low surface area to volume ratio and the absence of sweat glands eliminate surface convection as the primary mechanism for heat removal. Noting that the elephant ears have high surface area to volume ratio and an extensive vascular network, ear flapping is thought to be the principal thermoregulatory mechanism. A computational and experimental program is carried out to examine flow and heat transfer characteristics. The ear is modeled as a uniformly heated oscillating rectangular plate. Our computational work involves a three-dimensional time dependent CFD code with heat transfer capabilities to obtain predictions of the flow field and surface temperature distributions. This information was used to design an experimental setup with a uniformly heated plate of size 0.2m x 0.3m oscillating at 1.6 cycles per second. Results show that surface temperature increases and reaches a steady periodic oscillation after a period of transient oscillation. The role of the vortices shed off the plate in heat transfer enhancement will be discussed.

  5. Pathology of ear hematomas in swine.

    PubMed

    Drolet, Richard; Hélie, Pierre; D'Allaire, Sylvie

    2016-05-01

    The objectives of our study were to describe the pathology of ear hematomas in swine and to add to the comprehension of the pathogenesis of this condition. The pathogenesis of aural hematomas has been studied mainly in dogs; however, disagreements exist about the precise anatomic location of the hemorrhage. Sixteen pigs with ear hematoma at various stages of development were included in this study. The pigs were submitted for routine autopsy for various and unrelated reasons over a period of several years. Based on gross examination, the 16 cases of aural hematomas were subjectively classified as acute (n = 6), subacute (n = 3), and chronic (n = 7). The age of the animals at the time of autopsy ranged from 2 weeks to adulthood, with all acute cases being <7 weeks of age. Morphologic examination of all acute cases revealed that the hematoma developed predominantly in a subperichondral location on both sides of the cartilaginous plate simultaneously. Within these same cases, there were also some areas in which blood-filled clefts had formed within the cartilage itself. Besides fibroplasia, neoformation of cartilage was found to represent a significant part of the repair process. All chronic cases were characterized on cross-section of the ear by the presence of at least 2 distinct, wavy, focally folded, and roughly parallel plates of cartilage separated from each other by fibrous tissue. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. An investigation of ear necrosis in pigs.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeonghwa; Friendship, Robert M; Poljak, Zvonimir; DeLay, Josepha; Slavic, Durda; Dewey, Catherine E

    2013-05-01

    Porcine ear necrosis was investigated in 23 conveniently chosen farms, consisting of 14 case farms and 9 control farms. Biopsies of lesions and oral swabs from pigs on 11 case farms were examined by histology and bacterial culture. All farms were visited for observations and a survey on management, housing, and the presence of other clinical signs or behavioral vices. Histological examination revealed that the lesions began on the surface and progressed to deeper layers, and that vascular damage did not appear to be the initiating cause. Spirochetes were only rarely observed in histological examination and were not cultured from biopsies and oral swabs. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus hyicus were cultured from 91% and 66% of samples, respectively. Ear biting and a humid environment were associated with ear necrosis. On some farms large numbers of pigs were affected and lesions were sometimes extensive. The condition appears to be an infectious disease beginning on the surface of the skin; contributing environmental and management factors are likely.

  7. An investigation of ear necrosis in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeonghwa; Friendship, Robert M.; Poljak, Zvonimir; DeLay, Josepha; Slavic, Durda; Dewey, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    Porcine ear necrosis was investigated in 23 conveniently chosen farms, consisting of 14 case farms and 9 control farms. Biopsies of lesions and oral swabs from pigs on 11 case farms were examined by histology and bacterial culture. All farms were visited for observations and a survey on management, housing, and the presence of other clinical signs or behavioral vices. Histological examination revealed that the lesions began on the surface and progressed to deeper layers, and that vascular damage did not appear to be the initiating cause. Spirochetes were only rarely observed in histological examination and were not cultured from biopsies and oral swabs. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus hyicus were cultured from 91% and 66% of samples, respectively. Ear biting and a humid environment were associated with ear necrosis. On some farms large numbers of pigs were affected and lesions were sometimes extensive. The condition appears to be an infectious disease beginning on the surface of the skin; contributing environmental and management factors are likely. PMID:24155434

  8. Pressure equilibration in the penguin middle ear.

    PubMed

    Sadé, Jacob; Handrich, Yves; Bernheim, Joelle; Cohen, David

    2008-01-01

    King penguins have a venous structure in the form of a corpus cavernosum (CC) in their middle ear (ME) submucosa. The CC may be viewed as a special organelle that can change ME volume for pressure equilibration during deep-sea diving it is a pressure regulating organelle (PRO). A similar CC and muscles also surround the external ear (EE) and may constrict it, isolating the tympanic membrane from the outside. A CC was previously found also in the ME of marine diving mammals and can be expected to exist in other deep diving animals, such as marine turtles. Marine animals require equalization of middle ear (ME) pressure when diving hundreds or thousands of meters to catch prey. We investigated what mechanism enables king penguins to protect their ME when they dive to great depths. Biopsies and serial sections of the ME and the EE of the deep diving king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) were examined microscopically. It was demonstrated that the penguin ME has an extensive network of small and large submucosal venous sinuses. This venous formation, a corpus cavernosum, can expand and potentially 'flood' the ME almost completely on diving, thus elevating ME pressure and reducing the ME space. The EE has a similar protective mechanism.

  9. Predicting skin deficits through surface area measurements in ear reconstruction and adult ear surface area norms.

    PubMed

    Yazar, Memet; Sevim, Kamuran Zeynep; Irmak, Fatih; Yazar, Sevgi Kurt; Yeşilada, Ayşin Karasoy; Karşidağğ, Semra Hacikerim; Tatlidede, Hamit Soner

    2013-07-01

    Ear reconstruction is one of the most challenging procedures in plastic surgery practice. Many studies and techniques have been described in the literature for carving a well-pronounced framework. However, just as important as the cartilage framework is the ample amount of delicate skin coverage of the framework. In this report, we introduce an innovative method of measuring the skin surface area of the auricle from a three-dimensional template created from the healthy ear.The study group consisted of 60 adult Turkish individuals who were randomly selected (30 men and 30 women). The participant ages ranged from 18 to 45 years (mean, 31.5 years), and they had no history of trauma or congenital anomalies. The template is created by dividing the ear into aesthetic subunits and using ImageJ software to estimate the necessary amount of total skin surface area required.Reconstruction of the auricle is a complicated process that requires experience and patience to provide the auricular details. We believe this estimate will shorten the learning curve for residents and surgeons interested in ear reconstruction and will help surgeons obtain adequate skin to drape over the well-sculpted cartilage frameworks by providing a reference list of total ear skin surface area measurements for Turkish men and women.

  10. Middle-ear velocity transfer function, cochlear input immittance, and middle-ear efficiency in chinchilla

    PubMed Central

    Ravicz, Michael E.; Rosowski, John J.

    2013-01-01

    The transfer function HV between stapes velocity VS and sound pressure near the tympanic membrane PTM is a descriptor of sound transmission through the middle ear (ME). The ME power transmission efficiency (MEE), the ratio of sound power entering the cochlea to power entering the middle ear, was computed from HV measured in seven chinchilla ears and previously reported measurements of ME input admittance YTM and ME pressure gain GMEP [Ravicz and Rosowski, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 2437–2454 (2012); J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133, 2208–2223 (2013)] in the same ears. The ME was open, and a pressure sensor was inserted into the cochlear vestibule for most measurements. The cochlear input admittance YC computed from HV and GMEP is controlled by a combination of mass and resistance and is consistent with a minimum-phase system up to 27 kHz. The real part Re{YC}, which relates cochlear sound power to inner-ear sound pressure, decreased gradually with frequency up to 25 kHz and more rapidly above that. MEE was about 0.5 between 0.1 and 8 kHz, higher than previous estimates in this species, and decreased sharply at higher frequencies. PMID:24116422

  11. Middle-ear velocity transfer function, cochlear input immittance, and middle-ear efficiency in chinchilla.

    PubMed

    Ravicz, Michael E; Rosowski, John J

    2013-10-01

    The transfer function H(V) between stapes velocity V(S) and sound pressure near the tympanic membrane P(TM) is a descriptor of sound transmission through the middle ear (ME). The ME power transmission efficiency (MEE), the ratio of sound power entering the cochlea to power entering the middle ear, was computed from H(V) measured in seven chinchilla ears and previously reported measurements of ME input admittance Y(TM) and ME pressure gain G(MEP) [Ravicz and Rosowski, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 2437-2454 (2012); J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133, 2208-2223 (2013)] in the same ears. The ME was open, and a pressure sensor was inserted into the cochlear vestibule for most measurements. The cochlear input admittance Y(C) computed from H(V) and G(MEP) is controlled by a combination of mass and resistance and is consistent with a minimum-phase system up to 27 kHz. The real part Re{Y(C)}, which relates cochlear sound power to inner-ear sound pressure, decreased gradually with frequency up to 25 kHz and more rapidly above that. MEE was about 0.5 between 0.1 and 8 kHz, higher than previous estimates in this species, and decreased sharply at higher frequencies.

  12. Middle-Ear Microsurgery Simulation to Improve New Robotic Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Kazmitcheff, Guillaume; Nguyen, Yann; Miroir, Mathieu; Péan, Fabien; Ferrary, Evelyne; Cotin, Stéphane; Sterkers, Olivier; Duriez, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Otological microsurgery is delicate and requires high dexterity in bad ergonomic conditions. To assist surgeons in these indications, a teleoperated system, called RobOtol, is developed. This robot enhances gesture accuracy and handiness and allows exploration of new procedures for middle ear surgery. To plan new procedures that exploit the capacities given by the robot, a surgical simulator is developed. The simulation reproduces with high fidelity the behavior of the anatomical structures and can also be used as a training tool for an easier control of the robot for surgeons. In the paper, we introduce the middle ear surgical simulation and then we perform virtually two challenging procedures with the robot. We show how interactive simulation can assist in analyzing the benefits of robotics in the case of complex manipulations or ergonomics studies and allow the development of innovative surgical procedures. New robot-based microsurgical procedures are investigated. The improvement offered by RobOtol is also evaluated and discussed. PMID:25157373

  13. Does perinatal asphyxia induce apoptosis in the inner ear?

    PubMed

    Schmutzhard, Joachim; Glueckert, Rudolf; Sergi, Consolato; Schwentner, Ilona; Abraham, Irene; Schrott-Fischer, Annelies

    2009-04-01

    Pre- and perinatal asphyxia is known to be an important risk factor in the development of neonatal hearing impairment. This study aims to evaluate the role of apoptosis, which is known to play an essential role in the development of the inner ear structures, in the development of neonatal hearing loss caused by pre- and perinatal asphyxia. Eight temporal bones of six different newborns were included. We performed a morphologic analysis by both light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, as well as immunohistochemical staining to detect the cleaved form of caspase 3 as apoptosis marker and Bcl 2 as anti-apoptotic marker. Early and late phases of apoptosis were evidenced by condensation of chromatin (electron-dense, black structure along nuclear membrane) and fragmentation of the nucleus, respectively. Changes in nuclear morphology during apoptosis correlate with cleavage by caspase 3 located downstream of Bcl 2 action. The immunohistochemistry for cleaved caspase 3 showed a particular predilection for the inner and outer hair cells, spiral ganglion cells and the marginal cells of the stria vascularis. The brain of all examined cases did not show signs of apoptosis. In summary, this investigation suggests that apoptosis takes place before brain tissue apoptosis and is probably an earlier event than thought. Apoptosis of the cochlea is known to play an essential role in the development of the inner ear. Additionally, this study shows that apoptosis may play an important role in the development of hearing impairment, caused by pre- and perinatal asphyxia.

  14. [How do metallic middle ear implants behave in the MRI?].

    PubMed

    Kwok, P; Waldeck, A; Strutz, J

    2003-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has gained in frequency and importance as a diagnostic procedure. In respect to the close anatomical relationship in the temporal bone it is necessary to know whether it is hazardous to patients with metallic middle ear implants regarding displacement and rise in temperature. For the MR image quality artefacts caused by metallic prostheses should be low. Four different stapes prostheses made from titanium, gold, teflon/platinum and teflon/steel, a titanium total ossicular reconstruction prosthesis (TORP) and two ventilation tubes (made from titanium and gold) were tested in a 1.5 Tesla MRI machine regarding their displacement. All objects were first placed in a petri dish, then suspended from a thread and finally immersed in a dish filled with Gadolinium. Temperature changes of the implants were recorded by a pyrometer. None of the implants moved when they were placed in the petri dish or suspended from the thread. On the water surface the teflon/platinum and the teflon/steel pistons adjusted their direction with their axis longitudinally to the MRI scanner opening and the teflon/steel piston floated towards the MRI-machine when put close enough to the scanner opening. No rise in temperature was recorded. All implants showed as little artefacts that would still make an evaluation of the surrounding tissue possible. Patients with any of the metallic middle ear implants that were examined in this study may undergo MRI-investigations without significant adverse effects.

  15. Economic evaluations of health technologies in Dutch healthcare decision-making: a qualitative study of the current and potential use, barriers, and facilitators.

    PubMed

    Roseboom, Kitty J; van Dongen, Johanna M; Tompa, Emile; van Tulder, Maurits W; Bosmans, Judith E

    2017-01-26

    The use of economic evaluations in healthcare decision-making can potentially help decision-makers in allocating scarce resources as efficiently as possible. Over a decade ago, the use of such studies was found to be limited in Dutch healthcare decision-making, but their current use is unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to provide insight into the current and potential use of economic evaluations in Dutch healthcare decision-making and to identify barriers and facilitators to the use of such studies. Interviews containing semi-structured and structured questions were conducted among Dutch healthcare decision-makers. Participants were purposefully selected and special efforts were made to include decision-makers working at the macro- (national), meso- (local/regional), and micro-level (patient setting). During the interviews, a topic list was used that was based on the research questions and a literature search, and was developed in consultation with the Dutch National Healthcare Institute. Responses to the semi-structured questions were analyzed using a constant comparative approach. As for the structured questions, participants' definitions of various economic evaluation concepts were scored as either being "correct" or "incorrect" by two researchers, and summary statistics were prepared. Sixteen healthcare decision-makers were interviewed and two health economists. Decision-makers' knowledge of economic evaluations was only modest, and their current use appeared to be limited. Nonetheless, decision-makers recognized the importance of economic evaluations and saw several opportunities for extending their use at the macro- and meso-level, but not at the micro-level. The disparity between the limited use and recognition of the importance of economic evaluations is likely due to the many barriers decision-makers experience preventing their use (e.g. lack of resources, lack of formal willingness-to-pay threshold). Possible facilitators for extending the use of

  16. Inner ear problems of Thai priest at Priest Hospital.

    PubMed

    Karnchanakas, Taweporn; Tantanavat, Are; Sinsakontavat, Jamjan

    2008-01-01

    The inner ear problems of Thai priest at Priest Hospital had never been reported previously, so Department of Ear Nose Throat try to correlate the metebotic disorder with inner ear problems. 1) To study the fasting blood sugar (FBS), total cholesterol (T. Chol), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglyceride (TG), the factors expected to involve in inner ear problems of priests at Priest Hospital. 2) To compare the FBS, T. Chol, HDL, LDL, and TG of priests with inner ear problems at Priest Hospital. 3) To find the percentage of abnormal from FBS, T. Chol, LDL, and TG. The study using 83 sampling of priests with inner ear problems and 107 priests as a controlled group. The research instruments used to collect data was the questionnaire which composed of general information, physical, ear-nose-throat and neurological examination, pure tone audiometry, brainstem evoke response audiometry (BERA) and the blood tests:FBS, T. Chol, TG, and LDL. The inner ear problems were composed of: 1) Dizziness 2) Hearing Loss 3) Tinnitus Aurium. The descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data from questionnaires and utilized frequency, percentage, standard deviation (S.D.) and t-test to achieve desired results. Priest at middle age and elderly with inner ear problems had greater FBS and TG than expected values of the control group. The middle age and elderly priests who had greater FBS and TG than expected values were sick with inner ear problems that causing dizziness, hearing loss and tinnitus aurium.

  17. A new methodology for evaluating the damage to the skin barrier caused by repeated application and removal of adhesive dressings.

    PubMed

    Waring, Mike; Bielfeldt, Stephan; Mätzold, Katja; Wilhelm, Klaus-Peter

    2013-02-01

    Chronic wounds require frequent dressing changes. Adhesive dressings used for this indication can be damaging to the stratum corneum, particularly in the elderly where the skin tends to be thinner. Understanding the level of damage caused by dressing removal can aid dressing selection. This study used a novel methodology that applied a stain to the skin and measured the intensity of that stain after repeated application and removal of a series of different adhesive types. Additionally, a traditional method of measuring skin barrier damage (transepidermal water loss) was also undertaken and compared with the staining methodology. The staining methodology and measurement of transepidermal water loss differentiated the adhesive dressings, showing that silicone adhesives caused least trauma to the skin. The staining methodology was shown to be as effective as transepidermal water loss in detecting damage to the stratum corneum and was shown to detect disruption of the barrier earlier than the traditional technique. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Cost and Performance Report - Evaluating the Longevity and Hydraulic Performance of Permeable Reactive Barriers at Department of Defense Sites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    methods, such as jetting, hydraulic fracturing , and vibratory beam, have been demonstrated at some sites, as they offer some cost advantages at deep sites...while still keeping the implementation cost relatively low. Beyond these depths, innovative methods (such as jetting and hydraulic fracturing ) can...type excavator and a trench-type barrier. For sites where the affected aquifer is deeper, innovative methods, such as jetting and hydraulic

  19. Evaluation of knowledge, practices, and possible barriers among healthcare providers regarding medical waste management in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Mohammad Abul Bashar; Harun-Or-Rashid, Md; Hirosawa, Tomoya; Abdul Hai, Md Shaheen Bin; Siddique, Md Ruhul Furkan; Sakamoto, Junichi; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2014-12-09

    Improper handling of medical wastes, which is common in Bangladesh, could adversely affect the hospital environment and community at large, and poses a serious threat to public health. We aimed to assess the knowledge and practices regarding medical waste management (MWM) among healthcare providers (HCPs) and to identify possible barriers related to it. A cross-sectional study was carried out during June to September, 2012 including 1 tertiary, 3 secondary, and 3 primary level hospitals in Dhaka division, Bangladesh through 2-stage cluster sampling. Data were collected from 625 HCPs, including 245 medical doctors, 220 nurses, 44 technologists, and 116 cleaning staff who were directly involved in MWM using a self-administered (researcher-administered for cleaning staff), semi-structured questionnaire. Nearly one-third of medical doctors and nurses and two-thirds of technologists and cleaning staff had inadequate knowledge, and about half of medical doctors (44.0%) and cleaning staff (56.0%) had poor practices. HCPs without prior training on MWM were more likely to have poor practices compared to those who had training. Lack of personal protective equipment, equipment for final disposal, MWM-related staff, proper policy/guideline, and lack of incinerator were identified as the top 5 barriers. Strengthening and expansion of ongoing educational programs/training is necessary to improve knowledge and practices regarding MWM. The government should take necessary steps and provide financial support to eliminate the possible barriers related to proper MWM.

  20. Sheep as a large animal ear model: Middle-ear ossicular velocities and intracochlear sound pressure.

    PubMed

    Péus, Dominik; Dobrev, Ivo; Prochazka, Lukas; Thoele, Konrad; Dalbert, Adrian; Boss, Andreas; Newcomb, Nicolas; Probst, Rudolf; Röösli, Christof; Sim, Jae Hoon; Huber, Alexander; Pfiffner, Flurin

    2017-08-01

    Animals are frequently used for the development and testing of new hearing devices. Dimensions of the middle ear and cochlea differ significantly between humans and commonly used animals, such as rodents or cats. The sheep cochlea is anatomically more like the human cochlea in size and number of turns. This study investigated the middle-ear ossicular velocities and intracochlear sound pressure (ICSP) in sheep temporal bones, with the aim of characterizing the sheep as an experimental model for implantable hearing devices. Measurements were made on fresh sheep temporal bones. Velocity responses of the middle ear ossicles at the umbo, long process of the incus and stapes footplate were measured in the frequency range of 0.25-8 kHz using a laser Doppler vibrometer system. Results were normalized by the corresponding sound pressure level in the external ear canal (P EC ). Sequentially, ICSPs at the scala vestibuli and tympani were then recorded with custom MEMS-based hydrophones, while presenting identical acoustic stimuli. The sheep middle ear transmitted most effectively around 4.8 kHz, with a maximum stapes velocity of 0.2 mm/s/Pa. At the same frequency, the ICSP measurements in the scala vestibuli and tympani showed the maximum gain relative to the P EC (24 dB and 5 dB, respectively). The greatest pressure difference across the cochlear partition occurred between 4 and 6 kHz. A comparison between the results of this study and human reference data showed middle-ear resonance and best cochlear sensitivity at higher frequencies in sheep. In summary, sheep can be an appropriate large animal model for research and development of implantable hearing devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.